WorldWideScience

Sample records for assess foot-and-mouth disease

  1. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with infected people Commonly Confused With Foot-and-Mouth Disease Hand, foot, and mouth disease is often ... and-Mouth Disease . Outbreaks of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Large outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth ...

  2. Foot-and-mouth disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham; Charleston, Bryan; Jackson, Terry;

    2009-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease is an economically important, highly contagious, disease of cloven-hoofed animals characterized by the appearance of vesicles (blisters) on the feet and in and around the mouth. The causative agent, foot-and-mouth disease virus, was the first mammalian virus to be discovered...

  3. Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Hand, Foot & Mouth Disease Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... sick Is HFMD the Same as Foot-and-Mouth Disease? No. HFMD is often confused with foot- ...

  4. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-08

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a contagious illness that mainly affects children under five. In this podcast, Dr. Eileen Schneider talks about the symptoms of hand, foot, and mouth disease, how it spreads, and ways to help protect yourself and your children from getting infected with the virus.  Created: 8/8/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 8/8/2013.

  5. Foot-and-mouth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. An outbreak of FMD can have a significant economic impact because of the restrictions on international trade of susceptible animals and their products with FMD-free countries. In this chapter we discuss vario...

  6. Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease A parent's guide for infants and babies ... a herpes virus infection. Overview Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is a common illness of infants and ...

  7. Hand, foot and mouth disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Muppa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD is an acute viral illness with a distinct clinical presentation of oral and characteristic distal extremity lesions. Knowledge of this is important for the dentists as the oral lesions are the first clinical signs and sometimes may be the only sign because the condition occasionally may regress even before the lesions appear on the extremities. This case describes a 5-year-old boy in whom low-grade fever of 38.7°C and oral lesions were the initial manifestations. Proper diagnosis was established later based on the typical location of the initial intraoral ulcers on the soft palate followed by cutaneous lesions on the hands and feet with vesicle formation surrounded by an erythematous halo. The recognition of HFMD is important for both pediatricians and pedodontists as oral manifestations are the first signs and may mimic many other conditions like acute herpetic gingivostomstomatitis, apthous stomatitis, chickenpox, erythema multiformae and misdiagnosis may involve an inappropriate prescription of medication.

  8. 75 FR 54589 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccine, Live Adenovirus Vector AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We are advising the public that the Animal and Plant...

  9. Re-assessing the likelihood of airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease at the start of the 1967-1968 UK foot-and-mouth disease epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gloster, J.; Freshwater, A.; Sellers, R.F.;

    2005-01-01

    The likelihood of airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease at the start of the 1967-1968 epidemic is re-assessed in the light of current understanding of airborne disease spread. The findings strongly confirm those made at the time that airborne virus was the most likely cause of the rapid early...

  10. Foot and mouth disease economic impact assessment on production, export losses and eradication expenditure

    OpenAIRE

    Forbes, Rod; Halderen, Andre van

    2014-01-01

    The second paper in this three paper session models the impact of a number of foot and mouth disease (FMD) incursion scenarios on production and export revenues of dairy, meat and other products. The guiding principle was big picture, plausible and estimable Key to this was how processors might respond during FMD eradication and how importing countries might respond once New Zealand becomes FMD free again. Government expenditure for FMD eradication and related livestock compensation was estim...

  11. Foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious and economically devastating disease of livestock. Although vaccines, available since the early 1900s, have been instrumental in eradicating FMD from parts of the world, the disease still affects millions of animals around the globe and remains the...

  12. Animal health: foot-and-mouth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most contagious viral diseases that can affect cloven-hoofed livestock and wild animals. Outbreaks of FMD have caused devastating economic losses and the slaughter of millions of animals in many regions of the world affecting the food chain and global devel...

  13. On The Use Of Models To Assess Foot-And-Mouth Disease Transmission And Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostova-Vassilevska, T

    2004-07-12

    The 2001 outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Europe (Ferguson et al. 2001a, 2001b; Bouma et al. 2003) and concern about the possibility of an intentional introduction of a devastating foreign animal disease triggered renewed interest in both theoretical and experimental research related to FMD. Theoretical models of disease transmission, which influenced the tactical decisions of the United Kingdom (UK) government during the epidemic (Taylor 2003), resulted in large numbers of uninfected animals being slaughtered. After the epidemic, the adopted control policies were sharply criticized (Kitching 2004;, Taylor 2003). Still, the role of computationaL modeling for analyzing the scope of the epidemic and devising control strategies was recognized as substantial and necessary.

  14. Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham; Charleston, Bryan; Jackson, Terry;

    2015-01-01

    Foot‐and‐mouth disease (FMD) is an economically important, highly contagious disease of cloven‐hoofed animals characterised by the appearance of vesicles (blisters) on the feet and in, and around, the mouth. The causative agent, foot‐and‐mouth disease virus (FMDV), was the first mammalian virus...

  15. Hand, foot and mouth disease - a short case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kashyap, Roopashri Rajesh; Kashyap, Rajesh Shanker

    2015-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease, that was once considered a disease of cattle, has been emerging as a common human childhood disease in the last few years. It is a viral disease characterized by a brief febrile illness and typical vesicular rashes. In rare cases, patients may also develop neurological complications. This report describes a case of hand, foot and mouth disease, presented with typical clinical features in the South Indian region. Key words:Hand, foot and mouth disease, viral lesio...

  16. A colorimetric bioassay for high-througput and cost-effectively assessing anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-Mouth Disease virus (FMDV) is one of the most contagious animal viruses and has a devastating effect on livestock industries if an outbreaks occurs, especially in FMD-free countries. The virus is very sensitive to inhibition by type I interferons. Currently, a reported assay to measure FM...

  17. Genomics and outbreaks: foot and mouth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freimanis, G L; Di Nardo, A; Bankowska, K; King, D J; Wadsworth, J; Knowles, N J; King, D P

    2016-04-01

    Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is an animal pathogen of global economic significance. Identifying the sources of outbreaks plays an important role in disease control; however, this can be confounded by the ease with which FMDV can spread via movement of infected livestock and animal products, aerosols or fomites, e.g. contaminated persons and objects. As sequencing technologies have advanced, this review highlights the uses of viral genomic data in helping to understand the global distribution and transboundary movements of FMDV, and the role that these approaches have played in control and surveillance programmes. The recent application of next-generation sequencing platforms to address important epidemiological and evolutionary challenges is discussed with particular reference to the advent of 'omics' technologies. PMID:27217177

  18. Veterinary realities: what is foot and mouth disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Law; A. Mol

    2011-01-01

    Veterinary science draws on different traditions for knowing and acting, and mobilises different kinds of materials and techniques. This article explores these differences and their tensions for the diagnosis of foot and mouth disease in the UK in 2001. It shows that when they talk of foot and mouth

  19. Airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease - model intercomparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gloster, J; Jones, A; Redington, A; Burgin, L; Sorensen, J H; Turner, R; Dillon, M; Hullinger, P; Simpson, M; Astrup, P; Garner, G; Stewart, P; D' Amours, R; Sellers, R; Paton, D

    2008-09-04

    Foot-and-mouth disease is a highly infectious vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus. It spreads by direct contact between animals, by animal products (milk, meat and semen), by mechanical transfer on people or fomites and by the airborne route - with the relative importance of each mechanism depending on the particular outbreak characteristics. Over the years a number of workers have developed or adapted atmospheric dispersion models to assess the risk of foot-and-mouth disease virus spread through the air. Six of these models were compared at a workshop hosted by the Institute for Animal Health/Met Office during 2008. A number of key issues emerged from the workshop and subsequent modelling work: (1) in general all of the models predicted similar directions for 'at risk' livestock with much of the remaining differences strongly related to differences in the meteorological data used; (2) determination of an accurate sequence of events is highly important, especially if the meteorological conditions vary substantially during the virus emission period; and (3) differences in assumptions made about virus release, environmental fate, and subsequent infection can substantially modify the size and location of the downwind risk area. Close relationships have now been established between participants, which in the event of an outbreak of disease could be readily activated to supply advice or modelling support.

  20. Foot-and-mouth disease: past, present and future

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal, Syed Muhammad; Belsham, Graham

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals including cattle, pigs, sheep and many wildlife species. It can cause enormous economic losses when incursions occur into countries which are normally disease free. In addition, it has long-term effects within countries where the disease is endemic due to reduced animal productivity and the restrictions on international trade in animal products. The disease is caused by infection with foot-and-mouth...

  1. Foot-and-mouth disease virus L peptidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) comprise the genus Aphthovirus of the Picornaviridae family. Seven genera within this family, Aphthoviruses, Cardioviruses, Erboviruses (ERBV), Kobuviruses, Senecaviruses, Sapeloviruses, and Tescho...

  2. Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease: Changing Indian Scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Prasanna Kumar; Veena, KM; H. Jagadishchandra; Sham S Bhat; Shetty, Shishir Ram

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Hand, foot and mouth disease usually affect infants and children. Although seen worldwide, it is not common in India. It is moderately contagious and is spread through direct contact with the mucus, saliva, or feces of an infected person. It typically occurs in small epidemics, usually during the summer and autumn months. The incidence of hand, foot and mouth disease has recently been on the rise in India due to the probable mass immunization programs. This report describes a case of...

  3. Airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease - Model intercomparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gloster, John; Jones, Andrew; Redington, Alison;

    2010-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) spreads by direct contact between animals, by animal products (milk, meat and semen), by mechanical transfer on people or fomites and by the airborne route, with the relative importance of each mechanism depending on the particular outbreak characteristics....... Atmospheric dispersion models have been developed to assess airborne spread of FMDV in a number of countries, including the UK, Denmark, Australia, New Zealand, USA and Canada. These models were compared at a Workshop hosted by the Institute for Animal Health/Met Office in 2008. Each modeller was provided...

  4. Foot-and-mouth disease: global status and Indian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and transboundary viral disease of domesticated and wild cloven-hoofed animals. Wide prevalence of the disease in Asia and Africa associated with huge economic loss to the livestock farming and industry has increased the concern worldwide. The di...

  5. Foot-and-mouth disease: past, present and future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamal, Syed Muhammad; Belsham, Graham

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals including cattle, pigs, sheep and many wildlife species. It can cause enormous economic losses when incursions occur into countries which are normally disease free. In addition, it has long-term effects...

  6. Novel antiviral therapeutics to control foot-and-mouth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. Vaccines require approximately 7 days to induce protection, thus prior to this time vaccinated animals are still susceptible to the disease. Our group has previously shown that swine inoculated with 1x10...

  7. The early pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the early pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is of critical importance to ongoing and future efforts to decrease the impact of FMD in endemic regions and prevent incursions to disease-free territories. The importance of the early phase of virus-host interaction lies in two ke...

  8. Foot-and-mouth Disease Transmission in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekleghiorghis, T.; Moormann, R.J.M.; Weerdmeester, K.; Dekker, A.

    2016-01-01

    In Africa, for the control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), more information is needed on the spread of the disease at local, regional and inter-regional level. The aim of this review is to identify the role that animal husbandry, trade and wildlife have on the transmission of FMD and to provide

  9. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Preliminarily Diagnosed as Hypochondriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Michael Jay; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A case in which a dental student with hand, foot, and mouth disease was told he had "medical student disease" (MSD), or hypochondriasis, is related; literature pertaining to the occurrence and treatment of MSD is reviewed, and the importance of care in approaches to both students and patients are discussed. (MSE)

  10. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype A in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles, Nick J.; Wadsworth, Jemma; Reid, Scott M; Swabey, Katherine G.; El-Kholy, Alaa A.; El-Rahman, Adel Omar Abd; Soliman, Hatem M.; Ebert, Katja; Ferris, Nigel P.; Hutchings, Geoffrey H.; Statham, Robert J.; King, Donald P.; Paton, David J.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the characterization of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) serotype A virus responsible for recent outbreaks of disease in Egypt. Phylogenetic analysis of VP1 nucleotide sequences demonstrated a close relationship to recent FMD virus isolates from East Africa, rather than to viruses currently circulating in the Middle East.

  11. Novel approaches to foot-and-mouth disease vaccine development

    Science.gov (United States)

    The need for better Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines is not new, a report from the Research Commission on FMD, authored by F. Loeffler and P. Frosch in 1897, highlighted the need for developing a vaccine against FMD and qualified this as a devastating disease causing “severe economic damage to ...

  12. Mosaic Structure Of Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report the results of a simple pairwise scanning analysis designed to identify inter-serotype recombination events applied to genome data from 144 isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) representing all seven serotypes. We identify large numbers of candidate recombinant fragments from a...

  13. Coxsackievirus A6 and hand, foot, and mouth disease, Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterback, Riikka; Vuorinen, Tytti; Linna, Mervi; Susi, Petri; Hyypiä, Timo; Waris, Matti

    2009-09-01

    During fall 2008, an outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) with onychomadesis (nail shedding) as a common feature occurred in Finland. We identified an unusual enterovirus type, coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6), as the causative agent. CVA6 infections may be emerging as a new and major cause of epidemic HFMD.

  14. Carriers of foot-and-mouth disease virus: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, P.; Schrijver, R.

    2000-01-01

    This review describes current knowledge about persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infections, the available methods to detect carrier animals, the properties of persisting virus, the immunological mechanisms, and the risk of transmission. In particular, knowledge about the carrier state,

  15. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Seroprevalence in Cattle in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekleghiorghis, T.; Weerdmeester, K.; Hemert-Kluitenberg, van Froukje; Moormann, R.J.M.; Dekker, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    Information about seroprevalence of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and virus serotypes in Eritrea is unavailable, but is very important as it may guide the choice of intervention measures including vaccination to be implemented. We carried out a cross-sectional study from February to June 2011 in E

  16. Foot-and-mouth disease: Host range and pathogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Søren; Mowat, N.

    2005-01-01

    In this chapter the host range of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) under natural and experimental conditions is reviewed. The routes and sites of infection, incubation periods and clinical and pathological findings are described and highlighted in relation to progress in understanding the pathogenesis...

  17. Foot and mouth disease in Zambia: Spatial and temporal distributions of outbreaks, assessment of clusters and implications for control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yona Sinkala

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Zambia has been experiencing low livestock productivity as well as trade restrictions owing to the occurrence of foot and mouth disease (FMD, but little is known about the epidemiology of the disease in these endemic settings. The fundamental questions relate to the spatio-temporal distribution of FMD cases and what determines their occurrence. A retrospective review of FMD cases in Zambia from 1981 to 2012 was conducted using geographical information systems and the SaTScan software package. Information was collected from peer-reviewed journal articles, conference proceedings, laboratory reports, unpublished scientific reports and grey literature. A space–time permutation probability model using a varying time window of one year was used to scan for areas with high infection rates. The spatial scan statistic detected a significant purely spatial cluster around the Mbala–Isoka area between 2009 and 2012, with secondary clusters in Sesheke–Kazungula in 2007 and 2008, the Kafue flats in 2004 and 2005 and Livingstone in 2012. This study provides evidence of the existence of statistically significant FMD clusters and an increase in occurrence in Zambia between 2004 and 2012. The identified clusters agree with areas known to be at high risk of FMD. The FMD virus transmission dynamics and the heterogeneous variability in risk within these locations may need further investigation.

  18. Field assessment of the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for foot-and-mouth disease virus diagnosis and typing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in comparison with the complement fixation test (CFT) for the diagnosis and typing of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus (FMDV). Diagnostic material was epithelium from either suspected cases of FMD or from animals experimentally infected with FMDV. Epithelial suspensions and supernatant fluids from cell culture passage were assayed by CFT and ELISA. The superiority of the ELISA over the CFT was demonstrated: 1) the detection rate was 23% higher than that of CFT on original (epithelial) suspensions (OS) submissions of all sample (positive and negative) and 30% higher on supernatant fluids from cell culture passage, 2) the detection rate of ELISA on OS of confirmed positive samples was 28% higher than that of CFT, 3) no significant differences were observed in the detection and typing rates between the PANAFTOSA and FAO/IAEA ELISA kits (P<0.05) and 4) the sensitivity of the ELISA was 16 to 85 times higher than that of CFT when serial dilutions of sample homogenates were examined. (author)

  19. Microarray-based identification of antigenic variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus: a bioinformatics quality assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Esteban

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolution of viral quasispecies can influence viral pathogenesis and the response to antiviral treatments. Mutant clouds in infected organisms represent the first stage in the genetic and antigenic diversification of RNA viruses, such as foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV, an important animal pathogen. Antigenic variants of FMDV have been classically diagnosed by immunological or RT-PCR-based methods. DNA microarrays are becoming increasingly useful for the analysis of gene expression and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Recently, a FMDV microarray was described to detect simultaneously the seven FMDV serotypes. These results encourage the development of new oligonucleotide microarrays to probe the fine genetic and antigenic composition of FMDV for diagnosis, vaccine design, and to gain insight into the molecular epidemiology of this pathogen. Results A FMDV microarray was designed and optimized to detect SNPs at a major antigenic site of the virus. A screening of point mutants of the genomic region encoding antigenic site A of FMDV C-S8c1 was achieved. The hybridization pattern of a mutant includes specific positive and negative signals as well as crosshybridization signals, which are of different intensity depending on the thermodynamic stability of each probe-target pair. Moreover, an array bioinformatic classification method was developed to evaluate the hybridization signals. This statistical analysis shows that the procedure allows a very accurate classification per variant genome. Conclusion A specific approach based on a microarray platform aimed at distinguishing point mutants within an important determinant of antigenicity and host cell tropism, namely the G-H loop of capsid protein VP1, was developed. The procedure is of general applicability as a test for specificity and discriminatory power of microarray-based diagnostic procedures using multiple oligonucleotide probes.

  20. International Pork Trade and Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Shang-Ho; Reed, Michael R.; Saghaian, Sayed H.

    2012-01-01

    International pork trade has not only been influenced by trade agreements but also altered by consumer perceptions on disease-infected animals. This study uses a gravity model with fixed-effects to investigate how pork trade is affected by foot-and-mouth disease among 186 countries. Results confirm that pork export falls when an exporting country develops FMD. Exporters with a vaccination policy have larger negative impacts than those with a slaughter policy. Further, pork importers that deve...

  1. In vitro morphogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virion RNA is translated efficiently and completely in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate cell-free system. Treatment of cell-free lysates with monospecific serum prepared against the individual viral structural proteins or with monoclonal antibodies prepared against the inactivated virus or against a viral structural protein precipitated all of the structural proteins, suggesting that structural protein complexes were formed in vitro. Sucrose gradient analysis of the cell-fr...

  2. A Refined Guinea Pig Model of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Infection for Assessing the Efficacy of Antiviral Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vleeschauwer, A R; Lefebvre, D J; Willems, T; Paul, G; Billiet, A; Murao, L E; Neyts, J; Goris, N; De Clercq, K

    2016-04-01

    An antiviral containment strategy for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks could support or replace current contingency plans in case of an outbreak in Europe and could spare many healthy animals from being pre-emptively culled. Recently, substantial progress has been made towards the development of small molecule drugs that inhibit FMD virus (FMDV) replication in vitro. For the initial in vivo evaluation of antiviral lead molecules, a refined FMDV-infection model in guinea pigs (GP) is herewith described. This GP model was validated by demonstrating the antiviral effect of T-1105 (an influenza virus inhibitor with reported activity against FMDV). Sixteen animals were orally administered with T-1105 twice daily (400 mg/kg/day) for five consecutive days and inoculated intraplantarly with 100 GPID50 of the GP-adapted FMDV strain O1 Manisa 1 h after the first administration. The efficacy of T-1105 was compared with that of prophylactic vaccination with a highly potent double-oil emulsion-inactivated O1 Manisa vaccine. Ten animals received a single, full (2 ml) cattle vaccine dose and were inoculated 3 weeks later. Fourteen T-1105-treated and all vaccinated GP were completely protected from generalization of vesicular lesions. At 2 dpi, viral RNA was detected in serum of 9/16 T-1105-treated and of 6/10 vaccinated animals. At 4 dpi, viral RNA was detected in serum, organs and oral swabs of half of the T-1105-treated animals and only in the serum of 1/10 of the vaccinated animals. Mean viral RNA levels in serum and organs of T-1105-treated and vaccinated animals were reduced compared to untreated controls (P < 0.01). T-1105 conferred a substantial clinical and virological protection against infection with O1 Manisa, similar to the protection afforded by vaccination. These results validate the suitability of the enhanced GP model for the purpose of initial evaluation of inhibitors of FMDV replication and illustrate the potential of selective inhibitors of viral

  3. Economic impact of foot and mouth disease outbreaks onsmallholder farmers in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jemberu, W.T.; Mourits, Monique C.M.; Woldehanna, T.; Hogeveen, H.

    2014-01-01

    Foot and mouth disease is endemic in Ethiopia with occurrences of several outbreaks everyyear. Quantitative information about the impact of the disease on smallholder farming sys-tems in the country is, however, scarce. This study presents a quantitative assessment ofthe clinical and direct economic

  4. Gold Nanoparticles Impair Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiei, Solmaz; Rezatofighi, Seyedeh Elham; Roayaei Ardakani, Mohammad; Rastegarzadeh, Saadat

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the antiviral activity of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) against the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), that causes a contagious disease in cloven-hoofed animals. The anti-FMDV activity of AuNPs was assessed using plaque reduction assay. MTT assay was used for quantitatively measuring the cytopathic effect caused by the viral infection. The 50% cytotoxicity concentration of nanoparticles was measured and found to be 10.4 μg/ml. The virus yield reduction assay showed that AuNP have an approximately 4-fold virus titer reduction compared with controls. Plaque reduction assay showed that at non-cytotoxic concentrations, AuNPs do not show extracellular virucidal activity and inhibition of FMDV growth at the early stages of infection including attachment and penetration. Time-of-addition experiments revealed that AuNPs inhibited post-entry stages of viral replication concomitant with the onset of intracellular viral RNA synthesis; however, the mechanism of AuNPs against FMDV was unclear. PMID:26685261

  5. Impact of the 2001 Foot-and-Mouth Disease Outbreak in Britain: Implications for Rural Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Alister; Christie, Michael; Midmore, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of the 2001 foot-and-mouth disease outbreak in terms of its implications for the discipline of rural studies. In particular, it focuses on the position of agriculture in rural economy and society, the standing of the government after its management of the outbreak, and the performance of the new devolved regional…

  6. Multiple proteases in foot-and-mouth disease virus replication.

    OpenAIRE

    Burroughs, J. N.; Sangar, D V; Clarke, B E; Rowlands, D J; Billiau, A; Collen, D

    1984-01-01

    Translation of foot-and-mouth disease virus RNA in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate for short time intervals resulted in the production of the peptides P20a , P16, and P88 (Lab, Lb, and P1) (R. R. Rueckert , Recommendations of the 3rd European Study Group on Molecular Biology of Picornavirus, Urbino , Italy, 1983). If further translation was prevented, the structural protein precursor P88 was not cleaved, even after prolonged incubation. This result indicates that the mechanism of the cleavage be...

  7. Assessing the potential spread and maintenance of foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in wild ungulates: general principles and application to a specific scenario in Thrace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhollander, S.; Belsham, Graham; Lange, M.;

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), due to infection with serotype O virus, occurred in wild boar and within eleven outbreaks in domestic livestock in the south-east of Bulgaria, Thrace region, in 2011. Hence, the issue of the potential for the spread and maintenance of FMD virus (FMDV) infection...... between domestic and wildlife populations or a higher population density, virus circulation may be prolonged....

  8. Biochemical map of polypeptides specified by foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Grubman, M J; Robertson, B H; Morgan, D O; Moore, D M; Dowbenko, D

    1984-01-01

    Pulse-chase labeling of foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected bovine kidney cells revealed stable and unstable viral-specific polypeptides. To identify precursor-product relationships among these polypeptides, antisera against a number of structural and nonstructural viral-specific polypeptides were used. Cell-free translations programmed with foot-and-mouth disease virion RNA or foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected bovine kidney cell lysates, which were shown to contain almost identical pol...

  9. 75 FR 65431 - Change in Disease Status of Japan Because of Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Foot-and-Mouth Disease AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule... be free of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and also from the list of FMD-free regions that are subject... Unit 38, Riverdale, MD 20737-1231; (301) 734-4356. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background...

  10. A qualitative risk assessment of factors contributing to foot and mouth disease outbreaks in cattle along the western boundary of the Kruger National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jori, F; Vosloo, W; Du Plessis, B; Bengis, R; Brahmbhatt, D; Gummow, B; Thomson, G R

    2009-12-01

    Between November 2000 and the end of 2007, five outbreaks of foot and mouth disease (FMD) occurred in cattle in the area adjacentto the Kruger National Park (KNP) in the north-eastern corner of South Africa. To help understand the factors behind these outbreaks a qualitative risk assessment based on the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) assessment framework was adopted, using available data from published sources and various unpublished South African sources. Risk was assessed on the basis of the following factors: data on South African Territories (SAT) type infections of buffalo and impala in the KNP, permeability of the fence along the western boundary of the KNP, the potential for contact between livestock and wildlife susceptible to FMD in areas adjacent to the KNP, and the level of herd immunity in cattle generated by prophylactic vaccination. Scenario pathways for FMD occurrence outside the KNP are presented as a conceptual framework to qualitatively assess the risk of FMD outbreaks. Factors that are likely to have most influence on the risk were identified: fence permeability, vaccination coverage, or the efficiency of animal movement control measures. The method and results are provided as an approach that may be used as a basis to evaluate the risk of FMD outbreaks occurring in other wildlife/livestock interface areas of southern Africa.

  11. Radiation inactivation of foot and mouth disease virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents descriptions of several diseases of animals caused by viruses, the effects upon the animals by the disease, and the losses suffered in infected herds. The importance of the control of these viral diseases in international commerce by quarantine regulations on items, such as meat, milk, blood, hides, hair, wool, bone, animal feeds and packaging materials, is pointed out. Such information is followed by a detailed description of the experiments carried out to inactivate the Foot and Mouth Disease virus by heat and by irradiation, in both the liquid and dry states. It is indicated that the inactivation by irradiation requires 3 Mrad in the liquid state bu that 4 Mrad are required if in the dry state. There is a short discussion on the need for similar researches with the other types of animal viruses and on some of the difficulties encountered in carrying out this type of work. (author). 40 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Modelling vaccination strategies against foot-and-mouth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, M. J.; Woolhouse, M. E. J.; May, R. M.; Davies, G.; Grenfell, B. T.

    2003-01-01

    Vaccination has proved a powerful defence against a range of infectious diseases of humans and animals. However, its potential to control major epidemics of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in livestock is contentious. Using an individual farm-based model, we consider either national prophylactic vaccination campaigns in advance of an outbreak, or combinations of reactive vaccination and culling strategies during an epidemic. Consistent with standard epidemiological theory, mass prophylactic vaccination could reduce greatly the potential for a major epidemic, while the targeting of high-risk farms increases efficiency. Given sufficient resources and preparation, a combination of reactive vaccination and culling might control ongoing epidemics. We also explore a reactive strategy, `predictive' vaccination, which targets key spatial transmission loci and can reduce markedly the long tail that characterizes many FMD epidemics. These analyses have broader implications for the control of human and livestock infectious diseases in heterogeneous spatial landscapes.

  13. Foot-and-mouth disease vaccines: progress and problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yimei; Lu, Zengjun; Liu, Zaixin

    2016-06-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has been a major threat to livestock across the world. The predominant method of controlling this disease in endemic regions is through regular vaccination with inactivated vaccine. However, there are many limitations. For instance, cultivation of virulent FMD virus (FMDV) in the manufacturing units poses a risk of escape from production sites. Vaccines may sometimes contain traces of FMD viral non-structural proteins (NSPs), therefore, interfering with the NSP-based serological differentiation infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). Moreover, vaccines are unable to eliminate virus from carrier animals. To address the shortcomings of inactivated vaccines, many efforts are currently devoted to develop novel vaccines including attenuated and/or marker inactivated vaccines, recombinant protein vaccines, synthetic peptide vaccines, and empty capsid vaccines. Here, we review the research progress of novel vaccines, problems that remain to be solved, and also raise some suggestions that would help in the development of FMD vaccines. PMID:26760264

  14. New developments in foot-and-mouth disease diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of newer diagnostic procedures based around the use of molecular technologies are now being undertaken to further characterise the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus enabling a deeper understanding to be gained of the pathogenesis and epidemiology of this disease. Such approaches have categorically identified the carrier state and highlighted the importance of carrier animals in control programmes. Use of the polymerase chain reaction provides even further insight into the carrier animal but interpretation of data has to be undertaken with caution. The role of non-structural proteins can provide further insight into an animals response to both vaccination and natural infection and could provide a basis for separation of the carrier state. Finally the pivotal role of monoclonal antibodies in all aspects of FMD research is now clear and these highly specific reagents are now being used for a variety of research and diagnostic purposes within the FMD field. (author)

  15. Global perspective for foot and mouth disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rweyemamu, M M; Astudillo, V M

    2002-12-01

    The world distribution of foot and mouth disease (FMD) is almost a mirror image of the global economic structure. In general, industrialised countries are free while the disease is endemic in developing countries. In recent years, several incursions of FMD have been recorded in countries belonging to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), all of which have been financially and socially costly to eliminate. At the same time, this single disease bars many developing countries from participation in formal trade, both regionally and internationally. However, recent studies have predicted an unprecedented high demand for animal protein, which can only be met through enhanced participation of developing countries in trade in livestock products. Accordingly, globalisation trends will exacerbate the exclusion of poor communities and countries from markets unless a long-term strategy is implemented to progressively build market opportunities for these countries, without placing the livestock of industrialised countries at undue risk from FMD and other major transboundary animal diseases. The authors submit that there is sufficient knowledge of FMD to make an international initiative for the progressive control of FMD a viable objective. Consequently, a four-stage pathway is proposed for developing a global FMD programme. The proposed strategy involves a build-up of the epidemiology and global status of FMD, including establishing an international early warning system, a risk-reduction phase to lower the incidence of FMD in the primary endemic areas and a control phase leading to the creation of zones of assured FMD-freedom. The authors also propose that an international FMD programme be co-ordinated, based on the experience of the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme, the Hemispheric Plan for the eradication of FMD for the Americas, the South-East Asia Foot and Mouth Disease control and eradication campaign and the European Commission for the

  16. Foot-and-mouth disease virus modulates cellular vimentin for virus survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), the causative agent of foot-and-mouth disease, is an Apthovirus within the Picornaviridae family. During infection with FMDV, several host cell membrane rearrangements occur to form sites of viral replication. The largest viral protein in the replication complex,...

  17. Custom-engineered chimeric foot-and-mouth disease vaccine elicits protective immune responses in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimeric foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV) of which the antigenic properties can be readily manipulated is a potentially powerful approach in the control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in sub-Saharan Africa. FMD vaccine application is complicated by the extensive variability of the South Africa...

  18. Foot and Mouth Disease. New values, innovative research agendas and policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijpp, van der A.J.; Braker, M.J.E.; Eilers, C.H.A.M.; Kieft, H.; Vogelzang, T.A.; Oosting, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    A Foot and Mouth Disease outbreak is not by definition similar to a Foot and Mouth Disease crisis. Why then did the 2001 outbreak result in a crisis situation in the Netherlands? It was not because nobody was prepared for it. The Ministry of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries had a scenari

  19. Efficacy of emergency vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eblé, Phaedra Lydia

    2006-01-01

    Since the foot-and-mouth disease epidemics in Europe in 2001 the use of emergency vaccination, if an outbreak occurs, has become more prominent in EU legislation. Since pigs infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) excrete huge amounts of virus they are considered as amplifiers of the disea

  20. Incidence and distribution of foot-and-mouth disease in Asia, Africa and South America; combining expert opinion, official disease information and livestock populations to assist risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumption, K; Rweyemamu, M; Wint, W

    2008-01-01

    Risk assessment procedures frequently require quantitative data on the prevalence of the disease in question. Although most countries are members of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), the importance attached to foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) reporting or surveillance for infection varies enormously between infected countries. There is a general consensus that FMD outbreaks in endemic countries are greatly under-reported, to a degree related either to the economic or the political development level of the country. This exploratory study was first undertaken by FAO, but thereafter extended and reviewed by the working group on FMD risk co-ordinated by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The paper attempts to overcome the lack of reporting through using expert opinion to extrapolate incidence indices from countries considered to have 'representative' levels of FMD. These were combined with livestock density distributions to provide maps of prevalence indices, which were found to be highest in China (pigs), India (cattle), the Near East (small ruminants) and the Sahel (small ruminants and cattle). Similar patterns were found when weighted expert rankings of a range of additional ranked disease parameters were also produced, and then combined with susceptible animal densities to produce a weighted multi-species density. Results suggest that the methods can provide useful information at both national and sub-national resolution, even for countries for which quantitative FMD data is currently unavailable: two of the regions identified provide little or no data on a regular basis to the OIE and therefore may be overlooked if the level of officially reported FMD is only used. As the estimated prevalences are based on recent disease history and expert opinion, they are most likely to be inaccurate where FMD incursions are infrequent as a result of the preventive measures and geographical and trade isolation. This study, therefore, highlights the need for

  1. Meta-analysis on the efficacy of foot-and-mouth disease emergency vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Boklund, Anette; Cox, Sarah;

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to provide a summary quantification of the efficacy of FMD emergency vaccination based on a systematic review and a meta-analysis of available literature, and to further discuss the suitability of this review and meta-analysis to summarize and further interpret...... the results. Peer-reviewed, symposium, and unpublished studies were considered in the analysis. Clinical protection and virological protection against foot and mouth disease were used as parameters to assess the efficacy of emergency vaccination. The clinical protection was estimated based on the appearance...... vaccine. Fortunately, no significant bias that would alter the conclusions was encountered in the analysis. Meta-analysis can be a useful tool to summarize literature results from a systematic review of the efficacy of foot and mouth disease emergency vaccination....

  2. Meta-analysis on the efficacy of foot-and-mouth disease emergency vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Boklund, Anette; Cox, S.;

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to provide a summary quantification of the efficacy of FMD emergency vaccination based on a systematic review and a meta-analysis of available literature, and to further discuss the suitability of this review and meta-analysis to summarize and further interpret...... the results. Peer-reviewed, symposium, and unpublished studies were considered in the analysis. Clinical protection and virological protection against foot and mouth disease were used as parameters to assess the efficacy of emergency vaccination. The clinical protection was estimated based on the appearance...... vaccine. Fortunately, no significant bias that would alter the conclusions was encountered in the analysis. Meta-analysis showed to be a useful tool to summarize literature results from a systematic review of the efficacy of foot and mouth disease emergency vaccination....

  3. Assessing the potential spread and maintenance of foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in wild ungulates: general principles and application to a specific scenario in Thrace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhollander, S; Belsham, G J; Lange, M; Willgert, K; Alexandrov, T; Chondrokouki, E; Depner, K; Khomenko, S; Özyörük, F; Salman, M; Thulke, H H; Bøtner, A

    2016-04-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), due to infection with serotype O virus, occurred in wild boar and within eleven outbreaks in domestic livestock in the south-east of Bulgaria, Thrace region, in 2011. Hence, the issue of the potential for the spread and maintenance of FMD virus (FMDV) infection in a population of wild ungulates became important. This assessment focused on the spread and maintenance of FMDV infection within a hypothetical wild boar and deer population in an environment, which is characterized by a climate transitional between Mediterranean and continental and variable wildlife population densities. The assessment was based on three aspects: (i) a systematic review of the literature focusing on experimental infection studies to identify the parameters describing the duration of FMDV infection in deer and wild boar, as well as observational studies assessing the occurrence of FMDV infection in wild deer and wild boar populations, (ii) prevalence survey data of wild boar and deer in Bulgaria and Turkey and (iii) an epidemiological model, simulating the host-to-host spread of FMDV infections. It is concluded, based on all three aspects, that the wildlife population in Thrace, and so wildlife populations in similar ecological settings, are probably not able to maintain FMD in the long term in the absence of FMDV infection in the domestic host population. However, limited spread of FMDV infection in time and space in the wildlife populations can occur. If there is a continued cross-over of FMDV between domestic and wildlife populations or a higher population density, virus circulation may be prolonged. PMID:24903641

  4. Foot-and-mouth disease: overview of motives of disease spread and efficacy of available vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed, Ali; Kanwal, Sehrish; Arshad, Memoona; Ali, Muhammad; Shaikh, Rehan Sadiq; Abubakar, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Control and prevention of foot and mouth disease (FMD) by vaccination remains unsatisfactory in endemic countries. Indeed, consistent and new FMD epidemics in previously disease-free countries have precipitated the need for a worldwide control strategy. Outbreaks in vaccinated animals require that a new and safe vaccine be developed against foot and mouth virus (FMDV). FMDV can be eradicated worldwide based on previous scientific information about its spread using existing and modern control ...

  5. Hand, foot, and mouth disease: Current scenario and Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilendu Sarma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD, first reported in New Zealand in 1957 is caused by Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16 and human enterovirus 71 (HEV71 and occasionally by Coxsackievirus A4-A7, A9, A10, B1-B3, and B5. This is characterized by erythematous papulo vesicular eruptions over hand, feet, perioral area, knees, buttocks and also intraorally mostly in the children. HFMD has been known for its self limiting course. Only small scale outbreaks have been reported from United States, Europe, Australia, Japan and Brazil for the first few decades. However, since 1997 the disease has conspicuously changed its behavior as noted in different Southeast Asian countries. There was sharp rise in incidence, severity, complications and even fatal outcomes that were almost unseen before that period. Following the near complete eradication of poliovirus, HEV71, the non-polio enterovirus, may become the greatest threat to cause significant neurological complications. This adds to the fact that effective therapy or vaccine is still a far reaching goal. There are reports of disease activity in different corners of India since 2004. Although of milder degree, continuous progress to affect larger parts of the country may indicate vulnerability of India from possible future fatal outbreaks. Low level of awareness among the health care providers may prove critical.

  6. Molecular techniques in foot-and-mouth disease epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has been revolutionized by the introduction of molecular biological techniques that can establish genetic relationships between the causative viruses. Early biochemical techniques such as sodiumdodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), electrofocusing and ribonuclease T1 oligonucleotide mapping were used to augment traditional antigenic comparisons to relate different FMD virus isolates and strains. FMD epidemiology using nucleotide sequencing has been studied since 1987, and there is an accumulated database of nearly 1500 partial VP1 sequences representing all seven serotypes of the virus. This has created a unique position for the study of the global epidemiology of the disease. Studies have shown that FMD viruses may be grouped into genetic types that correlate with geographical location. It has been proposed that these geographically distinct genotypes be termed 'topotypes'. For FMD type O, at least six topotypes have been defined, one of which is probably now extinct; for type A, four topotypes have so far been identified; for type C, about six genotypes; and, for Asia 1, only one genotype. Studies on the SAT 1 and SAT serotypes in southern Africa have shown the presence of three distinct topotypes for each serotype. These have probably arisen through the geographical isolation of wild buffalo herds and multiple introductions into domesticated cattle. The situation with the SAT 2 serotype was, however, different; only two genotypes were found, which did not correlate with the geographical origin. (author)

  7. Hand, foot and mouth disease caused by coxsackievirus A6, Beijing, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongyan, Gu; Chengjie, Ma; Qiaozhi, Yang; Wenhao, Hua; Juan, Li; Lin, Pang; Yanli, Xu; Hongshan, Wei; Xingwang, Li

    2014-12-01

    Specimens and clinical data were collected from 243 hand, foot and mouth disease patients in Beijing in 2013. In total, 130 stool specimens were genotyped for enterovirus. Hand, foot and mouth disease was mainly detected in suburban areas and at the edges of urban areas between May and August. Coxsackievirus (CV) A6 replaced enterovirus (EV) 71 and CVA16, becoming the main causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease. CVA6 infection led to significantly reduced fever duration and glucose levels compared with EV71 infection. PMID:25037037

  8. A Comparative Assessment of the Risks of Introduction and Spread of Foot-and-Mouth Disease among Different Pig Sectors in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Jover, Marta; Schembri, Nicole; Holyoake, Patricia K.; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L. M. L.; Martin, Peter Anthony Julian

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale pig producers are believed to pose higher biosecurity risks for the introduction and spread of exotic diseases than commercial pig producers. However, the magnitude of these risks is poorly understood. This study is a comparative assessment of the risk of introduction and spread of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) through different sectors of the pig industry: (1) large-scale pig producers; (2) small-scale producers (sows) selling at saleyards and abattoirs; and (3) small-scale producers selling through informal means. An exposure and consequence assessments were conducted using the World Organization for Animal Health methodology for risk analysis, assuming FMD virus was introduced into Australia through illegal importation of infected meat. A quantitative assessment, using scenario trees and Monte Carlo stochastic simulation, was used to calculate the probabilities of exposure and spread. Input data for these assessments were obtained from a series of data gathering exercises among pig producers, industry statistics, and literature. Findings of this study suggest there is an Extremely low probability of exposure (8.69 × 10−6 to 3.81 × 10−5) for the three sectors of the pig industry, with exposure through direct swill feeding being 10–100 times more likely to occur than through contact with infected feral pigs. Spread of FMD from the index farm is most likely to occur through movement of contaminated fomites, pigs, and ruminants. The virus is more likely to spread from small-scale piggeries selling at saleyards and abattoirs than from other piggeries. The most influential factors on the spread of FMD from the index farm is the ability of the farmer to detect FMD, the probability of FMD spread through contaminated fomites and the presence of ruminants on the farm. Although small-scale producers selling informally move animals less frequently and do not use external staff, movement of pigs to non-commercial pathways could jeopardize animal

  9. RISK FACTORS FOR SEVERE HAND, FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owatanapanich, Somchai; Wutthanarungsan, Rochana; Jaksupa, Wipaporn; Thisyakorn, Usa

    2015-05-01

    We studied risk factors associated with severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enteroviruses among patients aged less than 15 years admitted to King Narai Hospital, Lopburi, Thailand during 2011-2013. Cases were divided into either mild or severe. Severe cases were those with encephalitis, meningitis, myocarditis, pneumonia, pulmonary edema or respiratory failure. Risk factors for severe infection were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. One hundred eighteen patients met the case definition of HFMD. Of these, 95 (80.5%) were classified as mild cases, and 23 (19.5%) as severe cases; there were 5 deaths (4.2%). Of the 23 severe cases, 9 were infected with coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), 8 with enterovirus 71 (EV71) and 4 with both EV71 and CA16. The most common presentations among the severe caseswere: seizures (74%), pneumonia (39%), encephalitis (39%), and meningitis (13%). The clinical manifestations significantly related to severe HFMD on univariate analysis were highest body temperature 39.00C, duration of fever 23 days, absence of skin lesions, diarrhea, dyspnea, seizures and hyperglycemia. The clinical manifestations significantly related to severe HFMD on both univariate and multivariate analyses were age less than 1 year, absence of oral lesions and drowsiness/lethargy. Clinicians should be aware of these factors. Early recognition of severe cases is important to increase the rates of successful outcomes and reduce mortality. PMID:26521518

  10. Foot-and-mouth disease virus typing from foot-and-mouth outbreaks in the central provinces of Viet Nam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 167 tissue samples were collected from Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) infected animals from 57 FMD outbreaks to detect the sero-type of the FMD virus by the ELISA technique. The ELISA kit has been prepared and standardised by the World Reference Laboratory (WRL), UK and supplied under a Research Contract as part of an FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project. Eight tissue samples from cattle and one tissue sample from pig were sent to WRL for further study on the sero-type and to characterize the FMD viruses present in Viet Nam. The study was carried out from March 1996 to May 1998 in the central region of Viet Nam and the FMD type O virus was detected in these outbreaks only. The FMD type O virus from cattle and the FMD type O virus from pig are two distinct FMD type O viruses in Viet Nam. (author)

  11. Characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus types Ο and Asia 1 RNA

    OpenAIRE

    S. Vasantha; LAL, SM; Antony, A

    1988-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease is an acute and highly contagious febrile disease affecting cloven-footed animals. Identification of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), the causative agent of the disease, posed problems because of the occurrence of many types and subtypes of the virus. A molecular approach based on oligonucleotide mapping of FMDV RNA has been used for the identification and characterization of virus isolates obtained in a disease outbreak (King et al., 1981). One-dimensiona...

  12. Scenarios for eradicating foot-and-mouth disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, E.J.; Leeuwen, van M.G.A.; Vlieger, de J.J.

    2001-01-01

    Research project commissioned by the Ministery of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries. With the help of desk-research and input-output analysis quantitative information is assembled about the differences in cost for agribusiness and tourism of two eradication scenarios for foot-and-mouth di

  13. The Potential Economic Impact of an Outbreak of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Krystynak, Ronald H.E.; Charlebois, Pierre A.

    1987-01-01

    The possibility of an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease is of concern to Canada's livestock industry due to the resulting economic consequences. The primary economic impact of a foot-and-mouth disease outbreak would arise from the trade embargo placed on Canadian exports of animals and animal products to countries free of the disease. Agriculture Canada's Food and Agriculture Regional Model was used to estimate the economic impact of such a trade embargo. Two scenarios, a small and large out...

  14. Literature analysis of radiological studies on Hand, foot and mouth disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jinli Ding; Shaolun Feng; Hongjun Li

    2015-01-01

    A statistic analysis based on the available literatures from the year 1972 to 2014 was carried out by cooperating with Elsevier Solution Consultants, in order to learn the radiological research tendency and find out the radiological research direction of Hand, foot and mouth disease. A general summary was analyzed, including the literature quantity, the literature type, the geographic distributions and journal distributions of literatures on radiology of Hand, foot and mouth disease. Such pro...

  15. Establishing a foot-and-mouth disease laboratory network in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Joint FAO/IAEA Division has established an effective laboratory network in Southeast Asia to support the diagnostic requirements of the Southeast Asian Foot-and-mouth disease control campaign (SEAFMD). All laboratories have a capability to accurately detect and type foot-and-mouth disease virus antigen in clinical specimens and to conduct the screening test for detection of serum antibodies against the endemic sero-types of the virus. (author)

  16. Assessment of gold nanoparticles as a size-dependent vaccine carrier for enhancing the antibody response against synthetic foot-and-mouth disease virus peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the ability of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) to act as a size-dependent carrier, a synthetic peptide resembling foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) protein was conjugated to GNPs ranging from 2 to 50 nm in diameter (2, 5, 8, 12, 17, 37, and 50 nm). An extra cysteine was added to the C-terminus of the FMDV peptide (pFMDV) to ensure maximal conjugation to the GNPs, which have a high affinity for sulfhydryl groups. The resultant pFMDV-GNP conjugates were then injected into BALB/c mice. Immunization with pFMDV-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (pFMDV-KLH) conjugate was also performed as a control. Blood was obtained from the mice after 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks and antibody titers against both pFMDV and the carriers were measured. For the pFMDV-GNP immunization, specific antibodies against the synthetic peptide were detected in the sera of mice injected with 2, 5, 8, 12, and 17 nm pFMDV-GNP conjugates. Maximal antibody binding was noted for GNPs of diameter 8-17 nm. The pFMDV-GNPs induced a three-fold increase in the antibody response compared to the response to pFMDV-KLH. However, sera from either immunized mouse group did not exhibit an antibody response to GNPs, while the sera from pFMDV-KLH-immunized mice presented high levels of binding activity against KLH. Additionally, the uptake of pFMDV-GNP in the spleen was examined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The quantity of GNPs that accumulated in the spleen correlated to the magnitude of the immune response induced by pFMDV-GNP. In conclusion, we demonstrated the size-dependent immunogenic properties of pFMDV-GNP conjugates. Furthermore, we established that GNPs ranging from 8 to 17 nm in diameter may be ideal for eliciting a focused antibody response against a synthetic pFMDV peptide.

  17. Assessment of gold nanoparticles as a size-dependent vaccine carrier for enhancing the antibody response against synthetic foot-and-mouth disease virus peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Shiun; Hung, Yao-Ching; Lin, Wei-Hsu; Huang, Guewha Steven

    2010-05-01

    To assess the ability of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) to act as a size-dependent carrier, a synthetic peptide resembling foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) protein was conjugated to GNPs ranging from 2 to 50 nm in diameter (2, 5, 8, 12, 17, 37, and 50 nm). An extra cysteine was added to the C-terminus of the FMDV peptide (pFMDV) to ensure maximal conjugation to the GNPs, which have a high affinity for sulfhydryl groups. The resultant pFMDV-GNP conjugates were then injected into BALB/c mice. Immunization with pFMDV-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (pFMDV-KLH) conjugate was also performed as a control. Blood was obtained from the mice after 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks and antibody titers against both pFMDV and the carriers were measured. For the pFMDV-GNP immunization, specific antibodies against the synthetic peptide were detected in the sera of mice injected with 2, 5, 8, 12, and 17 nm pFMDV-GNP conjugates. Maximal antibody binding was noted for GNPs of diameter 8-17 nm. The pFMDV-GNPs induced a three-fold increase in the antibody response compared to the response to pFMDV-KLH. However, sera from either immunized mouse group did not exhibit an antibody response to GNPs, while the sera from pFMDV-KLH-immunized mice presented high levels of binding activity against KLH. Additionally, the uptake of pFMDV-GNP in the spleen was examined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The quantity of GNPs that accumulated in the spleen correlated to the magnitude of the immune response induced by pFMDV-GNP. In conclusion, we demonstrated the size-dependent immunogenic properties of pFMDV-GNP conjugates. Furthermore, we established that GNPs ranging from 8 to 17 nm in diameter may be ideal for eliciting a focused antibody response against a synthetic pFMDV peptide.

