Sample records for assess fluvial fan

  1. Large Fluvial Fans: Aspects of the Attribute Array (United States)

    Wilkinson, Justin M.


    In arguing for a strict definition of the alluvial fan (coarse-grained with radii less than10 km, in mountain-front settings), Blair and McPherson (1994) proposed that there is no meaningful difference between large fluvial fans (LFF) and floodplains, because the building blocks of both are channel-levee-overbank deposits. Sediment bodies at the LFF scale (greater than 100 km long, fan-shaped in planform), are relatively unstudied although greater than 160 are now identified globally. The following perspectives suggest that the significance of LFF needs to be reconsidered.

  2. A sedimentary model for early Palaeozoic fluvial fans, Alderney Sandstone Formation (Channel Islands, UK) (United States)

    Ielpi, Alessandro; Ghinassi, Massimiliano


    Fluvial fans in the rock record are inferred based on critical criteria such as: downstream grain-size fining; evidence for drainage fractionation along bifurcating channels; increasing fluvial-aeolian interaction in the basinward direction; and radial palaeoflow dispersion. Since pre-vegetation fluvial rocks often lack heterolithic alluvium and channelisation at the outcrop scale, the recognition of pre-Silurian fluvial fans has, so far, not been straightforward. This research proposes a sedimentary model for the Alderney Sandstone Formation of Channel Islands (UK), so far considered as a fine record of early Palaeozoic axial-fluvial sedimentation. Here, outcrop-based and remote-sensing analysis of the formation's type-section reveal the interaction of fluvial and aeolian processes, expressed by the alternation of: compound fluvial bars enclosing macroform surfaces, related to phases of perennial discharge; fluvial sandsheets containing antidunal forms and soft-sediment deformations, related to seasonal (i.e. flashy) discharge; and aeolian bedforms overlying thin stream-flow deposits. An up-section increase in aeolian deposits is accompanied by the shrinking of fluvial bars and minor-channel cuts, suggesting that drainage was fractioned along smaller channels terminating into marginal aeolian environments. Together with a propensity towards more dispersed values of fluvial cross-set thickness up-section (again due to discharge fractionation along intermittently active channels), these features depict an aeolian-influenced fluvial fan. This work discusses a set of criteria for the identification of fluvial fans in pre-vegetation environments. In doing so, it also explores possible parallels to modern environments, and underscores the potential of integrated outcrop and remotely sensed observations on ancient fluvial rocks and modern sedimentary realms.

  3. River terraces and alluvial fans: The case for an integrated Quaternary fluvial archive (United States)

    Mather, A. E.; Stokes, M.; Whitfield, E.


    The fluvial archive literature is dominated by research on river terraces with appropriate mention of adjacent environments such as lakes. Despite modern sedimentary basins comprising a significant (>88%) volume of distributive fluvial systems, of which alluvial fans (>1 km, model is proposed to summarise the dynamic role of alluvial fans within this landscape context. The alluvial fans act as potential 'buffers' between hillslopes and river terrace records under 'top down' climate-driven high sediment supply and alluvial fan aggradation, and 'couplers' during periods of less sediment (in relation to water) discharge and alluvial fan incision. These dynamics will change with the addition of 'bottom up' controls such as main river incision, which will typically enhance the coupling effect of both systems.

  4. Long-term interactions between man and the fluvial environment - case of the Diyala alluvial fan, Iraq (United States)

    Heyvaert, Vanessa M. A.; Walstra, Jan; Mortier, Clément


    , during these periods (Parthian, Sasanian and again in modern times), significant human modification of the landscape took place. Periods of societal decline are associated with reduced human impact and the development of a single-threaded incising river system. Adams, R.M. (1965). Land behind Baghdad: A history of settlement on the Diyala plains. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois. Heyvaert, V.M.A. & Baeteman, C. (2008). A Middle to Late Holocene avulsion history of the Euphrates river: a case study from Tell ed-D-er, Iraq, Lower Mesopotamia. Quaternary Science Reviews, 27, 2401-2410. Heyvaert, V. M. A., Walstra, J., Verkinderen, P., Weerts, H. J. T. & Ooghe, B. (2012). The role of human interference on the channel shifting of the river Karkheh in the Lower Khuzestan plain (Mesopotamia, SW Iran). Quaternary International, 251, 52-63. Heyvaert, V.M.A., Walstra, J., Weerts, H.J.T. (2013). Human impact on avulsion and fan development in a semi-arid region: examples from SW Iran. Abstractbook of the 10th International Fluvial Sedimentology Conference, July 2013,Leeds, United Kingdom. Morozova, G.S. (2005). A review of Holocene avulsions of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and possible effects on the evolution of civilizations in lower Mesopotamia. Geoarchaeology, 20, 401-423. Walstra, J., Heyvaert, V. M. A. & Verkinderen, P. (2010). Assessing human impact on alluvial fan development: a multidisciplinary case-study from Lower Khuzestan (SW Iran). Geodinamica Acta, 23, 267-285. Wilkinson, T.J. (2003). Archaeological Landscapes of the Near East. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

  5. Climate induced changes in the circulation and dispersal patterns of the fluvial sources during late Quaternary in the middle Bengal Fan

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.; Vogelsang, E

    -1 Climate induced changes in the circulation and dispersal patterns of the fluvial sources during late Quaternary inthemiddleBengalFan Onkar S Chauhan1,asteriskmath and E Vogelsang2 1National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, India. 2... con- tributes towards the growth of the Bengal Fan ? the largest of its kind in the world (Van der Borch et al 1974). The Bengal Fan extends for 3000 km N?S and 1430 km E?W at 15openbullet N. Several valleys mark the surface of the fan in the central...

  6. Transition from alluvial to fluvial systems in the Guadalentín Depression (SE Spain) during the Holocene: Lorca Fan versus Guadalentín River (United States)

    Silva, Pablo G.; Bardají, Teresa; Calmel-Avila, Maryvonne; Goy, José Luis; Zazo, Cari


    The Lorca alluvial fan (SE Spain) constitutes an excellent example of transition from alluvial to fluvial sedimentary environments in a semiarid region. The fan body represents a large gently-sloping alluvial fan of mainly sandy-silty composition. It is presently dissected throughout its length by the Guadalentín River, which worked as the main fan channel and still operates as a torrential rambla-type channel responsible for historic large flood events. Three different outcrops are analysed at fan-apex, mid-fan and distal-fan locations, taking also into account the different inset terrace levels developed within the main fan trench at + 8-9 m, + 5-6 m, + 3-4 m and + 1-2 m above the present thalweg. Available radiocarbon data and archeological remains collected in fan sediments and inset terraces enable the construction of a preliminary hypothesis about the progressive incision of the fan body from pre-historical to historical times. Proximal fan aggradation took place during the Early Holocene before ~ 7900-7700 cal. yr. BP and continued until the Late Neolithic to Calcolithic Period (~ 5500-4200 cal. yr. BP) when the fan surface stabilised, and channel incision generated a first fanhead trench. Subsequent infilling of the fan trench led to the development of the upper terrace level (+ 8-9 m) which merged with the palustrine environments 23 km downstream of Lorca, feeding distal fan lobes during Late Bronze Age and Post-Roman times. The second terrace level (+ 5-6 m) is a cut & fill episode of about 5 m thickness developed from Roman times, and dated to ~ 1700 to 950 cal. yr. BP. The geometry and altimetry of the upper terrace level, together with the occurrence of different steps in the longitudinal profile of the river at mid to distal fan locations, strongly suggest that the incision of the ancient fan channel was assisted by intersection point headcut development ( sensu [Harvey, A.M., 1978. Dissected alluvial fans in southeast Spain. Catena 5, 177-211.]) at

  7. Synchronous and Cogged Fan Belt Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dean, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Acosta, Jason [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    The GSA Regional GPG Team commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to perform monitoring of cogged V-belts and synchronous belts on both a constant volume and a variable air volume fan at the Byron G. Rodgers Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. These motor/fan combinations were tested with their original, standard V-belts (appropriately tensioned by an operation and maintenance professional) to obtain a baseline for standard operation. They were then switched to the cogged V-belts, and finally to synchronous belts. The power consumption by the motor was normalized for both fan speed and air density changes. This was necessary to ensure that the power readings were not influenced by a change in rotational fan speed or by the power required to push denser air. Finally, energy savings and operation and maintenance savings were compiled into an economic life-cycle cost analysis of the different belt options.

  8. Flashy Water and Sediment Delivery to Fluvial Megafan andFan Delta Systems on Opposing Shorelines of an Early Eocene Lake (United States)

    Jones, E. R.; Plink-Bjorklund, P.


    Flashy delivery of water and sediment had distinct effects on the process of deposition in coeval fluvial megafan and fan delta deposits on opposing shorelines of a paleolake that occupied the Uinta Basin throughout the Eocene. The Tertiary Uinta Basin was an asymmetric continental interior basin with a steep northern margin, adjacent to the block uplift controlling basin subsidence, and a low gradient southern margin. A ~140 km wide fluvial megafan with catchments as far as ~750 km away occupied the southern margin of the lacustrine basin. Within this megafan system, fluvial deposits contain within-channel continental bioturbation and paleosol development on bar accretion surfaces that are evidence of prolonged periods of groundwater flow or channel abandonment. These are punctuated by channel fills exhibiting a suite of both high-deposition rate and upper flow regime sedimentary structures that were deposited by very rapid suspension-fallout during seasonal to episodic river flooding events. A series of small (~8 km wide) and proximally sourced fan deltas fed sediment into the steeper northern margin of the lacustrine basin. 35-50% of the deposits in the delta plain environment of these fan deltas are very sandy debris flows with as low as 5% clay and silt sized material. Detrital zircon geochronology shows that these fan deltas were tapping catchments where mostly unconsolidated Cretaceous sedimentary cover and thick Jurassic eolianites were being eroded. A combination of flashy precipitation, arid climate, catchments mantled by abundant loose sand-sized colluvium, and steep depositional gradients promoted generation of abundant very sandy (5-10% clay and silt sized material) debris flows. In this way, the Wasatch and Green River Formations in the Uinta Basin, Utah, U.S.A. gives us two very different examples of how routing flashy water and sediment delivery (associated with pulses of hyperthermal climate change during the Early Eocene) through different

  9. Performance Assessment of a Class of Industrial Fans With ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a statistical quality control study for on-condition monitoring of draught fans in a steelmaking process. The study proposes a procedure for obtaining consistent estimates of peak vibration levels for performance assessment the machines based on independent measurements of the variable assuming the ...

  10. Assessing the Effects of Climate on Global Fluvial Discharge Variability (United States)

    Hansford, M. R.; Plink-Bjorklund, P.


    Plink-Bjorklund (2015) established the link between precipitation seasonality and river discharge variability in the monsoon domain and subtropical rivers (see also Leier et al, 2005; Fielding et al., 2009), resulting in distinct morphodynamic processes and a sedimentary record distinct from perennial precipitation zone in tropical rainforest zone and mid latitudes. This study further develops our understanding of discharge variability using a modern global river database created with data from the Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC). The database consists of daily discharge for 595 river stations and examines them using a series of discharge variability indexes (DVI) on different temporal scales to examine how discharge variability occurs in river systems around the globe. These indexes examine discharge of individual days and monthly averages that allows for comparison of river systems against each other, regardless of size of the river. Comparing river discharge patterns in seven climate zones (arid, cold, humid subtropics, monsoonal, polar, rainforest, and temperate) based off the Koppen-Geiger climate classifications reveals a first order climatic control on discharge patterns and correspondingly sediment transport. Four groupings of discharge patterns emerge when coming climate zones and DVI: persistent, moderate, seasonal, and erratic. This dataset has incredible predictive power about the nature of discharge in fluvial systems around the world. These seasonal effects on surface water supply affects river morphodynamics and sedimentation on a wide timeframe, ranging from large single events to an inter-annual or even decadal timeframe. The resulting sedimentary deposits lead to differences in fluvial architecture on a range of depositional scales from sedimentary structures and bedforms to channel complex systems. These differences are important to accurately model for several reasons, ranging from stratigraphic and paleoenviromental reconstructions to more

  11. Health Assessment of Cooling Fan Bearings Using Wavelet-Based Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Miao


    Full Text Available As commonly used forced convection air cooling devices in electronics, cooling fans are crucial for guaranteeing the reliability of electronic systems. In a cooling fan assembly, fan bearing failure is a major failure mode that causes excessive vibration, noise, reduction in rotation speed, locked rotor, failure to start, and other problems; therefore, it is necessary to conduct research on the health assessment of cooling fan bearings. This paper presents a vibration-based fan bearing health evaluation method using comblet filtering and exponentially weighted moving average. A new health condition indicator (HCI for fan bearing degradation assessment is proposed. In order to collect the vibration data for validation of the proposed method, a cooling fan accelerated life test was conducted to simulate the lubricant starvation of fan bearings. A comparison between the proposed method and methods in previous studies (i.e., root mean square, kurtosis, and fault growth parameter was carried out to assess the performance of the HCI. The analysis results suggest that the HCI can identify incipient fan bearing failures and describe the bearing degradation process. Overall, the work presented in this paper provides a promising method for fan bearing health evaluation and prognosis.

  12. Health Assessment of Cooling Fan Bearings Using Wavelet-Based Filtering (United States)

    Miao, Qiang; Tang, Chao; Liang, Wei; Pecht, Michael


    As commonly used forced convection air cooling devices in electronics, cooling fans are crucial for guaranteeing the reliability of electronic systems. In a cooling fan assembly, fan bearing failure is a major failure mode that causes excessive vibration, noise, reduction in rotation speed, locked rotor, failure to start, and other problems; therefore, it is necessary to conduct research on the health assessment of cooling fan bearings. This paper presents a vibration-based fan bearing health evaluation method using comblet filtering and exponentially weighted moving average. A new health condition indicator (HCI) for fan bearing degradation assessment is proposed. In order to collect the vibration data for validation of the proposed method, a cooling fan accelerated life test was conducted to simulate the lubricant starvation of fan bearings. A comparison between the proposed method and methods in previous studies (i.e., root mean square, kurtosis, and fault growth parameter) was carried out to assess the performance of the HCI. The analysis results suggest that the HCI can identify incipient fan bearing failures and describe the bearing degradation process. Overall, the work presented in this paper provides a promising method for fan bearing health evaluation and prognosis. PMID:23262486

  13. Axial Fan Blade Vibration Assessment under Inlet Cross-Flow Conditions Using Laser Scanning Vibrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Heinemann


    Full Text Available In thermal power plants equipped with air-cooled condensers (ACCs, axial cooling fans operate under the influence of ambient flow fields. Under inlet cross-flow conditions, the resultant asymmetric flow field is known to introduce additional harmonic forces to the fan blades. This effect has previously only been studied numerically or by using blade-mounted strain gauges. For this study, laser scanning vibrometry (LSV was used to assess fan blade vibration under inlet cross-flow conditions in an adapted fan test rig inside a wind tunnel test section. Two co-rotating laser beams scanned a low-pressure axial fan, resulting in spectral, phase-resolved surface vibration patterns of the fan blades. Two distinct operating points with flow coefficients of 0.17 and 0.28 were examined, with and without inlet cross-flow influence. While almost identical fan vibration patterns were found for both reference operating points, the overall blade vibration increased by 100% at the low fan flow rate as a result of cross-flow, and by 20% at the high fan flow rate. While numerically predicted natural frequency modes could be confirmed from experimental data as minor peaks in the vibration amplitude spectrum, they were not excited significantly by cross-flow. Instead, primarily higher rotation-rate harmonics were amplified; that is, a synchronous blade-tip flapping was strongly excited at the blade-pass frequency.

  14. Assessing fluvial flood risk in urban environments: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longo Elisa


    Full Text Available Nowadays, floods are among the most impactful calamities regarding costs. Looking at the natural hazards damage data collected in the International Disaster Database (EM-DAT, it is observable a significant increase over the past four decades of both frequency of floods and associated costs. Similarly, dramatic trends are also found by analyzing other types of flood losses, such as the number of people affected by floods, homeless, injured or killed.To deal with the aforementioned rise of flood risk, more and more efforts are being made to promote integrated flood risk management, for example, the Flood Directive 2007/60/EC. The main goals of this research are the estimation of flood damages using the KULTURisk methodology and the comparing of the projected costs with the observed one. The case study is the 2002 flood in Eilenburg. According to KULTURisk methodology, two major classes of data are considered to evaluate flood risk damage: hydraulic data as regards Hazard and economic information to assess Exposure and Vulnerability This study shows the possibility to extend the lesson learned with the Eilenburg case study in other similar contexts.

  15. Pump and Fan Technology Characterization and R&D Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Goetzler, Matt Guernsey, Greg Chung


    This report provides the Building Technologies Office (BTO) and the research and development (R&D) community with a technical and market analysis of pumps and fans as they pertain to commercial and residential buildings as well as key conclusions regarding the R&D opportunities that can help achieve BTO’s energy savings goals.

