WorldWideScience

Sample records for assess foot-and-mouth disease

  1. Quality and Toxicity Assessments of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality and toxicity assessment of foot and mouth disease virus vaccine was carried out in inoculated guinea pigs. The vaccine was developed from local isolates for the control and prevention of foot and mouth disease in Nigerian cattle. All the vaccine inputs tested were sterile and the high mean titre levels of ...

  2. Quality and Toxicity Assessments of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The quality and toxicity assessment of foot and mouth disease virus vaccine was carried out in inoculated guinea pigs. The vaccine was developed from local isolates for the control and prevention of foot and mouth disease in Nigerian cattle. All the vaccine inputs tested were sterile and the high mean titre levels of ...

  3. Financial Impact Assessment of Foot and Mouth Disease in Large ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential contribution of livestock to household incomes is constrained by animal diseases such Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD). FMD is a highly infectious viral disease of cloven-footed animals caused by 7 serotypes of FMD Virus. In 1999, an outbreak caused by a re-emerging strain SAT1, occurred in Nakuru district.

  4. Foot-and-mouth disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham; Charleston, Bryan; Jackson, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease is an economically important, highly contagious, disease of cloven-hoofed animals characterized by the appearance of vesicles (blisters) on the feet and in and around the mouth. The causative agent, foot-and-mouth disease virus, was the first mammalian virus to be discovered...

  5. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Agricultural Library, Foot-and-Mouth Disease . Outbreaks of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Large outbreaks of hand, ... in Asia, visit the World Health Organization . Podcast: Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease A CDC epidemiologist, Dr. ...

  6. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-08

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a contagious illness that mainly affects children under five. In this podcast, Dr. Eileen Schneider talks about the symptoms of hand, foot, and mouth disease, how it spreads, and ways to help protect yourself and your children from getting infected with the virus.  Created: 8/8/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 8/8/2013.

  7. Assessment of the knowledge and effects of foot and mouth disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is a disease of economic importance that is widely distributed in sub-Saharan Africa and contributes significantly to cattle morbidity and mortality. A major factor useful in the control of this disease is the ability of cattle farmers tosuspect FMD cases. This paper assessed the knowledge and ...

  8. Hand, foot and mouth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muppa, Radhika; Bhupatiraju, Prameela; Duddu, Mahesh; Dandempally, Arthi

    2011-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is an acute viral illness with a distinct clinical presentation of oral and characteristic distal extremity lesions. Knowledge of this is important for the dentists as the oral lesions are the first clinical signs and sometimes may be the only sign because the condition occasionally may regress even before the lesions appear on the extremities. This case describes a 5-year-old boy in whom low-grade fever of 38.7°C and oral lesions were the initial manifestations. Proper diagnosis was established later based on the typical location of the initial intraoral ulcers on the soft palate followed by cutaneous lesions on the hands and feet with vesicle formation surrounded by an erythematous halo. The recognition of HFMD is important for both pediatricians and pedodontists as oral manifestations are the first signs and may mimic many other conditions like acute herpetic gingivostomstomatitis, apthous stomatitis, chickenpox, erythema multiformae and misdiagnosis may involve an inappropriate prescription of medication.

  9. Hand, foot and mouth disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Muppa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD is an acute viral illness with a distinct clinical presentation of oral and characteristic distal extremity lesions. Knowledge of this is important for the dentists as the oral lesions are the first clinical signs and sometimes may be the only sign because the condition occasionally may regress even before the lesions appear on the extremities. This case describes a 5-year-old boy in whom low-grade fever of 38.7°C and oral lesions were the initial manifestations. Proper diagnosis was established later based on the typical location of the initial intraoral ulcers on the soft palate followed by cutaneous lesions on the hands and feet with vesicle formation surrounded by an erythematous halo. The recognition of HFMD is important for both pediatricians and pedodontists as oral manifestations are the first signs and may mimic many other conditions like acute herpetic gingivostomstomatitis, apthous stomatitis, chickenpox, erythema multiformae and misdiagnosis may involve an inappropriate prescription of medication.

  10. Foot and mouth disease economic impact assessment on production, export losses and eradication expenditure

    OpenAIRE

    Forbes, Rod; Halderen, Andre van

    2014-01-01

    The second paper in this three paper session models the impact of a number of foot and mouth disease (FMD) incursion scenarios on production and export revenues of dairy, meat and other products. The guiding principle was big picture, plausible and estimable Key to this was how processors might respond during FMD eradication and how importing countries might respond once New Zealand becomes FMD free again. Government expenditure for FMD eradication and related livestock compensation was estim...

  11. 75 FR 54589 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccine, Live Adenovirus Vector AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... purpose of field testing, and then to field test, an unlicensed foot-and-mouth disease vaccine, live... field testing of this vaccine, examines the potential effects that field testing this veterinary vaccine...

  12. Foot-and-mouth disease vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals. This disease has affected most areas of the world, often causing extensive epizootics in livestock, mostly farmed cattle and swine, although sheep, goats and many wild species are also susceptible...

  13. On The Use Of Models To Assess Foot-And-Mouth Disease Transmission And Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostova-Vassilevska, T

    2004-07-12

    The 2001 outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Europe (Ferguson et al. 2001a, 2001b; Bouma et al. 2003) and concern about the possibility of an intentional introduction of a devastating foreign animal disease triggered renewed interest in both theoretical and experimental research related to FMD. Theoretical models of disease transmission, which influenced the tactical decisions of the United Kingdom (UK) government during the epidemic (Taylor 2003), resulted in large numbers of uninfected animals being slaughtered. After the epidemic, the adopted control policies were sharply criticized (Kitching 2004;, Taylor 2003). Still, the role of computationaL modeling for analyzing the scope of the epidemic and devising control strategies was recognized as substantial and necessary.

  14. Re-assessing the likelihood of airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease at the start of the 1967-1968 UK foot-and-mouth disease epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gloster, J.; Freshwater, A.; Sellers, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    The likelihood of airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease at the start of the 1967-1968 epidemic is re-assessed in the light of current understanding of airborne disease spread. The findings strongly confirm those made at the time that airborne virus was the most likely cause of the rapid early...... development of the disease out to 60 km from the source. This conclusion is reached following a detailed epidemiological, meteorological and modelling study using original records and current modelling techniques. The role played by 'lee waves' as the mechanism for the spread is investigated. It is thought...... to disease controllers if the outbreak had occurred in 2004....

  15. Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham; Charleston, Bryan; Jackson, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Foot‐and‐mouth disease (FMD) is an economically important, highly contagious disease of cloven‐hoofed animals characterised by the appearance of vesicles (blisters) on the feet and in, and around, the mouth. The causative agent, foot‐and‐mouth disease virus (FMDV), was the first mammalian virus...

  16. Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and young children. It usually causes fever, painful sores in the mouth, and a rash on the hands and feet. Most infected people recover in a week or ... fatal. HFMD Quick Facts Usually causes fever, painful sores in the ... on the hands and feet. Is a contagious disease. Mostly affects infants and ...

  17. Foot-and-mouth disease vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-San Segundo, Fayna; Medina, Gisselle N; Stenfeldt, Carolina; Arzt, Jonathan; de Los Santos, Teresa

    2017-07-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. The disease affects many areas of the world, often causing extensive epizootics in livestock, mostly farmed cattle and swine, although sheep, goats and many wild species are also susceptible. In countries where food and farm animals are essential for subsistence agriculture, outbreaks of FMD seriously impact food security and development. In highly industrialized developed nations, FMD endemics cause economic and social devastation mainly due to observance of health measures adopted from the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). High morbidity, complex host-range and broad genetic diversity make FMD prevention and control exceptionally challenging. In this article we review multiple vaccine approaches developed over the years ultimately aimed to successfully control and eradicate this feared disease. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Veterinary realities: what is foot and mouth disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, J.; Mol, A.

    2011-01-01

    Veterinary science draws on different traditions for knowing and acting, and mobilises different kinds of materials and techniques. This article explores these differences and their tensions for the diagnosis of foot and mouth disease in the UK in 2001. It shows that when they talk of foot and mouth

  19. Airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease - model intercomparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gloster, J; Jones, A; Redington, A; Burgin, L; Sorensen, J H; Turner, R; Dillon, M; Hullinger, P; Simpson, M; Astrup, P; Garner, G; Stewart, P; D' Amours, R; Sellers, R; Paton, D

    2008-09-04

    Foot-and-mouth disease is a highly infectious vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus. It spreads by direct contact between animals, by animal products (milk, meat and semen), by mechanical transfer on people or fomites and by the airborne route - with the relative importance of each mechanism depending on the particular outbreak characteristics. Over the years a number of workers have developed or adapted atmospheric dispersion models to assess the risk of foot-and-mouth disease virus spread through the air. Six of these models were compared at a workshop hosted by the Institute for Animal Health/Met Office during 2008. A number of key issues emerged from the workshop and subsequent modelling work: (1) in general all of the models predicted similar directions for 'at risk' livestock with much of the remaining differences strongly related to differences in the meteorological data used; (2) determination of an accurate sequence of events is highly important, especially if the meteorological conditions vary substantially during the virus emission period; and (3) differences in assumptions made about virus release, environmental fate, and subsequent infection can substantially modify the size and location of the downwind risk area. Close relationships have now been established between participants, which in the event of an outbreak of disease could be readily activated to supply advice or modelling support.

  20. Hand, foot, and mouth disease on the soles (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease is cause by a coxsackie virus. It produces mouth ulcers and small blisters (vesicles) on the hands and feet. The vesicles often have a reddish border with a white or lighter colored area in ...

  1. Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease: Changing Indian Scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Prasanna Kumar; Veena, KM; Jagadishchandra, H.; Sham S Bhat; Shetty, Shishir Ram

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Hand, foot and mouth disease usually affect infants and children. Although seen worldwide, it is not common in India. It is moderately contagious and is spread through direct contact with the mucus, saliva, or feces of an infected person. It typically occurs in small epidemics, usually during the summer and autumn months. The incidence of hand, foot and mouth disease has recently been on the rise in India due to the probable mass immunization programs. This report describes a case of...

  2. A Qualitative Risk Assessment of Kenya for Foot and Mouth Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The risk factors considered were: Authority, structure/Organization and infrastructure of Kenya's Veterinary Services; Policy, Law and Infrastructure of Disease Control; Disease outbreak history and prevalence status; Diagnostic Laboratory capabilities; Active disease control Programmes; Surveillance: Type and extent; ...

  3. Assessment of financial impact of foot and mouth disease on smallholder cattle farmers in Southern Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J R; Suon, S; Andrews, C J; Henry, L A; Windsor, P A

    2013-04-01

    The financial impact of an outbreak of FMD in 2010 on 62 smallholder cattle farmers in four villages in southern Cambodia was investigated by a financial impact survey questionnaire. Financial losses associated with FMD infection were severe with variation depending on whether the animal survived or died or was used for draft. The average post-FMD loss varied from USD 216.32, a 54% reduction from the pre-FMD value because of weight loss and treatment costs, to USD 370.54, a 92% reduction from pre-FMD values if the animal was treated, died and a rental draft replacement was required. Partial budget analysis identified a strongly positive incentive for cattle to be vaccinated biannually for FMD, providing USD 31.48 per animal for each animal owned. However low vaccination rates suggest that farmers are mostly unaware of the need or averse to the practice of vaccinating their cattle for FMD. This may be due to poor understanding of preventative disease strategies such as vaccination, unavailable disposable income for purchase of vaccines, and failure to recognize the full costs that are incurred when the disease occurs. Enhancing smallholder cattle productivity through the introduction of forage growing systems has been suggested as a pathway for alleviating rural poverty in the Mekong region. As our financial analysis identified a net benefit of vaccination for smallholder farmer enterprises in an endemic FMD area in Cambodia, it is considered important that farmer education strategies aimed at improving cattle productivity, also include both access to vaccine and training in preventative disease risk management and biosecurity practices in Cambodia. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Control strategies for foot and mouth disease with particular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is a very contagious disease of mammals with a great potential for causing severe economic losses in susceptible cloven-hoofed animals. It is a trans-boundary animal disease, with seven serotypes and all the serotypes produce a disease that is clinically indistinguishable but ...

  5. Molecular characterization of serotype O foot-and- mouth disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kerfua Susan

    2013-05-08

    May 8, 2013 ... In Uganda, where foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) control is mainly done through vaccination, constant monitoring of outbreaks and phylogenetic studies are important in designing effective disease control strategies. These efforts however, have mainly concentrated on cattle since they are the main visible.

  6. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Preliminarily Diagnosed as Hypochondriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Michael Jay; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A case in which a dental student with hand, foot, and mouth disease was told he had "medical student disease" (MSD), or hypochondriasis, is related; literature pertaining to the occurrence and treatment of MSD is reviewed, and the importance of care in approaches to both students and patients are discussed. (MSE)

  7. Molecular epidemiology of foot and mouth disease, bluetongue and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Client

    2016-11-02

    Nov 2, 2016 ... Key words: Algeria, control, diagnosis, molecular epidemiology, Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD), bluetongue. (BT), Peste des Petites ... animal health, transportation of animals is forbidden between Sahara and Northern Algeria. .... potential risk of transboundary diseases spreading into neighboring border ...

  8. Foot-and-mouth Disease Transmission in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekleghiorghis, T.; Moormann, R.J.M.; Weerdmeester, K.; Dekker, A.

    2016-01-01

    In Africa, for the control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), more information is needed on the spread of the disease at local, regional and inter-regional level. The aim of this review is to identify the role that animal husbandry, trade and wildlife have on the transmission of FMD and to provide

  9. Molecular epidemiology of foot and mouth disease, bluetongue and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews the contribution of molecular epidemiology to the diagnosis and control of some animal diseases such as foot and mouth disease (FMD), buetongue and peste des petites ruminants (PPR) in Algeria. Molecular epidemiology has helped in the characterization of FMDV type O circulating in Algerian cattle ...

  10. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Seroprevalence in Cattle in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekleghiorghis, T.; Weerdmeester, K.; Hemert-Kluitenberg, van Froukje; Moormann, R.J.M.; Dekker, Aldo

    2017-01-01

    Information about seroprevalence of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and virus serotypes in Eritrea is unavailable, but is very important as it may guide the choice of intervention measures including vaccination to be implemented. We carried out a cross-sectional study from February to June 2011 in

  11. Carriers of foot-and-mouth disease virus: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, P.; Schrijver, R.

    2000-01-01

    This review describes current knowledge about persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infections, the available methods to detect carrier animals, the properties of persisting virus, the immunological mechanisms, and the risk of transmission. In particular, knowledge about the carrier state,

  12. The pathogenesis of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The greatest segment of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) clinical research has been dedicated to elucidating pathogenesis and enhancing vaccine protection in cattle with less efforts invested in studies that are specific to pigs. However, accumulated evidence from FMD outbreaks and experimental invest...

  13. Coxsackievirus A6 and hand, foot, and mouth disease, Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterback, Riikka; Vuorinen, Tytti; Linna, Mervi; Susi, Petri; Hyypiä, Timo; Waris, Matti

    2009-09-01

    During fall 2008, an outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) with onychomadesis (nail shedding) as a common feature occurred in Finland. We identified an unusual enterovirus type, coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6), as the causative agent. CVA6 infections may be emerging as a new and major cause of epidemic HFMD.

  14. Occurrence of foot and mouth disease serotypes in Tanzania: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of suspected foot and mouth disease (FMD) cases were collected via veterinary investigation centers (VIC) from different geographical locations of Tanzania during the period of 1997 to 2004. Samples were derived from cattle (n =142) and wildebeest (n =8) that suffered from oral and foot lesions associated with ...

  15. Seroprevalence of foot-and-mouth disease in goats from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the level of exposure to the South African Territories (SAT) serotypes (SAT1, SAT2 and SAT3) of the foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) of apparently healthy, unvaccinated indigenous goats from four selected districts of Matabeleland South Province in Zimbabwe.

  16. Observations on Foot and Mouth Disease in Kenya | Wariru | Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) first was characterized in Kenya in 1932. Typing results are available since 1954. Five serotypes namely A, C, O, SAT1 and SAT2 have been confirmed and every district in the country has recorded one serotype or another. Serotypes A and O were predominant upto 1974 and serotypes O ...

  17. Foot-and-mouth disease: Host range and pathogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Søren; Mowat, N.

    2005-01-01

    In this chapter the host range of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) under natural and experimental conditions is reviewed. The routes and sites of infection, incubation periods and clinical and pathological findings are described and highlighted in relation to progress in understanding the pathogenesis...... of FMD....

  18. Vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease I: Epidemiological consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backer, J.A.; Hagenaars, T.H.J.; Nodelijk, G.; Roermund, van H.J.W.

    2012-01-01

    An epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) can have devastating effects on animal welfare, economic revenues, the export position and society as a whole, as occurred during the 2001 FMD epidemic in the Netherlands. Following the preemptive culling of 260,000 animals during this outbreak, the Dutch

  19. Foot and mouth disease in Zambia: Spatial and temporal distributions of outbreaks, assessment of clusters and implications for control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yona Sinkala

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Zambia has been experiencing low livestock productivity as well as trade restrictions owing to the occurrence of foot and mouth disease (FMD, but little is known about the epidemiology of the disease in these endemic settings. The fundamental questions relate to the spatio-temporal distribution of FMD cases and what determines their occurrence. A retrospective review of FMD cases in Zambia from 1981 to 2012 was conducted using geographical information systems and the SaTScan software package. Information was collected from peer-reviewed journal articles, conference proceedings, laboratory reports, unpublished scientific reports and grey literature. A space–time permutation probability model using a varying time window of one year was used to scan for areas with high infection rates. The spatial scan statistic detected a significant purely spatial cluster around the Mbala–Isoka area between 2009 and 2012, with secondary clusters in Sesheke–Kazungula in 2007 and 2008, the Kafue flats in 2004 and 2005 and Livingstone in 2012. This study provides evidence of the existence of statistically significant FMD clusters and an increase in occurrence in Zambia between 2004 and 2012. The identified clusters agree with areas known to be at high risk of FMD. The FMD virus transmission dynamics and the heterogeneous variability in risk within these locations may need further investigation.

  20. Airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease - Model intercomparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gloster, John; Jones, Andrew; Redington, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) spreads by direct contact between animals, by animal products (milk, meat and semen), by mechanical transfer on people or fomites and by the airborne route, with the relative importance of each mechanism depending on the particular outbreak characteristics....... Atmospheric dispersion models have been developed to assess airborne spread of FMDV in a number of countries, including the UK, Denmark, Australia, New Zealand, USA and Canada. These models were compared at a Workshop hosted by the Institute for Animal Health/Met Office in 2008. Each modeller was provided...... with data relating to the 1967 outbreak of FMD in Hampshire, UK, and asked to predict the spread of FMDV by the airborne route. A number of key issues emerged from the Workshop and subsequent modelling work: (1) in general all models predicted similar directions for livestock at risk, with much...

  1. Bioeconomic modelling of foot and mouth disease and its control in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jemberu, W.T.

    2016-01-01

    Keywords: Control, cost-benefit, economic impact, epidemiology, Ethiopia, Foot and mouth disease, intention, modelling, production system. Bioeconomic Modelling of Foot and Mouth Disease and Its control in Ethiopia Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious

  2. Risk factors for severe hand foot and mouth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoko; Taya, Keiko; Nakashima, Kazutoshi; Ohyama, Takaaki; Kobayashi, John M; Ohkusa, Yasushi; Okabe, Nobuhiko

    2010-04-01

    Hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina are enteroviral infectious diseases caused mainly by Coxsackie virus A (CA) or enterovirus 71 (EV71). From 2000 to 2002, many complicated cases were reported in Japan, therefore a nationwide questionnaire survey was carried out to assess the situation. The subjects were patients with HFMD or herpangina, or other enterovirus infection from 2000 to 2002, who were either hospitalized over 24 h or who died. The response rates were 41.3% in 2000 and 2001 and 31.6% in 2002. The survey period included the year 2000, when HFMD epidemics due to EV71 occurred. To examine risk factors causing complications of enterovirus infection, severe cases of HFMD were focused on. HFMD cases in 2000 were divided into two groups according to severity: 'more severe' and 'less severe'. 'More severe' was defined as 'fatal, involving sequelae, or involving hospitalization for 7 days or longer'. Statistical analyses were conducted with Epi info version 3.3 and the association between risk factors and severity was estimated. The number of patients with more severe and less severe cases was 96 and 103, respectively. There was no difference in sex, age, having siblings and family history between the two groups. There was a significant association between attending child care center and severe HFMD. It is not clear why attending child care centers was associated with HFMD severity. Further study is needed.

  3. Economic impact of foot and mouth disease outbreaks onsmallholder farmers in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jemberu, W.T.; Mourits, Monique C.M.; Woldehanna, T.; Hogeveen, H.

    2014-01-01

    Foot and mouth disease is endemic in Ethiopia with occurrences of several outbreaks everyyear. Quantitative information about the impact of the disease on smallholder farming sys-tems in the country is, however, scarce. This study presents a quantitative assessment ofthe clinical and direct economic

  4. Transmission risks and control of foot-and-mouth disease in The Netherlands: Spatial patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boender, G.J.; Roermund, van H.J.W.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Hagenaars, T.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    n 2001 the epidemics of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in Great Britain, The Netherlands and France have shown how fast FMDV may spread between farms. The massive socio-economic impact of these epidemics and the intervention measures taken demonstrate the need for quantitative assessments of

  5. Impact of clinical surveillance during a foot-and-mouth disease epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Boklund, Anette

    The objectives of this study were to assess, whether the current surveillance capacity is sufficient to fulfill EU and Danish regulations to control a hypothetical foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemic in Denmark, and whether enlarging the protection and/or surveillance zones could reduce epidemic...

  6. Foot-and-mouth disease: past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals including cattle, pigs, sheep and many wildlife species. It can cause enormous economic losses when incursions occur into countries which are normally disease free. In addition, it has long-term effects within countries where the disease is endemic due to reduced animal productivity and the restrictions on international trade in animal products. The disease is caused by infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), a picornavirus. Seven different serotypes (and numerous variants) of FMDV have been identified. Some serotypes have a restricted geographical distribution, e.g. Asia-1, whereas others, notably serotype O, occur in many different regions. There is no cross-protection between serotypes and sometimes protection conferred by vaccines even of the same serotype can be limited. Thus it is important to characterize the viruses that are circulating if vaccination is being used for disease control. This review describes current methods for the detection and characterization of FMDVs. Sequence information is increasingly being used for identifying the source of outbreaks. In addition such information can be used to understand antigenic change within virus strains. The challenges and opportunities for improving the control of the disease within endemic settings, with a focus on Eurasia, are discussed, including the role of the FAO/EuFMD/OIE Progressive Control Pathway. Better control of the disease in endemic areas reduces the risk of incursions into disease-free regions. PMID:24308718

  7. Update on hand-foot-and-mouth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventarola, Daniel; Bordone, Lindsey; Silverberg, Nanette

    2015-01-01

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is a viral exanthem caused, primarily by Coxsackie A16 and enterovirus 71 with typical clinical features of fever, painful papules and blisters over the extremities and genitalia and an enanthem involving ulceration of the mouth, palate, and pharynx. Other enteroviruses have recently been noted to cause severe neurologic illness and paralysis (enterovirus 68) with variable cutaneous features. A recent outbreak of Coxsackie A6 infection has been seen worldwide with cases reported in the United States, Japan, Southeast Asia, and Europe. These cases have caused extensive cutaneous disease variants, some of which are not previously recognized in Coxsackie infection, namely vesicobullous and erosive eruptions, extensive cutaneous involvement, periorificial lesions, localization in areas of atopic dermatitis or in children with atopic dermatitis (the so-called eczema coxsackium), Gianotti-Crosti-like lesions, petechial/purpuric eruptions, delayed onychomadesis, and palmoplantar desquamation. Finally, adult cases appear to occur with this form of hand-foot-and-mouth disease, likely due to fecal-oral transmission in a household setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 75 FR 65431 - Change in Disease Status of Japan Because of Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 94 Change in Disease Status of Japan Because of Foot-and-Mouth Disease AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule... be free of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and also from the list of FMD-free regions that are subject...

  9. The Epidemiology of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Wee Ming; Bogich, Tiffany; Siegel, Karen; Jin, Jing; Chong, Elizabeth Y.; Tan, Chong Yew; Chen, Mark IC; Horby, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Context: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a widespread pediatric disease caused primarily by human enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16). Objective: This study reports a systematic review of the epidemiology of HFMD in Asia. Data Sources: PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar were searched up to December 2014. Study Selection: Two reviewers independently assessed studies for epidemiologic and serologic information about prevalence and incidence of HFMD against predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Data Extraction: Two reviewers extracted answers for 8 specific research questions on HFMD epidemiology. The results are checked by 3 others. Results: HFMD is found to be seasonal in temperate Asia with a summer peak and in subtropical Asia with spring and fall peaks, but not in tropical Asia; evidence of a climatic role was identified for temperate Japan. Risk factors for HFMD include hygiene, age, gender and social contacts, but most studies were underpowered to adjust rigorously for confounding variables. Both community-level and school-level transmission have been implicated, but their relative importance for HFMD is inconclusive. Epidemiologic indices are poorly understood: No supporting quantitative evidence was found for the incubation period of EV-A71; the symptomatic rate of EV-A71/Coxsackievirus A16 infection was from 10% to 71% in 4 studies; while the basic reproduction number was between 1.1 and 5.5 in 3 studies. The uncertainty in these estimates inhibits their use for further analysis. Limitations: Diversity of study designs complicates attempts to identify features of HFMD epidemiology. Conclusions: Knowledge on HFMD remains insufficient to guide interventions such as the incorporation of an EV-A71 vaccine in pediatric vaccination schedules. Research is urgently needed to fill these gaps. PMID:27273688

  10. Modelling vaccination strategies against foot-and-mouth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, M. J.; Woolhouse, M. E. J.; May, R. M.; Davies, G.; Grenfell, B. T.

    2003-01-01

    Vaccination has proved a powerful defence against a range of infectious diseases of humans and animals. However, its potential to control major epidemics of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in livestock is contentious. Using an individual farm-based model, we consider either national prophylactic vaccination campaigns in advance of an outbreak, or combinations of reactive vaccination and culling strategies during an epidemic. Consistent with standard epidemiological theory, mass prophylactic vaccination could reduce greatly the potential for a major epidemic, while the targeting of high-risk farms increases efficiency. Given sufficient resources and preparation, a combination of reactive vaccination and culling might control ongoing epidemics. We also explore a reactive strategy, `predictive' vaccination, which targets key spatial transmission loci and can reduce markedly the long tail that characterizes many FMD epidemics. These analyses have broader implications for the control of human and livestock infectious diseases in heterogeneous spatial landscapes.

  11. Editorial: Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Swine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Andres M.; Willeberg, Preben W

    2017-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most devastating diseases of livestock. The disease is caused by infection with a picornavirus, generically referred as FMD virus (FMDV), which is considered one of the most infectious agents affecting animals. FMD status affects national and international...... movement and trade of animals and animal products, and food animal trade is expected to play an important role in poverty alleviation (Perez). Applied knowledge about FMD pathogenesis and epidemiology is important in the design and implementation of effective prevention and control programs, minimizing...... detrimental effects of FMD outbreaks. Decision tools have been developed by applying simulation models based on characteristics of FMD pathogenesis and epidemiology. These tools are meant to be used by risk managers and risk communicators to help prioritize control options during an FMD epidemic and making...

  12. Foot-and-mouth disease virus receptors: multiple gateways to initiate infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since its discovery over 100 years ago as the causative agent of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), research has been directed at understanding the biology of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) so as to be able to control this devastating and highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed livestock. Giv...

  13. Efficacy of emergency vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eblé, Phaedra Lydia

    2006-01-01

    Since the foot-and-mouth disease epidemics in Europe in 2001 the use of emergency vaccination, if an outbreak occurs, has become more prominent in EU legislation. Since pigs infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) excrete huge amounts of virus they are considered as amplifiers of the

  14. Foot and Mouth Disease. New values, innovative research agendas and policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijpp, van der A.J.; Braker, M.J.E.; Eilers, C.H.A.M.; Kieft, H.; Vogelzang, T.A.; Oosting, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    A Foot and Mouth Disease outbreak is not by definition similar to a Foot and Mouth Disease crisis. Why then did the 2001 outbreak result in a crisis situation in the Netherlands? It was not because nobody was prepared for it. The Ministry of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries had a

  15. Global foot-and-mouth disease research update and gap analysis: 7 - pathogenesis and molecular biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2014, the GFRA (Global Foot-and-mouth disease Research Alliance) conducted a gap analysis of FMD (Foot-and-Mouth Disease) research. This work has been updated and reported in a series of papers, in this article we report findings in the fields of 1) pathogenesis and 2) molecular biology. The arti...

  16. Sero-prevalence of foot and mouth disease in cattle in Borena Zone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was carried out between April and November 2015 to investigate the sero-prevalence of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in cattle in Borena zone using 3ABC-Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) to detect antibody against foot-and-mouth disease virus and semi structured questionnaire. A

  17. Sero-prevalence status of foot and mouth disease in the North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The samples were processed with the nonstructural protein (NSP) enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that can able to differentiate foot and mouth disease (FMD) naturally infected vaccinated animals. From the total sera tested, the overall sero-prevalence of foot and mouth disease in cattle at the North and South ...

  18. Sero-prevalence status of foot and mouth disease in the North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p=0.430). This information on sero surveillance of foot and mouth disease in cattle is important for further epidemiological studies towards developing effective foot and mouth disease control strategies, particularly in these areas where animal movement is not restricted. Keywords: Cattle, Seroprevalence, FMD, North West ...

  19. Assessing the potential spread and maintenance of foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in wild ungulates: general principles and application to a specific scenario in Thrace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhollander, S.; Belsham, Graham; Lange, M.

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), due to infection with serotype O virus, occurred in wild boar and within eleven outbreaks in domestic livestock in the south-east of Bulgaria, Thrace region, in 2011. Hence, the issue of the potential for the spread and maintenance of FMD virus (FMDV) infection...... populations in similar ecological settings, are probably not able to maintain FMD in the long term in the absence of FMDV infection in the domestic host population. However, limited spread of FMDV infection in time and space in the wildlife populations can occur. If there is a continued crossover of FMDV...

  20. Meta-analysis on the efficacy of foot-and-mouth disease emergency vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Boklund, Anette; Cox, S.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to provide a summary quantification of the efficacy of FMD emergency vaccination based on a systematic review and a meta-analysis of available literature, and to further discuss the suitability of this review and meta-analysis to summarize and further interpret...... the results. Peer-reviewed, symposium, and unpublished studies were considered in the analysis. Clinical protection and virological protection against foot and mouth disease were used as parameters to assess the efficacy of emergency vaccination. The clinical protection was estimated based on the appearance...... vaccine. Fortunately, no significant bias that would alter the conclusions was encountered in the analysis. Meta-analysis showed to be a useful tool to summarize literature results from a systematic review of the efficacy of foot and mouth disease emergency vaccination....

  1. Assessing the potential spread and maintenance of foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in wild ungulates: general principles and application to a specific scenario in Thrace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhollander, S; Belsham, G J; Lange, M; Willgert, K; Alexandrov, T; Chondrokouki, E; Depner, K; Khomenko, S; Özyörük, F; Salman, M; Thulke, H H; Bøtner, A

    2016-04-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), due to infection with serotype O virus, occurred in wild boar and within eleven outbreaks in domestic livestock in the south-east of Bulgaria, Thrace region, in 2011. Hence, the issue of the potential for the spread and maintenance of FMD virus (FMDV) infection in a population of wild ungulates became important. This assessment focused on the spread and maintenance of FMDV infection within a hypothetical wild boar and deer population in an environment, which is characterized by a climate transitional between Mediterranean and continental and variable wildlife population densities. The assessment was based on three aspects: (i) a systematic review of the literature focusing on experimental infection studies to identify the parameters describing the duration of FMDV infection in deer and wild boar, as well as observational studies assessing the occurrence of FMDV infection in wild deer and wild boar populations, (ii) prevalence survey data of wild boar and deer in Bulgaria and Turkey and (iii) an epidemiological model, simulating the host-to-host spread of FMDV infections. It is concluded, based on all three aspects, that the wildlife population in Thrace, and so wildlife populations in similar ecological settings, are probably not able to maintain FMD in the long term in the absence of FMDV infection in the domestic host population. However, limited spread of FMDV infection in time and space in the wildlife populations can occur. If there is a continued cross-over of FMDV between domestic and wildlife populations or a higher population density, virus circulation may be prolonged. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Hand, foot and mouth disease--outbreak in Romania?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriac, Anca; Foia, Liliana; Chiriac, Anca; Nanescu, Sonia; Filip, Florina; Solovan, C; Gorduza, E V

    2013-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a viral illness usually occurring during the summer months in children younger than 5 years of age. In the North-East area of Romania the incidence is usually low, each dermatologist reporting 1-2 cases or even less per year. The diagnosis is usually based on the characteristic clinical aspect: vesicles and papules on the hands and feet and superficial oral ulcers. HFMD is typically a benign and self-limiting disease that resolves in approximately 7 days; in Asia there have been few reported severe cases that developed neurological complications and even death, while in certain areas of China this disease is a more and more serious public health problem. In the summer of 2012 in North-East Romania numerous cases of disease have been reported, some with atypical clinical manifestations and most of them with mild or moderate forms of disease. The present article is a discussion on one of these cases. The diagnosis was made based on lesions location and clinical appearance. An outbreak of HFMD should be confirmed by virology tests.

  3. Molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, N J; Samuel, A R

    2003-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is the most economically important veterinary pathogen due to its highly infectious nature, ability to cause persistent infections and long term effects on the condition and productivity of the many animal species it affects. Countries which have the disease have many trade restrictions placed upon them. In the last 15 years there have been significant advances in the understanding of FMD epidemiology. These have largely been due to the application of the molecular biological techniques of polymerase chain-reaction amplification and nucleotide sequencing. In the World Reference Laboratory for FMD (Pirbright, UK), a large sequence database has been built up. This database has been used to aid in the global tracing of virus movements. It has been possible to genetically group many FMDV's based on their geographic origin and this has led to their being referred to as topotypes. The implications of this are that inter-regional spread of viruses can often be easily recognised and any evolutionary changes which subsequently occur can be monitored. Using these techniques, for the first time, we have been able to unequivocally show the recent pandemic spread of a FMDV type O strain through the whole of Asia and into Africa and Europe. This type of surveillance will become increasingly important as further globalisation of markets occurs. An increased understanding of how FMDV strains move between geographic regions will play a pivotal role in the development of future disease control strategies. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  4. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Seroprevalence in Cattle in Eritrea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekleghiorghis, T; Weerdmeester, K; van Hemert-Kluitenberg, F; Moormann, R J M; Dekker, A

    2017-06-01

    Information about seroprevalence of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and virus serotypes in Eritrea is unavailable, but is very important as it may guide the choice of intervention measures including vaccination to be implemented. We carried out a cross-sectional study from February to June 2011 in Eritrea with a two-stage cluster design, sampling cattle in 155 villages with the objective of determining the seroprevalence of FMD in four administrative regions of the country. We analysed cattle sera (n = 2429) for FMD virus antibodies using the non-structural ELISA (NS ELISA) and virus neutralization test (VNT). The overall seroprevalence was 26% and 30% for the NS ELISA and VNT, respectively. FMD virus serotypes O (14%) and A (11%) were the most prevalent. Gash Barka showed the highest (39%) seroprevalence both in NS ELISA and VNT compared to the other three administrative regions. Strategic FMD virus vaccination with type O and A (matching circulating strains) in combination of zoo-sanitary measures would be the best control option for Eritrea which could be started in areas where the disease is less endemic. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Is a multivalent hand, foot, and mouth disease vaccine feasible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Michel; Chong, Pele

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus A infections are the primary cause of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in infants and young children. Although enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) are the predominant causes of HFMD epidemics worldwide, EV-A71 has emerged as a major neurovirulent virus responsible for severe neurological complications and fatal outcomes. HFMD is a serious health threat and economic burden across the Asia-Pacific region. Inactivated EV-A71 vaccines have elicited protection against EV-A71 but not against CV-A16 infections in large efficacy trials. The current development of a bivalent inactivated EV-A71/CV-A16 vaccine is the next step toward that of multivalent HFMD vaccines. These vaccines should ultimately include other prevalent pathogenic coxsackieviruses A (CV-A6 and CV-A10), coxsackieviruses B (B3 and B5) and echovirus 30 that often co-circulate during HFMD epidemics and can cause severe HFMD, aseptic meningitis and acute viral myocarditis. The prospect and challenges for the development of such multivalent vaccines are discussed. PMID:26009802

  6. Hand, foot and mouth disease caused by coxsackievirus A6, Beijing, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongyan, Gu; Chengjie, Ma; Qiaozhi, Yang; Wenhao, Hua; Juan, Li; Lin, Pang; Yanli, Xu; Hongshan, Wei; Xingwang, Li

    2014-12-01

    Specimens and clinical data were collected from 243 hand, foot and mouth disease patients in Beijing in 2013. In total, 130 stool specimens were genotyped for enterovirus. Hand, foot and mouth disease was mainly detected in suburban areas and at the edges of urban areas between May and August. Coxsackievirus (CV) A6 replaced enterovirus (EV) 71 and CVA16, becoming the main causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease. CVA6 infection led to significantly reduced fever duration and glucose levels compared with EV71 infection.

  7. A comparative assessment of the risks of introduction and spread of foot and mouth disease among different pig sectors in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Hernandez-Jover

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale pig producers are believed to pose higher biosecurity risks for the introduction and spread of exotic diseases than commercial pig producers. However, the magnitude of these risks are poorly understood. This study is a comparative assessment of the risk of introduction and spread of foot and mouth disease (FMD through different sectors of the pig industry: 1 large-scale pig producers; 2 small-scale producers (< 100 sows selling at saleyards and abattoirs; and, 3 small-scale producers selling through informal means. An exposure and consequence assessments were conducted assuming FMD virus was introduced into Australia through illegal importation of infected meat. A quantitative assessment, using scenario trees and Monte Carlo stochastic simulation, was used to calculate the probabilities of exposure and spread. Input data for these assessments were obtained from a series of data gathering exercises among pig producers, industry statistics and literature. Findings of this study suggest there is an Extremely low probability of exposure (8.69 × 10-6 to 3.81 × 10-5 for the three sectors of the pig industry, with exposure through direct swill feeding being 10 to 100 times more likely to occur than through contact with infected feral pigs.. Spread of FMD from the index farm is most likely to occur through movement of contaminated fomites, pigs and ruminants. The virus is more likely to spread from small-scale piggeries selling at saleyards and abattoirs than from other piggeries. The most influential factors on the spread of FMD from the index farm is the ability of the farmer to detect FMD, the probability of FMD spread through contaminated fomites and the presence of ruminants on the farm. Although small-scale producers selling informally move animals less frequently and do not use external staff, movement of pigs to non-commercial pathways could jeopardize animal traceability in the event of a disease outbreak. This study suggest that

  8. Scenarios for eradicating foot-and-mouth disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, E.J.; Leeuwen, van M.G.A.; Vlieger, de J.J.

    2001-01-01

    Research project commissioned by the Ministery of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries. With the help of desk-research and input-output analysis quantitative information is assembled about the differences in cost for agribusiness and tourism of two eradication scenarios for foot-and-mouth

  9. The Hampshire epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease, 1967

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, R. F.; Forman, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis was made of the spread of foot-and-mouth disease during the epidemic in Hampshire in January and February 1967. To explain the pattern of spread, it had to be postulated that virus was present seven days before the first outbreak was reported. It is suggested that the disease occurred initially in pigs fed on infected meat and that the virus was subsequently disseminated from the local abattoir, where the pigs were killed, to four farms by movement of animals, slaughterhouse waste, people or vehicles, and to fifteen by the airborne route. Subsequent spread from these farms was by movement in two instances and by the airborne route in five. The source and route of infection of the last farm in the outbreak were not determined. The risk of spread through movement was associated more with carriage of infected slaughterhouse waste, movement of animals, people or vehicles carrying animals than through collection of milk, artificial insemination or movement of other types of vehicles. Outbreaks of disease among pigs gave rise to more secondary spread than outbreaks in cattle. Secondary outbreaks attributed to airborne spread occurred only in ruminants. Most airborne spread was into areas of high livestock density and cattle in the larger herds became infected. Airborne spread could be correlated with wind direction and speed but not with rain. The reduction in the number of outbreaks at the end of the epidemic could be attributed to the elimination of the largest sources of virus, the control of movements and the fact that in all instances except two the wind was blowing virus over towns and out to sea, to areas of low stock density and to areas where animals had been killed. PMID:4511946

  10. Enterovirus genotypes causing hand foot and mouth disease in Shanghai, China: a molecular epidemiological analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Menghua; Su, Liyun; Cao, Lingfeng; Zhong, Huaqing; Dong, Niuniu; Xu, Jin

    2013-01-01

    A rapid expansion of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) outbreaks has occurred and caused deaths in China in recent years, but little is known about the other etiologic agents except enterovirus 71 (EV71...

  11. Spatial pattern of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes in North Central Nigeria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yiltawe Simwal Wungak; Olayinka O Ishola; Babasola O Olugasa; David D Lazarus; David O Ehizibolo; Hussaini G Ularamu

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study aimed to determine the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotypes circulating, the prevalence of FMDV serotypes, and the spatial distribution of FMDV among sedentary and pastoral cattle herds in the North-Central Nigeria...

  12. Assessment of gold nanoparticles as a size-dependent vaccine carrier for enhancing the antibody response against synthetic foot-and-mouth disease virus peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu-Shiun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 University Road, EE137, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Hung, Yao-Ching [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, China Medical University and Hospital, 91 Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Lin, Wei-Hsu [Institute of Nanotechnology, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 University Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Huang, Guewha Steven, E-mail: gstevehuang@mail.nctu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Nanotechnology, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 University Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan, Republic of China (China)

    2010-05-14

    To assess the ability of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) to act as a size-dependent carrier, a synthetic peptide resembling foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) protein was conjugated to GNPs ranging from 2 to 50 nm in diameter (2, 5, 8, 12, 17, 37, and 50 nm). An extra cysteine was added to the C-terminus of the FMDV peptide (pFMDV) to ensure maximal conjugation to the GNPs, which have a high affinity for sulfhydryl groups. The resultant pFMDV-GNP conjugates were then injected into BALB/c mice. Immunization with pFMDV-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (pFMDV-KLH) conjugate was also performed as a control. Blood was obtained from the mice after 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks and antibody titers against both pFMDV and the carriers were measured. For the pFMDV-GNP immunization, specific antibodies against the synthetic peptide were detected in the sera of mice injected with 2, 5, 8, 12, and 17 nm pFMDV-GNP conjugates. Maximal antibody binding was noted for GNPs of diameter 8-17 nm. The pFMDV-GNPs induced a three-fold increase in the antibody response compared to the response to pFMDV-KLH. However, sera from either immunized mouse group did not exhibit an antibody response to GNPs, while the sera from pFMDV-KLH-immunized mice presented high levels of binding activity against KLH. Additionally, the uptake of pFMDV-GNP in the spleen was examined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The quantity of GNPs that accumulated in the spleen correlated to the magnitude of the immune response induced by pFMDV-GNP. In conclusion, we demonstrated the size-dependent immunogenic properties of pFMDV-GNP conjugates. Furthermore, we established that GNPs ranging from 8 to 17 nm in diameter may be ideal for eliciting a focused antibody response against a synthetic pFMDV peptide.

  13. Assessment of gold nanoparticles as a size-dependent vaccine carrier for enhancing the antibody response against synthetic foot-and-mouth disease virus peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Shiun; Hung, Yao-Ching; Lin, Wei-Hsu; Huang, Guewha Steven

    2010-05-01

    To assess the ability of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) to act as a size-dependent carrier, a synthetic peptide resembling foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) protein was conjugated to GNPs ranging from 2 to 50 nm in diameter (2, 5, 8, 12, 17, 37, and 50 nm). An extra cysteine was added to the C-terminus of the FMDV peptide (pFMDV) to ensure maximal conjugation to the GNPs, which have a high affinity for sulfhydryl groups. The resultant pFMDV-GNP conjugates were then injected into BALB/c mice. Immunization with pFMDV-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (pFMDV-KLH) conjugate was also performed as a control. Blood was obtained from the mice after 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks and antibody titers against both pFMDV and the carriers were measured. For the pFMDV-GNP immunization, specific antibodies against the synthetic peptide were detected in the sera of mice injected with 2, 5, 8, 12, and 17 nm pFMDV-GNP conjugates. Maximal antibody binding was noted for GNPs of diameter 8-17 nm. The pFMDV-GNPs induced a three-fold increase in the antibody response compared to the response to pFMDV-KLH. However, sera from either immunized mouse group did not exhibit an antibody response to GNPs, while the sera from pFMDV-KLH-immunized mice presented high levels of binding activity against KLH. Additionally, the uptake of pFMDV-GNP in the spleen was examined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The quantity of GNPs that accumulated in the spleen correlated to the magnitude of the immune response induced by pFMDV-GNP. In conclusion, we demonstrated the size-dependent immunogenic properties of pFMDV-GNP conjugates. Furthermore, we established that GNPs ranging from 8 to 17 nm in diameter may be ideal for eliciting a focused antibody response against a synthetic pFMDV peptide.

  14. [Application of esmolol in severe hand, foot, and mouth disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Qi, Bo-Xiang; Fang, Dai-Hua; Qi, Gong-Jian; Gao, Kun; Hu, Bao-Li

    2017-01-01

    To study the clinical effect and mechanism of action of esmolol in the treatment of severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). A prospective randomized controlled trial was performed. A total of 102 children with severe HFMD were enrolled in the study and were randomly divided into conventional treatment and esmolol treatment groups (n=51 each). The children in the conventional treatment group were given conventional treatment according to the guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of HFMD. Those in the esmolol treatment group were given esmolol in addition to the conventional treatment. The heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and respiratory rate (RR) were continuously monitored for all children. Blood samples were collected from all children before treatment and 1, 3, and 5 days after treatment to measure the levels of norepinephrine (NE), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 in mononuclear cells. Serum levels of myocardial enzymes and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were measured before treatment and after 5 days of treatment. There were no significant differences in HR, SBP, RR, NE, TNF-α, IL-6, NF-κB p65, serum myocardial enzymes, and NT-proBNP before treatment between the conventional treatment and esmolol treatment groups. Both groups had significant reductions in these parameters at each time point (P<0.05). Compared with the conventional treatment group, the esmolol treatment group had significant improvements in the above parameters after 1 and 3 days of treatment (P<0.05). After 5 days of treatment, the esmolol treatment group had significant improvements in serum levels of myocardial enzymes and NT-proBNP compared with the conventional treatment group (P<0.05). Early application of esmolol can effectively stabilize the vital signs of the children with severe HFMD. Its mechanism of action may be related to reducing serum catecholamine concentration

  15. The Pathogenesis of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenfeldt, Carolina; Diaz-San Segundo, Fayna; de los Santos, Teresa; Rodriguez, Luis L.; Arzt, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The greatest proportion of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) clinical research has been dedicated to elucidating pathogenesis and enhancing vaccine protection in cattle with less efforts invested in studies specific to pigs. However, accumulated evidence from FMD outbreaks and experimental investigations suggest that critical components of FMD pathogenesis, immunology, and vaccinology cannot be extrapolated from investigations performed in cattle to explain or to predict outcomes of infection or vaccination in pigs. Furthermore, it has been shown that failure to account for these differences may have substantial consequences when FMD outbreaks occur in areas with dense pig populations. Recent experimental studies have confirmed some aspects of conventional wisdom by demonstrating that pigs are more susceptible to FMD virus (FMDV) infection via exposure of the upper gastrointestinal tract (oropharynx) than through inhalation of virus. The infection spreads rapidly within groups of pigs that are housed together, although efficiency of transmission may vary depending on virus strain and exposure intensity. Multiple investigations have demonstrated that physical separation of pigs is sufficient to prevent virus transmission under experimental conditions. Detailed pathogenesis studies have recently demonstrated that specialized epithelium within porcine oropharyngeal tonsils constitute the primary infection sites following simulated natural virus exposure. Furthermore, epithelium of the tonsil of the soft palate supports substantial virus replication during the clinical phase of infection, thus providing large amounts of virus that can be shed into the environment. Due to massive amplification and shedding of virus, acutely infected pigs constitute a considerable source of contagion. FMDV infection results in modulation of several components of the host immune response. The infection is ultimately cleared in association with a strong humoral response and, in contrast to

  16. The pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina eStenfeldt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The greatest proportion of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD clinical research has been dedicated to elucidating pathogenesis and enhancing vaccine protection in cattle with less efforts invested in studies specific to pigs. However, accumulated evidence from FMD outbreaks and experimental investigations suggest that critical components of FMD pathogenesis, immunology, and vaccinology cannot be extrapolated from investigations performed in cattle to explain or predict outcomes of infection or vaccination in pigs. Furthermore, it has been shown that failure to account for these differences may have substantial consequences when FMD outbreaks occur in areas with dense pig populations. Recent experimental studies have confirmed some aspects of conventional wisdom by demonstrating that pigs are more susceptible to FMD virus (FMDV infection via exposure of the upper gastrointestinal tract (oropharynx than through inhalation of virus. The infection spreads rapidly within groups of pigs that are housed together, although efficiency of transmission may vary depending on virus strain and exposure intensity. Multiple investigations have demonstrated that physical separation of pigs is sufficient to prevent virus transmission under experimental conditions. Detailed pathogenesis studies have recently demonstrated that specialized epithelium within porcine oropharyngeal tonsils constitute the primary infection sites following simulated-natural virus exposure. Furthermore, epithelium of the tonsil of the soft palate supports substantial virus replication during the clinical phase of infection, thus providing large amounts of virus that can be shed into the environment. Due to massive amplification and shedding of virus, acutely infected pigs constitute a considerable source of contagion. FMDV infection results in modulation of several components of the host immune response. The infection is ultimately cleared in association with a strong humoral response and, in

  17. [Severe cases with hand, foot and mouth disease: data based on national pilot hand, foot and mouth disease surveillance system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y M; Chang, Z R; Jiang, L L; Ji, H; Chen, G P; Luo, P; Pan, J J; Tian, X L; Wei, L L; Huo, D; Miao, Z P; Zou, X N; Chen, J H; Liao, Q H

    2017-06-10

    Objective: To investigate the clinical severity, etiological classification and risk factors of severe cases with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Methods: A total of 1 489 records on severe and fatal HFMD cases reported to the national pilot surveillance system of HFMD were used to analyze the demographic, medical treatment, etiological classification of the cases. Treatment outcome related risk factors were also studied with multi-variable stepwise logistic regression method. Results: Seven out of the 1 489 severe HFMD cases died of this disease. A total of 960 (72.9%) were under three years old and 62.9% were male and most of the cases (937, 62.9%) resided in rural areas. Among all the cases, 494 (33.2%) went to seek the first medical assistance at the institutions of village or township level. Durations between disease onset and first medical attendance, being diagnosed as the disease or diagnosed as severe cases were 0(0-1) d, 1 (0-2) d and 2 (1-4) d, respectively. In total, 773 (51.9%) of the severe HFMD cases were diagnosed as with aseptic meningitis, 260 (17.5%) with brainstem encephalitis, 377 (25.3%) with non-brainstem encephalitis, 6 (0.4%) with encephalomyelitis, 1 (0.1%) with acute flaccid paralysis, 4 (0.3%) with pulmonary hemorrhage/pulmonary edema and 68 (4.6%) with cardiopulmonary failure. Of the etiologically diagnosed 1 217 severe and fatal HFMD cases, 642 (52.8%) were with EV71, other enterovirus 261 (21.5%), Cox A16 36 (3.0%), 1 (0.1%) with both EV71 and Cox A16. However, 277 (22.8%) showed negative on any pathogenic virus. Complication (Z=3.15, P=0.002) and duration between onset and diagnosed as severe cases (Z=3.95, P<0.001) were shown as key factors related to treatment outcomes. Conclusions: Most severe HFMD cases appeared in boys, especially living in the rural areas. Frequently seen complications would include aseptic meningitis, non-brainstem encephalitis and brainstem encephalitis. EV71 was the dominant etiology for severe and

  18. Serum cytokine profiles of children with human enterovirus 71-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jun; Wang, Ying; Gan, Xing; Song, Juan; Sun, Peng; Dong, Xiao-Ping

    2014-08-01

    Cytokine profiles may impact the pathogenicity and severity of hand, foot, and mouth disease caused by human enterovirus (HEV) 71. In 91 severe or mild HEV 71-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease children, serum was collected between days 2 and 10 or day >10. Serum cytokines including Type 1 T helper (Th1) cytokines: interleukin (IL)-2, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), IL-12, and IL-18, Type 1 T helper (Th2) cytokines: IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, proinflammatory cytokines: IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), were assessed during the early stage and recovery. In the patients with mild illness, the peaks of IL-8 and IL-10 were observed on day 6 and that of IL-18 was on day 4. In the patients with severe illness, all cytokines spiked on day 3 and peaked on day 11. All cytokines except IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, and TNF-α were significantly correlated with immunoglobulin M levels by the end of the disease course. Cytokine profile variations between the patients with mild and severe illness may indicate prognosis and strain virulence, useful in clinical treatment of patients. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT1 in cattle, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehizibolo, D O; Haegeman, A; De Vleeschauwer, A R; Umoh, J U; Kazeem, H M; Okolocha, E C; Van Borm, S; De Clercq, K

    2017-06-01

    The knowledge of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) dynamics and epidemiology in Nigeria and the West Africa subregion is important to support local and regional control plans and international risk assessment. Foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype South African territories (SAT)1 was isolated, identified and characterized from an FMD outbreak in cattle in Nigeria in 2015, 35 years after the last report of FMDV SAT1 in West Africa. The VP1 coding sequence of the Nigerian 2015 SAT1 isolates diverges from reported SAT1 topotypes resulting in a separate topotype. The reporting of a novel FMDV SAT1 strain in the virus pool 5 (West and Central Africa) highlights the dynamic and complex nature of FMDV in this region of Africa. Sustained surveillance is needed to understand the origin, the extent and distribution of this novel SAT1 topotype in the region as well as to detect and monitor the occurrence of (re-)emerging FMDV strains. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. EV71 vaccines: a first step towards multivalent hand, foot and mouth disease vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Michel H

    2015-03-01

    Enterovirus A infections are the primary cause of hand, foot and mouth disease in infants and young children. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 have emerged as neurotropic viruses responsible for severe neurological complications and a serious public health threat across the Asia-Pacific region. Formalin-inactivated EV71 vaccines have elicited protection against EV71 but not against coxsackievirus A16 infections. The development of a bivalent formalin-inactivated EV71/FI coxsackievirus A16 vaccine should be the next step towards that of multivalent hand, foot and mouth disease vaccines which should ultimately include other prevalent pathogenic coxsackieviruses and echovirus 30. This editorial summarizes the major challenges faced by the development of hand, foot and mouth disease vaccines.

  1. Foot and mouth disease virus in different host species; the effect of vaccination on transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orsel, K.

    2007-01-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a contagious disease, affecting important livestock species like cattle, sheep and pigs. Therefore, FMD is listed as a notifiable disease to the Office International des Epizooties. The outbreaks of FMD in Europe in 2001 triggered the discussion about the use of

  2. Detection of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Infected Cattle Using Infrared Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious viral disease of livestock that has significant economic, social and environmental impacts. One problem hampering the diagnosis, control and eradication efforts is the need for veterinarians to inspect hundreds of animals from suspected case premis...

  3. The psychological impact of the Foot and Mouth Disease crisis on Dutch dairy farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haaften, E. H.; Olff, M.; Kersten, P. H.

    2004-01-01

    Farmers in general have to deal with many changes upon which traditional behaviour or knowledge has no answer. One of these is the European policy to combat epidemic livestock diseases as happened in the Netherlands in 1998 with Swine Fever and in 2001 with Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD). The

  4. Foot-and-mouth disease virus during the incubation period in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the quantitative characteristics of a pathogen’s capability to transmit during distinct phases of infection is important to enable accurate predictions of the spread and impact of a disease outbreak. In the current investigation, the potential for transmission of foot-and-mouth disease...

  5. Quantification of Foot-and-mouth Disease Virus Transmission Rates Using Published Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goris, N.E.; Eble, P.L.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Clercq, K.

    2009-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease is an extremely infectious and devastating disease affecting all species of cloven-hoofed animals. To understand the epidemiology of the causative virus and predict viral transmission dynamics, quantified transmission parameters are essential to decision makers and modellers

  6. Capsid coding sequences of foot-and-mouth disease viruses are determinants of pathogenicity in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Jackson, Terry; Bøtner, Anette

    2012-01-01

    B64 virus and the two chimeric viruses are identical to each other except for the capsid coding region. Animals exposed to O1K B64 did not exhibit signs of disease, while pigs exposed to each of the other viruses showed typical clinical signs of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). All pigs infected...

  7. Characterization of epitope-tagged foot-and-mouth disease virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seago, J.; Jackson, T.; Doel, C.; Fry, E.; Stuart, D.; Harmsen, M.M.; Charleston, B.; Juleff, N.

    2012-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically devastating disease of cloven-hoofed animals with an almost-worldwide distribution. Conventional FMD vaccines consisting of chemically inactivated viruses have aided in the eradication of FMD from Europe and remain the main tool

  8. The spread of Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) within Finland and emergency vaccination in case of an epidemic outbreak

    OpenAIRE

    Lyytikäinen, Tapani; Niemi, Jarkko; Sahlström, Leena; Virtanen, Terhi; Lehtonen, Heikki

    2011-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral epizootic disease of cloven-footed animals, which is controlled both by domestic and EU legislation. FMD has not been found in Finland since 1959. The aim of this risk assessment was, by using Monte Carlo simulations, to assess how FMD would spread, the economic consequences of an outbreak and the feasibility of emergency vaccination in case of an outbreak in Finland. The study was based on data from the Finnish cattl...

  9. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the Maghreb and its threat to southern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardjadj, Moustafa

    2017-02-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and transboundary viral disease of domesticated and wild cloven-hoofed animals. The present study summarizes the knowledge generated from the epidemiology, diagnosis, and surveillance of the disease in the Maghreb (2014-2015) in assessing its threat to southern European countries. Currently, two serotypes of the FMD virus (O and SAT-2) and four lineages are circulating in the Maghreb region. The introduction of serotype SAT-2 in Libya and Mauritania in 2012 and 2015 respectively sets their neighbors and subsequently south European countries at constant risk of FMD re-emergence. The potential pathways of FMD introduction to southern European countries from the Maghreb are the illegal introduction of infected animals and animal products, particularly meat or meat products carried by refugees.

  10. Hand, foot, and mouth disease in China, 2008-12: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Weijia; Liao, Qiaohong; Viboud, Cécile; Zhang, Jing; Sun, Junling; Wu, Joseph T; Chang, Zhaorui; Liu, Fengfeng; Fang, Vicky J; Zheng, Yingdong; Cowling, Benjamin J; Varma, Jay K; Farrar, Jeremy J; Leung, Gabriel M; Yu, Hongjie

    2014-04-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a common childhood illness caused by enteroviruses. Increasingly, the disease has a substantial burden throughout east and southeast Asia. To better inform vaccine and other interventions, we characterised the epidemiology of hand, foot, and mouth disease in China on the basis of enhanced surveillance. We extracted epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory data from cases of hand, foot, and mouth disease reported to the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention between Jan 1, 2008, and Dec 31, 2012. We then compiled climatic, geographical, and demographic information. All analyses were stratified by age, disease severity, laboratory confirmation status, and enterovirus serotype. The surveillance registry included 7,200,092 probable cases of hand, foot, and mouth disease (annual incidence, 1·2 per 1000 person-years from 2010-12), of which 267,942 (3·7%) were laboratory confirmed and 2457 (0·03%) were fatal. Incidence and mortality were highest in children aged 12-23 months (38·2 cases per 1000 person-years and 1·5 deaths per 100,000 person-years in 2012). Median duration from onset to diagnosis was 1·5 days (IQR 0·5-2·5) and median duration from onset to death was 3·5 days (2·5-4·5). The absolute number of patients with cardiopulmonary or neurological complications was 82,486 (case-severity rate 1·1%), and 2457 of 82486 patients with severe disease died (fatality rate 3·0%); 1617 of 1737 laboratory confirmed deaths (93%) were associated with enterovirus 71. Every year in June, hand, foot, and mouth disease peaked in north China, whereas southern China had semiannual outbreaks in May and September-October. Geographical differences in seasonal patterns were weakly associated with climate and demographic factors (variance explained 8-23% and 3-19%, respectively). This is the largest population-based study up to now of the epidemiology of hand, foot, and mouth disease. Future mitigation policies should take into

  11. Differentiation of Foot-and-Mouth Disease-Infected pigs from Vaccinated Pigs Using Antibody-Detecting Sandwich ELISA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, T.H.; Lee, F.; Lin, Y.L.; Dekker, A.; Chung, W.B.; Pan, C.H.; Jong, M.H.; Huang, C.C.; Lee, M.C.; Tsai, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    The presence of serum antibodies for nonstructural proteins of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) can differentiate FMDV-infected animals from vaccinated animals. In this study, a sandwich ELISA was developed for rapid detection of the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) antibodies; it was based on an

  12. [Expression of vasoactive intestinal peptide in peripheral blood of children with hand, foot and mouth disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jin-Song; Sun, Hao-Miao; Zhang, Lei; Lin, Jing-De; Wen, Cheng; Fang, Dai-Hua

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the expression of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in peripheral blood of children with hand, foot and mouth disease and its significance. According to the condition of the disease, 86 children with hand, foot and mouth disease were classified into phase 1 group (19 children) and phase 2 group (67 children). ELISA was used to measure the concentrations of plasma VIP, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and interleukin-4 (IL-4) in peripheral blood. Flow cytometry was used to measure CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T lymphocyte subsets. RT-PCR was used for qualitative detection of enterovirus 71 (EV71) RNA in stool. Compared with the phase 1 group, the phase 2 group had a significantly higher positive rate of EV71-RNA (Phand, foot and mouth disease, the concentration of VIP in peripheral blood was positively correlated with the proportion of CD4+ T lymphocyte subset and CD4+/CD8+ ratio (r=0.533 and 0.532 respectively; Phand, foot and mouth disease.