  18. Assessment of gold nanoparticles as a size-dependent vaccine carrier for enhancing the antibody response against synthetic foot-and-mouth disease virus peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu-Shiun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 University Road, EE137, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Hung, Yao-Ching [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, China Medical University and Hospital, 91 Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Lin, Wei-Hsu [Institute of Nanotechnology, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 University Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Huang, Guewha Steven, E-mail: gstevehuang@mail.nctu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Nanotechnology, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 University Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan, Republic of China (China)

    2010-05-14

    To assess the ability of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) to act as a size-dependent carrier, a synthetic peptide resembling foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) protein was conjugated to GNPs ranging from 2 to 50 nm in diameter (2, 5, 8, 12, 17, 37, and 50 nm). An extra cysteine was added to the C-terminus of the FMDV peptide (pFMDV) to ensure maximal conjugation to the GNPs, which have a high affinity for sulfhydryl groups. The resultant pFMDV-GNP conjugates were then injected into BALB/c mice. Immunization with pFMDV-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (pFMDV-KLH) conjugate was also performed as a control. Blood was obtained from the mice after 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks and antibody titers against both pFMDV and the carriers were measured. For the pFMDV-GNP immunization, specific antibodies against the synthetic peptide were detected in the sera of mice injected with 2, 5, 8, 12, and 17 nm pFMDV-GNP conjugates. Maximal antibody binding was noted for GNPs of diameter 8-17 nm. The pFMDV-GNPs induced a three-fold increase in the antibody response compared to the response to pFMDV-KLH. However, sera from either immunized mouse group did not exhibit an antibody response to GNPs, while the sera from pFMDV-KLH-immunized mice presented high levels of binding activity against KLH. Additionally, the uptake of pFMDV-GNP in the spleen was examined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The quantity of GNPs that accumulated in the spleen correlated to the magnitude of the immune response induced by pFMDV-GNP. In conclusion, we demonstrated the size-dependent immunogenic properties of pFMDV-GNP conjugates. Furthermore, we established that GNPs ranging from 8 to 17 nm in diameter may be ideal for eliciting a focused antibody response against a synthetic pFMDV peptide.

  19. Introduction and use of ELISA-based technologies for the diagnosis and monitoring of foot-and-mouth disease in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELISA-based tests were introduced to assist in the diagnosis and control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Hong Kong. The tests were used to identify and type FMD viruses in clinical samples, to provide an assessment of the efficacy of vaccination programmes as practised, to train staff in ELISA technology and to strengthen quality assurance for foot-and-mouth disease and other diagnostic tests. These tests have provided the tools needed to understand why foot-and-mouth disease occurs in the face of vaccination - an essential step towards control of this disease in Hung Kong. (author)

  20. The Effect of Foot and Mouth Disease on Trade and Prices in International Beef Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis, Lovell S.; Cancino, Jose P.; Bervejillo, Jose E.

    2005-01-01

    The paper develops and uses a two step quantitative model to analyze the effect of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) on international beef markets over time. Using monthly data from 1990-2002 for 7 major beef exporters and for 22 major beef importers, we use a probit equation to estimate the probability that country i exports to country j, taking account of foot and mouth status of exporter, sanitary policy of importer, beef quality, trade preferences, distance, and other factors affecting whether...

  1. Mechanisms of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Tropism Inferred from Differential Tissue Gene Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, James J.; Jonathan Arzt; Puckette, Michael C.; George R Smoliga; Pacheco, Juan M.; Rodriguez, Luis L.

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) targets specific tissues for primary infection, secondary high-titer replication (e.g. foot and mouth where it causes typical vesicular lesions) and long-term persistence at some primary replication sites. Although integrin αVβ6 receptor has been identified as primary FMDV receptors in animals, their tissue distribution alone fails to explain these highly selective tropism-driven events. Thus, other molecular mechanisms must play roles in determining this t...

  2. The pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina eStenfeldt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The greatest proportion of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD clinical research has been dedicated to elucidating pathogenesis and enhancing vaccine protection in cattle with less efforts invested in studies specific to pigs. However, accumulated evidence from FMD outbreaks and experimental investigations suggest that critical components of FMD pathogenesis, immunology, and vaccinology cannot be extrapolated from investigations performed in cattle to explain or predict outcomes of infection or vaccination in pigs. Furthermore, it has been shown that failure to account for these differences may have substantial consequences when FMD outbreaks occur in areas with dense pig populations. Recent experimental studies have confirmed some aspects of conventional wisdom by demonstrating that pigs are more susceptible to FMD virus (FMDV infection via exposure of the upper gastrointestinal tract (oropharynx than through inhalation of virus. The infection spreads rapidly within groups of pigs that are housed together, although efficiency of transmission may vary depending on virus strain and exposure intensity. Multiple investigations have demonstrated that physical separation of pigs is sufficient to prevent virus transmission under experimental conditions. Detailed pathogenesis studies have recently demonstrated that specialized epithelium within porcine oropharyngeal tonsils constitute the primary infection sites following simulated-natural virus exposure. Furthermore, epithelium of the tonsil of the soft palate supports substantial virus replication during the clinical phase of infection, thus providing large amounts of virus that can be shed into the environment. Due to massive amplification and shedding of virus, acutely infected pigs constitute a considerable source of contagion. FMDV infection results in modulation of several components of the host immune response. The infection is ultimately cleared in association with a strong humoral response and, in

  3. The Pathogenesis of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenfeldt, Carolina; Diaz-San Segundo, Fayna; de los Santos, Teresa; Rodriguez, Luis L.; Arzt, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The greatest proportion of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) clinical research has been dedicated to elucidating pathogenesis and enhancing vaccine protection in cattle with less efforts invested in studies specific to pigs. However, accumulated evidence from FMD outbreaks and experimental investigations suggest that critical components of FMD pathogenesis, immunology, and vaccinology cannot be extrapolated from investigations performed in cattle to explain or to predict outcomes of infection or vaccination in pigs. Furthermore, it has been shown that failure to account for these differences may have substantial consequences when FMD outbreaks occur in areas with dense pig populations. Recent experimental studies have confirmed some aspects of conventional wisdom by demonstrating that pigs are more susceptible to FMD virus (FMDV) infection via exposure of the upper gastrointestinal tract (oropharynx) than through inhalation of virus. The infection spreads rapidly within groups of pigs that are housed together, although efficiency of transmission may vary depending on virus strain and exposure intensity. Multiple investigations have demonstrated that physical separation of pigs is sufficient to prevent virus transmission under experimental conditions. Detailed pathogenesis studies have recently demonstrated that specialized epithelium within porcine oropharyngeal tonsils constitute the primary infection sites following simulated natural virus exposure. Furthermore, epithelium of the tonsil of the soft palate supports substantial virus replication during the clinical phase of infection, thus providing large amounts of virus that can be shed into the environment. Due to massive amplification and shedding of virus, acutely infected pigs constitute a considerable source of contagion. FMDV infection results in modulation of several components of the host immune response. The infection is ultimately cleared in association with a strong humoral response and, in contrast to

  4. The Pathogenesis of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenfeldt, Carolina; Diaz-San Segundo, Fayna; de Los Santos, Teresa; Rodriguez, Luis L; Arzt, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The greatest proportion of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) clinical research has been dedicated to elucidating pathogenesis and enhancing vaccine protection in cattle with less efforts invested in studies specific to pigs. However, accumulated evidence from FMD outbreaks and experimental investigations suggest that critical components of FMD pathogenesis, immunology, and vaccinology cannot be extrapolated from investigations performed in cattle to explain or to predict outcomes of infection or vaccination in pigs. Furthermore, it has been shown that failure to account for these differences may have substantial consequences when FMD outbreaks occur in areas with dense pig populations. Recent experimental studies have confirmed some aspects of conventional wisdom by demonstrating that pigs are more susceptible to FMD virus (FMDV) infection via exposure of the upper gastrointestinal tract (oropharynx) than through inhalation of virus. The infection spreads rapidly within groups of pigs that are housed together, although efficiency of transmission may vary depending on virus strain and exposure intensity. Multiple investigations have demonstrated that physical separation of pigs is sufficient to prevent virus transmission under experimental conditions. Detailed pathogenesis studies have recently demonstrated that specialized epithelium within porcine oropharyngeal tonsils constitute the primary infection sites following simulated natural virus exposure. Furthermore, epithelium of the tonsil of the soft palate supports substantial virus replication during the clinical phase of infection, thus providing large amounts of virus that can be shed into the environment. Due to massive amplification and shedding of virus, acutely infected pigs constitute a considerable source of contagion. FMDV infection results in modulation of several components of the host immune response. The infection is ultimately cleared in association with a strong humoral response and, in contrast to

  5. Developing a Generic Risk Assessment Simulation Modelling Software Tool for Assessing the Risk of Foot and Mouth Virus Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Tameru, B.; Gebremadhin, B.; Habtemariam, T.; Nganwa, D.; Ayanwale, O.; Wilson, S; Robnett, V.; Wilson, W.

    2008-01-01

    Foot and Mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease that affects all cloven-hoofed animals. Because of its devastating effects on the agricultural industry, many countries take measures to stop the introduction of FMD virus into their countries. Decision makers at multiple levels of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) use Risk Assessments (RAs) (both quantitative and qualitative) to make better and more informed scientifically based decisions to prevent the accide...

  6. EV71 vaccines: a first step towards multivalent hand, foot and mouth disease vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Michel H

    2015-03-01

    Enterovirus A infections are the primary cause of hand, foot and mouth disease in infants and young children. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 have emerged as neurotropic viruses responsible for severe neurological complications and a serious public health threat across the Asia-Pacific region. Formalin-inactivated EV71 vaccines have elicited protection against EV71 but not against coxsackievirus A16 infections. The development of a bivalent formalin-inactivated EV71/FI coxsackievirus A16 vaccine should be the next step towards that of multivalent hand, foot and mouth disease vaccines which should ultimately include other prevalent pathogenic coxsackieviruses and echovirus 30. This editorial summarizes the major challenges faced by the development of hand, foot and mouth disease vaccines.

  7. Foot-and-mouth disease virus carrier status in Bos grunniens yaks

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Huiyun; Ma, Yanbin; Lin, Tong; Cong, Guozheng; Du, Junzheng; Ma, Jinling

    2013-01-01

    Background The carrier status of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is complicated, and the role of carrier animals in virus transmission is controversial. To investigate the carrier status of FMDV in animals that live in high altitude, Bos grunniens yaks were infected experimentally with FMDV O/Akesu/58. Results All of the yaks showed clinical signs of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). Total antibody levels against FMDV measured by liquid-phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (LPB-EL...

  8. AN OUTBREAK OF FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE IN A HERD OF CROSSBRED CATTLE

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid Ahmad, Javaid Iqbal and Ghu1am Akbar1

    2002-01-01

    During the months of December 200 I and January 2002, an outbreak of Foot and Mouth disease (Foot and Mouth Disease type-A virus) was recorded in a crossbred dairy herd at Livestock Experiment Station, Qadirabad. The sick animals showed only the oral lesions except one, which developed foot lesions after 10 days. The overall morbidity rate was 52.13% while the same was recorded as 7.95, 14.06, 97.36, 80.14, 62.68, 62.68, 62.50, and 7.14% in milking cows, dry cows, male young stock, female you...

  9. Foot and mouth disease virus in different host species; the effect of vaccination on transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orsel, K.

    2007-01-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a contagious disease, affecting important livestock species like cattle, sheep and pigs. Therefore, FMD is listed as a notifiable disease to the Office International des Epizooties. The outbreaks of FMD in Europe in 2001 triggered the discussion about the use of vacci

  10. Foot-and-mouth disease sero-surveillance in Africa and vaccine matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekleghiorghis Sebhatu, T.

    2014-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) was the first animal pathogen to be identified as a virus, and today, more than a century later, it remains at the forefront of major animal diseases. It is a very contagious disease and affects cloven-hoofed domestic and wild animals, mostly cattle, swine, sheep,

  11. A Comparison between Two Simulation Models for Spread of Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Boklund, Anette; Stockmarr, Anders;

    2014-01-01

    Two widely used simulation models of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) were used in order to compare the models' predictions in term of disease spread, consequence, and the ranking of the applied control strategies, and to discuss the effect of the way disease spread is modeled on the predicted outcomes...

  12. An alternate delivery system improves vaccine performance against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals with severe agricultural and economic implications. One of the most highly infectious and contagious livestock pathogens known, the disease spreads rapidly in naïve populations making it critical to have rapidly ac...

  13. Early adaptive immune responses in the respiratory tract of foot and mouth disease-infected cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease which affects both domestic and wildlife biungulate species. This acute disease, caused by the FMD virus (FMDV), usually includes an active replication phase in the respiratory tract up to 72 h post-infection followed by hematogenous ...

  14. Characterization of cytotoxic T lymphocyte function following foot-and-mouth disease virus infection and vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals that remains a global threat to livestock species. The induction of neutralizing antibodies against FMD virus (FMDV) has been the central goal of vaccination efforts against this disease. Although these effort...

  15. Heterogeneity in the antibody response to foot-and-mouth disease primo-vaccinated calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is the most economically important viral disease of wild and domesticated biungulate species and presents a major constraint to international trade of livestock and their associated products. FMD vaccines are routinely used as effective control tools in large regions wor...

  16. Development of vaccines toward the global control and eradication of foot-and-mouth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most economically and socially devastating diseases affecting animal agriculture throughout the world. Although mortality is low, millions of animals have been killed in efforts to rapidly control and eradicate FMD. The causing virus (FMDV) is a highly vari...

  17. A New Decision Support Framework for Managing Foot-and-mouth Disease Epidemics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ge, L.; Kristensen, A.R.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Animal disease epidemics such as the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) pose recurrent threat to countries with intensive livestock production. Efficient FMD control is crucial in limiting the damage of FMD epidemics and securing food production. Decision making in FMD control involves a hierarchy of deci

  18. The psychological impact of the Foot and Mouth Disease crisis on Dutch dairy farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.H. van Haaften; M. Olff; P.H. Kersten

    2004-01-01

    Farmers in general have to deal with many changes upon which traditional behaviour or knowledge has no answer. One of these is the European policy to combat epidemic livestock diseases as happened in the Netherlands in 1998 with Swine Fever and in 2001 with Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD). The psycholo

  19. Detection of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Infected Cattle Using Infrared Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious viral disease of livestock that has significant economic, social and environmental impacts. One problem hampering the diagnosis, control and eradication efforts is the need for veterinarians to inspect hundreds of animals from suspected case premis...

  20. The pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease I; viral pathways in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1898 foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) earned a place in history as the first disease of animals shown to be caused by a virus. Yet, despite over a century of active investigation and elucidation of many aspects of FMD pathogenesis, critical knowledge about the virus-host interactions is still lacking...

  1. Understanding the mechanism of interferon-induced protection against foot-and-mouth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infects cloven-hoofed animals and causes a highly contagious disease that rapidly spreads among many susceptible species. Vaccination with an inactivated whole virus antigen in formulation with adjuvant, or with a replication-defective human adenovirus 5 (Ad5) ab...

  2. Natural Killer Cells in Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. Immunological knowledge required to design a rational vaccine against FMDV is presently limited. We examined the reactivity of swine and cattle NK cells following infection for their capability to express intracell...

  3. Phylogeographic analysis of the 2000-2002 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly transmissible disease of livestock. FMD has been eradicated from many countries and the consequences of FMD epidemics are, in some cases, devastating. That was the case of Argentina in 2000-2002, where within few months, FMD virus spread throughout most of t...

  4. Quantification of Foot-and-mouth Disease Virus Transmission Rates Using Published Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goris, N.E.; Eble, P.L.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Clercq, K.

    2009-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease is an extremely infectious and devastating disease affecting all species of cloven-hoofed animals. To understand the epidemiology of the causative virus and predict viral transmission dynamics, quantified transmission parameters are essential to decision makers and modellers a

  5. Reemergence of Foot-and-Mouth Disease, South Korea, 2000–2011

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jong-Hyeon; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Kim, Su-Mi; Lee, Hyang-Sim; Ko, Young-Joon; Tark, Dong-Seob; SHIN, Yeun-Kyung; Seo, Min-Goo; Kim, Byounghan

    2014-01-01

    Five outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease have occurred in South Korea during 2000–2011. Macro-analysis of these outbreaks showed a correlation with outbreaks in countries in eastern Asia. Genetic analyses of food-and-mouth disease viruses in South Korea showed a correlation with viruses that are prevalent in neighboring countries.

  6. Chimeric Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses: Evaluation of Their Efficacy as Potential Marker Vaccines in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous work in swine has demonstrated that full protection against Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) can be achieved following vaccination with chimeric Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) vaccines, whereby the VP1 G-H loop has been substituted with a non-homologous alternative. If proven to be effect...

  7. 76 FR 44503 - Availability of a Risk Analysis Evaluating the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Status of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... published in the Federal Register on October 25, 2010 (75 FR 65431-65432, Docket No. APHIS-2010- 0077), we... Analysis Evaluating the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Status of Japan AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... concerning the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) status of Japan and the risk of susceptible animals and...

  8. Foot and mouth disease virus non structural protein 2C interacts with Beclin1 modulating virus replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), the causative agent of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), is an Apthovirus within the Picornaviridae family. Replication of the virus occurs in association with replication complexes that are formed by host cell membrane rearrangements. The largest viral protein in th...

  9. Aerosol transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus Asia-1 under experimental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colenutt, C.; Gonzales, J.L.; Paton, D.J.; Gloster, J.; Nelson, N.; Sanders, C.

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) control measures rely on understanding of virus transmission mechanisms. Direct contact between naïve and infected animals or spread by contaminated fomites is prevented by quarantines and rigorous decontamination procedures during outbreaks. Transmission of FM

  10. Foot and mouth disease eradication policy: social impact and animal welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Marins Pettres

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Santa Catarina is the only Brazilian state that does not immunize the bovine herd against foot and mouth disease. This article discusses the policy adopted for the foot and mouth disease in Santa Catarina, especially the non-vaccination, and relates this policy with ethical, human and animal welfare issues. Nine representatives of agricultural institutions in the state were interviewed, as well as, in a case study, seven families of farmers in Jóia - Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, where foot and mouth disease occurred in 2000, leading to the sacrifice of 11,067 animals, most of them dairy animals. The majority of the agricultural institutions in Santa Catarina are contrary to vaccination, in order to keep and extend pig and poultry export markets. Concerns on social repercussions tended to concentrate on the effects on the income of the affected families. The case study in Jóia demonstrated that the life styles of the affected farmers were deeply harmed due to effects on human mental health, loss of income and changes in the local economy. The study concludes that the experience of a foot and mouth disease outbreak results in traumatic and long term consequences and that there is a need for policies that include social, ethical and environmental provisions, once animal welfare aspects and impacts on other areas of the economy are not contemplated in the public policy of animal sanitary defense.

  11. Foot-and-mouth disease virus-induced RNA polymerase is associated with Golgi apparatus.

    OpenAIRE

    Polatnick, J; Wool, S H

    1985-01-01

    Electrophoretic analysis of the Golgi apparatus isolated by differential centrifugation from radiolabeled cells infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus showed about 10 protein bands. The virus-induced RNA polymerase was identified by immunoprecipitation and electron microscope staining procedures. Pulse-chase experiments indicated that the polymerase passed through the Golgi apparatus in less than 1 h.

  12. Foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 in long-horned ankole calf, Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Dhikusooka, Moses Tefula; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Namatovu, Alice; Ruhweza, Simon; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Wekesa, Sabenzia Nabalayo; Normann, Preben; Belsham, Graham J.

    2015-01-01

    After a 16-year interval, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 was isolated in 2013 from an apparently healthy long-horned Ankole calf that grazed close to buffalo in Uganda. The emergent virus strain is ≈20% different in nucleotide sequence (encoding VP1 [viral protein 1]) from its closest relatives isolated previously from buffalo in Uganda.

  13. Heterogeneity of the genome-linked protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    OpenAIRE

    King, A M; Sangar, D V; Harris, T J; Brown, F.

    1980-01-01

    The genome-linked protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus was examined by electrofocusing in polyacrylamide gels. Two proteins of different charge and amino acid composition were found. The tryptic peptide maps of the proteins were dissimilar. The possible relationship between the two proteins is discussed.

  14. Examination of soluble integrin resistant mutants of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) initiates infection in vitro via recognition of at least four cell-surface integrin molecules avb1, avb3, avb6 or avb8 through the interaction of a highly conserved Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) amino acid sequence motif located in the GH loop of VP1. In this work, soluble i...

  15. Mechanisms of foot-and-mouth disease virus tropism inferred from differential tissue gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-Mouth Disease virus (FMDV) has a characteristic tropism in terms of primary, secondary, and persistent infection and vesicular lesion sites. The virus targets specific tissues for primary replication. From these tissues, the virus spreads via the blood stream to a few preferred secondary in...

  16. Probability of exporting infected carcasses from vaccinated pigs following a foot-and-mouth disease epidemic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos-de Jong, de C.J.; Nielen, M.; Lopez, E.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Dekker, A.

    2010-01-01

    Emergency vaccination is an effective control strategy for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemics in densely populated livestock areas, but results in a six-month waiting period before exports can be resumed, incurring severe economic consequences for pig exporting countries. In the European Union,

  17. Estimation of the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus from infected sheep to cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo De Rueda, C.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Eble, P.L.; Dekker, A.

    2014-01-01

    The quantitative role of sheep in the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is not well known. To estimate the role of sheep in the transmission of FMDV, a direct contact transmission experiment with 10 groups of animals each consisting of 2 infected lambs and 1 contact calf was perfor

  18. Identification of factors associated with increased excretion of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo De Rueda, C.; Dekker, A.; Eble, P.L.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated which variables possibly influence the amount of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) shed in secretions and excretions by FMDV infected animals, as it is likely that the amount of FMDV shed is related to transmission risk. First, in a separate analysis of laboratory data, we showed t

  19. Rate of Foot-and mouth Disease Virus Transmission by Carriers Quantified from Experimental Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, A.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Bouma, A.; Stegeman, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Upon infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) a considerable number of animals become carriers of the virus. These carriers are considered to be a risk for new outbreaks, but the rate at which these animals can transmit the infection has not been quantified. An analysis was carried out usi

  20. The foot-and-mouth disease carrier state divergence in vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pathogenesis of persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection was investigated following simulated-natural virus exposure of 43 cattle that were either naïve or vaccinated using a recombinant, adenovirus-vectored vaccine. Although vaccinated cattle were protected against clinical dise...

  1. Review of the global distribution of foot-and-mouth disease virus from 2007 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) has seven different serotypes. Within each serotype there is a diversity of genetic lineages, subtypes and strains. Some of these strains behave differently and sometimes spread beyond the endemic areas where they normally circulate. Lineages emergence and die...

  2. No foot-and-mouth disease virus transmission between individually housed calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, A.; Dekker, A.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    The foot-and-mouth disease outbreak in The Netherlands in 2001 most likely started on a mixed veal-calf/dairy-goat farm. The outbreak among the 74 calves on this farm appeared to be limited to four animals, and no clinical signs of FMD were reported. Also on a second veal-calf farm minor clinical si

  3. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype SAT 3 in Long-Horned Ankole Calf, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhikusooka, Moses Tefula; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom;

    2015-01-01

    After a 16-year interval, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 was isolated in 2013 from an apparently healthy long-horned Ankole calf that grazed close to buffalo in Uganda. The emergent virus strain is ≈20% different in nucleotide sequence (encoding VP1 [viral protein 1]) from its closest...

  4. Vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease II: regaining FMD-free status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backer, J.A.; Engel, B.; Dekker, A.; Roermund, van H.J.W.

    2012-01-01

    An epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) can have devastating effects on animal welfare, economic revenues, the export position and society as a whole. The preferred control strategy in the Netherlands has recently changed to vaccination-to-live, but – not have been applied before – this poses un

  5. Type III interferon protects swine against foot-and-mouth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years we have developed novel strategies to control foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) including the use of biotherapeutics such as interferons (IFN) delivered by a replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5). Swine can be sterilely protected after vaccination with an Ad5 that encodes po...

  6. Economics of eradicating Foot-and-Mouth disease epidemics with alternative control strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergevoet, R.H.M.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents an economic analysis of Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) control strategies for livestock herds. Alternative vaccination-to-live control strategies were compared to the strategy that involves culling of all susceptible animals in an area of 1 km around infected herds in addition to st

  7. Adenovirus serotype 5 vectored foot-and-mouth disease subunit vaccines: the first decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we present the results of the first decade of development of a replication-defective human adenovirus (Ad5) containing the capsid and 3C protease coding regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) as a vaccine candidate. In proof-of concept studies we demonstrated that a single inoculation w...

  8. Mapping of Antigenic Sites on a SAT2 Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Vaccine Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) exist as seven serologically distinct serotypes based on the absence of cross-protection following infection. Even within a serotype, distinct genetic and antigenic variants are present, a likely consequence of the high mutation rate of the virus, giving rise to t...

  9. Foot-and-mouth disease virus utilizes an autophagic pathway during viral replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the type species of the Aphthovirus genus, of the family Picornaviridae. Infection of cells with positive-strand RNA viruses results in a rearrangement of intracellular membranes into viral replication complexes. However, the origin of these membranes remains u...

  10. SAT Type Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) Chimeric Vaccine Elicits Protection in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent development of infectious cDNA clone technology for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), Southern African Territories (SAT) viruses has provided a valuable tool for genetic and biological characterization of field and laboratory strains. Recombinant chimeric viruses, containing the capsid-coding...

  11. Association between activity of hand,foot and mouth disease and meteorological factors in Suzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈正荣

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the association between activity of hand,foot and mouth disease(HFMD) and the meteorological factors in Suzhou. Methods A total of 17653 children diagnosed with HFMD in Children’s Hospital Affiliated to Suzhou University during 2008 to 2011 were enrolled

  12. Foot and mouth disease virus transmission among vaccinated pigs after exposure to virus shedding pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orsel, K.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Bouma, A.; Stegeman, J.A.; Dekker, A.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design a transmission experiment that enabled quantification of the effectiveness of vaccination against foot and mouth disease (FMD) virus in groups of pigs. Previous experiments showed that intradermal injection of pigs with FMD virus 14 days after vaccination was not

  13. Molecular Characterization of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Type C of Indian Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Nagendrakumar, Singanallur Balasubramanian; Reddy, Guddeti Srinivas; Chandran, Dev; Thiagarajan, Dorairajan; Rangarajan, Pundi Narasimha; Srinivasan, Villuppanoor Alwar

    2005-01-01

    Comparison of nucleotide sequences of the partial 1D region of foot-and-mouth disease type C viruses of Indian origin with those of European, South American, and Southeast Asian viruses revealed that the Indian viruses form a distinct genotype. The vaccine strain C IND/51/79 belongs to this genotype and may be a prototype strain of this genotype.

  14. Vaccination against foot and mouth disease reduces virus transmission in groups of calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orsel, K.; Dekker, A.; Bouma, A.; Stegeman, J.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of vaccination during an epidemic of foot and mouth disease (FMD) is not to induce clinical protection, but to reduce virus transmission. Since no quantitative data were available on the effectiveness of vaccination in cattle, we investigated whether a single vaccination against FMD could re

  15. Incorporation of the ELISA technique to determine antibody levels against foot-and-mouth disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two groups of sera were evaluated by a liquid phase blocking ELISA (LPBE) for the detection and quantification of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) antibodies to serotypes O, A and C to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the assay. The first group consisted of 120 sera from non-infected and non-vaccinated cattle, which were tested by a screening assay at a fix dilution of 1/32. The second group consisted of 120 sera from cattle vaccinated with a trivalent (O, A and C) vaccine. Sera from this group were titrated in a five fold dilution range: 1/10, 1/50, 1/250 and 1/1250. (author)

  16. Spatio-temporal modelling of foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malesios, C; Demiris, N; Kostoulas, P; Dadousis, K; Koutroumanidis, T; Abas, Z

    2016-09-01

    We present and analyse data collected during a severe epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) that occurred between July and September 2000 in a region of northeastern Greece with strategic importance since it represents the southeastern border of Europe and Asia. We implement generic Bayesian methodology, which offers flexibility in the ability to fit several realistically complex models that simultaneously capture the presence of 'excess' zeros, the spatio-temporal dependence of the cases, assesses the impact of environmental noise and controls for multicollinearity issues. Our findings suggest that the epidemic was mostly driven by the size and the animal type of each farm as well as the distance between farms while environmental and other endemic factors were not important during this outbreak. Analyses of this kind may prove useful to informing decisions related to optimal control measures for potential future FMD outbreaks as well as other acute epidemics such as FMD.

  17. Spatio-temporal modelling of foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malesios, C; Demiris, N; Kostoulas, P; Dadousis, K; Koutroumanidis, T; Abas, Z

    2016-09-01

    We present and analyse data collected during a severe epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) that occurred between July and September 2000 in a region of northeastern Greece with strategic importance since it represents the southeastern border of Europe and Asia. We implement generic Bayesian methodology, which offers flexibility in the ability to fit several realistically complex models that simultaneously capture the presence of 'excess' zeros, the spatio-temporal dependence of the cases, assesses the impact of environmental noise and controls for multicollinearity issues. Our findings suggest that the epidemic was mostly driven by the size and the animal type of each farm as well as the distance between farms while environmental and other endemic factors were not important during this outbreak. Analyses of this kind may prove useful to informing decisions related to optimal control measures for potential future FMD outbreaks as well as other acute epidemics such as FMD. PMID:27150839

  18. Evaluation of Multiplexed Foot-and-Mouth Disease Nonstructural Protein Antibody Assay Against Standardized Bovine Serum Panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, J; Parida, S; Clavijo, A

    2007-05-14

    Liquid array technology has previously been used to show proof-of-principle of a multiplexed non structural protein serological assay to differentiate foot-and-mouth infected and vaccinated animals. The current multiplexed assay consists of synthetically produced peptide signatures 3A, 3B and 3D and recombinant protein signature 3ABC in combination with four controls. To determine diagnostic specificity of each signature in the multiplex, the assay was evaluated against a naive population (n = 104) and a vaccinated population (n = 94). Subsequently, the multiplexed assay was assessed using a panel of bovine sera generated by the World Reference Laboratory for foot-and-mouth disease in Pirbright, UK. This sera panel has been used to assess the performance of other singleplex ELISA-based non-structural protein antibody assays. The 3ABC signature in the multiplexed assay showed comparative performance to a commercially available non-structural protein 3ABC ELISA (Cedi test{reg_sign}) and additional information pertaining to the relative diagnostic sensitivity of each signature in the multiplex is acquired in one experiment. The encouraging results of the evaluation of the multiplexed assay against a panel of diagnostically relevant samples promotes further assay development and optimization to generate an assay for routine use in foot-and-mouth disease surveillance.

  19. Hand, foot and mouth disease in China: evaluating an automated system for the detection of outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the performance of China’s infectious disease automated alert and response system in the detection of outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth (HFM) disease. Methods We estimated size, duration and delay in reporting HFM disease outbreaks from cases notified between 1 May 2008 and 30 April 2010 and between 1 May 2010 and 30 April 2012, before and after automatic alert and response included HFM disease. Sensitivity, specificity and timeliness of detection of aberrations...

  20. Foot-and-mouth disease in Tanzania from 2001 to 2006.

    OpenAIRE

    Picado, A; Speybroeck, N; Kivaria, F.; Mosha, R M; Sumaye, R.D.; Casal, J.; Berkvens, D.

    2011-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Tanzania, with outbreaks occurring almost each year in different parts of the country. There is now a strong political desire to control animal diseases as part of national poverty alleviation strategies. However, FMD control requires improving the current knowledge on the disease dynamics and factors related to FMD occurrence so control measures can be implemented more efficiently. The objectives of this study were to describe the FMD dynamics in Ta...

  1. Evaluation of different adjuvants for foot-and-mouth disease vaccine containing all the SAT serotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Cloete, M.; B. Dungu; L.I. Van Staden; N. Ismail-Cassim; W. Vosloo

    2008-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals that is primarily controlled by vaccination of susceptible animals and movement restrictions for animals and animal-derived products in South Africa. Vaccination using aluminium hydroxide gel-saponin (AS) adjuvanted vaccines containing the South African Territories (SAT) serotypes has been shown to be effective both in ensuring that disease does not spread from the endemic to the free zone and in ...

  2. Accuracy of Herdsmen Reporting versus Serologic Testing for Estimating Foot-and-Mouth Disease Prevalence

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Kenton L; Ian G Handel; Vincent N Tanya; Hamman, Saidou M.; Nfon, Charles; Bergman, Ingrid E.; Malirat, Viviana; Sorensen, Karl J.; Bronsvoort, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Herdsman-reported disease prevalence is widely used in veterinary epidemiologic studies, especially for diseases with visible external lesions; however, the accuracy of such reports is rarely validated. Thus, we used latent class analysis in a Bayesian framework to compare sensitivity and specificity of herdsman reporting with virus neutralization testing and use of 3 nonstructural protein ELISAs for estimates of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) prevalence on the Adamawa plateau of Cameroon in 20...

  3. Immunity of foot-and-mouth disease serotype Asia 1 by sublingual vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-tai Chen

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV causes vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals, with severe agricultural and economic losses. Here we present study using a sublingual (SL route with the killed serotype Asia 1 FMDV vaccine. Guinea pigs were vaccinated using a commercially available vaccine formulation at the manufacturer's recommended full, 1/4, and 1/16 antigen doses. Animals were challenged with homologous FMDV Asia1 strain at various times following vaccination. All control guinea pigs exhibited clinical disease, including fever, viremia, and lesions, specifically vesicle formation in feet. Animals vaccinated with the 1/16 and 1/4 doses were protected after challenge at days 7, 28, and 35 post vaccination. These data suggest that effective protection against foot-and-mouth disease can be achieved with 1/16 of the recommended vaccine dose using SL vaccination, indicating that the sublingual route is an attractive alternative for the administration of the FMDV vaccine.

  4. Identification of Cellular Genes Affecting the Infectivity of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus▿

    OpenAIRE

    Maria E. Piccone; Feng, Yanan; Chang, Annie C. Y.; Mosseri, Ronen; Lu, Quan; Gerald F. Kutish; Lu, Zhiqiang; Burrage, Thomas G.; Gooch, Christina; Rock, Daniel L.; Cohen, Stanley N.

    2009-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) produces one of the most infectious of all livestock diseases, causing extensive economic loss in areas of breakout. Like other viral pathogens, FMDV recruits proteins encoded by host cell genes to accomplish the entry, replication, and release of infectious viral particles. To identify such host-encoded proteins, we employed an antisense RNA strategy and a lentivirus-based library containing approximately 40,000 human expressed sequence tags (ESTs) to rand...

  5. Characterization of Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Function After Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Infection and Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Patch, Jared R; Kenney, Mary; Pacheco, Juan M.; Grubman, Marvin J.; Golde, William T.

    2013-01-01

    The induction of neutralizing antibodies specific for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) has been the central goal of vaccination efforts against this economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals. Although these efforts have yielded much success, challenges remain, including little cross-serotype protection and inadequate duration of immunity. Commonly, viral infections are characterized by induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), yet the function of CTL in FMDV immunity is poo...

  6. METABOLIC PROFILE OF FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE STRESSED SHEEP IN SEMI ARID REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Sita R Gupta; Gurudutt Joshi; Koshal K Gupta; Anil Gattani

    2011-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate serum biochemical parameters in twenty local bred sheep infected with Foot-and-Mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype O. Ten healthy sheep were used as controls. Peripheral blood was collected from both diseased and control group and serum was separated which was further used to estimate the concentration of glucose, total protein, albumin, urea, calcium, phosphorus, cholesterol and activity of AST, ALT and ALP. It was found that there was a significa...

  7. Immunity of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Serotype Asia 1 by Sublingual Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Hao-tai Chen; Yong-sheng Liu

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals, with severe agricultural and economic losses. Here we present study using a sublingual (SL) route with the killed serotype Asia 1 FMDV vaccine. Guinea pigs were vaccinated using a commercially available vaccine formulation at the manufacturer's recommended full, 1/4, and 1/16 antigen doses. Animals were challenged with homologous FMDV Asia1 strain at various times following vaccination. All control guinea p...

  8. Detection of Foot-and-mouth Disease Serotype O by ELISA Using a Monoclonal Antibody

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hao-tai; Peng, Yun-hua; ZHANG, YONG-GUANG; Liu, Xiang-tao

    2012-01-01

    An ELISA assay with monoclonal antibody (MELISA) was used to type serotype O of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). All FMDV serotype O reference strains were positive by MELISA, while other viruses such as FMDV serotypes Asia 1, C, and A and classical swine fever virus, swine vesicular disease virus, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus remained negative. Furthermore, FMDV serotype O positive samples were able to be detected by MELISA. This assay may be particularly suita...

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype O Isolated from Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Sultana, Munawar; Siddique, Mohammad Anwar; Momtaz, Samina; Rahman, Arafat; Ullah, Huzzat; Nandi, Shuvro Prokash; Hossain, M. Anwar

    2014-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious enzootic disease caused by FMD virus. The complete genome sequence of a circulatory FMD virus (FMDV) serotype O isolated from Natore, Bangladesh, is reported here. Genomic analysis revealed antigenic heterogeneity within the VP1 region, a fragment deletion, and insertions at the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) and 3A region compared to the genome of the available vaccine strain.

  10. Is Hiding Foot and Mouth Disease Sensitive Behavior for Farmers? A Survey Study in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Gunarathne, Anoma; Kubota, Satoko; Kumarawadu, Pradeep; Karunagoda, Kamal; Kon, Hiroichi

    2016-01-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) has a long history in Sri Lanka and was found to be endemic in various parts of the country and constitutes a constant threat to farmers. In Sri Lanka, currently there is no regular, nationwide vaccination programme devised to control FMD. Therefore, improving farmers’ knowledge regarding distinguishing FMD from other diseases and ensuring prompt reporting of any suspicion of FMD as well as restricting movement of animals are critical activities for an effective F...

  11. Immunity of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Serotype Asia 1 by Sublingual Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hao-tai; Liu, Yong-sheng

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals, with severe agricultural and economic losses. Here we present study using a sublingual (SL) route with the killed serotype Asia 1 FMDV vaccine. Guinea pigs were vaccinated using a commercially available vaccine formulation at the manufacturer’s recommended full, 1/4, and 1/16 antigen doses. Animals were challenged with homologous FMDV Asia1 strain at various times following vaccination. All control guinea p...

  12. A literature review and case report of hand, foot and mouth disease in an immunocompetent adult

    OpenAIRE

    Omaña-Cepeda, Carlos; Martínez-Valverde, Andrea; del Mar Sabater- Recolons, María; Jané-Salas, Enric; Marí-Roig, Antonio; López-López, José

    2016-01-01

    Background To report an uncommon case of hand, foot and mouth disease, (HFMD) in an immunocompetent adult; a highly infectious disease, characterized by the appearance of vesicles on the mouth, hands and feet, associated with coxsackieviruses and enteroviruses; including a literature review. Case report A 23 year Caucasian male with no medical or surgical history, no allergies, was not taking any medication and smoked ten cigarettes a day, suffering from discomfort in the oral cavity; itching...

  13. Skin as a potential source of infectious foot and mouth disease aerosols

    OpenAIRE

    Dillon, Michael B.

    2011-01-01

    This review examines whether exfoliated, virus-infected animal skin cells could be an important source of infectious foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) aerosols. Infectious material rafting on skin cell aerosols is an established means of transmitting other diseases. The evidence for a similar mechanism for FMDV is: (i) FMDV is trophic for animal skin and FMDV epidermis titres are high, even in macroscopically normal skin; (ii) estimates for FMDV skin cell aerosol emissions appear consistent...

  14. Characterization of epitope-tagged foot-and-mouth disease virus

    OpenAIRE

    Seago, J.; Jackson, T; C Doel; Fry, E; Stuart, D; Harmsen, M. M.; Charleston, B; Juleff, N.

    2012-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically devastating disease of cloven-hoofed animals with an almost-worldwide distribution. Conventional FMD vaccines consisting of chemically inactivated viruses have aided in the eradication of FMD from Europe and remain the main tool for control in endemic countries. Although significant steps have been made to improve the quality of vaccines, such as improved methods of antigen concentration and purification, manufacturing proce...

  15. Modelling the epidemiology and control of foot and mouth disease with special emphasis on airborne spread

    OpenAIRE

    Traulsen, Imke

    2008-01-01

    In the present study a spatial and temporal Monte-Carlo simulation model for foot and mouth disease epidemics is described. The virus transmission via direct animal contacts, indirect personel and vehicle contacts, local and airborne transmission were included as well as different control strategies. With help of a sensitivity analysis the robustness of the model was evaluated and risk factors for the disease transmission identified. The model was used to evaluate emergency vaccination as an ...

  16. Transgenic shRNA pigs reduce susceptibility to foot and mouth disease virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shengwei; Qiao, Jun; Fu, Qiang; Chen, Chuangfu; Ni, Wei; Wujiafu, Sai; Ma, Shiwei; Zhang, Hui; Sheng, Jingliang; Wang, Pengyan; Wang, Dawei; Huang, Jiong; Cao, Lijuan; Ouyang, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is an economically devastating viral disease leading to a substantial loss to the swine industry worldwide. A novel alternative strategy is to develop pigs that are genetically resistant to infection. Here, we produce transgenic (TG) pigs that constitutively expressed FMDV-specific short interfering RNA (siRNA) derived from small hairpin RNA (shRNA). In vitro challenge of TG fibroblasts showed the shRNA suppressed viral growth. TG and non-TG pigs were challenged by intramuscular injection with 100 LD50 of FMDV. High fever, severe clinical signs of foot-and-mouth disease and typical histopathological changes were observed in all of the non-TG pigs but in none of the high-siRNA pigs. Our results show that TG shRNA can provide a viable tool for producing animals with enhanced resistance to FMDV. PMID:26090904

  17. Metabolic profile of foot and mouth disease stressed sheep in semi arid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sita R Gupta

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate serum biochemical parameters in twenty local bred sheep infected with Foot-and-Mouth disease virus (FMDV serotype O. Ten healthy sheep were used as controls. Peripheral blood was collected from both diseased and control group and serum was separated which was further used to estimate the concentration of glucose, total protein, albumin, urea, calcium, phosphorus, cholesterol and activity of AST, ALT and ALP. It was found that there was a significant increase in glucose, AST and phosphorus in FMD affected sheep (p<0.01. Total protein, albumin, calcium, cholesterol and urea level were significantly lower (p<0.05 in FMD group compared to those in the control group. The biochemical alteration indicates the development of pancreatic dysfunction in Foot and Mouth disease affected sheep with FMDV serotype O.

  18. Foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in young lambs: pathogenesis and tissue tropism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryan, Eoin; Horsington, Jacquelyn; Durand, Stephanie;

    2008-01-01

    , two groups, aged 10–14 days, were infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) type O UKG. One group of lambs (n = 8) was inoculated with FMDV in the coronary band, while the other (n = 4) was infected by direct contact with FMDV-inoculated ewes. Daily serum samples and temperature measurements......Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in adult sheep usually causes milder clinical signs than in cattle or pigs, and is often subtle enough to go undiagnosed. In contrast, FMD in lambs has been reported to cause high mortality during field outbreaks. In order to investigate the pathogenesis of FMD in lambs....... These results provide a detailed description of the pathogenesis of the disease in lambs....

  19. Evaluation of an indirect ELISA for detection and typing of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit was used for diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) types O1, A23, C3 which occurred in Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil during 1984-1994. The samples were randomly selected and tested by ELISA, Complement Fixation Test (CFT) and in tissue culture. Out of 106 samples 78 (73,5%) were positive by ELISA and 39 (36,8%) were found positive in CFT, when original suspensions were used. Once these samples were inoculated onto tissue culture both tests gave similar results, although ELISA picked up more positive samples during the 1st passage in tissue culture. The negative samples (16) included in this study were negative in all tests. The ELISA was more sensitive than and as specific as CFT. ELISA and tissue culture together were shown to be a better system for detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus antigen than CFT. (author)

  20. Antiviral effects of a thiol protease inhibitor on foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Kleina, L G; Grubman, M J

    1992-01-01

    The thiol protease inhibitor E-64 specifically blocks autocatalytic activity of the leader protease of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and interferes with cleavage of the structural protein precursor in an in vitro translation assay programmed with virion RNA. Experiments with FMDV-infected cells and E-64 or a membrane-permeable analog, E-64d, have confirmed these results and demonstrated interference in virus assembly, causing a reduction in virus yield. In addition, there is a lag in th...

  1. Fitness alteration of foot-and-mouth disease virus mutants: measurement of adaptability of viral quasispecies.

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, M A; Carrillo, C; González-candelas, F; Moya, A.; Domingo, E; Sobrino, F

    1991-01-01

    We document the rapid alteration of fitness of two foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) mutants resistant to a neutralizing monoclonal antibody. Both mutants showed a selective disadvantage in BHK-21 cells when passaged in competition with their parental FMDV. Upon repeated replication of the mutants alone, they acquired a selective advantage over the parental FMDV and fixed additional genomic substitutions without reversion of the monoclonal antibody-resistant phenotype. Thus, variants that w...

  2. Identification of factors associated with increased excretion of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo De Rueda, C.; Dekker, A.; Eble, P. L.; Jong, de, J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated which variables possibly influence the amount of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) shed in secretions and excretions by FMDV infected animals, as it is likely that the amount of FMDV shed is related to transmission risk. First, in a separate analysis of laboratory data, we showed that the total amount of FMDV in secretions and excretions from infected animals is highly correlated with maximum titres of FMDV. Next, we collected data from 32 published scientific articles in wh...

  3. Productive Entry of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus via Macropinocytosis Independent of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase

    OpenAIRE

    Shi-Chong Han; Hui-Chen Guo; Shi-Qi Sun; Ye Jin; Yan-Quan Wei; Xia Feng; Xue-Ping Yao; Sui-Zhong Cao; Ding Xiang Liu; Xiang-Tao Liu

    2016-01-01

    Virus entry is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. Here, using a combination of electron microscopy, immunofluorescence assay, siRNA interference, specific pharmacological inhibitors, and dominant negative mutation, we demonstrated that the entry of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) triggered a substantial amount of plasma membrane ruffling. We also found that the internalization of FMDV induced a robust increase in fluid-phase uptake, and virions internalized within macropin...

  4. Foot-and-mouth disease virus 2A oligopeptide mediated cleavage of an artificial polyprotein.

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, M. D.; J. Drew

    1994-01-01

    We describe the construction of a plasmid (pCAT2AGUS) encoding a polyprotein in which a 19 amino acid sequence spanning the 2A region of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) polyprotein was inserted between the reporter genes chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) and beta-glucuronidase (GUS) maintaining a single, long open reading frame. Analysis of translation reactions programmed by this construct showed that the inserted FMDV sequence functioned in a manner similar to that observed i...

  5. An infectious recombinant foot-and-mouth disease virus expressing a fluorescent marker protein

    OpenAIRE

    Seago, Julian; Juleff, Nicholas; Moffat, Katy; Berryman, Stephen; Christie, John M.; Charleston, Bryan; Jackson, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is one of the most extensively studied animal pathogens because it remains a major threat to livestock economies worldwide. However, the dynamics of FMDV infection are still poorly understood. The application of reverse genetics provides the opportunity to generate molecular tools to further dissect the FMDV life cycle. Here, we have used reverse genetics to determine the capsid packaging limitations for a selected insertion site in the FMDV genome. We show...

  6. Molecular epidemiological study of hand,foot and mouth disease in Shenzhen from 2010 to 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冼慧霞

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the pathogen spectrum and molecular epidemiological characteristics of hand,foot and mouth disease(HFMD)in Shenzhen from 2010 to2012 and to provide scientific basis for HFMD control.Methods A total of 1 523 clinical stool specimens or anal swab from the sentinel surveillance systems of HFMD were obtained.Molecular evolutions of VP1 gene of causative agents were detected by real-time fluorescence

  7. Genome Sequence of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype O Isolated from Morocco in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, J.; Gray, A.; Abouchoaib, N.; King, D. P.; Knowles, N. J.

    2016-01-01

    The genome of a virus isolated from an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Morocco in 2015 is described here. This virus is classified as lineage Ind-2001d within serotype O, topotype ME-SA (Middle East-South Asia). This lineage is endemic on the Indian subcontinent but has caused outbreaks in the Middle East and North Africa since 2013. PMID:27103736

  8. The vulnerability of U.S. agriculture to foot and mouth disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jochimsen, Aaron A.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The U.S. livestock industry represents a critical economic infrastructure, due to its size and influence on national and international agricultural systems. The high-concentration farming practices that allow the United States to be a world leader in agriculture also present a vulnerability to biological pathogens, particularly foot and mouth disease (FMD). The purpose of this thesis is to stimulate and broaden the discussion of the U....

  9. Economic Implications of a Foot and Mouth Disease Free Latin American Beef Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Hagerman, Amy D.; Leister, Amanda M.

    2012-01-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) has caused significant damage to Latin America‟s beef sector through both production losses and limits to international market access. Using a base year of 2001, we utilize historical outbreak data and estimated production losses in select Latin American countries in tandem with a global economic modeling framework to understand what the domestic and international price effects as well as trade effects could have been, had FMD outbreaks in 2001 been prevented. Res...

  10. Factors associated with spatial clustering of foot-and-mouth disease in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Chhetri, Bimal K.; Andres M Perez; Thurmond, Mark C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify associations between hypothesized epidemiological factors and the spatial distribution of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Nepal. Spatial clustering of reports of at least one FMD case by Village Development Committee (VDC) in 2004 was examined by use of the spatial scan statistic. A Bayesian Poisson multivariate regression model was used to quantify the association between the number of reports and 25 factors hypothesized to be associated with FMD ris...