  16. Application and comparative analysis of three rapid assessment protocols to characterize fluvial landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucimara Andreza Rigotti


    Full Text Available Fluvial systems are endowed with features such as heterogeneity and variability which allow the classification of a fluvial landscape. Rapid assessment protocols have been useful tools for the characterization of integrity, especially in river segment scale. The objective of this paper was to apply three protocols in order to evaluate their performance in comparison with each other and with the results obtained by analytical methods of water quality assessment and an evaluation of the aquatic macro-invertebrate community. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS was applied using water quality parameters, trophic state index (IET, and abundance data of benthic macro-invertebrates. In addition, the study determined correlations between the index and the protocols’ final scores. The protocols’ feasibility for habitat characterization was confirmed, since the results were compatible for all procedures applied. Despite some particularities, each protocol offered a particular description of general aspects that affect river integrity, indicating which habitat conditions best support aquatic biodiversity in urban rivers.

  17. Fluvial Apophenia (United States)

    Coulthard, Tom; Armitage, John


    Apophenia describes the experience of seeing meaningful patterns or connections in random or meaningless data. Francis Bacon was one of the first to identify its role as a "human understanding is of its own nature prone to suppose the existence of more order and regularity in the world than it finds". Examples include pareidolia (seeing shapes in random patterns), gamblers fallacy (feeling past events alter probability), confirmation bias (bias to supporting a hypothesis rather than disproving), and he clustering illusion (an inability to recognise actual random data, instead believing there are patterns). Increasingly, researchers use records of past floods stored in sedimentary archives to make inferences about past environments, and to describe how climate and flooding may have changed. However, it is a seductive conclusion, to infer that drivers of landscape change can lead to changes in fluvial behaviour. Using past studies and computer simulations of river morphodynamics we explore how meaningful the link between drivers and fluvial changes is. Simple linear numerical models would suggest a direct relation between cause and effect, despite the potential for thresholds, phase changes, time-lags and damping. However, a comparatively small increase in model complexity (e.g. the Stream Power law) introducing non-linear behaviour and Increasing the complexity further can lead to the generation of time-dependent outputs despite constant forcing. We will use this range of findings to explore how apophenia may manifest itself in studies of fluvial systems, what this can mean and how we can try to account for it. Whilst discussed in the context of fluvial systems the concepts and inferences from this presentation are highly relevant to many other studies/disciplines.

  18. Hydrodynamic ecohydraulic habitat assessment aimed at conserving and restoring fluvial hydrosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Diez Hernández


    Full Text Available Fluvial conservation and restoration measures’ efficiency was evaluated in terms of ecological state enhancement, comparing future scenarios with historical or altered conditions. Ecohydraulics provides valuable scientific tools for the environmental diagnosis of lotic ecosystems, evaluating the combined effect of flow regime and channel structure on habitat quality for aquatic biota. This paper adopts an analytic-synthetic approach to the interdisciplinary challen-ge of fluvial ecohydraulics for computational fluid dynamics (CFD within the framework of ecosystem water mana-gement. The procedure for multidimensional (2D/3D evaluation of the physical aquatic habitat is described as well as its predictive ability and main applications. The 2D depth-averaged scheme is highlighted whose velocity simula-tion error (being normally lower than 10% overcomes classic one-dimensional (1D simplifications. The basic as-pects of biological habitat modelling, abiotic variables and biological preference are summarised. Combining eco-logical criteria with hydrodynamic flow patterns is illustrated for producing discrete habitat fields which were then spatially and temporarily integrated in ecohydraulic analysis.

  19. Computational Aerodynamic Simulations of an 840 ft/sec Tip Speed Advanced Ducted Propulsor Fan System Model for Acoustic Methods Assessment and Development (United States)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.


    Computational Aerodynamic simulations of an 840 ft/sec tip speed, Advanced Ducted Propulsor fan system were performed at five different operating points on the fan operating line, in order to provide detailed internal flow field information for use with fan acoustic prediction methods presently being developed, assessed and validated. The fan system is a sub-scale, lownoise research fan/nacelle model that has undergone extensive experimental testing in the 9- by 15- foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center, resulting in quality, detailed aerodynamic and acoustic measurement data. Details of the fan geometry, the computational fluid dynamics methods, the computational grids, and various computational parameters relevant to the numerical simulations are discussed. Flow field results for three of the five operating conditions simulated are presented in order to provide a representative look at the computed solutions. Each of the five fan aerodynamic simulations involved the entire fan system, excluding a long core duct section downstream of the core inlet guide vane. As a result, only fan rotational speed and system bypass ratio, set by specifying static pressure downstream of the core inlet guide vane row, were adjusted in order to set the fan operating point, leading to operating points that lie on a fan operating line and making mass flow rate a fully dependent parameter. The resulting mass flow rates are in good agreement with measurement values. The computed blade row flow fields for all five fan operating points are, in general, aerodynamically healthy. Rotor blade and fan exit guide vane flow characteristics are good, including incidence and deviation angles, chordwise static pressure distributions, blade surface boundary layers, secondary flow structures, and blade wakes. Examination of the computed flow fields reveals no excessive boundary layer separations or related secondary-flow problems. A few spanwise comparisons between

  20. Assessment of spatiotemporal variations in the fluvial wash-load component in the 21st century with regard to GCM climate change scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouri, Goro


    For stream water, in which a relationship exists between wash-load concentration and discharge, an estimate of fine-sediment delivery may be obtained from a traditional fluvial wash-load rating curve. Here, we demonstrate that the remaining wash-load material load can be estimated from a traditional empirical principle on a nationwide scale. The traditional technique was applied to stream water for the whole of Japan. Four typical GCMs were selected from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) ensemble to provide the driving fields for the following regional climate models to assess the wash-load component based on rating curves: the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MIROC), the Meteorological Research Institute Atmospheric General Circulation Model (MRI-GCM), the Hadley Centre Global Environment Model (HadGEM) and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) climate model. The simulations consisted of an ensemble, including multiple physics configurations and different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5), which was used to produce monthly datasets for the whole country of Japan. The impacts of future climate changes on fluvial wash load in Japanese stream water were based on the balance of changes in hydrological factors. The annual and seasonal variations of the fluvial wash load were assessed from the result of the ensemble analysis in consideration of the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission scenarios. The determined results for the amount of wash load increase range from approximately 20 to 110% in the 2040s, especially along part of the Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan regions. In the 2090s, the amount of wash load is projected to increase by more than 50% over the whole of Japan. The assessment indicates that seasonal variation is particularly important because the rainy and typhoon seasons, which include extreme events, are the dominant seasons. Because fluvial wash-load-component turbidity

  1. Assessment of spatiotemporal variations in the fluvial wash-load component in the 21st century with regard to GCM climate change scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouri, Goro, E-mail:


    For stream water, in which a relationship exists between wash-load concentration and discharge, an estimate of fine-sediment delivery may be obtained from a traditional fluvial wash-load rating curve. Here, we demonstrate that the remaining wash-load material load can be estimated from a traditional empirical principle on a nationwide scale. The traditional technique was applied to stream water for the whole of Japan. Four typical GCMs were selected from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) ensemble to provide the driving fields for the following regional climate models to assess the wash-load component based on rating curves: the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MIROC), the Meteorological Research Institute Atmospheric General Circulation Model (MRI-GCM), the Hadley Centre Global Environment Model (HadGEM) and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) climate model. The simulations consisted of an ensemble, including multiple physics configurations and different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5), which was used to produce monthly datasets for the whole country of Japan. The impacts of future climate changes on fluvial wash load in Japanese stream water were based on the balance of changes in hydrological factors. The annual and seasonal variations of the fluvial wash load were assessed from the result of the ensemble analysis in consideration of the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission scenarios. The determined results for the amount of wash load increase range from approximately 20 to 110% in the 2040s, especially along part of the Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan regions. In the 2090s, the amount of wash load is projected to increase by more than 50% over the whole of Japan. The assessment indicates that seasonal variation is particularly important because the rainy and typhoon seasons, which include extreme events, are the dominant seasons. Because fluvial wash-load-component turbidity

  2. Assessing Fan Flutter Stability in the Presence of Inlet Distortion Using One-way and Two-way Coupled Methods (United States)

    Herrick, Gregory P.


    Concerns regarding noise, propulsive efficiency, and fuel burn are inspiring aircraft designs wherein the propulsive turbomachines are partially (or fully)embedded within the airframe; such designs present serious concerns with regard to aerodynamic and aeromechanic performance of the compression system in response to inlet distortion. Previously, a preliminary design of a forward-swept high-speed fan exhibited flutter concerns in clean-inlet flows, and the present author then studied this fan further in the presence of off-design distorted in-flows. A three-dimensional, unsteady, Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics code is applied to analyze and corroborate fan performance with clean inlet flow. This code, already validated in its application to assess aerodynamic damping of vibrating blades at various flow conditions using a loosely-coupled approach, is modified to include a tightly-coupled aeroelastic simulation capability, and then loosely-coupled and tightly-coupled methods arecompared in their evaluation of flutter stability in distorted in-flows.

  3. Assessing Fan Flutter Stability in Presence of Inlet Distortion Using One-Way and Two-Way Coupled Methods (United States)

    Herrick, Gregory P.


    Concerns regarding noise, propulsive efficiency, and fuel burn are inspiring aircraft designs wherein the propulsive turbomachines are partially (or fully) embedded within the airframe; such designs present serious concerns with regard to aerodynamic and aeromechanic performance of the compression system in response to inlet distortion. Previously, a preliminary design of a forward-swept high-speed fan exhibited flutter concerns in clean-inlet flows, and the present author then studied this fan further in the presence of off-design distorted in-flows. Continuing this research, a three-dimensional, unsteady, Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics code is again applied to analyze and corroborate fan performance with clean inlet flow and now with a simplified, sinusoidal distortion of total pressure at the aerodynamic interface plane. This code, already validated in its application to assess aerodynamic damping of vibrating blades at various flow conditions using a one-way coupled energy-exchange approach, is modified to include a two-way coupled timemarching aeroelastic simulation capability. The two coupling methods are compared in their evaluation of flutter stability in the presence of distorted in-flows.

  4. An integrated approach to flood hazard assessment on alluvial fans using numerical modeling, field mapping, and remote sensing (United States)

    Pelletier, J.D.; Mayer, L.; Pearthree, P.A.; House, P.K.; Demsey, K.A.; Klawon, J.K.; Vincent, K.R.


    Millions of people in the western United States live near the dynamic, distributary channel networks of alluvial fans where flood behavior is complex and poorly constrained. Here we test a new comprehensive approach to alluvial-fan flood hazard assessment that uses four complementary methods: two-dimensional raster-based hydraulic modeling, satellite-image change detection, fieldbased mapping of recent flood inundation, and surficial geologic mapping. Each of these methods provides spatial detail lacking in the standard method and each provides critical information for a comprehensive assessment. Our numerical model simultaneously solves the continuity equation and Manning's equation (Chow, 1959) using an implicit numerical method. It provides a robust numerical tool for predicting flood flows using the large, high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) necessary to resolve the numerous small channels on the typical alluvial fan. Inundation extents and flow depths of historic floods can be reconstructed with the numerical model and validated against field- and satellite-based flood maps. A probabilistic flood hazard map can also be constructed by modeling multiple flood events with a range of specified discharges. This map can be used in conjunction with a surficial geologic map to further refine floodplain delineation on fans. To test the accuracy of the numerical model, we compared model predictions of flood inundation and flow depths against field- and satellite-based flood maps for two recent extreme events on the southern Tortolita and Harquahala piedmonts in Arizona. Model predictions match the field- and satellite-based maps closely. Probabilistic flood hazard maps based on the 10 yr, 100 yr, and maximum floods were also constructed for the study areas using stream gage records and paleoflood deposits. The resulting maps predict spatially complex flood hazards that strongly reflect small-scale topography and are consistent with surficial geology. In

  5. Assessment of spatiotemporal variations in the fluvial wash-load component in the 21st century with regard to GCM climate change scenarios. (United States)

    Mouri, Goro


    For stream water, in which a relationship exists between wash-load concentration and discharge, an estimate of fine-sediment delivery may be obtained from a traditional fluvial wash-load rating curve. Here, we demonstrate that the remaining wash-load material load can be estimated from a traditional empirical principle on a nationwide scale. The traditional technique was applied to stream water for the whole of Japan. Four typical GCMs were selected from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) ensemble to provide the driving fields for the following regional climate models to assess the wash-load component based on rating curves: the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MIROC), the Meteorological Research Institute Atmospheric General Circulation Model (MRI-GCM), the Hadley Centre Global Environment Model (HadGEM) and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) climate model. The simulations consisted of an ensemble, including multiple physics configurations and different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5), which was used to produce monthly datasets for the whole country of Japan. The impacts of future climate changes on fluvial wash load in Japanese stream water were based on the balance of changes in hydrological factors. The annual and seasonal variations of the fluvial wash load were assessed from the result of the ensemble analysis in consideration of the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission scenarios. The determined results for the amount of wash load increase range from approximately 20 to 110% in the 2040s, especially along part of the Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan regions. In the 2090s, the amount of wash load is projected to increase by more than 50% over the whole of Japan. The assessment indicates that seasonal variation is particularly important because the rainy and typhoon seasons, which include extreme events, are the dominant seasons. Because fluvial wash-load-component turbidity

  6. Technical Assessment of the National Full Scale Aerodynamic Complex Fan Blades Repair (United States)

    Young, Clarence P., Jr.; Dixon, Peter G.; St.Clair, Terry L.; Johns, William E.


    This report describes the principal activities of a technical review team formed to address National Full Scale Aerodynamic Complex (NFAC) blade repair problems. In particular, the problem of lack of good adhesive bonding of the composite overwrap to the Hyduliginum wood blade material was studied extensively. Description of action plans and technical elements of the plans are provided. Results of experiments designed to optimize the bonding process and bonding strengths obtained on a full scale blade using a two-step cure process with adhesive primers are presented. Consensus recommendations developed by the review team in conjunction with the NASA Ames Fan Blade Repair Project Team are provided along with lessons learned on this program. Implementation of recommendations resulted in achieving good adhesive bonds between the composite materials and wooden blades, thereby providing assurance that the repaired fan blades will meet or exceed operational life requirements.

  7. Assessment of indoor air quality in comparison using air conditioning and fan system in printing premise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramlan Nazirah


    Full Text Available Printers contribute to various emissions consist with chemical contaminants. High concentration of the particulate matter can cause serious health problems. This study focuses on the indoor air quality in printing premise unit in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn, Malaysia. Field testing involving air sampling methods were taken from 900 hours to 1600 hours, for every 30 minutes using physical measurement which is Multi-Channel Air Quality Monitor (YESAIR, E-Sampler and Ozone Meter. Air sampling was recorded based on one sampling point and most suitable point for production. A comparison based on different ventilation using fan and air-conditioning were also taken and results is being compared based on OSHA and NIOSH standards. Besides that, the statistical analysis is being conducted in order to predict the effect on number of printers. From the result, the O3 concentrations show, 10% reduced for printing premise using fan ventilation compared to air-conditioning but remain the same value for PM2.5. The concentration of O3 increased when the number of printers decreased, while the concentration of PM2.5 increased the increase of printers number. Overall, the use of fan in printing premise is more suggested since the level is slightly lower than the printing premise using air-conditioning.

  8. Channel arrangements and depositional styles in the São Lourenço fluvial megafan, Brazilian Pantanal wetland (United States)

    Assine, Mario Luis; Corradini, Fabrício Anibal; Pupim, Fabiano do Nascimento; McGlue, Michael Matthew


    The Brazilian Pantanal is an extensive lowland tropical basin characterized by the presence of fluvial megafans and seasonally-inundated savanna floodplain wetlands. With an area of about 16,000 km2, the São Lourenço is the second largest megafan in the Pantanal. Three distinct fluvial channel styles that formed at different times during the late Quaternary are found here. A geomorphological and sedimentary assessment of these depositional patterns provides valuable insight on the environmental context of their evolution. New optically stimulated luminescence data indicate that the upper five meters of sediment in the São Lourenço megafan has been accumulating since the late Pleistocene. Ancient fan lobes, located in upper and intermediate fan settings, consist of medium- and coarse-grained fluvial sands and exhibit well-preserved distributary braided paleochannels on their surfaces. As the megafan evolved through time, Pleistocene lobes were incised by a prominent valley filled with Holocene-aged meander belt deposits, which consist of silts interbedded with very fine sands and clays. Currently, the incised valley is a zone of sediment bypass. Modern deposition occurs along the distal toe of the megafan system, where lobes characterized by distributary channel-levee ridges are widespread. These features formed by progradation of avulsion belts into a broad swampy floodbasin, which caused the lower portion of the meander belt to be abandoned. The significant differences observed in intra-fan morphology appear to be linked to the variability in effective precipitation. Fan lobes deposited with braided distributary channels occurred under relatively dry conditions in the late Pleistocene. By contrast, aggradational meander belt deposits and lobes with distributary channel-levee ridges formed during fluctuating precipitation conditions of the Holocene, when the Pantanal emerged from deglacial aridity. Modern lobes form under heavy seasonal flooding and deposition

  9. Developing a Composite Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment Model Combining DRASTIC with Agricultural Land Use in Choushui River Alluvial Fan, Central Taiwan (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Kai; Hsieh, Chih-Heng; Tsai, Cheng-Bin


    Aquifer vulnerability assessment is considered to be an effective tool in controlling potential pollution which is critical for groundwater management. The Choushui River alluvial fan, located in central Taiwan, is an agricultural area with complex crop patterns and various irrigation schemes, which increased the difficulties in groundwater resource management. The aim of this study is to propose an integrated methodology to assess shallow groundwater vulnerability by including land-use impact on groundwater potential pollution. The original groundwater vulnerability methodology, DRASTIC, was modified by adding a land-use parameter in order to assess groundwater vulnerability under intense agricultural activities. To examine the prediction capacity of pollution for the modified DRASTIC model, various risk categories of contamination potentials were compared with observed nitrate-N obtained from groundwater monitoring network. It was found that for the original DRASTIC vulnerability map, some areas with low nitrate-N concentrations are covered within the high vulnerability areas, especially in the northern part of mid-fan areas, where rice paddy is the main crop and planted for two crop seasons per year. The low nitrate-N contamination potential of rice paddies may be resulted from the denitrification in the reduced root zone. By reducing the rating for rice paddies, the modified model was proved to be capable of increasing the precise of prediction in study area. The results can provide a basis for groundwater monitoring network design and effective preserve measures formulation in the mixed agricultural area. Keyword:Aquifer Vulnerability, Groundwater, DRASTIC, Nitrate-N

  10. weiqiang fan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics. WEIQIANG FAN. Articles written in Journal of Genetics. Volume 96 Issue 6 December 2017 pp 867-872 RESEARCH ARTICLE. A genetic variant in COL11A1 is functionally associated with lumbar disc herniation in Chinese population · WENJUN LIU GUISEN SUN LONGSHENG GUO ...

