WorldWideScience

Sample records for assess radiological risk

  1. Radiological safety and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief radiological safety and risk assessment of a nuclear power generation center with an adjacent on-site waste disposal facility at a specific site in the State of Utah is presented. The assessment was conducted to assist in determining the feasibility and practicality of developing a nuclear energy center (NEC) in Utah consisting of nine 1250 MWe nuclear pressurized water reactor (PWR) electrical generating units arranged in 3 clusters of 3 units each known as triads. The site selected for this conceptual study is in the Horse Bench area about 15 miles directly south of the town of Green River, Utah. The radiological issues included direct radiation exposures to on-site workers and the off-site population, release of radioactive material, and effects of these releases for both normal operations and accidental occurrences. The basic finding of this study is that the concept of an NEC in the Green River area, specifically at the Horse Bench site, is radiologically feasible

  2. Radiological risk assessment of environmental radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalid, Norafatin; Majid, Amran Ab; Yahaya, Redzuwan; Yasir, Muhammad Samudi [Nuclear Science Programme, School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Measurements of radon gas ({sup 222}Rn) in the environmental are important to assess indoor air quality and to study the potential risk to human health. Generally known that exposure to radon is considered the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. The environmental radon concentration depends on the {sup 226}Ra concentration, indoor atmosphere, cracking on rocks and building materials. This study was carried out to determine the indoor radon concentration from selected samples of tin tailings (amang) and building materials in an airtight sealed homemade radon chamber. The radiological risk assessment for radon gas was also calculated based on the annual exposure dose, effective dose equivalent, radon exhalation rates and fatal cancer risk. The continuous radon monitor Sun Nuclear model 1029 was used to measure the radon concentration emanates from selected samples for 96 hours. Five types of tin tailings collected from Kampar, Perak and four samples of building materials commonly used in Malaysia dwellings or building constructions were analysed for radon concentration. The indoor radon concentration determined in ilmenite, monazite, struverite, xenotime and zircon samples varies from 219.6 ± 76.8 Bq m{sup −3} to 571.1 ± 251.4 Bq m{sup −3}, 101.0 ± 41.0 Bq m{sup −3} to 245.3 ± 100.2 Bq m{sup −3}, 53.1 ± 7.5 Bq m{sup −3} to 181.8 ± 9.7 Bq m{sup −3}, 256.1 ± 59.3 Bq m{sup −3} to 652.2 ± 222.2 Bq m{sup −3} and 164.5 ± 75.9 Bq m{sup −3} to 653.3 ± 240.0 Bq m{sup −3}, respectively. Whereas, in the building materials, the radon concentration from cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and cement showed 396.3 ± 194.3 Bq m{sup −3}, 192.1 ± 75.4 Bq m{sup −3}, 176.1 ± 85.9 Bq m{sup −3} and 28.4 ± 5.7 Bq m{sup −3}, respectively. The radon concentration in tin tailings and building materials were found to be much higher in xenotime and cement brick samples than others. All samples in tin tailings were exceeded the

  3. Radiological risk assessment of environmental radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of radon gas (222Rn) in the environmental are important to assess indoor air quality and to study the potential risk to human health. Generally known that exposure to radon is considered the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. The environmental radon concentration depends on the 226Ra concentration, indoor atmosphere, cracking on rocks and building materials. This study was carried out to determine the indoor radon concentration from selected samples of tin tailings (amang) and building materials in an airtight sealed homemade radon chamber. The radiological risk assessment for radon gas was also calculated based on the annual exposure dose, effective dose equivalent, radon exhalation rates and fatal cancer risk. The continuous radon monitor Sun Nuclear model 1029 was used to measure the radon concentration emanates from selected samples for 96 hours. Five types of tin tailings collected from Kampar, Perak and four samples of building materials commonly used in Malaysia dwellings or building constructions were analysed for radon concentration. The indoor radon concentration determined in ilmenite, monazite, struverite, xenotime and zircon samples varies from 219.6 ± 76.8 Bq m−3 to 571.1 ± 251.4 Bq m−3, 101.0 ± 41.0 Bq m−3 to 245.3 ± 100.2 Bq m−3, 53.1 ± 7.5 Bq m−3 to 181.8 ± 9.7 Bq m−3, 256.1 ± 59.3 Bq m−3 to 652.2 ± 222.2 Bq m−3 and 164.5 ± 75.9 Bq m−3 to 653.3 ± 240.0 Bq m−3, respectively. Whereas, in the building materials, the radon concentration from cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and cement showed 396.3 ± 194.3 Bq m−3, 192.1 ± 75.4 Bq m−3, 176.1 ± 85.9 Bq m−3 and 28.4 ± 5.7 Bq m−3, respectively. The radon concentration in tin tailings and building materials were found to be much higher in xenotime and cement brick samples than others. All samples in tin tailings were exceeded the action level for radon gas of 148 Bq m−3 proposed by EPA except monazite 0.15 kg, struverite 0

  4. Radiological endpoints relevant to ecological risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the potential risk from radiation due to the releases of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities, considerable research was performed to determine for humans the levels of dose received, their responses to the doses and mechanisms of action of radioactivity on living matter. More recently, there is an increased interest in the effects of radioactivity on non-human species. There are differences in approach between risk assessment for humans and ecosystems. For protection of humans, the focus is the individual and the endpoint of primary concern is cancer induction. For protection of ecosystems, the focus is on population stability and the endpoint of concern is reproductive success for organisms important ecologically and economically. For these organisms, information is needed on their responses to irradiation and the potential impact of the doses absorbed on their reproductive success. Considerable information is available on the effects of radiation on organisms from different phyla and types of ecosystems. Databases useful for assessing risk from exposures of populations to radioactivity are the effects of irradiation on mortality, fertility and sterility, the latter two of which are important components of reproductive success. Data on radiation effects on mortality are available both from acute and chronic irradiation. In relation to radiation effects, reproductive success for a given population is related to a number of characteristics of the species, including inherent radiosensitivity of reproductive tissues and early life stages, processes occurring during gametogenesis, reproductive strategy and exposure history. The available data on acute and chronic radiation doses is reviewed for invertebrates, fishes and mammals. The information reviewed indicates that wide ranges in responses with species can be expected. Parameters that most likely contribute to inherent radiosensitivity are discussed. (author)

  5. Radiological risk assessment for radioactive contamination at landfill site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A limited-scope preliminary assessment of radiological risk has been conducted for a landfill site where radioactive residues resulting from past uranium ore processing operations are present. Potential radiation doses to an individual under different scenarios have been predicted using the RESRAD computer code. The assessment provides useful input to the remedial action planning for the site that is currently underway. 7 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Depleted uranium residual radiological risk assessment for Kosovo sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the recent conflict in Yugoslavia, depleted uranium rounds were employed and were left in the battlefield. Health concern is related to the risk arising from contamination of areas in Kosovo with depleted uranium penetrators and dust. Although chemical toxicity is the most significant health risk related to uranium, radiation exposure has been allegedly related to cancers among veterans of the Balkan conflict. Uranium munitions are considered to be a source of radiological contamination of the environment. Based on measurements and estimates from the recent Balkan Task Force UNEP mission in Kosovo, we have estimated effective doses to resident populations using a well-established food-web mathematical model (RESRAD code). The UNEP mission did not find any evidence of widespread contamination in Kosovo. Rather than the actual measurements, we elected to use a desk assessment scenario (Reference Case) proposed by the UNEP group as the source term for computer simulations. Specific applications to two Kosovo sites (Planeja village and Vranovac hill) are described. Results of the simulations suggest that radiation doses from water-independent pathways are negligible (annual doses below 30 μSv). A small radiological risk is expected from contamination of the groundwater in conditions of effective leaching and low distribution coefficient of uranium metal. Under the assumptions of the Reference Case, significant radiological doses (>1 mSv/year) might be achieved after many years from the conflict through water-dependent pathways. Even in this worst-case scenario, DU radiological risk would be far overshadowed by its chemical toxicity

  7. Depleted uranium residual radiological risk assessment for Kosovo sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durante, Marco E-mail: durante@na.infn.it; Pugliese, Mariagabriella

    2003-07-01

    During the recent conflict in Yugoslavia, depleted uranium rounds were employed and were left in the battlefield. Health concern is related to the risk arising from contamination of areas in Kosovo with depleted uranium penetrators and dust. Although chemical toxicity is the most significant health risk related to uranium, radiation exposure has been allegedly related to cancers among veterans of the Balkan conflict. Uranium munitions are considered to be a source of radiological contamination of the environment. Based on measurements and estimates from the recent Balkan Task Force UNEP mission in Kosovo, we have estimated effective doses to resident populations using a well-established food-web mathematical model (RESRAD code). The UNEP mission did not find any evidence of widespread contamination in Kosovo. Rather than the actual measurements, we elected to use a desk assessment scenario (Reference Case) proposed by the UNEP group as the source term for computer simulations. Specific applications to two Kosovo sites (Planeja village and Vranovac hill) are described. Results of the simulations suggest that radiation doses from water-independent pathways are negligible (annual doses below 30 {mu}Sv). A small radiological risk is expected from contamination of the groundwater in conditions of effective leaching and low distribution coefficient of uranium metal. Under the assumptions of the Reference Case, significant radiological doses (>1 mSv/year) might be achieved after many years from the conflict through water-dependent pathways. Even in this worst-case scenario, DU radiological risk would be far overshadowed by its chemical toxicity.

  8. Benign breast diseases. Radiology, pathology, risk assessment. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiological and pathological correlation of the full range of benign breast lesions, with emphasis on screen-detected lesions. Detailed discussion of risk assessment. Revised and updated edition, with a new chapter on gynaecomastia. Ideal aid to the management of patients with benign or indeterminate breast lesions in a multidisciplinary setting. The second edition of this book has been extensively revised and updated. There have been numerous scientific advances in the radiology, pathology and risk assessment of benign breast lesions since the publication of the first edition. The first edition concentrated on screen-detected lesions, which has since been rectified; new symptomatic and screen-detected lesions are discussed in the second edition and include: mastitis and breast abscesses, idiopathic granulomatous mastitis, diabetic mastopathy, phyllodes tumours, gynaecomastia and pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia. The chapters on columnar cell lesions and mucocele-like lesions have been extensively updated. Where applicable, genetic analysis of the benign lesions, which is becoming part of personalised medicine in the field of breast cancer, has been included. The book also presents detailed analyses of the main models, such as the Gail Model, used to assess the subsequent risk of breast cancer in individuals. The current trend in the management of all cancers is preventative. Screening mammography detects early curable cancers as well as indeterminate lesions, the latter of which are invariably pathologically benign. The author has collated important benign lesions and, based on peer-reviewed publications, has documented the relative risk of subsequent cancer to allow the patient and the clinician to implement preventative measures where possible. This book will therefore serve as an essential component of multidisciplinary management of patients with symptomatic and screen-detected benign breast lesions.

  9. Benign breast diseases. Radiology, pathology, risk assessment. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinyama, Catherine N. [Princess Elizabeth Hospital, Le Vauquiedor, St. Martin' s Guernsey, Channel Islands (United Kingdom); Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-01

    Radiological and pathological correlation of the full range of benign breast lesions, with emphasis on screen-detected lesions. Detailed discussion of risk assessment. Revised and updated edition, with a new chapter on gynaecomastia. Ideal aid to the management of patients with benign or indeterminate breast lesions in a multidisciplinary setting. The second edition of this book has been extensively revised and updated. There have been numerous scientific advances in the radiology, pathology and risk assessment of benign breast lesions since the publication of the first edition. The first edition concentrated on screen-detected lesions, which has since been rectified; new symptomatic and screen-detected lesions are discussed in the second edition and include: mastitis and breast abscesses, idiopathic granulomatous mastitis, diabetic mastopathy, phyllodes tumours, gynaecomastia and pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia. The chapters on columnar cell lesions and mucocele-like lesions have been extensively updated. Where applicable, genetic analysis of the benign lesions, which is becoming part of personalised medicine in the field of breast cancer, has been included. The book also presents detailed analyses of the main models, such as the Gail Model, used to assess the subsequent risk of breast cancer in individuals. The current trend in the management of all cancers is preventative. Screening mammography detects early curable cancers as well as indeterminate lesions, the latter of which are invariably pathologically benign. The author has collated important benign lesions and, based on peer-reviewed publications, has documented the relative risk of subsequent cancer to allow the patient and the clinician to implement preventative measures where possible. This book will therefore serve as an essential component of multidisciplinary management of patients with symptomatic and screen-detected benign breast lesions.

  10. Radiological Risk Assessment of Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessment of the health risk from exposure to aerosols of depleted uranium (DU) is an important outcome of the Capstone aerosol studies that established exposure ranges to personnel in armored combat vehicles perforated by DU munitions. Although the radiation exposure from DU is low, there is concern that DU deposited in the body may increase cancer rates. Radiation doses to various organs of the body resulting from the inhalation of DU aerosols measured in the Capstone studies were calculated using International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) models. Organs and tissues with the highest calculated committed equivalent 50-yr doses were lung and extrathoracic tissues (nose and nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, mouth and thoracic lymph nodes). Doses to the bone surface and kidney were about 5 to 10% of the doses to the extrathoracic tissues. The methodologies of the ICRP International Steering Committee on Radiation Standards (ISCORS) were used for determining the whole body cancer risk. Organ-specific risks were estimated using ICRP and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodologies. Risks for crew members and first responders were determined for selected scenarios based on the time interval of exposure and for vehicle and armor type. The lung was the organ with the highest cancer mortality risk, accounting for about 97% of the risks summed from all organs. The highest mean lifetime risk for lung cancer for the scenario with the longest exposure time interval (2 h) was 0.42%. This risk is low compared with the natural or background risk of 7.35%. These risks can be significantly reduced by using an existing ventilation system (if operable) and by reducing personnel time in the vehicle immediately after perforation

  11. Radiological Risk Assessment of Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Fletcher; Roszell, Laurie E.; Daxon, Eric G.; Guilmette, Ray A.; Parkhurst, MaryAnn

    2009-02-26

    Assessment of the health risk from exposure to aerosols of depleted uranium (DU) is an important outcome of the Capstone aerosol studies that established exposure ranges to personnel in armored combat vehicles perforated by DU munitions. Although the radiation exposure from DU is low, there is concern that DU deposited in the body may increase cancer rates. Radiation doses to various organs of the body resulting from the inhalation of DU aerosols measured in the Capstone studies were calculated using International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) models. Organs and tissues with the highest calculated committed equivalent 50-yr doses were lung and extrathoracic tissues (nose and nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, mouth and thoracic lymph nodes). Doses to the bone surface and kidney were about 5 to 10% of the doses to the extrathoracic tissues. The methodologies of the ICRP International Steering Committee on Radiation Standards (ISCORS) were used for determining the whole body cancer risk. Organ-specific risks were estimated using ICRP and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodologies. Risks for crewmembers and first responders were determined for selected scenarios based on the time interval of exposure and for vehicle and armor type. The lung was the organ with the highest cancer mortality risk, accounting for about 97% of the risks summed from all organs. The highest mean lifetime risk for lung cancer for the scenario with the longest exposure time interval (2 h) was 0.42%. This risk is low compared with the natural or background risk of 7.35%. These risks can be significantly reduced by using an existing ventilation system (if operable) and by reducing personnel time in the vehicle immediately after perforation.

  12. A comparison of radiological risk assessment methods for environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of risks to human health from exposure to ionizing radiation at radioactively contaminated sites is an integral part of the decision-making process for determining the need for remediation and selecting remedial actions that may be required. At sites regulated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), a target risk range of 10-4 to 10-6 incremental cancer incidence over a lifetime is specified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as generally acceptable, based on the reasonable maximum exposure to any individual under current and future land use scenarios. Two primary methods currently being used in conducting radiological risk assessments at CERCLA sites are compared in this analysis. Under the first method, the radiation dose equivalent (i.e., Sv or rem) to the receptors of interest over the appropriate period of exposure is estimated and multiplied by a risk factor (cancer risk/Sv). Alternatively, incremental cancer risk can be estimated by combining the EPA's cancer slope factors (previously termed potency factors) for radionuclides with estimates of radionuclide intake by ingestion and inhalation, as well as radionuclide concentrations in soil that contribute to external dose. The comparison of the two methods has demonstrated that resulting estimates of lifetime incremental cancer risk under these different methods may differ significantly, even when all other exposure assumptions are held constant, with the magnitude of the discrepancy depending upon the dominant radionuclides and exposure pathways for the site. The basis for these discrepancies, the advantages and disadvantages of each method, and the significance of the discrepant results for environmental restoration decisions are presented

  13. Radiological Risk Assessment and Survey of Radioactive Contamination for Foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W.R.; Lee, C.W.; Choi, K.S.; and others

    2007-11-15

    After the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, a radiological dose assessment and a survey of a radioactive contamination for foodstuffs have been investigated by many countries such as EU, Japan, USA. In the case of Japan which is similar to our country for the imported regions of foodstuffs, there were some instances of the excess for regulation on the maximum permitted levels of radioactive contamination among some imported foodstuffs. Concerns about the radioactive contamination of foodstuffs are increased because of the recently special situation (Nuclear test of North Korea). The purpose of this study is a radiological dose assessment and a survey of a radioactive contamination for foodstuffs in order to reduce the probability of intake of contaminated foodstuffs. Analytical results of the collected samples are below MDA. In this project, the model of radiological dose assessment via the food chain was also developed and radiological dose assessment was conducted based on surveys results of a radioactive contamination for foodstuffs in the Korean open markets since 2002. The results of radiological dose assessment are far below international reference level. It shows that public radiation exposure via food chain is well controlled within the international guide level. However, the radioactive contamination research of imported foodstuffs should be continuous considering the special situation(nuclear test of North Korea). These results are used to manage the radioactive contamination of the imported foodstuffs and also amend the regulation on the maximum permitted levels of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs.

  14. Radiological Risk Assessment and Survey of Radioactive Contamination for Foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, a radiological dose assessment and a survey of a radioactive contamination for foodstuffs have been investigated by many countries such as EU, Japan, USA. In the case of Japan which is similar to our country for the imported regions of foodstuffs, there were some instances of the excess for regulation on the maximum permitted levels of radioactive contamination among some imported foodstuffs. Concerns about the radioactive contamination of foodstuffs are increased because of the recently special situation (Nuclear test of North Korea). The purpose of this study is a radiological dose assessment and a survey of a radioactive contamination for foodstuffs in order to reduce the probability of intake of contaminated foodstuffs. Analytical results of the collected samples are below MDA. In this project, the model of radiological dose assessment via the food chain was also developed and radiological dose assessment was conducted based on surveys results of a radioactive contamination for foodstuffs in the Korean open markets since 2002. The results of radiological dose assessment are far below international reference level. It shows that public radiation exposure via food chain is well controlled within the international guide level. However, the radioactive contamination research of imported foodstuffs should be continuous considering the special situation(nuclear test of North Korea). These results are used to manage the radioactive contamination of the imported foodstuffs and also amend the regulation on the maximum permitted levels of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs

  15. Radiological risk assessment caused by RDD terrorism in an urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper specifically discusses a radiological risk assessment due to RDDs (Radiological Dispersion Devices) containing Cs-137 in the metropolitan area of Seoul, South Korea. The comparison of an effective dose caused by airborne plume and deposited Cs-137 is performed with and without consideration of the wind direction. When the dose is computed conservatively, an effective dose is around twice that of a dose computed realistically. Monte Carlo simulations showed that the 95% confidence interval for morbidity was 2.40×10−5 to 8.55×10−5, and mortality was 3.53×10−5 to 1.25×10−4. - Highlights: • This study is to assess radiological consequences assuming a radiological terrorism. • A RDD explosion scenario for the metropolitan area of Seoul is introduced. • To protect the public in cases of radiological emergencies, the best management practices are discussed in this study

  16. Radiological Risk Assessment for King County Wastewater Treatment Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2005-08-05

    Staff of the King County Wastewater Treatment Division (WTD) have concern about the aftermath of a radiological dispersion event (RDE) leading to the introduction of significant quantities of radioactive material into the combined sanitary and storm sewer system in King County, Washington. Radioactive material could come from the use of a radiological dispersion device (RDD). RDDs include "dirty bombs" that are not nuclear detonations but are explosives designed to spread radioactive material (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) 2001). Radioactive material also could come from deliberate introduction or dispersion of radioactive material into the environment, including waterways and water supply systems. This document develops plausible and/or likely scenarios, including the identification of likely radioactive materials and quantities of those radioactive materials to be involved. These include 60Co, 90Sr, 137Cs, 192Ir, 226Ra, plutonium, and 241Am. Two broad categories of scenarios are considered. The first category includes events that may be suspected from the outset, such as an explosion of a "dirty bomb" in downtown Seattle. The explosion would most likely be heard, but the type of explosion (e.g., sewer methane gas or RDD) may not be immediately known. Emergency first responders must be able to quickly detect the radioisotopes previously listed, assess the situation, and deploy a response to contain and mitigate (if possible) detrimental effects resulting from the incident. In such scenarios, advance notice of about an hour or two might be available before any contaminated wastewater reaches a treatment plant. The second category includes events that could go initially undetected by emergency personnel. Examples of such a scenario would be the inadvertent or surreptitious introduction of radioactive material into the sewer system. Intact rogue radioactive sources from industrial radiography devices, well-logging apparatus, or

  17. Radiation risk assessments, protection policies, and procedures of the International Commission on Radiological Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the radiation risk assessments, protection policies, and procedures of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The activities of ICRP are reviewed. Thus, ICRP is an independent international network of specialists in various fields of radiological protection. The biological effects of ionising radiation, the risks of late harm, the protection against radiation risks, and the plans for the future are described. A future project aims to review existing recommendations on radiological protection for disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste, such as spend nuclear fuel. In addition, a number of new projects are being started in 1998. These include Cancer risk at low doses, Radiation risks to the embryo / foetus, probably Quality factors and RBE, further Doses from radiopharmaceuticals, Dose coefficients for external radiation, Pregnancy in medical practice, Patient safety in radiotherapy, and Interventional procedures. Other areas are constantly being monitored for possible later inclusion into the ICRP work programme. (Cho, G. S.). 5 refs

  18. Radiological risk assessment for an urban area: Focusing on a drinking water contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper specifically discusses a water quality modeling and health risk assessment for cesium-137 to assess the potential and actual effects on human health from drinking water contaminated by a radiological terrorist attack in the Seoul metropolitan area, Korea. With respect to the source term caused by a terrorist attack, it was assumed that 50 TBq of cesium-137 was introduced into the Paldang Lake which is a single water resource for the Seoul metropolitan area. EFDC (Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code) model was used to calculate the hydrodynamic and water quality for the model domain, Paldang Lake. Mortality risk and morbid risk coefficients caused by the ingestion of tap water were used to assess a human health risk due to cesium-137. The transport of cesium-137 in the Paldang water system was mainly dependent on the flow streamlines and the effect of the dilution from the other branches. The mortality and morbidity risks due to the drinking water contamination by cesium-137 were 4.77 x 10-7 and 6.92 x 10-7, respectively. Accordingly, it is very important to take appropriate countermeasures when radiological terrorist attacks have occurred at water resources to prevent radiological risks by radionuclides.

  19. Risk management in radiology departments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Horea; Craciun; Kshitij; Mankad; Jeremy; Lynch

    2015-01-01

    Medical imaging and interventional radiology sustained prompt changes in the last few years, mainly as aresult of technology breakthroughs, rise in workload, deficit in workforce and globalization. Risk is considered to be the chance or possibility of incurring loss or of a negative event happening that may cause injury to patients or medical practitioners. There are various causes of risks leading to harm and injury in radiology departments, and it is one of the objectives of this paper to scrutinize some of the causes. This will drive to consideration of some of the approaches that are used in managing risks in radiology. This paper aims at investigating risk management in radiology, and this will be achieved through a thorough assessment of the risk control measures that are used in the radiology department. It has been observed that the major focus of risk management in such medical setting is to reduce and eliminate harm and injury to patients through integration of various medical precautions. The field of Radiology is rapidly evolving due to technology advances and the globalization of healthcare. This ongoing development will have a great impact on the level of quality of care and service delivery. Thus, risk management in radiology is essential in protecting the patients, radiologists, and the medical organization in terms of capital and widening of the reputation of the medical organization with the patients.

  20. Risk management in radiology departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciun, Horea; Mankad, Kshitij; Lynch, Jeremy

    2015-06-28

    Medical imaging and interventional radiology sustained prompt changes in the last few years, mainly as a result of technology breakthroughs, rise in workload, deficit in workforce and globalization. Risk is considered to be the chance or possibility of incurring loss or of a negative event happening that may cause injury to patients or medical practitioners. There are various causes of risks leading to harm and injury in radiology departments, and it is one of the objectives of this paper to scrutinize some of the causes. This will drive to consideration of some of the approaches that are used in managing risks in radiology. This paper aims at investigating risk management in radiology, and this will be achieved through a thorough assessment of the risk control measures that are used in the radiology department. It has been observed that the major focus of risk management in such medical setting is to reduce and eliminate harm and injury to patients through integration of various medical precautions. The field of Radiology is rapidly evolving due to technology advances and the globalization of healthcare. This ongoing development will have a great impact on the level of quality of care and service delivery. Thus, risk management in radiology is essential in protecting the patients, radiologists, and the medical organization in terms of capital and widening of the reputation of the medical organization with the patients. PMID:26120383

  1. Ecological risk assessment for radionuclides and metals: A radiological and chemical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to the regulatory concern over the adverse effects of depleted uranium (DU) on ecological receptors at two sites contaminated with DU and metals, an ecological risk assessment (ERA) was performed, in conjunction with a radiological/chemical human health risk assessment (HRA). To date, most research on the harmful effects of radiation has focused only on humans. With regard to radiation protection of the environment, national and international radiation protection advisory committees have concluded that levels protecting human health should be sufficient to protect the environment as well. To select chemicals of potential ecological concern, a qualitative ERA was first performed by comparing chemical stressor concentrations in abiotic media with various benchmarked criteria. The results indicate that, as with the case of human health, DU was the ecological risk-driving chemical at these sites. Both radiological and chemical effects posed by DU were then estimated for the bald eagle, an endangered species that represents the assessment end point of the quantitative ERA. Abiotic media and food webs evaluated were: soils, surface water, plants, terrestrial (both mammalian and avian) species, and aquatic species. The results of the quantitative ERA indicate that the decision to cleanup DU contamination at these sites can solely be based on human health effects as limiting criteria. The risk assessments were well received by the regulatory agencies overseeing the project

  2. Introduction to CRRIS: a computerized radiological risk investigation system for assessing atmospheric releases of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CRRIS is a Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System consisting of eight fully integrated computer codes which calculate environmental transport of atmospheric releases of radionuclides and resulting doses and health risks to individuals or populations. Each code may also be used alone for various assessment applications. Radionuclides are handled by the CRRIS either in terms of the released radionuclides or the exposure radionuclides which consist of both the released nuclides and decay products that grow in during environmental transport. The CRRIS is not designed to simulate short-term effects. 51 refs

  3. Assessment of radiological risk in vicinity of former uranium mining areas in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciupek, K.; Krajewski, P.; Kardas, M.; Suplinska, M. [Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection (Poland)

    2014-07-01

    The work carried out under the project NCBiR - 'Technologies Supporting Development of Safe Nuclear Power Engineering'; Task 3: Meeting the Polish nuclear power engineering's demand for fuel - fundamental aspects. Human activities related to the use of ionizing radiation and radioactive substances might cause exposure of the population and the environment. However, radiological risk assessment is mainly conducted only to human as an estimation of the effective dose being the sum of external and internal exposure whereas environmental protection assessment is more complex studies. The increased interest in recent years in this aspect and the ability to perform computer simulations contributed the development of models enabling assessment of exposure to certain organisms and estimation the concentrations of radionuclides in the various components of the environment. These models define a possible transition path of radionuclide in the atmosphere or waterways through their physical parameterization. The estimation of the content of radionuclides in plants, animals and human is possible by applying an existing risk assessment methodology. Models assessing human and environmental exposure from natural and artificial radionuclides, such as CROM, RESRAD, IMPACT or ERICA, come to be useful tools not only for researchers but also for regulatory authorities. This case study focused on the uranium mining areas (inactive mines and waste dumps) in the Giant Mountains (Karkonosze Mountains) in the south-west of Poland. On the basis of activity concentrations in samples of soil and mineral material from mine shafts, water samples from ponds, streams and small rivers and vegetation samples, an assessment of radiological impact of the former uranium mining areas was performed. The doses for reference group of inhabitants and biota in the vicinity of the former uranium mine were evaluated using IMPACT (EcoMetrix Inc.) model and ERICA tool. The variability and

  4. The use of importance sampling in a trial assessment to obtain converged estimates of radiological risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In developing a methodology for assessing potential sites for the disposal of radioactive wastes, the Department of the Environment has conducted a series of trial assessment exercises. In order to produce converged estimates of radiological risk using the SYVAC A/C simulation system an efficient sampling procedure is required. Previous work has demonstrated that importance sampling can substantially increase sampling efficiency. This study used importance sampling to produce converged estimates of risk for the first DoE trial assessment. Four major nuclide chains were analysed. In each case importance sampling produced converged risk estimates with between 10 and 170 times fewer runs of the SYVAC A/C model. This increase in sampling efficiency can reduce the total elapsed time required to obtain a converged estimate of risk from one nuclide chain by a factor of 20. The results of this study suggests that the use of importance sampling could reduce the elapsed time required to perform a risk assessment of a potential site by a factor of ten. (author)

  5. Radiological risk assessment for an urban area: Focusing on an air contamination event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper specifically discusses an atmospheric dispersion modeling and health risk assessment for Cs-137 to assess the potential and actual effects on human health from an inhalation event due to a radiological terrorist attack in the Seoul metropolitan area, Korea. The source term was assumed to be 5 TBq of Cs-137, introduced into the central part of Seoul's metropolitan area by a terrorist attack. Atmospheric dispersion models can be used to support the decision making and risk assessments when terrorist attacks have happened in an urban area. The concepts of Gaussian plume modeling and computational fluid dynamics modeling were used to calculate the Cs-137 concentration in the air. Mortality risk and morbid risk coefficients for the inhalation of contaminated air were used to assess the human health risk. The mortality and morbidity are 1.12E-2 and 1.64E-2, respectively in case of the Gaussian plume, while 6.23E-3 and 9.13E-3 in case of the computational fluid dynamics model. The results of the modeling are dependent on the terror scenarios and dispersion models. Accordingly, the optimization process is needed for final decision making.

  6. A study on probabilistic radiological risk assessments for radiation facilities with vague information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure for the radiological risk assessment was established for radiation facility with vague information on risk contribution factors. In contrast to the nuclear power plant systems for which probabilistic risk assessments(PRAs) have been performed over three decades, risk models and associated variables used in PRAs are often vague in radiation facilities because of the scarcity of data. In that, experts provides valuable insights through his or her judgment on the uncertain but needed elements for risk analysis. Especially, the Delphi method was confirmed as a useful research tool for elicitation of expert opinions for a system with vague information. In addition, the streamlined procedure employs advanced techniques particularly useful for an object system with vague information, which include the Bayesian update and two-dimensional Monte Carlo analysis(2D MCA). The methodology developed in this study was applied, as an illustration, to risk assessments for two selected types of radiation facilities: 131I therapy facility and field radiography. Firstly, the utility of Bayesian updates was testified for risk assessments of the selected systems. The model variables for analyzing risks were obtained through three-round Delphi surveys. The resulting risks with the Bayesian updating of the variables were compared with both those without updating(3rd round Delphi survey) and those estimated by employing data within the 95% confidence intervals after the third round Delphi survey. The cumulative distribution functions(CDFs) without Bayesian updating showed unrealistically extreme values of radiation dose in the lower and upper tails. On the other hand, the risks estimated with Bayesian updating agreed with the risks reflecting those data in 95% confidence interval. The later, however, suffers intentional rejection of certain data collected. With this observation, the Bayesian updates were incorporated in the radiological risk assessment procedure. With the

  7. A comparison of radiological risk assessment models: Risk assessment models used by the BEIR V Committee, UNSCEAR, ICRP, and EPA (for NESHAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiological risk assessments and resulting risk estimates have been developed by numerous national and international organizations, including the National Research Council's fifth Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations (BEIR V), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). A fourth organization, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), has also performed a risk assessment as a basis for the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP). This paper compares the EPA's model of risk assessment with the models used by the BEIR V Committee, UNSCEAR, and ICRP. Comparison is made of the values chosen by each organization for several model parameters: populations used in studies and population transfer coefficients, dose-response curves and dose-rate effects, risk projection methods, and risk estimates. This comparison suggests that the EPA has based its risk assessment on outdated information and that the organization should consider adopting the method used by the BEIR V Committee, UNSCEAR, or ICRP

  8. A comparison of radiological risk assessment models: Risk assessment models used by the BEIR V Committee, UNSCEAR, ICRP, and EPA (for NESHAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, L.E.

    1994-03-01

    Radiological risk assessments and resulting risk estimates have been developed by numerous national and international organizations, including the National Research Council`s fifth Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations (BEIR V), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). A fourth organization, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), has also performed a risk assessment as a basis for the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP). This paper compares the EPA`s model of risk assessment with the models used by the BEIR V Committee, UNSCEAR, and ICRP. Comparison is made of the values chosen by each organization for several model parameters: populations used in studies and population transfer coefficients, dose-response curves and dose-rate effects, risk projection methods, and risk estimates. This comparison suggests that the EPA has based its risk assessment on outdated information and that the organization should consider adopting the method used by the BEIR V Committee, UNSCEAR, or ICRP.

  9. Assessment of entrance surface dose and health risk from common radiology examinations in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical X-ray exposures are the largest man-made source of population exposure to ionising radiation in many countries. Although information on medical exposure is already incorporated into national legislative documents, in Isfahan there is no data on the assessment of patient's entrance surface dose (ESD) and the health risk from conventional radiography in daily clinical practice. The aim of this study was to investigate ESDs and the consequent health risk for the patients undergoing routine X-ray procedures in hospitals under the control of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, in year 2011. The values of ESDs were measured for common radiographical examinations with the highest absorbed dose to the patient in seven hospitals (Alzahra, Ashrafi-Khomeini-shahr, Feyz, Isabne-Maryam, Kashani, Nour-Aliasghar and Seyed-Al Shohada) and six stationary X-ray machines (General Electric, USA; Phillips, The Netherlands; Siemens, Germany; Shimadzu (Japan)); Toshiba (Japan)) and Varian, USA). The results of the ESD measurements as well as the calculated effective dose values between different X-ray examinations showed values significantly greater than those recorded in some other countries especially for the high tube potential technique (such as the skull) by factors of 2.5-5.0. Based on the fatality risk of 5 % per sievert, it was estimated that, for chest and skull examinations approximately two (40.18 person-Sv x 5 % per sievert) and one (2.53 person-Sv x 5 % per sievert) cases of health risk, respectively, may in the future be attributable to diagnostic X rays done in year 2011 in Isfahan. Efforts should be taken to further lower patient doses while securing image quality. The need to provide relevant education and training to staff in the radiology sections is of utmost importance. (authors)

  10. Assessment of the radiological risks of road transport accidents involving Type A packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment and evaluation of the potential radiological risks of transport accidents involving Type A package shipments by road have been performed by five EU Member States, France, Germany, Sweden, The Netherlands, and the UK. The analysis involved collection and analysis of information on a national basis related to the type, volume, and characteristics of Type A package consignments, the associated radioactive traffic, and the expected frequency and consequences of potential vehicular road transport accidents. It was found that the majority of Type A packaged radioactive material shipments by road is related to applications of non-special form radioactive material, i.e. radiopharmaceuticals, radiochemicals etc., in medicine, research, and industry and special form material contained in radiography and other radiation sources, e.g. gauging equipment. The annual volumes of Type A package shipments of radiopharmaceuticals and radiochemicals by road differ considerably between the participating EU Member States from about 12,000 Type A packages in Sweden to about 240,000 in the Netherlands. The broad range reflects to a large extent the supply of radioactive material for the national populations and the production and distribution operations prevailing in the participating EU Member States (some are producer countries, others are not!). Very few standard package designs weighing from about 1-25 kg are predominant in Type A package shipments in all participating countries. Type A packages contain typically a range of radioactivity from a few mega becquerels to a few tens of giga becquerels, the average package activity contents is in terms of fractions of A2 about 0.01, i.e. about one hundredth of a Type A package contents limits. Based on a probabilistic risk assessment method it has been concluded that the expected frequencies of occurrence of vehicular road transport accidents with the potential to result in an environmental release - including radiologically

  11. Risks from dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this research is to demonstrate the risks and consequences of exposure to dental X-ray. The methodology used was the survey of bibliographic literature on this matter. First, we tried to understand the operation and characteristics of dental X-rays. Afterwards, we tried to know about the risks that this procedure offers to workers and patients. And concluded with the consequences of such exposure. The results showed that dental x-rays only offer risks in prolonged exposure, can affect the worker or patient to pathologies such as cancer or a life-time decreased due to the stochastic effect. Therefore, radiological protection standards must be respected and practised. (author)

  12. Radiological assessment and optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeevaert, T.; Sohier, A

    1998-07-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's research in the field of radiological assessment and optimization are (1) to implement ALARA principles in activities with radiological consequences; (2) to develop methodologies for radiological optimization in decision-aiding; (3) to improve methods to assess in real time the radiological hazards in the environment in case of an accident; (4) to develop methods and programmes to assist decision-makers during a nuclear emergency; (5) to support the policy of radioactive waste management authorities in the field of radiation protection; (6) to investigate computer codes in the area of multi criteria analysis; (7) to organise courses on off-site emergency response to nuclear accidents. Main achievements in these areas for 1997 are summarised.

  13. Radiological assessment and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's research in the field of radiological assessment and optimization are (1) to implement ALARA principles in activities with radiological consequences; (2) to develop methodologies for radiological optimization in decision-aiding; (3) to improve methods to assess in real time the radiological hazards in the environment in case of an accident; (4) to develop methods and programmes to assist decision-makers during a nuclear emergency; (5) to support the policy of radioactive waste management authorities in the field of radiation protection; (6) to investigate computer codes in the area of multi criteria analysis; (7) to organise courses on off-site emergency response to nuclear accidents. Main achievements in these areas for 1997 are summarised

  14. Chemical modelling studies in support of radiological risk assessments of radioactive waste disposal 1984-86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the testing of computer programs identified as being capable of modelling chemical processes in radioactive waste disposal systems. The functions, limitations and data requirements of the programs assembled at UWIST are discussed and the organisation of an extensive thermodynamic database compiled to support the codes described. The role of chemical models in DoE probabilistic radiological assessment (PRA) methodology, is outlined. Their potential for radiological assessment purposes has been addressed through a series of case studies on existing and potential low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Results to date suggest them to be capable of fulfilling their intended role within the constraints of model assumptions. A number of collaborative projects designed to verify, validate and improve the models have been established. (author)

  15. 2D Monte Carlo analysis of radiological risk assessment for the food intake in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most public health risk assessments assume and combine a series of average, conservative and worst-case values to derive an acceptable point estimate of risk. To improve quality of risk information, insight of uncertainty in the assessments is needed and more emphasis is put on the probabilistic risk assessment. Probabilistic risk assessment studies use probability distributions for one or more variables of the risk equation in order to quantitatively characterize variability and uncertainty. In this study, an advanced technique called the two-dimensional Monte Carlo analysis (2D MCA) is applied to estimation of internal doses from intake of radionuclides in foodstuffs and drinking water in Korea. The variables of the risk model along with the parameters of these variables are described in terms of probability density functions (PDFs). In addition, sensitivity analyses were performed to identify important factors to the radiation doses. (author)

  16. Transportation radiological risk assessment for the programmatic environmental impact statement: An overview of methodologies, assumptions, and input parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy is considering a broad range of alternatives for the future configuration of radioactive waste management at its network of facilities. Because the transportation of radioactive waste is an integral component of the management alternatives being considered, the estimated human health risks associated with both routine and accident transportation conditions must be assessed to allow a complete appraisal of the alternatives. This paper provides an overview of the technical approach being used to assess the radiological risks from the transportation of radioactive wastes. The approach presented employs the RADTRAN 4 computer code to estimate the collective population risk during routine and accident transportation conditions. Supplemental analyses are conducted using the RISKIND computer code to address areas of specific concern to individuals or population subgroups. RISKIND is used for estimating routine doses to maximally exposed individuals and for assessing the consequences of the most severe credible transportation accidents. The transportation risk assessment is designed to ensure -- through uniform and judicious selection of models, data, and assumptions -- that relative comparisons of risk among the various alternatives are meaningful. This is accomplished by uniformly applying common input parameters and assumptions to each waste type for all alternatives. The approach presented can be applied to all radioactive waste types and provides a consistent and comprehensive evaluation of transportation-related risk

  17. Radiological risk assessment of isotope laboratories according to the requirements of the radiation protection ordinance and the protective labour legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Swiss Radiation Safety Ordinance the supervising authority may require a safety report from the operator of a radioactive laboratory (Art.95) and establish the methodology of the risk analysis. Isotope laboratories of the chemical industry are supervised by Swiss accident insurance agency (SUVA). In that respect SUVA safeguards both radiation protection issues and general protection of the workers and established guide lines in order to assess conventional risks in industrial premises. In these conventional analysis the working process is analysed according to its possible detriment (death, severe invalidity, slight invalidity, injury with absence, injury without absence) and the probability of occurrence (frequent, seldom, rare, improbable, virtually impossible). According to this the risks are categorised in a matrix as 'high', 'medium' and 'low'. SUVA requested such a risk analysis for two isotope laboratories of B type in Basel in which on the one hand the hazard to the workers on the other hand to the public should be analysed and radiologically assessed. It was proposed to use a methodology established in workers safety and the insurance section. This required a comparison of risks of radiation doses in mSv to the consequences of conventional working accidents (death, invalidity) and the risk perception of the public and politicians. In this paper this risk matrix derived in discussions among the supervising body, the company management, the laboratory head and workers is described. In the opinion of the authors such a comparison between radiological and conventional risks has not been performed up to now and the results obtained here are open to discussion. (orig.)

  18. Availability and use of medical isotopes in Canada : performed as part of a radiological terrorism risk assessment. Technical memorandum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment of the availability of radioactive material used for medical applications in Canada has been performed as part of the CBRN Research and Technology Initiative (CRTI) Project CRTI-02-0024RD (Probabilistic Risk Assessment Tool for Radiological Dispersal Devices). A general list of medical radioisotopes used worldwide was compiled via literature searches and Internet investigations. This list was then compared to all isotopes licenced to healthcare facilities in Canada. Sources of lesser concern for this study, such as noble gases, short-lived isotopes, and radioisotopes not licenced for medical applications in Canada, were eliminated. The remaining sources were then analysed for frequency of use and maximum licenced activity to assess which materials would be of highest concern in relation to radiological terrorism. A detailed description of the application, typical administered activity, and other relevant information for these most common and highest licenced activity medical sources was assembled to feed directly into the risk assessment database. A general discussion of security in healthcare facilities is also given. Due to the constant advances made in medicine, the information relating to licenced isotopes is dynamic and thus requires updating to ensure the database is kept current. (author)

  19. Risk management in radiology departments

    OpenAIRE

    Craciun, Horea; Mankad, Kshitij; Lynch, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Medical imaging and interventional radiology sustained prompt changes in the last few years, mainly as a result of technology breakthroughs, rise in workload, deficit in workforce and globalization. Risk is considered to be the chance or possibility of incurring loss or of a negative event happening that may cause injury to patients or medical practitioners. There are various causes of risks leading to harm and injury in radiology departments, and it is one of the objectives of this paper to ...

  20. Radiological Risk Assessment and Cask Materials Qualification for Disposed Sealed Radioactive Sources Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hazardous waste problem imposes to respect national and international agreed regulations regarding their transport, taking into account both for maintaining humans, goods and environment exposure under specified limits, during transport and specific additional operations, and also to reduce impact on the environment. The paper follows to estimate the radiological risk and cask materials qualification according to the design specifications for disposed sealed radioactive sources normal transport situation. The shielding analysis has been performed by using Oak Ridge National Laboratory's SCALE 5 programs package. For thermal analysis and cask materials qualification ANSYS computer code has been used. Results have been obtained under the framework of Advanced system for monitoring of hazardous waste transport on the Romanian territory Research Project which main objective consists in implementation of a complex dual system for on-line monitoring both for transport special vehicle and hazardous waste packages, with data automatic transmission to a national monitoring center

  1. Soil radioactivity levels, radiological maps and risk assessment for the state of Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazemi, N; Bajoga, A D; Bradley, D A; Regan, P H; Shams, H

    2016-07-01

    An evaluation of the radioactivity levels associated with naturally occurring radioactive materials has been undertaken as part of a systematic study to provide a surface radiological map of the State of Kuwait. Soil samples from across Kuwait were collected, measured and analysed in the current work. These evaluations provided soil activity concentration levels for primordial radionuclides, specifically members of the (238)U and (232)Th decay chains and (40)K which. The (238)U and (232)Th chain radionuclides and (40)K activity concentration values ranged between 5.9 ↔ 32.3, 3.5 ↔ 27.3, and 74 ↔ 698 Bq/kg respectively. The evaluated average specific activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K across all of the soil samples have mean values of 18, 15 and 385 Bq/kg respectively, all falling below the worldwide mean values of 35, 40 and 400 Bq/kg respectively. The radiological risk factors are associated with a mean of 33.16 ± 2.46 nG/h and 68.5 ± 5.09 Bq/kg for the external dose rate and Radium equivalent respectively. The measured annual dose rates for all samples gives rise to a mean value of 40.8 ± 3.0 μSv/y while the internal and internal hazard indices have been found to be 0.23 ± 0.02 and 0.19 ± 0.01 respectively. PMID:27038900

  2. Radiological risk assessment of U(nat) in the ground water around Jaduguda uranium mining complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium is present naturally in earth crust and hence at trace level in ground water, sea water, building materials etc. Naturally occurring radionuclide originating from industrial activities, metal mining and waste depository may contribute to the nearby ground water by radionuclide migration. Ground water ecosystem surrounding the uranium processing facility at Jaduguda has been studied for natural uranium distribution. In the present study, the drinking water sources at various distance zone (with in 1.6 km, 1.6-5 km and > 5km) covering all directions around the waste depository (tailings pond) have been investigated for uranium content. Evaluation of intake, ingestion dose and subsequent risk for population residing around the tailings pond has been carried out. Annual intake of uranium through drinking water for members of public residing around the uranium complex is found to be in the range of 41.8 - 44.4 Bq.y-1. The intake and ingestion dose is appreciably low (-1) which is far below the WHO recommended level of 100 Sv.y-1. The life time radiological risk due to uranium natural in drinking water is insignificant and found to be of the order of 10-6. (author)

  3. Risk evaluation on radiological workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of a method by means of which health risks for radiological personnel can be estimated within the margins of a risk evaluation as described in the Dutch Labor Conditions Law ('Arbowet'). The risk is expressed as a number: the higher the number, the higher the risk for an employee to be exposed to a dose, higher than the background radiation. 7 refs

  4. Pediatrics and radiological risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data concerning the health detriment resulted from application of radiological diagnostic procedures are reviewed. The conclusions about higher probability of the health detriment in children are shown to depend on adequacy of a simple, multiplicative projection model for radiation induced cancers. The article calls for careful and justified referral of children for nuclear medicine tests and optimal selection of radiopharmaceuticals from the dosimetric point of view. 32 refs, 8 figs, 9 tabs

  5. Assessment of the radiological risks of underground disposal of solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the general principles for assessing proposals for operating a landbased facility for solid radioactive waste disposal is that the site should be chosen and the facility should be designed so that the risk or probability of fatal cancer, to any member of the public, from any movement of radioactivity from the facility, is not greater than 1 in a million in any one year. This report provides advice to the Department of the Environment as to how this risk may be defined and gives a prescription for how it can be calculated. (author)

  6. Assessment and management of cancer risks from radiological and chemical hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Joint Working Group was established in April 1995 by the President of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) and the Assistant Deputy Minister of the Health Protection Branch of Health Canada to examine the similarities, disparities and inconsistencies between the levels of risk considered acceptable for regulating ionizing radiation and those considered acceptable for regulating chemical and microbiological hazards. During the process of collecting, analysing and interpreting information, the Joint Working Group realized that its terms of reference as written presented a major difficulty because of the lack of consensus on acceptable levels of risk. Consequently it decided that the most reasonable way to proceed was to compare the risk assessment and management processes used to protect the public from radiation, chemicals and microbiological hazards. This report concentrates on the assessment and management of ionizing radiation and genotoxic chemicals (which both cause cancer by damaging the DNA in cells) and pays less attention to non-genotoxic effects and microbiological hazards. The report also examines public more than occupational exposures and exposures from man-made rather than naturally occurring agents. (author)

  7. RESRAD for Radiological Risk Assessment. Comparison with EPA CERCLA Tools - PRG and DCC Calculators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cheng, J. -J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kamboj, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this report is two-fold. First, the risk assessment methodology for both RESRAD and the EPA’s tools is reviewed. This includes a review of the EPA’s justification for 2 using a dose-to-risk conversion factor to reduce the dose-based protective ARAR from 15 to 12 mrem/yr. Second, the models and parameters used in RESRAD and the EPA PRG and DCC Calculators are compared in detail, and the results are summarized and discussed. Although there are suites of software tools in the RESRAD family of codes and the EPA Calculators, the scope of this report is limited to the RESRAD (onsite) code for soil contamination and the EPA’s PRG and DCC Calculators also for soil contamination.