  11. Meta-analysis on the efficacy of foot-and-mouth disease emergency vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Boklund, Anette; Cox, S.; Enøe, Claes

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to provide a summary quantification of the efficacy of FMD emergency vaccination based on a systematic review and a meta-analysis of available literature, and to further discuss the suitability of this review and meta-analysis to summarize and further interpret the results. Peer-reviewed, symposium, and unpublished studies were considered in the analysis.Clinical protection and virological protection against foot and mouth disease were used as parameters to a...

  12. Detection of hand, foot and mouth disease in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Machain-Williams; Dzul-Rosado, Alma R.; Aarón B. Yeh-Gorocica; Rodriguez-Ruz, Katia G.; Henry Noh-Pech; Lourdes Talavera-Aguilar; Ma. Isabel Salazar; María Eugenia Castro-Mussot; Guadalupe Reyes-Solis; Julián E. Garcia-Rejon; Puerto-Manzano, Fernando I.; Blitvich, Bradley J.

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in a 5-year-old male from Merida City in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. A clinical and physical examination revealed that the patient had symptoms typical of HFMD, including fever, fatigue, odynophagia, throat edema, hyperemia, lesions on the hands and feet, and blisters in the oral cavity. The patient fully recovered after a convalescence period of almost three weeks. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequ...

  13. Latitude-based approach for detecting aberrations of hand, foot, and mouth disease epidemics

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Jia-Hong; Chan, Ta-Chien; SHIGEMATSU Mika; Hwang, Jing-Shiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) among children in East Asia have been a serious annual public health problem. Previous studies in China and island-type territories in East Asia showed that the onset of HFMD epidemics evolved with increased latitude. Based on the natural characteristics of the epidemics, we developed regression models for issuing aberration alerts and predictions. Methods HFMD sentinel surveillance data from 2008 to 2014 in Japan are used in this st...

  14. IMPACTS OF THE 2005 FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE OUTBREAK ON BRAZILIAN BEEF EXPORTS

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Cortes Carvalho Garcia; Claudia Valeria Gonçalves Cordeiro de Sá; Concepta Margareth McManus; Cristiano Barros de Melo

    2015-01-01

    Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) can lead to sanitary barriers to international trade and involves high investments for control and great losses in the event of an outbreak. This study investigated the impacts caused by FMD on the exports of fresh beef from Brazil after the 2005 outbreak and the observance of the regionalization principle of the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) by countries member of the WTO that were listed as the top 10 beef importing co...

  15. Site-directed mutagenesis of the foot-and-mouth disease virus RNA-polymerase gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus RNA-polymerase gene was mutagenised in its active site. Pst I digestion of the polymerase gene (cDNA) generated a 790 bp fragment containing the critical sequence. This fragment was subcloned in M13mp8 for mutagenesis method. The polymerase gene was then reconstructed and subcloned in pUC19. These mutants will be used to study the enzyme structure and activity and to develop intracellular immunization assays in eukaryotic cells. (author)

  16. Nephrotic syndrome in hand, foot and mouth disease caused by coxsackievirus A16: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hong-Tao Zhou; Bing Wang; Xiao-Yan Che

    2014-01-01

    Some viruses, including certain members of the enterovirus genus, have been reported to cause nephrotic syndrome. However, no case of coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16)-related nephrotic syndrome has been reported so far. We describe a case of CVA16-related hand, foot and mouth disease presenting with nephrotic syndrome in a 3-year-old boy. This is the first report of CVA16-related nephrotic syndrome.

  17. Antibodies against a preselected peptide recognize and neutralize foot and mouth disease virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Pfaff, E; Mussgay, M.; Böhm, H O; Schulz, G. E.; Schaller, H

    1982-01-01

    A major antibody combining site on foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype O1K has been identified in a predicted surface helix of viral protein 1 (VP1) between amino acid residues 144 and 159. A hexadecapeptide covering this sequence elicits high titers of antibodies that specifically recognize and neutralize FMDV. The high quality of the immune response is attributed to a particularly stable conformation of the antigenic amino acid sequence, which is most likely an alpha-helix.

  18. Genome Sequence of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype O Isolated from Morocco in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachanek-Bankowska, K; Wadsworth, J; Gray, A; Abouchoaib, N; King, D P; Knowles, N J

    2016-01-01

    The genome of a virus isolated from an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Morocco in 2015 is described here. This virus is classified as lineage Ind-2001d within serotype O, topotype ME-SA (Middle East-South Asia). This lineage is endemic on the Indian subcontinent but has caused outbreaks in the Middle East and North Africa since 2013. PMID:27103736

  19. Further characterization of a protein kinase from foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Grubman, M J

    1982-01-01

    Acid disruption of foot-and-mouth disease virus released a protein kinase activity that sedimented at less than 7S. This enzyme was separated into three peaks of activity by ion-exchange and hydroxylapatite chromatography. Analysis of the various enzyme fractions by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining revealed that one of the fractions lacked the major virion structural proteins, but still contained two or three other polypeptides. This enzyme phosphorylated mainly one prot...

  20. Recombination and oligonucleotide analysis of guanidine-resistant foot-and-mouth disease virus mutants.

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, K; King, A M; McCahon, D; Newman, J W; Slade, W R; Forss, S

    1985-01-01

    Guanidine resistance (gr) mutations of foot-and-mouth disease virus were mapped by recombining pairs of temperature-sensitive mutants belonging to different subtypes. In each cross, one parent possessed a gr mutation. Recombinants were isolated by selection at the nonpermissive temperature and assayed for the ability to grow in the presence of guanidine. From the progeny of three crosses, four different types of recombinant were distinguished on the basis of protein composition and RNA finger...

  1. Genome Sequence of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype O Isolated from Morocco in 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Bachanek-Bankowska, K.; Wadsworth, J; Gray, A; Abouchoaib, N.; King, D.P.; Knowles, N.J.

    2016-01-01

    The genome of a virus isolated from an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Morocco in 2015 is described here. This virus is classified as lineage Ind-2001d within serotype O, topotype ME-SA (Middle East-South Asia). This lineage is endemic on the Indian subcontinent but has caused outbreaks in the Middle East and North Africa since 2013.

  2. All foot and mouth disease virus serotypes initiate protein synthesis at two separate AUGs.

    OpenAIRE

    Sangar, D V; Newton, S E; Rowlands, D J; Clarke, B E

    1987-01-01

    Translation of the foot and mouth disease virus genome in vitro and in vivo indicated that all seven serotypes initiate protein synthesis at two separate AUGs. Sequence analysis of the region surrounding these AUGs has shown that the efficiency with which the initiating AUG is recognized is dependent on the flanking nucleotides. However, in vitro, the major factor determining which AUG is used is the concentration of Mg2+.

  3. Serological Survey of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    T. K. W. Sikombe; Mweene, A. S.; John Muma; Kasanga, C.; Y. Sinkala; Banda, F.; Mulumba, M.; Fana, E. M.; C. Mundia; Simuunza, M.

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV) circulating in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) from selected areas in Zambia. Sera and probang samples were collected between 2011 and 2012 and analysed for presence of antibodies against FMDV while probang samples were used to isolate the FMDV by observing cytopathic effect (CPE). Samples with CPE were further analysed using antigen ELISA. High FMD seroprevalence was observed and antibodies to all t...

  4. Foot and mouth disease in turkey and middle eastern countries: Epizootiological situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Slavoljub

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodic outbreaks of epizooties of foot-and-mouth disease in countries of the Middle East and Africa pose a serious health threat to European states, in particular countries of the Mediterranean region and the Balkan peninsula. There are multiple reasons for the frequent appearance of this disease in Africa and the territory of the Middle East, and they are all a consequence of the insufficient development of the states in these geographic regions. More precisely, epizooties of foot-and-mouth disease are difficult to control in these regions due to the limited possibilities for activities by veterinary services, insufficiently developed diagnostic capacities for speedy and precise laboratory diagnostics, the lack of more advanced knowledge among the village populations, and the traditional manner of breeding ruminants. As a result of intensive traffic in goods, services and people, the cultural and tourist links between the Middle East and European countries, there is a constant and real danger of a swift and uncontrolled spreading of foot-and-mouth disease to the territory of Europe. This is why it is a priority of epizootiological services of the majority of European countries constantly to monitor the epizootiological situation in the Middle East and in Africa.

  5. Use of recombinant capsid proteins in the development of a vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV).

    OpenAIRE

    Belsham, Graham

    2015-01-01

    Graham J Belsham, Anette Bøtner National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Kalvehave, Denmark Abstract: Foot-and-mouth disease remains one of the world's most economically important diseases of livestock. It is caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus, a member of the picornavirus family. The virus replicates very rapidly and can be efficiently transmitted between hosts by a variety of routes. The disease has been effectively controlled in some parts of ...

  6. Recovery of viral RNA and infectious foot-and-mouth disease virus from positive lateral-flow devices

    OpenAIRE

    Fowler, Veronica L.; Bankowski, Bartlomiej M.; Bryony Armson; Antonello Di Nardo; Begoña Valdazo-Gonzalez; Reid, Scott M; Barnett, Paul V.; Jemma Wadsworth; Ferris, Nigel P.; Valérie Mioulet; King, Donald P.

    2014-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease Virus (FMDV) is an economically important, highly contagious picornavirus that affects both wild and domesticated cloven hooved animals. In developing countries, the effective laboratory diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is often hindered by inadequate sample preservation due to difficulties in the transportation and storage of clinical material. These factors can compromise the ability to detect and characterise FMD virus in countries where the disease is endem...

  7. Evaluation of a monoclonal antibody based approach for the selection of Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) vaccine strains

    OpenAIRE

    Mahapatra, M.; Aggarwal, N.; Cox, S; Statham, R.J.; Knowles, N J; Barnett, P.V.; Paton, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    Evaluation of a monoclonal antibody based approach for the selection of Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) vaccine strains UNITED KINGDOM (Mahapatra, M.) UNITED KINGDOM Received: 2007-04-08 Revised: 2007-06-18 Accepted: 2007-06-22

  8. Characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus gene products with antisera against bacterially synthesized fusion proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defined segments of the cloned foot-and-mouth disease virus genome corresponding to all parts of the coding region were expressed in Escherichia coli as fusions to the N-terminal part of the MS2-polymerase gene under the control of the inducible λPL promoter. All constructs yielded large amounts of proteins, which were purified and used to raise sequence-specific antisera in rabbits. These antisera were used to identify the corresponding viral gene products in 35S-labeled extracts from foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected BHK cells. This allowed us to locate unequivocally all mature foot-and-mouth disease virus gene products in the nucleotide sequence, to identify precursor-product relationships, and to detect several foot-and mouth disease virus gene products not previously identified in vivo or in vitro

  9. Phylogeographic analysis of the 2000-2002 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Barbara; König, Guido; Cabanne, Gustavo Sebastian; Beascoechea, Claudia Perez; Rodriguez, Luis; Perez, Andres

    2016-07-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly transmissible disease of hooved livestock. Although FMD has been eradicated from many countries, economic and social consequences of FMD reintroductions are devastating. After achieving disease eradication, Argentina was affected by a major epidemic in 2000-2002, and within few months, FMD virus spread throughout most of the country and affected >2500 herds. Available records and viral strains allowed us to assess the origins, spread and progression of this FMD epidemic, which remained uncertain. We used whole genome viral sequences and a continuous phylogeographic diffusion approach, which revealed that the viruses that caused the outbreaks spread fast in different directions from a central area in Argentina. The analysis also suggests that the virus that caused the outbreaks in the year 2000 was different from those found during the 2001 epidemic. To estimate if the approximate overall genetic diversity of the virus was related to disease transmission, we reconstructed the viral demographic variation in time using Bayesian Skygrid approach and compared it with the epidemic curve and the within-herd transmission rate and showed that the genetic temporal diversity of the virus was associated with the increasing number of outbreaks in the exponential phase of the epidemic. Results here provide new evidence of how the disease entered and spread throughout the country. We further demonstrate that genetic data collected during a FMD epidemic can be informative indicators of the progression of an ongoing epidemic. PMID:27074336

  10. Serological differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease virus on electron microscope grids coated with protein A and antibody.

    OpenAIRE

    Polatnick, J; Wool, S

    1981-01-01

    A serological technique using electron microscope grids coated with protein A and antiserum was able to detect foot-and- mouth disease virus particles in oesophageal-pharyngeal fluids from infected cattle without the need for prior concentration of the sample. The technique was adapted to differentiate serologically among foot-and-mouth disease virus types A, O and C with antigen-adsorbed sera. When grids were coated with heterotypic antigenadsorbed antisera, the homotypic antigen could be ob...

  11. High-titer bicistronic retroviral vectors employing foot-and-mouth disease virus internal ribosome entry site.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh, N; Kim, S. T.; Wei, M. Q.; Khalighi, M; Osborne, W R

    1996-01-01

    Bicistronic retroviral vectors were constructed containing the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) internal ribosome entry site (IRES) followed by the coding region of beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) or therapeutic genes, with the selectable neomycin phosphotransferase gene under the control of the viral long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter. LNFX, a vector with a multiple cloning site 3' to foot-and-mouth disease virus IRES, was used to construct vectors encoding rat erythropoietin (EP), rat gra...

  12. Decision-making for foot-and-mouth disease control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Probert, William J.M.; Shea, Katriona; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J.; Runge, Michael C.; Carpenter, Tim E.; Dürr, Salome; Garner, M.G.; Harvey, Neil; Stevenson, Mark A.; Webb, Colleen T.; Werkman, Marleen; Tildesley, Michael J.; Ferrari, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Formal decision-analytic methods can be used to frame disease control problems, the first step of which is to define a clear and specific objective. We demonstrate the imperative of framing clearly-defined management objectives in finding optimal control actions for control of disease outbreaks.

  13. Chinese Scientists Starting Hand Foot and Mouth Disease Vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>The infection causes a rash and painful blisters(水疱),but in some cases results in brain infections which can be fatal.A trial involving 10,000 children,published in the Lancet,showed the vaccine was 90% effective against one virus which causes the disease.

  14. New England Foot and Mouth Disease Tabletop Exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hullinger, P

    2008-09-30

    The Multiscale Epidemiologic/Economic Simulation and Analysis (MESA) Decision Support System (DSS) is the product of investments that began in FY05 by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate and continue today with joint funding by both DHS and the US Department of Agriculture (USDA). The DSS consists of a coupled epidemiologic/economic model, a standalone graphical user interface (GUI) that supports both model setup and post-analysis, and a Scenario Bank archive to store all content related to foreign animal disease (FAD) studies (Figure 1). The MESA epi model is an object-oriented, agent-based, stochastic, spatio-temporal simulator that parametrically models FAD outbreaks and response strategies from initial disease introduction to conclusion over local, regional, and national scales. Through its output database, the epi model couples to an economic model that calculates farm-level impacts from animal infections, responsive control strategies and loss of trade. The MESA architecture contains a variety of internal models that implement the major components of the epi simulation, including disease introduction, intra-herd spread, inter-herd spread (direct and indirect), detection, and various control strategies (movement restrictions, culling, vaccination) in a highly configurable and extensible fashion. MESA will produce both overall and daily summary statistics for the outbreak, epidemic curves, and costs associated with the outbreak. This information can be used to reconstruct and analyze the course of the outbreak. Geographical information produced by MESA can be used to produce maps and movies as visual aids to understand the distribution characteristics of a simulated outbreak.

  15. Quantitative single serum-dilution liquid phase competitive blocking ELISA for the assessment of herd immunity and expected protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus in vaccinated cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robiolo, Blanca; La Torre, José; Duffy, Sergio; Leon, Emilio; Seki, Cristina; Torres, Adriana; Mattion, Nora

    2010-06-01

    A single serum-dilution liquid phase ELISA (slpELISA) was standardized to be used for serological evaluation of herd immunity against foot-and-mouth disease. The absorbance value at a dilution 1:64 of each serum sample was interpolated in a standard curve by plotting the antibody titers of six control sera determined by end point dilution liquid phase ELISA (lpELISA), against the absorbance values for the same control sera at 1:64 dilutions. A straight line was obtained by linear regression analysis (r>0.90) in the titer range of 1.40-2.40. The reliability of the antibody titers was confirmed by the simultaneous titration of 60 cattle sera by slpELISA and lpELISA, which showed an acceptable correlation (R(2)>0.87) for viral strains A24/Cruzeiro, A/Argentina/01, O1/Campos and C3/Indaial. Titers obtained by both methods were not significantly different (p>0.05), thus confirming that slpELISA could be used successfully to replace the conventional serial dilution ELISA for the assessment of protection status of cattle in epidemiological studies. In addition, this quantitative slpELISA provides an adequate method for monitoring the effectiveness of vaccination campaigns and is also suitable for the assessment of seroconversion of naive animals during early stages of infection.

  16. Establishment of persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in MDBK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopliku, Lela; Relmy, Anthony; Romey, Aurore; Gorna, Kamila; Zientara, Stephan; Bakkali-Kassimi, Labib; Blaise-Boisseau, Sandra

    2015-10-01

    In addition to acute infection and disease, foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) can cause persistent infection in ruminants. Such "carrier" animals represent a potential risk for FMDV transmission to susceptible animals. However, the mechanisms and the factors that determine FMDV persistence remain unknown. We describe here the establishment of FMDV type O persistent infection in a bovine epithelial cell line (Madin-Darby bovine kidney; MDBK). Preliminary experiments to assess the permissivity of MDBK cells to FMDV O infection revealed an unusual pattern of infection: after the initial phase of acute cell lysis, new monolayers formed within 48-72 h post-infection. We found that some cells survived cytolytic infection and subsequently regrew, thereby demonstrating that this bovine cell line can be persistently infected with FMDV type O. Further evidence that MDBK cells were persistently infected with FMDV includes: (i) detection of viral RNA in cells as well as in cell culture supernatants, (ii) detection of viral antigens in the cells by immunofluorescence analysis, and (iii) production of infectious viral particles for up to 36 cell passages. Furthermore, preliminary sequence analysis of persistent virus revealed a single nucleotide substitution within the VP1 coding region, resulting in the V50A amino acid substitution. This bovine model of FMDV persistence holds promise for the investigation of the viral and cellular molecular determinants that promote FMDV persistence.

  17. Anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus effects of Chinese herbal kombucha in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Naifang; Wu, Juncai; Lv, Lv; He, Jijun; Jiang, Shengjun

    2015-01-01

    The foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is sensitive to acids and can be inactivated by exposure to low pH conditions. Spraying animals at risk of infection with suspensions of acid-forming microorganisms has been identified as a potential strategy for preventing FMD. Kombucha is one of the most strongly acid-forming symbiotic probiotics and could thus be an effective agent with which to implement this strategy. Moreover, certain Chinese herbal extracts are known to have broad-spectrum antiviral effects. Chinese herbal kombucha can be prepared by fermenting Chinese herbal extracts with a kombucha culture. Previous studies demonstrated that Chinese herbal kombucha prepared in this way efficiently inhibits FMDV replication in vitro. To assess the inhibitory effects of Chinese herbal kombucha against FMDV in vitro, swine challenged by intramuscular injection with 1000 SID50 of swine FMDV serotype O strain O/China/99 after treatment with Chinese herbal kombucha were partially protected against infection, as demonstrated by a lack of clinical symptoms and qRT-PCR analysis. In a large scale field trial, spraying cattle in an FMD outbreak zone with kombucha protected against infection. Chinese herbal kombucha may be a useful probiotic agent for managing FMD outbreaks. PMID:26691487

  18. Anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus effects of Chinese herbal kombucha in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naifang Fu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV is sensitive to acids and can be inactivated by exposure to low pH conditions. Spraying animals at risk of infection with suspensions of acid-forming microorganisms has been identified as a potential strategy for preventing FMD. Kombucha is one of the most strongly acid-forming symbiotic probiotics and could thus be an effective agent with which to implement this strategy. Moreover, certain Chinese herbal extracts are known to have broad-spectrum antiviral effects. Chinese herbal kombucha can be prepared by fermenting Chinese herbal extracts with a kombucha culture. Previous studies demonstrated that Chinese herbal kombucha prepared in this way efficiently inhibits FMDV replication in vitro. To assess the inhibitory effects of Chinese herbal kombucha against FMDV in vitro, swine challenged by intramuscular injection with 1000 SID50 of swine FMDV serotype O strain O/China/99 after treatment with Chinese herbal kombucha were partially protected against infection, as demonstrated by a lack of clinical symptoms and qRT-PCR analysis. In a large scale field trial, spraying cattle in an FMD outbreak zone with kombucha protected against infection. Chinese herbal kombucha may be a useful probiotic agent for managing FMD outbreaks.

  19. Prevalence of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in cattle at Meghna upazila in Comilla in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Mannan; Siddique, M.P; Uddin, M.Z; M. M. Parvez

    2009-01-01

    The present study was performed in the Upazila Veterinary Hospital, Meghna, Comilla during the period from September 2006 to February 2007 to observe the prevalence of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) in cattle at Meghna upazila in Comilla. A total of 253 skin diseased cattle head were examined in this study where 109 were males and 144 were females. The prevalence of FMD was 24.51% at Meghna upazila. The effect of age, sex, breed, season and farming system on the incidence rate of the disease wa...

  20. An overview of control strategy and diagnostic technology for foot-and-mouth disease in China

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Yao-Zhong; Chen, Hao-tai; Jie ZHANG; Zhou, Jian-Hua; ma, Li-na; Zhang, Liang; Gu, Yuanxin; Liu, Yong-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of most contagious animal diseases. It affects millions of cloven-hoofed animals and causes huge economic losses in many countries of the world. There are seven serotypes of which three (O, A and Asia 1) are endemic in China. Efficient control of FMD in China is crucial for the prevention and control of FMD in Asia and throughout the world. For the control of FMD, a powerful veterinary administration, a well-trained veterinary staff, a system of rapid and a...

  1. The psychological impact of the Foot and Mouth Disease crisis on Dutch dairy farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Haaften, van, M.; Olff, M; Kersten, P.H.

    2004-01-01

    Farmers in general have to deal with many changes upon which traditional behaviour or knowledge has no answer. One of these is the European policy to combat epidemic livestock diseases as happened in the Netherlands in 1998 with Swine Fever and in 2001 with Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD). The psychological impact of the FMD-policy has hardly been investigated. In this study this impact was studied among dairy farmers by comparing areas with different severity of the crisis. Subjects came from o...

  2. Prevalence Estimates of Antibodies Towards Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Small Ruminants in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balinda, Sheila Nina; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Muwanika, Vincent B.;

    2009-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Uganda with control strategies focusing on vaccination of cattle, while small ruminants are largely ignored. In order for Uganda to establish effective control strategies, it is crucial that the epidemiology of the disease is fully understood. This study...... for antibodies towards non-structural proteins (NSP) and structural proteins towards serotype O, and blocking ELISA for antibodies towards the seven serotypes of FMD virus (FMDV). In 2006, sheep and goats in Bushenyi and Isingiro districts were free from antibodies towards FMDV, while herds in Kasese and Mbarara...

  3. Detection of foot-and-mouth disease serotype O by ELISA using a monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao-Tai; Peng, Yun-Hua; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Liu, Xiang-Tao

    2013-02-01

    An ELISA assay with monoclonal antibody (MELISA) was used to type serotype O of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). All FMDV serotype O reference strains were positive by MELISA, while other viruses such as FMDV serotypes Asia 1, C, and A and classical swine fever virus, swine vesicular disease virus, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus remained negative. Furthermore, FMDV serotype O positive samples were able to be detected by MELISA. This assay may be particularly suitable for diagnosis of FMDV serotype O infection in field stations. PMID:23600506

  4. Decisions on foot-and-mouth disease control informed by model prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Willeberg, Preben; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo;

    2013-01-01

    The predictive capability of the first fortnight incidence (FFI), which is the number of detected herds within the first 14 days following detection of the disease, of the course of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemic and its outcomes were investigated. Epidemic outcomes included the number...... correlations with the epidemic outcomes. The predictive capability of the FFI was high. This indicates that the FFI may take a part in the decision of whether or not to boost FMD control, which might prevent occurrence of a large epidemic in the face of an FMD incursion. The prediction power was improved...

  5. Comparison of complement fixation and ELISA for diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus is characterised by its rapid transmission and its great antigenic variability which require a requires a rapid and accurate diagnosis in the laboratory, in order to initiate an immediate response for control. From these studies it is clear that Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has the advantage over the Complement fixation test (CFT) of being a test of high sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, this technique is now used in our laboratory for diagnosis to detect FMD virus (O-A-C) in epithelia from animals affected by the disease. (author)

  6. Hand, foot and mouth disease in an immunocompetent adult due to Coxsackievirus A6

    OpenAIRE

    Shea, Yat Fung; Chan, C. Y.; Hung, Ivan F. N.; Chan, Kwokhung

    2013-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease most commonly occurs in children less than 10 years old, but can occur in immunocompetent adults. We describe a 37-year-old immunocompetent man who presented with multiple painful papules and vesicles on his palms and feet together with vesicles inside the mouth. Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed Coxsackievirus A6 in the vesicle fluid from the feet, throat swab, and rectal swab. Since the disease is highly contagious, to contain the infection it is prud...

  7. Receptor binding site-deleted foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus protects cattle from FMD.

    OpenAIRE

    McKenna, T S; Lubroth, J; Rieder, E; Baxt, B; Mason, P W

    1995-01-01

    Binding of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) to cells requires an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence in the capsid protein VP1. We have genetically engineered an FMDV in which these three amino acids have been deleted, producing a virus particle which is unable to bind to cells. Cattle vaccinated with these receptor binding site-deleted virions were protected from disease when challenged with a virulent virus, demonstrating that these RGD-deleted viruses could serve as the basis ...

  8. Extensive cell heterogeneity during persistent infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    OpenAIRE

    de la Torre, J C; Martínez-Salas, E; J. Díez; Domingo, E

    1989-01-01

    Coevolution of viruses and the host cells occurred in BHK-21 cell cultures persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) (J. C. de la Torre, E. Martínez-Salas, J. Diez, A. Villaverde, F. Gebauer, E. Rocha, M. Dávila, and E. Domingo, J. Virol. 62:2050-2058, 1988). In the present report we provide evidence of an extreme phenotypic heterogeneity of the cells, which was generated in the course of persistence. A total of 248 stable cell clones isolated from FMDV carrier cultures a...

  9. Evaluation of infectivity and transmission of different Asian foot-and-mouth disease viruses in swine

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco, Juan M.; Mason, P W

    2010-01-01

    Most isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) display a broad host range. Since the late 1990s, the genetic lineage of PanAsia topotype FMDV serotype O has caused epidemics in the Far East, Africa, the United Kingdom, France, the Netherlands, and numerous other countries throughout Europe and Asia. In contrast, there are several FMDV isolates that exhibit a more restricted host range. A Cathay topotype isolate of FMDV serotype O from the 1997 epizootic in Taiwan (O/TAW/97) demonstrated...

  10. Isolation of a foot-and-mouth disease polyuridylic acid polymerase and its inhibition by antibody.

    OpenAIRE

    Polatnick, J

    1980-01-01

    A template-dependent polyuridylic acid [poly(U)] polymerase has been isolated from BHK cells infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Enzyme activity in a 20,000 x g supernatant of a cytoplasmic extract was concentrated by precipitation with 30 to 50% saturated ammonium sulfate. The poly(U) polymerase was freed of membranes by sodium dodecyl sulfate and 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane extraction, and RNA was removed by precipitation with 2 M LiCl. The solubilized poly(U) polymerase r...

  11. Diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease by electrochemical enzyme-linked immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longinotti, Gloria; Ybarra, Gabriel; Lloret, Paulina; Moina, Carlos; Ciochinni, Andres; Serantes, Diego Rey; Malatto, Laura; Roberti, Mariano; Tropea, Salvador; Fraigi, Liliana

    2010-01-01

    The development of an inmunosensor for the point-of-care detection of the foot-and-mouth cattle disease is presented. The detector is based on an ELISA method with electrochemical detection. A non-structural protein, 3ABC, is used to selectively detect antibodies is used to selectively detect anti-3ABC antibodies produced after infection. The biological test is performed onto a screen printed electrodes. A dedicated small, portable potentiostat is employed for the control of the sensors, as well as data acquisition, processing, and storage. PMID:21095891

  12. Evaluation of the transmission risk of foot-and-mouth disease in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Hayama, Yoko; Yamamoto, Takehisa; Kobayashi, Sota; Muroga, Norihiko; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    The transmission risk of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Japan was evaluated using a mathematical FMD transmission model. The distance-based transmission rate between farms, which was parameterized using the FMD epidemic data in 2010 in Japan, was used to calculate the local-level reproduction numbers—expected numbers of secondary infections caused by one infected farm—for all cattle and pig farms in the country, which were then visualized as a risk map. The risk map demonstrated the spatial ...

  13. Massive pulmonary hemorrhage in enterovirus 71-infected hand, foot, and mouth disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Dong Seong; Lee, Young il; Ahn, Jeong Bae; Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Jae Hyun; Kim, Nam Hee; Hwang, Jong Hee; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Chong Guk; Song, Tae Won

    2015-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is an acute, mostly self-limiting infection. Patients usually recover without any sequelae. However, a few cases are life threatening, especially those caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71). A 12-month-old boy was admitted to a primary hospital with high fever and vesicular lesions of the mouth, hands, and feet. After 3 days, he experienced 3 seizure episodes and was referred to our hospital. On admission, he was conscious and his chest radiograph was normal. Ho...

  14. The Complete Genomic Sepuence of a Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Isolated from the Swine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Guang-qing; LIU Zai-xin; ZHANG Xian-sheng; CHANG Hui-yun; GUO Hui-chen; LI Dong; LIU Xiang-tao; XIE Qing-ge

    2004-01-01

    The complete genomic sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) Chinese strain OH/CHA/99 was determined. The 8 040 nt sequence and the deduced amino acid sequence were compared with FMDV sequences published. The results showed that OH/CHA/99 shared higher sequence homology with OTYTW/97, indicating their close genetic relationship. However,the strain had lower sequence identity with O1/Kaufbeuren/66 strain. Besides, large deletions in 3A coding region were observed in OH/CHA/99. It was shown that the poly (A)tail of OH/CHA/99 had 56 As at least.

  15. Epithelial Distribution and Replication of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus RNA in Infected Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durand, S.; Murphy, C.; Zhang, Z.;

    2008-01-01

    Although the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has been extensively investigated relatively few studies have addressed the localization of FMD virus (FMDV) and in particular its replication in relation to the typical in-vivo sites of FMD lesions. In the present study, pigs were infected...... negative strand RNA was observed in basal cells above the basement membrane and along the dermal papillae. The basal cells therefore demonstrate the highest signal for detection of the FMDV positive and negative strand RNAs in both tongue and foot epithelium. These novel results Suggest that the epithelial...

  16. Data on the irradiation of liquid manure artificially infected with foot-and mouth disease virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on the application of an ionizing radiation treatment to liquid manure infected with Foot- and Mouth disease virus is described. Virus suspensions diluted with a phosphate buffer solution showed a considerable decrease of virulence already at an exposure to 0.4 - 0.8 Mrad at low initial titre. 1.2 Mrad proved to be effective also against high concentrations of the virus. However, with liquid manure used as diluent, a certain protective effect was noted against the destructive influence of radiation on the virus. (author)

  17. Characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus's viral peptides with LC-ESI-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peptides and proteins play a central role in numerous biological and physiological processes in living organisms. Viral capsid peptides are part of the viruses' outer shell of genetic materials. Viruses are recognized by immune system via capsid peptides. Depending on this property of capsid peptides, prototypes synthetic peptide-based vaccine can be developed. In this work, we synthesized three different viral peptide sequences of foot-and-mouth disease virus with microwave enhanced solid phase synthesis method. These peptides were characterized by using liquid chromatography electro spray interface mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) with electro spray ionization. We briefly describe the essential facts for peptide characterization. (author)

  18. Inhibition of the foot-and-mouth disease virus subgenomic replicon by RNA aptamers.

    OpenAIRE

    Forrest, S; Lear, Z.; Herod, M; Ryan, M; Rowlands, DJ; Stonehouse, NJ

    2014-01-01

    We have previously documented the inhibitory activity of RNA aptamers to the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of foot-and-mouth disease virus (3D(pol)). Here we report their modification and use with a subgenomic replicon incorporating GFP (pGFP-PAC replicon), allowing replication to be monitored and quantified in real-time. GFP expression in transfected BHK-21 cells reached a maximum at approximately 8 h post-transfection, at which time change in morphology of the cells was consistent with a vir...

  19. Airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease in Saskatchewan, Canada, 1951-1952.

    OpenAIRE

    Daggupaty, S M; Sellers, R. F.

    1990-01-01

    Farms affected with foot-and-mouth disease during the epidemic in Saskatchewan, in 1951-1952, for which the origin of virus was not known or uncertain, were studied to determine if infection could have been introduced by the airborne route. A short-range Gaussian plume dispersion model was used to estimate the concentration of virus downwind and the dose available for individual animals. The investigation suggested that a large virus source due to infected pigs in a feedlot in January 1952 co...

  20. Identification of a protein kinase activity in purified foot- and-mouth disease virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Grubman, M J; Baxt, B; La Torre, J L; Bachrach, H L

    1981-01-01

    Purified preparations of foot-and-mouth disease virus types A, O, and C contain a protein kinase activity which can transfer the gamma phosphate of [32P]ATP to virion structural proteins VP2 and VP3 and exogenous acceptor proteins. Utilizing protamine sulfate as an acceptor, the kinase activity can be demonstrated in disrupted virus but not in intact virus. The enzyme is heat labile with optimal activity at pH 7 or greater. Serine residues of protamine sulfate were identified as the amino aci...

  1. Cyclical Patterns of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease Caused by Enterovirus A71 in Malaysia.

    OpenAIRE

    Nmn NikNadia; I-Ching Sam; Sanjay Rampal; Wmz WanNorAmalina; Ghazali NurAtifah; Khebir Verasahib; Chia Ching Ong; MohdAidinniza MohdAdib; Yoke Fun Chan

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is an important emerging pathogen causing large epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children. In Malaysia, since the first EV-A71 epidemic in 1997, recurrent cyclical epidemics have occurred every 2–3 years for reasons that remain unclear. We hypothesize that this cyclical pattern is due to changes in population immunity in children (measured as seroprevalence). Neutralizing antibody titers against EV-A71 were measured in 2,141 residual serum samples c...

  2. Retrospective evaluation of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine effectiveness in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Bulut, A N; Gubbins, S; Stärk, K D C; Pfeiffer, D U; Sumption, K J; Paton, D J

    2014-04-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is present in much of Turkey and its control is largely based on vaccination. The arrival of the FMD Asia-1 serotype in Turkey in 2011 caused particular concern, spreading rapidly westwards across the country towards the FMD free European Union. With no prior natural immunity, control of spread would rely heavily on vaccination. Unlike human vaccines, field protection is rarely evaluated directly for FMD vaccines. Between September 2011 and July 2012 we performed four retrospective outbreak investigations to assess the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of FMD Asia-1 vaccines in Turkey. Vaccine effectiveness is defined as the reduction in risk in vaccinated compared to unvaccinated individuals with similar virus exposure in the field. The four investigations included 12 villages and 1230 cattle >4 months of age. One investigation assessed the FMD Asia-1 Shamir vaccine, the other three evaluated the recently introduced FMD Asia-1 TUR 11 vaccine made using a field isolate of the FMD Asia-1 Sindh-08 lineage that had recently entered Turkey. After adjustment for confounding, the TUR 11 vaccine provided moderate protection against both clinical disease VE=69% [95% CI: 50%-81%] and infection VE=63% [95% CI: 29%-81%]. However, protection was variable with some herds with high vaccine coverage still experiencing high disease incidence. Some of this variability will be the result of the variation in virus challenge and immunity that occurs under field conditions. In the outbreak investigated there was no evidence that the Asia-1 Shamir vaccine provided adequate protection against clinical FMD with an incidence of 89% in single vaccinated cattle and 69% in those vaccinated two to five times. Based on these effectiveness estimates, vaccination alone is unlikely to produce the high levels of herd immunity needed to control FMD without additional control measures.

  3. Multiplexed Molecular Assays for Rapid Rule-Out of Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenhoff, R; Naraghi-Arani, P; Thissen, J; Olivas, J; Carillo, C; Chinn, C; Rasmussen, M; Messenger, S; Suer, L; Smith, S M; Tammero, L; Vitalis, E; Slezak, T R; Hullinger, P J; Hindson, B J; Hietala, S; Crossley, B; Mcbride, M

    2007-06-26

    A nucleic acid-based multiplexed assay was developed that combines detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) with rule-out assays for two other foreign animal diseases and four domestic animal diseases that cause vesicular or ulcerative lesions indistinguishable from FMDV infection in cattle, sheep and swine. The FMDV 'look-alike' diagnostic assay panel contains five PCR and twelve reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) signatures for a total of seventeen simultaneous PCR amplifications for seven diseases plus incorporating four internal assay controls. It was developed and optimized to amplify both DNA and RNA viruses simultaneously in a single tube and employs Luminex{trademark} liquid array technology. Assay development including selection of appropriate controls, a comparison of signature performance in single and multiplex testing against target nucleic acids, as well of limits of detection for each of the individual signatures is presented. While this assay is a prototype and by no means a comprehensive test for FMDV 'look-alike' viruses, an assay of this type is envisioned to have benefit to a laboratory network in routine surveillance and possibly for post-outbreak proof of freedom from foot-and-mouth disease.

  4. Knowledge and disease management skills of cattle owners on East Coast Fever and Foot and Mouth Disease in Kazungula and Livingstone Districts of Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    C. Chisembele

    2005-01-01

    Effective animal disease control and prevention should be based on accurate information from the field. Part of this field information can be obtained from the cattle owners. In order to assess their disease knowledge, a survey focusing on East Coast Fever (ECF) and Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) was organised among 302 cattle owners from the Kazungula and Livingstone Districts of the Southern Province of Zambia. The cattle owners' level of knowledge of ECF was low (34%) with most of those able...

  5. Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Research Update and Gap Analysis: 2 - Epidemiology, Wildlife and Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Robinson, L; Charleston, B; Rodriguez, L L; Gay, C G; Sumption, K J; Vosloo, W

    2016-06-01

    We assessed knowledge gaps in foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) research, and in this study, we consider (i) epidemiology, (ii) wildlife and (iii) economics. The study took the form of a literature review (2011-2015) combined with research updates collected in 2014 from 33 institutes from across the world. Findings were used to identify priority areas for future FMD research. During 2011-2015, modelling studies were dominant in the broad field of epidemiology; however, continued efforts are required to develop robust models for use during outbreaks in FMD-free countries, linking epidemiologic and economics models. More guidance is needed for both the evaluation and the setting of targets for vaccine coverage, population immunity and vaccine field efficacy. Similarly, methods for seroprevalence studies need to be improved to obtain more meaningful outputs that allow comparison across studies. To inform control programmes in endemic countries, field trials assessing the effectiveness of vaccination in extensive smallholder systems should be performed to determine whether FMD can be controlled with quality vaccines in settings where implementing effective biosecurity is challenging. Studies need to go beyond measuring only vaccine effects and should extend our knowledge of the impact of FMD and increase our understanding of how to maximize farmer participation in disease control. Where wildlife reservoirs of virus exist, particularly African Buffalo, we need to better understand when and under what circumstances transmission to domestic animals occurs in order to manage this risk appropriately, considering the impact of control measures on livelihoods and wildlife. For settings where FMD eradication is unfeasible, further ground testing of commodity-based trade is recommended. A thorough review of global FMD control programmes, covering successes and failures, would be extremely valuable and could be used to guide other control programmes. PMID:27320163

  6. Use of recombinant capsid proteins in the development of a vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham; Bøtner, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease remains one of the world’s most economically important diseases of livestock. It is caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus, a member of the picornavirus family. The virus replicates very rapidly and can be efficiently transmitted between hosts by a variety of routes....... The disease has been effectively controlled in some parts of the world but remains endemic in many others, thus there is a constant risk of introduction of the disease into areas that are normally free of foot-and-mouth disease with potentially huge economic consequences. To reduce the need for large......-scale culling of infected, and potentially infected, animals there has been significant effort to develop new vaccines against this disease which avoid some, or all, of the deficiencies of current vaccines. A major focus has been on the use of systems that express the structural proteins of the virus that self...

  7. Economic effects of foot and mouth disease outbreaks along the cattle marketing chain in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluka, Sylvia Angubua

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Disease outbreaks increase the cost of animal production; reduce milk and beef yield, cattle sales, farmers’ incomes, and enterprise profitability. The study assessed the economic effects of foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks along the cattle marketing chain in selected study districts in Uganda. Materials and Methods: The study combined qualitative and quantitative study designs. Respondents were selected proportionally using simple random sampling from the sampling frame comprising of 224, 173, 291, and 185 farmers for Nakasongola, Nakaseke, Isingiro, and Rakai, respectively. Key informants were selected purposively. Data analysis combined descriptive, modeling, and regression analysis. Data on the socio-economic characteristics and how they influenced FMD outbreaks, cattle markets revenue losses, and the economic cost of the outbreaks were analyzed using descriptive measures including percentages, means, and frequencies. Results: Farmers with small and medium herds incurred higher control costs, whereas large herds experienced the highest milk losses. Total income earned by the actors per month at the processing level reduced by 23%. In Isingiro, bulls and cows were salvage sold at 83% and 88% less market value, i.e., a loss of $196.1 and $1,552.9 in small and medium herds, respectively. Conclusion: All actors along the cattle marketing chain incur losses during FMD outbreaks, but smallholder farmers are most affected. Control and prevention of FMD should remain the responsibility of the government if Uganda is to achieve a disease-free status that is a prerequisite for free movement and operation of cattle markets throughout the year which will boost cattle marketing. PMID:27397974

  8. Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Research Update and Gap Analysis: 3 - Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, L; Knight-Jones, T J D; Charleston, B; Rodriguez, L L; Gay, C G; Sumption, K J; Vosloo, W

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed research knowledge gaps in the field of FMDV (foot-and-mouth disease virus) vaccines. The study took the form of a literature review (2011-15) combined with research updates collected in 2014 from 33 institutes from across the world. Findings were used to identify priority areas for future FMD vaccine research. Vaccines play a vital role in FMD control, used both to limit the spread of the virus during epidemics in FMD-free countries and as the mainstay of disease management in endemic regions, particularly where sanitary controls are difficult to apply. Improvements in the performance or cost-effectiveness of FMD vaccines will allow more widespread and efficient disease control. FMD vaccines have changed little in recent decades, typically produced by inactivation of whole virus, the quantity and stability of the intact viral capsids in the final preparation being key for immunogenicity. However, these are exciting times and several promising novel FMD vaccine candidates have recently been developed. This includes the first FMD vaccine licensed for manufacture and use in the USA; this adenovirus-vectored FMD vaccine causes in vivo expression of viral capsids in vaccinated animals. Another promising vaccine candidate comprises stabilized empty FMDV capsids produced in vitro in a baculovirus expression system. Recombinant technologies are also being developed to improve otherwise conventionally produced inactivated vaccines, for example, by creating a chimeric vaccine virus to increase capsid stability and by inserting sequences into the vaccine virus for desired antigen expression. Other important areas of ongoing research include enhanced adjuvants, vaccine quality control procedures and predicting vaccine protection from immune correlates, thus reducing dependency on animal challenge studies. Globally, the degree of independent vaccine evaluation is highly variable, and this is essential for vaccine quality. Previously neglected, the

  9. Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Research Update and Gap Analysis: 7 - Pathogenesis and Molecular Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, L; Knight-Jones, T J D; Charleston, B; Rodriguez, L L; Gay, C G; Sumption, K J; Vosloo, W

    2016-06-01

    We assessed research knowledge gaps in the fields of FMDV (foot-and-mouth disease virus) pathogenesis and molecular biology by performing a literature review (2011-15) and collecting research updates (2014) from 33 institutes from across the world. Findings were used to identify priority areas for future research. There have been important advances in FMDV pathogenesis; FMDV remains in lymph nodes of many recovered animals that otherwise do not appear persistently infected, even in species previously not associated with the carrier state. Whether virus retention helps maintain host immunity and/or virus survival is not known. Studies of FMDV pathogenesis in wildlife have provided insights into disease epidemiology, in endemic and epidemic settings. Many aspects of FMDV infection and virus entry remain unknown; however, at the cellular level, we know that expression level and availability of integrins (that permit viral entry), rate of clearance of infected cells and strength of anti-viral type I IFN (interferon) response are key determinants of tissue tropism. Extending findings to improved understanding of transmission requires a standardized approach and adoption of natural routes of infection during experimental study. There has been recognition of the importance of autophagosomes for FMDV entry into the cytoplasm following cell surface receptor binding, and that distinct internal cellular membranes are exploited for viral replication and immune evasion. New roles for viral proteins in blocking type I IFN production and downstream signalling have been identified facilitating research in anti-viral therapeutics. We know more about how infection affects cell protein expression, and research into molecular determinants of capsid stability has aided the development of stable vaccines. We have an expanding knowledge of viral and host molecular determinates of virulence and infectiousness, and of how phylogenetics may be used to estimate vaccine match and strain

  10. Capsid coding sequences of foot-and-mouth disease viruses are determinants of pathogenicity in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Jackson, Terry; Bøtner, Anette;

    2012-01-01

    compared the pathogenicity of different FMDVs in young pigs. In total 32 pigs, 7-weeks-old, were exposed to virus, either by direct inoculation or through contact with inoculated pigs, using cell culture adapted (O1K B64), chimeric (O1K/A-TUR and O1K/O-UKG) or field strain (O-UKG/34/2001) viruses. The O1K...... B64 virus and the two chimeric viruses are identical to each other except for the capsid coding region. Animals exposed to O1K B64 did not exhibit signs of disease, while pigs exposed to each of the other viruses showed typical clinical signs of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). All pigs infected......The surface exposed capsid proteins, VP1, VP2 and VP3, of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) determine its antigenicity and the ability of the virus to interact with host-cell receptors. Hence, modification of these structural proteins may alter the properties of the virus. In the present study we...

  11. A SPATIAL MODEL OF ANIMAL DISEASE CONTROL IN LIVESTOCK: EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE IN THE SOUTHERN CONE

    OpenAIRE

    Rich, Karl M.; Winter-Nelson, Alex

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-market model of animal disease control that extends the current literature by accounting for spatial and inter-temporal relations in both epidemiological and economic variables. The model is applied to Foot and Mouth Disease control in Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay, but it is broadly generalizable.

  12. Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Research Update and Gap Analysis: 5 - Biotherapeutics and Disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, L; Knight-Jones, T J D; Charleston, B; Rodriguez, L L; Gay, C G; Sumption, K J; Vosloo, W

    2016-06-01

    We assessed knowledge gaps in foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) research. Findings are reported in a series of papers, and in this article, we consider biotherapeutics and disinfectants. The study took the form of a literature review (2011-2015) combined with research updates collected in 2014 from 33 institutes from across the world. Findings were used to identify priority areas for future FMD research. While vaccines will remain the key immunological intervention used against FMD virus (FMDV) for the foreseeable future, it takes a few days for the immune system to respond to vaccination. In an outbreak situation, protection could potentially be provided during this period by the application of rapid, short-acting biotherapeutics, aiming either to stimulate a non-specific antiviral state in the animal or to specifically inhibit a part of the viral life cycle. Certain antiviral cytokines have been shown to promote rapid protection against FMD; however, the effects of different immune-modulators appear to vary across species in ways and for reasons that are not yet understood. Major barriers to the effective incorporation of biotherapeutics into control strategies are cost, limited understanding of their effect on subsequent immune responses to vaccines and uncertainty about their potential impact if used for disease containment. Recent research has highlighted the importance of environmental contamination in FMDV transmission. Effective disinfectants for FMDV have long been available, but research is being conducted to further develop methods for quantitatively evaluating their performance under field, or near-field, conditions. During outbreaks in South Korea in 2010 there was public concern about potential environmental contamination after the mass use of disinfectant and mass burial of culled stock; this should be considered during outbreak contingency planning. PMID:27320166

  13. Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Research Update and Gap Analysis: 4 - Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Robinson, L; Charleston, B; Rodriguez, L L; Gay, C G; Sumption, K J; Vosloo, W

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed knowledge gaps in foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) research in the field of diagnostics. The study took the form of a literature review (2011-15) combined with research updates collected in 2014 from 33 institutes from around the world. Findings were used to identify priority areas for future FMD research. Molecular and genetic technologies, including sequencing, are developing at an increasing rate both in terms of capability and affordability. These advances potentiate progress in many other fields of research, from vaccine development to epidemiology. The development of RT-LAMP represents an important breakthrough allowing greater use and access to molecular diagnostics. It is now possible to determine virus serotype using PCR, although only for certain virus pools, continued progress is needed to cover the global spectrum of FMD viruses. Progress has also been made in the development of pen-side rapid diagnostics, some with the ability to determine serotype. However, further advances in pen-side serotype or strain determination would benefit both FMD-free countries and endemic countries with limited access to well-resourced laboratories. Novel sampling methods that show promise include air sampling and baited ropes, the latter may aid sampling in wildlife and swine. Studies of infrared thermography for the early detection of FMD have not been encouraging, although investigations are ongoing. Multiplex tests have been developed that are able to simultaneously screen for multiple pathogens with similar clinical signs. Crucial for assessing FMDV freedom, tests exist to detect animals that have been infected with FMDV regardless of vaccination status; however, limitations exist, particularly when testing previously vaccinated animals. Novel vaccines are being developed with complementary DIVA tests for this purpose. Research is also needed to improve the current imprecise approaches to FMD vaccine matching. The development of simple, affordable

  14. Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Research Update and Gap Analysis: 6 - Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, L; Knight-Jones, T J D; Charleston, B; Rodriguez, L L; Gay, C G; Sumption, K J; Vosloo, W

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed gaps and priorities for FMDV (foot-and-mouth disease virus) research in the field of immunology. The study took the form of a literature review (2011-15) combined with research updates collected in 2014 from 33 institutes from across the world. Findings were used to identify priority areas for future FMD research. Improved understanding of FMDV immunology facilitates the development of vaccines, adjuvants and diagnostic tests, and will allow better assessment and prediction of vaccine potency and match, with reduced use of animals, particularly large animals, in experimental studies. Continued characterization of the immune systems of several FMD host species has underpinned substantial advances in knowledge of their interaction with FMDV. Recent studies have shed light on the mechanisms underlying formation of the bovine B- and T-cell response; there is also a greater understanding of the significance of non-neutralizing antibodies during FMDV infection and the interactions of antibody-bound virus with immune cells. This knowledge is directly relevant to vaccine development, as well as understanding protection and cross-protection. Despite ongoing research, significant knowledge gaps remain in the areas of neonatal and mucosal immunity. The impact of maternally derived antibody upon the neonate's ability to respond to FMD vaccination has received some attention, but few firm conclusions can be drawn at this stage, and little is known of the cellular response of young animals in general. The mucosal immune system of FMDV-susceptible species requires continued characterization, especially if the potential of mucosal vaccine-delivery systems is to be realized for FMD immunization. PMID:27320167

  15. A Lagrangian particle model to predict the airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, D.; Reiczigel, J.; Rubel, F.