  11. Identifying core, exciting, and hybrid attributes in fans' assessments of major (World Cup) spectator sports events. (United States)

    Gau, Li-Shiue


    This paper adopts a methodology of asymmetrical analyses to investigate the relevant importance of spectator sport attributes in terms of their non-linear associations with the benefits that fans experience while watching sports. Questionnaires tapping 16 attributes (e.g., teamwork, sportsmanship, level of competition) and 16 benefits (e.g., good mood, exciting experience, support for my favorite team) were distributed to a sample of fans at the outdoor broadcast of the 2010 World Cup final game at the National Stadium in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. 427 participants rated the importance and benefit of each attribute experienced from watching the game. Attributes were categorized as core, exciting, or hybrid attributes. The star player was the core attribute; rivalry, popularity, and coach were the exciting attributes; and the other 12 attributes were hybrid. Two-dimensional space analyses showed that attributes "sportsmanship, teamwork, and supporting a team" were both explicitly and implicitly important attributes. The methodology of asymmetrical analyses can help managers prioritize the focus of attributes and allocate resources effectively.

  12. An Assessment of Hydrology, Fluvial Geomorphology, and Stream Ecology in the Cardwell Branch Watershed, Nebraska, 2003-04 (United States)

    Rus, David L.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Woodward, Brenda K.; Fry, Beth E.; Wilson, Richard C.


    An assessment of the 16.3-square-mile Cardwell Branch watershed characterized the hydrology, fluvial geomorphology, and stream ecology in 2003-04. The study - performed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the City of Lincoln, Nebraska, and the Lower Platte South Natural Resources District - focused on the 7.7-square-mile drainage downstream from Yankee Hill Reservoir. Hydrologic and hydraulic models were developed using the Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS) and River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Hydraulic Engineering Center. Estimates of streamflow and water-surface elevation were simulated for 24-hour-duration design rainstorms ranging from a 50-percent frequency to a 0.2-percent frequency. An initial HEC-HMS model was developed using the standardized parameter estimation techniques associated with the Soil Conservation Service curve number technique. An adjusted HEC-HMS model also was developed in which parameters were adjusted in order for the model output to better correspond to peak streamflows estimated from regional regression equations. Comparisons of peak streamflow from the two HEC-HMS models indicate that the initial HEC-HMS model may better agree with the regional regression equations for higher frequency storms, and the adjusted HEC-HMS model may perform more closely to regional regression equations for larger, rarer events. However, a lack of observed streamflow data, coupled with conflicting results from regional regression equations and local high-water marks, introduced considerable uncertainty into the model simulations. Using the HEC-RAS model to estimate water-surface elevations associated with the peak streamflow, the adjusted HEC-HMS model produced average increases in water-surface elevation of 0.2, 1.1, and 1.4 feet for the 50-, 1-, and 0.2-percent-frequency rainstorms, respectively, when compared to the initial HEC-HMS model. Cross-sectional surveys and field assessments conducted between

  13. Assessment of the dental and skeletal effects of fan-type rapid maxillary expansion screw and Hyrax screw on craniofacial structures. (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Umarevathi; Sridhar, Premkumar


    The purpose of the study was to assess the skeletal and dental effects of fan-type rapid maxillary expansion (RME) appliance and Hyrax RME appliance on the craniofacial structures. The sample of the study included 12 patients with constricted maxillary arches. Acrylic bonded type of attachment was used for both groups. Changes in sagittal, vertical, and transverse relationship were assessed with lateral and frontal cephalograms, respectively. Intercanine and intermolar widths were measured with stone models. Pre- and immediate post-treatment records were statistically analyzed with Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The differences between the groups were evaluated using Mann-Whitney U-test. Since the data pertaining to intercanine width and intermolar width were normally distributed, parametric test of significance (unpaired t -test) was used to compare them. Results showed that Hyrax presented with significantly greater increments for both nasal cavity width and maxillary width when compared to fan-type RME. Both groups had retroclination of incisors. The increase in the intercanine width was almost similar in both groups. Fan-type RME caused only minimal expansion of the intermolar width when compared to the Hyrax. The ratio between the intercanine and intermolar width expansion was nearly 4:1 in the fan-type RME and 0.75:1 in Hyrax.

  14. Being of service: "X-Files" fans and social engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethan Jones


    Full Text Available I explore the ways in which celebrity charity and fan activism can lead to civic engagement and social change. Fan studies has moved away from the traditional view of fans as psychologically deficient and has begun to examine resistance within the cultural productions of fandom—fan fiction, for example, addressing gender imbalances in popular TV shows. However, scholarship on celebrity-focused fans still retains much of the stigmatizing language that mars early writing about fans. I examine the relationship between celebrity and fan; examine the role celebrity plays in framing fan charity; assess how fan investment affects celebrity charity work; and argue that fans are active participants in encouraging social awareness and charitable giving.

  15. Climate evolution during the Pleniglacial and Late Glacial as recorded in quartz grain morphoscopy of fluvial to aeolian successions of the European Sand Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woronko Barbara


    Full Text Available We present results of research into fluvial to aeolian successions at four sites in the foreland of the Last Glacial Maximum, i.e., the central part of the “European Sand Belt”. These sites include dune fields on higher-lying river terraces and alluvial fans. Sediments were subjected to detailed lithofacies analyses and sampling for morphoscopic assessment of quartz grains. Based on these results, three units were identified in the sedimentary succession: fluvial, fluvio-aeolian and aeolian. Material with traces of aeolian origin predominate in these sediments and this enabled conclusions on the activity of aeolian processes during the Pleniglacial and Late Glacial, and the source of sediment supply to be drawn. Aeolian processes played a major role in the deposition of the lower portions of the fluvial and fluvio-aeolian units. Aeolian material in the fluvial unit stems from aeolian accumulation of fluvial sediments within the valley as well as particles transported by wind from beyond the valley. The fluvio-aeolian unit is composed mainly of fluvial sediments that were subject to multiple redeposition, and long-term, intensive processing in an aeolian environment. In spite of the asynchronous onset of deposition of the fluvio-aeolian unit, it is characterised by the greatest homogeneity of structural and textural characteristics. Although the aeolian unit was laid down simultaneously, it is typified by the widest range of variation in quartz morphoscopic traits. It reflects local factors, mainly the origin of the source material, rather than climate. The duration of dune-formation processes was too short to be reflected in the morphoscopy of quartz grains.

  16. Fluvial transport and surface enrichment of arsenic in semi-arid mining regions: examples from the Mojave Desert, California (United States)

    Kim, Christopher S.; Slack, David H.; Rytuba, James J.


    As a result of extensive gold and silver mining in the Mojave Desert, southern California, mine wastes and tailings containing highly elevated arsenic (As) concentrations remain exposed at a number of former mining sites. Decades of weathering and erosion have contributed to the mobilization of As-enriched tailings, which now contaminate surrounding communities. Fluvial transport plays an intermittent yet important and relatively undocumented role in the migration and dispersal of As-contaminated mine wastes in semi-arid climates. Assessing the contribution of fluvial systems to tailings mobilization is critical in order to assess the distribution and long-term exposure potential of tailings in a mining-impacted environment. Extensive sampling, chemical analysis, and geospatial mapping of dry streambed (wash) sediments, tailings piles, alluvial fans, and rainwater runoff at multiple mine sites have aided the development of a conceptual model to explain the fluvial migration of mine wastes in semi-arid climates. Intense and episodic precipitation events mobilize mine wastes downstream and downslope as a series of discrete pulses, causing dispersion both down and lateral to washes with exponential decay behavior as distance from the source increases. Accordingly a quantitative model of arsenic concentrations in wash sediments, represented as a series of overlapping exponential power-law decay curves, results in the acceptable reproducibility of observed arsenic concentration patterns. Such a model can be transferable to other abandoned mine lands as a predictive tool for monitoring the fate and transport of arsenic and related contaminants in similar settings. Effective remediation of contaminated mine wastes in a semi-arid environment requires addressing concurrent changes in the amounts of potential tailings released through fluvial processes and the transport capacity of a wash.

  17. Alcohol-Related Fan Behavior on College Football Game Day (United States)

    Glassman, Tavis; Werch, Chudley E.; Jobli, Edessa; Bian, Hui


    High-risk drinking on game day represents a unique public health challenge. Objective: The authors examined the drinking behavior of college football fans and assessed the support for related interventions. Participants: The authors randomly selected 762 football fans, including college students, alumni, and other college football fans, to…

  18. Assessment of fluvial geomorphological change in the confluence of Chindwin and Ayeyarwady Rivers in Myanmar using remote sensing (United States)

    Piman, T.; Vasconcelos, V. V.; Apirumanekul, C.; Krittasudthacheewa, C.


    Bank erosion along the braided stretches of Ayeyarwady and Chindwin Rivers has been one of the main concerns at Sagaing region, in Myanmar, because it threatens villages, infrastructure and farmland, while the consequent sedimentation hampers boat transportation. This study assesses the changes on these two river channels and its sandbanks, in their confluence area. A special focus is given to infer the risk of villages to bank erosion. Landsat images from 1973, 1989, and annual series from 1998 to 2015 were used to evaluate frequency and rates of erosion, deposition and vegetation restabilization. Maps showed where the channels maintained stable and which areas faced bank erosion more frequently. From 1973 to 2015, 30% of the river valley in the studied area faced bank erosion. Although the summed area of the river channel remained relatively stable throughout the period, the rates of bank erosion vs. bank restabilization were higher after 2004. Most of the village area in the in the river valley within the bluffs (89% - 71km2) have not faced bank erosion since 1973, while 8.9% (7 km2) are in vulnerable areas that faced erosion before 2012, and bank erosion destroyed 1.3% (1 km2) of the villages from 2012 to 2015. The average rate of village land loss from bank erosion within the river valley from 1973 to 2012 was 0.18 km2/year, but increased to 0.33km2/year during 2012-2015. The villages located just downstream from the confluence of Chindwin and Ayeyarwady River faced higher problems with bank erosion. Approximately half of the village area (51.5% - 87km2) adjacent to the bluffs (outside the river valley) were facing stable land since 1973 (lowest risk), while 5.8% (10 km2) were facing stable river channel (low risk) and 42.7% (73 km2) were facing areas of unstable river channel (possible risk). As for the biggest urban sites, Monywa and Pakokku face areas of unstable river channel, while Sagaing and Myingyan are safer, facing areas of stable land. A detailed

  19. Structural integrity of wind tunnel wooden fan blades (United States)

    Young, Clarence P., Jr.; Wingate, Robert T.; Rooker, James R.; Mort, Kenneth W.; Zager, Harold E.


    Information is presented which was compiled by the NASA Inter-Center Committee on Structural Integrity of Wooden Fan Blades and is intended for use as a guide in design, fabrication, evaluation, and assurance of fan systems using wooden blades. A risk assessment approach for existing NASA wind tunnels with wooden fan blades is provided. Also, state of the art information is provided for wooden fan blade design, drive system considerations, inspection and monitoring methods, and fan blade repair. Proposed research and development activities are discussed, and recommendations are provided which are aimed at future wooden fan blade design activities and safely maintaining existing NASA wind tunnel fan blades. Information is presented that will be of value to wooden fan blade designers, fabricators, inspectors, and wind tunnel operations personnel.

  20. Geomorphic Characterization of the FortyMile Wash Alluvial Fan, Nye County, Nevada, In Support of the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline; De Long; Pelletier; Harrington


    In the event of an unlikely volcanic eruption through the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, contaminated ash would be deposited in portions of the Fortymile Wash drainage basin and would subsequently be redistributed to the Fortymile Wash alluvial fan by fluvial processes. As part of an effort to quantify the transport of contaminated ash throughout the fluvial system, characterization of the Fortymile Wash alluvial fan is required, especially the spatial distribution of fluvial activity over time scales of repository operation, and the rates of radionuclide migration into different soils on the fan. The Fortymile Wash alluvial fan consists of extremely low relief terraces as old as 70 ka. By conducting soils-geomorphic mapping and correlating relative surface ages with available geochronology from the Fortymile Wash fan and adjacent piedmonts, we identified 4 distinct surfaces on the fan. Surface ages are used to predict the relative stability of different areas of the fan to fluvial activity. Pleistocene-aged surfaces are assumed to be fluvially inactive over the 10 kyr time scale, for example. Our mapping and correlation provides a map of the depozone for contaminated ash that takes into account long-term channel migration the time scales of repository operation, and it provides a geomorphic framework for predicting radionuclide dispersion rates into different soils across the fan. The standard model for vertical migration of radionuclides in soil is diffusion; therefore we used diffusion profiles derived from 137 Cs fallout to determine infiltration rates on the various geomorphic surfaces. The results show a strong inverse correlation of the geomorphic surface age and diffusivity values inferred from the 137 Cs profiles collected on the different surfaces of the fan

  1. Amazonian-aged fluvial system and associated ice-related features in Terra Cimmeria, Mars (United States)

    Adeli, Solmaz; Hauber, Ernst; Kleinhans, Maarten; Le Deit, Laetitia; Platz, Thomas; Fawdon, Peter; Jaumann, Ralf


    The Martian climate throughout the Amazonian is widely believed to have been cold and hyper-arid, very similar to the current conditions. However, ubiquitous evidence of aqueous and glacial activity has been recently reported, including channels that can be tens to hundreds of kilometres long, alluvial and fluvial deposits, ice-rich mantles, and glacial and periglacial landforms. Here we study a ∼340 km-long fluvial system located in the Terra Cimmeria region, in the southern mid-latitudes of Mars. The fluvial system is composed of an upstream catchment system with narrow glaciofluvial valleys and remnants of ice-rich deposits. We observe depositional features including fan-shaped deposits, and erosional features such as scour marks and streamlined islands. At the downstream section of this fluvial system is an outflow channel named Kārūn Valles, which displays a unique braided alluvial fan and terminates on the floor of the Ariadnes Colles basin. Our observations point to surface runoff of ice/snow melt as the water source for this fluvial activity. According to our crater size-frequency distribution analysis the entire fluvial system formed during early to middle Amazonian, between ∼ 1.8-0.2+0.2 Ga to 510-40+40 Ma. Hydraulic modelling indicates that the Kārūn Valles and consequently the alluvial fan formation took place in geologically short-term event(s). We conclude that liquid water was present in Terra Cimmeria during the early to middle Amazonian, and that Mars during that time may have undergone several episodic glacial-related events.


    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics. RUO-FAN QIU. Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics. Volume 89 Issue 6 December 2017 pp 81 Research Article. Three-dimensional coupled double-distribution-function lattice Boltzmann models for compressible Navier–Stokes equations · RUO-FAN QIU ...

  3. yi fan zheng

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. YI FAN ZHENG. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 40 Issue 7 December 2017 pp 1329-1333. Synthesis and enhanced photocatalytic activity of g-C 3 N 4 hybridized CdS nanoparticles · QING YING LIU YI LING QI YI FAN ZHENG XU CHUN SONG.

  4. Assessing the role of detrital zircon sorting on provenance interpretations in an ancient fluvial system using paleohydraulics - Permian Cutler Group, Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado (United States)

    Findlay, C. P., III; Ewing, R. C.; Perez, N. D.