  13. Foot and mouth disease eradication policy: social impact and animal welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Marins Pettres

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Santa Catarina is the only Brazilian state that does not immunize the bovine herd against foot and mouth disease. This article discusses the policy adopted for the foot and mouth disease in Santa Catarina, especially the non-vaccination, and relates this policy with ethical, human and animal welfare issues. Nine representatives of agricultural institutions in the state were interviewed, as well as, in a case study, seven families of farmers in Jóia - Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, where foot and mouth disease occurred in 2000, leading to the sacrifice of 11,067 animals, most of them dairy animals. The majority of the agricultural institutions in Santa Catarina are contrary to vaccination, in order to keep and extend pig and poultry export markets. Concerns on social repercussions tended to concentrate on the effects on the income of the affected families. The case study in Jóia demonstrated that the life styles of the affected farmers were deeply harmed due to effects on human mental health, loss of income and changes in the local economy. The study concludes that the experience of a foot and mouth disease outbreak results in traumatic and long term consequences and that there is a need for policies that include social, ethical and environmental provisions, once animal welfare aspects and impacts on other areas of the economy are not contemplated in the public policy of animal sanitary defense.

  14. Vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease II: regaining FMD-free status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backer, J.A.; Engel, B.; Dekker, A.; Roermund, van H.J.W.

    2012-01-01

    An epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) can have devastating effects on animal welfare, economic revenues, the export position and society as a whole. The preferred control strategy in the Netherlands has recently changed to vaccination-to-live, but – not have been applied before – this poses

  15. Identification of factors associated with increased excretion of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo De Rueda, C.; Dekker, A.; Eble, P.L.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated which variables possibly influence the amount of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) shed in secretions and excretions by FMDV infected animals, as it is likely that the amount of FMDV shed is related to transmission risk. First, in a separate analysis of laboratory data, we showed

  16. Phylodynamics of epidemic and asymptomatic foot-and-mouth disease in Vietnam 2010-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is endemic in Vietnam, a country that plays an important role in animal trade within Southeast Asia. The large populations of buffalo, cattle and pigs (all FMDV susceptible species) in Vietnam are important components of food production and of the national livelih...

  17. First detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus O/Ind-2001d in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype O, lineage Ind2001d has spread to the Middle East, North Africa, and Southeast Asia. In the current report, we describe the first detection of this lineage in Vietnam in May, 2015 in Dak Nong province which borders Cambodia. Three subsequ...

  18. Global foot-and-mouth disease research update and gap analysis: 3 - vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2014, the Global Foot-and-mouth disease Research Alliance (GFRA) conducted a gap analysis of FMD research. In this paper, we report updated findings in the field of FMD vaccine research. This paper consists of the following four sections: 1) Research priorities identified in the 2010 GFRA gap ana...

  19. Global foot-and-mouth disease research update and gap analysis: 5 - biotherapeutics and disinfectants

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2014, the Global Foot-and-mouth disease Research Alliance(GFRA)conducted a gap analysis of FMD research. This work has been updated and reported in a series of papers with the focus of this article being (i) biotherapeutics and (ii) disinfectants, including environmental contamination. The paper ...

  20. Quantitative characteristics of the foot-and-mouth disease carrier state under natural conditions in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of the current study was to characterize serological and virological parameters of the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) carrier state at two farms in Nainital District, Uttarakhand State in northern India. Despite previous vaccination of cattle in these herds, clinical signs of FMD occurred in ...

  1. Global foot-and-mouth disease research update and gap analysis: 4 - diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2014, the Global Foot-And-Mouth Disease Research Alliance (GFRA) conducted a gap analysis of FMD research. Published as a series of seven papers, in this paper, we report updated findings in the field of diagnostics. The paper consists of the following four sections: 1. Research priorities identi...

  2. Foot-and-Mouth Disease in a small sample of experimentally infected pronghorn (Antilocapra americana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is limited information on the pathogenesis and epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in North American wildlife, and none concerning pronghorn (Antilocapra americana). In this experimental study, we compared the susceptibility of pronghorn to FMD virus (FMDV) strain O, with that of ...

  3. The foot-and-mouth disease carrier state divergence in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pathogenesis of persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection was investigated following simulated-natural virus exposure of 43 cattle that were either naïve or vaccinated using a recombinant, adenovirus-vectored vaccine. Although vaccinated cattle were protected against clinical dise...

  4. Attenuation of foot-and-mouth disease virus by engineered viral polymerase fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp or 3Dpol) catalyzes viral RNA synthesis. The 3Dpol is a low fidelity enzyme incapable of proofreading which results in a high mutation frequencies that allow the virus to rapidly adapt to different environments. In this study...

  5. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype SAT 3 in Long-Horned Ankole Calf, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhikusooka, Moses Tefula; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom

    2015-01-01

    After a 16-year interval, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 was isolated in 2013 from an apparently healthy long-horned Ankole calf that grazed close to buffalo in Uganda. The emergent virus strain is ≈20% different in nucleotide sequence (encoding VP1 [viral protein 1]) from its closest...

  6. Foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 in long-horned Ankole calf, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhikusooka, Moses Tefula; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Namatovu, Alice; Ruhweza, Simon; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Wekesa, Sabenzia Nabalayo; Normann, Preben; Belsham, Graham J

    2015-01-01

    After a 16-year interval, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 was isolated in 2013 from an apparently healthy long-horned Ankole calf that grazed close to buffalo in Uganda. The emergent virus strain is ≈20% different in nucleotide sequence (encoding VP1 [viral protein 1]) from its closest relatives isolated previously from buffalo in Uganda.

  7. Global foot-and-mouth disease research update and gap analysis: 2 - epidemiology, wildlife and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2014, the Global Foot-and-mouth disease Research ings in the fields of (i) epidemiology, (ii) wildlife and (iii) Alliance (GFRA) conducted a gap analysis of foot-and- economics. Although the three sections, epidemiology, wildlife and economics are presented as separate entities, the fields are ...

  8. Economics of eradicating Foot-and-Mouth disease epidemics with alternative control strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergevoet, R.H.M.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents an economic analysis of Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) control strategies for livestock herds. Alternative vaccination-to-live control strategies were compared to the strategy that involves culling of all susceptible animals in an area of 1 km around infected herds in addition to

  9. Sero-prevalence of foot and mouth disease in cattle in Borena Zone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    body against foot-and-mouth disease virus and semi structured questionnaire. A total of 363 sera samples were ... Moreover, an extrinsic factor like dry season enforces pastoralist to travel a longer distance to ..... devastating and spreading from one area to the other within the Borena Zone. Therefore, an extensive regular ...

  10. Estimation of the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus from infected sheep to cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo De Rueda, C.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Eble, P.L.; Dekker, A.

    2014-01-01

    The quantitative role of sheep in the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is not well known. To estimate the role of sheep in the transmission of FMDV, a direct contact transmission experiment with 10 groups of animals each consisting of 2 infected lambs and 1 contact calf was

  11. Epithelial Distribution and Replication of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus RNA in Infected Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durand, S.; Murphy, C.; Zhang, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Although the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has been extensively investigated relatively few studies have addressed the localization of FMD virus (FMDV) and in particular its replication in relation to the typical in-vivo sites of FMD lesions. In the present study, pigs were infecte...

  12. Foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in young lambs: pathogenesis and tissue tropism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryan, Eoin; Horsington, Jacquelyn; Durand, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in adult sheep usually causes milder clinical signs than in cattle or pigs, and is often subtle enough to go undiagnosed. In contrast, FMD in lambs has been reported to cause high mortality during field outbreaks. In order to investigate the pathogenesis of FMD in lam...

  13. Global foot-and-mouth disease research update and gap analysis: 6 - immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2014, the Global Foot-and-mouth disease Research Alliance (GFRA) conducted a gap analysis of FMD research. This has been updated with findings reported in a series of papers. Here we present findings for FMD immunology research. The paper consists of the following four sections: 1. Research prior...

  14. Detection of Multiple Serotypes of Foot-and Mouth Disease Virus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seventy five (75%) foot-and-mouth diseases virus (FMDV) isolates stored at the laboratory were reserotyped. The isolates were obtained from the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) eland (Taurotragus orynx), pigs and cattle during the period from 1971- to 2001. Serotypes O, A, SAT1 and SAT2 were identified from the cattle ...

  15. Construction of an infectious cDNA clone of foot-and-mouth disease ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    et al 1990; Lopez de Quinto and Martinez-Salas 1997). The 5′ UTR of cardioviruses and aphthoviruses contains a homopolymeric poly (C) tract that separates ...... Bachrach H L, Callis J J, Hess W R and Patty R E 1957 A plaque assay for foot-and-mouth disease virus and kinetics of virus reproduction; Virology 4 224−236.

  16. The effect of vaccination on foot and mouth disease virus transmission among dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orsel, K.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Bouma, A.; Stegeman, J.A.; Dekker, C.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of a single vaccination of dairy cows on foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) transmission. To estimate if vaccination could significantly reduce virus transmission, we performed two replicates of a transmission experiment with one group of vaccinated

  17. The foot-and-mouth disease RNA virus as a model in experimental phylogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, M A; Barrio, E; Becerra, N; Escarmís, C; Domingo, E; Moya, A

    1998-12-01

    Phylogenetic reconstruction methods are subject to two types of limitations: our knowledge about the true history of organisms and the gross simplification implied in the numerical simulation models of the relationships between them. In such a situation, experimental phylogenetics provides a way to assess the accuracy of the phylogenetic reconstruction methods. Nonetheless, this capacity is only feasible for organisms in which replication and mutation rates are high enough to provide valuable data. On the other hand, experimental phylogenetics also provides insights on the main evolutionary processes acting on viral variability under different population dynamics. Our study with the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) strongly suggests that the phylogenetic reconstruction methods can infer erroneous phylogenies due to nucleotide convergences between isolates belonging to different experimental lineages. We also point out that the diverse evolutionary mechanisms acting in different experimental dynamics generate alterations and change the frequencies of genetic variants, which can lead to the misinterpretation of the real evolutionary history.

  18. Evaluation of Strategies to Control a Potential Outbreak of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dórea, Fernanda C.; Nöremark, Maria; Widgren, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    To minimize the potential consequences of an introduction of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Europe, European Union (EU) member states are required to present a contingency plan. This study used a simulation model to study potential outbreak scenarios in Sweden and evaluate the best control...... of enforcement of interventions, was assessed. With the estimated currently available resources, an FMD outbreak in Sweden is expected to be controlled (i.e., last infected herd detected) within 3 weeks of detection in any evaluated scenario. The density of farms in the area where the epidemic started would have...... efficacy of the basic control measures evaluated, under the conditions of the Swedish livestock industry, and considering the assumed control resources available. The results indicate that the duration and extent of FMD outbreaks could be kept limited in Sweden using the EU standard control strategy...

  19. 9 CFR 94.17 - Dry-cured pork products from regions where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African swine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African swine fever, classical swine fever, or swine vesicular... RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER... § 94.17 Dry-cured pork products from regions where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African swine...

  20. Evaluation of Multiplexed Foot-and-Mouth Disease Nonstructural Protein Antibody Assay Against Standardized Bovine Serum Panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, J; Parida, S; Clavijo, A

    2007-05-14

    Liquid array technology has previously been used to show proof-of-principle of a multiplexed non structural protein serological assay to differentiate foot-and-mouth infected and vaccinated animals. The current multiplexed assay consists of synthetically produced peptide signatures 3A, 3B and 3D and recombinant protein signature 3ABC in combination with four controls. To determine diagnostic specificity of each signature in the multiplex, the assay was evaluated against a naive population (n = 104) and a vaccinated population (n = 94). Subsequently, the multiplexed assay was assessed using a panel of bovine sera generated by the World Reference Laboratory for foot-and-mouth disease in Pirbright, UK. This sera panel has been used to assess the performance of other singleplex ELISA-based non-structural protein antibody assays. The 3ABC signature in the multiplexed assay showed comparative performance to a commercially available non-structural protein 3ABC ELISA (Cedi test{reg_sign}) and additional information pertaining to the relative diagnostic sensitivity of each signature in the multiplex is acquired in one experiment. The encouraging results of the evaluation of the multiplexed assay against a panel of diagnostically relevant samples promotes further assay development and optimization to generate an assay for routine use in foot-and-mouth disease surveillance.

  1. Foot-and-mouth disease in Tanzania from 2001 to 2006.

    OpenAIRE

    Picado, A; Speybroeck, N; Kivaria, F; Mosha, R M; Sumaye, R D; Casal, J; Berkvens, D

    2011-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Tanzania, with outbreaks occurring almost each year in different parts of the country. There is now a strong political desire to control animal diseases as part of national poverty alleviation strategies. However, FMD control requires improving the current knowledge on the disease dynamics and factors related to FMD occurrence so control measures can be implemented more efficiently. The objectives of this study were to describe the FMD dynamics in Ta...

  2. Prevention of foot-and-mouth disease in cattle using a prime-boot-vaccination strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullberg, Maria; Lohse, Louise; Bøtner, Anette

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most economically important infectious diseases of production animals globally. Vaccination can help to control this disease, however, current vaccines are imperfect. They are made using chemically inactivated FMD virus (FMDV) that is produced in mammalian......-boost system, using reagents that can be generated outside of high-containment facilities, offers significant advantages to achieve control of FMD by vaccination....

  3. Serotyping of foot and mouth disease virus and Pasteurella multocida from Indian gaurs (Bos gaurus), concurrently infected with foot and mouth disease and haemorrhagic septicaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandranaik, Basavegowdanadoddi Marinaik; Hegde, Raveendra; Shivashankar, Beechagondahalli Papanna; Giridhar, Papanna; Muniyellappa, Handenahally Kaverappa; Kalge, Rajeshwar; Sumathi, Benamanahalli Raju; Nithinprabhu, Kumble; Chandrashekara, Narasimhaiah; Manjunatha, Venkataramanappa; Jaisingh, Nirupama; Mayanna, Asha; Chandrakala, Gowda Kallenahalli; Kanaka, Sermaraja; Venkatesha, Mudalagiri Dasappagupta

    2015-06-01

    We report the serotyping of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and Pasteurella multocida from Indian gaurs which were concurrently infected with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and haemorrhagic septicaemia. Bannerghatta biological park (BBP), a national park located in the outskirts of Bengaluru city, Karnataka, India, is bordered by several villages. These villages witnessed massive outbreaks of FMD which spread rapidly to the herbivores at BBP. Post-mortem was conducted on carcasses of two Indian gaurs that died with symptoms of FMD. The salient gross findings included extensive vesicular lesions on the tongue, gums, cheeks, upper palate and hooves. Haemorrhagic tracheitis and ecchymotic haemorrhages on the heart were characteristic. The vesicular lesions of oral cavity were positive for 'O' type of FMD virus by sandwich enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA). The heart blood and spleen samples yielded growth of pure cultures of P. multocida. The isolates were typed as P. multocida type B using KTSP61 and KTT72 primers yielding specific amplicons of 620 bp. The phylogenetic analysis of the isolates was carried by sequencing of 1.4-Kbp nucleotides on the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of the isolates.

  4. Current Status and Future Prospects to Achieve Foot-and-Mouth Disease Eradication in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavijo, A; Sanchez-Vazquez, M J; Buzanovsky, L P; Martini, M; Pompei, J C; Cosivi, O

    2017-02-01

    South America has a favourable position with respect to foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) compared with other FMD-affected regions due to the elimination of endemic clinical presentation of the disease. South America has reached the final stage of control and aims to eradicate the disease in the region under the provisions of the Hemispheric Program for the Eradication of FMD 2011-2020 (PHEFA). This programme aims at bringing eradication to completion, thereby eliminating the pool of foot-and-mouth disease genotypes active in South America. This plan includes a regional political agreement that provides strategies and technical guidelines for the eradication of foot-and-mouth disease from South America. It incorporates knowledge and experience regarding the disease's history and its connection with the different production systems, animal movement and trade. The Pan American Foot and Mouth Disease Center has led the control and eradication programmes, providing the framework for designing national and subregional programmes that have led to significant progress in controlling the disease in South America. The current situation is the result of several factors, including the proper implementation of a national control programmes, good veterinary infrastructure in most countries and public-private participation in the process of eradicating the disease. Notwithstanding the favourable health status, there are significant challenges for the goal of eradication. At this stage, South American countries should enhance their surveillance strategies particularly through the use of target or risk-based surveys that contribute to increase the degree of sensitivity in the search for viral circulation in the context of absence of clinical occurrence of FMD. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. The Vulnerability of U.S. Agriculture to Foot and Mouth Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Control Area FAD PReP Foreign Animal Disease Preparedness and Response Plan FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency FMD Foot and Mouth Disease GAO...high-concentration areas where animals are kept before being sent to slaughter, feeder lots located “between the barn and butcher,” and large dairy ...fattened up to fetch a premium market price. At any given time, more than 70 percent of the nation’s cattle may be located within a 500-mile radius

  6. A literature review and case report of hand, foot and mouth disease in an immunocompetent adult

    OpenAIRE

    Oma?a-Cepeda, Carlos; Mart?nez-Valverde, Andrea; del Mar Sabater- Recolons, Mar?a; Jan?-Salas, Enric; Mar?-Roig, Antonio; L?pez-L?pez, Jos?

    2016-01-01

    Background: to report an uncommon case of hand, foot and mouth disease, (HFMD) in an immunocompetent adult; a highly infectious disease, characterized by the appearance of vesicles on the mouth, hands and feet, associated with coxsackieviruses and enteroviruses; including a literature review. Case report: a 23 year Caucasian male with no medical or surgical history, no allergies, was not taking any medication and smoked ten cigarettes a day, suffering from discomfort in the oral cavity; itchi...

  7. Is Hiding Foot and Mouth Disease Sensitive Behavior for Farmers? A Survey Study in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Anoma Gunarathne; Satoko Kubota; Pradeep Kumarawadu; Kamal Karunagoda; Hiroichi Kon

    2016-01-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) has a long history in Sri Lanka and was found to be endemic in various parts of the country and constitutes a constant threat to farmers. In Sri Lanka, currently there is no regular, nationwide vaccination programme devised to control FMD. Therefore, improving farmers? knowledge regarding distinguishing FMD from other diseases and ensuring prompt reporting of any suspicion of FMD as well as restricting movement of animals are critical activities for an effective F...

  8. Elimination of foot-and-mouth disease in South America: lessons and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, José; Cosivi, Ottorino

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly transmissible and economically devastating disease of cloven-hoofed livestock. Although vaccines are available and have been instrumental in eliminating the disease from most of the South American animal population, viral circulation still persists in some countries and areas, posing a threat to the advances of the last 60 years by the official veterinary services with considerable support of the livestock sectors. The importance of the disease for the social and economic development of the American continent led to the establishment in 1951 of the Pan American Centre for Foot-and-Mouth Disease (PANAFTOSA), which has been providing technical cooperation to countries for the elimination of the disease. The first FMD national elimination programmes were established in South America around the 1960s and 1970s. To advance the regional elimination efforts in the 1980s, countries agreed on a Plan of Action 1988–2009 of the Hemispheric Program for the Eradication of Foot-and-Mouth Disease. The Plan of Action 1988–2009 did not reach the goal of elimination from the continent; and a new Plan of Action 2011–2020 was developed in 2010 based on the experience acquired by the countries and PANAFTOSA during the past 60 years. This plan is now being implemented; several challenges are still to be overcome to ensure the elimination of FMD from the Americas by 2020, however, the goal is achievable. PMID:23798699

  9. Hand, foot and mouth disease in an immunocompromised adult treated with aciclovir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Catherine F; Godbolt, Amanda M; DeAmbrosis, Brian; Triscott, Joe

    2003-08-01

    A 27-year-old man, immunosuppressed from recent chemotherapy for metastatic Ewing's sarcoma, presented with a 1-week history of a painful, pruritic, papulovesicular eruption on the hands and feet. A diagnosis of hand, foot and mouth disease was made based on histology, detection of Enterovirus ribonucleic acid by polymerase chain reaction on a swab from a vesicle, and a four-fold increase in Enterovirus antibody levels. At no stage however, were there lesions in the mouth. Another unusual feature in this case was a prolonged course, presumably as a result of immunosuppression. After 3 1/2 weeks he was commenced on oral aciclovir 200 mg five times daily, with subsequent resolution of all lesions within 5 days. There may be a role for systemic aciclovir in some patients with hand, foot and mouth disease.

  10. Hand-Washing: The Main Strategy for Avoiding Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Dingmei Zhang; Zhiyuan Li; Wangjian Zhang; Pi Guo; Zhanzhong Ma; Qian Chen; Shaokun Du; Jing Peng; Yu Deng; Yuantao Hao

    2016-01-01

    Epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) among children have caused concern in China since 2007. We have conducted a retrospective study to investigate risk factors associated with HFMD. In this non-matching case-control study, 99 HFMD patients and 126 control from Guangdong Province were enlisted as participants. Data comprising demographic, socio-economic, clinical and behavior factors were collected from children’s parents through face-to-face interviews by trained interviewers usi...

  11. Hand, foot, and mouth disease: identifying and managing an acute viral syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repass, Gregory L; Palmer, William C; Stancampiano, Fernando F

    2014-09-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common, typically self-limited viral syndrome in children and adults. It is marked by fever, oral ulcers, and skin manifestations affecting the palms, soles, and buttocks, with symptoms usually lasting less than 1 week. Because it has the potential to reach epidemic levels in the United States, general practitioners need to be aware of it. Copyright© 2014 The Cleveland Clinic Foundation.

  12. Foot and mouth disease in turkey and middle eastern countries: Epizootiological situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Slavoljub

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodic outbreaks of epizooties of foot-and-mouth disease in countries of the Middle East and Africa pose a serious health threat to European states, in particular countries of the Mediterranean region and the Balkan peninsula. There are multiple reasons for the frequent appearance of this disease in Africa and the territory of the Middle East, and they are all a consequence of the insufficient development of the states in these geographic regions. More precisely, epizooties of foot-and-mouth disease are difficult to control in these regions due to the limited possibilities for activities by veterinary services, insufficiently developed diagnostic capacities for speedy and precise laboratory diagnostics, the lack of more advanced knowledge among the village populations, and the traditional manner of breeding ruminants. As a result of intensive traffic in goods, services and people, the cultural and tourist links between the Middle East and European countries, there is a constant and real danger of a swift and uncontrolled spreading of foot-and-mouth disease to the territory of Europe. This is why it is a priority of epizootiological services of the majority of European countries constantly to monitor the epizootiological situation in the Middle East and in Africa.

  13. Protective effect of exclusive breastfeeding against hand, foot and mouth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hualiang; Sun, Limei; Lin, Jinyan; He, Jianfeng; Deng, Aiping; Kang, Min; Zeng, Hanri; Ma, Wenjun; Zhang, Yonghui

    2014-12-04

    Infants who are exclusively breastfed receive natural protection against some infectious agents. This study examined whether there was protective effect of exclusive breastfeeding on the occurrence of hand, foot and mouth disease, which was an emerging infectious disease among children in China. A community-based case-control study was carried out among children age 4 years or younger in Guangdong Province, China. Cases were newly diagnosed hand, foot and mouth disease. Controls were randomly sampled from healthy children from the nearby village. Unconditional logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) for exclusive breastfeeding after adjusting for potential confounding factors. A total of 316 cases and 566 controls were included in the analysis. Significantly beneficial effect of exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months was observed for hand, foot and mouth disease occurrence. The overall OR was 0.63 (95% CI: 0.47-0.85) for exclusive breastfeeding compared with mixed feeding type. The age-specific analyses indicated that the protective effect persisted till the age of 28 months. This study suggests that exclusive breastfeeding might have protective effect against HFMD infection among the children within 28 months of age.

  14. Clinicopathologic analysis of atypical hand, foot, and mouth disease in adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Second, Julie; Velter, Charles; Calès, Sophie; Truchetet, François; Lipsker, Dan; Cribier, Bernard

    2017-04-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a contagious viral infection usually affecting children. A resurgence of cases in adults, mainly caused by coxsackievirus A6 and with an atypical and more severe presentation, has taken place. The goal was to examine the clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical features of this disease in adults. This is a retrospective study on documented cases of adult hand, foot, and mouth disease from France's Dermatology Department of Strasbourg University Hospital and Bel-Air Hospital in Thionville. Six patients with severe and atypical presentation were included, 4 caused by coxsackievirus A6. The histologic features were: spongiosis, neutrophilic exocytosis, massive keratinocyte necrosis, shadow cells in the upper epidermis, vacuolization of basal cells, necrotic cells in follicles and sweat glands, dense superficial dermal infiltrate of CD3+ lymphocytes, and strong granulysin expression. This is a retrospective case series. In adult patients presenting with atypical hand, foot, and mouth disease caused by coxsackievirus A6, biopsy specimens show distinctive changes in the epidermis but also in adnexal structures. The inflammatory infiltrate is made of T cells with a cytotoxic profile, with numerous granulysin-positive cells, as observed in severe drug-induced eruption with necrosis of keratinocytes. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. QS-21 enhances the early antibody response to oil adjuvant foot-and-mouth disease vaccine in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    ?ok?al??kan, Can; T?rko?lu, Tun?er; Sareyy?po?lu, Beyhan; Uzunlu, Erg?n; Babak, Ayca; ?zbilge, Banu B.; G?lyaz, Veli

    2016-01-01

    Purpose One of the most important tools against foot-and-mouth disease, a highly contagious and variable viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, is vaccination. However, the effectiveness of foot-and-mouth disease vaccines on slowing the spread of the disease is questionable. In contrast, high potency vaccines providing early protection may solve issues with the spread of the disease, escaping mutants, and persistency. To increase the potency of the vaccine, additives such as saponin and alum...

  16. Study on the prevalence of Foot and Mouth Disease in Borana and Guji Zones, Southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashenafi Feyisa and Fufa Abunna

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted on Borana plateau and Guji highlands of southern Ethiopia to determine the prevalence of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD in bovine species. Seroprevalence investigation was performed using 3ABC- ELISA technique. The result indicated that the overall prevalence of Foot and Mouth Disease was 24.6 %(113/460. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in Borana 53.6 % ( 82/153 compared to Guji 10.1 %( 31/307. From the various risk factors, geographical distribution (÷²=104.26, P<0.05 and age (÷²=6.68, P<0.05 were seen to be significantly associated with the seroprevalence. The result of this study indicated that FMD is highly prevalent in lowland area (Borana than highland (Guji due to contact of different origin cattle in search of feed and water. The presence of higher prevalence of Foot and Mouth Disease in pastoralists\\\\\\\\\\\\\\' cattle of the area warrants further investigation and characterization of the circulating virus serotype to apply effective control and prevention measures. [Vet. World 2011; 4(7.000: 293-296

  17. SAT2 Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Structurally Modified for Increased Thermostability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Katherine A; Kotecha, Abhay; Seago, Julian; Ren, Jingshan; Fry, Elizabeth E; Stuart, David I; Charleston, Bryan; Maree, Francois F

    2017-05-15

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), particularly strains of the O and SAT serotypes, is notoriously unstable. Consequently, vaccines derived from heat-labile SAT viruses have been linked to the induction of immunity with a poor duration and hence require more frequent vaccinations to ensure protection. In silico calculations predicted residue substitutions that would increase interactions at the interpentamer interface, supporting increased stability. We assessed the stability of the 18 recombinant mutant viruses in regard to their growth kinetics, antigenicity, plaque morphology, genetic stability, and temperature, ionic, and pH stability by using Thermofluor and inactivation assays in order to evaluate potential SAT2 vaccine candidates with improved stability. The most stable mutant for temperature and pH stability was the S2093Y single mutant, while other promising mutants were the E3198A, L2094V, and S2093H single mutants and the F2062Y-H2087M-H3143V triple mutant. Although the S2093Y mutant had the greatest stability, it exhibited smaller plaques, a reduced growth rate, a change in monoclonal antibody footprint, and poor genetic stability properties compared to those of the wild-type virus. However, these factors affecting production can be overcome. The addition of 1 M NaCl was found to further increase the stability of the SAT2 panel of viruses. The S2093Y and S2093H mutants were selected for future use in stabilizing SAT2 vaccines.IMPORTANCE Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious acute vesicular disease in cloven-hoofed livestock and wildlife. The control of the disease by vaccination is essential, especially at livestock-wildlife interfaces. The instability of some serotypes, such as SAT2, affects the quality of vaccines and therefore the duration of immunity. We have shown that we can improve the stability of SAT2 viruses by mutating residues at the capsid interface through predictive modeling. This is an important finding for the

  18. Foot-and-mouth disease: past, present and future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamal, Syed Muhammad; Belsham, Graham

    2013-01-01

    such information can be used to understand antigenic change within virus strains. The challenges and opportunities for improving the control of the disease within endemic settings, with a focus on Eurasia, are discussed, including the role of the FAO/EuFMD/OIE Progressive Control Pathway. Better control...

  19. Field investigation of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) virus infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Abstract. The prevalence of FMD virus serotypes SAT 1 and SAT 2 among Nigerian cattle was determined using Complement Fixation (CF) and Serum Neutralization (SN) Tests in 2000 cattle sera obtained from nine northern states. The disease prevalence by CF and SN were. 46.79% and 53.15% respectively.

  20. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) prevalence and exposure factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with foot-andmouth disease (FMD) seropositivity in north central, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was undertaken from February 2013 to April 2014 using 1206 sera from 150 herds collected by multi-stage and random sampling methods.

  1. Field investigation of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) virus infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of FMD virus serotypes SAT 1 and SAT 2 among Nigerian cattle was determined using Complement Fixation (CF) and Serum Neutralization (SN) Tests in 2000 cattle sera obtained from nine northern states. The disease prevalence by CF and SN were 46.79% and 53.15% respectively. These figures were ...

  2. Phylogeographic analysis of the 2000-2002 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Barbara; König, Guido; Cabanne, Gustavo Sebastian; Beascoechea, Claudia Perez; Rodriguez, Luis; Perez, Andres

    2016-07-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly transmissible disease of hooved livestock. Although FMD has been eradicated from many countries, economic and social consequences of FMD reintroductions are devastating. After achieving disease eradication, Argentina was affected by a major epidemic in 2000-2002, and within few months, FMD virus spread throughout most of the country and affected >2500 herds. Available records and viral strains allowed us to assess the origins, spread and progression of this FMD epidemic, which remained uncertain. We used whole genome viral sequences and a continuous phylogeographic diffusion approach, which revealed that the viruses that caused the outbreaks spread fast in different directions from a central area in Argentina. The analysis also suggests that the virus that caused the outbreaks in the year 2000 was different from those found during the 2001 epidemic. To estimate if the approximate overall genetic diversity of the virus was related to disease transmission, we reconstructed the viral demographic variation in time using Bayesian Skygrid approach and compared it with the epidemic curve and the within-herd transmission rate and showed that the genetic temporal diversity of the virus was associated with the increasing number of outbreaks in the exponential phase of the epidemic. Results here provide new evidence of how the disease entered and spread throughout the country. We further demonstrate that genetic data collected during a FMD epidemic can be informative indicators of the progression of an ongoing epidemic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. New England Foot and Mouth Disease Tabletop Exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hullinger, P

    2008-09-30

    The Multiscale Epidemiologic/Economic Simulation and Analysis (MESA) Decision Support System (DSS) is the product of investments that began in FY05 by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate and continue today with joint funding by both DHS and the US Department of Agriculture (USDA). The DSS consists of a coupled epidemiologic/economic model, a standalone graphical user interface (GUI) that supports both model setup and post-analysis, and a Scenario Bank archive to store all content related to foreign animal disease (FAD) studies (Figure 1). The MESA epi model is an object-oriented, agent-based, stochastic, spatio-temporal simulator that parametrically models FAD outbreaks and response strategies from initial disease introduction to conclusion over local, regional, and national scales. Through its output database, the epi model couples to an economic model that calculates farm-level impacts from animal infections, responsive control strategies and loss of trade. The MESA architecture contains a variety of internal models that implement the major components of the epi simulation, including disease introduction, intra-herd spread, inter-herd spread (direct and indirect), detection, and various control strategies (movement restrictions, culling, vaccination) in a highly configurable and extensible fashion. MESA will produce both overall and daily summary statistics for the outbreak, epidemic curves, and costs associated with the outbreak. This information can be used to reconstruct and analyze the course of the outbreak. Geographical information produced by MESA can be used to produce maps and movies as visual aids to understand the distribution characteristics of a simulated outbreak.

  4. The fencing issue relative to the control of foot-and-mouth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutmoller, Paul

    2002-10-01

    Certain livestock diseases in sub-Saharan Africa, such as foot-and-mouth disease are difficult to control because of the large numbers of infected wildlife hosts. These wildlife disease reservoirs form a continuous hazard of transmittal of the diseases to domestic livestock, which limits the access of livestock products from southern Africa to international markets. The disease reservoirs are often found in border areas between countries with susceptible species and infected reservoir animals continuously crossing the border. A regional approach to disease control is probably the only way to achieve any real progress. Here we review the positive and negative attributes of fencing as a control mechanism for disease transmission.

  5. Comparing control strategies against foot-and-mouth disease: Will vaccination be cost-effective in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boklund, Anette; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2013-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Europe have highlighted the need for assessment of control strategies to optimise control of the spread of FMD. Our objectives were to assess the epidemiological and financial impact of simulated FMD outbreaks in Denmark and the effect of using...... ring depopulation or emergency vaccination to control these outbreaks. Two stochastic simulation models (InterSpreadPlus (ISP) and the modified Davis Animal Disease Simulation model (DTU-DADS)) were used to simulate the spread of FMD in Denmark using different control strategies.Each epidemic...

  6. The spread of Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) within Finland and emergency vaccination in case of an epidemic outbreak

    OpenAIRE

    Finnish Food Safety Authority

    2011-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral epizootic disease of cloven-footed animals, which is controlled both by domestic and EU legislation. FMD has not been found in Finland since 1959. The aim of this risk assessment was, by using Monte Carlo simulations, to assess how FMD would spread, the economic consequences of an outbreak and the feasibility of emergency vaccination in case of an outbreak in Finland. The study was based on data from the Finnish cattle and swine produc...

  7. Identification of foot and mouth disease risk areas using a multi-criteria analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Diego Viali Dos; Silva, Gustavo Sousa E; Weber, Eliseu José; Hasenack, Heinrich; Groff, Fernando Henrique Sautter; Todeschini, Bernardo; Borba, Mauro Riegert; Medeiros, Antonio Augusto Rosa; Leotti, Vanessa Bielefeldt; Canal, Cláudio Wageck; Corbellini, Luis Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious disease that affects cloven-hoofed livestock and wildlife. FMD has been a problem for decades, which has led to various measures to control, eradicate and prevent FMD by National Veterinary Services worldwide. Currently, the identification of areas that are at risk of FMD virus incursion and spread is a priority for FMD target surveillance after FMD is eradicated from a given country or region. In our study, a knowledge-driven spatial model was built to identify risk areas for FMD occurrence and to evaluate FMD surveillance performance in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. For this purpose, multi-criteria decision analysis was used as a tool to seek multiple and conflicting criteria to determine a preferred course of action. Thirteen South American experts analyzed 18 variables associated with FMD introduction and dissemination pathways in Rio Grande do Sul. As a result, FMD higher risk areas were identified at international borders and in the central region of the state. The final model was expressed as a raster surface. The predictive ability of the model assessed by comparing, for each cell of the raster surface, the computed model risk scores with a binary variable representing the presence or absence of an FMD outbreak in that cell during the period 1985 to 2015. Current FMD surveillance performance was assessed, and recommendations were made to improve surveillance activities in critical areas.

  8. Socioeconomic burden of hand, foot and mouth disease in children in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z L; Xia, A M; Li, Y F; Su, H L; Zhan, L W; Chen, Y P; Xi, Y; Zhao, L F; Liu, L J; Xu, Z Y; Zeng, M

    2016-01-01

    In the near future, the inactivated enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccine is expected to become available on the market in China. Since EV71 is a major cause of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), the vaccine is expected to significantly reduce the number of cases, as well as the detrimental economic effect of the disease. However, for a national vaccination strategy to be developed, policy-makers need more information on the socioeconomic burden of EV71 HFMD infection. Based on the 2011 population data, we estimated the clinical and economic effect of EV71 HFMD infection in children aged 0-9 years in Shanghai, China. The annual cost related to HFMD is >US$7.66 million for a population of 1·42 million children aged 0-9 years with an average cost of US$208.2/case. The extrapolated cost for EV71 HFMD infection was US$3.53 million, comprising 46·1% of the overall cost associated with HFMD. Around 97% of all of the HFMD-related expenses were paid for by the families creating a considerable economic burden. Our findings could provide the necessary recommendations on the most effective national EV71 vaccine implementation, as well as a baseline data for assessing the cost-effectiveness of the vaccine in China.

  9. Atypical hand-foot-and-mouth disease associated with coxsackievirus A6 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Jason P; Liu, Kristina; Landry, Marie-Louise; Nix, W Allan; Oberste, M Steven; Bolognia, Jean; King, Brett

    2013-11-01

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is an acute viral illness commonly caused by coxsackievirus (CV)-A16 and enterovirus 71 infections. Recently, atypical HFMD has been reported in association with CV-A6, an uncommon enterovirus strain. We sought to describe the clinical features of atypical HFMD associated with CV-A6 infection and its diagnostic laboratory evaluation. Patients presenting to our institution with history and examination suggestive of atypical HFMD from January 2012 to July 2012 were identified. Morphology and distribution of mucocutaneous lesions were recorded. Enterovirus infection was assessed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction of biologic specimens. Enterovirus type was determined by viral capsid protein 1 gene sequencing. Two adults and 3 children with atypical HFMD were identified. Four of 5 patients exhibited widespread cutaneous lesions. In 2 patients with a history of atopic dermatitis, accentuation in areas of dermatitis was noted. Associated systemic symptoms prompted 4 of 5 patients to seek emergency care, and both adults were hospitalized for diagnostic evaluation. Infection with CV-A6 was confirmed in all patients. This study is a case series from a single institution. Consideration of the expanded range of cutaneous findings in atypical HFMD caused by CV-A6 infection may assist clinicians in diagnosis and management. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus effects of Chinese herbal kombucha in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naifang Fu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV is sensitive to acids and can be inactivated by exposure to low pH conditions. Spraying animals at risk of infection with suspensions of acid-forming microorganisms has been identified as a potential strategy for preventing FMD. Kombucha is one of the most strongly acid-forming symbiotic probiotics and could thus be an effective agent with which to implement this strategy. Moreover, certain Chinese herbal extracts are known to have broad-spectrum antiviral effects. Chinese herbal kombucha can be prepared by fermenting Chinese herbal extracts with a kombucha culture. Previous studies demonstrated that Chinese herbal kombucha prepared in this way efficiently inhibits FMDV replication in vitro. To assess the inhibitory effects of Chinese herbal kombucha against FMDV in vitro, swine challenged by intramuscular injection with 1000 SID50 of swine FMDV serotype O strain O/China/99 after treatment with Chinese herbal kombucha were partially protected against infection, as demonstrated by a lack of clinical symptoms and qRT-PCR analysis. In a large scale field trial, spraying cattle in an FMD outbreak zone with kombucha protected against infection. Chinese herbal kombucha may be a useful probiotic agent for managing FMD outbreaks.

  11. Anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus effects of Chinese herbal kombucha in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Naifang; Wu, Juncai; Lv, Lv; He, Jijun; Jiang, Shengjun

    2015-01-01

    The foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is sensitive to acids and can be inactivated by exposure to low pH conditions. Spraying animals at risk of infection with suspensions of acid-forming microorganisms has been identified as a potential strategy for preventing FMD. Kombucha is one of the most strongly acid-forming symbiotic probiotics and could thus be an effective agent with which to implement this strategy. Moreover, certain Chinese herbal extracts are known to have broad-spectrum antiviral effects. Chinese herbal kombucha can be prepared by fermenting Chinese herbal extracts with a kombucha culture. Previous studies demonstrated that Chinese herbal kombucha prepared in this way efficiently inhibits FMDV replication in vitro. To assess the inhibitory effects of Chinese herbal kombucha against FMDV in vitro, swine challenged by intramuscular injection with 1000 SID50 of swine FMDV serotype O strain O/China/99 after treatment with Chinese herbal kombucha were partially protected against infection, as demonstrated by a lack of clinical symptoms and qRT-PCR analysis. In a large scale field trial, spraying cattle in an FMD outbreak zone with kombucha protected against infection. Chinese herbal kombucha may be a useful probiotic agent for managing FMD outbreaks.

  12. Best practices to prevent transmission and control outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease in childcare facilities: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, J Hy; Law, C K; Hamblion, E; Fung, H; Rudge, J

    2017-04-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease continues to cause seasonal epidemics in the Asia-Pacific Region. Since the current Enterovirus 71 vaccines do not provide cross-protection for all Enterovirus species that cause hand, foot, and mouth disease, there is an urgent need to identify appropriate detection tools and best practice to prevent its transmission and to effectively control its outbreaks. This systematic review aimed to identify characteristics of outbreak and assess the impact and effectiveness of detection tools and public health preventive measures to interrupt transmission. The findings will be used to recommend policy on the most effective responses and interventions in Hong Kong to effectively minimise and contain the spread of the disease within childcare facilities. We searched the following databases for primary studies written in Chinese or English: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, WHO Western Pacific Region Index Medicus database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure Databases, and Chinese Scientific Journals Database. Studies conducted during or retrospective to outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease caused by Enterovirus 71 from 1980 to 2012 within childcare facilities and with a study population of 0 to 6 years old were included. Sixteen studies conducted on outbreaks in China showed that hand, foot, and mouth disease spread rapidly within the facility, with an outbreak length of 4 to 46 days, especially in those with delayed notification (after 24 hours) of clustered outbreak (with five or more cases discovered within the facility) to the local Center for Disease Control and Prevention and delayed implementation of a control response. The number of classes affected ranged from 1 to 13, and the attack rate for children ranged from 0.97% to 28.18%. Communication between key stakeholders about outbreak confirmation, risk assessment, and surveillance should be improved. Effective communication facilitates timely notification (within 24 hours) of

  13. A Comparison between Two Simulation Models for Spread of Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Boklund, Anette; Stockmarr, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Two widely used simulation models of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) were used in order to compare the models' predictions in term of disease spread, consequence, and the ranking of the applied control strategies, and to discuss the effect of the way disease spread is modeled on the predicted outcomes...... of each model. The DTU-DADS (version 0.100), and ISP (version 2.001.11) were used to simulate a hypothetical spread of FMD in Denmark. Actual herd type, movements, and location data in the period 1st October 2006 and 30th September 2007 was used. The models simulated the spread of FMD using 3 different...

  14. Evaluating the transmission routes of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Guangdong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Limei; Lin, Hualiang; Lin, Jinyan; He, Jianfeng; Deng, Aiping; Kang, Min; Zeng, Hanri; Ma, Wenjun; Zhang, Yonghui

    2016-02-01

    Although it is an enteroviral infectious disease, recent studies suggest that respiratory transmission might play a role in the transmission of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). We evaluated the transmission modes (respiratory and fecal-oral transmission) of HFMD among children using a case-control study in Guangdong, China. Our analyses suggested that fecal-oral transmission might be the principal transmission mode of HFMD among children in the study area, and handwashing habits of the children and their parents should be emphasized to control this infection. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hand, foot, and mouth disease in adults: An enigma among diagnosticians - A case series

    OpenAIRE

    Benila Mathew; Sunila Thomas; Vivek Velayudhan; Ranimol Prasanna

    2015-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a highly contagious enterovirus infection mainly affecting children less than 5 years of age. In a majority of cases, it is caused by coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16), although instances have been described in which A5, A6, A7, A9, A10, B2, B5, or human enterovirus 71 (HEV-71) has been isolated. The disease occurs rarely in adults, and has been reported in immunocompromised patients. It usually has a benign and self-limiting course with an incubation period o...

  16. Modelling studies to estimate the prevalence of foot-and-mouth disease carriers after reactive vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, M.E; Paton, D.J; Ryan, E; Cox, S.J; Wilesmith, J.W

    2007-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically significant viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. Vaccination can be used to help restrict the spread of the infection, but evidence must be provided to show that the infection has been eradicated in order to regain the FMD-free status. While serological tests have been developed, which can identify animals that have been infected regardless of vaccination status, it is vital to know the probable prevalence of herds with F...

  17. Epidemiology and etiology of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Fujian province, 2008-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yuwei; Chen, Wei; Huang, Meng; He, Wenxiang; Zheng, Kuicheng; Yan, Yansheng

    2017-02-01

    Millions of cases of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) have been reported annually in mainland China since 2008. In this study, we investigated the epidemiology and etiology of an HFMD epidemic in Fujian province, which is located in subtropical southeastern China. Our study found similar epidemiological features of HFMD in southern areas of China, including seasonality and demographic distribution, as well as correlation between severity of illness and serotype. At least 22 serotypes of other enterovirus co-circulating with enterovirus 71 were found to belong to clade C4a, and those circulating with coxsackievirus A16 were associated with clades B1a and B1b.

  18. Unprocessed foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid precursor displays discontinuous epitopes involved in viral neutralization.

    OpenAIRE

    Sáiz, J C; Cairó, J; Medina, M.; Zuidema, D.; Abrams, C; Belsham, G.J.; Domingo, E; Vlak, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    A foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) cDNA cassette containing sequences encoding the capsid precursor P1, peptide 2A and a truncated 2B (abbreviated P1-2A) of type C FMDV, has been modified to generate the authentic amino terminus and the myristoylation signal. This construct has been used to produce a recombinant baculovirus (AcMM53) which, upon infection of Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells, expressed a recombinant P1-2A precursor with a high yield. This polyprotein reacted with neutraliz...

  19. Unilateral hemorrhagic maculopathy: An uncommon manifestation of hand, foot, and mouth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Manish; Gupta, Abhishek; Singh, Priyanka; Subathra, Gnanavelu N

    2016-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFD) is a common systemic infection occurring in childhood or immunocompromised adults caused by enteroviruses, the most common being coxsackievirus A16 and enterovirus 71. It is characterized by maculopapular eruptions over the hands and feet and ulcerative stomatitis. Ocular involvement is a rare complication and commonly manifests as inflammatory macular pathology. We report a case of HFD in an immunocompetent adult male with unilateral ocular involvement presenting as hemorrhagic maculopathy and its management with complete anatomical and functional recovery. PMID:27905343

  20. Optimization of foot-and-mouth disease vaccination protocols by surveillance of neutralization antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, W B; Liao, P C; Chen, S P; Yang, P C; Lin, Y L; Jong, M H; Sheu, T W

    2002-06-21

    An appropriate immunization program for pigs in a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) endemic area was proposed based on data analysis obtained from serological surveillance in Taiwan, after an intensive vaccination program. To provide an adequate passive immunity for piglets, gilts that have completed two basic vaccinations must be boosted once before breeding. To achieve an efficient response to the FMD vaccine for piglets born to well vaccinated sows, vaccination need to be delayed until 10-12 weeks of ages for the first immunization, followed by a boost 4 weeks later.

  1. Vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease: the implications for Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Sarah; Geale, Dorothy W; Kitching, Paul R; Bouffard, Alice; Allard, Denis G; Duncan, J Robert

    2002-05-01

    Vaccination of susceptible animals against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a well established strategy for helping to combat the disease. Traditionally, FMD vaccine has been used to control a disease incursion in countries where the disease has been endemic rather than in countries considered free of the disease. In 2001, the use of vaccine was considered but not implemented in the United Kingdom (1), whereas vaccine was used to help to control FMD in The Netherlands (2,3). Canadian contingency plans provide for the use of vaccine; Canada is a member of the North American Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccine Bank, which could supply vaccine if needed. This article explains why Canada might use FMD vaccine to combat an outbreak and the factors that are relevant to the disposal of vaccinated animals and their products. It concludes that vaccination is an important mechanism in Canada's preparedness for an outbreak of FMD and that products from vaccinated animals are safe for human consumption.

  2. SAT2 foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreak in a mixed farm in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byom, Ahmed M

    2015-01-01

    A dairy farm keeping Holstein cattle and buffaloes in the Menoufia Governorate was investigated during and after the last Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) outbreak in Egypt (starting February 2012) to determine the impact of the outbreak on animals as well as to assess some factors that might have helped to spread the disease in the investigated farm. All animals were vaccinated against FMD with the locally produced bivalent vaccine containing O1 and A/Egy/2006 strains two months before the onset of the outbreak. Laboratory examination of the samples collected from diseased and dead animals' revealed detection of a newly emerged serotype of FMD (SAT2). Although, all buffaloes (8/8) in the herd were infected (100%), none of them died, while lactating Holstein cattle showed varying morbidity rates along the period of the outbreak with peak rates in March followed by April, May and June. Crud mortality and case fatality rates among cattle peaked during April 2012 to reach 9.3 and 21.7%, respectively. Calves were the most affected animals with the highest morbidities and mortalities. The high prevalence of the disease among all animal categories in the investigated farm is attributed to the lack of previous immunity through vaccination against the new serotype of the virus. In addition, the hygienic and biosecurity measures in the farm were unsatisfactory with respect to prevention of introduction and spread of the disease between the farm units. The prevalent weather conditions during the outbreak might have played a role in spread of the FMDv, especially ambient temperature, humidity and wind movement.

  3. Multiplexed Molecular Assays for Rapid Rule-Out of Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenhoff, R; Naraghi-Arani, P; Thissen, J; Olivas, J; Carillo, C; Chinn, C; Rasmussen, M; Messenger, S; Suer, L; Smith, S M; Tammero, L; Vitalis, E; Slezak, T R; Hullinger, P J; Hindson, B J; Hietala, S; Crossley, B; Mcbride, M

    2007-06-26

    A nucleic acid-based multiplexed assay was developed that combines detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) with rule-out assays for two other foreign animal diseases and four domestic animal diseases that cause vesicular or ulcerative lesions indistinguishable from FMDV infection in cattle, sheep and swine. The FMDV 'look-alike' diagnostic assay panel contains five PCR and twelve reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) signatures for a total of seventeen simultaneous PCR amplifications for seven diseases plus incorporating four internal assay controls. It was developed and optimized to amplify both DNA and RNA viruses simultaneously in a single tube and employs Luminex{trademark} liquid array technology. Assay development including selection of appropriate controls, a comparison of signature performance in single and multiplex testing against target nucleic acids, as well of limits of detection for each of the individual signatures is presented. While this assay is a prototype and by no means a comprehensive test for FMDV 'look-alike' viruses, an assay of this type is envisioned to have benefit to a laboratory network in routine surveillance and possibly for post-outbreak proof of freedom from foot-and-mouth disease.

  4. Retrospective evaluation of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine effectiveness in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Jones, T.J.D.; Bulut, A.N.; Gubbins, S.; Stärk, K.D.C.; Pfeiffer, D.U.; Sumption, K.J.; Paton, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is present in much of Turkey and its control is largely based on vaccination. The arrival of the FMD Asia-1 serotype in Turkey in 2011 caused particular concern, spreading rapidly westwards across the country towards the FMD free European Union. With no prior natural immunity, control of spread would rely heavily on vaccination. Unlike human vaccines, field protection is rarely evaluated directly for FMD vaccines. Between September 2011 and July 2012 we performed four retrospective outbreak investigations to assess the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of FMD Asia-1 vaccines in Turkey. Vaccine effectiveness is defined as the reduction in risk in vaccinated compared to unvaccinated individuals with similar virus exposure in the field. The four investigations included 12 villages and 1230 cattle >4 months of age. One investigation assessed the FMD Asia-1 Shamir vaccine, the other three evaluated the recently introduced FMD Asia-1 TUR 11 vaccine made using a field isolate of the FMD Asia-1 Sindh-08 lineage that had recently entered Turkey. After adjustment for confounding, the TUR 11 vaccine provided moderate protection against both clinical disease VE = 69% [95% CI: 50%–81%] and infection VE = 63% [95% CI: 29%–81%]. However, protection was variable with some herds with high vaccine coverage still experiencing high disease incidence. Some of this variability will be the result of the variation in virus challenge and immunity that occurs under field conditions. In the outbreak investigated there was no evidence that the Asia-1 Shamir vaccine provided adequate protection against clinical FMD with an incidence of 89% in single vaccinated cattle and 69% in those vaccinated two to five times. Based on these effectiveness estimates, vaccination alone is unlikely to produce the high levels of herd immunity needed to control FMD without additional control measures. PMID:24530150

  5. Thermal inactivation of foot and mouth disease virus in extruded pet food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbins, S; Forster, J; Clive, S; Schley, D; Zuber, S; Schaaff, J; Corley, D

    2016-12-01

    The risk of importing foot and mouth disease, a highly contagious viral disease of livestock, severely restricts trade and investment opportunities in many developing countries where the virus is present. This study was designed to investigate the inactivation of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) by heat treatments used in extruded commercial pet food manufacture. If extrusion could be shown to reliably inactivate the virus, this could potentially facilitate trade for FMDV-endemic countries. The authors found that there was no detectable virus following: i) treatment of FMDVspiked meat slurry at 68°C for 300 s; ii) treatment of FMDV-spiked slurry and meal mix at 79°C for 10 or 30 s, or iii) treatment of homogenised bovine tongue epithelium, taken from an FMDV-infected animal, at 79°C for 10 s. This corresponds to an estimated 8 log10 reduction in titre (95% credible interval: 6 log10 -13 log10). Furthermore, the authors found that the pH of the slurry and meal mix was sufficient to inactivate FMDV in the absence of heat treatment. This demonstrates that heat treatments used in commercial pet food manufacture are able to substantially reduce the titre of FMDV in infected raw materials. © OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health), 2016.

  6. Antiviral activity of ovine interferon tau 4 against foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usharani, Jayaramaiah; Park, Sun Young; Cho, Eun-Ju; Kim, Chungsu; Ko, Young-Joon; Tark, Dongseob; Kim, Su-Mi; Park, Jong-Hyeon; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lee, Hyang-Sim

    2017-07-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an economically important disease in most parts of the world and new therapeutic agents are needed to protect the animals before vaccination can trigger the host immune response. Although several interferons have been used for their antiviral activities against Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), ovine interferon tau 4 (OvIFN-τ4), with a broad-spectrum of action, cross-species antiviral activity, and lower incidence of toxicity in comparison to other type І interferons, has not yet been evaluated for this indication. This is the first study to evaluate the antiviral activity of OvIFN-τ4 against various strains of FMDV. The effective anti-cytopathic concentration of OvIFN-τ4 and its effectiveness pre- and post-infection with FMDV were tested in vitro in LFBK cells. In vivo activity of OvIFN-τ4 was then confirmed in a mouse model of infection. OvIFN-τ4 at a concentration of 500 ng, protected mice until 5days post-FMDV challenge and provided 90% protection for 10 days following FMDV challenge. These results suggest that OvIFN-τ4 could be used as an alternative to other interferons or antiviral agents at the time of FMD outbreak. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Identification of a serotype-independent linear epitope of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Baolin; Wang, Mingxia; Liu, Wenming; Xu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Haiwei; Yang, Decheng; Ma, Wenge; Zhou, Guohui; Yu, Li

    2017-12-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), is a highly contagious infectious disease that affects domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals worldwide. VP2 is a structural protein of FMDV. In this study, an FMDV serotype-independent monoclonal antibody (MAb), 10B10, against the viral capsid protein VP2 was generated, and a series of GST fusion proteins expressing a truncated peptide of VP2 was subjected to Western blot analysis using MAb 10B10. Their results indicated that the peptide 8TLLEDRILT16 of VP2 is the minimal requirement of the epitope recognized by MAb 10B10. Importantly, this linear epitope was highly conserved among all seven serotypes of FMDV in a sequence alignment analysis. Subsequent alanine-scanning mutagenesis analysis revealed that the residues Thr8 and Asp12 of the epitope were crucial for MAb-10B10 binding. Furthermore, Western blot analysis also revealed that the MAb 10B10-directed epitope could be recognized by positive sera from FMDV-infected cattle. The discovery that MAb 10B10 recognizes a serotype-independent linear epitope of FMDV suggests potential applications for this MAb in the development of serotype-independent tests for FMDV.

  8. Decisions on control of foot-and-mouth disease informed using model predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Willeberg, P.; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2013-01-01

    The decision on whether or not to change the control strategy, such as introducing emergency vaccination, is perhaps one of the most difficult decisions faced by the veterinary authorities during a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemic. A simple tool that may predict the epidemic outcome and cons......The decision on whether or not to change the control strategy, such as introducing emergency vaccination, is perhaps one of the most difficult decisions faced by the veterinary authorities during a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemic. A simple tool that may predict the epidemic outcome...... and consequences would be useful to assist the veterinary authorities in the decision-making process. A previously proposed simple quantitative tool based on the first 14 days outbreaks (FFO) of FMD was used with results from an FMD simulation exercise. Epidemic outcomes included the number of affected herds......, epidemic duration, geographical size and costs. The first 14 days spatial spread (FFS) was also included to further support the prediction. The epidemic data was obtained from a Danish version (DTU-DADS) of a pre-existing FMD simulation model (Davis Animal Disease Spread – DADS) adapted to model the spread...

  9. Age patterns and transmission characteristics of hand, foot and mouth disease in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jijun; Jiang, Fachun; Zhong, Lianfa; Sun, Jianping; Ding, Junhang

    2016-11-21

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has circulated in China and caused yearly outbreak. To understand the transmission of the disease and to assess the spatial variation in cases reported, we examined age-specific transmission characteristics and reporting rates of HFMD for 31 provinces in mainland China. We first analyzed incidence spatial patterns and age-specific incidence patterns using dataset from 2008 to 2012. Transmission characteristics were estimated based on catalytic model. Reporting rates were estimated using a simple mass action model from "Time Series Susceptible Infectious Recovered" (TSIR) modeling. We found age-specific spatial incidence patterns: age-specific proportions of HFMD cases varied geographically in China; larger case percentage was among children of 3-5 years old in the northern part of China and was among children of 0-2 years old in the southern part of China. Our analysis results revealed that: 1) reporting rates and transmission characteristics including the average age at infection, the force of infection and the basic reproduction number varied geographically in China; 2) patterns of the age-specific force of infection for 30 provinces were similar to that of childhood infections in developed countries; the age group that had the highest infection risk was 3-5 years old in 30 provinces, and 10-14 years old in Tibet; 3) a large difference in HFMD transmission existed between northwest region and southeast region; 4) transmission characteristics determined incidence patterns: the higher the disease transmission in a province, the earlier the annual seasonality started and the more case percentage was among children 0-2 years old and less among 3-5 years old. Because HFMD has higher transmission than most childhood infections reported, high effective vaccine coverage is needed to substantially reduce HFMD incidence. Control measures before the vaccine implementation should focus on 2-6 years old children in 30 provinces and 10

  10. Clinical features for 89 deaths of hand, foot and mouth disease in Guangxi, China, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Lin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study is to summarize the risk factors of severe Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD and explore the clinical characteristics of pulmonary edema (PE and non-PE in the deceased patients with HFMD. Methods: We identified 89 HFMD deaths which were separated into the PE group or non-PE group. Next, patients were divided based on their initial admission to hospitals as stage 1, 2, 3, or 4; at this point, their clinical manifestations were compared. Results: There were 87 cases in the PE group, and 2 cases in the non-PE group. In the PE group, the difference in median time for patients at different stages from onset to symptoms, showed no significant difference (p > 0.05. The etiology was detected as a positive rate for enterovirus 71 (EV71 of 89.19%, which showed a more severe course than other etiologies. The white blood cell (WBC counts, lymphocyte (LYM counts and creatine kinase MB (CK-MB counts of patients admitted in different stages increased significantly with severity (p < 0.05. Conclusions: There may be two clinical subtypes, mostly PE and rarely non-PE, in the deceased patients with HMFD. EV71 and risk factors such as an increased WBC count are associated with a severe course of HMFD. Keywords: Hand, foot, and mouth disease, Pulmonary edema, Non-pulmonary edema, Death cases

  11. Foot-and-mouth disease virus carrier status in Bos grunniens yaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The carrier status of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is complicated, and the role of carrier animals in virus transmission is controversial. To investigate the carrier status of FMDV in animals that live in high altitude, Bos grunniens yaks were infected experimentally with FMDV O/Akesu/58. Results All of the yaks showed clinical signs of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). Total antibody levels against FMDV measured by liquid-phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (LPB-ELISA) and antibody levels against nonstructural proteins (NSP) showed dynamic changes. Three of the five yaks were indentified as carrier animals by RT-PCR method, and the OP fluids from carrier yaks can cause cytopathic effect (CPE) on BHK-21 cells. At last, five persistent infection strains were isolated. Nucleotide mutations of VP1 gene were analyzed. Conclusions After infected with FMDV, all of the yaks showed typical clinical signs. Yaks can keep carrier status for at least 8 months. Total antibody levels against FMDV measured by LPB-ELISA and antibody levels against NSP were at high level for carrier yaks. Sequence alignment of the five isolated strains showed obvious gene and protein mutations. PMID:23497369

  12. Induction of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus-Specific Cytotoxic T Cell Killing by Vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patch, J.R.; Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Toka, F.N.

    2011-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) continues to be a significant threat to the health and economic value of livestock species. This acute infection is caused by the highly contagious FMD virus (FMDV), which infects cloven-hoofed animals including large and small ruminants and swine. Current vaccine str...... of MHC matched target cells in an antigen specific manner. Further, we confirm these results by MHC tetramer staining. This work presents the first demonstration of FMDV specific, CTL killing and confirmation by MHC tetramer staining in response to vaccination against FMDV.......Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) continues to be a significant threat to the health and economic value of livestock species. This acute infection is caused by the highly contagious FMD virus (FMDV), which infects cloven-hoofed animals including large and small ruminants and swine. Current vaccine...... cytopathic virus. Here, we have used recombinant human adenovirus vectors as a means of delivering FMDV antigens in a T cell-directed vaccine in pigs. We tested the hypothesis that impaired processing of the FMDV capsid would enhance cytolytic activity, presumably by targeting all proteins for degradation...