    Airborne spread of bioaerosols in the boundary layer over a complex terrain is simulated using a Lagrangian particle model, and applied to modelling the airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus. Two case studies are made with study domains located in a hilly region in the northwest of the Styrian capital Graz, the second largest town in Austria. Mountainous terrain as well as inhomogeneous and time varying meteorological conditions prevent from application of so far used Gaussian dispersion models, while the proposed model can handle these realistically. In the model, trajectories of several thousands of particles are computed and the distribution of virus concentration near the ground is calculated. This allows to assess risk of infection areas with respect to animal species of interest, such as cattle, swine or sheep. Meteorological input data like wind field and other variables necessary to compute turbulence were taken from the new pre-operational version of the non-hydrostatic numerical weather prediction model LMK ( Lokal-Modell-Kürzestfrist) running at the German weather service DWD ( Deutscher Wetterdienst). The LMK model provides meteorological parameters with a spatial resolution of about 2.8 km. To account for the spatial resolution of 400 m used by the Lagrangian particle model, the initial wind field is interpolated upon the finer grid by a mass consistent interpolation method. Case studies depict a significant influence of local wind systems on the spread of virus. Higher virus concentrations at the upwind side of the hills and marginal concentrations in the lee are well observable, as well as canalization effects by valleys. The study demonstrates that the Lagrangian particle model is an appropriate tool for risk assessment of airborne spread of virus by taking into account the realistic orographic and meteorological conditions.

  16. Inoculation of swine with foot-and-mouth disease SAP-mutant virus induces early protection against disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) leader proteinase (L^pro) cleaves itself from the viral polyprotein and cleaves the translation initiation factor eIF4G. As a result, host cell translation is inhibited, affecting the host innate immune response. We have demonstrated that L^pro is also associated ...

  17. Tongue Epithelium Cells from shRNA Mediated Transgenic Goat Show High Resistance to Foot and Mouth Disease Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Wenting Li; Kejun Wang; Shimeng Kang; Shoulong Deng; Hongbing Han; Ling Lian; Zhengxing Lian

    2015-01-01

    Foot and mouth disease induced by foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is severe threat to cloven-hoofed domestic animals. The gene 3Dpol in FMDV genome encodes the viral RNA polymerase, a vital element for FMDV replication. In this study, a conserved 3D-7414shRNA targeting FMDV-3Dpol gene was designed and injected into pronuclear embryos to produce the transgenic goats. Sixty-one goats were produced, of which, seven goats positively integrated 3D-7414shRNA. Loss of function assay demonstrated...

  18. Cloning of cDNA of major antigen of foot and mouth disease virus and expression in E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpper, Hans; Keller, Walter; Kurz, Christina; Forss, Sonja; Schaller, Heinz

    1981-02-01

    Double-stranded DNA copies of the single-stranded genomic RNA of foot and mouth disease virus have been cloned into the Escherichia coli plasmid pBR322. A restriction map of the viral genome was established and aligned with the biochemical map of foot and mouth disease virus. The coding sequence for structural protein VP1, the major antigen of the virus, was identified and inserted into a plasmid vector where the expression of this sequence is under control of the phage λ PL promoter. In an appropriate host the synthesis of antigenic polypeptide can be demonstrated by radioimmunoassay.

  19. The molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes A and O from 1998 to 2004 in Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Jörn; Parlak, Ü.; Özyörük, F.;

    2006-01-01

    the region encoding the immuno-dominant GH-loop. Also a close relationship to Foot-and-Mouth Disease virus (FMDV) serotype A isolates obtained from outbreaks in Iraq and Iran were detected and a clustering of isolates collected during the same period of time were found. The analysis of the deduced amino......Background Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) causes significant economic losses in Turkish livestock. We have analysed the genetic diversity of the 1D sequences, encoding the hypervariable surface protein VP1, of Turkish isolates of serotype A and O collected from 1998 to 2004 in order to obtain...

  20. Serotype Specificity of Antibodies against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Cattle in Selected Districts in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mwiine, F.N.; Ayebazibwe, C.; Olaho-Mukani, W.;

    2010-01-01

    Uganda had an unusually large number of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in 2006, and all clinical reports were in cattle. A serological investigation was carried out to confirm circulating antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) by ELISA for antibodies against non...... against serotypes SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3 in the sera investigated for serotype-specific antibodies. Only FMDV serotype O virus was isolated from one probang sample. This study shows that the majority of the FMD outbreaks in 2006 in the region studied were caused by FMDV serotype O; however, there was also...

  1. Validation of the FAO/IAEA/PANAFTOSA ELISA kit for determination of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Liquid phase blocking sandwich ELISA (LPBE) for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) antibodies, serotypes O, A and C was validated using sera from bovines free of antibodies and vaccinated bovines. This technique proved to be sensitive and specific for the study of these antibodies. This kit has been prepared by the Pan American Foot-and-Mouth Disease Center (PAHO/WHO) in collaboration with the Animal Production and Health Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, Vienna, Austria and the Institute for Animal Health in Pirbright, United Kingdom. (author)

  2. Diagnosis and control of foot-and-mouth disease in Sri Lanka using ELISA-based technologies: Assessment of immune response to vaccination against FMD using ELISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The policy for control of FMD since 1964 in Sri Lanka has been the vaccination of high quality stock in government farms and in places where stock improvement was in progress once a year. From 1993, a supplementary vaccination during February to March was adopted to cover the young stock in addition to the annual vaccination programme. However in the field this was not successful due to the shortage of vaccines and less co-operation from farmers. The focus of this study was to study the effectiveness of the national immunisation programme carefully and develop strategies to get the maximum benefit from limited resources. Vaccination coverage during 1995, 1996 and 1997 in SP was low (3.4%, 4.45% and 3.5% respectively). However, during the outbreak of the disease at Kalutara district in WP, vaccination was adopted in border areas to have a buffer zone to prevent the leak of FMD to SP. The mean protective antibody level in the whole district of Galle was found to be 42.4%. FMD control and eradication strategy in Sri Lanka no doubt has to focus on preventing the free movement of animals without Health Certificate, on continuous mass vaccination in areas bordering the endemic Provinces NWP, NCP and EP to maintain a high herd immunity of more than 80% to prevent future outbreaks and also to protect the improved breed in the field and in State farms. This study shows that this is yet to be achieved. (author)

  3. Diagnostic assays developed for the control of foot-and-mouth disease in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gaurav Kumar; Mahajan, Sonalika; Matura, Rakesh; Subramaniam, Saravanan; Ranjan, Rajeev; Biswal, Jitendra; Rout, Manoranjan; Mohapatra, Jajati Keshari; Dash, Bana Bihari; Sanyal, Aniket; Pattnaik, Bramhadev

    2015-08-12

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically devastating disease of livestock, primarily affecting cattle, buffalo and pigs. FMD virus serotypes O, A and Asia1 are prevalent in India and systematic efforts are on to control and eventually eradicate the disease from the country. FMD epidemiology is complex due to factors like co-circulation, extinction, emergence and re-emergence of genotypes/lineages within the three serotypes, animal movement, diverse farm practices and large number of susceptible livestock in the country. Systematic vaccination, prompt diagnosis, strict biosecurity measures, and regular monitoring of vaccinal immunity and surveillance of virus circulation are indispensible features for the effective implementation of the control measures. Availability of suitable companion diagnostic tests is very important in this endeavour. In this review, the diagnostic assays developed and validated in India and their contribution in FMD control programme is presented.

  4. Foot-and-mouth disease control in Zambia: A review of the current situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yona Sinkala

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Zambia has been experiencing low livestock productivity as well as trade restrictions owing to the occurrence of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD and contagious bovine pleura pneumonia (CBPP. Foot-and-mouth disease was first recorded in Zambia in 1933 in the Western Province and since then the country has experienced repeated outbreaks. Bearing in mind the pressure that may be existing on the many risk factors for FMD including climate change, there is need to review our knowledge on FMD control. We present the spatial distribution of the FMD outbreaks that have been recorded in Zambia in the last twenty years, and the effect of the vaccinations and movement control that have been applied. We propose further strain characterisation of previous FMD outbreaks, including full sequence of VP1 gene and the 5’UTR site. The data will be geo-coded and populated with risk factor attributes. We also present preliminary findings of the buffalo and cattle probang sampling that was conducted in Lochnivar and Kafue National Park. We further probang sampled 25 buffalo at each interface area in Sioma Ngwezi, Lukusuzi and Lower Zambezi national parks. Villages in close proximity to the buffalo populations as well as those not in close proximity will be multistage cluster sampled for comparison. The data will be geo-coded and populated with risk factor and foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV characterisation attributes. Data collected using a pre-tested structured questionnaire will be geo-coded and populated with identified risk factors and stored in a database and will be spatially modelled to determine their effect on FMD occurrence and control measures. New outbreaks of FMD that may occur will be investigated to find out if there are new strains involved, species affected and predisposing risk factors.The authors conclude that impacts of FMD on livelihoods if appropriate control measures are not put in place are far more devastating especially at community level

  5. Effect of foot-and-mouth disease virus on the frequency, phenotype and function of circulating dendritic cells in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a highly contagious virus that causes one of the most devastating diseases in cloven-hoofed animals. Disease symptoms in FMDV-infected animals appear within 2 to 3 days of exposure. Dendritic cells (DC) play an essential role in protective immune responses agai...

  6. Delivery of Both Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Structural and Nonstructural Antigens Improves Protection of Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the etiological agent of one of the most contagious diseases affecting cloven-hoofed animals and is the most important constraint on trade in live animals and animal products. The current vaccine has limitations when used in disease-free countries including dif...

  7. Detection of Foot and mouth disease virus infected pigs still RT-PCR positive four weeks after challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orsel, K.; Roest, H.I.J.; Elzinga-Bril, E.M.; Hemert-Kluitenberg, van F.; Dekker, A.

    2008-01-01

    FOOT-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals including ruminants and pigs. The occurrence of disease in livestock has a great economic impact, especially for exporting countries. Export limitations are based partly on the existence of FMD carrier animals. Carri

  8. Characterisation of foot-and-mouth disease virus strains circulating in Turkey during 1996-2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlak, Ü.; Özyörük, F.; Knowles, N.J.;

    2007-01-01

    Two genotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A were identified as the cause of disease outbreaks in Turkey during 1996-2004, while serotype O strains, identified during the same period, seem to represent an evolutionary continuum, and Asia1 strains were only rarely identified. The data...... presented are concordant with the conclusion that serotype A strains are repeatedly introduced to Turkey from the east and circulate only transiently in farming communities, while type O strains persist and re-emerge from endemic areas of Turkey. The co-circulation of strains belonging to two A genotypes...... than 50% of the cattle during the same period. Mean r(1) values of 0.70 +/- 0.19 and 0.39 +/- 0.04 found for A96 and A99 isolates, respectively, compared to the A96 vaccine component reveal antigenic differences but also imply that the vaccine in use in Turkey should provide protection against both...

  9. Recent outbreaks of foot and mouth disease in countries of east Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, K; Yoshida, K

    2002-12-01

    Japan regained the status of freedom from foot and mouth disease (FMD) without vaccination in September 2000 and the Republic of Korea likewise obtained this status in September 2001. However, new outbreaks of FMD caused by the pan-Asian topotype have occurred in pigs in the Republic of Korea since May 2002. Taipei China has not experienced an outbreak of FMD since February 2001 and the country is currently implementing an eradication programme. These countries had been free from FMD for many decades when in 1997, the FMD virus (FMDV) once again invaded the region, particularly in 2000; this resulted in widespread occurrence of the disease. The types of FMDV were investigated by genome analysis, and in each case the virus concerned was found to be a member of the pan-Asian O lineage. The authors present the recent situations and the characteristics of FMD in countries of east Asia. PMID:12523687

  10. Comparison of alternatives to passive surveillance to detect foot and mouth disease incursions in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, M G; East, I J; Kompas, T; Ha, P V; Roche, S E; Nguyen, H T M

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate strategies to enhance the early detection of foot and mouth disease incursions in Australia. Two strategies were considered. First, improving the performance of the current passive surveillance system. Second, supplementing the current passive system with active surveillance strategies based on testing animals at saleyards or through bulk milk testing of dairy herds. Simulation modelling estimated the impact of producer education and awareness by either increasing the daily probability that a farmer will report the presence of diseased animals or by reducing the proportion of the herd showing clinical signs required to trigger a disease report. Both increasing the probability of reporting and reducing the proportion of animals showing clinical signs resulted in incremental decreases in the time to detection, the size and the duration of the outbreak. A gold standard system in which all producers reported the presence of disease once 10% of the herd showed clinical signs reduced the median time to detection of the outbreak from 20 to 15days, the duration of the subsequent outbreak from 53 to 42days and the number of infected farms from 46 to 32. Bulk milk testing reduced the median time to detection by two days and the number of infected farms by six but had no impact on the duration of the outbreak. Screening of animals at saleyards provided no improvement over the current passive surveillance system alone while having significant resource issues. It is concluded that the most effective way to achieve early detection of incursions of foot and mouth disease into Victoria, Australia is to invest in improving producer reporting. PMID:27237393

  11. [Limb torsion and developmental regression for one month after hand, foot and mouth disease in an infant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Li-Fang; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Li, Dong-Xiao; Ding, Yuan; Jin, Ying; Song, Jin-Qing; Yang, Yan-Ling

    2016-05-01

    A one-year-old girl visited the hospital due to limb torsion and developmental regression for one month after hand, foot and mouth disease. At the age of 11 months, she visited a local hospital due to fever for 5 days and skin rash with frequent convulsions for 2 days and was diagnosed with severe hand, foot and mouth disease, viral encephalitis, and status epilepticus. Brain MRI revealed symmetric abnormal signals in the bilateral basal ganglia, bilateral thalamus, cerebral peduncle, bilateral cortex, and hippocampus. She was given immunoglobulin, antiviral drugs, and anticonvulsant drugs for 2 weeks, and the effect was poor. Blood and urine screening for inherited metabolic diseases were performed to clarify the etiology. The analysis of urine organic acids showed significant increases in glutaric acid and 3-hydroxyglutaric acid, which suggested glutaric aciduria type 1, but her blood glutarylcarnitine was normal, and free carnitine significantly decreased. After the treatment with low-lysine diets, L-carnitine, and baclofen for 1 month, the patient showed a significant improvement in symptoms. Hand, foot and mouth disease is a common viral infectious disease in children, and children with underlying diseases such as inherited metabolic diseases and immunodeficiency may experience serious complications. For children with hand, foot and mouth disease and unexplained encephalopathy, inherited metabolic diseases should be considered. PMID:27165592

  12. Hand foot and mouth disease due to enterovirus 71 in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Kaw Bing; Kasri, Abdul Rasid

    2011-08-01

    Hand foot and mouth disease is a febrile sickness complex characterized by cutaneous eruption (exanthem) on the palms and soles with simultaneous occurrence of muco-cutanous vesiculo-ulcerative lesions (enanthem) affecting the mouth. The illness is caused by a number of enteroviruses with coxsackievirus A16 and enterovirus 71 as the main causative agents. Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) belongs to the species Human enterovirus A under the genus Enterovirus within the family Picornaviridae. EV71 has been associated with an array of clinical diseases including hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD), aseptic meningitis, encephalitis and poliomyelitis-like acute flaccid paralysis. A large outbreak of HFMD due to highly neurovirulent EV71 emerged in Malaysia in 1997, and caused 41 deaths amongst young children. In late 2000, a recurrence of an outbreak of HFMD occurred in Malaysia with 8 fatalities in peninsular Malaysia. Outbreak of HFMD due to EV71 recurred in 2003 with an unknown number of cases and mortalities. A similar outbreak of HFMD with 2 recorded deaths in young children occurred in peninsular Malaysia in late 2005 and this was followed by a larger outbreak in Sarawak (Malaysian Borneo) with 6 reported fatalities in the early part of 2006. The current on-going outbreak of HFMD started in peninsular Malaysia in epidemiological week 12 of 2010. As with other HFMD outbreaks in Malaysia, both EV71 and CA16 were the main aetiological viruses isolated. In similarity with the HFMD outbreak in 2005, the isolation of CA16 preceded the appearance of EV71. Based on the VP1 gene nucleotide sequences, 4 sub-genogroups of EV71 (C1, C2, B3 and B4) co-circulated and caused the outbreak of hand, foot and mouth disease in peninsular Malaysia in 1997. Two sub-genogroups (C1 and B4) were noted to cause the outbreak in 2000 in both peninsular Malaysia and Sarawak. EV71 of sub-genogroup B5 with smaller contribution from sub-genogroup C1 caused the outbreak in 2003. In the 2005 outbreak

  13. Hand Foot and Mouth Disease Due to Enterovirus 71 in Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaw Bing Chua; Abdul Rasid Kasri

    2011-01-01

    Hand foot and mouth disease is a febrile sickness complex characterized by cutaneous eruption (exanthem) on the palms and soles with simultaneous occurrence of muco-cutanous vesiculo-ulcerative lesions (enanthem) affecting the mouth.The illness is caused by a number of enteroviruses with coxsackievirus A16 and enterovirus 71 as the main causative agents.Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) belongs to the species Human enterovirus A under the genus Enterovirus within the family Picornaviridae.EV71 has been associated with an array of clinical diseases including hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD),aseptic meningitis,encephalitis and poliomyelitis-like acute flaccid paralysis.A large outbreak of HFMD due to highly neurovirulent EV71 emerged in Malaysia in 1997,and caused 41deaths amongst young children.In late 2000,a recurrence of an outbreak of HFMD occurred in Malaysia with S fatalities in peninsular Malaysia.Outbreak of HFMD due to EV71 recurred in 2003 with an unknown number of cases and mortalities.A similar outbreak of HFMD with 2 recorded deaths in young children occurred in peninsular Malaysia in late 2005 and this was followed by a larger outbreak in Sarawak (Malaysian Borneo) with 6 reported fatalities in the early part of 2006.The current on-going outbreak of HFMD started in peninsular Malaysia in epidemiological week 12 of 2010.As with other HFMD outbreaks in Malaysia,both EV71 and CA16 were the main aetiological viruses isolated.In similarity with the HFMD outbreak in 2005,the isolation of CA16 preceded the appearance of EV71.Based on the VP 1 gene nucleotide sequences,4 sub-genogroups of EV71 (C1,C2,B3 and B4) co-circulated and caused the outbreak of hand,foot and mouth disease in peninsular Malaysia in 1997.Two sub-genogroups (C1 and B4) were noted to cause the outbreak in 2000 in both peninsular Malaysia and Sarawak.EV71 of sub-genogroup B5 with smaller contribution from sub-genogroup C1 caused the outbreak in 2003.In the 2005 outbreak,besides the EV71 strains

  14. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus 2C Is a Hexameric AAA+ Protein with a Coordinated ATP Hydrolysis Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweeney, Trevor; Cisnetto, Valentina; Bose, Daniel;

    2010-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), a positive sense, single-stranded RNA virus, causes a highly contagious disease in cloven-hoofed livestock. Like other picornaviruses, FMDV has a conserved 2C protein assigned to the superfamily 3 helicases a group of AAA+ ATPases that has a predicted N...

  15. Comparing effectiveness of regional and circular intervention zones in case of a foot-and-mouth disease outbreak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Dickey, Bradley F; Carpenter, Tim E

    In case of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) or other exotic disease outbreak, surveillance zones and infected areas are conventionally created as circles with their centroids at the known infected premises. Given the availability of geographic information systems (GIS), it is no longer difficult to...

  16. Epidemiological analysis, serological prevalence, and genotypic analysis of foot-and-mouth disease in Nigeria 2008-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    The epidemiological situation of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is uncertain in Nigeria, where the disease is endemic, and the majority of outbreaks are unreported. Control measures for FMD in Nigeria are not being implemented due to the absence of locally produced vaccines and an official ban ...

  17. Adenoviral-based foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine: evaluation of new vectors expressing serotype O in bovines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), an antigenically variable virus, is considered the most important infectious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. Recently serotypes A and O have been the cause of major outbreaks. We previously demonstrated that an adenovirus-based FMDV serotype A24 subunit vaccine...

  18. Passive immunization of guinea-pigs with llama single-domain antibody fragments against foot-and-mouth disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, M.M.; Solt, van C.B.; Fijten, H.P.D.; Keulen, van L.; Rosalia, R.A.; Weerdmeester, K.; Cornelissen, A.H.M.; Bruin, de M.G.M.; Eble, P.L.; Dekker, A.

    2007-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease that occasionally causes outbreaks in Europe. There is a need for therapies that provide rapid protection against FMD in outbreak situations. We aim to provide such rapid protection by passive immunization with llama single-domain antibody

  19. Full protection of swine against foot-and-mouth disease by a bivalent B-cell epitope dendrimer peptide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanco, Esther; Guerra, Beatriz; Torre, de la Beatriz; Defaus, Sira; Dekker, A.; Andreu, D.; Sobrino, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. We have reported (Cubillos et al., 2008) that a synthetic dendrimeric peptide consisting of four copies of a B-cell epitope [VP1(136–154)] linked through thioether bonds to a T-cell epitope [3A(21–35)] o

  20. Poly ICLC increases the potency of a replication-defective human adenovirus vectored foot-and-mouth disease vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. We have previously demonstrated that a replication-defective human adenovirus 5 vector carrying the FMDV capsid coding region of serotype A24 Cruzeiro (Ad5-CI-A24-2B) protects swine and cattle against FM...

  1. Early detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus from infected cattle using a dry filter air sampling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious livestock disease of high economic impact. Early detection of FMD virus (FMDV) is fundamental for rapid outbreak control. Air sampling collection has been demonstrated as a useful technique for detection of FMDV RNA in infected animals, related to ...

  2. Sequence-based prediction for vaccine strain selection and identification of antigenic variability in foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identifying when past exposure to an infectious disease will protect against newly emerging strains is central to understanding the spread and the severity of epidemics, but the prediction of viral cross-protection remains an important unsolved problem. For foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) resea...

  3. IgA antibody response of swine to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection and vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) continues to be a significant economic problem worldwide. Control of the disease involves the use of killed virus vaccines, a control measure developed decades ago. However, the primary site of replication of FMDV after natural infection is the pharyngeal area and...

  4. Foot-and-mouth disease virus : the role of infection routes and species differences in the transmission of FMDV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo De Rueda Cabrera, C.

    2015-01-01

    ÁFoot-and-mouth disease is a contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals (e.g. cattle, sheep, pigs) and can cause severe economic losses to the farm animal industries. The aim of this thesis was to quantify underlying mechanisms regarding transmission of FMDV. With data from past animal

  5. Constitutively active IRF7/IRF3 fusion protein completely protects swine against Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) remains one of the most devastating livestock diseases around the world. Several serotype specific vaccine formulations exist but require about 5-7 days to induce protective immunity. Our previous studies have shown that a constitutively active fusion protein of porcine ...

  6. Control of foot-and-mouth disease by using replication-defective human adenoviruses to deliver vaccines and biotherapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most contagious viral diseases that can affect cloven-hoofed livestock and wild animals. Outbreaks of FMD have caused devastating economic losses and the slaughter of millions of animals in many regions of the world affecting the food chain and global devel...

  7. Porcine type I interferon rapidly protects swine against challenge with multiple serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals that rapidly replicates and spreads within infected animals and into the environment. Vaccines require approximately 7 days to induce protection, but prior to this time vaccinated animals are still suscep...

  8. Complete Genome Sequence Analysis of a Vaccine Strain of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype O from Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Shabbir, Muhammad Zubair; Munir, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Sequencing and subsequent analysis of a vaccine strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O is reported here. Genomic heterogeneity in the protective epitopes (VP1 protein) of the reported strain, compared to characterized strains and available sequences from Pakistan, warrants further studies to determine vaccine-induced immunity and disease protection.

  9. Phylogeography of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Luiz Max Fagundes; Santos, Leonardo Bacelar Lima; Faria, Nuno Rodrigues; de Castro Silveira, Waldemir

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the causative agent of the most important disease of domestic cattle, foot-and-mouth disease. In Ecuador, FMDV is maintained at an endemic state, with sporadic outbreaks. To unravel the tempo and mode of FMDV spread within the country we conducted a Bayesian phylogeographic analysis using a continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) to model the diffusion of FMDV between Ecuadorian provinces. We implement this framework through Markov chain Monte Carlo available in the BEAST package to study 90 FMDV serotype O isolates from 17 provinces in the period 2002-2010. The Bayesian approach also allowed us to test hypotheses on the mechanisms of viral spread by incorporating environmental and epidemiological data in our prior distributions and perform Bayesian model selection. Our analyses suggest an intense flow of viral strains throughout the country that is possibly coupled to animal movements and ecological factors, since most of inferred viral spread routes were in Coast and Highland regions. Moreover, our results suggest that both short- and long-range spread occur within Ecuador. The province of Esmeraldas, in the border with Colombia and where most animal commerce is done, was found to be the most probable origin of the circulating strains, pointing to a transboundary behavior of FMDV in South America. These findings suggest that uncontrolled animal movements can create a favorable environment for FMDV maintenance and pose a serious threat to control programmes. Also, we show that phylogeographic modeling can be a powerful tool in unraveling the spatial dynamics of viruses and potentially in controlling the spread of these pathogens. PMID:22985683

  10. Thermal Inactivation of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses in Suspension▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kamolsiripichaiporn, Somjai; Subharat, Supatsak; Udon, Romphruke; Thongtha, Panithan; Nuanualsuwan, Suphachai

    2007-01-01

    The heat resistance of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) strains isolated from outbreaks in Thailand was investigated in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100°C. The first-order kinetic model fitted most of the observed linear inactivation curves. The ranges of decimal-reduction time (D value) of FMDV strains at 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100°C were 732 to 1,275 s, 16.37 to 42.00 s, 6.06 to 10.87 s, 2.84 to 5.99 s, 1.65 to 3.18 s, and 1.90 to 2.94 s, respectively. The ...

  11. Modeling the Effects of Multiple Intervention Strategies on Controlling Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steady Mushayabasa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is a threat to economic security and infrastructure as well as animal health, in both developed and developing countries. We propose and analyze an optimal control problem where the control system is a mathematical model for FMD that incorporates vaccination and culling of infectious animals. The control functions represent the fraction of animals that are vaccinated during an outbreak, infectious symptomatic animals that are detected and culled, and infectious nonsymptomatic animals that are detected and culled. Our aim was to study how these control measures should be implemented for a certain time period, in order to reduce or eliminate FMD in the community, while minimizing the interventions implementation costs. A cost-effectiveness analysis is carried out, to compare the application of each one of the control measures, separately or in combination.

  12. Detection of hand, foot and mouth disease in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Machain-Williams

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD in a 5-year-old male from Merida City in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. A clinical and physical examination revealed that the patient had symptoms typical of HFMD, including fever, fatigue, odynophagia, throat edema, hyperemia, lesions on the hands and feet, and blisters in the oral cavity. The patient fully recovered after a convalescence period of almost three weeks. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequencing revealed that the etiological agent was enterovirus 71 (EV71. The sequence has greatest (90.4% nucleotide identity to the corresponding regions of EV71 isolates from the Netherlands and Singapore. Although HFMD is presumably common in Mexico, surprisingly there are no data in the PubMed database to support this. This case report provides the first peer-reviewed evidence of HFMD in Mexico.

  13. Detection of hand, foot and mouth disease in the yucatan peninsula of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machain-Williams, Carlos; Dzul-Rosado, Alma R; Yeh-Gorocica, Aarón B; Rodriguez-Ruz, Katia G; Noh-Pech, Henry; Talavera-Aguilar, Lourdes; Salazar, Ma Isabel; Castro-Mussot, María Eugenia; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe; Garcia-Rejon, Julián E; Puerto-Manzano, Fernando I; Blitvich, Bradley J

    2014-11-19

    We report a case of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in a 5-year-old male from Merida City in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. A clinical and physical examination revealed that the patient had symptoms typical of HFMD, including fever, fatigue, odynophagia, throat edema, hyperemia, lesions on the hands and feet, and blisters in the oral cavity. The patient fully recovered after a convalescence period of almost three weeks. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequencing revealed that the etiological agent was enterovirus 71 (EV71). The sequence has greatest (90.4%) nucleotide identity to the corresponding regions of EV71 isolates from the Netherlands and Singapore. Although HFMD is presumably common in Mexico, surprisingly there are no data in the PubMed database to support this. This case report provides the first peer-reviewed evidence of HFMD in Mexico. PMID:25568757

  14. Topographic determinants of foot and mouth disease transmission in the UK 2001 epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keeling Matthew J

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key challenge for modelling infectious disease dynamics is to understand the spatial spread of infection in real landscapes. This ideally requires a parallel record of spatial epidemic spread and a detailed map of susceptible host density along with relevant transport links and geographical features. Results Here we analyse the most detailed such data to date arising from the UK 2001 foot and mouth epidemic. We show that Euclidean distance between infectious and susceptible premises is a better predictor of transmission risk than shortest and quickest routes via road, except where major geographical features intervene. Conclusion Thus, a simple spatial transmission kernel based on Euclidean distance suffices in most regions, probably reflecting the multiplicity of transmission routes during the epidemic.

  15. Evaluation of antiviral activity of plant extracts against foot and mouth disease virus in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younus, Ishrat; Siddiq, Afshan; Ishaq, Humera; Anwer, Laila; Badar, Sehrish; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate antiviral activity of chloroformic leaves extracts of three plants: Azadirachta indica, Moringa oleifera and Morus alba against Foot and Mouth disease virus using MTT assay (3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide). Antiviral and cytotoxic activity of each extract was evaluated as cell survival percentage and results were expressed as Means ± S.D. The concentrations which resulted in cell survival percentages of greater than 50% are considered to be effective antiviral concentrations. From the tested plant extracts, Moringa oleifera showed potent antiviral activity (p<0.05) while Azadirachta indica showed significant antiviral activity in the range of 1-50μ/ml & 12-100μ/ml respectively. In contrast no antiviral activity was observed by Morus alba as all the tested concentration resulted in significant reduction (p<0.05) in cell survival percentage. PMID:27393440

  16. Differences in the susceptibility of dromedary and Bactrian camels to foot-and-mouth disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larska, M.; Wernery, U.; Kinne, J.;

    2009-01-01

    In this study, two sheep, eight dromedary camels and two Bactrian camels were inoculated with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) type A SAU 22/92. Five naive dromedary camels and four sheep were kept in direct or indirect contact with the inoculated camels. The inoculated sheep, which served...... as positive controls, displayed typical moderate clinical signs of FMD and developed viraemia and high antibody titres. The presence of the virus was also detected in probang and mouth-swab samples for several days after inoculation. In contrast, the inoculated dromedary camels were not susceptible to FMDV...... type A infection. None of them showed clinical signs of FMD or developed viraemia or specific anti-FMDV antibodies despite the high dose of virus inoculated. All the contact sheep and contact dromedaries that were kept together with the inoculated camels remained virus-negative and did not seroconvert...

  17. Promising MS2 mediated virus-like particle vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan-mei; Zhang, Guo-guang; Huang, Xiao-jun; Chen, Liang; Chen, Hao-tai

    2015-05-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has caused severe economic losses to millions of farmers worldwide. In this work, the coding genes of 141-160 epitope peptide (EP141-160) of VP1 were inserted into the coat protein (CP) genes of MS2 in prokaryotic expression vector, and the recombinant protein self-assembled into virus-like particles (VLP). Results showed that the CP-EP141-160 VLP had a strong immunoreaction with the FMD virus (FMDV) antigen in vitro, and also had an effective immune response in mice. Further virus challenge tests were carried out on guinea pigs and swine, high-titer neutralizing antibodies were produced and the CP-EP141-160 VLP vaccine could protect most of the animals against FMDV. PMID:25676866

  18. Localization of foot-and-mouth disease - RNA synthesis on newly formed cellular smooth membranous vacuoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viral RNA synthesis in foot-and-mouth disease infected bovine kidney cell cultures was associated throughout the infectious period with newly formed smooth membranous vacuoles. Membrane formation was measured by choline uptake. The site of RNA synthesis was determined by electron microscopic examination of autoradiograms of incorporated [3H] uridine. Both membrane formation and RNA synthesis became signifcant at 2.5 hours postinfection, but membrane formation increased steadily to 4.5 hours while RNA synthesis peaked at 3.5 hours. Percent density distributions of developed silver grains on autoradiograms showed that almost all RNA synthesis was concentrated on the smooth vacuoles of infected cells. Histogram analysis of grain density distributions established that the site of RNA synthesis was the vacuolar membrane. The newly formed smooth membrane-bound vacuoles were not seen to coalesce into the large vacuolated areas typical of poliovirus cytopathogenicity. (Author)

  19. Foot-and-mouth disease virus persists in the light zone of germinal centres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Juleff

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV is one of the most contagious viruses of animals and is recognised as the most important constraint to international trade in animals and animal products. Two fundamental problems remain to be understood before more effective control measures can be put in place. These problems are the FMDV "carrier state" and the short duration of immunity after vaccination which contrasts with prolonged immunity after natural infection. Here we show by laser capture microdissection in combination with quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemical analysis and corroborate by in situ hybridization that FMDV locates rapidly to, and is maintained in, the light zone of germinal centres following primary infection of naïve cattle. We propose that maintenance of non-replicating FMDV in these sites represents a source of persisting infectious virus and also contributes to the generation of long-lasting antibody responses against neutralising epitopes of the virus.

  20. Serosurveillance of wild deer and wild boar after the epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease in the Netherlands in 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.W.; Dekker, A.; Dekkers, L.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Blood samples from 140 wild deer and 208 wild boar shot in the aftermath of the epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease in the Netherlands in 2001 were examined for antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus. They were all negative

  1. Structure-based discovery of foot-and-mouth disease inhibitors that target the 3Dpol RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) primarily targets cloven-hoofed animals. The FMDV outbreak results in significant economic losses. There are currently no available antiviral drugs for Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) treatment, and vaccination needs at least 7 days to effectively trigger the immune...

  2. Seroprevalence of Foot and Mouth Disease in the Somali Eco-System in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. Chepkwony

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to document the prevalence of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD in the arid and semi-arid areas where the pastoral mode of livestock rearing is pre-dominant in Kenya especially in the Somali Eco-system. A cross-sectional sero-epidemiological study was conducted in the Somali Ecosystem (SES in Kenya with 499 sera collected from January 2007 to December 2008 to determine the seroprevalence of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD in cattle in the SES. The samples were screened against the five serotypes of FMD known to be in circulation in Kenya i.e., FMD O. A, C, SAT1, SAT2 and measured by microneutralizationassay. The overall sero-prevalence of FMD in the Somali-ecosystem was found to be 45.3% (95% CI = 40.96 to 49.66%. Twenty seven percent of all animals sampled tested positive for only one serotype while 17.6% tested positive for multiple serotypes. There was a high prevalence (p#0.05 in the circulation of serotype O (23 and 95% CI = 20.13-27.57% as compared with the other serotypes, while the prevalence of serotype C was significantly lower (p#0.05 compared to the other four serotypes (1.6 and 95% CI = 0.82-3.12. Wajir district recorded the highest prevalence (24.8 and 95% CI = 16.71 to 27.54 while Garissa district recorded the least (6.2%. There was no significant sero-prevalence variation in relation to sex while older animals had higher sero-prevalences. The pastoral mode of livestock production, porous borders and wildlife inter-phase are significant factors that need consideration for effective control programmes.

  3. Virological investigation of hand, foot, and mouth disease in a tertiary care center in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavithra M Vijayaraghavan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD remains a common problem in India, yet its etiology is largely unknown as diagnosis is based on clinical characteristics. There are very few laboratory-based molecular studies on HFMD outbreaks. Aim: The aim of this study was to characterize HFMD-related isolates by molecular techniques. Settings and Design: Between 2005 and 2008, during two documented HFMD outbreaks, 30 suspected HFMD cases presented at the Outpatient Unit of the Department of Dermatology, Christian Medical College (CMC, Vellore. Seventy-eight clinical specimens (swabs from throat, mouth, rectum, anus, buttocks, tongue, forearm, sole, and foot were received from these patients at the Department of Clinical Virology, CMC, for routine diagnosis of hand, foot, and mouth disease. Materials and Methods: Samples from these patients were cultured in Vero and rhabdomyosarcoma (RD cell lines. Isolates producing enterovirus-like cytopathogenic effect (CPE in cell culture were identified by a nested reverse transcription-based polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and sequenced. The nucleotide sequences were analyzed using the BioEdit sequence program. Homology searches were performed using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST algorithm. Statistical Analysis used: The statistical analysis was performed using Epi Info version 6.04b and Microsoft Excel 2002 (Microsoft Office XP. Results: Of the 30 suspected HFMD cases, only 17 (57% were laboratory confirmed and Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16 was identified as the etiological agent in all these cases. Conclusions: Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16 was identified as the virus that caused the HFMD outbreaks in Vellore between 2005 and 2008. Early confirmation of HFMD helps to initiate control measures to interrupt virus transmission. In the laboratory, classical diagnostic methods, culture and serological tests are being replaced by molecular techniques. Routine surveillance systems will help understand the

  4. Foot and mouth disease in selected districts of western Ethiopia: seroprevalence and associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, B; Tolosa, T; Rufael, T; Hailu, B; Teklue, T

    2015-12-01

    A study was conducted in western Ethiopia--in two districts of Oromia state and four districts of Beneshangul Gumuz state--to determine the seroprevalence of foot and mouth disease and the associated risk factors, using multistage random sampling. A 3ABC blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure antibody against the non-structural protein of foot and mouth disease virusto differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals.Atotal of 1,144 sera from 181 herds were collected and examined. The overall seroprevalence at animal level and herd level was 9% (95% Cl 7.2-10.6) and 38.1% (95% CI 29.1-47.1), respectively. Statistically significant differences (p goats, respectively. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) in herd seroprevalence were observed among districts, with 52%, 50%, 50%, 44%, 21% and 11% in Gidami, Begi, Tongo, Bambasi, Mange and Asosa districts, respectively. In univariable and multivariable logistic regression, the variables that had a positive relationship with seroprevalence at herd level (p < 0.05) were herd size, contact of livestock with ungulate wildlife, and contact of animals with animals/herds of a different peasant association. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated that, at the animal level, age and species had a statistically significant association (p < 0.05) with seropositivity. In conclusion, herd size, contact of livestock with ungulate wildlife, contact between herds from different peasant associations, and the age and species of the animals were the main risk factors for virus circulation in the study area. PMID:27044163

  5. Cost-benefit analysis of foot and mouth disease control in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemberu, Wudu T; Mourits, Monique; Rushton, Jonathan; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-09-15

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) occurs endemically in Ethiopia. Quantitative insights on its national economic impact and on the costs and benefits of control options are, however, lacking to support decision making in its control. The objectives of this study were, therefore, to estimate the annual costs of FMD in cattle production systems of Ethiopia, and to conduct an ex ante cost-benefit analysis of potential control alternatives. The annual costs of FMD were assessed based on production losses, export losses and control costs. The total annual costs of FMD under the current status quo of no official control program were estimated at 1354 (90% CR: 864-2042) million birr. The major cost (94%) was due to production losses. The costs and benefits of three potential control strategies: 1) ring vaccination (reactive vaccination around outbreak area supported by animal movement restrictions, 2) targeted vaccination (annual preventive vaccination in high risk areas plus ring vaccination in the rest of the country), and 3) preventive mass vaccination (annual preventive vaccination of the whole national cattle population) were compared with the baseline scenario of no official control program. Experts were elicited to estimate the influence of each of the control strategies on outbreak incidence and number of cases per outbreak. Based on these estimates, the incidence of the disease was simulated stochastically for 10 years. Preventive mass vaccination was epidemiologically the most efficient control strategy by reducing the national outbreak incidence below 5% with a median time interval of 3 years, followed by targeted vaccination strategy with a corresponding median time interval of 5 years. On average, all evaluated control strategies resulted in positive net present values. The ranges in the net present values were, however, very wide, including negative values. The targeted vaccination strategy was the most economic strategy with a median benefit cost ratio of 4

  6. Cost-benefit analysis of foot and mouth disease control in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemberu, Wudu T; Mourits, Monique; Rushton, Jonathan; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-09-15

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) occurs endemically in Ethiopia. Quantitative insights on its national economic impact and on the costs and benefits of control options are, however, lacking to support decision making in its control. The objectives of this study were, therefore, to estimate the annual costs of FMD in cattle production systems of Ethiopia, and to conduct an ex ante cost-benefit analysis of potential control alternatives. The annual costs of FMD were assessed based on production losses, export losses and control costs. The total annual costs of FMD under the current status quo of no official control program were estimated at 1354 (90% CR: 864-2042) million birr. The major cost (94%) was due to production losses. The costs and benefits of three potential control strategies: 1) ring vaccination (reactive vaccination around outbreak area supported by animal movement restrictions, 2) targeted vaccination (annual preventive vaccination in high risk areas plus ring vaccination in the rest of the country), and 3) preventive mass vaccination (annual preventive vaccination of the whole national cattle population) were compared with the baseline scenario of no official control program. Experts were elicited to estimate the influence of each of the control strategies on outbreak incidence and number of cases per outbreak. Based on these estimates, the incidence of the disease was simulated stochastically for 10 years. Preventive mass vaccination was epidemiologically the most efficient control strategy by reducing the national outbreak incidence below 5% with a median time interval of 3 years, followed by targeted vaccination strategy with a corresponding median time interval of 5 years. On average, all evaluated control strategies resulted in positive net present values. The ranges in the net present values were, however, very wide, including negative values. The targeted vaccination strategy was the most economic strategy with a median benefit cost ratio of 4

  7. Mechanisms of foot-and-mouth disease virus tropism inferred from differential tissue gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J Zhu

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV targets specific tissues for primary infection, secondary high-titer replication (e.g. foot and mouth where it causes typical vesicular lesions and long-term persistence at some primary replication sites. Although integrin αVβ6 receptor has been identified as primary FMDV receptors in animals, their tissue distribution alone fails to explain these highly selective tropism-driven events. Thus, other molecular mechanisms must play roles in determining this tissue specificity. We hypothesized that differences in certain biological activities due to differential gene expression determine FMDV tropism and applied whole genome gene expression profiling to identify genes differentially expressed between FMDV-targeted and non-targeted tissues in terms of supporting primary infection, secondary replication including vesicular lesions, and persistence. Using statistical and bioinformatic tools to analyze the differential gene expression, we identified mechanisms that could explain FMDV tissue tropism based on its association with differential expression of integrin αVβ6 heterodimeric receptor (FMDV receptor, fibronectin (ligand of the receptor, IL-1 cytokines, death receptors and the ligands, and multiple genes in the biological pathways involved in extracellular matrix turnover and interferon signaling found in this study. Our results together with reported findings indicate that differences in (1 FMDV receptor availability and accessibility, (2 type I interferon-inducible immune response, and (3 ability to clear virus infected cells via death receptor signaling play roles in determining FMDV tissue tropism and the additional increase of high extracellular matrix turnover induced by FMDV infection, likely via triggering the signaling of highly expressed IL-1 cytokines, play a key role in the pathogenesis of vesicular lesions.

  8. Review of developments in the detection of antibodies to non-structural proteins of foot and mouth disease virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the background science for the use of non-structural proteins of foot and mouth disease in the differentiation of vaccinated and infected livestock. It puts the tests developed into the context of fitness for purpose and describes the needs for tests for different epidemiological niches. (author)

  9. Enhanced antiviral activity against foot-and-mouth disease virus by the combination of bovine type 1 and 2 interferons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the most contagious pathogen of cloven-hoofed animals including swine and bovines. In emergency control of outbreaks, it is fundamental to develop rapid protection to prevent spread of the infection. It has been shown that inoculation of 10^10 pfu of human aden...

  10. Cellular Changes Induced by Adenovirus Vaccine Vectors Expressing Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Structural and Nonstructural Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the most contagious pathogen of cloven-hoofed animals including swine and bovines. The emergency control of outbreaks is dependent on rapid protection and prevention of virus spread. Adenovirus-based FMD subunit vaccines containing the coding region of viral ca...

  11. Exploring the role of the lab protein of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) during viral infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The leader (L) protein of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) displays two forms, Lab and Lb, through initiation of translation at two in-frame AUG codons positioned 84 nucleotides apart. The short form (Lb) is the most abundant and functionally well characterized form of L. The presence of these tw...

  12. Infection dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus in pigs using two novel simulated natural inoculation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to characterize foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) dynamics in pigs, two simulated-natural inoculation systems were developed and evaluated using two different strains of FMDV (O1-Manisa and A24-Cruzeiro) at varying doses. Direct intra-oropharyngeal (IOP) and intra-nasopharyngeal (INP) in...

  13. Differential gene expression in bovine cells infected with wild type and leaderless foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The leader proteinase (Lpro) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) plays a critical role in viral pathogenesis. Molecular studies have demonstrated that Lpro inhibits the translation of host capped mRNAs and transcription of some genes involved in the innate immune response to viral infection. Here...

  14. Analysis of clinical features and early warning indicators of death from hand,foot and mouth disease in Shandong province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涛

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the clinical features of death from hand,foot and mouth disease(HFMD)and to explore the early warning index of HFMD death.Methods A total of41HFMD death cases were collected as case group in

  15. Porcine Interferon Gamma Promotes a Protective Innate Immune Response Against Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have recently demonstrated that the synergistic action of type I and II interferons (IFN) can rapidly protect swine against challenge with a low dose of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). While we did not detect antiviral activity or the presence of IFN alpha or gamma in any of the protected an...

  16. Interferon Alpha Production by Swine Dendritic Cells is Inhibited During Acute Infection with Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viruses have evolved multiple mechanisms to evade the innate immune response, particularly the actions of interferons (IFN). We have previously reported that exposure of dendritic cells (DCs) to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in vitro yields no infection and induces a strong IFN response indic...

  17. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus replicon particles can induce rapid protection against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have previously shown that swine pretreated with a replication-defective human adenovirus vector (Ad5) containing the porcine type I interferon gene (poIFN-alpha/Beta) are sterilely protected when challenged one day later with Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV), but the dose required is relativ...

  18. Studies on Sam68 a cell factor involved in the life cycle of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    As with other RNA viruses, Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) recruits various host cell factors to assist in translation and replication of the virus genome. While FMDV translation has been thoroughly investigated, much remains unknown regarding replication of the positive-sense RNA genome. In th...

  19. Differentiating infection from vaccination in foot-and-mouth-disease: evaluation of an ELISA based on recombinant 3ABC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruderer, U.; Swam, H.; Haas, B.; Visser, N.; Brocchi, E.; Grazioli, S.; Esterhuysen, J.J.; Vosloo, W.; Forsyth, M.; Aggarwal, N.; Cox, S.; Armstrong, R.; Anderson, J.

    2004-01-01

    Recent devastating outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Europe have reopened the discussion about the adequacy of the non-vaccination strategy implemented by the EU in 1991. Here we describe the evaluation of a new commercially available test kit for the discrimination between vaccination an

  20. Vaccination of pigs two weeks before infection significantly reduces transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eble, P.L.; Bouma, A.; Bruin, de M.G.M.; Hemert-Kluitenberg, van F.; Oirschot, van J.T.; Dekker, A.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether and at what time interval could vaccination reduce transmission of foot-and-Mouth disease virus (FMDV) among pigs. Reduction of virus transmission by vaccination was determined experimentally. Transmission of FMDV was studied in three groups of

  1. Passive immunization with llama single-domain antibody fragments reduces foot-and-mouth disease transmission between pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, M.M.; Fijten, H.P.D.; Engel, B.; Dekker, A.; Eble, P.L.

    2009-01-01

    We aim to develop a method that confers rapid protection against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) by passive immunization with recombinant llama single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs). Previously constructed genetic fusions of two VHHs (VHH2s) that either neutralizes FMDV or binds to porcine immunoglob

  2. Infection dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle following intra-nasopharyngeal inoculation or contact exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the purpose of developing an improved experimental model for studies of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in cattle, three different experimental systems based on natural or simulated-natural virus exposure were compared under standardized experimental conditions. Antemortem infecti...

  3. An integrative analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus carriers in Vietnam achieved through targeted surveillance and molecular epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multidisciplinary, molecular and conventional epidemiological approach was applied to an investigation of endemic foot-and-mouth disease in Vietnam. Within the study space, it was found that 22.3 percent of sampled ruminants had previously been infected with FMD virus (FMDV) and that 2.4 percent w...