    Detrital zircon age signatures used in provenance studies are assumed to be representative of entire catchments from which the sediment was derived, but the extent to which hydraulic sorting can bias provenance interpretations is poorly constrained. Sediment and mineral sorting occurs with changes in hydraulic conditions driven by both allogenic and autogenic processes. Zircon is sorted from less dense minerals due to the difference in density, and any age dependence on zircon size could potentially bias provenance interpretations. In this study, a coupled paleohydraulic and geochemical provenance approach is used to identify changes in paleohydraulic conditions and relate them to spatial variations in provenance signatures from samples collected along an approximately time-correlative source-to-sink pathway in the Permian Cutler Group of the Paradox Basin. Samples proximal to the uplift have a paleoflow direction to the southwest. In the medial basin, paleocurrent direction indicates salt movement caused fluvial pathways divert to the north and northwest on the flanks of anticlines. Channel depth, flow velocity, and discharge calculations were derived from field measurements of grain size and dune and bar cross-stratification indicate that competency of the fluvial system decreased from proximal to the medial basin by up to a factor of 12. Based upon the paleohydraulic calculations, zircon size fractionation would occur along the transect such that the larger zircons are removed from the system prior to reaching the medial basin. Analysis of the size and age distribution of zircons from the proximal and distal fluvial system of the Cutler Group tests if this hydraulic sorting affects the expected Uncompahgre Uplift age distribution.

  5. Fluvial geomorphology and river engineering: future roles utilizing a fluvial hydrosystems framework (United States)

    Gilvear, David J.


    River engineering is coming under increasing public scrutiny given failures to prevent flood hazards and economic and environmental concerns. This paper reviews the contribution that fluvial geomorphology can make in the future to river engineering. In particular, it highlights the need for fluvial geomorphology to be an integral part in engineering projects, that is, to be integral to the planning, implementation, and post-project appraisal stages of engineering projects. It should be proactive rather than reactive. Areas in which geomorphologists will increasingly be able to complement engineers in river management include risk and environmental impact assessment, floodplain planning, river audits, determination of instream flow needs, river restoration, and design of ecologically acceptable channels and structures. There are four key contributions that fluvial geomorphology can make to the engineering profession with regard to river and floodplain management: to promote recognition of lateral, vertical, and downstream connectivity in the fluvial system and the inter-relationships between river planform, profile, and cross-section; to stress the importance of understanding fluvial history and chronology over a range of time scales, and recognizing the significance of both palaeo and active landforms and deposits as indicators of levels of landscape stability; to highlight the sensitivity of geomorphic systems to environmental disturbances and change, especially when close to geomorphic thresholds, and the dynamics of the natural systems; and to demonstrate the importance of landforms and processes in controlling and defining fluvial biotopes and to thus promote ecologically acceptable engineering. Challenges facing fluvial geomorphology include: gaining full acceptance by the engineering profession; widespread utilization of new technologies including GPS, GIS, image analysis of satellite and airborne remote sensing data, computer-based hydraulic modeling and

  6. Online Fan Practices and CALL (United States)

    Sauro, Shannon


    This article provides a narrative overview of research on online fan practices for language and literacy learning, use, and identity work. I begin with an introduction to online fan communities and common fan practices found in these online affinity spaces, the best known of which is fan fiction, fictional writing that reinterprets and remixes the…

  7. Assessment of Karst Spring Features in a typical Mediterranean fluvial landscape with an Interdisciplinary Investigation nased on Radon-222 as an Environmental Indicator. The case study of the Bussento River basin (Campania region, Southern Italy). (United States)

    Cuomo, A.; Guadagnuolo, D.; Guida, D.; Guida, M.; Knoeller, K.; Schubert, M.; Siervo, V.


    Karst aquifers provide 25% of the overall drinking water resources to the world's population and sustain aquatic life in most fluvial systems, providing several ecological services to human beings, although, because of their complex links between surface and groundwater, turn out to be very vulnerable to contamination and pollution. Hydrological assessment of karst systems reveals to be extremely complex and difficult and requires a stepwise multi-tracers approach. This work describes some of the most relevant findings obtained from the implementation of an interdisciplinary approach based on the use of Environmental Tracers, consisting of Naturally Occurring Radionuclides like Radon-222 (referred to as Radon), for the investigation of Groundwater/Surface water Interaction (GSI) processes in fluvial water bodies. In particular, Radon activity concentration measurement data having been collected from streamflow and instream springs during monthly field campaigns performed in a typical Mediterranean karst river basin: the Bussento river system (Campania region, Southern Italy). The general task has been to investigate the complex interactions and exchanges between streamflow and groundwater in a fluvial water body, at scales that are imperceptible to standard hydrological and hydraulic analyses. The Bussento River basin has been chosen as a study case for the following features of extreme relevance: Its location inside the Cilento and Vallo di Diano National Park, its inclusion of a WWF Nature Reserve, it represents a remarkable Drinking Water resource for the territory and last but not least its system includes Submarine Groundwater Discharges (SGD) to the Policastro Gulf. All these issues causes, therefore, that the management of its relevant water resources requires not only groundwater protection for domestic drinking use, but also riverine wildlife preservation and coastal water quality maintenance. As a support for hydro-geomorphological and hydrological

  8. Football - Feminisation - Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mintert, Svenja-Maria

    the number of female fans in football has grown over the past years. A national sense of community, emotion and passion for the game is in particular reached during the international tournaments at live football spectacles and many female fans cheer and sing for ‘their’ team with the utmost conviction. Yet...... sociological theories. The objective is, first, to develop new knowledge and understanding about the impact of football on gendered identity construction and negotiation – in both the performance and the consumption of football – and how these female fans contribute to a European dialogue, the gender......-specific experience and acting out of fandom, and the intersection between gender and national/European identity. The second objective is to study the role of gender in football and fan cultures with regard to gender-specific patterns of cross-cultural communication and identification. The third objective...

  9. Fans af Bruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaaben, Nana Katrine


    Analysen viser, hvordan det samme ritual under en koncert forener og opdeler de fans, der orienterer sig mod Bruce Springsteen. På den ene side forener ritualet hele publikum i en stor fælles "Intimitet for mange" og på den anden side splitter det dem, fordi det bliver tydeligt, hvem der er de...... rigtige fans, og hvem der tilhører "pøbelen"....

  10. Design definition study of a life/cruise fan technology V/STOL aircraft. Volume 2, addendum 2: Program risk assessment (United States)


    The results are presented of a risk assessment study conducted on two technology aircraft. The aircraft system components were reviewed and assessed for risk based on: (1) complexity relative to state-of-the-art, (2) manufacturing and qualification testing, (3) availability and delays, and (4) cost/schedule impact. These assessments were based on five risk nomenclatures: low, minor, moderate, high, and extreme. Each aircraft system was assigned an overall risk rating depending upon its contribution to the capability of the aircraft to achieve the performance goals. The slightly lower Sabreliner performance margin is due to the restricted flight envelope, the fixed landing gear, and internal fuel capacity. The Sabreliner with retractable gear and allowed to fly at its best speed and altitude would reflect performance margins similar to the New Airframe. These significant margins, inherent with the MCAIR three gas generator/three fan propulsion system, are major modifiers to risk assessment of both aircraft. The estimated risk and the associated key system and performance areas are tabulated.

  11. High Recharge Areas in the Choushui River Alluvial Fan (Taiwan Assessed from Recharge Potential Analysis and Average Storage Variation Indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Pin Tsai


    Full Text Available High recharge areas significantly influence the groundwater quality and quantity in regional groundwater systems. Many studies have applied recharge potential analysis (RPA to estimate groundwater recharge potential (GRP and have delineated high recharge areas based on the estimated GRP. However, most of these studies define the RPA parameters with supposition, and this represents a major source of uncertainty for applying RPA. To objectively define the RPA parameter values without supposition, this study proposes a systematic method based on the theory of parameter identification. A surrogate variable, namely the average storage variation (ASV index, is developed to calibrate the RPA parameters, because of the lack of direct GRP observations. The study results show that the correlations between the ASV indexes and computed GRP values improved from 0.67 before calibration to 0.85 after calibration, thus indicating that the calibrated RPA parameters represent the recharge characteristics of the study area well; these data also highlight how defining the RPA parameters with ASV indexes can help to improve the accuracy. The calibrated RPA parameters were used to estimate the GRP distribution of the study area, and the GRP values were graded into five levels. High and excellent level areas are defined as high recharge areas, which composed 7.92% of the study area. Overall, this study demonstrates that the developed approach can objectively define the RPA parameters and high recharge areas of the Choushui River alluvial fan, and the results should serve as valuable references for the Taiwanese government in their efforts to conserve the groundwater quality and quantity of the study area.

  12. Variable scale channel avulsion history using fan architecture and stratigraphy, and sediment provenance of Sutlej-Yamuna fans in northwest Gangetic plains during Late Quaternary (United States)

    Singh, Ajit; Gupta, Sanjeev; Sinha, Rajiv; Densmore, Alexander; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Carter, Andrew; Van-Dijk, Wout M.; Joshi, Suneel; Nayak, Nibedita; Mason, Philippa J.; Kumar, Dewashish; Mondal, Setbandhu; Murray, Andrew; Rai, Shiv P.; Shekhar, Shashank


    Channel avulsion during fan development controls distribution and deposition of channel sandbodies and hence alluvial architecture of a fan system. Variable scale spatio-temporal information of fluvial responses to past climate changes is stored in these channel sandbodies. Further these channel sandbodies form fluvial aquifers in alluvial fans and therefore understanding of alluvial architecture and stratigraphy of a fan is crucial for development of groundwater management strategies. In this study we used multiple approaches to map subsurface fluvial aquifer architecture and alluvial stratigraphy, and to estimate sediment provenance using U-Pb dating of detrital zircon grains of Sutlej-Yamuna fan system in northwest India. Satellite imagery based geomorphic mapping shows two large fan system with interfan area. The fan surfaces show presence of major and minor paleochannels. 2D resistivity tomography along several transects across fan surfaces shows distinct layers with contrasting resistivity values. These geo-electric facies corresponds to presence of channel sandbodies beneath surface signature of paleochannels and finer floodplain deposits useful to demarcate lateral extent of subsurface channel sandbodies. A more detailed subsurface stratigraphy using ~50m deep sediment cores and their luminescence ages from across fan surface shows presence of multi-storey sandbodies (MSB) separated by floodplain fines. Within the MSB, individual channel deposits are identified by presence of channel scour surfaces located at coarse sand overlying fine sand layer. Depositional ages of MSB's ranges from ~81 ka (late MIS5) to ~15 ka (MIS2) with major depositional break during MIS3 in parts of the fans. Sediment aggradation rate varies laterally across fan surface as well as vertically down the depth with an average rate of 0.54 mm/year. Fluvial channel persistence for studied time interval (about last 81 ka BP) shows major depositional breaks (and possible incision) at ~41 ka

  13. Smart Fan Modules And System (United States)

    Cipolla, Thomas M.; Kaufman, Richard I.; Mok, Lawrence S.


    A fan module including: two or more individual fans, each fan having an air movement means and a motor engaged with the air movement means for accelerating air entering each of the two or more individual fans; a temperature sensor for sensing a temperature associated with the two or more fans and for outputting a first signal corresponding to the temperature; rotational speed sensor for outputting a second signal corresponding to a rotational speed of each of the two or more fans; and a processor for receiving the first and second signals and controlling the two or more individual fans based on the first and second signals. A fan module including: two or more individual fans, each fan having an air movement means and a motor engaged with the air movement means for accelerating air entering each of the two or more individual fans; a temperature sensor for sensing a temperature associated with the two or more fans and for outputting a first signal corresponding to the temperature; rotational speed sensor for outputting a second signal corresponding to a rotational speed of each of the two or more fans; and a processor for receiving the first and second signals and controlling the two or more individual fans based on the first and second signals.

  14. Fluvial systems and their sedimentary models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragomir Skabeme


    Full Text Available The Slovenian géomorphologie and sedimentologie terminology for fluvial depositional environments is not established yet. Therefore a classification and the proposal for Slovenian names of fluvial sedimentary and erosional forms and influences controlling them are discussed. Attention is given to the problems of recognition of sedimentary environments in sedimentary rocks, and to fluvial sedimentary models.

  15. Analysis of dynamic parameters of mine fans (United States)

    Russky, E. Yu


    The design of the rotor of an axial fan and its main units, namely double leaf blades impeller and the main shaft are discussed. The parameters of a disturbed mine air flow under sudden outbursts are determined and the influence of disturbances on frequencies of axial fan units is assessed. The scope of the assessment embraces the disturbance effect on the blades and on the torsional vibrations of the main shafts. The dependences of the stresses in the elements of the rotor versus the disturbed air flow parameters are derived.

  16. Fan Size and Foil Type in Recognition Memory. (United States)

    Walls, Richard T.; And Others

    An experiment involving 20 graduate and undergraduate students (7 males and 13 females) at West Virginia University (Morgantown) assessed "fan network structures" of recognition memory. A fan in network memory structure occurs when several facts are connected into a single node (concept). The more links from that concept to various…

  17. 30 CFR 57.4504 - Fan installations. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fan installations. 57.4504 Section 57.4504... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4504 Fan installations. (a) Fan houses, fan bulkheads for main and booster fans, and air ducts connecting main fans to underground openings shall be...

  18. ENERGY STAR Certified Ceiling Fans (United States)

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Ceiling Fans that are effective as of April 1, 2012. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at

  19. ENERGY STAR Certified Ventilating Fans (United States)

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Ventilating Fans that are effective as of October 1, 2015. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at

  20. Protracted fluvial recovery from medieval earthquakes, Pokhara, Nepal (United States)

    Stolle, Amelie; Bernhardt, Anne; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Andermann, Christoff; Schönfeldt, Elisabeth; Seidemann, Jan; Adhikari, Basanta R.; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver


    River response to strong earthquake shaking in mountainous terrain often entails the flushing of sediments delivered by widespread co-seismic landsliding. Detailed mass-balance studies following major earthquakes in China, Taiwan, and New Zealand suggest fluvial recovery times ranging from several years to decades. We report a detailed chronology of earthquake-induced valley fills in the Pokhara region of western-central Nepal, and demonstrate that rivers continue to adjust to several large medieval earthquakes to the present day, thus challenging the notion of transient fluvial response to seismic disturbance. The Pokhara valley features one of the largest and most extensively dated sedimentary records of earthquake-triggered sedimentation in the Himalayas, and independently augments paleo-seismological archives obtained mainly from fault trenches and historic documents. New radiocarbon dates from the catastrophically deposited Pokhara Formation document multiple phases of extremely high geomorphic activity between ˜700 and ˜1700 AD, preserved in thick sequences of alternating fluvial conglomerates, massive mud and silt beds, and cohesive debris-flow deposits. These dated fan-marginal slackwater sediments indicate pronounced sediment pulses in the wake of at least three large medieval earthquakes in ˜1100, 1255, and 1344 AD. We combine these dates with digital elevation models, geological maps, differential GPS data, and sediment logs to estimate the extent of these three pulses that are characterized by sedimentation rates of ˜200 mm yr-1 and peak rates as high as 1,000 mm yr-1. Some 5.5 to 9 km3 of material infilled the pre-existing topography, and is now prone to ongoing fluvial dissection along major canyons. Contemporary river incision into the Pokhara Formation is rapid (120-170 mm yr-1), triggering widespread bank erosion, channel changes, and very high sediment yields of the order of 103 to 105 t km-2 yr-1, that by far outweigh bedrock denudation rates

  1. The Fabulous Fact Fan. (United States)

    Couch, Jene P.