  13. Mond- en klauwzeer en bluetongue: verschillen en overeenkomsten = Foot-and-mouth disease and bluetongue disease: differences and similarities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, A.; Dercksen, D.; Snoep, J.; Wuijckhuise, van L.

    2007-01-01

    On 26th of july 2007 a new case of bluetongue was notified in the Netherlands and on 2nd of august 2007 food and-mouth disease was diagnosed in Surrey, England, which raised the threat of having both infections simultaniously in one area. Bluetongue and foot-and-mouth disease have a different

  14. Market Impact of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Control Strategies: A UK Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Siyi; Patton, Myles; Davis, John

    2017-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) poses a serious threat to the agricultural sector due to its highly contagious nature. Outbreaks of FMD can lead to substantial disruptions to livestock markets due to loss of production and access to international markets. In a previously FMD-free country, the use of vaccination to augment control of an FMD outbreak is increasingly being recognized as an alternative control strategy to direct slaughtering [stamping-out (SO)]. The choice of control strategy has implications on production, trade, and hence prices of the sector. Specific choice of eradication strategies depends on their costs and benefits. Economic impact assessments are often based on benefit-cost framework, which provide detailed information on the changes in profit for a farm or budget implications for a government (1). However, this framework cannot capture price effects caused by changes in production due to culling of animals; access to international markets; and consumers' reaction. These three impacts combine to affect equilibrium within commodity markets (2). This paper provides assessment of sectoral level impacts of the eradication choices of FMD outbreaks, which are typically not available from benefit-cost framework, in the context of the UK. The FAPRI-UK model, a partial equilibrium model of the agricultural sector, is utilized to investigate market outcomes of different control strategies (namely SO and vaccinate-to-die) in the case of FMD outbreaks. The outputs from the simulations of the EXODIS epidemiological model (number of animals culled/vaccinated and duration of outbreak) are used as inputs within the economic model to capture the overall price impact of the animal destruction, export ban, and consumers' response.

  15. A Lagrangian particle model to predict the airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, D.; Reiczigel, J.; Rubel, F.

    Airborne spread of bioaerosols in the boundary layer over a complex terrain is simulated using a Lagrangian particle model, and applied to modelling the airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus. Two case studies are made with study domains located in a hilly region in the northwest of the Styrian capital Graz, the second largest town in Austria. Mountainous terrain as well as inhomogeneous and time varying meteorological conditions prevent from application of so far used Gaussian dispersion models, while the proposed model can handle these realistically. In the model, trajectories of several thousands of particles are computed and the distribution of virus concentration near the ground is calculated. This allows to assess risk of infection areas with respect to animal species of interest, such as cattle, swine or sheep. Meteorological input data like wind field and other variables necessary to compute turbulence were taken from the new pre-operational version of the non-hydrostatic numerical weather prediction model LMK ( Lokal-Modell-Kürzestfrist) running at the German weather service DWD ( Deutscher Wetterdienst). The LMK model provides meteorological parameters with a spatial resolution of about 2.8 km. To account for the spatial resolution of 400 m used by the Lagrangian particle model, the initial wind field is interpolated upon the finer grid by a mass consistent interpolation method. Case studies depict a significant influence of local wind systems on the spread of virus. Higher virus concentrations at the upwind side of the hills and marginal concentrations in the lee are well observable, as well as canalization effects by valleys. The study demonstrates that the Lagrangian particle model is an appropriate tool for risk assessment of airborne spread of virus by taking into account the realistic orographic and meteorological conditions.

  16. Rescue of foot-and-mouth disease viruses that are pathogenic for cattle from preserved viral RNA samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham; Jamal, Syed Muhammad; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    of the rescued viruses (of serotype O and Asia 1) were inoculated into bull calves under high containment conditions. Acute clinical disease was observed in each case which spread rapidly from the inoculated calves to in-contact animals. Thus the rescued viruses were highly pathogenic. The availability......Background: Foot and mouth disease is an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals including cattle, sheep and pigs. It is caused by a picornavirus, foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), which has a positive sense RNA genome which, when introduced into cells, can initiate virus...... replication. Principal Findings: A system has been developed to rescue infectious FMDV from RNA preparations generated from clinical samples obtained under experimental conditions and then applied to samples collected in the ‘‘field’’. Clinical samples from suspect cases of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) were...

  17. The role of spatial mixing in the spread of foot-and-mouth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowell, G; Rivas, A L; Hengartner, N W; Hyman, J M; Castillo-Chavez, C

    2006-03-16

    A model of epidemic dispersal (based on the assumption that susceptible cattle were homogeneously mixed over space, or non-spatial model) was compared to a partially spatially explicit and discrete model (the spatial model), which was composed of differential equations and used geo-coded data (Euclidean distances between county centroids). While the spatial model accounted for intra- and inter-county epidemic spread, the non-spatial model did not assess regional differences. A geo-coded dataset that resembled conditions favouring homogeneous mixing assumptions (based on the 2001 Uruguayan foot-and-mouth disease epidemic), was used for testing. Significant differences between models were observed in the average transmission rate between farms, both before and after a control policy (animal movement ban) was imposed. They also differed in terms of daily number of infected farms: the non-spatial model revealed a single epidemic peak (at, approximately, 25 epidemic days); while the spatial model revealed two epidemic peaks (at, approximately, 12 and 28 days, respectively). While the spatial model fitted well with the observed cumulative number of infected farms, the non-spatial model did not (Panimal movement restrictions had begun 3 days before/after the estimated initiation of such policy, cases would have decreased/increased by 23 or 26%, respectively. Spatial factors (such as inter-farm distance and coverage of vaccination campaigns, absent in non-spatial models) may explain why partially explicit spatial models describe epidemic spread more accurately than non-spatial models even at early epidemic phases. Integration of geo-coded data into mathematical models is recommended.

  18. 75 FR 1697 - Change in Disease Status of the Republic of Korea With Regard to Foot-and-Mouth Disease and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... Foot-and-Mouth Disease and Rinderpest AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... rinderpest and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and the list of regions that are subject to certain import... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0;Rules and Regulations...

  19. Evolutionary analysis of serotype A foot-and-mouth disease viruses circulating in Pakistan and Afghanistan during 2002–2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamal, Syed Muhammad; Ferrari, Giancarlo; Ahmed, Safia

    2011-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Three different serotypes of the virus, namely O, A and Asia-1, are responsible for the outbreaks of this disease in these countries. In the present study, the nucleotide-coding sequences for the VP1 capsid protein (69 samples......) or for all four capsid proteins (P1, seven representative samples) of the serotype A FMD viruses circulating in Pakistan and Afghanistan were determined. Phylogenetic analysis of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) VP1-coding sequences from these countries collected between 2002 and 2009 revealed...

  20. The role of African buffalos (Syncerus caffer) in the maintenance of foot-and-mouth disease in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayebazibwe, C.; Mwiine, F. N.; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    Background To study the role of African buffalos (Syncerus caffer) in the maintenance of foot-and-mouth disease in Uganda, serum samples were collected from 207 African buffalos, 21 impalas (Aepyceros melampus), 1 giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), 1 common eland (Taurotragus oryx), 7 hartebeests...... (Alcelaphus buselaphus) and 5 waterbucks (Kobus ellipsiprymnus) from four major National Parks in Uganda between 2005 and 2008. Serum samples were screened to detect antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) non-structural proteins (NSP) using the Ceditest FMDV NS ELISA. Solid Phase Blocking...

  1. The molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes A and O from 1998 to 2004 in Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Jörn; Parlak, Ü.; Özyörük, F.

    2006-01-01

    Background Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) causes significant economic losses in Turkish livestock. We have analysed the genetic diversity of the 1D sequences, encoding the hypervariable surface protein VP1, of Turkish isolates of serotype A and O collected from 1998 to 2004 in order to obtain...... the region encoding the immuno-dominant GH-loop. Also a close relationship to Foot-and-Mouth Disease virus (FMDV) serotype A isolates obtained from outbreaks in Iraq and Iran were detected and a clustering of isolates collected during the same period of time were found. The analysis of the deduced amino...

  2. Atypical Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Caused by Coxsackievirus A6 in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsten, Hans-Henrik; Kemp, Michael; Fischer, Thea K

    2017-01-01

    Since 2008, outbreaks of atypical hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in children and adults have been reported worldwide. The majority of these outbreaks are caused by a new lineage of Coxsackie virus A6 (CV-A6) presenting a more severe clinical phenotype than the classical childhood HFMD caused...... by CV-A16. Between June 2014 and January 2016, 23 cases of atypical HFMD disease presented at a Dermatology Department at a regional University Hospital in Denmark. Patients were referred by general practitioners and dermatologists with a variety of clinical diagnoses, including eczema herpeticum...... caused by CV-A6 in the Region of Southern Denmark and that atypical HFMD can be difficult to diagnose clinically as it may mimic other severe skin diseases....

  3. Diagnostic assays developed for the control of foot-and-mouth disease in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gaurav Kumar; Mahajan, Sonalika; Matura, Rakesh; Subramaniam, Saravanan; Ranjan, Rajeev; Biswal, Jitendra; Rout, Manoranjan; Mohapatra, Jajati Keshari; Dash, Bana Bihari; Sanyal, Aniket; Pattnaik, Bramhadev

    2015-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically devastating disease of livestock, primarily affecting cattle, buffalo and pigs. FMD virus serotypes O, A and Asia1 are prevalent in India and systematic efforts are on to control and eventually eradicate the disease from the country. FMD epidemiology is complex due to factors like co-circulation, extinction, emergence and re-emergence of genotypes/lineages within the three serotypes, animal movement, diverse farm practices and large number of susceptible livestock in the country. Systematic vaccination, prompt diagnosis, strict biosecurity measures, and regular monitoring of vaccinal immunity and surveillance of virus circulation are indispensible features for the effective implementation of the control measures. Availability of suitable companion diagnostic tests is very important in this endeavour. In this review, the diagnostic assays developed and validated in India and their contribution in FMD control programme is presented. PMID:26279990

  4. Foot-and-mouth disease control in Zambia: A review of the current situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yona Sinkala

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Zambia has been experiencing low livestock productivity as well as trade restrictions owing to the occurrence of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD and contagious bovine pleura pneumonia (CBPP. Foot-and-mouth disease was first recorded in Zambia in 1933 in the Western Province and since then the country has experienced repeated outbreaks. Bearing in mind the pressure that may be existing on the many risk factors for FMD including climate change, there is need to review our knowledge on FMD control. We present the spatial distribution of the FMD outbreaks that have been recorded in Zambia in the last twenty years, and the effect of the vaccinations and movement control that have been applied. We propose further strain characterisation of previous FMD outbreaks, including full sequence of VP1 gene and the 5’UTR site. The data will be geo-coded and populated with risk factor attributes. We also present preliminary findings of the buffalo and cattle probang sampling that was conducted in Lochnivar and Kafue National Park. We further probang sampled 25 buffalo at each interface area in Sioma Ngwezi, Lukusuzi and Lower Zambezi national parks. Villages in close proximity to the buffalo populations as well as those not in close proximity will be multistage cluster sampled for comparison. The data will be geo-coded and populated with risk factor and foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV characterisation attributes. Data collected using a pre-tested structured questionnaire will be geo-coded and populated with identified risk factors and stored in a database and will be spatially modelled to determine their effect on FMD occurrence and control measures. New outbreaks of FMD that may occur will be investigated to find out if there are new strains involved, species affected and predisposing risk factors.The authors conclude that impacts of FMD on livelihoods if appropriate control measures are not put in place are far more devastating especially at community level

  5. Characterisation of foot-and-mouth disease virus strains circulating in Turkey during 1996-2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlak, Ü.; Özyörük, F.; Knowles, N.J.

    2007-01-01

    Two genotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A were identified as the cause of disease outbreaks in Turkey during 1996-2004, while serotype O strains, identified during the same period, seem to represent an evolutionary continuum, and Asia1 strains were only rarely identified. The data...... presented are concordant with the conclusion that serotype A strains are repeatedly introduced to Turkey from the east and circulate only transiently in farming communities, while type O strains persist and re-emerge from endemic areas of Turkey. The co-circulation of strains belonging to two A genotypes...... than 50% of the cattle during the same period. Mean r(1) values of 0.70 +/- 0.19 and 0.39 +/- 0.04 found for A96 and A99 isolates, respectively, compared to the A96 vaccine component reveal antigenic differences but also imply that the vaccine in use in Turkey should provide protection against both...

  6. Resource Estimations in Contingency Planning for Foot-And-Mouth Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boklund, Anette; Sten, Mortensen; Holm Johansen, Maren

    for the Danish swine industry, which had an export of €4.4 billion in 2012. The purposes of this project were to: 1) estimate the resources needed during an outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in Denmark, 2) identify areas, which can delay the control of the disease, and 3) develop an iterative tool, which...... can easily be updated, when knowledge is gained from other veterinary crises or during an outbreak of FMD. A stochastic simulation model was developed in InterSpread Plus to simulate spread of FMD in Denmark. The personnel and resource needs was estimated using results from this model...... simulation model, it was possible to create a simple model in excel to estimate the requirements for personnel and materiel during an FMD outbreak in Denmark. The model can easily be adjusted, when new information on resources appears from management of other crisis or from new model runs....

  7. Decisions on foot-and-mouth disease control informed by model prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Willeberg, Preben; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2013-01-01

    The predictive capability of the first fortnight incidence (FFI), which is the number of detected herds within the first 14 days following detection of the disease, of the course of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemic and its outcomes were investigated. Epidemic outcomes included the number...... correlations with the epidemic outcomes. The predictive capability of the FFI was high. This indicates that the FFI may take a part in the decision of whether or not to boost FMD control, which might prevent occurrence of a large epidemic in the face of an FMD incursion. The prediction power was improved...... by supplementing the models with information on FFS and characteristics of the index-herd. Results presented here will contribute to improve preparedness of Denmark to early control of a hypothetical FMD epidemic....

  8. Prevalence Estimates of Antibodies Towards Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Small Ruminants in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balinda, Sheila Nina; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Muwanika, Vincent B.

    2009-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Uganda with control strategies focusing on vaccination of cattle, while small ruminants are largely ignored. In order for Uganda to establish effective control strategies, it is crucial that the epidemiology of the disease is fully understood. This study...... summarizes results of serological investigations of sheep and goats for antibodies to FMDV from four districts in 2006 following an FMD outbreak in the region and from an attempted comprehensive random sampling in two districts in 2007. Antibodies were quantified and serotyped using competitive ELISA...... for antibodies towards non-structural proteins (NSP) and structural proteins towards serotype O, and blocking ELISA for antibodies towards the seven serotypes of FMD virus (FMDV). In 2006, sheep and goats in Bushenyi and Isingiro districts were free from antibodies towards FMDV, while herds in Kasese and Mbarara...

  9. Economic analysis of activities to prevent foot and mouth disease in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Sigrid; Alban, Lis; Boklund, Anette

    2016-01-01

    The latest foot and mouth disease (FMD) epidemic in Denmark dates back to 1982-1983. Hence, Denmark has not experienced an FMD outbreak in more than 30 years. Still this disease poses a serious threat either as a risk of introduction and spread in Denmark or as a risk of a ban on Danish export...... of pigs, pork, cattle, beef and milk products due to an outbreak in another country within the EU. It is estimated that a middle sized outbreak of FMD would cost around € 1 billion. It is evident that even though the probability of introducing FMD is very low the consequences are devastating...... for the agricultural sector and society because the expected costs are so enormous. Therefore, the industry and the public authority have implemented a number of mitigating and preventive activities. The costs of FMD and swine fever related activities in Denmark in 2013 were estimated to be approximately € 32 million...

  10. Sero-prevalence, risk factors and distribution of foot and mouth disease in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdela, Nejash

    2017-05-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD), world's most important highly infectious and contagious trans-boundary animal diseases, is responsible for huge global losses of livestock production as well as severe impacts on international trade. This vesicular disease is caused by foot and mouth disease virus of the genus Aphthovirus, family Picornaviridae. Currently FMD is major global animal health problem and endemic in Africa including Ethiopia. This paper systematically reviewed the sero-prevalence reports, associated risk factors and distribution of FMD in Ethiopia with the main aim of making compressive document on prevalence, risk factor and distribution of the disease thus helping as a basis for designing effective control strategies. FMD is widely distributed in Ethiopia and its prevalence varies from place to place with seropositivity that ranges from 5.6% to 42.7% in cattle and from 4% to 11% in small ruminant and in 30% in ungulate wildlife. In Ethiopia endemic distributions of five of seven serotypes, namely serotypes O, A, C, SAT1 and SAT2 have been documented. The dominant serotype being reported recently is serotype O and serotype C has not been reported in the country since 1983. However, serotype C specific antibody was detected in cattle indicating that circulation of serotype C viruses in the country may have gone unnoticed. The most common risk factor associated with FMD infection in Ethiopia includes production system, geographic location, species, age of animals, contact with wildlife and season of the year, mixed animal species and Breed. Conclusively, this paper revealed as FMD is posing a major threat in different area of the country thereby causing substantial economic losses through morbidity, mortality and restriction of international trade. Thus, demanding for great attention as its occurrence is may affect the export earnings of the country thereby threaten the livelihood of farmers and economy of the country at large. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  11. Detection of Foot and mouth disease virus infected pigs still RT-PCR positive four weeks after challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orsel, K.; Roest, H.I.J.; Elzinga-Bril, E.M.; Hemert-Kluitenberg, van F.; Dekker, A.

    2008-01-01

    FOOT-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals including ruminants and pigs. The occurrence of disease in livestock has a great economic impact, especially for exporting countries. Export limitations are based partly on the existence of FMD carrier animals.

  12. Transmission of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus during the Incubation Period in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenfeldt, Carolina; Pacheco, Juan M; Brito, Barbara P; Moreno-Torres, Karla I; Branan, Matt A; Delgado, Amy H; Rodriguez, Luis L; Arzt, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the quantitative characteristics of a pathogen's capability to transmit during distinct phases of infection is important to enable accurate predictions of the spread and impact of a disease outbreak. In the current investigation, the potential for transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) during the incubation (preclinical) period of infection was investigated in seven groups of pigs that were sequentially exposed to a group of donor pigs that were infected by simulated-natural inoculation. Contact-exposed pigs were comingled with infected donors through successive 8-h time slots spanning from 8 to 64 h post-inoculation (hpi) of the donor pigs. The transition from latent to infectious periods in the donor pigs was clearly defined by successful transmission of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) to all contact pigs that were exposed to the donors from 24 hpi and later. This onset of infectiousness occurred concurrent with detection of viremia, but approximately 24 h prior to the first appearance of clinical signs of FMD in the donors. Thus, the latent period of infection ended approximately 24 h before the end of the incubation period. There were significant differences between contact-exposed groups in the time elapsed from virus exposure to the first detection of FMDV shedding, viremia, and clinical lesions. Specifically, the onset and progression of clinical FMD were more rapid in pigs that had been exposed to the donor pigs during more advanced phases of disease, suggesting that these animals had received a higher effective challenge dose. These results demonstrate transmission and dissemination of FMD within groups of pigs during the incubation period of infection. Furthermore, these findings suggest that under current conditions, shedding of FMDV in oropharyngeal fluids is a more precise proxy for FMDV infectiousness than clinical signs of infection. These findings may impact modeling of the propagation of FMD outbreaks that initiate

  13. Transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus during the incubation period in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Stenfeldt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the quantitative characteristics of a pathogen’s capability to transmit during distinct phases of infection is important to enable accurate predictions of the spread and impact of a disease outbreak. In the current investigation, the potential for transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV during the incubation (preclinical phase of infection was investigated in seven groups of pigs that were sequentially exposed to a group of donor pigs that were infected by simulated-natural inoculation. Contact-exposed pigs were co-mingled with infected donors through successive eight-hour time slots spanning from 8 to 64 hours post inoculation (hpi of the donor pigs. The transition from latent to infectious periods in the donor pigs was clearly defined by successful transmission of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD to all contact pigs that were exposed to the donors from 24 hpi and later. This onset of infectiousness occurred concurrent with detection of viremia, but approximately 24 hours prior to the first appearance of clinical signs of FMD in the donors.Thus, the latent period of infection ended approximately 24 hours earlier than the end of the incubation period. There were significant differences between contact-exposed groups in the time elapsed from virus exposure to the first detection of FMDV shedding, viremia and clinical lesions. Specifically, the onset and progression of clinical FMD was more rapid in pigs that had been exposed to the donor pigs during more advanced phases of disease, suggesting that these animals had received a higher effective challenge dose. These results demonstrate transmission and dissemination of FMD within groups of pigs during the incubation period of infection. Furthermore, the findings suggest that under current conditions, shedding of FMDV in oropharyngeal fluids is a more precise proxy for FMDV infectiousness than clinical signs of infection. These findings may impact modeling of the propagation of

  14. Hand foot and mouth disease due to enterovirus 71 in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Kaw Bing; Kasri, Abdul Rasid

    2011-08-01

    Hand foot and mouth disease is a febrile sickness complex characterized by cutaneous eruption (exanthem) on the palms and soles with simultaneous occurrence of muco-cutanous vesiculo-ulcerative lesions (enanthem) affecting the mouth. The illness is caused by a number of enteroviruses with coxsackievirus A16 and enterovirus 71 as the main causative agents. Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) belongs to the species Human enterovirus A under the genus Enterovirus within the family Picornaviridae. EV71 has been associated with an array of clinical diseases including hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD), aseptic meningitis, encephalitis and poliomyelitis-like acute flaccid paralysis. A large outbreak of HFMD due to highly neurovirulent EV71 emerged in Malaysia in 1997, and caused 41 deaths amongst young children. In late 2000, a recurrence of an outbreak of HFMD occurred in Malaysia with 8 fatalities in peninsular Malaysia. Outbreak of HFMD due to EV71 recurred in 2003 with an unknown number of cases and mortalities. A similar outbreak of HFMD with 2 recorded deaths in young children occurred in peninsular Malaysia in late 2005 and this was followed by a larger outbreak in Sarawak (Malaysian Borneo) with 6 reported fatalities in the early part of 2006. The current on-going outbreak of HFMD started in peninsular Malaysia in epidemiological week 12 of 2010. As with other HFMD outbreaks in Malaysia, both EV71 and CA16 were the main aetiological viruses isolated. In similarity with the HFMD outbreak in 2005, the isolation of CA16 preceded the appearance of EV71. Based on the VP1 gene nucleotide sequences, 4 sub-genogroups of EV71 (C1, C2, B3 and B4) co-circulated and caused the outbreak of hand, foot and mouth disease in peninsular Malaysia in 1997. Two sub-genogroups (C1 and B4) were noted to cause the outbreak in 2000 in both peninsular Malaysia and Sarawak. EV71 of sub-genogroup B5 with smaller contribution from sub-genogroup C1 caused the outbreak in 2003. In the 2005 outbreak

  15. Rapid Engineering of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccine and Challenge Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seo-Yong; Lee, Yeo-Joo; Kim, Rae-Hyung; Park, Jeong-Nam; Park, Min-Eun; Ko, Mi-Kyeong; Choi, Joo-Hyung; Chu, Jia-Qi; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Kim, Su-Mi; Tark, Dongseob; Lee, Hyang-Sim; Ko, Young-Joon; Seo, Min-Goo; Park, Jung-Won; Kim, Byounghan; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lee, Jong-Soo; Park, Jong-Hyeon

    2017-08-15

    There are seven antigenically distinct serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), each of which has intratypic variants. In the present study, we have developed methods to efficiently generate promising vaccines against seven serotypes or subtypes. The capsid-encoding gene (P1) of the vaccine strain O1/Manisa/Turkey/69 was replaced with the amplified or synthetic genes from the O, A, Asia1, C, SAT1, SAT2, and SAT3 serotypes. Viruses of the seven serotype were rescued successfully. Each chimeric FMDV with a replacement of P1 showed serotype-specific antigenicity and varied in terms of pathogenesis in pigs and mice. Vaccination of pigs with an experimental trivalent vaccine containing the inactivated recombinants based on the main serotypes O, A, and Asia1 effectively protected them from virus challenge. This technology could be a potential strategy for a customized vaccine with challenge tools to protect against epizootic disease caused by specific serotypes or subtypes of FMDV.IMPORTANCE Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus (FMDV) causes significant economic losses. For vaccine preparation, the selection of vaccine strains was complicated by high antigenic variation. In the present study, we suggested an effective strategy to rapidly prepare and evaluate mass-produced customized vaccines against epidemic strains. The P1 gene encoding the structural proteins of the well-known vaccine virus was replaced by the synthetic or amplified genes of viruses of seven representative serotypes. These chimeric viruses generally replicated readily in cell culture and had a particle size similar to that of the original vaccine strain. Their antigenicity mirrored that of the original serotype from which their P1 gene was derived. Animal infection experiments revealed that the recombinants varied in terms of pathogenicity. This strategy will be a useful tool for rapidly generating customized FMD vaccines or challenge viruses for all serotypes, especially for FMD-free countries

  16. Cyclical Patterns of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease Caused by Enterovirus A71 in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    NikNadia, NMN; Sam, I-Ching; Rampal, Sanjay; WanNorAmalina, WMZ; NurAtifah, Ghazali; Verasahib, Khebir; Ong, Chia Ching; MohdAdib, MohdAidinniza; Chan, Yoke Fun

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is an important emerging pathogen causing large epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children. In Malaysia, since the first EV-A71 epidemic in 1997, recurrent cyclical epidemics have occurred every 2–3 years for reasons that remain unclear. We hypothesize that this cyclical pattern is due to changes in population immunity in children (measured as seroprevalence). Neutralizing antibody titers against EV-A71 were measured in 2,141 residual serum samples collected from children ≤12 years old between 1995 and 2012 to determine the seroprevalence of EV-A71. Reported national HFMD incidence was highest in children Malaysia is mainly due to the fall of population immunity accompanying the accumulation of susceptible children between epidemics. This study will impact the future planning, timing and target populations for vaccine programs. PMID:27010319

  17. Foot-and-mouth disease virus persists in the light zone of germinal centres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Juleff

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV is one of the most contagious viruses of animals and is recognised as the most important constraint to international trade in animals and animal products. Two fundamental problems remain to be understood before more effective control measures can be put in place. These problems are the FMDV "carrier state" and the short duration of immunity after vaccination which contrasts with prolonged immunity after natural infection. Here we show by laser capture microdissection in combination with quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemical analysis and corroborate by in situ hybridization that FMDV locates rapidly to, and is maintained in, the light zone of germinal centres following primary infection of naïve cattle. We propose that maintenance of non-replicating FMDV in these sites represents a source of persisting infectious virus and also contributes to the generation of long-lasting antibody responses against neutralising epitopes of the virus.

  18. Pancreatitis in hand-foot-and-mouth disease caused by enterovirus 71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Feng; Deng, Hui-Ling; Fu, Jia; Zhang, Yu; Wei, Jian-Qiang

    2016-02-14

    Some viruses, including certain members of the enterovirus genus, have been reported to cause pancreatitis, especially Coxsackie virus. However, no case of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) associated with pancreatitis has been reported so far. We here report a case of EV71-induced hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) presenting with pancreatitis in a 2-year-old girl. This is the first report of a patient with acute pancreatitis in HFMD caused by EV71. We treated the patient conservatively with nasogastric suction, intravenous fluid and antivirals. The patient's symptoms improved after 8 d, and recovered without complications. We conclude that EV71 can cause acute pancreatitis in HFMD, which should be considered in differential diagnosis, especially in cases of idiopathic pancreatitis.

  19. Risk factors of severe hand, foot and mouth disease complicated with cardiopulmonary collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunlan; Yibing, Cheng; Guo, Yanjun; Jin, Zhipeng; Cui, Yajie; Gu, Xue

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) complicated with cardiopulmonary collapse in children. In total, 176 children aged 6-45 months with severe HFMD from March 2013 to May 2014 were enrolled in the study and divided into two groups, one with cardiopulmonary collapse and the other without. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the risk factors for severe HFMD complicated with cardiopulmonary collapse. The univariate analysis showed that there was no significant correlation between age, body temperature, consciousness disorders, blood glucose level and severe HFMD complicated with cardiopulmonary collapse. The multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that vomiting, circulatory disturbance, enterovirus 71 infection, dysfunction of respiratory rhythm and high level of brain natriuretic peptide were five independent risk factors for severe HFMD complicated with cardiopulmonary collapse. Children with HFMD and the above five risk factors may be at risk for cardiopulmonary collapse and poor prognosis.

  20. VP1 protein of Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) impairs baculovirus surface display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, A; Maroniche, G A; Alfonso, V; Molinari, P; Taboga, O

    2013-07-01

    The Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes important economical losses in livestock farming. In order to develop a novel subunit vaccine against FMDV, we constructed recombinant baculoviruses that display the protein VP1 of FMDV on their surface, with either polar (fused to gp64) or nonpolar (fused to anchor membrane from VSV-G protein) distribution. Insect cells infected with the different recombinant baculoviruses expressed VP1 fusion protein to high levels. However, the recombinant VP1 protein was not carried by budded virions. Subcellular localization of VP1 revealed that the trafficking of the fusion protein to the cell plasma membrane was impaired. Our results suggest that VP1 contains cryptic domains that interfere with protein secretion and subsequent incorporation into budded baculoviruses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Isolation of foot-and-mouth disease virus specific bovine antibody fragments from phage display libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Joo; Lebreton, Françoise; Kaiser, Claude; Crucière, Catherine; Rémond, Michelle

    2004-03-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is an important veterinary pathogen which can cause widespread epidemics. Due to the high antigenic variability of FMDV, it is important to undertake mutation analysis under immunological pressure. To study the bovine antibody response at a molecular level, phage display technology was used to produce bovine anti-FMDV Fabs. CH1-VH chains with FMDV specific binding could be isolated after selection from a library made from vaccinated cattle. Though their involvement in the bovine immune response remains to be ascertained, it is planned to express the five different selected VH domains in bacterial or insect systems as sequence homologies with integrin beta6 chain could shed light on the basis of FMDV type receptor specificities.

  2. Topographic determinants of foot and mouth disease transmission in the UK 2001 epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keeling Matthew J

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key challenge for modelling infectious disease dynamics is to understand the spatial spread of infection in real landscapes. This ideally requires a parallel record of spatial epidemic spread and a detailed map of susceptible host density along with relevant transport links and geographical features. Results Here we analyse the most detailed such data to date arising from the UK 2001 foot and mouth epidemic. We show that Euclidean distance between infectious and susceptible premises is a better predictor of transmission risk than shortest and quickest routes via road, except where major geographical features intervene. Conclusion Thus, a simple spatial transmission kernel based on Euclidean distance suffices in most regions, probably reflecting the multiplicity of transmission routes during the epidemic.

  3. New concepts in median nail dystrophy, onychomycosis, and hand, foot, and mouth disease nail pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Nathan Y; Leung, Alexander K C; Metelitsa, Andrei I; Adams, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Nails are underutilized as diagnostic tools, despite being involved in many dermatologic conditions. This paper explores new concepts in the treatment of median nail dystrophy (MND), onychomycosis, and the nail pathology of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). A Pubmed database literature search was conducted for MND treatment, onychomycosis treatment, and HFMD nail pathology. Only papers published after January 2008 were reviewed. The results showed that 0.1% tacrolimus ointment can be an effective treatment for MND. Early studies on laser therapy indicate that it is a safe and efficacious treatment option for onychomycosis, compared to conventional oral antifungal agents. Vicks VapoRub (The Proctor & Gamble Company, Cincinnati, OH) is effective against onychomycosis and is a reasonable option in patients who choose to forgo conventional treatments. Lastly, there is evidence to support a correlation between HFMD and onychomadesis.

  4. A replication-competent foot-and-mouth disease virus expressing a luciferase reporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuquan; Perez-Martin, Eva; Juleff, Nick; Charleston, Bryan; Seago, Julian

    2017-09-01

    Bioluminescence is a powerful tool in the study of viral infection both in vivo and in vitro. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) has a small RNA genome with a limited tolerance to foreign RNA entities. There has been no success in making a reporter FMDV expressing a luciferase in infected cell culture supernatants. We report here for the first time a replication-competent FMDV encoding Nanoluciferase, named as Nano-FMDV. Nano-FMDV is genetically stable during serial passages in cells and exhibits growth kinetics and plaque morphology similar to its parental virus. There are applications for the use of Nano-FMDV such as real-time monitoring of FMDV replication in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Limb torsion and developmental regression for one month after hand, foot and mouth disease in an infant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Li-Fang; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Li, Dong-Xiao; Ding, Yuan; Jin, Ying; Song, Jin-Qing; Yang, Yan-Ling

    2016-05-01

    A one-year-old girl visited the hospital due to limb torsion and developmental regression for one month after hand, foot and mouth disease. At the age of 11 months, she visited a local hospital due to fever for 5 days and skin rash with frequent convulsions for 2 days and was diagnosed with severe hand, foot and mouth disease, viral encephalitis, and status epilepticus. Brain MRI revealed symmetric abnormal signals in the bilateral basal ganglia, bilateral thalamus, cerebral peduncle, bilateral cortex, and hippocampus. She was given immunoglobulin, antiviral drugs, and anticonvulsant drugs for 2 weeks, and the effect was poor. Blood and urine screening for inherited metabolic diseases were performed to clarify the etiology. The analysis of urine organic acids showed significant increases in glutaric acid and 3-hydroxyglutaric acid, which suggested glutaric aciduria type 1, but her blood glutarylcarnitine was normal, and free carnitine significantly decreased. After the treatment with low-lysine diets, L-carnitine, and baclofen for 1 month, the patient showed a significant improvement in symptoms. Hand, foot and mouth disease is a common viral infectious disease in children, and children with underlying diseases such as inherited metabolic diseases and immunodeficiency may experience serious complications. For children with hand, foot and mouth disease and unexplained encephalopathy, inherited metabolic diseases should be considered.

  6. Virological investigation of hand, foot, and mouth disease in a tertiary care center in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavithra M Vijayaraghavan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD remains a common problem in India, yet its etiology is largely unknown as diagnosis is based on clinical characteristics. There are very few laboratory-based molecular studies on HFMD outbreaks. Aim: The aim of this study was to characterize HFMD-related isolates by molecular techniques. Settings and Design: Between 2005 and 2008, during two documented HFMD outbreaks, 30 suspected HFMD cases presented at the Outpatient Unit of the Department of Dermatology, Christian Medical College (CMC, Vellore. Seventy-eight clinical specimens (swabs from throat, mouth, rectum, anus, buttocks, tongue, forearm, sole, and foot were received from these patients at the Department of Clinical Virology, CMC, for routine diagnosis of hand, foot, and mouth disease. Materials and Methods: Samples from these patients were cultured in Vero and rhabdomyosarcoma (RD cell lines. Isolates producing enterovirus-like cytopathogenic effect (CPE in cell culture were identified by a nested reverse transcription-based polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and sequenced. The nucleotide sequences were analyzed using the BioEdit sequence program. Homology searches were performed using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST algorithm. Statistical Analysis used: The statistical analysis was performed using Epi Info version 6.04b and Microsoft Excel 2002 (Microsoft Office XP. Results: Of the 30 suspected HFMD cases, only 17 (57% were laboratory confirmed and Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16 was identified as the etiological agent in all these cases. Conclusions: Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16 was identified as the virus that caused the HFMD outbreaks in Vellore between 2005 and 2008. Early confirmation of HFMD helps to initiate control measures to interrupt virus transmission. In the laboratory, classical diagnostic methods, culture and serological tests are being replaced by molecular techniques. Routine surveillance systems will help understand the

  7. STUDIES ON THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE VIRUS OF FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olitsky, Peter K.; Boëz, Louis

    1927-01-01

    The virus of foot-and-mouth disease exhibits a remarkable resistance to such bactericidal agents as the narcotic solvents (alcohol, ether, chloroform), or such antiseptics as phenol, bichloride of mercury, or cresol, as shown by tests made by others and ourselves. We have shown, however, that the resistance of the incitant to these chemicals is really masked. It is due to the fact that the reagents coagulate the proteins of the medium in which the virus is, as a rule, suspended. As a result the active agent is protected by the coagula which prevents direct contact with the chemicals. On the other hand, if advantage is taken of the periodic phenomenon attending such processes, and coagulation is prevented, the virus can then be brought under direct action of the antiseptics. Under these conditions, the incitant is more sensitive to destruction by the chemicals than is the living staphylococcus. As a corollary, the virus is destroyed as rapidly, or even more so, than are staphylococci by substances such as sodium hydrate (1 to 2 per cent solutions), or antiformin (1 per cent solution) which do not form coagula. We are therefore compelled to contradict the opinion that the extraordinary resistance to certain chemicals of the virus of foot-and-mouth disease, as it ordinarily occurs admixed with proteins, is an indication of its inanimate character. The results of a large series of experiments lead to the conclusion that of a number of antiseptics employed the sodium hydrate in 1 to 2 per cent solutions is an effective virucide. It is capable of killing the virus within 1 minute as shown by tests on cattle and guinea pigs. Furthermore, its effectiveness is not diminished even when the virulent material is admixed with cattle's urine, with manure, or with garden soil. The experimental evidence and the cheapness suggest its use in field practice as a disinfectant. PMID:19869292

  8. Spatial pattern of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes in North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiltawe Simwal Wungak

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to determine the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV serotypes circulating, the prevalence of FMDV serotypes, and the spatial distribution of FMDV among sedentary and pastoral cattle herds in the North-Central Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken, during which a total of 155 sera that tested positive for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD 3ABC non-structural protein antibodies were selected and screened for FMD structural protein serotypes, A, O, SAT 1, and SAT 2 using a solid-phase competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Epithelial tissue specimens were collected during outbreak investigations which were tested for FMD using an antigen capture ELISA for serotype A, O, SAT 1, and SAT 2. Results: An overall serotype-specific prevalence of 79.35 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 72.4-85.18 was recorded for serotype O, 65.2% (95% CI: 57.41-72.3 for serotype A, 52.9% (95% CI: 45.03-60.67 for SAT-2, and 33.55% (95% CI: 26.45-41.26 for SAT-1. Evidence of exposure to multiple FMDV serotypes showed that 12.26% of the sera samples had antibodies against four serotypes circulating, 30.97% had antibodies against three serotypes circulating, 22.58% had antibodies against two serotypes, and 17% showed exposure to only one serotype. Clinical specimens (epithelial tissue collected during outbreak investigations showed that serotype O has the highest proportion of 50% with serotype A - 25%; SAT 2 - 20.8%; and SAT 1 - 4.1%. Conclusion: The study detected diffuse and co-circulation of serotypes A, O, SAT1, and SAT2 within the study area, and hence the need for the appropriately matched multivalent vaccine is strongly advocated for FMD control in Nigeria.

  9. Laboratory capacity for diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease in Eastern Africa: implications for the progressive control pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namatovu, Alice; Wekesa, Sabenzia Nabalayo; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Background: Accurate diagnosis is pertinent to any disease control programme. If Eastern Africa is to work towards control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) using the Progressive Control Pathway for FMD (PCP-FMD) as a tool, then the capacity of national reference laboratories (NRLs) mandated to dia...

  10. Foot-and-mouth disease virus-associated abortion and vertical transmission following acute infection in cattle under natural conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, including domestic as well as more than 70 wild host species. During recent FMD outbreaks in India, spontaneous abortions were reported amongst FMD-affected and asymptomatic cows. T...

  11. Foot-and-mouth disease virus : the role of infection routes and species differences in the transmission of FMDV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo De Rueda Cabrera, C.

    2015-01-01

    ÁFoot-and-mouth disease is a contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals (e.g. cattle, sheep, pigs) and can cause severe economic losses to the farm animal industries. The aim of this thesis was to quantify underlying mechanisms regarding transmission of FMDV. With data from past animal

  12. Constitutively active IRF7/IRF3 fusion protein completely protects swine against Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) remains one of the most devastating livestock diseases around the world. Several serotype specific vaccine formulations exist but require about 5-7 days to induce protective immunity. Our previous studies have shown that a constitutively active fusion protein of porcine ...

  13. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus 2C Is a Hexameric AAA+ Protein with a Coordinated ATP Hydrolysis Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweeney, Trevor; Cisnetto, Valentina; Bose, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), a positive sense, single-stranded RNA virus, causes a highly contagious disease in cloven-hoofed livestock. Like other picornaviruses, FMDV has a conserved 2C protein assigned to the superfamily 3 helicases a group of AAA+ ATPases that has a predicted N...

  14. Control of foot-and-mouth disease by using replication-defective human adenoviruses to deliver vaccines and biotherapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most contagious viral diseases that can affect cloven-hoofed livestock and wild animals. Outbreaks of FMD have caused devastating economic losses and the slaughter of millions of animals in many regions of the world affecting the food chain and global devel...

  15. Genome sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O lineage ind-2001d collected in Vietnam in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in several countries in Asia and Africa and is considered one of the most important livestock diseases worldwide. Three serotypes of FMD virus (A, O and Asia1) contribute to endemicity in mainland Southeast Asia. In 2015, FMDV lineage Ind-2001 was detected for...

  16. Comparing effectiveness of regional and circular intervention zones in case of a foot-and-mouth disease outbreak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Dickey, Bradley F; Carpenter, Tim E

    In case of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) or other exotic disease outbreak, surveillance zones and infected areas are conventionally created as circles with their centroids at the known infected premises. Given the availability of geographic information systems (GIS), it is no longer difficult...

  17. Developing vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease and some other exotic viral diseases of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, David J; Taylor, Geraldine

    2011-10-12

    Vaccines remain the main tool for the control of livestock viral diseases that pose a serious threat to animal and occasionally human health, reduce food security, distort trade in animals and their products, and undermine agricultural development in poor countries. Globalization and climate change increase the likelihood for new patterns of emergence and spread of livestock viruses. Conventionally attenuated and killed virus products have had spectacular success, and recent examples include the global eradication of rinderpest and the control of bluetongue in the UK and northern Europe. However, in many cases, livestock vaccines could benefit from improvement in some properties (e.g. stability, speed of onset and duration of immunity, and breadth of cross-protection to different serotypes or strains) and in some cases are not available at all. Compared with human vaccines, uptake of livestock products is highly cost-sensitive and their use may also need to be compatible with post-vaccination screening methods to determine whether or not animals continue to be infected. Requirements and prospects for new or improved vaccines are described for some priority viral diseases with potential for transboundary spread, particularly for foot-and-mouth disease.

  18. QS-21 enhances the early antibody response to oil adjuvant foot-and-mouth disease vaccine in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çokçalışkan, Can; Türkoğlu, Tunçer; Sareyyüpoğlu, Beyhan; Uzunlu, Ergün; Babak, Ayca; Özbilge, Banu B; Gülyaz, Veli

    2016-07-01

    One of the most important tools against foot-and-mouth disease, a highly contagious and variable viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, is vaccination. However, the effectiveness of foot-and-mouth disease vaccines on slowing the spread of the disease is questionable. In contrast, high potency vaccines providing early protection may solve issues with the spread of the disease, escaping mutants, and persistency. To increase the potency of the vaccine, additives such as saponin and aluminium hydroxide are used. However, the use of saponin with an oil adjuvant is not common and is sometimes linked to toxicity. QS-21, which is less toxic than Quil A, has been presented as an alternative for use with saponin. In this study, the addition of QS-21 to a commercially available foot-and-mouth disease water-in-oil-in-water emulsion vaccine was evaluated in cattle. After vaccination, serum samples were collected periodically over 3 months. Sera of the QS-21 and normal oil vaccine groups were compared via serum virus neutralization antibody titre and liquid phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibody titre. The results showed that there was a significant early antibody increase in the QS-21 group. Strong early virus neutralizing antibody response will be useful for emergency or ring vaccinations against foot-and-mouth disease in target animals.

  19. Age patterns and transmission characteristics of hand, foot and mouth disease in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijun Zhao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD has circulated in China and caused yearly outbreak. To understand the transmission of the disease and to assess the spatial variation in cases reported, we examined age-specific transmission characteristics and reporting rates of HFMD for 31 provinces in mainland China. Methods We first analyzed incidence spatial patterns and age-specific incidence patterns using dataset from 2008 to 2012. Transmission characteristics were estimated based on catalytic model. Reporting rates were estimated using a simple mass action model from “Time Series Susceptible Infectious Recovered” (TSIR modeling. Results We found age-specific spatial incidence patterns: age-specific proportions of HFMD cases varied geographically in China; larger case percentage was among children of 3–5 years old in the northern part of China and was among children of 0–2 years old in the southern part of China. Our analysis results revealed that: 1 reporting rates and transmission characteristics including the average age at infection, the force of infection and the basic reproduction number varied geographically in China; 2 patterns of the age-specific force of infection for 30 provinces were similar to that of childhood infections in developed countries; the age group that had the highest infection risk was 3–5 years old in 30 provinces, and 10–14 years old in Tibet; 3 a large difference in HFMD transmission existed between northwest region and southeast region; 4 transmission characteristics determined incidence patterns: the higher the disease transmission in a province, the earlier the annual seasonality started and the more case percentage was among children 0–2 years old and less among 3–5 years old. Conclusion Because HFMD has higher transmission than most childhood infections reported, high effective vaccine coverage is needed to substantially reduce HFMD incidence. Control measures before the vaccine

  20. [Clinical stages and outcomes of severe cases on hand, foot and mouth disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Jin, Y; Sun, J L; Wang, Y X; Wang, X J; Fu, X Q; Miao, Z P; Lyu, J

    2017-05-10

    Objective: To understand the characteristics and relation of clinical stage and outcome of severe cases on hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and to establish the evaluation method for understanding severity of this disease. Methods: According to factors as geographical location, economic and epidemic levels, five provinces (Henan, Shandong, Yunnan, Zhejiang and Sichuan provinces) were selected. Reported severe cases of HFMD from the National Notifiable Diseases Reporting System were selected randomly in the five provinces. Basic epidemiological information, clinical data, and pathogen testing results in the involved hospitals were collected. Clinical stages on all the patients were decided in accordance with"the clinical expert consensus on diagnosis and treatment for severe case of enterovirus type 71 (EV71) infections (2011 edition)" . Data were analyzed using SPSS software 18.0 and other epidemiological methods. Results: A total of657 severe HFMD cases were investigated, with 326 cases positive of EV71, accounting for 91.3% (326/357) among all the laboratory-confirmed cases. Of the 657 cases, 542 cases (82.5%, 95%CI: 79.4%-85.3%) were diagnosed as in stage 2 (with nervous system involvement), 99 cases (15.1%, 95%CI: 12.4%-18.0%) in stage 3 (early phase of function failure on heart and lung), and 16 cases (2.4%, 95%CI: 1.4%-3.9%) were in stage 4 (function failure of heart and lung). 11 cases (1.7%, 95%CI: 0.9%-3.0%) were with squeal when discharged from hospital with 8 cases (1.2%, 95%CI: 0.6%-2.3%) died. When comparing the proportions among stage 2, stage 3 and stage 4, significant differences were found between age groups (χ(2)=22.632, P=0.012). The younger the patient was the lower the proportions of stage 2 and the more proportion of stage 3 appeared. When comparing the proportions of clinical stages among the five provinces, significant differences (χ(2)=41.481, P=0.000) were noticed. Proportions of different clinical stages in gender, ethnicity

  1. Mechanisms of foot-and-mouth disease virus tropism inferred from differential tissue gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J Zhu

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV targets specific tissues for primary infection, secondary high-titer replication (e.g. foot and mouth where it causes typical vesicular lesions and long-term persistence at some primary replication sites. Although integrin αVβ6 receptor has been identified as primary FMDV receptors in animals, their tissue distribution alone fails to explain these highly selective tropism-driven events. Thus, other molecular mechanisms must play roles in determining this tissue specificity. We hypothesized that differences in certain biological activities due to differential gene expression determine FMDV tropism and applied whole genome gene expression profiling to identify genes differentially expressed between FMDV-targeted and non-targeted tissues in terms of supporting primary infection, secondary replication including vesicular lesions, and persistence. Using statistical and bioinformatic tools to analyze the differential gene expression, we identified mechanisms that could explain FMDV tissue tropism based on its association with differential expression of integrin αVβ6 heterodimeric receptor (FMDV receptor, fibronectin (ligand of the receptor, IL-1 cytokines, death receptors and the ligands, and multiple genes in the biological pathways involved in extracellular matrix turnover and interferon signaling found in this study. Our results together with reported findings indicate that differences in (1 FMDV receptor availability and accessibility, (2 type I interferon-inducible immune response, and (3 ability to clear virus infected cells via death receptor signaling play roles in determining FMDV tissue tropism and the additional increase of high extracellular matrix turnover induced by FMDV infection, likely via triggering the signaling of highly expressed IL-1 cytokines, play a key role in the pathogenesis of vesicular lesions.

  2. Serosurveillance of wild deer and wild boar after the epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease in the Netherlands in 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.W.; Dekker, A.; Dekkers, L.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Blood samples from 140 wild deer and 208 wild boar shot in the aftermath of the epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease in the Netherlands in 2001 were examined for antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus. They were all negative

  3. Serological Evidence Indicates that Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype O, C and SAT1 are most Dominant in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekleghiorghis, T.; Moormann, R.J.M.; Weerdmeester, K.; Dekker, A.

    2014-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Eritrea and in most parts of Africa. To be able to control FMD using vaccination, information on the occurrence of various foot-and-mouth disease serotypes in Eritrea is needed. In this cross-sectional study, 212 sera samples were collected from FMD

  4. Recombinant human adenovirus-5 expressing capsid proteins of Indian vaccine strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus elicits effective antibody response in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recombinant adenovirus-5 vectored foot-and-mouth disease constructs (Ad5- FMD) were made for three Indian vaccine virus serotypes O,A and Asia 1. Constructs co-expressing foot-and- mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid and viral 3C protease sequences, were evaluated for their ability to induce a neutral...

  5. Laboratory capacity for diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease in Eastern Africa: implications for the progressive control pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namatovu, Alice; Wekesa, Sabenzia Nabalayo; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Background: Accurate diagnosis is pertinent to any disease control programme. If Eastern Africa is to work towards control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) using the Progressive Control Pathway for FMD (PCP-FMD) as a tool, then the capacity of national reference laboratories (NRLs) mandated......%) participated in proficiency testing for FMD. Four (31%) laboratories had no quality management systems (QMS) in place and where QMS existed it was still deficient, thus, none of the laboratories had achieved accreditation for FMD diagnosis. Conclusions: This study indicates that FMD diagnostic capacity...... to diagnose FMD should match this task. This study assessed the laboratory capacity of 14 NRLs of the Eastern Africa Region Laboratory Network member countries using a semi-structured questionnaire and retrospective data from the World Reference Laboratory for FMD annual reports and Genbank (R) through...

  6. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype O Phylodynamics: Genetic Variability Associated with Epidemiological Factors in Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brito, B. P.; Perez, A. M.; Jamal, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most challenging aspects of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) control is the high genetic variability of the FMD virus (FMDV). In endemic settings such as the Indian subcontinent, this variability has resulted in the emergence of pandemic strains that have spread widely and caused devastating...... outbreaks in disease-free areas. In countries trying to control and eradicate FMD using vaccination strategies, the constantly evolving and wide diversity of field FMDV strains is an obstacle for identifying vaccine strains that are successful in conferring protection against infection with field viruses....... Consequently, quantitative knowledge on the factors that are associated with variability of the FMDV is prerequisite for preventing and controlling FMD in the Indian subcontinent. A hierarchical linear model was used to assess the association between time, space, host species and the genetic variability...

  7. Cell culture adaptation mutations in foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A capsid proteins: implications for receptor interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study we describe the adaptive changes fixed on the capsid of several foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A strains during propagation in cell monolayers. Viruses passaged extensively in three cell lines (BHK-21, LFBK and IB-RS-2), consistently gained several positively charged amino acids...

  8. Differentiating infection from vaccination in foot-and-mouth-disease: evaluation of an ELISA based on recombinant 3ABC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruderer, U.; Swam, H.; Haas, B.; Visser, N.; Brocchi, E.; Grazioli, S.; Esterhuysen, J.J.; Vosloo, W.; Forsyth, M.; Aggarwal, N.; Cox, S.; Armstrong, R.; Anderson, J.

    2004-01-01

    Recent devastating outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Europe have reopened the discussion about the adequacy of the non-vaccination strategy implemented by the EU in 1991. Here we describe the evaluation of a new commercially available test kit for the discrimination between vaccination

  9. 76 FR 44503 - Availability of a Risk Analysis Evaluating the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Status of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... risk analysis may be viewed on the Regulations.gov Web site or in our reading room (see ADDRESSES above... reading room). You may request paper copies of the risk analysis by calling or writing to the person... Analysis Evaluating the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Status of Japan AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...

  10. Different infection parameters between dairy cows and calves after an infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orsel, K.; Dekker, A.; Stegeman, J.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Bouma, A.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical observations of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus infection in dairy cows and calves were different. This raised the question whether they would also differ with respect to virus excretion and transmission. Data were available from transmission experiments carried out with groups of

  11. Proper Quality Control of Formulated Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccines in Countries with Prophylactic Vaccination is Necessary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamal, S.M.; Shah, S.I.; Ali, Q.; Mehmood, A.; Afzal, M.; Dekker, A.

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is considered as an important tool to control foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). A good quality vaccine containing relevant serotypes and matching strains is a pre-requisite for vaccination to be effective. The present study investigated the quality of different brands of FMD vaccine

  12. An atypical course of coxsackievirus A6 associated hand, foot and mouth disease in extremely low birth weight preterm twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruning, Andrea H. L.; van der Sanden, Sabine M. G.; ten Hoedt, Amber E.; Wolthers, Katja C.; van Kaam, Anton H.; Pajkrt, Dasja

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) associated hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has reportedly increased since 2008 with sometimes severe complications. We here describe an atypical course of CV-A6-associated HFMD in extremely low birth weight twins. The CV-A6-strains are genetically

  13. Epidemiology of Foot and Mouth Disease in Ethiopia: a Retrospective Analysis of District Level Outbreaks, 2007–2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jemberu, W.T.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Sahle, M.; Siraw, B.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the incidence, distribution, risk factors, and causal serotypes of foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in Ethiopia based on 5 years of retrospective outbreak data (September 2007 until August 2012). District level outbreak data were collected from 115 randomly

  14. Epidemiology of Foot and Mouth Disease in Ethiopia : a Retrospective Analysis of District Level Outbreaks, 2007-2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jemberu, W T; Mourits, M C M; Sahle, M; Siraw, B; Vernooij, J C M; Hogeveen, H

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the incidence, distribution, risk factors, and causal serotypes of foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in Ethiopia based on 5 years of retrospective outbreak data (September 2007 until August 2012). District level outbreak data were collected from 115 randomly

  15. Prevalence of Antibodies Against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Cattle in Kasese and Bushenyi Districts in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mwiine, F. N.; Ayebazibwe, C.; Olaho-Mukani, W.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and serotype-specificity of the circulating antibodies against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) in cattle in K asese and Bushenyi districts in Uganda. A total of 309 serum samples were collected and tested for antibodies against...

  16. Assembly and characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus empty capsid particles expressed within mammalian cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullberg, Maria; Muszynski, Bartosz; Organtini, Lindsey J.

    2013-01-01

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) structural protein precursor, P1-2A, is cleaved by the virus-encoded 3C protease (3Cpro) into the capsid proteins VP0, VP1 and VP3 (and 2A). In some systems, it is difficult to produce large amounts of these processed capsid proteins since 3Cpro can be toxic...

  17. Infection dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle following intra-nasopharyngeal inoculation or contact exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the purpose of developing an improved experimental model for studies of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in cattle, three different experimental systems based on natural or simulated-natural virus exposure were compared under standardized experimental conditions. Antemortem infecti...

  18. Heparan Sulfate-Binding Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Enters Cells Via Caveolae-Mediated Endocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) utilizes different cell surface macromolecules to facilitate infection of cultured cells. Virus which is virulent for susceptible animals infects cells via four members of the alpha V subclass of cellular integrins. In contrast, tissue culture adaptation of some...

  19. Characterization of a chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus bearing bovine rhinitis B virus leader proteinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our recent study has shown that bovine rhinovirus type 2 (BRV2), a new member of the Aphthovirus genus, shares many motifs and sequence similarities with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Despite low sequence conservation (36percent amino acid identity) and N- and C-terminus folding differences,...

  20. Genome Sequence of Coxsackievirus A6, Isolated during a Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease Outbreak in Finland in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterback, Riikka; Koskinen, Satu; Merilahti, Pirjo; Pursiheimo, Juha-Pekka; Blomqvist, Soile; Roivainen, Merja; Laiho, Asta; Susi, Petri; Waris, Matti

    2014-10-16

    Reports of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) outbreaks caused by coxsackievirus A6 have increased worldwide after the report of the first outbreak in Finland in 2008. The complete genome of the first outbreak strain from a vesicle fluid specimen was determined. Copyright © 2014 Österback et al.

  1. Serotype Specificity of Antibodies against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Cattle in Selected Districts in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mwiine, F.N.; Ayebazibwe, C.; Olaho-Mukani, W.

    2010-01-01

    Uganda had an unusually large number of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in 2006, and all clinical reports were in cattle. A serological investigation was carried out to confirm circulating antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) by ELISA for antibodies against non-structural......Uganda had an unusually large number of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in 2006, and all clinical reports were in cattle. A serological investigation was carried out to confirm circulating antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) by ELISA for antibodies against non...... antibodies. High prevalences of antibodies against non-structural proteins and structural proteins of FMDV serotype O were demonstrated in herds with typical visible clinical signs of FMD, while prevalences were low in herds without clinical signs of FMD. Antibody titres were higher against serotype O than...... against serotypes SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3 in the sera investigated for serotype-specific antibodies. Only FMDV serotype O virus was isolated from one probang sample. This study shows that the majority of the FMD outbreaks in 2006 in the region studied were caused by FMDV serotype O; however, there was also...

  2. 9 CFR 94.1 - Regions where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists; importations prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., compartment, or container with a new serially numbered seal; and, if any member of a ship's crew breaks a seal...-charge, or certification from a foreign government that the original seal was removed and the new seal... of the Treasury that: (1) Rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists in all regions of the world...

  3. Quantification of foot and mouth disease virus excretion and transmission within groups of lambs with and without vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orsel, K.; Dekker, A.; Bouma, A.; Stegeman, J.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    Sheep are well known to be susceptible for foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV), but it is unknown whether the infection can spread and persist in a sheep population. We therefore quantified virus transmission by performing experiments with FMD virus strain O/NET/2001 in groups of lambs. We used six

  4. Evaluation of Strategies to Control a Potential Outbreak of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda C. Dórea

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To minimize the potential consequences of an introduction of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD in Europe, European Union (EU member states are required to present a contingency plan. This study used a simulation model to study potential outbreak scenarios in Sweden and evaluate the best control strategies. The model was informed by the Swedish livestock structure using herd information from cattle, pig, and small ruminant holdings in the country. The contact structure was based on animal movement data and studies investigating the movements between farms of veterinarians, service trucks, and other farm visitors. All scenarios of outbreak control included depopulation of detected herds, 3 km protection and 10 km surveillance zones, movement tracing, and 3 days national standstill. The effect of availability of surveillance resources, i.e., number of field veterinarians per day, and timeliness of enforcement of interventions, was assessed. With the estimated currently available resources, an FMD outbreak in Sweden is expected to be controlled (i.e., last infected herd detected within 3 weeks of detection in any evaluated scenario. The density of farms in the area where the epidemic started would have little impact on the time to control the outbreak, but spread in high density areas would require more surveillance resources, compared to areas of lower farm density. The use of vaccination did not result in a reduction in the expected number of infected herds. Preemptive depopulation was able to reduce the number of infected herds in extreme scenarios designed to test a combination of worst-case conditions of virus introduction and spread, but at the cost of doubling the number of herds culled. This likely resulted from a combination of the small outbreaks predicted by the spread model, and the high efficacy of the basic control measures evaluated, under the conditions of the Swedish livestock industry, and considering the assumed control

  5. Patterns, risk factors and characteristics of reported and perceived foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Mwiine, Frank N.

    2010-01-01

    Patterns of outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Uganda were elucidated from spatial and temporal retrospective data retrieved from monthly reports from District Veterinary Officers (DVOs) to the central administration for the years spanning 2001–2008. An assessment of perceived FMD...... occurrence, risk factors and the associated characteristics was made based on semi-structured questionnaires administered to the DVOs. During this period, a total of 311 FMD outbreaks were reported in 56 (70%) out of Uganda’s 80 districts. The number of reported FMD outbreaks changed over time...... and by geographical regions. Occurrence of FMD was significantly associated with the dry season months (p = 0.0346), the time when animals movements are more frequent. The average number of FMD outbreaks was higher for some sub-counties adjacent to national parks than for other sub-counties, whilst proximity...

  6. Statistical monitoring of the hand, foot and mouth disease in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingnan; Kang, Yicheng; Yang, Yang; Qiu, Peihua

    2015-09-01

    In a period starting around 2007, the Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) became wide-spreading in China, and the Chinese public health was seriously threatened. To prevent the outbreak of infectious diseases like HFMD, effective disease surveillance systems would be especially helpful to give signals of disease outbreaks as early as possible. Statistical process control (SPC) charts provide a major statistical tool in industrial quality control for detecting product defectives in a timely manner. In recent years, SPC charts have been used for disease surveillance. However, disease surveillance data often have much more complicated structures, compared to the data collected from industrial production lines. Major challenges, including lack of in-control data, complex seasonal effects, and spatio-temporal correlations, make the surveillance data difficult to handle. In this article, we propose a three-step procedure for analyzing disease surveillance data, and our procedure is demonstrated using the HFMD data collected during 2008-2009 in China. Our method uses nonparametric longitudinal data and time series analysis methods to eliminate the possible impact of seasonality and temporal correlation before the disease incidence data are sequentially monitored by a SPC chart. At both national and provincial levels, our proposed method can effectively detect the increasing trend of disease incidence rate before the disease becomes wide-spreading. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.