  4. Role of Jumonji c-domain containing protein 6 (JMJD6) in infectivity of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) can utilize as many as three distinct groups of receptor molecules to attach and enter a susceptible host cell. Four integrin heterodimers (alphavBeta1, alphavBeta3, alphavBeta6, and alphavBeta8) can function as the primary receptor for FMDV field strains. FMDV ...

  5. Pathogenesis of primary foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in the nasopharynx of vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    A time-course pathogenesis study was performed to compare and contrast primary foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle following simulated-natural virus exposure. FMDV genome and infectious virus were detected during the initial phase of infection from b...

  6. Genome Sequence of Coxsackievirus A6, Isolated during a Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease Outbreak in Finland in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterback, Riikka; Koskinen, Satu; Merilahti, Pirjo; Pursiheimo, Juha-Pekka; Blomqvist, Soile; Roivainen, Merja; Laiho, Asta; Susi, Petri; Waris, Matti

    2014-10-16

    Reports of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) outbreaks caused by coxsackievirus A6 have increased worldwide after the report of the first outbreak in Finland in 2008. The complete genome of the first outbreak strain from a vesicle fluid specimen was determined.

  7. Optimization of immunohistochemical and fluorescent antibody techniques for localization of foot-and-mouth disease virus in animal tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunohistochemical (IHC) and immunofluorescent (IF) techniques were optimized for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) structural and non-structural proteins in frozen and paraformaldehyde-fixed paraffin embedded (PFPE) tissues of bovine and porcine origin. Immunohistochemical local...

  8. Bovine type III interferon significantly delays and reduces the severity of foot-and-mouth disease in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferons (IFNs) are the first line of defense against viral infections. Although type I and II IFNs have proven effective to inhibit foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) replication in swine, a similar approach has had only limited efficacy in cattle. Recently, a new family of IFNs, type III IFN o...

  9. Enhanced Antiviral Activity Against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus by the Combination of Bovine Type 1 and 2 Interferons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the most contagious pathogen of cloven-hoofed animals including swine and bovines. The emergency control of outbreaks is dependent on rapid protection and prevention of spread of the infection. Human adenovirus type 5 expressing porcine interferon alpha (Ad5-pI...

  10. Expression of porcine fusion protein IRF7/3(5D) efficiently controls foot-and-mouth disease virus replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several studies have demonstrated that administration of type I, II, or III interferons (IFN) delivered using a replication defective human adenovirus 5 (Ad5) vector is effective to control Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) in cattle and swine during experimental infections. However, high doses are requi...

  11. Early Events in the Pathogenesis of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Cattle After Controlled Aerosol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study was to identify the primary sites of replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in cattle subsequent to aerogenous inoculation. A novel aerosol inoculation method was developed to simulate natural, airborne transmission and thereby allow the identification of early rep...

  12. Prevalence of foot-and-mouth disease antibodies in dairy herds in the Netherlands four years after vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, A.; Terpstra, C.

    1996-01-01

    A total of 298 serum samples were collected from Dutch cattle born in 1988 or before, and examined in the virus neutralisation test for antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus types A10Holland, O1BFS, and C1Detmold. All the cattle had been vaccinated at least twice during the annual vaccinat

  13. Foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O phylodynamics: genetic variability associated with epidemiological factors in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the most challenging aspects of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) control is the high genetic variability of the FMD virus (FMDV). In endemic settings such as the Indian subcontinent, this variability has resulted in the emergence of pandemic strains that have spread widely and caused devastating ...

  14. Proper Quality Control of Formulated Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccines in Countries with Prophylactic Vaccination is Necessary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamal, S.M.; Shah, S.I.; Ali, Q.; Mehmood, A.; Afzal, M.; Dekker, A.

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is considered as an important tool to control foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). A good quality vaccine containing relevant serotypes and matching strains is a pre-requisite for vaccination to be effective. The present study investigated the quality of different brands of FMD vaccine availabl

  15. Characterization of a chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus bearing bovine rhinitis B virus leader proteinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our recent study has shown that bovine rhinovirus type 2 (BRV2), a new member of the Aphthovirus genus, shares many motifs and sequence similarities with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Despite low sequence conservation (36percent amino acid identity) and N- and C-terminus folding differences,...

  16. Heparan Sulfate-Binding Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Enters Cells Via Caveolae-Mediated Endocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) utilizes different cell surface macromolecules to facilitate infection of cultured cells. Virus which is virulent for susceptible animals infects cells via four members of the alpha V subclass of cellular integrins. In contrast, tissue culture adaptation of some...

  17. A partial deletion in non-structural protein 3A can attenuate foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of non-structural protein 3A in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) on the virulence in cattle has received significant attention. Particularly, a characteristic 10–20 amino acid deletion has been implicated as being responsible for virus attenuation in cattle: a 10 amino acid deletion in t...

  18. Interferon Alpha Production by Circulating Dendritic Cells is Inhibited During Acute Infection with Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viruses have evolved multiple mechanisms to evade the innate immune response, particularly the actions of interferons (IFN). We have previously reported that exposure of dendritic cells (DCs) to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in vitro yields no infection and induces a strong IFN response indica...

  19. Enhanced Antiviral Activity against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus by a Combination of Type 1 and 2 Porcine Interfereons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously, we showed that type I interferon (IFN alpha/beta) can inhibit foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) replication in cell culture and swine inoculated with 109 pfu human adenovirus type 5 expressing porcine IFN-alpha (Ad5-pIFN alpha) were protected when challenged one day later. In this stud...

  20. Adaptive Responses and Asset Strategies: The Experience of Rural Micro-Firms and Foot and Mouth Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Jeremy; Bennett, Katy; Lowe, Philip; Raley, Marian

    2004-01-01

    The 2001 Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) epidemic effectively closed large parts of the UK countryside for several months. Local firms found their operations disrupted and suffered losses of trade. The individual and collective experiences of affected firms provide vivid insights into how rural businesses and the local economies they constitute…

  1. Complete Genome Sequences of Serotype O Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses Recovered from Experimental Persistently Infected Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Parthiban, AravindhBabu R.; Mahapatra, Mana; Parida, Satya

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, the complete genome sequences of the six serotype O foot-and-mouth disease viruses from persistently infected carrier cattle are reported here. No consistent amino acid changes were found in these viruses obtained from persistently infected cattle compared with the complete genome of the parent virus that was used to infect the cattle.

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of a Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus of Serotype A Isolated from Vietnam in 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Ji-Hyeon; Nguyen, Tho Dang; Mai, Duoung Thuy; Kim, Su-Mi; Park, Jong-Hyeon; Kim, Byounghan; To, Thanh Long; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of a foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) found in an isolate collected in northern Vietnam in 2013 appears to be closely related to a genetic cluster formed with isolates from China, Mongolia, and Russia in 2013. All of these are classified to fall within the Sea-97 lineage, for which little complete genome data are available.

  3. Complete Genome Sequences of Three African Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses from Clinical Samples Isolated in 2009 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Borm, Steven; Rosseel, Toon; Haegeman, Andy; Fana, Mpolokang Elliot; Seoke, Latoa; Hyera, Joseph; Matlho, George; Vandenbussche, Frank; De Clercq, Kris

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequences of three foot-and-mouth disease viruses (one virus of each serotype SAT1, SAT2 and O) were directly sequenced from RNA extracted from clinical bovine samples, demonstrating the feasibility of full-genome sequencing from strong positive samples taken from symptomatic animals. PMID:27151795

  4. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype O Phylodynamics: Genetic Variability Associated with Epidemiological Factors in Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brito, B. P.; Perez, A. M.; Jamal, S. M.;

    2013-01-01

    One of the most challenging aspects of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) control is the high genetic variability of the FMD virus (FMDV). In endemic settings such as the Indian subcontinent, this variability has resulted in the emergence of pandemic strains that have spread widely and caused devastati...... into Europe (Bulgaria) and Africa (Libya)....

  5. Specific quantification of whole virions of foot and mouth disease virus in a sandwich ELISA using a monoclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A monoclonal antibody (MAb) against a linear determinant on foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) O1 Swiss VP1 (amino acids 140-160) has been used to specifically measure the weight of whole particles (146S) in the presence of subunits (12S). The MAb is used both as capture antibody, when attached to a microtitre plate, and as detecting reagent conjugated with horse radish peroxidase. The test also offers a qualitative assessment of antigen, since the epitope detected is sensitive to trypsin and other proteolytic enzymes in tissues culture supernatants. This offers a specific and sensitive assay for the measurement of immunogenic particles during vaccine manufacture without the need for sucrose density gradient centrifugation and use of polyacrylamide gel electrophesis to analyse possible VP1 cleavage. (author). 1 ref., 5 figs

  6. International approach to eradication and surveillance for foot-and-mouth disease in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Torres, J G

    2000-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) was introduced into the Americas in 1870. At that time the disease was described simultaneously in the North coast of the United States of North America, the Province of Buenos Aires in Argentina, the central region of Chile, Uruguay, and South Brazil. At the beginning of the twentieth century the disease spread to the rest of Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Perú. In 1950 the disease was introduced into Venezuela, and in the same year to Colombia, and from there to Ecuador. The United States of America eradicated an outbreak of FMD in 1929. Outbreaks of FMD were also eradicated from Mexico in 1947 and from Canada in 1952. The last outbreak that occurred in Mexico in 1954 was also eradicated. In 1951 the Americas Animal Health Authorities decided to establish a Pan-American Foot-and-Mouth Disease Center (PANAFTOSA), initially as a special program within the American States Organization (OAS). The center was later transferred to the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO). In the early 1970s PANAFTOSA developed a proposal for a continental surveillance system for vesicular diseases, which was approved by Agriculture Ministers at an International Meeting for FMD and Zoonoses (RICAZ). Since then, PANAFTOSA dedicated all efforts to collaborate with each country in the implementation of the system and to receive, analyze, and distribute a weekly report of vesicular diseases. The model was elaborated using coordinate grid maps, one for the South American Continent, others for each country in the region. The reports from each country consist of the grid location for any suspicious outbreak of vesicular disease. Using the information gathered during visits to the countries, as well as weekly reports, and by studying the most frequent animal movements within the region, PANAFTOSA developed a proposal for FMD eradication. This plan was approved by the Government of South America and implemented in cooperation with PANAFTOSA. The hemispheric plan

  7. Challenges and prospects for the control of foot-and-mouth disease: an African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maree FF

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Francois F Maree,1,2 Christopher J Kasanga,3, Katherine A Scott,1 Pamela A Opperman,1,2 Melanie Chitray,1,2, Abraham K Sangula,4 Raphael Sallu,3 Yona Sinkala,5 Philemon N Wambura,3 Donald P King,6 David J Paton,6 Mark M Rweyemamu,3 1Transboundary Animal Diseases Programme, Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Agricultural Research Council, Onderstepoort, Pretoria, South Africa; 2Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agricultural and Natural Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; 3Southern African Centre for Infectious Diseases Surveillance, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania; 4Foot-and-Mouth Disease Laboratory, Embakasi, Nairobi, Kenya; 5Department of Disease Control, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia; 6The Pirbright Institute, Pirbright, Surrey, UK Abstract: The epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD in Africa is unique in the sense that six of the seven serotypes of FMD viruses (Southern African Territories [SAT] 1, SAT2, SAT3, A, O, and C, with the exception of Asia-1, have occurred in the last decade. Due to underreporting of FMD, the current strains circulating throughout sub-Saharan Africa are in many cases unknown. For SAT1, SAT2, and serotype A viruses, the genetic diversity is reflected in antigenic variation, and indications are that vaccine strains may be needed for each topotype. This has serious implications for control using vaccines and for choice of strains to include in regional antigen banks. The epidemiology is further complicated by the fact that SAT1, SAT2, and SAT3 viruses are maintained and spread by wildlife, persistently infecting African buffalo in particular. Although the precise mechanism of transmission of FMD from buffalo to cattle is not well understood, it is facilitated by direct contact between these two species. Once cattle are infected they may maintain SAT infections without the further involvement of buffalo. No

  8. [Hand, foot and mouth disease--more than a harmless "childhood disease"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a highly contagious, world-wide distributed viral illness that affects predominantly children. It is caused by several enteroviruses, such as coxsackieviruses A6, A10, A16 and enterovirus 71. In most cases, HFMD follows a benign and self-limiting course. After an incubation period of 3 to 10 days, fever and sore throat, the first symptoms of the disease, appear. A few days later, maculopapular or vesicular eruptions form on the palms and soles as well as in the oral cavity. Since the year 2000, several large HFMD outbreaks have been reported in many Asian regions such as China, Malaysia and Vietnam. In some of these outbreaks, high incidences of severe progressive HFMD forms with some fatalities were observed. Such diseases have been caused primarily by enterovirus 71 strains and were characterized frequently by sudden onset of fever, encephalitis/meningitis and severe respiratory symptoms such as pulmonary edema. Further severe neurological and cardiac complications have also been observed during these outbreaks. Recently, some HFMD outbreaks caused by the coxsackievirus A6 have been reported in several parts of the world. These illnesses also affected adults and were characterized by more severe symptoms of "classical" HFMD. In addition, outbreaks of coxsackievirus-A6-associated HFMD in many countries were associated with onychomadesis, with the loss of nails occurring up to two months after initial symptoms. Treatment of "classical" HFMD is usually symptomatic, a generally recommended antiviral therapy does not exist. In severe HFMD cases, suitable treatment also encompasses mechanical ventilation, as well as the additional application of antiviral agents such as ribavirin. In the last years, several novel agents with good in vitro and in vivo activity against enteroviruses have been developed. A vaccine against HFMD is not yet available. PMID:24490433

  9. Decision-making for foot-and-mouth disease control: Objectives matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probert, William J M; Shea, Katriona; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J; Runge, Michael C; Carpenter, Tim E; Dürr, Salome; Garner, M Graeme; Harvey, Neil; Stevenson, Mark A; Webb, Colleen T; Werkman, Marleen; Tildesley, Michael J; Ferrari, Matthew J

    2016-06-01

    Formal decision-analytic methods can be used to frame disease control problems, the first step of which is to define a clear and specific objective. We demonstrate the imperative of framing clearly-defined management objectives in finding optimal control actions for control of disease outbreaks. We illustrate an analysis that can be applied rapidly at the start of an outbreak when there are multiple stakeholders involved with potentially multiple objectives, and when there are also multiple disease models upon which to compare control actions. The output of our analysis frames subsequent discourse between policy-makers, modellers and other stakeholders, by highlighting areas of discord among different management objectives and also among different models used in the analysis. We illustrate this approach in the context of a hypothetical foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreak in Cumbria, UK using outputs from five rigorously-studied simulation models of FMD spread. We present both relative rankings and relative performance of controls within each model and across a range of objectives. Results illustrate how control actions change across both the base metric used to measure management success and across the statistic used to rank control actions according to said metric. This work represents a first step towards reconciling the extensive modelling work on disease control problems with frameworks for structured decision making. PMID:27266845

  10. Decision-making for foot-and-mouth disease control: Objectives matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J.M. Probert

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Formal decision-analytic methods can be used to frame disease control problems, the first step of which is to define a clear and specific objective. We demonstrate the imperative of framing clearly-defined management objectives in finding optimal control actions for control of disease outbreaks. We illustrate an analysis that can be applied rapidly at the start of an outbreak when there are multiple stakeholders involved with potentially multiple objectives, and when there are also multiple disease models upon which to compare control actions. The output of our analysis frames subsequent discourse between policy-makers, modellers and other stakeholders, by highlighting areas of discord among different management objectives and also among different models used in the analysis. We illustrate this approach in the context of a hypothetical foot-and-mouth disease (FMD outbreak in Cumbria, UK using outputs from five rigorously-studied simulation models of FMD spread. We present both relative rankings and relative performance of controls within each model and across a range of objectives. Results illustrate how control actions change across both the base metric used to measure management success and across the statistic used to rank control actions according to said metric. This work represents a first step towards reconciling the extensive modelling work on disease control problems with frameworks for structured decision making.

  11. Decision-making for foot-and-mouth disease control: Objectives matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probert, William J. M.; Shea, Katriona; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J.; Runge, Michael C.; Carpenter, Tim E.; Durr, Salome; Garner, M. Graeme; Harvey, Neil; Stevenson, Mark A.; Webb, Colleen T.; Werkman, Marleen; Tildesley, Michael J.; Ferrari, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Formal decision-analytic methods can be used to frame disease control problems, the first step of which is to define a clear and specific objective. We demonstrate the imperative of framing clearly-defined management objectives in finding optimal control actions for control of disease outbreaks. We illustrate an analysis that can be applied rapidly at the start of an outbreak when there are multiple stakeholders involved with potentially multiple objectives, and when there are also multiple disease models upon which to compare control actions. The output of our analysis frames subsequent discourse between policy-makers, modellers and other stakeholders, by highlighting areas of discord among different management objectives and also among different models used in the analysis. We illustrate this approach in the context of a hypothetical foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreak in Cumbria, UK using outputs from five rigorously-studied simulation models of FMD spread. We present both relative rankings and relative performance of controls within each model and across a range of objectives. Results illustrate how control actions change across both the base metric used to measure management success and across the statistic used to rank control actions according to said metric. This work represents a first step towards reconciling the extensive modelling work on disease control problems with frameworks for structured decision making.

  12. Update on epidemiology and control of Foot and Mouth Disease - A menace to international trade and global animal enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Depa

    Full Text Available Foot and mouth disease (FMD is one of the most economically and socially devastating disease affecting animal agriculture throughout the world. This review describes economic impact of disease outbreaks, an update of recent findings in epidemiology of FMD both at International and national level and control of this disease. The etiological agent (FMD virus is examined in detail at genetic and molecular characterization level and in terms of antigenic diversity. [Vet World 2012; 5(11.000: 694-704

  13. Clinical application value of procalcitonin in the diagnosis of severe hand, foot and mouth disease combined with encephalitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiao-Ying Zhou; You-Ming Liao; Feng Jiang; Cui-Fen Bai

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical application of procalcitonin in the diagnosis of severe hand, foot and mouth disease combined with encephalitis. Methods:The research retrospectively analyzed the clinical information of 100 patients hospitalized from June 2014 to June 2015 in our hospital and diagnosed with 2-stage severe hand, foot and mouth disease combined with encephalitis. Peripheral blood WBC count, CRP and PCT levels as well as bacterial etiology such as urine, sputum, blood and feces of all patients were checked on admission. Meanwhile, the cerebrospinal fluid was collected in time through lumbar puncture for routine and biochemical examination. According to the diagnostic results, patients were divided into the virus infection group (n=63 cases) and the bacterial infection group (n=37). Peripheral blood WBC count, CRP and PCT levels of two groups were compared. Lumbar puncture and cerebrospinal fluid examination was used as the“golden standard”for diagnosis of severe hand, foot and mouth disease combined with bacterial encephalitis, and clinical diagnostic efficiency of WBC, CRP and PCT were evaluated by ROC curve. Results:Analysis results showed that the peripheral blood WBC count, CRP and PCT levels of the group with severe hand, foot and mouth disease complicated with bacterial infection were higher than those of the group complicated with virus infection, and the difference was statistically significant. The sensitivity, accuracy, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and Youden index of PCT in the diagnosis of severe hand, foot and mouth disease complicated with bacterial encephalitis were better than those of WBC and CRP, and the difference was statistically significant. AUC (area under the ROC curve) of PCT was 0.931, and was significantly higher than that of WBC (0.735) and CRP (0.774), and the difference was statistically significant. Conclusion:The WBC, CRP and PCT levels significantly increased in patients with severe

  14. Control of foot and mouth disease: the experience of the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa Melo, E; López, A

    2002-12-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) was first recognised in South America in 1870, almost simultaneously in the province of Buenos Aires (Argentina), in the central region of Chile, in Uruguay, in southern Brazil and coincidentally, on the northeastern coast of the United States of America. The epidemiology of the disease was unknown and no government action was taken following the initial outbreaks. This resulted in the disease spreading to other areas of Chile, as well as to Peru, Bolivia and Paraguay, reaching Venezuela and Colombia in the 1950s, and Ecuador in 1961. The entire continent was affected in the 1960s when national FMD control programmes were initiated, with the exception of Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana and Patagonia. In the 1970s, steps were taken to implement a regional control and eradication strategy in view of the impact of production and trade on the persistence of the virus. The Plan Hemisférico de Erradicación de la Fiebre Aftosa (PHEFA: Hemispheric FMD Eradication Plan), public- and private-sector policies, new diagnostic tools, the oil-adjuvanted FMD vaccine and regional strategies played a part in improving the epidemiological situation during the 1990s. A setback was encountered in 2000 and 2001, with outbreaks due to virus types A and 0 recorded in Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil.

  15. Evaluation of different adjuvants for foot-and-mouth disease vaccine containing all the SAT serotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cloete

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals that is primarily controlled by vaccination of susceptible animals and movement restrictions for animals and animal-derived products in South Africa. Vaccination using aluminium hydroxide gel-saponin (AS adjuvanted vaccines containing the South African Territories (SAT serotypes has been shown to be effective both in ensuring that disease does not spread from the endemic to the free zone and in controlling outbreaks in the free zone. Various vaccine formulations containing antigens derived from the SAT serotypes were tested in cattle that were challenged 1 year later. Both the AS and ISA 206B vaccines adjuvanted with saponin protected cattle against virulent virus challenge. The oilbased ISA 206B-adjuvanted vaccine with and without stimulators was evaluated in a field trial and both elicited antibody responses that lasted for 1 year. Furthermore, the ISA 206 adjuvanted FMD vaccine protected groups of cattle against homologous virus challenge at very low payloads, while pigs vaccinated with an emergency ISA 206B-based FMD vaccine containing the SAT 1 vaccine strains were protected against the heterologous SAT 1 outbreak strain.

  16. Modeling Estimated Personnel Needs for a Potential Foot and Mouth Disease Outbreak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, K; Hullinger, P

    2008-01-29

    Foot and Mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious and contagious viral disease affecting cloven-hoofed livestock that was last detected in the United States (US) in 1929. The prevalence of FMD in other countries, as well as the current potential for this virus to be used as a form of agroterrorism, has made preparations for a potential FMD outbreak a national priority. To assist in the evaluation of national preparedness, all 50 states were surveyed via e-mail, telephone and web search to obtain emergency response plans for FMD or for foreign animal diseases in general. Information from 33 states was obtained and analyzed for estimates of personnel resources needed to respond to an outbreak. These estimates were consolidated and enhanced to create a tool that could be used by individual states to better understand the personnel that would be needed to complete various tasks over time during an outbreak response. The estimates were then coupled, post-processing, to the output from FMD outbreaks simulated in California using the Multiscale Epidemiological/Economic Simulation and Analysis (MESA) model at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to estimate the personnel resource demands, by task, over the course of an outbreak response.

  17. IMPACTS OF THE 2005 FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE OUTBREAK ON BRAZILIAN BEEF EXPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Cortes Carvalho Garcia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD can lead to sanitary barriers to international trade and involves high investments for control and great losses in the event of an outbreak. This study investigated the impacts caused by FMD on the exports of fresh beef from Brazil after the 2005 outbreak and the observance of the regionalization principle of the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS by countries member of the WTO that were listed as the top 10 beef importing countries in 2004. The FMD outbreak that began in 2005 did not limit the increase in exports of fresh beef from Brazil, but impacted negatively on exports from Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraná States. The disease did not impact exports to the United States, Japan or Mexico, since these markets were closed to Brazil. Saudi Arabia, Russia and Iran were not members of the WTO in October 2005 and therefore had no obligation to respect the principle of regionalization, though Russia respected it. Among the other major importers of 2004, the Netherlands, Egypt, Italy, United Kingdom, France, Germany and Spain respected the principle of regionalization of the SPS Agreement. Chile did not respect the principle and the occurrence of the disease closed the market to Brazilian fresh beef.

  18. Evaluation of different adjuvants for foot-and-mouth disease vaccine containing all the SAT serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloete, M; Dungu, B; Van Staden, L I; Ismail-Cassim, N; Vosloo, W

    2008-03-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals that is primarily controlled by vaccination of susceptible animals and movement restrictions for animals and animal-derived products in South Africa. Vaccination using aluminium hydroxide gel-saponin (AS) adjuvanted vaccines containing the South African Territories (SAT) serotypes has been shown to be effective both in ensuring that disease does not spread from the endemic to the free zone and in controlling outbreaks in the free zone. Various vaccine formulations containing antigens derived from the SAT serotypes were tested in cattle that were challenged 1 year later. Both the AS and ISA 206B vaccines adjuvanted with saponin protected cattle against virulent virus challenge. The oil-based ISA 206B-adjuvanted vaccine with and without stimulators was evaluated in a field trial and both elicited antibody responses that lasted for 1 year. Furthermore, the ISA 206 adjuvanted FMD vaccine protected groups of cattle against homologous virus challenge at very low payloads, while pigs vaccinated with an emergency ISA 206B-based FMD vaccine containing the SAT 1 vaccine strains were protected against the heterologous SAT 1 outbreak strain. PMID:18575060

  19. Control of foot and mouth disease: the experience of the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa Melo, E; López, A

    2002-12-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) was first recognised in South America in 1870, almost simultaneously in the province of Buenos Aires (Argentina), in the central region of Chile, in Uruguay, in southern Brazil and coincidentally, on the northeastern coast of the United States of America. The epidemiology of the disease was unknown and no government action was taken following the initial outbreaks. This resulted in the disease spreading to other areas of Chile, as well as to Peru, Bolivia and Paraguay, reaching Venezuela and Colombia in the 1950s, and Ecuador in 1961. The entire continent was affected in the 1960s when national FMD control programmes were initiated, with the exception of Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana and Patagonia. In the 1970s, steps were taken to implement a regional control and eradication strategy in view of the impact of production and trade on the persistence of the virus. The Plan Hemisférico de Erradicación de la Fiebre Aftosa (PHEFA: Hemispheric FMD Eradication Plan), public- and private-sector policies, new diagnostic tools, the oil-adjuvanted FMD vaccine and regional strategies played a part in improving the epidemiological situation during the 1990s. A setback was encountered in 2000 and 2001, with outbreaks due to virus types A and 0 recorded in Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil. PMID:12523707

  20. Transmission of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease and Its Potential Driving Factors in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bingyi; Lau, Eric H Y; Wu, Peng; Cowling, Benjamin J

    2016-01-01

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is a common childhood disease with substantial disease burden in Asia. Mixed results were reported on the associations between HFMD incidence and meteorological factors or school holidays, while limited studies focused on their association on transmissibility. We aimed to measure the transmissibility of HFMD and to examine its potential driving factors in Hong Kong. A likelihood-based procedure was used to estimate time-dependent effective reproduction number (Rt) based on weekly number of HFMD-associated hospitalizations from 2010 to 2014. The associations of between-year effects, depletion of susceptibles, absolute humidity and school holidays with Rt were examined using linear regression. Rt usually started increasing between early spring and summer and peaked in April to May at around 1.1-1.2, followed by a slight rebound in autumn. Depletion of susceptibles and between-years effects explained most of the variances (19 and 13% respectively) in Rt. We found a negative association between depletion of susceptibles and Rt (coefficients ranged from -0.14 to -0.03 for different years), but the estimated effects of absolute humidity and school holidays were insignificant. Overall, HFMD transmission was moderate in Hong Kong and was mainly associated with depletion of susceptibles. Limited impact was suggested from meteorological factors and school holidays. PMID:27271966

  1. Spatio-Temporal Distribution and Hotspots of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratchaphon Samphutthanon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD is an emerging viral disease, and at present, there are no antiviral drugs or vaccines available to control it. Outbreaks have persisted for the past 10 years, particularly in northern Thailand. This study aimed to elucidate the phenomenon of HFMD outbreaks from 2003 to 2012 using general statistics and spatial-temporal analysis employing a GIS-based method. The spatial analysis examined data at the village level to create a map representing the distribution pattern, mean center, standard deviation ellipse and hotspots for each outbreak. A temporal analysis was used to analyze the correlation between monthly case data and meteorological factors. The results indicate that the disease can occur at any time of the year, but appears to peak in the rainy and cold seasons. The distribution of outbreaks exhibited a clustered pattern. Most mean centers and standard deviation ellipses occurred in similar areas. The linear directional mean values of the outbreaks were oriented toward the south. When separated by season, it was found that there was a significant correlation with the direction of the southwest monsoon at the same time. An autocorrelation analysis revealed that hotspots tended to increase even when patient cases subsided. In particular, a new hotspot was found in the recent year in Mae Hong Son province.

  2. Implementation of an HACCP model in foot and mouth disease control programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gelderen, C J; Durrieu, M; Schudel, A A

    2015-12-01

    The organisation and structure of the official Veterinary Services (OVS) are designed to meet a specific aim--the health certification of animal health, welfare and food safety in the production and processing stage. Disease prevention and control calls for programmes and projects that, depending on the characteristics of each disease, may involve any branch of the OVS, from the laboratory to field activities. For the purpose of this work, the model used is that of a country that is 'free from foot and mouth disease with vaccination' in accordance with the conditions stipulated in Chapter 8.8. of the World Organisation for Animal Health Terrestrial Animal Health Code. These conditions state that, to maintain this health status, a programme of monitoring and continuous control of the relevant variables must be implemented. This is achieved by applying good practice and identifying the critical control points in all processes, using a checklist that simplifies the task. The system that is developed can also serve as a guide for internal or external programme audits.

  3. IgA Antibody Response of Swine to Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Infection and Vaccination▿ #

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco, Juan M.; Butler, John E.; Jew, Jessica; Ferman, Geoffrey S.; Zhu, James; Golde, William T.

    2010-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) continues to be a significant economic problem worldwide. Control of the disease involves the use of killed-virus vaccines, a control measure developed decades ago. After natural infection, the primary site of replication of FMDV is the pharyngeal area, suggesting that a mucosal immune response is the most effective. Humoral immunity to killed-virus vaccination induces antibodies that can prevent the clinical disease but not local infection. Determining whe...

  4. Effects of a Traceability System on the Economic Impacts of a Foot-and-Mouth Disease Outbreak

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Jason; Carlberg, Jared G.; Pendell, Dustin L.

    2011-01-01

    The research reported in this paper created an epidemiological foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) spread model for Ontario. Disease simulations were constructed to reflect three levels of the cattle identification and movement recording system. Outputs generated by the epidemiological model are used to calculate the direct disease control costs of a FMD outbreak. Welfare effects caused by a FMD outbreak are also calculated for each level of cattle traceability using an equilibrium displacement mode...

  5. 手口足病的护理体会%Hand, foot and mouth disease nursing experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲秀梅

    2013-01-01

      目的:探讨手口足病病人的有效护理措施和体会。方法:选取我院入院治疗的典型手口足病病人160例采取饮食护理、皮肤护理、高热护理、口腔护理、病情观察和健康指导等护理措施。结果:通过对挑选的手口足病病人进行认真的护理,对其临床表现进行认真记录和观察,所有被选病例完全治愈出院,同时也为手口足病的临床治疗和护理提供了准确的资料。结论:通过对手口足病人的细心护理和临床表现,确认的手口足病通过隔离和正规的治疗和专业的临床护理后能够有效提高治愈率。%Objective:Hand, foot and mouth disease patients to explore the effective nursing measures and experience. Methods:Our selection to the hospital for treatment of typical of hand, foot and mouth disease patient 160 cases take diet care, skin care, high fever care, oral care, observation and health guidance for nursing measures. Results:Through the selection of hand, foot and mouth disease patient carefuly care, the clinical manifestations are serious records and observation, al selected cases fuly recovered after, but also for the hand, foot and mouth disease clinical treatment and nursing can provide more accurate data. Conclusion:Through the opponents foot and mouth the patient's careful nursing and clinical performance, confirmation of hand, foot and mouth disease through the isolation and regular treatment and professional clinical nursing can improve the cure rate.

  6. Normal variation in thermal radiated temperature in cattle: implications for foot-and-mouth disease detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloster John

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thermal imagers have been used in a number of disciplines to record animal surface temperatures and as a result detect temperature distributions and abnormalities requiring a particular course of action. Some work, with animals infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus, has suggested that the technique might be used to identify animals in the early stages of disease. In this study, images of 19 healthy cattle have been taken over an extended period to determine hoof and especially coronary band temperatures (a common site for the development of FMD lesions and eye temperatures (as a surrogate for core body temperature and to examine how these vary with time and ambient conditions. Results The results showed that under UK conditions an animal's hoof temperature varied from 10°C to 36°C and was primarily influenced by the ambient temperature and the animal's activity immediately prior to measurement. Eye temperatures were not affected by ambient temperature and are a useful indicator of core body temperature. Conclusions Given the variation in temperature of the hooves of normal animals under various environmental conditions the use of a single threshold hoof temperature will be at best a modest predictive indicator of early FMD, even if ambient temperature is factored into the evaluation.

  7. Application of mouse model for effective evaluation of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seo-Yong; Ko, Mi-Kyeong; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Choi, Joo-Hyung; You, Su-Hwa; Pyo, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Kim, Byounghan; Lee, Jong-Soo; Park, Jong-Hyeon

    2016-07-19

    Efficacy evaluation of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines has been conducted in target animals such as cows and pigs. In particular, handling FMD virus requires a high level of biosafety management and facilities to contain the virulent viruses. The lack of a laboratory animal model has resulted in inconvenience when it comes to using target animals for vaccine evaluation, bringing about increased cost, time and labor for the experiments. The FMD mouse model has been studied, but most FMD virus (FMDV) strains are not known to cause disease in adult mice. In the present study, we created a series of challenge viruses that are lethal to adult C57BL/6 mice. FMDV types O, A, and Asia1, which are related to frequent FMD outbreaks, were adapted for mice and the pathogenesis of each virus was evaluated in the mouse model. Challenge experiments after vaccination using in-house and commercial vaccines demonstrated vaccine-mediated protection in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, we propose that FMD vaccine evaluation should be carried out using mouse-adapted challenge viruses as a swift, effective efficacy test of experimental or commercial vaccines. PMID:27340094

  8. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in China: Critical Community Size and Spatial Vaccination Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Boeckel, Thomas P.; Takahashi, Saki; Liao, Qiaohong; Xing, Weijia; Lai, Shengjie; Hsiao, Victor; Liu, Fengfeng; Zheng, Yaming; Chang, Zhaorui; Yuan, Chen; Metcalf, C. Jessica E.; Yu, Hongjie; Grenfell, Bryan T.

    2016-01-01

    Hand Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) constitutes a considerable burden for health care systems across China. Yet this burden displays important geographic heterogeneity that directly affects the local persistence and the dynamics of the disease, and thus the ability to control it through vaccination campaigns. Here, we use detailed geographic surveillance data and epidemic models to estimate the critical community size (CCS) of HFMD associated enterovirus serotypes CV-A16 and EV-A71 and we explore what spatial vaccination strategies may best reduce the burden of HFMD. We found CCS ranging from 336,979 (±225,866) to 722,372 (±150,562) with the lowest estimates associated with EV-A71 in the southern region of China where multiple transmission seasons have previously been identified. Our results suggest the existence of a regional immigration-recolonization dynamic driven by urban centers. If EV-A71 vaccines doses are limited, these would be optimally deployed in highly populated urban centers and in high-prevalence areas. If HFMD vaccines are included in China’s National Immunization Program in order to achieve high coverage rates (>85%), routine vaccination of newborns largely outperforms strategies in which the equivalent number of doses is equally divided between routine vaccination of newborns and pulse vaccination of the community at large. PMID:27125917

  9. Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD): emerging epidemiology and the need for a vaccine strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswathyraj, S; Arunkumar, G; Alidjinou, E K; Hober, D

    2016-10-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a contagious viral disease and mainly affects infants and young children. The main manifestations are fever, vesicular rashes on hand, feet and buttocks and ulcers in the oral mucosa. Usually, HFMD is self-limiting, but a small proportion of children may experience severe complications such as meningitis, encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis and neurorespiratory syndrome. Historically, outbreaks of HFMD were mainly caused by two enteroviruses: the coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) and the enterovirus 71 (EV-A71). In the recent years, coxsackievirus A6 and coxsackievirus A10 have been widely associated with both sporadic cases and outbreaks of HFMD worldwide, particularly in India, South East Asia and Europe with an increased frequency of neurological complications as well as mortality. Currently, there is no pharmacological intervention or vaccine available for HFMD. A formalin-inactivated EV-A71 vaccine has completed clinical trial in several Asian countries. However, this vaccine cannot protect against other major emerging etiologies of HFMD such as CV-A16, CV-A6 and CV-A10. Therefore, the development of a globally representative multivalent HFMD vaccine could be the best strategy. PMID:27406374

  10. Outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease in Peninsular Malaysia from 2001 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanoon, Siti Zubaidah; Robertson, Ian Duncan; Edwards, John; Hassan, Latiffah; Isa, Kamaruddin Md

    2013-02-01

    This is a retrospective study of the outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Peninsular Malaysia between 2001 and May 2007. In total, 270 outbreaks of FMD were recorded. Serotype O virus (89.95 %) and serotype A (7.7 %) had caused the outbreaks. Significant differences on the occurrence of FMD were found between the years (t = 5.73, P = 0.000, df = 11), months (t = 4.7, P = 0.000, df = 11), monsoon season (t = 2.63, P = 0.025, df = 10) and states (t = 4.84, P = 0.001, df = 10). A peak of outbreaks observed in 2003 could be due to increased animal movement and the other peak in 2006 could be due to a compromised FMD control activities due to activities on the eradication of highly pathogenic avian influenza. Cattle (86 % of outbreaks) suffered the most. However, no difference in disease occurrence between species was observed. The populations of cattle (r = 0.672, P = 0.023) and sheep (r = 0.678, P = 0.022) were significantly correlated with occurrence of FMD. Movement of animals (66 % of outbreaks) was the main source for outbreaks. A combination of control measures were implemented during outbreaks. In conclusion, the findings of this study show that FMD is endemic in Peninsular Malaysia, and information gained could be used to improve the existing control strategy. PMID:22826115

  11. EV71 vaccine, a new tool to control outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qun-ying; Wang, Yiping; Bian, Lianlian; Xu, Miao; Liang, Zhenglun

    2016-05-01

    On December 3rd 2015, the China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) approved the first inactivated Enterovirus 71 (EV71) whole virus vaccine for preventing severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). As one of the few preventive vaccines for children's infectious diseases generated by the developing countries in recent years, EV71 vaccine is a blessing to children's health in China and worldwide. However, there are still a few challenges facing the worldwide use of EV71 vaccine, including the applicability against various EV71 pandemic strains in other countries, international requirements on vaccine production and quality control, standardization and harmonization on different pathogen monitoring and detecting methods, etc. In addition, the affordability of EV71 vaccine in other countries is a factor to be considered in HFMD prevention. Therefore, with EV71 vaccine commercially available, there is still a long way to go before reaching effective protection against severe HFMD after EV71 vaccines enter the market. In this paper, the bottlenecks and prospects for the wide use of EV71 vaccine after its approval are evaluated.

  12. Excretion of enterovirus 71 in persons infected with hand, foot and mouth disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD is a common illness in young children. It also can be seen in adults occasionally. Enterovirus 71 (EV71, a pathogen that causes not only HFMD but also neurological complications and even death, has caused many HFMD outbreaks in China. However, till now the data about the duration of EV71 shedding is very limited. Results A total of 136 throat swabs and fecal samples were collected from 27 children and 3 adults, which includs 7 close contacts, 9 mild cases and 14 severe cases,. The participants were divided into three groups namely, severe case group, mild case group and close contact group. All the samples were assayed with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Kruskal-Wallis Test was employed to compare the difference in duration of viral RNA shedding among three groups. The results showed that significant difference in duration of EV71 shedding was found among three groups (P  Conclusions HFMD is characterized by extended excretion of EV71. Our results suggest that the duration of EV71 shedding is correlated with the severity of the disease. EV71 shedding through feces can persist more than 54 days. Prolonged virus shedding is a potential risk factor of proliferating HFMD epidemic.

  13. EV71 vaccine, a new tool to control outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qun-Ying; Wang, Yiping; Bian, Lianlian; Xu, Miao; Liang, Zhenglun

    2016-05-01

    On December 3rd 2015, the China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) approved the first inactivated Enterovirus 71 (EV71) whole virus vaccine for preventing severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). As one of the few preventive vaccines for children's infectious diseases generated by the developing countries in recent years, EV71 vaccine is a blessing to children's health in China and worldwide. However, there are still a few challenges facing the worldwide use of EV71 vaccine, including the applicability against various EV71 pandemic strains in other countries, international requirements on vaccine production and quality control, standardization and harmonization on different pathogen monitoring and detecting methods, etc. In addition, the affordability of EV71 vaccine in other countries is a factor to be considered in HFMD prevention. Therefore, with EV71 vaccine commercially available, there is still a long way to go before reaching effective protection against severe HFMD after EV71 vaccines enter the market. In this paper, the bottlenecks and prospects for the wide use of EV71 vaccine after its approval are evaluated. PMID:26732723

  14. The Effects of Weather Factors on Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Weihua; Li, Xian’En; Yang, Peng; Liao, Hua; Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Quanyi

    2016-01-01

    The morbidity and mortality of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) are increasing in Beijing, China. Previous studies have indicated an association between incidents of HFMD and weather factors. However, the seasonal influence of these factors on the disease is not yet understood, and their relationship with the enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackie virus A16 (CV-A16) viruses are not well documented. We analysed 84,502 HFMD cases from 2008 to 2011 in Beijing to explore the seasonal influence of weather factors (average temperature [AT], average relative humidity [ARH], total precipitation [TP] and average wind speed [AWS]) on incidents of HFMD by using a geographically weighted regression (GWR) model. The results indicated that weather factors differ significantly in their influence on HFMD depending on the season. AT had the greatest effect among the four weather factors, and while the influence of AT and AWS was greater in the summer than in the winter, the influence of TP was positive in the summer and negative in the winter. ARH was negatively correlated with HFMD. Also, we observed more EV71-associated cases than CV-A16 but there is no convincing evidence to show significant differences between the influences of the weather factors on EV71 and CV-A16.

  15. Molecular investigation of foot-and-mouth disease virus in domestic bovids from Gharbia, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhaig, Mahmoud Mohey; Elsheery, Mohamed Nagi

    2014-12-01

    An outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) affecting cattle and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) occurred in Egypt during 2012/2013. The present study was undertaken to determine the current strains of the FMD virus (FMDV) and the prevalence of FMD among cattle and buffalo in Gharbia, Egypt. The diagnostic sensitivity of two RT-PCR assays for the detection of FMDV was evaluated. The results revealed that SAT2 was the causative agent. The percentage of infected of animals varied with the detection method, ranging from 62.5 % by the untranslated region (UTR) RT-PCR to 75.6 % by SAT2 RT-PCR. The overall prevalence and mortality rates were 100 and 21 %, respectively. The mortality was higher in buffalo (23.3 %) than it was in cattle (17 %). A partial sequence of SAT2 was identical (90-100 %) to Egyptian isolates and was close in similarity to sequences from Sudan and Libya. In conclusion, FMD in Egypt is caused by SAT2. No other serotypes were detected. The results of this study provided the valuable data regarding the epidemiology of SAT2 in cattle and water buffalo from Egypt, which strengthens the need to change the strategies of both control and prevention that help to prevent the spread of the disease.

  16. Use of recombinant capsid proteins in the development of a vaccine against the foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belsham GJ

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Graham J Belsham, Anette Bøtner National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Kalvehave, Denmark Abstract: Foot-and-mouth disease remains one of the world's most economically important diseases of livestock. It is caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus, a member of the picornavirus family. The virus replicates very rapidly and can be efficiently transmitted between hosts by a variety of routes. The disease has been effectively controlled in some parts of the world but remains endemic in many others, thus there is a constant risk of introduction of the disease into areas that are normally free of foot-and-mouth disease with potentially huge economic consequences. To reduce the need for large-scale culling of infected, and potentially infected, animals there has been significant effort to develop new vaccines against this disease which avoid some, or all, of the deficiencies of current vaccines. A major focus has been on the use of systems that express the structural proteins of the virus that self-assemble to generate “empty capsid” particles which share many features with the intact virus but lack the ribonucleic acid genome and are therefore non-infectious. Such particles can be “designed” to improve their stability or modify their antigenicity and can be produced without “high containment” facilities. The development and use of such improved vaccines should assist in the global efforts to control this important disease. Keywords: picornavirus, diagnostic assays, virus structure, infection, immune responses

  17. Rapid typing of foot-and-mouth disease serotype Asia 1 by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Hao-tai; Zhang Jie; Liu Yong-sheng; Liu Xiang-tao

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was rapidly used to detect serotype Asia 1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) within 45 min at 61°C. All FMDV serotype Asia 1 reference strains were positive by RT-LAMP, while other viruses such as FMDV serotypes O, C, A and classical swine fever virus, swine vesicular disease virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and Japanese encephalitis virus remained negative. Furthermore, FMDV...

  18. Detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Hao-tai; Zhang Jie; Liu Yong-sheng; Liu Xiang-tao

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) RNA. The amplification was able to finish in 45 min under isothermal condition at 64°C by employing a set of four primers targeting FMDV 2B. The assay showed higher sensitivity than RT-PCR. No cross reactivity was observed from other RNA viruses including classical swine fever virus, swine vesicular disease, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome...

  19. Evaluation of a combinatorial RNAi lentivirus vector targeting foot-and-mouth disease virus in vitro and in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiaoxi; Zheng, Haixue; Xu, Minjun; Zhou, Yu; Li, Xiangping; Yang, Fan; LIU, QINGYOU; Shi, Deshun

    2015-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals, which leads to serious economical losses. FMDV is not adequately controlled by vaccination or biosecurity measures. To generate genetically modified FMDV-resistant animals, a combinatorial expression cassette producing three short hairpin (sh) RNAs was constructed using the lentivirus (LV) vector, LV-3shRNA. The three shRNAs were expressed under the regulation of DNA polymerase III promoters from ...

  20. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of adult hand, foot, and mouth disease in northern Zhejiang, China, May 2008 – November 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Xin-guang; Yi, Hui-Xing; Shu, Jin; Wang, Xing-ju; Wu, Xiao-Jun; Yu, Ling-hua

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is an infectious disease typically caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16. The incidence of HFMD appears to be increasing across the Asia Pacific region, with deaths occurring predominantly among children. Therefore, most HFMD reports focus on children and few have studied HFMD in adults. However, more adult HFMD cases may be seen in the foreseeable future as a result of global warming, continued viral evolution, and an increase ...

  1. Identification of Health Risks of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in China Using the Geographical Detector Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Jixia Huang; Jinfeng Wang; Yanchen Bo; Chengdong Xu; Maogui Hu; Dacang Huang

    2014-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common infectious disease, causing thousands of deaths among children in China over the past two decades. Environmental risk factors such as meteorological factors, population factors and economic factors may affect the incidence of HFMD. In the current paper, we used a novel model—geographical detector technique to analyze the effect of these factors on the incidence of HFMD in China. We collected HFMD cases from 2,309 counties during May 2008 in Chin...

  2. Immunosuppression during Acute Infection with Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Swine Is Mediated by IL-10

    OpenAIRE

    Fayna Díaz-San Segundo; Teresa Rodríguez-Calvo; Ana de Avila; Noemí Sevilla

    2009-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is one of the most contagious animal viruses, causing a devastating disease in cloven-hoofed animals with enormous economic consequences. Identification of the different parameters involved in the immune response elicited against FMDV remains unclear, and it is fundamental the understanding of such parameters before effective control measures can be put in place. In the present study, we show that interleukin-10 (IL-10) production by dendritic cells (DCs) i...

  3. Antigenic heterogeneity of capsid protein VP1 in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype Asia 1

    OpenAIRE

    Alam SM; Amin R; Rahman MZ; Hossain MA; Sultana M

    2013-01-01

    SM Sabbir Alam,1 Ruhul Amin,1 Mohammed Ziaur Rahman,2 M Anwar Hossain,1 Munawar Sultana11Department of Microbiology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Dhaka, BangladeshAbstract: Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV), with its seven serotypes, is a highly contagious virus infecting mainly cloven-hoofed animals. The serotype Asia1 occurs mainly in Asian regions. An in-silico approach was taken to reveal the antigenic heterogeneities wit...

  4. Evolutionary analysis of serotype A foot-and-mouth disease viruses circulating in Pakistan and Afghanistan during 2002–2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamal, Syed Muhammad; Ferrari, Giancarlo; Ahmed, Safia;

    2011-01-01

    ) or for all four capsid proteins (P1, seven representative samples) of the serotype A FMD viruses circulating in Pakistan and Afghanistan were determined. Phylogenetic analysis of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) VP1-coding sequences from these countries collected between 2002 and 2009 revealed...... of FMDV serotype A in the region. The A22/Iraq FMDV vaccine is antigenically distinct from the A-Iran05BAR-08 viruses. Mapping of the amino acid changes between the capsid proteins of the A22/Iraq vaccine strain and the A-Iran05BAR-08 viruses onto the A22/Iraq capsid structure identified candidate amino......Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Three different serotypes of the virus, namely O, A and Asia-1, are responsible for the outbreaks of this disease in these countries. In the present study, the nucleotide-coding sequences for the VP1 capsid protein (69 samples...