    Discusses the use and construction of "fact fans," fun and easy-to-make manipulatives that provide elementary school students with the opportunity to explore mathematics operations being studied in the classroom and to practice addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division facts. (BB)

  2. A multiple dating approach (luminescence and electron spin resonance) to assess rates of crustal deformation using Quaternary fluvial terraces of the lower Moulouya River (NE Morocco) (United States)

    Bartz, Melanie; Rixhon, Gilles; Duval, Mathieu; King, Georgina; Brückner, Helmut


    The Moulouya River, the largest catchment in Morocco, drains an area characterized by active crustal deformation during the Late Cenozoic due to the convergence between the African and Eurasian plates. Our study focuses on the lowermost reach of the river in NE Morocco, where a thrust zone associated with N-S compressive shortening in this region was identified (Barcos et al., 2014; Rixhon et al., 2017). New geomorphological results demonstrate contrasting fluvial environments on each side of the thrust: long-lasting fluvial aggradation, materialized by >37 m-thick stacked fill terraces, and the development of a well-preserved terrace staircase, with three Pleistocene terrace levels, occurred in the footwall and the hanging wall, respectively (Rixhon et al., 2017). Here, we present a preliminary geochronological background for these contrasting terrace systems based on a multiple dating approach. Samples for (i) luminescence (pIRIR225 and pIRIR290 dating of coarse-grained K-feldspars) and (ii) electron spin resonance (ESR dating of coarse-grained quartz) from four different profiles were collected. (i) Due to the application of the athermal detrapping model by Huntley (2006) (modified after Kars et al., 2008), it appears that the feldspar signals are in sample specific field saturation. Our results yielded minimum ages of 0.9 Ma and 0.7 Ma for the footwall and hanging wall, respectively. (ii) Using the multiple centre approach with ESR dating (Duval et al., 2015), we measured both the aluminium (Al) and the titanium (Ti) centres in order to evaluate whether they would provide consistent results. Results indicate that De values of the Al centre are either slightly higher compared to those of the Ti centre or they agree within a 1σ-error range, which may simply be due to the slower bleaching kinetics of the Al centre. Thus, the ESR ages were inferred from the Ti centre. Ages between 1.35±0.10 and 1.17±0.10 Ma in the footwall show sediment aggradation between MIS

  3. Costs and benefits of energy efficiency improvements in ceiling fans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Nihar; Sathaye, Nakul; Phadke, Amol; Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technology Division


    Ceiling fans contribute significantly to residential electricity consumption, especially in developing countries with warm climates. The paper provides analysis of costs and benefits of several options to improve the efficiency of ceiling fans to assess the global potential for electricity savings and green house gas (GHG) emission reductions. Ceiling fan efficiency can be cost-effectively improved by at least 50% using commercially available technology. If these efficiency improvements are implemented in all ceiling fans sold by 2020, 70 terawatt hours per year could be saved and 25 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) emissions per year could be avoided, globally. We assess how policies and programs such as standards, labels, and financial incentives can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient ceiling fans in order to realize potential savings.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Dostal


    Full Text Available This paper presents results obtained between 2010 and 2014 in the field of fan aerodynamics at the Department of Composite Technology at the VZLÚ aerospace research and experimental institute in Prague – Letnany. The need for rapid and accurate methods for the preliminary design of blade machinery led to the creation of a mathematical model based on the basic laws of turbomachine aerodynamics. The mathematical model, the derivation of which is briefly described below, has been encoded in a computer programme, which enables the theoretical characteristics of a fan of the designed geometry to be determined rapidly. The validity of the mathematical model is assessed continuously by measuring model fans in the measuring unit, which was developed and manufactured specifically for this purpose. The paper also presents a comparison between measured characteristics and characteristics determined by the mathematical model as the basis for a discussion on possible causes of measured deviations and calculation deviations.

  5. Precautions against axial fan stall in reactor building to Tianwan NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chunlong; Pei Junmin


    The paper introduces the mechanism and harm of rotating stall of axial fans, analyzes the necessity for prevention against axial fan stall in reactor building of Tianwan NPP, introduces the precautions, and then makes an assessment on anti-stall effect of flow separators. It can provide reference for model-selection or reconstruction of similar fans in power stations, and for operation and maintenance of axial fans. (authors)

  6. Regional and local risk assessments of alluvial fans by combination of historical and geomorphological data on debris flows, the most damaging natural hazard in the Aosta Valley Region (NW-Italy) (United States)

    Giardino, Marco; Ratto, Sara; Alberto, Walter; Armand, Marco; Cignetti, Martina; Palomba, Mauro; Navillod, Evelyne


    The Aosta Valley (NW-Italy) is a small alpine Region (area = 3262 km2) where alluvial fans occupy large sectors of the main valley bottom and also of the tributary valleys; most towns and villages lie in these sectors which are frequently affected by different geomorphological processes, including debris flows. For a best environmental hazard assessment and management of alluvial fans, a research project has been carried out with a particular attention to debris flows, responsible for causing major damages to human activities and infrastructures. A debris flows inventory on a regional scale has been created, combining historical data (1900 to present), technical maps and geomorphological analysis on the alluvial fans areas. A complex methodology for data collection and analysis has been organized in two different stages. As a first step, aerial photointerpretation and Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) analysis were conducted over the Aosta Valley Region to obtain a complete fans inventory and to identify the most affected sectors by debris flows. As a second step, data on debris flow events occurred in the Region has been collected from different sources, such as bibliographic and historical data, municipality hazard maps for land planning restriction and drainage basin technical studies. For each inventored debris flow, aerial photointerpretations have been performed to validate geomorphological and historical data, mostly collected during major regional flood events. Finally, the selected debris flow events has been formally organized in a GIS to perform spatial and statistical analysis. Application of the methodology to the complete Aosta Valley Region dataset involved the overcoming of some difficulties, such as: 1) correct identification of repeated events from different sources, 2) exact recognition of small phenomena by photointerpretation and 3) problems related to the rapid landforms obliteration. The preliminary results of the research activity are outlined

  7. Stranger than fiction: Fan identity in cosplay


    Nicolle Lamerichs


    Academic accounts of fan cultures usually focus on creative practices such as fan fiction, fan videos, and fan art. Through these practices, fans, as an active audience, closely interpret existing texts and rework them with texts of their own. A practice scarcely examined is cosplay ("costume play"), in which fans produce their own costumes inspired by fictional characters. Cosplay is a form of appropriation that transforms and actualizes an existing story in close connection to the fan commu...

  8. The evaluation of consistency between body composition assessments in pediatric population using pencil beam and fan beam dual-energy x-ray absorptiometers. (United States)

    Pludowski, Pawel; Jaworski, Maciej; Matusik, Halina; Kobylinska, Maria; Klimek, Paulina; Lorenc, Roman S


    The replacement of the old dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry system with a novel one should be preceded by a cross-calibration procedure. Therefore, the study was aimed at investigating the consistency of bone and body composition measures performed in pediatric population using pencil beam (DPX-L; GE Healthcare, GE Healthcare, Madison, WI) and fan beam (Prodigy; GE Healthcare, GE Healthcare, Madison, WI) densitometers. The study group consisted of 212 healthy children aged 4-18yr. Total body (TB) and lumbar spine (S) (L2-L4) measurements were performed using DPX-L and Prodigy during the same visit. Bland-Altman analysis, linear regressions, and paired t-test were performed to evaluate the consistency of measurements and to establish a cross-calibration equation. The average Prodigy values for TB and lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) were 2.7%, 2.4% and 1.6%, 1.6% higher than those of DPX-L, respectively (pProdigy-assessed bone area (BA) was lower by 1.4% for TBBA (pProdigy was higher by 6.9% (pProdigy devices were highly correlated, showing R(2) values ranging from 0.976 for FM to 0.994 for SBMC. The results of this study document a necessity for implementation of calculated cross-calibration equations to transform DPX-L-based local pediatric references into a novel Prodigy system. Copyright (c) 2010 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. On Fan Raspaud Conjecture


    Fouquet, Jean-Luc; Vanherpe, Jean-Marie


    A conjecture of Fan and Raspaud [3] asserts that every bridgeless cubic graph con-tains three perfect matchings with empty intersection. Kaiser and Raspaud [6] sug-gested a possible approach to this problem based on the concept of a balanced join in an embedded graph. We give here some new results concerning this conjecture and prove that a minimum counterexample must have at least 32 vertices.

  10. Quaternary alluvial fans of Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, northern México: OSL ages and implications for climatic history of the region (United States)

    Zúñiga de León, David; Kershaw, Stephen; Mahan, Shannon


    Alluvial fans formed from sediments derived from erosion of the Juárez Mountains in northernmost México have a significant flood impact on the Ciudad Juárez, which is built on the fan system. The northern part of Ciudad Juárez is the most active; further south, older parts of the fan, upon which the rest of the city is built, were largely eroded by natural processes prior to human habitation and subsequently modified only recently by human construction. Three aeolian sand samples, collected from the uppermost (youngest) parts of the fan system in the city area, in places where human intervention has not disturbed the sediment, and constrain the latest dates of fan building. Depositional ages of the Quaternary alluvial fans were measured using Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) on aeolian sands that have inter-fingered with alluvial fan material. These dates are: a) sample P1, 31 ka; b) sample P2, 41 ka; c) sample P3, 74 ka, between Oxygen Isotope Stages (OIS) 3 to 5. They demonstrate that fan development, in the area now occupied by the city, terminated in the Late Pleistocene, immediately after what we interpret to have been an extended period of erosion without further deposition, lasting from the Late Pleistocene to Holocene. The three dates broadly correspond to global glacial periods, implying that the cool, dry periods may reflect periods of aeolian transport in northern México in between phases that were wetter to form the alluvial fans. Alluvial fan margins inter-finger with fluvial terrace sediments derived from the Río Bravo, indicating an additional component of fan dissection by Río Bravo lateral erosion, presumed to be active during earlier times than our OSL ages, but these are not yet dated. Further dating is required to ascertain the controls on the fan and fluvial system.

  11. Observational Analysis of Coronal Fans (United States)

    Talpeanu, D.-C.; Rachmeler, L; Mierla, Marilena


    Coronal fans (see Figure 1) are bright observational structures that extend to large distances above the solar surface and can easily be seen in EUV (174 angstrom) above the limb. They have a very long lifetime and can live up to several Carrington rotations (CR), remaining relatively stationary for many months. Note that they are not off-limb manifestation of similarly-named active region fans. The solar conditions required to create coronal fans are not well understood. The goal of this research was to find as many associations as possible of coronal fans with other solar features and to gain a better understanding of these structures. Therefore, we analyzed many fans and created an overview of their properties. We present the results of this statistical analysis and also a case study on the longest living fan.

  12. "The Waters of Meridiani" - Further Support for a Fluvial Interpretation of the Ridged, Layered Units (United States)

    Wilkinson, Justin; Kreslavsky, Misha


    A relatively unknown terrestrial fluvial environment, the mesoscale megafan, provides analogs for various Martian landscapes, including the etched unit (etched unit, Unite E of Arvidson et al., 2003; ridge-forming unit R of Edgett, 2005) of the Sinus Meridiani region on Mars. A global survey of Earth shows that megafans are very large partial cones of dominantly fluvial sediment with radii on the order of hundreds of km, and very low slopes. Responsible fluvial processes are sufficiently different from those of classical arid alluvial fans and deltas that it is useful to class megafans as separate features. The megafan model calls into question two commonly held ideas. 1. Earth examples prove that topographic basins per se are unnecessary for the accumulation of large sedimentary bodies. 2. River channels are by no means restricted to valleys (Meridiani sediments are termed a "valley-ed volume" of Edgett). These perspectives reveal unexpected parallels with features at Meridiani-several channel-like features that are widespread, mostly as ridges inverted by eolian erosion; channel networks covering thousands of sq km, especially on intercrater plains; and regional relationships of sediment bodies situated immediately downstream of highland masses. These all suggest that fluvial explanations are at least part of the Meridiani story.

  13. 75 FR 79952 - Airworthiness Directives; DASSAULT AVIATION Model Falcon 10 Airplanes; Model FAN JET FALCON, FAN... (United States)


    ... Airworthiness Directives; DASSAULT AVIATION Model Falcon 10 Airplanes; Model FAN JET FALCON, FAN JET FALCON.... (1) DASSAULT AVIATION Model Falcon 10 airplanes, Model FAN JET FALCON, FAN JET FALCON SERIES C, D, E... airplanes Inspection threshold (whichever occurs later) Inspection interval Model FAN JET FALCON, FAN JET...

  14. Dynamic and Implications of Football Fans' Club and Fans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Alvan-Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri, Imo State ... Owerri, Imo State. Abstract. The study found out the dynamics of becoming football fans and supporting the chosen football teams by tertiary students in Lagos. Basically, the ... sense of social affiliation, identity and self-esteem are boosted and those of the fan of.

  15. Fluvial sedimentology of a major uranium-bearing sandstone - A study of the Westwater Canyon member of the Morrison Formation, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner-Peterson, C.E.


    The Westwater Canyon Member of the Morrison Formation, the main ore-bearing sandstone in the San Juan basin, consists of a sequence of vertically stacked braided stream deposits. Three fluvial units within the sequence can be delineated in the basin. Volcanic pebbles are abundant in the middle fluvial unit, in a zone that forms a crude time line. A pronounced thickening of sandstone in the Westwater Canyon Member north of Gallup, once believed to be the apex of a large alluvial fan, is now thought to merely reflect a greater accumulation of sediment in response to downwarping of the basin in that area. Provenance studies suggest that highlands that contributed detritus to Westwater Canyon streams were located several hundred kilometers to the west and southwest of the San Juan basin, and thus fan apices would also have been several hundred kilometers upstream. The fluvial units recognized in the basin may well be coalesced distal fan deposits, but are probably best interpreted as vertically stacked braided steam sequences. Facies changes in fine-grained interbeds of the Westwater Canyon probably have greater significance in terms of localizing ore than any special attribute of the fluvial sandstones themselves. Uranium ore generally occurs in sandstones that are interbedded with greenish-gray lacustrine mudstones. Pore waters that were expelled from these mudstones are thought to have been the source of the pore-filling organic matter (humate) associated with primary uranium ore in nearby sandstones

  16. Fan Cart: The Next Generation (United States)

    Lamore, Brian


    For years the fan cart has provided physics students with an excellent resource for exploring fundamental mechanics concepts such as acceleration, Newton's laws, impulse, momentum, work-energy, and energy conversions. "The Physics Teacher" has even seen some excellent do-it-yourself (DIY) fan carts and activities. If you are interested…

  17. Consequence analysis of fluvial erosion scenarios for an HLW repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Kaname; Inagaki, Manabu; Kawamura, Makoto; Mckinley, Ian G.; Ebina, Takanori


    In Japan, uplift/erosion scenarios must be analysed even if they occur far in the future, as no assessment cut-off times have yet been defined. For this purpose, the geological record of river terrace formation and their long-term evolution have been studied further, with the aim of constructing a better defined fluvial erosion model than the original, rather simple cyclic fluvial erosion model developed in a previous study. The developed conceptual model, based on a generalization of field observations in relevant settings, allows the consequences of erosion of the repository to be assessed just as before, using comparisons with natural radionuclide fluxes. Results illustrate the effectiveness and robustness of the H12 HLW disposal system and indicate that erosion scenarios are unlikely to be critical for distinguishing between different sites that lie in similar mid-range river settings. (author)

  18. Potential Global Benefits of Improved Ceiling Fan Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Nakul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shah, Nihar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Ceiling fans contribute significantly to residential electricity consumption, both in an absolute sense and as a proportion of household consumption in many locations, especially in developing countries in warm climates. However, there has been little detailed assessment of the costs and benefits of efficiency improvement options for ceiling fans and the potential resulting electricity consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions. We analyze the costs and benefits of several options to improve the efficiency of ceiling fans and assess the global potential for electricity savings and GHG emission reductions with more detailed assessments for India, China, and the U.S. We find that ceiling fan efficiency can be cost-effectively improved by at least 50% using commercially available technology. If these efficiency improvements are implemented in all ceiling fans sold by 2020, 70 terrawatt hours per year (TWh/year) could be saved and 25 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per year could be avoided, globally. We assess how policies and programs such as standards, labels, and financial incentives can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient ceiling fans in order to realize this savings potential.

  19. High- and low-latitude forcing of the Nile River regime during the Holocene inferred from laminated sediments of the Nile deep-sea fan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanchet, C.; Tjallingii, R.; Frank, M.; Lorenzen, J.; Reitz, A.; Brown, K.; Feseker, T.; Brückmann, W.


    Sediments deposited on deep-sea fans are an excellent geological archive to reconstruct past changes in fluvial discharge. Here we present a reconstruction of changes in the regime of the Nile River during the Holocene obtained using bulk elemental composition, grain-size analyses and radiogenic

  20. A history of RPGs: Made by fans; played by fans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Mason


    Full Text Available I explore some aspects of the early history of tabletop role-playing games (RPGs that are perhaps not well known among media scholars, and which offer an alternative take on the idea of fan activity.

  1. Fan fiction, early Greece, and the historicity of canon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahuvia Kahane


    Full Text Available The historicity of canon is considered with an emphasis on contemporary fan fiction and early Greek oral epic traditions. The essay explores the idea of canon by highlighting historical variance, exposing wider conceptual isomorphisms, and formulating a revised notion of canonicity. Based on an analysis of canon in early Greece, the discussion moves away from the idea of canon as a set of valued works and toward canon as a practice of containment in response to inherent states of surplus. This view of canon is applied to the practice of fan fiction, reestablishing the idea of canonicity in fluid production environments within a revised, historically specific understanding in early oral traditions on the one hand and in digital cultures and fan fiction on the other. Several examples of early epigraphic Greek texts embedded in oral environments are analyzed and assessed in terms of their implications for an understanding of fan fiction and its modern contexts.

  2. 14 CFR 29.908 - Cooling fans. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooling fans. 29.908 Section 29.908... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant General § 29.908 Cooling fans. For cooling fans that are a part of a powerplant installation the following apply: (a) Category A. For cooling fans installed...