  7. Challenges and prospects for the control of foot-and-mouth disease: an African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maree FF

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Francois F Maree,1,2 Christopher J Kasanga,3, Katherine A Scott,1 Pamela A Opperman,1,2 Melanie Chitray,1,2, Abraham K Sangula,4 Raphael Sallu,3 Yona Sinkala,5 Philemon N Wambura,3 Donald P King,6 David J Paton,6 Mark M Rweyemamu,3 1Transboundary Animal Diseases Programme, Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Agricultural Research Council, Onderstepoort, Pretoria, South Africa; 2Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agricultural and Natural Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; 3Southern African Centre for Infectious Diseases Surveillance, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania; 4Foot-and-Mouth Disease Laboratory, Embakasi, Nairobi, Kenya; 5Department of Disease Control, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia; 6The Pirbright Institute, Pirbright, Surrey, UK Abstract: The epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD in Africa is unique in the sense that six of the seven serotypes of FMD viruses (Southern African Territories [SAT] 1, SAT2, SAT3, A, O, and C, with the exception of Asia-1, have occurred in the last decade. Due to underreporting of FMD, the current strains circulating throughout sub-Saharan Africa are in many cases unknown. For SAT1, SAT2, and serotype A viruses, the genetic diversity is reflected in antigenic variation, and indications are that vaccine strains may be needed for each topotype. This has serious implications for control using vaccines and for choice of strains to include in regional antigen banks. The epidemiology is further complicated by the fact that SAT1, SAT2, and SAT3 viruses are maintained and spread by wildlife, persistently infecting African buffalo in particular. Although the precise mechanism of transmission of FMD from buffalo to cattle is not well understood, it is facilitated by direct contact between these two species. Once cattle are infected they may maintain SAT infections without the further involvement of buffalo. No

  8. Moving towards the global control of foot and mouth disease: an opportunity for donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, S; Le Gall, F; Belton, D; Evans, B; François, J L; Murray, G; Sheesley, D; Vandersmissen, A; Yoshimura, S

    2009-12-01

    Livestock contributes significantly to the world economy. However, animal diseases are still a major constraint on economic growth, the reduction of poverty and food security. Among the most significant diseases is foot and mouth disease (FMD), a highly contagious, multi-species animal disease with a devastating impact on national economies and trade. Less obvious is the severe constraint that FMD places on both development and the reduction of poverty in developing countries where this disease is endemic. As a result of its global implications and the high costs that it imposes on society, FMD is an infectious disease whose control and prevention are recognised as being a global public good. Moving towards the global control of FMD should be considered a priority for donors, but will require long-term commitment from all parties, strong political will from governments and concerted financial support from donors. Areas of intervention must fall within the framework of programmes developed by international organisations, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), through the FAO/OIE Global Framework for the Progressive Control of FMD and Other Transboundary Animal Diseases, as well as the disease control programmes of the regions concerned. Such a goal should specifically focus on analytical work (micro-economic impact and cost-benefit analyses of FMD at the household level and on the poor), research, surveillance networks, communication, monitoring and evaluation, and continuous strengthening of Veterinary Services.

  9. Inoculation of Swine with Foot-and-Mouth Disease SAP-Mutant Virus Induces Early Protection against Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-San Segundo, Fayna; Weiss, Marcelo; Pérez-Martín, Eva; Dias, Camila C.; Grubman, Marvin J.; de los Santos, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) leader proteinase (Lpro) cleaves itself from the viral polyprotein and cleaves the translation initiation factor eIF4G. As a result, host cell translation is inhibited, affecting the host innate immune response. We have demonstrated that Lpro is also associated with degradation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), a process that requires Lpro nuclear localization. Additionally, we reported that disruption of a conserved protein domain within the Lpro coding sequen...

  10. Attenuation of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus by Engineered Viral Polymerase Fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Devendra K; Diaz-San Segundo, Fayna; Campagnola, Grace; Keith, Anna; Schafer, Elizabeth A; Kloc, Anna; de Los Santos, Teresa; Peersen, Olve; Rieder, Elizabeth

    2017-08-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) (3Dpol) catalyzes viral RNA synthesis. Its characteristic low fidelity and absence of proofreading activity allow FMDV to rapidly mutate and adapt to dynamic environments. In this study, we used the structure of FMDV 3Dpol in combination with previously reported results from similar picornaviral polymerases to design point mutations that would alter replication fidelity. In particular, we targeted Trp237 within conserved polymerase motif A because of the low reversion potential inherent in the single UGG codon. Using biochemical and genetic tools, we show that the replacement of tryptophan 237 with phenylalanine imparts higher fidelity, but replacements with isoleucine and leucine resulted in lower-fidelity phenotypes. Viruses containing these W237 substitutions show in vitro growth kinetics and plaque morphologies similar to those of the wild-type (WT) A24 Cruzeiro strain in BHK cells, and both high- and low-fidelity variants retained fitness during coinfection with the wild-type virus. The higher-fidelity W237F (W237FHF) mutant virus was more resistant to the mutagenic nucleoside analogs ribavirin and 5-fluorouracil than the WT virus, whereas the lower-fidelity W237I (W237ILF) and W237LLF mutant viruses exhibited lower ribavirin resistance. Interestingly, the variant viruses showed heterogeneous and slightly delayed growth kinetics in primary porcine kidney cells, and they were significantly attenuated in mouse infection experiments. These data demonstrate, for a single virus, that either increased or decreased RdRp fidelity attenuates virus growth in animals, which is a desirable feature for the development of safer and genetically more stable vaccine candidates.IMPORTANCE Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is the most devastating disease affecting livestock worldwide. Here, using structural and biochemical analyses, we have identified FMDV 3Dpol mutations that affect polymerase fidelity

  11. Decision-making for foot-and-mouth disease control: Objectives matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probert, William J. M.; Shea, Katriona; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J.; Runge, Michael C.; Carpenter, Tim E.; Durr, Salome; Garner, M. Graeme; Harvey, Neil; Stevenson, Mark A.; Webb, Colleen T.; Werkman, Marleen; Tildesley, Michael J.; Ferrari, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Formal decision-analytic methods can be used to frame disease control problems, the first step of which is to define a clear and specific objective. We demonstrate the imperative of framing clearly-defined management objectives in finding optimal control actions for control of disease outbreaks. We illustrate an analysis that can be applied rapidly at the start of an outbreak when there are multiple stakeholders involved with potentially multiple objectives, and when there are also multiple disease models upon which to compare control actions. The output of our analysis frames subsequent discourse between policy-makers, modellers and other stakeholders, by highlighting areas of discord among different management objectives and also among different models used in the analysis. We illustrate this approach in the context of a hypothetical foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreak in Cumbria, UK using outputs from five rigorously-studied simulation models of FMD spread. We present both relative rankings and relative performance of controls within each model and across a range of objectives. Results illustrate how control actions change across both the base metric used to measure management success and across the statistic used to rank control actions according to said metric. This work represents a first step towards reconciling the extensive modelling work on disease control problems with frameworks for structured decision making.

  12. Financial Impacts of Foot-and-Mouth Disease at Village and National Levels in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nampanya, S; Khounsy, S; Abila, R; Young, J R; Bush, R D; Windsor, P A

    2016-10-01

    To assist policies on Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) control in Laos and the Mekong region, the financial impact of recent outbreaks at village and national levels was examined. Village-level impacts were derived from recent research on financial losses due to FMD per smallholder household and number of households with FMD-affected livestock in the village. National-level impacts of FMD were determined from examination of 2011-2013 FMD reported to the Lao Department of Livestock and Fisheries (DLF), with the 2011 epidemic reported separately due to the large number and size of outbreaks of FMD in that year. Estimates of the national financial impact of FMD were based on (i) total FMD financial losses at the village level and (ii) the costs of FMD responses and other related costs at the DLF, provincial and district levels where FMD was reported, but excluding the costs of revenue forgone. A Monte Carlo simulation was utilized to account for likelihood of FMD over- and under-reporting. Foot-and-mouth disease was recorded in four provinces of Phonsaly, Bokeo, Xayyabouli and Champasak in three consecutive years from 2011 to 2013. However, the FMD epidemic in 2011 was more widely distributed and involved 414 villages in 14 provinces, with thousands of cases of morbidity in cattle and buffalo and some mortalities. The estimated financial losses due to FMD in 2011 were USD 30 881(±23 176) at the village level and USD 13 512 291 at the national level based on the number of villages with FMD outbreaks reported. However, when the likelihood of FMD under-reporting was accounted for, the estimated financial losses at the national level could potentially increase to USD 102 094 464 (±52 147 261), being almost 12% of the estimated farm gate value of the national large ruminant herd. These findings confirm that FMD causes substantial financial impacts in villages and to the national economy of Laos, providing justification for sustained investments in FMD control

  13. Molecular characterization of serotype A foot-and-mouth disease viruses circulating in Vietnam in 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Van Phan; Nguyen, Tung; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Ko, Young-Joon; Lee, Hyang-Sim; Nguyen, Van Cam; Mai, Thuy Duong; Do, Thi Hoa; Kim, Su-Mi; Cho, In-Soo; Park, Jong-Hyeon

    2010-07-29

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a major cause of endemic outbreaks in Vietnam in recent years. In this work, six serotype A foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV), collected from endemic outbreaks during January and February of 2009 in four different provinces in Vietnam, were genetically characterized for their complete genome sequences. Genetic analysis based on the complete viral genome sequence indicated that they were closely related to each other and shared 99.0-99.8% amino acid (aa) identity. Genetic and deduced aa analysis of the capsid coding gene VP1 showed that the six Vietnamese strains were all classified into the genotype IX from a total of 10 major genotypes worldwide, sharing 98.1-100% aa identity each other. They were most closely related to the type A strains recently isolated in Laos (A/LAO/36/2003, A/LAO/1/2006, A/LAO/6/2006, A/LAO/7/2006, and A/LAO/8/2006), Thailand (A/TAI/2/1997 and A/TAI/118/1987), and Malaysia (A/MAY/2/2002), sharing 88.3-95.5% nucleotide (nt) identities. In contrast, Vietnamese type A strains showed low nt identities with the two old type A FMDVs, isolated in 1960 in Thailand (a15thailand iso43) and in 1975 in the Philippines (aphilippines iso50), ranging from 77.3 to 80.9% nt identity. A multiple alignment based on the deduced amino acid sequences of the capsid VP1 coding gene of type A FMDV revealed three amino acid substitutions between Vietnamese strains and the strains of other Southeast Asian countries (Laos, Thailand, Malaysia, and the Philippines). Alanine was replaced by valine at residue 24, asparagine by arginine at residue 85, and serine by threonine at residue 196. Furthermore, type A FMDV strains recently isolated in Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, and Malaysia all have one amino acid deletion at residue 140 of the capsid VP1 protein compared with the two old type A FMDV strains from Thailand and the Philippines as well as most other type A representatives worldwide. This article is the first to report on the

  14. Control of the deliberate spread of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsang, Attila; Frentzel, Hendrik; Kulcsár, Gábor; Soós, Tibor

    2013-09-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most feared of transboundary animal diseases. Accidental or deliberate release of the causative agent can have both direct and indirect effects that result in massive economic losses and disruption. The direct effects of an FMD outbreak include immediate losses to agricultural production and disruption of local economies, while the indirect effects are mainly related to disease control measures such as restriction of market access at local and global levels and the high costs of disease control. To improve the capacity of the European Union (EU) to counter animal bioterrorism threats, AniBioThreat was launched with a special focus on threats to living animals, feed, and food of animal origin. As part of this project, several zoonotic or animal pathogenic agents are considered from different perspectives. FMD virus was selected as one agent to be scrutinized because it is highly contagious and an outbreak can have a severe economic impact. Ways to fight a deliberate outbreak can be demonstrated through the example of FMD. In this article, the virology and epidemiology of FMD virus are discussed with special attention to the related law enforcement aspects.

  15. A literature review and case report of hand, foot and mouth disease in an immunocompetent adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omaña-Cepeda, Carlos; Martínez-Valverde, Andrea; del Mar Sabater-Recolons, María; Jané-Salas, Enric; Marí-Roig, Antonio; López-López, José

    2016-03-15

    To report an uncommon case of hand, foot and mouth disease, (HFMD) in an immunocompetent adult; a highly infectious disease, characterized by the appearance of vesicles on the mouth, hands and feet, associated with coxsackieviruses and enteroviruses; including a literature review. A 23 year Caucasian male with no medical or surgical history, no allergies, was not taking any medication and smoked ten cigarettes a day, suffering from discomfort in the oral cavity; itching, burning and pain when swallowing associated with small erythematous lesions located on the hard palate, and small ulcers in tonsillar pillars and right buccal mucosa. Mild fever of 37.8 °C and general malaise. The patient reported he had had contact with a child diagnosed with HFMD. From his background and symptoms, the patient was diagnosed with HFMD. Following symptomatic treatment, the symptoms remitted in 7 days. A literature review in MEDLINE (PubMed). The inclusion criteria were for studies on humans over the last 5 years, using the keywords HFMD. We found 925 articles, which were subsequently reduced to 52 documents after applying the inclusion criteria. Maculopapular lesions were found on hands and feet. Dentists may have a key role diagnosing the disease. A surveillance system to predict future outbreaks, encourage early diagnosis, put appropriate public health measures in place and research vaccine development is vitally important in order to control the disease.

  16. Poverty impacts of foot-and-mouth disease and the poverty reduction implications of its control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, B D; Rich, K M

    2007-02-17

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) remains one of the most important livestock diseases of the world, given its highly infectious nature, its broad economic impacts on animal wellbeing and productivity, and its implications for successful access to domestic and export markets for livestock and products. The impacts of the disease vary markedly between developed and developing countries, and also within many developing countries. These differences in impact shape some markedly heterogeneous incentives for FMD control and eradication, which become of particular importance when setting priorities for poverty reduction in developing countries. Some consider that the benefits from FMD control accrue only to the better off in such societies and, as such, may not be a priority for investments targeted at poverty reduction. But is that view justified? Others see the control of FMD as a major development opportunity in a globalised environment. In this paper, Brian Perry and Karl Rich summarise the differential impacts of FMD and its control, and link these findings with the growing understanding of how the control of this globally important disease may contribute to the processes of pro-poor growth in certain countries of the developing world.

  17. Implementation of an HACCP model in foot and mouth disease control programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gelderen, C J; Durrieu, M; Schudel, A A

    2015-12-01

    The organisation and structure of the official Veterinary Services (OVS) are designed to meet a specific aim--the health certification of animal health, welfare and food safety in the production and processing stage. Disease prevention and control calls for programmes and projects that, depending on the characteristics of each disease, may involve any branch of the OVS, from the laboratory to field activities. For the purpose of this work, the model used is that of a country that is 'free from foot and mouth disease with vaccination' in accordance with the conditions stipulated in Chapter 8.8. of the World Organisation for Animal Health Terrestrial Animal Health Code. These conditions state that, to maintain this health status, a programme of monitoring and continuous control of the relevant variables must be implemented. This is achieved by applying good practice and identifying the critical control points in all processes, using a checklist that simplifies the task. The system that is developed can also serve as a guide for internal or external programme audits.

  18. Control of foot and mouth disease: the experience of the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa Melo, E; López, A

    2002-12-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) was first recognised in South America in 1870, almost simultaneously in the province of Buenos Aires (Argentina), in the central region of Chile, in Uruguay, in southern Brazil and coincidentally, on the northeastern coast of the United States of America. The epidemiology of the disease was unknown and no government action was taken following the initial outbreaks. This resulted in the disease spreading to other areas of Chile, as well as to Peru, Bolivia and Paraguay, reaching Venezuela and Colombia in the 1950s, and Ecuador in 1961. The entire continent was affected in the 1960s when national FMD control programmes were initiated, with the exception of Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana and Patagonia. In the 1970s, steps were taken to implement a regional control and eradication strategy in view of the impact of production and trade on the persistence of the virus. The Plan Hemisférico de Erradicación de la Fiebre Aftosa (PHEFA: Hemispheric FMD Eradication Plan), public- and private-sector policies, new diagnostic tools, the oil-adjuvanted FMD vaccine and regional strategies played a part in improving the epidemiological situation during the 1990s. A setback was encountered in 2000 and 2001, with outbreaks due to virus types A and 0 recorded in Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil.

  19. IMPACTS OF THE 2005 FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE OUTBREAK ON BRAZILIAN BEEF EXPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Cortes Carvalho Garcia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD can lead to sanitary barriers to international trade and involves high investments for control and great losses in the event of an outbreak. This study investigated the impacts caused by FMD on the exports of fresh beef from Brazil after the 2005 outbreak and the observance of the regionalization principle of the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS by countries member of the WTO that were listed as the top 10 beef importing countries in 2004. The FMD outbreak that began in 2005 did not limit the increase in exports of fresh beef from Brazil, but impacted negatively on exports from Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraná States. The disease did not impact exports to the United States, Japan or Mexico, since these markets were closed to Brazil. Saudi Arabia, Russia and Iran were not members of the WTO in October 2005 and therefore had no obligation to respect the principle of regionalization, though Russia respected it. Among the other major importers of 2004, the Netherlands, Egypt, Italy, United Kingdom, France, Germany and Spain respected the principle of regionalization of the SPS Agreement. Chile did not respect the principle and the occurrence of the disease closed the market to Brazilian fresh beef.

  20. Transmission of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease and Its Potential Driving Factors in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bingyi; Lau, Eric H. Y.; Wu, Peng; Cowling, Benjamin J.

    2016-01-01

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is a common childhood disease with substantial disease burden in Asia. Mixed results were reported on the associations between HFMD incidence and meteorological factors or school holidays, while limited studies focused on their association on transmissibility. We aimed to measure the transmissibility of HFMD and to examine its potential driving factors in Hong Kong. A likelihood-based procedure was used to estimate time-dependent effective reproduction number (Rt) based on weekly number of HFMD-associated hospitalizations from 2010 to 2014. The associations of between-year effects, depletion of susceptibles, absolute humidity and school holidays with Rt were examined using linear regression. Rt usually started increasing between early spring and summer and peaked in April to May at around 1.1–1.2, followed by a slight rebound in autumn. Depletion of susceptibles and between-years effects explained most of the variances (19 and 13% respectively) in Rt. We found a negative association between depletion of susceptibles and Rt (coefficients ranged from −0.14 to −0.03 for different years), but the estimated effects of absolute humidity and school holidays were insignificant. Overall, HFMD transmission was moderate in Hong Kong and was mainly associated with depletion of susceptibles. Limited impact was suggested from meteorological factors and school holidays. PMID:27271966

  1. Modeling Estimated Personnel Needs for a Potential Foot and Mouth Disease Outbreak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, K; Hullinger, P

    2008-01-29

    Foot and Mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious and contagious viral disease affecting cloven-hoofed livestock that was last detected in the United States (US) in 1929. The prevalence of FMD in other countries, as well as the current potential for this virus to be used as a form of agroterrorism, has made preparations for a potential FMD outbreak a national priority. To assist in the evaluation of national preparedness, all 50 states were surveyed via e-mail, telephone and web search to obtain emergency response plans for FMD or for foreign animal diseases in general. Information from 33 states was obtained and analyzed for estimates of personnel resources needed to respond to an outbreak. These estimates were consolidated and enhanced to create a tool that could be used by individual states to better understand the personnel that would be needed to complete various tasks over time during an outbreak response. The estimates were then coupled, post-processing, to the output from FMD outbreaks simulated in California using the Multiscale Epidemiological/Economic Simulation and Analysis (MESA) model at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to estimate the personnel resource demands, by task, over the course of an outbreak response.

  2. Spatio-Temporal Distribution and Hotspots of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratchaphon Samphutthanon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD is an emerging viral disease, and at present, there are no antiviral drugs or vaccines available to control it. Outbreaks have persisted for the past 10 years, particularly in northern Thailand. This study aimed to elucidate the phenomenon of HFMD outbreaks from 2003 to 2012 using general statistics and spatial-temporal analysis employing a GIS-based method. The spatial analysis examined data at the village level to create a map representing the distribution pattern, mean center, standard deviation ellipse and hotspots for each outbreak. A temporal analysis was used to analyze the correlation between monthly case data and meteorological factors. The results indicate that the disease can occur at any time of the year, but appears to peak in the rainy and cold seasons. The distribution of outbreaks exhibited a clustered pattern. Most mean centers and standard deviation ellipses occurred in similar areas. The linear directional mean values of the outbreaks were oriented toward the south. When separated by season, it was found that there was a significant correlation with the direction of the southwest monsoon at the same time. An autocorrelation analysis revealed that hotspots tended to increase even when patient cases subsided. In particular, a new hotspot was found in the recent year in Mae Hong Son province.

  3. Molecular Mechanisms of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Targeting the Host Antiviral Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Pulido, Miguel; Sáiz, Margarita

    2017-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the causative agent of an acute vesicular disease affecting pigs, cattle and other domestic, and wild animals worldwide. The aim of the host interferon (IFN) response is to limit viral replication and spread. Detection of the viral genome and products by specialized cellular sensors initiates a signaling cascade that leads to a rapid antiviral response involving the secretion of type I- and type III-IFNs and other antiviral cytokines with antiproliferative and immunomodulatory functions. During co-evolution with their hosts, viruses have acquired strategies to actively counteract host antiviral responses and the balance between innate response and viral antagonism may determine the outcome of disease and pathogenesis. FMDV proteases Lpro and 3C have been found to antagonize the host IFN response by a repertoire of mechanisms. Moreover, the putative role of other viral proteins in IFN antagonism is being recently unveiled, uncovering sophisticated immune evasion strategies different to those reported to date for other members of the Picornaviridae family. Here, we review the interplay between antiviral responses induced by FMDV infection and viral countermeasures to block them. Research on strategies used by viruses to modulate immunity will provide insights into the function of host pathways involved in defense against pathogens and will also lead to development of new therapeutic strategies to fight virus infections.

  4. An overview of control strategy and diagnostic technology for foot-and-mouth disease in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of most contagious animal diseases. It affects millions of cloven-hoofed animals and causes huge economic losses in many countries of the world. There are seven serotypes of which three (O, A and Asia 1) are endemic in China. Efficient control of FMD in China is crucial for the prevention and control of FMD in Asia and throughout the world. For the control of FMD, a powerful veterinary administration, a well-trained veterinary staff, a system of rapid and accurate diagnostic procedures and, in many countries, compulsory vaccination of susceptible animals are indispensable. This article strives to outline the Chinese animal disease control and prevention system, in particular for FMD, with the emphasis on diagnostic procedures applied in Chinese laboratories. In addition, new technologies for FMD diagnosis, which are currently in the phase of development or in the process of validation in Chinese laboratories, are described, such as lateral flow devices (LFD), Mab-based ELISAs, reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) and gold nanopariticle immuno-PCR (GNP-IPCR). PMID:23497282

  5. Evaluation of different adjuvants for foot-and-mouth disease vaccine containing all the SAT serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloete, M; Dungu, B; Van Staden, L I; Ismail-Cassim, N; Vosloo, W

    2008-03-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals that is primarily controlled by vaccination of susceptible animals and movement restrictions for animals and animal-derived products in South Africa. Vaccination using aluminium hydroxide gel-saponin (AS) adjuvanted vaccines containing the South African Territories (SAT) serotypes has been shown to be effective both in ensuring that disease does not spread from the endemic to the free zone and in controlling outbreaks in the free zone. Various vaccine formulations containing antigens derived from the SAT serotypes were tested in cattle that were challenged 1 year later. Both the AS and ISA 206B vaccines adjuvanted with saponin protected cattle against virulent virus challenge. The oil-based ISA 206B-adjuvanted vaccine with and without stimulators was evaluated in a field trial and both elicited antibody responses that lasted for 1 year. Furthermore, the ISA 206 adjuvanted FMD vaccine protected groups of cattle against homologous virus challenge at very low payloads, while pigs vaccinated with an emergency ISA 206B-based FMD vaccine containing the SAT 1 vaccine strains were protected against the heterologous SAT 1 outbreak strain.

  6. Monitoring hand, foot and mouth disease by combining search engine query data and meteorological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Da-Cang; Wang, Jin-Feng

    2018-01-15

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has been recognized as a significant public health threat and poses a tremendous challenge to disease control departments. To date, the relationship between meteorological factors and HFMD has been documented, and public interest of disease has been proven to be trackable from the Internet. However, no study has explored the combination of these two factors in the monitoring of HFMD. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to develop an effective monitoring model of HFMD in Guangzhou, China by utilizing historical HFMD cases, Internet-based search engine query data and meteorological factors. To this end, a case study was conducted in Guangzhou, using a network-based generalized additive model (GAM) including all factors related to HFMD. Three other models were also constructed using some of the variables for comparison. The results suggested that the model showed the best estimating ability when considering all of the related factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Foot and mouth disease and similar virus infections in camelids: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernery, U; Kinne, J

    2012-12-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) remains the most important animal disease. The FMD virus is highly contagious and occurs almost exclusively among cloven-hoofed animals such as cattle, sheep, goats, Bactrian camels and swine. Old World camels (OWCs) and New World camels (NWCs) inhabit FMD-endemic countries in South America, North and East Africa, and the Middle and Far East. Results of experimental infection of OWCs with the virus, and several clinical observations from the field over a century, confirm that the two closely related camel species of Bactrian and dromedary camels possess noticeably different susceptibilities to FMD. It is now certain that Bactrian camels can contract the disease. In contrast, dromedaries are not susceptible to FMD and do not transmit infection, even when in close contact with susceptible animals. The susceptibility of NWCs to the FMD virus has been demonstrated in the field and in experimental infection trials. However, these animals are not very susceptible and do not represent a serious risk in transmitting FMD to susceptible animal species.

  8. Update on epidemiology and control of Foot and Mouth Disease - A menace to international trade and global animal enterprise

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    P. M. Depa

    Full Text Available Foot and mouth disease (FMD is one of the most economically and socially devastating disease affecting animal agriculture throughout the world. This review describes economic impact of disease outbreaks, an update of recent findings in epidemiology of FMD both at International and national level and control of this disease. The etiological agent (FMD virus is examined in detail at genetic and molecular characterization level and in terms of antigenic diversity. [Vet World 2012; 5(11.000: 694-704

  9. Case report: Features of hand, foot and mouth disease in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Wen; Yang, Zhao-Bin; Lian, Lian-Shu; Xu, Li-Ping

    2017-10-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is caused by enterovirus. The virus may exist in secretions. Five neonates had symptoms of fever and maculopapular rashes involving face, trunk, breech, arms, and legs, especially scattering on palms and feet. Blood, oropharyngeal fluid, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected and detected for further diagnoses with the consent of the infants' parents. Some of them suffered aseptic meningitis. They were diagnosed as HFMD with CSF enterovirus positive. All of them continued breastfeed. Water bag was used during the pyrogenic stage. Antibiotics were administrated at first and withdrawn as soon as possible. None of them developed into brainstem encephalitis or pulmonary edema and they all recovered well. HFMD is more common in neonates than it has been thought. Enterovirus may exist in neonatal CSF and cause CSF cell to increase similar to purulent meningitis. Medical history, physical examination, and CSF enterovirus detection are important in making correct diagnosis. Unlike bacterial infection, HFMD is a self-limited disease. Once HFMD is determined and bacterial infection is ruled out, antibiotics should be avoided.

  10. EV71 vaccine, a new tool to control outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qun-ying; Wang, Yiping; Bian, Lianlian; Xu, Miao; Liang, Zhenglun

    2016-05-01

    On December 3rd 2015, the China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) approved the first inactivated Enterovirus 71 (EV71) whole virus vaccine for preventing severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). As one of the few preventive vaccines for children's infectious diseases generated by the developing countries in recent years, EV71 vaccine is a blessing to children's health in China and worldwide. However, there are still a few challenges facing the worldwide use of EV71 vaccine, including the applicability against various EV71 pandemic strains in other countries, international requirements on vaccine production and quality control, standardization and harmonization on different pathogen monitoring and detecting methods, etc. In addition, the affordability of EV71 vaccine in other countries is a factor to be considered in HFMD prevention. Therefore, with EV71 vaccine commercially available, there is still a long way to go before reaching effective protection against severe HFMD after EV71 vaccines enter the market. In this paper, the bottlenecks and prospects for the wide use of EV71 vaccine after its approval are evaluated.

  11. Risk factors for death in children with severe hand, foot, and mouth disease in Hunan, China.

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    Long, Lu; Gao, Li-Dong; Hu, Shi-Xiong; Luo, Kai-Wei; Chen, Zhen-Hua; Ronsmans, Carine; Zhou, Ding-Lun; Lan, Ya-Jia

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) have increased throughout East and Southeast Asia, especially in mainland China. The disease now presents as an increasingly serious public health threat in China. A case-control study was designed to examine risk factors associated with death from severe HFMD. A total of 553 severe HFMD cases were collected from the National Surveillance System. Multifactorial logistic regression was used to analyse independent associations between potential influence factors and death from severe HFMD. We found that the migrants were more likely to die from severe HFMD than the resident population (OR = 3.07, 95%CI: 1.39-8.32). Additionally, the children whose first visit was to a village-level clinic had a high risk of death from severe HFMD. Patients with EV71 infection or symptoms of convulsion, dyspnoea, cyanosis, coolness of extremities, and vomiting had an increased risk of death from severe HFMD. While breastfeeding children, having a confirmed diagnosis at the first visit to the hospital and with symptom of hyperarousal were identified as protective factors for death from severe HFMD. To reduce the mortality from severe HFMD, doctors and health care providers need to pay attention to the patients with EV71 infection or with symptoms of convulsion, dyspnoea, cyanosis, coolness of extremities, and vomiting. Health administration departments should pay more attention to the rational allocation of health resources. Furthermore, they should increase financial support and manpower in village-level health institutions.

  12. Excretion of enterovirus 71 in persons infected with hand, foot and mouth disease

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    Li Jie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD is a common illness in young children. It also can be seen in adults occasionally. Enterovirus 71 (EV71, a pathogen that causes not only HFMD but also neurological complications and even death, has caused many HFMD outbreaks in China. However, till now the data about the duration of EV71 shedding is very limited. Results A total of 136 throat swabs and fecal samples were collected from 27 children and 3 adults, which includs 7 close contacts, 9 mild cases and 14 severe cases,. The participants were divided into three groups namely, severe case group, mild case group and close contact group. All the samples were assayed with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Kruskal-Wallis Test was employed to compare the difference in duration of viral RNA shedding among three groups. The results showed that significant difference in duration of EV71 shedding was found among three groups (P  Conclusions HFMD is characterized by extended excretion of EV71. Our results suggest that the duration of EV71 shedding is correlated with the severity of the disease. EV71 shedding through feces can persist more than 54 days. Prolonged virus shedding is a potential risk factor of proliferating HFMD epidemic.

  13. Hand-foot-and-mouth disease: a new look at a classic viral rash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassef, Christopher; Ziemer, Carolyn; Morrell, Dean S

    2015-08-01

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is a common cause of viral rash in children with classic skin findings which are easily recognized by pediatricians. Recently, several atypical cutaneous manifestations of HFMD have been described. Awareness of these patterns may lead providers to appropriate diagnosis and management. This review also highlights the epidemiological patterns of more virulent strains and emerging research in disease prevention. Classic HFMD presents with tender lesions on the hands, feet, and oral mucosa. Atypical skin findings in HFMD may be seen in children with atopic dermatitis. These include 'eczema coxsackium', in which eczematous skin is superinfected with coxsackie virus, resembling herpes infection. Nail changes, such as shedding, may follow HFMD after a latency period. Enterovirus 71 is responsible for epidemic outbreaks of HFMD in Asia, with systemic manifestations and occasionally neurological sequelae. Research is underway to develop a vaccine which could curb epidemics, but for the present, supportive care and hygiene measures are the standard of care. Atypical manifestations of HFMD in children with atopic dermatitis may mimic herpetic superinfection. In a child presenting with nail changes, consider antecedent HFMD in the differential diagnosis. The mainstay of treatment for HMFD remains supportive care.

  14. Differential replication of Foot-and-mouth disease viruses in mice determine lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciabue, Marco; García-Núñez, María Soledad; Delgado, Fernando; Currá, Anabella; Marrero, Rubén; Molinari, Paula; Rieder, Elizabeth; Carrillo, Elisa; Gismondi, María Inés

    2017-09-01

    Adult C57BL/6J mice have been used to study Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) biology. In this work, two variants of an FMDV A/Arg/01 strain exhibiting differential pathogenicity in adult mice were identified and characterized: a non-lethal virus (A01NL) caused mild signs of disease, whereas a lethal virus (A01L) caused death within 24-48h independently of the dose used. Both viruses caused a systemic infection with pathological changes in the exocrine pancreas. Virus A01L reached higher viral loads in plasma and organs of inoculated mice as well as increased replication in an ovine kidney cell line. Complete consensus sequences revealed 6 non-synonymous changes between A01L and A10NL genomes that might be linked to replication differences, as suggested by in silico prediction studies. Our results highlight the biological significance of discrete genomic variations and reinforce the usefulness of this animal model to study viral determinants of lethality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Construction of stabilized and tagged foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Nam; Ko, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Rae-Hyung; Park, Min-Eun; Lee, Seo-Yong; Yoon, Ji-Eun; Choi, Joo-Hyung; You, Su-Hwa; Park, Jung-Won; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Chun, Ji-Eun; Kim, Su-Mi; Tark, Dongseob; Lee, Hyang-Sim; Ko, Young-Joon; Kim, Byounghan; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Park, Jong-Hyeon

    2016-11-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically devastating disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals worldwide. Construction and purification of stable antigen for vaccine are necessary but technically difficult and laborious. Here, we have tried to investigate an alternative method by inserting a hexa-histidine tag (6xHIS) in the VP1 C-terminal for easy purification and replacing two amino acids of VP1/VP2 to enhance the stability of the capsid of the FMD virus (FMDV) Asia1/MOG/05. In addition, infectious 6xHIS-tagged stable (S/T) FMDVs were maintained under acidic conditions (pH 6.0) and were readily purified from small-scale cultures using a commercial metal-affinity column. The groups vaccinated with the S/T FMDV antigen showed complete protection comparing to low survival rate in the group vaccinated with non-S/T FMDV against lethal challenge with Asia1 Shamir in mice. Therefore, the present findings indicate that the stabilized and tagged antigen offers an alternative to using the current methods for antigen purification and enhancement of stability and has potential for the development of a new FMD vaccine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Emergence of foot-and-mouth disease virus SAT 2 in Egypt during 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, H A; Salem, S A H; Habashi, A R; Arafa, A A; Aggour, M G A; Salem, G H; Gaber, A S; Selem, O; Abdelkader, S H; Knowles, N J; Madi, M; Valdazo-González, B; Wadsworth, J; Hutchings, G H; Mioulet, V; Hammond, J M; King, D P

    2012-12-01

    The epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in North Africa is complicated by the co-circulation of endemic FMD viruses (FMDV), as well as sporadic incursions of exotic viral strains from the Middle East and Sub-Saharan Africa. This report describes the molecular characterization of SAT 2 FMD viruses that have caused widespread field outbreaks of FMD in Egypt during February and March 2012. Phylogenetic analysis showed that viruses from these outbreaks fell into two distinct lineages within the SAT 2 topotype VII, which were distinct from a contemporary SAT 2 lineage of the same toptype from Libya. These were the first FMD outbreaks due to this serotype in Egypt since 1950 and required the development of a tailored real-time reverse-transcription PCR assay that can be used in the laboratory to distinguish FMD viruses of these lineages from other endemic FMD viruses that might be present in North Africa. These data highlight the ease by which FMDV can cross international boundaries and emphasize the importance of deploying systems to continuously monitor the global epidemiology of this disease. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Normal variation in thermal radiated temperature in cattle: implications for foot-and-mouth disease detection

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    Gloster John

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thermal imagers have been used in a number of disciplines to record animal surface temperatures and as a result detect temperature distributions and abnormalities requiring a particular course of action. Some work, with animals infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus, has suggested that the technique might be used to identify animals in the early stages of disease. In this study, images of 19 healthy cattle have been taken over an extended period to determine hoof and especially coronary band temperatures (a common site for the development of FMD lesions and eye temperatures (as a surrogate for core body temperature and to examine how these vary with time and ambient conditions. Results The results showed that under UK conditions an animal's hoof temperature varied from 10°C to 36°C and was primarily influenced by the ambient temperature and the animal's activity immediately prior to measurement. Eye temperatures were not affected by ambient temperature and are a useful indicator of core body temperature. Conclusions Given the variation in temperature of the hooves of normal animals under various environmental conditions the use of a single threshold hoof temperature will be at best a modest predictive indicator of early FMD, even if ambient temperature is factored into the evaluation.

  18. The Effects of Weather Factors on Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Weihua; Li, Xian'En; Yang, Peng; Liao, Hua; Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Quanyi

    2016-01-01

    The morbidity and mortality of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) are increasing in Beijing, China. Previous studies have indicated an association between incidents of HFMD and weather factors. However, the seasonal influence of these factors on the disease is not yet understood, and their relationship with the enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackie virus A16 (CV-A16) viruses are not well documented. We analysed 84,502 HFMD cases from 2008 to 2011 in Beijing to explore the seasonal influence of weather factors (average temperature [AT], average relative humidity [ARH], total precipitation [TP] and average wind speed [AWS]) on incidents of HFMD by using a geographically weighted regression (GWR) model. The results indicated that weather factors differ significantly in their influence on HFMD depending on the season. AT had the greatest effect among the four weather factors, and while the influence of AT and AWS was greater in the summer than in the winter, the influence of TP was positive in the summer and negative in the winter. ARH was negatively correlated with HFMD. Also, we observed more EV71-associated cases than CV-A16 but there is no convincing evidence to show significant differences between the influences of the weather factors on EV71 and CV-A16.

  19. Hand, foot, and mouth disease in adults: An enigma among diagnosticians - A case series

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    Benila Mathew

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD is a highly contagious enterovirus infection mainly affecting children less than 5 years of age. In a majority of cases, it is caused by coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16, although instances have been described in which A5, A6, A7, A9, A10, B2, B5, or human enterovirus 71 (HEV-71 has been isolated. The disease occurs rarely in adults, and has been reported in immunocompromised patients. It usually has a benign and self-limiting course with an incubation period of 3-10 days. The prodromal symptoms include fever, malaise, and sore throat. This initial phase is usually followed by erythematous macules, papules, and vesicles on palm and soles, lateral and dorsal surfaces of hands and feet, and also the oral cavity. The purpose of this article is to highlight to the general practitioner about the atypical presentation in healthy adults as well. In the present paper, we describe three cases of HFMD in otherwise healthy adults, with complete recovery.

  20. Emergency vaccination use in a modelled foot and mouth disease outbreak in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G; Gale, S B; Eshelman, C E; Wells, S J

    2015-12-01

    Epidemiological modelling is an important approach used by the Veterinary Services of the United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service to evaluate the potential effectiveness of different strategies for handling foot and mouth disease (FMD). Identifying the potential spread of FMD by modelling an outbreak, and then considering the impacts of FMD vaccination, is important in helping to inform decision-makers about the potential outcomes of vaccination programmes. The objective of this study was to evaluate emergency vaccination control strategies used in a simulated FMD outbreak in Minnesota. The North American Animal Disease Spread Model (NAADSM, Version 3.2.18) was used to simulate the outbreak. Large-scale (1,500 herds per day) emergency vaccination reduced the size of the modelled outbreak in both swine and dairy production types, but the effect was larger when the outbreak began in a dairy herd. Large-scale vaccination also overcame limitations caused by delays in vaccine delivery. Thus, even if vaccination did not begin until 21 days into the outbreak, large-scale vaccination still reduced the size and duration of the outbreak. The quantity of vaccine used was markedly larger when large-scale vaccination was used, compared with small-scale (50 herds per day) vaccine administration. In addition, the number of animals and herds vaccinated in an outbreak originating in a herd of swine was substantially lower than in an outbreak beginning in a herd of dairy cattle.

  1. Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD): emerging epidemiology and the need for a vaccine strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswathyraj, S; Arunkumar, G; Alidjinou, E K; Hober, D

    2016-10-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a contagious viral disease and mainly affects infants and young children. The main manifestations are fever, vesicular rashes on hand, feet and buttocks and ulcers in the oral mucosa. Usually, HFMD is self-limiting, but a small proportion of children may experience severe complications such as meningitis, encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis and neurorespiratory syndrome. Historically, outbreaks of HFMD were mainly caused by two enteroviruses: the coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) and the enterovirus 71 (EV-A71). In the recent years, coxsackievirus A6 and coxsackievirus A10 have been widely associated with both sporadic cases and outbreaks of HFMD worldwide, particularly in India, South East Asia and Europe with an increased frequency of neurological complications as well as mortality. Currently, there is no pharmacological intervention or vaccine available for HFMD. A formalin-inactivated EV-A71 vaccine has completed clinical trial in several Asian countries. However, this vaccine cannot protect against other major emerging etiologies of HFMD such as CV-A16, CV-A6 and CV-A10. Therefore, the development of a globally representative multivalent HFMD vaccine could be the best strategy.

  2. Emergence and Distribution of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype A and O in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, S P; Rahman, M Z; Momtaz, S; Sultana, M; Hossain, M A

    2015-06-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Bangladesh and is predominantly due to FMDV serotype O. In 2012, FMD outbreaks were identified in five different districts of Bangladesh. Of 56 symptomatic cattle epithelial tissue samples, diagnostic PCR assay based on 5'-URT detected 38 FMDV infections. Viral genotyping targeting VP1-encoding region confirmed emergence of two distinct serotypes, A and O with an abundance of serotype A in Chittagong and Gazipur districts and serotype O in Pabna and Faridpur. Only single lineage of both A and O was retrieved from samples of five different regions. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of VP1 sequences revealed that serotype O sequences were closely related to the Ind 2001 sublineage of Middle East-South Asia (ME-SA) topotype that was previously circulating in Bangladesh, and serotype A sequences belonging to the genotype VII that was dominant in India during the last decade. The results suggest that extensive cross-border animal movement from neighbouring countries is the most likely source of FMDV serotypes in Bangladesh. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Cattle remain immunocompetent during the acute phase of foot-and-mouth disease virus infection

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    Windsor Miriam A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Infection of cattle with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV results in the development of long-term protective antibody responses. In contrast, inactivated antigen vaccines fail to induce long-term protective immunity. Differences between susceptible species have also been observed during infection with FMDV, with cattle often developing persistent infections whilst pigs develop more severe symptoms and excrete higher levels of virus. This study examined the early immune response to FMDV in naïve cattle after in-contact challenge. Cattle exposed to FMDV were found to be viraemic and produced neutralising antibody, consistent with previous reports. In contrast to previous studies in pigs these cattle did not develop leucopenia, and the proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to either mitogen or third party antigen were not suppressed. Low levels of type 1 interferon and IL-10 were detected in the circulation. Taken together, these results suggest that there was no generalised immunosuppression during the acute phase of FMDV infection in cattle.

  4. Political Response to Foot-and-Mouth Disease: A Review of Korean News

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    Chang-Ryong Ko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The 2010/2011 foot-and-mouth disease (FMD outbreak in Korea produced about 4500 burial sites for 3.5 million animal carcasses, which can be summarized as quick, mass burials, at or near the outbreak farms. An FMD outbreak has occurred nearly every year since the big outbreak, although the sizes of these outbreaks have been small. This article presents the rationale behind government policies for FMD outbreaks and disposal sites, the secrecy of the government administration and the neglect of scientific data. We compared government news announcements with news from the non-governmental sector by analyzing all the news for FMD and disposal sites from 29 October 2010, the first day of the big outbreak to August 2016. We found that the Korean response to the FMD outbreak originated from political purposes. We present four rationales for our arguments including: (1 a military collision between North and South of Korea; (2 the reformation of four big rivers; (3 the incident at the Fukushima Atomic Energy Plant of Japan; and (4 the national elections. We believe that the next response should be based on scientific data and proof, and also from the environmental perspective, not the political or industry perspective.

  5. Hand-Washing: The Main Strategy for Avoiding Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dingmei; Li, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Wangjian; Guo, Pi; Ma, Zhanzhong; Chen, Qian; Du, Shaokun; Peng, Jing; Deng, Yu; Hao, Yuantao

    2016-06-18

    Epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) among children have caused concern in China since 2007. We have conducted a retrospective study to investigate risk factors associated with HFMD. In this non-matching case-control study, 99 HFMD patients and 126 control from Guangdong Province were enlisted as participants. Data comprising demographic, socio-economic, clinical and behavior factors were collected from children's parents through face-to-face interviews by trained interviewers using a standardized questionnaire. Results of the primary logistic regression analyses revealed that age, history of cold food consumption, hand-washing routines, and airing out bedding were significantly associated with HFMD cases. Results of further multivariate analysis indicated that older age (OR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.34-0.56) and hand-washing before meals (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.13-0.70) are protective factors, whereas airing out bedding more than thrice a month (OR = 4.55, 95% CI: 1.19-17.37) was associated with increased risk for HFMD. Therefore, hand-washing should be recommended to prevent HFMD, and the potential threat of airing out bedding should be carefully considered. However, further studies are needed to examine other possible risk factors.

  6. Epidemiological and etiological characteristics of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Henan, China, 2008-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xueyong; Wei, Haiyan; Wu, Shuyu; Du, Yanhua; Liu, Licheng; Su, Jia; Xu, Yuling; Wang, Haifeng; Li, Xingle; Wang, Yanxia; Liu, Guohua; Chen, Weijun; Klena, John David; Xu, Bianli

    2015-03-10

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common childhood illness caused by enteroviruses. HFMD outbreaks and reported cases have sharply increased in China since 2008. Epidemiological and clinical data of HFMD cases reported in Henan Province were collected from 2008 to 2013. Clinical specimens were obtained from a subset of these cases. Descriptive epidemiological methods were used to analyze the time, region and population distribution. The VP1 gene from EV71 and CA16 isolates was amplified, and the sequences were analyzed. 400,264 cases of HFMD were reported in this study, including 22,309 severe and 141 fatal cases. Incidence peaked between April and May. Laboratory confirmation was obtained for 27,692 (6.9%) cases; EV71, CA16, and other enteroviruses accounted for 59.5%, 14.1%, 26.4%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that EV71 belonged to the C4a evolution branch of C4 sub-genotype and CA16 belonged to subtype B1a or B1b. The occurrence of HFMD in Henan was closely related to season, age and region distribution. Children under five were the most affected population. The major pathogens causing HFMD and their genotypes have not notably changed in Henan. The data strongly support the importance of EV71 vaccination in a high population density area such as Henan, China.

  7. Epidemiological and Etiological Characteristics of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Henan, China, 2008–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xueyong; Wei, Haiyan; Wu, Shuyu; Du, Yanhua; Liu, Licheng; Su, Jia; Xu, Yuling; Wang, Haifeng; Li, Xingle; Wang, Yanxia; Liu, Guohua; Chen, Weijun; Klena, John David; Xu, Bianli

    2015-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common childhood illness caused by enteroviruses. HFMD outbreaks and reported cases have sharply increased in China since 2008. Epidemiological and clinical data of HFMD cases reported in Henan Province were collected from 2008 to 2013. Clinical specimens were obtained from a subset of these cases. Descriptive epidemiological methods were used to analyze the time, region and population distribution. The VP1 gene from EV71 and CA16 isolates was amplified, and the sequences were analyzed. 400,264 cases of HFMD were reported in this study, including 22,309 severe and 141 fatal cases. Incidence peaked between April and May. Laboratory confirmation was obtained for 27,692 (6.9%) cases; EV71, CA16, and other enteroviruses accounted for 59.5%, 14.1%, 26.4%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that EV71 belonged to the C4a evolution branch of C4 sub-genotype and CA16 belonged to subtype B1a or B1b. The occurrence of HFMD in Henan was closely related to season, age and region distribution. Children under five were the most affected population. The major pathogens causing HFMD and their genotypes have not notably changed in Henan. The data strongly support the importance of EV71 vaccination in a high population density area such as Henan, China. PMID:25754970

  8. The threshold effects of meteorological factors on Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in China, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhicheng; Zhang, Wangjian; Zhang, Dingmei; Yu, Shicheng; Hao, Yuantao

    2016-11-01

    We explored the threshold effects of meteorological factors on hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in mainland China to improve the prevention and early warning. Using HFMD surveillance and meteorological data in 2011, we identified the threshold effects of predictors on the monthly incidence of HFMD and predicted the high risk months, with classification and regression tree models (CART). The results of the classification tree showed that there was an 82.35% chance for a high risk of HFMD when the temperature was greater than 24.03 °C and the relative humidity was less than 60.9% during non-autumn seasons. According to the heatmap of high risk prediction, the HFMD incidence in most provinces was beyond the normal level during May to August. The results of regression tree showed that when the temperature was greater than 24.85 °C and the relative humidity was between 80.59% and 82.55%, the relative risk (RR) of HFMD was 3.49 relative to monthly average incidence. This study provided quantitative evidence for the threshold effects of meteorological factors on HFMD in China. The conditions of a temperature greater than 24.85 °C and a relative humidity between 80.59% and 82.55% would lead to a higher risk of HFMD.

  9. Inactivation of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus by Citric Acid and Sodium Carbonate with Deicers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jang-Kwan; You, Su-Hwa; Kim, Su-Mi; Tark, Dongseob; Lee, Hyang-Sim; Ko, Young-Joon; Seo, Min-Goo; Park, Jong-Hyeon; Kim, Byounghan

    2015-01-01

    Three out of five outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) since 2010 in the Republic of Korea have occurred in the winter. At the freezing temperatures, it was impossible to spray disinfectant on the surfaces of vehicles, roads, and farm premises because the disinfectant would be frozen shortly after discharge and the surfaces of the roads or machines would become slippery in cold weather. In this study, we added chemical deicers (ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, sodium chloride, calcium chloride, ethyl alcohol, and commercial windshield washer fluid) to keep disinfectants (0.2% citric acid and 4% sodium carbonate) from freezing, and we tested their virucidal efficacies under simulated cold temperatures in a tube. The 0.2% citric acid could reduce the virus titer 4 logs at −20°C with all the deicers. On the other hand, 4% sodium carbonate showed little virucidal activity at −20°C within 30 min, although it resisted being frozen with the function of the deicers. In conclusion, for the winter season, we may recommend the use of citric acid (>0.2%) diluted in 30% ethyl alcohol or 25% sodium chloride solvent, depending on its purpose. PMID:26319879

  10. Hand-Washing: The Main Strategy for Avoiding Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease

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    Dingmei Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD among children have caused concern in China since 2007. We have conducted a retrospective study to investigate risk factors associated with HFMD. In this non-matching case-control study, 99 HFMD patients and 126 control from Guangdong Province were enlisted as participants. Data comprising demographic, socio-economic, clinical and behavior factors were collected from children’s parents through face-to-face interviews by trained interviewers using a standardized questionnaire. Results of the primary logistic regression analyses revealed that age, history of cold food consumption, hand-washing routines, and airing out bedding were significantly associated with HFMD cases. Results of further multivariate analysis indicated that older age (OR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.34–0.56 and hand-washing before meals (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.13–0.70 are protective factors, whereas airing out bedding more than thrice a month (OR = 4.55, 95% CI: 1.19–17.37 was associated with increased risk for HFMD. Therefore, hand-washing should be recommended to prevent HFMD, and the potential threat of airing out bedding should be carefully considered. However, further studies are needed to examine other possible risk factors.

  11. Unprocessed foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid precursor displays discontinuous epitopes involved in viral neutralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáiz, J C; Cairó, J; Medina, M; Zuidema, D; Abrams, C; Belsham, G J; Domingo, E; Vlak, J M

    1994-07-01

    A foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) cDNA cassette containing sequences encoding the capsid precursor P1, peptide 2A and a truncated 2B (abbreviated P1-2A) of type C FMDV, has been modified to generate the authentic amino terminus and the myristoylation signal. This construct has been used to produce a recombinant baculovirus (AcMM53) which, upon infection of Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells, expressed a recombinant P1-2A precursor with a high yield. This polyprotein reacted with neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that bind to continuous epitopes of the major antigenic site A (also termed site 1) of capsid protein VP1. Unexpectedly, it also reacted with neutralizing MAbs which define complex, discontinuous epitopes previously identified on FMDV particles. The reactivity of MAbs with P1-2A was quantitatively similar to their reactivity with intact virus and, in both cases, the reactivity with MAbs that recognized discontinuous epitopes was lost upon heat denaturation of the antigen. The finding that a capsid precursor may fold in such a way as to maintain discontinuous epitopes involved in virus neutralization present on the virion surface opens the possibility of using unprocessed capsid precursors as novel antiviral immunogens.

  12. Reducing animal experimentation in foot-and-mouth disease vaccine potency tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Richard; Cox, Sarah; Smitsaart, Eliana; Beascoechea, Claudia Perez; Haas, Bernd; Maradei, Eduardo; Haydon, Daniel T; Barnett, Paul

    2011-07-26

    The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Manual and the European Pharmacopoeia (EP) still prescribe live challenge experiments for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) immunogenicity and vaccine potency tests. However, the EP allows for other validated tests for the latter, and specifically in vitro tests if a "satisfactory pass level" has been determined; serological replacements are also currently in use in South America. Much research has therefore focused on validating both ex vivo and in vitro tests to replace live challenge. However, insufficient attention has been given to the sensitivity and specificity of the "gold standard"in vivo test being replaced, despite this information being critical to determining what should be required of its replacement. This paper aims to redress this imbalance by examining the current live challenge tests and their associated statistics and determining the confidence that we can have in them, thereby setting a standard for candidate replacements. It determines that the statistics associated with the current EP PD(50) test are inappropriate given our domain knowledge, but that the OIE test statistics are satisfactory. However, it has also identified a new set of live animal challenge test regimes that provide similar sensitivity and specificity to all of the currently used OIE tests using fewer animals (16 including controls), and can also provide further savings in live animal experiments in exchange for small reductions in sensitivity and specificity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Productive Entry of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus via Macropinocytosis Independent of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shi-Chong; Guo, Hui-Chen; Sun, Shi-Qi; Jin, Ye; Wei, Yan-Quan; Feng, Xia; Yao, Xue-Ping; Cao, Sui-Zhong; Xiang Liu, Ding; Liu, Xiang-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Virus entry is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. Here, using a combination of electron microscopy, immunofluorescence assay, siRNA interference, specific pharmacological inhibitors, and dominant negative mutation, we demonstrated that the entry of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) triggered a substantial amount of plasma membrane ruffling. We also found that the internalization of FMDV induced a robust increase in fluid-phase uptake, and virions internalized within macropinosomes colocalized with phase uptake marker dextran. During this stage, the Rac1-Pak1 signaling pathway was activated. After specific inhibition on actin, Na+/H+ exchanger, receptor tyrosine kinase, Rac1, Pak1, myosin II, and protein kinase C, the entry and infection of FMDV significantly decreased. However, inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) did not reduce FMDV internalization but increased the viral entry and infection to a certain extent, implying that FMDV entry did not require PI3K activity. Results showed that internalization of FMDV exhibited the main hallmarks of macropinocytosis. Moreover, intracellular trafficking of FMDV involves EEA1/Rab5-positive vesicles. The present study demonstrated macropinocytosis as another endocytic pathway apart from the clathrin-mediated pathway. The findings greatly expand our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of FMDV entry into cells, as well as provide potential insights into the entry mechanisms of other picornaviruses. PMID:26757826

  14. First detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus O/Ind-2001d in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Le T; Long, Ngo T; Brito, Barbara; Stenfeldt, Carolina; Phuong, Nguyen T; Hoang, Bui H; Pauszek, Steven J; Hartwig, Ethan J; Smoliga, George R; Vu, Pham P; Quang, Le T V; Hung, Vo V; Tho, Nguyen D; Dong, Pham V; Minh, Phan Q; Bertram, Miranda; Fish, Ian H; Rodriguez, Luis L; Dung, Do H; Arzt, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype O, topotype Middle East-South Asia (ME-SA), lineage Ind-2001d has spread from the Indian subcontinent to the Middle East, North Africa, and Southeast Asia. In the current report, we describe the first detection of this lineage in Vietnam in May, 2015 in Đắk Nông province. Three subsequent outbreaks caused by genetically related viruses occurred between May-October, 2015 after which the virus was not detected in clinical outbreaks for at least 15 subsequent months. The observed outbreaks affected (in chronological order): cattle in Đắk Nông province, pigs in Đắk Lắk province and Đắk Nông province, and cattle in Ninh Thuận province. The clinical syndromes associated with these outbreaks were consistent with typical FMD in the affected species. Overall attack rate on affected premises was 0.85 in pigs and 0.93 in cattle over the course of the outbreak. Amongst 378 pigs at risk on affected premises, 85 pigs died during the outbreaks; there were no deaths among cattle. The manner in which FMDV/O/ME-SA/Ind-2001d was introduced into Vietnam remains undetermined; however, movement of live cattle is the suspected route. This incursion has substantial implications for epidemiology and control of FMD in Southeast Asia.

  15. Engineering Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses with Improved Growth Properties for Vaccine Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Haixue; Guo, Jianhong; Jin, Ye; Yang, Fan; He, Jijun; Lv, Lv; Zhang, Kesan; Wu, Qiong; Liu, Xiangtao; Cai, Xuepeng

    2013-01-01

    Background No licensed vaccine is currently available against serotype A foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in China, despite the isolation of A/WH/CHA/09 in 2009, partly because this strain does not replicate well in baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells. Methodology/Principal Findings A novel plasmid-based reverse genetics system was used to construct a chimeric strain by replacing the P1 gene in the vaccine strain O/CHA/99 with that from the epidemic stain A/WH/CHA/09. The chimeric virus displayed growth kinetics similar to those of O/CHA/99 and was selected for use as a candidate vaccine strain after 12 passages in BHK cells. Cattle were vaccinated with the inactivated vaccine and humoral immune responses were induced in most of the animals on day 7. A challenge infection with A/WH/CHA/09 on day 28 indicated that the group given a 4-µg dose was fully protected and neither developed viremia nor seroconverted to a 3ABC antigen. Conclusions/Significance Our data demonstrate that the chimeric virus not only propagates well in BHK cells and has excellent antigenic matching against serotype A FMD, but is also a potential marker vaccine to distinguish infection from vaccination. These results suggest that reverse genetics technology is a useful tool for engineering vaccines for the prevention and control of FMD. PMID:23372840

  16. Evolutionary phylodynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes O and A circulating in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Van Phan; Vu, Thi Thu Hang; Duong, Hong-Quan; Than, Van Thai; Song, Daesub

    2016-11-29

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is one of the highest risk factors that affects the animal industry of the country. The virus causes production loss and high ratio mortality in young cloven-hoofed animals in Vietnam. The VP1 coding gene of 80 FMDV samples (66 samples of the serotype O and 14 samples of the serotype A) collected from endemic outbreaks during 2006-2014 were analyzed to investigate their phylogeny and genetic relationship with other available FMDVs globally. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the serotype O strains were clustered into two distinct viral topotypes (the SEA and ME-SA), while the serotype A strains were all clustered into the genotype IX. Among the study strains, the amino acid sequence identities were shared at a level of 90.1-100, 92.9-100, and 92.8-100% for the topotypes SEA, ME-SA, and genotype IX, respectively. Substitutions leading to changes in the amino acid sequence, which are critical for the VP1 antigenic sites were also identified. Our results showed that the studied strains are most closely related to the recent FMDV isolates from Southeast Asian countries (Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Malaysia, and Laos), but are distinct from the earlier FMDV isolates within the genotypes. This study provides important evidence of recent movement of FMDVs serotype O and A into Vietnam within the last decade and their genetic accumulation to be closely related to strains causing FMD in surrounding countries.

  17. Favipiravir can evoke lethal mutagenesis and extinction of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Avila, Ana Isabel; Moreno, Elena; Perales, Celia; Domingo, Esteban

    2017-04-02

    Antiviral agents are increasingly considered an option for veterinary medicine. An understanding of their mechanism of activity is important to plan their administration either as monotherapy or in combination with other agents. Previous studies have shown that the broad spectrum antiviral agent favipiravir (T-705) and its derivatives T-1105 and T-1106 are efficient inhibitors of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) replication in cell culture and in vivo. However, no mechanism for their activity against FMDV has been proposed. In the present study we show that favipiravir (T-705) can act as a lethal mutagen for FMDV in cell culture. Evidence includes virus extinction associated with increase in mutation frequency in the mutant spectrum of 860 residues of the 3D (polymerase)-coding region, and a decrease of specific infectivity while the consensus nucleotide sequence of the region analyzed remained invariant. The mutational spectrum evoked by favipiravir differs from that observed with other viruses in that no predominant transition type is observed, indicating that a movement towards A,U- or G,C-rich regions of sequence space is not a prerequisite for virus extinction. We discuss prospects for the use of favipiravir to assist in the control of FMDV, and its possible broader use in veterinary medicine as an extension of its current status as antiviral agent for human influenza virus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Productive Entry of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus via Macropinocytosis Independent of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shi-Chong; Guo, Hui-Chen; Sun, Shi-Qi; Jin, Ye; Wei, Yan-Quan; Feng, Xia; Yao, Xue-Ping; Cao, Sui-Zhong; Xiang Liu, Ding; Liu, Xiang-Tao

    2016-01-13

    Virus entry is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. Here, using a combination of electron microscopy, immunofluorescence assay, siRNA interference, specific pharmacological inhibitors, and dominant negative mutation, we demonstrated that the entry of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) triggered a substantial amount of plasma membrane ruffling. We also found that the internalization of FMDV induced a robust increase in fluid-phase uptake, and virions internalized within macropinosomes colocalized with phase uptake marker dextran. During this stage, the Rac1-Pak1 signaling pathway was activated. After specific inhibition on actin, Na(+)/H(+) exchanger, receptor tyrosine kinase, Rac1, Pak1, myosin II, and protein kinase C, the entry and infection of FMDV significantly decreased. However, inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) did not reduce FMDV internalization but increased the viral entry and infection to a certain extent, implying that FMDV entry did not require PI3K activity. Results showed that internalization of FMDV exhibited the main hallmarks of macropinocytosis. Moreover, intracellular trafficking of FMDV involves EEA1/Rab5-positive vesicles. The present study demonstrated macropinocytosis as another endocytic pathway apart from the clathrin-mediated pathway. The findings greatly expand our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of FMDV entry into cells, as well as provide potential insights into the entry mechanisms of other picornaviruses.