  5. Validation of a foot-and-mouth disease antibody ELISA in five Latin American countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work plan consisted of using a liquid phase blocking ELISA test for the detection of antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) using the following categories of sera: (A) Spot test 120 non-infected/non-vaccinated bovine sera diluted 1:32; (B) Titration test: 120 bovine sera from animals vaccinated with trivalent oil vaccine, bled 30 days after vaccination; (C) Titration test with sera from non-infected/non-vaccinated bovines that presented titers >1:32 in the spot test. To detect FMD positive animals in the field, the spot test established with a cut-off of 1: 32 demonstrated in this work a good specificity with the non-vaccinated group, where 3 animals out of 120 were considered positive. The antibody titration test is an excellent tool to determine the level of antibodies in cattle populations. The protocol indicates that positive sera from the spot test should be tested in the titration assay in a starting dilution of 1:32. We suggest to use a lower starting dilution (1:16) in order to start below the discriminative of positive spot test sera 1:32 for the titration assay procedures. (author)

  6. Prevalence and antibody to foot-and-mouth disease in cattle and buffalo in Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A serological survey for the prevalence of antibody to foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) was performed in six Divisions and three States in Myanmar. A liquid phase blocking ELISA prepared and standardized by World Reference Laboratory (WRL) for FMD was used for this study. A total of 831 serum samples from cattle and buffalo were collected by a random process and assayed for antibody against FMD virus types O, A, C and Asia I. Positive reactions to FMD virus O, A, C, and Asia I sero-types were detected. Even in the free zone area, (Ngape township) and the buffer zone (Minbu township) serum samples showed positive reactions. Ten percent of the sera tested showed positive reactions to all sero-types within the free zone and buffer zone. The majority of cattle and buffaloes, except those in the FMD free and buffer zones, were not vaccinated against FMD. The percentage of positive sera in each State and Divisions varied from 16 to 90 for at least one sero-type. More epithelial specimens from FMD outbreaks should be submitted for investigation and further nation-wide serological surveys for FMD should be carried out if a national policy for FMD control and eradication is to be effective and enforceable. (author)

  7. Stability of foot-and-mouth disease virus, its genome and proteins at 37 grad C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infectivity titers of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) types Asia 1 and 0 were reduced by 4 and 2 log units, respectively, after incubation at 37 grad C for 12 hours. The stability of the FMDV RNA genome at 37 grad C was studied using 32P-labelled virus. The RNA of FMDV type 0 was found to be more stable than that of type Asia 1. Oligo(dT)-cellulose chromatography showed that 21 % and 31 % of the labelled RNA were bound to the column in the case of types Asia 1 and 0, respectively. Possible correlation between the poly(A) tail length, accessibility of the genome to nucleases and thermo-stability of the infective virus is discussed. A possible correlation between the thermo-stability of the genome and general distribution of a particular virus type seems to exist. A stable genome associated with poor virus immunogenicity may be responsible for the prevalence of FMDV type 0 in the nature. The isoelectric focussing of structural proteins isolated from the virus samples incubated at 37 grad C revealed charge differences in the major immuno-gen between the two FMDV types. A rapid proteolytic degradation of the viral immuno-gen and stability of the genome may be responsible for frequent outbreaks of FMDV, at least, in the endemic countries. (author)

  8. Gamma Radiation for Sterilizing the Carcasses of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Infected Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments on sterilization by means of gamma rays of the carcasses of animals experimentally infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) have been carried out. In the first part the author studied the presence and survival of FMDV in the carcasses and in the organs of infected slaughtered animals. The results obtained are sufficient to underline the problem of the sterilization of carcasses of animals infected by FMDV. The experiments on the inactivation of the FMDV by gamma irradiation in vitro showed the same radiation sensitivity of the three types, O, A and C, of FMDV inaqueous solutions and showed that the fraction of surviving virus is an exponential function of the gamma-ray dose. The results obtained confirm the remarkable resistance of viruses to the effect of radiation. As far as the dry virus is concerned special tests indicated the necessity of greater doses for inactivating the same virus in the dry as opposed to the liquid state. In the third part the author studied the possibility of utilizing gamma rays for the sterilization of carcasses of infected (or suspected of being infected) FMDV animals using some tissues of infected animals (pigs) (blood, bone marrow, vertebrae, lymph nodes). The results obtained show that the inactivation of FMDV types O, A and C in the carcasses of infected animals can be made by treatment with gamma rays. (author)

  9. Inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus by citric acid and sodium carbonate with deicers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jang-Kwan; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; You, Su-Hwa; Kim, Su-Mi; Tark, Dongseob; Lee, Hyang-Sim; Ko, Young-Joon; Seo, Min-Goo; Park, Jong-Hyeon; Kim, Byounghan

    2015-11-01

    Three out of five outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) since 2010 in the Republic of Korea have occurred in the winter. At the freezing temperatures, it was impossible to spray disinfectant on the surfaces of vehicles, roads, and farm premises because the disinfectant would be frozen shortly after discharge and the surfaces of the roads or machines would become slippery in cold weather. In this study, we added chemical deicers (ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, sodium chloride, calcium chloride, ethyl alcohol, and commercial windshield washer fluid) to keep disinfectants (0.2% citric acid and 4% sodium carbonate) from freezing, and we tested their virucidal efficacies under simulated cold temperatures in a tube. The 0.2% citric acid could reduce the virus titer 4 logs at -20°C with all the deicers. On the other hand, 4% sodium carbonate showed little virucidal activity at -20°C within 30 min, although it resisted being frozen with the function of the deicers. In conclusion, for the winter season, we may recommend the use of citric acid (>0.2%) diluted in 30% ethyl alcohol or 25% sodium chloride solvent, depending on its purpose.

  10. Phylodynamic reconstruction of O CATHAY topotype foot-and-mouth disease virus epidemics in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nardo, Antonello; Knowles, Nick J; Wadsworth, Jemma; Haydon, Daniel T; King, Donald P

    2014-01-01

    Reconstructing the evolutionary history, demographic signal and dispersal processes from viral genome sequences contributes to our understanding of the epidemiological dynamics underlying epizootic events. In this study, a Bayesian phylogenetic framework was used to explore the phylodynamics and spatio-temporal dispersion of the O CATHAY topotype of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) that caused epidemics in the Philippines between 1994 and 2005. Sequences of the FMDV genome encoding the VP1 showed that the O CATHAY FMD epizootic in the Philippines resulted from a single introduction and was characterised by three main transmission hubs in Rizal, Bulacan and Manila Provinces. From a wider regional perspective, phylogenetic reconstruction of all available O CATHAY VP1 nucleotide sequences identified three distinct sub-lineages associated with country-based clusters originating in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR), the Philippines and Taiwan. The root of this phylogenetic tree was located in Hong Kong SAR, representing the most likely source for the introduction of this lineage into the Philippines and Taiwan. The reconstructed O CATHAY phylodynamics revealed three chronologically distinct evolutionary phases, culminating in a reduction in viral diversity over the final 10 years. The analysis suggests that viruses from the O CATHAY topotype have been continually maintained within swine industries close to Hong Kong SAR, following the extinction of virus lineages from the Philippines and the reduced number of FMD cases in Taiwan.

  11. Economics of eradicating Foot-and-Mouth disease epidemics with alternative control strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RHM Bergevoet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an economic analysis of Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD control strategies for livestock herds. Alternative vaccination-to-live control strategies were compared to the strategy that involves culling of all susceptible animals in an area of 1 km around infected herds in addition to standard measures as culling of infected herds, pre-emptive slaughter of contact herds, establishment of control and surveillance zones. Vaccination strategies differed with respect to the radius of vaccination around infected farms (2 km versus 5 km. As an example to illustrate the economic consequences the Netherlands was used. These strategies were evaluated for a Sparsely Populated Livestock Areas (SPLA with less than 2 farms/km² and a Densely Populated Livestock Areas (DPLA with more than 4 farms/km². Results of the partial budgeting FMD model revealed that for DPLA a control strategy which includes a vaccination radius of 2 km is most cost effective. For SPLA a control strategy which includes a 1 km culling radius around an infected farm is most cost effective.

  12. Serosurveillance of foot-and-mouth disease in ruminant population of Coastal Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihar Nalini Mohanty

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Foot and mouth disease (FMD is endemic in India and three serotypes viz, O, A, and Asia1 are prevalent in the country. In the current study a total of 551 serum samples were collected randomly from 51 cattle, 127 sheep and 373 goats from areas with or without the history of recent outbreaks in different districts of coastal Odisha, India. The samples were screened for antibodies against non-structural proteins (NSPs and structural proteins (SP of FMD virus to gather evidence with respect to the FMD virus circulation. The study revealed a higher level of NSP antibodies in goats (38.33% and cattle (33.33%, and lower prevalence in sheep (3.93%. In case of SP antibodies, the prevalence was higher in cattle (68.62% followed by goats (38.87% and sheep (17.32%. The study reiterates the importance of strengthening of FMD surveillance in small ruminants as they could pose a potential risk of virus transmission to cattle.

  13. Brief Introduction of Foot-and-Mouth Disease%"口蹄疫"简释

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴永宁

    2001-01-01

    @@ 口蹄疫(foot-and-mouth disease,FMD)是一种主要侵犯偶蹄动物的急性病毒性传染病.有这种病的动物,首先出现发热,继之在口和蹄部发生囊泡与糜烂.这种病比其他动物性疾病更具传染性,如果得不到有效控制,传染很快.这种病主要侵犯家畜,包括牛、羊、猪等.野生和家养的偶蹄动物和鹿、象、豪猪和大鼠也是易感动物.目前发现引起口蹄疫的病毒有7种类型,产生相似症状,仅仅在实验室能够将其区分.

  14. Severe hand, foot and mouth disease in Shenzhen, South China: what matters most?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, J; Dawes, M; Li, Y; He, Y; Ma, H; Xie, X; Griffiths, S; Cheng, J

    2014-04-01

    Case report data and a matched case-control study were used to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children in Shenzhen, China between 2008 and 2011. Multivariate analyses were used to evaluate factors associated with severity of infection. Laboratory tests were performed to determine aetiological identification for samples from 163 severe and fatal cases as well as an outpatient-based HFMD sentinel surveillance system (n = 446). All identified EV71 belonged to sub-genotype C4a. No major changes in the CA16 and EV71 viruses were found until the end of 2011. Annual attack rates and the case-severity ratios (CSRs) rose from 0.82/1000 and 0.56/1000, respectively, in 2008 to 2.12/1000 and 6.13/1000 in 2011. The CSR was higher in migrants than in local residents. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of having a severe attack for being a migrant was 2.45, having a fever >39°C (OR 5.77), visiting a private clinic (OR 2.65), longer time from symptom onset to diagnosis (OR 1.49), visiting a doctor (OR 1.51), early use of intramuscular pyrazolone (OR 3.36), early use of intravenous glucocorticoids (OR 2.28), or the combination of both (OR 3.75). The mortality and increasing case severity appears to be associated with socioeconomic factors including migration and is of worldwide concern. PMID:23809877

  15. Productive Entry of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus via Macropinocytosis Independent of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shi-Chong; Guo, Hui-Chen; Sun, Shi-Qi; Jin, Ye; Wei, Yan-Quan; Feng, Xia; Yao, Xue-Ping; Cao, Sui-Zhong; Xiang Liu, Ding; Liu, Xiang-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Virus entry is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. Here, using a combination of electron microscopy, immunofluorescence assay, siRNA interference, specific pharmacological inhibitors, and dominant negative mutation, we demonstrated that the entry of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) triggered a substantial amount of plasma membrane ruffling. We also found that the internalization of FMDV induced a robust increase in fluid-phase uptake, and virions internalized within macropinosomes colocalized with phase uptake marker dextran. During this stage, the Rac1-Pak1 signaling pathway was activated. After specific inhibition on actin, Na(+)/H(+) exchanger, receptor tyrosine kinase, Rac1, Pak1, myosin II, and protein kinase C, the entry and infection of FMDV significantly decreased. However, inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) did not reduce FMDV internalization but increased the viral entry and infection to a certain extent, implying that FMDV entry did not require PI3K activity. Results showed that internalization of FMDV exhibited the main hallmarks of macropinocytosis. Moreover, intracellular trafficking of FMDV involves EEA1/Rab5-positive vesicles. The present study demonstrated macropinocytosis as another endocytic pathway apart from the clathrin-mediated pathway. The findings greatly expand our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of FMDV entry into cells, as well as provide potential insights into the entry mechanisms of other picornaviruses. PMID:26757826

  16. Development of high-affinity single chain Fv against foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Joon-Goo; Jeong, Gu Min; Yim, Sung Sun; Jeong, Ki Jun

    2016-03-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is caused by the FMD virus (FMDV) and results in severe economic losses in livestock farming. For rapid FMD diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, an effective antibody against FMDV is needed. Here, we developed a high-affinity antibody against FMDV by FACS-based high throughput screening of a random library. With the FITC-conjugated VP1 epitope of FMDV and high-speed FACS sorting, we screened the synthetic antibody (scFv) library in which antibody variants are displayed in the periplasm of Escherichia coli. After three rounds of sorting, we isolated one antibody fragment (#138-scFv) against the VP1 epitope of FMDV. Next, to improve its affinity, a mutation library of #138-scFV was constructed by error-prone PCR and screened by FACS. After three rounds of sorting, we isolated one antibody (AM-32 scFv), which has a higher binding affinity (KD=42.7nM) than that of the original #138-scFv. We also confirmed that it specifically binds to whole inactivated FMDV. PMID:26827774

  17. Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia in an infant with hand, foot, and mouth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Peng; Hou, Shu; Du, Peng-Fei; Li, Jia-Bin; Ye, Ying

    2012-05-01

    An 11-month-old male infant was admitted to our hospital with fever, fussiness, poor feeding, vomiting, and tachypnea for two days prior. Physical examination revealed sporadic papules and vesicles occurring on his hands, feet, face, and perianal mucosa. Enterovirus 71 was identified from both throat swab and vesicle fluid using virus isolation techniques. The patient's heart rate fluctuated in a very narrow range from 180~210/beats/min regardless of his physiologic state. An electrocardiogram showed P-waves buried within or occurring just after regular, narrow, QRS complexes. The patient was diagnosed as having hand, foot, and mouth disease in combination with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT). The child recovered well with symptomatic treatment, including intravenous administration of acyclovir, glucocorticoids, immunoglobulin, adenosine, and sotalol. PSVT was terminated within 36 hours of hospitalization. The skin lesions became crusted on the third day, and then proceeded to heal spontaneously. Here we report on this unusual case and review the associated literature. PMID:22577272

  18. Economic costs of the foot and mouth disease outbreak in the United Kingdom in 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D; Muriel, P; Russell, D; Osborne, P; Bromley, A; Rowland, M; Creigh-Tyte, S; Brown, C

    2002-12-01

    The authors present estimates of the economic costs to agriculture and industries affected by tourism of the outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in the United Kingdom (UK) in 2001. The losses to agriculture and the food chain amount to about Pound Sterling3.1 billion. The majority of the costs to agriculture have been met by the Government through compensation for slaughter and disposal as well as clean-up costs. Nonetheless, agricultural producers will have suffered losses, estimated at Pound Sterling355 million, which represents about 20% of the estimated total income from farming in 2001. Based on data from surveys of tourism, businesses directly affected by tourist expenditure are estimated to have lost a similar total amount (between Pound Sterling2.7 and Pound Sterling3.2 billion) as a result of reduced numbers of people visiting the countryside. The industries which supply agriculture, the food industries and tourist-related businesses will also have suffered losses. However, the overall costs to the UK economy are substantially less than the sum of these components, as much of the expenditure by tourists was not lost, but merely displaced to other sectors of the economy. Overall, the net effect of FMD is estimated to have reduced the gross domestic product in the UK by less than 0.2% in 2001. PMID:12523706

  19. Survey of enterovirus infections from hand, foot and mouth disease outbreak in china, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Fan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In China, a rapid expansion of Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD outbreaks has occurred since 2004 and HFMD has become an important issue for China. However, people are still only concerned with human enterovirus 71(HEV-71 and coxsackie virus A16 (CV-A16. Much of what is known about the other enterovirus infections relies on fractional evidence and old epidemic data, with little knowledge concerning their distribution. To alert potential threatens of the other enteroviruses, our study genetically characterized specimens from different regions of China and yielded novel information concerning the circulating and phylogenetic characteristics of enteroviral strains from HFMD cases. Findings A total of 301 clinical throat swabs were randomly obtained from patients suffering from HFMD from the southern, northern and central regions of China during outbreaks in 2009. 266 of 301 (88.4% HFMD cases were found positive for HEV and seven genotypes, HEV-71, CV-A16, -B5, -A4, -A6, -A10, and -A12, were detected. Conclusions The HFMD pathogen compositions in the different regions of China were significantly different. HFMD epidemics might persist for a long time in China due to the multiple pathogen compositions, the enteroviral characteristic of recombination and co-infection, the ever-increasing travel and migration and the deficiency of effective vaccine. Our study deserves the attention on HFMD control and vaccine development.

  20. Identifying a few foot-and-mouth disease virus signature nucleotide strings for computational genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Lizhe

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serotypes of the Foot-and-Mouth disease viruses (FMDVs were generally determined by biological experiments. The computational genotyping is not well studied even with the availability of whole viral genomes, due to uneven evolution among genes as well as frequent genetic recombination. Naively using sequence comparison for genotyping is only able to achieve a limited extent of success. Results We used 129 FMDV strains with known serotype as training strains to select as many as 140 most serotype-specific nucleotide strings. We then constructed a linear-kernel Support Vector Machine classifier using these 140 strings. Under the leave-one-out cross validation scheme, this classifier was able to assign correct serotype to 127 of these 129 strains, achieving 98.45% accuracy. It also assigned serotype correctly to an independent test set of 83 other FMDV strains downloaded separately from NCBI GenBank. Conclusion Computational genotyping is much faster and much cheaper than the wet-lab based biological experiments, upon the availability of the detailed molecular sequences. The high accuracy of our proposed method suggests the potential of utilizing a few signature nucleotide strings instead of whole genomes to determine the serotypes of novel FMDV strains.

  1. The use of geographic information systems for foot and mouth disease surveillance in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Emilio A; Puentes, Marìa Inés; Ledesma, Marìa Clara; Laureda, Daniel A

    2007-01-01

    A model developed as a complementary tool in the surveillance of foot and mouth disease (FMD) was based on two main components: data and basic cartography. The data was obtained from the veterinary services of Argentina. It included different animal species, movement records and data on vaccination campaigns. The basic cartography was produced from cadastral maps of four departments of Buenos Aires province that were scanned, incorporated to a geographic information system and then overlapped to satellite images to adjust the borders of farms to the correct coordinates. Digital maps of the four departments were obtained, with all premises represented as polygons. Then, each premise was identified with its unique code, provided by the veterinary services. The data was processed and then linked to the maps. The output of the model are maps of different types, in which it is possible to characterise animal population at farm level, to analyse the evolution of the systematic vaccination campaigns against FMD, to determine patterns of animal movements and others. PMID:20422523

  2. Hand-Washing: The Main Strategy for Avoiding Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dingmei; Li, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Wangjian; Guo, Pi; Ma, Zhanzhong; Chen, Qian; Du, Shaokun; Peng, Jing; Deng, Yu; Hao, Yuantao

    2016-01-01

    Epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) among children have caused concern in China since 2007. We have conducted a retrospective study to investigate risk factors associated with HFMD. In this non-matching case-control study, 99 HFMD patients and 126 control from Guangdong Province were enlisted as participants. Data comprising demographic, socio-economic, clinical and behavior factors were collected from children's parents through face-to-face interviews by trained interviewers using a standardized questionnaire. Results of the primary logistic regression analyses revealed that age, history of cold food consumption, hand-washing routines, and airing out bedding were significantly associated with HFMD cases. Results of further multivariate analysis indicated that older age (OR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.34-0.56) and hand-washing before meals (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.13-0.70) are protective factors, whereas airing out bedding more than thrice a month (OR = 4.55, 95% CI: 1.19-17.37) was associated with increased risk for HFMD. Therefore, hand-washing should be recommended to prevent HFMD, and the potential threat of airing out bedding should be carefully considered. However, further studies are needed to examine other possible risk factors. PMID:27322307

  3. Economic costs of the foot and mouth disease outbreak in the United Kingdom in 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D; Muriel, P; Russell, D; Osborne, P; Bromley, A; Rowland, M; Creigh-Tyte, S; Brown, C

    2002-12-01

    The authors present estimates of the economic costs to agriculture and industries affected by tourism of the outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in the United Kingdom (UK) in 2001. The losses to agriculture and the food chain amount to about Pound Sterling3.1 billion. The majority of the costs to agriculture have been met by the Government through compensation for slaughter and disposal as well as clean-up costs. Nonetheless, agricultural producers will have suffered losses, estimated at Pound Sterling355 million, which represents about 20% of the estimated total income from farming in 2001. Based on data from surveys of tourism, businesses directly affected by tourist expenditure are estimated to have lost a similar total amount (between Pound Sterling2.7 and Pound Sterling3.2 billion) as a result of reduced numbers of people visiting the countryside. The industries which supply agriculture, the food industries and tourist-related businesses will also have suffered losses. However, the overall costs to the UK economy are substantially less than the sum of these components, as much of the expenditure by tourists was not lost, but merely displaced to other sectors of the economy. Overall, the net effect of FMD is estimated to have reduced the gross domestic product in the UK by less than 0.2% in 2001.

  4. Cyclical Patterns of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease Caused by Enterovirus A71 in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NikNadia, Nmn; Sam, I-Ching; Rampal, Sanjay; WanNorAmalina, Wmz; NurAtifah, Ghazali; Verasahib, Khebir; Ong, Chia Ching; MohdAdib, MohdAidinniza; Chan, Yoke Fun

    2016-03-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is an important emerging pathogen causing large epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children. In Malaysia, since the first EV-A71 epidemic in 1997, recurrent cyclical epidemics have occurred every 2-3 years for reasons that remain unclear. We hypothesize that this cyclical pattern is due to changes in population immunity in children (measured as seroprevalence). Neutralizing antibody titers against EV-A71 were measured in 2,141 residual serum samples collected from children ≤12 years old between 1995 and 2012 to determine the seroprevalence of EV-A71. Reported national HFMD incidence was highest in children children. EV-A71 epidemics are also characterized by peaks of increased genetic diversity, often with genotype changes. Cross-sectional time series analysis was used to model the association between EV-A71 epidemic periods and EV-A71 seroprevalence adjusting for age and climatic variables (temperature, rainfall, rain days and ultraviolet radiance). A 10% increase in absolute monthly EV-A71 seroprevalence was associated with a 45% higher odds of an epidemic (adjusted odds ratio, aOR1.45; 95% CI 1.24-1.69; PMalaysia is mainly due to the fall of population immunity accompanying the accumulation of susceptible children between epidemics. This study will impact the future planning, timing and target populations for vaccine programs. PMID:27010319

  5. Advance on Foot-and-mouth Disease Virus%口蹄疫病毒研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李夏莹; 郑鹭飞; 张秀杰; 杨坤; 汪其怀; 周荣; 吴添文

    2015-01-01

    口蹄疫(foot-and-mouth disease,FMD)是由口蹄疫病毒(foot-and-mouth disease virus,FMDV)引起的一种急性、热性、高度接触传染性动物疫病,是全球范围内家畜及其产品贸易最大的羁绊.FMDV通过逃避宿主的免疫监视建立持续性感染,使患畜持续向外界排毒,成为传染源.作者查阅了近几年FMDV的国内外研究进展,对其流行病学、病原学及致病机理进行了概述.

  6. Induction of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus-Specific Cytotoxic T Cell Killing by Vaccination ▿ §

    OpenAIRE

    Patch, Jared R; Pedersen, Lasse E.; Toka, Felix N.; Moraes, Mauro; Grubman, Marvin J.; Nielsen, Morten; Jungersen, Gregers; Buus, Soren; Golde, William T.

    2010-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) continues to be a significant threat to the health and economic value of livestock species. This acute infection is caused by the highly contagious FMD virus (FMDV), which infects cloven-hoofed animals, including large and small ruminants and swine. Current vaccine strategies are all directed toward the induction of neutralizing antibody responses. However, the role of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) has not received a great deal of attention, in part because of th...

  7. Monoclonal and Polyclonal Antibodies Specific for Foot and Mouth Disease Virus Type A and Type O VP1

    OpenAIRE

    CHO, JIN GU; Jo, Yeong Joon; Sung, Jong-Hyuk; Hong, Jang-Kwan; Hwang, Ji-Hyeon; Park, Jong-Hyeon; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Park, Sang Gyu

    2012-01-01

    The foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is an RNA virus composed of single stranded positive sense RNA. FMDV has been known to infect cloven-hoofed animals, including pigs, cattle, and sheep. FMDV is rapidly spreading outward to neighboring regions, often leading to a high mortality rate. Thus, early diagnosis of FMDV is critical to suppress propagation of FMDV and minimize economic losses. In this study, we report the generation and characterization of polyclonal and six monoclonal antibodie...

  8. Induction of a Cross-Reactive CD8+ T Cell Response following Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Vaccination▿

    OpenAIRE

    Guzman, Efrain; Taylor, Geraldine; Charleston, Bryan; Ellis, Shirley A

    2010-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious infection in cloven-hoofed animals. Current inactivated FMDV vaccines generate short-term, serotype-specific protection, mainly through neutralizing antibody. An improved understanding of the mechanisms of protective immunity would aid design of more effective vaccines. We have previously reported the presence of virus-specific CD8+ T cells in FMDV-vaccinated and -infected cattle. In the current study, we aimed to identify CD8+ T ...

  9. Biological function of Foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural proteins and non-coding elements

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yuan; Sun, Shi-Qi; Guo, Hui-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) represses host translation machinery, blocks protein secretion, and cleaves cellular proteins associated with signal transduction and the innate immune response to infection. Non-structural proteins (NSPs) and non-coding elements (NCEs) of FMDV play a critical role in these biological processes. The FMDV virion consists of capsid and nucleic acid. The virus genome is a positive single stranded RNA and encodes a single long open reading frame (ORF) flanked b...

  10. Sensitivity of seven different types of cell cultures to three serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    OpenAIRE

    House, J A; Yedloutschnig, R J

    1982-01-01

    The ability of bovine tongue origin foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes A, O and C to replicate in seven different types of cell cultures was studied. Primary and secondary calf thyroid cells were equivalent in susceptibility to bovine kidney cell cultures passaged up to five times. Calf thyroid cells lost their susceptibility after two passages. Cryopreserved bovine kidney cell cultures passaged three and four times were equivalent in susceptibility to sensitive calf thyroid and bovine ki...

  11. Risk Factors for Neurologic Complications of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in the Republic of Korea, 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seong Joon; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Kang, Jin-Han; Kim, Dong Soo; Kim, Ki Hwan; Kim, Kyung-Hyo; Kim, Young-Hoon; Chung, Ju-Young; Bin, Joong Hyun; Jung, Da Eun; Kim, Ji Hong; Kim, Hwang Min; Cheon, Doo-Sung; Kang, Byung Hak; Seo, Soon Young

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the first outbreak of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) or herpangina (HP) caused by enterovirus 71 occurred in the Republic of Korea. This study inquired into risk factors associated with complications of HFMD or HP. A retrospective medical records review was conducted on HFMD or HP patients for whom etiologic viruses had been verified in 2009. One hundred sixty-eight patients were examined for this investigation. Eighty patients were without complications while 88 were accompanie...

  12. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of children who died from hand, foot and mouth disease in Vietnam, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Ngoc TB; Pham, Hau V; Hoang, Cuong Q; Nguyen, Tien M.; Nguyen, Long T; Phan, Hung C; Phan, Lan T; Vu, Long N; Tran Minh, Nguyen N

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2011, a large outbreak of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Vietnam resulted in 113,121 children seeking medical attention, of whom170 died. Understanding the epidemiology of fatal HFMD may improve treatment and help targeting prevention activities for vulnerable populations. We describe epidemiological and clinical characteristics of children who died from HFMD in Vietnam in 2011. Methods Clinical data were obtained through reviewing medical records of the deaths occurring...

  13. Neurological complications and risk factors of cardiopulmonary failure of EV-A71-related hand, foot and mouth disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lili Long; Lin Xu; Zhenghui Xiao; Shixiong Hu; Ruping Luo; Hua Wang; Xiulan Lu; Zhiyue Xu; Xu Yao; Luo Zhou; Hongyu Long; Jiaoe Gong; Yanmin Song; Li Zhao; Kaiwei Luo

    2016-01-01

    From 2010 to 2012, large outbreaks of EV-A71-related- hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) occurred annually in China. Some cases had neurological complications and were closely associated with fatal cardiopulmonary collapse, but not all children with central nervous system (CNS) involvement demonstrated a poor prognosis. To identify which patients and which neurological complications are more likely to progress to cardiopulmonary failure, we retrospectively studied 1,125 paediatric inpatients ...

  14. A neonate with hand, foot, and mouth disease complicated with brainstem encephalitis and pulmonary edema:A complete recovery

    OpenAIRE

    GUO Shi-jie; Wang, Dong-Xuan; Dai, Chun-Lai; Wu, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) with serious complications and fatal cases have been reported over the last decade worldwide. The authors report a rare case of HFMD in a neonate complicated with brainstem encephalitis and pulmonary edema. She had fever, lethargy, dyspnea. Physical examination revealed shock signs, fine rales on both lungs, absent Moro reflex. The patient had a rapidly progressive course with seizures, coma, no spontaneous breathing, chemosis. There were some vesicles on ...

  15. VP1 of serotype C foot-and-mouth disease viruses: long-term conservation of sequences.

    OpenAIRE

    Piccone, M. E.; Kaplan, G; Giavedoni, L; Domingo, E; Palma, E L

    1988-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of the VP1-coding regions of several isolates of serotype C3 foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) were determined. The deduced amino acid sequences were compared with those of serotype C1 FMDV. The results provide evidence for two different lineages of FMDV C3 and document the potential for both long-term conservation and rapid evolution of FMDV.

  16. Prevalence of Antibodies Against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Cattle in Kasese and Bushenyi Districts in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mwiine, F. N.; Ayebazibwe, C.; Olaho-Mukani, W.;

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and serotype-specificity of the circulating antibodies against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) in cattle in K asese and Bushenyi districts in Uganda. A total of 309 serum samples were collected and tested for antibodies against...... to develop sampling schemes to include virus recovery and identification, as well as to focus serum sampling on young unvaccinated stock....

  17. The complete nucleotide sequence of the RNA coding for the primary translation product of foot and mouth disease virus.

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the coding region of foot and mouth disease virus RNA (strain A1061) is presented. The sequence extends from the primary initiation site, approximately 1200 nucleotide from the 5' end of the genome, in an open translational reading frame of 6,999 nucleotides to a termination codon 93 nucleotides from the 3' terminal poly (A). Available amino acid sequence data correlates with that predicted from the nucleotide sequence. The amino acid sequence around cleava...

  18. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence coding for polypeptides of foot-and-mouth disease virus type A12.

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, B H; Grubman, M J; Weddell, G N; Moore, D.M.; Welsh, J D; Fischer, T.; Dowbenko, D J; Yansura, D G; Small, B.; Kleid, D G

    1985-01-01

    The coding region for the structural and nonstructural polypeptides of the type A12 foot-and-mouth disease virus genome has been identified by nucleotide sequencing of cloned DNA derived from the viral RNA. In addition, 704 nucleotides in the 5' untranslated region between the polycytidylic acid tract and the probable initiation codon of the first translated gene, P16-L, have been sequenced. This region has several potential initiation codons, one of which appears to be a low-frequency altern...

  19. Parameter Values for Epidemiological Models of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsley, Amy C.; Patterson, Gilbert; VanderWaal, Kimberly L.; Craft, Meggan E.; Perez, Andres M.

    2016-01-01

    In the event of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) incursion, response strategies are required to control, contain, and eradicate the pathogen as efficiently as possible. Infectious disease simulation models are widely used tools that mimic disease dispersion in a population and that can be useful in the design and support of prevention and mitigation activities. However, there are often gaps in evidence-based research to supply models with quantities that are necessary to accurately reflect the system of interest. The objective of this study was to quantify values associated with the duration of the stages of FMD infection (latent period, subclinical period, incubation period, and duration of infection), probability of transmission (within-herd and between-herd via spatial spread), and diagnosis of a vesicular disease within a herd using a meta-analysis of the peer-reviewed literature and expert opinion. The latent period ranged from 1 to 7 days and incubation period ranged from 1 to 9 days; both were influenced by strain. In contrast, the subclinical period ranged from 0 to 6 days and was influenced by sampling method only. The duration of infection ranged from 1 to 10 days. The probability of spatial spread between an infected and fully susceptible swine farm was estimated as greatest within 5 km of the infected farm, highlighting the importance of possible long-range transmission through the movement of infected animals. Finally, while most swine practitioners are confident in their ability to detect a vesicular disease in an average sized swine herd, a small proportion expect that up to half of the herd would need to show clinical signs before detection via passive surveillance would occur. The results of this study will be useful in within- and between-herd simulation models to develop efficient response strategies in the event an FMD in swine populations of disease-free countries or regions. PMID:27314002

  20. A hybrid modelling approach to simulating foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in Australian livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Bradhurst

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. Australia's freedom from FMD underpins a valuable trade in live animals and animal products. An outbreak of FMD would result in the loss of export markets and cause severe disruption to domestic markets. The prevention of, and contingency planning for, FMD are of key importance to government, industry, producers and the community. The spread and control of FMD is complex and dynamic due to a highly contagious multi-host pathogen operating in a heterogeneous environment across multiple jurisdictions. Epidemiological modelling is increasingly being recognized as a valuable tool for investigating the spread of disease under different conditions and the effectiveness of control strategies. Models of infectious disease can be broadly classified as: population-based models that are formulated from the top-down and employ population-level relationships to describe individual-level behaviour, individual-based models that are formulated from the bottom-up and aggregate individual-level behaviour to reveal population-level relationships, or hybrid models which combine the two approaches into a single model.The Australian Animal Disease Spread (AADIS hybrid model employs a deterministic equation-based model (EBM to model within-herd spread of FMD, and a stochastic, spatially-explicit agent-based model (ABM to model between-herd spread and control. The EBM provides concise and computationally efficient predictions of herd prevalence and clinical signs over time. The ABM captures the complex, stochastic and heterogeneous environment in which an FMD epidemic operates. The AADIS event-driven hybrid EBM/ABM architecture is a flexible, efficient and extensible framework for modelling the spread and control of disease in livestock on a national scale. We present an overview of the AADIS hybrid approach and a description of the model

  1. Parameter values for epidemiological models of foot-and-mouth disease in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy C Kinsley

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the event of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD incursion, response strategies are required to control, contain and eradicate the pathogen as efficiently as possible. Infectious disease simulation models are widely used tools that mimic disease dispersion in a population and that can be useful in the design and support of prevention and mitigation activities. However, there are often gaps in evidence-based research to supply models with quantities that are necessary to accurately reflect the system of interest. The objective of this study was to quantify values associated with the duration of the stages of FMD infection (latent period, subclinical period, incubation period, and duration of infection, probability of transmission (within-herd and between-herd via spatial spread, and diagnosis of a vesicular disease within a herd using a meta-analysis of the peer-reviewed literature and expert opinion. The latent period ranged from 1 to 7 days and incubation period ranged from 1 to 9 day; both were influenced by strain. In contrast, the subclinical period ranged from 0 to 6 days and was influenced by sampling method only. The duration of infection ranged from 1 to 10 days. The probability of spatial spread between an infected and fully susceptible swine farm was estimated as greatest within 5 km of the infected farm, highlighting the importance of possible long-range transmission through the movement of infected animals. Lastly, while most swine practitioners are confident in their ability to detect a vesicular disease in an average sized swine herd, a small proportion expect that up to half of the herd would need to show clinical signs before detection via passive surveillance would occur. The results of this study will be useful in within- and between-herd simulation models to develop efficient response strategies in the event an FMD in swine populations of disease-free countries or regions.

  2. The VP3 structural protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus inhibits the IFN-β signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Yang, Wenping; Yang, Fan; Liu, Huanan; Zhu, Zixiang; Lian, Kaiqi; Lei, Caoqi; Li, Shu; Liu, Xiangtao; Zheng, Haixue; Shu, Hongbing

    2016-05-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease is a frequently occurring disease of cloven-hoofed animals that is caused by infection with the foot-and-mouth virus (FMDV). FMDV circumvents the type-I IFN response by expressing proteins that antagonize cellular innate immunity, such as leader protease and 3C protease. We identified the FMDV structural protein VP3 as a negative regulator of the virus-triggered IFN-β signaling pathway. Expression of FMDV VP3 inhibited the Sendai virus-triggered activation of IFN regulatory factor-3 and the expression of retinoic acid-inducible gene-I/melanoma differentiation-associated protein-5. Transient transfection and coimmunoprecipitation confirmed that the structural protein VP3 interacts with virus-induced signaling adapter (VISA), which is dependent on the C-terminal aa 111-220 of VP3. In addition, we found that FMDV VP3 inhibits the expression of VISA by disrupting its mRNA. Taken together, our findings reveal a novel strategy used by the structural VP3 protein of FMDV to evade host innate immunity.-Li, D., Yang, W., Yang, F., Liu, H., Zhu, Z., Lian, K., Lei, C., Li, S., Liu, X., Zheng, H., Shu, H. The VP3 structural protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus inhibits the IFN-β signaling pathway. PMID:26813975

  3. Screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax, Reared for Mass Release Do Not Carry and Spread Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus and Classical Swine Fever Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhury, M. F.; Ward, G. B.; Skoda, S. R.; Deng, M Y; Welch, J. B.; McKenna, T S

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were done to determine if transporting live screwworms Cochliomyia hominivorax Coquerel (Diptera: Calliphoridae) for developing new strains from countries where foot-and-mouth disease and classical swine fever are endemic, to the mass rearing facilities in Mexico and Panama, may introduce these exotic diseases into these countries. Are screwworms capable of harboring and spreading foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) when they are grown in vir...

  4. Development and use of ELISA in the control of foot-and-mouth disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically devastating disease that requires laboratory investigation for definitive diagnosis. Highly specific and sensitive assays are needed to obtain a rapid result and so optimize the efficiency of FMD diagnosis and formulation of appropriate control measures. The development of the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has produced marked improvements in the diagnosis of FMD. An indirect sandwich ELISA has replaced the complement fixation test for FMDV virus antigen detection and a liquid phase blocking ELISA (LPBE) has replaced the virus neutralization test for the detection of serum antibodies. The LPBE is also employed to test the suitability of available vaccine strains for use in current outbreaks. The assays mainly use polyclonal antisera, but monoclonal antibodies have brought greater precision to virus strain characterization studies and have the potential to replace polyclonal sera in other assays. The provision of ELISA kits enables national FMD laboratories in developing countries to carry out their own assays in the first instance and allows effective and more immediate decisions to be made on control. At present, there are no reliable mass serum screen laboratory tests (i.e. ELISA) that can distinguish vaccinated from infected and carrier from non-carrier animals. These groups of animals have to be considered potential carriers of FMD virus and a source of new disease and thus need to be excluded from internal and international trade. ELISAs employing reagents to bioengineered non-structural proteins of FMD virus hold considerable promise for the discrimination of naive, convalescent and vaccinated animals, and work is in progress for their refinement. (author)

  5. Clinical characteristics of hand, foot and mouth disease in Harbin and the prediction of severe cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hong; GUO Shu-zhen; ZHOU Hao; ZHU Yue-feng; ZHANG Li-juan; ZHANG Wei

    2012-01-01

    Background Hand,foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is an emerging public health problem in China,not only threatening the health of children,but also causing tremendous loss and burden to both families and society.The aim of this study was to characterize the epidemiology and clinical features of HFMD,and to understand the key factors affecting HFMD in the Harbin region to provide scientific evidence for effective prevention and control strategies.@@Methods Epidemiological and clinical information from 2379 randomly chosen cases of HFMD treated at the Harbin Center for Disease Control and Prevention from May 2008 to November 2011 were analyzed.All cases were separated into common and severe HFMD,with key factors for severe HFMD analyzed using multivariable Logistic regression.@@Results Among the 2379 patients,1798 were common cases and 581 severe cases,14 of which resulted in death.Most cases were in children younger than 5 years.Morbidity peaked in July and was higher in the surrounding country and cities than in Harbin proper.Medical expenses were significantly higher for severe than for common cases (P <0.001).The primary clinical symptoms were fever and erythema; laboratory examination showed leucocytosis together with pneumonia,carditis,and abnormal electrocardiogram and electroencephalogram in severe cases.Multivariable Logistic regression analysis showed that the key factors for severe HFMD were age,morbidity location,morbidity area,fever duration,mouth mucosal symptoms,and abnormal serum levels of neutrophils (NEUT),hemoglobin and glucose (P <0.05).@@Conclusions To improve prognosis,reduce medical expense and prevent the development of severe cases,we should improve the epidemiological detection of HFMD to treat patients quickly.We should also closely monitor children with the EV71 virus,who present with continuous fever as well as abnormal laboratory results,from areas highly susceptible to HFMD attacks.

  6. Tracking the Antigenic Evolution of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Reeve

    Full Text Available Quantifying and predicting the antigenic characteristics of a virus is something of a holy grail for infectious disease research because of its central importance to the emergence of new strains, the severity of outbreaks, and vaccine selection. However, these characteristics are defined by a complex interplay of viral and host factors so that phylogenetic measures of viral similarity are often poorly correlated to antigenic relationships. Here, we generate antigenic phylogenies that track the phenotypic evolution of two serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus by combining host serology and viral sequence data to identify sites that are critical to their antigenic evolution. For serotype SAT1, we validate our antigenic phylogeny against monoclonal antibody escape mutants, which match all of the predicted antigenic sites. For serotype O, we validate it against known sites where available, and otherwise directly evaluate the impact on antigenic phenotype of substitutions in predicted sites using reverse genetics and serology. We also highlight a critical and poorly understood problem for vaccine selection by revealing qualitative differences between assays that are often used interchangeably to determine antigenic match between field viruses and vaccine strains. Our approach provides a tool to identify naturally occurring antigenic substitutions, allowing us to track the genetic diversification and associated antigenic evolution of the virus. Despite the hugely important role vaccines have played in enhancing human and animal health, vaccinology remains a conspicuously empirical science. This study advances the field by providing guidance for tuning vaccine strains via site-directed mutagenesis through this high-resolution tracking of antigenic evolution of the virus between rare major shifts in phenotype.

  7. Is Hiding Foot and Mouth Disease Sensitive Behavior for Farmers? A Survey Study in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunarathne, Anoma; Kubota, Satoko; Kumarawadu, Pradeep; Karunagoda, Kamal; Kon, Hiroichi

    2016-02-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) has a long history in Sri Lanka and was found to be endemic in various parts of the country and constitutes a constant threat to farmers. In Sri Lanka, currently there is no regular, nationwide vaccination programme devised to control FMD. Therefore, improving farmers' knowledge regarding distinguishing FMD from other diseases and ensuring prompt reporting of any suspicion of FMD as well as restricting movement of animals are critical activities for an effective FMD response effort. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between farmers' knowledge levels and their behaviors to establish a strategy to control FMD. In our study, item count technique was applied to estimate the number of farmers that under-report and sell FMD-infected animals, although to do so is prohibited by law. The following findings were observed: about 63% of farmers have very poor knowledge of routes of FMD transmission; 'under-reporting' was found to be a sensitive behavior and nearly 23% of the farmers were reluctant to report FMD-infected animals; and 'selling FMD-infected animals' is a sensitive behavior among high-level knowledge group while it is a non-sensitive behavior among the low-level knowledge group. If farmers would understand the importance of prompt reporting, they may report any suspected cases of FMD to veterinary officials. However, even if farmers report honestly, they do not want to cull FMD-infected animals. Thus, education programs should be conducted not only on FMD introduction and transmission, but also its impact. Furthermore, consumers may criticize the farmers for culling their infected animals. Hence, not only farmers, but also consumers need to be educated on the economic impact of FMD and the importance of controlling an outbreak. If farmers have a high knowledge of FMD transmission, they consider selling FMD-infected animals as a sensitive behavior. Therefore, severe punishment should be levied for

  8. Comparison of test methodologies for foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A vaccine matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekleghiorghis, Tesfaalem; Weerdmeester, Klaas; van Hemert-Kluitenberg, Froukje; Moormann, Rob J M; Dekker, Aldo

    2014-05-01

    Vaccination has been one of the most important interventions in disease prevention and control. The impact of vaccination largely depends on the quality and suitability of the chosen vaccine. To determine the suitability of a vaccine strain, antigenic matching is usually studied by in vitro analysis. In this study, we performed three in vitro test methods to determine which one gives the lowest variability and the highest discriminatory capacity. Binary ethylenimine inactivated vaccines, prepared from 10 different foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus serotype A strains, were used to vaccinate cattle (5 animals for each strain). The antibody titers in blood serum samples 3 weeks postvaccination (w.p.v.) were determined by a virus neutralization test, neutralization index test, and liquid-phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The titers were then used to calculate relationship coefficient (r1) values. These r1 values were compared to the genetic lineage using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. In the two neutralization test methods, the median titers observed against the test strains differed considerably, and the sera of the vaccinated animals did not always show the highest titers against their respective homologous virus strains. When the titers were corrected for test strain effect (scaling), the variability (standard error of the mean per vaccinated group) increased because the results were on a different scale, but the discriminatory capacity improved. An ROC analysis of the r1 value calculated on both observed and scaled titers showed that only r1 values of the liquid-phase blocking ELISA gave a consistent statistically significant result. Under the conditions of the present study, the liquid-phase blocking ELISA showed less variation and still had a higher discriminatory capacity than the other tests.

  9. Tracking the Antigenic Evolution of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Richard; Borley, Daryl W; Maree, Francois F; Upadhyaya, Sasmita; Lukhwareni, Azwidowi; Esterhuysen, Jan J; Harvey, William T; Blignaut, Belinda; Fry, Elizabeth E; Parida, Satya; Paton, David J; Mahapatra, Mana

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying and predicting the antigenic characteristics of a virus is something of a holy grail for infectious disease research because of its central importance to the emergence of new strains, the severity of outbreaks, and vaccine selection. However, these characteristics are defined by a complex interplay of viral and host factors so that phylogenetic measures of viral similarity are often poorly correlated to antigenic relationships. Here, we generate antigenic phylogenies that track the phenotypic evolution of two serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus by combining host serology and viral sequence data to identify sites that are critical to their antigenic evolution. For serotype SAT1, we validate our antigenic phylogeny against monoclonal antibody escape mutants, which match all of the predicted antigenic sites. For serotype O, we validate it against known sites where available, and otherwise directly evaluate the impact on antigenic phenotype of substitutions in predicted sites using reverse genetics and serology. We also highlight a critical and poorly understood problem for vaccine selection by revealing qualitative differences between assays that are often used interchangeably to determine antigenic match between field viruses and vaccine strains. Our approach provides a tool to identify naturally occurring antigenic substitutions, allowing us to track the genetic diversification and associated antigenic evolution of the virus. Despite the hugely important role vaccines have played in enhancing human and animal health, vaccinology remains a conspicuously empirical science. This study advances the field by providing guidance for tuning vaccine strains via site-directed mutagenesis through this high-resolution tracking of antigenic evolution of the virus between rare major shifts in phenotype. PMID:27448206

  10. Prevalence and risk factors for foot and mouth disease infection in cattle in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnekave, Ehud; van Maanen, Kees; Shilo, Hila; Gelman, Boris; Storm, Nick; Abed El Khaliq, Mohamad; Sharir, Beni; Berke, Olaf; Klement, Eyal

    2016-08-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease with major economic consequences. In Israel, FMD epidemics recur almost every year and mostly affect cattle. The highest number of outbreaks occurs among beef cattle farms, followed by feedlot farms and dairy farms. We performed several cross-sectional serological studies in Israel during 2006-2014, aimed to reveal if the virus is endemic among cattle and to determine the sero-prevalence of antibodies directed against non-structural proteins (NSP) of FMD virus. Additionally we aimed to determine the risk factors for such sero-positivity. A risk based sampling was performed and the presence of anti-NSP antibodies was estimated using the PrioCHECK(®) ELISA kit. Beef cattle showed the highest sero-prevalence (13.2%, CI95%=10.8-15.8%). Higher FMD sero-prevalence in beef cattle sampled in 2014 was associated with previous FMD outbreaks in the farm and with age (adult cows versus calves (pvirus circulation between these two populations during the study period, although previous data show that during outbreaks such transmission can occur. Low sero-prevalence in dairy cattle located in areas adjacent to previous FMD outbreaks may be attributed to intense routine vaccination and stringent control measures that were applied during outbreaks such as emergency vaccination and strict quarantine. Early detection of FMD outbreaks among grazing beef herds as well as the implementation of control measures among these farms are therefore the methods of choice to prevent future outbreaks in Israel. PMID:27435646

  11. Develope Monoclonal Antibody against Foot-and-mouth Disease Virus A Type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Lin; Jing Li; Jun-jun Shao; Guo-zheng Cong; Jun-zheng Du; Shan-dian Gao; Hui-yun Chang

    2011-01-01

    In order to develop an anti-FMDV A Type monoclonal antibo by (mAb),BABL/c mice were immunized with FMDV A type.Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) 7B11 and 8H4 against Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype A were produced by fusing SP2/O myeloma cells with splenocyte from the mouse immunized with A/AV88.The microneutralization titer of the mAbs 7B11 and 8H4 were 1024 and 512,respectively.Both mAbs contain kappa light chains,the mAbs were IgG1.In order to define the mAbs binding epitopes,the reactivity of these mAbs against A Type FMDV,were examined using indirect ELISA,the result showed that both mAbs reacted with A Type FMDV.These mAbs may be used for further vaccine studies,diagnostic methods,prophylaxis,etiological and immunological research on FMDV.Characterization of these ncindicated that prepared anti-FMDV A mAbs had no cross-reactivity with Swine Vesicular Disease (SVD) or FMDV O,Asial and C Type antigens.Their titers in abdomen liquor were 1:5×106 and 1:2×106,respectively.7B11 was found to be of subtype IgG1,8H4 was classified as IgG2b subtype.The mAbs prepared in this study,are specific for detection of FMDV serotype A,and is potentially useful for pen-side diagnosis.