  3. A stochastic dynamic model to assess land use change scenarios on the ecological status of fluvial water bodies under the Water Framework Directive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Samantha Jane, E-mail: [Fluvial Ecology Laboratory, CITAB – Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real (Portugal); Cabral, João Alexandre, E-mail: [Laboratory of Applied Ecology, CITAB – Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real (Portugal); Bastos, Rita, E-mail: [Laboratory of Applied Ecology, CITAB – Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real (Portugal); Cortes, Rui, E-mail: [Fluvial Ecology Laboratory, CITAB – Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real (Portugal); Vicente, Joana, E-mail: [Centro de Investigacão em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos (CIBIO), Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); Eitelberg, David, E-mail: [Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Yu, Huirong, E-mail: [Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, 2 Yuanmingyuan W. Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100193 (China); and others


    This method development paper outlines an integrative stochastic dynamic methodology (StDM) framework to anticipate land use (LU) change effects on the ecological status of monitored and non-monitored lotic surface waters under the Water Framework Directive (WFD). Tested in the Alto Minho River Basin District in North West Portugal, the model is an innovative step towards developing a decision-making and planning tool to assess the influence impacts such as LU change and climate change on these complex systems. Comprising a series of sequential steps, a Generalized Linear Model based, competing model Multi Model Inference (MMI) approach was used for parameter estimation to identify principal land use types (distal factors) driving change in biological and physicochemical support elements (proximal factors) in monitored water bodies. The framework integrated MMI constants and coefficients of selected LU categories in the StDM simulations and spatial projections to simulate the ecological status of monitored and non-monitored lotic waterbodies in the test area under 2 scenarios of (1) LU intensification and (2) LU extensification. A total of 100 simulations were run for a 50 year period for each scenario. Spatially dynamic projections of WFD metrics were obtained, taking into account the occurrence of stochastic wildfire events which typically occur in the study region and are exacerbated by LU change. A marked projected decline to “Moderate” ecological status for most waterbodies was detected under intensification but little change under extensification; only a few waterbodies fell to “moderate” status. The latter scenario describes the actual regional socio-economic situation of agricultural abandonment due to rural poverty, partly explaining the projected lack of change in ecological status. Based on the WFD “one out all out” criterion, projected downward shifts in ecological status were due to physicochemical support elements, namely increased

  4. 75 FR 43878 - Airworthiness Directives; DASSAULT AVIATION Model Falcon 10 Airplanes; Model FAN JET FALCON, FAN... (United States)


    ... Model Falcon 10 Airplanes; Model FAN JET FALCON, FAN JET FALCON SERIES C, D, E, F, and G Airplanes.... Since that NPRM was issued, we have determined that Model FAN JET FALCON SERIES C, D, E, F, and G..., Model FAN JET FALCON, FAN JET FALCON SERIES C, D, E, F, and G airplanes, and Model MYSTERE-FALCON 20-C5...

  5. Review: Bettina Fritzsche (2003. Pop-Fans. Studie einer Mädchenkultur [Pop-Fans: Study of a Girl Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lothar Mikos


    Full Text Available This study focuses on the "girl culture" created by fans of boy groups and girl groups. The central case study is used to examine fan practices as cultural practices using reconstructive and documentary methodologies, and to assess the normative demands placed on young people. The study centers on the question of gender socialization by mediated symbolic resources, and shows that fan culture is a self-determined space in which girls can negotiate normative demands and engage with questions of gender, sexuality and the body, testing conformity and obstinacy. Fan activities are presented as part of the self-empowerment of girls. The study makes an important contribution to the research of a specific girl culture. It shows in a brilliant way how media representations are used as symbolic material in everyday cultural practices. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0603187

  6. Stranger than fiction: Fan identity in cosplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolle Lamerichs


    Full Text Available Academic accounts of fan cultures usually focus on creative practices such as fan fiction, fan videos, and fan art. Through these practices, fans, as an active audience, closely interpret existing texts and rework them with texts of their own. A practice scarcely examined is cosplay ("costume play", in which fans produce their own costumes inspired by fictional characters. Cosplay is a form of appropriation that transforms and actualizes an existing story in close connection to the fan community and the fan's own identity. I provide analytical insights into this fan practice, focusing on how it influences the subject. Cosplay is understood as a performative activity and analyzed through Judith Butler's concept of performativity. I specifically focus on boundaries between the body and dress, and on those between reality and fiction. I aim to show that cosplay emphasizes the personal enactment of a narrative, thereby offering new perspectives on fan identity.

  7. ENERGY STAR Certified Ceiling Fans (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Ceiling Fans that are effective as of April 1,...

  8. ENERGY STAR Certified Ventilating Fans (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Ventilating Fans that are effective as of...

  9. Geomorphic Unit Tool (GUT): Applications of Fluvial Mapping (United States)

    Kramer, N.; Bangen, S. G.; Wheaton, J. M.; Bouwes, N.; Wall, E.; Saunders, C.; Bennett, S.; Fortney, S.


    Geomorphic units are the building blocks of rivers and represent distinct habitat patches for many fluvial organisms. We present the Geomorphic Unit Toolkit (GUT), a flexible GIS geomorphic unit mapping tool, to generate maps of fluvial landforms from topography. GUT applies attributes to landforms based on flow stage (Tier 1), topographic signatures (Tier 2), geomorphic characteristics (Tier 3) and patch characteristics (Tier 4) to derive attributed maps at the level of detail required by analysts. We hypothesize that if more rigorous and consistent geomorphic mapping is conducted, better correlations between physical habitat units and ecohydraulic model results will be obtained compared to past work. Using output from GUT for coarse bed tributary streams in the Columbia River Basin, we explore relationships between salmonid habitat and geomorphic spatial metrics. We also highlight case studies of how GUT can be used to showcase geomorphic impact from large wood restoration efforts. Provided high resolution topography exists, this tool can be used to quickly assess changes in fluvial geomorphology in watersheds impacted by human activities.

  10. Harmonic Balance Computations of Fan Aeroelastic Stability (United States)

    Bakhle, Milind A.; Reddy, T. S. R.


    A harmonic balance (HB) aeroelastic analysis, which has been recently developed, was used to determine the aeroelastic stability (flutter) characteristics of an experimental fan. To assess the numerical accuracy of this HB aeroelastic analysis, a time-domain aeroelastic analysis was also used to determine the aeroelastic stability characteristics of the same fan. Both of these three-dimensional analysis codes model the unsteady flowfield due to blade vibrations using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. In the HB analysis, the unsteady flow equations are converted to a HB form and solved using a pseudo-time marching method. In the time-domain analysis, the unsteady flow equations are solved using an implicit time-marching approach. Steady and unsteady computations for two vibration modes were carried out at two rotational speeds: 100 percent (design) and 70 percent (part-speed). The steady and unsteady results obtained from the two analysis methods compare well, thus verifying the recently developed HB aeroelastic analysis. Based on the results, the experimental fan was found to have no aeroelastic instability (flutter) at the conditions examined in this study.

  11. The fluvial history of Mars. (United States)

    Carr, Michael H


    River channels and valleys have been observed on several planetary bodies in addition to the Earth. Long sinuous valleys on Venus, our Moon and Jupiter's moon Io are clearly formed by lava, and branching valleys on Saturn's moon Titan may be forming today by rivers of methane. But by far the most dissected body in our Solar System apart from the Earth is Mars. Branching valleys that in plan resemble terrestrial river valleys are common throughout the most ancient landscapes preserved on the planet. Accompanying the valleys are the remains of other indicators of erosion and deposition, such as deltas, alluvial fans and lake beds. There is little reason to doubt that water was the erosive agent and that early in Mars' history, climatic conditions were very different from the present cold conditions and such that, at least episodically, water could flow across the surface. In addition to the branching valley networks, there are large flood features, termed outflow channels. These are similar to, but dwarf, the largest terrestrial flood channels. The consensus is that these channels were also cut by water although there are other possibilities. The outflow channels mostly postdate the valley networks, although most are still very ancient. They appear to have formed at a time when surface conditions were similar to those that prevail today. There is evidence that glacial activity has modified some of the water-worn valleys, particularly in the 30-50° latitude belts, and ice may also be implicated in the formation of geologically recent, seemingly water-worn gullies on steep slopes. Mars also has had a long volcanic history, and long, sinuous lava channels similar to those on the Moon and Venus are common on and around the large volcanoes. These will not, however, be discussed further; the emphasis here is on the effects of running water on the evolution of the surface. This journal is © 2012 The Royal Society

  12. The fluvial record of climate change. (United States)

    Macklin, M G; Lewin, J; Woodward, J C


    Fluvial landforms and sediments can be used to reconstruct past hydrological conditions over different time scales once allowance has been made for tectonic, base-level and human complications. Field stratigraphic evidence is explored here at three time scales: the later Pleistocene, the Holocene, and the historical and instrumental period. New data from a range of field studies demonstrate that Croll-Milankovitch forcing, Dansgaard-Oeschger and Heinrich events, enhanced monsoon circulation, millennial- to centennial-scale climate variability within the Holocene (probably associated with solar forcing and deep ocean circulation) and flood-event variability in recent centuries can all be discerned in the fluvial record. Although very significant advances have been made in river system and climate change research in recent years, the potential of fluvial palaeohydrology has yet to be fully realized, to the detriment of climatology, public health, resource management and river engineering. This journal is © 2012 The Royal Society

  13. The Bengal Submarine Fan, Northeastern Indian ocean (United States)

    Emmel, F. J.; Curray, J. R.


    Bengal Submarine Fan, with or without its eastern lobe, the Nicobar Fan, is the largest submarine fan known. Most of its sediment has been supplied by the Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers, probably since the Early Eocene. The “Swatch-of-No-Ground” submarine canyon connects to only one active fan valley system at a time, without apprent bifurcation over its 2500-km length. The upper fan is comprised of a complex of huge channel-levee wedges of abandoned and buried older systems. A reduction of channel size and morphology occurs at the top of the middle, fan, where meandering and sheet flow become more important.

  14. Two-Stage Centrifugal Fan (United States)

    Converse, David


    Fan designs are often constrained by envelope, rotational speed, weight, and power. Aerodynamic performance and motor electrical performance are heavily influenced by rotational speed. The fan used in this work is at a practical limit for rotational speed due to motor performance characteristics, and there is no more space available in the packaging for a larger fan. The pressure rise requirements keep growing. The way to ordinarily accommodate a higher DP is to spin faster or grow the fan rotor diameter. The invention is to put two radially oriented stages on a single disk. Flow enters the first stage from the center; energy is imparted to the flow in the first stage blades, the flow is redirected some amount opposite to the direction of rotation in the fixed stators, and more energy is imparted to the flow in the second- stage blades. Without increasing either rotational speed or disk diameter, it is believed that as much as 50 percent more DP can be achieved with this design than with an ordinary, single-stage centrifugal design. This invention is useful primarily for fans having relatively low flow rates with relatively high pressure rise requirements.

  15. Football – Feminisation – Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mintert, Svenja-Maria

    the number of female fans in football has grown over the past years. A national sense of community, emotion and passion for the game is in particular reached during the international tournaments at live football spectacles and many female fans cheer and sing for ‘their’ team with the utmost conviction. Yet...... The researcher reviewed relevant primary and secondary literature relating to women’s football, female football consumption and identity dynamics in a European perspective. Between March and August 2013, 31 semi-structured interviews with Danish women aged between 24 and 60 years were conducted following...

  16. On Some Generalized Ky Fan Minimax Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianqiang Luo


    Full Text Available Some generalized Ky Fan minimax inequalities for vector-valued mappings are established by applying the classical Browder fixed point theorem and the Kakutani-Fan-Glicksberg fixed point theorem.

  17. A Field Exercise in Fluvial Sediment Transport. (United States)

    Tharp, Thomas M.


    Describes an investigation which introduces the mathematical principles of stream hydraulics and fluvial sediment in a practical context. The investigation has four stages: defining hydrology of the stream; defining channel hydraulics in a study reach; measuring grain size; and calculating transportable grain size and comparing measure stream-bed…

  18. A fluvial mercury budget for Lake Ontario. (United States)

    Denkenberger, Joseph S; Driscoll, Charles T; Mason, Edward; Branfireun, Brian; Warnock, Ashley


    Watershed mercury (Hg) flux was calculated for ten inflowing rivers and the outlet for Lake Ontario using empirical measurements from two independent field-sampling programs. Total Hg (THg) flux for nine study watersheds that directly drain into the lake ranged from 0.2 kg/yr to 13 kg/yr, with the dominant fluvial THg load from the Niagara River at 154 kg/yr. THg loss at the outlet (St. Lawrence River) was 68 kg/yr and has declined approximately 40% over the past decade. Fluvial Hg inputs largely (62%) occur in the dissolved fraction and are similar to estimates of atmospheric Hg inputs. Fluvial mass balances suggest strong in-lake retention of particulate Hg inputs (99%), compared to dissolved total Hg (45%) and methyl Hg (22%) fractions. Wetland land cover is a good predictor of methyl Hg yield for Lake Ontario watersheds. Sediment deposition studies, coupled atmospheric and fluvial Hg fluxes, and a comparison of this work with previous measurements indicate that Lake Ontario is a net sink of Hg inputs and not at steady state likely because of recent decreases in point source inputs and atmospheric Hg deposition.

  19. Evaluation of the Appropriate Washout Period Following Fan Therapy for Dyspnea in Patients With Advanced Cancer: A Pilot Study. (United States)

    Kako, Jun; Morita, Tatsuya; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Sekimoto, Asuko; Kobayashi, Masamitsu; Kinoshita, Hiroya; Ogawa, Asao; Zenda, Sadamoto; Uchitomi, Yosuke; Inoguchi, Hironobu; Matsushima, Eisuke


    To clarify the duration required for dyspnea to return to baseline severity after fan therapy, to evaluate whether fan-to-legs therapy or no fan therapy would be a suitable control therapy, and to investigate changes in patients' face surface temperature after fan therapy. In this pilot study, all participants received 3 interventions in the following order: no fan, fan to legs, and fan to face. Participants used a fan for 5 minutes, and they scored their dyspnea at 10-minute intervals for 60 minutes or until the score had returned to its baseline value, whichever occurred first. Nine patients with advanced cancer admitted to a palliative care unit were included; they had dyspnea at rest and rated its severity as at least 3 points on a 0- to 10-point numerical rating scale. Descriptive statistics and the Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to analyze the data. All patients completed the study. Of the 9 participants, 6 experienced a clinical benefit from using a fan to their faces. Of these patients, only 2 participants' (2 of 6) dyspnea scores returned to baseline by the end of the 60-minute assessment period after exposure to fan-to-face therapy. In fan-to-legs and no fan settings, there was no change in the dyspnea scores. There were significant differences between the baseline face surface temperature and that after fan-to-face and fan-to-legs settings. When using a crossover design to investigate the effect of fan therapy on dyspnea, 1 hour is an insufficient washout period.

  20. Advance Noise Control Fan II: Test Rig Fan Risk Management Study (United States)

    Lucero, John


    Since 1995 the Advanced Noise Control Fan (ANCF) has significantly contributed to the advancement of the understanding of the physics of fan tonal noise generation. The 9'x15' WT has successfully tested multiple high speed fan designs over the last several decades. This advanced several tone noise reduction concepts to higher TRL and the validation of fan tone noise prediction codes.

  1. Introduction of a Cooling-Fan Efficiency Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiavon, S.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor


    was determined for a ceiling fan, a desk fan, standing fan, and a tower fan in a real office at three room air temperatures and at different fan speed levels. The results reveal that the index is sensitive enough to identify differences in the performance of the cooling devices. A standard method for testing fan...

  2. Online Fan Fiction and Critical Media Literacy (United States)

    Black, Rebecca W.


    This article explores English-language-learning (ELL) youths' engagement with popular media through composing and publicly posting stories in an online fan fiction writing space. Fan fiction is a genre that lends itself to critical engagement with media texts as fans repurpose popular media to design their own narratives. Analyses describe how…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Ryzhov


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of numerical studies of flow in a high axial fan of H-2, the geometric parameters are carefully designed by the author. The coefficients of performance, the total pressure, efficiency and capacity. Shows the benefits of fan of H-2 on several other fans, expressed in increased efficiency with equal dimensions and angles of blade setting.

  4. Morphometric differences in debris flow and mixed flow fans in eastern Death Valley, CA (United States)

    Wasklewicz, T. A.; Whitworth, J.


    Geomorphological features are best examined through direct measurement and parameterization of accurate topographic data. Fine-scale data are therefore required to produce a complete set of elevation data. Airborne Laser Swath Mapping (ALSM) data provide high-resolution data over large spatially continuous areas. The National Center for Advanced Laser Mapping (NCALM) collected ALSM data for an area along the eastern side of Death Valley extending from slightly north of Badwater to Mormon Point. The raw ALSM data were post-processed and delivered by NCALM in one-meter grid nodes that we converted to one-meter raster data sets. ALSM data are used to assess variations in the dimensions of surficial features found in 32 alluvial fans (21 debris flow and 11 mixed flow fans). Planimetric curvature of the fan surfaces is used to develop a topographic signature to distinguish debris flow from mixed flow fans. These two groups of fans are identified from field analysis of near vertical exposures along channels as well as surficial exposures at proximal, medial, and distal fan locations. One group of fans exhibited debris flow characteristics (DF), while the second group contained a mixture of fluid and debris flows (MF). Local planimetric curvature of the alluvial fan surfaces was derived from the one-meter DEM. The local curvature data were reclassified into concave and convex features. This sequence corresponds to two broad classes of fan features: channels and interfluves. Thirty random points were generated inside each fan polygon. The length of the nearest concave-convex (channel-interfluve) couplet was measured at each point and the percentage of convex and concave pixels in a 10m box centered on the random point was also recorded. Plots and statistical analyses of the data show clear indication that local planimetric curvature can be used as a topographic signature to distinguish between the varying formative processes in alluvial fans. Significant differences in the

  5. Mapping Variability in the Medusae Fossae Formation: Yardang Morphologies, Fluvial Reworking, and Crater Depth to Diameter Ratios (United States)

    Khuller, A. R.; Kerber, L.