  19. Identifying a few foot-and-mouth disease virus signature nucleotide strings for computational genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Lizhe

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serotypes of the Foot-and-Mouth disease viruses (FMDVs were generally determined by biological experiments. The computational genotyping is not well studied even with the availability of whole viral genomes, due to uneven evolution among genes as well as frequent genetic recombination. Naively using sequence comparison for genotyping is only able to achieve a limited extent of success. Results We used 129 FMDV strains with known serotype as training strains to select as many as 140 most serotype-specific nucleotide strings. We then constructed a linear-kernel Support Vector Machine classifier using these 140 strings. Under the leave-one-out cross validation scheme, this classifier was able to assign correct serotype to 127 of these 129 strains, achieving 98.45% accuracy. It also assigned serotype correctly to an independent test set of 83 other FMDV strains downloaded separately from NCBI GenBank. Conclusion Computational genotyping is much faster and much cheaper than the wet-lab based biological experiments, upon the availability of the detailed molecular sequences. The high accuracy of our proposed method suggests the potential of utilizing a few signature nucleotide strings instead of whole genomes to determine the serotypes of novel FMDV strains.

  20. Survey of enterovirus infections from hand, foot and mouth disease outbreak in china, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Fan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In China, a rapid expansion of Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD outbreaks has occurred since 2004 and HFMD has become an important issue for China. However, people are still only concerned with human enterovirus 71(HEV-71 and coxsackie virus A16 (CV-A16. Much of what is known about the other enterovirus infections relies on fractional evidence and old epidemic data, with little knowledge concerning their distribution. To alert potential threatens of the other enteroviruses, our study genetically characterized specimens from different regions of China and yielded novel information concerning the circulating and phylogenetic characteristics of enteroviral strains from HFMD cases. Findings A total of 301 clinical throat swabs were randomly obtained from patients suffering from HFMD from the southern, northern and central regions of China during outbreaks in 2009. 266 of 301 (88.4% HFMD cases were found positive for HEV and seven genotypes, HEV-71, CV-A16, -B5, -A4, -A6, -A10, and -A12, were detected. Conclusions The HFMD pathogen compositions in the different regions of China were significantly different. HFMD epidemics might persist for a long time in China due to the multiple pathogen compositions, the enteroviral characteristic of recombination and co-infection, the ever-increasing travel and migration and the deficiency of effective vaccine. Our study deserves the attention on HFMD control and vaccine development.

  1. Evaluation of the Control Strategy for the 2010 Foot-and-Mouth Disease Outbreak in Japan Using Disease Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, M; Stevenson, M; Cogger, N; Carpenter, T

    2017-06-01

    In 2010, Japan experienced a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemic where 292 premises were infected over a period of 75 days. The epidemic was controlled by stamping-out and vaccination, applied 5 weeks after the first confirmation of disease within a 10 km radius of identified infected places. This study aimed at identifying the role of emergency vaccination to epidemic control while adjusting for the dynamic pattern of local spread, and assessing alternative vaccination strategies, using a disease simulation model. Our results indicate that the overall hazard of local spread remained high throughout the silent spread phase and the first two weeks post-detection, with significant reduction occurring from week 3 onwards. The estimated effectiveness of emergency vaccination quantified as reduction in the hazard of infection was at most 81% and 44% for cattle and pig farms, respectively. The vaccination strategy reduced the simulated median number of IPs by 22%, epidemic duration by 64% and culling duration by 52%, but increased the total number of infected or vaccinated premises subject to culling by 144% compared with no vaccination. The simulation indicated that vaccination starting 2 weeks earlier (3 weeks post-first detection) with a smaller vaccination radius (3 km) was more effective for eradication of the epidemic compared with the actually implemented strategy. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Use of recombinant capsid proteins in the development of a vaccine against the foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belsham GJ

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Graham J Belsham, Anette Bøtner National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Kalvehave, Denmark Abstract: Foot-and-mouth disease remains one of the world's most economically important diseases of livestock. It is caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus, a member of the picornavirus family. The virus replicates very rapidly and can be efficiently transmitted between hosts by a variety of routes. The disease has been effectively controlled in some parts of the world but remains endemic in many others, thus there is a constant risk of introduction of the disease into areas that are normally free of foot-and-mouth disease with potentially huge economic consequences. To reduce the need for large-scale culling of infected, and potentially infected, animals there has been significant effort to develop new vaccines against this disease which avoid some, or all, of the deficiencies of current vaccines. A major focus has been on the use of systems that express the structural proteins of the virus that self-assemble to generate “empty capsid” particles which share many features with the intact virus but lack the ribonucleic acid genome and are therefore non-infectious. Such particles can be “designed” to improve their stability or modify their antigenicity and can be produced without “high containment” facilities. The development and use of such improved vaccines should assist in the global efforts to control this important disease. Keywords: picornavirus, diagnostic assays, virus structure, infection, immune responses

  3. Diagnosis of foot-and mouth disease by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction under field conditions in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke Neville P; Martin Barbara M; Beckham Tammy R; Silva René R; Serra Claudia V; Barbosa Meirivan S; Reis Jorge R; Paiva Naimes O; Neta Alcina; Paixão Tatiane A; Adams L Garry; Santos Renato L

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an economically important and highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed domestic and wild animals. Virus isolation and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are the gold standard tests for diagnosis of FMD. As these methods are time consuming, assays based on viral nucleic acid amplification have been developed. Results A previously described real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay with h...

  4. Emergency Vaccination to Control Foot-and-mouth Disease: Implications of its Inclusion as a U.S. Policy Option

    OpenAIRE

    Hagerman, Amy D.; McCarl, Bruce A.; Carpenter, Tim E; Ward, Michael P.; Joshua O'Brien

    2012-01-01

    Emergency animal vaccination has been used in recent international foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks, but current USDA policy favors emergency vaccination use only if standard culling practices alone may not be enough to control spread of the disease. Using simulation modeling, we examine implications of standard culling plus emergency ring vaccination strategies on animal loss and economic welfare loss compared to a standard culling base. Additionally, breakeven risk aversion coefficient anal...

  5. Challenges of Generating and Maintaining Protective Vaccine-Induced Immune Responses for Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Nicholas A; Lyoo, Young S; King, Donald P; Paton, David J

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination can play a central role in the control of outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) by reducing both the impact of clinical disease and the extent of virus transmission between susceptible animals. Recent incursions of exotic FMD virus lineages into several East Asian countries have highlighted the difficulties of generating and maintaining an adequate immune response in vaccinated pigs. Factors that impact vaccine performance include (i) the potency, antigenic payload, and formulation of a vaccine; (ii) the antigenic match between the vaccine and the heterologous circulating field strain; and (iii) the regime (timing, frequency, and herd-level coverage) used to administer the vaccine. This review collates data from studies that have evaluated the performance of foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccines at the individual and population level in pigs and identifies research priorities that could provide new insights to improve vaccination in the future.

  6. Proactive Risk Assessments and the Continuity of Business Principles: Perspectives on This Novel, Combined Approach to Develop Guidance for the Permitted Movement of Agricultural Products during a Foot-and-Mouth Disease Outbreak in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Timothy J; Culhane, Marie Rene; Sampedro, Fernando; Cardona, Carol J

    2016-01-01

    Animal diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) have the potential to severely impact food animal production systems. Paradoxically, the collateral damage associated with the outbreak response may create a larger threat to the food supply, social stability, and economic viability of rural communities than the disease itself. When FMD occurs in domestic animals, most developed countries will implement strict movement controls in the area surrounding the infected farm(s). Historically, stopping all animal movements has been considered one of the most effective ways to control FMD and stop disease spread. However, stopping all movements in an area comes at a cost, as there are often uninfected herds and flocks within the control area. The inability to harvest uninfected animals and move their products to processing interrupts the food supply chain and has the potential to result in an enormous waste of safe, nutritious animal products, and create animal welfare situations. In addition, these adverse effects may negatively impact agriculture businesses and the related economy. Effective disease control measures and the security of the food supply thus require a balanced approach based on science and practicality. Evaluating the risks associated with the movement of live animals and products before an outbreak happens provides valuable insights for risk management plans. These plans can optimize animal and product movements while preventing disease spread. Food security benefits from emergency response plans that both control the disease and keep our food system functional. Therefore, emergency response plans must aim to minimize the unintended negative consequence to farmers, food processors, rural communities, and ultimately consumers.

  7. A hybrid modelling approach to simulating foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in Australian livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Bradhurst

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. Australia's freedom from FMD underpins a valuable trade in live animals and animal products. An outbreak of FMD would result in the loss of export markets and cause severe disruption to domestic markets. The prevention of, and contingency planning for, FMD are of key importance to government, industry, producers and the community. The spread and control of FMD is complex and dynamic due to a highly contagious multi-host pathogen operating in a heterogeneous environment across multiple jurisdictions. Epidemiological modelling is increasingly being recognized as a valuable tool for investigating the spread of disease under different conditions and the effectiveness of control strategies. Models of infectious disease can be broadly classified as: population-based models that are formulated from the top-down and employ population-level relationships to describe individual-level behaviour, individual-based models that are formulated from the bottom-up and aggregate individual-level behaviour to reveal population-level relationships, or hybrid models which combine the two approaches into a single model.The Australian Animal Disease Spread (AADIS hybrid model employs a deterministic equation-based model (EBM to model within-herd spread of FMD, and a stochastic, spatially-explicit agent-based model (ABM to model between-herd spread and control. The EBM provides concise and computationally efficient predictions of herd prevalence and clinical signs over time. The ABM captures the complex, stochastic and heterogeneous environment in which an FMD epidemic operates. The AADIS event-driven hybrid EBM/ABM architecture is a flexible, efficient and extensible framework for modelling the spread and control of disease in livestock on a national scale. We present an overview of the AADIS hybrid approach and a description of the model

  8. Parameter values for epidemiological models of foot-and-mouth disease in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy C Kinsley

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the event of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD incursion, response strategies are required to control, contain and eradicate the pathogen as efficiently as possible. Infectious disease simulation models are widely used tools that mimic disease dispersion in a population and that can be useful in the design and support of prevention and mitigation activities. However, there are often gaps in evidence-based research to supply models with quantities that are necessary to accurately reflect the system of interest. The objective of this study was to quantify values associated with the duration of the stages of FMD infection (latent period, subclinical period, incubation period, and duration of infection, probability of transmission (within-herd and between-herd via spatial spread, and diagnosis of a vesicular disease within a herd using a meta-analysis of the peer-reviewed literature and expert opinion. The latent period ranged from 1 to 7 days and incubation period ranged from 1 to 9 day; both were influenced by strain. In contrast, the subclinical period ranged from 0 to 6 days and was influenced by sampling method only. The duration of infection ranged from 1 to 10 days. The probability of spatial spread between an infected and fully susceptible swine farm was estimated as greatest within 5 km of the infected farm, highlighting the importance of possible long-range transmission through the movement of infected animals. Lastly, while most swine practitioners are confident in their ability to detect a vesicular disease in an average sized swine herd, a small proportion expect that up to half of the herd would need to show clinical signs before detection via passive surveillance would occur. The results of this study will be useful in within- and between-herd simulation models to develop efficient response strategies in the event an FMD in swine populations of disease-free countries or regions.

  9. A neonate with hand, foot, and mouth disease complicated with brainstem encephalitis and pulmonary edema:A complete recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Shi-Jie; Wang, Dong-Xuan; Dai, Chun-Lai; Wu, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) with serious complications and fatal cases have been reported over the last decade worldwide. The authors report a rare case of HFMD in a neonate complicated with brainstem encephalitis and pulmonary edema. She had fever, lethargy, dyspnea. Physical examination revealed shock signs, fine rales on both lungs, absent Moro reflex. The patient had a rapidly progressive course with seizures, coma, no spontaneous breathing, chemosis. There were some vesicles on ...

  10. Determinants of the Incidence of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in China Using Geographically Weighted Regression Models

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Maogui; Li, Zhongjie; Wang, Jinfeng; Jia, Lin; Liao, Yilan; Lai, Shengjie; Guo, Yansha; Zhao, Dan; Yang, Weizhong

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Over the past two decades, major epidemics of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) have occurred throughout most of the West-Pacific Region countries, causing thousands of deaths among children. However, few studies have examined potential determinants of the incidence of HFMD. METHODS: Reported HFMD cases from 2912 counties in China were obtained for May 2008. The monthly HFMD cumulative incidence was calculated for children aged 9 years and younger. Child population density (CPD...

  11. Vaccination against Foot-And-Mouth Disease: Do Initial Conditions Affect Its Benefit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porphyre, Thibaud; Auty, Harriet K.; Tildesley, Michael J.; Gunn, George J.; Woolhouse, Mark E. J.

    2013-01-01

    When facing incursion of a major livestock infectious disease, the decision to implement a vaccination programme is made at the national level. To make this decision, governments must consider whether the benefits of vaccination are sufficient to outweigh potential additional costs, including further trade restrictions that may be imposed due to the implementation of vaccination. However, little consensus exists on the factors triggering its implementation on the field. This work explores the effect of several triggers in the implementation of a reactive vaccination-to-live policy when facing epidemics of foot-and-mouth disease. In particular, we tested whether changes in the location of the incursion and the delay of implementation would affect the epidemiological benefit of such a policy in the context of Scotland. To reach this goal, we used a spatial, premises-based model that has been extensively used to investigate the effectiveness of mitigation procedures in Great Britain. The results show that the decision to vaccinate, or not, is not straightforward and strongly depends on the underlying local structure of the population-at-risk. With regards to disease incursion preparedness, simply identifying areas of highest population density may not capture all complexities that may influence the spread of disease as well as the benefit of implementing vaccination. However, if a decision to vaccinate is made, we show that delaying its implementation in the field may markedly reduce its benefit. This work provides guidelines to support policy makers in their decision to implement, or not, a vaccination-to-live policy when facing epidemics of infectious livestock disease. PMID:24204895

  12. Data-Driven Models of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Dynamics: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, L W; Bansal, S; Tildesley, M; Moreno-Torres, K I; Moritz, M; Xiao, N; Carpenter, T E; Garabed, R B

    2017-06-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) threatens animal health and leads to considerable economic losses worldwide. Progress towards minimizing both veterinary and financial impact of the disease will be made with targeted disease control policies. To move towards targeted control, specific targets and detailed control strategies must be defined. One approach for identifying targets is to use mathematical and simulation models quantified with accurate and fine-scale data to design and evaluate alternative control policies. Nevertheless, published models of FMDV vary in modelling techniques and resolution of data incorporated. In order to determine which models and data sources contain enough detail to represent realistic control policy alternatives, we performed a systematic literature review of all FMDV dynamical models that use host data, disease data or both data types. For the purpose of evaluating modelling methodology, we classified models by control strategy represented, resolution of models and data, and location modelled. We found that modelling methodology has been well developed to the point where multiple methods are available to represent detailed and contact-specific transmission and targeted control. However, detailed host and disease data needed to quantify these models are only available from a few outbreaks. To address existing challenges in data collection, novel data sources should be considered and integrated into models of FMDV transmission and control. We suggest modelling multiple endemic areas to advance local control and global control and better understand FMDV transmission dynamics. With incorporation of additional data, models can assist with both the design of targeted control and identification of transmission drivers across geographic boundaries. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. [Hand, foot and mouth disease in Hubei province, 2009-2015: an epidemiological and etiological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q; Xing, X S; Wu, Y; Liao, Q H; Liu, G P; Jiang, X Q; Guan, X H

    2017-04-10

    Objective: To clarify the age patterns and types of differences so as to provide reference on prevention and interventions of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) cases, in Hubei province. Methods: We collected the HFMD case information of Hubei province from the Chinese National Notifiable Infectious Disease Reporting System in 2009-2015 while the information on pathogens from the laboratory monitoring system of Center for Disease Control and Prevention at all levels in Hubei province. All the data were stratified by age, disease severity, laboratory confirmation status, and serotypes of enterovirus. Results: There were 495 783 reported HFMD cases from 2009 to 2015, in Hubei province, of which 1 045 were severe with 99 fatal. The annual notification rate was 1 231.0/10(6). HFMD cases were concentrated mainly in 0.5-5 year olds, with highest severity and mortality seen in 6-11 month-olds. The predominated pathogen in mild laboratory-confirmed cases each year, in order during 2009-2015 as: EV71, Cox A16, Cox A16, Cox A16, EV71, Cox A16 and other EV. HFMD showed semiannual peaks in April-June, November-December, and with more cases in the even years than in the odd years. Conclusions: Children aged 0.5 to 5 years with 6 to 11 month-olds in particular, were the focused groups of attention in Hubei province. Our findings provided evidence for the improvement on monitoring program. Targeted intervention approaches should be strengthened to reduce the mortality and morbidity of HFMD in the province.

  14. Quantitative effects of a declaration of a state of emergency on foot-and-mouth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Takenori; Takeuchi, Shouhei; Horii, Yoichiro; Yamano, Yuko; Kuroda, Yoshiki; Nakadate, Toshio

    2016-07-01

    The law in Japan requires the declaration of a state of emergency and implementation of countermeasures for an epidemic of a new infectious disease. However, because a state of emergency has never been declared in Japan, its effects remain unknown. The required countermeasures are similar to those implemented in the foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in Miyazaki in 2010. This study aimed to quantitatively estimate the effect of the declaration in 2010 and investigate the nature of the epidemic based on the day on which the declaration took effect. Only publicly available data were used. Data for farms in the most affected town were analyzed. A modified susceptible-infected-recovered model was used to estimate the effect and for the simulation. Another model was used to estimate the effective reproduction number. After the declaration, the intra-bovine transmission rate decreased by 18.1 %, and there were few days when the effective reproduction number was >1.0. A few weeks delay in the declaration significantly increased the possibility of epidemic, number of farms at peak, and final infection scale. Based on the substantial decrease in the transmission rate after the declaration of a state of emergency in 2010, a future declaration will have a similar effect for a new infectious disease even though a direct extrapolation is not valid. Although a declaration should be carefully considered owing to the potential socioeconomic effects, it is essential to prepare for the implementation given that a delay of only a few weeks should be acceptable.

  15. A retrospective study on the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease in Bhutan.

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    Dukpa, Kinzang; Robertson, Ian Duncan; Edwards, John R; Ellis, Trevor Maxwell

    2011-02-01

    A retrospective study on the outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Bhutan, between the years 1996 and 2008, based on the data collected through passive surveillance, was undertaken. A total of 230 outbreaks of FMD at sub-district level were recorded in 299 villages located in 19 out of the 20 districts in the country. There were no significant differences between the years (P = 0.998) or months (P = 0.989) on the incidence of FMD. The sub-districts in the north (altitude >1,000 m above mean sea level) had significantly (P = 0.008) higher incidences of outbreaks in winter than in summer. The sub-districts that shared border with India had significantly more outbreaks than those that didn't (P = 0.001). Cattle were the most predominant species affected being involved in all of the outbreaks reported. Serotype O, which constituted 70.6% of the outbreaks typed was the most predominant serotype prevalent in Bhutan followed by A (16.7%), Asia 1 (8.8%), and C (3.9%). Cattle density was significantly positively correlated (P = 0.023) with the incidence of disease. Three waves of outbreaks of epidemic proportions were reported in 1997/1998, 2002/2003, and 2007/2008 due to the PanAsia strain of the O serotype. The study highlights the incursion of the PanAsia strain of the O serotype into the country, possibly, through the transboundary movement of animals and the need for active surveillance of FMD, especially at the border areas. The study also highlights the significance of the O serotype and cattle as the main indicator species in the epidemiology of FMD in Bhutan. The findings from this study can be used as baseline epidemiological data for further research to understand the epidemiology of FMD in Bhutan.

  16. Construction and characterization of 3A-epitope-tagged foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xueqing; Li, Pinghua; Sun, Pu; Bai, Xingwen; Bao, Huifang; Lu, Zengjun; Fu, Yuanfang; Cao, Yimei; Li, Dong; Chen, Yingli; Qiao, Zilin; Liu, Zaixin

    2015-04-01

    Nonstructural protein 3A of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a partially conserved protein of 153 amino acids (aa) in most FMDVs examined to date. Specific deletion in the FMDV 3A protein has been associated with the inability of FMDV to grow in primary bovine cells and cause disease in cattle. However, the aa residues playing key roles in these processes are poorly understood. In this study, we constructed epitope-tagged FMDVs containing an 8 aa FLAG epitope, a 9 aa haemagglutinin (HA) epitope, and a 10 aa c-Myc epitope to substitute residues 94-101, 93-101, and 93-102 of 3A protein, respectively, using a recently developed O/SEA/Mya-98 FMDV infectious cDNA clone. Immunofluorescence assay (IFA), Western blot and sequence analysis showed that the epitope-tagged viruses stably maintained and expressed the foreign epitopes even after 10 serial passages in BHK-21 cells. The epitope-tagged viruses displayed growth properties and plaque phenotypes similar to those of the parental virus in BHK-21 cells. However, the epitope-tagged viruses exhibited lower growth rates and smaller plaque size phenotypes than those of the parental virus in primary fetal bovine kidney (FBK) cells, but similar growth properties and plaque phenotypes to those of the recombinant viruses harboring 93-102 deletion in 3A. These results demonstrate that the decreased ability of FMDV to replicate in primary bovine cells was not associated with the length of 3A, and the genetic determinant thought to play key role in decreased ability to replicate in primary bovine cells could be reduced from 93-102 residues to 8 aa residues at positions 94-101 in 3A protein. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A sudden paediatric death due to hand, foot and mouth disease: the importance of vigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, R; Omar, E; Tuan Soh, T S; Mohd Nawi, S F A; Md Noor, S

    2017-08-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is caused by enteroviruses such as Coxsackie virus A16 (CVA16) and Enterovirus 71 (EV71). The diagnostic hallmarks are oral ulcers and maculo-papular or vesicular rash on the hands and feet. Severe form of this disease can lead to death due to neurological and cardiopulmonary complications. This case report aims to describe a fatal case of HFMD with minimal oral and skin manifestations. A four-year-old girl was brought to a hospital after suddenly becoming unresponsive at home. She had a history of fever and lethargy for three days prior to her demise. The patient, and f ive other children in her neighbourhood had been diagnosed to have HFMD at a local health clinic; the other children had recovered without complications. Autopsy revealed a few punctate, sub-epidermal vesicles measuring 1 to 2 mm on the palm of her right hand and sole of the right foot, visible only with a magnifying glass. Internal examination revealed prominent nodularity at the oro- and hypopharynxes. The lungs were markedly congested and oedematous. Histopathology of the lung showed marked oedema and haemorrhage with mild pneumonic changes. Oedema with increase in macroglia and astrocytic proliferation were seen in the cerebral tissue, but no lymphocytic infiltration was evident. Enterovirus EV71 was detected by polymerase chain reaction in samples from the lung, cerebrospinal fluid and serum. The cause of death was given as HFMD complicated by pneumonia. Fatal HFMD may have minimal signs. A complete history, careful physical examination and relevant investigations lead to a diagnosis at post mortem examination. Awareness of the subtle signs and rapid deterioration associated with a fatal case of HFMD is a challenge to clinicians who encounter these cases.

  18. Molecular survey for foot-and-mouth disease virus in livestock in Tanzania, 2008–2013

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    Raphael S. Sallu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Phylogeography data are of paramount importance in studying the molecular epidemiology dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV. In this study, epithelial samples and oesophageal-pharyngeal fluids were collected from 361 convalescent animals (cattle and buffaloes in the field throughout Tanzania between 2009 and 2013. The single plex real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR assay for rapid and accurate diagnosis of FMDV employing the Callahan 3DF-2, 3DF-R primers and Callahan 3DP-1 probe were used. Preparation of the samples was performed according to the OIE manual, with a Kenya O serotype obtained from the attenuated vaccine serving as a positive control and samples collected from healthy animals serving as true negatives. The results indicated that 53.49% of samples (n = 176 were positive for FMDV genome by qRT-PCR, with Ct values ranging from 14 to 32. In addition, molecular typing of the FMDV genome positive samples using serotype specific primers revealed the existence of several serotypes: serotype South Africa Territory 1 (SAT1 (34.25%, n = 60, serotype A (68.92%, n = 98, serotype O (59.20%, n = 98 and SAT2 (54.54%, n = 96. The virus protein 1 sequences analysis for 35 samples was performed and the collective results indicated: 54.28% serotype O, 25.71% serotype A, 14.28% serotype SAT1 and 2.85% serotype SAT2. Therefore in this study, both the phylogenetic trees and spatial distribution of serotypes elucidated the phylodynamics of multiple FMDV field strains in Tanzania and neighbouring countries.

  19. Venezuelan equine encephalitis replicon particles can induce rapid protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-San Segundo, Fayna; Dias, Camila C A; Moraes, Mauro P; Weiss, Marcelo; Perez-Martin, Eva; Owens, Gary; Custer, Max; Kamrud, Kurt; de los Santos, Teresa; Grubman, Marvin J

    2013-05-01

    We have previously shown that delivery of the porcine type I interferon gene (poIFN-α/β) with a replication-defective human adenovirus vector (adenovirus 5 [Ad5]) can sterilely protect swine challenged with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 1 day later. However, the need of relatively high doses of Ad5 limits the applicability of such a control strategy in the livestock industry. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) empty replicon particles (VRPs) can induce rapid protection of mice against either homologous or, in some cases, heterologous virus challenge. As an alternative approach to induce rapid protection against FMDV, we have examined the ability of VRPs containing either the gene for green fluorescent protein (VRP-GFP) or poIFN-α (VRP-poIFN-α) to block FMDV replication in vitro and in vivo. Pretreatment of swine or bovine cell lines with either VRP significantly inhibited subsequent infection with FMDV as early as 6 h after treatment and for at least 120 h posttreatment. Furthermore, mice pretreated with either 10(7) or 10(8) infectious units of VRP-GFP and challenged with a lethal dose of FMDV 24 h later were protected from death. Protection was induced as early as 6 h after treatment and lasted for at least 48 h and correlated with induction of an antiviral response and production of IFN-α. By 6 h after treatment several genes were upregulated, and the number of genes and the level of induction increased at 24 h. Finally, we demonstrated that the chemokine IP-10, which is induced by IFN-α and VRP-GFP, is directly involved in protection against FMDV.

  20. Important roles of public playgrounds in the transmission of hand, foot, and mouth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y H; Chongsuvivatwong, V; Tan, Y; Tang, Zh-Zh; Sornsrivichai, V; McNeil, E B

    2015-05-01

    Intra-home and kindergarten transmissions were the reported major modes of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) transmission in preschool children. However, infection at home is not common and 65-80% of cases do not attend preschool. We conducted a matched case-control study to explore the role of public playgrounds in the transmission of HFMD in addition to direct and indirect exposure to HFMD patients. We used 156 hospital source cases and 156 community source controls. Univariate analysis was followed by conditional logistic regression with attributable fraction computed. Adjusted odds ratios were 11·70 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1·26-109·40] for having HFMD cases in the same class, 14·19 (95% CI 3·55-56·74) for having HFMD cases within the 20 nearest neighbourhoods, 6·03 (95% CI 2·84-12·80) for exposure to public playgrounds, 2·13 (95% CI 1·05-4·32) for finger sucking and 0·29 (95% CI 0·11-0·78) for hand washing with soap before meals. The attributable fractions for the first four risk factors were 6·4%, 20·9%, 57·2% and 27·5%, respectively, while the population prevented fraction for hand washing with soap before meals was 18·7%. Based on our findings, hand washing with soap should be advocated. Health education could include topics which underline the precautions which need to be taken and the advice given regarding avoiding the use of public playgrounds during epidemic periods, especially when children have been getting sick.

  1. Meteorological factors affect the hand, foot, and mouth disease epidemic in Qingdao, China, 2007-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, F C; Yang, F; Chen, L; Jia, J; Han, Y L; Hao, B; Cao, G W

    2016-08-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has caused public health concerns worldwide. We aimed to investigate the effect of meteorological factors on the HFMD epidemic in Qingdao, a port city in China. A total of 78641 cases were reported in Qingdao between January 2007 and December 2014. Of those, 71084 (90·39%) occurred in children aged 0-5 years, with an incidence of 1691·2/100000. The incidence increased from early spring, peaked between spring and summer, and decreased in late summer. Aetiological agents in all severe cases and selected mild cases were characterized by examining throat swabs. Except for enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), other EVs caused >50% of the HFMD cases between 2011 and 2014. EV71 was more frequent in the off-peak months than in the peak months and prone to causing more severe cases compared to CA16 (χ 2 = 46·3, P < 0·001). CA10 caused more severe HFMD than did CA6 (χ 2 = 20·49, P < 0·001) and all non-CA10 EVs (χ 2 = 41·01, P < 0·001). Community-derived HFMD cases accounted for 65·11%. Spearman rank correlation analysis showed that HFMD incidence in children aged 0-5 years was positively correlated with atmospheric temperature (r s = 0·77, P < 0·001), relative humidity (r s = 0·507, P < 0·001), and precipitation (r s = 0·328, P < 0·001). Climate changes and CA10 surveillance in communities should be integrated into the current prophylactic programme.

  2. Characterization of severe hand, foot, and mouth disease in Shenzhen, China, 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yun; Zhou, Yuanping; Lu, Hong; Yang, Hong; Feng, Qianjin; Dai, Yingchun; Chen, Long; Yu, Shouyi; Yao, Xiangjie; Zhang, Hailong; Jiang, Ming; Wang, Yujie; Han, Ning; Hu, Guifang; He, Yaqing

    2015-09-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is caused by human enteroviruses, especially by enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16). Patients infected with different enteroviruses show varied clinical symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine whether the etiological spectrum of mild and severe HFMD changed, and the association between pathogens and clinical features. From 2009 to 2013, a total of 2,299 stool or rectal specimens were collected with corresponding patient data. A dynamic view of the etiological spectrum of mild and severe HFMD in Shenzhen city of China was provided. EV71 accounted for the majority proportion of severe HFMD cases and fatalities during 2009-2013. CA16 and EV71 were gradually replaced by coxsackievirus A6 (CA6) as the most common serotype for mild HFMD since 2010. Myoclonic jerk and vomiting were the most frequent severe symptoms. Nervous system complications, including aseptic encephalitis and aseptic meningitis were observed mainly in patients infected by EV71. Among EV71, CA16, CA6, and CA10 infection, fever and pharyngalgia were more likely to develop, vesicles on the hand, foot, elbow, knee and buttock were less likely to develop in patients infected with CA10. Vesicles on the mouth more frequently occurred in the patients with CA6, but less in the patient with EV71. Associations between diverse enterovirus serotypes and various clinical features were discovered in the present study, which may offer further insight into early detection, diagnosis and treatment of HFMD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Epidemiological and etiological characteristics of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Ningbo, China, 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Hongxia; Yi, Bo; Yin, Jianhua; Fang, Ting; He, Tianfeng; Du, Yan; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Hongwei; Xie, Lei; Ding, Yibo; Gu, Wenzhen; Zhang, Shu; Han, Yifang; Dong, Hongjun; Su, Tong; Xu, Guozhang; Cao, Guangwen

    2012-08-01

    Outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in central China have caused public health concerns since 2007. It is of particular public health significance to update epidemiology of HFMD in port cities. To investigate epidemical, etiological and clinical characteristics of HFMD in Ningbo, China, from 2008 to 2011. From May 2008 to December 2011, a total of 37,404 HFMD cases including 196 severe and 12 fatal cases were investigated. Human enteroviruses from 2360 cases were determined by real-time RT-PCR. The VP1 gene of EV71 from 78 cases and CA16 from 21 cases, the VP4 gene from 28 cases, and full-length genomes of 10 isolates were analyzed. Neutralizing antibodies were evaluated in 258 healthy subjects. Parameters associated with severe HFMD were evaluated. Annual incidence of HFMD was 3066.8/100,000 in the population of ≤5 years. EV71 C4a, CA16 B1, and other enteroviruses accounted for 63.7%, 24.0% and 12.3%, respectively. The genomes of EV71 from fatal and non-fatal cases were nearly identical. The positive rates of neutralizing antibody to EV71 increased from 13.5% to 67.6% in 1- to 5-year healthy groups. The neutralizing antibody to CA16 B1 isolate was negative. EV71, exposure history and certain early manifestations including fever, vomiting, limb exanthema and peripheral neutrophil ratio were significantly associated with HFMD severity. HFMD mainly caused by EV71 C4a and CA16 B1 is seriously epidemic in Ningbo. Future emphasis should be paid on EV71 immuno-prophylaxis and early identification of severe cases upon the etiological and clinical characteristics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Viroporin Activity of the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Non-Structural 2B Protein.

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    Da Ao

    Full Text Available Viroporins are a family of low-molecular-weight hydrophobic transmembrane proteins that are encoded by various animal viruses. Viroporins form transmembrane pores in host cells via oligomerization, thereby destroying cellular homeostasis and inducing cytopathy for virus replication and virion release. Among the Picornaviridae family of viruses, the 2B protein encoded by enteroviruses is well understood, whereas the viroporin activity of the 2B protein encoded by the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV has not yet been described. An analysis of the FMDV 2B protein domains by computer-aided programs conducted in this study revealed that this protein may contain two transmembrane regions. Further biochemical, biophysical and functional studies revealed that the protein possesses a number of features typical of a viroporin when it is overexpressed in bacterial and mammalian cells as well as in FMDV-infected cells. The protein was found to be mainly localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, with both the N- and C-terminal domains stretched into the cytosol. It exhibited cytotoxicity in Escherichia coli, which attenuated 2B protein expression. The release of virions from cells infected with FMDV was inhibited by amantadine, a viroporin inhibitor. The 2B protein monomers interacted with each other to form both intracellular and extracellular oligomers. The Ca(2+ concentration in the cells increased, and the integrity of the cytoplasmic membrane was disrupted in cells that expressed the 2B protein. Moreover, the 2B protein induced intense autophagy in host cells. All of the results of this study demonstrate that the FMDV 2B protein has properties that are also found in other viroporins and may be involved in the infection mechanism of FMDV.

  5. A dynamic model for the outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, C-C; Jiang, D-S; Wu, H-M; Chen, H-H

    2016-05-01

    The first large outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) with severe complications primarily caused by enterovirus 71 was reported in Taiwan in 1998. Surveillance of HFMD to evaluate the spread of HFMD with and without infection control policy is needed. We developed a new dynamic epidemic Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model to fit the surveillance data on containing valuable information on the severity of HFMD in order to accurately estimate the basic reproductive number (R 0) of HFMD. After fitting the empirical data, in conjunction with other relevant parameters extracted from the literature, the estimated transmission coefficients were close to 5 × 10-7 (per day) and the proportion of severe HFMD cases ranged between 0 and 0·0036 (per day). Taking into account the distribution of all parameters considered in our dynamic epidemic model, the R 0 computed was 1·37 (95% confidence interval 0·24-5·84), suggesting a higher likelihood of the spread of HFMD if no infection control policy is provided. The isolation strategy against the spread of HFMD not only delayed the epidemic peak with the delayed time ranging from 4 weeks for only 20% isolation to 47 weeks for 100% isolation but also reduced total number of HFMD cases with the percentage of reduction ranging from 1·3% for only 20% isolation to 13·3% for 100% isolation. The proposed model can also be flexible for evaluating the effectiveness of two other possible policies for containing HFMD, quarantine and vaccination (if the vaccine can be developed).

  6. Structures of foot and mouth disease virus pentamers: Insight into capsid dissociation and unexpected pentamer reassociation.

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    Nayab Malik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV belongs to the Aphthovirus genus of the Picornaviridae, a family of small, icosahedral, non-enveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses. It is a highly infectious pathogen and is one of the biggest hindrances to the international trade of animals and animal products. FMDV capsids (which are unstable below pH6.5 release their genome into the host cell from an acidic compartment, such as that of an endosome, and in the process dissociate into pentamers. Whilst other members of the family (enteroviruses have been visualized to form an expanded intermediate capsid with holes from which inner capsid proteins (VP4, N-termini (VP1 and RNA can be released, there has been no visualization of any such state for an aphthovirus, instead the capsid appears to simply dissociate into pentamers. Here we present the 8-Å resolution structure of isolated dissociated pentamers of FMDV, lacking VP4. We also found these pentamers to re-associate into a rigid, icosahedrally symmetric assembly, which enabled their structure to be solved at higher resolution (5.2 Å. In this assembly, the pentamers unexpectedly associate 'inside out', but still with their exposed hydrophobic edges buried. Stabilizing interactions occur between the HI loop of VP2 and its symmetry related partners at the icosahedral 3-fold axes, and between the BC and EF loops of VP3 with the VP2 βB-strand and the CD loop at the 2-fold axes. A relatively extensive but subtle structural rearrangement towards the periphery of the dissociated pentamer compared to that in the mature virus provides insight into the mechanism of dissociation of FMDV and the marked difference in antigenicity.

  7. Evolutionary dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus O/ME-SA/Ind2001 lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Saravanan; Mohapatra, Jajati K; Sharma, Gaurav K; Biswal, Jitendra K; Ranjan, Rajeev; Rout, Manoranjan; Das, Biswajit; Dash, Bana B; Sanyal, Aniket; Pattnaik, Bramhadev

    2015-08-05

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus serotype O Ind2001 lineage within the Middle East-South Asia topotype is the major cause of recent FMD incidences in India. A sub-lineage of Ind2001 caused severe outbreaks in the southern region of the country during 2013 and also reported for the first time from Libya. In this study, we conducted a detailed evolutionary analysis of Ind2001 lineage. Phylogenetic analysis of Ind2001 lineage based on maximum likelihood method revealed two major splits and three sub-lineages. The mean nucleotide substitution rate for this lineage was calculated to be 6.338×10(-3)substitutions/site/year (s/s/y), which is similar to those of PanAsian sub-lineages. Evolutionary time scale analysis indicated that the Ind2001 lineage might have originated in 1989. The sub-lineage Ind2001d that caused 2013 outbreaks seems to be relatively more divergent genetically from other Ind2001 sub-lineages. Seven codons in the VP1 region of Ind2001 were found to be under positive selection. Four out of 24 recent Ind2001 strains tested in 2D-MNT had antigenic relationship value of <0.3 with the serotype O vaccine strain indicating intra-epidemic antigenic diversity. Amino acid substitutions found in these minor variants with reference to antigenic diversity have been discussed. The dominance of antigenically homologous strains indicates absence of vaccine immunity in the majority of the affected hosts. Taken together, the evolution of Ind2001 lineage deviates from the strict molecular clock and a typical lineage evolutionary dynamics characterized by periodic emergence and re-emergence of Ind2001 and PanAsia lineage have been observed in respect of serotype O. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Purification of foot-and-mouth disease virus by heparin as ligand for certain strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ping; Sun, Shiqi; Dong, Jinjie; Zhi, Xiaoying; Chang, Yanyan; Teng, Zhidong; Guo, Huichen; Liu, Zaixin

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this project was to develop an easily operable and scalable process for the recovery and purification of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) from cell culture. Heparin resins HipTrap Heparin HP and AF-Heparin HC-650 were utilized to purify FMDV O/HN/CHA/93. Results showed that the purity of AF-Heparin HC-650 was ideal. Then, the O/HN/CHA/93, O/Tibet/CHA/99, Asia I/HN/06, and A/CHA/HB/2009 strains were purified by AF-Heparin HC-650. Their affinity/virus recoveries were approximately 51.2%/45.8%, 71.5%/70.9%, 96.4%/73.5, and 59.5%/42.1%, respectively. During a stepwise elution strategy, the viral particles were mainly eluted at 300mM ionic strength peaks. The heparin affinity chromatography process removed more than 94% of cellular and medium proteins. Anion exchange resin Capto Q captured four FMD virus particles; 40% of binding proteins and 80%-90% of viral particles were eluted at 450mM NaCl. Moreover, ionic strength varied from 30 to 450mM had no effect on the immunity to FMDV. The results revealed that heparin sulfate may be the main receptor for CHA/99 strain attachment-susceptible cells. Heparin affinity chromatography can reach perfect results, especially when used as a ligand of the virus. Anion exchange is useful only as previous step for further purification. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Cyclical Patterns of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease Caused by Enterovirus A71 in Malaysia.

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    Nmn NikNadia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71 is an important emerging pathogen causing large epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD in children. In Malaysia, since the first EV-A71 epidemic in 1997, recurrent cyclical epidemics have occurred every 2-3 years for reasons that remain unclear. We hypothesize that this cyclical pattern is due to changes in population immunity in children (measured as seroprevalence. Neutralizing antibody titers against EV-A71 were measured in 2,141 residual serum samples collected from children ≤12 years old between 1995 and 2012 to determine the seroprevalence of EV-A71. Reported national HFMD incidence was highest in children <2 years, and decreased with age; in support of this, EV-A71 seroprevalence was significantly associated with age, indicating greater susceptibility in younger children. EV-A71 epidemics are also characterized by peaks of increased genetic diversity, often with genotype changes. Cross-sectional time series analysis was used to model the association between EV-A71 epidemic periods and EV-A71 seroprevalence adjusting for age and climatic variables (temperature, rainfall, rain days and ultraviolet radiance. A 10% increase in absolute monthly EV-A71 seroprevalence was associated with a 45% higher odds of an epidemic (adjusted odds ratio, aOR1.45; 95% CI 1.24-1.69; P<0.001. Every 10% decrease in seroprevalence between preceding and current months was associated with a 16% higher odds of an epidemic (aOR = 1.16; CI 1.01-1.34 P<0.034. In summary, the 2-3 year cyclical pattern of EV-A71 epidemics in Malaysia is mainly due to the fall of population immunity accompanying the accumulation of susceptible children between epidemics. This study will impact the future planning, timing and target populations for vaccine programs.

  10. Electrical Resistivity Monitoring for Leachate Distribution at Two Foot-and-Mouth- Disease (FMD) Burial Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Kaown, D.; Lee, K.; Leem, K.; Ko, K.

    2011-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to provide the basic information on leachate distribution with time changes through the electrical resistivity monitoring for a certain period of time in the Foot-and-Mouth-Disease (FMD) burial facilities which is needed to prevent further soil and groundwater contamination and to build an effective plan for stabilization of the burial site. In this study, dipole-dipoles surveys were carried out around two FMD burial sites in Iceon-si, Gyeonggi-do. The FMD burial facility installed at Daewall-myeon is consists of one block but, at Yul-myeon, it is divided into 2 blocks named A and B blocks. Dipole-Dipole surveys with 8 lines at Yul-myeon and 3 lines at Daewall-myeon were carried out. The observed leachate distribution along survey lines was not clearly evident as time passes at Daewall-myeon site, but, at Yul-myeon site, the leachate distribution around the survey lines showed a decrease of resistivity around the burial facility. At and around A and B blocks of Yul-myeon site, interpretations of the survey data show low resistivity zones below 10 Ωm from a depth 3 m to 10 m and such low resistivity zones of the A block are thicker than the B block by about 5~10 m. From the geochemical data and resistivity survey at two FMD burial sites, it is inferred that the groundwater within a 50-meter radius around burial facilities of the Yul-myeon site are contaminated by leachate. The general resistivity distribution around the burial site is seemed affected by the leachate with high electrical conductivity. The detail distribution patterns can be explained by local distributions of soil and weathered rocks and associated leachate flow. This subject is supported by Brain Korea 21 and Korea Ministry of Environment as 'The GAIA Project (173-092-009)'.

  11. Characteristics of leachate in Foot and Mouth Disease Carcass Disposal using Molecular Biology Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, E. J.; Kim, B. J.; Wi, D. W.; Choi, N. C.; Lee, S. J.; Min, J. E.; Park, C. Y.

    2012-04-01

    The Leachate from Foot and Mouth Disease(FMD) carcass disposal by is one of the types of high-concentration contaminated wastewater with the greatest environmental impact. This is due to its pollutants: nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N) and pathogenic microorganisms. Satisfactory treatment of leachate is not an easy task for its high concentrations of nitrate nitrogen and pathogenic microorganisms. Therefore suitable FMD leachate treatment processes should be adopted to improve treatment performance and to reduce overall running costs. The objective of this study was to determine the leachate characteristics through environmental analysis and molecular biology method (bacteria identification and Polymerase Chain Reaction) using FMD leachate samples for optimal FMD leachate treatment processes. The Sixteen FMD leachate samples was obtained from carcass disposal regions in Korea. Results of environmental analysis showed that pH and Eh was observed from 5.57 to 7.40, -134~358mV. This data was exhibited typical early carcass disposal (Neutral pH and Reducing Environment by abundant organic matter). TOC and nitrate nitrogen high concentrations in FMD leachate showed a large variability from 2.3 to 38,730 mg/L(mean - 6,821.93mg/L) and 0.335 ~231.998mg/L(mean - 37.46mg/L), respectively. The result of bacteria identification was observed Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas putida, Acinetobacter ursingii, Aeromonas hydrophila, Serratia liquefaciens, Brevundimonas naejangsanensis, Serratia liquefaciens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter ursingii. The results of Polymerase Chain Reaction(PCR) using EzTaxon server data revealed Pseudoclavibacter helvolus, Pseudochrobactrum saccharolyticum, Corynebacterium callunae, Paenibacillus lautus, Paenibacillus sp., Bacillus arvi, Brevundimonas bullata, Acinetobacter ursingii, Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus psychrodurans, Pseudomonas sp.

  12. Dermatological spectrum of hand, foot and mouth disease from classical to generalized exanthema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubiche, Thomas; Schuffenecker, Isabelle; Boralevi, Franck; Léauté-Labrèze, Christine; Bornebusch, Laure; Chiaverini, Christine; Phan, Alice; Maruani, Annabel; Miquel, Juliette; Lafon, Marie-Edith; Lina, Bruno; Del Giudice, Pascal

    2014-04-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is classically defined as a childhood fever accompanied by a rash with vesicles or erosions of the oral mucosa, hands, feet and sometimes the buttocks. Severe neurological complications are associated with enterovirus 71 outbreaks in Asia. Recently, it has been suggested that HFMD is related to coxsackie virus A6 (CV-A6) when there is an atypical rash. The objective of the study is to determine the dermatological pattern of HFMD and to identify the virus serotypes associated with a specific dermatological pattern. A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted in 7 pediatric dermatology units in France from March 2010 to February 2012. All children with clinically suspected diagnosis of HFMD were included. Clinical data were collected and swabs from the nasopharynx and vesicles were taken for reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and genotyping. Only children with confirmed HFMD--defined by clinical diagnosis of HFMD and positive enterovirus polymerase chain reaction results--were included for analysis. One hundred and four children consulted for suspected HFMD, including 89 (mean age: 25.7 months; sex ratio M/F 1.54) with confirmed HFMD. Seventy-eight (87.6%) had skin lesions on sites other than hand, feet and mouth. Thirty-seven (41.5%) had 5 or more anatomical sites involved (hand, feet and mouth, buttocks, legs, arms and trunk) considered as widespread exanthema. Widespread vesicular exanthema was observed with both CV-A6 and CV-A16. Peri-oral rash was associated with CV-A6 (P exanthema. Generalized and atypical exanthema were observed with both CV-A6 and CV-A16 infections. CV-A6 is associated with peri-oral rash.

  13. Investigation of airborne foot-and-mouth disease virus transmission during low-wind conditions in the early phase of the UK 2001 epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, T.; Alexandersen, S.; Astrup, P.

    2003-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed domesticated and wild animals. The highly contagious nature of FMD is a reflection of the wide range of host species, the enormous quantities of virus liberated by infected animals, the range of excretions...... animals. Such spread can be rapid and extensive, and it is known in certain circumstances to have transmitted disease over a distance of several hundred kilometres. During the 2001 FMD epidemic in the United Kingdom (UK), atmospheric dispersion models were applied in real time in order to assess...

  14. [Health related quality of life on severe hand, foot and mouth disease patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y M; Yang, J; Liao, Q H

    2017-04-10

    Objective: To evaluate the health related quality of life (HRQoL) for severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) patients with different complications. Methods: A national telephone interview under the EQ-5D proxy2 questionnaire (EQ-SD and EQ-VAS), was conducted to obtain the HRQoL of lab-confirmed severe HFMD patients, aged between six months and five-year-olds from the national communicable disease surveillance system from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2013. Results: A total of 685 severe HFMD cases were included in the study. A total of 456 (66.6%) of them were males with 75.8% of them younger than three years old. A total of 337 (49.2%) and 407 (59.4%) of the participants reported that they had problems in mobility or daily activities. A total of 569 (83.1%) and 616 (89.9%) of the cases reported having problems in pain/discomfort or anxiety/depression. The average EQ-5D and EQ-VAS scores were 0.58±0.23 and 53.6±25.7, both were positively associated with the duration of illness. Mean quality adjusted life years loss during the HFMD episode for the severe patients was (15.45±13.75) years/1 000 persons. The QALY losses for severe patients with each of below complication were: respiratory diseases (11.17±8.83) years/1 000 persons, aseptic meningitis (13.56±11.99) years/1 000 persons, encephalitis/brainstem encephalitis/acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) (15.31±12.63) years/1 000 persons, Myocarditis (17.28±18.16) years/1 000 persons, pulmonary hemorrhage/pulmonary edema (17.34±14.98) years/1 000 persons, cardiopulmonary failure (25.47±20.53) years/1 000 persons. Among patients with lab confirmed Entero virus A71 (EV71) (16.51±14.48) years/1 000 persons, the QALY loss was seen higher than Coxsackie virus A16 (Cox A16) (13.02±11.45) years/1 000 persons and other Enter virus (14.74±14.22) years/1 000 persons (Z=11.83, P=0.003). Conclusion: The HRQoL loss for severe HFMD patients substantially increased under complications exacerbation and related to the

  15. Review of the Global Distribution of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus from 2007 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, B P; Rodriguez, L L; Hammond, J M; Pinto, J; Perez, A M

    2017-04-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus affects livestock worldwide. There are seven different serotypes, each with a diversity of topotypes, genetic lineages and strains. Some lineages have different properties that may contribute to sporadic spread beyond their recognized endemic areas. The objective of this study was to review the most significant FMD epidemiological events that took place worldwide between 2007 and 2014. Severe epidemics were caused by FMD virus (FMDV) lineage O/Asia/Mya-98 in Japan and South Korea in 2010, both previously free of disease. In India, where FMD is endemic, the most important event was the re-emergence of lineage O/ME-SA/Ind-2001 in 2008. Notably, this lineage, normally restricted to India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan, was also found in Saudi Arabia and Libya in 2013 and has caused several outbreaks in Tunisia and Algeria in 2014-2015. In January 2011, FMDV-positive wild boars were found in Bulgaria, where the disease last occurred in 1996, followed by 12 outbreaks in livestock infected with FMDV O/ME-SA/PanAsia2. In 2012, FMDV SAT2 caused outbreaks in Egypt and the Palestinian Autonomous Territories. Another significant event was the emergence of FMDV Asia1 Sindh-08 in the Middle East. In South America, one outbreak of FMDV serotype O, topotype Euro-SA was reported in Paraguay in 2011, which was recognized as FMD-free with vaccination at the time. Lessons learned from past events, point out the need for an integrated strategy that comprises coordinated global and regional efforts for FMDV control and surveillance. Specific local characteristics related to host, environment and virus that condition FMD occurrence should be carefully considered and incorporated to adapt appropriate strategies into local plans. In this review, we compiled relevant epidemiological FMD events to provide a global overview of the current situation. We further discussed current challenges present in different FMD areas. Published (2015). This article is a U

  16. Resource Estimations in Contingency Planning for Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette Boklund

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Preparedness planning for a veterinary crisis is important to be fast and effective in the eradication of disease. For countries with a large export of animals and animal products, each extra day in an epidemic will cost millions of Euros due to the closure of export markets. This is important for the Danish husbandry industry, especially the swine industry, which had an export of €4.4 billion in 2012. The purposes of this project were to (1 develop an iterative tool with the aim of estimating the resources needed during an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD in Denmark, (2 identify areas, which can delay the control of the disease. The tool developed should easily be updated, when knowledge is gained from other veterinary crises or during an outbreak of FMD. The stochastic simulation model DTU-DADS was used to simulate spread of FMD in Denmark. For each task occurring during an epidemic of FMD, the time and personnel needed per herd was estimated by a working group with expertise in contingency and crisis management. By combining this information, an iterative model was created to calculate the needed personnel on a daily basis during the epidemic. The needed personnel was predicted to peak within the first week with a requirement of approximately 123 (65–175 veterinarians, 33 (23–64 technicians, and 36 (26–49 administrative staff on day 2, while the personnel needed in the Danish Emergency Management Agency (responsible for the hygiene barrier and initial cleaning and disinfection of the farm was predicted to be 174 (58–464, mostly recruits. The time needed for surveillance visits was predicted to be the most influential factor in the calculations. Based on results from a stochastic simulation model, it was possible to create an iterative model to estimate the requirements for personnel during an FMD outbreak in Denmark. The model can easily be adjusted, when new information on resources appears from management of other crisis or

  17. Farmers' Intentions to Implement Foot and Mouth Disease Control Measures in Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wudu T Jemberu

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to explore farmers' intentions to implement foot and mouth disease (FMD control in Ethiopia, and to identify perceptions about the disease and its control measures that influence these intentions using the Health Belief Model (HBM framework. Data were collected using questionnaires from 293 farmers in three different production systems. The influence of perceptions on the intentions to implement control measures were analyzed using binary logistic regression. The effect of socio-demographic and husbandry variables on perceptions that were found to significantly influence the intentions were analyzed using ordinal logistic regression. Almost all farmers (99% intended to implement FMD vaccination free of charge. The majority of farmers in the pastoral (94% and market oriented (92% systems also had the intention to implement vaccination with charge but only 42% of the crop-livestock mixed farmers had the intention to do so. Only 2% of pastoral and 18% of crop-livestock mixed farmers had the intention to implement herd isolation and animal movement restriction continuously. These proportions increased to 11% for pastoral and 50% for crop-livestock mixed farmers when the measure is applied only during an outbreak. The majority of farmers in the market oriented system (>80% had the intention to implement herd isolation and animal movement restriction measure, both continuously and during an outbreak. Among the HBM perception constructs, perceived barrier was found to be the only significant predictor of the intention to implement vaccination. Perceived susceptibility, perceived benefit and perceived barrier were the significant predictors of the intention for herd isolation and animal movement restriction measure. In turn, the predicting perceived barrier on vaccination control varied significantly with the production system and the age of farmers. The significant HBM perception predictors on herd isolation and animal

  18. Phylodynamics of Enterovirus A71-Associated Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoghegan, Jemma L; Tan, Le Van; Kühnert, Denise; Halpin, Rebecca A; Lin, Xudong; Simenauer, Ari; Akopov, Asmik; Das, Suman R; Stockwell, Timothy B; Shrivastava, Susmita; Ngoc, Nghiem My; Uyen, Le Thi Tam; Tuyen, Nguyen Thi Kim; Thanh, Tran Tan; Hang, Vu Thi Ty; Qui, Phan Tu; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Khanh, Truong Huu; Thinh, Le Quoc; Nhan, Le Nguyen Thanh; Van, Hoang Minh Tu; Viet, Do Chau; Tuan, Ha Manh; Viet, Ho Lu; Hien, Tran Tinh; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Thwaites, Guy; Grenfell, Bryan T; Stadler, Tanja; Wentworth, David E; Holmes, Edward C; Van Doorn, H Rogier

    2015-09-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is a major cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and is particularly prevalent in parts of Southeast Asia, affecting thousands of children and infants each year. Revealing the evolutionary and epidemiological dynamics of EV-A71 through time and space is central to understanding its outbreak potential. We generated the full genome sequences of 200 EV-A71 strains sampled from various locations in Viet Nam between 2011 and 2013 and used these sequence data to determine the evolutionary history and phylodynamics of EV-A71 in Viet Nam, providing estimates of the effective reproduction number (Re) of the infection through time. In addition, we described the phylogeography of EV-A71 throughout Southeast Asia, documenting patterns of viral gene flow. Accordingly, our analysis reveals that a rapid genogroup switch from C4 to B5 likely took place during 2012 in Viet Nam. We show that the Re of subgenogroup C4 decreased during the time frame of sampling, whereas that of B5 increased and remained >1 at the end of 2013, corresponding to a rise in B5 prevalence. Our study reveals that the subgenogroup B5 virus that emerged into Viet Nam is closely related to variants that were responsible for large epidemics in Malaysia and Taiwan and therefore extends our knowledge regarding its associated area of endemicity. Subgenogroup B5 evidently has the potential to cause more widespread outbreaks across Southeast Asia. EV-A71 is one of many viruses that cause HFMD, a common syndrome that largely affects infants and children. HFMD usually causes only mild illness with no long-term consequences. Occasionally, however, severe infection may arise, especially in very young children, causing neurological complications and even death. EV-A71 is highly contagious and is associated with the most severe HFMD cases, with large and frequent epidemics of the virus recorded worldwide. Although major advances have been made in the development of a potential EV-A71

  19. Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Red Deer - Experimental Infection and Test Methods Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittelberger, R; Nfon, C; Swekla, K; Zhang, Z; Hole, K; Bittner, H; Salo, T; Goolia, M; Embury-Hyatt, C; Bueno, R; Hannah, M; Swainsbury, R; O'Sullivan, C; Spence, R; Clough, R; McFadden, A; Rawdon, T; Alexandersen, S

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a number of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) test methods for use in red deer. Ten animals were intranasally inoculated with the FMD virus (FMDV) O UKG 11/2001, monitored for clinical signs, and samples taken regularly (blood, serum, oral swabs, nasal swabs, probang samples and lesion swabs, if present) over a 4-week period. Only one animal, deer 1103, developed clinical signs (lesions under the tongue and at the coronary band of the right hind hoof). It tested positive by 3D and IRES real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) in various swabs, lesion materials and serum. In a non-structural protein (NSP) in-house ELISA (NSP-ELISA-IH), one commercial ELISA (NSP-ELISA-PR) and a commercial antibody NSP pen side test, only deer 1103 showed positive results from day post-inoculation (dpi) 14 onwards. Two other NSP-ELISAs detected anti-NSP serum antibodies with lower sensitivity. It also showed rising antibody levels in the virus neutralization test (VNT), the in-house SPO-ELISA-IH and the commercial SPO-ELISA-PR at dpi 9, and in another two commercial SPO-ELISAs at dpi 12 (SPO-ELISA-IV) and dpi 19 (SPO-ELISA-IZ), respectively. Six of the red deer that had been rRT-PCR and antibody negative were re-inoculated intramuscularly with the same O-serotype FMDV at dpi 14. None of these animals became rRT-PCR or NSP-ELISA positive, but all six animals became positive in the VNT, the in-house SPO-ELISA-IH and the commercial SPO-ELISA-PR. Two other commercial SPO-ELISAs were less sensitive or failed to detect animals as positive. The rRT-PCRs and the four most sensitive commercial ELISAs that had been used for the experimentally inoculated deer were further evaluated for diagnostic specificity (DSP) using 950 serum samples and 200 nasal swabs from non-infected animals. DSPs were 100% for the rRT-PCRs and between 99.8 and 100% for the ELISAs. © 2015 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell

  20. Herd Immunity Against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Under Different Vaccination Practices in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, G K; Mahajan, S; Matura, R; Biswal, J K; Ranjan, R; Subramaniam, S; Misri, J; Bambal, R G; Pattnaik, B

    2017-08-01

    A systematic vaccination programme is ongoing in India to control the three prevailing serotypes (A, O, Asia1) of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus. Under the programme, more than 120 million bovine (term bovine applicable to both cattle and buffalo in this study) population of 221 of the 666 districts in the country are being bi-annually vaccinated with trivalent vaccine since 2010. Although clinical disease has reduced in these districts because of the systematic vaccinations, an abrupt increase in the number of FMD cases was recorded in 2013. Hence, a longitudinal field study was conducted in the year 2014 to estimate the serological herd immunity level in bovines, the impact of systematic vaccinations and field efficacy of the vaccines used. Serum samples (n = 115 963) collected from 295 districts of the 18 states of the country were analysed to estimate antibody titres against structural proteins of the three serotypes. The efficacy of the vaccine was demonstrated in the control group (group-D) where animals of the group were identified by ear tags for the purpose of repeated sampling after vaccination. Progressive building of the herd immunity in the field after systematic vaccination was demonstrated. The mean antibody titre against the serotypes O, A and Asia1 was estimated as log10 1.93 (95% CI 1.92-1.93), 2.02 (2.02-2.02) and 2.02 (2.02-2.02), respectively, in the states covered under the control programme. However, in other states herd immunity was significantly low [mean titre log10 1.68 (95% CI 1.67-1.69), 1.77 (1.76-1.78) and 1.85 (1.84-1.86) against the three serotypes]. Inverse relationship between the herd immunity and FMD incidences was observed the states following different vaccination practices. The study helped in demarcation of FMD risk zones in the country with low herd immunity. Estimation of herd immunity kinetics in the field helped in refining the vaccination schedule under the control programme. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Early decision indicators for foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in non-endemic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Graeme Garner

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Disease managers face many challenges when deciding on the most effective control strategy to manage an outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD. Decisions have to be made under conditions of uncertainty and where the situation is continually evolving. In addition, resources for control are often limited. A modelling study was carried out to identify characteristics measurable during the early phase of a FMD outbreak that might be useful as predictors of the total number of infected places, outbreak duration and the total area under control. The study involved two modelling platforms in two countries (Australia and New Zealand and encompassed a large number of incursion scenarios. Linear regression, classification and regression tree and boosted regression tree analyses were used to quantify the predictive value of a set of parameters on three outcome variables of interest: the total number of infected places, outbreak duration and the total area under control. The number of infected premises, number of pending culls, area under control, estimated dissemination ratio, and cattle density around the index herd at days 7, 14 and 21 following first detection were associated with each of the outcome variables. Regression models for the size of the area under control had the highest predictive value (R2 = 0.51-0.9 followed by the number of infected premises (R2 = 0.3-0.75 and outbreak duration (R2 = 0.28-0.57. Predictability improved at later time points in the outbreak. Predictive regression models using various cut-points at day 14 to define small and large outbreaks had positive predictive values of 0.85‒0.98 and negative predictive values of 0.52‒0.91, with 79‒97% of outbreaks correctly classified. On the strict assumption that each of the simulation models used in this study provide a realistic indication of the spread of FMD in animal populations our conclusion is that relatively simple metrics available early in a control program can be

  2. Is Hiding Foot and Mouth Disease Sensitive Behavior for Farmers? A Survey Study in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoma Gunarathne

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Foot and mouth disease (FMD has a long history in Sri Lanka and was found to be endemic in various parts of the country and constitutes a constant threat to farmers. In Sri Lanka, currently there is no regular, nationwide vaccination programme devised to control FMD. Therefore, improving farmers’ knowledge regarding distinguishing FMD from other diseases and ensuring prompt reporting of any suspicion of FMD as well as restricting movement of animals are critical activities for an effective FMD response effort. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between farmers’ knowledge levels and their behaviors to establish a strategy to control FMD. In our study, item count technique was applied to estimate the number of farmers that under-report and sell FMD-infected animals, although to do so is prohibited by law. The following findings were observed: about 63% of farmers have very poor knowledge of routes of FMD transmission; ‘under-reporting’ was found to be a sensitive behavior and nearly 23% of the farmers were reluctant to report FMD-infected animals; and ‘selling FMD-infected animals’ is a sensitive behavior among high-level knowledge group while it is a non-sensitive behavior among the low-level knowledge group. If farmers would understand the importance of prompt reporting, they may report any suspected cases of FMD to veterinary officials. However, even if farmers report honestly, they do not want to cull FMD-infected animals. Thus, education programs should be conducted not only on FMD introduction and transmission, but also its impact. Furthermore, consumers may criticize the farmers for culling their infected animals. Hence, not only farmers, but also consumers need to be educated on the economic impact of FMD and the importance of controlling an outbreak. If farmers have a high knowledge of FMD transmission, they consider selling FMD-infected animals as a sensitive behavior. Therefore, severe

  3. Exploiting serological data to understand the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes circulating in Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldaghayes, Ibrahim; Dayhum, Abdunaser; Kammon, Abdulwahab; Sharif, Monier; Ferrari, Giancarlo; Bartels, Christianus; Sumption, Keith; King, Donald P; Grazioli, Santina; Brocchi, Emiliana

    2017-01-01

    Sporadic outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) have occurred in Libya for almost fifty years. During the spring of 2013, a countrywide serosurvey was undertaken to assess the level of FMD virus circulation and identify FMD virus serotypes in the country. A total of 4221 sera were collected, comprising samples from large ruminants (LR; n=1428 samples from 357 farms) and small ruminants (SR; n=2793 samples from 141 farms). FMD sero-prevalence of NSP antibodies determined by ELISA were 19.0% (271/1428) with 95% CI (16.9 - 21.0) and 13.5% (378/2793) with 95% CI (12.3 - 14.8) for LR and SR samples, respectively. The sero-prevalence of NSP antibodies in LR was 12.3% and 19.8% for age group 2 year, respectively (X2= 118.1, P= 0.000). These observed NSP serologic profiles support the hypothesis of an endemic level of FMD circulation in Libya. All positive sera were tested for SP antibodies for O, A and SAT-2 FMD virus serotypes. Serotype O was the dominant circulating serotype followed by serotype A, while evidence of SAT-2 was not found. These data provide an insight into the wider epidemiology of FMD in Libya, and contribute to field and laboratory investigations that during 2013 serotype O (O/ME-SA/Ind-2001 lineage) was isolated from clinical samples collected from the country.