  8. Radiological and Toxic Risk Assessment of Nigerian Kohl as Cosmetic Compared with Imported Kohl Cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Y. Zakari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 38 different samples of Kohl comprising of 23 indigenous mined products and 15 imported products as control and were analyzed for general elemental composition but with particular interest in those reported to be of relevance (As, Cd, Hg, Ni, Co and Sb in cosmetics. Energy dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Analysis EDXRA was used for the assay. Only Pb, As, Ni and Cr were detected among the elements of interest. Mean Pb concentrations of 277300 ppm; Ni at 2256 ppm concentration; and As at 810 ppm which are considerably higher than their safety limits (20 ppm p<0.01 were obtained in both the indigenous and imported products. The same risk was statistically observed to be involved following the use of both local and imported kohl products. Again Pb concentrations in excess of what was claimed on the labels of the imported kohl products were observed (p<0.01, hence the need for scrutiny of imported products by the relevant agency. The high concentration of Cr (7460 ppm, p<0.05 in the imported samples signifies its presence as colorant and the need for chromium control for the brands concerned. Also the observed presence of Th in the indigenous (local samples suggests that Nigerian products may be of radiological effect to health. Measurements were made of gross alpha and beta count of indigenous mined and imported kohl samples The results reveals that all the forms of kohl products assayed, emit both particles but with &beta’s count substantially higher than the α’s (p<0.5 at a mean &beta count 4695×10-3 cpm and &alpha count as 283×10-3 cpm. One of the samples from Zamfara State of Nigeria (known for Pb poisoning due to mining activities shows an exceptionally high count in both &alph = 8998100 cpm and &beta = 9315700 cpm which reveals that products from Zamfara State, need a special attention. Application of this product is therefore very much likely to produce radiation damage to the cornea due to low penetration of &alph and to the

  9. Radiological safety assessment for a low-level radioactive solid waste storage facility: preliminary risk evaluation by reliability techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applicability of reliability techniques was examined to the determination of quantitative risks presented by a low-level radioactive solid waste storage facility. Fault trees and event trees were defined based on many relevant assumptions to obtain the average occurrence rate of rare accidents which could lead to potential hazards to the general public. The amount of radioactivity which would be transported into the environment from a storage facility was calculated using assumptions and/or estimates of the magnitude of each accident, together with estimates of probability of occurrence, and was used as an index for measuring the potential risks. Some valuable results were obtained in this study under the limits considered. These are as follows: (1) Reliability techniques are effective and promising for assessing the quantitative risks due to storing radioactive wastes in a waste package storage facility for long periods; (2) The main failures associated with an accident are summarized and listed; (3) The advantages and disadvantages of two types of waste package storage room and the amounts of radioactivity which would be released accidentally from them are also summarized and listed; and (4) The improvements to a storage facility that are desirable from a radiological safety aspect are proposed. (author)

  10. Introduction to radiological performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiological performance assessment is conducted to provide reasonable assurance that performance objectives for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal will be met. Beginning in the early stages of development, a radiological performance assessment continues through the operational phase, and is instrumental in the postclosure of the facility. Fundamental differences exist in the regulation of commercial and defense LLW, but the radiological performance assessment process is essentially the same for both. The purpose of this document is to describe that process in a concise and straightforward manner. This document focuses on radiological performance assessment as it pertains to commercial LLW disposal, but is applicable to US Department of Energy sites as well. Included are discussions on performance objectives, site characterization, and how a performance assessment is conducted. A case study is used to illustrate how the process works as a whole. A bibliography is provided to assist in locating additional information

  11. Soil radioactivity levels and radiological risk assessment in the highlands of Hunza, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the determination of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs in 42 soil samples collected from eight towns of Hunza district, at an average altitude of 2267 m, using gamma-ray spectrometry. The activity concentration data were analysed for frequency distribution and other descriptive measures. Risk assessment was done by calculating the hazard indices, air absorbed dose rate and external annual effective dose rate due to cosmic radiations, terrestrial radionuclides and 137Cs deposited on the surface of the earth. Both indoor and outdoor occupancy factors were taken into account. The average dose rate due to cosmic radiation was estimated as 828+87 μSv y-1, from external terrestrial radiation as 97+20 mSv y-1 and from 137Cs as 1.05 mSv y-1 for a total annual effective dose rate of 926+92 mSv. The results of the present study were discussed and compared with other similar studies performed in East Asia. The present study indicates that Hunza can be ranked among those areas having a high level of dose rate not only from cosmic rays but also from terrestrial radionuclides. This paper also proposes another measure of radiation hazard called 'radium equivalent for internal exposure'. (authors)

  12. Environmental risk management for radiological accidents: integrating risk assessment and decision analysis for remediation at different spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsalo, Boris; Sullivan, Terrence; Didenko, Vladimir; Linkov, Igor

    2011-07-01

    The consequences of the Tohuku earthquake and subsequent tsunami in March 2011 caused a loss of power at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, in Japan, and led to the release of radioactive materials into the environment. Although the full extent of the contamination is not currently known, the highly complex nature of the environmental contamination (radionuclides in water, soil, and agricultural produce) typical of nuclear accidents requires a detailed geospatial analysis of information with the ability to extrapolate across different scales with applications to risk assessment models and decision making support. This article briefly summarizes the approach used to inform risk-based land management and remediation decision making after the Chernobyl, Soviet Ukraine, accident in 1986. PMID:21608109

  13. Radiological transportation risk assessment of the shipment of sodium-bonded fuel from the Fast Flux Test Facility to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document was written in support of Environmental Assessment: Shutdown of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. It analyzes the potential radiological risks associated with the transportation of sodium-bonded metal alloy and mixed carbide fuel from the FFTF on the Hanford Site in Washington State to the Idaho Engineering Laboratory in Idaho in the T-3 Cask. RADTRAN 4 is used for the analysis which addresses potential risk from normal transportation and hypothetical accident scenarios

  14. Radiological risk assessment for the remote-handled transuranic waste storage options at Argonne National Laboratory - East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interim storage of the remote-handled transuranic (RH/TRU) waste is needed at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E). Two on-site facilities, the northwest (NW) vaults in the 317 Area and the converted spent nuclear fuel pool in Building 331, were identified as potential storage locations through previous studies. To assist the decision making process of selecting a storage location, radiological risk assessments were conducted to analyze potential radiation exposures that would be associated with storage of the RH/TRU waste in these two facilities. Three drum storage scenarios (one for the 317 Area and two for Building 331) considering different drum handling procedures and stacking patterns were developed. Time-motion information on worker activities that would occur in the procedures was collected and recorded in spreadsheets. Using the time-motion information, potential external doses were estimated for the involved workers for each step in the procedures. The sum of the potential external doses over all the activity steps gave the total collective dose for each scenario. The results show that during the storage phase, storing waste drums in half-liners in Building 331 would result in the lowest collective radiation exposure; however, it would also require the most human resources. When retrieving waste drums for off-site shipment was considered, storing waste drums in the 317 Area would be the most favorable option because it would require the least amount of human resources and would also result in the lowest collective radiation exposure

  15. Management of uranium mill tailing: geochemical processes and radiological risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the geochemical processes regulating the mobilisation of heavy metals and radionuclides in the tailing dam of the uranium mining and milling facilities of Pocos de Caldas, Brazil. The operational effluent release pollution of surface and groundwater was evaluated by means of monitoring data. The potential environmental impact after the future closure of the installation was assessed by means of dose estimations assuming the absence of remedial measures. Residual tailing pyrite oxidation was found to be the critical factor in the transfer of metals and radionuclides to seepage water. No contamination of deep groundwater was observed. On the other hand, the surface water of a nearby river revealed greater uranium concentrations in the tailing dam effluent discharge area than in a background river location sampling station. Lead-210 and 210Po were the principal contributors to the total dose while vegetables were the chief pathways of exposure both for adults and children, to the studied radionuclides after closure. The results of the dose assessment indicate that permanent remedial actions will have to be adopted in the decommissioning phase. (author)

  16. Assessment of radiological risk due to natural radioactivity present in some building materials used around Kalpakkam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Building materials cause direct radiation exposure because of their uranium, thorium and potassium content. The need for determination of natural radioactivity content in building materials arises from the growing attention paid to its potential radiation effects and consequent concern of many producers of such materials. In this paper around 97 samples of commonly used building materials have been collected randomly around Kalpakkam and analyzed for natural radioactivity due to presence of primordial radionuclide 238U, 232Th and 40K using gamma spectrometry. The activity of different building material obtained in this study ranged from ≤ 3-72 Bq/kg for 238U, ≤ 5-163 Bq/kg for 232Th and ≤ 38-1481 for 40K, respectively. The highest 238U, 232Th and 40K was found in asbestos, red soil and granite, respectively. The minimum values of 238U, 232Th and 40K were found in wood. The radium equivalent activity (Raeq), external hazard index (Hex), internal hazard index (Hin), absorbed dose rate (D) in air, annual effective dose equivalent (Eeff) and activity concentration index (I) were evaluated to assess the radiation hazard for people living in dwelling made of building materials studied. All the building materials showed radium equivalent activity (Raeq) values lower than the limit of 370 Bq/kg set in United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation Report (UNSCEAR,1988).The resulting annual effective dose equivalent due to total external terrestrial radiation is less than 1 mSv/year. The results presented indicate that commonly used building material in Kalpakkam does not exceed the proposed radioactivity criterion level. (author)

  17. Lessons learned from joint working group report on assessment and management of cancer risks from radiological and chemical hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulation of radiological hazards to humans is greatly simplified by the existence of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The average RBE values or radiation weighting factors recommended by the ICRP are based on non-human data. The ICRP has also indicated that 'the standard of environmental control needed to protect man to the degree currently thought desirable will ensure that other species are not put at risk.' This statement appears to be supported by technical publications from other organizations. Two published objections by AECB staff to the scientific technical background of the ICRP statement do not offer any good reason to reject this ICRP statement. A brief summary is given of the joint working group report on the topic indicated in the title. It is noted that regulators of cancer-causing chemicals have in general paid less attention to natural sources than have the regulators of radiological hazards. Most non-human species are exposed to about 1 millisievert (mSv) equivalent dose of radiation per year from natural sources. Caribou and organisms living underground are noted as examples where radiation exposures from natural sources are considerably higher. The natural biota is in general remarkably resistant, both in the laboratory and in field studies, to the effects of high doses of radiation. A recent review by the International Atomic Agency concluded that dose rates below the equivalent of 400 mSv per year are unlikely to after the survival of non-human species. It is recommended that caution and common sense be applied in any future research on radiological protection of non-human species in the environment in Canada. Many of the proposed U.S. regulations to control chemical and radiation in the environment are not cost-effective. It is to be hoped that efforts to protect non-human species from potential radiological hazards in Canada do not slide into a similar kind of irrational quagmire. (author)

  18. Radiological assessement of Crohn's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty-eight consecutive cases of patients affected by Crohn's disease, with ileum (23/58), colon (10/58) and ileo-colic (25/58) involvement were studied. A good overall sensitivity was reached by the radiological procedures employed (barium meal, barium enema, enterclysis). Enterclysis is proposed as a second-step method for the study of ileum involvement, because it provides a quite precise assessement of disease stage and extent. Some criteria for a rational use of current radiological procedures in follow-up of both surgically and medically treated patients are proposed. Moreover it is suggested that better coordination of anatomo-radiological and clinical aspects could improve the therapeutic approach and prognostic judgement in such cases

  19. Radiation Protection Research: Radiological Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeevaert, T

    2000-07-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's research in the field of radiological impact assessment are (1) to elaborate and to improve methods and guidelines for the evaluation of restoration options for contaminated sites; (2) to develop, test and improve biosphere models for the performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal in near-surface or geological repositories; (3) to asses the impact of releases from nuclear or industrial installations. Main achievements in these areas for 2000 are summarised.

  20. Dry run 1: an initial examination of a procedure for the post-closure radiological risk assessment of an underground disposal facility for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A probabilistic risk analysis is demonstrated for a single groundwater release scenario from a repository for intermediate level wastes at a depth of about 150 metres under Harwell. This is the first stage development of an overall methodology which will eventually treat combinations of risks due to multiple release scenarios with parameter values whose uncertainty varies with time. It is shown that upper bound estimates of risk are unlikely to be useful and that the approach to radiological risk assessment based upon 'best estimates' is difficult to justify. Consequently, a full probabilistic risk analysis is necessary although further development of statistical sampling and data acquisition techniques and also of methods for the generation and analysis of site evolution scenarios, is necessary. (author)

  1. Sensitivity analysis for the comparative assessment of chemical and radiological risks from the waste isolation pilot plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of sensitivity analyses performed on the models that define a method for the comparative assessment of chemical and radionuclide risks. The comparative risk assessment method was developed to compare the chemical and radionuclide health risks to workers and the general public that may be associated with the disposal of transuranic (TRU) mixed wastes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP), located near Carlsbad, New Mexico. Sensitivity analyses were performed to identify those model variables that have the greatest impact on the estimation of chemical and radionuclide risks. This paper presents the resulting variables that ranked highest overall in sensitivity on twelve models used in these analyses

  2. Radionuclide dispersion and related radiological risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1945 some 130 accidents with radioactive sources have been reported. In the early phase of such an accident it is important to detect, identify and locate the radionuclide dispersion and to assess the related radiological risk.Transport models and mobile systems for surveillance of the environment would be used for this purpose. Accidents with dangerous radioactive sources can lead to serious health effects for individuals of the population. In many cases of a widespread dispersion (with a length scale of a few kilometres around the point of release) of the activity of such sources, the risk to the population would be small. The release of radioactive material in an urban environment could cause great concern in the population. (author)

  3. RESRAD: an analysis method of the exposure via to ionizing radiation, used on radiological risk assessment in sites with problems of soil contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A microcomputer program, denominated RESRAD, was presented and described as an analytical tool to perform pathway analysis and radiological risk assessment. Nine exposure pathways are implemented in the code. They are the following: external radiation; dust inhalation; inhalation of radon; and, ingestion of plant, meat, milk, water, aquatic food, and soil. The U.S. Department of Energy (US-DOE) has recommended the use of RESRAD, as a radiological risk assessment package, for completing the pathway analysis needed to derive specific soil-guidelines and to support the ALARA evaluation. Since its conception, the RESRAD code has been continuously improved and updated to accommodate comments and suggestions from its users and to incorporate new features to improve its capability and flexibility. Version 5.0 consolidates the last major RESRAD updates. The package is intentionally user-friendly and operates with a menu system from which the user can access the data input screens, run the RESRAD calculations and view the output. (author). 4 refs, 1 fig, 1 tab

  4. Estimation of Radiological Terrorism Risk by Administrative Districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the 9/11 attack in USA, the threat of terrorism across the world has dramatically increased. Accordingly, estimating terrorism risk has become an essential part of catastrophe risk strategies throughout the world. There are many forms of terrorism. Recently, the prospect of the radiological terrorist attack using the radioactive material is considered as one of the most serious threats. The aim of this paper is to assess the radiological terrorism risk by administrative districts based on the parameters that imply threat, vulnerability, and consequences of terrorist attacks

  5. Estimation of Radiological Terrorism Risk by Administrative Districts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suk Hoon; Kim, Ju Youl [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Ho Sik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Since the 9/11 attack in USA, the threat of terrorism across the world has dramatically increased. Accordingly, estimating terrorism risk has become an essential part of catastrophe risk strategies throughout the world. There are many forms of terrorism. Recently, the prospect of the radiological terrorist attack using the radioactive material is considered as one of the most serious threats. The aim of this paper is to assess the radiological terrorism risk by administrative districts based on the parameters that imply threat, vulnerability, and consequences of terrorist attacks.

  6. Risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Liselotte; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Elsass, Peter

    2010-01-01

    International research suggests that using formalized risk assessment methods may improve the predictive validity of professionals' predictions of risk of future violence. This study presents data on forensic psychiatric patients discharged from a forensic unit in Denmark in year 2001-2002 (n=107......). All patients were assessed for risk of future violence utilizing a structured professional judgment model: the Historical-Clinical-Risk Management-20 (HCR-20) violence risk assessment scheme. After a follow-up period of 5.6 years, recidivism outcome were obtained from the Danish National Crime...... predictive of violent recidivism compared to static items. In sum, the findings support the use of structured professional judgment models of risk assessment and in particular the HCR-20 violence risk assessment scheme. Findings regarding the importance of the (clinical) structured final risk judgment and...

  7. Risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation hormesis hypothesis is discussed claiming that low dose ionizing radiation shows positive biological effects. The hypothesis could not be demonstrably proved. In the last decade, new disciplines have been developing, such as risk assessment and risk management that, on the basis of proven results and the consideration of all circumstances quantitatively assess and test possible risks. (M.D.). 1 fig

  8. [Radiological assessment of bone quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Masako

    2016-01-01

    Structural property of bone includes micro- or nano-structural property of the trabecular and cortical bone, and macroscopic geometry. Radiological technique is useful to analyze the bone structural property;micro-CT or synchrotron-CT is available to analyze micro- or nano-structural property of bone samples ex vivo, and multi-detector row CT(MDCT)or high-resolution peripheral QCT(HR-pQCT)is available to analyze human bone in vivo. For the analysis of hip geometry, CT-based hip structure analysis(HSA)is available aw sell se radiography and DXA-based HSA. These structural parameters are related to biomechanical property, and these assessment tools provide information of pathological changes or the effects of anti-osteoporotic agents on bone. PMID:26728530

  9. Radiological risk and low doses: between false debate and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The information of the workers and the public on ionizing radiation and their potential effects is very superficial. The scientific community, as well as the experts in charge of establishing basic radiation protection standards, have never really succeeded to transmit a clear and constructive message on the fundamental principles underlying the assessment and management of radiological risk. The on-going debate on low doses is a good illustration of the deficit in knowledge in this field. An educational effort, with ''direct experience'' of radioactivity in all domains, should, in the future, facilitate the emergence of a true radiological risk culture. This should help both in reconciling the public with the techniques and the people involved and restoring the trust in the institutions in charge of the evaluation and the management of radiological risk. (author). 9 refs

  10. Self-assessment in radiology 2: Gastro-intestinal radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents self-assessment reviews in gastrointestinal radiology. It covers seven topics: the oesophagus, stomach, duodenum, small bowel, the plain abdomen, large bowel, hepatobiliary tree and pancreas, liver and portal system. Most common conditions are illustrated once, or sometimes twice in different imaging modalities. It also includes relevant and helpful case histories for better understanding

  11. A probabilistic approach to Radiological Environmental Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since a radiological environmental impact assessment typically relies on limited data and poorly based extrapolation methods, point estimations, as implied by a deterministic approach, do not suffice. To be of practical use for risk management, it is necessary to quantify the uncertainty margins of the estimates as well. In this paper we discuss how to work out a probabilistic approach for dealing with uncertainties in assessments of the radiological risks to non-human biota of a radioactive contamination. Possible strategies for deriving the relevant probability distribution functions from available empirical data and theoretical knowledge are outlined

  12. EU-CIS joint study project 2. Intervention criteria in CIS, risk assessments and non-radiological factors in decision-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedemann Jensen, P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Demin, V.F. [Russian Reserch Centre `Kurchatov Inst.`, Moscow (Russian Federation); Konstantinov, Y.O. [Research Inst. of Radiation Hygiene, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Likhtarev, I.A. [Ukrainian Scientific Centre for Radiation Medicine, Kiev (Ukraine); Rolevich, I.V. [Chernobyl State Commiettee, Minsk (Belarus); Schneider, T. [Centre d`etudes sur l`Evaluation de la Protection dans le domaine Nucleaire, CEPN, Paris (France)

    1996-05-01

    An extensive radiation risk estimation methodology has recently been developed in Russia and used for estimates of risk in exposed populations in the republics of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine. Results based on demographic data for the three republics are presented and compared with risk estimates from the EU risk model ASQRAD. The intervention criteria in the CIS republics have been evolving since the Chernobyl accident. The development of criteria in each of the three republics has been analysed and the CIS-Criteria have been compared to international guidance on intervention. After a nuclear or radiological emergency both radiological and non-radiological protection factors will influence the level of protective actions being introduced. The role of non-radiological protection factors in the overall optimization of health protection is addressed. It is argued that optimization of the overall health protection is not a question of developing radiation radiation protection philosophy to fully include socio-psychological factors. It is rather a question of including these factors - in parallel with the radiological protection factors - in cooperation between radiation protection experts and psychological specialists under the responsibility of the decision maker. (au) 19 tabs., 10 ills., 45 refs.

  13. EU-CIS joint study project 2. Intervention criteria in CIS, risk assessments and non-radiological factors in decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extensive radiation risk estimation methodology has recently been developed in Russia and used for estimates of risk in exposed populations in the republics of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine. Results based on demographic data for the three republics are presented and compared with risk estimates from the EU risk model ASQRAD. The intervention criteria in the CIS republics have been evolving since the Chernobyl accident. The development of criteria in each of the three republics has been analysed and the CIS-Criteria have been compared to international guidance on intervention. After a nuclear or radiological emergency both radiological and non-radiological protection factors will influence the level of protective actions being introduced. The role of non-radiological protection factors in the overall optimization of health protection is addressed. It is argued that optimization of the overall health protection is not a question of developing radiation radiation protection philosophy to fully include socio-psychological factors. It is rather a question of including these factors - in parallel with the radiological protection factors - in cooperation between radiation protection experts and psychological specialists under the responsibility of the decision maker. (au) 19 tabs., 10 ills., 45 refs

  14. Radiological dose assessment for vault storage concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, R.F.

    1997-02-25

    This radiological dose assessment presents neutron and photon dose rates in support of project W-460. Dose rates are provided for a single 3013 container, the ``infloor`` storage vault concept, and the ``cubicle`` storage vault concept.

  15. Radiological risks and civil liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, attention is first concentrated on the substantive issue of nuclear safety-a matter on which, Friends of the Earth claimed, the Secretary of State had misdirected himself in law. The Court of Appeal's interpretation of a central element of the Nuclear Installations Act 1965 implies certain inherent problems associated with the law relating to compensation for radiation-induced injury. These problems-on the nature of causation and strict liability-are such that they cannot be solved by simple reform of current law and, it is further argued, extra-legal means of compensating those affected by radiation (and other environmental agents) are required. Before attempting to justify this assertion, it is necessary to examine the substance of the judgement in more detail. First the nature of acceptable risk is considered from absolutist and probabalistic viewpoints. The permitted discharges are reviewed followed by a discussion of the accidental discharges of radioactivity into the environment. Incidents at BNFL's Sellafield site are listed. Genetic risks are also considered. The notion of strict liability is discussed for radiation-induced injury, and an alternative approach of increased social security payments financed in part by those organisations discharging radioactivity into the environment is considered. (author)

  16. Radiological assessment of pharmaceutical clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The suitability for pharmaceutical and cosmetic application of fourteen clay samples, eight raw and six commercialized samples, from Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo states, Brazil, were evaluated and their mineralogy, chemical and radiological composition were determined. Results indicated that the samples are composed mainly of quartz, kaolinite and feldspar, enriched in Al2O3 and TiO2, Cd, Cs, Sb, Se, Th, and U and depleted in SiO2, MgO, P2O5, and Ca. Concentrations found are unlikely to present any harm in topical applications, and all the radiological parameters were below the global average or the established limits. (author)

  17. Radiological risk in case of potential exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents basic theoretical aspects about the probabilistic conception of radiological risk in case of potential exposure associated with practices concerning installations such as nuclear power plants, research reactors or repositories for final disposal of radioactive waste. It is here shown how such conception helps in the decision-making process concerning people protection in the frame of the above mentioned situations. The question of risk is first analysed in a general sense- be it radiological risk or not- showing common concepts among the different technical definitions of risk. The subjects of individual risk an societal risk are then considered, as well as that of risk perception. Finally, some probabilistic safety criteria are described- corresponding to different schools which study radioactive and nuclear installations safety- putting emphasis in the way how such criteria are used in the decision-making process in order to accept or reject an installation from the point of view of safety. The criteria referred to are the 'Farmer Limit-Line', the 'Single-Dual Failure Criterion' and the 'Argentine Acceptation Criterion', in particular this last one is carefully detailed showing its origin as well as its practical application. (author)

  18. Radiological risk assessment of natural radionuclides in sand collected from some beaches along the coastline of southwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademola, J A; Nwafor, C O

    2013-10-01

    The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in sand from three beaches in southwestern Nigeria had been determined employing the gamma-ray spectroscopy method. The mean activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively, were 12.5 ± 3.3, 25.8 ± 4.7 and 153.9 ± 18.5 Bq kg(-1) for Suntan Beach, 13.1 ± 3.1, 23.9 ± 4.5 and 219.9 ± 33.9 Bq kg(-1) for Bar Beach. Lekki Beach had 13.2 ± 3.2, 26.3 ± 3.8 and 149.0 ± 19.8 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The absorbed dose rates were calculated as 27.8 ± 3.1, 29.7 ± 4.0, 28.2 ± 3.3 nGy h(-1), respectively. The corresponding annual effective doses are 0.034 ± 0.004, 0.036 ± 0.005, 0.035 ± 0.004 mSv y(-1), which are less than the limit of 1 mSv y(-1) recommended for the members of the public. The radiological hazard indices are within the maximum recommended limits, hence pose no significant radiological hazards for construction. PMID:23567195

  19. Radiological risk assessment of natural radionuclides in sand collected from some beaches along the coastline of Southwestern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in sand from three beaches in southwestern Nigeria had been determined employing the gamma-ray spectroscopy method. The mean activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively, were 12.5±3.3, 25.8±4.7 and 153.9±18.5 Bq kg-1 for Suntan Beach, 13.1±3.1, 23.9±4.5 and 219.9±33.9 Bq kg-1 for Bar Beach. Lekki Beach had 13.2±3.2, 26.3±3.8 and 149.0±19.8 Bq kg-1, respectively. The absorbed dose rates were calculated as 27.8±3.1, 29.7±4.0, 28.2±3.3 nGy h-1, respectively. The corresponding annual effective doses are 0.034±0.004, 0.036±0.005, 0.035±0.004 mSv y-1, which are less than the limit of 1 mSv y-1 recommended for the members of the public. The radiological hazard indices are within the maximum recommended limits, hence pose no significant radiological hazards for construction. (authors)

  20. Norwegian assessment of nuclear and radiological threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: There has previously been a series of severe accidents and other events around the world, which has lead to health effects and severe consequences to the environment as a result of ionising radiation. Some of the most severe accidents have been related to explosions or fires in nuclear installations and high dose levels due to orphan sources. Even though the Norwegian nuclear industry is limited, it has since the Chernobyl accident in 1986 been Norwegian policy to have a particular emergency preparedness towards nuclear or radiological events. In order to maintain an effective emergency preparedness with limited resources, it is necessary to have a good understanding of possible scenarios and related consequences. Norwegian authorities are therefore continuously assessing nuclear and radiological threats. Norwegian emergency preparedness has to a large extent been directed towards scenarios where an accident at a foreign nuclear installation leads to radioactive volumes of air passing over Norway, causing considerable deposition over large geographical areas. Norway is neighbouring the Kola Peninsula, where there was a considerable nuclear development during the cold war. Due to their close vicinity to the Norwegian border and poor conditions at some of the sites, possible accidents at nuclear installations on the Kola Peninsula in Russia have been emphasised in Norwegian emergency preparedness. However, Norwegian and international efforts have contributed to improve the conditions at several sites on the Kola Peninsula. Improved safety and physical protection at these sites have reduced the risk for cross-border contamination. Furthermore, extensive decommissioning and dismantlement of aged nuclear submarines have reduced the number of nuclear objects of particular concern. Meanwhile, the latest changes in the international security environment have made one consider a new set of scenarios, involving e.g. massive attacks on nuclear installations. Aging

  1. CRRIS: a computerized radiological risk-investigation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for regulating radioactive airborne effluents in the US. A comprehensive, integrated Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System (CRRIS) is being developed to support EPA's radiation standards development. This modular system consists primarily of five computer codes and their supporting data bases for estimating environmental transport and radiation doses and risks. Health effects are estimated on the basis of a life-table methodology developed by EPA. CRRIS is designed to provide EPA with a reasonable and flexible way of assessing the risk to man associated with radionuclide releases to the atmosphere

  2. Optimization of the radiation protection of the patient in radiology: sex and age specific lifetime risk of exposure-induced death assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to put into practice the principle of optimization of the radiation protection for the patient in radiodiagnostics, it would be interesting to have an indicator of risk which is better adapted than the effective dose. This last was defined in the publication 60 of the ICRP to reflect the whole body radiological risk for a general reference population, which gathers people of the two sexes and all ages. However, the exposure of the patient in radiodiagnostic is characterized by a partial exposure of the body. Moreover, the frequency of the examinations in radiodiagnostic depends on sex (mammography) and age (examination of scoliosis versus interventional radiology) of the exposed individuals. The objective of this work is to propose sex and age specific risk coefficients of exposure-induced fatal cancer. (author)

  3. Results of an aqueous source term model for a radiological risk assessment of the Drigg LLW Site, U.K.

    OpenAIRE

    Small, J. S.; Humphreys, P. N.; Johnstone, T. L.; Plant, R.; Randall, M. G.; Trivedi, D. P.

    1999-01-01

    A radionuclide source term model has been developed which simulates the biogeochemical evolution of the Drigg low level waste (LLW) disposal site. The DRINK (DRIgg Near field Kinetic) model provides data regarding radionuclide concentrations in groundwater over a period of 100,000 years, which are used as input to assessment calculations for a groundwater pathway. The DRINK model also provides input to human intrusion and gaseous assessment calculations through simulation of the solid radionu...

  4. Health-Care Technology Assessment in Radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Deljou

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Health-care service provision and procurement is increasingly subject to policy decisions, managed more than ever before. Becoming more international, collaboration is increasing as the health professions, research and industry all work across borders. Differing health-care systems across the countries result from national and regional policy developments and priorities."nIn health-care, all interventions and procedures are basically technologies-including radiology and sur-gery, and technology assessment is mandatory to meet the national and professional goals in this sec-tor. "nHealth-care technology assessment (HTA is a systematic, broad-ranging evaluation of the implications of using technologies within a particular health-care system. Structured and evidence-based input are its aim for policymaking in order to inform the formulation of safe and effective health policies that are patient-focused and seek to achieve the best value in all health-care sectors, more specifically in the radiology department. The following headlines are the topics in our study:"n•Decisions Related to Health Technologies"n•Appraisal Entities and Corresponding As-sessment Units"n•Assessment, Appraisal and Decision-Making Institutions"n•HTA Agencies and Units in Radiology"n•Model of a Policy Process in Radiology"n•Factors that Influence Radiology Policy-Making"n•HTA Process"n•Different Levels of Health-Care Technolo-gies/Intervention

  5. Relative radiological risks derived from different TENORM wastes in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, B; Teng, I L; Muhammad Samudi, Y

    2011-11-01

    In Malaysia technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) wastes are mainly the product of the oil and gas industry and mineral processing. Among these TENORM wastes are tin tailing, tin slag, gypsum and oil sludge. Mineral processing and oil and gas industries produce large volume of TENORM wastes that has become a radiological concern to the authorities. A study was carried out to assess the radiological risk related to workers working at these disposal sites and landfills as well as to the members of the public should these areas be developed for future land use. Radiological risk was assessed based on the magnitude of radiation hazard, effective dose rates and excess cancer risks. Effective dose rates and excess cancer risks were estimated using RESRAD 6.4 computer code. All data on the activity concentrations of NORM in wastes and sludges used in this study were obtained from the Atomic Energy Licensing Board, Malaysia, and they were collected over a period of between 5 and 10 y. Results obtained showed that there was a wide range in the total activity concentrations (TAC) of nuclides in the TENORM wastes. With the exception of tin slag and tin tailing-based TENORM wastes, all other TENORM wastes have TAC values comparable to that of Malaysia's soil. Occupational Effective Dose Rates estimated in all landfill areas were lower than the 20 mSv y(-1) permissible dose limit. The average Excess Cancer Risk Coefficient was estimated to be 2.77×10(-3) risk per mSv. The effective dose rates for residents living on gypsum and oil sludge-based TENORM wastes landfills were estimated to be lower than the permissible dose limit for members of the public, and was also comparable to that of the average Malaysia's ordinary soils. The average excess cancer risk coefficient was estimated to be 3.19×10(-3) risk per mSv. Results obtained suggest that gypsum and oil sludge-based TENORM wastes should be exempted from any radiological regulatory

  6. Relative radiological risks derived from different TENORM wastes in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Malaysia technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) wastes are mainly the product of the oil and gas industry and mineral processing. Among these TENORM wastes are tin tailing, tin slag, gypsum and oil sludge. Mineral processing and oil and gas industries produce large volume of TENORM wastes that has become a radiological concern to the authorities. A study was carried out to assess the radiological risk related to workers working at these disposal sites and landfills as well as to the members of the public should these areas be developed for future land use. Radiological risk was assessed based on the magnitude of radiation hazard, effective dose rates and excess cancer risks. Effective dose rates and excess cancer risks were estimated using RESRAD 6.4 computer code. All data on the activity concentrations of NORM in wastes and sludges used in this study were obtained from the Atomic Energy Licensing Board (Malaysia), and they were collected over a period of between 5 and 10 y. Results obtained showed that there was a wide range in the total activity concentrations (TAC) of nuclides in the TENORM wastes. With the exception of tin slag and tin tailing-based TENORM wastes, all other TENORM wastes have TAC values comparable to that of Malaysia's soil. Occupational Effective Dose Rates estimated in all landfill areas were lower than the 20 mSv y-1 permissible dose limit. The average Excess Cancer Risk Coefficient was estimated to be 2.77 x 10-3 risk per mSv. The effective dose rates for residents living on gypsum and oil sludge-based TENORM wastes landfills were estimated to be lower than the permissible dose limit for members of the public, and was also comparable to that of the average Malaysia's ordinary soils. The average excess cancer risk coefficient was estimated to be 3.19 x 10-3 risk per mSv. Results obtained suggest that gypsum and oil sludge-based TENORM wastes should be exempted from any radiological regulatory control

  7. Results of an aqueous source term model for a radiological risk assessment of the Drigg LLW site

    OpenAIRE

    Small, J.; Humphreys, Paul; Johnstone, T. J.; Plant, R.; Randall, M. G.; Trivedi, D. P.

    2000-01-01

    A radionuclide source term model has been developed which simulates the biogeochemical evolution of the Drigg low level waste (LLW) disposal site. The DRINK (DRIgg Near field Kinetic) model provides data regarding radionuclide concentrations in groundwater over a period of 100,000 years, which are used as inputs to safety assessment calculations. The DRINK model considers the coupled interaction of the effects of fluid flow, microbiology, corrosion, chemical reaction, sorption and radioactive...

  8. Radiology and risk: an economist's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper, is an amended version of a talk given to The British Institute of Radiology at a meeting on ''Dosimetry and Risks to Patients in Radiopharmaceutical Investigations''. It explains cost-benefit analysis (distinguishing it from cost-effectiveness analysis) and suggests various ways of trying to place a value on human life in order to use cost-benefit analysis as a practical tool of decision-making in policy areas where at least part of the benefit is to be measured in terms of lives saved. The paper suggests that it is important to decide not only who is to value life but also whose perceptions of risk of death are to be deemed relevant. A practical example in the use of life values is presented for the case of mammography in breast cancer screening. (author)

  9. Radiological impact assessment within the IAEA Arctic Assessment Project (IASAP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, E.M.; Gurbutt, P.; Harmes, I.;

    1998-01-01

    As part of the International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP) of IAEA, a working group was created to model the dispersal and transfer of radionuclides released from radioactive waste disposed of in the Kara Sea and bays of Novaya Zemlya and to assess the radiological impact. Existing models...... were extended, and new models developed to incorporate several features of the area (including ice formation and transport) which present modelling challenges. An extensive inter-model comparison involving both compartmental and 3-D hydrodynamic models was then carried out. Finally, the radiological...... models developed, highlights the general features of the inter-comparison and discusses the radiological impact assessment and conclusions based on it....

  10. Radiological impact assessment within the IAEA Arctic Assessment Project (IASAP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, E.M.; Gurbutt, P.; Harmes, I.; Heling, R.; Kinehara, Y.; Nielsen, S.P.; Osvath, I.; Preller, R.; Sazykina, T.; Wada, A.; Sjoeblom,K.L.

    As part of the International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP) of IAEA, a working group was created to model the dispersal and transfer of radionuclides released from radioactive waste disposed of in the Kara Sea and bays of Novaya Zemlya and to assess the radiological impact. Existing models...... were extended, and new models developed to incorporate several features of the area (including ice formation and transport) which present modelling challenges. An extensive inter-model comparison involving both compartmental and 3-D hydrodynamic models was then carried out. Finally, the radiological...... models developed, highlights the general features of the inter-comparison and discusses the radiological impact assessment and conclusions based on it....

  11. Risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is in sections, entitled: preface; summary and conclusions; introduction (historical and organizational); estimating engineering risks (techniques of risk estimation and forms of expression of risk); laboratory experiments for estimation of biological risks; estimation of risk from observations on man (travel, medical procedures; occupations; sport); the perception of risks; (as an example of attitudes towards a single hazard, studies of nuclear power are considered among other topics in this section); risk management (estimation; perception; acceptability, analysis of risk, costs and benefits; safety standards; decision-making process; possible guidelines). (U.K.)

  12. Medicine and ionizing rays: a help sheet in analysing risks in exo-buccal dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document proposes a synthesis of useful knowledge for radioprotection in the case of exo-buccal dental radiology. In the first part, several aspects are considered: the concerned personnel, the course of treatment procedures, the hazards, the identification of the risk associated with ionizing radiation, the risk assessment and the determination of exposure levels, the strategy to control the risks (reduction of risks, technical measures concerning the installation or the personnel, teaching and information, prevention and medical monitoring), and risk control assessment

  13. The radiological risks associated with the thorium fuelled HTGR fuel cycle. A comparative risk evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of task B.3 of the 'Technology Assessment of the High Temperature Reactor' project. The objective of task B.3 was to evaluate the radiological risks to the general public associated with the sustainable HTGR cycle. Since the technologies to be used at several stages of this fuel cycle are still in the design phase and since a detailed specification of this fuel cycle has not yet been developed, the emphasis was on obtaining a global impression of the risk associated with a generic thorium-based HTGR fuel cycle. This impression was obtained by performing a comparative risk analysis on the basis of data given in the literature. As reference for the comparison a generic uranium fuelled LWR cycle was used. The major benefit with respect to the radiological rsiks of basing the fuel cycle around modular HTGR technology instead of the LWR technology is the increase in reactor safety. The design of the modular HTGR is expected to prevent the release of a significant amount of radioactive material to the environment, and hence early deaths in the surrounding population, during accident conditions. This implies that there is no group risk as defined in the Dutch risk management policy. The major benefit of thorium based fuel cycles over uranium based fuel cycles is the reduction in the radiological risks from unraium mining and milling. The other stages of the nuclear fuel cycle which make a significant contribution to the radiological risks are electricity generation, reprocessing and final disposal. The risks associated with the electricity generation stage are dominated by the risks from fission products, activated corrosion products and the activation products tritium and carbon-14. The risks associated with the reprocessing stage are determined by fission and activation products (including actinides). (orig./WL)

  14. Development of a methodology for post closure radiological risk analysis of underground waste repositories. Illustrative assessment of the Harwell site. V.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A probabilistic risk analysis (pra) is demonstrated for a number of ground water mediated release scenarios at the Harwell Site for a hypothetical repository at a depth of about 150 metres. This is the second stage of development of an overall risk assessment methodology. A procedure for carrying out multi-scenario assessment using available probabilistic risk assessment (pra) models is presented and a general methodology for combining risk contributions is outlined. Appropriate levels of model complexity in pra are discussed. Modelling requirements for the treatment of multiple simultaneous pathways and of site evolution are outlined. Further developments of pra systems are required to increase the realism of both the models and their mode of application, and hence to improve estimates of risk. (author)

  15. Risk assessment (chemical and radiological) due to intake of uranium through the ingestion of drinking water around two proposed uranium mining areas, Jharkhand, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium is known for both chemical and radiological toxicity. East Singhbhum is known for uranium mining, and radionuclides can be expected in its groundwater. Groundwater was collected around two proposed sites of Bagjata and Banduhurang and analysed for U(nat). The study reveals that the U(nat) varied from -1 for the Bagjata and Banduhurang mining areas, respectively. The excess lifetime cancer risk due to the consumption of uranium in water was calculated to be in the range of 8.81 x 10-6 to 4.34 x 10-5 and 3.36 x 10-6 to 9.55 x 10-5 for the two study areas, which are within the acceptable cancer risk value of 1 x 10-4. However, the risk at a few locations is very close to the threshold value. The chemical risk evaluated by the hazard quotient was found to be within 0.05-0.23 and 0.02-0.6 for the two study areas and did not exceed the limit of 1. Thus, the concentration of U(nat) in the groundwater presently does not pose any serious threat to local people but must be monitored periodically and adequate actions must be taken in the few areas with elevated levels of uranium in the groundwater. (authors)

  16. Radiological terrorism: public threat perception and implications for risk communication messaging for radiological emergency events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian public has had minimal exposure to domestic terrorism although the threat of terrorism is frequently reported in the media, and is in the public consciousness. There is limited information about how the public perceives the threat of terrorism and how individuals might respond to such events. Furthermore, public perceptions and likely response to the threats of chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear terrorism (CBRN) are less well understood and little studied. Knowledge and perceptions are likely to drive behaviour, especially in unfamiliar and emergency situations involving high uncertainty, fear, and dread. Therefore, improving our understanding of how people view such risks to themselves, how they might understand and interpret information given to them, and how willing they might be to comply with emergency services personnel is fundamental for those involved in emergency management and response planning. This presentation will report on research into public threat perception, anticipated response, and interpretation of different risk communication messaging in the context of terrorism; specifically, explosive (E), chemical (C), biological (B) and radiological (R) forms of terrorism. Although the focus of the presentation will be on the data gathered in relation to radiological terrorism, data collected on explosive, chemical, and biological terrorism provide comparisons that highlight the ways in which the public views and may respond to radiological events differently. Data were collected from a random sample of the New South Wales general population, using telephone interviewing. Data were collected between December 2010 and February 2011 (n=2800). The survey interview followed a common structure, but was divided into four streams for the different forms of terrorism (E, C, B, and R), with 700 respondents allocated to each stream. The interview included presentation of three plausible messaging scenarios; a calming/reassuring message

  17. Assessment of the radiological impact and associated risk to non-human biota from routine liquid discharges of the Belgian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed an Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) to evaluate the impact on non-human biota from liquid radioactive effluents discharged by the Belgian Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) of Doel and Tihange. A deterministic risk assessment for aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems was performed using the ERICA tool and applying the ERICA screening value of 10 μGy.h-1. The ERA was performed for the radioactive discharge limits and for the actual releases (maxima and averages over the last 10 years, 1999-2008). All ERICA reference organisms were considered and depending on the assessment situation, additional reference organisms were included in the analysis. It can be concluded that the current discharge limits for the Belgian NPPs do not result in significant risks to the aquatic and terrestrial environment and that the actual discharges, which are a fraction of the liquid discharge limits, are unlikely to harm the environment. (authors)

  18. The Bristol Radiology Report Assessment Tool (BRRAT): Developing a workplace-based assessment tool for radiology reporting skills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To review the development of a workplace-based assessment tool to assess the quality of written radiology reports and assess its reliability, feasibility, and validity. Materials and methods: A comprehensive literature review and rigorous Delphi study enabled the development of the Bristol Radiology Report Assessment Tool (BRRAT), which consists of 19 questions and a global assessment score. Three assessors applied the assessment tool to 240 radiology reports provided by 24 radiology trainees. Results: The reliability coefficient for the 19 questions was 0.79 and the equivalent coefficient for the global assessment scores was 0.67. Generalizability coefficients demonstrate that higher numbers of assessors and assessments are needed to reach acceptable levels of reliability for summative assessments due to assessor subjectivity. Conclusion: The study methodology gives good validity and strong foundation in best-practice. The assessment tool developed for radiology reporting is reliable and most suited to formative assessments

  19. Citizenship approach to promote a radiological protection and risk assessment culture at the school level; educational project in Belarus and French schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autret, J.C.; Josset, M. [ACRO NGO, 14 - Herouville Saint Clair (France)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: In the framework of the international C.O.R.E. programme (Cooperation for Rehabilitation of living conditions in Chernobyl affected areas in Belarus), an educational project was launched in 2004 meant so that the pupils of the Bragin district schools (in the south east of Belarus) will get involved in learning the practice of a radiological culture. Since the damages of radioactivity are cumulative, it is important to reduce the inhabitants daily intake of radioactivity. In the daily life, the understanding of radioactivity issues and the current recommendations concerning food and the environment are not always applied and accessible to the public. By showing that monitoring could help them to reduce the dose of radioactive elements, this project aims at breaking a fatalistic turn of mind. A steady radioecological education is the key element in establishing a practical radiological culture within the population. This project is essentially centred on children who represent both the future generation and the most sensitive group among contaminated by the radioactive effect. Children represent also the best way to realise in -depth contact with the whole population. To facilitate the development of the educational projects, Belarus teams of teachers will receive in -depth expert training in cooperation of the local professionals which will enable them to become active participants in conceiving and carrying out their own educational projects. A more specific training, concerning radiation protection is also be implemented by our N.G.O., with the help of the local organisation Rastok Gesne (Sprout of Life N.G.O.). The pedagogic actions are based on a complete and active involvement of the children and within an interdisciplinary approach will make it possible to include the different activities linked to radiological culture, and more widely, all the other aspects of living in a contaminated area so as to be able to face the risk

  20. Citizenship approach to promote a radiological protection and risk assessment culture at the school level; educational project in Belarus and French schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: In the framework of the international C.O.R.E. programme (Cooperation for Rehabilitation of living conditions in Chernobyl affected areas in Belarus), an educational project was launched in 2004 meant so that the pupils of the Bragin district schools (in the south east of Belarus) will get involved in learning the practice of a radiological culture. Since the damages of radioactivity are cumulative, it is important to reduce the inhabitants daily intake of radioactivity. In the daily life, the understanding of radioactivity issues and the current recommendations concerning food and the environment are not always applied and accessible to the public. By showing that monitoring could help them to reduce the dose of radioactive elements, this project aims at breaking a fatalistic turn of mind. A steady radioecological education is the key element in establishing a practical radiological culture within the population. This project is essentially centred on children who represent both the future generation and the most sensitive group among contaminated by the radioactive effect. Children represent also the best way to realise in -depth contact with the whole population. To facilitate the development of the educational projects, Belarus teams of teachers will receive in -depth expert training in cooperation of the local professionals which will enable them to become active participants in conceiving and carrying out their own educational projects. A more specific training, concerning radiation protection is also be implemented by our N.G.O., with the help of the local organisation Rastok Gesne (Sprout of Life N.G.O.). The pedagogic actions are based on a complete and active involvement of the children and within an interdisciplinary approach will make it possible to include the different activities linked to radiological culture, and more widely, all the other aspects of living in a contaminated area so as to be able to face the risk

  1. Computerized radiological emergency response and assessment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T.J.; Taylor, S.S.

    1985-10-01

    The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) has been developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to provide a centralized national capability in emergency response to radiological accidents. For the past three years the system has been undergoing a complete redesign and upgrade in software and hardware. Communications, geophysical databases, atmospheric transport and diffusion models, and experienced staff form the core of this rapid response capability. The ARAC system has been used to support US DOE commitments to provide emergency response and assessment of nuclear power plant, nuclear processing facility, transportation, satellite, weapon system, and other accidents or events. This paper describes the major components of this computerized system and discusses the automated and interactive process of the man-machine environment in an emergency response system. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Radiation risk evaluation and reference doses in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In interventional radiology, there are two potential hazards to the patient. These are somatic risks and, for certain procedures, deterministic injuries. The task of radiation protection in interventional radiology is to minimise somatic risks and avoid deterministic injuries. Radiation protection tools and protocols must be developed to achieve these two objectives. Reference doses have been proposed as a method of identifying high dose centres and equipment. The role of reference doses in interventional radiology will be discussed. There are two approaches to reference doses in interventional radiology. These are the measurement of patient entrance skin dose or skin dose rate, or image intensifier input dose rate. Alternatively, dose area product or effective dose to the patient may be monitored. These two main approaches have their advantages and disadvantages. (author)

  3. Hepatitis Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Hepatitis Risk Assessment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Viral Hepatitis. ... at risk? Take this 5 minute Hepatitis Risk Assessment developed by the CDC and get a personalized ...

  4. Management of radiological and non-radiological risks in a decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As already shown by Oudiz et al (1), the assessment of carcinogenic risk and the management of asbestos and ionising radiation needs to focus on three levels namely, the legal obligation level, the organisation and companies level and the work situation level. The main purpose of a paper is to provide a practical example of such management. Based on a set of four operations related to the removal of asbestos from working areas, we want to illustrate the general conclusions as presented in (1). After a short description of the SCK.CEN institution and of the BR3 decommissioning pilot project, we will present the general approach of the Health Physics and Safety at the SCK.CEN. Than, four sets of operations will be proposed. One should then stress on the driving forces and compare with the conclusions presented in (1). Lessons which have been learned will serve as conclusion, together with the remaining questions which are the questions the 4. European ALARA Network Workshop has to deal with. The examples which are presented here are certainly too limited for deriving general conclusions. The first remark we want to bring here deals with the importance of the communication at the different levels and at the different steps of the operations. Faced with unusual work circumstances, one certainly needs to develop adapted tools as far as communication is concerned. In this way, the level of the safety culture in the installations can act as a very efficient tool. A second topic, which has to be pointed out, is the commitment of all management levels. All the partners have been faced in their past to circumstances where they have to take decision. So they have built their know how and also their usual way of thinking and/or working. As a consequence of this, some resistance can exist and it is not only a question of good communication. Here, it has to do with the behaviour of people. One's has to cope with these resistances by use of an other behaviour. This requires a

  5. Malaysian experiences in radiological safety assessment on norm wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiological Impact Assessments (RIAs) on proposed disposal sites for NORM wastes were performed in Malaysia. Analysis results were used to derive site specific guidelines for allowable residual concentrations of radionuclides in soil, calculation of doses and risks. Appropriate use scenarios and site specific parameters were used as much as possible so as to be realistic so that will reasonably ensure that individual dose limits and or constraints will be achieved. Disposals were performed to fulfil Atomic Energy Licensing Board of Malaysia (AELB) requirements for which the operator must carry out a radiological impact assessment. This is to demonstrate that no member of public will be exposed to more than 1 mSv/year from all activities. Fatal cancer risk factor is 5x10-2 per man.Sv. Radionuclides of main concern are radium-226 and radium-228 which are considered as toxic. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses were performed to show that the parameters used as input into the computer model were justified so as to improve confidence of the public and the AELB in respect of the results of the analysis. Case study to determine a proposed near surface disposal site for treated oil sludge was described. (author)

  6. Radiological assessment of the Esk Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment has been carried out of the radiological impact of artificial radionuclides in the Esk estuary in Cumbria, UK. Measurements were made of the distributions of 137Cs, 239+240Pu, and 241Am in water, surface bed sediments and core profiles. The highest measured concentrations in surface sediments were 2.8 Bq g-1 of 137Cs, 3.1 Bq g-1 of 239+240Pu and 4.7 Bq g-1 of 241Am. These values represent significant decreases from similar measurements made in 1970-1980. The measured behaviour of the actinides in low salinity water at the head of the estuary supports previous observations of actinide remobilisation from the bed. A model has been developed which simulates the long-term behaviour of radioactivity in the estuary. The model incorporates representations of tidal mixing, sediment transport, seasonal and long-term sediment accretion. The model also represents long-term build-up in salt marsh regions. The model gives good agreement with measured distributions of 137Cs, but tends to underestimate actinide concentrations by factors of 2-3. Dose calculations show the importance of radionuclide uptake through livestock grazing sea-washed pasture alongside the estuary. 137Cs and 241Am are identified as the most important radionuclides considered in the assessment. (Author)

  7. Radiological risks in an operational environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiological hazard (e. g. a detonating dirty bomb or accidental radionuclide dispersion) leading to a large number of contaminated or irradiated people needing immediate medical assistance is one of the main threats our troops deployed in an operational environment are facing. Immediate first aid anyway shall take precedence over decontamination but the unique nature of these injuries necessitates specific medical knowledge and training. A contaminated victim needs a rapid -clinical physical and biological- medical evaluation which will determine the amount of required medical support. A person with external contamination needs to be rapidly cleansed to limit spreading surface burns as well as limiting the possible contamination internally spreading into the body. A person with internal contamination requires rapid decontamination at the wound point and antidotes to internally cleanse the body. In France, the Military Health Service has developed a centre of expertise at the Percy military hospital near Paris which is geared up to deal with the victims of radiological attacks. It also has a mobile laboratory equipped with full radio toxicology equipment and body dosimeters to enable rapid and effective results when required. (authors)

  8. Dosimetry on the radiological risks prevention in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosimetry in its various forms plays a determining role on the radiological risks prevention in radiotherapy. To prove this in this paper is shown an analysis based on the risk matrix method, how the dosimetry can influence in each stages of a radiotherapy service; installation and acceptance, operation, maintenance and calibration. For each one of these stages the role that can play is analyzed as either the initiating event of a radiological accident or limiting barrier of these events of the dosimetric processes used for the individual dosimetry, the area monitoring, fixed or portable, for radiation beam dosimetry and of the patients for a radiotherapy service with cobalt-therapy equipment. The result of the study shows that the application of a prospective approach in the role evaluation of dosimetry in the prevention and mitigation of the consequences of a radiological accident in radiotherapy is crucial and should be subject to permanent evaluation at each development stage of these services. (author)

  9. Heart Attack Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Heart Attack Risk Assessment Updated:May 31,2016 We're sorry, but ... Can You Recognize a Heart Attack? Quiz Risk Assessment Patient Information Sheets: Heart Attack Heart Attack Personal ...

  10. Preliminary radiological assessments of near-surface low-level radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarises preliminary assessments of post-closure radiological impact of LLW repositories at four sites previously under investigation by UK Nirex Ltd. The objectives of the assessments were: to demonstrate a methodology for site specific assessments, to identify important information requirements for detailed assessments; to identify methodological and research requirements. Doses and risks due to groundwater pathways, human intrusion, gaseous release and natural environmental change are estimated. (author)

  11. Assessment of cardiovascular risk.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2010-10-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death worldwide. Usually atherosclerosis is caused by the combined effects of multiple risk factors. For this reason, most guidelines on the prevention of CVD stress the assessment of total CVD risk. The most intensive risk factor modification can then be directed towards the individuals who will derive the greatest benefit. To assist the clinician in calculating the effects of these multiple interacting risk factors, a number of risk estimation systems have been developed. This review address several issues regarding total CVD risk assessment: Why should total CVD risk be assessed? What risk estimation systems are available? How well do these systems estimate risk? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the current systems? What are the current limitations of risk estimation systems and how can they be resolved? What new developments have occurred in CVD risk estimation?

  12. Uncertainties in environmental radiological assessment models and their implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental radiological assessments rely heavily on the use of mathematical models. The predictions of these models are inherently uncertain because these models are inexact representations of real systems. The major sources of this uncertainty are related to biases in model formulation and parameter estimation. The best approach for estimating the actual extent of over- or underprediction is model validation, a procedure that requires testing over the range of the intended realm of model application. Other approaches discussed are the use of screening procedures, sensitivity and stochastic analyses, and model comparison. The magnitude of uncertainty in model predictions is a function of the questions asked of the model and the specific radionuclides and exposure pathways of dominant importance. Estimates are made of the relative magnitude of uncertainty for situations requiring predictions of individual and collective risks for both chronic and acute releases of radionuclides. It is concluded that models developed as research tools should be distinguished from models developed for assessment applications. Furthermore, increased model complexity does not necessarily guarantee increased accuracy. To improve the realism of assessment modeling, stochastic procedures are recommended that translate uncertain parameter estimates into a distribution of predicted values. These procedures also permit the importance of model parameters to be ranked according to their relative contribution to the overall predicted uncertainty. Although confidence in model predictions can be improved through site-specific parameter estimation and increased model validation, risk factors and internal dosimetry models will probably remain important contributors to the amount of uncertainty that is irreducible

  13. GM Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Penny A. C.

    GM risk assessments play an important role in the decision-making process surrounding the regulation, notification and permission to handle Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). Ultimately the role of a GM risk assessment will be to ensure the safe handling and containment of the GMO; and to assess any potential impacts on the environment and human health. A risk assessment should answer all ‘what if’ scenarios, based on scientific evidence.

  14. Are we paying too much to reduce radiological risk?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    US Department of Energy (DOE) expenditures on radiological risks are much higher (by a factor of approximately5000) than expenditures on nonradiological risks, such as accidents. This paper explains the calculation. Other studies have discussed DOE-generated risks and expenditures. However, they were general and did not directly relate expenditures to total risks of a DOE site. To determine cost-effectiveness of risk reduction, an estimate of the total risks of a specific DOE site or sites is required. While there are hundreds of DOE documents dealing wholly or in part with risks, there apparently is no such study. This is the first such paper, dealing with the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS was the scene of hundreds of nuclear weapons tests over four decades, both above- and underground

  15. Radiological assessment of the Egyptian Mediterranean Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of extensive sampling, gamma spectrometry, laboratory analyses, data evaluation and comparison with the reference data, the following assessment has been carried out. The radiological assessment has been done for a wide scale study area (about 1100 km) from El-Salloum in the west of the Mediterranean coast of Egypt to El-Arish in the east. The environmental radiological assessment steps are based on the criteria previously mentioned. The sources of radioactivity possibly reach the Egyptian Mediterranean coast can be summarized as: primordial and radiogenic radionuclides (e.g. 40K, 23'8U and 232Th series), cosmic rays and cosmogenic radionuclides (e.g. 7Be), fertilizers (e.g. superphosphate), black sand (transported by the Nile River), fallout (either from nuclear testing or Chernobyl), seawater currents (transported either natural or man-made), Suez Canal (subject to receive a radioactive releasing and effluents from either nuclear power ships or submarines passing through the Canal), biological migration and sedimentary longshore movement (e.g. Anguilla anguilla), atmospheric radioactivity (e.g. 222Rn and its daughters), domestic and medical sewage (minor source, short half-life), depleted uranium dust (possibly), satellite and aircraft accident (accidental) and rarely loss of industrial radioactive source (incidentally). El-Salloum, Rashid and El-Gamil have been considered as concentrated basins for the majority of the radioisotopes. This suggestion was due to the special topographical features of these three stations, which make the accumulation of the radioactive isotopes possible. Calculations of outdoor absorbed dose rate for human population at all stations under investigation from 238U, 232Th and 40K were carried out. The calculated absorbed dose rate has been distinguished the coast into normal areas and Rashid black sand area as high background area. The range of calculated dose was 8.39-38.5 nGy/h. Good agreement was observed with NCRP

  16. Radiological assessment of the Egyptian Mediterranean coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of extensive sampling, gamma spectrometry, laboratory analyses, data evaluation and comparison with the reference data, the following assessment has been carried out. The radiological assessment has been done for a wide scale study area (about 1100 km) from El- Salloum in the west of the Mediterranean coast of Egypt to El-Arish in the east. The environmental radiological assessment steps are based on the criteria previously mentioned. The sources of radioactivity possibly reach the Egyptian Mediterranean coast can be summarized as: primordial and radiogenic radionuclides (e.g. 40K, 238U and 232Th series), cosmic rays and cosmogenic radionuclides (e.g. 7Be), fertilizers (e.g. superphosphate), black sand (transported by Nile River), fallout (either from nuclear testing or Chernobyl), seawater currents (transported either natural or man-made), Suez Canal (subject to receive a radioactive releasing and effluents from either nuclear power ships or submarines passes through the canal), biological migration and sedimentary longshore movement (e.g. Anguilla anguilla), atmospheric radioactivity (e.g. 222Rn and its daughters), domestic and medical sewage (minor source, short half-life), depleted uranium dust (possibly), satellite and aircraft accident (accidentally) and rarely loss of industrial radioactive source (incidentally). El-Salloum, Rashid and El-Gamil have been considered as concentrated basins for the majority of the radioisotopes. This suggestion was due to the special topographical features of these three stations, which make the accumulation of the radioactive isotopes possible. Calculations of outdoor absorbed dose rate for human population at all stations under investigation from 238U, 232Th and 40K were carried out. The calculated absorbed dose rate has been distinguished the coast into normal areas and Rashid black sand area as high background area. The range of calculated dose was 8.39-38.5 μGy/h. Good agreement was observed with NCRP

  17. Strategic Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derleth, Jason; Lobia, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation provides an overview of the attempt to develop and demonstrate a methodology for the comparative assessment of risks across the entire portfolio of NASA projects and assets. It includes information about strategic risk identification, normalizing strategic risks, calculation of relative risk score, and implementation options.