  12. Antiviral activity of Paulownia tomentosa against enterovirus 71 of hand, foot, and mouth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ping; Chen, Changmai; Hu, Yanan; Zhan, Zixuan; Pan, Wei; Li, Rongrong; Li, Erguang; Ge, Hui-Ming; Yang, Guang

    2015-01-01

    The bark, leaves, and flowers of Paulownia trees have been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat infectious and inflammatory diseases. We investigated the antiviral effects of Paulownia tomentosa flowers, an herbal medicine used in some provinces of P. R. China for the treatment of skin rashes and blisters. Dried flowers of P. tomentosa were extracted with methanol and tested for antiviral activity against enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CAV16), the predominant etiologic agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease in P. R. China. The extract inhibited EV71 infection, although no effect was detected against CAV16 infection. Bioactivity-guided fractionation was performed to identify apigenin as an active component of the flowers. The EC50 value for apigenin to block EV71 infection was 11.0 µM, with a selectivity index of approximately 9.3. Although it is a common dietary flavonoid, only apigenin, and not similar compounds like naringenin and quercetin, were active against EV71 infection. As an RNA virus, the genome of EV71 has an internal ribosome entry site that interacts with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) and regulates viral translation. Cross-linking followed by immunoprecipitation and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that EV71 RNA was associated with hnRNPs A1 and A2. Apigenin treatment disrupted this association, indicating that apigenin suppressed EV71 replication through a novel mechanism by targeting the trans-acting factors. This study therefore validates the effects of Paulownia against EV71 infection. It also yielded mechanistic insights on apigenin as an active compound for the antiviral activity of P. tomentosa against EV71 infection. PMID:25744451

  13. Foot-and-mouth Disease Transmission in Africa: Implications for Control, a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekleghiorghis, T; Moormann, R J M; Weerdmeester, K; Dekker, A

    2016-04-01

    In Africa, for the control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), more information is needed on the spread of the disease at local, regional and inter-regional level. The aim of this review is to identify the role that animal husbandry, trade and wildlife have on the transmission of FMD and to provide a scientific basis for different FMD control measures in Africa. Review of literature, published reports and databases shows that there is more long distance spread of FMD virus serotypes within North, West, Central and East Africa than in southern Africa. In North, West, Central and East Africa migratory animal husbandry systems often related with search for grazing and water as well as trade are practiced to a greater extent than in southern Africa. In southern Africa, the role of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is more extensively studied than in the other parts of Africa, but based on the densities of African buffalo in Central and East Africa, one would assume that buffalo should also play a role in the epidemiology of FMD in this part of Africa. More sampling of buffalo is necessary in West, Central and East Africa. The genetic analysis of virus strains has proven to be valuable to increase our understanding in the spread of FMD in Africa. This review shows that there is a difference in FMD occurrence between southern Africa and the rest of the continent; this distinction is most likely based on differences in animal husbandry and trade systems. Insufficient data on FMD in wildlife outside southern Africa is limiting our understanding on the role wildlife plays in the transmission of FMD in the other buffalo inhabited areas of Africa. PMID:25052411

  14. Immunity status of foot-and-mouth disease in the border districts of Peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A serological survey for the prevalence of protective level of antibody to Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) was carried out in 10 border districts in Peninsular Malaysia. A liquid phase blocking ELISA kit prepared and standardized by World Reference Laboratory (WRL) for FMD was used for the testing. A total of 800 serum samples collected by a random process were tested for protective level of antibody for virus types O, A and Asia I. An overall mean prevalence for antibody to FMD in the 'immune-belt' region was found to be 51.0%, 37.3%, 53.6% for virus types Q, A, and Asia I respectively and 28.9% for all the three sero-types. The percentage of cattle population having protective level of antibody was too low to prevent active spread of FMD infection. There was also substantial variation in the prevalence of antibody detected at the district level and varied from a low mean of 18.8% for the State of Kedah and a high of 67.5% for the district of Besut. More than 70% of the population need to have protective level of antibody to effectively prevent disease spread. The States of Kedah and Kelantan had variable levels of vaccination coverage from 1994 and had less than 45% coverage for the year 1996. A coverage of more than 90% would be essential to maintain high herd immunity and the current high variability in the vaccination coverage at the district level will only favour a higher infection on rate in the field. (author)

  15. The Foot-and-Mouth Disease Carrier State Divergence in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschbaumer, Michael; Rekant, Steven I.; Pacheco, Juan M.; Smoliga, George R.; Hartwig, Ethan J.; Rodriguez, Luis L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The pathogenesis of persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection was investigated in 46 cattle that were either naive or had been vaccinated using a recombinant, adenovirus-vectored vaccine 2 weeks before challenge. The prevalence of FMDV persistence was similar in both groups (62% in vaccinated cattle, 67% in nonvaccinated cattle), despite vaccinated cattle having been protected from clinical disease. Analysis of antemortem infection dynamics demonstrated that the subclinical divergence between FMDV carriers and animals that cleared the infection had occurred by 10 days postinfection (dpi) in vaccinated cattle and by 21 dpi in nonvaccinated animals. The anatomic distribution of virus in subclinically infected, vaccinated cattle was restricted to the pharynx throughout both the early and the persistent phases of infection. In nonvaccinated cattle, systemically disseminated virus was cleared from peripheral sites by 10 dpi, while virus selectively persisted within the nasopharynx of a subset of animals. The quantities of viral RNA shed in oropharyngeal fluid during FMDV persistence were similar in vaccinated and nonvaccinated cattle. FMDV structural and nonstructural proteins were localized to follicle-associated epithelium of the dorsal soft palate and dorsal nasopharynx in persistently infected cattle. Host transcriptome analysis of tissue samples processed by laser capture microdissection indicated suppression of antiviral host factors (interferon regulatory factor 7, CXCL10 [gamma interferon-inducible protein 10], gamma interferon, and lambda interferon) in association with persistent FMDV. In contrast, during the transitional phase of infection, the level of expression of IFN-λ mRNA was higher in follicle-associated epithelium of animals that had cleared the infection. This work provides novel insights into the intricate mechanisms of FMDV persistence and contributes to further understanding of this critical aspect of FMDV pathogenesis

  16. The expressions of HSP70 and αB-crystallin in myocarditis associated with foot-and-mouth disease virus in lambs

    OpenAIRE

    Gulbahar, Mustafa Yavuz; Kabak, Yonca Betil; Karayigit, Mehmet Onder; Yarim, Murat; Guvenc, Tolga; Parlak, Unal

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the expression of heat shock protein70 (HSP70) and alpha-basic-crystallin (α-BC) and their association with apoptosis and some related adaptor proteins in the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV)-induced myocarditis in lambs. HSP70 was generally overexpressed in the myocardial tissues and inflammatory cells of FMDV-induced myocarditis with differential accumulation and localization in same hearts when compared to non-foot-and-mouth disease control hearts. α...

  17. Low levels of foot-and-mouth disease virus 3C protease expression are required to achieve optimal capsid protein expression and processing in mammalian cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polacek, Charlotta; Gullberg, Maria; Li, Jiong;

    2013-01-01

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid protein precursor (P1-2A) is processed by the virus-encoded 3C protease (3Cpro) to produce VP0, VP3, VP1 and 2A. Within the virus-encoded polyprotein, the P1-2A and 3Cpro can be expected to be produced at equivalent concentrations. However, using...... production of diagnostic reagents and improved vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease....

  18. Novel Viral Disease Control Strategy: Adenovirus Expressing Alpha Interferon Rapidly Protects Swine from Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chinsangaram, Jarasvech; Mauro P. Moraes; Koster, Marla; Grubman, Marvin J.

    2003-01-01

    We have previously shown that replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is highly sensitive to alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β). In the present study, we constructed recombinant, replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 vectors containing either porcine IFN-α or IFN-β (Ad5-pIFNα or Ad5-pIFNβ). We demonstrated that cells infected with these viruses express high levels of biologically active IFN. Swine inoculated with 109 PFU of a control Ad5 virus lacking the IFN gene and challeng...

  19. Electrical Resistivity Monitoring for Leachate Distribution at Two Foot-and-Mouth- Disease (FMD) Burial Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Kaown, D.; Lee, K.; Leem, K.; Ko, K.

    2011-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to provide the basic information on leachate distribution with time changes through the electrical resistivity monitoring for a certain period of time in the Foot-and-Mouth-Disease (FMD) burial facilities which is needed to prevent further soil and groundwater contamination and to build an effective plan for stabilization of the burial site. In this study, dipole-dipoles surveys were carried out around two FMD burial sites in Iceon-si, Gyeonggi-do. The FMD burial facility installed at Daewall-myeon is consists of one block but, at Yul-myeon, it is divided into 2 blocks named A and B blocks. Dipole-Dipole surveys with 8 lines at Yul-myeon and 3 lines at Daewall-myeon were carried out. The observed leachate distribution along survey lines was not clearly evident as time passes at Daewall-myeon site, but, at Yul-myeon site, the leachate distribution around the survey lines showed a decrease of resistivity around the burial facility. At and around A and B blocks of Yul-myeon site, interpretations of the survey data show low resistivity zones below 10 Ωm from a depth 3 m to 10 m and such low resistivity zones of the A block are thicker than the B block by about 5~10 m. From the geochemical data and resistivity survey at two FMD burial sites, it is inferred that the groundwater within a 50-meter radius around burial facilities of the Yul-myeon site are contaminated by leachate. The general resistivity distribution around the burial site is seemed affected by the leachate with high electrical conductivity. The detail distribution patterns can be explained by local distributions of soil and weathered rocks and associated leachate flow. This subject is supported by Brain Korea 21 and Korea Ministry of Environment as 'The GAIA Project (173-092-009)'.

  20. Characteristics of leachate in Foot and Mouth Disease Carcass Disposal using Molecular Biology Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, E. J.; Kim, B. J.; Wi, D. W.; Choi, N. C.; Lee, S. J.; Min, J. E.; Park, C. Y.

    2012-04-01

    The Leachate from Foot and Mouth Disease(FMD) carcass disposal by is one of the types of high-concentration contaminated wastewater with the greatest environmental impact. This is due to its pollutants: nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N) and pathogenic microorganisms. Satisfactory treatment of leachate is not an easy task for its high concentrations of nitrate nitrogen and pathogenic microorganisms. Therefore suitable FMD leachate treatment processes should be adopted to improve treatment performance and to reduce overall running costs. The objective of this study was to determine the leachate characteristics through environmental analysis and molecular biology method (bacteria identification and Polymerase Chain Reaction) using FMD leachate samples for optimal FMD leachate treatment processes. The Sixteen FMD leachate samples was obtained from carcass disposal regions in Korea. Results of environmental analysis showed that pH and Eh was observed from 5.57 to 7.40, -134~358mV. This data was exhibited typical early carcass disposal (Neutral pH and Reducing Environment by abundant organic matter). TOC and nitrate nitrogen high concentrations in FMD leachate showed a large variability from 2.3 to 38,730 mg/L(mean - 6,821.93mg/L) and 0.335 ~231.998mg/L(mean - 37.46mg/L), respectively. The result of bacteria identification was observed Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas putida, Acinetobacter ursingii, Aeromonas hydrophila, Serratia liquefaciens, Brevundimonas naejangsanensis, Serratia liquefaciens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter ursingii. The results of Polymerase Chain Reaction(PCR) using EzTaxon server data revealed Pseudoclavibacter helvolus, Pseudochrobactrum saccharolyticum, Corynebacterium callunae, Paenibacillus lautus, Paenibacillus sp., Bacillus arvi, Brevundimonas bullata, Acinetobacter ursingii, Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus psychrodurans, Pseudomonas sp.

  1. Clinical Features for Mild Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyan Liu

    Full Text Available Mild hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD is at a critical stage owing to its ease of communicability and a higher risk of developing severe complications and death. Clinical diagnosis of mild HFMD was made by the presenting symptoms and signs (symptoms in brief alone. We aim to evaluate the frequencies of symptoms in a retrospective case series study.We collected epidemiological, demographic, clinical, and laboratory data from outpatient and inpatient settings on the clinical data warehouse system. We principally described the frequencies of symptoms of mild HFMD. Correlations between symptoms with laboratory-confirmed cases were then analyzed.The clinical data warehouse system included 3649 probable cases, between 2010 and 2012, of which 956 (26.20% were laboratory confirmed. The peak incidence was identified in children 2 years of age. A total of 370 of the 956 laboratory confirmed cases (38.70% were associated with enterovirus 71 (EV71. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for geographical variables, age, sex, month of onset, and time from onset to diagnosis showed that the clinical features constipation (P<0.0001; adjusted OR, 95%CI (2.99, 2.28-3.91, and blisters (P<0.0001; adjusted OR, 95%CI (2.16, 1.82-2.56 were positively correlated with the confirmed cases.This is the largest case series study, including all the guideline-mentioned symptoms of mild HFMD. Our findings suggest that blisters and constipation should be considered as potential warning signs while front-line clinicians manage surges of children diagnosed with mild HFMD during a pandemic.

  2. Membrane topology and cellular dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus 3A protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica González-Magaldi

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural protein 3A plays important roles in virus replication, virulence and host-range; nevertheless little is known on the interactions that this protein can establish with different cell components. In this work, we have performed in vivo dynamic studies from cells transiently expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP fused to the complete 3A (GFP3A and versions including different 3A mutations. The results revealed the presence of a mobile fraction of GFP3A, which was found increased in most of the mutants analyzed, and the location of 3A in a continuous compartment in the cytoplasm. A dual behavior was also observed for GFP3A upon cell fractionation, being the protein equally recovered from the cytosolic and membrane fractions, a ratio that was also observed when the insoluble fraction was further fractioned, even in the presence of detergent. Similar results were observed in the fractionation of GFP3ABBB, a 3A protein precursor required for initiating RNA replication. A nonintegral membrane protein topology of FMDV 3A was supported by the lack of glycosylation of versions of 3A in which each of the protein termini was fused to a glycosylation acceptor tag, as well as by their accessibility to degradation by proteases. According to this model 3A would interact with membranes through its central hydrophobic region exposing its N- and C- termini to the cytosol, where interactions between viral and cellular proteins required for virus replication are expected to occur.

  3. Peripheral T lymphocyte subset imbalances in children with enterovirus 71-induced hand, foot and mouth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuxian; Cai, Chunyan; Feng, Jinyan; Li, Xuejing; Wang, Yingshuo; Yang, Jun; Chen, Zhimin

    2014-02-13

    Inflammatory mediators (i.e. cytokines) play a pivotal role in the regulation of pathophysiological processes during EV71-induced hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Different T cell subsets have distinct cytokine secretion profiles, and alteration in the T cell subsets frequency (imbalance) during infection leads to changed cytokine patterns. However, the effects of EV71 infection on T cell subsets were not clear. The objective of this study was to determine whether EV71-induced HFMD can be explained by the emergence of particular T-cell subsets (Th1, Th2, Tc1, Tc2, Th17, Tc17 and Treg cells) and the cytokine they produced (IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-17A and TGF-β1), as well as distinct responses to EV71 infection. We found that when compared to the control group, the percentage of Th1 and Tc1 cells was significantly higher in mild and severe HFMD group. Similar results were found in the Th1/Th2 ratio and IFN-γ levels. On the other hand, the percentage of Th17 cells and IL-17A levels were the highest in severe HFMD cases, and lowest in controls. Similar trend was also found for the Th17/Treg cell ratio. An optimal cutoff value of 2.15% for Th17 cell and 6.72 pg/ml for IL-17A provided a discriminatory value for differentiating the severity of HFMD cases by receiver operating characteristic curve analyses. These findings reveal that the Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg imbalance exist in HFMD patients, suggesting their involvement in the pathogenesis of EV71 infection, which may have potential value as biomarkers. PMID:24316007

  4. The serological response against foot and mouth disease virus elicited by repeated vaccination of dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnekave, Ehud; Dekker, Aldo; Eble, Phaedra; van Hemert-Kluitenberg, Froukje; Gelman, Boris; Storm, Nick; Klement, Eyal

    2016-09-22

    In Israel, cattle are annually vaccinated against foot and mouth disease (FMD). If infections with FMD virus occur in dairy farms it mainly involves heifers and calves, while older dairy cows seldom become infected. We hypothesized that this difference in susceptibility between adult cows and the young heifers and calves is due to stronger and more stable immune response elicited by multiple vaccinations. In order to test this hypothesis, 99 dairy cattle, divided into six groups according to number of prior vaccinations, were annually vaccinated with a trivalent vaccine (A, O and Asia-1) and followed during two consecutive years. In total 988 sera were sampled at 11 time points. Virus neutralization tests (VNT) were performed in order to determine the neutralizing antibody titers (NAT) against the vaccine homologous serotypes: O-4625, O-Manisa, Asia-1-Shamir and the heterologous serotype A-Turkey-20/2006. A similar NAT pattern was observed to all serotypes and therefore statistical analysis was restricted to O-4625 serotype. In the 'high vaccination' groups (cows that were vaccinated at least four times before the study), high NAT were found on the beginning of the trial and no or only a mild increase of NAT was observed following further vaccinations. Additionally, in the 'high vaccination' groups, the percentage of cows that had a NAT higher than 2.0 (log10) by the end of the 1st year was significantly higher than in the 'low vaccination' groups (cows vaccinated only three times or less before the study). We conclude that starting from the 5th vaccination, the NAT increase following vaccination is mild and NAT are persistent, suggesting reduction of the frequency of routine vaccination after multiple vaccinations is possible. PMID:27576078

  5. Molecular survey for foot-and-mouth disease virus in livestock in Tanzania, 2008–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael S. Sallu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Phylogeography data are of paramount importance in studying the molecular epidemiology dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV. In this study, epithelial samples and oesophageal-pharyngeal fluids were collected from 361 convalescent animals (cattle and buffaloes in the field throughout Tanzania between 2009 and 2013. The single plex real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR assay for rapid and accurate diagnosis of FMDV employing the Callahan 3DF-2, 3DF-R primers and Callahan 3DP-1 probe were used. Preparation of the samples was performed according to the OIE manual, with a Kenya O serotype obtained from the attenuated vaccine serving as a positive control and samples collected from healthy animals serving as true negatives. The results indicated that 53.49% of samples (n = 176 were positive for FMDV genome by qRT-PCR, with Ct values ranging from 14 to 32. In addition, molecular typing of the FMDV genome positive samples using serotype specific primers revealed the existence of several serotypes: serotype South Africa Territory 1 (SAT1 (34.25%, n = 60, serotype A (68.92%, n = 98, serotype O (59.20%, n = 98 and SAT2 (54.54%, n = 96. The virus protein 1 sequences analysis for 35 samples was performed and the collective results indicated: 54.28% serotype O, 25.71% serotype A, 14.28% serotype SAT1 and 2.85% serotype SAT2. Therefore in this study, both the phylogenetic trees and spatial distribution of serotypes elucidated the phylodynamics of multiple FMDV field strains in Tanzania and neighbouring countries.

  6. Aerosol transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus Asia-1 under experimental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colenutt, C; Gonzales, J L; Paton, D J; Gloster, J; Nelson, N; Sanders, C

    2016-06-30

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) control measures rely on understanding of virus transmission mechanisms. Direct contact between naïve and infected animals or spread by contaminated fomites is prevented by quarantines and rigorous decontamination procedures during outbreaks. Transmission of FMDV by aerosol may not be prevented by these control measures and this route of transmission may allow infection of animals at distance from the infection source. Understanding the potential for aerosol spread of specific FMDV strains is important for informing control strategies in an outbreak. Here, the potential for transmission of an FMDV Asia 1 strain between pigs and cattle by indirect aerosol exposure was evaluated in an experimental setting. Four naïve calves were exposed to aerosols emitted from three infected pigs in an adjacent room for a 10h period. Direct contact between pigs and cattle and fomite transfer between rooms was prevented. Viral titres in aerosols emitted by the infected pigs were measured to estimate the dose that calves were exposed to. One of the calves developed clinical signs of FMD, whilst there was serological evidence for spread to cattle by aerosol transmission in the remaining three calves. This highlights the possibility that this FMDV Asia 1 strain could be spread by aerosol transmission given appropriate environmental conditions should an outbreak occur in pigs. Our estimates suggest the exposure dose required for aerosol transmission was higher than has been previously quantified for other serotypes, implying that aerosols are less likely to play a significant role in transmission and spread of this FMDV strain. PMID:27259825

  7. Meteorological factors affect the hand, foot, and mouth disease epidemic in Qingdao, China, 2007-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, F C; Yang, F; Chen, L; Jia, J; Han, Y L; Hao, B; Cao, G W

    2016-08-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has caused public health concerns worldwide. We aimed to investigate the effect of meteorological factors on the HFMD epidemic in Qingdao, a port city in China. A total of 78641 cases were reported in Qingdao between January 2007 and December 2014. Of those, 71084 (90·39%) occurred in children aged 0-5 years, with an incidence of 1691·2/100000. The incidence increased from early spring, peaked between spring and summer, and decreased in late summer. Aetiological agents in all severe cases and selected mild cases were characterized by examining throat swabs. Except for enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), other EVs caused >50% of the HFMD cases between 2011 and 2014. EV71 was more frequent in the off-peak months than in the peak months and prone to causing more severe cases compared to CA16 (χ 2 = 46·3, P < 0·001). CA10 caused more severe HFMD than did CA6 (χ 2 = 20·49, P < 0·001) and all non-CA10 EVs (χ 2 = 41·01, P < 0·001). Community-derived HFMD cases accounted for 65·11%. Spearman rank correlation analysis showed that HFMD incidence in children aged 0-5 years was positively correlated with atmospheric temperature (r s = 0·77, P < 0·001), relative humidity (r s = 0·507, P < 0·001), and precipitation (r s = 0·328, P < 0·001). Climate changes and CA10 surveillance in communities should be integrated into the current prophylactic programme. PMID:27018924

  8. Viroporin Activity of the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Non-Structural 2B Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Ao

    Full Text Available Viroporins are a family of low-molecular-weight hydrophobic transmembrane proteins that are encoded by various animal viruses. Viroporins form transmembrane pores in host cells via oligomerization, thereby destroying cellular homeostasis and inducing cytopathy for virus replication and virion release. Among the Picornaviridae family of viruses, the 2B protein encoded by enteroviruses is well understood, whereas the viroporin activity of the 2B protein encoded by the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV has not yet been described. An analysis of the FMDV 2B protein domains by computer-aided programs conducted in this study revealed that this protein may contain two transmembrane regions. Further biochemical, biophysical and functional studies revealed that the protein possesses a number of features typical of a viroporin when it is overexpressed in bacterial and mammalian cells as well as in FMDV-infected cells. The protein was found to be mainly localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, with both the N- and C-terminal domains stretched into the cytosol. It exhibited cytotoxicity in Escherichia coli, which attenuated 2B protein expression. The release of virions from cells infected with FMDV was inhibited by amantadine, a viroporin inhibitor. The 2B protein monomers interacted with each other to form both intracellular and extracellular oligomers. The Ca(2+ concentration in the cells increased, and the integrity of the cytoplasmic membrane was disrupted in cells that expressed the 2B protein. Moreover, the 2B protein induced intense autophagy in host cells. All of the results of this study demonstrate that the FMDV 2B protein has properties that are also found in other viroporins and may be involved in the infection mechanism of FMDV.

  9. Foot and mouth disease virus transmission among vaccinated pigs after exposure to virus shedding pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsel, K; de Jong, M C M; Bouma, A; Stegeman, J A; Dekker, A

    2007-08-21

    The aim of this study was to design a transmission experiment that enabled quantification of the effectiveness of vaccination against foot and mouth disease (FMD) virus in groups of pigs. Previous experiments showed that intradermal injection of pigs with FMD virus 14 days after vaccination was not suitable to start an infection chain, as inoculated vaccinated pigs resisted challenge. Therefore, we carried out two experiments in which we used direct contact to a non-vaccinated pig as route of infection. In the first experiment only the vaccine effect on susceptibility was quantified by exposing pigs, either vaccinated 14 days before or not vaccinated, each to a non-vaccinated seeder pig inoculated with FMD virus O/NET/2001. Since no significant differences were observed between contact infections in vaccinated or non-vaccinated pigs, we performed a second experiment in which both susceptibility and infectivity were subject to vaccination. We quantified virus transmission in homogenous groups of vaccinated or non-vaccinated pigs in which the infection chain was started by exposure to a third group of non-vaccinated infected pigs. Transmission occurred to all contact-exposed pigs in the non-vaccinated groups and to 9 out of 10 contact-exposed pigs in the vaccinated groups. The rate of transmission (beta) was significantly reduced in the vaccine group. Yet, the estimated reproduction ratio in both groups was still above 1. In conclusion, by adjusting our transmission study design and challenge method, we were able to quantify transmission of FMDV among vaccinated pigs. According to this study a single vaccination was not sufficient to stop pig to pig virus transmission. With these results major outbreaks may still be expected, even in groups of vaccinated pigs. PMID:17658199

  10. Impact of foot-and-mouth disease on pork and chicken prices in Central Luzon, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abao, Lary Nel B; Kono, Hiroichi; Gunarathne, Anoma; Promentilla, Rolando R; Gaerlan, Manolita Z

    2014-03-01

    Central Luzon is the number one pig-producing region in the Philippines and was affected by Foot-and-Mouth disease (FMD) in 1995. In this paper, the impact of FMD on the Central Luzon meat market from 1995 to 1999 was examined. Employing the error correction model (ECM) and historical decomposition, the impact of FMD on the Central Luzon pork and chicken meat market was quantified. The following findings were observed: (a) pig farm and pork wholesale prices dropped 11.8% and 15.7%, respectively, after the initial FMD outbreaks in January, 1995; (b) in February, 1995, chicken farm and wholesale prices declined by 21.1% and 14.2%, respectively (while chicken retail prices also went down by 10.5%); (c) the margins of pig and chicken traders were also adversely affected at some point; and (d) FMD caused changes of dynamic interdependence among prices by meat type at different levels of the meat supply chain. This study makes several contributions to the literature on the impact of FMD outbreaks. This study is the first that simultaneously investigates the impact of FMD outbreaks on meat prices, price margins along the supply chain, and price interdependence in the meat system in Central Luzon, Philippines. Also, the Philippine pork industry is dominated by backyard farmers rather than the predominantly large commercial pig farmers existing in developed countries. Secondly, it yielded the novel finding of price decline in both pig and chicken prices as a result of the FMD outbreaks. And lastly, the study showed that the profit margins of the pig traders, pork traders, chicken traders and chicken meat traders were also negatively affected by the FMD outbreaks in January 1995. However, over the long term, the price margins of pork traders were more severely affected in contrast to that of the other traders' profits. PMID:24433637

  11. Cyclical Patterns of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease Caused by Enterovirus A71 in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nmn NikNadia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71 is an important emerging pathogen causing large epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD in children. In Malaysia, since the first EV-A71 epidemic in 1997, recurrent cyclical epidemics have occurred every 2-3 years for reasons that remain unclear. We hypothesize that this cyclical pattern is due to changes in population immunity in children (measured as seroprevalence. Neutralizing antibody titers against EV-A71 were measured in 2,141 residual serum samples collected from children ≤12 years old between 1995 and 2012 to determine the seroprevalence of EV-A71. Reported national HFMD incidence was highest in children <2 years, and decreased with age; in support of this, EV-A71 seroprevalence was significantly associated with age, indicating greater susceptibility in younger children. EV-A71 epidemics are also characterized by peaks of increased genetic diversity, often with genotype changes. Cross-sectional time series analysis was used to model the association between EV-A71 epidemic periods and EV-A71 seroprevalence adjusting for age and climatic variables (temperature, rainfall, rain days and ultraviolet radiance. A 10% increase in absolute monthly EV-A71 seroprevalence was associated with a 45% higher odds of an epidemic (adjusted odds ratio, aOR1.45; 95% CI 1.24-1.69; P<0.001. Every 10% decrease in seroprevalence between preceding and current months was associated with a 16% higher odds of an epidemic (aOR = 1.16; CI 1.01-1.34 P<0.034. In summary, the 2-3 year cyclical pattern of EV-A71 epidemics in Malaysia is mainly due to the fall of population immunity accompanying the accumulation of susceptible children between epidemics. This study will impact the future planning, timing and target populations for vaccine programs.

  12. Developing a Generic Risk Assessment Simulation Modelling Software Tool for Assessing the Risk of Foot and Mouth Virus Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tameru, B; Gebremadhin, B; Habtemariam, T; Nganwa, D; Ayanwale, O; Wilson, S; Robnett, V; Wilson, W

    2008-06-01

    Foot and Mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease that affects all cloven-hoofed animals. Because of its devastating effects on the agricultural industry, many countries take measures to stop the introduction of FMD virus into their countries. Decision makers at multiple levels of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) use Risk Assessments (RAs) (both quantitative and qualitative) to make better and more informed scientifically based decisions to prevent the accidental or intentional introduction of the disease. There is a need for a generic RA that can be applied to any country (whether FMD free or non-FMD free) and for any product (FMD infected animals and animal products). We developed a user-friendly generic RA tool (software) that can be used to conduct and examine different scenarios of quantitative/qualitative risk assessments for the different countries with their varying FMD statuses in relation to reintroduction of FMD virus into the USA. The program was written in Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0 (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington, USA). The @Risk 6.1 Developer Kit (RDK) and @Risk 6.1 Best Fit Kit library (Palisade Corporation, Newfield, NY.USA) was used to build Monte Carlo simulation models. Microsoft Access 2000 (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington, USA) was used and SQL to query the data. Different input probability distributions can be selected for the nodes in the scenario tree and different output for each end-state of the simulation is given in different graphical formats and statistical values are used in describing the likelihood of FMD virus introduction. Sensitivity Analysis in determining which input factor has more effect on the total risk outputs is also given. The developed generic RA tools can be eventually extended and modified to conduct RAs for other animal diseases and animal products. PMID:25411550

  13. Rapid, sensitive and effective diagnostic tools for foot-and-mouth disease virus in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Kasanga

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Speed is paramount in the diagnosis of highly infectious diseases, such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD, as well as for emerging diseases; however, simplicity is required if a test is to be deployed in the field. Recent developments in molecular biology have enabled the specific detection of FMD virus (FMDV by reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP, real-time  reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR and sequencing. RT-LAMP enables amplification of the FMDV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 3D(pol gene at 63 °C (in the presence of a primer mixture and both reverse transcriptase and Bst DNA polymerase for 1 h, whilst RT-qPCR amplifies the same gene in approximately 2 h 30 min. In this study, we compared the sensitivity and effectiveness of RT-LAMP against RT-qPCR for the detection of the FMDV 3D(pol gene in 179 oesophageal-pharyngeal scraping samples (collected by probang obtained from clinically healthy cattle and buffalo in Malawi, Mozambique and Tanzania in 2010. The FMDV detection rate was higher with RT-LAMP (30.2%; n = 54 than with RT-qPCR (17.3%; n = 31. All samples positive by RT-qPCR (Cq ≤ 32.0 were also positive for the RT-LAMP assay; and both assays proved to be highly specific for the FMDV target sequence. In addition, the VP1 sequences of 10 viruses isolated from positive samples corresponded to the respective FMDV serotypes and genotypes. Our findings indicate that the performance of RT-LAMP is superior to RT-qPCR. Accordingly, we consider this test to have great potential with regard to the specific detection and surveillance of infectious diseases of humans and animals in resource-compromised developing countries.

  14. Proper quality control of formulated foot-and-mouth disease vaccines in countries with prophylactic vaccination is necessary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, S M; Shah, S I; Ali, Q; Mehmood, A; Afzal, M; Afzal, M; Dekker, A

    2014-12-01

    Vaccination is considered as an important tool to control foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). A good quality vaccine containing relevant serotypes and matching strains is a pre-requisite for vaccination to be effective. The present study investigated the quality of different brands of FMD vaccine available in Pakistan, including three locally produced and two imported products. All the vaccines were found free of bacterial or fungal contamination. No adverse effects were noted in suckling mice and buffalo calves inoculated with the vaccines, showing that the vaccines were sterile and safe. The humoral immune response to the FMD vaccines was determined in buffalo calves for 234 days post-vaccination. Very low humoral immune responses against FMD serotypes O, A and Asia 1 viruses were detected to the locally produced vaccines. The imported vaccines, however, elicited a higher antibody response which persisted for a long period in one of the 2 vaccines. The present study highlights the need of assessing an independent vaccine quality control of finished FMD vaccine products.

  15. Effect of foot and mouth disease vaccination on seminal and biochemical profiles of mithun (Bos frontalis) semen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P Perumal; K Khate; C Rajkhowa

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of foot and mouth disease (FMD) vaccination on seminal and biochemical profiles of semen of mithun at pre and post vaccinated stage. Methods: The breeding bulls were maintained at Semen Collection Centre, National Research Centre on Mithun, Jharnapani, Nagaland. A total of 160 ejaculates were collected from eight mithun bulls twice a week at about 4 weeks in pre vaccinated stage and 12 weeks post vaccinated stage to know the effect of vaccine stress on seminal and biochemical profiles of mithun semen. The vaccine was given at the end of 4th week of experimental period and semen was collected and evaluated upto the 16th weeks of experimental period. Results: It revealed that FMD vaccination affected the sperm functional and biochemical parameters significantly (P<0.05) upto 10th weeks of vaccination. But the animal recovered slowly in both physical health and spermiogram.Conclusions:The adverse effect of vaccination on seminal parameters suggest that the semen collection and preservation should be suspended till 10th weeks of vaccination to get normal fertility of sperm to avoid the failure of conception from artificial insemination using such semen in this precious species.

  16. B Epitope Multiplicity and B/T Epitope Orientation Influence Immunogenicity of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Peptide Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Blanco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic peptides incorporating protective B- and T-cell epitopes are candidates for new safer foot-and-mouth disease (FMD vaccines. We have reported that dendrimeric peptides including four copies of a B-cell epitope (VP1 136 to 154 linked to a T-cell epitope (3A 21 to 35 of FMD virus (FMDV elicit potent B- and T-cell specific responses and confer protection to viral challenge, while juxtaposition of these epitopes in a linear peptide induces less efficient responses. To assess the relevance of B-cell epitope multivalency, dendrimers bearing two (B2T or four (B4T copies of the B-cell epitope from type O FMDV (a widespread circulating serotype were tested in CD1 mice and showed that multivalency is advantageous over simple B-T-epitope juxtaposition, resulting in efficient induction of neutralizing antibodies and optimal release of IFNγ. Interestingly, the bivalent B2T construction elicited similar or even better B- and T-cell specific responses than tetravalent B4T. In addition, the presence of the T-cell epitope and its orientation were shown to be critical for the immunogenicity of the linear juxtaposed monovalent peptides analyzed in parallel. Taken together, our results provide useful insights for a more accurate design of FMD subunit vaccines.

  17. Spatial Trend of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) Serotypes in Cattle and Buffaloes, Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Abubakar; Muhammad Javed Arshed; Qurban Ali; Manzoor Hussain

    2012-01-01

    The present study describes the frequency of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) virus serotypes (O,A and Asia-1) in major regions (all provinces) of Pakistan using Indirect Sandwich ELISA.Also,spatial distribution of various FMD serotypes and their comparison is discussed.A total of 590 samples (Epithelial tissue) have been analyzed during a period of five years (2005-2009).Out of 590 samples,180 were found positive,giving an overall confirmation of FMDV about 33.2 %.Of the prevalent serotypes,FMDV ‘O’ serotype caused most outbreaks (20.7 %),followed by serotype A (6.6 %) and serotype Asia-1 (4.6 %) while there was no positive case of type ‘C’.The study clearly showed that the disease was more frequent in the agro-climatic zones than in hilly areas.Based on the data of 590 samples (>50 outbreaks),the overall prevalence of FMDV in cattle and buffaloes in Pakistan was 33.2 %,while in cattle alone,it was 37.1%,higher than in buffalo (28.7 %).There were eight cases of mixed serotypes infection,indicating the presence of endemic state of disease.Another significant feature was the change over time.In phase-I (2005-2007),there was an overall prevalence of 29.4 %,while the occurrence of the serotype O,A and Asia-1 was 20.4 %,2.9 % and 4.7 %,respectively.During phase-II (2008-2009),the overall prevalence was 59.21%,while those of serotype O,A and Asia-1 were 22.4 %,31.6 % and 4.0 %,respectively.This clearly indicated a shift from serotype O to A,which may help to explain the occurrence of more severe outbreaks,despite vaccination.

  18. Utility of automated real-time RT-PCR for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus excreted in milk

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, Scott; Parida, Satya; King, Donald; Hutchings, Geoffrey; Shaw, Andrew; Ferris, Nigel; Zhang, Zhidong; Eric Hillerton, J.; Paton, David

    2006-01-01

    International audience Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) can be excreted in milk and thereby spread infection to susceptible animals in other holdings. The feasibility of using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) as a diagnostic tool for detection of FMDV in milk was assessed by studying the excretion of virus from experimentally-infected cattle. Fore- and machine milk samples were collected over a 4-week period from two dairy cows infected with FMDV and f...

  19. Geo-spatial distribution of serologically detected bovine Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) serotype outbreaks in Ilesha Baruba, Kwara State-Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Hamza Olatunde Olabode; Haruna Makajuola Kazeem; Moshood Abiola Raji; Najume Dogongiginya Ibrahim; Wesley Daniel Nafarnda

    2014-01-01

    The study was aimed at assessing the prevalence and distribution of bovine Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) serotypes in Ilesha Baruba, Kwara state-Nigeria. To identify the source of epidemics, geo-spatial analysis was done on the FMD outbreak locations (n=15) using Global Positioning Service (GPS) device (EtrexR). Randomly sampled bovine sera (n=64) from herd representatives were subjected to FMD 3ABC enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (FMD 3ABC ELISA) and solid-phase competitive ELISA (SP-cELISA...

  20. Summary of foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks reported in and around the Kruger National Park, South Africa, between 1970 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyason, E

    2010-12-01

    Information with regard to foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks that occurred in the Kruger National Park (KNP) and adjacent areas of South Africa between 1970 and 2009 was collected from reports and files of various government departments and collated into one report. The collected data were summarised in a table and assessed for patterns. Fifty-one FMD outbreaks occurred during this period in the target area, of which 16 were SAT 1, 31 were SAT 2,4 were SAT 3 and 3 were not serotyped. No pattern could be discerned although SAT 1 outbreaks occurred more frequently in the summer months while more SAT 2 outbreaks occurred in winter.

  1. Rescue of foot-and-mouth disease viruses that are pathogenic for cattle from preserved viral RNA samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham J Belsham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Foot and mouth disease is an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals including cattle, sheep and pigs. It is caused by a picornavirus, foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV, which has a positive sense RNA genome which, when introduced into cells, can initiate virus replication. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A system has been developed to rescue infectious FMDV from RNA preparations generated from clinical samples obtained under experimental conditions and then applied to samples collected in the "field". Clinical samples from suspect cases of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD were obtained from within Pakistan and Afghanistan. The samples were treated to preserve the RNA and then transported to National Veterinary Institute, Lindholm, Denmark. Following RNA extraction, FMDV RNA was quantified by real-time RT-PCR and samples containing significant levels of FMDV RNA were introduced into susceptible cells using electroporation. Progeny viruses were amplified in primary bovine thyroid cells and characterized using antigen ELISA and also by RT-PCR plus sequencing. FMD viruses of three different serotypes and multiple lineages have been successfully rescued from the RNA samples. Two of the rescued viruses (of serotype O and Asia 1 were inoculated into bull calves under high containment conditions. Acute clinical disease was observed in each case which spread rapidly from the inoculated calves to in-contact animals. Thus the rescued viruses were highly pathogenic. The availability of the rescued viruses enabled serotyping by antigen ELISA and facilitated genome sequencing. CONCLUSIONS: The procedure described here should improve the characterization of FMDVs circulating in countries where the disease is endemic and thus enhance disease control globally.

  2. Phylodynamics of Enterovirus A71-Associated Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnert, Denise; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Lin, Xudong; Simenauer, Ari; Akopov, Asmik; Das, Suman R.; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Shrivastava, Susmita; Ngoc, Nghiem My; Uyen, Le Thi Tam; Tuyen, Nguyen Thi Kim; Thanh, Tran Tan; Hang, Vu Thi Ty; Qui, Phan Tu; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Khanh, Truong Huu; Thinh, Le Quoc; Nhan, Le Nguyen Thanh; Van, Hoang Minh Tu; Viet, Do Chau; Tuan, Ha Manh; Viet, Ho Lu; Hien, Tran Tinh; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Thwaites, Guy; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Stadler, Tanja; Wentworth, David E.; Holmes, Edward C.; Van Doorn, H. Rogier

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is a major cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and is particularly prevalent in parts of Southeast Asia, affecting thousands of children and infants each year. Revealing the evolutionary and epidemiological dynamics of EV-A71 through time and space is central to understanding its outbreak potential. We generated the full genome sequences of 200 EV-A71 strains sampled from various locations in Viet Nam between 2011 and 2013 and used these sequence data to determine the evolutionary history and phylodynamics of EV-A71 in Viet Nam, providing estimates of the effective reproduction number (Re) of the infection through time. In addition, we described the phylogeography of EV-A71 throughout Southeast Asia, documenting patterns of viral gene flow. Accordingly, our analysis reveals that a rapid genogroup switch from C4 to B5 likely took place during 2012 in Viet Nam. We show that the Re of subgenogroup C4 decreased during the time frame of sampling, whereas that of B5 increased and remained >1 at the end of 2013, corresponding to a rise in B5 prevalence. Our study reveals that the subgenogroup B5 virus that emerged into Viet Nam is closely related to variants that were responsible for large epidemics in Malaysia and Taiwan and therefore extends our knowledge regarding its associated area of endemicity. Subgenogroup B5 evidently has the potential to cause more widespread outbreaks across Southeast Asia. IMPORTANCE EV-A71 is one of many viruses that cause HFMD, a common syndrome that largely affects infants and children. HFMD usually causes only mild illness with no long-term consequences. Occasionally, however, severe infection may arise, especially in very young children, causing neurological complications and even death. EV-A71 is highly contagious and is associated with the most severe HFMD cases, with large and frequent epidemics of the virus recorded worldwide. Although major advances have been made in the development of a

  3. Seroprevalence of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Susceptible Wildlife in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnekave, Ehud; King, Roni; van Maanen, Kees; Shilo, Hila; Gelman, Boris; Storm, Nick; Klement, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemics recur in Israel almost every year. Wild even-toed ungulates are seldom affected during these epidemics. The seroprevalence of FMD in wild ungulates during 2000 and 2005–2013 was estimated using anti-non-structural proteins ELISA. Overall, 209 samples were tested, comprising sera of 120 wild boar (Sus scrofa lybicus), 64 mountain gazelles (Gazella gazella gazella), 6 water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), and 19 Persian fallow deer (Dama dama mesopotamica). None of the tested animals presented clinical signs of FMD during blood collection. Sixteen samples [7.7% (95% confidence interval (CI95%) = 4.4–12.1%)] were found to be seropositive. Fifteen out of 120 samples (12.5%) from wild boar were seropositive, compared with only 1 out of 89 samples (1.1%) from all other species combined (Fisher’s exact test: p = 0.003). Most of the positive samples obtained from wild boar [13/15 (86.7%)] were collected during 2007, and analysis was restricted to that year and species only. The seroprevalence of FMD in this species during 2007 was estimated at 54.2% (CI95% = 32.8–74.5%; n = 24). A significant infection cluster, comprising nine seropositive samples collected in three different locations, was identified in the north-eastern part of Israel. These findings indicate that wild boar was affected during the 2007 FMD epidemic, even though wild boar presenting FMD typical clinical signs were not observed during that year. The actual role of wild boar in the spread of FMD virus in this epidemic, however, could not be determined. The negligible seroprevalence of FMD found for all other surveillance years indicates that ongoing circulation of FMD among wildlife in Israel is unlikely. It is concluded that while the role of wildlife species in the dynamics of FMD in Israel is usually limited, there might be occasions, in which wildlife plays a part in the spread of the virus. PMID:27200364

  4. Physical Factors Affecting in Vitro Replication of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (Serotype “O”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Taslim Ghori*, Khushi Muhammad and Masood Rabbani1

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Effect of physical factors (temperature, pH and UV light on replicating ability of “O” type of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD virus on Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK cell line was determined. The freshly grown FMD virus containing 106 units of tissue culture infective dose (TCID50 was divided into aliquots. Each of the 9 virus aliquots was exposed to 37, 57 or 77C for 15, 30 or 45 minutes, respectively. Each of the 5 virus aliquots was mixed with MEM-199 maintenance medium having pH 3, 5, 7, 9, or 11. Similarly, each of the 3 aliquots having 1 mm depth of the medium was exposed to ultraviolet light (252.7 nm wavelength: one foot distance for 15, 30 or 45 minutes. Each of the virus aliquot exposed to either of the temperature, pH or ultraviolet light (UV for either of the interaction time was inoculated to 8 wells of the 96-well cell culture plate containing complete monolayer of BHK cell line. One row of 8 wells served as virus control and other row of 8 wells served as control for monolayer of the BHK-21 cell line. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. It was observed that temperature of 57 and 77C inactivated the virus within 15 minutes. The virus when admixed in the MEM-199 maintenance medium having pH 3, 5, 9 or 11, of the medium inactivated the virus while pH 7 did not show any detrimental effect on its survival. The ultraviolet light for 15, 30 or 45 minutes showed undetectable effect on survival of the virus as either of the virus aliquot exposed to the UV light for either of the interaction time showed cytopathogenic effects (CPE. It was concluded that the temperature of 57°C or higher for 15 minutes, acidic pH (below 5 or basic pH (more than 9 may inactivate the FMD virus.

  5. Sero-prevalence of foot and mouth disease in susceptible wildlife in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehud eElnekave

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Foot and mouth disease (FMD epidemics recur in Israel almost every year. Wild even-toed ungulates are seldom affected during these epidemics. The sero-prevalence of FMD in wild ungulates during 2000 and 2005-13 was estimated using anti non-structural proteins (NSP ELISA. Overall, 209 samples were tested, comprising sera of 120 wild boar (Sus scrofa lybicus, 64 mountain gazelles (Gazella gazella gazella, six water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis, and 19 Persian fallow deer (Dama dama mesopotamica. None of the tested animals presented clinical signs of FMD during blood collection. Sixteen samples (7.7% (95% confidence interval (CI95% = 4.4 - 12.1% were found to be sero-positive. Fifteen out of 120 samples (12.5% from wild boar were sero-positive, compared with only one out of 89 samples (1.1% from all other species combined (Fisher's Exact test: p=0.003. Most of the positive samples obtained from wild boar (13/15 (86.7% were collected during 2007 and analysis was restricted to that year and species only. The sero-prevalence of FMD in this species during 2007 was estimated at 54.2% (CI95%=32.8 - 74.5%; n=24. A significant infection cluster, comprising nine sero-positive samples collected in three different locations, was identified in the north-eastern part of Israel. These findings indicate that wild boar were affected during the 2007 FMD epidemic, even though wild boar presenting FMD typical clinical signs were not observed during that year. The actual role of wild boar in the spread of FMD virus in this epidemic, however, could not be determined. The negligible sero-prevalence of FMD found for all other surveillance years indicates that ongoing circulation of FMD among wildlife in Israel is unlikely. It is concluded that while the role of wildlife species in the dynamics of FMD in Israel is usually limited, there might be occasions in which wildlife play a part in the spread of the virus.