  4. Patterns, risk factors and characteristics of reported and perceived foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Mwiine, Frank N; Muwanika, Vincent B; Okurut, Anna Rose Ademun; Siegismund, Hans R; Alexandersen, Soren

    2010-10-01

    Patterns of outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Uganda were elucidated from spatial and temporal retrospective data retrieved from monthly reports from District Veterinary Officers (DVOs) to the central administration for the years spanning 2001-2008. An assessment of perceived FMD occurrence, risk factors and the associated characteristics was made based on semi-structured questionnaires administered to the DVOs. During this period, a total of 311 FMD outbreaks were reported in 56 (70%) out of Uganda's 80 districts. The number of reported FMD outbreaks changed over time and by geographical regions. Occurrence of FMD was significantly associated with the dry season months (p = 0.0346), the time when animals movements are more frequent. The average number of FMD outbreaks was higher for some sub-counties adjacent to national parks than for other sub-counties, whilst proximity to international border only seemed to play a role at the southern border. DVOs believed that the major risk factor for FMD outbreaks was animal movements (odds ratio OR 50.8, confidence interval CI 17.8-144.6) and that most outbreaks were caused by introduction of sick animals.

  5. B epitope multiplicity and B/T epitope orientation influence immunogenicity of foot-and-mouth disease peptide vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Esther; Cubillos, Carolina; Moreno, Noelia; Bárcena, Juan; de la Torre, Beatriz G; Andreu, David; Sobrino, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic peptides incorporating protective B- and T-cell epitopes are candidates for new safer foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines. We have reported that dendrimeric peptides including four copies of a B-cell epitope (VP1 136 to 154) linked to a T-cell epitope (3A 21 to 35) of FMD virus (FMDV) elicit potent B- and T-cell specific responses and confer protection to viral challenge, while juxtaposition of these epitopes in a linear peptide induces less efficient responses. To assess the relevance of B-cell epitope multivalency, dendrimers bearing two (B2T) or four (B4T) copies of the B-cell epitope from type O FMDV (a widespread circulating serotype) were tested in CD1 mice and showed that multivalency is advantageous over simple B-T-epitope juxtaposition, resulting in efficient induction of neutralizing antibodies and optimal release of IFN γ . Interestingly, the bivalent B2T construction elicited similar or even better B- and T-cell specific responses than tetravalent B4T. In addition, the presence of the T-cell epitope and its orientation were shown to be critical for the immunogenicity of the linear juxtaposed monovalent peptides analyzed in parallel. Taken together, our results provide useful insights for a more accurate design of FMD subunit vaccines.

  6. B Epitope Multiplicity and B/T Epitope Orientation Influence Immunogenicity of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Peptide Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Blanco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic peptides incorporating protective B- and T-cell epitopes are candidates for new safer foot-and-mouth disease (FMD vaccines. We have reported that dendrimeric peptides including four copies of a B-cell epitope (VP1 136 to 154 linked to a T-cell epitope (3A 21 to 35 of FMD virus (FMDV elicit potent B- and T-cell specific responses and confer protection to viral challenge, while juxtaposition of these epitopes in a linear peptide induces less efficient responses. To assess the relevance of B-cell epitope multivalency, dendrimers bearing two (B2T or four (B4T copies of the B-cell epitope from type O FMDV (a widespread circulating serotype were tested in CD1 mice and showed that multivalency is advantageous over simple B-T-epitope juxtaposition, resulting in efficient induction of neutralizing antibodies and optimal release of IFNγ. Interestingly, the bivalent B2T construction elicited similar or even better B- and T-cell specific responses than tetravalent B4T. In addition, the presence of the T-cell epitope and its orientation were shown to be critical for the immunogenicity of the linear juxtaposed monovalent peptides analyzed in parallel. Taken together, our results provide useful insights for a more accurate design of FMD subunit vaccines.

  7. Transcutaneous immunization via rapidly dissolvable microneedles protects against hand-foot-and-mouth disease caused by enterovirus 71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhuangzhi; Ye, Xiaohua; Ku, Zhiqiang; Liu, Qingwei; Shen, Chaoyun; Luo, Huafei; Luan, Hansen; Zhang, Chenghao; Tian, Shaoqiong; Lim, CheeYen; Huang, Zhong; Wang, Hao

    2016-12-10

    Recent large outbreaks of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) have seriously affected the health of young children. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main causative agent of HFMD. Herein, for the first time, rapidly dissolvable microneedles (MNs) loaded with EV71 virus-like particles (VLPs) were evaluated whether they could induce robust immune responses that confer protection against EV71 infection. The characteristics of prepared MNs including hygroscopy, mechanical strength, insertion capacity, dissolution profile, skin irritation and storage stability were comprehensively assessed. EV71 VLPs remained morphologically stable during fabrication. The MNs made of sodium hyaluronate maintained their insertion ability for at least 3h even at a high relative humidity of 75%. With the aid of spring-operated applicator, EV71 MNs (approximately 500μm length) could be readily penetrated into the mouse skin in vivo, and then rapidly dissolved to release encapsulated antigen within 2min. Additionally, MNs induced slight erythema that disappeared within a few hours. More importantly, mouse immunization and virus challenge studies demonstrated that MNs immunization induced high level of antibody responses conferring full protection against lethal EV71 virus challenge that were comparable to conventional intramuscular injection, but with only 1/10th of the delivered antigen (dose sparing). Consequently, our rapidly dissolving MNs may present as an effective and promising transcutaneous immunization device for HFMD prophylaxis among children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sero-prevalence of foot and mouth disease in susceptible wildlife in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehud eElnekave

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Foot and mouth disease (FMD epidemics recur in Israel almost every year. Wild even-toed ungulates are seldom affected during these epidemics. The sero-prevalence of FMD in wild ungulates during 2000 and 2005-13 was estimated using anti non-structural proteins (NSP ELISA. Overall, 209 samples were tested, comprising sera of 120 wild boar (Sus scrofa lybicus, 64 mountain gazelles (Gazella gazella gazella, six water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis, and 19 Persian fallow deer (Dama dama mesopotamica. None of the tested animals presented clinical signs of FMD during blood collection. Sixteen samples (7.7% (95% confidence interval (CI95% = 4.4 - 12.1% were found to be sero-positive. Fifteen out of 120 samples (12.5% from wild boar were sero-positive, compared with only one out of 89 samples (1.1% from all other species combined (Fisher's Exact test: p=0.003. Most of the positive samples obtained from wild boar (13/15 (86.7% were collected during 2007 and analysis was restricted to that year and species only. The sero-prevalence of FMD in this species during 2007 was estimated at 54.2% (CI95%=32.8 - 74.5%; n=24. A significant infection cluster, comprising nine sero-positive samples collected in three different locations, was identified in the north-eastern part of Israel. These findings indicate that wild boar were affected during the 2007 FMD epidemic, even though wild boar presenting FMD typical clinical signs were not observed during that year. The actual role of wild boar in the spread of FMD virus in this epidemic, however, could not be determined. The negligible sero-prevalence of FMD found for all other surveillance years indicates that ongoing circulation of FMD among wildlife in Israel is unlikely. It is concluded that while the role of wildlife species in the dynamics of FMD in Israel is usually limited, there might be occasions in which wildlife play a part in the spread of the virus.

  9. Risk factors of severe hand, foot and mouth disease: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yirong; Wang, Shuiping; Zhang, Lijie; Guo, Zhinan; Huang, Zhaohui; Tu, Chunyu; Zhu, Bao-Ping

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) have increased, and more and more severe cases have appeared. We conducted a meta-analysis to generate large-scale evidence on the risk factors of severe HFMD. PubMed, Elsevier Science Direct, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang (Chinese) were searched to identify relevant articles. All analyses were performed using Stata 11.0. We conducted a meta-analysis of 19 separate studies. Duration of fever ≥ 3 days (odds ratio (OR) 10.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) 6.22-16.35), body temperature ≥ 37.5°C (OR 4.91, 95% CI 1.26-19.18), lethargy (OR 7.75, 95% CI 3.78-15.89), hyperglycemia (OR 2.77, 95% CI 2.06-3.71), vomiting (OR 8.83, 95% CI 1.05-74.57), increased neutrophil count (weighted mean difference (WMD) 0.61, 95% CI 0.52-0.70), enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection (OR 5.13, 95% CI 3.11- 8.46), young age (WMD - 0.44, 95% CI - 0.69 to -0.19), and home care (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.26-2.17) were significantly related to the risk of severe HFMD. We also found that a confirmed diagnosis at first visit to hospital significantly decreased the risk of severe HFMD (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.09-0.99). We did not find an association between oral rash (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.82-1.39), increased leukocyte count (WMD 0.51, 95% CI - 0.05-1.06), male sex (OR 1.06, 95% CI 0.91-1.24), or living in a rural area (OR 1.39, 95% CI 0.95-2.02) and the risk of severe HFMD. Duration of fever ≥ 3 days, body temperature ≥ 37.5°C, lethargy, hyperglycemia, vomiting, increased neutrophil count, EV71 infection, and young age are risk factors for severe HFMD. A confirmed diagnosis at first visit to hospital can significantly decrease the risk of severe HFMD.

  10. Short term effects of weather on hand, foot and mouth disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yien Ling Hii

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD outbreaks leading to clinical and fatal complications have increased since late 1990s; especially in the Asia Pacific Region. Outbreaks of HFMD peaks in the warmer season of the year, but the underlying factors for this annual pattern and the reasons to the recent upsurge trend have not yet been established. This study analyzed the effect of short-term changes in weather on the incidence of HFMD in Singapore. METHODS: The relative risks between weekly HFMD cases and temperature and rainfall were estimated for the period 2001-2008 using time series Poisson regression models allowing for over-dispersion. Smoothing was used to allow non-linear relationship between weather and weekly HFMD cases, and to adjust for seasonality and long-term time trend. Additionally, autocorrelation was controlled and weather was allowed to have a lagged effect on HFMD incidence up to 2 weeks. RESULTS: Weekly temperature and rainfall showed statistically significant association with HFMD incidence at time lag of 1-2 weeks. Every 1°C increases in maximum temperature above 32°C elevated the risk of HFMD incidence by 36% (95% CI = 1.341-1.389. Simultaneously, one mm increase of weekly cumulative rainfall below 75 mm increased the risk of HFMD by 0.3% (CI = 1.002-1.003. While above 75 mm the effect was opposite and each mm increases of rainfall decreased the incidence by 0.5% (CI = 0.995-0.996. We also found that a difference between minimum and maximum temperature greater than 7°C elevated the risk of HFMD by 41% (CI = 1.388-1.439. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest a strong association between HFMD and weather. However, the exact reason for the association is yet to be studied. Information on maximum temperature above 32°C and moderate rainfall precede HFMD incidence could help to control and curb the up-surging trend of HFMD.

  11. Seroprevalence of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Susceptible Wildlife in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnekave, Ehud; King, Roni; van Maanen, Kees; Shilo, Hila; Gelman, Boris; Storm, Nick; Klement, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemics recur in Israel almost every year. Wild even-toed ungulates are seldom affected during these epidemics. The seroprevalence of FMD in wild ungulates during 2000 and 2005–2013 was estimated using anti-non-structural proteins ELISA. Overall, 209 samples were tested, comprising sera of 120 wild boar (Sus scrofa lybicus), 64 mountain gazelles (Gazella gazella gazella), 6 water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), and 19 Persian fallow deer (Dama dama mesopotamica). None of the tested animals presented clinical signs of FMD during blood collection. Sixteen samples [7.7% (95% confidence interval (CI95%) = 4.4–12.1%)] were found to be seropositive. Fifteen out of 120 samples (12.5%) from wild boar were seropositive, compared with only 1 out of 89 samples (1.1%) from all other species combined (Fisher’s exact test: p = 0.003). Most of the positive samples obtained from wild boar [13/15 (86.7%)] were collected during 2007, and analysis was restricted to that year and species only. The seroprevalence of FMD in this species during 2007 was estimated at 54.2% (CI95% = 32.8–74.5%; n = 24). A significant infection cluster, comprising nine seropositive samples collected in three different locations, was identified in the north-eastern part of Israel. These findings indicate that wild boar was affected during the 2007 FMD epidemic, even though wild boar presenting FMD typical clinical signs were not observed during that year. The actual role of wild boar in the spread of FMD virus in this epidemic, however, could not be determined. The negligible seroprevalence of FMD found for all other surveillance years indicates that ongoing circulation of FMD among wildlife in Israel is unlikely. It is concluded that while the role of wildlife species in the dynamics of FMD in Israel is usually limited, there might be occasions, in which wildlife plays a part in the spread of the virus. PMID:27200364

  12. Physical Factors Affecting in Vitro Replication of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (Serotype “O”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Taslim Ghori*, Khushi Muhammad and Masood Rabbani1

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Effect of physical factors (temperature, pH and UV light on replicating ability of “O” type of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD virus on Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK cell line was determined. The freshly grown FMD virus containing 106 units of tissue culture infective dose (TCID50 was divided into aliquots. Each of the 9 virus aliquots was exposed to 37, 57 or 77C for 15, 30 or 45 minutes, respectively. Each of the 5 virus aliquots was mixed with MEM-199 maintenance medium having pH 3, 5, 7, 9, or 11. Similarly, each of the 3 aliquots having 1 mm depth of the medium was exposed to ultraviolet light (252.7 nm wavelength: one foot distance for 15, 30 or 45 minutes. Each of the virus aliquot exposed to either of the temperature, pH or ultraviolet light (UV for either of the interaction time was inoculated to 8 wells of the 96-well cell culture plate containing complete monolayer of BHK cell line. One row of 8 wells served as virus control and other row of 8 wells served as control for monolayer of the BHK-21 cell line. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. It was observed that temperature of 57 and 77C inactivated the virus within 15 minutes. The virus when admixed in the MEM-199 maintenance medium having pH 3, 5, 9 or 11, of the medium inactivated the virus while pH 7 did not show any detrimental effect on its survival. The ultraviolet light for 15, 30 or 45 minutes showed undetectable effect on survival of the virus as either of the virus aliquot exposed to the UV light for either of the interaction time showed cytopathogenic effects (CPE. It was concluded that the temperature of 57°C or higher for 15 minutes, acidic pH (below 5 or basic pH (more than 9 may inactivate the FMD virus.

  13. Vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease II: Regaining FMD-free status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer, J A; Engel, B; Dekker, A; van Roermund, H J W

    2012-11-01

    An epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) can have devastating effects on animal welfare, economic revenues, the export position and society as a whole. The preferred control strategy in the Netherlands has recently changed to vaccination-to-live, but - not have been applied before - this poses unprecedented challenges for effectively controlling an epidemic, regaining FMD-free status and minimizing economic losses. These three topics are addressed in an interdisciplinary model analysis. In this second part we evaluate whether vaccination-to-live poses a higher risk for regaining FMD-free status than non-vaccination strategies and whether the final screening can be improved to reduce this risk. The FMD transmission model that was developed in the first part, predicted the prevalence of infected animals in undetected herds for 1000 hypothetical epidemics per control strategy. These results serve as input for the final screening model that was developed in this part. It calculates the expected number of undetected infected herds and animals per epidemic after final screening, as well as the number of herds and animals to be tested. Our results show that vaccination strategies yield a larger number of undetected infected animals in the whole country per epidemic before final screening than preemptive culling (median values and 5-95% interval): 8 (0-42) animals for 1 km preemptive culling, 50 (7-148) for 2 km vaccination and 35 (6-99) for 5 km vaccination. But the final screening reduced these to comparably low numbers: 1.0 (0-9.1) for 1 km preemptive culling, 3.5 (0.3-15) for 2 km vaccination and 2.1 (0.3-9.4) for 5 km vaccination. Undetected infected animals were mainly found in non-vaccinated sheep herds and vaccinated cattle and sheep herds. As a consequence, testing more non-vaccinated cattle and pig herds will not reduce the expected number of undetected infected animals after the final screening by much, while the required testing resources drastically

  14. Effect of different culture systems on the production of foot and mouth disease trivalent vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Ismail Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to determine the effect of the stationary rawx, roller, and the suspension cell culture systems on the total virus yield infectivity and antigenicity. Materials and Methods: Three serotypes of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV (serotype A, O and SAT-2 were inoculated separately into baby hamster kidney-21 cell line in rawx, roller, and suspension cultivation systems using multiplicity of infection (1:100. Samples were taken from the total virus yield from each system at 15, 18, 21, and 24 h post-inoculation. Testing the total virus yield infectivity through virus titration and antigenicity through estimation of complement fixing titer and 146S content and evaluation of the potency of the vaccine prepared from the different cultivation systems were done. Results: The results showed that the FMDV titer of serotype A, O, and SAT-2 obtained from the roller cultivation system showed the highest level followed by suspension cultivation system then the rawx cultivation system. The FMDV titer showed its highest level at 21 h post-inoculation in all the cultivation systems and then decline at 24 h post-inoculation. The antigenicity reached its highest value content at 18 h post-inoculation either by complement fixation test or by quantifying the 146S intact virion. Montanide ISA 206 oil inactivated trivalent vaccines were prepared from the tested serotypes (A Iran O5. O Panasia and SAT-2/EGY/2012 harvested at 18 h post-inoculation from the 3 culture systems. The results of tracing the antibody response showed that the mean antibody response from the roller cultivation system start its protective antibody titer earlier at 2 weeks post-vaccination (WPV than the vaccine prepared from the other two cultivation system and the immune protection period lasts longer for 36 WPV for the roller cultivation system vaccine than the other two cultivation systems. Conclusion: The best cultivation system used for the production of FMD vaccine

  15. Detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus in the breath of infected cattle using a hand-held device to collect aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Brehm, Katharina E.; Skov, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Exhaled air of individual cattle infected experimentally with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) was sampled to assess the feasibility of a rapid, non-invasive general screening approach for identifying sources of FMDV infection. The air sampler used was a handheld prototype device employing...... of FMDV in cattle infected experimentally. Detection in exhaled air from individual cattle was compared to FMDV detection in serum and saliva for 3 different strains of FMDV (O1/Manisa/69, C/Oberbayern/FRG/1960 and SAT1/Zimbawe/1989). Detection of FMDV in exhaled air was possible for all strains of FMDV...

  16. Novel reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dukes, J.P.; King, D.P.; Alexandersen, Søren

    2006-01-01

    Speed is paramount in the diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and simplicity is required if a test is to be deployed in the field. The development of a one-step, reverse transcription loop-mediated amplification (RT-LAMP) assay enables FMD virus (FMDV) to be detected in under an hour...... vesicular diseases and from that of genetically related picornaviruses. Diagnostic sensitivity was validated by the amplification of reference FMDV strains and archival material from field cases of FMD. In comparison with the performance of the established diagnostic TaqMan (R) assay, RT-LAMP appears...

  17. Diversity and transboundary mobility of serotype O foot-and-mouth disease virus in East Africa: Implications for vaccination policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balinda, Sheila; Sangula, Abraham; Heller, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus serotype O has been responsible for most reported outbreaks of the disease in East Africa. A sustained campaign for the past 40 years to control FMD mainly by vaccination, combined with quarantine and zoosanitary measures has been undertaken with limited success....... We investigated the genetic relationships among serotype O strains in eastern Africa using complete VP1 coding region sequences obtained from 46 FMD virus isolates collected in Kenya in the years 1964–2008 and 8 Ugandan isolates collected between 1999 and 2006. In addition, 21 selected FMDV sequences...

  18. The foot and mouth disease network in the southern cone of South America: an example of regional governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales Irrazábal, H A

    2012-08-01

    The fact that foot and mouth disease is highly contagious, easily spread and of major commercial importance makes it a redoubtable challenge for animal health in South American countries and the world over. A number of factors impact directly on the effectiveness of national programmes to eradicate foot and mouth disease. Therefore, in order to meet the challenges posed by today's globalised world, it is of the utmost importance that national level eradication programmes be considered state policies and that they be the subject of broad political agreement at the highest level and consolidated as regional programmes between national Veterinary Services. The programmes, agreements and technical cooperation projects established jointly by Member Countries of the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR) were a key factor in building management capacity to control foot and mouth disease in the area. Another key factor has been a partnership with one of the most sensitive sectors--the private production sector. Its active and responsible participation in operational functions has done much to strengthen and ensure the competitive development of South American countries and consolidate their role as global beef exporters. However, to prevent further outbreaks it is essential to maintain and reinforce the structure of national programmes and to have strong and highly trained Veterinary Services and sufficient funding to ensure efficient and sustainable plans. These plans must enable Veterinary Services, by means of good governance, to implement effective measures in the areas of animal health and international trade in animals and animal products/by-products, thereby achieving rapid and more equitable social and economic development.

  19. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels associated with severe hand, foot and mouth disease

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Hui-Ling; Zhang, Yu-Feng; Li, Ya-Ping; Zhang, Yu; Xie, Yan; Wang, Jun; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Dang, Shuang-Suo

    2016-01-01

    Background Severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is sometimes associated with serious complications such as acute heart failure that can cause substantial child mortality. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is a sensitive and specific biomarker of congestive heart failure. The aim of this study was to use plasma NT-proBNP levels to establish the severity of childhood HFMD. Methods A retrospective study was performed in 128 Chinese patients with severe HFMD and 88 patie...

  20. Genome sequences of SAT 2 foot-and-mouth disease viruses from Egypt and Palestinian Autonomous Territories (Gaza Strip).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdazo-González, Begoña; Knowles, Nick J; Hammond, Jef; King, Donald P

    2012-08-01

    Two foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) genome sequences have been determined for isolates collected from recent field outbreaks in North Africa (Egypt) and the Middle East (Palestinian Autonomous Territories). These data represent the first examples of complete genomic sequences for the FMDV SAT 2 topotype VII, which is thought to be endemic in countries immediately to the south of the Sahara desert. Further studies are now urgently required to provide insights into the epidemiological links between these outbreaks and to define the pathogenicity of this emerging lineage.

  1. Genetic diversity of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O in Pakistan and Afghanistan, 1997–2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamal, Syed Muhammad; Ferrari, Giancarlo; Ahmed, Safia

    2011-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Pakistan and Afghanistan; serotypes O, A and Asia-1 of the virus are responsible for the outbreaks in these countries with FMDV type O usually being the most common. In the present study, the nucleotide sequences encoding the FMDV capsid protein VP1 from...... virus samples were determined. Phylogenetic analysis of the serotype O FMD viruses circulating in Pakistan and Afghanistan between 1997 and 2009 revealed the presence of at least three different lineages within the ME-SA (Middle East South Asia) topotype. The three lineages detected in this study...

  2. A serological survey for antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in domestic pigs during outbreaks in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wekesa, Sabenzia N.; Namatovu, Alice; Sangula, Abraham K.

    2014-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Kenya and has been well studied in cattle, but not in pigs, yet the role of pigs is recognised in FMD-free areas. This study investigated the presence of antibodies against FMD virus (FMDV) in pigs sampled during a countrywide random survey for FMD...... neutralisation test (VNT). Due to high degree of agreement between the two ELISAs, it was concluded that positive pigs had been infected with FMDV. Implications of these results for the role of pigs in the epidemiology of FMD in Kenya are discussed, and in-depth studies are recommended....

  3. Meta-analysis on the efficacy of routine vaccination against foot and mouth disease (FMD) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chang; Li, Huachun; Edwards, John; Hawkins, Chris; Robertson, Ian D

    2014-08-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks have been reported in China for many years. Recently, due to the rapid economic development, the price of meat and its demand have grown quickly. This trend has resulted in an increase in the number of livestock moving from south-east Asian countries into China. Foot and mouth disease is becoming one of the most important trans-boundary animal diseases affecting the livelihood of livestock owners in China. To contribute to the long term goal to control and eradicate FMD from China, the Chinese government has adopted a series of control measures which includes compulsory routine vaccination against the disease. In this paper, the surveillance results of the routine vaccination programme were systemically reviewed. The results from 28 published papers were combined and analysed through a meta-analysis approach. The results of the meta-analysis indicated that the vaccination programme has been very successful in China with more than 70% of animals protected against serotypes Asia-1 and O. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Esterase D enhances type I interferon signal transduction to suppress foot-and-mouth disease virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiwei; Zhu, Zixiang; Cao, Weijun; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Xiangle; Li, Dan; Zhang, Keshan; Li, Pengfei; Mao, Ruoqing; Liu, Xiangtao; Zheng, Haixue

    2016-07-01

    The enzymatic activities of esterase D (ESD) are involved in many human diseases. However, no antiviral property of ESD has been described to date. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the etiological agent of foot-and-mouth disease. In this study, we showed that FMDV infection triggered ESD expression. Overexpression of ESD significantly suppressed FMDV replication and knockdown of ESD expression enhanced virus replication, showing an essential antiviral role of ESD. Furthermore, we found that Sendai-virus-induced interferon (IFN) signaling was enhanced by upregulation of ESD, and ESD promoted activation of the IFN-β promoter simulated by IFN regulatory factor (IRF)3 or its upstream molecules (retinoic acid-inducible gene-I, melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5, virus-induced signaling adaptor and TANK binding kinase 1). Detailed analysis revealed that ESD protein enhanced IRF3 phosphorylation during FMDV infection. Overexpression of ESD also promoted the expression of various antiviral interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) and knockdown of ESD impaired the expression of these antiviral genes during FMDV infection. Our findings demonstrate a new mechanism evolved by ESD to enhance type I IFN signal transduction and suppress viral replication during FMDV infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Protection of a novel epitope-RNA VLP double-effective VLP vaccine for foot-and-mouth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan-Mei; Cai, Jian-Chun; Chen, Hao-Tai; Chen, Liang

    2016-10-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. Previously, we found that the epitope peptide EP141-160 displayed on virus-like particles (VLP) for use as a vaccine showed high immunoreactivity and conferred partially effective protection to animals. In this study, we first combined antisense RNA with VLP as a vaccine against the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) by using a prokaryotic co-expression system. The antisense RNA against the 3D genes of FMDV was packaged into VLP with EP141-160 presented on the surface. ELISA and Western blotting proved that the epitope-RNA VLP eliciting an immune response to FMDV in mice. Furthermore, the potency of the vaccine was tested in mice and guinea pigs. The results indicated that the epitope-RNA VLP vaccine protected 40% of suckling mice and 85% (17/20) of guinea pigs from FMDV. Based on the experimental data, the epitope-RNA VLP vaccine should have value in exploring and developing vaccines against FMDV in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Foot and mouth disease (FMD) virus: quantification of whole virus particles during the vaccine manufacturing process by size exclusion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitteler, Marcelo A; Fernández, Ignacio; Schabes, Erika; Krimer, Alejandro; Régulier, Emmanuel G; Guinzburg, Mariela; Smitsaart, Eliana; Levy, M Susana

    2011-09-22

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious viral disease that affects cattle, sheep, goats and swine causing severe economic losses worldwide. The efficacy of inactivated vaccines is critically dependent on the integrity of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) particles. The recommended method to quantify the active ingredient of vaccines is the 140S quantitative sucrose density gradient analysis. This method has been an immensely valuable tool over the past three decades but it is highly operator dependent and difficult to automate. We developed a method to quantify FMDV particles during the vaccine manufacturing process that is based on separation of components by size-exclusion chromatography and measurement of virus by absorption at 254nm. The method is linear in the 5-70μg/mL range, it is applicable to different FMDV strains, and has a good correlation with the 140S test. The proposed method uses standard chromatographic media and it is amenable to automation. The method has potential as a process analytical technology and for control of final product by manufacturers, international vaccine banks and regulatory agencies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Antigenic heterogeneity of capsid protein VP1 in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV serotype Asia1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam SM

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available SM Sabbir Alam,1 Ruhul Amin,1 Mohammed Ziaur Rahman,2 M Anwar Hossain,1 Munawar Sultana11Department of Microbiology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Dhaka, BangladeshAbstract: Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV, with its seven serotypes, is a highly contagious virus infecting mainly cloven-hoofed animals. The serotype Asia1 occurs mainly in Asian regions. An in-silico approach was taken to reveal the antigenic heterogeneities within the capsid protein VP1 of Asia1. A total of 47 VP1 sequences of Asia1 isolates from different countries of South Asian regions were selected, retrieved from database, and were aligned. The structure of VP1 protein was modeled using a homology modeling approach. Several antigenic sites were identified and mapped onto the three-dimensional protein structure. Variations at these antigenic sites were analyzed by calculating the protein variability index and finding mutation combinations. The data suggested that vaccine escape mutants have derived from only few mutations at several antigenic sites. Five antigenic peptides have been identified as the least variable epitopes, with just fewer amino acid substitutions. Only a limited number of serotype Asia1 antigenic variants were found to be circulated within the South Asian region. This emphasizes a possibility of formulating synthetic vaccines for controlling foot-and-mouth disease by Asia1 serotypes.Keywords: protein modeling, antigenic sites, sequence variation

  8. [Application of R-based multiple seasonal ARIMA model, in predicting the incidence of hand, foot and mouth disease in Shaanxi province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F; Zhu, N; Qiu, L; Wang, J J; Wang, W H

    2016-08-10

    To apply the ' auto-regressive integrated moving average product seasonal model' in predicting the number of hand, foot and mouth disease in Shaanxi province. In Shaanxi province, the trend of hand, foot and mouth disease was analyzed and tested, under the use of R software, between January 2009 and June 2015. Multiple seasonal ARIMA model was then fitted under time series to predict the number of hand, foot and mouth disease in 2016 and 2017. Seasonal effect was seen in hand, foot and mouth disease in Shaanxi province. A multiple seasonal ARIMA (2,1,0)×(1,1,0)12 was established, with the equation as (1 -B)(1 -B12)Ln (Xt) =((1-1.000B)/(1-0.532B-0.363B(2))*(1-0.644B12-0.454B12(2)))*Epsilont. The mean of absolute error and the relative error were 531.535 and 0.114, respectively when compared to the simulated number of patients from Jun to Dec in 2015. RESULTS under the prediction of multiple seasonal ARIMA model showed that the numbers of patients in both 2016 and 2017 were similar to that of 2015 in Shaanxi province. Multiple seasonal ARIMA (2,1,0)×(1,1,0)12 model could be used to successfully predict the incidence of hand, foot and mouth disease in Shaanxi province.

  9. [Step Fisher discriminant analysis on severe clinical features of hand foot and mouth disease between enterovirus (EV) 71 and other EV].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Feng; Tan, Ai-jun; Zhang, Xue-bao; Chen, Xue-qin; Xiao, Song-jian; Ye, Zhong-wen; Wang, Song

    2011-07-01

    To compare the clinical features of severe hand foot and mouth disease between enterovirus (EV) 71 and other EV to find specific diagnosis index of EV71 severe hand foot and mouth disease. Case definition were adopted from national guideline of hand foot and mouth disease diagnose (Version 2010). Clinical data of severe hand foot and mouth disease came from case history and contents of questionnaire would include the ones between the time of onset and diagnoses being made. EV and EV71, Cox A16 nucleic acid tested were by RT-PCR in stool samples. Clinical features of severe hand foot and mouth disease between EV71 and other EV were compare. There appeared statistical differences between neurologic symptoms such as tremor, myoclonic jerk, listlessness, convulsion and white blood cell counts in CSF (P < 0.05). Results from the step Fisher discriminant analysis showed only tremor and white blood cell had an increase in CSF, with statistically significant differences. The discriminant equation of EV71 was Y = 3.059X(1) + 3.83X(5) - 2.742 and the equation of other EV was Y = 1.634X(1) + 1.623X(5) - 1.693. The specificity of EV71 was 91% and the specificity of other EV was 40%. The increase of clinical features of tremor and white blood cell in CSF could be used as diagnosis index of severe EV71.

  10. Detection of genome, antigen, and antibodies in oral fluids from pigs infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumaran, Chandrika; Yang, Ming; Bittner, Hilary; Ambagala, Aruna; Lung, Oliver; Zimmerman, Jeffrey; Giménez-Lirola, Luis G; Nfon, Charles

    2017-04-01

    Virus nucleic acids and antibody response to pathogens can be measured using swine oral fluids (OFs). Detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) genome in swine OFs has previously been demonstrated. Virus isolation and viral antigen detection are additional confirmatory assays for diagnosing FMDV, but these methods have not been evaluated using swine OF. The objectives of this study were to further validate the molecular detection of FMDV in oral fluids, evaluate antigen detection and FMDV isolation from swine OFs, and develop an assay for isotypic anti-FMDV antibody detection in OFs. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) from FMDV was detected in OFs from experimentally infected pigs by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) from 1 day post-infection (dpi) to 21 dpi. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) was isolated from OFs at 1 to 5 dpi. Additionally, FMDV antigens were detected in OFs from 1 to 6 dpi using a lateral flow immunochromatographic strip test (LFIST), which is a rapid pen-side test, and from 2 to 3 dpi using a double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS ELISA). Furthermore, FMDV-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) was detected in OFs using an isotype-specific indirect ELISA starting at dpi 14. These results further demonstrated the potential use of oral fluids for detecting FMDV genome, live virus, and viral antigens, as well as for quantifying mucosal IgA antibody response.

  11. Residual foot-and-mouth disease virus antibodies in French cattle and sheep six years after the vaccination ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remond, M; Kaiser, C; Lebreton, F O; Moutou, F; Crucière, C

    2001-01-01

    A serological survey was carried out on French cattle to establish a reference pattern of residual vaccine antibodies and non-specific reactions against the foot-and-mouth disease virus 6 years after the ban on vaccination and in the absence of any foot-and-mouth disease outbreak. Most of the multi-vaccinated cattle still displayed high titres of antibodies and up to 50% of those which had received a single injection still had antibodies. Non-specific reactors were also recorded among animals born during and after 1991. Most of them displayed low titres close to the threshold. Sheep were also tested and, as for cattle, 4.6% of non-specific reactors were recorded, with titres close to the threshold for two-thirds of them. As part of these animals have been resampled and retested, sera revealed negative confirming that these animals are true non-specific reactors. Serological testing as a mean of FMD control should take these facts into account.

  12. Infection Dynamics of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Cattle Following Intranasopharyngeal Inoculation or Contact Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, J M; Stenfeldt, C; Rodriguez, L L; Arzt, J

    2016-11-01

    For the purpose of developing an improved experimental model for studies of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in cattle, three different experimental systems based on natural or simulated natural virus exposure were compared under standardized experimental conditions. Ante-mortem infection dynamics were characterized in cattle exposed to FMDV through a novel, simulated natural intranasopharyngeal (INP) inoculation system or through standardized and controlled systems of within- or between-species direct contact exposure (cattle-to-cattle or pig-to-cattle). All three systems were efficient in causing synchronous, generalized foot-and-mouth disease in cattle exposed to one of three different strains of FMDV representing serotypes O, A and Asia1. There was more within-group variation in the timing of clinical infection following natural and simulated natural virus exposure systems when compared with the conventionally used system of needle inoculation (intraepithelial lingual inoculation). However, the three optimized exposure systems described herein have the advantage of closely simulating field conditions by utilizing natural routes of primary infection, thereby facilitating engagement of mucosal host defence mechanisms. Overall, it is concluded that INP inoculation and standardized systems of direct contact exposure provide effective alternatives to conventional (needle) inoculation systems for studies in which it is desirable to simulate the natural biology of FMDV infection. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) Virus 3C Protease Mutant L127P: Implications for FMD Vaccine Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckette, Michael; Clark, Benjamin A; Smith, Justin D; Turecek, Traci; Martel, Erica; Gabbert, Lindsay; Pisano, Melia; Hurtle, William; Pacheco, Juan M; Barrera, José; Neilan, John G; Rasmussen, Max

    2017-11-15

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) afflicts livestock in more than 80 countries, limiting food production and global trade. Production of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines requires cytosolic expression of the FMDV 3C protease to cleave the P1 polyprotein into mature capsid proteins, but the FMDV 3C protease is toxic to host cells. To identify less-toxic isoforms of the FMDV 3C protease, we screened 3C mutants for increased transgene output in comparison to wild-type 3C using a Gaussia luciferase reporter system. The novel point mutation 3C(L127P) increased yields of recombinant FMDV subunit proteins in mammalian and bacterial cells expressing P1-3C transgenes and retained the ability to process P1 polyproteins from multiple FMDV serotypes. The 3C(L127P) mutant produced crystalline arrays of FMDV-like particles in mammalian and bacterial cells, potentially providing a practical method of rapid, inexpensive FMD vaccine production in bacteria. IMPORTANCE The mutant FMDV 3C protease L127P significantly increased yields of recombinant FMDV subunit antigens and produced virus-like particles in mammalian and bacterial cells. The L127P mutation represents a novel advancement for economical FMD vaccine production. Copyright © 2017 Puckette et al.

  14. Farm Community Impacts of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Outbreaks in Cattle and Buffaloes in Karnataka State, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraj, G; Ganeshkumar, B; Nethrayini, K R; Shalini, R; Balamurugan, V; Pattnaik, B; Rahman, H

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted to assess the impact of Foot-and-mouth Disease (FMD) outbreak in cattle and buffaloes on farming community in Kolar district, Karnataka state, India. Primary data were collected using pre-tested schedule from 178 sample farms using multistage random cluster sample technique. The results revealed that 78% of surveyed villages were affected with FMD. The FMD incidence risk was high across the herd sizes, whereas the mortality risk was high in small herds. In indigenous cattle, the highest loss due to FMD was distress sale (208 USD) followed by other losses, whereas, in Crossbred cattle, the highest loss was mortality loss (515 USD) followed by distress sale (490 USD), milk yield loss (327 USD), treatment cost (38 USD) and extra labour engagement expenses for nursing of FMD-affected bovines (30 USD). In local and upgraded buffaloes, the mean total loss per affected animal was 440 USD and 513 USD, respectively. A very high variability in the loss per animal was observed across the type of losses in the Crossbred cattle, and it may be due to differences in age of the FMD-infected animal, value of the animal, milking stage, lactation levels, herd sizes and labour engagement levels, etc. In local and upgraded buffaloes, the mean total loss per animal was 639 USD and 1008 USD, respectively. The sensitivity analysis for 5% change in price revealed that the mean total loss per animal was positively correlated with price. Further, the social impact elicitation revealed that majority of the livestock owners perceived FMD had caused permanent asset loss, which in turn increased psychological stress of the family. The estimated losses and social impact due to FMD signify the importance of the intervention to control the disease and thus socio-economic gain to the farmer and society at large. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus-Associated Abortion and Vertical Transmission following Acute Infection in Cattle under Natural Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Rajeev; Biswal, Jitendra K; Subramaniam, Saravanan; Singh, Karam Pal; Stenfeldt, Carolina; Rodriguez, Luis L; Pattnaik, Bramhadev; Arzt, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, including domestic and wild host species. During recent FMD outbreaks in India, spontaneous abortions were reported amongst FMD-affected and asymptomatic cows. The current study was an opportunistic investigation of these naturally occurring bovine abortions to assess causality of abortion and vertical transmission of FMDV from infected cows to fetuses. For this purpose, fetal tissue samples of eight abortuses (heart, liver, kidney, spleen, palatine tonsil, umbilical cord, soft palate, tongue, lungs, and submandibular lymph node) were collected and screened by various detection methods, including viral genome detection, virus isolation, and immunomicroscopy. Amongst these cases, gross pathological changes were observed in 3 abortuses. Gross pathological findings included blood-tinged peritoneal and pleural effusions and myocarditis. Hearts of infected calves had mild to moderate degeneration and necrosis of the myocardium with moderate infiltration by mixed inflammatory cells. Localization of FMDV antigen was demonstrated in lungs and soft palate by immunomicroscopy. FMDV serotype O viral genome was recovered from 7 of 8 cases. Infectious FMDV serotype O was rescued by chemical transfection of the total RNA extracted from three soft palate samples and was sequenced to confirm 100% identity of the VP1 (capsid) coding region with isolates collected from infected cattle during the acute phase of infection. Based upon these findings, it may be concluded that FMDV-associated abortion occurred among the infected pregnant cows included within this study and FMDV was subsequently transmitted vertically to fetuses. This is the first documentation of FMDV-associated abortions in cattle.

  16. Spatiotemporal risk mapping of hand, foot and mouth disease and its association with meteorological variables in children under 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C D; Xiao, G X

    2017-10-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) risk has become an increasing concern in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, which is the biggest urban agglomeration in north-eastern Asia. In the study, spatiotemporal epidemiological features of HFMD were analysed, and a Bayesian space-time hierarchy model was used to detect local spatial relative risk (RR) and to assess the effect of meteorological factors. From 2009 to 2013, there was an obvious seasonal pattern of HFMD risk. The highest risk period was in the summer, with an average monthly incidence of 4·17/103, whereas the index in wintertime was 0·16/103. Meteorological variables influenced temporal changes in HFMD. A 1 °C rise in air temperature was associated with an 11·5% increase in HFMD (corresponding RR 1·122). A 1% rise in relative humidity was related to a 9·51% increase in the number of HFMD cases (corresponding RR 1·100). A 1 hPa increment in air pressure was related to a 0·11% decrease in HFMD (corresponding RR 0·999). A 1 h increase in sunshine was associated with a 0·28% rise in HFMD cases (corresponding RR 1·003). A 1 m/s rise in wind speed was related to a 6·2% increase in HFMD (corresponding RR 1·064). High-risk areas were mainly large cities, such as Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang and their neighbouring areas. These findings can contribute to risk control and implementation of disease-prevention policies.

  17. Associations between extreme precipitation and childhood hand, foot and mouth disease in urban and rural areas in Hefei, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jian; Wu, Jinju; Xu, Zhiwei; Zhu, Rui; Wang, Xu; Li, Kesheng; Wen, Liying; Yang, Huihui; Su, Hong

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the relationship between extreme weather events and childhood hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is important in the context of climate change. This study aimed to quantify the relationship between extreme precipitation and childhood HFMD in Hefei, China, and further, to explore whether the association varied across urban and rural areas. Daily data on HFMD counts among children aged 0-14 years from 2010 January 1st to 2012 December 31st were retrieved from Hefei Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Daily data on mean temperature, relative humidity and precipitation during the same period were supplied by Hefei Bureau of Meteorology. We used a Poisson linear regression model combined with a distributed lag non-linear model to assess the association between extreme precipitation (≥90th precipitation) and childhood HFMD, controlling for mean temperature, humidity, day of week, and long-term trend. There was a statistically significant association between extreme precipitation and childhood HFMD. The effect of extreme precipitation on childhood HFMD was the greatest at six days lag, with a 5.12% (95% confident interval: 2.7-7.57%) increase of childhood HFMD for an extreme precipitation event versus no precipitation. Notably, urban children and children aged 0-4 years were particularly vulnerable to the effects of extreme precipitation. Our findings indicate that extreme precipitation may increase the incidence of childhood HFMD in Hefei, highlighting the importance of protecting children from forthcoming extreme precipitation, particularly for those who are young and from urban areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels associated with severe hand, foot and mouth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hui-Ling; Zhang, Yu-Feng; Li, Ya-Ping; Zhang, Yu; Xie, Yan; Wang, Jun; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Dang, Shuang-Suo

    2016-10-19

    Severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is sometimes associated with serious complications such as acute heart failure that can cause substantial child mortality. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is a sensitive and specific biomarker of congestive heart failure. The aim of this study was to use plasma NT-proBNP levels to establish the severity of childhood HFMD. A retrospective study was performed in 128 Chinese patients with severe HFMD and 88 patients with mild HFMD treated between January 2014 and October 2015. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the risk factors for severe HFMD. NT-proBNP levels were analyzed in 128 severe HFMD patients, and the predictive value of NT-proBNP was assessed by receiver operating characteristic analyses. Multivariate analysis controlling for several potential confounders showed that enterovirus 71 infection [odds ratio (OR) 19.944, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 6.492-61.271], peripheral WBC count (OR 3.428, 95 % CI 1.186-9.914), fasting glucose (OR 19.428, 95 % CI 2.236-168.784), procalcitonin (OR 9.084, 95 % CI 3.462-23.837, and NT-proBNP (>125 pg/mL) (OR 16.649, 95 % CI 4.731-58.585) were each associated with the severity of HFMD. The 45 dead severe patients had higher pre-procedural levels of NT-proBNP than the 83 cured severe patients (12776 ± 13115 versus 1435 ± 4201 pg/mL, P marker for predicting the severity and mortality of HFMD.

  19. Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Research Update and Gap Analysis: 1 - Overview of Global Status and Research Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Robinson, L; Charleston, B; Rodriguez, L L; Gay, C G; Sumption, K J; Vosloo, W

    2016-06-01

    The Global Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) Research Alliance periodically reviews the state of FMD research to assess progress and to identify new priorities. In this supplement we provide an update of global FMD research, comprising (i) this overview paper, which includes background information with key findings, and papers covering (ii) epidemiology, wildlife and economics, (iii) vaccines, (iv) diagnostics, (v) biotherapeutics and disinfectants, (vi) immunology and (vii) pathogenesis and molecular biology. FMD research publications were reviewed (2011-2015) and activity updates were obtained from 33 FMD research institutes from around the world. Although a continual threat, FMD has been effectively controlled in much of the world using existing tools. However, control remains a challenge in most developing countries, where little has been done to understand the ongoing burden of FMD. More research is needed to support control in endemically infected countries, particularly robust field studies. Traditional FMD vaccines have several limitations including short duration and spectrum of protection, cold chain requirements, and the costs and biosecurity risks associated with vaccine production. Significant progress has been made in the development of novel vaccine candidates, particularly in the use of recombinant vaccines and virus-like particles as an alternative to traditional inactivated whole virus vaccines. Continued investment is needed to turn these developments into improved vaccines produced at scale. Increased knowledge of cellular and mucosal immunity would benefit vaccine development, as would further advances in our ability to enhance vaccine capsid stability. Developments in molecular biology and phylogenetics underlie many of the recent advances in FMD research, including improved vaccines and diagnostics, and improved understanding of FMD epidemiology. Tools for genetic analyses continue to become both more powerful and more affordable enabling them to

  20. Economic costs and health-related quality of life for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) patients in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yaming; Jit, Mark; Wu, Joseph T; Yang, Juan; Leung, Kathy; Liao, Qiaohong; Yu, Hongjie

    2017-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common illness in China that mainly affects infants and children. The objective of this study is to assess the economic cost and health-related quality of life associated with HFMD in China. A telephone survey of caregivers were conducted in 31 provinces across China. Caregivers of laboratory-confirmed HFMD patients who were registered in the national HFMD enhanced surveillance database during 2012-2013 were invited to participate in the survey. Total costs included direct medical costs (outpatient care, inpatient care and self-medication), direct non-medical costs (transportation, nutrition, accommodation and nursery), and indirect costs for lost income associated with caregiving. Health utility weights elicited using EuroQol EQ-5D-3L and EQ-Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) were used to calculate associated loss in quality adjusted life years (QALYs). The subjects comprised 1136 mild outpatients, 1124 mild inpatients, 1170 severe cases and 61 fatal cases. The mean total costs for mild outpatients, mild inpatients, severe cases and fatal cases were $201 (95%CI $187, $215), $1072 (95%CI $999, $1144), $3051 (95%CI $2905, $3197) and $2819 (95%CI $2068, $3571) respectively. The mean QALY losses per HFMD episode for mild outpatients, mild inpatients and severe cases were 3.6 (95%CI 3.4, 3,9), 6.9 (95%CI 6.4, 7.4) and 13.7 (95%CI 12.9, 14.5) per 1000 persons. Cases who were diagnosed with EV-A71 infection and had longer duration of illness were associated with higher total cost and QALY loss. HFMD poses a high economic and health burden in China. Our results provide economic and health utility data for cost-effectiveness analysis for HFMD vaccination in China.

  1. Evaluation of Gaussia luciferase and foot-and-mouth disease virus 2A translational interrupter chimeras as polycistronic reporters for transgene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckette, Michael; Burrage, Thomas; Neilan, John G; Rasmussen, Max

    2017-06-12

    The Gaussia princeps luciferase is used as a stand-alone reporter of transgene expression for in vitro and in vivo expression systems due to the rapid and easy monitoring of luciferase activity. We sought to simultaneously quantitate production of other recombinant proteins by transcriptionally linking the Gaussia princeps luciferase gene to other genes of interest through the foot-and-mouth disease virus 2A translational interrupter sequence. We produced six plasmids, each encoding a single open reading frame, with the foot-and-mouth disease virus 2A sequence placed either N-terminal or C-terminal to the Gaussia princeps luciferase gene. Two plasmids included novel Gaussia princeps luciferase variants with the position 1 methionine deleted. Placing a foot-and-mouth disease virus 2A translational interrupter sequence on either the N- or C-terminus of the Gaussia princeps luciferase gene did not prevent the secretion or luminescence of resulting chimeric luciferase proteins. We also measured the ability of another polycistronic plasmid vector with a 2A-luciferase sequence placed downstream of the foot-and-mouth disease virus P1 and 3C protease genes to produce of foot-and-mouth disease virus-like particles and luciferase activity from transfected cells. Incorporation of the 2A-luciferase sequence into a transgene encoding foot-and-mouth disease virus structural proteins retained luciferase activity and the ability to form virus-like particles. We demonstrated a mechanism for the near real-time, sequential, non-destructive quantitative monitoring of transcriptionally-linked recombinant proteins and a valuable method for monitoring transgene expression in recombinant vaccine constructs.

  2. Strategies for differentiating infection in vaccinated animals (DIVA) for foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever and avian influenza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse; Parida, Satya; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun

    2010-01-01

    The prophylactic use of vaccines against exotic viral infections in production animals is undertaken exclusively in regions where the disease concerned is endemic. In such areas, the infection pressure is very high and so, to assure optimal protection, the most efficient vaccines are used. However......, in areas considered to be free from these diseases and in which there is the possibility of only limited outbreaks, the use of Differentiation of Infected from Vaccinated Animals (DIVA) or marker vaccines allows for vaccination while still retaining the possibility of serological surveillance...... for the presence of infection. This literature review describes the current knowledge on the use of DIVA diagnostic strategies for three important transboundary animal diseases: foot-and-mouth disease in cloven-hoofed animals, classical swine fever in pigs and avian influenza in poultry....

  3. Host response to Foot- and Mouth Disease infection in cattle; possible implications for the development of “carriers”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenfeldt, Carolina; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a viral disease with severe financial implications for agricultural industries and the trade of animal products in affected countries. Any cloven hoofed animal species may become infected, and ruminants, especially cattle and buffalo, may develop into persistently...... infected “carriers” shedding low amounts of virus for several years after exposure to the disease. FMD in ruminants involves initial viral replication in pharyngeal epithelia, from where the virus spreads systemically. Mortality rates are low in adult animals but the morbidity is very high and the disease...... in persistence of FMD in cattle are not fully known. A series of animal experiments, with the aim of investigating the innate immune response, and possible implications for the development of persistently infected FMD carrier-animals in cattle has been performed. Bull calves of 4-5 months of age were infected...

  4. [Risk factors of death cases of hand-foot-and-mouth disease in Hunan province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiao-hua; Gao, Li-dong; Huang, Wei; Hu, Shi-xiong; Zhang, Fan; Deng, Zhi-hong; Liu, Fu-qiang; Zhou, Shuai-feng; Zeng, Ge; Yang, Hao

    2011-10-01

    To study risk factors of death cases of hand foot and mouth diseases (HFMD) in Hunan province, so as to provide scientific evidence for further prevention and control. The 105 death cases of HFMD between January and October, 2010 in Hunan Province were selected as case group; and the 210 survival cases of serious HFMD, which were matched by gender and resident places with a ratio at 2:1 in the same period in Hunan were selected as control group. The basic information, hospitalized experience and previous medical history had been surveyed and the relevant risk factors were analyzed by single factor and multi-factor logistic regression. In case group, 79.05% (83/105) of the cases lived in rural area and 9.52% (10/105) of the cases lived in urban-rural midst area. In control group, 87.62% (184/210) of the cases lived in rural area and 11.43% (24/210) of the cases lived in urban-rural midst area. In case group, 59.05% (62/105) of the patients first visited rural (private) clinics and 20.00% (21/105) first visited community hospitals in villages and towns; while in control group, 43.81% (92/210) and 13.33% (28/210) chose rural (private) clinics and community hospitals in villages and towns as the first choice respectively.22.86% (24/105) of the case group and 39.05% (82/210) of the control group were diagnosed as HFMD in their first visit to hospital.27.62% (29/105) of the case group and 7.14% (15/210) in control group were provided pyrazolone in the treatment. For glucocorticoid, 80.95% (85/105) and 5.71% (6/105) of the case group were given as treatment by rural (private) clinics and community hospitals in villages and towns separately; while the proportions in the control group were 41.43% (87/210) and 0.48% (1/210) respectively. For antibiotics, 35.24% (37/105) and 23.81% (25/105) of the case group were prescribed by rural (private) clinics and community hospitals in villages and towns separately; while the percentages in the control group were 15.71% (33/210) and 7

  5. Analysis of the epidemiological dynamics during the 1982-1983 epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease in Denmark based on molecular high-resolution strain identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Normann, Preben; Thykier-Nielsen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    An epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) causing a total of 23 cases in 1982-1983, primarily on the island of Funen, Denmark, was subjected to molecular epidemiological investigations. In an attempt to exploit the quasi-species nature of foot-and-mouth disease virus strains for molecular high......, and the prerequisite of co- or superinfection of animals with variant strains in turn implies that they have a common source or epidemiologically related sources originating from an area with endemic FMD....

  6. [Does emergency vaccination make sense as a supporting element in control of foot-and-mouth disease in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadorn, D; Dürr, S; Thür, B; Schwermer, H; Clemenz, C; Bruckner, L; Perler, L; Jemmi, T

    2013-07-01

    The outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in Great Britain in 2001 let to discussions and especially emergency vaccination was deemed as an alternative to the culling of vast numbers of healthy animals. The project emergency vaccination for FMD in Switzerland was conducted to compare the effectiveness of conventional control strategies during a FMD outbreak alone and with ring vaccination of 3 km and 10 km, respectively. The results of this project showed that emergency vaccination conducted at the beginning of an epidemic was not favorable compared to conventional disease control strategy in Switzerland. In case of an advanced FMD epidemic, a 10 km ring vaccination could support the disease control in a positive way. However, the goal of emergency vaccination to save animal live can hardly be achieved due to actual legal basis and the consequent restriction measures within vaccination zones which will lead to welfare culling.

  7. A Brief Review on Diagnosis of Foot-and-Mouth Disease of Livestock: Conventional to Molecular Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longjam, Neeta; Deb, Rajib; Sarmah, A. K.; Tayo, Tilling; Awachat, V. B.; Saxena, V. K.

    2011-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the highly contagious diseases of domestic animals. Effective control of this disease needs sensitive, specific, and quick diagnostic tools at each tier of control strategy. In this paper we have outlined various diagnostic approaches from old to new generation in a nutshell. Presently FMD diagnosis is being carried out using techniques such as Virus Isolation (VI), Sandwich-ELISA (S-ELISA), Liquid-Phase Blocking ELISA (LPBE), Multiplex-PCR (m-PCR), and indirect ELISA (DIVA), and real time-PCR can be used for detection of antibody against nonstructural proteins. Nucleotide sequencing for serotyping, microarray as well as recombinant antigen-based detection, biosensor, phage display, and nucleic-acid-based diagnostic are on the way for rapid and specific detection of FMDV. Various pen side tests, namely, lateral flow, RT-LAMP, Immunostrip tests, and so forth. are also developed for detection of the virus in field condition. PMID:21776357

  8. Host-response to foot-and-mouth disease in cattle; possible implications for the development of persistently infected "carriers"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenfeldt, Anna Carolina

    General purpose and objectives Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a viral infection of implicit financial importance for countries, such as Denmark, which rely on a significant trade in agricultural products. The disease is highly contagious with rapid spread amongst susceptible animals, causing...... for effective disease control. The main purpose of this PhD-project has been to investigate the host response to FMD infection in cattle, with further objectives of elucidating any detectable differences in the measured immune response between animals that developed into FMDV carriers and those that did not...... manuscript contains results from measurements of mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines IFNα- and –β as well as tumor necrosis factor –α (TNF-α), in collected biopsy samples. The type 1 interferon response in the analyzed tissue samples is discussed in relation to the previously reported systemic interferon...

  9. [The etiological and clinical characteristics of hospitalized children with hand, foot and mouth disease in Beijing in 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Hongyan; Liu, Zhida; Zhang, Ling; Chen, Yong; Yang, Siyuan; Zhang, Weiyan; Li, Xingwang

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the etiology of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Beijing during 2013, and study the clinical characteristics of HFMD caused by the main serotypes of enterovirus in the study. Clinical data and 128 stool samples were collected from 128 hospitalized children with HFMD in Beijing Ditan Hospital during 2013. One step RT-PCR method was used for enterovirus genotyping to investigate the etiology of HFMD. Clinical characteristics of HFMD caused by the main serotypes of enterovirus were analyzed. And VP1 segments of the main virus were amplified to construct phylogenetic tree for the phylogenetic analysis. A total of 128 hospitalized children with HFMD were included. HFMD was more likely developed in children under 2 years of age (81.6%, 102/125); 11 different enteroviruses were genotyped, with a total enterovirus positive rate of 76.6% (98/128); the positive rate of coxsackievirus A6 (CA6), 43.0% ( 55/128), was the highest, followed by enterovirus 71 (EV71), accounting for 14.8% (19/128). HFMD caused by CA6 was atypical, the rashes of which involved the perioral, trunk, limbs, face and neck (47%, 26/55), besides the common parts. Of the 55 cases caused by CA6, 6 children had clinical manifestations of nervous system involvement, one of whom even displayed type 2 respiratory failure. Mental status change more likely to occur in EV71-infected children than in CA6-infected ones (42% (8/19) vs. 11% (6/55) (χ(2)=7.041, P=0.008)); 13 children displayed onychomadesis, including 12 CA6 cases (23%, 12/53) and 1 CA10 cases (17%, 1/6), in the convalescence of hand, foot and mouth disease, and the correlation between onychomadesis and CA6 infection was significant (χ(2)=9.297, P=0.002). Phylogenetic analysis of 33 CA6 VP1 showed that the CA6 isolates of this study were highly similar to that of Taiwan and the nucleotide similarity was 95.91%-98.89%. CA6 was the major pathogen of hospitalized children with hand, foot and mouth disease in Beijing during 2013

  10. Optimizing the control of foot-and-mouth disease in Denmark by simulation – the project outline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enøe, Claes

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this project was to generate scientifically based methods for improving the control and eradication of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). This was achieved by using and optimizing existing stochastic simulation models. These include the: 1) InterSpread Plus model from Massey....... These control options included different options for emergency vaccination, zoning and culling. Optimal control/eradication strategies was evaluated based on costs, number of culled animals, epidemic duration and time to lift of restrictions on animal movements and trade. An important part of the project...... was to examine the effect of predicted structural changes in livestock populations over the coming years, including fewer but larger herds. The project consisted of 3 work packages: • WP 1: Networking, gap analysis and modelling scenarios. • WP 2: Adaptation, development and optimization of existing disease...