  18. Ethical aspects of radiological risks management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complexity of the decisions to be taken by the radiation protection and safety authorities in the nuclear, medical, and industrial fields, as well as the importance of the risks involved, require consideration of the confidence that the public can have in the procedures and institutions associated with these decisions. The Technical Support Organisations that advise these authorities play an essential role in risk evaluation. They participate both in defining the scientific bases of the regulations and analysing the authorization request from the operators. The credibility of these bodies implies a clear separation between their function and that of the regulatory authorities and the operators. It also requires a guarantee of competence which is based on a high level research program and contacts with other similar organisations. The quality of the work carried out by the Technical Support Organisations must be regularly evaluated. One of the most important of the other conditions for ensuring the effectiveness of the expertise is its integration in a well defined decision-making procedure. The author has based this article on his experience as director of radiation protection in the IPSN (Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire), an organisation formed in 1976, with a staff of 1,200 whose functions are to carry out research and provide expertise in health physics radioecology and nuclear safety. To reinforce its operating autonomy and authority, the status of the IPSN was thoroughly revised as strengthened in 1990. (Author)

  19. State of risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the growing importance assumed in recent years by scientific work on the calculation, quantification, evaluation and acceptance as well as behavior in the face of risks in general and more specifically, the risks of large industrial plants, the report attempts to provide a survey of the current situation, results and evaluation of this new branch of research, risk assessment. The emphasis of the report is on the basic discussion and criticism of the theoretical and methodological approaches used in the field of risk assessment (section 3). It is concerned above all with - methodical problems of determining and quantifying risks (3.1) - questions of the possibility of risk evaluation and comp arison (3.1, 3.2) - the premises of normative and empirical studies on decision making under risk (3.2, 3.3) - investigations into society's acceptance of risks involved in the introduction of new technologies (3.4) - attempts to combine various aspects of the field of risk assessment in a unified concept (3.5, 3.6, 3.7). Because risk assessment is embedded in the framework of decision theory and technology assessment, it can be implicitly evaluated at a more general level within this framework, as far as its possibilities and weaknesses of method and application are concerned (section 4). Sections 2 and 5 deal with the social context of origin and utilization of risk assessment. Finally, an attempt is made at a summary indicating the possible future development of risk assessment. (orig./HP)

  20. Parallel computing for radiological impacts assessment during nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complex implementation of Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model into real time running system ESTE was performed and is presented in the paper. The implementation is based on methods of parallel computing. The real time calculation of atmospheric dispersion of a great number of particles, based on Monte Carlo simulation, is performed with utilization of graphical card. The final results of the calculations are radiological impacts of a real or predicted release to the atmosphere: doses and dose rates caused by various irradiation pathways, and potential or averted doses. Innovative aspect of presented results is in implementation of particle dispersion model into real time emergency system and in developed radiological upgrade of the particle model. The upgrade results in new built model for simulation and calculation of full set of radiological parameters which are used as criteria for radiological protective measures in case of nuclear emergency. Results of this work are implemented in the decision support system ESTE, which is real time system intended for nuclear emergency response, assessing the source term, calculating radiological impacts and assessing the urgent protective measures. Systems ESTE are used by various crisis centers in Slovakia. Czech Republic, Austria and Bulgaria. Online running system is connected to numerical weather prediction data, relevant data from nuclear installations and radiological monitoring network. As weather prediction data, the ECMWF Deterministic Atmospheric Model or ALADIN is applied in the model. As radiological monitoring network data, the EURDEP is used. All results of real time modeling are presented as geodata in frame of GIS platform. (author)

  1. Radiological risk of actinon (219Rn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research reported was designed to provide information on the following subjects: (1) development of the functional relations between exposure to the 219Rn decay chain and pertinent health effects; (2) specification of the circumstances under which a significant concentration of the decay chain may occur; (3) recommendation of an exposure standard which will provide protection of the public from significant elevation of health effects; and (4) an assessment of the impact of 219Rn on determinations of the concentration of the 222Rn decay chain and/or its precursors

  2. Radiological assessment of multilateral radioactive effluents in the Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The liquid effluent has been discharged from each nuclear fuel cycle facility in mainly industrially advanced nations with authorization. Since the safety assessment confirms that environmental impact from each facility would be small enough, it was not necessary to assess the effect of the multilateral radioactive effluents. But it will be necessary to quantify the radiological impact between plural countries due to the increase of interest to the global environment and of demand on nuclear energy in the world. In this study, the long-term and multilateral environmental radiological assessment from tritium discharge by effluents from nuclear fuel cycle facilities in the world was carried out. Then, collective and effective doses were evaluated in case of intake of marine products. Additionally, an assessment from the nuclear testing in the atmosphere was carried out. It was confirmed that LAMER could perform the radiological assessment of multilateral radioactive effluents. The LAMER calculation will assist the sustainable nuclear future. (author)

  3. Generic procedures for assessment and response during a radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most important aspects of managing a radiological emergency is the ability to promptly and adequately determine and take actions to protect members of the public and emergency workers. Radiological accident assessment must take account of all critical information available at any time and must be an iterative and dynamic process aimed at reviewing the response as more detailed and complete information becomes available. This manual provides the tools, generic procedures and data needed for an initial response to a non-reactor radiological accident. This manual is one out of a set of IAEA publications on emergency preparedness and response, including Method for the Development of Emergency Response Preparedness for Nuclear or Radiological Accidents (IAEA-TECDOC-953), Generic Assessment Procedures for Determining Protective Actions During a Reactor Accident (IAEA-TECDOC-955) and Intervention Criteria in a Nuclear or Radiation Emergency (Safety Series No. 109)

  4. Natural radioactivity survey on soils originated from southern part of Thailand as potential sites for nuclear power plants from radiological viewpoint and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural radioactivity in surface soil samples collected at potential sites from southern part of Thailand to set up nuclear power plants has been investigated. 238U and 232Th were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry whereas gamma-ray spectroscopy was used for 40K determination. The activity concentrations for 238U, 232Th and 40K varied in range from 4 to 122, 6 to 170 and 5 to 1,422 Bq kg-1, respectively. The large variation of radionuclide concentrations showed heterogeneous distribution that could be attributed to geological origin. The radiation hazard parameters were estimated from activity concentration of 238U, 232Th and 40K in accordance with the UNSCEAR 2000. Data obtained indicated that soils in the study areas did not pose any significant radiological health hazard to the local population. (author)

  5. Risk Assessment Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prassinos, Peter G.; Lyver, John W., IV; Bui, Chinh T.

    2011-01-01

    Risk assessment is used in many industries to identify and manage risks. Initially developed for use on aeronautical and nuclear systems, risk assessment has been applied to transportation, chemical, computer, financial, and security systems among others. It is used to gain an understanding of the weaknesses or vulnerabilities in a system so modification can be made to increase operability, efficiency, and safety and to reduce failure and down-time. Risk assessment results are primary inputs to risk-informed decision making; where risk information including uncertainty is used along with other pertinent information to assist management in the decision-making process. Therefore, to be useful, a risk assessment must be directed at specific objectives. As the world embraces the globalization of trade and manufacturing, understanding the associated risk become important to decision making. Applying risk assessment techniques to a global system of development, manufacturing, and transportation can provide insight into how the system can fail, the likelihood of system failure and the consequences of system failure. The risk assessment can identify those elements that contribute most to risk and identify measures to prevent and mitigate failures, disruptions, and damaging outcomes. In addition, risk associated with public and environment impact can be identified. The risk insights gained can be applied to making decisions concerning suitable development and manufacturing locations, supply chains, and transportation strategies. While risk assessment has been mostly applied to mechanical and electrical systems, the concepts and techniques can be applied across other systems and activities. This paper provides a basic overview of the development of a risk assessment.

  6. Health-Care Technology Assessment in Radiology

    OpenAIRE

    Arash Deljou

    2010-01-01

    Health-care service provision and procurement is increasingly subject to policy decisions, managed more than ever before. Becoming more international, collaboration is increasing as the health professions, research and industry all work across borders. Differing health-care systems across the countries result from national and regional policy developments and priorities."nIn health-care, all interventions and procedures are basically technologies-including radiology and sur-gery, and tec...

  7. Radiological assessment. A textbook on environmental dose analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiological assessment is the quantitative process of estimating the consequences to humans resulting from the release of radionuclides to the biosphere. It is a multidisciplinary subject requiring the expertise of a number of individuals in order to predict source terms, describe environmental transport, calculate internal and external dose, and extrapolate dose to health effects. Up to this time there has been available no comprehensive book describing, on a uniform and comprehensive level, the techniques and models used in radiological assessment. Radiological Assessment is based on material presented at the 1980 Health Physics Society Summer School held in Seattle, Washington. The material has been expanded and edited to make it comprehensive in scope and useful as a text. Topics covered include (1) source terms for nuclear facilities and Medical and Industrial sites; (2) transport of radionuclides in the atmosphere; (3) transport of radionuclides in surface waters; (4) transport of radionuclides in groundwater; (5) terrestrial and aquatic food chain pathways; (6) reference man; a system for internal dose calculations; (7) internal dosimetry; (8) external dosimetry; (9) models for special-case radionuclides; (10) calculation of health effects in irradiated populations; (11) evaluation of uncertainties in environmental radiological assessment models; (12) regulatory standards for environmental releases of radionuclides; (13) development of computer codes for radiological assessment; and (14) assessment of accidental releases of radionuclides

  8. Radiological assessment. A textbook on environmental dose analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, J.E.; Meyer, H.R. (eds.)

    1983-09-01

    Radiological assessment is the quantitative process of estimating the consequences to humans resulting from the release of radionuclides to the biosphere. It is a multidisciplinary subject requiring the expertise of a number of individuals in order to predict source terms, describe environmental transport, calculate internal and external dose, and extrapolate dose to health effects. Up to this time there has been available no comprehensive book describing, on a uniform and comprehensive level, the techniques and models used in radiological assessment. Radiological Assessment is based on material presented at the 1980 Health Physics Society Summer School held in Seattle, Washington. The material has been expanded and edited to make it comprehensive in scope and useful as a text. Topics covered include (1) source terms for nuclear facilities and Medical and Industrial sites; (2) transport of radionuclides in the atmosphere; (3) transport of radionuclides in surface waters; (4) transport of radionuclides in groundwater; (5) terrestrial and aquatic food chain pathways; (6) reference man; a system for internal dose calculations; (7) internal dosimetry; (8) external dosimetry; (9) models for special-case radionuclides; (10) calculation of health effects in irradiated populations; (11) evaluation of uncertainties in environmental radiological assessment models; (12) regulatory standards for environmental releases of radionuclides; (13) development of computer codes for radiological assessment; and (14) assessment of accidental releases of radionuclides.

  9. Offshore risk assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Vinnem, Jan-Erik

    2014-01-01

      Offshore Risk Assessment was the first book to deal with quantified risk assessment (QRA) as applied specifically to offshore installations and operations. Risk assessment techniques have been used for more than three decades in the offshore oil and gas industry, and their use is set to expand increasingly as the industry moves into new areas and faces new challenges in older regions.   This updated and expanded third edition has been informed by a major R&D program on offshore risk assessment in Norway and summarizes research from 2006 to the present day. Rooted with a thorough discussion of risk metrics and risk analysis methodology,  subsequent chapters are devoted to analytical approaches to escalation, escape, evacuation and rescue analysis of safety and emergency systems.   Separate chapters analyze the main hazards of offshore structures: fire, explosion, collision, and falling objects as well as structural and marine hazards. Risk mitigation and control are discussed, as well as an illustrat...

  10. Diabetic foot risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury, M Gail

    2016-05-01

    Diabetes is a serious chronic disease that results in foot complications for many people world-wide. In 2014, the World Health Organization estimated the global prevalence of diabetes in adults to be 9%. To ascertain the risk that an individual patient might develop a diabetic foot ulcer that could lead to an amputation, clinicians are strongly encouraged to perform a risk assessment. Monteiro-Soares and Dinis-Ribeiro have presented a new DIAbetic FOot Risk Assessment with the acronym DIAFORA. It is different from other risk assessments in that it predicts the risk of developing both diabetic foot ulcers and amputation specifically. The risk variables were derived by regression analysis based on a data set of 293 patients from a high-risk setting, a Hospital Diabetic Foot Clinic, who had diabetes and a diabetic foot ulcers. Clear descriptions of the risk variables are provided as well as sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for the risk categories. As an added benefit, likelihood ratios are provided that will help clinicians determine the risk of amputation for individual patients. Having a risk assessment form is important for clinician use and examples exist. A question is raised about the effectiveness of risk assessment and how effectiveness might be determined. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26825436

  11. Overview of risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper begins by defining some terms, and then refer to a number of technical and other difficulties. Finally it attempts to set out why risk assessment is important and what its purposes are. 2) First, risk and risk assessment - what are they?. 3) Risk is a subject of universal significance. Life is very uncertain, and we can achieve no object or benefit in it except by approaching nearer to particular hazards which lie between us and our objects. That approach represents acceptance of risk. 4) Risk assessment is a way of systematising our approach to hazard with a view to determining what is more and what is less risky. It helps us in the end to diminish our exposure while obtaining whatever benefits we have in mind, or to optimise the risks and the benefits

  12. Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a report describing diagnostic techniques used in radiology. It describes the equipment necessary for, and the operation of a radiological department. Also is described the standard methods used in radiodiagnosis. (K.A.E.)

  13. Assessment of the radiological impact of contaminated discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeck, L.; Zeevaert, T.

    1996-09-18

    A biosphere model has been used to calculate the release of radionuclides from contaminated soils and their dose impact on critical individuals in the environment. Normal evolution and accidental scenarios are considered. The objective of the model is to provide an indication of the radiological risk rather than to predict its future impact.

  14. Workplace-based assessment in radiology-where to now?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessment of doctors is in a state of flux. Traditional methods of assessment have been critically examined and found inherently limited. The wholesale shift towards outcome-orientated education in the last 10 years has led to the relatively rapid development of a radically different method of assessment. This method focuses on assessing what doctors do in everyday practice rather than written or practical simulations. Known collectively as 'workplace-based assessment' tools, these have been embraced in North America, whereas they have been more cautiously adopted in the UK. However, many of these assessment tools have not been rigorously studied and, moreover, few have been specifically developed for assessing radiologists. However, they are likely to be incorporated into radiology training in the near future. This paper critically analyses both the underpinning assumptions behind this method and the evidence behind existing tools, and looks at the work that is required to develop, adopt or adapt such tools for use in radiology.

  15. Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC), US response to major radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    radiological materials from: Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities, Space Craft Launches, Weapon (Department of Defence or DOE) Transportation, Weapon Production Facilities, Spacecraft Re-entry (domestic or foreign), Terrorist Incidents, High-Level Waste Transportation, Nuclear Power Plants. Key to the FRERP would be the establishment of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC). Development and implementation was assigned to DOE as the agency most capable of providing sufficient resources, assets, and support. In 1987, DOE subsequently assigned programmatic responsibility, with limited funding, to the Nevada Operations Office in Las Vegas, Nevada. (author)

  16. Cursory radiological assessment: Battelle Columbus Laboratory Decommissioning and Decontamination Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports on the results obtained from a cursory radiological assessment of various properties at the Battelle Columbus Laboratory, Columbia, Ohio. The cursory radiological assessment is part of a preliminary investigation for the Battelle Columbus Laboratory Decommissioning and Decontamination Project. The radiological assessment of Battelle Columbus Laboratory's two sites included conducting interior and exterior building surveys and collecting and analyzing air, sewer system, and soil samples. Direct radiological surveys were made of floor, wall, and overhead areas. Smear surveys were made on various interior building surfaces as well as the exterior building vents. Air samples were collected in select areas to determine concentrations of Rn-222, Rn-220, and Rn-219 daughters, in addition to any long-lived radioactive particulates. Radon-222 concentrations were continuously monitored over a 24-hr period at several building locations using a radon gas monitoring system. The sanitary sewer systems at King Avenue, West Jefferson-North, and West Jefferson-South were each sampled at select locations. All samples were submitted to the Argonne Analytical Chemistry Laboratory for various radiological and chemical analyses. Environmental soil corings were taken at both the King Avenue and West Jefferson sites to investigate the potential for soil contamination within the first 12-inches below grade. Further subsurface investigations at the West Jefferson-North and West Jefferson-South areas were conducted using soil boring techniques. 4 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs

  17. Risks from dental radiology; Os riscos provenientes da radiologia odontologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Tamara Goularte [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Santa Catarina (IFSC), Florianopolis (Brazil)

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this research is to demonstrate the risks and consequences of exposure to dental X-ray. The methodology used was the survey of bibliographic literature on this matter. First, we tried to understand the operation and characteristics of dental X-rays. Afterwards, we tried to know about the risks that this procedure offers to workers and patients. And concluded with the consequences of such exposure. The results showed that dental x-rays only offer risks in prolonged exposure, can affect the worker or patient to pathologies such as cancer or a life-time decreased due to the stochastic effect. Therefore, radiological protection standards must be respected and practised. (author)

  18. Radiology education. The evaluation and assessment of clinical competence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbert, Kathryn M.; Van Deven, Teresa [The Univ. of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada). Dept. of Medical Imaging; Chhem, Rethy K. [Medical Univ. of Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Radiology; Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). Atomic Bomb Disease Inst.; Wang, Shih-chang (eds.) [Univ. of Sydney Westmead Hospital (Australia). Dept. of Radiology; Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists, Sydney (Australia). Faculty of Radiodiagnosis

    2012-11-01

    Third volume of a trilogy devoted to radiology education and improvement of medical imaging students' learning, teaching, and scholarship. Reviews the philosophies, theories, and principles that underpin assessment and evaluation in radiology education. Includes a series of rich case studies. Written by an international group of experienced educators and medical professionals. This book reviews the philosophies, theories, and principles that underpin assessment and evaluation in radiology education, highlighting emerging practices and work done in the field. The sometimes conflicting assessment and evaluation needs of accreditation bodies, academic programs, trainees, and patients are carefully considered. The final section of the book examines assessment and evaluation in practice, through the development of rich case studies reflecting the implementation of a variety of approaches. This is the third book in a trilogy devoted to the scholarship of radiology education and is the culmination of an important initiative to improve medical imaging students' learning, teaching, and scholarship by bringing together experienced educators and medical professionals. The previous two books focused on the culture and the learning organizations in which our future radiologists are educated and on the application of educational principles in the education of radiologists. Here, the trilogy comes full circle: attending to the assessment and evaluation of the education of its members has much to offer back to the learning of the organization.

  19. Radiological/toxicological sabotage assessments at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the methods being employed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) to perform graded assessments of radiological and toxicological sabotage vulnerability at Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities. These assessments are conducted to ensure that effective measures are in place to prevent, mitigate, and respond to a potential sabotage event which may cause an airborne release of radiological/toxicological material, causing an adverse effect on the health and safety of employees, the public, and the environment. Department of Energy (DOE) Notice 5630.3A, open-quotes Protection of Departmental Facilities Against Radiological and Toxicological Sabotage,close quotes and the associated April 1993 DOE-Headquarters guidance provide the requirements and outline an eight-step process for hazardous material evaluation. The process requires the integration of information from a variety of disciplines, including safety, safeguards and security, and emergency preparedness. This paper summarizes WSRC's approach towards implementation of the DOE requirements, and explains the inter-relationships between the Radiological and Toxicological Assessments developed using this process, and facility Hazard Assessment Reports (HAs), Safety Analysis Reports (SARs), and Facility Vulnerability Assessments (VAs)

  20. Radiology education. The evaluation and assessment of clinical competence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Third volume of a trilogy devoted to radiology education and improvement of medical imaging students' learning, teaching, and scholarship. Reviews the philosophies, theories, and principles that underpin assessment and evaluation in radiology education. Includes a series of rich case studies. Written by an international group of experienced educators and medical professionals. This book reviews the philosophies, theories, and principles that underpin assessment and evaluation in radiology education, highlighting emerging practices and work done in the field. The sometimes conflicting assessment and evaluation needs of accreditation bodies, academic programs, trainees, and patients are carefully considered. The final section of the book examines assessment and evaluation in practice, through the development of rich case studies reflecting the implementation of a variety of approaches. This is the third book in a trilogy devoted to the scholarship of radiology education and is the culmination of an important initiative to improve medical imaging students' learning, teaching, and scholarship by bringing together experienced educators and medical professionals. The previous two books focused on the culture and the learning organizations in which our future radiologists are educated and on the application of educational principles in the education of radiologists. Here, the trilogy comes full circle: attending to the assessment and evaluation of the education of its members has much to offer back to the learning of the organization.

  1. GAR Global Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskrey, Andrew; Safaie, Sahar

    2015-04-01

    Disaster risk management strategies, policies and actions need to be based on evidence of current disaster loss and risk patterns, past trends and future projections, and underlying risk factors. Faced with competing demands for resources, at any level it is only possible to priorities a range of disaster risk management strategies and investments with adequate understanding of realised losses, current and future risk levels and impacts on economic growth and social wellbeing as well as cost and impact of the strategy. The mapping and understanding of the global risk landscape has been greatly enhanced by the latest iteration of the GAR Global Risk Assessment and the objective of this submission is to present the GAR global risk assessment which contributed to Global Assessment Report (GAR) 2015. This initiative which has been led by UNISDR, was conducted by a consortium of technical institutions from around the world and has covered earthquake, cyclone, riverine flood, and tsunami probabilistic risk for all countries of the world. In addition, the risks associated with volcanic ash in the Asia-Pacific region, drought in various countries in sub-Saharan Africa and climate change in a number of countries have been calculated. The presentation will share thee results as well as the experience including the challenges faced in technical elements as well as the process and recommendations for the future of such endeavour.

  2. Public Risk Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendeck, Gavin

    2010-01-01

    The Public Entry Risk Assessment (PERA) program addresses risk to the public from shuttle or other spacecraft re-entry trajectories. Managing public risk to acceptable levels is a major component of safe spacecraft operation. PERA is given scenario inputs of vehicle trajectory, probability of failure along that trajectory, the resulting debris characteristics, and field size and distribution, and returns risk metrics that quantify the individual and collective risk posed by that scenario. Due to the large volume of data required to perform such a risk analysis, PERA was designed to streamline the analysis process by using innovative mathematical analysis of the risk assessment equations. Real-time analysis in the event of a shuttle contingency operation, such as damage to the Orbiter, is possible because PERA allows for a change to the probability of failure models, therefore providing a much quicker estimation of public risk. PERA also provides the ability to generate movie files showing how the entry risk changes as the entry develops. PERA was designed to streamline the computation of the enormous amounts of data needed for this type of risk assessment by using an average distribution of debris on the ground, rather than pinpointing the impact point of every piece of debris. This has reduced the amount of computational time significantly without reducing the accuracy of the results. PERA was written in MATLAB; a compiled version can run from a DOS or UNIX prompt.

  3. Documentation of in-training assessment for radiology trainees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Gillian

    2001-04-01

    AIM: To determine if the assessment of radiology trainees can be improved by modifying the in-training assessment form issued by the Royal College of Radiologists (RCR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A qualitative study comparing the RCR assessment form with other alternative forms in use in the U.K. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with trainees (21) and trainers (18) in Sheffield to collect their views on the RCR form and an alternative form introduced on the North Trent Training Scheme. A postal questionnaire was sent to Heads of Training (24) to find out what assessment forms were in use at other centres and collect their views on the different forms. RESULTS: Trainees and trainers in Sheffield were virtually unanimous in their support of the new North Trent assessment form. The main advantages perceived were the encouragement of appraisal, setting of objectives and feedback from the trainees. Six other radiology training centres were using alternative assessment forms and all believed their forms had advantages over the RCR in-training assessment form. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that the assessment process for radiology trainees can be improved by modifications to the RCR in-training assessment form and allows various recommendations to be made. Long, G. (2001)

  4. Documentation of in-training assessment for radiology trainees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To determine if the assessment of radiology trainees can be improved by modifying the in-training assessment form issued by the Royal College of Radiologists (RCR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A qualitative study comparing the RCR assessment form with other alternative forms in use in the U.K. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with trainees (21) and trainers (18) in Sheffield to collect their views on the RCR form and an alternative form introduced on the North Trent Training Scheme. A postal questionnaire was sent to Heads of Training (24) to find out what assessment forms were in use at other centres and collect their views on the different forms. RESULTS: Trainees and trainers in Sheffield were virtually unanimous in their support of the new North Trent assessment form. The main advantages perceived were the encouragement of appraisal, setting of objectives and feedback from the trainees. Six other radiology training centres were using alternative assessment forms and all believed their forms had advantages over the RCR in-training assessment form. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that the assessment process for radiology trainees can be improved by modifications to the RCR in-training assessment form and allows various recommendations to be made. Long, G. (2001)

  5. Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Analytical Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FR-MAC) is authorized by the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan to coordinate all off-site radiological response assistance to state and local government s, in the event of a major radiological emergency in the United States. The FR-MAC is established by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, to coordinate all Federal assets involved in conducting a comprehensive program of radiological environmental monitoring, sampling, radioanalysis, quality assurance, and dose assessment. During an emergency response, the initial analytical data is provided by portable field instrumentation. As incident responders scale up their response based on the seriousness of the incident, local analytical assets and mobile laboratories add additional capability and capacity. During the intermediate phase of the response, data quality objectives and measurement quality objectives are more rigorous. These higher objectives will require the use of larger laboratories, with greater capacity and enhanced capabilities. These labs may be geographically distant FR-om the incident, which will increase sample management challenges. This paper addresses emergency radioanalytical capability and capacity and its utilization during FR-MAC operations

  6. Cardiac Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to assess cardiac risk include: High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) : Studies have shown that measuring ... LDL-C but does not respond to typical strategies to lower LDL-C such as diet, exercise, ...

  7. Patient caries risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Fontana, Margherita

    2009-01-01

    Risk assessment is an essential component in the decision-making process for the correct prevention and management of dental caries. Multiple risk factors and indicators have been proposed as targets in the assessment of risk of future disease, varying sometimes based on the age group at which they...... are targeted. Multiple reviews and systematic reviews are available in the literature on this topic. This chapter focusses primarily on results of reviews based on longitudinal studies required to establish the accuracy of caries risk assessment. These findings demonstrate that there is a strong body...... for prediction purposes, as measured until now in the literature, is at best questionable in schoolchildren, adolescents and adults. That is not to say these additional factors should not be assessed to help understand the strength of their associations with the disease experience in a particular...

  8. Value of levels of complexity in the estimation of the risk in interventional radiology procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interventional Radiology (IR) refers to guided procedures with X rays, to develop a diagnostic and/or therapeutic action both in vascular diseases as non-vascular. The progressive increase in the complexity and diversity of interventional procedures make it difficult to objectify the criteria about the dosage provided to patients who are these techniques. Control of radiation doses administered to patients to limit the risks associated with the use of x-rays is not more than one way of improving procedures. For this reason, already completed the ERRAPRI project, we have developed complexity rates to better assess the radiological risk associated with the procedures carried out in a sample of Spanish hospitals. (Author)

  9. Radiological assessment of 36Cl in the disposal of used CANDU fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment of the potential radiological impact of 36Cl in the disposal of used CANDU fuel has been performed. The assessment was based on new data on chlorine impurity levels in used fuel. Data bases for the vault, geosphere, and biosphere models used in the EIS postclosure assessment case study (Goodwin et al. 1994) were modified to include the necessary 36Cl data. The resulting safety analysis shows that estimated radiological risks from 36Cl are forty times lower than from 129I at 104 a; this, incorporation of 36Cl into the models does not change the overall conclusions of the study of Goodwin et al. (1994a). For human intrusion scenarios, an analysis using the methodology of Wuschke (1992) showed that the maximum risk is unaffected by the inclusion of 36Cl. (author). 51 refs., 5 tabs., 15 figs

  10. Development of a real-time radiological dose assessment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Moon Hee; Lee, Young Bok; Kim, Eun Han; Suh, Kyung Suk; Hwang, Won Tae; Choi, Young Gil

    1997-07-01

    A radiological dose assessment system named FADAS has been developed. This system is necessary to estimated the radiological consequences against a nuclear accident. Mass-consistent wind field module was adopted for the generation of wind field over the whole domain using the several measured wind data. Random-walk dispersion module is used for the calculation of the distribution of radionuclides in the atmosphere. And volume-equivalent numerical integration method has been developed for the assessment of external gamma exposure given from a randomly distributed radioactive materials and a dose data library has been made for rapid calculation. Field tracer experiments have been carried out for the purpose of analyzing the site-specific meteorological characteristics and increasing the accuracy of wind field generation and atmospheric dispersion module of FADAS. At first, field tracer experiment was carried out over flat terrain covered with rice fields using the gas samplers which were designed and manufactured by the staffs of KAERI. The sampled gas was analyzed using gas chromatograph. SODAR and airsonde were used to measure the upper wind. Korean emergency preparedness system CARE was integrated at Kori 4 nuclear power plants in 1995. One of the main functions of CARE is to estimate the radiological dose. The developed real-time dose assessment system FADAS was adopted in CARE as a tool for the radiological dose assessment. (author). 79 refs., 52 tabs., 94 figs.

  11. Presumed Perinatal Stroke: Risk Factors, Clinical and Radiological Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilves, Pilvi; Laugesaar, Rael; Loorits, Dagmar; Kolk, Anneli; Tomberg, Tiiu; Lõo, Silva; Talvik, Inga; Kahre, Tiina; Talvik, Tiina

    2016-04-01

    It is unknown why some infants with perinatal stroke present clinical symptoms late during infancy and will be identified as infants with presumed perinatal stroke. The risk factors and clinical and radiological data of 42 infants with presumed perinatal stroke (69% with periventricular venous infarction and 31% with arterial ischemic stroke) from the Estonian Pediatric Stroke Database were reviewed. Children with presumed perinatal stroke were born at term in 95% of the cases and had had no risk factors during pregnancy in 43% of the cases. Children with periventricular venous infarction were born significantly more often (82%) vaginally (P = .0213) compared to children with arterial stroke (42%); nor did they require resuscitation (P = .0212) or had any neurological symptoms after birth (P = .0249). Periventricular venous infarction is the most common type of lesion among infants with the presumed perinatal stroke. Data suggest that the disease is of prenatal origin. PMID:26446909

  12. Assessment of radiological properties of wastes from urban decontamination procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One important activity associated to urban areas contaminated from accidental releases to the atmosphere of nuclear power plants is the management of radioactive wastes generated from decontamination procedures. This include the collection, conditioning, packing, transport and temporary/final disposition. The final destination is defined usually through a political decision. Thus, transport of packed radioactive wastes shall depend on decisions not just under the scope of radiological protection issues. However, the simulations performed to assess doses for the public and decontamination workers allows the estimate of radiological aspects related to the waste generated and these characteristics may be included in a multi-criteria decision tool aiming to support, under the radiological protection point of view, the decision-making process on post-emergency procedures. Important information to decision makers are the type, amount and activity concentration of wastes. This work describes the procedures to be included in the urban area model to account for the assessment of qualitative and quantitative description of wastes. The results will allow the classification of different procedures according to predefined criteria that shall then feed the multi-criteria assessment tool, currently under development, considering basic radiological protection aspects of wastes generated by the different available cleanup procedures on typical tropical urban environments. (authors)

  13. Risk assessment of radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This commentary describes the radiation cancer risk assessed by international organizations other than ICRP, assessed for radon and for internal exposure, in the series from the aspect of radiation protection of explaining the assessments done until ICRP Pub. 103. Statistic significant increase of cancer formation is proved at higher doses than 100-200 mSv. At lower doses, with use of mathematical model, United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) reported the death probability due to the excess lifetime risk (ELR) at 100 mSv of 0.36-0.77% for solid tumors and 0.03-0.05% for leukemia, and NRC in US, the risk of exposure-induced prevalence and death (REID) per 100 thousands persons of 800 (male)/1,310 (female) and 410/610, respectively. Both are essentially based on findings in A-bomb survivors. The assessment for Rn is described here not on dose. UK and US analyses of pooled raw data in case control studies revealed the significant increase of lung cancer formation at as low level as 100 Bq Rn/m3. Their analyses also showed the significance of smoking, which had been realized as a confounding factor in risk analysis of Rn for uranium miners. The death probability until the age of 85 y was found to be 1.2 x 10-4 in non-smokers and 24 x 10-4 in smokers/ Working Level Month (WLM). Increased thyroid cancer incidence has been known in Chernobyl Accident, which is realized as a result of internal exposure of radioiodine; however, the relationship between the internal dose to thyroid and its cancer prevalence resembles that in the case of external exposure. There is no certain evidence against the concept that risk of internal exposure is similar to and/or lower than, the external one although assessment of the internal exposure risk accompanies uncertainty depending on the used model and ingested dose. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations hitherto have been important and precious despite

  14. Preliminary radiological assessments of low-level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary assessments of the post-closure radiological impact from the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes in shallow engineered facilities at four sites are presented. This provides a framework to practice and refine a methodology that could be used, on behalf of the Department, for independent assessment of any similar proposal from Nirex. Information and methodological improvements that would be required are identified. (author)

  15. An attempt to evaluate the risks associated with radiological terror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of the risk of a terrorist attack has been made frequently by multiplying the probability of occurrence of a terrorist attempt by the probability of its success and a quantity which represents the consequences of a successful attack. In the case of a radiological attack the consequences will vary in case the action will be active or passive. Thirteen radionuclides were examined for their potential uses in credible threats or terrorist attacks based on their availability from laboratories and hospitals. Taking into account the dose conversion coefficients published by the International Atomic Energy Agency, those radionuclides with higher dose effectiveness for ingestion are the following: 210Po; 226Ra and 241Am. Other radionuclides which can be used in threats and terror attacks, like 137Cs for example have also been examined. The risks associated with the selected radionuclides have been tentatively ranked as high, medium, or low. The probability used to evaluate risks depends on the motivation of the terrorist and the capacity, which implies availability or the actual possibility of obtaining a particular radionuclide. On the other hand, whenever a list of radionuclides to be used in a malevolent action is available to a terrorist, the choice of the most adequate will depend also on the action to be undertaken. This work ranks risks associated with radiological terror based on physical, chemical, radio-toxicological and other relevant data on radionuclides, which were either already used in terror attacks, or were pointed out as adequate to be used in such malevolent actions. (author)

  16. Models and parameters for environmental radiological assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents a unified compilation of models and parameters appropriate for assessing the impact of radioactive discharges to the environment. Models examined include those developed for the prediction of atmospheric and hydrologic transport and deposition, for terrestrial and aquatic food-chain bioaccumulation, and for internal and external dosimetry. Chapters have been entered separately into the data base

  17. Models and parameters for environmental radiological assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, C W [ed.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents a unified compilation of models and parameters appropriate for assessing the impact of radioactive discharges to the environment. Models examined include those developed for the prediction of atmospheric and hydrologic transport and deposition, for terrestrial and aquatic food-chain bioaccumulation, and for internal and external dosimetry. Chapters have been entered separately into the data base. (ACR)

  18. Chemical and radiological vulnerability assessment in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Božidar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cities and towns are faced with various types of threat from the extraordinary events involving chemical and radiological materials as exemplified by major chemical accidents, radiological incidents, fires, explosions, traffic accidents, terrorist attacks, etc. On the other hand, many sensitive or vulnerable assets exist within cities, such as: settlements, infrastructures, hospitals, schools, churches, businesses, government, and others. Besides emergency planning, the land use planning also represents an important tool for prevention or reduction of damages on people and other assets due to unwanted events. This paper considers development of method for inclusion vulnerability assessment in land use planning with objective to assess and limit the consequences in cities of likely accidents involving hazardous materials. We made preliminary assessment of criticality and vulnerability of the assets within Belgrade city area in respect to chemical sites and transportation roads that can be exposed to chemical accidents, or terrorist attacks.

  19. Assessment of radiological technologist health condition by Todai health index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the general health status of radiological technologists by using Todai Health Index(THI) that has been employed as a standard health assessment tool for a specific group. The subjects in this study were 800 radiological technologists who were working in clinics, hospitals and university hospitals in and around Seoul and in some provincial cities. A survey was conducted directly or by mail in June and July, 2001. And the response rate was 68%. Using THI, the following findings were acquired: 1. By gender, both male and female radiological technologists complained about multiple subjective symptom(I) the most, And the women made more significant complaint of eight items including irregular life. 2. By age group, the radiological technologists whose age ranged from 20 to 24 got higher marks in most of the items, including multiple subjective symptom(I) and symptoms related to eyes and skin. 3. For career, those who had worked for a year or less or for one to five years got higher marks in most of the items. 4. Concerning marital status, the unmarried people complained about many items more, and the married people's symptom was more associated with live scale(L). 5. By the type of medical institution, the radiological technologists in the university hospitals got higher marks in two items including aggressiveness(F), but those in the clinics complained about the others more. 6. Regarding a place of service, there were little differences between the radiological technologists in basement and on the ground

  20. The technical and economical assessment of the radiological protection. Methodological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The different methodological steps of the technical and economical assessment of the radiological protection are described. This consists in a presentation of the problems raised by: a) the identification of the protection options, of the criteria used in order to compare them (reduction of public and/or occupational risks, protection costs...); b) the quantitative evaluation of the criteria, and finally c) the use of various decision-aiding methods in view of comparing the protection options

  1. Methodology used by the spanish nuclear regulatory body in the radiological impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological risk assessment derived from the operation of a nuclear power plant is done in Spain with methods taken basically from the U.S.N.R.C. regulatory guides. This report presents the way followed by the Spanish Regulatory Body in order to arrive to an official decision on the acceptability of a nuclear plant in the different steps of the licensing. (author)

  2. Assessment of fracture risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanis, John A. [WHO Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield Medical School, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield S10 2RX (United Kingdom)], E-mail: w.j.pontefract@sheffield.ac.uk; Johansson, Helena; Oden, Anders [WHO Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield Medical School, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield S10 2RX (United Kingdom); McCloskey, Eugene V. [WHO Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield Medical School, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield S10 2RX (United Kingdom); Osteoporosis Centre, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    Fractures are a common complication of osteoporosis. Although osteoporosis is defined by bone mineral density at the femoral neck, other sites and validated techniques can be used for fracture prediction. Several clinical risk factors contribute to fracture risk independently of BMD. These include age, prior fragility fracture, smoking, excess alcohol, family history of hip fracture, rheumatoid arthritis and the use of oral glucocorticoids. These risk factors in conjunction with BMD can be integrated to provide estimates of fracture probability using the FRAX tool. Fracture probability rather than BMD alone can be used to fashion strategies for the assessment and treatment of osteoporosis.

  3. Assessment of fracture risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fractures are a common complication of osteoporosis. Although osteoporosis is defined by bone mineral density at the femoral neck, other sites and validated techniques can be used for fracture prediction. Several clinical risk factors contribute to fracture risk independently of BMD. These include age, prior fragility fracture, smoking, excess alcohol, family history of hip fracture, rheumatoid arthritis and the use of oral glucocorticoids. These risk factors in conjunction with BMD can be integrated to provide estimates of fracture probability using the FRAX tool. Fracture probability rather than BMD alone can be used to fashion strategies for the assessment and treatment of osteoporosis.

  4. Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this text-book basic knowledge about radiology, biomedical diagnostic methods (radiography, computer tomography), nuclear medicine and safety and radiation protection of personnel on the radiodiagnostic place of work are presented

  5. CEA: risk management assessment 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report proposes a qualitative and quantitative overview of CEA activities in the field of risk management during 2011. These activities concerned the impact on the environment, the safety of installations, the management of professional risks (safety and health at work), the radiological protection of workers, the transports of hazardous materials, waste management, protection of sites, installations and heritage, the management of emergency situations, the management of law risks, controls and audits

  6. Methodology of environmental risk assessment management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša T. Bakrač

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Successful protection of environment is mostly based on high-quality assessment of potential and present risks. Environmental risk management is a complex process which includes: identification, assessment and control of risk, namely taking measures in order to minimize the risk to an acceptable level. Environmental risk management methodology: In addition to these phases in the management of environmental risk, appropriate measures that affect the reduction of risk occurrence should be implemented: - normative and legal regulations (laws and regulations, - appropriate organizational structures in society, and - establishing quality monitoring of environment. The emphasis is placed on the application of assessment methodologies (three-model concept, as the most important aspect of successful management of environmental risk. Risk assessment methodology - European concept: The first concept of ecological risk assessment methodology is based on the so-called European model-concept. In order to better understand this ecological risk assessment methodology, two concepts - hazard and risk - are introduced. The European concept of environmental risk assessment has the following phases in its implementation: identification of hazard (danger, identification of consequences (if there is hazard, estimate of the scale of consequences, estimate of consequence probability and risk assessment (also called risk characterization. The European concept is often used to assess risk in the environment as a model for addressing the distribution of stressors along the source - path - receptor line. Risk assessment methodology - Canadian concept: The second concept of the methodology of environmental risk assessment is based on the so-called Canadian model-concept. The assessment of ecological risk includes risk arising from natural events (floods, extreme weather conditions, etc., technological processes and products, agents (chemical, biological, radiological, etc

  7. Microbial Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. M.; Mena, K. D.; Nickerson, C.A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, microbiological spaceflight requirements have been established in a subjective manner based upon expert opinion of both environmental and clinical monitoring results and the incidence of disease. The limited amount of data, especially from long-duration missions, has created very conservative requirements based primarily on the concentration of microorganisms. Periodic reevaluations of new data from later missions have allowed some relaxation of these stringent requirements. However, the requirements remain very conservative and subjective in nature, and the risk of crew illness due to infectious microorganisms is not well defined. The use of modeling techniques for microbial risk has been applied in the food and potable water industries and has exceptional potential for spaceflight applications. From a productivity standpoint, this type of modeling can (1) decrease unnecessary costs and resource usage and (2) prevent inadequate or inappropriate data for health assessment. In addition, a quantitative model has several advantages for risk management and communication. By identifying the variable components of the model and the knowledge associated with each component, this type of modeling can: (1) Systematically identify and close knowledge gaps, (2) Systematically identify acceptable and unacceptable risks, (3) Improve communication with stakeholders as to the reasons for resource use, and (4) Facilitate external scientific approval of the NASA requirements. The modeling of microbial risk involves the evaluation of several key factors including hazard identification, crew exposure assessment, dose-response assessment, and risk characterization. Many of these factors are similar to conditions found on Earth; however, the spaceflight environment is very specialized as the inhabitants live in a small, semi-closed environment that is often dependent on regenerative life support systems. To further complicate modeling efforts, microbial dose

  8. ZZ RADDECAY, Decay Data Library for Radiological Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Description of program or function: - Format: special format defined in documentation. - Nuclides: 500 nuclides of interest in the nuclear fuel cycle, environmental problems, nuclear medicine, fusion reactor technology, and radiological protection assessment. - Origin: DLC-80/DRALIST. ZZ-RADDECAY is a data library of half-lives, radioactive daughter nuclides, probabilities per decay and decay product energies for alpha particles, positrons, electrons, X-rays, and gamma-rays. The current data base contains approximately 500 nuclides of interest in the nuclear fuel cycle, environmental problems, nuclear medicine, fusion reactor technology, and radiological protection assessment. RADIATION DECAY VERSION 2 March 1997: This application is being provided by Aptec as 'Freeware' with permission of the author Mr. Charles Hacker, Engineering and Applied Science, Griffith University, Australia

  9. Risk assessment: 'A consumer's perspective'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper assesses the concept of risk, risk assessment and tolerability of risk from consumer point of view. Review of existing UK and EC directives on certain products and appliances is also covered

  10. Safety analysis and risk assessment handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment Handbook (SARAH) provides guidance to the safety analyst at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in the preparation of safety analyses and risk assessments. Although the older guidance (the Rocky Flats Risk Assessment Guide) continues to be used for updating the Final Safety Analysis Reports developed in the mid-1980s, this new guidance is used with all new authorization basis documents. With the mission change at RFETS came the need to establish new authorization basis documents for its facilities, whose functions had changed. The methodology and databases for performing the evaluations that support the new authorization basis documents had to be standardized, to avoid the use of different approaches and/or databases for similar accidents in different facilities. This handbook presents this new standardized approach. The handbook begins with a discussion of the requirements of the different types of authorization basis documents and how to choose the one appropriate for the facility to be evaluated. It then walks the analyst through the process of identifying all the potential hazards in the facility, classifying them, and choosing the ones that need to be analyzed further. It then discusses the methods for evaluating accident initiation and progression and covers the basic steps in a safety analysis, including consequence and frequency binning and risk ranking. The handbook lays out standardized approaches for determining the source terms of the various accidents (including airborne release fractions, leakpath factors, etc.), the atmospheric dispersion factors appropriate for Rocky Flats, and the methods for radiological and chemical consequence assessments. The radiological assessments use a radiological open-quotes templateclose quotes, a spreadsheet that incorporates the standard values of parameters, whereas the chemical assessments use the standard codes ARCHIE and ALOHA

  11. Assessment and control of shielding in medical radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The establishment of adequate shielding is a guarantor of the application of the ALARA principle. This work provides a method for the assessment of the thickness of shields and armouring of a medical radiology control room. An application of this method was performed for the verification of the thicknesses of protective barriers at AMIT (Association Médicale Inter-entreprises de Tananarive) center Behoririka, Antananarivo, Madagascar.

  12. Modeling and Analysis on Radiological Safety Assessment of Low- and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jung, Jong Tae; Kang, Chul Hyung (and others)

    2008-04-15

    Modeling study and analysis for technical support for the safety and performance assessment of the low- and intermediate level (LILW) repository partially needed for radiological environmental impact reporting which is essential for the licenses for construction and operation of LILW has been fulfilled. Throughout this study such essential area for technical support for safety and performance assessment of the LILW repository and its licensing as gas generation and migration in and around the repository, risk analysis and environmental impact during transportation of LILW, biosphere modeling and assessment for the flux-to-dose conversion factors for human exposure as well as regional and global groundwater modeling and analysis has been carried out.

  13. Modeling and Analysis on Radiological Safety Assessment of Low- and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modeling study and analysis for technical support for the safety and performance assessment of the low- and intermediate level (LILW) repository partially needed for radiological environmental impact reporting which is essential for the licenses for construction and operation of LILW has been fulfilled. Throughout this study such essential area for technical support for safety and performance assessment of the LILW repository and its licensing as gas generation and migration in and around the repository, risk analysis and environmental impact during transportation of LILW, biosphere modeling and assessment for the flux-to-dose conversion factors for human exposure as well as regional and global groundwater modeling and analysis has been carried out

  14. Concerning ethical risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a fundamental consideration of the concept of responsibility and 'long-term responsibility' for late sequelae, the problems of an ehtical assessment of risks were illustrated: The concept of risk itself poses three problems - predicting the probability of occurrence, assessing the damage = subjective classification of the degree of damage, determining whether the advantages outweigh the risks. It is not possible to weigh the advantages and risks against each other without assessing the goals and the priorities which have been set. Here ethics is called for, because it concerns itself with the reasonableness of evaluative decisions. Its task is to enable us to become aware of and comprehend our system of values in all of its complexity in reference to real life. Ethics can only fulfill its task if it helps us to adopt an integral perspective, i.e. if it centers on the human being. 'One must assess all technical and economic innovations in terms of whether they are beneficial to the development of mankind on a long-term basis. They are only to be legitimized insofar as they prove themselves to be a means of liberating mankind and contributing to his sense of dignity and identity, as a means of bringing human beings together and encouraging them to care for one another, and as a means of protecting the natural basis of our existence. (orig./HSCH)

  15. Assessment of worker and nonworker radiological safety of a repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary assessments of worker and nonworker radiological safety for both normal and accident conditions during the preclosure period have been performed for the proposed Yucca Mountain repository. The accident-conditions assessment estimated off-site doses resulting form credible accidents at the repository. Since the purpose of the accident-conditions assessment was to support the development of an initial Q list, worker doses were not calculated. The normal-conditions assessment estimated off-site public doses as well as on-site worker doses resulting form the various anticipated routine radioactive releases and sources. The purpose of the normal-conditions assessment was to evaluate the preliminary Yucca Mountain repository design and identify those operations and aspects that are most important to radiation safety for the repository (e.g., those operations that are the largest contributors to the occupational doses of individual workers). The general approach and some of the results of these safety assessments are summarized

  16. Application of probabilistic risk assessment to reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Laboratory uses probabilistic methods of risk assessment in safety analyses of reprocessing facilities at the Savannah River Plant. This method uses both the probability of an accident and its consequence to calculate the risks from radiological, chemical, and industrial hazards. The three principal steps in such an assesment are identification of accidents, calculation of frequencies, and consequence quantification. The tools used at SRL include several databanks, logic tree methods, and computer-assisted methods for calculating both frequencies and consequences. 5 figures

  17. Radiological risks from irradiation of cargo contents with EURITRACK neutron inspection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological risk for the population related to the neutron irradiation of cargo containers with a tagged neutron inspection system has been studied. Two possible effects on the public health have been assessed: the modification of the nutritional and organoleptic properties of the irradiated materials, in particular foodstuff, and the neutron activation of consumer products (i.e. food and pharmaceuticals). The result of this study is that irradiation of food and foodstuff, pharmaceutical and medical devices in container cargoes would neither modify the properties of the irradiated material nor produce effective doses of concern for public health. Furthermore, the dose received by possible stowaways present inside the container during the inspection is less than the annual effective dose limit defined by European Legislation for the public. - Highlights: ► Neutron irradiation of cargo containers implies a radiological risk. ► The risk is about the modification of food properties and the products activation. ► Assessment is made about the EURITRACK neutron irradiation system. ► Results show that the EURITRACK scanning is not dangerous for the population.

  18. Radiological and non-radiological risks: The search for a global approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looking at some regulations from around the world, we can easily observe that the global approach to safety in the workplace has already been recommended for many years. Nevertheless, very recently, some regulators felt the need for not putting emphasis on this. Laws have been published, dealing more and more with the concept of 'welfare' in the workplace. In other words, people in charge of the protection of the workers were pushed into adopting a more multidisciplinary approach to the work and its consequences, not only in terms of safety but also as far as the 'quality' of the lives of the workers in the workplaces is concerned. The nuclear sector has also been involved in such evolution. As a matter of fact, since the 'birth' of the 'as low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA) principle, more attention has been paid to other factors than to either the individual dose or the collective dose. Economic and social factors need to be taken into account. This is not the place for discussing the results of the optimization principle, but there is now enough evidence to show that the application of the ALARA approach has significantly increased the level of protection against the radiological risks

  19. Radiological emergency assessment of local decision support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local decision support system has been developed based on the needs of Krsko Nuclear Power Plant for quick dose projection and it is one of important features required for proposal of intervention before actual release may occur. Radiological emergency assessment in the case of nuclear accident is based on plant status analysis, radiation monitoring data and on prediction of release of radioactive sources to the environment. There are possibilities to use automatic features to predict release source term and manual options for selection of release parameters. Advanced environmental modelling is used for assessment of atmospheric dispersion of radioactive contamination in the environment. (author)

  20. Integral risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The series of lectures which forms the basis of this book and took place in the winter of 1989/90 at the ETH in Zuerich were held for the purpose of discussing the stage of development of our system of ethics in view of the extremely fast pace of technological progress and the risks which accompany it. Legal, psychological and political aspects of the problem were examined, but the emphasis was placed on ethical aspects. The effects which are examined in conventional risk analyses can be considered as a part of the ethical and social aspects involved, and in turn, the consideration of ethical and social aspects can be viewed as an extension of the conventional form of risk analysis. In any case, among risk experts, the significance of ethical and social factors is uncontested, especially as regards activities which can have far-reaching repurcussions. Some objective difficulties interfere with this goal, however: - No generally acknowledged set of ethical values exists. - Cultural influences and personal motives can interfere. - Normally a risk assessment is carried out in reference to individual facilities and within a small, clearly defined framework. Under certain circumstances, generalizations which are made for complete technological systems can lead to completely different conclusions. One contribution deals with integral views of the risks of atomic energy from an ethical and social perspective. (orig.)

  1. Assessment of patient dose in diagnostic radiology: A new dose concept for the lymphatic tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnostic radiography is a leading cause of man-made radiation exposure to the population. Individual risk assessment and analytic epidemiologic studies likewise require retrospective assessment of lifelong exposure from medical sources. Typical schemes attempt to determine accumulated doses of specific 'critical organs'. The organ dose to the red bone marrow is relevant in studies of diseases like leukemias and malignant lymphomas and there are comprehensive data bases to determine the red bone marrow organ dose of typical radiologic examinations. On the other hand a considerable proportion of the non-Hodgkin's lymphomas are assumed to develop outside the bone marrow compartment. For these a new dose concept for the lymphatic tissue was derived. Tables with conversion factors for typical examinations in diagnostic radiology (conventional radiography, functional radiography with contrast media and computed tomography) are provided that allow the calculation of the doses of the lymphatic tissue from doses of the red bone marrow. (author)

  2. Risk assessment in reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of risk assessment methodology which is being given a lot of attention in the scientific world is presented in this paper. The maximum credible accident approach used for reactor safety assessment in the past has proved inadequate and a probabilistic approach has now caught the fancy of the scientific world. This method took to evaluating single accidents and making them the basis for decisions. This non-probabilistic approach had obvious drawbacks. Most importantly, it undermined less severe accidents which might be more important due to a high frequency of occurrence. (J.A.)