    The Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) is a voluminous, fine-grained deposit thought to be of pyroclastic origin. While it contains widespread, well-preserved inverted fluvial features, its pervasive cover of dust means that little is known about its composition, and indirect means must be used to characterize its material properties. This project aims to correlate fluvial features in the Western MFF with other indicators of material strength: yardang morphology and crater depth-to-diameter ratios. For this work, Context Camera (CTX) images were used to map features of fluvial origin (inverted channels, sinuous ridges, alluvial fans). The presence of rounded, meso-yardangs in close proximity to fluvial features was also mapped. Crater depth-diameter (d/D) ratios (for craters 1-512km) were analyzed using a global Mars crater database (Robbins and Hynek, 2012) as a proxy for material strength. Approximately 1400 fluvial segments were mapped, with the most populous cluster located in Aeolis and Zephyria Plana. Rounded meso-yardangs were found to be common in areas that also have fluvial features. In agreement with previous work (Barlow, 1993), MFF craters were found to have a greater d/D ratio (0.0523) than the global mean (0.0511). Ratios between MFF lobes differ significantly, providing insight into the heterogeneity of induration within the formation. The deepest craters are found in Eumenides Dorsum and the shallowest in Aeolis Planum, consistent with a greater degree of induration and reworking in the western part of the formation where the fluvial features and "salt-playa" meso-yardangs are found. It also suggests that Eumenides, which is the tallest MFF outcrop, could also be the least compacted. The presence of long, complex, and sometimes overlapping branching networks imply multiple relative episodes of channel formation. Rounded meso-yardangs, which are associated with salt playa surfaces on Earth, provide additional evidence for the presence of liquid water

  6. Impeller Design of a Centrifugal Fan with Blade Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tai Lee


    Full Text Available A method is presented for redesigning a centrifugal impeller and its inlet duct. The double-discharge volute casing is a structural constraint and is maintained for its shape. The redesign effort was geared towards meeting the design volute exit pressure while reducing the power required to operate the fan. Given the high performance of the baseline impeller, the redesign adopted a high-fidelity CFD-based computational approach capable of accounting for all aerodynamic losses. The present effort utilized a numerical optimization with experiential steering techniques to redesign the fan blades, inlet duct, and shroud of the impeller. The resulting flow path modifications not only met the pressure requirement, but also reduced the fan power by 8.8% over the baseline. A refined CFD assessment of the impeller/volute coupling and the gap between the stationary duct and the rotating shroud revealed a reduction in efficiency due to the volute and the gap. The calculations verified that the new impeller matches better with the original volute. Model-fan measured data was used to validate CFD predictions and impeller design goals. The CFD results further demonstrate a Reynolds-number effect between the model- and full-scale fans.

  7. Late Quaternary alluvial fans of Emli Valley in the Ecemiş Fault Zone, south central Turkey: Insights from cosmogenic nuclides (United States)

    Akif Sarıkaya, M.; Yıldırım, Cengiz; Çiner, Attila


    Alluvial fans within the paraglacial Ecemiş River drainages on the Aladağlar Mountains in south central Turkey were studied using geomorphological, sedimentological, and chlorine-36 terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) surface exposure dating methods to examine the timing of alluvial fan abandonment/incision, and to understand the role of climatic and tectonic processes in the region. These alluvial fan complexes are among the best-preserved succession of alluvial fans in Turkey and they were offset by the major strike-slip Ecemiş Fault of the Central Anatolian Fault Zone. The alluvial fans are mostly composed of well-lithified limestone cobbles (5 to 25 cm in size), and comprise crudely stratified thick beds with a total thickness reaching up to about 80 m. TCN surface exposure dating indicates that the oldest alluvial fan surface (Yalak Fan) was likely formed and subsequently abandoned latest by 136.0 ± 23.4 ka ago, largely on the transition of the Penultimate Glaciation (Marine Isotope Stage 6, MIS 6) to the Last Interglacial (MIS 5) (i.e. Termination II). The second set of alluvial fan (Emli Fan) was possibly developed during the Last Interglacial (MIS 5), and incised twice by between roughly 97.0 ± 13.8 and 81.2 ± 13.2 ka ago. A younger alluvial fan deposit placed on relatively older erosional terraces of the Emli Fan suggests that it may have been produced during the Last Glacial Cycle (MIS 2). These events are similar to findings from other fluvial and lacustrine deposits throughout central Anatolia. The incision times of the Ecemiş alluvial fan surfaces largely coincide with major climatic shifts from the cooler glacial periods to warmer interglacial/interstadial conditions. This indicates that alluvial fans were produced by outwash sediments of paleoglaciers during cooler conditions, and, later, when glaciers started to retreat due to a major warming event, the excess water released from the glaciers incised the pre-existing fan surfaces. An

  8. Industrial fans used in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.A.


    Industrial fans are widely used in nuclear facilities, and their most common use is in building ventilation. To control the spread of contamination, airflows are maintained at high levels. Therefore, the selection of the fan and fan control are important to the safety of people, equipment and the environment. As a result, 80% of all energy used in nuclear facilities is fan energy. Safety evolves from the durability, control and redundancy in the system. In new or retrofit installations, testing and qualification of fans and systems are completed prior to start-up. Less important but necessary is the energy conservation aspect of fan selection and installations. Fan efficiency, type of control and system installation are evaluated for energy use

  9. Moving Base Simulation of an ASTOVL Lift-Fan Aircraft (United States)


    Using a generalized simulation model, a moving-base simulation of a lift-fan : short takeoff/vertical landing fighter aircraft was conducted on the Vertical : Motion Simulator at Ames Research Center. Objectives of the experiment were to : (1)assess ...

  10. Western Mediterranean environmental changes: Evidences from fluvial archives (United States)

    Wolf, Daniel; Faust, Dominik


    regional climate condition and impacts of further influencing factors, or in different levels of sensitivity of the river catchments that may be controlled by initial hydrological conditions, catchment size, or the degree of anthropogenic influence. A larger scale assessment shows that fluvial dynamic patterns are hardly comparable across entire Spain due to strong spatial heterogeneity of physiographic and climatic conditions on the Iberian Peninsula, in particular when areas are influenced by different circulation systems (e.g. regions influenced by the Atlantic Ocean vs. regions influenced by the Mediterranean Sea). However, the consideration of North Atlantic marine records reveals a certain coupling between North Atlantic coolings, atmospheric processes leading to arid climate over large parts of Spain, as well as increased landscape instability including strong fluvial sedimentation activity. Attendant atmospheric conditions are discussed.

  11. Paleogeographic and Depositional Model for the Neogene fluvial succession, Pishin Belt Northwest Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasi, Aimal Khan; Kassi, Akhtar Muhammad; Umar, Muhammad


    Miocene subaerial sedimentation started after the final closure of Katawaz Remnant Ocean. Based on detailed field data twelve facies were recognized in Neogene successions exposed in Pishin Belt. These facies were further organized into four facies associations i.e. channels, crevasse splay, natural levee...... and floodplain facies associations. Facies associations and variations provided ample evidences to recognize number of fluvial architectural components in the succession e.g., low-sinuosity sandy braided river, mixed-load meandering, high-sinuosity meandering channels, single-story sandstone and/or conglomerate...... channels, lateral accretion surfaces (point bars) and alluvial fans. Neogene sedimentation in the Pishin Belt was mainly controlled by active tectonism and thrusting in response to oblique collision of the Indian Plate with Afghan Block of the Eurasian Plate along the Chaman-Nushki Fault. Post Miocene...

  12. Reservoir Characterization, Production Characteristics, and Research Needs for Fluvial/Alluvial Reservoirs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.L.; Jackson, S.R.; Madden, M.P.; Raw-Schatzinger, V.; Salamy, S.P.; Sarathi, P.; Young, M.A.


    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oil Recovery Field Demonstration Program was initiated in 1992 to maximize the economically and environmentally sound recovery of oil from known domestic reservoirs and to preserve access to this resource. Cost-shared field demonstration projects are being initiated in geology defined reservoir classes which have been prioritized by their potential for incremental recovery and their risk of abandonment. This document defines the characteristics of the fifth geological reservoir class in the series, fluvial/alluvial reservoirs. The reservoirs of Class 5 include deposits of alluvial fans, braided streams, and meandering streams. Deposit morphologies vary as a complex function of climate and tectonics and are characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity to fluid flow as a result of extreme variations in water energy as the deposits formed.

  13. Natural radionuclide behaviour in the fluvial environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, A.S.; Olley, J.M.; Wallbrink, P.J.


    Variable concentrations of uranium and thorium series nuclides and 7 Be have been measured in soils and sediments. Strong correlations between 226 Ra and thorium series nuclides were found in sediments but not in soils. Laboratory measurements suggest the correlations arise from particle size and density dependent transport, and transport-related abrasion of iron oxide coatings. These correlations are characteristic of the sampled location, and provide a method for identifying the source areas which dominate the fluvial nuclide flux, and by implication, the associated sediment flux. Cosmogenic 7 Be (half-life 53 d) also contributes to nuclide fluxes. Over an 18 month period, individual rainstorms increased the 7 Be soil inventory by 10% on average. Dry precipitation contributed less than 10% to the total. Most 7 Be was retained within the top few millimetres of soil. It is deduced that 7 Be presence in fluvial sediments indicates a significant surface source contribution to the overall nuclide and sediment flux. (author)

  14. Martian Fluvial Conglomerates at Gale Crater (United States)

    Williams, R. M. E.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Dietrich, W. E.; Gupta, S.; Sumner, D. Y.; Wiens, R. C.; Mangold, N.; Malin, M. C.; Edgett, K. S.; Maurice, S.; Forni, O.; Gasnault, O.; Ollila, A.; Newsom, H. E.; Dromart, G.; Palucis, M. C.; Yingst, R. A.; Anderson, R. B.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Le Mouélic, S.; Goetz, W.; Madsen, M. B.; Koefoed, A.; Jensen, J. K.; Bridges, J. C.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Lewis, K. W.; Stack, K. M.; Rubin, D.; Kah, L. C.; Bell, J. F.; Farmer, J. D.; Sullivan, R.; Van Beek, T.; Blaney, D. L.; Pariser, O.; Deen, R. G.; Kemppinen, Osku; Bridges, Nathan; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Minitti, Michelle; Cremers, David; Edgar, Lauren; Godber, Austin; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Wellington, Danika; McEwan, Ian; Newman, Claire; Richardson, Mark; Charpentier, Antoine; Peret, Laurent; King, Penelope; Blank, Jennifer; Weigle, Gerald; Schmidt, Mariek; Li, Shuai; Milliken, Ralph; Robertson, Kevin; Sun, Vivian; Baker, Michael; Edwards, Christopher; Ehlmann, Bethany; Farley, Kenneth; Griffes, Jennifer; Miller, Hayden; Newcombe, Megan; Pilorget, Cedric; Rice, Melissa; Siebach, Kirsten; Stolper, Edward; Brunet, Claude; Hipkin, Victoria; Léveillé, Richard; Marchand, Geneviève; Sobrón Sánchez, Pablo; Favot, Laurent; Cody, George; Steele, Andrew; Flückiger, Lorenzo; Lees, David; Nefian, Ara; Martin, Mildred; Gailhanou, Marc; Westall, Frances; Israël, Guy; Agard, Christophe; Baroukh, Julien; Donny, Christophe; Gaboriaud, Alain; Guillemot, Philippe; Lafaille, Vivian; Lorigny, Eric; Paillet, Alexis; Pérez, René; Saccoccio, Muriel; Yana, Charles; Aparicio, Carlos Armiens; Caride Rodríguez, Javier; Carrasco Blázquez, Isaías; Gómez Gómez, Felipe; Elvira, Javier Gómez; Hettrich, Sebastian; Lepinette Malvitte, Alain; Marín Jiménez, Mercedes; Frías, Jesús Martínez; Soler, Javier Martín; Torres, F. Javier Martín; Molina Jurado, Antonio; Sotomayor, Luis Mora; Muñoz Caro, Guillermo; Navarro López, Sara; González, Verónica Peinado; García, Jorge Pla; Rodriguez Manfredi, José Antonio; Planelló, Julio José Romeral; Alejandra Sans Fuentes, Sara; Sebastian Martinez, Eduardo; Torres Redondo, Josefina; O'Callaghan, Roser Urqui; Zorzano Mier, María-Paz; Chipera, Steve; Lacour, Jean-Luc; Mauchien, Patrick; Sirven, Jean-Baptiste; Manning, Heidi; Fairén, Alberto; Hayes, Alexander; Joseph, Jonathan; Squyres, Steven; Thomas, Peter; Dupont, Audrey; Lundberg, Angela; Melikechi, Noureddine; Mezzacappa, Alissa; DeMarines, Julia; Grinspoon, David; Reitz, Günther; Prats, Benito; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Genzer, Maria; Harri, Ari-Matti; Haukka, Harri; Kahanpää, Henrik; Kauhanen, Janne; Paton, Mark; Polkko, Jouni; Schmidt, Walter; Siili, Tero; Fabre, Cécile; Wray, James; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Poitrasson, Franck; Patel, Kiran; Gorevan, Stephen; Indyk, Stephen; Paulsen, Gale; Bish, David; Schieber, Juergen; Gondet, Brigitte; Langevin, Yves; Geffroy, Claude; Baratoux, David; Berger, Gilles; Cros, Alain; Uston, Claude d.; Lasue, Jérémie; Lee, Qiu-Mei; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Pallier, Etienne; Parot, Yann; Pinet, Patrick; Schröder, Susanne; Toplis, Mike; Lewin, Éric; Brunner, Will; Heydari, Ezat; Achilles, Cherie; Oehler, Dorothy; Sutter, Brad; Cabane, Michel; Coscia, David; Szopa, Cyril; Robert, François; Sautter, Violaine; Nachon, Marion; Buch, Arnaud; Stalport, Fabien; Coll, Patrice; François, Pascaline; Raulin, François; Teinturier, Samuel; Cameron, James; Clegg, Sam; Cousin, Agnès; DeLapp, Dorothea; Dingler, Robert; Jackson, Ryan Steele; Johnstone, Stephen; Lanza, Nina; Little, Cynthia; Nelson, Tony; Williams, Richard B.; Jones, Andrea; Kirkland, Laurel; Treiman, Allan; Baker, Burt; Cantor, Bruce; Caplinger, Michael; Davis, Scott; Duston, Brian; Fay, Donald; Hardgrove, Craig; Harker, David; Herrera, Paul; Jensen, Elsa; Kennedy, Megan R.; Krezoski, Gillian; Krysak, Daniel; Lipkaman, Leslie; McCartney, Elaina; McNair, Sean; Nixon, Brian; Posiolova, Liliya; Ravine, Michael; Salamon, Andrew; Saper, Lee; Stoiber, Kevin; Supulver, Kimberley; Van Beek, Jason; Zimdar, Robert; French, Katherine Louise; Iagnemma, Karl; Miller, Kristen; Summons, Roger; Goesmann, Fred; Hviid, Stubbe; Johnson, Micah; Lefavor, Matthew; Lyness, Eric; Breves, Elly; Dyar, M. Darby; Fassett, Caleb; Blake, David F.; Bristow, Thomas; DesMarais, David; Edwards, Laurence; Haberle, Robert; Hoehler, Tori; Hollingsworth, Jeff; Kahre, Melinda; Keely, Leslie; McKay, Christopher; Bleacher, Lora; Brinckerhoff, William; Choi, David; Conrad, Pamela; Dworkin, Jason P.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Floyd, Melissa; Freissinet, Caroline; Garvin, James; Glavin, Daniel; Harpold, Daniel; Mahaffy, Paul; Martin, David K.; McAdam, Amy; Pavlov, Alexander; Raaen, Eric; Smith, Michael D.; Stern, Jennifer; Tan, Florence; Trainer, Melissa; Meyer, Michael; Posner, Arik; Voytek, Mary; Anderson, Robert C.; Aubrey, Andrew; Beegle, Luther W.; Behar, Alberto; Brinza, David; Calef, Fred; Christensen, Lance; Crisp, Joy A.; DeFlores, Lauren; Feldman, Jason; Feldman, Sabrina; Flesch, Gregory; Hurowitz, Joel; Jun, Insoo; Keymeulen, Didier; Maki, Justin; Mischna, Michael; Morookian, John Michael; Parker, Timothy; Pavri, Betina; Schoppers, Marcel; Sengstacken, Aaron; Simmonds, John J.; Spanovich, Nicole; de la Torre Juarez, Manuel; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Webster, Christopher R.; Yen, Albert; Archer, Paul Douglas; Cucinotta, Francis; Jones, John H.; Ming, Douglas; Morris, Richard V.; Niles, Paul; Rampe, Elizabeth; Nolan, Thomas; Fisk, Martin; Radziemski, Leon; Barraclough, Bruce; Bender, Steve; Berman, Daniel; Dobrea, Eldar Noe; Tokar, Robert; Vaniman, David; Leshin, Laurie; Cleghorn, Timothy; Huntress, Wesley; Manhès, Gérard; Hudgins, Judy; Olson, Timothy; Stewart, Noel; Sarrazin, Philippe; Grant, John; Vicenzi, Edward; Wilson, Sharon A.; Bullock, Mark; Ehresmann, Bent; Hamilton, Victoria; Hassler, Donald; Peterson, Joseph; Rafkin, Scot; Zeitlin, Cary; Fedosov, Fedor; Golovin, Dmitry; Karpushkina, Natalya; Kozyrev, Alexander; Litvak, Maxim; Malakhov, Alexey; Mitrofanov, Igor; Mokrousov, Maxim; Nikiforov, Sergey; Prokhorov, Vasily; Sanin, Anton; Tretyakov, Vladislav; Varenikov, Alexey; Vostrukhin, Andrey; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Clark, Benton; Wolff, Michael; McLennan, Scott; Botta, Oliver; Drake, Darrell; Bean, Keri; Lemmon, Mark; Lee, Ella Mae; Sucharski, Robert; Hernández, Miguel Ángel de Pablo; Blanco Ávalos, Juan José; Ramos, Miguel; Kim, Myung-Hee; Malespin, Charles; Plante, Ianik; Muller, Jan-Peter; González, Rafael Navarro; Ewing, Ryan; Boynton, William; Downs, Robert; Fitzgibbon, Mike; Harshman, Karl; Morrison, Shaunna; Kortmann, Onno; Williams, Amy; Lugmair, Günter; Wilson, Michael A.; Jakosky, Bruce; Zunic, Tonci Balic; Frydenvang, Jens; Kinch, Kjartan; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane; Boyd, Nick; Campbell, John L.; Gellert, Ralf; Perrett, Glynis; Pradler, Irina; VanBommel, Scott; Jacob, Samantha; Owen, Tobias; Rowland, Scott; Savijärvi, Hannu; Boehm, Eckart; Böttcher, Stephan; Burmeister, Sönke; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; García, César Martín; Mellin, Reinhold Mueller; Schweingruber, Robert Wimmer; McConnochie, Timothy; Benna, Mehdi; Franz, Heather; Bower, Hannah; Brunner, Anna; Blau, Hannah; Boucher, Thomas; Carmosino, Marco; Atreya, Sushil; Elliott, Harvey; Halleaux, Douglas; Rennó, Nilton; Wong, Michael; Pepin, Robert; Elliott, Beverley; Spray, John; Thompson, Lucy; Gordon, Suzanne; Williams, Joshua; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Bentz, Jennifer; Nealson, Kenneth; Popa, Radu; Moersch, Jeffrey; Tate, Christopher; Day, Mackenzie; Kocurek, Gary; Hallet, Bernard; Sletten, Ronald; Francis, Raymond; McCullough, Emily; Cloutis, Ed; ten Kate, Inge Loes; Arvidson, Raymond; Fraeman, Abigail; Scholes, Daniel; Slavney, Susan; Stein, Thomas; Ward, Jennifer; Berger, Jeffrey; Moores, John E.