  11. Protection induced by a commercial bivalent vaccine against Foot-and-Mouth Disease 2010 field virus from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Hernando; Naranjo, Jose; Carrillo, Consuelo; Burbano, Alexandra; Vargas, Javier; Pauszek, Lisa; Olesen, Ian; Sanchez-Vazquez, Manuel J; Cosivi, Ottorino; Allende, Rossana M

    2016-07-29

    Foot-and-Mouth Disease serotype O circulated endemically in Ecuador for many years, with an upsurge occurring in 2009. This manuscript describes retrospectively in vitro and in vivo laboratory studies to predict the field effectiveness of a commercial FMD vaccine to protect against the field strain, and explains the key actions and epidemiological strategies followed by the country to control the disease. The results established that the use of a good quality oil vaccine, manufactured with strains that were isolated long ago: O1 Campos Br/58 and A24 Cruzeiro Br/55; combined with the correct epidemiological strategies, are useful to control field strains when used in periodic biannual vaccination campaigns. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Identification of a conformational neutralizing epitope on the VP1 protein of type A foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenming; Yang, Baolin; Wang, Mingxia; Wang, Haiwei; Yang, Decheng; Ma, Wenge; Zhou, Guohui; Yu, Li

    2017-12-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), is a highly contagious infectious disease that affects domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals worldwide. In recent years, outbreaks of serotype A FMD have occurred in many countries. High-affinity neutralizing antibodies against a conserved epitope could provide protective immunity against diverse subtypes of FMDV serotype A and protect against future pandemics. In this study, we generated a serotype A FMDV-specific potent neutralizing monoclonal antibody (MAb), 6C9, which recognizes a conformation-dependent epitope. MAb 6C9 potently neutralized FMDV A/XJBC/CHA/2010 with a 50% neutralization titer (NT50) of 4096. Screening of a phage-displayed random 12-mer peptide library revealed that MAb 6C9 bound to phages displaying the consensus motif YxxPxGDLG, which is highly homologous to the 135YxxPxxxxxGDLG147 motif found in the serotype A FMDV virus-encoded structural protein VP1. To further verify the authentic epitope recognized by MAb 6C9, two FMDV A/XJBC/CHA/2010 mutant viruses, P138A and G144A, were generated using a reverse genetic system. Subsequent micro-neutralization assays and double-antibody sandwich (DAS) ELISA analyses revealed that the Pro138 and Gly144 residues of the conformational epitope that are recognized by 6C9 are important for MAb 6C9 binding. Importantly, the epitope 135YxxPxxxxxGDLG147 was highly conserved among different topotypes of serotype A FMDV strains in a sequence alignment analysis. Thus, the results of this study could have potential applications in the development of novel epitope-based vaccines and suitable a MAb-based diagnostic method for the detection of serotype A FMDV and the quantitation of antibodies against this serotype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease in Landhi Dairy Colony, Pakistan, the world largest Buffalo colony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Jörn; Hussain, M.; Ahmad, M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Pakistan and causes huge economic losses. This work focus on the Landhi Dairy Colony (LDC), located in the suburbs of Karachi. LDC is the largest Buffalo colony in the world, with more than 300,000 animals (around 95% buffaloes and 5% cattle......, as well as an unknown number of sheep and goats). Each month from April 2006 to April 2007 we collected mouth-swabs from apparently healthy buffaloes and cattle, applying a convenient sampling based on a two-stage random sampling scheme, in conjunction with participatory information from each selected....... Samples have been screened for FMDV by real-time RT-PCR and the partial or full 1D coding region of selected isolates has been sequenced. Serum samples have been analysed by applying serotype-specific antibody ELISA and non-structural proteins (NSP) antibody ELISA. Results: FMDV infection prevalence...

  14. Outbreak of variant hand-foot-and-mouth disease caused by coxsackievirus A6 in Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, Rebecca; Shepherd, Michael; Tarring, Claire; Best, Emma

    2014-10-01

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is a common, usually mild childhood illness caused by enteroviruses. Over the last five years, coxsackievirus A6 has been identified as a causative agent in outbreaks in Europe, South-East Asia and America. It has an atypical presentation compared with other enteroviruses, with more widespread rash, larger blisters and subsequent skin peeling and/or nail shedding. We give the first description of an outbreak of coxsackievirus A6 in New Zealand and how health-care communication networks enabled detection of and dissemination of information about this emergent strain. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  15. A neonate with hand, foot, and mouth disease complicated with brainstem encephalitis and pulmonary edema:A complete recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shi-Jie; Wang, Dong-Xuan; Dai, Chun-Lai; Wu, Hui

    2014-07-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) with serious complications and fatal cases have been reported over the last decade worldwide. The authors report a rare case of HFMD in a neonate complicated with brainstem encephalitis and pulmonary edema. She had fever, lethargy, dyspnea. Physical examination revealed shock signs, fine rales on both lungs, absent Moro reflex. The patient had a rapidly progressive course with seizures, coma, no spontaneous breathing, chemosis. There were some vesicles on left sole and red maculopapular rashes on perianal skin. She had a history of exposure to HFMD. Fecal sample was positive for EV71 RNA by real-time PCR. Chest X-rays showed bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. MRI of the brain showed significant hypointensity in the brainstem on T1WI and hyperintensity on T2WI. She recovered well. This case highlights severe HFMD in neonates is rare. Medical history and physical examination are important in making diagnosis.

  16. Time clustered sampling can inflate the inferred substitution rate in foot-and-mouth disease virus analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Casper-Emil Tingskov; Frandsen, Peter; Wekesa, Sabenzia N.

    2015-01-01

    through a study of the foot-and-mouth (FMD) disease virus serotypes SAT 1 and SAT 2. Our study shows that clustered temporal sampling in phylogenetic analyses of FMD viruses will strongly bias the inferences of substitution rates and tMRCA because the inferred rates in such data sets reflect a rate closer......With the emergence of analytical software for the inference of viral evolution, a number of studies have focused on estimating important parameters such as the substitution rate and the time to the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) for rapidly evolving viruses. Coupled with an increasing...... to the mutation rate rather than the substitution rate. Estimating evolutionary parameters from viral sequences should be performed with due consideration of the differences in short-term and longer-term evolutionary processes occurring within sets of temporally sampled viruses, and studies should carefully...

  17. Chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O displaying a serotype Asia1 antigenic epitope at the surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Jitendra K; Ranjan, Rajeev; Pattnaik, Bramhadev

    2016-09-01

    To determine whether the G-H loop of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype O can function as a target structure to harbour and display serotype Asia1 antigenic epitope at the surface. Using reverse genetics, FMDV serotype O IND R2/1975 displaying a FMDV serotype Asia1 B cell epitope at the capsid surface was constructed. The epitope-inserted recombinant chimeric virus was genetically stable up to ten serial passages in cell culture and exhibited growth properties similar to the parental serotype O virus. Furthermore, the surface-displayed Asia1 epitope able to react with serotype Asia1 specific antibodies in a competitive ELISA. Importantly, the recombinant chimeric virus showed neutralizing activity to both serotype O and Asia1 polyclonal antibodies. The capsid protein of FMDV serotype O can effectively display potent epitope of other serotypes, making this an attractive approach for the design of new generation bi-valent FMD vaccines.

  18. The effect of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccination on virus transmission and the significance for the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsel, Karin; Bouma, Annemarie

    2009-10-01

    Vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) might be one of the control measures used during an FMD epidemic depending on the local epidemiological situation, the status of the country, and the opinion of policy makers. A sound decision on vaccination can be made only if there is sufficient scientific knowledge on the effectiveness of vaccination in eliminating the virus from the population. An important question is whether a single vaccination applied as an emergency vaccine can contribute to the control of an epidemic. This paper presents the results of transmission experiments on vaccine efficacy in groups of cattle, pigs, and sheep and concludes that vaccination seemed to be effective in cattle and sheep, but was less effective in pigs. The possible implications for application to field conditions are discussed.

  19. Dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius) are of Low Susceptibility to Inoculation with Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Søren; Wernery, U.; Nagy, P.

    2008-01-01

    Two sheep and five dromedaries were inoculated with a highdose of a cattle-passaged type O strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). The sheep developed typical FMD. The inoculated camels, which were placed in contact with five further dromedaries and four sheep, showed no visible sign...... the contact-exposed camels and sheep and two of the inoculated camels were serologically negative for FMD when tested up to day 28. In contrast, the camel with viraemia became serologically positive front day 14, and the other two inoculated camels (which had been exposed to FMDV in an earlier experiment......) became serologically positive from day 10. The experiment suggested that dromedaries (1) are of low susceptibility to FMDV serotype O, (2) do not transmit infection, even by close contact, and (3) are Unlikely to play a significant epidemiological role in FMD....

  20. An investigation into the source and spread of foot and mouth disease virus from a wildlife conservancy in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, S K; Foggin, C M; Anderson, E C; Bastos, A D S; Thomson, G R; Ferris, N P; Knowles, N J

    2004-12-01

    African buffalo were introduced into a wildlife conservancy in the southeast of Zimbabwe in an effortto increase the conservancy's economic viability, which is primarily based on eco-tourism. The buffalo were infected with SAT serotypes (SAT-1, SAT-2 and SAT-3) of foot and mouth disease (FMD) virus, and in order to isolate the conservancy and prevent the transmission of FMD to adjacent populations of domestic livestock, the conservancy was surrounded by a double-fence system, 1.8 m in height. The intention was to prevent the movement of both wildlife and domestic animals across the perimeter. However, two years after the buffalo were introduced, FMD occurred in cattle farmed just outside of the conservancy. Using serological and molecular diagnostic tests, epidemiological investigations showed that it was most likely that antelope (impala or kudu), infected through contact with the buffalo herd within the conservancy, had jumped over the fence and transmitted the virus to the cattle.

  1. Comparing control strategies against foot-and-mouth disease: will vaccination be cost-effective in Denmark?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boklund, A; Halasa, T; Christiansen, L E; Enøe, C

    2013-09-01

    Recent outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Europe have highlighted the need for assessment of control strategies to optimise control of the spread of FMD. Our objectives were to assess the epidemiological and financial impact of simulated FMD outbreaks in Denmark and the effect of using ring depopulation or emergency vaccination to control these outbreaks. Two stochastic simulation models (InterSpreadPlus (ISP) and the modified Davis Animal Disease Simulation model (DTU-DADS)) were used to simulate the spread of FMD in Denmark using different control strategies. Each epidemic was initiated in one herd (index herd), and a total of 5000 index herds were used. Four types of control measures were investigated: (1) a basic scenario including depopulation of detected herds, 3 km protection and 10 km surveillance zones, movement tracing and a three-day national standstill, (2) the basic scenario plus depopulation in ring zones around detected herds (Depop), (3) the basic scenario plus protective vaccination within ring zones around detected herds, and (4) the basic scenario plus protective vaccination within ring zones around detected herds. Disease spread was simulated through direct animal movements, medium-risk contacts (veterinarians, artificial inseminators or milk controllers), low-risk contacts (animal feed and rendering trucks, technicians or visitors), market contacts, abattoir trucks, milk tanks, or local spread. The two simulation models showed different results in terms of the estimated numbers. However, the tendencies in terms of recommendations of strategies were similar for both models. Comparison of the different control strategies showed that, from an epidemiological point of view, protective vaccination would be preferable if the epidemic started in a cattle herd in an area with a high density of cattle, whereas if the epidemic started in an area with a low density of cattle or in other species, protective vaccination or depopulation would have

  2. Evaluating the efficacy of hydrogen peroxide vapour against foot-and-mouth disease virus within a BSL4 biosafety facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, B M; Almeida, F C; Uchiyama, T R; Lopes, F O C; Tino, K H; Chewins, J

    2017-10-01

    An evaluation was made of the efficacy of 35% hydrogen peroxide vapour (HPV) against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in a biosafety facility. Biological indicators (BIs) were produced using three serotypes of FMDV, all with a titre of ≥106 TCID50 per ml. Fifteen BIs of each serotype were distributed across five locations, throughout a 30-m3 airlock chamber, producing a total of 45 BIs. Thirty-five percent HPV was generated and applied using a Bioquell vaporization module located in the centre of the chamber. After a dwell period of 40 min, the HPV was removed via the enclosures air handling system and the BIs were collected. The surfaces of the BIs were recovered into Glasgow's modified Eagle's medium (GMEM), cultivated in BHK21 Cl13 cell culture and analysed for evidence of cytopathic effect (CPE). No CPE was detected in any BI sample. Positive controls showed CPE. The experimentation shows that FMDV is susceptible to HPV decontamination and presents a potential alternative to formaldehyde. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is an important pathogen in terms of biosafety due to its infectious nature and wide range of host animals, such as cattle, sheep, goats and pigs. Outbreaks of FMDV can have a severe impact on livestock production, causing morbidity, mortality, reduced yields and trade embargoes. Laboratories studying FMDV must possess BSL4 robust bio-decontamination methods to prevent inadvertent release. Formaldehyde has been the primary agent for environmental decontamination, but its designation as a human carcinogen has led to a search for alternatives. This study shows 35% hydrogen peroxide vapour has the potential to be a rapid, effective, residue-free alternative. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Reconstructing geographical movements and host species transitions of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew D; Knowles, Nick J; Wadsworth, Jemma; Rambaut, Andrew; Woolhouse, Mark E J

    2013-10-22

    Of the three foot-and-mouth-disease virus SAT serotypes mainly confined to sub-Saharan Africa, SAT 2 is the strain most often recorded in domestic animals and has caused outbreaks in North Africa and the Middle East six times in the last 25 years, with three apparently separate events occurring in 2012. This study updates the picture of SAT 2 phylogenetics by using all available sequences for the VP1 section of the genome available at the time of writing and uses phylogeographic methods to trace the origin of all outbreaks occurring north of the Sahara since 1990 and identify patterns of spread among countries of endemicity. Transitions between different host species are also enumerated. Outbreaks in North Africa appear to have origins in countries immediately south of the Sahara, whereas those in the Middle East are more often from East Africa. The results of the analysis of spread within sub-Saharan Africa are consistent with it being driven by relatively short-distance movements of animals across national borders, and the analysis of host species transitions supports the role of the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) as an important natural reservoir. Foot-and-mouth disease virus is a livestock pathogen of major economic importance, with seven distinct serotypes occurring globally. The SAT 2 serotype, endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, has caused a number of outbreaks in North Africa and the Middle East during the last decades, including three separate incidents in 2012. A comprehensive analysis of all available RNA sequences for SAT 2 has not been published for some years. In this work, we performed this analysis using all previously published sequences and 49 newly determined examples. We also used phylogenetic methods to infer the source country for all outbreaks occurring outside sub-Saharan Africa since 1990 and to reconstruct the spread of viral lineages between countries where it is endemic and movements between different host species.

  4. Foot-and-mouth disease virus, but not bovine enterovirus, targets the host cell cytoskeleton, via the non-structural protein 3Cpro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armer, Hannah; Moffat, Katy; Wileman, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), a member of the Picornaviridae, is a pathogen of cloven-hoofed animals and causes a disease of major economic importance. Picornavirus-infected cells show changes in cell morphology and rearrangement of cytoplasmic membranes, which are a consequence of virus...

  5. Disinfection of foot-and-mouth disease and African swine fever viruses with citric acid and sodium hypochlorite on birch wood carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transboundary animal disease viruses such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and African swine fever virus (ASFV) are highly contagious and cause severe morbidity and mortality in livestock. Proper disinfection during an outbreak can help prevent virus spread and will shorten the time for contam...

  6. Detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus RNA in pharyngeal epithelium biopsy samples obtained from infected cattle: Investigation of possible sites of virus replication and persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenfeldt, Anna Carolina; Belsham, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral infection of significant financial importance to the export and trade of agricultural products. The occurrence of persistently infected ‘‘carriers’’ of FMD-virus (FMDV) in ruminant species adds further complications to disease control...

  7. The diagnostic utility of stabilized blood for detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus RNA by RT-qPCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S. Fontél, Kristina; Bøtner, Anette; Belsham, Graham

    In Europe, clinical signs indicative of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), would immediately lead to collection of blood and relevant organ material for further laboratory examination for this vesicular disease virus. Today, the first line system for detection of virus in the sample material is real...

  8. Sero-prevalence of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in large ruminants at peri urban dairy farms near Islamabad, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an important, endemic, trans-boundary viral disease affecting livestock in Pakistan and associated with high economic losses. This survey was conducted to estimate sero-prevalence of FMD in large ruminants from peri-urban dairy farms near Islamabad. Serum samples were...

  9. Laboratory capacity for diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease in Eastern Africa: implications for the progressive control pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Accurate diagnosis is pertinent to any disease control programme. If Eastern Africa is to work towards control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) using the Progressive Control Pathway for FMD (PCP-FMD) as a tool, then the capacity of national reference laboratories (NRLs) mandated to diagnose FMD should match this task. This study assessed the laboratory capacity of 14 NRLs of the Eastern Africa Region Laboratory Network member countries using a semi-structured questionnaire and retrospective data from the World Reference Laboratory for FMD annual reports and Genbank® through National Centre for Biotechnology Information for the period 2006–2010. Results The questionnaire response rate was 13/14 (93%). Twelve out of the 13 countries/regions had experienced at least one outbreak in the relevant five year period. Only two countries (Ethiopia and Kenya) had laboratories at biosecurity level 3 and only three (Ethiopia, Kenya and Sudan) had identified FMD virus serotypes for all reported outbreaks. Based on their own country/region assessment, 12/13 of these countries /regions were below stage 3 of the PCP-FMD. Quarantine (77%) and vaccination (54%) were the major FMD control strategies employed. The majority (12/13) of the NRLs used serological techniques to diagnose FMD, seven used antigen ELISA and three of these (25%) also used molecular techniques which were the tests most frequently requested from collaborating laboratories by the majority (69%) of the NRLs. Only 4/13 (31%) participated in proficiency testing for FMD. Four (31%) laboratories had no quality management systems (QMS) in place and where QMS existed it was still deficient, thus, none of the laboratories had achieved accreditation for FMD diagnosis. Conclusions This study indicates that FMD diagnostic capacity in Eastern Africa is still inadequate and largely depends on antigen and antibody ELISAs techniques undertaken by the NRLs. Hence, for the region to progress on the PCP-FMD, there is

  10. Modeling the impact of vaccination control strategies on a foot and mouth disease outbreak in the Central United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McReynolds, Sara W; Sanderson, Michael W; Reeves, Aaron; Hill, Ashley E

    2014-12-01

    The central United States (U.S.) has a large livestock population including cattle, swine, sheep and goats. Simulation models were developed to assess the impact of livestock herd types and vaccination on foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks using the North American Animal Disease Spread Model. In this study, potential FMD virus outbreaks in the central region of the U.S. were simulated to compare different vaccination strategies to a depopulation only scenario. Based on data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Statistics Service, a simulated population of 151,620 livestock operations characterized by latitude and longitude, production type, and herd size was generated. For the simulations, a single 17,000 head feedlot was selected as the initial latently infected herd in an otherwise susceptible population. Direct and indirect contact rates between herds were based on survey data of livestock producers in Kansas and Colorado. Control methods included ring vaccination around infected herds. Feedlots ≥3000 head were either the only production type that was vaccinated or were assigned the highest vaccination priority. Simulated vaccination scenarios included low and high vaccine capacity, vaccination zones of 10 km or 50 km around detected infected premises, and vaccination trigger of 10 or 100 detected infected herds. Probability of transmission following indirect contact, movement controls and contact rate parameters were considered uncertain and so were the subjects of sensitivity analysis. All vaccination scenarios decreased number of herds depopulated but not all decreased outbreak duration. Increased size of the vaccination zone during an outbreak decreased the length of the outbreak and number of herds destroyed. Increased size of the vaccination zone primarily resulted in vaccinating feedlots ≥3000 head across a larger area. Increasing the vaccination capacity had a smaller impact on the outbreak and may not be feasible if

  11. Elevated levels of circulating histones indicate disease activity in patients with hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuhui; Li, Qin; Li, Junhong; Li, Ying; Chen, Yuping; Lv, Aiping; Zhang, Jian; Ding, Jianbo; Von Maltzan, Kristine; Wen, Tao

    2014-12-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common infectious disease in children, characterized by acute viral infection accompanying acute inflammatory responses. Circulating histones are leading mediators of the inflammatory processes. This study aimed to elucidate whether circulating histones play a contributory role during HFMD. We measured plasma levels of histones, myeloperoxidase (MPO), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and cytokines in HFMD patients (n = 126) and compared the results with those of a control group (n = 30). Circulating histone levels were significantly increased in HFMD patients (3.794 ± 0.156 μg/ml) compared with healthy controls (0.238 ± 0.023 μg/ml, p disease severity (all p disease severity and contribute to systemic inflammation by promoting cytokine production (e.g. IL-6). We suggest that in mild HFMD, circulating histones may originate largely from neutrophil activation, whereas in severe HFMD, dying tissue cells and neutrophil activation may be synergistically involved in the increased levels of histones.

  12. Early Detection of Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus from Infected Cattle Using A Dry Filter Air Sampling System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, J M; Brito, B; Hartwig, E; Smoliga, G R; Perez, A; Arzt, J; Rodriguez, L L

    2017-04-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious livestock disease of high economic impact. Early detection of FMD virus (FMDV) is fundamental for rapid outbreak control. Air sampling collection has been demonstrated as a useful technique for detection of FMDV RNA in infected animals, related to the aerogenous nature of the virus. In the current study, air from rooms housing individual (n = 17) or two groups (n = 4) of cattle experimentally infected with FDMV A24 Cruzeiro of different virulence levels was sampled to assess the feasibility of applying air sampling as a non-invasive, screening tool to identify sources of FMDV infection. Detection of FMDV RNA in air was compared with first detection of clinical signs and FMDV RNA levels in serum and oral fluid. FMDV RNA was detected in room air samples 1-3 days prior (seven animals) or on the same day (four animals) as the appearance of clinical signs in 11 of 12 individually housed cattle. Only in one case clinical signs preceded detection in air samples by one day. Overall, viral RNA in oral fluid or serum preceded detection in air samples by 1-2 days. Six individually housed animals inoculated with attenuated strains did not show clinical signs, but virus was detected in air in one of these cases 3 days prior to first detection in oral fluid. In groups of four cattle housed together, air detection always preceded appearance of clinical signs by 1-2 days and coincided more often with viral shedding in oral fluid than virus in blood. These data confirm that air sampling is an effective non-invasive screening method for detecting FMDV infection in confined to enclosed spaces (e.g. auction barns, milking parlours). This technology could be a useful tool as part of a surveillance strategy during FMD prevention, control or eradication efforts. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Application of non-structural protein antibody tests in substantiating freedom from foot-and-mouth disease virus infection after emergency vaccination of cattle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paton, D.J.; Clerq, De K.; Greiner, M.; Dekker, A.; Brocchi, E.; Bergmann, I.E.; Sammin, D.J.; Gubbins, S.; Parida, S.

    2006-01-01

    There has been much debate about the use of the so-called ¿vaccinate-to-live¿ policy for the control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Europe, according to which, spread of the FMD virus (FMDV) from future outbreaks could be controlled by a short period of ¿emergency¿ vaccination of surrounding

  14. Kit-of-parts for use in a prime-boost vaccination strategy to protect cloven-footed animals against foot-and-mouth disease virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to a kit-of-parts for use in immunizing an animal against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection. In particular, the present invention relates to a kit-of-parts containing a priming composition and a boosting composition for use in a prime-boost FMDV-vaccination...

  15. A dominant negative mutant of rab5 inhibits infection of cells by foot-and-mouth disease virus; implications for virus entry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johns, Helen; Berryman, Stephen; Monaghan, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) can use a number of different integrins (alphavβ1, alphavβ3, alphavβ6, and alphavβ8) as receptors to initiate infection. Infection mediated by alphavβ6 is known to occur by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and is dependent on the acidic pH within endosomes...

  16. Transcriptomic analysis of persistent infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle suggests impairment of cell-mediated immunity in the nasopharynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to investigate the mechanisms of persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in cattle, transcriptome alterations associated with the FMDV carrier state were characterized using a bovine whole-transcriptome microarray. Eighteen cattle (8 vaccinated with a recombinant FMDV A vac...

  17. Combination of Adt-O1MANISA AND Ad5-boIFN induces early protective immunity against foot-and-mouth diseases in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth-disease (FMD) remains one of the most important economic concerns for the agricultural industry worldwide. Although vaccination with a commercially available inactivated whole virus formulation, or a recently developed replication-defective human adenovirus 5 vector-based subunit vacc...

  18. Foot-and-mouth disease virus 5’-terminal S fragment is required for replication and modulation of the innate immune response in host cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) contains a 5’ untranslated region (5’UTR) with multiple structural domains that regulate viral genome replication, translation, and virus-host interactions. At its 5’terminus, the S fragment of over 360 bp is predicted to form a stable stem-loop that is separ...

  19. Complete Genome Sequences of Four Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses of Serotype South African Territories 1 (SAT 1), Topotype X, Isolated from Cattle in Nigeria in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbussche, Frank; Mathijs, Elisabeth; Ularamu, Hussaini G; Ehizibolo, David O; Haegeman, Andy; Lefebvre, David; Lazarus, David D; Wungak, Yiltawe S; De Vleeschauwer, Annebel R; Van Borm, Steven; De Clercq, Kris

    2017-10-19

    The complete genome sequences of four foot-and-mouth disease viruses of South African territories 1 (SAT 1) serotype are reported. These viruses originate from an outbreak in Nigeria in 2015 and belong to the novel SAT 1 topotype X from the west and central African virus pool. Copyright © 2017 Vandenbussche et al.

  20. Modulation of Cytokine mRNA Expression in Pharyngeal Epithelial Samples obtained from Cattle Infected with Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenfeldt, Anna Carolina; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Stockmarr, Anders

    2012-01-01

    A novel technique of endoscopical collection of small tissue samples was used to obtain sequential tissue samples from the dorsal soft palate (DSP) of individual cattle infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) at different phases of the infection. Levels of mRNA encoding interferon (IFN...

  1. Characteristics of a foot-and-mouth disease virus with a partial VP1 G-H loop deletion in experimentally infected cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fowler, Veronica; Bashiruddin, John B.; Belsham, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Previous work in cattle illustrated the protective efficacy and negative marker potential of a A serotype foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) vaccine prepared from a virus lacking a significant portion of the VP1 G-H loop (termed A(−)). Since this deletion also includes the arginine-glycine-aspar...

  2. Antibodies Against Foot-and-mouth Disease (FMD) Virus in African Buffalos (Syncerus caffer) in Selected National Parks in Uganda (2001–2003)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayebazibwe, C.; Mwiine, F. N.; Balinda, S. N.

    2010-01-01

    In East Africa, the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus (FMDV) isolates have over time included serotypes O, A, C, Southern African Territories (SAT) 1 and SAT 2, mainly from livestock. SAT 3 has only been isolated in a few cases and only in African buffalos (Syncerus caffer). To investigate...

  3. Comparative evaluation of six ELISAs for the detection of antibodies to the non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brocchi, E.; Bergmann, I.E.; Dekker, A.

    2006-01-01

    To validate the use of serology in substantiating freedom from infection after foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks have been controlled by measures that include vaccination, 3551 sera were tested with six assays that detect antibodies to the non-structural proteins of FMD virus. The sera came...

  4. The comparative utility of oral swabs and probang samples for detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in cattle and pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenfeldt, Anna Carolina; Lohse, Louise; Belsham, Graham

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) RNA was measured using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) assays in oralswab and probangsamples collected from cattle and pigs during experimental infections with serotype O FMDV. During acute infection, FMDV RNA was measurable in oralswabs as wel...

  5. Risk evaluation of nonvaccinated, weaned calves transported through areas under systematic foot and mouth disease (FMD) vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leanes, L F; Abbiati, N N; Pereyra, A M; Maizon, D O

    2011-02-01

    The recurrence and persistence of foot and mouth disease (FMD) could be the consequence of cyclic and massive transportation of calves. For this reason, in South America, vaccination strategies related to livestock dynamic are being promoted. In order to aid the evaluation of such strategies, a method for predicting the risk of transportation of nonvaccinated weaned calves was developed; this method combines expert opinion and empirical evidence using Bayesian estimators. It was applied through Monte Carlo simulation to data of Argentina under four hypothetical vaccination schemes: E1, extended vaccination season of 1/6 of the population of calves each month from July to December without second round vaccination (SRV); E2, extended irregular vaccination from July to December with SRV applied to 70% of the calves resembling the scheme applied in Argentina in 2001; E3, vaccination in November and December without SRV; and E4, vaccination concentrated in November. E1 resulted in probability of transporting non vaccinated calves (tnvc) reaching its maximum in the following year in May with mean=0.0250 and percentile 95% (P95)=0.0404; for the same month tnvc estimates for the other schemes were E2: mean=0.0071; P95=0.0162; E3: mean=0.0017; P95=0.0042 and E4: mean=0.0001; P95=0.0004. Bonferroni multiple comparison for simultaneous assertions for May showed that E4 resulted the best scheme, E1 the worst, and E2 and E3 are intermediate with nonsignificant difference observed between overall (p<0.05). Results were consistent with historical records and quantification for future needs for re-vaccination was made possible. While the ratio "total vaccinated"/"total estimated existences" will give a biased vision of vaccination coverage under the situation of extended vaccination campaigns, a model as the one developed here could allow a more accurate assessment and the design of mitigation plans. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Recombinant human adenovirus-5 expressing capsid proteins of Indian vaccine strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus elicits effective antibody response in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasa, B P; Mohapatra, J K; Pauszek, S J; Koster, M; Dhanya, V C; Tamil Selvan, R P; Hosamani, M; Saravanan, P; Basagoudanavar, Suresh H; de Los Santos, T; Venkataramanan, R; Rodriguez, L L; Grubman, M J

    2017-05-01

    Recombinant adenovirus-5 vectored foot-and-mouth disease constructs (Ad5- FMD) were made for three Indian vaccine virus serotypes O, A and Asia 1. Constructs co-expressing foot-and- mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid and viral 3C protease sequences, were evaluated for their ability to induce a neutralizing antibody response in indigenous cattle (Bos indicus). Purified Ad5-FMD viruses were inoculated in cattle as monovalent (5×109 pfu/animal) or trivalent (5×109 pfu/animal per serotype) vaccines. Animals vaccinated with monovalent Ad5-FMD vaccines were boosted 63days later with the same dose. After primary immunization, virus neutralization tests (VNT) showed seroconversion in 83, 67 and 33% of animals vaccinated with Ad5-FMD O, A and Asia 1, respectively. Booster immunization elicited seroconversion in all of the animals (100%) in the monovalent groups. When used in a trivalent form, the Ad5-FMD vaccine induced neutralizing antibodies in only 33, 50 and 16% of animals against serotypes O, A and Asia 1, respectively on primo-vaccination, and titers were significantly lower than when the same vectors were used in monovalent form. Neutralizing antibody titers differed by serotype for both Ad5-FMD monovalent and trivalent vaccines, with Asia 1 serotype inducing the lowest titers. Antibody response to Ad5 vector in immunized cattle was also assessed by VNT. It appeared that the vector immunity did not impact the recall responses to expressed FMDV antigens on booster immunization. In summary, the study suggested that the recombinant Ad5-FMD vaccine has a potential use in monovalent form, while its application in multivalent form is not currently encouraging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemiluminescence Immunoassay for the Detection of Antibodies against the 2C and 3ABC Nonstructural Proteins Induced by Infecting Pigs with Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zezhong; Shao, Junjun; Zhao, Furong; Zhou, Guangqing; Gao, Shandian; Liu, Wei; Lv, Jianliang; Li, Xiumei; Li, Yangfan; Chang, Huiyun; Zhang, Yongguang

    2017-08-01

    The potential diagnostic value of chemiluminescence immunoassays (CLIAs) has been accepted in recent years, although their use for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) diagnostics has not been reported. Full-length 3ABC and 2C proteins were expressed in bacteria and purified by affinity chromatography to develop a rapid and accurate approach to distinguish pigs infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) from vaccinated pigs. The recombinant proteins were then used as antigens to develop two CLIAs for the detection of antibodies against nonstructural viral proteins. The diagnostic performance of the two assays was compared by analyzing serum from pigs (naive pigs, n = 63; vaccinated, uninfected pigs, n = 532; naive, infected pigs, n = 117) with a known infection status. The 3ABC-2C CLIA had a higher accuracy rate, with a diagnostic sensitivity of 100% and a diagnostic specificity of 96.5%, than the 3ABC CLIA, which had a diagnostic sensitivity of 95.7% and a diagnostic specificity of 96.0%. The results of the 3ABC-2C CLIA also had a high rate of concordance with those of two commercial FMDV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits used to assess serum collected from 962 pigs in the field (96.2% and 97.8%, respectively). The 3ABC-2C CLIA detected infection in serum samples from infected pigs earlier than the commercial ELISA kits. In addition, the 3ABC-2C CLIA produced results within 15 min. On the basis of these findings, the 3ABC-2C CLIA could serve as the foundation for the development of penside FMD diagnostics and offers an alternative method to detect FMDV infections. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Viroses confundíveis com febre aftosa Viral diseases to be differentiated from foot-and-mouth disease

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    Franklin Riet-Correa

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Revisam-se as doenças que devem ser consideradas no diagnóstico diferencial de febre aftosa. Dentre as doenças vesiculares ou erosivas, descrevem-se os principais aspectos relacionados ao diagnóstico da estomatite vesicular, diarréia viral bovina, febre catarral maligna, infecções por herpesvírus bovino 1 e 5, e uma estomatite ulcerativa associada a parvovírus bovino, que ocorreu no Rio Grande do Sul; língua azul, para a qual tem sido detectados anticorpos em bovinos e ovinos do Rio Grande do Sul; mamilite herpética que ocorre em outros Estados do País;peste bovina, que foi diagnosticada e erradicada no Estado de São Paulo em 1921; estomatite popular; e duas doenças exóticas:exantema vesicular e doença vesicular do suíno.Diseases to be considered in the differential diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease are reviewed. The main aspects relating to the diagnosis of vesicular stomatitis, bovine virus diarrhea, malignant catarrhal fever, bovine herpesvirus 1 and 5, andem ulcerative stomatitis associated with bovine parvovirus are described. Bluetongue, that probably occurs in Rio Grande do Sul because antibodies to the virus have been detected in cattle and sheep; is refered. Bovine ulcerative mammilitis, reported in other Brazilian States, rinderpest, reported and eradicated in the State of São Paulo in 1921, and popular stomatitis are also cited, and so are two exotic diseases: vesicular exanthema and swine vesicular disease.

  9. Intestinal detoxification time of hand-foot-and-mouth disease in children with EV71 infection and the related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Shu; Wei, Yi; Zhao, Shi-Yong; Lin, Xian-Yao; Shao, Qi-Min; Wang, Juan

    2015-11-01

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is a common pediatric infectious disease caused by a variety of intestinal viruses. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the primary pathogen that might cause severe symptoms and even death in children with HFMD. This study aimed to investigate the intestinal detoxification time of HFMD children with EV71 infection and its related factors. Sixty-five HFMD children with EV71 infection were followed up. Their stool samples were collected once every 4 to 7 days. Viral nucleic acids were detected by fluorescent polymerase chain reaction until the results became negative. The positive rates of viral nucleic acids were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. The Log-rank test and Cox-Mantel test were used to analyze factors affecting the HFMD children with EV71 infection. On the 2nd, 4th, 6th and 10th week, the positive rates of viral nucleic acids in stool samples of the 65 children were 94.6%, 48.1%, 17.2% and 0, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that the intestinal detoxification time of the children were related to gender, pre-admission disease course, severity of disease, and use of steroids or gamma globulin (Pdisease was an independent factor affecting the intestinal detoxification time (Pdisease was an important factor affecting the intestinal detoxification time of HFMD children with EV71 infection. Severe HFMD children with EV71 infection had a longer intestinal detoxification time.

  10. Atmospheric Spread of Foot-and-mouth Disease During The Early Phase of The Uk Epidemic 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, J. H.; Mikkelsen, T.; Astrup, P.; Alexandersen, S.; Donaldson, A. I.

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease in cloven-hoofed domesticated and wild animals. The highly contagious nature of FMD is a reflection of the wide range of species which are susceptible, the enormous quantities of virus liberated by infected animals, the range of excretions and secretions which can be infectious, the stability of the virus in the environment, the multiplicity of routes of infection and the very small doses of virus that can initiate infection in susceptible hosts. One of the routes for the spread of the disease is the atmospheric dispersion of virus exhaled by infected animals. Such spread can be rapid and extensive, and it is known in certain circumstances to have occurred over a distance of several hundred kilometres. For the FMD epidemic in UK in 2001, atmospheric dispersion models were applied in real time in order to describe the atmospheric dispersion of virus for the larger outbreaks of the disease. The operational value of such modelling is first of all to identify risk zones, which is helpful to the emergency management. The paper addresses the modelling techniques and presents results related with the epidemic in UK in 2001.

  11. Evaluation of a combinatorial RNAi lentivirus vector targeting foot-and-mouth disease virus in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHANG, XIAOXI; ZHENG, HAIXUE; XU, MINJUN; ZHOU, YU; LI, XIANGPING; YANG, FAN; LIU, QINGYOU; SHI, DESHUN

    2015-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals, which leads to serious economical losses. FMDV is not adequately controlled by vaccination or biosecurity measures. To generate genetically modified FMDV-resistant animals, a combinatorial expression cassette producing three short hairpin (sh) RNAs was constructed using the lentivirus (LV) vector, LV-3shRNA. The three shRNAs were expressed under the regulation of DNA polymerase III promoters from a buffalo and a bovine source, with one targeted to the non-structural protein 3B, and the other two targeted to the viral polymerase protein 3D of FMDV, respectively. The role of LV-3shRNA in the inhibition of the replication of FMDV was determined in BHK-21 cells and in suckling mice. The results revealed that LV-3shRNA reduced viral growth 3-fold (24 h post-infection) when the cells were challenged with 107-times the tissue culture infective dose (TCID50)/ml of O serotype FMDV. The suckling mice pretreated with LV-3shRNA were completely protected on administration of 5-times the dose of FMDV otherwise sufficient to kill 50% of the experimental animals (LD50). These results demonstrated that the LV-mediated dual expression of three FMDV-specific shRNAs provided a novel strategy towards combating FMDV, which facilitates the permanent introduction of novel disease-resistance traits into the buffalo and bovine genomes in the future. PMID:26323462

  12. Seasonal modeling of hand, foot, and mouth disease as a function of meteorological variations in Chongqing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pin; Zhao, Han; You, Fangxin; Zhou, Hailong; Goggins, William B.

    2017-08-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is an enterovirus-induced infectious disease, mainly affecting children under 5 years old. Outbreaks of HFMD in recent years indicate the disease interacts with both the weather and season. This study aimed to investigate the seasonal association between HFMD and weather variation in Chongqing, China. Generalized additive models and distributed lag non-linear models based on a maximum lag of 14 days, with negative binomial distribution assumed to account for overdispersion, were constructed to model the association between reporting HFMD cases from 2009 to 2014 and daily mean temperature, relative humidity, total rainfall and sun duration, adjusting for trend, season, and day of the week. The year-round temperature and relative humidity, rainfall in summer, and sun duration in winter were all significantly associated with HFMD. An inverted-U relationship was found between mean temperature and HFMD above 19 °C in summer, with a maximum morbidity at 27 °C, while the risk increased linearly with the temperature in winter. A hockey-stick association was found for relative humidity in summer with increasing risks over 60%. Heavy rainfall, relative to no rain, was found to be associated with reduced HFMD risk in summer and 2 h of sunshine could decrease the risk by 21% in winter. The present study showed meteorological variables were differentially associated with HFMD incidence in two seasons. Short-term weather variation surveillance and forecasting could be employed as an early indicator for potential HFMD outbreaks.

  13. Clinical and Etiological Characteristics of Atypical Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Children from Chongqing, China: A Retrospective Study

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    Xiang Yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD is a disease that had similar manifestations to chickenpox, impetigo, and measles, which is easy to misdiagnose and subsequently causes delayed therapy and subsequent epidemic. To date, no study has been conducted to report the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of atypical HFMD. Methods. 64 children with atypical HFMD out of 887 HFMD children were recruited, stool was collected, and viral VP1 was detected. Results. The atypical HFMD accounted for 7.2% of total HFMD in the same period (64/887 and there were two peaks in its prevalence in nonepidemic seasons. Ten children (15.6% had manifestations of neurologic involvement, of whom 4 (6.3% were diagnosed with severe HFMD and 1 with critically severe HFMD, but all recovered smoothly. Onychomadesis and desquamation were found in 14 patients (21.9% and 15 patients (23.4%, respectively. The most common pathogen was coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6 which accounted for 67.2%, followed by nontypable enterovirus (26.6%, enterovirus 71 (EV-A71 (4.7%, and coxsackievirus A16 (A16 (1.5%. Conclusions. Atypical HFMD has seasonal prevalence. The manifestations of neurologic involvement in atypical HFMD are mild and usually have a good prognosis. CV-A6 is a major pathogen causing atypical HFMD, but not a major pathogen in Chongqing, China.

  14. Risk factors for foot-and-mouth disease in sedentary livestock herds in selected villages in four regions of Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukpa, K; Robertson, I D; Edwards, J R; Ellis, T M; Tshering, P; Rinzin, K; Dahal, N

    2011-03-01

    To identify livestock husbandry practices important for transmission of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the herds and villages of four regions in Bhutan. To consider using this information to enhance the current prevention and control programme, a consideration arising from the failure to control FMD in spite of a control programme in place. Between March and May 2009, 383 livestock farmers originating from 80 villages in four districts of Bhutan were interviewed, using a structured questionnaire, about the livestock management practices and incidence of FMD in their herds. Multivariable logistic regression was used to quantify the risk factors that predicted the outcome variable 'farmer-diagnosed FMD in Bhutan'. Sixty-two percent (49/79) of the villages and 87/355 (24%) of herds surveyed had at least one outbreak of FMD within the 5 years preceding the survey. The odds of having FMD in a herd increased substantially (OR=39.2; pBhutan. Therefore, quarantining of early cases in affected herds or villages could reduce the spread of disease within and between villages. This study also highlights the potential role of feeding kitchen waste to cattle as a risk factor for FMD. The findings from this study could be considered for strengthening of the FMD control programme in Bhutan.

  15. Diagnosis of foot-and mouth disease by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction under field conditions in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, Tatiane A; Neta, Alcina V Carvalho; Paiva, Naimes O; Reis, Jorge R; Barbosa, Meirivan S; Serra, Claudia V; Silva, René R; Beckham, Tammy R; Martin, Barbara M; Clarke, Neville P; Adams, L Garry; Santos, Renato L

    2008-12-31

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an economically important and highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed domestic and wild animals. Virus isolation and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are the gold standard tests for diagnosis of FMD. As these methods are time consuming, assays based on viral nucleic acid amplification have been developed. A previously described real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay with high sensitivity and specificity under laboratorial and experimental conditions was used in the current study. To verify the applicability of this assay under field conditions in Brazil, 460 oral swabs from cattle were collected in areas free of FMD (n = 200) and from areas with outbreaks of FMD (n = 260). Three samples from areas with outbreaks of FMD were positive by real-time RT-PCR, and 2 of those samples were positive by virus isolation and ELISA. Four other samples were considered inconclusive by real-time RT-PCR (threshold cycle [Ct] > 40); whereas all 200 samples from an area free of FMD were real-time RT-PCR negative. real-time RT-PCR is a powerful technique for reliable detection of FMDV in a fraction of the time required for virus isolation and ELISA. However, it is noteworthy that lack of infrastructure in certain areas with high risk of FMD may be a limiting factor for using real-time RT-PCR as a routine diagnostic tool.

  16. Diagnosis of foot-and mouth disease by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction under field conditions in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarke Neville P

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is an economically important and highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed domestic and wild animals. Virus isolation and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA are the gold standard tests for diagnosis of FMD. As these methods are time consuming, assays based on viral nucleic acid amplification have been developed. Results A previously described real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay with high sensitivity and specificity under laboratorial and experimental conditions was used in the current study. To verify the applicability of this assay under field conditions in Brazil, 460 oral swabs from cattle were collected in areas free of FMD (n = 200 and from areas with outbreaks of FMD (n = 260. Three samples from areas with outbreaks of FMD were positive by real-time RT-PCR, and 2 of those samples were positive by virus isolation and ELISA. Four other samples were considered inconclusive by real-time RT-PCR (threshold cycle [Ct] > 40; whereas all 200 samples from an area free of FMD were real-time RT-PCR negative. Conclusion real-time RT-PCR is a powerful technique for reliable detection of FMDV in a fraction of the time required for virus isolation and ELISA. However, it is noteworthy that lack of infrastructure in certain areas with high risk of FMD may be a limiting factor for using real-time RT-PCR as a routine diagnostic tool.

  17. Epidemiological and aetiological characteristics of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Shijiazhuang City, Hebei province, China, 2009-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiang; Liu, Li; Zhao, Dong; Xu, Baohong

    2017-01-01

    Large outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) have repeatedly occurred in mainland of China since 2007. In this study, we investigated the epidemiological and aetiological characteristics of HFMD in Shijiazhuang City, one of the biggest northern cities of China. A total of 57,173 clinical HFMD cases, including 911 severe and 32 fatal cases, were reported in Shijiazhuang City during 2009–2012. The disease incidence peaked during March–July, with a small increase in the number of cases observed in November of each year. Seventeen potential HFMD-causing enterovirus serotypes were detected, with the most frequent serotypes being EV-A71 and CV-A16. CV-A10 was also a frequently detected causative serotype, and was associated with the second largest number of severe HFMD cases, following EV-A71. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all EV-A71, CV-A16 and CV-A10 strains from Shijiazhuang City had co-evolved and co-circulated with those from other Chinese provinces. Our findings underscore the need for enhanced surveillance and molecular detection for HFMD, and suggest that EV-A71 vaccination may be an effective intervention strategy for HFMD prevention and vaccines against CV-A10 and CV-A16 are also urgently needed. PMID:28486500

  18. Clinical and Etiological Characteristics of Atypical Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Children from Chongqing, China: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiang; Zhang, Zhen-Zhen; Yang, Zhen-Hua; Zhu, Chao-Min; Hu, Yun-Ge; Liu, Quan-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is a disease that had similar manifestations to chickenpox, impetigo, and measles, which is easy to misdiagnose and subsequently causes delayed therapy and subsequent epidemic. To date, no study has been conducted to report the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of atypical HFMD. 64 children with atypical HFMD out of 887 HFMD children were recruited, stool was collected, and viral VP1 was detected. The atypical HFMD accounted for 7.2% of total HFMD in the same period (64/887) and there were two peaks in its prevalence in nonepidemic seasons. Ten children (15.6%) had manifestations of neurologic involvement, of whom 4 (6.3%) were diagnosed with severe HFMD and 1 with critically severe HFMD, but all recovered smoothly. Onychomadesis and desquamation were found in 14 patients (21.9%) and 15 patients (23.4%), respectively. The most common pathogen was coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) which accounted for 67.2%, followed by nontypable enterovirus (26.6%), enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) (4.7%), and coxsackievirus A16 (A16) (1.5%). Atypical HFMD has seasonal prevalence. The manifestations of neurologic involvement in atypical HFMD are mild and usually have a good prognosis. CV-A6 is a major pathogen causing atypical HFMD, but not a major pathogen in Chongqing, China.

  19. The association between diurnal temperature range and childhood hand, foot, and mouth disease: a distributed lag non-linear analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fei; Ma, Yue; Zhao, Xing; Lv, Qiang; Liu, Yaqiong; Zhang, Tao; Li, Xiaosong

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has been increasingly recognized as a critical challenge to disease control and prevention in China. Previous studies have found that meteorological factors such as mean temperature and relative humidity were associated with HFMD. However, little is known about whether the diurnal temperature range (DTR) has any impact on HFMD. This study aimed to quantify the impact of DTR on childhood HFMD in 18 cities in Sichuan Province. A distributed lag non-linear model was adopted to explore the temporal lagged association of daily temperature with age-, gender- and pathogen-specific HFMD. A total of 290 123 HFMD cases aged 0-14 years were reported in the 18 cities in Sichuan Province. The DTR-HFMD relationships were non-linear in all subgroups. Children aged 6-14 years and male children were more vulnerable to the temperature changes. Large DTR had the higher risk estimates of HFMD incidence in cases of EV71 infection, while small DTR had the higher risk estimates of HFMD incidence in cases of CV-A16 infection. Our study suggested that DTR played an important role in the transmission of HFMD with non-linear and delayed effects.

  20. Serum cholinesterase: a potential assistant biomarker for hand, foot, and mouth disease caused by enterovirus 71 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bang-Ning; Jin, Yu-Lian; Chen, Bi-Quan; Zhu, Li-Yan; Xu, Zi-Cheng; Shen, Tao

    2016-03-29

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a potentially life-threatening infectious disease that commonly occurs in children. Diagnosis of HFMD caused by EV71 largely depends on clinical manifestations and rare serological biomarkers used to identify children suffering from HFMD. Serum cholinesterase (SChE) activity has frequently been reported as a potential biomarker for solid central nervous system tumors, chronic heart failure, and liver cirrhosis. However, its potential value in the diagnosis of neurotropic virus infections, such as HFMD caused by EV71, remains to be determined. In our study, 220 children hospitalized with HFMD caused by EV71, 34 inpatients infected with coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16), and 43 undefined enterovirus-infected HFMD inpatients were recruited at the Anhui Provincial Children's Hospital between January 2011 and December 2012. SChE activity was measured. The non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test showed that SChE activity in children diagnosed with HFMD caused by EV71 was significantly higher than in healthy controls (p  0.05). An important finding was that SChE activity declined in the recovery phase of HFMD caused by EV71 compared to the acute phase (p < 0.001). Elevated SChE activity was observed in patients with severe HFMD caused by EV71. Therefore, SChE might be a potential assistant biomarker for the diagnosis of HFMD caused by EV71 in children.

  1. Immunoreactivity and trypsin sensitivity of recombinant virus-like particles of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basagoudanavar, S H; Hosamani, M; Tamil, R P; Sreenivasa, B P; Chandrasekhar, B K; Venkataramanan, R

    2015-03-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an important infection affecting the health and productivity of cloven-hoofed livestock. Development of improved vaccines and diagnostic reagents is being explored to facilitate the disease control. There is an emerging interest in virus-like particles (VLPs), as their constituent structural proteins are the major immunogens. The VLPs are similar to natural virus particles but lack viral nucleic acid. The objective of the present study was to express the VLPs of FMD virus (FMDV) serotype Asia-1 (IND 63/72), using baculovirus system and characterize them for antigenic structure. The VLPs expressed in insect cells showed immunoreactivity similar to inactivated cell culture FMDV. Further they possess similar sensitivity to trypsin as the inactivated cell culture FMDV, suggesting that trypsin-sensitive antigenic sites could be similarly arranged. Our findings suggest that the FMD VLPs have similar antigenic conformational feature like the wild type virus, thus supporting their utility in development of non-infectious FMD vaccines and/or diagnostic assays.

  2. Expression and stability of foreign epitopes introduced into 3A nonstructural protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinghua Li

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV is an aphthovirus that belongs to the Picornaviridae family and causes one of the most important animal diseases worldwide. The capacity of other picornaviruses to express foreign antigens has been extensively reported, however, little is known about FMDV. To explore the potential of FMDV as a viral vector, an 11-amino-acid (aa HSV epitope and an 8 aa FLAG epitope were introduced into the C-terminal different regions of 3A protein of FMDV full-length infectious cDNA clone. Recombinant viruses expressing the HSV or FLAG epitope were successfully rescued after transfection of both modified constructs. Immunofluorescence assay, Western blot and sequence analysis showed that the recombinant viruses stably maintained the foreign epitopes even after 11 serial passages in BHK-21 cells. The 3A-tagged viruses shared similar plaque phenotypes and replication kinetics to those of the parental virus. In addition, mice experimentally infected with the epitope-tagged viruses could induce tag-specific antibodies. Our results demonstrate that FMDV can be used effectively as a viral vector for the delivery of foreign tags.

  3. Induction of systemic IFITM3 expression does not effectively control foot-and-mouth disease viral infection in transgenic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huawei; Zheng, Haixue; Qian, Ping; Xu, Jinfang; Yang, Xi; Zhou, Rui; Chen, Huanchun; Li, Xiangmin

    2016-08-15

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals, and can cause severe economic loss. Interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) proteins constitute a family of viral restriction factors that can inhibit the replication of several types of viruses. Our previous study showed that overexpression of swine IFITM3 (sIFITM3) impeded replication of the FMD virus (FMDV) in BHK-21 cells and mice. In this study, sIFITM3-transgenic (TG) pigs were produced by handmade cloning. Results showed that sIFITM3 was highly overexpressed in many organs of sIFITM3-TG pigs compared to wild-type pigs. After a virulent FMDV strain (O/ES/2001) was intramuscularly inoculated, the sIFITM3-TG pigs showed slightly higher susceptibility to FMDV infection than wild-type pigs. Both groups displayed comparable degrees of clinical symptoms throughout the 14-day observation period. Therefore, the induction of systemic sIFITM3 expression does not protect pigs against FMDV infection. Based on these observations, we propose that a combination of interferons and vaccines be used to control FMDV infections and subsequent FMD outbreaks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evolutionary Analysis of Structural Protein Gene VP1 of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype Asia 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingxun; Liu, Xinsheng; Fang, Yuzhen; Pan, Li; Lv, Jianliang; Zhang, Zhongwang; Zhou, Peng; Ding, Yaozhong; Chen, Haotai; Shao, Junjun; Zhao, Furong; Lin, Tong; Chang, Huiyun; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Yonglu; Zhang, Yongguang

    2015-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype Asia 1 was mostly endemic in Asia and then was responsible for economically important viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, but the study on its selection and evolutionary process is comparatively rare. In this study, we characterized 377 isolates from Asia collected up until 2012, including four vaccine strains. Maximum likelihood analysis suggested that the strains circulating in Asia were classified into 8 different groups (groups I–VIII) or were unclassified (viruses collected before 2000). On the basis of divergence time analyses, we infer that the TMRCA of Asia 1 virus existed approximately 86.29 years ago. The result suggested that the virus had a high mutation rate (5.745 × 10−3 substitutions/site/year) in comparison to the other serotypes of FMDV VP1 gene. Furthermore, the structural protein VP1 was under lower selection pressure and the positive selection occurred at many sites, and four codons (positions 141, 146, 151, and 169) were located in known critical antigenic residues. The remaining sites were not located in known functional regions and were moderately conserved, and the reason for supporting all sites under positive selection remains to be elucidated because the power of these analyses was largely unknown. PMID:25793223

  5. Economic Impacts of Potential Foot and Mouth Disease Agro-terrorism in the United States: A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oladosu, Gbadebo A [ORNL; Rose, Adam [University of Southern California, Los Angeles; Bumsoo, Lee [University of Illinois

    2013-01-01

    The foot and mouth disease (FMD) virus has high agro-terrorism potential because it is contagious, can be easily transmitted via inanimate objects and can be spread by wind. An outbreak of FMD in developed countries results in massive slaughtering of animals (for disease control) and disruptions in meat supply chains and trade, with potentially large economic losses. Although the United States has been FMD-free since 1929, the potential of FMD as a deliberate terrorist weapon calls for estimates of the physical and economic damage that could result from an outbreak. This paper estimates the economic impacts of three alternative scenarios of potential FMD attacks using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the US economy. The three scenarios range from a small outbreak successfully contained within a state to a large multi-state attack resulting in slaughtering of 30 percent of the national livestock. Overall, the value of total output losses in our simulations range between $37 billion (0.15% of 2006 baseline economic output) and $228 billion (0.92%). Major impacts stem from the supply constraint on livestock due to massive animal slaughtering. As expected, the economic losses are heavily concentrated in agriculture and food manufacturing sectors, with losses ranging from $23 billion to $61 billion in the two industries.

  6. Foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes detected in Tanzania from 2003 to 2010: Conjectured status and future prospects

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    Christopher J. Kasanga

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the presence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV in different geographic locations of Tanzania. Epithelial tissues and fluids (n = 364 were collected from cattle exhibiting oral and foot vesicular lesions suggestive of FMD and submitted for routine FMD diagnosis. The analysis of these samples collected during the period of 2002 and 2010 was performed by serotype-specific antigen capture ELISA to determine the presence of FMDV. The results of this study indicated that 167 out of 364 (46.1% of the samples contained FMDV antigen. Of the 167 positive samples, 37 (28.4% were type O, 7 (4.1% type A, 45 (21.9% SAT 1 and 79 (45.6% SAT 2. Two FMDV serotypes (O and SAT 2 were widely distributed throughout Tanzania whilst SAT 1 and A types were only found in the Eastern zone. Our findings suggest that serotypes A, O, SAT 1 and SAT 2 prevail in Tanzania and are associated with the recent FMD outbreaks. The lack of comprehensive animal movement records and inconsistent vaccination programmes make it difficult to determine the exact source of FMD outbreaks or to trace the transmission of the disease over time. Therefore, further collection and analysis of samples from domestic and wild animals are being undertaken to investigate the genetic and antigenic characteristics of the circulating strains, so that a rational method to control FMD in Tanzania and the neighbouring countries can be recommended.

  7. Knowledge and disease management skills of cattle owners on East Coast Fever and Foot and Mouth Disease in Kazungula and Livingstone Districts of Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chisembele, C.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective animal disease control and prevention should be based on accurate information from the field. Part of this field information can be obtained from the cattle owners. In order to assess their disease knowledge, a survey focusing on East Coast Fever (ECF and Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD was organised among 302 cattle owners from the Kazungula and Livingstone Districts of the Southern Province of Zambia. The cattle owners' level of knowledge of ECF was low (34% with most of those able to describe the disease belonging to the endemic zone where ECF caused high death rates in cattle. A larger proportion of the cattle owners (46% were able to give an adequate description of FMD symptoms. It reached up to 61% in the FMD high-risk zone. Reporting to the animal health service providers appeared to be low. The results of the survey showed that attempts should be made to improve the cattle owners' knowledge and response to important diseases by carrying out more extension and sensitization activities. This is especially so in areas of low infection or where the disease was experienced long time ago.

  8. Characterization of the recent outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT2 in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Kayali, Ghazi; Moatasim, Yassmin; Bagato, Ola; Darwish, Mohamed; Gaffar, Alkhateib; Younes, Abdelgayed; Farag, Tarek; Kutkat, Mohamed A; Ali, Mohamed A

    2013-03-01

    An outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Egypt affected approximately 40,000 cattle and water buffaloes and killed more than 4,600 animals during February-March 2012. To investigate the etiology of the 2012 outbreak, specimens were collected from six governorates and analyzed using universal primers to amplify the 5' untranslated region (UTR) by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Only FMDV-SAT2 was detected, with an overall detection rate of 80.3 %. Complete VP1- and leader-proteinase-coding sequences, obtained from three isolates from three different governorates, were compared with previously reported sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences indicated that the circulating viruses were homogeneous and were closely related to topotype VII. Importantly, the newly emerged viruses were genetically closely related to strains isolated from Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Eritrea and Cameroon between 2000 and 2010, suggesting the dominant nature of this virus and underscoring the need for worldwide intensive surveillance to minimize its devastating consequences.

  9. Molecular epidemiology of the enteroviruses associated with hand, foot and mouth disease/herpangina in Dongguan, China, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qi; Xie, Mingyu; Zhang, Yinghong; Liu, Qian; Li, Wenrui; Li, Siping; Ma, Qiang; Lu, Xiaomei; Zhong, Baimao

    2016-12-01

    Enteroviruses (EVs) are the etiological agents involved in most cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina (HA). Information on the epidemiology profiles of EVs in China is very limited, as the present surveillance system of China focuses on CAV16 and EV71, and no published data are available in Dongguan. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of EVs among patients with HFMD and HA in Dongguan, China, during 2015. A total of 271 clinical stool specimens that were clinically determined to be positive for enteroviruses were genotyped by semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the VP1 genes of EVs. The results showed that a total of 14 enterovirus genotypes were identified among HFMD and HA patients in this study. CVA6 was the most common genotype for HFMD, and CVA2 accounted for the majority of HA cases in this study. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis showed that all of the CVA6 and CVA2 strains identified in our study displayed a close genetic relationship to strains identified in other cities in China. This study also demonstrates that there are associations between particular causative enterovirus genotypes and some clinical symptoms, which may provide useful information for improving case prevention, diagnosis and treatment of HFMD and HA.

  10. Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease Complicated with Central Nervous System Involvement in Taiwan in 1980–1981

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luan-Yin Chang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen cases from the 1980-1981 Taiwan outbreak of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD associated with central nervous system involvement were identified: nine had polio-like syndrome, four had encephalitis or encephalomyelitis, one had cerebellitis, and two had aseptic meningitis. They all had fever, five (31% had documented myoclonic jerk, and 15 (93% had HFMD. Their mean blood leukocyte count was 12,490/mL, and five (31% had leukocytosis (> 15,000/mL; mean cerebrospinal fluid (CSF leukocyte count was 156/mL, CSF protein was 57 mg/dL and CSF glucose was 57 mg/dL. Two patients with HFMD plus encephalitis died within 1 day of hospitalization, and one of them had acute cardiopulmonary failure mimicking myocarditis. Twenty years later, at least one male patient had sequelae of polio-like syndrome and was therefore exempted from military service. Clinical severity was comparable to the 1998 EV71 epidemic. [J Formos Med Assoc 2007;106(2:173-176

  11. Atypical hand, foot and mouth disease in adults associated with coxsackievirus A6: a clinico-pathologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laga, Alvaro C; Shroba, Suzanne M; Hanna, John

    2016-11-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a contagious illness most commonly occurring in children 5 years old or younger. The most common cause of HFMD in the United States is Coxsackievirus A16. HFMD is uncommon in adults, and may show other atypical features including a broader spectrum of cutaneous involvement and a greater degree of severity. We evaluated the clinical, histopathologic and molecular features of three cases of atypical HFMD occurring in adults. All three cases showed clinical features that were worrisome for erythema multiforme or a disseminated herpesvirus infection. The histopathologic findings were quite uniform, and showed intraepidermal vesiculation with a predominantly neutrophil-rich infiltrate. A characteristic feature was the specific involvement of the upper stratum spinosum and stratum granulosum, with relative sparing of the stratum corneum. In none of the cases was there evidence of herpesvirus. Molecular analysis performed on two of the cases showed involvement by Coxsackievirus A6, an uncommon serotype in HFMD. All three cases resolved spontaneously. Atypical HFMD associated with Coxsackievirus A6 represents an uncommon and potentially diagnostically challenging cutaneous eruption. Its recognition is critical to avoid unneeded therapy and to establish accurate prognostic expectations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The Epidemiological Study of Coxsackievirus A6 revealing Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease Epidemic patterns in Guangdong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hanri; Lu, Jing; Zheng, Huanying; Yi, Lina; Guo, Xue; Liu, Leng; Rutherford, Shannon; Sun, Limei; Tan, Xiaohua; Li, Hui; Ke, Changwen; Lin, Jinyan

    2015-05-21

    Enterovirus A71 (EVA71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are regarded as the two major causative pathogens in hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) epidemics. However, CVA6, previously largely ignored, became the predominant pathogen in China in 2013. In this study, we describe the epidemiological trends of CVA6 during the annual HFMD outbreaks from 2008 to 2013 in Guangdong, China. The study results show that CVA6 has been one of three major causative agents of HFMD epidemics since 2009. The periodic rotation and dominance of the three pathogens, EVA71, CVA16 and CVA6, may have contributed to the continuously increasing HFMD epidemics. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene shows that major circulating CVA6 strains collected from 2009 to 2013 are distinct from the earlier strains collected before 2009. In conclusion, the discovery from this research investigating epidemiological trends of CVA6 from 2008 to 2013 explains the possible pattern of the continuous HFMD epidemic in China. The etiological change pattern also highlights the need for improvement for pathogen surveillance and vaccine strategies for HFMD control in China.