  3. Methylmercury risk assessment issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Saroff, L. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-07-01

    This paper reviews the general background of health risks associated with mercury (Hg), primarily methylmercury (MeHg), with a view towards application to advanced technologies that could reduce any contributions from coal combustion. The need for accurate assessment of such risks is discussed, since Hg is now widely dispersed in the environment and cannot easily be eliminated. The primary pathway of MeHg intake is through eating contaminated fish. The issues of concern include identification of critical health outcomes (various neurological indices) and their confounding factors, accurate assessment of MeHg intake rates, and appropriate use of dose-response functions. Ultimately, such information will be used to evaluate alternative coal combustion systems.

  4. Environmental epidemiology: risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prentice, R.L.; Whittemore, A.S. (eds.)

    1982-01-01

    Papers presented at the symposium are in the disciplines of biometry, environmental medicine, epidemiology, mathematics, and statistics. Attention is given to assessing risk due to environmental agents, particularly those known to be carcinogenic; both the complex medical issues involved and the mathematical and statistical methodologies used in analysis are presented. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 15 papers for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (RJC)

  5. Surgery Risk Assessment (SRA) Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Surgery Risk Assessment (SRA) database is part of the VA Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP). This database contains assessments of selected surgical...

  6. Risk assessment handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, F.G.; Jones, J.L.; Hunt, R.N.; Roush, M.L.; Wierman, T.E.

    1990-09-01

    The Probabilistic Risk Assessment Unit at EG G Idaho has developed this handbook to provide guidance to a facility manager exploring the potential benefit to be gained by performance of a risk assessment properly scoped to meet local needs. This document is designed to help the manager control the resources expended commensurate with the risks being managed and to assure that the products can be used programmatically to support future needs in order to derive maximum beneflt from the resources expended. We present a logical and functional mapping scheme between several discrete phases of project definition to ensure that a potential customer, working with an analyst, is able to define the areas of interest and that appropriate methods are employed in the analysis. In addition the handbook is written to provide a high-level perspective for the analyst. Previously, the needed information was either scattered or existed only in the minds of experienced analysts. By compiling this information and exploring the breadth of knowledge which exists within the members of the PRA Unit, the functional relationships between the customers' needs and the product have been established.

  7. Risk assessment handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, F.G.; Jones, J.L.; Hunt, R.N.; Roush, M.L.; Wierman, T.E.

    1990-09-01

    The Probabilistic Risk Assessment Unit at EG&G Idaho has developed this handbook to provide guidance to a facility manager exploring the potential benefit to be gained by performance of a risk assessment properly scoped to meet local needs. This document is designed to help the manager control the resources expended commensurate with the risks being managed and to assure that the products can be used programmatically to support future needs in order to derive maximum beneflt from the resources expended. We present a logical and functional mapping scheme between several discrete phases of project definition to ensure that a potential customer, working with an analyst, is able to define the areas of interest and that appropriate methods are employed in the analysis. In addition the handbook is written to provide a high-level perspective for the analyst. Previously, the needed information was either scattered or existed only in the minds of experienced analysts. By compiling this information and exploring the breadth of knowledge which exists within the members of the PRA Unit, the functional relationships between the customers` needs and the product have been established.

  8. Risk assessment handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Probabilistic Risk Assessment Unit at EG ampersand G Idaho has developed this handbook to provide guidance to a facility manager exploring the potential benefit to be gained by performance of a risk assessment properly scoped to meet local needs. This document is designed to help the manager control the resources expended commensurate with the risks being managed and to assure that the products can be used programmatically to support future needs in order to derive maximum beneflt from the resources expended. We present a logical and functional mapping scheme between several discrete phases of project definition to ensure that a potential customer, working with an analyst, is able to define the areas of interest and that appropriate methods are employed in the analysis. In addition the handbook is written to provide a high-level perspective for the analyst. Previously, the needed information was either scattered or existed only in the minds of experienced analysts. By compiling this information and exploring the breadth of knowledge which exists within the members of the PRA Unit, the functional relationships between the customers' needs and the product have been established

  9. Views on Nuclear and Radiological Terrorism Threat Assessment and Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper offers some views from an international perspective on the nuclear and radiological terrorism threat assessment and response. It introduces the political, institutional and regulatory issues associated with this threat. This paper analyses the reactions and mechanisms implemented by the international community aimed at fighting nuclear terrorism and the role of the IAEA. It also describes national needs in order to ensure national security against attacks with nuclear or radioactive material. The paper takes into account the security community's viewpoint on the subject of standards and on the need to recognize that a nuclear regulatory body does not represent the entire community of stakeholders in the security field. (author)

  10. Radiological assessments of land disposal options: recent model developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes progress in the development of methodologies and models for assessing the radiological impact of the disposal of low and intermediate level wastes by (i) shallow land burial in simple trenches (land 1), (ii) shallow land burial in engineered facilities (land 2), and (iii) emplacement in mined repositories or existing cavities (land 3/4). In particular the report describes wasteform leaching models, for unconditioned and cemented waste, the role of engineered barriers of a shallow land burial facility in reducing the magnitude of doses arising from groundwater contact and a detailed consideration of the interactions between radioactive carbon and various media. (author)

  11. Quantification model for estimating the radiological risks of decommissioning processes in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Quantification model of estimating the radiological risks. → Membership function and inference rules for quantify the radiological risks. → Development of fuzzy inference system. → Risk evaluation of the concrete decommissioning. - Abstract: This paper proposes a model for the quantification and estimating the radiological risks of decommissioning processes in nuclear facilities. Based on fuzzy linguistic variables, the membership function and inference rules were developed for quantifying the radiological risks of nuclear decommissioning processes. Also, the fuzzy inference system was developed and the proposed method was applied to the process of concrete decommissioning. The proposed model and system is flexible in that it allows a fast-computation of the subjective expert opinion when one or several input factors change. It is believed that the suggested model and system can be applied to evaluate the safety of complex systems by only changing the variable and inputs.

  12. Caries risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejàre, I; Axelsson, S; Dahlén, G;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of multivariate models and single factors to correctly identify future caries development in pre-school children and schoolchildren/adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic literature search for relevant papers was conducted with pre-determined inclusion criteria. ...... hampered the synthesis of results. There is a great need to standardize study design, outcome measures and reporting of data in studies on caries risk assessment. The accuracy of prediction models should be validated in at least one independent population.......OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of multivariate models and single factors to correctly identify future caries development in pre-school children and schoolchildren/adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic literature search for relevant papers was conducted with pre-determined inclusion criteria....... Abstracts and full-text articles were assessed independently by two reviewers. The quality of studies was graded according to the QUADAS tool. The quality of evidence of models and single predictors was assessed using the GRADE approach. RESULTS: Ninety original articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria...

  13. Review at Bikini Atoll. Assessing radiological conditions at Bikini Atoll and the prospects for resettlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some testing during the development of the atomic bomb was done in countries that do not have the infrastructure and expertise for evaluating any associated radiation risks. In such cases, outside expertise is needed to obtain independent advice about the radiological situation caused by residual radioactive material from nuclear testing. The IAEA has been requested by the governments of a number of its Member States to provide assistance in this context. Among the former nuclear test sites which the IAEA has reviewed is the Bikini Atoll of the Marshall Islands. Based on its review, the IAEA Advisory Group determined that no further corroboration of the measurements and assessments of the radiological conditions at Bikini Atoll is necessary. The data that have been collected are of sufficient quality to allow an appropriate evaluation to be performed. The limited IAEA monitoring of the area provided a good quality assurance verification of the previously collected data. It was recommended that Bikini Island should not be permanently resettled under the present radiological conditions. This recommendation was based on the assumption that persons resettling on the island would consume a diet of entirely locally produced food. The radiological data support that if a diet of this type were permitted, it could lead to an annual effective dose of about 15 mSv. This level was judged to require intervention of some type for radiation protection purposes

  14. Status of radiation protection in interventional radiology. Assessment of inspections in 2009 by the ASN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report first describes the organization of inspections performed in health institutions, indicates the inspected establishments, the types of fixed installations in interventional radiology, the use of imagery in the operating theatre, and discusses the regulatory arrangements applicable to interventional radiology (in the Public Health Code, in the Labour Code). Then, the report discusses the results of inspections regarding radiation protection in interventional radiology: application of public health code arrangements (justification, patient training in radiation protection, radiological procedures and protocols, patient dosimetry monitoring), application of Labour Code arrangements (designation of the person with expertise in radiation protection, risk assessment and delimitation of monitored and controlled areas, workstation analysis, workers' training in radiation protection, individual protection equipment, workers' dosimetric monitoring, workers' medical monitoring, radiation protection technical controls), significant events, radiation protection in operating theatre. Propositions are stated regarding the differences noticed within or between the health establishments, the methodological and organisational difficulties faced by persons with expertise in radiation protection (PCR), the need of an interdisciplinary team

  15. Efficient radiological assessment of the internal snapping hip syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value/significance of various imaging techniques for demonstrating the underlying causative pathology of clinically suspected internal snapping hip syndrome. We intended to define the most efficient diagnostic imaging algorithm that leads to a specific definite therapy for this rare hip disorder. The imaging studies of 54 patients (43 women, 11 men, average age 58 years) with the clinical suspicion of internal snapping hip syndrome were compared for their diagnostic value/significance for finding the underlying pathology. Radiological workup included plain radiographs of the pelvis and hip joints (n=54), ultrasound (US) of the hip joints (n=29), computed tomography (CT) of the pelvis and proximal femur (n=17), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pelvis/hip joint (n=21). In order to establish an efficient diagnostic algorithm we compared the diagnostic value of each imaging technique alone and in combination with the other methods. The underlying causative pathology could be established in 37% of patients (n=20) by the use of conventional radiographs alone and in 46% of the patients (n=25) by US alone, and in combination in 83% of the patients (n=45). By adding CT to the radiological workup, we established final diagnosis in 88% (in combination with X-ray; n=15/17) and 94% (together with X-ray and US; n=16/17) of the patients. Whenever MR imaging was used a causative pathology was found in all patients (100%; n=21). The most efficient radiological algorithm in the assessment of patients with internal snapping hip syndrome is the combination of plain radiography and US. MR imaging can be retained for unresolved and difficult cases. (orig.)

  16. Risk perception of diagnostic and therapeutic radiological applications. Comparison of experts and the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent research has found many differences between experts and lay people in judgements of radiological risks. However, most of these studies were carried out on experts from nuclear power plants, regulatory bodies etc. This paper analyses the differences among several groups of 'experts' coming from the Health area and the lay people. A survey was designed to assess the perceived seriousness of seven diagnostic and therapeutic applications: conventional diagnostic radiology, computed tomography, chemotherapy, ecography examinations, radiotherapy, and diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine. The questionnaire was distributed to samples of experts (professionals exposed to ionizing radiations, and other health professionals), and outpatients. All samples were selected from ten countries: Argentine, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Uruguay, and Spain, thanks to the collaboration of the different National Radioprotection Societies of the above mentioned countries, and of other concerned professionals (in case they didn't have any association at the time). The following comparisons will be presented: 1) Differences between experts' and the public; 2) differences among several groups of 'experts'; 3) within the 'expert' sample, differences between perceived seriousness as a patient and as a professional at risk; 4) within the public sample, individual differences related to some socio-demographic variables. A cross-cultural analysis of the above mentioned comparisons will also be carried out. (author)

  17. Ethics of radiological risk governance: justice of justification as a central concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskens, G

    2016-06-01

    Due to the specific character of the radiological risk, judgements on whether the use of nuclear technology would be justified in society have to consider knowledge-related uncertainties and value pluralism. The justice of justification not only informs the right of the potentially affected to participate in decision making, but also implies the responsibility of concerned actors to give account of the way they rationalise their own position, interests, hopes, hypotheses, beliefs, and concerns in knowledge generation and decision making. This paper characterises the evaluation of whether the use of nuclear technology would be justified in society as a 'complex social problem', and reflects on what it would imply to deal with its complexity fairly. Based on this assessment, the paper proposes 'reflexivity' and 'intellectual solidarity' as ethical attitudes or virtues for all concerned actors, to be understood from a specific 'ethics of care' perspective 'bound in complexity'. Consequently, it argues that there is a need for an 'interactive' understanding of ethics in order to give ethical attitudes or virtues a practical meaning in a sociopolitical context, and draws conclusions for the case of radiological risk governance. PMID:27044365

  18. A study to reduce radiation doses and risks of the public in Japan after radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our object is to get useful findings to reduce radiation doses and risks of the public in Japan after radiological emergency including the views from radiation epidemiology. A constant review was conducted for serious radiation accidents associated with nuclear facilities in the past. Furthermore, three main aspects were examined: to determine physiological, metabolic and ecological characteristics for internal individual dose estimate, to demonstrate an effect of protective action by the control foodstuffs, to examine geographic information system (GIS) for epidemiological risk assessment after the radiological emergency. Several findings were gotten for volume of respiration, urinary excretion of α-emission radionuclides using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and different-area food consumptions in Japan. An effect of protective action from 137Cs and 131I intakes by imported non-contaminated milk for infants was demonstrated by a model calculation on the basis of the Japanese body burdens for the radionuclides from the fallouts due to atmospheric nuclear weapon explosion tests and Chernobyl accident. For the various radiuses from the Japanese nuclear power plants the number of population and deaths are estimated within a circle of the nuclear power plants with 16 sectors on the basis of small areas using GIS. (author)

  19. Radiology Residents' Awareness about Ionizing Radiation Doses in Imaging Studies and Their Cancer Risk during Radiological Examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging methods that use ionizing radiation have been more frequent in various medical fields with advances in imaging technology. The aim of our study was to make residents be aware of the radiation dose they are subjected to when they conduct radiological imaging methods, and of cancer risk. A total of 364 residents participated in this descriptive study which was conducted during the period between October, 2008 and January, 2009. The questionnaires were completed under strict control on a one-to-one basis from each department. A X2-test was used for the evaluation of data obtained. Only 7% of residents correctly answered to the question about the ionizing radiation dose of a posteroanterior (PA) chest X-ray. The question asking about the equivalent number of PA chest X-rays to the ionizing dose of a brain CT was answered correctly by 24% of residents; the same question regarding abdominal CT was answered correctly by 16% of residents, thorax CT by 16%, thyroid scintigraphy by 15%, intravenous pyelography by 9%, and lumbar spine radiography by 2%. The risk of developing a cancer throughout lifetime by a brain and abdominal CT were 33% and 28%, respectively. Radiologic residents should have updated knowledge about radiation dose content and attendant cancer risks of various radiological imaging methods during both basic medical training period and following practice period.

  20. Defense Programs Transportation Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology used in a probabilistic transportation risk assessment conducted to assess the probabilities and consequences of inadvertent dispersal of radioactive materials arising from severe transportation accidents. The model was developed for the Defense Program Transportation Risk Assessment (DPTRA) study. The analysis incorporates several enhancements relative to previous risk assessments of hazardous materials transportation including newly-developed statistics on the frequencies and severities of tractor semitrailer accidents and detailed route characterization using the 1990 Census data

  1. Assessment of the radiological impact of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Grand Junction, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of a radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill site at Grand Junction, Colorado, made in May and June 1976, are presented along with descriptions of techniques and equipment used to obtain the data and an assessment of increased risk of health effects attributable to radiation and radionuclides from the tailings. An estimate of potential health effects of exposure to gamma rays around a former mill building and to radon daughters produced by radon dispersed from the tailings has been made for occupants of the site

  2. Radiological risk of building materials using homemade airtight radon chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil based building materials known to contain various amounts of natural radionuclide mainly 238U and 232Th series and 40K. In general most individuals spend 80% of their time indoors and the natural radioactivity in building materials is a main source of indoor radiation exposure. The internal exposure due to building materials in dwellings and workplaces is mainly caused by the activity concentrations of short lived 222Radon and its progenies which arise from the decay of 226Ra. In this study, the indoor radon concentration emanating from cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and Portland cement samples were measured in a homemade airtight radon chamber using continuous radon monitor 1029 model of Sun Nuclear. Radon monitor were left in the chamber for 96 hours with an hour counting time interval. From the result, the indoor radon concentrations for cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and Portland cement samples determined were 396 Bq m−3, 192 Bq m−3, 176 Bq m−3 and 28 Bq m−3, respectively. The result indicates that the radon concentration in the studied building materials have more than 100 Bq m−3 i.e. higher than the WHO action level except for Portland cement sample. The calculated annual effective dose for cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and Portland cement samples were determined to be 10 mSv y−1, 4.85 mSv y−1, 4.44 mSv y−1 and 0.72 mSv y−1, respectively. This study showed that all the calculated effective doses generated from indoor radon to dwellers or workers were in the range of limit recommended ICRP action levels i.e. 3 - 10 mSv y−1. As consequences, the radiological risk for the dwellers in terms of fatal lifetime cancer risk per million for cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and Portland cement were calculated to be 550, 267, 244 and 40 persons respectively

  3. Practical approaches to risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke-Taylor, S

    2001-06-01

    The importance of using risk assessment in developing food regulations is growing with the globalization of our food supply. The World Trade Organization has entrenched the principles of science-based risk assessment in the Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures. The relevant international organization for food standards, the Codex Alimentarius Commission, recognises risk analysis, and its component parts risk assessment, risk management and risk communication, as the basis for scientific decision-making. Risk assessment comprises two activities: hazard evaluation; and exposure estimation. A hazard may be chemical, microbiological or nutritional in origin. The practical application of risk assessment in Australia is illustrated in this presentation by four examples involving: (1) food additives, (2) microbiological safety of imported raw milk cheeses, (3) genetically modified foods and (4) imported food inspection. PMID:11594473

  4. Practical Approaches to Risk Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The importance of using risk assessment in developing foodregulations is growing with the globalization of our food supply. The World Trade Organization has entrenched the principles of science-based risk assessment in the Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures. The relevant international organization for food standards, the Codex Alimentarius Commission, recognises risk analysis, and its component parts risk assessment, risk management and risk communication, as the basis for scientific decision-making. Risk assessment comprises two activities: hazard evaluation; and exposure estimation. A hazard may be chemical, microbiological or nutritional in origin. The practical application of risk assessment in Australia is illustrated in this presentation by four examples involving: (1) food additives, (2) microbiological safety of imported raw milk cheeses, (3) genetically modified foods and (4) imported food inspection.

  5. Practical Approaches to Risk Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SIMONBROOKE-TAYLOR

    2001-01-01

    The importance of using risk assessment in developing food regulations is growing with the globalization of our food supple,The World Trade Oranization has entrenched the principles of science-based risk assessment in the Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures.The relevant international organization for food standards,the Codex Alimentarius Commission,recognises risk analysis,and its component parts risk assessment,risk management and risk communication as the basis for scientific decision-making,Risk assessment comprises two activities:hazard evaluation;and exposure estimation.A hazard may be chemical,microbiological or nutritional in origin,The practical application of risk assessment in Australia is illustrated in this presentation y four examples involving:(1) food additives,(2) microiological safety of imported raw milk cheeses,(3) genetically modified foods and (4) imported food inspection.

  6. Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnostic radiology is still the foremost of all innovative medical disciplines. This has many advantages but also some handicaps, e.g. the siting problem of medical equipment whose clinical potential is not fully known. This applies in particular to nuclear spin tomography, where the Laender governments and the Scientific Council seen to agree that all universities should have the appropriate equipment as soon as possible in order to intensify interdisciplinary research. Formerly, in the case of computerized tomography, there was less readiness. As a result, the siting of CT equipment is less organically structured. A special handicap of innovative fields is the problem of training and advanced training. The Chamber of Medicine and the Association of Doctors Participating in the Health Insurance Plan have issued regulations aimed at a better standardisation in this field. (orig.)

  7. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  8. Risk assessment for halogenated solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recent development in the cancer risk area is the advent of biologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models. These models allow for the incorporation of biological and mechanistic data into the risk assessment process. These advances will not only improve the risk assessment process for halogenated solvents but will stimulate and guide basic research in the biological area

  9. An Assessment of the radiological vulnerability for Spanish soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology is presented to assess the radiological vulnerability of soils, based exclusively on their pedagogical properties. The radiological vulnerability defined as the potential capacity of soils to fix or transfer deposited radiocaesium and radiostrontium to plants, is represented in terms of vulnerability indexes. Two pathways are considered, the external irradiation and their transfer through the food chain, where the top horizon and a critical depth of 60 cm is taken into account, respectively, Partial vulnerability indexes are considered for each pathway, which allows a qualitative prediction of the behaviour of the contaminants in soils Global indexes have been obtained as the sum of the partial indexes. The methodology has been applied and validated using a data base consisting of more than 2000 soil profiles selected from all over Spain. This included a pedagogical characterisation and normalisation of the different soil profiles. Results have been obtained for individual soil profiles and with the aid of a GIS, the distribution of the partial and global indexes have been presented for the most representative soil types. (Author)

  10. Assessment of the radiological impact of oil refining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The field of radiation protection and corresponding national and international regulations has evolved to ensure safety in the use of radioactive materials. Oil and gas production processing operations have been known to cause naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) to accumulate at elevated concentrations as by-product waste streams. A comprehensive radiological study on the oil refining industry in Egypt was carried out to assess the radiological impact of this industry on the workers. Scales, sludge, water and crude oil samples were collected at each stage of the refining process. The activity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were determined using high-resolution gamma spectrometry. The average activity concentrations of the determined isotopes are lower than the IAEA exempt activity levels for NORM isotopes. Different exposure scenarios were studied. The average annual effective dose for workers due to direct exposure to gamma radiation and dust inhalation found to be 0.6 μSv and 3.2 mSv, respectively. Based on the ALARA principle, the results indicate that special care must be taken during cleaning operations in order to reduce the personnel's exposure due to maintenance as well as to avoid contamination of the environment.

  11. Pregnancy and radiation risks in radiology: users' knowledge at the University Hospital of Yopougon (Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: to assess the knowledge of users and health professionals about the risks of irradiation of the pregnant woman in the course of radiological examinations and the application of rules of radiation protection to pregnant women by X-ray users. Materials and Methods: our prospective study, conducted at the University Hospital of Yopougon, lasted 6 months. We interviewed 60 women who were pregnant or likely to be, 30 non-radiologist prescribing physicians, 29 medical imaging technicians and 21 health care aides on radiation risk and protective measures for pregnant women before and during the implementation of a radiological examination using X-rays. Results: 73.7% of prescribing physicians have no knowledge of radiation protection in women who are pregnant or of childbearing age. 93.1% of patients who are pregnant or of childbearing age were not aware of X-rays in diagnostic radiology and the harm they pose to a pregnant or potentially pregnant woman. 80% of radiology manipulators do not respect the basic rules of radiation protection. Conclusion: greater awareness of the users of X-ray radiation risks in pregnancy or women likely to be pregnant is required at the University Hospital of Yopougon. (authors)

  12. Tools for Microbiological risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassett, john; Nauta, Maarten; Lindqvist, Roland;

    Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) has emerged as a comprehensive and systematic approach for addressing the risk of pathogens in specific foods and/or processes. At government level, MRA is increasingly recognised as a structured and objective approach to understand the level of risk in a given...... food/pathogen scenario. Tools developed so far support qualitative and quantitative assessments of the risk that a food pathogen poses to a particular population. Risk can be expressed as absolute numbers or as relative (ranked) risks. The food industry is beginning to appreciate that the tools for MRA...... information generated through conducting a risk assessment, such as a risk estimate, ranking of risks, identification of key controlling or risk-generating factors, or highlighting of data gaps,can assist governments in their role of setting national policies, criteria or providing public health advice, and...

  13. The Generalised Ecosystem Modelling Approach in Radiological Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klos, Richard

    2008-03-15

    An independent modelling capability is required by SSI in order to evaluate dose assessments carried out in Sweden by, amongst others, SKB. The main focus is the evaluation of the long-term radiological safety of radioactive waste repositories for both spent fuel and low-level radioactive waste. To meet the requirement for an independent modelling tool for use in biosphere dose assessments, SSI through its modelling team CLIMB commissioned the development of a new model in 2004, a project to produce an integrated model of radionuclides in the landscape. The generalised ecosystem modelling approach (GEMA) is the result. GEMA is a modular system of compartments representing the surface environment. It can be configured, through water and solid material fluxes, to represent local details in the range of ecosystem types found in the past, present and future Swedish landscapes. The approach is generic but fine tuning can be carried out using local details of the surface drainage system. The modular nature of the modelling approach means that GEMA modules can be linked to represent large scale surface drainage features over an extended domain in the landscape. System change can also be managed in GEMA, allowing a flexible and comprehensive model of the evolving landscape to be constructed. Environmental concentrations of radionuclides can be calculated and the GEMA dose pathway model provides a means of evaluating the radiological impact of radionuclide release to the surface environment. This document sets out the philosophy and details of GEMA and illustrates the functioning of the model with a range of examples featuring the recent CLIMB review of SKB's SR-Can assessment

  14. The Generalised Ecosystem Modelling Approach in Radiological Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An independent modelling capability is required by SSI in order to evaluate dose assessments carried out in Sweden by, amongst others, SKB. The main focus is the evaluation of the long-term radiological safety of radioactive waste repositories for both spent fuel and low-level radioactive waste. To meet the requirement for an independent modelling tool for use in biosphere dose assessments, SSI through its modelling team CLIMB commissioned the development of a new model in 2004, a project to produce an integrated model of radionuclides in the landscape. The generalised ecosystem modelling approach (GEMA) is the result. GEMA is a modular system of compartments representing the surface environment. It can be configured, through water and solid material fluxes, to represent local details in the range of ecosystem types found in the past, present and future Swedish landscapes. The approach is generic but fine tuning can be carried out using local details of the surface drainage system. The modular nature of the modelling approach means that GEMA modules can be linked to represent large scale surface drainage features over an extended domain in the landscape. System change can also be managed in GEMA, allowing a flexible and comprehensive model of the evolving landscape to be constructed. Environmental concentrations of radionuclides can be calculated and the GEMA dose pathway model provides a means of evaluating the radiological impact of radionuclide release to the surface environment. This document sets out the philosophy and details of GEMA and illustrates the functioning of the model with a range of examples featuring the recent CLIMB review of SKB's SR-Can assessment

  15. Development of radiological impact assessments for the Drigg low-level radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Drigg low-level waste disposal site has developed from simple trenches cut in clay, accepting loosely tipped waste, to an engineered vault constructed of reinforced concrete receiving containerised waste. The paper describes the associated development of the radiological impact assessments and how those assessments have been influenced by the development of legislation and Government policy. The current deterministic risk assessment is described and the major conclusions presented. The successor to this model is based on a 3-D network approach to the representation of site specific engineering and geological features, with compartmental modelling of the biosphere. The development of this model, which will be used in deterministic and probabilistic modes for the next assessment, is described. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  16. Methods of risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction (identification, quantification of risk); some approaches to risk evaluation (use of the 'no risk' principle; the 'acceptable risk' method; risk balancing; comparison of risks, benefits and other costs); cost benefit analysis; an alternative approach (tabulation and display; description and reduction of the data table); identification of potential decision sets consistent with the constraints. Some references are made to nuclear power. (U.K.)

  17. Integrating Risk Context into Risk Assessments: The Risk Context Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroner, Daryl G.; Gray, Andrew L.; Goodrich, Ben

    2013-01-01

    The context in which offenders are released is an important component of conducting risk assessments. A sample of 257 supervised male parolees were followed in the community ("M" = 870 days) after an initial risk assessment. Drawing on community-based information, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the recently developed Risk Context Scale.…

  18. Environmental Risk Communication through Qualitative Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Sabre J. Coleman; Zalk, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental analysts are often hampered in communicating the risks of environmental contaminants due to the myriad of regulatory requirements that are applicable. The use of a qualitative, risk-based control banding strategy for assessment and control of potential environmental contaminants provides a standardized approach to improve risk communication. Presented is a model that provides an effective means for determining standardized responses and controls for common environmental issues b...

  19. Radiological risks due to intrusion into a deep bedrock repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish concept for disposal of high-level waste is a deep (500 m) bedrock repository (SFL) protected by multiple barriers that isolate the waste from the environment for such a long time that the physical decay will cause a substantial reduction of the radioactivity. The aim of concentration and isolation of high-level waste is to reduce the radiation risk. Intrusion in the repository may introduce a small residual risk to individuals. A risk analysis was performed comprising dose assessment and probabilities of occurrence. Intrusions may be considered to take place either due to conscious actions or by actions without any knowledge about the repository. For conscious intrusion it may be assumed that there will be enough knowledge to manage the radiation situation in a professional manner. Several reasons for making inadvertent intrusion are possible. Independently of the purpose, the most probable initial way of coming into contact with the radioactive material is by deep drilling. Examples of causes for drilling could be general scientific purposes or exploitation of geothermal energy. Dose assessments were made for intrusion due to inclined drilling directly into a canister, and drilling near an initially malfunctioning canister from which radionuclides have leaked into the groundwater. For the former case, external pathways were considered due to exposure from a core of the canister with fuel and contaminated bore dust. The most common drilling method is with water flushing for removal of bore dust, which will not cause any substantial transfer of radionuclides to air. For the second case, it was assumed that there was a well in the vicinity. The only pathway considered was therefore consumption of water because it dominates the exposure. The highest dose rates to man were, as expected, obtained by drilling into the canister. Dose rates decrease with time after closure. During the first time the relatively short-lived radionuclides Cs-137 and Sr-90 give

  20. Radiological dose assessment related to management of naturally occurring radioactive materials generated by the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary radiological dose assessment of equipment decontamination, subsurface disposal, landspreading, equipment smelting, and equipment burial was conducted to address concerns regarding the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in production waste streams. The assessment estimated maximum individual dose equivalents for workers and the general public. Sensitivity analyses of certain input parameters also were conducted. On the basis of this assessment, it is concluded that (1) regulations requiring workers to wear respiratory protection during equipment cleaning operations are likely to result in lower worker doses, (2) underground injection and downhole encapsulation of NORM wastes present a negligible risk to the general public, and (3) potential doses to workers and the general public related to smelting NORM-contaminated equipment can be controlled by limiting the contamination level of the initial feed. It is recommended that (1) NORM wastes be further characterized to improve studies of potential radiological doses; (2) states be encouraged to permit subsurface disposal of NORM more readily, provided further assessments support this study; results; (3) further assessment of landspreading NORM wastes be conducted; and (4) the political, economic, sociological, and nonradiological issues related to smelting NORM-contaminated equipment be studied to fully examine the feasibility of this disposal option

  1. HTGR accident and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a synopsis of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) performed by General Atomic Company. Principal topics presented include: HTGR safety assessments, peer interfaces, safety research, process gas explosions, quantitative safety goals, licensing applications of PRA, enhanced safety, investment risk assessments, and PRA design integration

  2. Medicine and ionizing rays: a help sheet in analysing risks in intra-oral dental radiology and applicable texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document proposes a synthesis of useful knowledge for radioprotection in the case of intra-oral dental radiology. In the first part, several aspects are considered: the concerned personnel, the course of treatment procedures, the hazards, the identification of the risk associated with ionizing radiation, the risk assessment and the determination of exposure levels, the strategy to control the risks (reduction of risks, technical measures concerning the installation or the personnel, teaching and information, prevention and medical monitoring), and risk control assessment. A second part indicates the various applicable legal and regulatory texts (European directives, institutions in charge of radioprotection, general arrangements applicable to workers and patients, and regulatory texts concerning worker protection or patient protection against ionizing radiations)

  3. Assessment methods and minimization of radiological consequences of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uncertainty and sensitivity analyses with the program system COSYMA for assessing the radiological consequences of nuclear accidents, performed since 1997 in close co-operation with the University of Delft, NL, and the NRPB, UK, have been terminated and fully documented. Work on the real-time on-line decision support system RODOS for off-site emergency management after nuclear accidents has concentrated on the preparation of the operational version PV 4.0; it will be released by mid 2000. It has been developed and customised to the various regions of Europe in close co-operation with some 40 contract partners in East and West Europe. The operational use of the RODOS system at a central place in Germany and in emergency centres of other West and East European countries is in progress. (orig.)

  4. Information needs for risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRosa, C.T.; Choudhury, H.; Schoeny, R.S.

    1990-12-31

    Risk assessment can be thought of as a conceptual approach to bridge the gap between the available data and the ultimate goal of characterizing the risk or hazard associated with a particular environmental problem. To lend consistency to and to promote quality in the process, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published Guidelines for Risk Assessment of Carcinogenicity, Developmental Toxicity, Germ Cell Mutagenicity and Exposure Assessment, and Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures. The guidelines provide a framework for organizing the information, evaluating data, and for carrying out the risk assessment in a scientifically plausible manner. In the absence of sufficient scientific information or when abundant data are available, the guidelines provide alternative methodologies that can be employed in the risk assessment. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Caries Risk Assessment and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    SJ Pourhashemi

    2000-01-01

    Over 20 years, several analytical approaches have been designed to predict caries in children."nCaries Risk Assessment is a recently developed technique concern to caries prediction."nThis procedure involves three stages as follows:"n1- Determination and assessment of the dental caries risk factors."n2- Examination and evaluation of each individual child to be specifically diagnosed the level of 3- caries risk e.g. high, moderate and low risk."n3- Recommendation of pr...

  6. Exploration Health Risks: Probabilistic Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer; Charles, John; Hayes, Judith; Wren, Kiley

    2006-01-01

    Maintenance of human health on long-duration exploration missions is a primary challenge to mission designers. Indeed, human health risks are currently the largest risk contributors to the risks of evacuation or loss of the crew on long-duration International Space Station missions. We describe a quantitative assessment of the relative probabilities of occurrence of the individual risks to human safety and efficiency during space flight to augment qualitative assessments used in this field to date. Quantitative probabilistic risk assessments will allow program managers to focus resources on those human health risks most likely to occur with undesirable consequences. Truly quantitative assessments are common, even expected, in the engineering and actuarial spheres, but that capability is just emerging in some arenas of life sciences research, such as identifying and minimize the hazards to astronauts during future space exploration missions. Our expectation is that these results can be used to inform NASA mission design trade studies in the near future with the objective of preventing the higher among the human health risks. We identify and discuss statistical techniques to provide this risk quantification based on relevant sets of astronaut biomedical data from short and long duration space flights as well as relevant analog populations. We outline critical assumptions made in the calculations and discuss the rationale for these. Our efforts to date have focussed on quantifying the probabilities of medical risks that are qualitatively perceived as relatively high risks of radiation sickness, cardiac dysrhythmias, medically significant renal stone formation due to increased calcium mobilization, decompression sickness as a result of EVA (extravehicular activity), and bone fracture due to loss of bone mineral density. We present these quantitative probabilities in order-of-magnitude comparison format so that relative risk can be gauged. We address the effects of

  7. The Emergency Radiological Monitoring and Analysis Division of the United States Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) provides the framework for integrating the various Federal agencies responding to a major radiological emergency. The FRERP authorises the creation of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC), which is established to co-ordinate all Federal agencies involved in the monitoring and assessment of the off-site radiological conditions in support of the impacted States and the Lead Federal Agency (LFA). Within the FRMAC, the Monitoring and Analysis Division is responsible for co-ordinating all FRMAC assets involved in conducting a comprehensive program of environmental monitoring, sampling, radioanalysis, and quality assurance. This program includes: 1. Aerial Radiological Monitoring - Fixed-Wing and Helicopter; 2. Field Monitoring and Sampling; 3. Radioanalysis - Mobile and Fixed Laboratories; 4. Radiation Detection Instrumentation - Calibration and Maintenance; 5. Environmental Dosimetry; 6. Integrated program of Quality Assurance. To assure consistency, completeness, and the quality of the data produced, a methodology and procedures manual is being developed. This paper discusses the structure, assets, and operations of the FRMAC Monitoring and Analysis Division and the content and preparation of the manual. (author)

  8. Radiological Instrumentation Assessment for King County Wastewater Treatment Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The King County Wastewater Treatment Division (WTD) have concern about the aftermath of a radiological dispersion event (RDE) leading to the introduction of significant quantities of radioactive material into its combined sanitary and storm sewer system. Radioactive material could come from the use of a radiological dispersion device (RDD). RDDs include 'dirty bombs' that are not nuclear detonations but are explosives designed to spread radioactive material. Radioactive material also could come from deliberate introduction or dispersion of radioactive material into the environment, including waterways and water supply systems. Volume 2 of PNNL-15163 assesses the radiological instrumentation needs for detection of radiological or nuclear terrorism, in support of decisions to treat contaminated wastewater or to bypass the West Point Treatment Plant (WPTP), and in support of radiation protection of the workforce, the public, and the infrastructure of the WPTP. Fixed radiation detection instrumentation should be deployed in a defense-in-depth system that provides (1) early warning of significant radioactive material on the way to the WPTP, including identification of the radionuclide(s) and estimates of the soluble concentrations, with a floating detector located in the wet well at the Interbay Pump Station and telemetered via the internet to all authorized locations; (2) monitoring at strategic locations within the plant, including (2a) the pipe beyond the hydraulic ram in the bar screen room; (2b) above the collection funnels in the fine grit facility; (2c) in the sampling tank in the raw sewage pump room; and (2d) downstream of the concentration facilities that produce 6% blended and concentrated biosolids. Engineering challenges exist for these applications. It is necessary to deploy both ultra-sensitive detectors to provide early warning and identification and detectors capable of functioning in high-dose rate environments that are likely under some scenarios

  9. Ghana Agricultural Sector Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhary, Vikas; D'Alessandro, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Improved agricultural risk management is one of the core enabling actions of the Group of Eight’s (G-8’s) New Alliance for Food Security and Nutrition. The Agricultural Risk Management Team (ARMT) of the Agriculture and Environment Services Department of the World Bank conducted an agricultural sector risk assessment to better understand the dynamics of agricultural risks and identify appropriate responses, incorporate agricultural risk perspective into decision-making, and bui...

  10. Radiological risks from irradiation of cargo contents with EURITRACK neutron inspection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroletti, E.; Bonomi, G.; Donzella, A.; Viesti, G.; Zenoni, A.

    2012-07-01

    The radiological risk for the population related to the neutron irradiation of cargo containers with a tagged neutron inspection system has been studied. Two possible effects on the public health have been assessed: the modification of the nutritional and organoleptic properties of the irradiated materials, in particular foodstuff, and the neutron activation of consumer products (i.e. food and pharmaceuticals). The result of this study is that irradiation of food and foodstuff, pharmaceutical and medical devices in container cargoes would neither modify the properties of the irradiated material nor produce effective doses of concern for public health. Furthermore, the dose received by possible stowaways present inside the container during the inspection is less than the annual effective dose limit defined by European Legislation for the public.

  11. Spent fuel transport in Romania by road: An approach considering safety, risk and radiological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of high-level radioactive wastes, involving Type B packages, is a part of the safety of the Romanian waste management programme and the overall aim of this activity is to promote the safe transport of radioactive materials in Romania. The paper presents a safety case analysis of the transport of a single spent fuel CANDU bundle, using a Romanian built Type B package, from the CANDU type nuclear power plant Cernavoda to the INR Pitesti, in order to be examined within INR's hot-cells facilities. The safety assessment includes the following main aspects: (1) evaluation and analysis of available data on road traffic accidents; (2) estimation of the expected frequency for severe road accident scenarios resulting in potential radionuclide release; and (3) evaluation of the expected radiological consequences and accident risks of transport operations. (author)

  12. Radiological Impact Assessment (RIA) following a postulated accident in PHWRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soni, N.; Kansal, M.; Rammohan, H. P.; Malhotra, P. K. [Reactor Safety and Analysis, Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd., Nabhkiya Urja Bhavan, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai Maharashtra 400094 (India)

    2012-07-01

    Radiological Impact Assessment (RIA) following postulated accident i.e Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) with failed Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS), performed as part of the reactor safety analysis of a typical 700 MWe Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor(PHWR). The rationale behind the assessment is that the public needs to be protected in the event that the postulated accident results in radionuclide release outside containment. Radionuclides deliver dose to the human body through various pathways namely, plume submersion, exposure due to ground deposition, inhalation and ingestion. The total exposure dose measured in terms of total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) is the sum of doses to a hypothetical adult human at exclusion zone boundary by all the exposure pathways. The analysis provides the important inputs to decide upon the type of emergency counter measures to be adopted during the postulated accident. The importance of the various pathways in terms of contribution to the total effective dose equivalent(TEDE) is also assessed with respect to time of exposure. Inhalation and plume gamma dose are the major contributors towards TEDE during initial period of accident whereas ingestion and ground shine dose start dominating in TEDE in the extended period of exposure. Moreover, TEDE is initially dominated by I-131, Kr-88, Te-132, I-133 and Sr-89, whereas, as time progresses, Xe-133,I-131 and Te-132 become the main contributors. (authors)

  13. EU-CIS joint study project 2. Radiological conditions and risk quantifications in CIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological conditions after the Chernobyl accident in the CIS republics Ukraine, Belarus and Russia have been evaluated for the period following 1991. Differential population distributions on dose rate or surface contamination density and differential mass distributions for milk on activity concentration of 137Cs in milk have been used to calculate individual avertable and residual doses. The residual lifetime doses in the three republics with reference to the year 1991 have been calculated to be of the order of 30 mSv on average. The potential avertable individual lifetime doses are therefore less than the lifetime doses from the natural background radiation in Europe. The corresponding residual individual lifetime risks have been calculated from the European ASQRAD model to be of the order of 0.06-0.14%, depending on age at start of exposure, and assuming an effective half-life of the annual exposure of 10 years and a dose and dose rate effectiveness factor (DDREF) of 2. A risk model is being developed in Russia for the assessment of risks to the exposed populations from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests in the Semipalatinsk region (Altai region) in the forties and fifties. Calculated age-dependent risks from an acute exposure of the Altai population have been compared with results from similar calculations with the ASQRAD model and reasonable agreement has been found between the two models. (au) (11 tabs., 23 ills., 17 refs.)

  14. Improving Site-Specific Radiological Performance Assessments - 13431

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tauxe, John; Black, Paul; Catlett, Kate; Lee, Robert; Perona, Ralph; Stockton, Tom; Sully, Mike [Neptune and Company, Inc., Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    An improved approach is presented for conducting complete and defensible radiological site-specific performance assessments (PAs) to support radioactive waste disposal decisions. The basic tenets of PA were initiated some thirty years ago, focusing on geologic disposals and evaluating compliance with regulations. Some of these regulations were inherently probabilistic (i.e., addressing uncertainty in a quantitative fashion), such as the containment requirements of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) 40 CFR 191, Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, Chap. 191.13 [1]. Methods of analysis were developed to meet those requirements, but at their core early PAs used 'conservative' parameter values and modeling approaches. This limited the utility of such PAs to compliance evaluation, and did little to inform decisions about optimizing disposal, closure and long-term monitoring and maintenance, or, in general, maintaining doses 'as low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA). This basic approach to PA development in the United States was employed essentially unchanged through the end of the 20. century, principally by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Performance assessments developed in support of private radioactive waste disposal operations, regulated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and its agreement states, were typically not as sophisticated. Discussion of new approaches to PA is timely, since at the time of this writing, the DOE is in the midst of revising its Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management [2], and the NRC is revising 10 CFR 61, Licensing Requirements for Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste [3]. Over the previous decade, theoretical developments and improved computational technology have provided the foundation for integrating decision analysis (DA) concepts and objective-focused thinking, plus

  15. Improving Site-Specific Radiological Performance Assessments - 13431

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved approach is presented for conducting complete and defensible radiological site-specific performance assessments (PAs) to support radioactive waste disposal decisions. The basic tenets of PA were initiated some thirty years ago, focusing on geologic disposals and evaluating compliance with regulations. Some of these regulations were inherently probabilistic (i.e., addressing uncertainty in a quantitative fashion), such as the containment requirements of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) 40 CFR 191, Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, Chap. 191.13 [1]. Methods of analysis were developed to meet those requirements, but at their core early PAs used 'conservative' parameter values and modeling approaches. This limited the utility of such PAs to compliance evaluation, and did little to inform decisions about optimizing disposal, closure and long-term monitoring and maintenance, or, in general, maintaining doses 'as low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA). This basic approach to PA development in the United States was employed essentially unchanged through the end of the 20. century, principally by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Performance assessments developed in support of private radioactive waste disposal operations, regulated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and its agreement states, were typically not as sophisticated. Discussion of new approaches to PA is timely, since at the time of this writing, the DOE is in the midst of revising its Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management [2], and the NRC is revising 10 CFR 61, Licensing Requirements for Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste [3]. Over the previous decade, theoretical developments and improved computational technology have provided the foundation for integrating decision analysis (DA) concepts and objective-focused thinking, plus a Bayesian approach to

  16. Agricultural Sector Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2016-01-01

    In the agricultural sector, risks are inherent and ubiquitous, posing potentially serious consequences for stakeholders and consumers. Risks disrupt supply chains, causing extensive financial and economic losses. Agricultural risks are also the principal cause of transient food insecurity, creating a poverty trap for millions of households across the developing world that enforces a viciou...

  17. Radiological assessment of an area with uranium residual material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of a pilot project developed at the old Spanish 'Junta de Energia Nuclear' to extract uranium from ores, tailings materials were generated. Most of these residual materials were sent back to different uranium mines, but a small amount of it was mixed with conventional building materials and deposited near the old plant until the surrounding ground was flattened. The affected land is included in an area under institutional control and used as recreational area. At the time of processing, uranium isotopes were separated but other radionuclides of the uranium decays series as 230Th, 226Ra and daughters remain in the residue. Recently, the analyses of samples taken at different ground's depths confirm their presence. This paper presents the methodology used to calculate the derived concentration level to ensure the reference dose level of 0.1 mSv y-1 used as radiological criteria. In this study, a radiological impact assessment was performed modelling the area as recreational scenario. The modelization study was carried out with the code RESRAD considering as exposure pathways, external irradiation, inadvertent ingestion of soil, inhalation of resuspended particles, and inhalation of outdoor radon (222Rn). As result was concluded that, if the concentration of 226Ra in the first 15 cm of soil is lower than, 0.34 Bq g-1, the dose would not exceed the reference dose. Applying this value as a derived concentration level and comparing with the results of measurements on the ground, some areas with a concentration of activity slightly higher than latter were found. In these zones the remediation proposal has been to cover with a layer of 15 cm of clean material. This action represents a reduction of 85% of the dose and ensures compliance with the reference dose. (author)

  18. Environmental Risk Communication through Qualitative Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabre J. Coleman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental analysts are often hampered in communicating the risks of environmental contaminants due to the myriad of regulatory requirements that are applicable. The use of a qualitative, risk-based control banding strategy for assessment and control of potential environmental contaminants provides a standardized approach to improve risk communication. Presented is a model that provides an effective means for determining standardized responses and controls for common environmental issues based on the level of risk. The model is designed for integration within an occupational health and safety management system to provide a multidisciplinary environmental and occupational risk management approach. This environmental model, which utilizes multidisciplinary control banding strategies for delineating risk, complements the existing Risk Level Based Management System, a proven method in a highly regulated facility for occupational health and safety. A simplified environmental risk matrix is presented that is stratified over four risk levels. Examples of qualitative environmental control banding strategies are presented as they apply to United States regulations for construction, research activities, facility maintenance, and spill remediation that affect air, water, soil, and waste disposal. This approach offers a standardized risk communication language for multidisciplinary issues that will improve communications within and between environmental health and safety professionals, workers, and management.

  19. Health risk assessment for fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A health risk assessment for 85Kr was conducted. The purpose of the study was to evaluate radiological impacts of the EPA 85Kr legislation as embodied in 40 CFR 190. This was done by conducting a health risk assessment of the comparative risks involved in a routine release scenario versus 85Kr capture alternatives at a fuel reprocessing plant (FRP). The krypton contained in dissolver offgas, has historically been released routinely into the environment from FRP operations. There is an alternative to the routine release and that is capture, concentrate, and store the gas for long periods of time. Cryogenic distillation or fluorocarbon absorption are alternative methods for the capture of krypton. Ion implantation/sputtering is a method of immobilizing krypton received from the two capture processes. These technologies were evaluated based on the assumption that, for the extremely low doses and dose rates involved, the risks to individuals in the work force can be compared directly to the risks to members of the general public. Early conceptual facility designs for the three processes were taken from the literature

  20. Standardization of dosimetry in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three objectives of dosimetry in diagnostic radiology can be identified: (1) Measurement of patient doses for comparison with diagnostic reference levels; (2) Assessment of equipment performance; (3) Patient dose measurements for risk assessment. In this paper author deals with problems of standardization of dosimetry in diagnostic radiology. Recommended application specific quantities for dosimetry in diagnostic radiology are presented

  1. Environmental sciences: general. 4. Radiological and Chemical Risks in the Canadian Uranium Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    management area for disposal. Although there are many aboveground tailings management areas in Canada, the current approach is to place tailings in mined-out open pits that have been re-engineered to receive tailings. While the radioactivity released to the environment is a concern both during operation and following decommissioning, the potential release of arsenic and other ore constituents to the aquatic environment can be as contentious as the release of radioactivity. In refining, uranium concentrate (yellowcake) from uranium mills is converted to uranium trioxide for subsequent processing in the conversion facility to uranium hexafluoride (UF6) or to ceramic-grade uranium dioxide (UO2).The UF6 is sent to the United States or overseas for enrichment and use in nuclear power reactors; the UO2 is sent directly to fuel fabrication facilities where it is made into fuel assemblies for use in Candu reactors. In addition to the potential radiological hazards, there is also some potential for the release of anhydrous ammonia from the refining facility and of anhydrous ammonia (NH3), anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (HF), or UF6 from the conversion facility. It could be argued that the refining and conversion facilities are in fact largely chemical plants that simply happen to have a radioactive feed material. Detailed assessments of the potential for, and consequences of, accidental releases of these chemicals have been carried out. The potential hazards considered in this paper are summarized in Table I. This paper describes the front end of the Canadian fuel cycle and briefly examines the risks arising from the major radiological and chemical hazards noted in Table I and comments on the ways in which the risks are managed. The potential risks and the ways they are managed are illustrated with specific examples for both safety and environmental hazards. The ways in which the radiological and chemical hazards are assessed and managed are compared. The author concludes that

  2. L-061: EPR--First responders: Risk and Protection radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference is about the basic risks, protection and the consequences in a radiological emergency. The first responders have to know the deterministic and stochastic effects in the health as well as the cancer risk due of the high radioactive doses exposure

  3. Cancer Risk Prediction and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer prediction models provide an important approach to assessing risk and prognosis by identifying individuals at high risk, facilitating the design and planning of clinical cancer trials, fostering the development of benefit-risk indices, and enabling estimates of the population burden and cost of cancer.

  4. Request for information about radiological risks in the health area. A cross-cultural study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will present some of the key findings of a comparative Latin-American study on radiological risk perception in the health area. The project used a survey method to examine the social demands for information about radiological risks with regard to diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The following topics will be analysed: 1) The role of information as a means for feeling safe; 2) who should inform the public on radiological risks; and 3) what type of information the public would like to receive. A questionnaire was distributed to outpatient samples from ten countries: Argentine, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Uruguay, and Spain, thanks to the collaboration of the different National Radioprotection Societies of the above mentionned countries, and of other concerned professionals (in case they didn't had any association at the time). Correspondence analysis and other techniques of optimal scaling will be used. The paper will discuss the main cross-cultural differences with regard to social demand for information about radiological risks. Our findings may have relevant implications for radiological risks communication programs. (author)

  5. Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) overview of FRMAC operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the event of a major radiological emergency, 17 federal agencies with various statutory responsibilities have agreed to coordinate their efforts at the emergency scene under the umbrella of the Federal Radiological Emergency Response plan (FRERP). This cooperative effort will assure the designated Lead Federal Agency (LFA) and the state(s) that all federal radiological assistance fully supports their efforts to protect the public. The mandated federal cooperation ensures that each agency can obtain the data critical to its specific responsibilities. This Overview of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) Operations describes the FRMAC response activities to a major radiological emergency. It also describes the federal assets and subsequent operational activities which provide federal radiological monitoring and assessment of the off-site areas. These off-site areas may include one or more affected states

  6. Evaluating variability and uncertainty in radiological impact assessment using SYMBIOSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SYMBIOSE is a modelling platform that accounts for variability and uncertainty in radiological impact assessments, when simulating the environmental fate of radionuclides and assessing doses to human populations. The default database of SYMBIOSE is partly based on parameter values that are summarized within International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) documents. To characterize uncertainty on the transfer parameters, 331 Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) were defined from the summary statistics provided within the IAEA documents (i.e. sample size, minimal and maximum values, arithmetic and geometric means, standard and geometric standard deviations) and are made available as spreadsheet files. The methods used to derive the PDFs without complete data sets, but merely the summary statistics, are presented. Then, a simple case-study illustrates the use of the database in a second-order Monte Carlo calculation, separating parametric uncertainty and inter-individual variability. - Highlights: • Parametric uncertainty in radioecology was derived from IAEA documents. • 331 Probability Distribution Functions were defined for transfer parameters. • Parametric uncertainty and inter-individual variability were propagated

  7. Risk-Assessment Computer Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, William C.; Mittman, David S.

    1993-01-01

    RISK D/C is prototype computer program assisting in attempts to do program risk modeling for Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) architectures proposed in Synthesis Group Report. Risk assessment performed with respect to risk events, probabilities, and severities of potential results. Enables ranking, with respect to effectiveness, of risk-mitigation strategies proposed for exploration program architecture. Allows for fact that risk assessment in early phases of planning subjective. Although specific to SEI in present form, also used as software framework for development of risk-assessment programs for other specific uses. Developed for Macintosh(TM) series computer. Requires HyperCard(TM) 2.0 or later, as well as 2 Mb of random-access memory and System 6.0.8 or later.

  8. Hazard classification or risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    to substitute with less toxic compounds. Actually, if exposure is constant across product class, producersmay make substitution decisions based on hazard. Hazard classification is also useful during major accidents where there is no time for risk assessment and the exposure is likely to be...... substantial enough to be a risk. A hazard does not necessarily constitute a risk, as efforts can be done to minimize risk by reducing the exposure. Thus, the relationship between hazard and risk must be treated cautiously. Fora robust risk assessment good data on exposure to the substance is needed and...... exposure data for other similarly acting substances are needed for assessing the risk for mixture effects. Such data may, however, often be absent. Toxicological potency, i.e. the lowest dose found to cause adverse effects, has been proposed as one of the key characteristics when evaluating safety of a...