  6. Effect of different culture systems on the production of foot and mouth disease trivalent vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Ismail Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to determine the effect of the stationary rawx, roller, and the suspension cell culture systems on the total virus yield infectivity and antigenicity. Materials and Methods: Three serotypes of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV (serotype A, O and SAT-2 were inoculated separately into baby hamster kidney-21 cell line in rawx, roller, and suspension cultivation systems using multiplicity of infection (1:100. Samples were taken from the total virus yield from each system at 15, 18, 21, and 24 h post-inoculation. Testing the total virus yield infectivity through virus titration and antigenicity through estimation of complement fixing titer and 146S content and evaluation of the potency of the vaccine prepared from the different cultivation systems were done. Results: The results showed that the FMDV titer of serotype A, O, and SAT-2 obtained from the roller cultivation system showed the highest level followed by suspension cultivation system then the rawx cultivation system. The FMDV titer showed its highest level at 21 h post-inoculation in all the cultivation systems and then decline at 24 h post-inoculation. The antigenicity reached its highest value content at 18 h post-inoculation either by complement fixation test or by quantifying the 146S intact virion. Montanide ISA 206 oil inactivated trivalent vaccines were prepared from the tested serotypes (A Iran O5. O Panasia and SAT-2/EGY/2012 harvested at 18 h post-inoculation from the 3 culture systems. The results of tracing the antibody response showed that the mean antibody response from the roller cultivation system start its protective antibody titer earlier at 2 weeks post-vaccination (WPV than the vaccine prepared from the other two cultivation system and the immune protection period lasts longer for 36 WPV for the roller cultivation system vaccine than the other two cultivation systems. Conclusion: The best cultivation system used for the production of FMD vaccine

  7. Recombinant Adeno-Vaccine Expressing Enterovirus 71-Like Particles against Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, Yueh-Liang; Lin, Yi-Wen; Shao, Hsiao-Yun; Yu, Shu-Ling; Wu, Shang-Rung; Lin, Hsiao-Yu; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Huang, Chieh; Chong, Pele; Chow, Yen-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackieviruses (CV) are the major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). There is not currently a vaccine available against HFMD, even though a newly developed formalin-inactivated EV71 (FI-EV71) vaccine has been tested in clinical trial and has shown efficacy against EV71. We have designed and genetically engineered a recombinant adenovirus Ad-EVVLP with the EV71 P1 and 3CD genes inserted into the E1/E3-deleted adenoviral genome. Ad-EVVLP were produced in HEK-293A cells. In addition to Ad-EVVLP particles, virus-like particles (VLPs) formed from the physical association of EV71 capsid proteins, VP0, VP1, and VP3 expressed from P1 gene products. They were digested by 3CD protease and confirmed to be produced by Ad-EVVLP-producing cells, as determined using transmission electron microscopy and western blotting. Mouse immunogenicity studies showed that Ad-EVVLP-immunized antisera neutralized the EV71 B4 and C2 genotypes. Activation of VLP-specific CD4+ and CD8+/IFN-γ T cells associated with Th1/Th2-balanced IFN-ɣ, IL-17, IL-4, and IL-13 was induced; in contrast, FI-EV71 induced only Th2-mediated neutralizing antibody against EV71 and low VLP-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses. The antiviral immunity against EV71 was clearly demonstrated in mice vaccinated with Ad-EVVLP in a hSCARB2 transgenic (hSCARB2-Tg) mouse challenge model. Ad-EVVLP-vaccinated mice were 100% protected and demonstrated reduced viral load in both the CNS and muscle tissues. Ad-EVVLP successfully induced anti-CVA16 immunities. Although antisera had no neutralizing activity against CVA16, the 3C-specific CD4+ and CD8+/IFN-γ T cells were identified, which could mediate protection against CVA16 challenge. FI-EV71 did not induce 3C-mediated immunity and had no efficacy against the CVA16 challenge. These results suggest that Ad-EVVLP can enhance neutralizing antibody and protective cellular immune responses to prevent EV71 infection and cellular immune

  8. Prevalence and risk factors for foot and mouth disease infection in small ruminants in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnekave, Ehud; van Maanen, Kees; Shilo, Hila; Gelman, Boris; Storm, Nick; Berdenstain, Svetlane; Berke, Olaf; Klement, Eyal

    2016-03-01

    During the last decade, 27% of the foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in Israel affected small ruminant (SR) farms. FMD outbreaks reoccur in Israel despite vaccination of all livestock and application of control measures. We performed a cross-sectional serological study, aimed at estimating the prevalence of FMD infection in SR in Israel and the possible risk factors for infection. Overall, 2305 samples of adult sheep (n=1948) and goats (n=357) were collected during 2011-14 in two separate surveys. One survey was based on random sampling of intensive management system farms and the other was originally aimed at the detection of Brucella melitensis at extensive and semi-intensive management system farms. Sera were tested by NS blocking ELISA (PrioCHECK(®)). The serological prevalence of antibodies against non structural proteins (NSP) of FMD virus was estimated at 3.7% (95% confidence interval (CI95%)=3.0% -4.5%). Additionally, a significantly lower infection prevalence (p value=0.049) of 1.0% (CI95%=0.1%-3.6%) was found in a small sample (197 sera) of young SR, collected during 2012. The positive samples from adult SR were scattered all over Israel, though two significant infection clusters were found by the spatial scan statistic. Occurrence of an outbreak on a non-SR farm within 5km distance was associated with a fifteen times increase in the risk of FMD infection of SR in the univariable analysis. Yet, this variable was not included in the multivariable analysis due to collinearities with the other independent variables. Multivariable logistic regression modeling found significantly negative associations (P value<0.05) of grazing and being in a herd larger than 500 animals with risk of infection. Grazing herds and herds larger than 500 animals, both represent farms that are intensively or semi-intensively managed. Higher maintenance of bio-safety, fewer introductions of new animals and higher vaccination compliance in these farms may explain their lower

  9. A highly sensitive detection for foot-and-mouth disease virus by gold nanopariticle improved immuno-PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Hao-tai; Zhou Jian-hua; Liu Yong-sheng; Ding Yao-zhong; Wei Gang; Ma Li-na; Zhang Jie

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Backgroud Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most contagious of all artiodactyl animal diseases, and its infection has an obvious ability to spread over long distances and to contribute to epidemics in FMD-free areas. A highly sensitive and specific method is required to detect FMDV. In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of a bio-barcode assay (BCA) technique for detecting clinical samples of FMDV. Methods Highly sensitive gold nanopariticle (GNP) improved immuno-PCR (GN...

  10. Foot-and-mouth disease virus : the role of infection routes and species differences in the transmission of FMDV

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo De Rueda Cabrera, C.

    2015-01-01

    ÁFoot-and-mouth disease is a contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals (e.g. cattle, sheep, pigs) and can cause severe economic losses to the farm animal industries. The aim of this thesis was to quantify underlying mechanisms regarding transmission of FMDV. With data from past animal experiments we identified the factors which are associated with the amount of virus shed by infected animals and thus may be of importance for transmission of the virus.  In an experimental s...

  11. Protection induced by a commercial bivalent vaccine against Foot-and-Mouth Disease 2010 field virus from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Hernando; Naranjo, Jose; Carrillo, Consuelo; Burbano, Alexandra; Vargas, Javier; Pauszek, Lisa; Olesen, Ian; Sanchez-Vazquez, Manuel J; Cosivi, Ottorino; Allende, Rossana M

    2016-07-29

    Foot-and-Mouth Disease serotype O circulated endemically in Ecuador for many years, with an upsurge occurring in 2009. This manuscript describes retrospectively in vitro and in vivo laboratory studies to predict the field effectiveness of a commercial FMD vaccine to protect against the field strain, and explains the key actions and epidemiological strategies followed by the country to control the disease. The results established that the use of a good quality oil vaccine, manufactured with strains that were isolated long ago: O1 Campos Br/58 and A24 Cruzeiro Br/55; combined with the correct epidemiological strategies, are useful to control field strains when used in periodic biannual vaccination campaigns.

  12. A portable reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification assay for rapid detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Abd El Wahed, Ahmed; El-Deeb, Ayman; El-Tholoth, Mohamed; Abd El Kader, Hanaa; Ahmed, Abeer; Hassan, Sayed; Hoffmann, Bernd; Haas, Bernd; Shalaby, Mohamed A.; Hufert, Frank T.; Weidmann, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a trans-boundary viral disease of livestock, which causes huge economic losses and constitutes a serious infectious threat for livestock farming worldwide. Early diagnosis of FMD helps to diminish its impact by adequate outbreak management. In this study, we describe the development of a real-time reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay for the detection of FMD virus (FMDV). The FMDV RT-RPA design targeted the 3D gene of FMDV a...

  13. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in China: Modeling Epidemic Dynamics of Enterovirus Serotypes and Implications for Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Saki; Liao, Qiaohong; Van Boeckel, Thomas P.; Xing, Weijia; Sun, Junling; Hsiao, Victor Y.; Metcalf, C. Jessica E.; Chang, Zhaorui; Liu, Fengfeng; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Joseph T.; Cowling, Benjamin J; Leung, Gabriel M; Farrar, Jeremy J.; van Doorn, H. Rogier

    2016-01-01

    Background Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common childhood illness caused by serotypes of the Enterovirus A species in the genus Enterovirus of the Picornaviridae family. The disease has had a substantial burden throughout East and Southeast Asia over the past 15 y. China reported 9 million cases of HFMD between 2008 and 2013, with the two serotypes Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) being responsible for the majority of these cases. Three recent phase 3 clini...

  14. A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay to rapidly diagnose foot-and-mouth disease virus C

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Yao-zhong; Zhou, Jian-Hua; Ma, Li-na; Qi, Yan-ni; Wei, Gang; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Yong-guang

    2014-01-01

    A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed to rapidly detect foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype C (FMDV C). By testing 10-fold serial dilutions of FMDV C samples, sensitivity of the FMDV C RT-LAMP was found to be 10 times higher than that of conventional reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). No cross-reactivity with A, Asia 1, or O FMDV or swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) indicated that FMDV C RT-LAMP may be an exciting novel method for d...

  15. Diversity and transboundary mobility of serotype O foot-and-mouth disease virus in East Africa: Implications for vaccination policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balinda, Sheila; Sangula, Abraham; Heller, Rasmus;

    2010-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus serotype O has been responsible for most reported outbreaks of the disease in East Africa. A sustained campaign for the past 40 years to control FMD mainly by vaccination, combined with quarantine and zoosanitary measures has been undertaken with limited success......). All but one strain isolated post-2000 belonged to topotypes EA-2, EA-3 and EA-4, while all three vaccines have been based on strains in the EA-1 topotype. The estimated dN/dS ratios across the individual codons of the entire VP1 coding region revealed that purifying (negative) selection constituted...

  16. Host-response to foot-and-mouth disease in cattle; possible implications for the development of persistently infected "carriers"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenfeldt, Anna Carolina

    General purpose and objectives Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a viral infection of implicit financial importance for countries, such as Denmark, which rely on a significant trade in agricultural products. The disease is highly contagious with rapid spread amongst susceptible animals, causing...... of mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines in sequential biopsy samples. Structure of Thesis The first chapter contains general background information on the host response to virus infections, as well as characteristics of FMDV and the pathogenesis of the infection. Detailed aims and objectives...

  17. Identification of H-2d Restricted T Cell Epitope of Foot-and-mouth Disease Virus Structural Protein VP1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhong-Wang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is a highly contagious and devastating disease affecting livestock that causes significant financial losses. Therefore, safer and more effective vaccines are required against Foot-and-mouth disease virus(FMDV. The purpose of this study is to screen and identify an H-2d restricted T cell epitope from the virus structural protein VP1, which is present with FMD. We therefore provide a method and basis for studying a specific FMDV T cell epitope. Results A codon-optimized expression method was adopted for effective expression of VP1 protein in colon bacillus. We used foot-and-mouth disease standard positive serum was used for Western blot detection of its immunogenicity. The VP1 protein was used for immunizing BALB/c mice, and spleen lymphocytes were isolated. Then, a common in vitro training stimulus was conducted for potential H-2Dd, H-2Kd and H-2Ld restricted T cell epitope on VP1 proteins that were predicted and synthesized by using a bioinformatics method. The H-2Kd restricted T cell epitope pK1 (AYHKGPFTRL and the H-2Dd restricted T cell epitope pD7 (GFIMDRFVKI were identified using lymphocyte proliferation assays and IFN-γ ELISPOT experiments. Conclusions The results of this study lay foundation for studying the FMDV immune process, vaccine development, among other things. These results also showed that, to identify viral T cell epitopes, the combined application of bioinformatics and molecular biology methods is effective.

  18. The foot and mouth disease network in the southern cone of South America: an example of regional governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales Irrazábal, H A

    2012-08-01

    The fact that foot and mouth disease is highly contagious, easily spread and of major commercial importance makes it a redoubtable challenge for animal health in South American countries and the world over. A number of factors impact directly on the effectiveness of national programmes to eradicate foot and mouth disease. Therefore, in order to meet the challenges posed by today's globalised world, it is of the utmost importance that national level eradication programmes be considered state policies and that they be the subject of broad political agreement at the highest level and consolidated as regional programmes between national Veterinary Services. The programmes, agreements and technical cooperation projects established jointly by Member Countries of the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR) were a key factor in building management capacity to control foot and mouth disease in the area. Another key factor has been a partnership with one of the most sensitive sectors--the private production sector. Its active and responsible participation in operational functions has done much to strengthen and ensure the competitive development of South American countries and consolidate their role as global beef exporters. However, to prevent further outbreaks it is essential to maintain and reinforce the structure of national programmes and to have strong and highly trained Veterinary Services and sufficient funding to ensure efficient and sustainable plans. These plans must enable Veterinary Services, by means of good governance, to implement effective measures in the areas of animal health and international trade in animals and animal products/by-products, thereby achieving rapid and more equitable social and economic development.

  19. Prevalence of Antibodies Against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Cattle in Kasese and Bushenyi Districts in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Norbert Mwiine; C. Ayebazibwe; W. Olaho-Mukani; S. Alexandersen and K. Tjornehoj

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and serotype-specificity of the circulating antibodies against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) in cattle in K asese and Bushenyi districts in Uganda. A total of 309 serum samples were collected and tested for antibodies against Non-Structural (NS) and Structural Proteins (SP) using Ceditest® FMDV-NS and C editest® FMDV type O test kits. Seroprevalences were much higher in Kasese in both tests (61 and 43%, respectively) than in Bush...

  20. Evaluation of Spirulina platensis extract as natural antivirus against foot and mouth disease virus strains (A, O, SAT2)

    OpenAIRE

    Hind M. Daoud; Soliman, Eman M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This work was aimed to document the antiviral activates of Spirulina platensis extract against foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) different types to evaluate its replication in Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK) cell culture and in baby mice. Materials and Methods: Cytotoxicity assay studied for S. platensis extract on BHK cells to determine the non-toxic dose. The non-toxic dose of Spirulina extract was mixed with each type of FMDV (A, O, SAT2). Then 10-fold dilutions from each mixture were don...

  1. Dietary germanium biotite supplementation enhances the induction of antibody responses to foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine in pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jin-A; Jung, Bock-Gie; Jung, Myunghwan; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Yoo, Han Sang; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the potential ability of germanium biotite (GB) to stimulate the production of antibodies specific for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). To this aim, we measured the total FMDV-specific antibody responses and IgM production after vaccination against FMD both experimentally and in the field. GB supplementation with FMDV vaccination stimulated the production of anti-FMDV antibodies, and effectively increased IFN-γ and TNF-α levels. These results suggest that GB may be a novel al...

  2. The Epithelial Integrin αvβ6 Is a Receptor for Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Terry; Sheppard, Dean; Denyer, Michael; Blakemore, Wendy; King, Andrew M. Q.

    2000-01-01

    Field isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) have been shown to use the RGD-dependent integrin αvβ3 as a cellular receptor on cultured cells. However, several other RGD-dependent integrins may have the potential to act as receptors for FMDV in vivo. Of these, αvβ6 is a likely candidate for use as a receptor by FMDV as it is expressed on epithelial cells, which correlates with the tissue tropism of the virus. In this report, we show that human colon carcinoma cells (SW480) that are no...

  3. Simple and Rapid Lateral-Flow Assay for the Detection of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus▿

    OpenAIRE

    Oem, Jae Ku; Ferris, Nigel P.; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Joo, Yi-Seok; Hyun, Bang-Hun; Park, Jong-Hyeon

    2009-01-01

    A simple lateral-flow assay (LFA) based on a monoclonal antibody (MAb 70-17) was developed for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) under nonlaboratory conditions. The LFA was evaluated with epithelial suspensions (n = 704) prepared from current and historical field samples which had been submitted to the Pirbright Laboratory (United Kingdom) and from negative samples (n = 100) collected from naïve animals in Korea. Four FMDV serotypes (type O, A, Asia 1, and C) were detected ...

  4. Introduction and use of ELISA based technologies for the diagnosis and monitoring of foot-and-mouth disease in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continued outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in northern Malaysia drove the decision to establish a diagnostic surveillance capability at the regional laboratory in Kota Bharu. Based on using ELISA based diagnostic systems the laboratory was equipped for the detection of both the conservative virus and a serological response in animals. Considerable detail was given on the subsequent testing that was carried out clearly demonstrating the value both of the ELISA technology but also of what can be achieved at reasonable costs for conducting routine surveillance of FMD. (author)

  5. RNA Interference Targeting VP1 Inhibits Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Replication in BHK-21 Cells and Suckling Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Weizao; Yan, Weiyao; Du, Qingyun; Fei, Liang; Liu, Mingqiu; Ni, Zheng; Sheng, Zutian; Zheng, Zhaoxin

    2004-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool to silence gene expression posttranscriptionally. In this study, we evaluated the antiviral potential of small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting VP1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), which is essential during the life cycle of the virus and plays a key role in virus attachment to susceptible cells. We investigated in vivo the inhibitory effect of VP1-specific siRNAs on FMDV replication in BHK-21 cells and suckling mice, a commonly used small an...

  6. Serosurveillance of foot-and-mouth disease virus in selected livestock-wildlife interface areas of Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Mathias Mkama; Christopher J. Kasanga; Raphael Sallu; Ezekia Ranga; Mmeta Yongolo; Misheck Mulumba; Mark Rweyemamu; Philemon Wambura

    2014-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is caused by a virus of the genus Aphthorvirus of the family Picornaviridae. There is great scientific need for determining the transmission dynamics of FMD virus (FMDV) by drawing more attention to the livestock-wildlife interface areas. A variety of literature suggests that buffalo could serve as reservoir of FMDV in wildlife and cattle. However, many FMDV research studies conducted on experimentally infected cattle as carriers and groups of animal highly suscep...

  7. Foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural protein 3A inhibits the interferon-β signaling pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Li; Caoqi Lei; Zhisheng Xu; Fan Yang; Huanan Liu; Zixiang Zhu; Shu Li; Xiangtao Liu; Hongbing Shu; Haixue Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the etiological agent of FMD, which affects cloven-hoofed animals. The pathophysiology of FMDV has not been fully understood and the evasion of host innate immune system is still unclear. Here, the FMDV non-structural protein 3A was identified as a negative regulator of virus-triggered IFN-β signaling pathway. Overexpression of the FMDV 3A inhibited Sendai virus-triggered activation of IRF3 and the expressions of RIG-I/MDA5. Transient transfection and co...

  8. Characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus gene products with antisera against bacterially synthesized fusion proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Strebel, K; De Beck, E.; K Strohmaier; Schaller, H

    1986-01-01

    Defined segments of the cloned foot-and-mouth disease virus genome corresponding to all parts of the coding region were expressed in Escherichia coli as fusions to the N-terminal part of the MS2-polymerase gene under the control of the inducible lambda PL promoter. All constructs yielded large amounts of proteins, which were purified and used to raise sequence-specific antisera in rabbits. These antisera were used to identify the corresponding viral gene products in 35S-labeled extracts from ...

  9. The role of African buffalos (Syncerus caffer) in the maintenance of foot-and-mouth disease in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayebazibwe, C.; Mwiine, F. N.; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten;

    2010-01-01

    Background To study the role of African buffalos (Syncerus caffer) in the maintenance of foot-and-mouth disease in Uganda, serum samples were collected from 207 African buffalos, 21 impalas (Aepyceros melampus), 1 giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), 1 common eland (Taurotragus oryx), 7 hartebeests...... while the SAT 2 isolates belonged to different lineages within the East African topotype X. Conclusions Consistent detection of high antibody titres in buffalos supports the view that African buffalos play an important role in the maintenance of FMDV infection within National Parks in Uganda. Both SAT 1...

  10. Molecular characterization of foot and mouth disease viruses collected from Suez Canal area, Egypt from 2009 to 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed F. Mandour; Mohamed M. AbdEldaim; Shahira A. M. Abdelwahab; Abu Elnaga, H.I.; Elshahidy, M. S.; Azab, A. M.; Eltarabily, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is characterized by high genetic and antigenic variations. The nucleotide sequence of VP1 gene of FMDV serotypes O and A were determined and compared to the sequences of some national and international FMDV from GenBank. Six PCR positive samples were selected for sequencing as one from serotype O and A from the 3 governorates of Suez Canal area (Ismailia, Suez and Port Said). Results of the sequencing of VP1 gene of FMDV serotype A revealed that there are s...

  11. A Safe Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccine Platform with Two Negative Markers for Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Uddowla, Sabena; Hollister, Jason; Pacheco, Juan M.; Rodriguez, Luis L.; Rieder, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination of domestic animals with chemically inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is widely practiced to control FMD. Currently, FMD vaccine manufacturing requires the growth of large volumes of virulent FMDV in biocontainment-level facilities. Here, two marker FMDV vaccine candidates (A24LL3DYR and A24LL3BPVKV3DYR) featuring the deletion of the leader coding region (Lpro) and one of the 3B proteins were constructed and evaluated. These vaccine candidates also contain either one...

  12. The leader proteinase of foot-and-mouth disease virus: structure-function relationships in a proteolytic virulence factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberger, Jutta; Skern, Tim

    2016-01-01

    The leader proteinase (Lpro) of foot-and-mouth disease virus, inhibits the host innate immune response by at least three different mechanisms. The most well characterised is the prevention of the synthesis of cytokines such as interferons immediately after infection, brought about by specific proteolytic cleavage of the eukaryotic initiation factor 4G. This prevents the recruitment of capped cellular mRNA; the viral RNA can however be translated under these conditions. The two other mechanisms are the induction of NF-κB cleavage and the deubiquitination of immune signalling molecules. This review focuses on the structure-function relationships in Lpro responsible for these widely divergent activities. PMID:24670358

  13. A serological survey for antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in domestic pigs during outbreaks in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wekesa, Sabenzia N.; Namatovu, Alice; Sangula, Abraham K.;

    2014-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Kenya and has been well studied in cattle, but not in pigs, yet the role of pigs is recognised in FMD-free areas. This study investigated the presence of antibodies against FMD virus (FMDV) in pigs sampled during a countrywide random survey for FMD...... vaccinated and 71 non-vaccinated pigs, altogether 101/191 sera (53 %), and 91 % of these (92/101) also had antibodies measurable by serotype-specific ELISAs, predominantly directed against SAT 1 with titres of 10–320. However, only five high titres against SAT 1 in vaccinated pigs were confirmed by virus...

  14. Genetic diversity of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O in Pakistan and Afghanistan, 1997–2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamal, Syed Muhammad; Ferrari, Giancarlo; Ahmed, Safia;

    2011-01-01

    virus samples were determined. Phylogenetic analysis of the serotype O FMD viruses circulating in Pakistan and Afghanistan between 1997 and 2009 revealed the presence of at least three different lineages within the ME-SA (Middle East South Asia) topotype. The three lineages detected in this study......Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Pakistan and Afghanistan; serotypes O, A and Asia-1 of the virus are responsible for the outbreaks in these countries with FMDV type O usually being the most common. In the present study, the nucleotide sequences encoding the FMDV capsid protein VP1 from...

  15. Effect of the nucleotides surrounding the start codon on the translation of foot-and-mouth disease virus RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X X; Feng, Y P; Gu, Y X; Zhou, J H; Ma, Z R

    2016-06-01

    As for the alternative AUGs in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), nucleotide bias of the context flanking the AUG(2nd) could be used as a strong signal to initiate translation. To determine the role of the specific nucleotide context, dicistronic reporter constructs were engineered to contain different versions of nucleotide context linking between internal ribosome entry site (IRES) and downstream gene. The results indicate that under FMDV IRES-dependent mechanism, the nucleotide contexts flanking start codon can influence the translation initiation efficiencies. The most optimal sequences for both start codons have proved to be UUU AUG(1st) AAC and AAG AUG(2nd) GAA. PMID:27265464

  16. Genome sequences of SAT 2 foot-and-mouth disease viruses from Egypt and Palestinian Autonomous Territories (Gaza Strip).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdazo-González, Begoña; Knowles, Nick J; Hammond, Jef; King, Donald P

    2012-08-01

    Two foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) genome sequences have been determined for isolates collected from recent field outbreaks in North Africa (Egypt) and the Middle East (Palestinian Autonomous Territories). These data represent the first examples of complete genomic sequences for the FMDV SAT 2 topotype VII, which is thought to be endemic in countries immediately to the south of the Sahara desert. Further studies are now urgently required to provide insights into the epidemiological links between these outbreaks and to define the pathogenicity of this emerging lineage. PMID:22843860

  17. Establishment and Evaluation of Stable Cell Lines Inhibiting Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus by RNA Interference

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan-xing Gu; Zong-liang Gao; Jian-hua Zhou; Jie Zhang; Yong-sheng Liu

    2014-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has been proved to be a powerful tool for foot-and-mouth disease virus FMDV inhibition in vitro and in vivo. We established five stable baby hamster kidney 21 cell lines (BHK-21) containing five short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) expression plasmids (p3D1shRNA, p3D2shRNA, p3D3shRNA, p3D4shRNA, and p3D5shRNA) targeting 3D gene of FMDV. Immunofluorescent assay, virus titration, and real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR) were conducted ...

  18. Coxsackievirus A6 and enterovirus 71 causing hand, foot and mouth disease in Cuba, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Magilé C; Sarmiento, Luis; Resik, Sonia; Martínez, Yenisleidys; Hung, Lai Heng; Morier, Luis; Piñón, Alexander; Valdéz, Odalys; Kourí, Vivian; González, Guelsys

    2014-09-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is usually caused by coxsackievirus A16 or enterovirus 71 (EV71). Between 2011 and 2013, HFMD cases were reported from different Cuban provinces. A total of 42 clinical specimens were obtained from 23 patients. Detection, identification and phylogenetic analysis of enterovirus-associated HFMD were carried out by virus isolation, specific enterovirus PCR and partial VP1 sequences. HEV was detected in 11 HFMD cases. Emerging genetic variants of coxsackievirus A6 and EV71 were identified as the causative agents of the Cuban HFMD cases.

  19. Application of radio-detoxified endotoxin as adjuvant for experimental foot-and-mouth disease vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The immunity enhancing adjuvant activity of radiodetoxified endotoxin (RD-LPS) on the potency of 'C' type foot-and-mouth (FMD) vaccine was tested in different animal species. For radiodetoxification 5 Mrad gamma radiation was used. The suitable quantity of RD-LSP (20 μg per mouse) adjuvated FMD vaccines of lower antigen content better than those of higher one. In cattle and sheep the adjuvant effect of oil + RD + LPS surpassed only slightly that of oil alone. The effect of RD-LPS in pig was very pronounced when applied in small doses but further studies in larger animal populations have to confirm this result. (author)

  20. Foot-and-mouth disease and its effect on milk yield: an economic analysis on livestock holders in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, G; Tasciotti, L; Khan, E; Kiani, A

    2014-12-01

    A longitudinal study has been conducted in the provinces of Sindh, Punjab and Islamabad Capital Territory area, Pakistan, to evaluate the impact of foot-and-mouth disease on milk yield in a sample of farmers owning cattle and buffaloes. The sample consisted of 50 farms where the presence of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus was initially suspected on the basis of clinical signs and subsequently confirmed through either a field test or laboratory confirmation. In each farm, the total number of clinical cases was registered, and clinically diseased milking cattle and buffaloes were followed up for the next 60 days from the onset of clinical signs and the amount of milk yield measured. The average milk yield, estimated to be around 10 l per animal before the onset of FMD, decreased significantly in the 2 months following the onset of acute clinical disease. The loss of milk production in the 60 days following the onset of clinical signs was estimated to be around 220 and 201 l for cattle and buffaloes, respectively. Under the assumption that the administration of a good-quality vaccine matching circulating FMD strains could protect against clinical disease, the benefit/cost ratio for having all animals vaccinated in all 50 farms was estimated to be 5.7.

  1. Meta-analysis on the efficacy of routine vaccination against foot and mouth disease (FMD) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chang; Li, Huachun; Edwards, John; Hawkins, Chris; Robertson, Ian D

    2014-08-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks have been reported in China for many years. Recently, due to the rapid economic development, the price of meat and its demand have grown quickly. This trend has resulted in an increase in the number of livestock moving from south-east Asian countries into China. Foot and mouth disease is becoming one of the most important trans-boundary animal diseases affecting the livelihood of livestock owners in China. To contribute to the long term goal to control and eradicate FMD from China, the Chinese government has adopted a series of control measures which includes compulsory routine vaccination against the disease. In this paper, the surveillance results of the routine vaccination programme were systemically reviewed. The results from 28 published papers were combined and analysed through a meta-analysis approach. The results of the meta-analysis indicated that the vaccination programme has been very successful in China with more than 70% of animals protected against serotypes Asia-1 and O.

  2. Immunoprotective mechanisms in swine within the "grey zone" in antibody response after immunization with foot-and-mouth disease vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liu; Feng, Xia; Jin, Ye; Ma, Junwu; Cai, Hu; Zhang, Xiaoxia

    2016-07-15

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals caused by the FMD virus (FMDV). Vaccination represents one approach for limiting the effects of FMD. The level of protection in vaccinated animals after challenge with foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is closely related to the antibody titer, which can be classified into three zones: a "white zone", a "grey zone", and a "black zone". The aim of the present study was to clarify the immunoprotective mechanisms operating in the grey zone, in which vaccinated animals have intermediate antibody titers, making it difficult to predict the level of protection. Thirty-three pigs were used to analyze the distribution of lymphocyte subpopulations in whole blood and the expression levels of 40 cytokines before vaccination and challenge. The antibody titer in pigs in the grey zone ranged from 1:6-1:45. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte subpopulations, expression levels of Th1 cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-12, IL-15, IL-18, and monocyte interferon gamma inducing factor (MIG), and of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-1α, transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α), and TWEAK R varied between protected and unprotected animals. The results of this study suggest that the cellular immune response is the key factor responsible for immunoprotection in vaccinated animals with antibody titers within the grey zone. PMID:27067203

  3. Antigenic heterogeneity of capsid protein VP1 in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV serotype Asia1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam SM

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available SM Sabbir Alam,1 Ruhul Amin,1 Mohammed Ziaur Rahman,2 M Anwar Hossain,1 Munawar Sultana11Department of Microbiology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Dhaka, BangladeshAbstract: Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV, with its seven serotypes, is a highly contagious virus infecting mainly cloven-hoofed animals. The serotype Asia1 occurs mainly in Asian regions. An in-silico approach was taken to reveal the antigenic heterogeneities within the capsid protein VP1 of Asia1. A total of 47 VP1 sequences of Asia1 isolates from different countries of South Asian regions were selected, retrieved from database, and were aligned. The structure of VP1 protein was modeled using a homology modeling approach. Several antigenic sites were identified and mapped onto the three-dimensional protein structure. Variations at these antigenic sites were analyzed by calculating the protein variability index and finding mutation combinations. The data suggested that vaccine escape mutants have derived from only few mutations at several antigenic sites. Five antigenic peptides have been identified as the least variable epitopes, with just fewer amino acid substitutions. Only a limited number of serotype Asia1 antigenic variants were found to be circulated within the South Asian region. This emphasizes a possibility of formulating synthetic vaccines for controlling foot-and-mouth disease by Asia1 serotypes.Keywords: protein modeling, antigenic sites, sequence variation

  4. Generation of Monoclonal Antibodies against Non-structural Protein 3AB of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Lin; Junjun Shao; Huiyun Chang; Shandian Gao; Guozheng Cong; Junzheng Du

    2012-01-01

    To identify linear epitopes on the non-structural protein 3AB of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV),BABL/c mice were immunized with the 3AB protein and splenocytes of BALB/c mice were fused with myeloma Sp2/0 cells.Two hybridoma monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) cell lines against the 3AB protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) were obtained,named C6 and E7 respectively.The microneutralization titer was 1∶1024 for mAb C6,and 1∶512 for E7.Both mAbs contain kappa light chains,and were of subclass IgG2b.In order to define the mAbs binding epitopes,the reactivity of these mAbs against FMDV were examined by indirect ELISA.The results showed that both mAbs can react with FMDV,but had no cross-reactivity with Swine Vesicular Disease (SVD) antigens.The titers in abdomen liquor were 1∶5×106 for C6 and 1∶2×106 for E7.In conclusion,the mAbs obtained from this study are specific for the detection of FMDV,can be used for etiological and immunological researches on FMDV,and have potential use in diagnosis and future vaccine designs.

  5. Esterase D enhances type I interferon signal transduction to suppress foot-and-mouth disease virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiwei; Zhu, Zixiang; Cao, Weijun; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Xiangle; Li, Dan; Zhang, Keshan; Li, Pengfei; Mao, Ruoqing; Liu, Xiangtao; Zheng, Haixue

    2016-07-01

    The enzymatic activities of esterase D (ESD) are involved in many human diseases. However, no antiviral property of ESD has been described to date. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the etiological agent of foot-and-mouth disease. In this study, we showed that FMDV infection triggered ESD expression. Overexpression of ESD significantly suppressed FMDV replication and knockdown of ESD expression enhanced virus replication, showing an essential antiviral role of ESD. Furthermore, we found that Sendai-virus-induced interferon (IFN) signaling was enhanced by upregulation of ESD, and ESD promoted activation of the IFN-β promoter simulated by IFN regulatory factor (IRF)3 or its upstream molecules (retinoic acid-inducible gene-I, melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5, virus-induced signaling adaptor and TANK binding kinase 1). Detailed analysis revealed that ESD protein enhanced IRF3 phosphorylation during FMDV infection. Overexpression of ESD also promoted the expression of various antiviral interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) and knockdown of ESD impaired the expression of these antiviral genes during FMDV infection. Our findings demonstrate a new mechanism evolved by ESD to enhance type I IFN signal transduction and suppress viral replication during FMDV infection. PMID:27267271

  6. Foot and mouth disease (FMD) virus: quantification of whole virus particles during the vaccine manufacturing process by size exclusion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitteler, Marcelo A; Fernández, Ignacio; Schabes, Erika; Krimer, Alejandro; Régulier, Emmanuel G; Guinzburg, Mariela; Smitsaart, Eliana; Levy, M Susana

    2011-09-22

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious viral disease that affects cattle, sheep, goats and swine causing severe economic losses worldwide. The efficacy of inactivated vaccines is critically dependent on the integrity of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) particles. The recommended method to quantify the active ingredient of vaccines is the 140S quantitative sucrose density gradient analysis. This method has been an immensely valuable tool over the past three decades but it is highly operator dependent and difficult to automate. We developed a method to quantify FMDV particles during the vaccine manufacturing process that is based on separation of components by size-exclusion chromatography and measurement of virus by absorption at 254nm. The method is linear in the 5-70μg/mL range, it is applicable to different FMDV strains, and has a good correlation with the 140S test. The proposed method uses standard chromatographic media and it is amenable to automation. The method has potential as a process analytical technology and for control of final product by manufacturers, international vaccine banks and regulatory agencies.

  7. Tongue Epithelium Cells from shRNA Mediated Transgenic Goat Show High Resistance to Foot and Mouth Disease Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenting; Wang, Kejun; Kang, Shimeng; Deng, Shoulong; Han, Hongbing; Lian, Ling; Lian, Zhengxing

    2015-01-01

    Foot and mouth disease induced by foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is severe threat to cloven-hoofed domestic animals. The gene 3Dpol in FMDV genome encodes the viral RNA polymerase, a vital element for FMDV replication. In this study, a conserved 3D-7414shRNA targeting FMDV-3Dpol gene was designed and injected into pronuclear embryos to produce the transgenic goats. Sixty-one goats were produced, of which, seven goats positively integrated 3D-7414shRNA. Loss of function assay demonstrated that siRNA effectively knockdown 3Dpol gene in skin epithelium cells of transgenic goats. Subsequently, the tongue epithelium cells from transgenic and non-transgenic goats were infected with FMDV O/YS/CHA/05 strain. A significant decrease of virus titres and virus copy number was observed in cells of transgenic goats compared with that of non-transgenic goats, which indicated that 3D-7414siRNA inhibited FMDV replication by interfering FMDV-3Dpol gene. Furthermore, we found that expression of TLR7, RIG-I and TRAF6 was lower in FMDV infected cells from transgenic goats compared to that from non-transgenic goats, which might result from lower virus copy number in transgenic goats’ cells. In conclusion, we successfully produced transgenic goats highly expressing 3D-7414siRNA targeting 3Dpol gene, and the tongue epithelium cells from the transgenic goats showed effective resistance to FMDV. PMID:26671568

  8. Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Research Update and Gap Analysis: 1 - Overview of Global Status and Research Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Robinson, L; Charleston, B; Rodriguez, L L; Gay, C G; Sumption, K J; Vosloo, W

    2016-06-01

    The Global Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) Research Alliance periodically reviews the state of FMD research to assess progress and to identify new priorities. In this supplement we provide an update of global FMD research, comprising (i) this overview paper, which includes background information with key findings, and papers covering (ii) epidemiology, wildlife and economics, (iii) vaccines, (iv) diagnostics, (v) biotherapeutics and disinfectants, (vi) immunology and (vii) pathogenesis and molecular biology. FMD research publications were reviewed (2011-2015) and activity updates were obtained from 33 FMD research institutes from around the world. Although a continual threat, FMD has been effectively controlled in much of the world using existing tools. However, control remains a challenge in most developing countries, where little has been done to understand the ongoing burden of FMD. More research is needed to support control in endemically infected countries, particularly robust field studies. Traditional FMD vaccines have several limitations including short duration and spectrum of protection, cold chain requirements, and the costs and biosecurity risks associated with vaccine production. Significant progress has been made in the development of novel vaccine candidates, particularly in the use of recombinant vaccines and virus-like particles as an alternative to traditional inactivated whole virus vaccines. Continued investment is needed to turn these developments into improved vaccines produced at scale. Increased knowledge of cellular and mucosal immunity would benefit vaccine development, as would further advances in our ability to enhance vaccine capsid stability. Developments in molecular biology and phylogenetics underlie many of the recent advances in FMD research, including improved vaccines and diagnostics, and improved understanding of FMD epidemiology. Tools for genetic analyses continue to become both more powerful and more affordable enabling them to

  9. Evaluation of a Fiber-Modified Adenovirus Vector Vaccine against Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Gisselle N.; Montiel, Nestor; Diaz-San Segundo, Fayna; Sturza, Diego; Ramirez-Medina, Elizabeth; Grubman, Marvin J.

    2015-01-01

    Novel vaccination approaches against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) include the use of replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) vectors that contain the capsid-encoding regions of FMD virus (FMDV). Ad5 containing serotype A24 capsid sequences (Ad5.A24) has proved to be effective as a vaccine against FMD in livestock species. However, Ad5-vectored FMDV serotype O1 Campos vaccine (Ad5.O1C.2B) provides only partial protection of cattle against homologous challenge. It has been reported that a fiber-modified Ad5 vector expressing Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) enhances transduction of antigen-presenting cells (APC) in mice. In the current study, we assessed the efficacy of a fiber-modified Ad5 (Adt.O1C.2B.RGD) in cattle. Expression of FMDV capsid proteins was superior in cultured cells infected with the RGD-modified vector. Furthermore, transgene expression of Adt.O1C.2B.RGD was enhanced in cell lines that constitutively express integrin αvβ6, a known receptor for FMDV. In contrast, capsid expression in cattle-derived enriched APC populations was not enhanced by infection with this vector. Our data showed that vaccination with the two vectors yielded similar levels of protection against FMD in cattle. Although none of the vaccinated animals had detectable viremia, FMDV RNA was detected in serum samples from animals with clinical signs. Interestingly, CD4+ and CD8+ gamma interferon (IFN-γ)+ cell responses were detected at significantly higher levels in animals vaccinated with Adt.O1C.2B.RGD than in animals vaccinated with Ad5.O1C.2B. Our results suggest that inclusion of an RGD motif in the fiber of Ad5-vectored FMD vaccine improves transgene delivery and cell-mediated immunity but does not significantly enhance vaccine performance in cattle. PMID:26607309

  10. Application of the thermofluor PaSTRy technique for improving foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotecha, Abhay; Zhang, Fuquan; Juleff, Nicholas; Jackson, Terry; Perez, Eva; Stuart, Dave; Fry, Elizabeth; Charleston, Bryan; Seago, Julian

    2016-07-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has a major economic impact throughout the world and is a considerable threat to food security. Current FMD virus (FMDV) vaccines are made from chemically inactivated virus and need to contain intact viral capsids to maximize efficacy. FMDV exists as seven serotypes, each made up by a number of constantly evolving subtypes. A lack of immunological cross-reactivity between serotypes and between some strains within a serotype greatly complicates efforts to control FMD by vaccination. Thus, vaccines for one serotype do not afford protection against the others, and multiple-serotype-specific vaccines are required for effective control. The FMDV serotypes exhibit variation in their thermostability, and the capsids of inactivated preparations of the O, C and SAT serotypes are particularly susceptible to dissociation at elevated temperature. Methods to quantify capsid stability are currently limited, lack sensitivity and cannot accurately reflect differences in thermostability. Thus, new, more sensitive approaches to quantify capsid stability would be of great value for the production of more stable vaccines and to assess the effect of production conditions on vaccine preparations. Here we have investigated the application of a novel methodology (termed PaSTRy) that utilizes an RNA-binding fluorescent dye and a quantitative (q)PCR machine to monitor viral genome release and hence dissociation of the FMDV capsid during a slow incremental increase in temperature. PaSTRy was used to characterize capsid stability of all FMDV serotypes. Furthermore, we have used this approach to identify stabilizing factors for the most labile FMDV serotypes. PMID:27002540

  11. Evaluation of a Fiber-Modified Adenovirus Vector Vaccine against Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Gisselle N; Montiel, Nestor; Diaz-San Segundo, Fayna; Sturza, Diego; Ramirez-Medina, Elizabeth; Grubman, Marvin J; de los Santos, Teresa

    2015-11-25

    Novel vaccination approaches against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) include the use of replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) vectors that contain the capsid-encoding regions of FMD virus (FMDV). Ad5 containing serotype A24 capsid sequences (Ad5.A24) has proved to be effective as a vaccine against FMD in livestock species. However, Ad5-vectored FMDV serotype O1 Campos vaccine (Ad5.O1C.2B) provides only partial protection of cattle against homologous challenge. It has been reported that a fiber-modified Ad5 vector expressing Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) enhances transduction of antigen-presenting cells (APC) in mice. In the current study, we assessed the efficacy of a fiber-modified Ad5 (Adt.O1C.2B.RGD) in cattle. Expression of FMDV capsid proteins was superior in cultured cells infected with the RGD-modified vector. Furthermore, transgene expression of Adt.O1C.2B.RGD was enhanced in cell lines that constitutively express integrin αvβ6, a known receptor for FMDV. In contrast, capsid expression in cattle-derived enriched APC populations was not enhanced by infection with this vector. Our data showed that vaccination with the two vectors yielded similar levels of protection against FMD in cattle. Although none of the vaccinated animals had detectable viremia, FMDV RNA was detected in serum samples from animals with clinical signs. Interestingly, CD4(+) and CD8(+) gamma interferon (IFN-γ)(+) cell responses were detected at significantly higher levels in animals vaccinated with Adt.O1C.2B.RGD than in animals vaccinated with Ad5.O1C.2B. Our results suggest that inclusion of an RGD motif in the fiber of Ad5-vectored FMD vaccine improves transgene delivery and cell-mediated immunity but does not significantly enhance vaccine performance in cattle.

  12. Clinical significance of measurement of serum NSE, NPY and TNF-α levels in pediatric patients with hand-foot and mouth disease complicated with brain stem encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum NSE, NPY and TNF-α levels in pediatric patients with hand-foot and mouth disease complicated with brain stem encephalitis. Methods: Serum NSE, NPY and TNF-α levels were determined with RIA in 34 pediatric patients with hand-foot and mouth disease complicated with brain stem encephalitis and 30 controls. Results: The serum NSE, NPY and TNF-α levels in the patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01), Serum TNF-α and NSE, NPY levels were mutually positively correlated (r=0.4716, 0.5184, P<0.01). Conclusion: Detection of NSE, NPY and TNF-α levels was helpful for the prediction of treatment efficacy in patients with hand-foot and mouth disease complicated with brain stem encephalitis. (authors)

  13. Amplification and Characterization of Bull Semen Infected Naturally with Foot-and-mouth Disease Virus Type Asial by RT-PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-jun SHAO; Xiang-tao LIU; Zai-xin LIU; Ji-xing LIU; Hui-yun CHANG; Tong LIN; Guo-zheng CONG; Jun-zheng DU; Jian-hong GUO; Hui-fang BAO; You-jun SHANG; Ya-min YANG

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the security of semen biologically, 15 bull semen samples were collected (of which 5 exhibited clinical signs of Foot-and-mouth disease) and identified by RT-PCR and virus isolation. The results indicated that the semen of the infected bulls were contaminated by Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), but FMDV was not detected in semen samples from those bulls not showing clinical signs of Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). This is the first report of the presence of FMDV in bull semen due to natural infection in China. The analysis of the partial sequence of the VP1 gene showed that the virus strain isolated from semen has 97.9% identity with the virus isolated from vesicular liquid of infected bulls showing typical signs of FMD and belonged to the same gene sub-group.

  14. Host response to Foot- and Mouth Disease infection in cattle; possible implications for the development of “carriers”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenfeldt, Carolina; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a viral disease with severe financial implications for agricultural industries and the trade of animal products in affected countries. Any cloven hoofed animal species may become infected, and ruminants, especially cattle and buffalo, may develop into persistently...... infected “carriers” shedding low amounts of virus for several years after exposure to the disease. FMD in ruminants involves initial viral replication in pharyngeal epithelia, from where the virus spreads systemically. Mortality rates are low in adult animals but the morbidity is very high and the disease...... with FMDV O UKG 34/2001, and disease development was monitored for 35 days. Disease progression was monitored through observation of clinical signs and analysis of serum for the presence of viral genomes as well as FMDV-specific antibodies. Viral shedding was measured through qPCR of mouth swabs...

  15. First isolation and genomic characterization of enterovirus A71 and coxsackievirus A16 from hand foot and mouth disease patients in the Lao PDR

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, V. H.; Sibounheuang, B.; Phommasone, K; Vongsouvath, M; Newton, P.N.; Piorkowski, G; Baronti, C.; de Lamballerie, X.; A. Dubot‐Pérès

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV‐A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV‐A16) are major aetiological agents of hand, foot and mouth disease in Asia. We established the first genomic characterization of strains isolated in 2011 from Lao patients. Isolates were related to EV‐A71 genotype C4 and CV‐A16 genotype B1a that circulated in neighbouring countries during the same period. This confirms the regional character of hand, foot and mouth disease epidemiology and makes plausible the occurrence of severe disease in ...

  16. IRES-mediated translation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in cultured cells derived from FMDV-susceptible and -insusceptible animals

    OpenAIRE

    Kanda, Takehiro; Ozawa, Makoto; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko

    2016-01-01

    Background Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) possess a positive sense, single stranded RNA genome. Internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) element exists within its 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR) of the viral RNA. Translation of the viral RNA is initiated by internal entry of the 40S ribosome within the IRES element. This process is facilitated by cellular factors known as IRES trans-acting factors (ITAFs). Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is host-restricted disease for cloven-hoofed animals such ...

  17. Synonymous Deoptimization of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Causes Attenuation In Vivo while Inducing a Strong Neutralizing Antibody Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-San Segundo, Fayna; Medina, Gisselle N.; Ramirez-Medina, Elizabeth; Velazquez-Salinas, Lauro; Koster, Marla; Grubman, Marvin J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Codon bias deoptimization has been previously used to successfully attenuate human pathogens, including poliovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and influenza virus. We have applied a similar technology to deoptimize the capsid-coding region (P1) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Despite the introduction of 489 nucleotide changes (19%), synonymous deoptimization of the P1 region rendered a viable FMDV progeny. The resulting strain was stable and reached cell culture titers similar to those obtained for wild-type (WT) virus, but at reduced specific infectivity. Studies in mice showed that 100% of animals inoculated with the FMDV A12 P1 deoptimized mutant (A12-P1 deopt) survived, even when the animals were infected at doses 100 times higher than the dose required to cause death by WT virus. All mice inoculated with the A12-P1 deopt mutant developed a strong antibody response and were protected against subsequent lethal challenge with WT virus at 21 days postinoculation. Remarkably, the vaccine safety margin was at least 1,000-fold higher for A12-P1 deopt than for WT virus. Similar patterns of attenuation were observed in swine, in which animals inoculated with A12-P1 deopt virus did not develop clinical disease until doses reached 1,000 to 10,000 times the dose required to cause severe disease in 2 days with WT A12. Consistently, high levels of antibody titers were induced, even at the lowest dose tested. These results highlight the potential use of synonymous codon pair deoptimization as a strategy to safely attenuate FMDV and further develop live attenuated vaccine candidates to control such a feared livestock disease. IMPORTANCE Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most feared viral diseases that can affect livestock. Although this disease appeared to be contained in developed nations by the end of the last century, recent outbreaks in Europe, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, etc., have demonstrated that infection can spread rapidly, causing

  18. 手足口病相关细胞因子的研究进展%Advances in the cytokines related to hand, foot and mouth disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹美银; 章幼奕

    2013-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease occurs commonly in children, and severe and critically ill patients progress rapidly with a poor prognosis. This review focuses on the research advances in the cytokines in patients with hand, foot and mouth disease.%手足口病为儿童常见病,其中重型、危重型患者病情发展迅速,预后较差.本文就手足口病患者细胞因子方面的研究进展进行综述.

  19. Implications of a quasispecies genome structure: effect of frequent, naturally occurring amino acid substitutions on the antigenicity of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Mateu, M G; Martínez, M A; Rocha, E.; Andreu, D; Parejo, J; Giralt, E.; Sobrino, F; Domingo, E

    1989-01-01

    We provide evidence that the quasispecies nature (extreme genetic heterogeneity) of foot-and-mouth disease virus is relevant to the virus evading an immune response. A monoclonal antibody neutralizing the viral infectivity (clone SD6) recognizes an epitope located around a highly conserved sequence (amino acid sequence Arg-Gly-Asp-Leu-Ala at positions 141-145) in the capsid protein VP1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus of serotype C1. The amino acid substitutions Ala-138----Thr and Leu-147----I...

  20. Strategies for differentiating infection in vaccinated animals (DIVA) for foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever and avian influenza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse; Parida, Satya; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun;

    2010-01-01

    The prophylactic use of vaccines against exotic viral infections in production animals is undertaken exclusively in regions where the disease concerned is endemic. In such areas, the infection pressure is very high and so, to assure optimal protection, the most efficient vaccines are used. However......, in areas considered to be free from these diseases and in which there is the possibility of only limited outbreaks, the use of Differentiation of Infected from Vaccinated Animals (DIVA) or marker vaccines allows for vaccination while still retaining the possibility of serological surveillance...... for the presence of infection. This literature review describes the current knowledge on the use of DIVA diagnostic strategies for three important transboundary animal diseases: foot-and-mouth disease in cloven-hoofed animals, classical swine fever in pigs and avian influenza in poultry....