  13. Two Genotypes of Coxsackievirus A2 Associated with Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Circulating in China since 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Zhang, Yong; Yan, Dongmei; Zhu, Shuangli; Wang, Dongyan; Ji, Tianjiao; Li, Xiaolei; Song, Yang; Gu, Xinrui; Xu, Wenbo

    2016-01-01

    Coxsackievirus A2 (CV-A2) has been frequently detected and commonly associated with hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in China since 2008. However, limited sequences of CV-A2 are currently available. As a result, we have been focusing on the genetic characteristics of CV-A2 in the mainland of China during 2008-2015 based on national HFMD surveillance. In this study, 20 CV-A2 strains were isolated and phylogenetic analyses of the VP1 sequences were performed. Full-length genome sequences of two representative CV-A2 isolates were acquired and similarity plot and bootscanning analyses were performed. The phylogenetic dendrogram indicated that all CV-A2 strains could be divided into four genotypes (Genotypes A-D). The CV-A2 prototype strain (Fleetwood) was the sole member of genotype A. From 2008 to 2015, the CV-A2 strains isolated in China dispersed into two different genotypes (B and D). And the genotype D became the dominant circulating strains in China. Strains isolated in Russia and India from 2005 to 2011 converged into genotype C. Intertypic recombination occurred between the Chinese CV-A2 strains and other enterovirus-A donor sequences. This result reconfirmed that recombination is a common phenomenon among enteroviruses. This study helps expand the numbers of whole virus genome sequence and entire VP1 sequence of CV-A2 in the GenBank database for further researcher.

  14. Two-year efficacy and immunogenicity of Sinovac Enterovirus 71 vaccine against hand, foot and mouth disease in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-Xin; Song, Yu-Fei; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Xue-Feng; Hu, Yuan-Sheng; Hu, Yue-Mei; Xia, Jie-Lai; Li, Jing; Zhu, Feng-Cai

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and immunogenicity of the Sinovac Enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccine for up to two years. We did a follow-up study of our initial randomized trial in 10,077 participants, who were randomized to receive EV71 vaccine or placebo in a 1:1 ratio and followed for 14 months. The extended follow-up study lasted for another 12 months and EV71-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) was the primary endpoint. The EV71 vaccine showed an efficacy of 95.1% (95%CI 63.6, 99.3) against EV71-associated HFMD during the extended follow-up and an overall efficacy of 94.7% (95%CI 87.8, 97.6) for two years. The EV71 vaccine elicited a sustained high level of neutralizing antibodies in participants, and no serious adverse event was judged to be related to the vaccination. The Sinovac EV71 vaccine could provide a sustained high protection against EV71-associated HFMDs for up to 2 years.

  15. Spatio-temporal clustering of hand, foot, and mouth disease at the county level in Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yi-hong; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Tang, Zhenzhu; McNeil, Edward B; Tan, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Amid numerous outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Asia over the past decade, studies on spatio-temporal clustering are limited. Without this information the distribution of severe cases assumed to be sporadic. We analyzed surveillance data with onset dates between 1 May 2008 to 31 October 2013 with the aim to document the spatio-temporal clustering of HFMD cases and severe cases at the county level. Purely temporal and purely spatial descriptive analyses were done. These were followed by a space-time scan statistic for the whole study period and by year to detect the high risk clusters based on a discrete Poisson model. The annual incidence rate of HFMD in Guangxi increased whereas the severe cases peaked in 2010 and 2012. EV71 and CoxA16 were alternating viruses. Both HFMD cases and severe cases had a seasonal peak in April to July. The spatio-temporal cluster of HFMD cases were mainly detected in the northeastern, central and southwestern regions, among which three clusters were observed in Nanning, Liuzhou, Guilin city and their neighbouring areas lasting from 1.2 to 2.5 years. The clusters of severe cases were less consistent in location and included around 40-70% of all severe cases in each year. Both HFMD cases and severe cases occur in spatio-temporal clusters. The continuous epidemic in Nanning, Liuzhou, Guilin cities and their neighbouring areas and the clusters of severe cases indicate the need for further intensive surveillance.

  16. Association between meteorological factors and reported cases of hand, foot, and mouth disease from 2000 to 2015 in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, A; Toyoda, S; Kanou, K; Fujimoto, T; Mise, K; Kohei, Y; Koyama, A; Kobayashi, N

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the association between hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) epidemics and meteorological conditions. We used HFMD surveillance data of all 47 prefectures in Japan from January 2000 to December 2015. Spectral analysis was performed using the maximum entropy method (MEM) for temperature-, relative humidity-, and total rainfall-dependent incidence data. Using MEM-estimated periods, long-term oscillatory trends were calculated using the least squares fitting (LSF) method. The temperature and relative humidity thresholds of HFMD data were estimated from the LSF curves. The average temperature data indicated a lower threshold at 12 °C and a higher threshold at 30 °C for risk of HFMD infection. Maximum and minimum temperature data indicated a lower threshold at 6 °C and a higher threshold at 35 °C, suggesting a need for HFMD control measures at temperatures between 6 and 35 °C. Based on our findings, we recommend the use of maximum and minimum temperatures rather than the average temperature, to estimate the temperature threshold of HFMD infections. The results obtained might aid in the prediction of epidemics and preparation for the effect of climatic changes on HFMD epidemiology.

  17. Coxsackievirus A6-related hand foot and mouth disease: skin manifestations in a cluster of adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Chetrit, Eli; Wiener-Well, Yonit; Shulman, Lester M; Cohen, Matan J; Elinav, Hila; Sofer, Danit; Feldman, Itamar; Marva, Eytan; Wolf, Dana G

    2014-03-01

    Hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common childhood manifestation of enterovirus (EV) infection. It predominantly affects young children, and has been mainly associated with coxsackievirus (CV) A16 and EV 71. We report an unusual cluster of adult patients with HFMD. Throat swabs and vesicular fluid samples obtained from patients admitted to the emergency room (ER) with HFMD were tested for EV by reverse transcription (RT)-real time PCR, and further subjected to sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. CVA6 was identified as the causative agent of HFMD in five epidemiologically-unrelated adult patients (28-37 years old) admitted to the ER between December 2012 and February 2013. Phylogenetic analysis mapped the CVA6 strains into one cluster. All patients manifested with fever and a severe vasculitis-like rash, followed by spontaneous recovery. This cluster identifies CVA6 as an emerging cause of HFMD of unusual age distribution, seasonality, and clinical severity, underscoring the need for continued alertness and clinical-genotypic surveillance of EV HFMD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Determinants of the incidence of hand, foot and mouth disease in China using geographically weighted regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Maogui; Li, Zhongjie; Wang, Jinfeng; Jia, Lin; Liao, Yilan; Lai, Shengjie; Guo, Yansha; Zhao, Dan; Yang, Weizhong

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, major epidemics of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) have occurred throughout most of the West-Pacific Region countries, causing thousands of deaths among children. However, few studies have examined potential determinants of the incidence of HFMD. Reported HFMD cases from 2912 counties in China were obtained for May 2008. The monthly HFMD cumulative incidence was calculated for children aged 9 years and younger. Child population density (CPD) and six climate factors (average-temperature [AT], average-minimum-temperature [AT(min)], average-maximum-temperature [AT(max)], average-temperature-difference [AT(diff)], average-relative-humidity [ARH], and monthly precipitation [MP]) were selected as potential explanatory variables for the study. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) models were used to explore the associations between the selected factors and HFMD incidence at county level. There were 176,111 HFMD cases reported in the studied counties. The adjusted monthly cumulative incidence by county ranged from 0.26 cases per 100,000 children to 2549.00 per 100,000 children. For local univariate GWR models, the percentage of counties with statistical significance (pHFDM is spatially heterogeneous at the local geographic level, and child population density has a greater influence on the incidence of HFMD than the climate factors.

  19. [Cloning and expression of 3C protease gene from foot-and-mouth disease virus in insect cell].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yimei; Lu, Zengjun; Sun, Pu; Sun, Jiachuan; Liu, Zaixin

    2008-03-01

    The 3C protease from foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV 3Cpro) is critical for viral pathogenesis, has vital roles in both processing of the polyprotein precursor and RNA replication, and is a potential anti-viral drug target. In the study, 3C gene of FMDV from serotype Asia I was obtained through Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), and subcloned into baculovirus transfer vector pMelBac-B. The recombinant transfer plasmid and linearized baculovirus DNA were co-transfected into sf9 insect cell, and the recombinant baculovirus were screened by plaque cloning and PCR identification. After amplification of recombinant baculovirus on cell passages, the recombinant virus were seeded on sf9 cell with 10 multiplicity of infection (MOI), and cells were harvested 72 hours after infection. The expressing product of 3C gene in insect cells was detected by Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate PolyAcrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot. The result demonstrated that the 3C gene was successfully expressed in insect cells. The product was a 23 kDa protein and could be recognized by anti-FMDV serum in western blot. The results provide a basis for research of the assembly of FMDV empty capsids in vitro and the design of antivirus drug.

  20. A recombinant protein-based ELISA for detecting antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype Asia 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Young-Joon; Jeoung, Hye-Young; Lee, Hyang-Sim; Chang, Byung-Sik; Hong, Seung-Min; Heo, Eun-Jeong; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Joo, Hoo-Don; Kim, Su-Mi; Park, Jong-Hyeon; Kweon, Chang-Hee

    2009-07-01

    A recombinant protein-based ELISA was evaluated for detecting antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype Asia 1. The recombinant protein (rP13C) was derived from the P1 precursor and 3C protease genes that were cloned into a single expression vector and expressed in insect cells. This protein elicited a low titer of FMDV neutralizing antibodies in pigs. Its utility as a diagnostic antigen was explored in a blocking ELISA using monoclonal antibodies. The rP13C ELISA yielded higher endpoint titers than the liquid phase blocking (LPB) ELISA and virus neutralization test performed on sera from goats challenged with FMDV post-vaccination. The rP13C ELISA correctly scored the FMD international reference weak positive serum. The relative sensitivity between the rP13C ELISA and LPB ELISA was equivalent for vaccinated sera. With this comparable sensitivity, the rP13C ELISA exhibited a specificity of 99.7% for domestic naive swine, bovine and caprine sera. This report demonstrates that an ELISA using recombinant proteins has the potential to replace the LPB ELISA using an inactivated FMDV antigen as a simple and robust serological tool for screening antibodies to FMDV serotype Asia 1.

  1. Pattern classification of enterovirus 71-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease in chinese medicine: A retrospective study in 433 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; He, Li-Yun; Wen, Tian-Cai; Yan, Shi-Yan; Bai, Wen-Jing; Liu, Bao-Yan

    2017-10-17

    To determine whether patterns of enterovirus 71 (EV71)-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) were classified based on symptoms and signs, and explore whether individual characteristics were correlated with membership in particular pattern. Symptom-based latent class analysis (LCA) was used to determine whether patterns of EV71-HFMD existed in a sample of 433 cases from a clinical data warehouse system. Logistic regression was then performed to explore whether demographic, and laboratory data were associated with pattern membership. LCA demonstrated a two-subgroup solution with an optimal fifit, deduced according to the Bayesian Information Criterion minima. Hot pattern (59.1% of all patients) was characterized by a very high fever and high endorsement rates for classical HFMD symptoms (i.e., rash on the extremities, blisters, and oral mucosa lesions). Non-hot pattern (40.9% of all patients) was characterized by classical HFMD symptoms. The multiple logistic regression results suggest that white blood cell counts and aspartate transaminase were positively correlated with the hot pattern (adjust odds ratio=1.07, 95% confifidence interval: 1.006-1.115; adjust odds ratio=1.051, 95% confifidence interval: 1.019-1.084; respectively). LCA on reported symptoms and signs in a retrospective study allowed different subgroups with meaningful clinical correlates to be defifined. These fifindings provide evidence for targeted prevention and treatment interventions.

  2. Enhanced sensitivity in detection of antiviral antibody responses using biotinylation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Mary; Waters, Ryan A; Rieder, Elizabeth; Pega, Juan; Perez-Filguera, Mariano; Golde, William T

    2017-11-01

    Analysis of the immune response to infection of livestock by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is most often reported as the serum antibody response to the virus. While measurement of neutralizing antibody has been sensitive and specific, measurements of the quality of the antibody response are less robust. Determining the immunoglobulin (Ig) isotype of the serum antibody response provides a deeper understanding of the biology of the response and more sensitive methods for these assays will facilitate analyses of B cell mediated immunity. We tested the hypothesis that using the virus as the molecular probe could be achieved by adding tags to the surface of the FMDV capsid, and that would enhance sensitivity in assays for anti-FMDV antibody responses. The use of a FLAG-tagged virus in these assays failed to yield improvement whereas chemically biotinylating the virus capsid resulted in significant enhancement of the signal. Here we describe methods using biotinylated virus for measuring anti-viral antibody in serum and antibody secreting cells (ASCs) in blood that are sensitive and specific. Finally, we describe using the biotinylated virus in flow cytometry where such assays should greatly enhance the analysis of anti-virus antibody producing B cells, allowing the investigator to focus on only the FMDV specific B cells when analyzing the development of the B cell response to either infection or vaccination. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. The rescue and evaluation of FLAG and HIS epitope-tagged Asia 1 type foot-and-mouth disease viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Huanan; Jin, Ye; Cao, Weijun; Zhu, Zixiang; Zheng, Haixue; Yin, Hong

    2016-02-02

    The VP1 G-H loop of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) contains the primary antigenic site, as well as an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) binding motif for the αv-integrin family of cell surface receptors. We anticipated that introducing a foreign epitope tag sequence downstream of the RGD motif would be tolerated by the viral capsid and would not destroy the antigenic site of FMDV. In this study, we have designed, generated, and characterized two recombinant FMDVs with a FLAG tag or histidine (HIS) inserted in the VP1 G-H loop downstream of the RGD motif +9 position. The tagged viruses were genetically stable and exhibited similar growth properties with their parental virus. What is more, the recombinant viruses rFMDV-FLAG and rFMDV-HIS showed neutralization sensitivity to FMDV type Asia1-specific mAbs, as well as to polyclonal antibodies. Additionally, the r1 values of the recombinant viruses were similar to that of the parental virus, indicating that the insertion of FLAG or HIS tag sequences downstream of the RGD motif +9 position do not eradicate the antigenic site of FMDV and do not affect its antigenicity. These results indicated that the G-H loop of Asia1 FMDV is able to effectively display the foreign epitopes, making this a potential approach for novel FMDV vaccines development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigating intra-host and intra-herd sequence diversity of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, David J; Freimanis, Graham L; Orton, Richard J; Waters, Ryan A; Haydon, Daniel T; King, Donald P

    2016-10-01

    Due to the poor-fidelity of the enzymes involved in RNA genome replication, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus samples comprise of unique polymorphic populations. In this study, deep sequencing was utilised to characterise the diversity of FMD virus (FMDV) populations in 6 infected cattle present on a single farm during the series of outbreaks in the UK in 2007. A novel RT-PCR method was developed to amplify a 7.6kb nucleotide fragment encompassing the polyprotein coding region of the FMDV genome. Illumina sequencing of each sample identified the fine polymorphic structures at each nucleotide position, from consensus level changes to variants present at a 0.24% frequency. These data were used to investigate population dynamics of FMDV at both herd and host levels, evaluate the impact of host on the viral swarm structure and to identify transmission links with viruses recovered from other farms in the same series of outbreaks. In 7 samples, from 6 different animals, a total of 5 consensus level variants were identified, in addition to 104 sub-consensus variants of which 22 were shared between 2 or more animals. Further analysis revealed differences in swarm structures from samples derived from the same animal suggesting the presence of distinct viral populations evolving independently at different lesion sites within the same infected animal. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Host microRNA-203a Is antagonistic to the progression of foot-and-mouth disease virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutkoska, Joseph; LaRocco, Michael; Ramirez-Medina, Elizabeth; de Los Santos, Teresa; Lawrence, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Sam68 was previously shown to be a critical host factor for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) replication. MicroRNA (miR) miR-203a is reportedly a negative regulator of Sam68 expression both in vitro and in vivo. Here, transfection of miR-203a-3p and miR-203a-5p mimics separately and in combination in a porcine cell line followed by FMDV infection resulted in diminished viral protein synthesis and a 4 and 6log reduction in virus titers relative to negative controls, respectively. Unexpectedly, Sam68 expression was increased by miR-203a-5p transfection, but not miR-203a-3p. miR-203a-5p also down-regulated Survivin expression, which was predicted to play a role in FMDV infection. Moreover, miR-203a-5p but not miR-203a-3p affected a reduction in FMDV viral RNA. These effects were not replicated with a related Picornavirus, suggesting FMDV specificity. Importantly, miR-203a-3p and miR-203a-5p impaired FMDV infection across multiple FMDV serotypes. We concluded that miR-203a-3p and miR-203a-5p represent attractive potential naturally occurring bio-therapeutics against FMDV. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Evolution of serotype A foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid under neutralizing antibody pressure in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Laxmi K; Mohapatra, Jajati K; Subramaniam, Saravanan; Sanyal, Aniket; Pande, Veena; Pattnaik, Bramhadev

    2014-03-06

    In this study, the Indian foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) vaccine strain (A IND 40/2000) was passaged under homologous bovine convalescent serum (BCS) pressure to gain insight into the evolutionary dynamics of the antigenic sites. A considerable drop in the neutralization titres of the BCS for the isolated variants as compared to the parental population in either virus neutralization or plaque reduction neutralization test was observed. T143K substitution preceding the integrin binding 'RGD'-motif in the βG-βH loop of VP1 was found to be selected consistently and exclusively under immune pressure. By virtue of its location within an immunodominant site, sequence heterogeneity observed in the field viruses and residues already mapped in the neutralizing monoclonal antibody resistant mutants, position 143 in VP1 was predicted to be a critical residue of an important neutralizing epitope in serotype A FMDV. Using next-generation sequencing approach, the gradual overtaking of the originally dominating major variant by a minor one under a selective environment could be demonstrated. In the control passage regimen, VP2 E131K substitution was fixed within the heparan sulfate binding pocket probably as a result of adaptation to use alternative cellular receptors. But at the same time, these substitutions arising under selection forces other than immune pressure changed the antigenic behaviour of the virus inadvertently. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Altered adjuvant of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine improves immune response and protection from virus challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Eun Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccines for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD generally use oil adjuvants. For better immunization and safety, an adjuvant should be selected only after careful consideration. In this study, we produced vaccines for O, A, and Asia1 serotypes by mixing oil adjuvants, Emulsigen-D (ED, ISA 201, and ISA 206 with and without an aluminum hydroxide (AL gel and measured their immunogenicity and safety to obtain information regarding critical differences (survival or weight loss of vaccine quality in mice; the goal of this test was to overcome the difficulties associated with experiments large or medium-sized animals. The groups immunized with the vaccines containing only the oil adjuvants (ED, ISA 201, and ISA 206 had similar or higher levels of neutralizing antibodies and structural protein antibodies for the FMD virus (FMDV than the groups immunized with the vaccines including the oil adjuvants mixed with the gel. However, in a challenge test using a mouse model, the protection rate showed the highest results in ISA 201 and ISA 206 mixed with AL. The mice immunized with vaccines containing ED showed temporary weight loss in the early postvaccination stages. Cell-mediated immunity was formed relatively strongly in the group vaccinated with vaccines including ISA 201 and ISA 206. We proposed that combinations of these adjuvants represent candidates for future FMD vaccines.

  8. Resiquimod and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid formulation with aluminum hydroxide as an adjuvant for foot-and-mouth disease vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chun-Xue; Li, Dong; Chen, Ying-Li; Lu, Zeng-Jun; Sun, Pu; Cao, Yi-Mei; Bao, Hui-Fang; Fu, Yuan-Fang; Li, Ping-Hua; Bai, Xing-Wen; Xie, Bao-Xia; Liu, Zai-Xin

    2014-01-03

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists reportedly have potent antiviral and antitumor activities and may be a new kind of adjuvant for enhancing immune efficacy. Resiquimod (R848) is an imidazoquinoline compound with potent antiviral activity and functions through the TLR7/TLR8 MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] is a synthetic analog of double-stranded RNA that induces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by the activation of NF-κB through TLR3. This study investigated the potential of R848 and poly(I:C) as an adjuvant 146S foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) vaccine formulated with aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)₃). Antibody titers to FMDV and CD8+ T cells were markedly enhanced in mice immunized to 146S FMDV + Al(OH)₃ + R848 + poly(I:C) compared with mice immunized to FMDV + ISA206. IFN-γ secretion substantially increased compared with IL-4 secretion by splenic T cells stimulated with FMDV antigens in vitro, suggesting that R848, poly(I:C), and with Al(OH)₃ together biased the immune response toward a Th1-type direction. These results indicated that the R848 and poly(I:C) together with Al(OH)₃ enhanced humoral and cellular immune responses to immunization with 146S FMDV antigens. Thus, this new vaccine formulation can be used for FMDV prevention.

  9. Experimental infection of giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) with SAT-1 and SAT-2 foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosloo, W; Swanepoel, S P; Bauman, M; Botha, B; Esterhuysen, J J; Boshoff, C I; Keet, D F; Dekker, A

    2011-04-01

    The potential role of giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) in the epidemiology and spread of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) SAT types was investigated by experimental infection and detection of virus in excretions using virus isolation on primary pig kidney cell cultures. In two experiments separated by a period of 24 months, groups of four animals were needle infected with a SAT-1 or SAT-2 virus, respectively and two in-contact controls were kept with each group. Viraemia was detected 3-9 days post-infection and virus isolated from mouth washes and faeces only occasionally up to day 13. The SAT-1 virus was transmitted to only one in-contact control animal, probably via saliva that contained virus from vesicles in the mouth of a needle-infected animal. None of the animals infected with the SAT-2 virus had any vesicles in the mouth, and there was no evidence of transmission to the in-contact controls. No virus was detected in probang samples for the duration of the experiments (60 days post-infection), indicating that persistent infection probably did not establish with either of these isolates. Giraffe most likely do not play an important role in FMD dissemination. Transmission of infection would possibly occur only during close contact with other animals when mouth vesicles are evident. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Concurrent vaccination of goats with foot and mouth disease (FMD) and peste des petits ruminants (PPR) booster vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Muhammad Khalid; Al-Rawahi, Abdullmajeed Hamood; El-Tahir, Hatim Ali; Al-Faraei, Badar; Hussain, Muhammad Hammad; Asi, Muhammad Nadeem; Al-Hussani, Ibrahim; Sabar, Safwat

    2018-01-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) remains subclinical and self-limiting in small ruminants, but risk of spread of infection to susceptible cohorts is of great epidemiological significance; therefore, small ruminants must be included in vaccination campaigns in FMD endemic regions. Three groups of goats already immunized against peste des petits ruminants (PPR) were vaccinated with FMD and PPR vaccines alone or concurrently. The specific antibody response against three FMD virus strains and PPR virus were evaluated by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Goats concurrently vaccinated with PPR + FMD vaccines had significantly (p FMD virus at 28, 45, and 60 days post-immunization compared to goats vaccinated with FMD vaccine alone, while goats vaccinated with PPR vaccines alone or PPR + FMD vaccines concurrently showed similar antibody kinetics against PPR virus up till 60 days post-vaccination. Overall, antibody kinetic curves for all three tested strains of FMD virus and PPR virus were similar in vaccinated groups during the course of experiment.

  11. A Q Method Approach to Evaluating Farmers’ Perceptions of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccination in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinh Bao Truong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the farmers’ perceptions of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD vaccination using a reflexive research method called Q methodology. A structured sample was composed of 46 farmers selected according to gender, farming experience, level of education, and production type. Statements relevant to the farmers’ perceptions of and attitudes toward FMD vaccination, related to confidence, logistics, costs, and impacts of vaccination were developed. Results were analyzed by principal component analysis and factor analysis. The influence of demographics and characterized variables on the respondent’s contribution to each factor was also tested. Regarding the different beliefs and behavior toward FMD vaccination, the common perceptions held by Vietnamese cattle and pig farmers were divided into three discourses named Confidence (24 subjects, Belief (12 subjects, and Challenge (6 subjects. The identified discourses represented 57.3% of the variances. Consensus points were found, such as the feeling of being more secure after FMD vaccination campaigns; the fact that farmers take vaccination decisions themselves without being influenced by other stakeholders; the opinion that FMD vaccination is cheaper than the costs of treating a sick animal; and that vaccines provided by governmental authorities are of high quality. Part of the studied population did not consider vaccination to be the first choice strategy in prevention. This raises the question of how to improve the active participation of farmers in the FMD vaccine strategy. Taking into consideration farmers’ perceptions can help to implement feasible vaccination strategies at the local level.

  12. Impact of Coxsackievirus A6 emergence on hand, foot, and mouth disease epidemic in Osaka City, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanbayashi, Daiki; Kaida, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Seiji P; Hirai, Yuki; Kubo, Hideyuki; Fujimori, Ryoko; Hakui, Noritaka; Hirokawa, Hidetetsu; Iritani, Nobuhiro

    2017-12-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is an acute febrile illness characterized by fever; sore throat; and vesicular eruptions on the hands, feet, and oral mucosa. Until 2010, HFMD was predominantly associated with enterovirus (EV) A71 and coxsackievirus (CV) A16 in Japan. In 2011, CV-A6 emerged as a primary causative agent, causing the largest HFMD epidemic in Japan since 1981. Since then, CV-A6 has caused large HFMD epidemics every 2 years. The phylogenetic analysis of complete Viral Protein 1 (VP1) sequences revealed that most CV-A6 strains detected from 2011 to 2015 in Osaka City were classified into a different clade compared with CV-A6 strains detected from 1999 until 2009. The majority of CV-A6 strains detected in 2011 and most CV-A6 strains detected from 2013 to 2015 were mainly divided into two distinct genetic groups. Each epidemic strain carried unique amino acid substitutions in the presumed DE, EF, and GH loops of the VP1 protein that is exposed on the surface of the virion. There is a possibility that the appearance of substitutions on the surface of the virion and an accumulation of a susceptible population are significant factors in recent HFMD epidemics. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Investigation of airborne foot-and-mouth disease virus transmission during low-wind conditions in the early phase of the UK 2001 epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, T.; Alexandersen, S.; Astrup, P.

    2003-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed domesticated and wild animals. The highly contagious nature of FMD is a reflection of the wide range of host species, the enormous quantities of virus liberated by infected animals, the range of excretions and secr......Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed domesticated and wild animals. The highly contagious nature of FMD is a reflection of the wide range of host species, the enormous quantities of virus liberated by infected animals, the range of excretions...... and secretions which can be infectious, the stability of the virus in the environment, the multiplicity of routes of infection and the very small doses of the virus that can initiate infection. One of the mechanisms of spread is the carriage of droplets and droplet nuclei exhaled in the breath of infected...

  14. Expression and purification of virus like particles (VLPs) of foot-and-mouth disease virus in Eri silkworm (Samia cynthia ricini) larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Manoj; Saravanan, P.; S.K.Jalali

    2015-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease, which causes severe economic loss to livestock. Virus like particles (VLPs) produced by recombinant DNA technology are gaining importance because of their immunogenic properties and safety in developing a new vaccine for FMD. In the present study, a practical and economically feasible approach of expression, purification and characterization of VLPs of FMDV in Eri silkworm (Samia cynthia ricini) larvae was described. Although ...

  15. The economic impacts of foot and mouth disease – What are they, how big are they and where do they occur?

    OpenAIRE

    Knight-Jones, T.J.D.; Rushton, J.

    2013-01-01

    Although a disease of low mortality, the global impact of foot and mouth disease (FMD) is colossal due to the huge numbers of animals affected. This impact can be separated into two components: (1) direct losses due to reduced production and changes in herd structure; and (2) indirect losses caused by costs of FMD control, poor access to markets and limited use of improved production technologies. This paper estimates that annual impact of FMD in terms of visible production losses and vaccina...

  16. Simultaneous immunization of cattle with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and live anthrax vaccines do not interfere with FMD booster responses

    OpenAIRE

    Trotta, Myrian; Lahore, Juan; Cardoso, Nancy; Melucci, Osvaldo; Catena, María; Pérez-Filgueira, Mariano; Fernández, Fernando; Capozzo, Alejandra Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccination in Argentina is compulsory for most of the cattle population and conducted by certified veterinarians. This organized campaign may facilitate the controlled application of other vaccines against endemic diseases, provided immune responses against FMD are not hindered. There is no published information on the interference of immunity against FMD vaccines when applied together with a live bacterial vaccine. In this study we evaluated if the simultaneous ...

  17. Synthesis and in-vitro evaluation of 2-amino-4-arylthiazole as inhibitor of 3D polymerase against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kwi-Wan; Lee, Jung-Hun; Park, Sun-Mi; Choi, Joo-Hyung; Jeong, Dae-Youn; Choi, Dong-Hwa; Nam, Yeonju; Park, Jong-Hyeon; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Kim, Su-Mi; Ku, Jin-Mo

    2015-09-18

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious vesicular disease of livestock caused by a highly variable RNA virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). One of the targets to suppress expansion of and to control FMD is 3D polymerase (FMDV 3Dpol). In this study, 2-amino-4-arylthiazole derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory activity against FMDV 3Dpol. Among them, compound 20i exhibited the most potent functional inhibition (IC50 = 0.39 μM) of FMDV 3D polymerase and compound 24a (EC50 = 13.09 μM) showed more potent antiviral activity than ribavirin (EC50 = 1367 μM) and T1105 (EC50 = 347 μM) with IBRS-2 cells infected by the FMDV O/SKR/2010 strain. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  18. The Early Protective Thymus-Independent Antibody Response to Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Is Mediated by Splenic CD9+ B Lymphocytes▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ostrowski, Matias; Vermeulen, Monica; Zabal, Osvaldo; Zamorano, Patricia I.; Sadir, Ana M.; Geffner, Jorge R.; Lopez, Osvaldo J.

    2007-01-01

    Infection of mice with cytopathic foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) induces a rapid and specific thymus-independent (TI) neutralizing antibody response that promptly clears the virus. Herein, it is shown that FMDV-infected dendritic cells (DCs) directly stimulate splenic innate-like CD9+ B lymphocytes to rapidly (3 days) produce neutralizing anti-FMDV immunoglobulin M antibodies without T-lymphocyte collaboration. In contrast, neither follicular (CD9−) B lymphocytes from the spleen nor B ly...

  19. Identification and validation of clinical predictors for the risk of neurological involvement in children with hand, foot, and mouth disease in Sarawak

    OpenAIRE

    del Sel Sylvia; Clear Daniella; Perera David; Mohan Anand; Podin Yuwana; Wong See; Ooi Mong; Chieng Chae; Tio Phaik; Cardosa Mary; Solomon Tom

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) can cause Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) with neurological complications, which may rapidly progress to fulminant cardiorespiratory failure, and death. Early recognition of children at risk is the key to reduce acute mortality and morbidity. Methods We examined data collected through a prospective clinical study of HFMD conducted between 2000 and 2006 that included 3 distinct outbreaks of HEV71 to identify risk factors associated with neu...

  20. Efficient production of foot-and-mouth disease virus empty capsids in insect cells following down regulation of 3C protease activity

    OpenAIRE

    Porta, Claudine; Xu, Xiaodong; Loureiro, Silvia; Paramasivam, Saravanan; Ren, Junyuan; Al-Khalil, Tara; Burman, Alison; Jackson, Terry; Belsham, Graham J.; Curry, Stephen; Lomonossoff, George P.; Parida, Satya; Paton, David; Li, Yanmin; Wilsden, Ginette

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a significant economically and distributed globally pathogen of Artiodactyla. Current vaccines are chemically inactivated whole virus particles that require large-scale virus growth in strict bio-containment with the associated risks of accidental release or incomplete inactivation. Non-infectious empty capsids are structural mimics of authentic particles with no associated risk and constitute an alternate vaccine candidate. Capsids self-assemble from th...

  1. Low diversity of foot-and-mouth disease serotype C virus in Kenya: evidence for probable vaccine strain re-introductions in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangula, Abraham; Siegismund, Hans; Belsham, Graham

    2011-01-01

    Most viruses are maintained by complex processes of evolution that enable them to survive but also complicate efforts to achieve their control. In this paper, we study patterns of evolution in foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) serotype C virus isolates from Kenya, one of the few places in the world...... of serotype C FMD virus and the use of vaccination as a control measure in Kenya are discussed....

  2. Association of the time that elapsed from last vaccination with protective effectiveness against foot-and-mouth disease in small ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    Elnekave, Ehud; Even-Tov, Boris; Gelman, Boris; Sharir, Beni; Klement, Eyal

    2015-01-01

    Routine and emergency vaccination of small ruminants against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is mandatory in many endemic countries, yet data on the field effectiveness of the vaccines used is scarce. We conducted an investigation of a serotype O FMD outbreak that took place in a sheep and goat pen, and estimated the effectiveness of various routine vaccination statuses. We also evaluated the protection provided by colostrum administration and emergency vaccination. Animals which were routinely ...

  3. Evaluation of the benefit of emergency vaccination in a foot-and-mouth disease free country with low livestock density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürr, Salome; Fasel-Clemenz, Céline; Thür, Barbara; Schwermer, Heinzpeter; Doherr, Marcus G; Dohna, Heinrich Zu; Carpenter, Tim E; Perler, Lukas; Hadorn, Daniela C

    2014-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is highly contagious and one of the most economically devastating diseases of cloven-hoofed animals. Scientific-based preparedness about how to best control the disease in a previously FMD-free country is therefore essential for veterinary services. The present study used a spatial, stochastic epidemic simulation model to compare the effectiveness of emergency vaccination with conventional (non-vaccination) control measures in Switzerland, a low-livestock density country. Model results revealed that emergency vaccination with a radius of 3 km or 10 km around infected premises (IP) did not significantly reduce either the cumulative herd incidence or epidemic duration if started in a small epidemic situation where the number of IPs is still low. However, in a situation where the epidemic has become extensive, both the cumulative herd incidence and epidemic duration are reduced significantly if vaccination were implemented with a radius of 10 km around IPs. The effect of different levels of conventional strategy measures was also explored for the non-vaccination strategy. It was found that a lower compliance level of farmers for movement restrictions and delayed culling of IPs significantly increased both the cumulative IP incidence and epidemic duration. Contingency management should therefore focus mainly on improving conventional strategies, by increasing disease awareness and communication with stakeholders and preparedness of culling teams in countries with a livestock structure similar to Switzerland; however, emergency vaccination should be considered if there are reasons to believe that the epidemic may become extensive, such as when disease detection has been delayed and many IPs are discovered at the beginning of the epidemic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk of Foot-and-Mouth Disease spread due to sole occupancy authorities and linked cattle holdings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Orton

    Full Text Available Livestock movements in Great Britain are well recorded, have been extensively analysed with respect to their role in disease spread, and have been used in real time to advise governments on the control of infectious diseases. Typically, livestock holdings are treated as distinct entities that must observe movement standstills upon receipt of livestock, and must report livestock movements. However, there are currently two dispensations that can exempt holdings from either observing standstills or reporting movements, namely the Sole Occupancy Authority (SOA and Cattle Tracing System (CTS Links, respectively. In this report we have used a combination of data analyses and computational modelling to investigate the usage and potential impact of such linked holdings on the size of a Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD epidemic. Our analyses show that although SOAs are abundant, their dynamics appear relatively stagnant. The number of CTS Links is also abundant, and increasing rapidly. Although most linked holdings are only involved in a single CTS Link, some holdings are involved in numerous links that can be amalgamated to form "CTS Chains" which can be both large and geographically dispersed. Our model predicts that under a worst case scenario of "one infected - all infected", SOAs do pose a risk of increasing the size (in terms of number of infected holdings of a FMD epidemic, but this increase is mainly due to intra-SOA infection spread events. Furthermore, although SOAs do increase the geographic spread of an epidemic, this increase is predominantly local. Whereas, CTS Chains pose a risk of increasing both the size and the geographical spread of the disease substantially, under a worse case scenario. Our results highlight the need for further investigations into whether CTS Chains are transmission chains, and also investigations into intra-SOA movements and livestock distributions due to the lack of current data.

  5. Risk of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Spread Due to Sole Occupancy Authorities and Linked Cattle Holdings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Richard J.; Bessell, Paul R.; Birch, Colin P. D.; O'Hare, Anthony; Kao, Rowland R.

    2012-01-01

    Livestock movements in Great Britain are well recorded, have been extensively analysed with respect to their role in disease spread, and have been used in real time to advise governments on the control of infectious diseases. Typically, livestock holdings are treated as distinct entities that must observe movement standstills upon receipt of livestock, and must report livestock movements. However, there are currently two dispensations that can exempt holdings from either observing standstills or reporting movements, namely the Sole Occupancy Authority (SOA) and Cattle Tracing System (CTS) Links, respectively. In this report we have used a combination of data analyses and computational modelling to investigate the usage and potential impact of such linked holdings on the size of a Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) epidemic. Our analyses show that although SOAs are abundant, their dynamics appear relatively stagnant. The number of CTS Links is also abundant, and increasing rapidly. Although most linked holdings are only involved in a single CTS Link, some holdings are involved in numerous links that can be amalgamated to form “CTS Chains” which can be both large and geographically dispersed. Our model predicts that under a worst case scenario of “one infected – all infected”, SOAs do pose a risk of increasing the size (in terms of number of infected holdings) of a FMD epidemic, but this increase is mainly due to intra-SOA infection spread events. Furthermore, although SOAs do increase the geographic spread of an epidemic, this increase is predominantly local. Whereas, CTS Chains pose a risk of increasing both the size and the geographical spread of the disease substantially, under a worse case scenario. Our results highlight the need for further investigations into whether CTS Chains are transmission chains, and also investigations into intra-SOA movements and livestock distributions due to the lack of current data. PMID:22532841

  6. Coxsackievirus A6 associated hand, foot and mouth disease in adults: clinical presentation and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Fort, Marigdalia K; Downing, Christopher; Doan, Hung Q; Benoist, Frances; Oberste, M Steven; Khan, Farhan; Tyring, Stephen K

    2014-08-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is generally considered a rare illness in adults. Classically, HFMD has been strongly associated with coxsackievirus strain A16 and enterovirus 71. The coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6) strain has been linked to severe worldwide outbreaks since 2008. CVA6 is associated with a more severe and profound course of disease, affecting both children and adults. To present a series of five adult patients diagnosed with HFMD due to CVA6. We investigate method of diagnosis and compare clinical presentation of adult cases to those in children. Each patient underwent a full-body skin exam as well as inspection of the oral cavity. Rapid plasma reagin (RPR) and serologic assays by complement fixation against coxsackievirus B (1-6) and A (2,4,7,9,10,16) were performed as indicated. As standard serological testing does not detect CVA6, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) of serum, buccal swabs, and skin scrapings were performed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Each patient had clinical findings consistent with various stages of HFMD. One patient presented with delayed onychomadesis and desquamation of the palms and soles. RPR and serologic assays by complement fixation against CVB (1-6) and CVA (2,4,7,9,10,16) were mostly negative, although elevated in two patients due to cross-reactivity. qRT-PCR identified CVA6 genetic material in samples from all patients. This series demonstrates that there is a wide array of disease presentation of CVA6 associated HFMD in adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Hunan Province, China, 2009-2014: Epidemiology and Death Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kai-Wei; Gao, Li-Dong; Hu, Shi-Xiong; Zhang, Hong; Deng, Zhi-Hong; Huang, Wei; Sun, Qian-Lai; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Si-Yu; Chen, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is an arising public health problem in Asia, including China. Epidemiological data is necessary to enable judicious public health responses and interventions. We analyzed the epidemiological and laboratory data of 759,301 HFMD cases reported to the Hunan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2014. Univariate and multivariable conditional logistic regression analyses were used to identify risk factors of fatality in HFMD. The incidence of HFMD was highest among children aged 1-3 years, compared with other age groups. Of the total HFMD cases, 7,222 (0.95%) were considered severe and 338 (0.04%) were fatal. Enterovirus-A71 was the major cause of severe and fatal cases (65.75% and 88.78%, respectively). For severe cases, the median time from symptom onset to diagnosis was 0.5 days (interquartile range [IQR] 0-1.5 days); the median time from diagnosis to severe illness was 2 days (IQR 1-3 days). For fatal cases, the median time from symptom onset to diagnosis was 0.5 days (IQR 0-1.5 days); the median time from diagnosis to death was 1.5 days (IQR 0.5-2.5 days). In multivariable analysis, the abuse of antibiotic, glucocorticoid and pyrazolone in village clinics at basic medical institutions were identified as independent risk factors for HFMD fatal cases. In conclusion, our results suggest that the future direction to control and respond to HFMD is intensive surveillance of enterovirus-A71 and improving the ability to diagnose disease and treat patients, especially in basic medical institutions.

  8. Early adaptive immune responses in the respiratory tract of foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pega, J; Bucafusco, D; Di Giacomo, S; Schammas, J M; Malacari, D; Capozzo, A V; Arzt, J; Pérez-Beascoechea, C; Maradei, E; Rodríguez, L L; Borca, M V; Pérez-Filgueira, M

    2013-03-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease which affects both domestic and wild biungulate species. This acute disease, caused by the FMD virus (FMDV), usually includes an active replication phase in the respiratory tract for up to 72 h postinfection, followed by hematogenous dissemination and vesicular lesions at oral and foot epithelia. The role of the early local adaptive immunity of the host in the outcome of the infection is not well understood. Here we report the kinetics of appearance of FMDV-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASC) in lymphoid organs along the respiratory tract and the spleen in cattle infected by aerosol exposure. While no responses were observed for up to 3 days postinfection (dpi), all animals developed FMDV-ASC in all the lymphoid organs studied at 4 dpi. Tracheobronchial lymph nodes were the most reactive organs at this time, and IgM was the predominant isotype, followed by IgG1. Numbers of FMDV-ASC were further augmented at 5 and 6 dpi, with an increasing prevalence in upper respiratory organs. Systemic antibody responses were slightly delayed compared with the local reaction. Also, IgM was the dominant isotype in serum at 5 dpi, coinciding with a sharp decrease of viral RNA detection in peripheral blood. These results indicate that following aerogenous administration, cattle develop a rapid and vigorous genuine local antibody response throughout the respiratory tract. Time course and isotype profiles indicate the presence of an efficient T cell-independent antibody response which drives the IgM-mediated virus clearance in cattle infected by FMDV aerosol exposure.

  9. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Impact on Smallholders - What Do We Know, What Don't We Know and How Can We Find Out More?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Jones, T J D; McLaws, M; Rushton, J

    2017-08-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) endemic regions contain three-quarters of the world's FMD susceptible livestock and most of the world's poor livestock keepers. Yet FMD impact on smallholders in these regions is poorly understood. Diseases of low mortality can exert a large impact if incidence is high. Modelling and field studies commonly find high FMD incidence in endemic countries. Sero-surveys typically find a third of young cattle are sero-positive, however, the proportion of sero-positive animals that developed disease, and resulting impact, are unknown. The few smallholder FMD impact studies that have been performed assessed different aspects of impact, using different approaches. They find that FMD impact can be high (>10% of annual household income). However, impact is highly variable, being a function of FMD incidence and dependency on activities affected by FMD. FMD restricts investment in productive but less FMD-resilient farming methods, however, other barriers to efficient production may exist, reducing the benefits of FMD control. Applying control measures is costly and can have wide-reaching negative impacts; veterinary-cordon-fences may damage wildlife populations, and livestock movement restrictions and trade bans damage farmer profits and the wider economy. When control measures are ineffective, farmers, society and wildlife may experience the burden of control without reducing disease burden. Foot-and-mouth disease control has benefitted smallholders in South America and elsewhere. Success takes decades of regional cooperation with effective veterinary services and widespread farmer participation. However, both the likelihood of success and the full cost of control measures must be considered. Controlling FMD in smallholder systems is challenging, particularly when movement restrictions are hard to enforce. In parts of Africa this is compounded by endemically infected wildlife and limited vaccine performance. This paper reviews FMD impact on

  10. HAND-FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STATUS AND RELATIONSHIP WITH METEOROLOGICAL VARIABLES IN GUANGZHOU, SOUTHERN CHINA, 2008-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiegang Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD is becoming one of the extremely common airborne and contact transmission diseases in Guangzhou, southern China, leading public health authorities to be concerned about its increased incidence. In this study, it was used an ecological study plus the negative binomial regression to identify the epidemic status of HFMD and its relationship with meteorological variables. During 2008-2012, a total of 173,524 HFMD confirmed cases were reported, 12 cases of death, yielding a fatality rate of 0.69 per 10,000. The annual incidence rates from 2008 to 2012 were 60.56, 132.44, 311.40, 402.76, and 468.59 (per 100,000, respectively, showing a rapid increasing trend. Each 1 °C rise in temperature corresponded to an increase of 9.47% (95% CI 9.36% to 9.58% in the weekly number of HFMD cases, while a one hPa rise in atmospheric pressure corresponded to a decrease in the number of cases by 7.53% (95% CI -7.60% to -7.45%. Similarly, each one percent rise in relative humidity corresponded to an increase of 1.48% or 3.3%, and a one meter per hour rise in wind speed corresponded to an increase of 2.18% or 4.57%, in the weekly number of HFMD cases, depending on the variables considered in the model. These findings revealed that epidemic status of HFMD in Guangzhou is characterized by high morbidity but low fatality. Weather factors had a significant influence on the incidence of HFMD.

  11. Children’s Caregivers and Public Playgrounds: Potential Reservoirs of Infection of Hand-foot-and-mouth Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengyuan; Li, Tao; Gu, Qiuyun; Chen, Xiaomin; Li, Jiahui; Chen, Xiashi; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Danwei; Gao, Rong; He, Zhenjian; Zhu, Xun; Zhang, Wangjian; Hao, Yuantao; Zhang, Dingmei

    2016-11-01

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is a common infectious disease, which has led to millions of clinical cases and hundreds of deaths every year in China. This study aimed to exploring the effects on HFMD transmission of children’s caregivers and public area, as well as trying to locate the potential reservoirs of infections in primary cases. Total children’s 257 samples (98 children’s caregivers and 159 environmental samples) were tested for the presence of universal enterovirus, enterovirus 71, coxsackie virus A6 and A16 by real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). 5.84% (15/257, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.98%, 8.70%) of total samples had positive results of enterovirus. The enterovirus positive rates of children’s caregiver samples and environmental samples were respectively 7.14% (7/98, 95% CI: 2.04%, 12.24%), and 5.03% (8/159, 95% CI: 1.63%, 8.43%); 7.61% (7/92, 95% CI: 2.21%, 13.01%) of wiping samples from playgrounds and 1.49% (1/67, 95% CI: 0, 7.00%) of air samples in indoor market places had positive result of enterovirus. High positive rates of enterovirus in children’s caregivers and from playgrounds indicated that they would be potential reservoirs of HFMD infection, as children might be infected via contacting with asymptomatic-infected individuals or exposure of contaminated surface of public facilities.

  12. Predicting the incidence of hand, foot and mouth disease in Sichuan province, China using the ARIMA model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L; Luan, R S; Yin, F; Zhu, X P; Lü, Q

    2016-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is an infectious disease caused by enteroviruses, which usually occurs in children aged <5 years. In China, the HFMD situation is worsening, with increasing number of cases nationwide. Therefore, monitoring and predicting HFMD incidence are urgently needed to make control measures more effective. In this study, we applied an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model to forecast HFMD incidence in Sichuan province, China. HFMD infection data from January 2010 to June 2014 were used to fit the ARIMA model. The coefficient of determination (R 2), normalized Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) and mean absolute percentage of error (MAPE) were used to evaluate the goodness-of-fit of the constructed models. The fitted ARIMA model was applied to forecast the incidence of HMFD from April to June 2014. The goodness-of-fit test generated the optimum general multiplicative seasonal ARIMA (1,0,1) × (0,1,0)12 model (R 2 = 0·692, MAPE = 15·982, BIC = 5·265), which also showed non-significant autocorrelations in the residuals of the model (P = 0·893). The forecast incidence values of the ARIMA (1,0,1) × (0,1,0)12 model from July to December 2014 were 4103-9987, which were proximate forecasts. The ARIMA model could be applied to forecast HMFD incidence trend and provide support for HMFD prevention and control. Further observations should be carried out continually into the time sequence, and the parameters of the models could be adjusted because HMFD incidence will not be absolutely stationary in the future.

  13. Enterovirus-related diarrhoea in Guangdong, China: clinical features and implications in hand, foot and mouth disease and herpangina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong-Tao; Yi, Hai-Su; Guo, Yong-Hui; Pan, Yu-Xian; Tao, Shao-Hua; Wang, Bin; Chen, Man-Jun; Yang, Mei; Yu, Nan

    2016-03-16

    A series of complications caused by enteroviruses, including meningitis, encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis, acute cardiopulmonary failure, respiratory infection, and myocardial injury have been reported in hand, foot and mouth disease/herpangina (HFMD/HA). However, the complication of diarrhoea caused by enteroviruses has been neglected, and a summary of its clinical features and impact on HFMD/HA is unavailable. We included inpatients with HFMD/HA admitted to the Paediatric Department of Zhujiang Hospital during 2009-2012. We summarised and compared clinical data for cases with and without diarrhoea, and determined enterovirus serotypes by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and genotyping based on a partial-length fragment of viral protein 1 or the 5'-untranslated region. There were 804 inpatients with HFMD/HA and 28 (3.5%) presented with diarrhoea. Gastrointestinal symptoms were mild in most cases of diarrhoea (82.1%), with high prevalence of no dehydration (82.1%), short duration of diarrhoea (78.6%) and watery stools (75.0%). The prevalence of multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (10.7 vs 0.40%) (p = 0.001), hepatic injury (14.3 vs 3.4%) (p = 0.019), myocardial injury (21.4 vs 6.1%) (p = 0.002) and convulsion (21.4 vs 7.2%) (p = 0.016) was significantly higher in the diarrhoea than no diarrhoea group. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding prevalence of death, altered consciousness, paralysis, central nervous system involvement, or acute respiratory infection. Most patients with diarrhoea caused by enteroviruses circulating in Guangdong Province in 2009-2012 had mild or moderate gastrointestinal symptoms. Although enterovirus-related diarrhoea caused additional multi-organ dysfunction syndrome, hepatic injury and myocardial injury in children with HFMD/HA, timely intervention efficiently reduced disease severity and improved outcome.

  14. Estimation of the Infection Window for the 2010/2011 Korean Foot-and-Mouth Disease Outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hachung; Yoon, Soon-Seek; Kim, Han; Kim, Youn-Ju; Kim, Byounghan; Wee, Sung-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to develop a method for calculating infection time lines for disease outbreaks on farms was developed using the 2010/2011 foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemic in the Republic of Korea. Methods Data on farm demography, the detection date of FMD, the clinical history for the manifestation of lesions, the presence of antibodies against FMD virus (including antibodies against the structural and nonstructural proteins of serotype O), vaccination status (O1 Manisa strain), the number of reactors and information on the slaughter of infected animals were utilized in this method. Results Based on estimates of the most likely infection date, a cumulative detection probability that an infected farm would be identified on a specific day was determined. Peak infection was observed between late December and early January, but peak detection occurred in mid-January. The early detection probability was highest for pigs, followed by cattle (dairy, then beef) and small ruminants. Nearly 90% of the infected pig farms were detected by Day 11 post-infection while 13 days were required for detection for both dairy and beef cattle farms, and 21 days were necessary for small ruminant (goat and deer) farms. On average, 8.1 ± 3.1 days passed prior to detecting the presence of FMD virus on a farm. The interval between infection and detection of FMD was inversely associated with the intensity of farming. Conclusion The results of our study emphasize the importance of intensive clinical inspection, which is the quickest method of detecting FMD infection and minimizing the damage caused by an epidemic. PMID:24159543

  15. Detection of human enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16 in children with hand, foot and mouth disease in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Mou, Xiaozhou; Zhang, Qiong; Li, Yifei; Lin, Jian; Liu, Fanlong; Yuan, Li; Tang, Yiming; Xiang, Charlie

    2012-04-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate the genetic characteristics of enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) strains in China and to evaluate the relationship between the genotypes of CVA16 and EV71 and their geographical distribution. A total of 399 stool specimens were collected from children with symptoms of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Zhejiang Province. The presence of enteroviruses was determined using reverse transcription-semi-nested PCR targeted to the VP1 gene of all human enteroviruses and DNA sequencing. EV71 and CVA16, the major etiological agents of HFMD, were detected in 38.4% (38/99) and 35.4% (35/99) of HEV-A species-positive cases, respectively. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene, EV71 strains identified in this study belong to subgenotype C4, and CVA16 strains herein were classified into clusters B2a and B2b within the genotype B2. Taking into consideration other published data, we conclude that the genetic characteristics of enteroviruses in China reflect the pattern of the endemic circulation of the subgenotype C4 to EV71 and clusters B2a and B2b within genotype B2 to CVA16, which have been continuously circulating in China since 1997. This observation indicates that the genetic characteristics of enteroviruses in China seem to depend on their special geographical and climatical features allowing them to be sustained with little external effect.

  16. Investigation of smallholder farmer biosecurity and implications for sustainable foot-and-mouth disease control in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J R; Suon, S; Olmo, L; Bun, C; Hok, C; Ashley, K; Bush, R D; Windsor, P A

    2017-12-01

    In Cambodia, the majority of the population is rural and reliant on subsistence agriculture, with cattle raised by smallholder farmers using traditional practices, resulting in low productivity and vulnerability to foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). As FMD causes deleterious impacts on rural livelihoods, known FMD risk factors were reviewed, using knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) surveys of smallholders (n = 240) from four regions. The study aimed to understand current biosecurity threats to smallholder livelihoods and investigate the hypothesis that smallholder farmers practising FMD risk management should be associated with higher incomes from cattle. Descriptive data were examined to demonstrate trends in KAP and a multivariable linear regression model developed to identify cattle income predictors. Results showed that baseline mean knowledge scores were low at 28.4% across all regions and basic biosecurity practices, including quarantine of new cattle, isolation of sick cattle and FMD vaccination, were lacking. As farmers purchase and sell cattle from and to various administration levels (including export), there is high risk of FMD transmission into and from smallholder communities. The final multivariable linear regression model identified significant explanatory parameters for annual cattle income, including region, number of calves born, forage plot size (ha), vaccination of cattle and the number of cattle purchased (F pr. < 0.001, R(2)  = 29.9). Individual biosecurity practices including FMD vaccination were not significant predictors of income. With the current focus of farmers on treatment of FMD with inappropriate antibiotics leading to potential anti-microbial residue issues, yet receptivity to payment for vaccine in most regions, there is an urgent need for a coordinated national biosecurity and FMD management public awareness campaign. Further, to enhance the association between improved cattle health and rural livelihoods, it is recommended

  17. The exposure-response relationship between temperature and childhood hand, foot and mouth disease: A multicity study from mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiong; Gasparrini, Antonio; Huang, Jiao; Liao, Qiaohong; Liu, Fengfeng; Yin, Fei; Yu, Hongjie; Li, Xiaosong

    2017-03-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a rising public health issue in the Asia-Pacific region. Numerous studies have tried to quantify the relationship between meteorological variables and HFMD but with inconsistent results, in particular for temperature. We aimed to characterize the relationship between temperature and HFMD in various locations and to investigate the potential heterogeneity. We retrieved the daily series of childhood HFMD counts (aged 0-12 years) and meteorological variables for each of 143 cities in mainland China in the period 2009-2014. We fitted a common distributed lag nonlinear model allowing for over dispersion to each of the cities to obtain the city-specific estimates of temperature-HFMD relationship. Then we pooled the city-specific estimates through multivariate meta-regression with city-level characteristics as potential effect modifiers. We found that the overall pooled temperature-HFMD relationship was shown as an approximately inverted V shape curve, peaking at the 91th percentile of temperature with a risk ratio of 1.30 (95% CI: 1.23-1.37) compared to its 50th percentile. We found that 68.5% of the variations of city-specific estimates was attributable to heterogeneity. We identified rainfall and altitude as the two main effect modifiers. We found a nonlinear relationship between temperature and HFMD. The temperature-HFMD relationship varies depending on geographic and climatic conditions. The findings can help us deepen the understanding of weather-HFMD relationship and provide evidences for related public health decisions. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease on growth performance of Korean native goat (Capra hircus coreanae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, N C; Jung, J; Kim, J N; Lee, J; Jeong, S Y; Kim, W; Sung, H G; Seo, S

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate the effects of vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, hematological parameters, and behavior in a ruminant animal and 2) to investigate a possible strategy for reducing its adverse effect. A total of 12 Korean native goats (Capra hircus coreanae; 19.8 ± 2.9 kg) were used in a crossover design with 3 experimental periods and 3 treatments, randomized and balanced for counteracting possible carry-over effects. The treatments were 1) control, 2) co-injection with a commercially available dipyrone (CADI), and 3) supplementation with γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) at 10 g/kg in concentrate mix. Each period lasted 4 wk, and the vaccination against FMD was performed at 2 wk after the start of each period. The goats were individually housed in a metabolic cage and fed ad libitum with a diet consisting of bermuda grass and commercial concentrate mix (6:4, wt/wt). Dry matter intake, ADG, nutrients digestibility, hematological parameters, and behavioral activities of the goats were measured before and after vaccination. Although DMI was not decreased (P > 0.05), ADG was decreased by the vaccination to the goats (P vaccination (P vaccination shortened standing time while extended lying time and the time spent in drinking (P vaccination on ADG and goat behavior compared with control and GABA treatment (P vaccination decreased ADG of the goats without depression of diet intake, and CADI may attenuate the adverse effect of the FMD vaccination.

  19. Epidemiologic and etiologic characteristics of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Chongqing, China between 2010 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Fang-Fang; Yan, Qiang; Ge, Sheng-Xiang; Tang, Xiang; Chen, Ru-Juan; Xu, Hong-Mei

    2016-03-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has become very common in children, with widespread occurrence across China. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiologic and etiologic characteristics of HFMD, including etiologic variations in Chongqing, China. An epidemiologic investigation was based on 3,472 patients who presented with HFMD manifestations and were admitted at the Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University between 2010 and 2013. Fecal specimens from 830 patients were analyzed by nested RT-PCR to identify the enterovirus pathogens, and the molecular characterization of HFMD was illustrated by phylogenetic tree analysis. The results of this study indicate that the peak of the HFMD epidemic in Chongqing between 2010 and 2013 occurred between April and July each year. The median age of onset was 2.24 years old, and children under the age of five accounted for 96.4% of all the HFMD cases; the male-to-female ratio was 1.89:1. Enterovirus 71 accounted for a major proportion of the isolated strains every year, including the majority (74%) of severe cases. However, the proportion of Coxsackie A (CV-A) 6 infections increased from 2.11% in 2010 to 16.36% in 2013, while the proportion of CV-A16 infections decreased from 31.23% in 2010 to 4.67% in 2013. Molecular epidemiologic study showed that all enterovirus 71 strains belonged to subgenotype C4a, whereas all CV-A16 strains belonged to genotype B1, including subgenotype B1a and subgenotype B1b. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Short-term effects of meteorological factors on children hand, foot and mouth disease in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun; Lin, Hualiang; Li, Xiaoquan; Lang, Lingling; Xiao, Xincai; Ding, Peng; He, Peng; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Ming; Liu, Qiyong

    2014-09-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a contagious viral illness that commonly affects infants and children. The underlying risk factors have not yet been systematically examined. This study analyzed the short-term effects of meteorological factors on children HFMD in Guangzhou, China. Daily count of HFMD among children younger than 15 years and meteorological variables from 2009 to 2011 were collected to construct the time series. A generalized additive model was applied to estimate the effects of meteorological factors on HFMD occurrence, after adjusting for long-term trend, seasonal trend, day of week, and public holidays. A negative association between temperature and children HFMD occurrence was observed at lag days 1-3, with the relative risk (RR) for a 1 °C increase on lag day 2 being 0.983 (95 % confidence intervals (CI) 0.977 to 0.989); positive effect was found for temperature at lag days 5-9, with the highest effect at lag day 6 (RR = 1.014, 95 % CI 1.006 to 1.023). Higher humidity was associated with increased HFMD at lag days 3-10, with the highest effect at lag day 8 (RR = 1.009 for 1 % increase in relative humidity, 95 % CI 1.007 to 1.010). And we also observed significant positive effect for rainfall at lag days 4 and 8 (RR = 1.001, 95 % CI 1.000 to 1.002) for 1-mm increase. Subgroup analyses showed that the positive effects of temperature were more pronounced among younger children. This study suggests that meteorological factors might be important predictors of children HFMD occurrence in Guangzhou.