  9. L-035: EPR-First Responders: Basic Risk and Protection for First Responders to a Radiological Emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are some basic actions and self-protective actions to take in an radiological emergency. Radiation is detected with appropriate instrumentation and measuring the rate of exposure (Sv per hour) in contact with radioactive materials involved. Is important to note: Responsive to a radiological emergency, tool to identify radiological risks, radiation protection, radioactive symbol and instrumentation

  10. Risk Assessment and Integration Team (RAIT) Portfolio Risk Analysis Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Impact at management level: Qualitative assessment of risk criticality in conjunction with risk consequence, likelihood, and severity enable development of an "investment policy" towards managing a portfolio of risks. Impact at research level: Quantitative risk assessments enable researchers to develop risk mitigation strategies with meaningful risk reduction results. Quantitative assessment approach provides useful risk mitigation information.

  11. Radiology resident selection: Objective Restructured Interview to assess five essential attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Lamki, Neela; Watson, Alfred B.; Fisher, Richard G.

    2003-01-01

    Like in other medical fields, candidates seeking a career in Radiology requires special skills and aptitudes. Selecting candidates for radiology residency is made difficult by the fact that many of the essential qualities predictive of a good radiology consultant, such as interpersonal skills, recognition of limits, curiosity, conscientiousness, and confidence level, are “non-cognitive”, and thus difficult to assess. This paper describes the selection procedure developed by the Department of ...

  12. Nanomaterials: Regulation and Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Grieger, Khara Deanne; Baun, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The topics of regulation and risk assessment of nanomaterials have never been more relevant and controversial in Europe than they are at this point in time. In this entry, we present and discuss a number of major pieces of legislation relevant for the regulation of nanomaterials, including REACH...... Foods Regulation. Chemical risk assessment provides a fundamental element in support of existing legislation. Risk assessment is normally said to consist of four elements, i.e., hazard identification, dose–response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. Each of these four elements......, the Water Framework Directive, pharmaceuticals regulation, and the Novel Foods Regulation. Current regulation of nanomaterials entail three overall challenges: 1) limitations in regard to terminology and definitions of key terms such as a “substance,” “novel food,” etc.; 2) safety assessment...

  13. Radiological risk from consuming fish and wildlife to Native Americans on the Hanford Site (USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historical operations at the Hanford Site (Washington State, USA) have released a wide array of non-radionuclide and radionuclide contaminants into the environment. As a result of stakeholder concerns, Native American exposure scenarios have been integrated into Hanford risk assessments. Because its contribution to radiological risk to Native Americans is culturally and geographically specific but quantitatively uncertain, a fish and wildlife ingestion pathway was examined in this study. Adult consumption rates were derived from 20 Native American scenarios (based on 12 studies) at Hanford, and tissue concentrations of key radionuclides in fish, game birds, and game mammals were compiled from the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) database for a recent time interval (1995-2007) during the post-operational period. It was assumed that skeletal muscle comprised 90% of intake, while other tissues accounted for the remainder. Acknowledging data gaps, median concentrations of eight radionuclides (i.e., Co-60, Cs-137, Sr-90, Tc-99, U-234, U-238, Pu-238, and Pu-239/240) in skeletal muscle and other tissues were below 0.01 and 1 pCi/g wet wt, respectively. These radionuclide concentrations were not significantly different (Bonferroni P>0.05) on and off the Hanford Site. Despite no observed difference between onsite and offsite tissue concentrations, radiation dose and risk were calculated for the fish and wildlife ingestion pathway using onsite data. With median consumption rates and radionuclide tissue concentrations, skeletal muscle provided 42% of the dose, while other tissues (primarily bone and carcass) accounted for 58%. In terms of biota, fish ingestion was the largest contributor to dose (64%). Among radionuclides, Sr-90 was dominant, accounting for 47% of the dose. At median intake and radionuclide levels, estimated annual dose (0.36 mrem/yr) was below a dose limit of 15 mrem/yr recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA

  14. Radiological risk from consuming fish and wildlife to Native Americans on the Hanford Site (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delistraty, Damon; Van Verst, Scott; Rochette, Elizabeth A

    2010-02-01

    Historical operations at the Hanford Site (Washington State, USA) have released a wide array of non-radionuclide and radionuclide contaminants into the environment. As a result of stakeholder concerns, Native American exposure scenarios have been integrated into Hanford risk assessments. Because its contribution to radiological risk to Native Americans is culturally and geographically specific but quantitatively uncertain, a fish and wildlife ingestion pathway was examined in this study. Adult consumption rates were derived from 20 Native American scenarios (based on 12 studies) at Hanford, and tissue concentrations of key radionuclides in fish, game birds, and game mammals were compiled from the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) database for a recent time interval (1995-2007) during the post-operational period. It was assumed that skeletal muscle comprised 90% of intake, while other tissues accounted for the remainder. Acknowledging data gaps, median concentrations of eight radionuclides (i.e., Co-60, Cs-137, Sr-90, Tc-99, U-234, U-238, Pu-238, and Pu-239/240) in skeletal muscle and other tissues were below 0.01 and 1 pCi/g wet wt, respectively. These radionuclide concentrations were not significantly different (Bonferroni P>0.05) on and off the Hanford Site. Despite no observed difference between onsite and offsite tissue concentrations, radiation dose and risk were calculated for the fish and wildlife ingestion pathway using onsite data. With median consumption rates and radionuclide tissue concentrations, skeletal muscle provided 42% of the dose, while other tissues (primarily bone and carcass) accounted for 58%. In terms of biota, fish ingestion was the largest contributor to dose (64%). Among radionuclides, Sr-90 was dominant, accounting for 47% of the dose. At median intake and radionuclide levels, estimated annual dose (0.36 mrem/yr) was below a dose limit of 15 mrem/yr recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA

  15. Assessment of the radiological quality of tap waters 2008-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a recall of the context (radioactivity, origin of natural radioactivity in waters, exposure of population to natural radioactivity and health impact, indicators of water radiological quality, presence of uranium in water), this document reports a study which is based on the health control of water radiological quality by regional health agencies, on the analysis of natural and artificial radionuclides, on a survey on tap water radiological quality performed in 2009 by regional health agencies, and on an inventory of results related to the presence of radon in water performed by the IRSN and these agencies. The obtained results are presented and discussed in terms of factors impacting the result representativeness, of generalisation of the implementation of a health control, of tap water radiological quality. It is outlined that the uranium-related chemical risk is higher than the radiological risk

  16. The social and cultural construction of radiological risk: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Nuffelen, D. [Radiation Protection Service, Brussels (Belgium)

    1996-12-31

    Man, society or culture, considered as objects, cannot be measured in the same way as one would measure gravity or a hyperbola. In these conditions, how can one isolate the socio-anthropological aspects from the overall perception of radiological risks, thus the nuclear question? This paper deals with an empirical study derived from some fundamental research conducted in order to explain how different social actors conceive the nuclear question by means of different social construction of reality. It fits into the sociological scheme of knowledge posing a set of methodological and theoretical questions that have as the object the study of the social determinants of knowledge related to the nuclear question. The present survey, carried out in Belgian agricultural workers, makes clear how such determinants interact to form one social construction of the radiological risk. It allows us to presume that the perception of the radiological risks cannot be reduced to some laypeople`s measurable psychic (mis)perceptions. (author).

  17. The social and cultural construction of radiological risk: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man, society or culture, considered as objects, cannot be measured in the same way as one would measure gravity or a hyperbola. In these conditions, how can one isolate the socio-anthropological aspects from the overall perception of radiological risks, thus the nuclear question? This paper deals with an empirical study derived from some fundamental research conducted in order to explain how different social actors conceive the nuclear question by means of different social construction of reality. It fits into the sociological scheme of knowledge posing a set of methodological and theoretical questions that have as the object the study of the social determinants of knowledge related to the nuclear question. The present survey, carried out in Belgian agricultural workers, makes clear how such determinants interact to form one social construction of the radiological risk. It allows us to presume that the perception of the radiological risks cannot be reduced to some laypeople's measurable psychic (mis)perceptions. (author)

  18. Radiological social risk perception: something more than experts/ public discrepancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most important concerns of the postindustrial societies lies on the specification and quantification of risk, the Risk Assesment. However, the efforts and resources devoted to such goal have not avoided a growing worry about both the environmental conditions and the situations that potentially threaten it, generating an intense social debate about risks. In this framework, discrepancies between experts and public evaluations risks leaded to the study of social Risk perception. Several theoretical scopes have tried to characterize the phenomenon. A worthy conclusion of the empirical studies carried out on this issue is that all of them, experts and public, are influence by some factors which, in turns, affect their risk perception,. Specially striking is the fact that perception of risk among experts is also modulated by qualitative, personal and social factors. Social Risk Perception, through the process of Communication and Social Participation, has been configurated as a critical tool for both risk prevention and management

  19. Health Canada's approach to manage risks to populations at risk during a radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The approach that Health Canada uses to manage risks to individuals and to populations who might be exposed to ionising radiation is based upon the risk management paradigm. The paradigm differs little between an emergency and a non-emergency situations. In both events, technical experts assess the risk by determining the exposure to the source of radiation. They usually calculate the radiation dose and then assess the potential for any health effects. The initial technical assessments often use scoping calculations. The calculations for children recognise that they are smaller and have different metabolic rates and different behaviour from adults. However, most rigorous quantitative models for dosimetry do not differentiate between children and adults. The risk assessments that were conducted to evaluate the contamination of Canadians who were in London during the Litvenenko poisoning are a good example to illustrate this general approach. The scoping risk assessment concluded that the risks to children and adults were low. No Canadian children were exposed to polonium during this event and, to date, there have been no radiation emergencies in Canada where children have been exposed to a significant source of radiation. Therefore, the comparisons between theory and practice are very limited and conclusions are drawn from international experience and other incidents or sources of radiation exposure such as radon and medical exposures. Published by Oxford Univ. Press on behalf of the Canadian Government. (authors)

  20. Assessment of radiological referral practice and effect of computer-based guidelines on radiological requests in two emergency departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To assess medical emergency radiology referral practice compared with a set of French guidelines and to measure the efficiency of computer-based guidelines on unnecessary medical imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All radiological requests were computerized in the medical emergency departments of two French teaching hospitals. During control periods, radiological requests were recorded but no action was taken. During intervention periods, reminder displays on screen indicated the appropriate recommendations. Three control and three intervention periods of 1 month each were conducted. The percentage of requests that did not conform to the guidelines and variation related to periods of control and intervention were measured. RESULTS: The proportion of requests that did not conform to the guidelines was 33·2% when the guidelines were inactive and decreased to 26·9% when the recommendations were active (P < 0·0001). The three imaging examinations (chest radiographs, abdominal plain radiographs and CT of the brain) accounted for more than 80% of all requests; more than 50% of abdominal plain radiographs requests did not conform with recommendations while this percentage was respectively 24·9% and 15·8% for chest radiographs and computed tomography (CT) of the brain. Seven situations accounted for 70% of non-conforming radiological referrals; in these situations, junior practitioners' knowledge was inadequate. CONCLUSION: While the computer provided advice that was tailored to the needs of individual patients, concurrent with care, the effect of our intervention was weak. However, our study identified the few situations that were responsible for the majority of unnecessary radiological requests; we expect that this result could help clinicians and radiologists to develop more specific actions for these situations. Carton, M. et al. (2002). Clinical Radiology (2002)

  1. Virtual Raters for Reproducible and Objective Assessments in Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleesiek, Jens; Petersen, Jens; Döring, Markus; Maier-Hein, Klaus; Köthe, Ullrich; Wick, Wolfgang; Hamprecht, Fred A; Bendszus, Martin; Biller, Armin

    2016-01-01

    Volumetric measurements in radiologic images are important for monitoring tumor growth and treatment response. To make these more reproducible and objective we introduce the concept of virtual raters (VRs). A virtual rater is obtained by combining knowledge of machine-learning algorithms trained with past annotations of multiple human raters with the instantaneous rating of one human expert. Thus, he is virtually guided by several experts. To evaluate the approach we perform experiments with multi-channel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data sets. Next to gross tumor volume (GTV) we also investigate subcategories like edema, contrast-enhancing and non-enhancing tumor. The first data set consists of N = 71 longitudinal follow-up scans of 15 patients suffering from glioblastoma (GB). The second data set comprises N = 30 scans of low- and high-grade gliomas. For comparison we computed Pearson Correlation, Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and Dice score. Virtual raters always lead to an improvement w.r.t. inter- and intra-rater agreement. Comparing the 2D Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) measurements to the volumetric measurements of the virtual raters results in one-third of the cases in a deviating rating. Hence, we believe that our approach will have an impact on the evaluation of clinical studies as well as on routine imaging diagnostics. PMID:27118379

  2. Risk Due to Radiological Terror Attacks With Natural Radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Stan, Rydell; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    The naturally occurring radionuclides radium (Ra-226) and polonium (Po-210) have the potential to be used for criminal acts. Analysis of international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (CSTO), operated at the University of Salzburg, shows that several acts of murder and terrorism with natural radionuclides have already been carried out in Europe and Russia. Five different modes of attack (T) are possible: (1) Covert irradiation of an individual in order to deliver a high individual dose; (2) Covert irradiation of a group of persons delivering a large collective dose; (3) Contamination of food or drink; (4) Generation of radioactive aerosols or solutions; (5) Combination of Ra-226 with conventional explosives (Dirty Bomb). This paper assesses the risk (R) of such criminal acts in terms of: (a) Probability of terrorist motivation deploying a certain attack mode T; (b) Probability of success by the terrorists for the selected attack mode T; (c) Primary damage consequence (C) to the attacked target (activity, dose); (d) Secondary damage consequence (C') to the attacked target (psychological and socio-economic effects); (e) Probability that the consequences (C, C') cannot be brought under control, resulting in a failure to manage successfully the emergency situation due to logistical and/or technical deficits in implementing adequate countermeasures. Extensive computer modelling is used to determine the potential impact of such a criminal attack on directly affected victims and on the environment.

  3. Risk Due to Radiological Terror Attacks With Natural Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The naturally occurring radionuclides radium (Ra-226) and polonium (Po-210) have the potential to be used for criminal acts. Analysis of international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (CSTO), operated at the University of Salzburg, shows that several acts of murder and terrorism with natural radionuclides have already been carried out in Europe and Russia. Five different modes of attack (T) are possible: (1) Covert irradiation of an individual in order to deliver a high individual dose; (2) Covert irradiation of a group of persons delivering a large collective dose; (3) Contamination of food or drink; (4) Generation of radioactive aerosols or solutions; (5) Combination of Ra-226 with conventional explosives (Dirty Bomb).This paper assesses the risk (R) of such criminal acts in terms of: (a) Probability of terrorist motivation deploying a certain attack mode T; (b) Probability of success by the terrorists for the selected attack mode T; (c) Primary damage consequence (C) to the attacked target (activity, dose); (d) Secondary damage consequence (C') to the attacked target (psychological and socio-economic effects); (e) Probability that the consequences (C, C') cannot be brought under control, resulting in a failure to manage successfully the emergency situation due to logistical and/or technical deficits in implementing adequate countermeasures. Extensive computer modelling is used to determine the potential impact of such a criminal attack on directly affected victims and on the environment

  4. Risk assessment in international operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During international peace-keeping missions, a diverse number of non-battle hazards may be encountered, which range from heavily polluted areas, endemic disease, toxic industrial materials, local violence, traffic, and even psychological factors. Hence, elevated risk levels from a variety of sources are encountered during deployments. With the emphasis within the Swedish military moving from national defense towards prioritization of international missions in atypical environments, the risk of health consequences, including long term health effects, has received greater consideration. The Swedish military is interested in designing an optimal approach for assessment of health threats during deployments. The Medical Intelligence group at FOI CBRN Security and Defence in Umea has, on request from and in collaboration with the Swedish Armed Forces, reviewed a variety of international health threat and risk assessment models for military operations. Application of risk assessment methods used in different phases of military operations will be reviewed. An overview of different international approaches used in operational risk management (ORM) will be presented as well as a discussion of the specific needs and constraints for health risk assessment in military operations. This work highlights the specific challenges of risk assessment that are unique to the deployment setting such as the assessment of exposures to a variety of diverse hazards concurrently

  5. Building Better Environmental Risk Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Raymond; Smith, Joe; Macdonald, Phil; Letchumanan, Ramatha; Keese, Paul; Lema, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessment is a reasoned, structured approach to address uncertainty based on scientific and technical evidence. It forms the foundation for regulatory decision-making, which is bound by legislative and policy requirements, as well as the need for making timely decisions using available resources. In order to be most useful, environmental risk assessments (ERAs) for genetically modified (GM) crops should provide consistent, reliable, and transparent results across all types of GM crops, traits, and environments. The assessments must also separate essential information from scientific or agronomic data of marginal relevance or value for evaluating risk and complete the assessment in a timely fashion. Challenges in conducting ERAs differ across regulatory systems - examples are presented from Canada, Malaysia, and Argentina. One challenge faced across the globe is the conduct of risk assessments with limited resources. This challenge can be overcome by clarifying risk concepts, placing greater emphasis on data critical to assess environmental risk (for example, phenotypic and plant performance data rather than molecular data), and adapting advances in risk analysis from other relevant disciplines. PMID:26301217

  6. Building better environmental risk assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond eLayton

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment is a reasoned, structured approach to address uncertainty based on scientific and technical evidence. It forms the foundation for regulatory decision making, which is bound by legislative and policy requirements, as well as the need for making timely decisions using available resources. In order to be most useful, environmental risk assessments (ERA for genetically modified (GM crops should provide consistent, reliable, and transparent results across all types of GM crops, traits, and environments. The assessments must also separate essential information from scientific or agronomic data of marginal relevance or value for evaluating risk and complete the assessment in a timely fashion. Challenges in conducting ERAs differ across regulatory systems – examples are presented from Canada, Malaysia, and Argentina. One challenge faced across the globe is the conduct of risk assessments with limited resources. This challenge can be overcome by clarifying risk concepts, placing greater emphasis on data critical to assess environmental risk (for example, phenotypic and plant performance data rather than molecular data, and adapting advances in risk analysis from other relevant disciplines.

  7. Risk assessment: An employer's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is no question that a careful assessment of risk is essential for safe industrial operations. For that reason, a thoughtful analysis of the effectiveness of available risk assessment technologies is prerequisite for responsible corporate decision making. An 'employer's' perspective on risk assessment cannot be constrained by any artificial restrictions which that term may imply. In reality, all those who are involved in the execution of an industrial enterprise: managers, regulators, the affected public, and especially those employees exposed to hazards, are necessarily partners in assessment of risk. The perspective of this paper is that of the oil and gas industry, in which the author's organization, Exxon Company, International, participates. The paper addresses what Exxon requires to assess and manage risk in its worldwide operations. The author is aware, however, through contacts with industry colleagues, that some of Exxon's initiatives are representative of similar actions being taken by others. 1992 is the European Year of Safety, Health and Hygiene, coinciding with the United Kingdom's Presidency of the European Council. It is also the year in which new 'goal-setting' regulations covering safety in the U.K. offshore oil industry were put forward by the Health and Safety Commission. These regulations, based largely on Lord Cullen's recommendations following the Piper Alpha tragedy, set the pace for safety in the British North Sea and will significantly impact the safety of offshore oil installations worldwide. The requirement for risk assessment, using a systematic process of analysing and evaluating risk, is a key component of this safety regime

  8. Genetic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the induction of germ cell mutations in mammals international and national committees developed concepts for quantifying radiation-induced genetic risk in humans. Genetic effects dominated the thinking o the UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation) Report in 1958, the BEAR (Biological Effects of Atomic Radiations) Report form the National Academy of Sciences, the National Research Council in 1956, and the British counterpart, the Medical Research Council , in 1956. an interesting personal account of the development of the work of the BEIR (Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations) and UNSCEAR Committee was published recently by Russell. The quality of risk estimation depends on the data base and on the concepts used. The current status of both aspects for quantifying genetic risk is reviewed in this paper

  9. Assessments of medical exposures during interventional radiology procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims to contribute to the construction of a scenario regarding patient radiation exposure in Brazilian interventional radiology, aiming to provide data for the future drafting of specific legislation on interventional radiology because there is currently a lack of safety regulations for haemodynamics services in this country. Fourteen haemodynamics services in the states of Santa Catarina and Bahia were evaluated. The radiological devices were characterised through measurements of air kerma-area product, entrance surface air kerma (Ke), exposure time, spatial resolution (SR), low-contrast resolution and half value layer. During the evaluation of instrument parameters, several non-conformities were found according to current Brazilian regulations, with SR presenting the most critical situation. The results of the present study indicate the need for the optimisation of clinical practices in complex radiological procedures, although the overall results for the dose scenario in the present study revealed values similar to those reported in international publications. (authors)

  10. Geostatistical methods for radiological evaluation and risk analysis of contaminated premises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: At the end of process equipment dismantling, the complete decontamination of nuclear facilities requires the radiological assessment of residual activity levels of building structures. As stated by the IAEA, 'Segregation and characterization of contaminated materials are the key elements of waste minimization'. From this point of view, the set up of an appropriate evaluation methodology is of primordial importance. The radiological characterization of contaminated premises can be divided into three steps. First, the most exhaustive facility analysis provides historical, functional and qualitative information. Then, a systematic (exhaustive or not) control of the emergent signal is performed by means of in situ measurement methods such as surface control device combined with in situ gamma spectrometry. Besides, in order to assess the contamination depth, samples can be collected from boreholes at several locations within the premises and analyzed. Combined with historical information and emergent signal maps, such data improve and reinforce the preliminary waste zoning. In order to provide reliable estimates while avoiding supplementary investigation costs, there is therefore a crucial need for sampling optimization methods together with appropriate data processing techniques. The relevance of the geostatistical methodology relies on the presence of a spatial continuity for radiological contamination. In this case, geostatistics provides reliable methods for activity estimation, uncertainty quantification and risk analysis, which are essential decision-making tools for decommissioning and dismantling projects of nuclear installations. Besides, the ability of this geostatistical framework to provide answers to several key issues that generally occur during the clean-up preparation phase is discussed: How to optimise the investigation costs? How to deal with data quality issues? How to consistently take into account auxiliary information such as historical

  11. Life Cycle Assessment and Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a tool for environmental assessment of product and systems – over the whole life cycle from acquisition of raw materials to the end-of-life of the product – and encompassing all environmental impacts of emissions and resource usage, e.g. global warming, acidification...... and toxicity. Whereas Risk Assessment (RA) aims to identify absolute risks, LCA assess potential or relative impacts. LCA is readily applicable to nanotechnologies and several studies have been carried out, but LCA faces large problems when addressing toxic impacts of nanomaterials emitted during the...... life cycle. The models for assessing toxic impacts in LCA are to a large extent based on those developed for RA, e.g. EUSES, and require basic information about the inherent properties of the emissions like solubility, LogKow,ED50 etc. Additionally, it is a prerequisite to know how to characterize the...

  12. Building Better Environmental Risk Assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Layton, Raymond; Smith, Joe; Macdonald, Phil; Letchumanan, Ramatha; Keese, Paul; Lema, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessment is a reasoned, structured approach to address uncertainty based on scientific and technical evidence. It forms the foundation for regulatory decision-making, which is bound by legislative and policy requirements, as well as the need for making timely decisions using available resources. In order to be most useful, environmental risk assessments (ERAs) for genetically modified (GM) crops should provide consistent, reliable, and transparent results across all types of GM crops, ...

  13. Assessing Fiscal Risks in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Medina

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies, quantifies, and assesses fiscal risks in Bangladesh. By performing sensitivity analysis and using stochastic simulations, it measures risks arising from shocks to GDP growth, the exchange rate, commodity prices, and interest rates. It also analyzes specific fiscal and institutional risks, such as those related to the pension system, the issuance of guarantees, the state-owned commercial banks, and the external borrowing and debt management strategy. The paper finds that...

  14. The evolution of radiological risk management: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article presents the evolution of the principles that have structured the management of the risk associated with ionising radiation. It explains how a prudent approach has been adopted to deal with the uncertainties attached to the risk linked to low exposures. It particularly addresses the way in which a dose-risk relationship and a philosophy of action have been gradually developed so that risk-taking is organised in a responsible manner. Finally, the way expertise has been structured in the framework of a cautious approach is underlined. (author)

  15. Modern biogeochemistry environmental risk assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Bashkin, Vladimir N

    2006-01-01

    Most books deal mainly with various technical aspects of ERA description and calculationsAims at generalizing the modern ideas of both biogeochemical and environmental risk assessment during recent yearsAims at supplementing the existing books by providing a modern understanding of mechanisms that are responsible for the ecological risk for human beings and ecosystem

  16. Paraguay Agricultural Sector Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Arce, Carlos; Arias, Diego

    2015-01-01

    This report is the result of a World Bank mission that visited Paraguay in June 2013 at the request of the Government of Paraguay. The mission’s objective was to identify, quantify, and prioritize agriculture risks that determine the volatility of agriculture gross domestic product (GDP), based on a methodology to assess sector risks developed by the World Bank. The methodology stipulates ...

  17. Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... know before using this tool: The Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool was designed for use by doctors and other health providers with their patients. If you are not a health ... your personal risk of colorectal cancer. (Colorectal cancer is another way ...

  18. Cloud computing assessing the risks

    CERN Document Server

    Carstensen, Jared; Golden, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Cloud Computing: Assessing the risks answers these questions and many more. Using jargon-free language and relevant examples, analogies and diagrams, it is an up-to-date, clear and comprehensive guide the security, governance, risk, and compliance elements of Cloud Computing.

  19. Carcinogen risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes the methods by which risk factors for carcinogenic hazards are determined and the limitations inherent in the process. From statistical and epidemiological studies, the major identifiable factors related to cancer in the United States were determined to be cigarette smoking, diet, reproductive and sexual behavior, infections, ultraviolet and ionizing radiation, and alcohol consumption. The incidence of lung cancer due to air pollutants was estimated to be less than 2%. Research needs were discussed

  20. Clean Slate transportation and human health risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public concern regarding activities involving radioactive material generally focuses on the human health risk associated with exposure to ionizing radiation. This report describes the results of a risk analysis conducted to evaluate risk for excavation, handling, and transport of soil contaminated with transuranics at the Clean Slate sites. Transportation risks were estimated for public transport routes from the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) to the Envirocore disposal facility or to the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for both radiological risk and risk due to traffic accidents. Human health risks were evaluated for occupational and radiation-related health effects to workers. This report was generated to respond to this public concern, to provide an evaluation of the risk, and to assess feasibility of transport of the contaminated soil for disposal

  1. Probabilistic risk assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to provide the tools necessary for clear identification of: the purpose of a Probabilistic Risk Study, the bounds and depth of the study, the proper modeling techniques to be used, the failure modes contributing to the analysis, the classical and baysian approaches for manipulating data necessary for quantification, ways for treating uncertainties, and available computer codes that may be used in performing such probabilistic analysis. In addition, it provides the means for measuring the importance of a safety feature to maintaining a level of risk at a Nuclear Power Plant and the worth of optimizing a safety system in risk reduction. In applying these techniques so that they accommodate our national resources and needs it was felt that emphasis should be put on the system reliability analysis level of PRA. Objectives of such studies could include: comparing systems' designs of the various vendors in the bedding stage, and performing grid reliability and human performance analysis using national specific data. (author)

  2. Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find a Specialist Share Twitter Facebook SCA Risk Assessment Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) occurs abruptly and without ... of all ages and health conditions. Start Risk Assessment The Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) Risk Assessment Tool ...

  3. CEA: assessment of risk management 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report proposes an overview of CEA activities in the field of risk management in different areas: impact on the environment, installation safety, management of occupational risks (occupational health and safety), radiological protection of workers, transportation of hazardous materials, waste management, protection of sites, installations and heritage, management of emergency situations, management of law risks, controls and audits. It finally presents the risk management department

  4. Development and application of portable mobile gamma spectrometry system (PMGSS) for realtime online radiological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A state of art mobile monitoring system is a prime requirement to combat the challenging radiological situations. In the event of any radiological/nuclear Emergencies an effective, realistic methodology of radiological measurements is an asset. In this context, a highly sensitive real-time online mobile monitoring system having features and provision to display the important parameters will be an essential tool in the course of radiological impact assessment. This paper, describes the efforts that has been made towards providing a useful Portable Mobile Gamma Spectrometry System (PMGSS) and developing applications so as to enhance its usefulness in quick radiological impact assessment and to initiate the proper countermeasures during any Nuclear/Radiological emergency situation in public domain. The system uses a NaI(Tl) detector, a global positioning system (GPS) and a laptop PC for storage, analysis and graphical representation of the acquired data. PMGSS is a highly sensitive, portable and reliable radiation monitoring equipment with capability of qualitative and quick estimation of the radioisotopes. The system was used for the mobile radiological mapping of Bangalore and Mumbai city and demonstrated its capability for use in environmental radiation monitoring during any radiological emergency requirement the results of which are presented here. (abstract)

  5. Competing risk theory and radiation risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New statistical procedures are applied to estimate cumulative distribution functions (c.d.f.), force of mortality, and latent period for radiation-induced malignancies. It is demonstrated that correction for competing risks influences the shape of dose response curves, estimates of the latent period, and of the risk from ionizing radiations. The equivalence of the following concepts is demonstrated: force of mortality, hazard rate, and age or time specific incidence. This equivalence makes it possible to use procedures from reliability analysis and demography for radiation risk assessment. Two methods used by reliability analysts - hazard plotting and total time on test plots - are discussed in some detail and applied to characterize the hazard rate in radiation carcinogenesis. C.d.f.'s with increasing, decreasing, or constant hazard rate have different shapes and are shown to yield different dose-response curves for continuous irradiation. Absolute risk is shown to be a sound estimator only if the force of mortality is constant for the exposed and the control group. Dose-response relationships that use the absolute risk as a measure for the effect turn out to be special cases of dose-response relationships that measure the effect with cumulative incidence. (H.K.)

  6. Caries risk assessment in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, S

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To summarise the findings of recent systematic reviews (SR) covering caries risk assessment in children, updated with recent primary studies. METHODS: A search for relevant papers published 2012-2014 was conducted in electronic databases. The systematic reviews were quality assessed with......, while the rest displayed a high risk of bias. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the present summary of literature, it may be concluded: (1) a caries risk assessment should be carried out at the child's first dental visit and reassessments should be done during childhood (D); (2) multivariate models display a better...... the AMSTAR tool and the primary publications according to the Cochrane handbook. The quality was rated as low, moderate, or high risk of bias. The findings were descriptively synthesised and the quality of evidence was graded according to GRADE. For the recommendations of practice, the SIGN scores...

  7. Development of the CHEMTARD coupled process simulator for use in radiological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes features of CHEMTARD (Chemical Transport Adsorption Redox and Decay); a directly-coupled chemical transport code, developed to aid the DOE in carrying out post-closure radiological risk assessments. The program is based on the Lawrence Berkeley code, CHEMTRN, and simulates the one-dimensional transport of aqueous chemical species by advection and/or diffusion while accounting for phase transfer by reversible precipitation-dissolution, ion-exchange or surface adsorption. New models for radioactive decay, oxidation-reduction reactions, flexible boundary conditions and multi-layered transport have significantly enhanced the ability of the code to perform coupled process calculations. Although originally developed for studies involving shallow disposal of low level wastes, the models contained in CHEMTARD are sufficiently general to allow thermodynamic treatment of chemical transport for porous flow through all saturated aquifer systems. (author)

  8. MARC - the NRPB methodology for assessing radiological consequences of accidental releases of activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Radiological Protection Board has developed a methodology for the assessment of the public health related consequences of accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear facilities. The methodology consists of a suite of computer programs which predict the transfer of activity from the point of release to the atmosphere through to the population. The suite of programs is entitled MARC; Methodology for Assessing Radiological Consequences. This report describes the overall framework and philosophy utilised within MARC. (author)

  9. Radiological risk from Am-241 in ionisation smoke chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discusses the risk to man from the use of ionisation smoke chamber detectors with an Am-241 radiation source. The estimated dose is compared with that due to natural radioactivity. (G.T.H.)

  10. Assessment of SRS radiological liquid and airborne contaminants and pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, G.T.

    1997-04-01

    This report compiles and documents the radiological critical-contaminant/critical-pathway analysis performed for SRS. The analysis covers radiological releases to the atmosphere and to surface water, which are the principal media that carry contaminants off site. During routine operations at SRS, limited amounts of radionuclides are released to the environment through atmospheric and/or liquid pathways. These releases potentially result in exposure to offsite people. Though the groundwater beneath an estimated 5 to 10 percent of SRS has been contaminated by radionuclides, there is no evidence that groundwater contaminated with these constituents has migrated offsite (Arnett, 1996). Therefore, with the notable exception of radiological source terms originating from shallow surface water migration into site streams, onsite groundwater was not considered as a potential exposure pathway to offsite people.

  11. Assessment of SRS radiological liquid and airborne contaminants and pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report compiles and documents the radiological critical-contaminant/critical-pathway analysis performed for SRS. The analysis covers radiological releases to the atmosphere and to surface water, which are the principal media that carry contaminants off site. During routine operations at SRS, limited amounts of radionuclides are released to the environment through atmospheric and/or liquid pathways. These releases potentially result in exposure to offsite people. Though the groundwater beneath an estimated 5 to 10 percent of SRS has been contaminated by radionuclides, there is no evidence that groundwater contaminated with these constituents has migrated offsite (Arnett, 1996). Therefore, with the notable exception of radiological source terms originating from shallow surface water migration into site streams, onsite groundwater was not considered as a potential exposure pathway to offsite people

  12. Radiological health assessment of natural radioactivity in the vicinity of Obajana cement factory, North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omoniyi Matthew Isinkaye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in and around Obajana cement factory, North Central Nigeria have been carried out in this study to determine the activity levels of natural radionuclides in different environmental matrices in order to assess the radiological health hazards associated with the use of these matrices by the local population. A low-background Pb-shielded gamma spectroscopic counting assembly utilizing NaI (Tl detector was employed for the measurements. The results show that sediment samples have the highest activity concentrations of all the radionuclides relative to soil, farmland soil, and rock samples. The radium equivalent activity and indoor gamma dose rates together with the corresponding annual effective indoor doses evaluated were found to be lower than their permissible limits. It suffices to say, that contrary to age-long fear of radiation risks to the population in the vicinity of the cement factory, no excessive radiological health hazards either indoors and/or outdoors is envisaged. Therefore, the environmental matrices around the factory could be used without any restrictions.

  13. Failure rate data for fusion safety and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fusion Safety Program (FSP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) conducts safety research in materials, chemical reactions, safety analysis, risk assessment, and in component research and development to support existing magnetic fusion experiments and also to promote safety in the design of future experiments. One of the areas of safety research is applying probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods to fusion experiments. To apply PRA, we need a fusion-relevant radiological dose code and a component failure rate data base. This paper describes the FSP effort to develop a failure rate data base for fusion-specific components

  14. Comparison of the MARC and CRAC2 programs for assessing the radiological consequences of accidental releases of radioactive material

    CERN Document Server

    Hemming, C R; Charles, D; Ostmeyer, R M

    1983-01-01

    This report describes a comparison of the MARC (Methodology for Assessing Radiological Consequences) and CRAC2 (Calculation of Reactor Accident Consequences, version 2) computer programs for assessing the radiological consequences of accidental releases of radioactive material. A qualitative comparison has been made of the features of the constituent sub-models of the two codes, and potentially the most important differences identified. The influence of these differences has been investigated quantitatively by comparison of the predictions of the two codes in a wide variety of circumstances. Both intermediate quantities and endpoints used as a measure of risk have been compared in order to separate the variables more clearly. The results indicate that, in general, the predictions of MARC and CRAC2 are in good agreement.

  15. Risks arising during manipulation with radiologically specific products of biotechnical production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective of this study was to review the risk of exposure to radiocaesium (134+137Cs), which biologically presents the most toxic radionuclide, of people engaged in the process of supervision, transport and storage of the radiologically specific products, like concentrated protein feedstuff (fish meal, powdered milk), wool, cow hide and chamois. The discussion is based on the results of a radiological-hygienic analysis of these products in the context of veterinary-sanitary control, performed in the authorized referent Laboratory for Radiation Hygiene (LABRAH) at the Scientific Institute for Veterinary Medicine of Serbia in Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

  16. Risk assessment and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the use of risk assessment techniques in the field of environment protection. I will argue that in some important instances the development of environment policy has been a source of fruitful development of a risk based methodologies. In other cases the importation of risk assessment techniques has proved much more problematic. As the scope of environmental regulation increases so does the possibility of inconsistent and arbitrary solutions to problems. The need for a more systematic approach to the development of environmental regulation has never been stronger, so it is important to understand the reasons for the mixed success of risk assessment. This applies equally to those nations with long traditions of the regulation of private sector industry and those just beginning on this course. The way ahead may be to extend our ideas of how to express risk and uncertainty. Some of the recent cause celebres of environment policy show this challenge very clearly. As an example, this paper will look at the problem of assessing the risk of man-made climate change

  17. Pathology and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Programs for providing basic data for use in evaluating the hazard to man from exposure to radiation and other energy-related pollutants are reviewed. A computer program was developed that takes the existing mortality and fertility data on a given population and applies dose-response coefficients and estimated increments of exposure to chemical or radioactive effluents and derives the excess deaths by age and sex for 5-year intervals. The program was used in an analysis of the health effects of airborne coal combustion effluents. Preliminary results are reported from a study of the influence of products of fossil fuel combustion on the spontaneous activity patterns and daily metabolic cycles of mice as a factor of age, environment, and genetic constitution. Preliminary results are reported from studies on the early and late effects of polycyclic hydrocarbons on the immune competence of mice. Studies to determine the risk to human populations from radionuclides released to the environment from nuclear energy facilities use relative toxicity and dose response data from laboratory animals of different body size and life span and comparisons of the effects of internal exposure with those of external exposure to fission neutrons or gamma sources

  18. RISKIND: A computer program for calculating radiological consequences and health risks from transportation of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Y.C. [Square Y, Orchard Park, NY (United States); Chen, S.Y.; LePoire, D.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.; Rothman, R. [USDOE Idaho Field Office, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1993-02-01

    This report presents the technical details of RISIUND, a computer code designed to estimate potential radiological consequences and health risks to individuals and the collective population from exposures associated with the transportation of spent nuclear fuel. RISKIND is a user-friendly, semiinteractive program that can be run on an IBM or equivalent personal computer. The program language is FORTRAN-77. Several models are included in RISKIND that have been tailored to calculate the exposure to individuals under various incident-free and accident conditions. The incidentfree models assess exposures from both gamma and neutron radiation and can account for different cask designs. The accident models include accidental release, atmospheric transport, and the environmental pathways of radionuclides from spent fuels; these models also assess health risks to individuals and the collective population. The models are supported by databases that are specific to spent nuclear fuels and include a radionudide inventory and dose conversion factors.

  19. RISKIND: A computer program for calculating radiological consequences and health risks from transportation of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the technical details of RISIUND, a computer code designed to estimate potential radiological consequences and health risks to individuals and the collective population from exposures associated with the transportation of spent nuclear fuel. RISKIND is a user-friendly, semiinteractive program that can be run on an IBM or equivalent personal computer. The program language is FORTRAN-77. Several models are included in RISKIND that have been tailored to calculate the exposure to individuals under various incident-free and accident conditions. The incidentfree models assess exposures from both gamma and neutron radiation and can account for different cask designs. The accident models include accidental release, atmospheric transport, and the environmental pathways of radionuclides from spent fuels; these models also assess health risks to individuals and the collective population. The models are supported by databases that are specific to spent nuclear fuels and include a radionudide inventory and dose conversion factors

  20. Radiological accidents potentially important to human health risk in the U.S. Department of Energy waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human health risks as a consequence of potential radiological releases resulting from plausible accident scenarios constitute an important consideration in the US Department of Energy (DOE) national program to manage the treatment, storage, and disposal of wastes. As part of this program, the Office of Environmental Management (EM) is currently preparing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) that evaluates the risks that could result from managing five different waste types. This paper (1) briefly reviews the overall approach used to assess process and facility accidents for the EM PEIS; (2) summarizes the key inventory, storage, and treatment characteristics of the various DOE waste types important to the selection of accidents; (3) discusses in detail the key assumptions in modeling risk-dominant accidents; and (4) relates comparative source term results and sensitivities

  1. Self-assessment in radiology and imaging: Mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is designed to help radiologists and residents improve their diagnostic skills in interpreting xeromammograms. Representing both malignant and benign breast disease, each xeromammogram is accompanied by a limited amount of clinical information and is followed by a discussion describing the radiological signs and the likely differential diagnosis. Normal variants which can mimic disease are also included

  2. Medical Student Assessment of Videotape for Teaching in Diagnostic Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, J. R.; McLachlan, M. S. F.

    1976-01-01

    A series of six recordings that describe some aspects of the radiology of the chest, using only radiographs, were viewed by a small group of final year medical students. Their scores for factual questions immediately afterwards were compared with their attitudes to the learning experience; higher scores correlated with positive attitudes. (LBH)

  3. Spatial aspects of incorporating agricultural information into radiological assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fate of radionuclides in the environment is influenced by a variety of non-radiological factors, including climate, ecosystem type, land cover and local management practices. Recently, the geographical distribution and interaction of these factors has been investigated, often using systems such as Geographical Information System (GIS). 1 tab

  4. MELODIE, Radiological Assessment of Nuclear Waste Migration in Ground Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: MELODIE assesses radiological consequences associated with a nuclear waste repository in a deep geological formation. MELODIE consists of three parts: MELO for deterministic evaluation; PREP and SPOP for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis: MELO is a modular deterministic code composed mainly of a geosphere model adopted from METIS, developed at the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Paris; and of the ABRICOT biosphere model, developed at CEA/IPSN. - The geosphere model is a 2D finite element code which first solves the groundwater flow equation (considered as a steady state), and then in a second step the transport (advection-diffusion-dispersion) equation for each radionuclide. The geosphere is taken into account as an equivalent porous medium with explicit description of the main fractures. The retardation of the radionuclides is modeled through the Kd concept, and nuclear decay chains are processed inside this model. The boundary conditions represent: - for the groundwater flow calculation, the hydraulic head or the groundwater flow rate; - for the transport calculation, the activity released by the repository itself to the geosphere (using, for low soluble radionuclides, the solubility limit concept). Three cases may be taken into account for computing the value of this boundary condition: consequence of the degradation of the matrix (vitrified waste,...); uniform release during a given period of time; waste already degraded at the initial time. - The biosphere model converts the activity released at the water outlets to the corresponding individual dose through intake, inhalation, or external irradiation from the use of contaminated water in the main food chains. This model is compartmental and takes into account farming and dietetic considerations. - PREP provides samples using the Latin Hypercube techniques for the distribution functions of the input variables, such as permeability, solubility limit value for

  5. Radiological protection, environmental implications, health and risk management: forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topics related to the radioactivity or radiation are presented. The importance of protection and security measures that are required both for public health, occupational health and the medical radiation is analyzed. In addition, it emphasizes the risks faced by professionals who work with radioactivity. Issues that confront the serious environmental implications of such activities are also showed

  6. Assessing Risk of Innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today's manufacturing systems and equipment must perform at levels thought impossible a decade ago. Companies must push operations, quality, and efficiencies to unprecedented levels while holding down costs. In this new economy, companies must be concerned with market shares, equity growth, market saturation, and profit. U.S. manufacturing is no exception and is a prime example of businesses forced to adapt to constant and rapid changes in customer needs and product mixes, giving rise to the term ''Agile Manufacturing''. The survival and ultimate success of the American Manufacturing economy may depend upon its ability to create, innovate, and quickly assess the impact that new innovations will have on its business practices. Given the need for flexibility, companies need proven methods to predict and measure the impact that new technologies and strategies will have on overall plant performance from an enterprise perspective. The Value-Derivative Model provides a methodology and approach to assess such impacts in terms of energy savings, production increases, quality impacts, emission reduction, and maintenance and operating costs as they relate to enabling and emerging technologies. This is realized by calculating a set of first order sensitivity parameters obtained from expanding a Taylor Series about the system's operating point. These sensitivity parameters are invariant economic and operational indicators that quantify the impact of any proposed technology in terms of material throughput, efficiency, energy usage, environmental effects, and costs. These parameters also provide a mechanism to define metrics and performance measures that can be qualified in terms of real economic impact. Value-Derivative Analysis can be applied across all manufacturing and production segments of our economy and has found specific use in steel and textiles. Where economic models give the cost of conducting a business, Value-Derivative Analysis provides the cost to conduct

  7. Bayesian methods in risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for a consistent framework for the analysis of large nuclear power plant safety, not provided for by conventional methods of statistics and reliability theory, prompted the present article. The qualification of uncertainties depends crucially on the particular way that the assessor views probability. Two principal schools of thought are the subjectivistic approach advocated by de Finetti, and the frequentist school advocated by von Mises. The point of view of the author is the subjective one. The foundations of the proposed approach and a discussion of several topics relevant to risk assessment follow with applications to the specialization of generic data for site-specific risk studies, the assessment of frequency of fires in nuclear plant compartments, and the use of expert opinion in risk assessments

  8. An approach to risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L.; Lund, S. P.; Hass, Ulla

    1998-01-01

    results indicate that numerous persons are exposed in the working as well as in the general environment to several chemicals, for which almost no data on the effect on subtle neurophysiological functions are available. Development of an approach to risk assessment dealing with this problem is a major...... challenge in the nineties. Different approaches to risk assessment are discussed, the quality of the databases available for hazard assessment are evaluated, and the needs for further research are identified. (C) 1996 Intox Press, Inc.......A strategy for delineating risk factors from use of neurotoxic chemicals was applied to the Danish working environment. An analysis using this strategy disclosed the need for internationally adopted criteria for neurotoxicity, and consequently a working group was established by the Nordic Council...

  9. RISKIND: A computer program for calculating radiological consequences and health risks from transportation of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the technical details of RISKIND, a computer code designed to estimate potential radiological consequences and health risks to individuals and the collective population from exposures associated with the transportation of spent nuclear fuel. RISKIND is a user-friendly, interactive program that can be run on an IBM or equivalent personal computer under the Windows trademark environment. Several models are included in RISKIND that have been tailored to calculate the exposure to individuals under various incident-free and accident conditions. The incident-free models assess exposures from both gamma and neutron radiation and can account for different cask designs. The accident models include accidental release, atmospheric transport, and the environmental pathways of radionuclides from spent fuels; these models also assess health risks to individuals and the collective population. The models are supported by databases that are specific to spent nuclear fuels and include a radionuclide inventory and dose conversion factors. In addition, the flexibility of the models allows them to be used for assessing any accidental release involving radioactive materials. The RISKIND code allows for user-specified accident scenarios as well as receptor locations under various exposure conditions, thereby facilitating the estimation of radiological consequences and health risks for individuals. Median (50% probability) and typical worst-case (less than 5% probability of being exceeded) doses and health consequences from potential accidental releases can be calculated by constructing a cumulative dose/probability distribution curve for a complete matrix of site joint-wind-frequency data. These consequence results, together with the estimated probability of the entire spectrum of potential accidents, form a comprehensive, probabilistic risk assessment of a spent nuclear fuel transportation accident

  10. RISKIND: A computer program for calculating radiological consequences and health risks from transportation of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Y.C. [Square Y Consultants, Orchard Park, NY (US); Chen, S.Y.; Biwer, B.M.; LePoire, D.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (US)

    1995-11-01

    This report presents the technical details of RISKIND, a computer code designed to estimate potential radiological consequences and health risks to individuals and the collective population from exposures associated with the transportation of spent nuclear fuel. RISKIND is a user-friendly, interactive program that can be run on an IBM or equivalent personal computer under the Windows{trademark} environment. Several models are included in RISKIND that have been tailored to calculate the exposure to individuals under various incident-free and accident conditions. The incident-free models assess exposures from both gamma and neutron radiation and can account for different cask designs. The accident models include accidental release, atmospheric transport, and the environmental pathways of radionuclides from spent fuels; these models also assess health risks to individuals and the collective population. The models are supported by databases that are specific to spent nuclear fuels and include a radionuclide inventory and dose conversion factors. In addition, the flexibility of the models allows them to be used for assessing any accidental release involving radioactive materials. The RISKIND code allows for user-specified accident scenarios as well as receptor locations under various exposure conditions, thereby facilitating the estimation of radiological consequences and health risks for individuals. Median (50% probability) and typical worst-case (less than 5% probability of being exceeded) doses and health consequences from potential accidental releases can be calculated by constructing a cumulative dose/probability distribution curve for a complete matrix of site joint-wind-frequency data. These consequence results, together with the estimated probability of the entire spectrum of potential accidents, form a comprehensive, probabilistic risk assessment of a spent nuclear fuel transportation accident.

  11. Risk Assessment for Banking Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Helmut Elsinger; Alfred Lehar; Martin Summer

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we suggest a new approach to risk assessment for banks. Rather than looking at them individually we try to undertake an analysis at the level of the banking system. Such a perspective is necessary because the complicated network of mutual credit obligations can make the actual risk exposure of banks invisible at the level of individual institutions. We apply our framework to a cross section of individual bank data as they are usually collected at the central bank. Using standard...

  12. Patient doses and risks from diagnostic radiology in North-east Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been conducted to asses the impact of radiological practice in 1983 in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, a region of North-east Italy with 1 250 000 inhabitants. The design involved three phases: (i) a regionwide frequency survey; (ii) dosimetric measurements on patients in all public X-ray facilities; (iii) derivation of organ doses from those measurements. Frequencies by type, age and sex and values of the main technical parameters of radiological examinations are presented. Organ doses, effective dose equivalents and risk estimates are given for 14 selected examinations. The annual per-capita effective dose equivalent and the genetically significant dose are estimated at 0.848 mSv and 0.253 mSv, respectively. From these values, collective risks have been predicted by using the risk factors given in the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 26. The results indicate that 14 persons risk induced malignancies and 2.5 persons risk genetic detriment. (author)

  13. Probabilistic risk assessment: Number 219

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a methodology for analyzing the safety of nuclear power plants. A historical overview of plants in the US is provided, and past, present, and future nuclear safety and risk assessment are discussed. A primer on nuclear power plants is provided with a discussion of pressurized water reactors (PWR) and boiling water reactors (BWR) and their operation and containment. Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), utilizing both event-tree and fault-tree analysis, is discussed as a tool in reactor safety, decision making, and communications. (FI)

  14. Comments by a peer review panel on the computerized radiological risk investigation system (CRRIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document represents the comprehensive review by experts of the documents describing the models, computer programs, and data bases making up the Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System (CRRIS). The CRRIS methodology has been produced for the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Radiation Programs (ORP) by the Health and Safety Research Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assess the significance of releases of radioactive material from facilities handling such materials. The comments covered a wide range of aspects of the CRRIS models. Special review topics covered were uncertainty, validation, verification, and health effects. The reports making up the CRRIS documentation were reviewed in detail. The following are some of the more frequent comments about the methodology. This is a very comprehensive work, but too complex and hard to use. Too little explanation of some of the assumptions taken such as variance from standard ICRP organ weighting factors. Overly complex model for soil to root transfer and interception fraction. Gaussian plume model was used, when more state-of-art models are available. 35 refs

  15. 24 CFR 35.315 - Risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Provided by a Federal Agency Other Than HUD § 35.315 Risk assessment. Each owner shall complete a risk assessment in accordance with 40 CFR 745.227(d). Each risk assessment shall be completed in accordance with... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Risk assessment. 35.315 Section...

  16. Human reliability assessment and probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human reliability assessment (HRA) is used within Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to identify the human errors (both omission and commission) which have a significant effect on the overall safety of the system and to quantify the probability of their occurrence. There exist a variey of HRA techniques and the selection of an appropriate one is often difficult. This paper reviews a number of available HRA techniques and discusses their strengths and weaknesses. The techniques reviewed include: decompositional methods, time-reliability curves and systematic expert judgement techniques. (orig.)

  17. Correlation between effective dose and radiological risk: general concepts*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Paulo Roberto; Yoshimura, Elisabeth Mateus; Nersissian, Denise Yanikian; Melo, Camila Souza

    2016-01-01

    The present review aims to offer an educational approach related to the limitations in the use of the effective dose mgnitude as a tool for the quantification of doses resulting from diagnostic applications of ionizing radiation. We present a critical analysis of the quantities accepted and currently used for dosimetric evaluation in diagnostic imaging procedures, based on studies published in the literature. It is highlighted the use of these quantities to evaluate the risk attributed to the procedure and to calculate the effective dose, as well as to determine its correct use and interpretation.

  18. Radiological dose assessments at the Kennedy Space Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the application of an atmospheric transport and diffusion model for launch window and safety risk assessment studies in support of the Galileo (which is scheduled for the October/November 1989 period) and Ulysses (scheduled for ∼1 yr after Galileo) missions at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The model is resident in the EMERGE software system developed by NUS Corporation and modified for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to provide real-time and safety analyses report support for the launches. The application is unique in that the model accommodates the varied amount of meteorological data at KSC and Cape Canaveral and includes a site-specific algorithm to account for local-scale circulations. This paper focuses on the Galileo mission application, including discussions of the use of the meteorological data available at KSC, integration of the EMERGE sea-breeze algorithm, and examples of real-time and safety analyses report assessments. The Galileo spacecraft is to be launched toward Jupiter using the space shuttle

  19. Dynamical systems probabilistic risk assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denman, Matthew R.; Ames, Arlo Leroy

    2014-03-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is the primary tool used to risk-inform nuclear power regulatory and licensing activities. Risk-informed regulations are intended to reduce inherent conservatism in regulatory metrics (e.g., allowable operating conditions and technical specifications) which are built into the regulatory framework by quantifying both the total risk profile as well as the change in the risk profile caused by an event or action (e.g., in-service inspection procedures or power uprates). Dynamical Systems (DS) analysis has been used to understand unintended time-dependent feedbacks in both industrial and organizational settings. In dynamical systems analysis, feedback loops can be characterized and studied as a function of time to describe the changes to the reliability of plant Structures, Systems and Components (SSCs). While DS has been used in many subject areas, some even within the PRA community, it has not been applied toward creating long-time horizon, dynamic PRAs (with time scales ranging between days and decades depending upon the analysis). Understanding slowly developing dynamic effects, such as wear-out, on SSC reliabilities may be instrumental in ensuring a safely and reliably operating nuclear fleet. Improving the estimation of a plant's continuously changing risk profile will allow for more meaningful risk insights, greater stakeholder confidence in risk insights, and increased operational flexibility.

  20. Radiological assessment of radioactive contamination on private clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the very rare, cases where private clothing of persons working in a nuclear installation are inadvertently contaminated and this contamination is not detected when leaving the facility, there may be radiological consequences for this person as well as for members of his or her family. The VGB (Technische Vereinigung der Grosskraftwerksbetreiber) in Germany has investigated in detail the spread of contamination in nuclear power plants. Part of this evaluation programme was a radiological analysis which has been carried out by Brenk Systemplanung GmbH (Aachen/Germany). The radiological analysis started with the definition of the source term. It is highly unlikely that activities of more than 5 kBq 60Co could leave a plant undetected on the body or the clothes. Nevertheless activities up to 50 kBq and different nuclide vectors were regarded. It has been found that 60Co is the most important contaminant. The radiological analysis focusses on two types of contamination: particles and surface contamination. The pathways by which such a contamination can lead to an exposure by external irradiation or by ingestion depend on the type of contamination and are analysed in detail. For example, a particle could be retained in pockets or other parts of clothing and may lead to prolonged external irradiation until the piece of clothing is washed. The analysis is performed on the basis of conservative to realistic assumptions. In conclusion, the analysis has shown that especially particle contamination needs to be focussed on. However, by the advanced detection equipment in German plants doses which may pose a health hazard can safely be excluded. (authors)

  1. Radiological safety assessment of a reference INTOR facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report consists of a number of separate studies all of which were performed in support of INTOR Critical Issue D: Tritium Containment and Personnel Access vs Remote Maintenance. The common thread running through these studies is the radiological safety element in the design and operation of the INTOR facility. The intent is to help establish a firm basis for comparisons between a reactor cell maintenance option which requires personnel access, and one which involves completely remote maintenance

  2. Interventional radiography and mortality risks in U.S. radiologic technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the exponential increase in minimally invasive fluoroscopically guided interventional radiologic procedures, concern has increased about the health effects on staff and patients of radiation exposure from these procedures. There has been no systematic epidemiologic investigation to quantify serious disease risks or mortality. To quantify all-cause, circulatory system disease and cancer mortality risks in U.S. radiologic technologists who work with interventional radiographic procedures, we evaluated mortality risks in a nationwide cohort of 88,766 U.S. radiologic technologists (77% female) who completed a self-administered questionnaire during 1994-1998 and were followed through 31 December 2003. We obtained information on work experience, types of procedures (including fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures), and protective measures plus medical, family cancer history, lifestyle, and reproductive information. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to compute relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Between completion of the questionnaire and the end of follow-up, there were 3,581 deaths, including 1,209 from malignancies and 979 from circulatory system diseases. Compared to radiologic technologists who never or rarely performed or assisted with fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures, all-cause mortality risks were not increased among those working on such procedures daily. Similarly, there was no increased risk of mortality resulting from all circulatory system diseases combined, all cancers combined, or female breast cancer among technologists who daily performed or assisted with fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures. Based on small numbers of deaths (n=151), there were non-significant excesses (40%-70%) in mortality from cerebrovascular disease among technologists ever working with these procedures. The absence of significantly elevated mortality risks in radiologic technologists reporting the

  3. Collegiate Alcohol Risk Assessment Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David S.; Janosik, Steven M.

    An instrument to help administrators assess the liability resulting from alcohol-related activities on the college campus is presented. The hazards and associated liability of these events can be reduced by developing an aggressive risk management strategy designed to inform, educate, and coordinate the actions of individuals and groups associated…

  4. Integrated Disposal Facility Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MANN, F. M.

    2003-06-03

    An environmental risk assessment associated with the disposal of projected Immobilized Low-Activity Waste, solid wastes and failed or decommissioned melters in an Integrated Disposal Facility was performed. Based on the analyses all performance objectives associated with the groundwater, air, and intruder pathways were met.

  5. Integrated Disposal Facility Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An environmental risk assessment associated with the disposal of projected Immobilized Low-Activity Waste, solid wastes and failed or decommissioned melters in an Integrated Disposal Facility was performed. Based on the analyses all performance objectives associated with the groundwater, air, and intruder pathways were met

  6. Radiological conditions at the former French nuclear test sites in Algeria: Preliminary assessment and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are various locations around the world that have been affected by radioactive residues. Some of these residues are the result of past peaceful activities, while others result from military activities, including residues from the testing of nuclear weapons. Stimulated by concern about the state of the environment, movement away from military nuclear activities and improved opportunities for international cooperation, attention in many countries has turned to assessing and, where necessary, remediating areas affected by radioactive residues. Some of these residues are located in countries where there is a lack of the infrastructure or expertise necessary for evaluating the significance of the radiation risks posed by the residues and for making decisions on remediation. In such cases, governments have felt it necessary to obtain outside assistance. In other cases, it has been considered socially and politically necessary to have independent expert opinions on the radiological situation at the sites. As a result, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been requested by the governments of a number of Member States to provide assistance in relation to its statutory obligation 'to establish - standards of safety for protection of health - and to provide for the application of these standards - at the request of a State'. On 22 September 1995, a resolution of the General Conference of the IAEA called on all States 'to fulfil their responsibilities to ensure that sites where nuclear tests have been conducted are monitored scrupulously and to take appropriate steps to avoid adverse impacts on health, safety and the environment as a consequence of such nuclear testing'. Representatives of the Algerian Government requested the IAEA to carry out a study of the radiological situation at the former French nuclear test sites in Algeria. The findings of this assessment are summarized in this report

  7. Radiation protection and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In its publications 22 and 26, ICRP recommends a method of optimization that requires that first the risks of the considered activity be quantitatively assessed. This paper deals with the transportation of radioactive material. Several aspects are examined: assessing risk quantitatively (as an expected number of health effects), determining the most cost-effective alternative options and applying the method to a practical example. Two of the possible applications of the results are presented in the case of transportation of UF6 in France: 1) the cost-effectiveness analysis of a set of alternative protection measures and 2) the comparison between such measures affecting risks in nuclear transportation and other measures dealing with different steps of the whole uranium fuel cycle. (HK)

  8. Hazard classification or risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla

    to substitute with less toxic compounds. Actually, if exposure is constant across product class, producersmay make substitution decisions based on hazard. Hazard classification is also useful during major accidents where there is no time for risk assessment and the exposure is likely to be......The EU classification of substances for e.g. reproductive toxicants is hazard based and does not to address the risk suchsubstances may pose through normal, or extreme, use. Such hazard classification complies with the consumer's right to know. It is also an incentive to careful use and storage and...... exposure data for other similarly acting substances are needed for assessing the risk for mixture effects. Such data may, however, often be absent. Toxicological potency, i.e. the lowest dose found to cause adverse effects, has been proposed as one of the key characteristics when evaluating safety of a...

  9. Improving patient follow-up in interventional radiology and radiation-based acts. To reduce the risk of deterministic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having presented an example of adverse reaction to interventional radiology (a case of a iatrogenic radiodermatitis), this report first presents the context which creates a risk situation. It describes risks related to the use of ionizing radiations, identifies risk factors and how to make procedures safer, and indicates actions aimed at reducing risks (in a preventive way, in recovery, by attenuation)

  10. Contribution of the french society of radiological protection to the current reflections on the possible improvement of the radiological risk management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the invitation by IRPA to comment the article by Prof. R. Clarke entitled 'Control of Low Level Radiation Exposures: Time for a Change?', the Board of the French Radiological Protection Society (SFRP) has decided to set up a specific Working Group. This Group consists of some twenty members representing the stakeholders involved in radiological protection in France. Its goal is, starting from an analysis of R. Clarke's text, to formulate questions and proposals to assist ICRP in making its radiological protection system more understandable and more efficient. The aim of this review is not to restart from scratch but to consolidate and improve the existing system. The Working Group has therefore focused its thoughts on the following four points: 1. The basis of the radiological risk management system. In the absence of scientific certainty as to the effects of low doses of radiation, a prudent attitude has been adopted as to the manner of managing the radiological risk, based on the hypothesis that the dose-effect relationship is linear with no threshold. The Group discusses this basic assumption and its implications on the elaboration of the objectives of the radiological risk management system. 2. Exposure situations. Exposure situations are multifarious and the existing system divides them into categories for management purpose (e.g. practice/intervention; natural/artificial; medical/public/occupational; actual exposure/potential exposure; etc.). Some of these divisions are pertinent but some are less so and the Group examines if another way of conceptualising exposures situations could be more efficient. 3. Risk management indicators and tools. The radiological protection system provides the professionals with a series of indicators and tools, enabling them to manage exposure situations (dose, dose limit, dose constraint, individual dose, collective dose, investigation level, action level, interventional level, exemption level, clearance level

  11. Prevalence of cancer risk factors among women radiologists and radiology assistants in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the work was to study potential cancer risk factors among radiologists and non-radiologists in Lithuania. Cancer risk factors were investigated among female medical staff at the departments of ionizing (243, 33.33%) and non-ionizing environment (486, 66.67%). The questionnaire covered the diet, lifestyle, reproductive factors as well as the demographic and physical characteristics. Univariate analysis was done separately for physicians and nurses. Each of risk factors was evaluated in stratified analysis for unequal ORs using Mantel-Haenszel estimate control for age and occupation. Evaluation of features of risk factors among radiologists vs. non-radiologists has shown that smoking was most the prevalent risk factor among radiologists and radiology assistants. Despite the relatively low prevalence, the questionnaire data showed the higher frequency of smoking among radiologists (OR = 2.78, 95% CI 1.12-6.87) and radiology assistants (OR = 2.25, 95% 1.38-3.66) compared to non-radiologists. The prevalence of non-users and occasional users was 74% to 66%, respectively. Alcohol use by smoking among radiologists was influenced insignificantly. The cohort of radiologists in Lithuania offer an opportunity for obtaining direct observational evidence on health effects associated with chronic low-dose radiation exposure. The data on possible cancer risk factors can be helpful for validation of the risks in future. (author)

  12. Escalation of terrorism? On the risk of attacks with chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear weapons or materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report on the risk of attacks with chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear weapons or materials covers the following topics: the variety of terrorism: ethnic-nationalistic, politically motivated, social revolutionary, political extremism, religious fanaticism, governmental terrorism; CBRN (chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear) weapons and materials: their availability and effectiveness in case of use; potential actor groups; prevention and counter measures, emergency and mitigating measures.

  13. Assessment of radiological and non-radiological hazards in the nuclear fuel cycle - The Indian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design and operational aspects of nuclear fuel cycle facilities have several features that distinguish them from nuclear power plants. These are related to (i) the nature of operations which are chiefly mining, metallurgical and chemical; (ii) the nature and type of radio-active materials handled, their specific activities and inventories; and (iii) the physical and chemical processes involved and the associated containment provisions. Generally the radioactive materials are present in an already highly dispersible or mobile form, in the form of solutions, slurries and powders, often associated with a wide variety of reactive and corrosive chemicals. There are further marked differences between the front-end and back-end of the fuel cycle. Whereas the front-end is characterized by the presence of large quantities of low specific activity naturally occurring radioactive materials, the back-end is characterized by high specific activities and concentrations of fission products and actinides. Radioactive characteristics of waste arisings are also different in different phases of the nuclear fuel cycle. Potential for internal exposure in the occupational environment is another distinguishing feature as compared with the more common designs of nuclear power reactors. Potential for accidents, their phenomenology and the resulting consequences are also markedly different in fuel cycle operations. The non-radiological hazards in fuel cycle operations are also of significance, since the operations are mostly mining, metallurgical and chemical in nature. These aspects are examined and evaluated in this paper, based on the Indian experience. (author). 12 refs, 10 tabs

  14. Evaluation of excess lifetime cancer risk and radiological hazard in produced water from some flow stations in Delta State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological effects and excess lifetime cancer risk of produced water collected from seven oil and gas flow stations (fields onshore) of Delta State, Nigeria were estimated using standard analytical. Twenty- one produced water samples from seven flow stations waste pit were collected within the oil fields using standard methods. The radionuclide concentrations in the produced water samples were measured using gamma spectroscopy method. The average values obtained for representative gamma index, annual effective dose equivalent (outdoor), annual effective dose equivalent (indoor) are 0.104mSv/y, 0.0229mSv/y and 0.03276mSv/y respectively when compared with standard of 1.0mSv/y are all below unity. Excess lifetime cancer risk obtained values ranged from 0.0196mSv/y - 0.0434mSv/y with a mean value of 0.0288mSv/y. When compared with the world average standard (0.29 x 10-3), it was observed that the obtained values are higher than the world allowable average. The absorbed dose rate ranged from 4.570mSv/y to 10.088mSv/y with average value of 6.68mSvy-1 was found to be higher than the UNSCEAR 2000 acceptable standard of 1.5mSvy-1. The results obtained in this study provides a baseline map of radiological effect and excess lifetime cancer risk levels in the Niger Delta environment and will be used as reference information to assess any changes in this studied area. This subject is important in environmental radiological protection, since produced water are widely been discharged in the environment during oil and gas productions.

  15. Contribution o the assessment of the environmental risk associated with uranium releases in the Ritord drainage basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the application to aquatic environments and more particularly to the case of a drainage basin of methods of assessment of the environmental risk presented in another report. The objective is to determine the environmental risk related to releases of uranium from ancient mining sites. The method is applied to available data to diagnose a possible chemical and/or radiological risk due to these releases. Should the occasion occurs, probabilistic approaches are used to refine the assessment of the possible risk identified by the screening. After a presentation of the context, the different screening steps are reported: methodology (exposure analysis, effect analysis, and risk characterization), deterministic characterization of the chronic radiological risk, deterministic characterization of the chronic chemical risk. The next part reports the probabilistic assessment of the chemical or radiological risk. In conclusion, the authors indicate actions to be performed to better analyse exposures, and desirable actions to better analyse effects

  16. Developing RESRAD-BASELINE for environmental baseline risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RESRAD-BASELINE is a computer code developed at Argonne developed at Argonne National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform both radiological and chemical risk assessments. The code implements the baseline risk assessment guidance of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1989). The computer code calculates (1) radiation doses and cancer risks from exposure to radioactive materials, and (2) hazard indexes and cancer risks from exposure to noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic chemicals, respectively. The user can enter measured or predicted environmental media concentrations from the graphic interface and can simulate different exposure scenarios by selecting the appropriate pathways and modifying the exposure parameters. The database used by PESRAD-BASELINE includes dose conversion factors and slope factors for radionuclides and toxicity information and properties for chemicals. The user can modify the database for use in the calculation. Sensitivity analysis can be performed while running the computer code to examine the influence of the input parameters. Use of RESRAD-BASELINE for risk analysis is easy, fast, and cost-saving. Furthermore, it ensures in consistency in methodology for both radiological and chemical risk analyses

  17. Assessment of Safety Parameters for Radiological Explosion Based on Gaussian Dispersion Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Alok [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Hyungjoon; Kim, Hong Suk [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    These sources if used with explosive (called RDD - radiological dispersion device), can cause dispersion of radioactive material resulting in public exposure and contamination of the environment. Radiological explosion devices are not weapons for the mass destruction like atom bombs, but can cause the death of few persons and contamination of large areas. The reduction of the threat of radiological weapon attack by terrorist groups causing dispersion of radioactive material is one of the priority tasks of the IAEA Nuclear Safety and Security Program.Emergency preparedness is an essential part for reducing and mitigating radiological weapon threat. Preliminary assessment of dispersion study followed by radiological explosion and its quantitative effect will be helpful for the emergency preparedness team for an early response. The effect of the radiological dispersion depends on various factors like radioisotope, its activity, physical form, amount of explosive used and meteorological factors at the time of an explosion. This study aim to determine the area affected by the radiological explosion as pre assessment to provide feedback to emergency management teams for handling and mitigation the situation after an explosion. Most practical scenarios of radiological explosion are considered with conservative approach for the assessment of the area under a threat for emergency handling and management purpose. Radioisotopes under weak security controls can be used for a radiological explosion to create terror and socioeconomic threat for the public. Prior assessment of radiological threats is helpful for emergency management teams to take prompt decision about evacuation of the affected area and other emergency handling actions. Comparable activities of Co-60 source used in radiotherapy and Sr-90 source of disused and orphaned RTGs with two different quantities of TNT were used for the scenario development of radiological explosion. In the Basic Safety Standard (BSS

  18. Assessment of Safety Parameters for Radiological Explosion Based on Gaussian Dispersion Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These sources if used with explosive (called RDD - radiological dispersion device), can cause dispersion of radioactive material resulting in public exposure and contamination of the environment. Radiological explosion devices are not weapons for the mass destruction like atom bombs, but can cause the death of few persons and contamination of large areas. The reduction of the threat of radiological weapon attack by terrorist groups causing dispersion of radioactive material is one of the priority tasks of the IAEA Nuclear Safety and Security Program.Emergency preparedness is an essential part for reducing and mitigating radiological weapon threat. Preliminary assessment of dispersion study followed by radiological explosion and its quantitative effect will be helpful for the emergency preparedness team for an early response. The effect of the radiological dispersion depends on various factors like radioisotope, its activity, physical form, amount of explosive used and meteorological factors at the time of an explosion. This study aim to determine the area affected by the radiological explosion as pre assessment to provide feedback to emergency management teams for handling and mitigation the situation after an explosion. Most practical scenarios of radiological explosion are considered with conservative approach for the assessment of the area under a threat for emergency handling and management purpose. Radioisotopes under weak security controls can be used for a radiological explosion to create terror and socioeconomic threat for the public. Prior assessment of radiological threats is helpful for emergency management teams to take prompt decision about evacuation of the affected area and other emergency handling actions. Comparable activities of Co-60 source used in radiotherapy and Sr-90 source of disused and orphaned RTGs with two different quantities of TNT were used for the scenario development of radiological explosion. In the Basic Safety Standard (BSS

  19. Managing the radiological risk: ALARA, a principle, an obligation, a state of mind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the 1993 data published by French nuclear operators and by the Ionizing Radiations Protection Office (OPRI), only two workers have exceeded the maximum annual permissible dose of 50 mSv. However, the respect of dose limits is not a sufficient warranty to accept the ionizing radiations exposure risk. The ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle is a masterpiece of the radiological protection system. Its goal is to maintain the exposures as low as reasonably achievable taking into account the socio-economical constraints. In France, the application of this principle is as compulsory as the respect of dose limits. The proper management and optimization of radiological risk requires the motivation of everybody. (J.S.). 2 refs., 3 figs

  20. Commercial low-level radioactive waste transportation liability and radiological risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was prepared for States, compact regions, and other interested parties to address two subjects related to transporting low-level radioactive waste to disposal facilities. One is the potential liabilities associated with low-level radioactive waste transportation from the perspective of States as hosts to low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The other is the radiological risks of low-level radioactive waste transportation for drivers, the public, and disposal facility workers

  1. Uncertainties in risk assessment at USDOE facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Holtzman, S.; Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Rowe, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (USDOE) has embarked on an ambitious program to remediate environmental contamination at its facilities. Decisions concerning cleanup goals, choices among cleanup technologies, and funding prioritization should be largely risk-based. Risk assessments will be used more extensively by the USDOE in the future. USDOE needs to develop and refine risk assessment methods and fund research to reduce major sources of uncertainty in risk assessments at USDOE facilities. The terms{open_quote} risk assessment{close_quote} and{open_quote} risk management{close_quote} are frequently confused. The National Research Council (1983) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA, 1991a) described risk assessment as a scientific process that contributes to risk management. Risk assessment is the process of collecting, analyzing and integrating data and information to identify hazards, assess exposures and dose responses, and characterize risks. Risk characterization must include a clear presentation of {open_quotes}... the most significant data and uncertainties...{close_quotes} in an assessment. Significant data and uncertainties are {open_quotes}...those that define and explain the main risk conclusions{close_quotes}. Risk management integrates risk assessment information with other considerations, such as risk perceptions, socioeconomic and political factors, and statutes, to make and justify decisions. Risk assessments, as scientific processes, should be made independently of the other aspects of risk management (USEPA, 1991a), but current methods for assessing health risks are based on conservative regulatory principles, causing unnecessary public concern and misallocation of funds for remediation.

  2. Uncertainties in risk assessment at USDOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy (USDOE) has embarked on an ambitious program to remediate environmental contamination at its facilities. Decisions concerning cleanup goals, choices among cleanup technologies, and funding prioritization should be largely risk-based. Risk assessments will be used more extensively by the USDOE in the future. USDOE needs to develop and refine risk assessment methods and fund research to reduce major sources of uncertainty in risk assessments at USDOE facilities. The terms open-quote risk assessment close-quote and open-quote risk management close-quote are frequently confused. The National Research Council (1983) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA, 1991a) described risk assessment as a scientific process that contributes to risk management. Risk assessment is the process of collecting, analyzing and integrating data and information to identify hazards, assess exposures and dose responses, and characterize risks. Risk characterization must include a clear presentation of open-quotes... the most significant data and uncertainties...close quotes in an assessment. Significant data and uncertainties are open-quotes...those that define and explain the main risk conclusionsclose quotes. Risk management integrates risk assessment information with other considerations, such as risk perceptions, socioeconomic and political factors, and statutes, to make and justify decisions. Risk assessments, as scientific processes, should be made independently of the other aspects of risk management (USEPA, 1991a), but current methods for assessing health risks are based on conservative regulatory principles, causing unnecessary public concern and misallocation of funds for remediation

  3. Radiological dose assessment related to management of naturally occurring radioactive materials generated by the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary radiological dose assessment related to equipment decontamination, subsurface disposal, landspreading, equipment smelting, and equipment burial was conducted to address concerns regarding the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials in production waste streams. The assessment evaluated the relative dose of these activities and included a sensitivity analysis of certain input parameters. Future studies and potential policy actions are recommended

  4. Relation between radiological assessment and biomechanical stability of lumbar interbody fusion in a large animal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Kroeze; A.J. van der Veen; B.J. van Royen; R.A. Bank; M.N. Helder; T.H. Smit

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To relate the progress of vertebral segmental stability after interbody fusion surgery with radiological assessment of spinal fusion. Methods Twenty goats received double-level interbody fusion and were followed for a period of 3, 6 and 12 months. After killing, interbody fusion was assessed

  5. Relation between radiological assessment and biomechanical stability of lumbar interbody fusion in a large animal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, R. J.; van der Veen, A. J.; van Royen, B. J.; Bank, R. A.; Helder, M. N.; Smit, T. H.

    2013-01-01

    To relate the progress of vertebral segmental stability after interbody fusion surgery with radiological assessment of spinal fusion. Twenty goats received double-level interbody fusion and were followed for a period of 3, 6 and 12 months. After killing, interbody fusion was assessed radiographicall

  6. Assessment of risk of potential exposures on facilities industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work develops a model to evaluate potential exposures on open facilities of industrial radiography in Brazil. This model will decisively contribute to optimize operational, radiological protection and safety procedures, to prevent radiation accidents and to reduce human errors in industrial radiography. The probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methodology was very useful to assess potential exposures. The open facilities of industrial radiography were identified as the scenario to be analyzed in what concerns the evaluation of potential exposures, due to their high accidents indices. The results of the assessment of potential exposures confirm that the industrial radiography in Brazil is a high-risk practice as classified by the IAEA. The risk of potential exposure was estimated to be 40,5 x 10-2 per year in Brazil, having as main consequences injuries to the workers' hands and arms. In the world scene, the consequences are worst, leading to fatalities of people, thus emphasizing the high risk of industrial radiography. (author)

  7. Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Health and Safety Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRMAC Health and Safety Working Group

    2012-03-20

    This manual is a tool to provide information to all responders and emergency planners and is suggested as a starting point for all organizations that provide personnel/assets for radiological emergency response. It defines the safety requirements for the protection of all emergency responders. The intent is to comply with appropriate regulations or provide an equal level of protection when the situation makes it necessary to deviate. In the event a situation arises which is not addressed in the manual, an appropriate management-level expert will define alternate requirements based on the specifics of the emergency situation. This manual is not intended to pertain to the general public.

  8. Radiological impact assessment for near surface disposal of thorium waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorium (232Th) itself is not fissile and so is not directly usable in a thermal neutron reactor. However, it is fertile and upon absorbing a neutron will transmute to uranium-233 (233U), which is a fissile fuel material. The thorium fuel fabrication may lead to low level waste comprising of 232Th. This waste may be disposed of in the Near Surface Disposal Facility (NSDF). The very low probability event of leaching of the waste may lead to contamination of the groundwater system. This paper deals with the estimation of the radiological impact of thorium waste disposal in NSDF through groundwater drinking pathway using the Multiple Area Source Model (MASOM). (author)

  9. Radiological assessment of steam generator repair and replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkhurst, M.A.; Rathbun, L.A.; Murphy, D.W.

    1983-12-01

    Previous analyses of the radiological impact of removing and replacing corroded steam generators have been updated based on experience at Surry Units 1 and 2 and Turkey Point Units 3 and 4. The sleeving repairs of degraded tubes at San Onofre Unit 1, Point Beach Unit 2, and R.E. Ginna are also analyzed. Actual occupational doses incurred during application of the various technologies used in repairs have been included, along with radioactive waste quantities and constituents. Considerable progress has been made in improving radiation protection and reducing worker dose by the development of remotely controlled equipment and the implementation of dose reduction strategies that have been successful in previous repair operations.

  10. Radiological assessment of steam generator repair and replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous analyses of the radiological impact of removing and replacing corroded steam generators have been updated based on experience at Surry Units 1 and 2 and Turkey Point Units 3 and 4. The sleeving repairs of degraded tubes at San Onofre Unit 1, Point Beach Unit 2, and R.E. Ginna are also analyzed. Actual occupational doses incurred during application of the various technologies used in repairs have been included, along with radioactive waste quantities and constituents. Considerable progress has been made in improving radiation protection and reducing worker dose by the development of remotely controlled equipment and the implementation of dose reduction strategies that have been successful in previous repair operations

  11. An assessment of the radiological impact of uranium mining in northern Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the findings of a study which investigated the regional radiological impact of uranium mining in northern Saskatchewan. The study was performed by IEC Beak Consultants Ltd. under a contract awarded by Environment Canada in partnership with the Atomic Energy Control Board. This preliminary assessment suggests there is a negligible combined regional radiological impact from simultaneous operation of the three operating mines investigated as part of the present study. The mines are spaced too far apart for any superposition of emissions to be significantly greater than a small fraction of background levels. The most exposed individual not directly associated with any of the mining operations is estimated to receive a total radiation dose equal to about 3% of the dose due to natural background radiations. This increment is equivalent to the increment in natural background that would be received by an individual moving from Vancouver to Wollaston Post, before mining began in the area, as a result of reduced atmospheric shielding from cosmic radiation. Radiological impacts on biota are estimated to have insignficant effects on natural populations in all cases. However, since the study only investigates the effects of operational releases of radionuclides, the results do not imply that uranium mining developments will or will not have significant long-term radiological impact on northern Saskatchewan. Radiological impact assessments described in this report are estimates only. There are some uncertainties in the available data and modelling methodology. The radiological impact of abandoned tailings areas was not included in this study

  12. Radioactive Waste Management Complex low-level waste radiological performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the projected radiological dose impacts associated with the disposal of radioactive low-level waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This radiological performance assessment was conducted to evaluate compliance with applicable radiological criteria of the US Department of Energy and the US Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the public and the environment. The calculations involved modeling the transport of radionuclides from buried waste, to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the public via air, groundwater, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses were made for both offsite receptors and individuals inadvertently intruding onto the site after closure. In addition, uncertainty and sensitivity analyses were performed. The results of the analyses indicate compliance with established radiological criteria and provide reasonable assurance that public health and safety will be protected

  13. Radioactive Waste Management Complex low-level waste radiological performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, S.J.; Rood, A.S.; Magnuson, S.O.; Sussman, M.E.; Bhatt, R.N.

    1994-04-01

    This report documents the projected radiological dose impacts associated with the disposal of radioactive low-level waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This radiological performance assessment was conducted to evaluate compliance with applicable radiological criteria of the US Department of Energy and the US Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the public and the environment. The calculations involved modeling the transport of radionuclides from buried waste, to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the public via air, groundwater, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses were made for both offsite receptors and individuals inadvertently intruding onto the site after closure. In addition, uncertainty and sensitivity analyses were performed. The results of the analyses indicate compliance with established radiological criteria and provide reasonable assurance that public health and safety will be protected.

  14. Radiology resident selection: Objective Restructured Interview to assess five essential attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamki, Neela; Watson, Alfred B; Fisher, Richard G

    2003-08-01

    Like in other medical fields, candidates seeking a career in Radiology requires special skills and aptitudes. Selecting candidates for radiology residency is made difficult by the fact that many of the essential qualities predictive of a good radiology consultant, such as interpersonal skills, recognition of limits, curiosity, conscientiousness, and confidence level, are "non-cognitive", and thus difficult to assess. This paper describes the selection procedure developed by the Department of Radiology of Baylor College of Medicine to measure, as objectively as possible, both the cognitive and non-cognitive qualities of candidates, based on a combination of traditional screening and Objective Structured Interviews. This paper highlights efficacy of this selection procedure that includes both cognitive and non-cognitive factors, that is relevant also to other medical specialities. PMID:24019732

  15. Reevaluating Interrater Reliability in Offender Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Knaap, Leontien M.; Leenarts, Laura E. W.; Born, Marise Ph.; Oosterveld, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Offender risk and needs assessment, one of the pillars of the risk-need-responsivity model of offender rehabilitation, usually depends on raters assessing offender risk and needs. The few available studies of interrater reliability in offender risk assessment are, however, limited in the generalizability of their results. The present study…

  16. Assessing and Managing Risk with Suicidal Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linehan, Marsh M.; Comtois, Katherine A.; Ward-Ciesielski, Erin F.

    2012-01-01

    The University of Washington Risk Assessment Protocol (UWRAP) and Risk Assessment and Management Protocol (UWRAMP) have been used in numerous clinical trials treating high-risk suicidal individuals over several years. These protocols structure assessors and treatment providers to provide a thorough suicide risk assessment, review standards of care…

  17. Analysis and assessment of the detriment in interventional radiology using biological dosimetry methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoro, A.; Almonacid, M.; Villaescusa, J.I. [Hospital Univ. la Fe de Valen cian, Servicio de Proteccion Radiologica, Valencia (Spain); Barquinero, J.F.; Rodriguez, P. [Universitat Autonom a de Barcelona, Servicio de Dosimetria Biologica, Unidad de Antropologia, Departamento de Biologia Animal, Vegetal y Ecologia., Barcelona (Spain); Barrios, L. [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Dept. de Biologia Celular y Fisiologia. Unidad de Biologia Celular, Barcelona (Spain); Verdu, G.; Ramos, M. [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, Valencia, (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    Interventional radiologist and staff members usually are exposed to high levels of scattered radiation. As a result, the exposition to radiation procedures can produce detrimental effects that we would have to know. Effective dose is the quantity that better estimates the radiation risk. For this study we have realized an estimation of the radiological detriment to exposed workers of the Hospital la Fe de Valencia. For it, have been used physical doses registered in detectors T.L.D., and doses estimated by biological dosimetry in lymphocytes of peripheral blood. There has been estimated for every case the probability of effect of skin cancer and of non-solid cancers (leukaemia, lymphoma and myeloma), being compared with the baseline probability of natural effect. Biological doses were obtained by extrapolating the yield of dicentrics and translocations to their respective dose -effect curves. The discrepancies observed between physically recorded doses and biological estimated doses indicate that workers did not always wear their dosimeters or the dosimeters were not always in the radiation field. Cytogenetic studies should be extended to more workers to assess the risk derived from their occupational exposure. (authors)

  18. Analysis and assessment of the detriment in interventional radiology using biological dosimetry methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interventional radiologist and staff members usually are exposed to high levels of scattered radiation. As a result, the exposition to radiation procedures can produce detrimental effects that we would have to know. Effective dose is the quantity that better estimates the radiation risk. For this study we have realized an estimation of the radiological detriment to exposed workers of the Hospital la Fe de Valencia. For it, have been used physical doses registered in detectors T.L.D., and doses estimated by biological dosimetry in lymphocytes of peripheral blood. There has been estimated for every case the probability of effect of skin cancer and of non-solid cancers (leukaemia, lymphoma and myeloma), being compared with the baseline probability of natural effect. Biological doses were obtained by extrapolating the yield of dicentrics and translocations to their respective dose -effect curves. The discrepancies observed between physically recorded doses and biological estimated doses indicate that workers did not always wear their dosimeters or the dosimeters were not always in the radiation field. Cytogenetic studies should be extended to more workers to assess the risk derived from their occupational exposure. (authors)

  19. Total cardiovascular disease risk assessment: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2011-09-01

    The high risk strategy for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) requires an assessment of an individual\\'s total CVD risk so that the most intensive risk factor management can be directed towards those at highest risk. Here we review developments in the assessment and estimation of total CVD risk.

  20. [Risk Assessment and Risk Management of Chemicals in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tie-yu; Zhou, Yun-qiao; Li, Qi-feng; Lü, Yong-long

    2016-02-15

    Risk assessment and risk management have been increasingly approved as an effective approach for appropriate disposal and scientific management of chemicals. This study systematically analyzed the risk assessment methods of chemicals from three aspects including health risk, ecological risk and regional risk. Based on the current situation of classification and management towards chemicals in China, a specific framework of risk management on chemicals was proposed by selecting target chemicals, predominant industries and related stakeholders as the objects. The results of the present study will provide scientific support for improving risk assessment and reasonable management of chemicals in China. PMID:27363124

  1. CEA - Assessment of risk management for 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report proposes an overview of the main events, actions performed by the CEA, and facts for 2012 regarding protection and monitoring of the environment, installation safety, occupational health and safety, radiological protection of workers, transportation of hazardous materials, waste management, protection of sites, installations and heritage, emergency situation management, legal risk management, internal controls and audits. It also presents the organisation and action of the risk management department within the CEA

  2. Automating Spreadsheet Discovery & Risk Assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Perry, Eric

    2008-01-01

    There have been many articles and mishaps published about the risks of uncontrolled spreadsheets in today's business environment, including non-compliance, operational risk, errors, and fraud all leading to significant loss events. Spreadsheets fall into the realm of end user developed applications and are often absent the proper safeguards and controls an IT organization would enforce for enterprise applications. There is also an overall lack of software programming discipline enforced in how spreadsheets are developed. However, before an organization can apply proper controls and discipline to critical spreadsheets, an accurate and living inventory of spreadsheets across the enterprise must be created, and all critical spreadsheets must be identified. As such, this paper proposes an automated approach to the initial stages of the spreadsheet management lifecycle - discovery, inventory and risk assessment. Without the use of technology, these phases are often treated as a one-off project. By leveraging techn...

  3. Risk assessment and societal choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many countries are experiencing a period in which traditional values are being questioned; plans for further technological progress are being met by a variety of demands for a closer examination of the benefits and risks of large-scale technologies. In this paper the concepts of risk assessment are presented and a model is proposed which illustrates the importance of socio-psychological mechanisms in the acceptance of technological risks. The research plan of the Joint IAEA/IIASA Research Project is outlined: this work is directed toward gaining an improved understanding of how societies judge the acceptability of technologies and how societal attitudes and anticipated responses may be better integrated into the decision-making process. Some preliminary results are reported. (author)

  4. Radiological dose assessment of naturally occurring radioactive materials in concrete building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have shown that the natural radioactivity contained in building materials have significantly influenced the dose rates in dwelling. Exposure to natural radiation in building has been of concerned since almost 80 % of our daily live are spend indoor. Thus, the aim of the study is to assess the radiological risk associated by natural radioactivity in soil based building materials to dwellers. A total of 13 Portland cement, 46 sand and 43 gravel samples obtained from manufacturers or bought directly from local hardware stores in Peninsular of Malaysia were analysed for their radioactivity concentrations. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the studied building materials samples were found to be in the range of 3.7-359.3, 2.0-370.8 and 10.3-1,949.5 Bq kg-1 respectively. The annual radiation dose rates (μSv year-1) received by dwellers were evaluated for 1 to 50 years of exposure using Resrad-Build Computer Code based on the activity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K found in the studied building material samples. The rooms modelling were based on the changing parameters of concrete wall thickness and the room dimensions. The annual radiation dose rates to dwellers were found to increase annually over a period of 50 years. The concrete thicknesses were found to have significantly influenced the dose rates in building. The self-absorption occurred when the concrete thickness was thicker than 0.4 m. Results of this study shows that the dose rates received by the dwellers of the building are proportional to the size of the room. In general the study concludes that concrete building materials; Portland cements, sands, and gravels in Peninsular of Malaysia does not pose radiological hazard to the building dwellers. (author)

  5. Methodology of environmental risk assessment management

    OpenAIRE

    Saša T. Bakrač; Mladen M. Vuruna; MIŠKO M. MILANOVIĆ

    2012-01-01

    Successful protection of environment is mostly based on high-quality assessment of potential and present risks. Environmental risk management is a complex process which includes: identification, assessment and control of risk, namely taking measures in order to minimize the risk to an acceptable level. Environmental risk management methodology: In addition to these phases in the management of environmental risk, appropriate measures that affect the reduction of risk occurrence should be imple...

  6. Apollo 13 Risk Assessment Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Bukovics, István

    2007-01-01

    Fault tree methodology is the most widespread risk assessment tool by which one is able to predict - in principle - the outcome of an event whenever it is reduced to simpler ones by the logic operations conjunction and disjunction according to the basics of Boolean algebra. The object of this work is to present an algorithm by which, using the corresponding computer code, one is able to predict - in practice - the outcome of an event whenever its fault tree is given in the u...

  7. Probabilistic risk assessment of HTGRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment methods have been applied to gas-cooled reactors for more than a decade and to HTGRs for more than six years in the programs sponsored by the US Department of Energy. Significant advancements to the development of PRA methodology in these programs are summarized as are the specific applications of the methods to HTGRs. Emphasis here is on PRA as a tool for evaluating HTGR design options. Current work and future directions are also discussed

  8. Radiological impact assessment of uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis presents improved methods for predicting and assessing the dose to humans resulting from uranium mining and milling operations with the primary focus being on the local and regional component of dose to members of the public. Throughout, examples are presented from operating (Ranger) and rehabilitated (Nabarlek) uranium mine in the tropical Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory of Australia. Four major pathways are examined with relation to the Ranger mine dispersion of radionuclides in creek waters with uptake into the food chain, dispersion of radionuclides in groundwater, atmospheric transport of radon and radon progeny, and wet and dry deposition of activity on airborne dust. An improved model has been developed for the prediction of dose following release of wastewaters from Ranger into the Magela Creek system. The available data on radionuclide uptake into organism of the creek system were reviewed for incorporation into the model. Calculations using the model indicate that the most important organism for radiological impact are freshwater mussels, followed by fish. The behaviour of U, Ra, Th and Ac in the groundwater system in the vicinity of the Ranger tailings dam has been investigated using alpha- and gamma-spectrometry techniques. Ra, U and Ac isotope concentrations have increased with time in some bores, but this is shown in the case of Ra to be due to removal of native Ra from the aquifer rocks by increasing cation concentrations. Formation of barite is also occurring in the vicinity of some bores, leading to a removal of some Ra from solution. The situation with U is less clear. U-234/U-238 ratios have decreased with increasing U-238 concentrations in a number of bores, but generally remain above the tailings dam water value of 1.00. The most likely explanation is that the increasing size of mine structures such as waste rock dumps and ore stockpile has led to a change in conditions in the aquifer such that U ha become

  9. Assessment of Natural Radioactivity and its Radiological Impact in Ortum Region in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The earth contains natural background radiations originating from terrestrial and cosmic sources. This study aims at assessing the levels of background radiation in air, soil and water and its associated radiological impact and also determines the elemental concentration of the rocks and soils around Ortum hills and quarry. 100 points will be measured for radioactivity in the air and 40 soil and 10 water samples will be collected for laboratory analysis using both grid and purposive sampling methods. Radioactivity in the field will be determined using the hand held Red Eye and Radiagem radiation survey meters. The levels of naturally occurring radionuclide Uranium-238 (238U), Thorium-232 (232Th) and Potassium-40 (40K) in the soil and rocks will be determined using High Pure Germanium (HPGe) detector; the Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC) will be used for analysis of water samples while the Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (EDXRF) will be used to determine the elemental composition in the rocks and soil. The Residual Radioactivity (RESRAD) program will be used to analyze and assess the doses and risks associated with radiation exposure in Ortum region. (author)

  10. Performance assessment - risk assessment vive la differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the sister worlds of radioactive waste management disposal and environmental restoration, there are two similar processes and computational approaches for determining the acceptability of the proposed activities. While similar, these two techniques can lead to confusion and misunderstanding if the differences are not recognized and appreciated. In the case of radioactive waste management, the performance assessment process is used to determine compliance with certain prescribed 'performance objectives'. These objectives are designed to ensure that the disposal of radioactive (high-level, low-level, and/or transuranic) waste will be protective of human health and the environment. The environmental link is primarily through assuring protection of the groundwater as a resource. In the case of environmental restoration, the risk assessment process is used to determine the proper remedial action response, if any, for a past hazardous waste release. The process compares the 'no action' or 'leave as is' option with both carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic values for human health to determine the need for any action and to help to help determine just what the appropriate action would need to be. The impacts to the ecological system are evaluated in a slightly, different but similar fashion. Now the common objectives between these two processes notwithstanding. There are some key and fundamental differences that need to be answered that make direct comparisons or a common approach inappropriate. Failure to recognize this can lead to confusion and misunderstanding. This can be particularly problematic when one is faced with an active disposal facility located within the boundaries of an environmental restoration site as is the case at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Through a critical evaluation of the performance assessment and risk assessment processes, highlighting both similarities and differences, it is hoped that greater understanding and appreciation

  11. Comparison of models used for ecological risk assessment and human health risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Models are used to derive action levels for site screening, or to estimate potential ecological or human health risks posed by potentially hazardous sites. At the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), which is RCRA-regulated, the human-health screening action levels are based on hazardous constituents described in RCRA Subpart S and RESRAD-derived soil guidelines (based on 10 mRem/year) for radiological constituents. Also, an ecological risk screening model was developed for a former firing site, where the primary constituents include depleted uranium, beryllium and lead. Sites that fail the screening models are evaluated with site-specific human risk assessment (using RESRAD and other approaches) and a detailed ecological effect model (ECOTRAN). ECOTRAN is based on pharmacokinetics transport modeling within a multitrophic-level biological-growth dynamics model. ECOTRAN provides detailed temporal records of contaminant concentrations in biota, and annual averages of these body burdens are compared to equivalent site-specific runs of the RESRAD model. The results show that thoughtful interpretation of the results of these models must be applied before they can be used for evaluation of current risk posed by sites and the benefits of various remedial options. This presentation compares the concentrations of biological media in the RESRAD screening runs to the concentrations in ecological endpoints predicted by the ecological screening model. The assumptions and limitations of these screening models and the decision process where these are screening models are applied are discussed

  12. Risk Assessment of Shellfish Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex Munday

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Complex secondary metabolites, some of which are highly toxic to mammals, are produced by many marine organisms. Some of these organisms are important food sources for marine animals and, when ingested, the toxins that they produce may be absorbed and stored in the tissues of the predators, which then become toxic to animals higher up the food chain. This is a particular problem with shellfish, and many cases of poisoning are reported in shellfish consumers each year. At present, there is no practicable means of preventing uptake of the toxins by shellfish or of removing them after harvesting. Assessment of the risk posed by such toxins is therefore required in order to determine levels that are unlikely to cause adverse effects in humans and to permit the establishment of regulatory limits in shellfish for human consumption. In the present review, the basic principles of risk assessment are described, and the progress made toward robust risk assessment of seafood toxins is discussed. While good progress has been made, it is clear that further toxicological studies are required before this goal is fully achieved.

  13. Preliminary survey for communicating risk in medical exposure. Perception of risk among nurses working in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A questionnaire survey was conducted on radiation risk and medical exposure, particularly in applications involving children. The survey was targeted at nurses (170 females) engaged in important roles in communicating risk regarding medical exposure. The questionnaire survey yielded the following findings. A significant number of respondents associated the word radiation' with 'cancer treatment,' 'exposure,' and 'X-ray pictures.' Perceptions about 'food exposure' differed between respondents with children and those without. Among the potential health problems posed by radiation, effects on children,' 'cancer and leukemia,' and 'genetic effects' were perceived as the most worrisome. Significant differences in perception were noted regarding infertility between respondents with children and those without. Concerning the effects of medical exposure on fetuses/children, only 10 percent of all respondents replied that they were not anxious about negative effects in either case. Among the respondents who felt uneasy about these aspects, most tended to assess exposed parts, doses, damage potentially suffered, timing of occurrence, and uncertainty, based on their professional experience and knowledge, to rationally distinguish acceptable risks from unacceptable ones and to limit concern to the unacceptable aspects. (author)

  14. Assessing the possible radiological impact of routine radiological discharges from proposed nuclear power stations in England and Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to assess the possible radiological impact on the population of the United Kingdom (UK) from new nuclear power stations proposed for up to eight sites in England and Wales. The radiological impact was measured in terms of collective dose to the UK, European and world populations from a single year’s discharge integrated to 500 and 100 000 years and the annual dose to an average member of the UK population (known as the per-caput dose). The doses were calculated for two reactor types, UK EPR™ and AP1000™, using the annual expected discharges estimated by the designers of the reactors and assuming two reactors per site. In addition, typical individual doses to adults living close to the sites were calculated on the basis of continuous discharges for 60 years (the assumed lifetime of the reactors). The dose to a representative person (previously known as the critical group) was not calculated, as this has been done elsewhere. The assessments were carried out using the software program PC-CREAM 08® which implements the updated European Commission methodology for assessing the radiological impact of routine releases of radionuclides to the environment. The collective dose truncated to 500 years to the UK population was estimated to be 0.5 manSv assuming UK EPR reactors on all sites and 0.6 manSv assuming AP1000s on three sites with UK EPRs on the other sites. The most significant contribution to the collective dose to the UK population is due to the global circulation of carbon-14 released to the atmosphere. The annual dose to an average member of the UK population from all sites was calculated to be around 10 nSv y−1 and would therefore contribute little to an individual’s total radiation dose. All the calculated doses to a typical adult living near the sites assuming continuous discharges for 60 years were found to be below 1 μSv y−1. (paper)

  15. The concept of radiological risk and the epidemiology of the ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work has as objective to describe in general way which is the methodology to be able to propose and to determine the exhibition limits of the ionizing radiations in terms of the radiological risk. First a description of the radiological risk concept is made, considering that the concept has more than a meaning, but that technical and scientifically is a punctual concept. Starting from the understanding of the term risk and example of numeric calculation of the same one is made and next a description of the epidemiology meaning is made. The epidemiology concept is described and a brief description of three of the main epidemic methods is made: the ecological, analytic, (divided in case-control) and cohort studies. A description is made of how starting from the statistical data of cohort studies the mortality data are obtained in terms of the cause-effect relationship, being these dose-cancer like the main stochastic effect and later on starting from these data models are proposed to describe the radiological risk. As the dose levels of the considered cohorts are very high in comparison with the normal labor levels, then the cause-effect models should be extrapolated for low dose levels, once established these models are to decide the grade of acceptable risk for the activity that involves the use of ionizing radiations, starting from there and with numeric values the dose limits to recommend are established and that would be adopted by the countries or regions in terms of their social, economic and technical conditions. (Author)

  16. Concept of risk: risk assessment and nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dissertation is a critical examination of risk assessment and its role in public policy. Nuclear power safety safety issues are selected as the primary source of illustrations and examples. The dissertation examines how risk assessment studies develop a concept of risk which becomes decisive for policy choices. Risk-assessment techniques are interpreted as instruments which secure an evaluation of risk which, in turn, figures prominently in technical reports on nuclear power. The philosophical critique is mounted on two levels. First, an epistemological critique surveys distinctions between the technical concept of risk and more familiar senses of risk. The critique shows that utilization of risk assessment re-structures the concept of risk. The technical concept is contrasted to the function of risk within a decision-maker's conceptual agenda and hierarchy of values. Second, an ethical critique exposes the value commitments of risk assessment recommendations. Although some of these values might be defended for policy decisions, the technical character of risk assessment obfuscates normative issues. Risk assessment is shown to be a form of factual enquiry which, nonetheless, represents a commitment to a specific selection of ethical and social values. Risk assessment should not be interpreted as a primary guide to decision unless the specific values incorporated into its concept of risk are stated explicitly and justified philosophically. Such a statement would allow value questions which have been sublimated by the factual tone of the analytic techniques to be debated on clear, social and ethical grounds

  17. Assessment of the radiological impact of the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to facilitate the assessment of the radiological impact of transport, and to guide the collection of data for future assessments, the IAEA convened a technical committee (The Technical Committee on the Assessment of the Radiological Impact from the Transport of Radioactive Materials; TC-556) in Vienna, Austria on 21-25 October 1985. The Terms of Reference called for this committee ''to collect and assess data on the radiation exposure of workers and the public during the transport of radioactive material, and to develop a summary statement, reflecting current practice and current state of knowledge, on the radiological impact of transport.'' This technical document provides the summary statement developed by TC-556. The statement should be viewed as an interim assessment since it utilized only data then available, or made available, to the committee. This document consists of three Sections: Section I - Background Information to the Summary Statement (prepared by the Secretariat); Section II - The Summary Statement on the Radiological Impact of the Transport of Radioactive Materials (developed by TC-556); and Section III - Recommendations for Future Assessments (a summary of statements and conclusions provided in the TC-556 Chairman's Report)

  18. The Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: Data and dose assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallout from atmospheric nuclear tests, especially from those conducted at the Pacific Proving Grounds between 1946 and 1958, contaminated areas of the Northern Marshall Islands. A radiological survey at some Northern Marshall Islands was conducted from September through November 1978 to evaluate the extent of residual radioactive contamination. The atolls included in the Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey (NMIRS) were Likiep, Ailuk, Utirik, Wotho, Ujelang, Taka, Rongelap, Rongerik, Bikar, Ailinginae, and Mejit and Jemo Islands. The original test sites, Bikini and Enewetak Atolls, were also visited on the survey. An aerial survey was conducted to determine the external gamma exposure rate. Terrestrial (soil, food crops, animals, and native vegetation), cistern and well water samples, and marine (sediment, seawater, fish and clams) samples were collected to evaluate radionuclide concentrations in the atoll environment. Samples were processed and analyzed for 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu and 241Am. The dose from the ingestion pathway was calculated using the radionuclide concentration data and a diet model for local food, marine, and water consumption. The ingestion pathway contributes 70% to 90% of the estimated dose. Approximately 95% of the dose is from 137Cs accounts for about 10% to 30% of the dose. 239+240Pu and 241Am are the major contributors to dose via the inhalation pathway; however, inhalation accounts for only about 1% of the total estimated dose, based on surface soil levels and resuspension studies. All doses are computed for concentrations decay corrected to 1996. The maximum annual effective dose from manmade radionuclides at these atolls ranges from .02 mSv y-1. The background dose in the Marshall Islands is estimated to be 2.4 mSv y-1 to 4.5 mSv y-1. The 50-y integral dose ranges from 0.5 to 65 mSv. 35 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs

  19. The Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: Data and dose assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W.L.; Noshkin, V.E.; Conrado, C.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-07-01

    Fallout from atmospheric nuclear tests, especially from those conducted at the Pacific Proving Grounds between 1946 and 1958, contaminated areas of the Northern Marshall Islands. A radiological survey at some Northern Marshall Islands was conducted from September through November 1978 to evaluate the extent of residual radioactive contamination. The atolls included in the Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey (NMIRS) were Likiep, Ailuk, Utirik, Wotho, Ujelang, Taka, Rongelap, Rongerik, Bikar, Ailinginae, and Mejit and Jemo Islands. The original test sites, Bikini and Enewetak Atolls, were also visited on the survey. An aerial survey was conducted to determine the external gamma exposure rate. Terrestrial (soil, food crops, animals, and native vegetation), cistern and well water samples, and marine (sediment, seawater, fish and clams) samples were collected to evaluate radionuclide concentrations in the atoll environment. Samples were processed and analyzed for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am. The dose from the ingestion pathway was calculated using the radionuclide concentration data and a diet model for local food, marine, and water consumption. The ingestion pathway contributes 70% to 90% of the estimated dose. Approximately 95% of the dose is from {sup 137}Cs accounts for about 10% to 30% of the dose. {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am are the major contributors to dose via the inhalation pathway; however, inhalation accounts for only about 1% of the total estimated dose, based on surface soil levels and resuspension studies. All doses are computed for concentrations decay corrected to 1996. The maximum annual effective dose from manmade radionuclides at these atolls ranges from .02 mSv y{sup -1}. The background dose in the Marshall Islands is estimated to be 2.4 mSv y{sup -1} to 4.5 mSv y{sup -1}. The 50-y integral dose ranges from 0.5 to 65 mSv. 35 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. Radiological and chemical assessment of phosphate rocks in some countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cevik, U., E-mail: ugurc@ktu.edu.tr [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, Trabzon (Turkey); Baltas, H. [Rize University, Department of Physics, Rize (Turkey); Tabak, A. [Rize University, Department of Chemistry, Rize (Turkey); Damla, N. [Batman University, Department of Physics, Batman (Turkey)

    2010-10-15

    In this study, the radiological, structural and chemical characterizations of Mardin-Mazidagi phosphate rock, which is an important phosphate fertilizer source in Turkey were investigated and compared to those of several different phosphate rocks of Tunisia, Egypt, Morocco, Algeria and Syria using gamma spectrometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurement techniques. Elemental analysis results of phosphate samples showed that they were mainly composed of CaO, P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SO{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Elemental concentrations of U and Th were calculated using {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th activity concentrations, respectively. As a result of XRD analysis, the main peaks of the samples were found to be Fluorapatite (Ca{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}F). The radioactivity concentration levels for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in all phosphate samples ranged from 250 to 1029 Bq kg{sup -1} with a mean of 535 Bq kg{sup -1}, from 5 to 50 Bq kg{sup -1} with a mean of 20 Bq kg{sup -1} and from 117 to 186 Bq kg{sup -1} with a mean of 148 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. The computed values of annual effective doses ranged from 0.17 to 0.59 mSv, with a mean value of 0.33 mSv, which is lower than the recommended limit of 1 mSv y{sup -1} by the International Commission on Radiological Protection.

  1. Informed consent and communication of risk from radiological and nuclear medicine examinations: how to escape from a communication inferno

    OpenAIRE

    Picano, Eugenio

    2004-01-01

    Radiological and nuclear medicine examinations confer a definite (albeit low) long term risk of cancer, but patients undergoing such examinations often receive no or inaccurate information about these risks. Picano argues that this disregard of patient autonomy is no longer acceptable and suggests a practicable way of communicating risk

  2. Computer-Aided Nodule Assessment and Risk Yield Risk Management of Adenocarcinoma: The Future of Imaging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Finbar; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Raghunath, Sushravya M; Boland, Jennifer M; Karwoski, Ronald A; Maldonado, Fabien; Bartholmai, Brian J; Peikert, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Increased clinical use of chest high-resolution computed tomography results in increased identification of lung adenocarcinomas and persistent subsolid opacities. However, these lesions range from very indolent to extremely aggressive tumors. Clinically relevant diagnostic tools to noninvasively risk stratify and guide individualized management of these lesions are lacking. Research efforts investigating semiquantitative measures to decrease interrater and intrarater variability are emerging, and in some cases steps have been taken to automate this process. However, many such methods currently are still suboptimal, require validation and are not yet clinically applicable. The computer-aided nodule assessment and risk yield software application represents a validated tool for the automated, quantitative, and noninvasive tool for risk stratification of adenocarcinoma lung nodules. Computer-aided nodule assessment and risk yield correlates well with consensus histology and postsurgical patient outcomes, and therefore may help to guide individualized patient management, for example, in identification of nodules amenable to radiological surveillance, or in need of adjunctive therapy. PMID:27568149

  3. Hotspot health physics codes used as a tool for managing excess risk on radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is aimed to use the Hotspot Health Physics codes in acute mode in order to estimate the immediate radiological impact associated with high acute radiation doses, which is applied to special target organs such as lung, small intestine wall, and red bone marrow. Organic compounds such as Diphenyl Diselenide (C6H5Se2C6H5) and Ebselen (C13H9NOSe), an antioxidants selenium containing compounds, were used over irradiated phospholipids extracted from chicken yolk eggs, in vitro in order to reduce lipo-peroxidation. Experimental data were measured by Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substance (TBARS) assay which is able to measure the production of oxidative stress in the sample. Experimental data were extrapolated and applied as a reduction factors over equations for cancer excess risk calculation from BEIR V, for helping the decisonmaking process on Radiological Emergency Scenarios. (author)

  4. Assessment of spatial distribution and radiological hazardous nature of radionuclides in high background radiation area, Kerala, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration and distribution of the natural radionuclides (238U, 232Th and 40K) have been analyzed for the beach sediments of Kerala with an aim of evaluating the radiation hazards. The ranges of activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th and 40K are BDL—1187±21.7 Bq/kg, BDL—5328±23.2 Bq/kg and BDL—693±31.2 Bq/kg respectively. Radiological parameters such as absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose equivalent, annual gonadal dose equivalent, radium equivalent, hazard index, gamma Index, activity utilization index and excess lifetime cancer risk are calculated to know the complete radiological hazardous nature. Concentration of radionuclides (238U and 232Th) and all the calculated radiological parameters are higher in site number S23 (Chavara beach) due to the presence of rich deposits of black sands. Average concentrations of radionuclides (238U and 232Th) and all calculated radiological parameters are higher than the recommended level. Both univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were applied effectively to assess the distribution of the radionuclides. Univariate statistical analysis shows that the confirmation of infrequent extreme deviations of all radioactive variables. Cluster analysis shows that light minerals play a role in cluster I sampling sites and heavy minerals may be played in sampling sites of other clusters. Calculated activity ratio confirmed the presence of light and heavy minerals in above mentioned sampling sites. The Kerala beach sediments pose significant radiological threat to the people living in the area and tourists going to the beaches for recreation or to the sailors and fishermen involved in their activities in the study area. - Highlights: ► The concentration and distribution of the natural radionuclides have been analyzed for the Kerala beach sediments. ► Average concentrations of 238U and 232Th, and all calculated radiological parameters are higher than the recommended level. ► Univariate statistical

  5. Computer-based tools for radiological assessment of emergencies at nuclear facilities in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HMNll is responsible for regulating the activities at licensed nuclear sites in the UK. In the event of an emergency being declared at any of these sites. HMNll would mobilize an emergency response team. This team would, interalia, monitor the activities of the operator at the affected site, assess the actual or potential radiological consequences of the event and provide briefings to senior members of government. Central to this response to an emergency is the assessment effort that would be provided by the Bootle Headquarters Emergency Room. To facilitate the assessments carried out at Bottle, computer based tools have been developed. The major licensed nuclear facilities in the UK fall into two broad groups, civil power reactors and nuclear chemical plant. These two types of facilities pose different levels of radiological hazard as a result of their different radioactive inventories and the different physical processes in operation. Furthermore these two groups of facilities pose different problems in assessing the radiological hazard in emergency situations. This paper describes the differences in approach used in designing and using computer based tools to assess the radiological consequences of emergencies at power reactor and chemical plant sites

  6. Risk communication and environmental risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper attempts to provide a broad context for consideration of appropriate risk communication approaches. It examines the basis of public concerns and in particular the non-risk dimensions. The latter are so important in any risk decision that means of communication which can deal with them are required which extend beyond understanding how to present risk estimates. These means relate to (a) the decision processes themselves and the extent to which they provide for involvement of the public in decisions, (b) the communication skills of experts, and (c) the robustness of the risk information which is available. (Author)

  7. Foetal Radiation Dose and Risk from Diagnostic Radiology Procedures: A Multinational Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In diagnostic radiology examinations there is a benefit that the patient derives from the resulting diagnosis. Given that so many examinations are performed each year, it is inevitable that there will be occasions when an examination(s) may be inadvertently performed on pregnant patients or occasionally it may become clinically necessary to perform an examination(s) on a pregnant patient. In all these circumstances it is necessary to request an estimation of the foetal dose and risk. We initiated a study to investigate fetal doses from different countries. Exposure techniques on 367 foetuses from 414 examinations were collected and investigated. The FetDoseV4 program was used for all dose and risk estimations. The radiation doses received by the 367 foetuses ranges: <0.001–21.9 mGy depending on examination and technique. The associated probability of induced hereditary effect ranges: <1 in 200000000 (5 × 10−9) to 1 in 10000 (1 × 10−4) and the risk of childhood cancer ranges <1 in 12500000 (8 × 10−8) to 1 in 500 (2 × 10−3). The data indicates that foetal doses from properly conducted diagnostic radiology examinations will not result in any deterministic effect and a negligible risk of causing radiation induced hereditary effect in the descendants of the unborn child

  8. BNL ALARA Center's development of a computerized radiological assessment and design system (RADS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Health Physics and Industrial Hygiene sponsored a study of Radiological Engineering Programs at selected DOE contractor facilities. This study was conducted to review, evaluate, and summarize techniques and practices that should be considered in the design phase that reduce dose and the spread of radioactive materials during subsequent construction and operation of DOE radiological facilities. As in a previous study on operational ALARA programs, a variety of good-practice documents will be generated. It is envisioned that these documents will serve as a resource to assist radiological engineers in the process of designing radiological facilities, and in performing radiological safety/ALARA design reviews. This paper presents the features for three good-practice documents and related software applications that are being developed based on the findings of this study. The proposed software called Radiological Assessment and Design System (RADS) will be a menu-driven database and spreadsheet program. It will be designed to provide easy, consistent, and effective implementation of the methodologies described in the three good-practice documents. These documents and the associated RADS software will provide the user with the following three functions: (1) enter dose assessment information and data into computer worksheets and provide printed tables of the results which can then be inserted into safety analysis reports or cost-benefit analyses, (2) perform a wide variety of sorts of radiological design criteria from DOE Orders and produce a checklist of the desired design criteria, and (3) enter cost/benefit data and qualitative rating of attributes for various design alternatives which reduce dose into computer worksheets and provide printed reports of cost-effectiveness results

  9. Caries risk assessment: why, when and how?

    OpenAIRE

    Antonsen, Grethe Marie; Hunstad, Marie Nøvik

    2011-01-01

    This literature study reviewed papers on caries risk assessment on patients` above 18 years published between 2000 and 2010. In the present study three different methods are discussed: The Cariogram, CAMBRA ( Caries Management By Risk Assessment) and the UIT – method (University of Tromsø). The purpose of caries risk assessments are to find out which risk level the patient has and try to lower the risk. By evaluating the protective and pathologic factors involved in the carious disease the de...

  10. The Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey: data and dose assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, W L; Noshkin, V E; Conrado, C L; Eagle, R J; Brunk, J L; Jokela, T A; Mount, M E; Phillips, W A; Stoker, A C; Stuart, M L; Wong, K M

    1997-07-01

    Fallout from atmospheric nuclear tests, especially from those conducted at the Pacific Proving Grounds between 1946 and 1958, contaminated areas of the Northern Marshall Islands. A radiological survey at some Northern Marshall Islands was conducted from September through November 1978 to evaluate the extent of residual radioactive contamination. The atolls included in the Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey (NMIRS) were Likiep, Ailuk, Utirik, Wotho, Ujelang, Taka, Rongelap, Rongerik, Bikar, Ailinginae, and Mejit and Jemo Islands. The original test sites, Bikini and Enewetak Atolls, were also visited on the survey. An aerial survey was conducted to determine the external gamma exposure rate. Terrestrial (soil, food crops, animals, and native vegetation), cistern and well water samples, and marine (sediment, seawater, fish and clams) samples were collected to evaluate radionuclide concentrations in the atoll environment. Samples were processed and analyzed for 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu and 241Am. The dose from the ingestion pathway was calculated using the radionuclide concentration data and a diet model for local food, marine, and water consumption. The ingestion pathway contributes 70% to 90% of the estimated dose. Approximately 95% of the dose is from 137Cs. 90Sr is the second most significant radionuclide via ingestion. External gamma exposure from 137Cs accounts for about 10% to 30% of the dose. 239+240Pu and 241Am are the major contributors to dose via the inhalation pathway; however, inhalation accounts for only about 1% of the total estimated dose, based on surface soil levels and resuspension studies. All doses are computed for concentrations decay corrected to 1996. The maximum annual effective dose from manmade radionuclides at these atolls ranges from .02 mSv y(-1) to 2.1 mSv y(-1). The background dose in the Marshall Islands is estimated to be 2.4 mSv y(-1). The combined dose from both background and bomb related radionuclides ranges from slightly

  11. Caries risk assessment models in caries prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Amila Zukanović

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this research was to assess the efficiency of different multifactor models in caries prediction. Material and methods. Data from the questionnaire and objective examination of 109 examinees was entered into the Cariogram, Previser and Caries-Risk Assessment Tool (CAT) multifactor risk assessment models. Caries risk was assessed with the help of all three models for each patient, classifying them as low, medium or high-risk patients. The development of new caries lesions ...

  12. Rationalising Risk Assessment: Applications to Agricultural Business

    OpenAIRE

    Hardaker, J. Brian; Lien, Gudbrand D.

    2007-01-01

    To concentrate on treating the most serious risks, methods of business risk management usually seek to identify the main risks and to assess their relative importance. Risks are typically assessed in terms of their chances of occurrence and the severity of their consequences. The assessments may be performed by qualitative, semi-quantitative or quantitative analysis. This paper is focussed on quantitative methods, requiring assessments of specific probabilities and values for consequences.

  13. A Total Risk Assessment in an Enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Wasilewski Wiesław

    2012-01-01

    Risk assessment is an important task of risk management. It must take various aspects into consideration. For this reason the risk management involves various scientific disciplines: mathematics, psychology, law etc. Every institution must deal with many different kinds of risk. The question is: in order to ensure the continuation of the company, is it important to assess individual risk or to identify and evaluate the entire overall risk to the enterprise. This article aims to present a meth...

  14. Radiological safety assessment in zircon sand handling plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to the application of the zircon in nuclear field, there are other non-nuclear applications of zirconium where different grades of zircon sands are micronised to manufacture zirconium silicate to be used in ceramic tiles, sanitary wares etc. The zircon sand is either obtained locally or imported from two agencies abroad. The production of different grades of silicate involves specific physical and chemical processes and the quality of product changes with chemical compositions used, density of slurry and the particle size. A radiological protection survey was conducted at the plant where zirconium silicate (ZIRCOSIL) is being produced on commercial scale. Air monitoring carried out at this plant has shown radiation levels within the permissible limits. However the exposures rates, at the places where raw and finished products were stored, were found in the range of 0.35 - 1.96μ Sv/h. The final product has the specific concentration of 3.53 ± 0.03 kBq/Kg of 238U and 0.67± 0.008 kBq/kg of 232Th. (author)

  15. Facial exposure dose assessment during intraoral radiography by radiological technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study examined the changes in the decreased facial exposure dose for radiological technologists depending on increased distance between the workers and the X-ray tube head during intraoral radiography. First, the facial phantom similar to the human tissues was manufactured. The shooting examination was configured to the maxillary molars for adults (60 kVp, 10 mA, 50 msec) and for children (60 kVp, 10 mA, 20 msec), and the chamber was fixed where the facial part of the radiation worker would be placed using the intraoral radiography equipment. The distances between the X-ray tube head and the phantom were set to 10 cm, 15 cm, 20 cm, 25 cm, 30 cm, 35 cm, and 40 cm. The phantom was radiated 20 times with each examination condition and the average scattered doses were examined. The rate at the distance of 40 cm decreased by about 92.6% to 7.43% based on the scattered rays radiated at the distance of 10 cm under the adult conditions. The rate at the distance of 40 cm decreased by about 97.6% to 2.58% based on the scattered rays radiated at the distance of 10 cm under the children conditions. Protection from the radiation exposure was required during the dental radiographic examination

  16. Facial exposure dose assessment during intraoral radiography by radiological technologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hwan; Yang, Han Joon [Dept. of International Radiological Science, Hallym University of Graduate Studies, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    The study examined the changes in the decreased facial exposure dose for radiological technologists depending on increased distance between the workers and the X-ray tube head during intraoral radiography. First, the facial phantom similar to the human tissues was manufactured. The shooting examination was configured to the maxillary molars for adults (60 kVp, 10 mA, 50 msec) and for children (60 kVp, 10 mA, 20 msec), and the chamber was fixed where the facial part of the radiation worker would be placed using the intraoral radiography equipment. The distances between the X-ray tube head and the phantom were set to 10 cm, 15 cm, 20 cm, 25 cm, 30 cm, 35 cm, and 40 cm. The phantom was radiated 20 times with each examination condition and the average scattered doses were examined. The rate at the distance of 40 cm decreased by about 92.6% to 7.43% based on the scattered rays radiated at the distance of 10 cm under the adult conditions. The rate at the distance of 40 cm decreased by about 97.6% to 2.58% based on the scattered rays radiated at the distance of 10 cm under the children conditions. Protection from the radiation exposure was required during the dental radiographic examination.

  17. A framework for combining social impact assessment and risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoudi, Hossein; Renn, Ortwin; Vanclay, Frank; Hoffmann, Volker; Karami, Ezatollah

    2013-01-01

    An increasing focus on integrative approaches is one of the current trends in impact assessment. There is potential to combine impact assessment with various other forms of assessment, such as risk assessment, to make impact assessment and the management of social risks more effective. We identify t

  18. Specific gamma-ray dose constants for nuclides important to dosimetry and radiological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tables of specific gamma-ray dose constants (the unshielded gamma-ray dose equivalent rate at 1 m from a point source) have been computed for approximately 500 nuclides important to dosimetry and radiological assessment. The half life, the mean attenuation coefficient, and thickness for a lead shield providing 95% dose equivalent attenuation are also listed

  19. Assessment of Radiological Levels in Soils from Artisanal Gold Mining Exercises at Awwal, Kebbi State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Girigisu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the radiological levels from Awwal artisanal gold mining exercises in Kebbi State. Results show mean values of activities of 40K>226Ra232 Th numerically as 425.96±5.56, 23.85±2.01 and 18.80±1.21 Bq/kg, respectively. The average outdoor gamma dose was 34.26 nGy/h while the mean annual effective dose rate was 42.15 &muSv/year (= 0.042 mSv/year, which is less than 0.07 mSv/year benchmark given in UNSCEAR (1993. Radio logically, the values obtained are low and do not imply any significant health concerns effects on the local population. However, the observed unprofessional practices such as lack of use of gas mask while working in the dust-filled mine cafes and at the mills could expose workers to possible risks from inhalation of respiratory crystalline silica as well as exposure to radon gas.

  20. Study of radiological risk in breast cancer screening programme at Comunidad Valenciana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is demonstrated that screening mammography programmes reduce breast cancer mortality considerably. Nevertheless, radiology techniques have an intrinsic risk being the most important late somatic effect the induction of cancer. This study is made in order to evaluate the risk produced into the population by the Cimadon Valenciana Breast Screening Programme. All the calculations are carried out for two risk models, UNSCEAR 94 and NRPB 93. On the one hand, screening series detriment are investigated as a function of doses delivered and other parameters related to population structure and X-ray equipment. And on the other hand, radiation induced cancer probability for a woman who starts at 45 years and remains into the programme until 65 years old is calculated as a function of mammography unit's doses and average compression breast thickness. (author)

  1. Risk assessment terminology: risk communication part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Liuzzo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the terminology of risk communication in the view of food safety: the theory of stakeholders, the citizens’ involvement and the community interest and consultation are reported. Different aspects of risk communication (public communication, scientific uncertainty, trust, care, consensus and crisis communication are discussed.

  2. Risk assessment terminology: risk communication part 1

    OpenAIRE

    Gaetano Liuzzo; Stefano Bentley; Federica Giacometti; Silvia Piva; Andrea Serraino

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes the terminology of risk communication in the view of food safety: the theory of stakeholders, the citizens’ involvement and the community interest and consultation are reported. Different aspects of risk communication (public communication, scientific uncertainty, trust, care, consensus and crisis communication) are discussed.

  3. Natural radioactivity and radiological hazard assessment of Egyptian oil ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Hesham; Sadeek, Sadeek; Mahmoud, Abu Rehab; Diab, Hanan; Zaky, Doaa

    2016-08-01

    Oil fly and boiler ash samples were collected from the four major Egyptian power plants in order to determine their natural radioactivity. Secular equilibrium between (238)U and (232)Th and their decay products is significantly disturbed in oil ash samples. The (226)Ra/(238)U ratios were between 440 and 1993 with an average value of 801, indicating that the concentrations of daughters (226)Ra were very high compared to the parent (238)U in the oil ash samples. While, the average ratios for (210)Pb/(226)Ra in most samples were 1.19 ± 0.05, indicating a secular equilibrium in the (226)Ra-(210)Pb sub series. The natural radioactivity due to (238)U and (232)Th was found to be negligible. While the activity concentrations of (226)Ra ranged from 3205 to 12,320 Bq kg(-1) with an average value of 9284 Bq kg(-1), (210)Pb ranged from 5960 to 13,930 Bq kg(-1) with an average value of 11,513 Bq kg(-1). The results are compared with the reported data from other countries. The average value of radium equivalent activity was 9308 ± 2729 Bq kg(-1), while the external and internal hazard indexes were found to be 25 ± 7 and 50 ± 15, respectively. All the studied radiological parameters were higher than the recommended limit by the IAEA in all ash samples. PMID:27126872

  4. Assessment of radiological hazard of commercial granites from Extremadura (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term “commercial granite” comprises different natural stones with different mineralogical components. In Extremadura, western Spain, “commercial granites” can be classified in three types: granite s.s. (sensus stricti), granodiorite, and diorite. The content of naturally occurring radionuclides depended of the mineralogy. Thus, the 40K content increased as the relative content of alkaline feldspar increased but decreased as the plagioclase content increased. The radioactive content decreased in the following order: granite s.s. > granodiorite > diorite. In this work, the radiological hazard of these granites as building material was analyzed in terms of external irradiation and radon exposure. External irradiation was estimated based on the “I” index, ranged between 0.073 and 1.36. Therefore, these granites can be use as superficial building materials with no restriction. Radon exposure was estimated using the surface exhalation rates in polished granites. The exhalation rate in granites depends of their superficial finishes (different roughness). For distinct mechanical finishes of granite (polish, diamond sawed, bush-hammered and flamed), the surface exhalation rate increased with the roughness of the finishes. Thermal finish presented the highest exhalation rate, because the high temperatures applied to the granite may increase the number of fissures within it. The exhalation rates in polished granites varied from 0.013 to 10.4 Bq m−2 h−1. - Highlights: • 40K content in granite increased with alkaline feldspar and decreased with plagioclase. • Radioactive content was higher in granite s.s., followed by granodiorite and diorite. • The surface exhalation rate increased with roughness of granite with mechanical finishes. • Thermal finish of granite presented the highest exhalation rate due to high temperature applied

  5. Career Excess Mortality Risk from Diagnostic Radiological Exams Required for Crewmembers Participating in Long Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, C. W.; Gonzalez, S. M.; Picco, C. E.; Johnston, S. L.; Shavers, M. R.; VanBaalen, M.

    2008-01-01

    NASA requires astronauts to undergo diagnostic x-ray examinations as a condition for their employment. The purpose of these procedures is to assess the astronaut s overall health and to diagnose conditions that could jeopardize the success of long duration space missions. These include exams for acceptance into the astronaut corps, routine periodic exams, as well as evaluations taken pre and post missions. Issues: According to NASA policy these medical examinations are considered occupational radiological exposures, and thus, are included when computing the astronaut s overall radiation dose and associated excess cancer mortality risk. As such, astronauts and administrators are concerned about the amount of radiation received from these procedures due to the possibility that these additional doses may cause astronauts to exceed NASA s administrative limits, thus disqualifying them from future flights. Methods: Radiation doses and cancer mortality risks following required medical radiation exposures are presented herein for representative male and female astronaut careers. Calculation of the excess cancer mortality risk was performed by adapting NASA s operational risk assessment model. Averages for astronaut height, weight, number of space missions and age at selection into the astronaut corps were used as inputs to the NASA risk model. Conclusion: The results show that the level of excess cancer mortality imposed by all required medical procedures over an entire astronaut s career is approximately the same as that resulting from a single short duration space flight (i.e. space shuttle mission). In short the summation of all medical procedures involving ionizing radiation should have no impact on the number of missions an astronaut can fly over their career. Learning Objectives: 1. The types of diagnostic medical exams which astronauts are subjected to will be presented. 2. The level of radiation dose and excess mortality risk to the average male and female

  6. UFOMOD - program to calculate the radiological consequences of reactor accidents within risk studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FORTRAN-IV computer code UFOMOD calculates the radiological consequences of reactor accidents for risk studies, namely early deaths, latent cancer deaths and genetic significant doses. Different models for the atmospheric transport and deposition, the dose calculation, the countermeasures and the injuries are used to calculate individual and collective injury. Up to 54 radionuclides, 10 release categories, 4 meteorological zones, 10 population distributions per zone with up to 36 sectors and 50 rings, and 115 weather sequences per zone may be used. The deterministic results are combined together with the respective probabilities and frequencies to give complementary cumulative frequency distributions. This report describes the computer code and its input and output. (orig.)

  7. The Importance of Curriculum-Based Training and Assessment in Interventional Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physician performance and outcomes are being scrutinised by health care providers to improve patient safety and cost efficiency. Patients are best served by physicians who have undergone appropriate specialist training and assessment and perform large numbers of cases to maintain their skills. The Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe has put into place a curriculum for training in interventional radiology (IR) and a syllabus with an examination, the European Board of Interventional Radiology, providing evidence of attainment of an appropriate and satisfactory skill set for the safe practice of IR. This curriculum is appropriate for IR where there is a high volume of image-guided procedures in vascular and nonvascular organ systems with cross-use of minimally invasive techniques in patients with a variety of disease processes. Other specialties may require different, longer, and more focused training if their experience is “diluted” by the need to master a different skill set

  8. Radioactivity and radiological risk associated with effluent sediment containing technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials in amang (tin tailings) processing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The processing of amang, or tin tailings, for valuable minerals has been shown to technologically enhance NORM and this has stirred significant radiological safety and health concerns among Malaysia's regulatory authority. A growing radiological concern is now focused on the amang effluent containing NORM in recycling ponds, since these ponds may be reclaimed for future residential developments. A study was carried out to assess the radiological risk associated with amang processing and the accumulated effluent in the recycling ponds. Twenty-six sediment samples from the recycling ponds of two amang plants in the states of Selangor and Perak, Malaysia, were collected and analyzed. The maximum activity concentrations of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K recorded in sediments from these ponds were higher than Malaysia's and the world's natural highest. Correspondingly, the mean radium equivalent activity concentration indices, Raeq, and gamma radiation representative level index, I γr, were higher than the world's average. The enhancement of NORM in effluent sediments as a consequence of amang processing, and the use of a closed water management recycling system created Effective Dose Rates, E (nSv h-1), that signal potential environmental radiological risks in these ponds, should they be reclaimed for future land use

  9. Assessment of the radiological control at the IPEN radioisotope production facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, J.C.G.G.; Sanches, M.P.; Rodrigues, D.L.; Campos, D.; Nogueira, P.R.; Damatto, S.R.; Pecequilo, B.R.S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The main objective of this work is to evaluate the 2013 annual radiological control results in the radiopharmaceuticals areas of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN/SP, Brazil and the environmental radiological impact, resulting from the practices there performed. The current evaluation was performed through the analysis of the results obtained from occupational and environmental monitoring with air samplers and TL dosimeters. All monitoring results were compared with the limits established by national standards. The radionuclides detected by air sampling (in activated carbon cartridges and filter paper) at the workplace during radioisotope production were {sup 131}I, {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 99}Mo, with activities concentrations values below the annual limits values. For the radioactive gaseous releases (Bq/m{sup 3} ), the activities concentrations also remained below the maximum admissible values, excepting to {sup 125}I release due to an unusual event occurred in a researcher laboratory, but the radiological impact to environmental was no significant. The occupational monitoring assessment was confirmed by the Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program results with air samplers and TL dosimeters. The mean annual background radiation at IPEN in 2013, according to the Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program results was 1.06 mSv. y{sup -1} , below the ICRP 103 recommended limit of 20 mSv.y{sup -1} for workers. (author)

  10. Assessment of the radiological control at the IPEN radioisotope production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this work is to evaluate the 2013 annual radiological control results in the radiopharmaceuticals areas of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN/SP, Brazil and the environmental radiological impact, resulting from the practices there performed. The current evaluation was performed through the analysis of the results obtained from occupational and environmental monitoring with air samplers and TL dosimeters. All monitoring results were compared with the limits established by national standards. The radionuclides detected by air sampling (in activated carbon cartridges and filter paper) at the workplace during radioisotope production were 131I, 99mTc and 99Mo, with activities concentrations values below the annual limits values. For the radioactive gaseous releases (Bq/m3 ), the activities concentrations also remained below the maximum admissible values, excepting to 125I release due to an unusual event occurred in a researcher laboratory, but the radiological impact to environmental was no significant. The occupational monitoring assessment was confirmed by the Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program results with air samplers and TL dosimeters. The mean annual background radiation at IPEN in 2013, according to the Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program results was 1.06 mSv. y-1 , below the ICRP 103 recommended limit of 20 mSv.y-1 for workers. (author)

  11. Assessment of the radiological control at the IPEN radioisotope production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this work is to evaluate the 2013 annual radiological control results in the radiopharmaceuticals areas of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN/SP, and the environmental radiological impact, resulting from the practices there performed. The current evaluation was performed through the analysis of the results obtained from occupational and environmental monitoring with air samplers and TL dosimeters. All monitoring results were compared with the limits established by national standards. The radionuclides detected by air sampling (in charcoal and paper filters) at the workplace during radioisotope production were 131I, 99mTc and 99Mo, with activities concentrations values below the annual limits values. For the radioactive gaseous releases (Bq/m3), the activities concentrations also remained below the maximum permissible values, excepting to 125I release due to an unusual event occurred in a researcher laboratory, but the radiological impact to environmental was no significant. The occupational monitoring assessment was confirmed by the Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program results with air samplers and TL dosimeters. The mean annual background radiation at IPEN in 2013, according to the Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program results was 1.06 mSv. y-1, below the ICRP 103 recommended limit of 20 mSv.y-1 for workers. (author)

  12. Age as a factor in assessing risk to patients from the use of X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Any use of ionizing radiation carries with it a risk and it is often necessary to estimate this risk for groups of irradiated persons, or for individuals. Such persons include patients in diagnostic radiology. In diagnostic radiology effective dose has become widely used as the preferred index of patient dose. This is primarily for two reasons - effective dose is linked to a useful definition of radiation detriment and, because it converts an actual irradiation into an equivalent uniform whole body dose (in terms of detriment), it is able to cope with the partial body irradiations characteriztic of diagnostic radiology. But while effective dose has these attractions, it is based on assumptions that could impose limitations on its use for risk assessment. Effective dose is an index that has been averaged over populations and risk projection models, and its application to individuals or specialized groups of the population may not be appropriate. In this paper the collective risk from the use of diagnostic radiology in a large New Zealand teaching hospital is assessed using an age-specific approach, and this is compared with the collective risk assessed using the coefficients given in ICRP Publication 60 for the general public. (author)

  13. The assessment of technical risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety of technical systems is so difficult to assess because the concept 'risk' contains technical-scientific factors as well as components of individual and social psychology. Immediate or short-term hazards of human life as i.e. caused by the operation of industrial plants and mediate and thus long-term hazards have to be distinguished. Characteristic for the second hazard groups is the great time-lag before the effect takes place. Thus a causal relationship can be recognized only late and not definitely. Even when the causes have been obviated the effects still show. The development of a systems-analytical model as a basis of decisive processes for the introduction of highly endangered large-scale technologies seems particularly difficult. A starting point for the quantification of the risk can still be seen in the product of the probability of realization and the extent of the damage. Public opinion, however, does not base its evaluations on an objective concept of risk but tends to have an attitude of aversion against great and disastrous accidents. On the other hand, plenty of slight accidents are accepted much more easily, even when the amount of deadly victims from accidents reaches dimensions beyond those of the rare large-scale accidents. Here, mostly the damage possible but not the probability of its occurence is seen, let alone the general use of the new technology. The value of the mathematical models for estimating risks is mainly due to the fact that they are able to clear up decisions. (orig./HP)

  14. Risk assessment as a prediction of recidivism

    OpenAIRE

    Zavackis, Anvars

    2014-01-01

    Risk assessment and management is one of the key organising frameworks of crime control in modern society. The aim of the thesis is to research risk assessment practices in predicting crime recidivism and to assess the consequences of implementing these practices, also providing for description of historical, social, cultural and political aspects of their development and maintenance. The initial analysis of risk is a theoretical one, employing insights from different risk sociology theories....

  15. Financial Risk Assessment in Project Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Sveinbjörn Jónsson 1981

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines financial risk assessment in the project selection process. In the project selection process the feasibility analysis is used to evaluate projects, with the financial feasibility as the dominating factor. In recent years more emphasis has been on risk assessment in project management, and methods of assessing financial risk have been developed. Project managers are realising the opportunities that risk management entails. The findings of this paper are that the project sel...

  16. Development of Risk Assessment Methodology for State's Nuclear Security Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Threats of nuclear terrorism are increasing after 9/11 terrorist attack. Treats include nuclear explosive device (NED) made by terrorist groups, radiological damage caused by a sabotage aiming nuclear facilities, and radiological dispersion device (RDD), which is also called 'dirty bomb'. In 9/11, Al Qaeda planed to cause radiological consequences by the crash of a nuclear power plant and the captured airplane. The evidence of a dirty bomb experiment was found in Afganistan by the UK intelligence agency. Thus, the international communities including the IAEA work substantial efforts. The leaders of 47 nations attended the 2010 nuclear security summit hosted by President Obama, while the next global nuclear summit will be held in Seoul, 2012. Most states established and are maintaining state's nuclear security regime because of the increasing threat and the international obligations. However, each state's nuclear security regime is different and depends on the state's environment. The methodology for the assessment of state's nuclear security regime is necessary to design and implement an efficient nuclear security regime, and to figure out weak points. The IAEA's INPRO project suggests a checklist method for State's nuclear security regime. The IAEA is now researching more quantitative methods cooperatively with several countries including Korea. In this abstract, methodologies to evaluate state's nuclear security regime by risk assessment are addressed

  17. Risk assessment in the DOE Assurance Program for Remedial Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides information obtained during the performance of risk assessment tasks in support of the Assurance Program for Remedial Action (APRA) sponsored by the Office of Operational Safety of the Department of Energy. We have presented a method for the estimation of projected health effects at properties in the vicinity of uranium mill tailing piles due to transported tailings or emissions from the piles. Because radon and radon daughter exposure is identified as the principal factor contributing to health effects at such properties, the basis for estimating lung cancer risk as a result of such exposure is discussed in detail. Modeling of health risk due to a secondary pathway, ingestion of contaminated, home-grown food products, is also discussed since it is a potentially important additional source of exposure in certain geographic locations. Risk assessment methods used in various mill tailings reports are reviewed. The protocols for radiological surveys conducted in DOE-sponsored remedial action programs are critically reviewed with respect to their relevance to the needs of health risk estimation. The relevance of risk assessment to the APRA program is discussed briefly

  18. Risk assessment in the DOE Assurance Program for Remedial Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, S.; Cross, F.T.; Denham, D.H.; Kennedy, W.E.; Stenner, R.D.

    1985-08-01

    This document provides information obtained during the performance of risk assessment tasks in support of the Assurance Program for Remedial Action (APRA) sponsored by the Office of Operational Safety of the Department of Energy. We have presented a method for the estimation of projected health effects at properties in the vicinity of uranium mill tailing piles due to transported tailings or emissions from the piles. Because radon and radon daughter exposure is identified as the principal factor contributing to health effects at such properties, the basis for estimating lung cancer risk as a result of such exposure is discussed in detail. Modeling of health risk due to a secondary pathway, ingestion of contaminated, home-grown food products, is also discussed since it is a potentially important additional source of exposure in certain geographic locations. Risk assessment methods used in various mill tailings reports are reviewed. The protocols for radiological surveys conducted in DOE-sponsored remedial action programs are critically reviewed with respect to their relevance to the needs of health risk estimation. The relevance of risk assessment to the APRA program is discussed briefly.

  19. Risk of Hematopoietic and Lymphoproliferative Malignancies among U. S. Radiologic Technologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linet, M. S.; Fredman, D. M.; Mohan, A.; Morin Doody, M.; Ron, E.; Mabuchi, K.; Alexander, B. B.; Sigurdson, A.; Matanoski, G.; Hauptmann, M.

    2004-07-01

    To evaluate risks of hematopoietic and lymphoproliferative malignancies among medical workers exposed to protracted low-to-moderate-dose radiation exposures, a follow-up investigation was conducted in a nation wide cohort of U. S. radiologic technologists. eligible for this study were 71.894 technologists (78% female) certified for at least 2 years during 1926-82, who had responded to a baseline mail questionnaire during 1983-89, were cancer-free except for non-melanoma skin cancer at completion of the questionnaire, and completed a second questionnaire during 1994-98 or died through August 1998. There were 241 technologists with hematopoietic or lymphoproliferative malignancies, including 41 with leukemia subtypes associated with radiation exposures (specifically acute myeloid, acute lymphoid and chronic myeloid leukemias, hereafter designated radiogenic leukemias), 23 with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, 28 with multiple myeloma, 118 with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and 31 with Hodgkin lymphoma. Of the 241 hematopoietic or lymphoproliferative malignancies identified among radiologic technologists, 85 percent were confirmed by medical records or death certificates, including 98 percent of radiogenic leukemia. Risks of the hematopoietic or lymphoproliferative malignancies were evaluated in relation to questionnaire-derived information on employment as a radiologic technologist, including procedures, work practices, and protective measures. cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to compute relative risks and 95% confidence intervals, using age at diagnosis as the response, stratifying at baseline for birth cohort in 5-year intervals, and adjusting for potential confounding. Risks were not increased for any of the hematopoietic or lymphoproliferative neoplasms according to year first worked or total duration of years worked as radiologic technologist. For the combined radiogenic leukemias, risks rose significantly with an increasing number of years worked

  20. Risk-based objectives for the allocation of chemical, biological, and radiological air emissions sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, James H; Farrington, Mark W

    2006-12-01

    This article addresses the problem of allocating devices for localized hazard protection across a region. Each identical device provides only local protection, and the devices serve localities that are exposed to nonidentical intensities of hazard. A method for seeking the optimal allocation Policy Decisions is described, highlighting the potentially competing objectives of maximizing local risk reductions and coverage risk reductions. The metric for local risk reductions is the sum of the local economic risks avoided. The metric for coverage risk reductions is adapted from the p-median problem and equal to the sum of squares of the distances from all unserved localities to their closest associated served locality. Three graphical techniques for interpreting the Policy Decisions are presented. The three linked graphical techniques are applied serially. The first technique identifies Policy Decisions that are nearly Pareto optimal. The second identifies locations where sensor placements are most justified, based on a risk-cost-benefit analysis under uncertainty. The third displays the decision space for any particular policy decision. The method is illustrated in an application to chemical, biological, and/or radiological weapon sensor placement, but has implications for disaster preparedness, transportation safety, and other arenas of public safety. PMID:17184404

  1. Radiological environmental risk associated with different water management systems in amang processing in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The processing of amang (tin-tailing) for its valuable minerals have shown that it technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials, and has a potential of impacting the environment. Large volume of water is used to extract these valuable minerals from amang. Three types of water management systems are used by amang plants, i.e. Open Water System (OWS), Close Water System Man-made (CWS mm) and Close Water System Natural (CWSn). A study was carried out to determine the radiological environmental risk associated with these different water management systems in amang processing in Malaysia. The parameters studied were pH of water, Water Quality Indices, and uranium ad thorium concentrations in water and sediments. Three different sampling locations were selected for each water management system, i.e. the source, the receiver and related reference water bodies. Results obtained showed that amang reduces the pH and contaminates the water. However, OWS appears have the least radiological environmental impact. On the contrary both CWS (man-made and natural) pose a potential environmental risk if great care are not given to the treatment of accumulated sediment and contaminated water before discharge into the environment

  2. Radiation risk assessment of reprocessed uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reprocessed uranium contains 232U, which is not found in nature, as well as 234U which is present in higher proportion than in natural uranium. Both isotopes modify the radiological properties of the material. The paper evaluates the increase of the internal and external radiation risk on the base of experimental data and theoretical calculations. It also suggests measures to be taken in the production of fuel elements with slightly enriched uranium.The radiation risk of reprocessed uranium is directly proportional to the content of 232U and 234U as well as to the aging time of the material

  3. Risk assessment of silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipelin, V. A.; Gmoshinski, I. V.; Khotimchenko, S. A.

    2015-11-01

    Nanoparticles of metallic silver (Ag) are among the most widely used products of nanotechnology. Nanosized colloidal silver (NCS) is presented in many kinds of production as solutions of particles with diameter less than 100 nm. NCS is used in a variety of fields, including food supplements, medicines, cosmetics, packaging materials, disinfectants, water filters, and many others. Problems of toxicity and related safety of NCS for humans and environmental systems are recently overestimated basing on data of numerous toxicological studies in vitro and in vivo. The article discusses the results of current studies in recent years and the data of author's own experiments on studying the safety of NCS, that allows to move on to risk assessment of this nanomaterial presented in consumer products and environmental samples.

  4. Risk assessment of metal vapor arcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Monika C. (Inventor); Leidecker, Henning W. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method for assessing metal vapor arcing risk for a component is provided. The method comprises acquiring a current variable value associated with an operation of the component; comparing the current variable value with a threshold value for the variable; evaluating compared variable data to determine the metal vapor arcing risk in the component; and generating a risk assessment status for the component.

  5. European risk assessment methodology for critical infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, M.H.A.; Luiijf, H.A.M.; Nieuwenhuijs, A.H.; Cavenne, F.; Ulisse, A.; Bridegeman, G.

    2008-01-01

    Most risk assessment methodologies aim at the risk at the level of an individual organization or company. The European Union commissioned a study to define the elements for a uniform and scalable risk assessment methodology which takes into account critical infrastructure dependencies across organiz

  6. Risk assessment and management in IOR projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of IOR techniques is one of the investment opportunities open to Exploration and Production companies. A project will only go forward if the perceived balance between the rewards and the risks is acceptable. IOR projects may be ruled out because they are considered to involve significantly higher risks than conventional developments. Therefore, some means of evaluating the actual level of risk may be required if the full economic benefits from IOR techniques are to be realized. Risk assessment is a key element in safety cases, where a well-established methodology for quantifying risk exists. This paper discusses the extension of these methods to IOR project risk assessment. Combining reservoir and IOR technique uncertainties with their impact on project performance allows project risk to be better quantified. The results of the risk assessment are presented in terms of a risk-reward diagram that plots the probability surface for possible project outcomes as a function of NPV (reward) and exposure (risk)

  7. Social aspects of risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plans for technological development have often been met by demands for a closer examination of the associated benefits and risks and the consideration of social values in public planning and decision processes. A theoretical framework for inter-disciplinary risk assessment studies is presented to aid the balancing of technical data with social values in decision making. Methods for obtaining value measures are reviewed and an attitude-based method is developed in detail; this model allows identification of the relative importance of the technical, psychological and social factors which underlie attitudes and indicates which factors differentiate between social groups. Results of a pilot application to nuclear power are summarized. For these subjects, different attitudes between pro and con were primarily due to strongly differing beliefs about the benefits of nuclear power. Preliminary results are reported of an application of this model with a heterogeneous sample drawn from the general public. The cognitive limitations which affect rationality in intuitive decision making are summarized as background to introduce formal decision methodologies for the use of attitude data in public decision making

  8. Spatial Estimation of Populations at Risk from Radiological Dispersion Device Terrorism Incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delineation of the location and size of the population potentially at risk of exposure to ionizing radiation is one of the key analytical challenges in estimating accurately the severity of the potential health effects associated with a radiological terrorism incident. Regardless of spatial scale, the geographical units for which population data commonly are collected rarely coincide with the geographical scale necessary for effective incident management and medical response. This paper identifies major government and commercial open sources of U.S. population data and presents a GIS-based approach for allocating publicly available population data, including age distributions, to geographical units appropriate for planning and implementing incident management and medical response strategies. In summary: The gravity model offers a straight-forward, empirical tool for estimating population flows, especially when geographical areas are relatively well-defined in terms of accessibility and spatial separation. This is particularly important for several reasons. First, the spatial scale for the area impacted by a RDD terrorism event is unlikely to match fully the spatial scale of available population data. That is, the plume spread typically will not uniformly overlay the impacted area. Second, the number of people within the impacted area varies as a function whether an attack occurs during the day or night. For example, the population of a central business district or industrial area typically is larger during the day while predominately residential areas have larger night time populations. As a result, interpolation techniques that link population data to geographical units and allocate those data based on time-frame at a spatial scale that is relevant to enhancing preparedness and response. The gravity model's main advantage is that it efficiently allocates readily available, open source population data to geographical units appropriate for planning and implementing

  9. Development of a real-time radiological dose assessment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Moon Hee; Lee, Young Bok; Kim, Eun Han; Suh, Kyung Suk; Hwang, Won Tae

    1997-01-01

    Inspection and repair of tower structure and lift, instrument calibration have been done. Wireless data transmission to MIPS (Meteorological Information Processing System) has been done after collection in the DAS where environmental assessment can be done by the developed simulation programs in both cases of normal operation and emergency. Wind direction, wind speed, temperature, humidity at 67m, 27m, and 10m height and temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, solar radiation, precipitation, and visibility at surface have been measured analyzed with statistical methods. At the site, the prevailing wind directions were SW in spring and summer, NNW in winter season. (author). 6 refs., 9 tabs., 4 figs.

  10. Development of a real-time radiological dose assessment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inspection and repair of tower structure and lift, instrument calibration have been done. Wireless data transmission to MIPS (Meteorological Information Processing System) has been done after collection in the DAS where environmental assessment can be done by the developed simulation programs in both cases of normal operation and emergency. Wind direction, wind speed, temperature, humidity at 67m, 27m, and 10m height and temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, solar radiation, precipitation, and visibility at surface have been measured analyzed with statistical methods. At the site, the prevailing wind directions were SW in spring and summer, NNW in winter season. (author). 6 refs., 9 tabs., 4 figs

  11. Apperception and assessment of technological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk is defined to be the possibility to induce damage or loss. Any person confronted with risk in his activities has to assess the risk in every case. The author explains a number of actions and events that have been worked out to train people in better management of risk, especially in the working environment. (DG)

  12. Risk assessment - The future trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many organizations today are faced with cleaning a site or facility, selecting appropriate remedial alternatives, or explaining the potential effects on human health and the environment caused by the releases of toxic compounds into the air, soil, and water, The use of risk assessment (RA) as a management tool is increasing because it offers an integrated approach to the analysis of toxicological, geological, physio-chemical, meteorological, statistical, and biological parameters that must be evaluated in the assessment of potential impacts to human health. The regulatory atmosphere in the 1990s is leaning toward the adoption of further laws requiring the completion of the RA process. Any industry involved in submitting permit applications to Air Quality Management Districts or complying with California's Proposition 65 and AB 2588 will be required to prepare RAs. Several guidance documents are available that support the RA process including the California Site Mitigation Decision Tree Manual published by the State Department of Health Services (DHS), which bases its approach on developing cleanup objectives (Applied Action Levels) on RA. This presentation focuses on the applications RA can have to the petroleum industry and the kinds of data that each case should develop to make maximum use of the RA process

  13. Gender differences in risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine R. Harris

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Across many real-world domains, men engage in more risky behaviors than do women. To examine some of the beliefs and preferences that underlie this difference, 657 participants assessed their likelihood of engaging in various risky activities relating to four different domains (gambling, health, recreation, and social, and reported their perceptions of (1 probability of negative outcomes, (2 severity of potential negative outcomes, and (3 enjoyment expected from the risky activities. Women's greater perceived likelihood of negative outcomes and lesser expectation of enjoyment partially mediated their lower propensity toward risky choices in gambling, recreation, and health domains. Perceptions of severity of potential outcomes was a partial mediator in the gambling and health domains. The genders did not differ in their propensity towards taking social risks. A fifth domain of activities associated with high potential payoffs and fixed minor costs was also assessed. In contrast to other domains, women reported being more likely to engage in behaviors in this domain. This gender difference was partially mediated by women's more optimistic judgments of the probability of good outcomes and of

  14. Lessons we have learned from our children: cancer risks from diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The A-bomb survivors represent the best source of data for risk estimates of radiation-induced cancer. It is clear that children are ten times more sensitive than adults to the induction of cancer. The introduction of helical CT has transformed diagnostic radiology, especially in pediatric patients. The undoubted benefits carry the price tag of much higher doses, and in children, even higher effective doses. The A-bomb data have ''matured'' and we now have cancer risk estimates for a dose range which coincides with the organ doses from pediatric CT. Individuals exposed 50 years ago to doses comparable to those associated with helical CT today, show a small but statistically significant excess incidence of cancer. There are no assumptions, and no extrapolations involved. An abdominal helical CT scan in a young girl results in a risk of fatal cancer later in life that amounts to about one in a thousand. The risk to the individual is small, and readily balanced by the medical benefits. The public health problem is, however, significant when the small individual risk is multiplied by the 2.7 million of such procedures performed annually. Every effort is needed to minimize doses by an appropriate choice of peak kilovoltage (kVp) and milliampere-seconds (mAs), and at the same time to urge a more selective use of pediatric CT. (orig.)

  15. Risk of bleeding associated with interventional musculoskeletal radiology procedures. A comprehensive review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review compiles the current literature on the bleeding risks in common musculoskeletal interventional procedures and attempts to provide guidance for practicing radiologists in making decisions regarding the periprocedural management of patients on antithrombotic therapy. The practitioner must weigh the risk of bleeding if therapy is continued against the possibility a thromboembolic occurring if anticoagulation therapy is withheld or reversed. Unfortunately, there is little empirical data to guide evidence-based decisions for many musculoskeletal interventions. However, a review of the literature shows that for low-risk procedures, such as arthrograms/arthrocenteses or muscle/tendon sheath injections, bleeding risks are sufficiently small that anticoagulants and antiplatelet therapies need not be withheld. Additionally, relatively higher-risk procedures, such as needle biopsies of bone and soft tissue, may be safely performed without holding antithrombotic therapy, provided pre-procedural INR is within therapeutic range. Thus, while a patient's particular clinical circumstances should dictate optimal individualized management, anticoagulation alone is not a general contraindication to most interventional musculoskeletal radiology procedures. (orig.)

  16. Risk of bleeding associated with interventional musculoskeletal radiology procedures. A comprehensive review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foremny, Gregory B; Pretell-Mazzini, Juan; Jose, Jean; Subhawong, Ty K

    2015-05-01

    This review compiles the current literature on the bleeding risks in common musculoskeletal interventional procedures and attempts to provide guidance for practicing radiologists in making decisions regarding the periprocedural management of patients on antithrombotic therapy. The practitioner must weigh the risk of bleeding if therapy is continued against the possibility a thromboembolic occurring if anticoagulation therapy is withheld or reversed. Unfortunately, there is little empirical data to guide evidence-based decisions for many musculoskeletal interventions. However, a review of the literature shows that for low-risk procedures, such as arthrograms/arthrocenteses or muscle/tendon sheath injections, bleeding risks are sufficiently small that anticoagulants and antiplatelet therapies need not be withheld. Additionally, relatively higher-risk procedures, such as needle biopsies of bone and soft tissue, may be safely performed without holding antithrombotic therapy, provided pre-procedural INR is within therapeutic range. Thus, while a patient's particular clinical circumstances should dictate optimal individualized management, anticoagulation alone is not a general contraindication to most interventional musculoskeletal radiology procedures. PMID:25433718

  17. Risk of bleeding associated with interventional musculoskeletal radiology procedures. A comprehensive review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foremny, Gregory B.; Jose, Jean; Subhawong, Ty K. [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, FL (United States); Pretell-Mazzini, Juan [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery-Division of Musculoskeletal Oncology, Miami, FL (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This review compiles the current literature on the bleeding risks in common musculoskeletal interventional procedures and attempts to provide guidance for practicing radiologists in making decisions regarding the periprocedural management of patients on antithrombotic therapy. The practitioner must weigh the risk of bleeding if therapy is continued against the possibility a thromboembolic occurring if anticoagulation therapy is withheld or reversed. Unfortunately, there is little empirical data to guide evidence-based decisions for many musculoskeletal interventions. However, a review of the literature shows that for low-risk procedures, such as arthrograms/arthrocenteses or muscle/tendon sheath injections, bleeding risks are sufficiently small that anticoagulants and antiplatelet therapies need not be withheld. Additionally, relatively higher-risk procedures, such as needle biopsies of bone and soft tissue, may be safely performed without holding antithrombotic therapy, provided pre-procedural INR is within therapeutic range. Thus, while a patient's particular clinical circumstances should dictate optimal individualized management, anticoagulation alone is not a general contraindication to most interventional musculoskeletal radiology procedures. (orig.)

  18. Approaches to risk assessment in food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Hattersley, S.; Buck, J.;

    2009-01-01

    A workshop was organised to investigate whether risk assessment strategies and methodologies used in classical/conventional toxicology may be used for risk assessment of allergenic foods. to discuss the advantages and limitations of different approaches and to determine the research needed to move...... the area forward. Three possible approaches to safety assessment and risk assessment for allergenic foods were presented and discussed: safety assessment using NOAEL/LOAEL and uncertainty factors, safety assessment using Benchmark Dose and Margin of Exposure (MoE), and risk assessment using...... probabilistic models. The workshop concluded that all the three approaches to safety and risk assessment of allergenic foods should continue to be considered. A particular strength of the MoE and probabilistic approaches is that they do not rely on low-dose extrapolations with its inherent issues. Probabilistic...

  19. Probabilistic risk assessment course documentation. Volume 7. Environmental transport and consequence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consequence models have been designed to assess health and economic risks from potential accidents at nuclear power plants. These models have been applied to an ever increasing variety of problems with ever increasing demands to improve modeling capabilities and provide greater realism. This course discusses the environmental transport of postulated radiological releases and the elements and purpose of accident consequence evaluation

  20. Application of probabilistic quantitative ecological risk assessment to radiological dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probabilistic ERA is becoming more accepted and applied in evaluations of environmental impacts worldwide. In a previous paper we have shown that the process can be applied in practice to routine effluent releases from a nuclear facility. However, there are practical issues that need to be addressed prior to its regulatory application for criteria setting or for site-specific ERA. Among these issues are a) appropriate data selection for both exposure and dose-response input, because there is a need to carefully characterise and filter the available dose-response data for its ecological relevance, b) A coherent approach is required to the choice of exposure scenarios, and c) there are various questions associated with treatment of exposure to mixed nuclides. In this paper we will evaluate and discuss aspects of these issues, using an illustrative case study approach. (author)

  1. TSD-DOSE: A radiological dose assessment model for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Past practices at US Department of Energy (DOE) field facilities resulted in the presence of trace amounts of radioactive materials in some hazardous chemical wastes shipped from these facilities. In May 1991, the DOE Office of Waste Operations issued a nationwide moratorium on shipping all hazardous waste until procedures could be established to ensure that only nonradioactive hazardous waste would be shipped from DOE facilities to commercial treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities. To aid in assessing the potential impacts of shipments of mixed radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes, a radiological assessment computer model (or code) was developed on the basis of detailed assessments of potential radiological exposures and doses for eight commercial hazardous waste TSD facilities. The model, called TSD-DOSE, is designed to incorporate waste-specific and site-specific data to estimate potential radiological doses to on-site workers and the off-site public from waste-handling operations at a TSD facility. The code is intended to provide both DOE and commercial TSD facilities with a rapid and cost-effective method for assessing potential human radiation exposures from the processing of chemical wastes contaminated with trace amounts of radionuclides

  2. Colon Cancer Risk Assessment - Gauss Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    An executable file (in GAUSS) that projects absolute colon cancer risk (with confidence intervals) according to NCI’s Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (CCRAT) algorithm. GAUSS is not needed to run the program.

  3. Risk assessment theory, methods, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rausand, Marvin

    2011-01-01

    With its balanced coverage of theory and applications along with standards and regulations, Risk Assessment: Theory, Methods, and Applications serves as a comprehensive introduction to the topic. The book serves as a practical guide to current risk analysis and risk assessment, emphasizing the possibility of sudden, major accidents across various areas of practice from machinery and manufacturing processes to nuclear power plants and transportation systems. The author applies a uniform framework to the discussion of each method, setting forth clear objectives and descriptions, while also shedding light on applications, essential resources, and advantages and disadvantages. Following an introduction that provides an overview of risk assessment, the book is organized into two sections that outline key theory, methods, and applications. * Introduction to Risk Assessment defines key concepts and details the steps of a thorough risk assessment along with the necessary quantitative risk measures. Chapters outline...

  4. Quality assurance in diagnostic radiology - assessing the fluoroscopic image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The X-ray fluoroscopic image has a considerably lower resolution than the radiographic one. This requires a careful quality control aiming at optimal use of the fluoroscopic equipment. The basic procedures for image quality assessment of Image Intensifier/TV image are described. Test objects from Leeds University (UK) are used as prototypes. The results from examining 50 various fluoroscopic devices are shown. Their limiting spatial resolution varies between 0.8 lp/mm (at maximum II field size) and 2.24 lp/mm (at minimum field size). The mean value of the limiting spatial resolution for a 23 cm Image Intensifier is about 1.24 lp/mm. The mean limits of variation of the contrast/detail diagram for various fluoroscopic equipment are graphically expressed. 14 refs., 1 fig. (author)

  5. 78 FR 23901 - Interagency Risk Assessment-Listeria monocytogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service Interagency Risk Assessment--Listeria monocytogenes in Retail... risk assessment (QRA), ``Interagency Risk Assessment--Listeria monocytogenes in Retail Delicatessens..., approach, and findings of the draft ``Interagency Risk Assessment--Listeria monocytogenes in...

  6. Risk assessment - black art or science?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measures of risk can be divided into two categories, those that observe or calculate the risk of a process or project, and those that rely on the level of risk as perceived by the people during the assessment. Collection of data of accidents (where cause and effect are obvious) and experiments on animals which can then be extrapolated to humans, are two ways of risk assessment. Mathematical models and computerized simulations, using either fault tree analysis or Monte Carlo methods are explained simply. Using these methods, experts are able to perceive risk fairly realistically. However, the general public's perception of risk is often quite different, as potential risk is assessed in different ways. The concept of tolerable risk is considered, particularly with reference to nuclear reactors such as Sizewell-B. The need to inform the public of safeguards and safety procedures so they have a better understanding of the risks of nuclear power is stressed. (U.K.)

  7. Risk Assessment in Finland: Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Anttonen, Hannu; Pääkkönen, Rauno

    2010-01-01

    The Finnish risk assessment practice is based on the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act aiming to improve working conditions in order maintain the employees' work ability, and to prevent occupational accidents and diseases. In practice there are hundreds of risk assessment methods in use. A simple method is used in small and medium sized enterprises and more complex risk evaluation methods in larger work places. Does the risk management function in the work places in Finland? According ...

  8. Facts and values in risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk, as commonly understood, is a complex melange of facts, values, and fears. While this complexity of public risk perception is now broadly recognized, its implications are insufficiently explored. Public risk perceptions offer p poor guide for public policymaking. Popular assessments of risk are tainted by misinformation and unreliable heuristics. While subjective considerations, often called values, play a role in public perception of risk, those 'values' are often inappropriate for government decisionmaking. Reliance on public perceptions of risk means more premature deaths. Public risk perception also is systematically skewed contrary to the interests of the disadvantaged. Strict probabilistic risk measures generally provide a superior guide for government regulatory policy

  9. Facts and values in risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, Frank B

    1998-01-01

    Risk, as commonly understood, is a complex melange of facts, values, and fears. While this complexity of public risk perception is now broadly recognized, its implications are insufficiently explored. Public risk perceptions offer p poor guide for public policymaking. Popular assessments of risk are tainted by misinformation and unreliable heuristics. While subjective considerations, often called values, play a role in public perception of risk, those 'values' are often inappropriate for government decisionmaking. Reliance on public perceptions of risk means more premature deaths. Public risk perception also is systematically skewed contrary to the interests of the disadvantaged. Strict probabilistic risk measures generally provide a superior guide for government regulatory policy.

  10. Integrating microbiology into the Drigg post-closure radiological safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL owns and operates the UK's principal solid Low Level Radioactive Waste disposal site at Drigg in Cumbria, north west England. Drigg has been receiving waste since 1959 with approximately 900,000 m3 of waste disposed of to date. Waste accepted for disposal at Drigg comes in a variety of forms including rubble, spoil, redundant equipment, scrap and process waste, and typically contains significant metallic and cellulosic components. The organic content of the waste means that microbial activity plays a significant role in the development of the repository environment. Consequently, microbial processes are integrated into many aspects of the Drigg Post-Closure Radiological Safety Assessment (PCRSA). This begins with the identification and screening of relevant features, events and processes, through supporting research, engineering designs and finally integration into radiological safety assessment modelling. This paper outlines how and where microbiology is integrated into the Drigg PCRSA and indicates areas of active research. Copyright (2001) Material Research Society

  11. Feasibility of disposal of high-level radioactive waste into the seabed. Volume 2: Radiological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the options suggested for disposal of high-level radioactive waste resulting from the generation of nuclear power is burial beneath the deep ocean floor in geologically stable sediment formations which have no economic value. The 8-volume series provides an assessment of the technical feasibility and radiological safety of this disposal concept based on the results obtained by ten years of co-operation and information exchange among the Member countries participating in the NEA Seabed Working Group. This report presents the results of the radiological assessment which consists in estimating the detriment to man and to the environment which could result from the disposal of high level nuclear waste within seabed sediments in the deep oceans

  12. Dose and risk evaluation to the thyroid gland in intra-oral dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intra-oral technique is one of the most frequently used procedures of dental radiology, allowing the detection of a variety of dental anomalies such as caries, dental trauma and periodontal lesions, while exposing patients to relatively low doses of radiation. However, although the adverse effects of doses generated by dental radiology are essentially stochastic, a number of epidemiological studies have provided evidence of an increased risk of thyroid tumors for dental radiography. Many studies have measured doses of radiation for dental radiography, but only a few have estimated thyroid dose. Furthermore, most of the studies on dose evaluation in dental radiology are based on standardized calculation phantoms, which neglect the variance of the patient size or even sex. The purpose of this study is to use the Monte Carlo code MCNPX and the FAX (Female Adult voXel) and MAX (Male Adult voXel) phantoms to investigate how absorbed doses to the thyroid gland in intra-oral dental examinations vary in female and male patients. The lifetime cancer incidence attributable to dental examinations were estimated using the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations (BEIR) VII Committee Report. The phantoms study proved a useful trial for detecting the radiation dose to the thyroid gland and conclusively supported that the anatomy may be regarded as an influencing factor in radiation dose received during dental examination. Finally, the results have also confirmed that the association of the MCNPX code and the MAX and FAX phantoms is very useful in dosimetric studies on radiographic examinations of female and male patients. (author)

  13. Dose and risk evaluation to the thyroid gland in intra-oral dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intra-oral technique is one of the most frequently used procedures of dental radiology, allowing the detection of a variety of dental anomalies such as caries, dental trauma and periodontal lesions, while exposing patients to relatively low doses of radiation. However, although the adverse effects of doses generated by dental radiology are essentially stochastic, a number of epidemiological studies have provided evidence of an increased risk of thyroid tumors for dental radiography. Many studies have measured doses of radiation for dental radiography, but only a few have estimated thyroid dose. Furthermore, most of the studies on dose evaluation in dental radiology are based on standardized calculation phantoms, which neglect the variance of the patient size or even sex. The purpose of this study is to use the Monte Carlo code MCNPX and the FAX (Female Adult voXel) and MAX (Male Adult voXel) phantoms to investigate how absorbed doses to the thyroid gland in intraoral dental examinations vary in female and male patients. The lifetime cancer incidence attributable to dental examinations were estimated using the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations (BEIR) VII Committee Report. The phantoms study proved a useful trial for detecting the radiation dose to the thyroid gland and conclusively supported that the anatomy may be regarded as an influencing factor in radiation dose received during dental examination. Finally, the results have also confirmed that the association of the MCNPX code and the MAX and FAX phantoms is very useful in dosimetric studies on radiographic examinations of female and male patients. (author)

  14. Quantification and Radiological Risk Estimation Due to the Presence of Natural Radionuclides in Maiganga Coal, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolo, Matthew Tikpangi; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Amin, Yusoff Mohd; Abdullah, Wan Hasiah Binti

    2016-01-01

    Following the increasing demand of coal for power generation, activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides were determined in Nigerian coal using the gamma spectrometric technique with the aim of evaluating the radiological implications of coal utilization and exploitation in the country. Mean activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K were 8.18±0.3, 6.97±0.3, and 27.38±0.8 Bq kg-1, respectively. These values were compared with those of similar studies reported in literature. The mean estimated radium equivalent activity was 20.26 Bq kg-1 with corresponding average external hazard index of 0.05. Internal hazard index and representative gamma index recorded mean values of 0.08 and 0.14, respectively. These values were lower than their respective precautionary limits set by UNSCEAR. Average excess lifetime cancer risk was calculated to be 0.04×10−3, which was insignificant compared with 0.05 prescribed by ICRP for low level radiation. Pearson correlation matrix showed significant positive relationship between 226Ra and 232Th, and with other estimated hazard parameters. Cumulative mean occupational dose received by coal workers via the three exposure routes was 7.69 ×10−3 mSv y-1, with inhalation pathway accounting for about 98%. All radiological hazard indices evaluated showed values within limits of safety. There is, therefore, no likelihood of any immediate radiological health hazards to coal workers, final users, and the environment from the exploitation and utilization of Maiganga coal. PMID:27348624

  15. Radiologic assessment of resectability and prognosis in esophageal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utilizing double-contrast technique it is possible to detect the earliest malignant lesions of the esophagus even when the carcinoma is confined to the mucosa. In patients with carcinoma, it is also important to attempt to grade and classify the lesion in order to predict its resectability and prognosis. The resectability of a lesion is determined by the depth of invasion and by the presence or absence of lymph node metastases. The significant factors are the length of the lesion, its gross morphology, the character of its margins, and the depth of ulceration. Unfortunately, the depth of invasion is not necessarily directly related to the prognosis. In some carcinomas confined to the submucosa, lymph node metastases are already present, and these patients have a poor prognosis. The presence of lymph node metastases in early carcinoma can be suggested by the gross morphology of the lesion, its length, irregularity of the surface, and the presence of a complex lesion. Careful analysis of the radiographic features of the carcinoma can be valuable for the assessment of resectability and prognosis. (orig.) 891 AJ/orig. 892 MKO

  16. Soil-to-plant concentration factors for radiological assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a literature review to derive soil-to-plant concentration factors to predict the concentration of a radionuclide in plants from that in soil. The concentration factor, B/sub v/ is defined as the ratio of the concentration of a nuclide in the edible plant part to that in dry soil. CR (the concentration ratio) is similarly defined to denote the concentration factor for dry feed consumed by livestock. B/sub v/ and CR values are used to assess the dose from radionuclides deposited onto soil and transferred into crop plants via roots. Approaches for deriving B/sub v/ and CR values are described, and values for food and feed are tabulated for individual elements. The sources of uncertainty are described, and the factors that contribute to the inherent variability of the B/sub v/ and CR values are discussed. Summary tables of elemental B/sub v/ and CR values and statistical parameters that characterize their distributions provide a basis for a systematic updating of many of the B/sub v/ values in Regulatory Guide 1.109. They also provide a basis for selecting B/sub v/ and CR values for other applications that involve the use of equilibrium models to predict the concentration of radionuclides in plants from that in soil

  17. Radiological Impact Assessment on a Sabotage of Spent Fuel Handling in a Pyro processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, Robby; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    A demonstration facility termed PRIDE (PyRoprocess Integrated inactive DEmonstration facility) has been built to study and prepare for the construction of the active facility. Prior to that, a radiological impact assessment must be conducted to establish a safe and secure facility design. Research have been done to identify possible accident scenarios and their impact thereof to the surrounding environment. However these studies were based on the notion of internal accidents which extent was defined by the process characteristics. There has yet a study on externally induced radiological consequences, for example by malicious acts launched towards the facility. This paper attempts to close the gap by analyzing a certain malicious attack scenario and its radiological consequences. It may provide support for identification of vital areas in the facility and to achieve a security-by design objective. Based on the results, an attack launched on a single transport cask fully loaded with spent fuel as described in the scenario did not cause a radiological impact which exceeds regulatory limits. The limits were surpassed when there were two or more spent fuel casks involved. This result might be used as a basis not to aggregate loaded transport casks either during transport or during handling in the laydown area.

  18. [Forest health ecological risk assessment in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fengjin; Ouyang, Hua; Cheng, Shulan; Zhang, Qiang

    2004-02-01

    Forest health ecological risk assessment is an important factor in forest resources management. In this paper, we selected forest fire, forest disease-pest disasters and acid rain as main risk sources, described the risk resources by probability, intensity and distributing, and mapped each risk source. The endpoints were the damages that the risk acceptor might and these damages might cause ecosystems' organization and function changing under the uncertainty risk sources. Endpoints of forest might compose of productivity descent, reducing biodiversity, forest degrading, forest ecological function declining, furthermore, forest disappearing. We described exposure in terms of intensity, space, and time. In the exposure and hazard analysis, we used fragile index to show frangibility or resistibility (resistibility is reverse to frangibility), and analyzed the damages by different risk sources. Risk assessment and management was the integrated phase of the research. Because of the spatial heterogeneity of risk sources, all risk index were overlaid in the China map by GIS, which divided the region into 30 ecological risk sub-zones (provinces), according to risk index of each risk sub-zone, and the forest in China was divided into six levels of risk zones. In every level of risk zones, we also put forward the countermeasures for forest health ecological risk management. The result of assessment could provide scientific basis for forest management. PMID:15146655

  19. A Dynamic Imaging Database for 3-D Morphologic Analysis and Clinical Assessment in Diagnostic Radiology

    OpenAIRE

    Niculescu, Gabriela; Toni, Louay; Foran, David J.; Nosher, John L.; DeMarco, J. Kevin

    2002-01-01

    Modern imaging techniques such as MRI and CT have become invaluable clinical and research tools for visualizing internal organs and anatomic structures, non-invasively. We present a dynamic imaging database for performing comparative morphologic studies in diagnostic radiology to facilitate clinical assessment. The prototype system utilizes a double elliptic Fourier transform to characterize shape in three dimensions. A prototype system was used to evaluate neuroanatomy from MR brain scans of...

  20. Radiological health assessment of natural radioactivity in the vicinity of Obajana cement factory, North Central Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Omoniyi Matthew Isinkaye; Jibiri, Nnamdi N.; Adebowale A Olomide

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in and around Obajana cement factory, North Central Nigeria have been carried out in this study to determine the activity levels of natural radionuclides in different environmental matrices in order to assess the radiological health hazards associated with the use of these matrices by the local population. A low-background Pb-shielded gamma spectroscopic counting assembly utilizing NaI (Tl) detector was employed for the measurem...

  1. Analysis and radiological assessment of survey results and samples from the beaches around Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After radioactive sea debris had been found on beaches near the BNFL, Sellafield, plant, NRPB was asked by the Department of the Environment to analyse some of the samples collected and to assess the radiological hazard to members of the public. A report is presented containing an analysis of survey reports for the period 19 November - 4 December 1983 and preliminary results of the analysis of all samples received, together with the Board's recommendations. (author)

  2. Further evaluation of the Walter Reed Visual Assessment Scale: correlation with curve pattern and radiological deformity

    OpenAIRE

    Pineda Sonia; Climent Jose M; Bago Juan; Gilperez Carmen

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The Walter Reed Visual Assessment Scale (WRVAS) was designed to measure physical deformity as perceived by patients with idiopathic scoliosis. Previous studies have shown that the instrument has excellent internal consistency and a high correlation with the radiological magnitude of scoliotic curves. Nonetheless, it is not known whether the scale can discriminate between the various curve patterns of the deformity, or whether the deformities represented in the scale's draw...

  3. Assessment of radiation protection awareness and knowledge about radiological examination doses among Italian radiographers

    OpenAIRE

    Paolicchi, F.; Miniati, F.; Bastiani, L; Faggioni, L; Ciaramella, A.; Creonti, I.; Sottocornola, C.; Dionisi, C.; Caramella, D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate radiation protection basic knowledge and dose assessment for radiological procedures among Italian radiographers Methods A validated questionnaire was distributed to 780 participants with balanced demographic characteristics and geographic distribution. Results Only 12.1 % of participants attended radiation protection courses on a regular basis. Despite 90 % of radiographers stating to have sufficient awareness of radiation protection issues, most of them underestimated...

  4. Integrated assessment of the phosphate industry. [Radiological impact of uranium extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, M.T.; Cotter, S.J.

    1980-05-01

    The phosphate industry in the United States includes three major activities, namely, mining and milling of phosphate rock, phosphate product manufacture, and phosphate product use. Phosphatic materials contain uranium, thorium, and their decay products in greater than background amounts. This assessment of the radiological impacts associated with the redistribution of radioactive components of phosphate materials may provide insight into the effects of uranium extraction from phosphate materials for use in the nuclear fuel cycle.

  5. Assessment of radiological hazards of tin mining and ore processing in Jos, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the Jos Plateau were found uncontrolled tailing heaps generated from Tin Mining Activities. To assess the associated radiological hazards, an abandoned tailing dump ground was investigated with the residents as the critical population. The mean activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in the 60 analyzed soil samples were 1251.7±478.4, 3867.5±1282.7 and 8301.9±2862.6 Bqkg-1, respectively with a mean computed dose rate of 7.2±1.6 μGyh-1. An annual mean outdoor effective dose of 8.9±0.9mSvy-1 was estimated. Also the activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in the 60 control soil samples were 447.0±68.0, 37.4±7.4 and 115.4±16.7 Bqkg-1, respectively with a mean dose rate of 0.11±0.01 μGyh-1. To account for the internal exposure, vegetables and root crops commonly grown and consumed in the area were assayed. Six varieties of vegetables and five varieties of root crops were analyzed. An internal annual mean effective dose of 148.98±8.14μSvy-1 was estimated. The verification of dose limit compliance for members of the public demands that: External Dose/Dose Limit + Intake (ingested)/ALI (ingestion) + Intake (inhaled)/ALI (inhalation) ≤ 1. Based on obtained data above, there is non-compliance with the dose limit, since the first term of the compliance formula is much greater than unity. There is therefore a need for an intervention to prevent radiation over exposure of the members of the public. The calculated cancer mortality risk for external and internal exposure scenarios for 226Ra and 232Th were (1.67±0.33) x 10-6(0.00017%) and (3.41±0.14) x 10-6(0.00034%), respectively. The 226Ra radionuclide contributed about 96.09% of the risk in the external scenario with only 3.09% from the 232Th while in the internal, the 226Ra contributed only 70.38%. The combined external and internal (ingestion) risk is (5.08±0.36) x 10-6/year. (author)

  6. Assessment of Transportation Risk of Radioactive Materials in Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive materials refer to any materials that spontaneously emit ionizing radiation and of which the radioactivity per gram is greater than 0.002 micro-curie. They include: spent nuclear fuel, nuclear wastes, medical sources i.e. Co-60, industrial sources i.e. Cs-137, Am-241:Be, Ra-226, and sources for research. In view of the rising reported cancer cases in Uganda, which might be as a result of radiation exposure due to constant transportation of radioactive materials i.e. industrial sources, a risk analysis was thought of and undertaken for the country's safety evaluation and improvement. It was therefore important to undertake a risk assessment of the actual and potential radiation exposure during the transportation process. This paper explains a study undertaken for transport risk assessment of the impact on the environment and the people living in it, from exposure to radioactivity during transportation of the industrial sources in Uganda. It provides estimates of radiological risks associated with visualized transport scenarios for the highway transport mode. This is done by calculating the human health impact and radiological risk from transportation of the sources along Busia transport route to Hoima. Busia is the entry port for the sources whilst Hoima, where various industrial practices that utilize sources like oil explorations are centered. During the study, a computer code RADTRAN-6 was used. The overall collective dose for population and package transport crew are 3.72E-4 and 1.69E-4 person-sievert respectively. These are less than the exemption value recommended by the IAEA and Uganda Regulatory Authority for public implying that no health effects like cancer are to be expected. Hence the rising cancer cases in the country are not as a result of increased transportation of radioactive materials in the Industrial sector

  7. Assessment of Transportation Risk of Radioactive Materials in Uganda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, Menya; Kim, Jonghyun [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Radioactive materials refer to any materials that spontaneously emit ionizing radiation and of which the radioactivity per gram is greater than 0.002 micro-curie. They include: spent nuclear fuel, nuclear wastes, medical sources i.e. Co-60, industrial sources i.e. Cs-137, Am-241:Be, Ra-226, and sources for research. In view of the rising reported cancer cases in Uganda, which might be as a result of radiation exposure due to constant transportation of radioactive materials i.e. industrial sources, a risk analysis was thought of and undertaken for the country's safety evaluation and improvement. It was therefore important to undertake a risk assessment of the actual and potential radiation exposure during the transportation process. This paper explains a study undertaken for transport risk assessment of the impact on the environment and the people living in it, from exposure to radioactivity during transportation of the industrial sources in Uganda. It provides estimates of radiological risks associated with visualized transport scenarios for the highway transport mode. This is done by calculating the human health impact and radiological risk from transportation of the sources along Busia transport route to Hoima. Busia is the entry port for the sources whilst Hoima, where various industrial practices that utilize sources like oil explorations are centered. During the study, a computer code RADTRAN-6 was used. The overall collective dose for population and package transport crew are 3.72E-4 and 1.69E-4 person-sievert respectively. These are less than the exemption value recommended by the IAEA and Uganda Regulatory Authority for public implying that no health effects like cancer are to be expected. Hence the rising cancer cases in the country are not as a result of increased transportation of radioactive materials in the Industrial sector.

  8. Assessment of the radiological impact of selected building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring radionuclides in building materials are a source of external and internal radiation exposure to essentially the entire Polish population. The programme of our studies met two main aspects on radioactivity of building materials: Gamma dose rate and radon or alpha potential energy concentration measurements in dwellings of various kinds of structure and materials in both industrial and rural districts of Poland. Gamma dose rate measurements were made in about 2200 dwellings and radon or alpha potential energy concentration measurements - in 750 dwellings. On the basis of these studies the annual effective dose equivalent to the Polish population due to gamma and alpha radiation indoors was estimated to be 0.39 mSv/a and 0.99 mSv/a, respectively. The contribution of external (from gamma) and internal (from alpha) radiation exposure due to naturally occurring radionuclides in building materials to the total radiation exposure of Polish population was assessed to be 3.6 per cent and 34.2 per cent, respectively. Measurements of about 1500 samples of various kinds of building materials and raw materials were made to determine radionuclide concentrations in them. The highest values were obtained in samples of phosphogypsum, fly ash and slag: potassium concentration ranges up to 36 pCi g-1 (a slag sample), radium - up to 17 pCi g-1 (a phosphogypsum sample) and thorium - up to 4 pCi g-1 (a phosphogypsum). On the basis of the results of our studies we came to the conclusion that it was necessary to work out a control system which could protect habitants against enhancement of indoor exposure to ionizing radiation

  9. Radiological hazard assessment at the Monte Bello Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field and laboratory measurements are described and data presented which enabled dose assessments for exposure to artificial radionuclides at the Monte Bello Islands, the sites of U.K. atomic weapons tests in 1952 and 1956. The report focuses on quantifying the inhalation hazard as exposure via the ingestion and wound contamination pathways is considered inconsequential. Surface soil concentrations of radionuclides and particle size analyses are presented for various sampling sites. Analyses of the distribution with depth indicated that, in general, the activity is more or less uniformly mixed through the top 40 mm, although in a few cases the top 10 mm contains the bulk of the activity. The239Pu/241Am activity ratios were measured for selected samples. The only potential hazards to health from residual radioactive contamination on the Monte Bello Islands are due to the inhalation of actinides (specifically plutonium and americium) and from the external gamma-radiation field. Only one area, in the fallout plume of HURRICANE to the north-west of Main Beach, is a potential inhalation hazard. For an average inhalable dust loading of 0.1 mg/m3, three days occupancy of the most contaminated site will result in a committed effective dose equivalent of 1 mSv. The two ground zeros could not be considered inhalation hazards, considering the small areas concerned and the habits of visitors (full-time occupancy, over a period of one year or more, of the most contaminated sites at either of the G1 or G2 ground zeros would be required to reach 1 mSv). 25 refs., 23 tabs., 3 figs

  10. Communication on radiation risk as an area of conflict between radiological, sociological and perceptional issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk communication in radiation protection must not be considered as a single discipline, but is based upon an effective interaction of different scientific fields. This implies that radiological and sociological issues as well as risk perception are to be taken into account. However, communication is not straightforward, as the fields have different objectives, are different in terminology, apply different approaches to solve problems, and are using different languages. Issues to be addressed in this paper are among others: possible meanings and definitions of the term 'risk', handling of uncertainty and variability of parameters as risk factors, importance of doses delivered in the far future, reasonable application of the dose commitment concept, and perception of small numbers. Other issues are sociological issues as interests of stakeholders and involved parties, importance of public opinion, media and cultural prototypes, bias in different groups of advocate. As communication will become effective only if the different contributing parties adjust their way of thinking and their language to the requirements of others without modification of their knowledge, guidance for interaction is important. The paper will review possible approaches suitable for better communication. (authors)

  11. Communication on radiation risk as an area of conflict between radiological, sociological and perceptional issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschurlovits, M.; Taghizadegan, R. [University of Technology Vienna, Atominstitute of Austrian Universities, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    Risk communication in radiation protection must not be considered as a single discipline, but is based upon an effective interaction of different scientific fields. This implies that radiological and sociological issues as well as risk perception are to be taken into account. However, communication is not straightforward, as the fields have different objectives, are different in terminology, apply different approaches to solve problems, and are using different languages. Issues to be addressed in this paper are among others: possible meanings and definitions of the term 'risk', handling of uncertainty and variability of parameters as risk factors, importance of doses delivered in the far future, reasonable application of the dose commitment concept, and perception of small numbers. Other issues are sociological issues as interests of stakeholders and involved parties, importance of public opinion, media and cultural prototypes, bias in different groups of advocate. As communication will become effective only if the different contributing parties adjust their way of thinking and their language to the requirements of others without modification of their knowledge, guidance for interaction is important. The paper will review possible approaches suitable for better communication. (authors)

  12. Life Cycle Assessment and Risk Assessment: A Methodological Comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving; Christensen, Frans Møller; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky;

    2001-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment and Risk Assessment are two different tools in environmental management. The paper identifies harmonies, discrepancies and relations between the two tools exemplified by the risk assessment principles of the European Commission (EC) and the LCA method ‘EDIP’ (En......-vironmental Design of Industrial Products) developed in Denmark, respectively. A very important feature of LCA is the relative assessment due to the use of a functional unit. Risk assessment on the other hand is an absolute assessment, which may require very specific and detailed information on e.g. the exposure...

  13. Assessment of radiological health implicat from ambient environment in the Muar district, Johor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Muneer Aziz; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Alajerami, Yasser; Mhareb, Mohammad Hasan Abu; Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Gabdo, Hamman Tukur; Garba, Nuraddeen Nasiru

    2014-10-01

    This study aims to obtain baseline data of environmental terrestrial radiation and to assess the corresponding health risk in the ambient environment in Muar District, Johor, Malaysia in view of the possible construction of nuclear power plant (NPP) in the future. The external gamma dose rate (GDR), measured using two portable survey meters, was 151 nGy h-1. The activity concentrations of 232Th, 226Ra, and 40K were determined using hyper pure germanium (HPGe) detector. The activity concentrations were varied from 11±1 to 583±18 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, 6±1 to 244±9 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, and 13±6 to 830±13 Bq kg-1 for 40K. Various types of water samples were analyzed using a Low Background Alpha Beta Series 5 XLB instrument at Nuclear Malaysia (NM). Gross alpha activity concentrations in tap water varied from 3±1 mBq L-1 to 34±6 mBq L-1 and gross beta activity concentrations varied from 58±5 mBq L-1 to 709±39 mBq L-1 which were lower than the recommended value by Interim National Water Quality Standards for Malaysia (INWQS) and World Health Organization (WHO, 1993). The radiological health which are the annual effective dose equivalent, the collective effective dose, radium equivalent activity and external hazard index 0.220 mSv, 0.526×102 man Sv y-1, 359 Bq kg-1 and 0.969, respectively. The results were comparable to internationally recommended values and discussed accordingly.

  14. Assessment of radiological health implicat from ambient environment in the Muar district, Johor, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims to obtain baseline data of environmental terrestrial radiation and to assess the corresponding health risk in the ambient environment in Muar District, Johor, Malaysia in view of the possible construction of nuclear power plant (NPP) in the future. The external gamma dose rate (GDR), measured using two portable survey meters, was 151 nGy h−1. The activity concentrations of 232Th, 226Ra, and 40K were determined using hyper pure germanium (HPGe) detector. The activity concentrations were varied from 11±1 to 583±18 Bq kg−1 for 232Th, 6±1 to 244±9 Bq kg−1 for 226Ra, and 13±6 to 830±13 Bq kg−1 for 40K. Various types of water samples were analyzed using a Low Background Alpha Beta Series 5 XLB instrument at Nuclear Malaysia (NM). Gross alpha activity concentrations in tap water varied from 3±1 mBq L−1 to 34±6 mBq L−1 and gross beta activity concentrations varied from 58±5 mBq L−1 to 709±39 mBq L−1 which were lower than the recommended value by Interim National Water Quality Standards for Malaysia (INWQS) and World Health Organization (WHO, 1993). The radiological health which are the annual effective dose equivalent, the collective effective dose, radium equivalent activity and external hazard index 0.220 mSv, 0.526×102 man Sv y−1, 359 Bq kg−1 and 0.969, respectively. The results were comparable to internationally recommended values and discussed accordingly. - Highlights: • Activity concentration of 232Th are four times world average. • 232Th is found to be the main contributor to gamma ray dose in the Muar district. • Gross alpha and beta activity concentrations were lower than the value of WHO. • A digital map plotted for isodose

  15. Results of survey for assessing awareness level regarding radiological hazards of tobacco smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human consumption of tobacco is as old as human history. However, injurious health effects due to tobacco smoking may not be evident to the public at large. This article presents results of a questionnaire based on a survey carried out in the metropolitan city of Lahore of Pakistan with an aim to understand the awareness level of the general population about the radiological hazards associated with tobacco smoking. Some 3600 participants from different educational backgrounds from all segments of the society participated in this survey. Analysis of the data collected concluded that the awareness level of the representative participants regarding the radiological hazards associated with tobacco smoking was alarmingly poor. These results suggest that a nationwide mass media campaign may be launched by the government authorities in Health and Environment departments to enlighten the general public in this respect to avoid tobacco-smoking-associated health risks. (authors)

  16. Metal Vapor Arcing Risk Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Monika C.; Leidecker, Henning W.

    2010-01-01

    The Tin Whisker Metal Vapor Arcing Risk Assessment Tool has been designed to evaluate the risk of metal vapor arcing and to help facilitate a decision toward a researched risk disposition. Users can evaluate a system without having to open up the hardware. This process allows for investigating components at risk rather than spending time and money analyzing every component. The tool points to a risk level and provides direction for appropriate action and documentation.

  17. Making the link between radiological assessment, nuclear safety assessment and environmental impact assessment, as applied to unloading of the Lepse spent fuel storage vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planning and optimisation of radioactive waste management operations is a complicated task involving scientific, technical and social issues. There are many factors which have to be balanced, involving trade-offs such as those between safety now and long term safety; between protection of human health and protection of the environment as a whole; between protection of workers and protection of the public; and between mitigation of risks of major accidents and mitigation of routine low-level but certain to occur risks. Managing the spent fuel currently stored on the Lepse vessel in Murmansk offers as big a challenge as any other in this context. The Russian Federation state regulatory process imposes strict requirements on operators to demonstrate adequate safety, environmental and human health protection. Practically, however, there is little experience in Russia or elsewhere on how to combine all the issues referred to above within an overall assessment that leads to informed decision making. The paper will describe the components of assessment work being considered within the context of the regulatory planning of Lepse unloading operations. The scope will focus on radiation protection issues but also include non-radioactive pollution risks and other safety issues have to be taken into account if a truly optimal allocation and application of resources is to be made. Consideration will be given to radiation worker dose and other health risk assessments for routine operations, safety assessments of special operations such as spent fuel handling; and the radiological and other environmental and human health impacts of planned releases of effluents to the biosphere. The need to identify and collate particular relevant information will discussed and the links between the different components of the overall assessment will be identified with a view to improving the overall effectiveness of the assessment process. The problem of combining all the information coherently

  18. Radiological assessment of depleted uranium impact locations in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the monitoring that could be carried out during this brief reconnaissance was neither entirely systematic nor completely representative of overall environmental conditions, it is interesting to compare the activity concentrations of D.U. (depleted uranium) found in this work with what would be considered benchmark quantities. This has been done in some of the following sections, but it must be recognised that the data is not of the quality needed for robust generalised statements about D.U. contamination or any possible health consequences. D.U. mainly consists of 238U, 235U and 234U. All of these isotopes have different radioactive decay characteristics and therefore different dose per unit intake factors. However, for dose assessment purposes, it can easily be shown that the assumption that D.U. is composed entirely of 238U will result in an insignificant error in estimating the likely magnitude of any radiation dose. For example, for the limiting (i.e. highest) dose per unit intake factors given in ICRP 72 [2] for each isotope, this assumption gives rise to differences of about 1% and 10% for inhalation and ingestion respectively. This approximation has been used in the following discussions. 7.2 General observations Four D.U. contaminated tanks and one anti-aircraft gun were located and surveyed during the reconnaissance, together with two areas of contaminated land. There were also visual indications of D.U. impacts on two other tanks and an armored personnel carrier, but time constraints and hazards from unstable structures and unexploded ordnance prevented investigation of these vehicles. The most surprising finding was that there was relatively little loose contamination on or in the tanks. A more detailed interpretation of the results follows. 7.3 Smear samples All smears were subject to α and β counting and the results of the α counting converted to an equivalent removable surface contamination level, expressed in terms of Bq cm-2, by using

  19. Radiological assessment of depleted uranium impact locations in Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.; Brown, R. [Dstl Environmental Sciences Dept., Crescent Road, Alverstoke, Gosport, Hants PO12 2DL (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Although the monitoring that could be carried out during this brief reconnaissance was neither entirely systematic nor completely representative of overall environmental conditions, it is interesting to compare the activity concentrations of D.U. (depleted uranium) found in this work with what would be considered benchmark quantities. This has been done in some of the following sections, but it must be recognised that the data is not of the quality needed for robust generalised statements about D.U. contamination or any possible health consequences. D.U. mainly consists of {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U and {sup 234}U. All of these isotopes have different radioactive decay characteristics and therefore different dose per unit intake factors. However, for dose assessment purposes, it can easily be shown that the assumption that D.U. is composed entirely of {sup 238}U will result in an insignificant error in estimating the likely magnitude of any radiation dose. For example, for the limiting (i.e. highest) dose per unit intake factors given in ICRP 72 [2] for each isotope, this assumption gives rise to differences of about 1% and 10% for inhalation and ingestion respectively. This approximation has been used in the following discussions. 7.2 General observations Four D.U. contaminated tanks and one anti-aircraft gun were located and surveyed during the reconnaissance, together with two areas of contaminated land. There were also visual indications of D.U. impacts on two other tanks and an armored personnel carrier, but time constraints and hazards from unstable structures and unexploded ordnance prevented investigation of these vehicles. The most surprising finding was that there was relatively little loose contamination on or in the tanks. A more detailed interpretation of the results follows. 7.3 Smear samples All smears were subject to {alpha} and {beta} counting and the results of the {alpha} counting converted to an equivalent removable surface contamination level

  20. Practical Education through Risk Assessment Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokai, Akihiro

    Although, the staff for assessing environmental risk of chemicals is required in individual units of industrial sectors, there are very few systemic academic curriculums on risk assessment of chemicals in Japanese institutions of higher education. In order to meet such a social needs, Osaka University opened a limited-period program of environmental risk management for both students and working people in 2005. The author describes the contribution of his experience in offering a course on environmental risk assessment of chemicals as a part of the program. The course afforded students a kind of practical training for risk assessment. This paper also involves what to do for strengthening the education activity of risk assessment.

  1. Risk Assessment Update: Russian Segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Eric; Lear, Dana; Hyde, James; Bjorkman, Michael; Hoffman, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    BUMPER-II version 1.95j source code was provided to RSC-E- and Khrunichev at January 2012 MMOD TIM in Moscow. MEMCxP and ORDEM 3.0 environments implemented as external data files. NASA provided a sample ORDEM 3.0 g."key" & "daf" environment file set for demonstration and benchmarking BUMPER -II v1.95j installation at the Jan-12 TIM. ORDEM 3.0 has been completed and is currently in beta testing. NASA will provide a preliminary set of ORDEM 3.0 ".key" & ".daf" environment files for the years 2012 through 2028. Bumper output files produced using the new ORDEM 3.0 data files are intended for internal use only, not for requirements verification. Output files will contain these words ORDEM FILE DESCRIPTION = PRELIMINARY VERSION: not for production. The projectile density term in many BUMPER-II ballistic limit equations will need to be updated. Cube demo scripts and output files delivered at the Jan-12 TIM have been updated for the new ORDEM 3.0 data files. Risk assessment results based on ORDEM 3.0 and MEM will be presented for the Russian Segment (RS) of ISS.

  2. Risk communication in environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahm-Crites, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Germantown, MD (United States). Washington Operations Office

    1996-08-26

    Since the enactment of NEPA and other environmental legislation, the concept of `risk communication` has expanded from simply providing citizens with scientific information about risk to exploring ways of making risk information genuinely meaningful to the public and facilitating public involvement in the very processes whereby risk is analyzed and managed. Contemporary risk communication efforts attempt to find more effective ways of conveying increasingly complex risk information and to develop more democratic and proactive approaches to community involvement, in particular to ensuring the participation of diverse populations in risk decisions. Although considerable progress has been made in a relatively short time, risk communication researchers and practitioners currently face a number of challenges in a time of high expectations, low trust, and low budgets.

  3. Assessing reservoir operations risk under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, L.D.; Maurer, E.P.; Anderson, J.D.; Dettinger, M.D.; Townsley, E.S.; Harrison, A.; Pruitt, T.

    2009-01-01

    Risk-based planning offers a robust way to identify strategies that permit adaptive water resources management under climate change. This paper presents a flexible methodology for conducting climate change risk assessments involving reservoir operations. Decision makers can apply this methodology to their systems by selecting future periods and risk metrics relevant to their planning questions and by collectively evaluating system impacts relative to an ensemble of climate projection scenarios (weighted or not). This paper shows multiple applications of this methodology in a case study involving California's Central Valley Project and State Water Project systems. Multiple applications were conducted to show how choices made in conducting the risk assessment, choices known as analytical design decisions, can affect assessed risk. Specifically, risk was reanalyzed for every choice combination of two design decisions: (1) whether to assume climate change will influence flood-control constraints on water supply operations (and how), and (2) whether to weight climate change scenarios (and how). Results show that assessed risk would motivate different planning pathways depending on decision-maker attitudes toward risk (e.g., risk neutral versus risk averse). Results also show that assessed risk at a given risk attitude is sensitive to the analytical design choices listed above, with the choice of whether to adjust flood-control rules under climate change having considerably more influence than the choice on whether to weight climate scenarios. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Technological risks - assessment and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technological reliability of products, equipment and processes plays an ever increasing role in political motivation - and not only with respect to environmental questions. Present day hazard potential, risk acceptance and the estimation of the consequences of technical risks are dealt with on the basis of the past history of technological risks. The mechanisms for coping with these risks and the unavoidable ethical implications are then considered. (orig.)

  5. Assessment of self-help methods to reduce potential exposure to radiological contamination after a large-scale radiological release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Emily; Drake, John; Cardarelli, John; Hall, Kathy; Szabo, Jeff; Demmer, Rick; Lindberg, Michael; Riggs, Karen; James, Ryan

    2014-09-01

    After the release of radioactive materials from a large radiological dispersal device (e.g., dirty bomb), improvised nuclear detonation, or nuclear power plant accident, up to hundreds of square miles may be contaminated. A portion of this area will be evacuated; however, people living in the portion that is not evacuated yet is still contaminated with low-levels of radioactive contamination will be asking for ways they can reduce their exposure. Whether cleaning activities can significantly reduce exposure is not fully understood. In this effort, the ability of cleaning activities to remove cesium (137Cs) was studied. The removal efficacy of cleaning with a commercial product, Simple Green®, was compared to cleaning with water for hard surfaces typically seen in residences. The removal efficacy of laundering fabric material surfaces was also determined for a range of conditions (e.g., fabric material type, wash temperature). During these studies, assessments of the implications of these activities (e.g., cross-contamination, resulting waste streams) were also completed. Simple Green and water were effective for removing 137Cs from plastic laminate and vinyl flooring (93.4-96.8%) but were not effective for removing 137Cs from painted wallboard and wood (7.3-68.1%). It was also determined that there was no significant difference between the two cleaners on all of the surfaces, except plastic laminate, for which Simple Green was slightly more effective. Laundering was effective for removing 137Cs contamination from polyester and cotton swatches and cotton comforters (up to 96.8% in the single swatch testing). PMID:25068960

  6. Assessment of the radiological conditions in areas of Kuwait with residues of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1991 Gulf War was the first conflict in which DU munitions were used extensively. After this conflict, questions arose regarding the possible link between exposure to ionizing radiation from DU and harmful biological effects. In view of these concerns, the Government of Kuwait, in February 2001, requested the IAEA to conduct an assessment to evaluate the possible radiological impact of residues of DU munitions from the 1991 Gulf War at 11 locations in Kuwait. For this purpose, the IAEA assembled a team of senior experts, who visited Kuwait in September 2001 to carry out a preliminary assessment of the sites and to evaluate the available information. In February 2002 scientists from the IAEA, the Spiez Laboratory (Switzerland), representing UNEP, and the Radiation Protection Department of the Ministry of Health of Kuwait, carried out a sampling campaign at these sites. Around 200 environmental samples, including soil, water and vegetation, were collected during the campaign and subsequently analysed. This study constitutes the first comprehensive radiological assessment of compliance with international radiation protection criteria and standards for areas with residues of DU munitions conducted under the auspices of the IAEA. The findings of this investigation indicate that DU does not pose a radiological hazard to the population of Kuwait. Annual radiation doses arising from exposure to DU residues would be of a few micro-sieverts, well below the annual doses from natural sources of radiation and far below the reference level recommended by the IAEA as a criterion to help establish whether remedial actions are necessary. DU penetrators can still be found at some of the locations visited. Prolonged skin contact with these residues is the only possible pathway that could result in exposures of radiological significance. As long as access to these areas remains restricted, the likelihood that members of the public could come into contact with these residues is low

  7. Pulmonary complications of liver transplantation: radiological appearance and statistical evaluation of risk factors in 300 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, radiographic appearance, time of onset, outcome and risk factors of non-infectious and infectious pulmonary complications following liver transplantation. Chest X-ray features of 300 consecutive patients who had undergone 333 liver transplants over an 11-year period were analysed: the type of pulmonary complication, the infecting pathogens and the mean time of their occurrence are described. The main risk factors for lung infections were quantified through univariate and multivariate statistical analysis. Non-infectious pulmonary abnormalities (atelectasis and/or pleural effusion: 86.7%) and pulmonary oedema (44.7%) appeared during the first postoperative week. Infectious pneumonia was observed in 13.7%, with a mortality of 36.6%. Bacterial and viral pneumonia made up the bulk of infections (63.4 and 29.3%, respectively) followed by fungal infiltrates (24.4%). A fairly good correlation between radiological chest X-ray pattern, time of onset and the cultured microorganisms has been observed in all cases. In multivariate analysis, persistent non-infectious abnormalities and pulmonary oedema were identified as the major independent predictors of posttransplant pneumonia, followed by prolonged assisted mechanical ventilation and traditional caval anastomosis. A ''pneumonia-risk score'' was calculated: low-risk score (3.30) population. The ''pneumonia-risk score'' identifies a specific group of patients in whom closer radiographic monitoring is recommended. In addition, a highly significant correlation (p<0.001) was observed between pneumonia-risk score and the expected survival, thus confirming pulmonary infections as a major cause of death in OLT recipients. (orig.)

  8. Prevention of health risks of magnetic resonance imaging. Recommendation of the German Radiological Protection Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging is used routinely with much success for various problems in different medical disciplines. However, the patient is exposed to static as well as to time-dependent magnetic fields and radio-frequency electromagnetic fields. In 1997 the Strahlenschutzkommission, the German Radiological Protection Commission, passed a recommendation on the use of magnetic resonance in medical diagnostics. In this recommendation basic values related to thresholds for physiological effects and limits for restricted and unrestricted use are given. In the following the aim and applicability of this recommendation are discussed, as well as the thresholds and different limits for the static magnetic fields, the gradient fields and the radio-frequency fields. Additionally, advice is given for the protection of high-risk patients, personnel, and the general public, together with further safety advice as well as recommendations for users and manufacturers. (orig.)

  9. Selection of nuclide decay chains for use in the assessment of the radiological impact of geological repositories for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The criteria for selecting nuclide decay chains for use in the assessment of the radiological impact of geological repositories for radioactive waste are given. The reduced chains recommended for use with SYVAC are described. (author)

  10. Dosimetry on the radiological risks prevention in radiotherapy; La dosimetria en la prevencion de riesgos radiologicos en radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornet R, O. M.; Perez G, F., E-mail: nuclear2@citmahlg.holguin.inf.cu [Delegacion Territorial del CITMA, Peralta 16 esq. P. Feria, Rpto. Peralta, 80400 Holguin (Cuba)

    2014-08-15

    Dosimetry in its various forms plays a determining role on the radiological risks prevention in radiotherapy. To prove this in this paper is shown an analysis based on the risk matrix method, how the dosimetry can influence in each stages of a radiotherapy service; installation and acceptance, operation, maintenance and calibration. For each one of these stages the role that can play is analyzed as either the initiating event of a radiological accident or limiting barrier of these events of the dosimetric processes used for the individual dosimetry, the area monitoring, fixed or portable, for radiation beam dosimetry and of the patients for a radiotherapy service with cobalt-therapy equipment. The result of the study shows that the application of a prospective approach in the role evaluation of dosimetry in the prevention and mitigation of the consequences of a radiological accident in radiotherapy is crucial and should be subject to permanent evaluation at each development stage of these services. (author)

  11. Risk assessment of plant protection products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardy T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    EFSA’s Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR Panel provides independent scientific advice in the field of risk assessment of plant protection products (PPPs, pesticides. Since its establishment in 2003 under Regulation (EC No 178/2002, it has delivered a series of scientific outputs in support of evaluation of pesticide active substances, establishing scientific principles and guidance documents in the field of pesticide risk assessment and in support of decision making of European Union (EU law makers. Next to a series of scientific opinions evaluating specific adverse effects of PPPs for human health (like for instance carcinogenicity the Panel also delivered scientific opinions on general principles in the field of human health risk assessment (like reference value setting and is, in particular over the last years, very much engaged in development of methodologies to meet new challenges in regulatory risk assessments such as assessment of toxicity of pesticide metabolites and potential cumulative effects of pesticides to human health. Fate, behaviour and transformation of pesticides after their application and consequent release to the environment are a major aspect of pesticide risk assessment. The PPR Panel has achieved major accomplishments by delivering guidance and scientific opinions on degradation in soil, exposure of soil organisms and assessment of environmental risks by use of pesticides in greenhouses or grown under cover. A series of scientific opinions have been delivered also in the field of environmental risk assessment of pesticides. Scientific output covered specific issues arising in the peer review of specific active substances, revision of data requirements, development of risk assessment methodologies and the development of guidance documents. A major milestone of the PPR Panel was the development of the methodological framework for deriving specific protection goals for environmental risk

  12. Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Monitoring Manual Volume 1, Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Aerial Measurement Systems

    2012-07-31

    The Monitoring division is primarily responsible for the coordination and direction of: Aerial measurements to delineate the footprint of radioactive contaminants that have been released into the environment. Monitoring of radiation levels in the environment; Sampling to determine the extent of contaminant deposition in soil, water, air and on vegetation; Preliminary field analyses to quantify soil concentrations or depositions; and Environmental and personal dosimetry for FRMAC field personnel, during a Consequence Management Response Team (CMRT) and Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) response. Monitoring and sampling techniques used during CM/FRMAC operations are specifically selected for use during radiological emergencies where large numbers of measurements and samples must be acquired, analyzed, and interpreted in the shortest amount of time possible. In addition, techniques and procedures are flexible so that they can be used during a variety of different scenarios; e.g., accidents involving releases from nuclear reactors, contamination by nuclear waste, nuclear weapon accidents, space vehicle reentries, or contamination from a radiological dispersal device. The Monitoring division also provides technicians to support specific Health and Safety Division activities including: The operation of the Hotline; FRMAC facility surveys; Assistance with Health and Safety at Check Points; and Assistance at population assembly areas which require support from the FRMAC. This volume covers deployment activities, initial FRMAC activities, development and implementation of the monitoring and assessment plan, the briefing of field teams, and the transfer of FRMAC to the EPA.

  13. A computerized assessment and response system for radiological emergency at Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requires that nuclear power plants provide for rapid assessment and response in the event of a radiological emergency. At the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Pacific Gas and Electric Company uses a system of linked central minicomputer, satellite desktop computers and microprocessors to provide decision makers with timely and pertinent information in emergency situations. The system provides for data acquisition and microprocessing at meteorological and radiological monitoring sites. Current estimates or projections of offsite dose commitment are made in real-time by a dispersion/dose calculation model. Computerized dissemination of data and calculational results to decision makers at the government and utility levels is also available. The basic system in use is a commercially available Emergency Assessment and Response System (EARS). This generic system has been modified in-house to meet requirements specific to emergency situations at the plant. Distinctive features of the modification program includes: a highly professional man-machine interaction; consideration of site-specific factors; simulation of environmental radiology for development of drill scenarios; and concise, pertinent reports as input to decision making

  14. GHGT-11 - Integrated Carbon Risk Assessment (ICARAS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wollenweber, J.; Busby, D.; Wessel-Berg, D.; Nepveu, M.; Bossie Codreanu, D.; Grimstad, A-A.; Sijacic, D.; Maurand, N.; Lothe, A.; Wahl, F.; Polak, S.; Boot, H.; Grøver, A.; Wildenborg, T.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper an integrated workflow is described for risk assessment within CCS. IFPEN, SINTEF and TNO joined forces to define a comprehensive and transparent risk assessment methodology. The tools developed in these institutes are thereby integrated. The workflow can be applied to proposed carbon

  15. Aquatic Macrophyte Risk Assessment for Pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maltby, L.; Arnold, D.; Arts, G.H.P.; Davies, J.; Heimbach, F.; Pickl, C.; Poulsen, V.

    2009-01-01

    Given the essential role that primary producers play in aquatic ecosystems, it is imperative that the potential risk of pesticides to the structure and functioning of aquatic plants is adequately assessed. This book discusses the assessment of the risk of pesticides with herbicidal activity to aquat

  16. Evaluation and assessment methodology, standards, and procedures manual of the United States Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the event of a major radiological emergency, the U.S. Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan authorises the creation of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC). The FRMAC is established to co-ordinate the Federal off-site monitoring and assessment activities, and is comprised of representatives from several Federal agencies and Department of Energy contractors who provide assistance to the state(s) and Lead Federal Agency. The Evaluation and Assessment (E and A) Division of the FRMAC is responsible for receiving, storing, and interpreting environmental surveillance data to estimate the potential health consequences to the population in the vicinity of the accident site. The E and A Division has commissioned the preparation of a methodology and procedures manual which will result in a consistent approach by Division members in carrying out their duties. The first edition of this manual is nearing completion. In this paper, a brief review of the structure of the FRMAC is presented, with emphasis on the E and A Division. The contents of the E and A manual are briefly described, as are future plans for its expansion. (author)

  17. Fuzzy sets applications for cancer risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molchanov, P A; Dudatiev, A V; Podobna, Y Y; Molchanova, O P

    2002-09-01

    The method of cancer risk assessment on the basis of the Fuzzy Set Theory is presented. The method is based on a multifactor risk assessment of cancer diseases. The individual risk of cancer disease is evaluated as the probability of disease multiplied by the value of an individual dose. An acupuncture method of cancer risk assessments was developed. The method is based on the analysis of changes of an electromagnetic field (biofield) of a person. The method allows to determine both cancer probability and probable location of the process. PMID:12298344

  18. Status of safety technology for radiological consequence assessment of postulated accidents in liquid metal fast breeder reactors, Canoga Park, California, 29 July--31 July 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    State-of-the-art capabilities are examined for prediction and mitigation of radiological consequences of postulated LMFBR accidents. The following topics are treated: radioactive source terms, sodium reactions, aerosol behavior, radiological dose assessment, and engineered safeguards. (U.S.)

  19. Meaning and contextualisation in risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an analysis of the construction of risk as a social process. It provides a critique of Jasanoff's 'two cultures' model of the risk assessment community, arguing that corresponding rhetorics serve to obscure the hybrid nature of risk. It is argued that a new perspective, based on the contextualisation of expert scientific knowledge is needed, which transcends reductionist tendencies that view risk assessment as simply about either material artefacts or social constructions. Such approaches have the potential, it is suggested, to address not only the complexity but also the moral and political dilemmas associated with a wide range of risk management problems

  20. Risk Assessment for an Unmanned Merchant Ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ø.J. Rødseth

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The MUNIN project is doing a feasibility study on an unmanned bulk carrier on an intercontinental voyage. To develop the technical and operational concepts, MUNIN has used a risk-based design method, based on the Formal Safety Analysis method which is also recommended by the International Mari-time Organization. Scenario analysis has been used to identify risks and to simplify operational scope. Systematic hazard identification has been used to find critical safety and security risks and how to address these. Technology and operational concept testing is using a hypothesis-based test method, where the hypotheses have been created as a result of the risk assessment. Finally, the cost-benefit assessment will also use results from the risk assessment. This paper describes the risk assessment method, some of the most important results and also describes how the results have been or will be used in the different parts of the project.