    Observations by the Mars Science Laboratory Mast Camera (Mastcam) in Gale crater reveal isolated outcrops of cemented pebbles (2 to 40 millimeters in diameter) and sand grains with textures typical of fluvial sedimentary conglomerates. Rounded pebbles in the conglomerates indicate substantial fluvial abrasion. ChemCam emission spectra at one outcrop show a predominantly feldspathic composition, consistent with minimal aqueous alteration of sediments. Sediment was mobilized in ancient water flows that likely exceeded the threshold conditions (depth 0.03 to 0.9 meter, average velocity 0.20 to 0.75 meter per second) required to transport the pebbles. Climate conditions at the time sediment was transported must have differed substantially from the cold, hyper-arid modern environment to permit aqueous flows across several kilometers.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Hu


    Full Text Available Given its great business value and popularity, Facebook fan pages have attracted more and more attention in both industry and academia. Fans of Facebook fan pages play an important role in electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM communication. This study focused on the population of fans on Facebook fan pages and examined the differences between fans and non-fans in terms of demographics, social network sites (SNS use, Internet use, and online shopping behaviors. The results indicated that fans used SNS more frequently than non-fans. Additionally, from the eWOM perspective, the researchers moderated product types in the model of people’s word-of-mouth (WOM preferences and found that people had different preferences for eWOM and traditional WOM for different products. Traditional WOM is still the most important source of information for people when shopping online.

  16. Flutter of swept fan blades (United States)

    Kielb, R. E.; Kaza, K. R. V.


    The effect of sweep on fan blade flutter is studied by applying the analytical methods developed for aeroelastic analysis of advance turboprops. Two methods are used. The first method utilizes an approximate structural model in which the blade is represented by a swept, nonuniform beam. The second method utilizes a finite element technique to conduct modal flutter analysis. For both methods the unsteady aerodynamic loads are calculated using two dimensional cascade theories which are modified to account for sweep. An advanced fan stage is analyzed with 0, 15 and 30 degrees of sweep. It is shown that sweep has a beneficial effect on predominantly torsional flutter and a detrimental effect on predominantly bending flutter. This detrimental effect is shown to be significantly destabilizing for 30 degrees of sweep.

  17. Football – Feminisation – Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mintert, Svenja-Maria

    Football has long time been considered as a genuine masculine domain. However, in the current football culture, the dualism of masculinity and femaleness is in progress. More and more women consume football which is in many countries considered the most popular sport, not only in Scandinavia where...... the number of female fans in football has grown over the past years. A national sense of community, emotion and passion for the game is in particular reached during the international tournaments at live football spectacles and many female fans cheer and sing for ‘their’ team with the utmost conviction. Yet......, the combination ‘women and football’ is still adhered to certain scepticism. Objective The overall objective of this Ph.D. thesis is to contribute to the body of knowledge associated with the distinct aspects of women’s football, female fandom and gender identities in European football drawing upon various...

  18. Regional patterns of extreme precipitation on Titan consistent with observed alluvial fan distribution (United States)

    Faulk, S. P.; Mitchell, J. L.; Moon, S.; Lora, J. M.


    Geomorphic features typically associated with extreme rainfall events in terrestrial settings, including extensive fluvial features and alluvial fans, have been detected on Titan's surface. Methane flow from precipitation on Titan can transport sediments and potentially erode the icy bedrock, but averaged precipitation rates from prior global-scale modelling are too low by at least an order of magnitude to initiate sediment transport of observed grain sizes at low latitudes. Here, we quantify the regional magnitude, frequency and variability of extreme rainfall events from simulations of present-day Titan, with a general circulation model coupled to a land model partially covered by wetlands reservoirs that can capture Titan's regionally varying hydroclimate. We find that the most extreme storms tend to occur in the mid-latitudes, where observed alluvial fans are most concentrated. Storms capable of sediment transport and erosion occur at all latitudes in our simulations, consistent with the observed global coverage of fluvial features. Our results demonstrate the influential role of extreme precipitation in shaping Titan's surface. We therefore suggest that, similarly to Earth but differently from Mars, active geomorphic work may be ongoing in the present climate on Titan.

  19. Optimization of the Hockey Fans in Training (Hockey FIT) weight loss and healthy lifestyle program for male hockey fans. (United States)

    Blunt, Wendy; Gill, Dawn P; Sibbald, Shannon L; Riggin, Brendan; Pulford, Roseanne W; Scott, Ryan; Danylchuk, Karen; Gray, Cindy M; Wyke, Sally; Bunn, Christopher; Petrella, Robert J


    The health outcomes of men continue to be poorer than women globally. Challenges in addressing this problem include difficulties engaging men in weight loss programs as they tend to view these programs as contrary to the masculine narrative of independence and self-reliance. Researchers have been turning towards sports fans to engage men in health promotion programs as sports fans are typically male, and tend to have poor health habits. Developed from the highly successful gender-sensitized Football Fans in Training program, Hockey Fans in Training (Hockey FIT) recruited 80 male hockey fans of the London Knights and Sarnia Sting who were overweight or obese into a weekly, 90-minute classroom education and group exercise program held over 12 weeks; a 40-week minimally-supported phase followed. A process evaluation of the Hockey FIT program was completed alongside a pragmatic randomized controlled trial and outcome evaluation in order to fully explore the acceptability of the Hockey FIT program from the perspectives of coaches delivering and participants engaged in the program. Data sources included attendance records, participant focus groups, coach interviews, assessment of fidelity (program observations and post-session coach reflections), and 12-month participant interviews. Coaches enjoyed delivering the program and found it simple to deliver. Men valued being among others of similar body shape and similar weight loss goals, and found the knowledge they gained through the program helped them to make and maintain health behaviour changes. Suggested improvements include having more hockey-related information and activities, greater flexibility with timing of program delivery, and greater promotion of technology support tools. We confirmed Hockey FIT was an acceptable "gender-sensitized" health promotion program for male hockey fans who were overweight or obese. Minor changes were required for optimization, which will be evaluated in a future definitive trial

  20. Acoustic Power Transmission Through a Ducted Fan (United States)

    Envia, Ed


    For high-speed ducted fans, when the rotor flowfield is shock-free, the main contribution to the inlet radiated acoustic power comes from the portion of the rotor stator interaction sound field that is transmitted upstream through the rotor. As such, inclusion of the acoustic transmission is an essential ingredient in the prediction of the fan inlet noise when the fan tip relative speed is subsonic. This paper describes a linearized Euler based approach to computing the acoustic transmission of fan tones through the rotor. The approach is embodied in a code called LINFLUX was applied to a candidate subsonic fan called the Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP). The results from this study suggest that it is possible to make such prediction with sufficient fidelity to provide an indication of the acoustic transmission trends with the fan tip speed.

  1. Laboratory alluvial fans in one dimension. (United States)

    Guerit, L; Métivier, F; Devauchelle, O; Lajeunesse, E; Barrier, L


    When they reach a flat plain, rivers often deposit their sediment load into a cone-shaped structure called alluvial fan. We present a simplified experimental setup that reproduces, in one dimension, basic features of alluvial fans. A mixture of water and glycerol transports and deposits glass beads between two transparent panels separated by a narrow gap. As the beads, which mimic natural sediments, get deposited in this gap, they form an almost one-dimensional fan. At a moderate sediment discharge, the fan grows quasistatically and maintains its slope just above the threshold for sediment transport. The water discharge determines this critical slope. At leading order, the sediment discharge only controls the velocity at which the fan grows. A more detailed analysis reveals a slight curvature of the fan profile, which relates directly to the rate at which sediments are transported.

  2. 30 CFR 57.8518 - Main and booster fans. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main and booster fans. 57.8518 Section 57.8518... and Underground § 57.8518 Main and booster fans. (a) All mine main and booster fans installed and used...-cycle shutdowns or planned or scheduled fan maintenance or fan adjustments where air quality is...

  3. Vision for a worldwide fluvial-sediment information network (United States)

    Gray, J.R.; Osterkamp, W.R.


    The nations of the world suffer both from the deleterious effects of some natural and human-altered fluxes of fluvial sediment and a lack of consistent and reliable information on the temporal and spatial occurrence of fluvial sediments. Decades ago, this difficulty was unavoidable due to a lack of understanding of the magnitude and scope of environmental influences exerted by fluvial sediment coupled with a dearth of tools for monitoring and studying the data. Such is no longer the case.

  4. The Challenges of Teaching Fan Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephan, Matthias

    , has only gained in popularity. Yet, the nature of the course in question, an interdisciplinary open elective, has meant a class with a variety of backgrounds, preparation, and expectations from fan studies and its critical apparatus. In addition, due to the course being taught in English, it attracts...... a conversation about the best methods for teaching fan studies, and help to open up fan studies to be integrated into other courses and programs....

  5. Fan blade crack diagnosis method study


    Sheng Fu; Yinbo Gao


    This article presents a discrete mathematical model for fan blades and theoretically analyses the mathematical relationship between the location and depth of crack and fan blade natural frequency. On the basis of the blade mathematical model, using the theoretical computed natural frequency as the fault feature, this article proposes a fast and efficient fan blade crack fault diagnosis method. Transfer matrix method is used to calculate the first three-order blade natural frequencies under di...

  6. Late Pleistocene dune-sourced alluvial fans in coastal settings: Sedimentary facies and related processes (Mallorca, Western Mediterranean) (United States)

    Pomar, F.; del Valle, L.; Fornós, J. J.; Gómez-Pujol, L.


    Aeolian-alluvial sedimentary interaction results in the formation of deposits characterized by typical alluvial sedimentary structures, but is composed of conspicuous amounts of aeolian sediments. The literature on this topic is limited and most works relate more with continental aeolian dunes or fluvial dune interference with fan bodies. Furthermore, there is a lack of examples of aeolian-alluvial sedimentary interference in coastal settings. In the western Mediterranean, there are many Pleistocene alluvial fan deposits built up partly by sediment originating from coastal dunes dismantled by alluvial streams. Very often, these deposits show a continuous sedimentary sequence through which we can derive the contribution and predominance of coastal, alluvial-colluvial and aeolian processes and their controls on landscape formation. This is an outstanding feature within coastal systems since it shows marine sediments reworked and integrated within coastal dune fields by aeolian transport, and the latter built up into alluvial fan bodies. In this sense, aeolian-alluvial interaction is the geomorphic-sedimentary expression of the coexistence and overlapping of alluvial and aeolian environments resulting in deposits sharing sedimentary features from both environments. The aim of this paper is to unravel the contribution of coastal dunes in the construction of alluvial fans bodies and identify the main sedimentary facies that constitute these deposits, as well as their climatic controls. For this reason, Es Caló fan (northern Mallorca) has been selected due to its well-exposed deposits exhibiting the alternation of aeolian, alluvial and colluvial deposits. Sedimentological and stratigraphic analyses based on 33 logs and complementary analyses demonstrate that most of the facies constituting the fan body are made up completely of marine bioclastic sands. These deposits record an alluvial fan sedimentary environment characterized by sediments inputs that do not proceed

  7. Simulation comparison between natural and hybrid ventilation by fans at night time for severe hot climate (Aswan, Egypt)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizk, A. [Department of Architectural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt); El-Deberky, A. [Department of Architecture, Faculty of Fine Arts, Minya University, Minya (Egypt); Guirguis, N. M. [Housing and Building Research Center, Cairo (Egypt)


    During the summer in Aswan, Egypt, indoor temperatures rise to a level exceeding thermal comfort. Due to the lag time of the building's envelope, temperature at night is higher inside than outside during the overheated period. The aim of this paper is to assess the effectiveness of ceiling and wall falls in lowering indoor air temperature at night. Computer simulations were carried out with ANSYS FLOTRAN computational fluid dynamic on a single room; 3 models were studied: natural ventilation, hybrid ventilation with a wall fan and hybrid ventilation with a ceiling fan. Results showed that hybrid ventilation fan is more effective in decreasing the temperature than natural cross ventilation alone and it was found that a wall fan is better than a ceiling fan. This study demonstrated that using hybrid ventilation with a side fan is the best option to reduce the air temperature in a room in Aswan, Egypt.

  8. Joint clay-heavy-light mineral analysis: a tool to investigate the hydrographic-hydraulic regime of Late Cenozoic deltaic inland fans under changing climatic conditions (Cuvelai-Etosha Basin, Namibia) (United States)

    Dill, Harald G.; Kaufhold, S.; Lindenmaier, F.; Dohrmann, R.; Ludwig, R.; Botz, R.


    An interdisciplinary study (major and minor elements, C and O isotopes, heavy and light minerals, phyllosilicates, wireline logs) in northern Namibia unraveled the hydrographic and hydraulic evolution of alluvial-fluvial sediments of the Kunene and Cubango megafans (Etosha-Cuvelai Basin). Three principal aquatic regimes were operative within the megafan complex: (1) the hydrographic regime, (2) the proximal hydraulic regime, (3) the distal hydraulic regime. The allogenic mineral assemblages mirror the hydrographic variation or drainage system and the lithological evolution of the fan sediments (alluvial-fluvial fan, lacustrine environment with evaporites, fan delta progradation). Authigenic heavy minerals are markers of the physical-chemical condition (Eh and pH values) of the hydraulic regime within the proximal fan at the basin margin. Authigenic heavy, light and clay minerals equally contribute to the determination of the fluid chemistry and temperature, as well as the source of chemical constituents of the former pore fluids percolating through the distal fan. Carbonatization was the most pronounced event in the distal hydraulic system and controlled by the presence of biogenic as well as atmospheric carbon. The isotope-based determination of the temperatures, albeit strongly fluctuating, do not exceed 40 °C. The overall pH values determined for the hydraulic regime within the distal fan range from slightly acidic to alkaline. The presence of zeolites attests to some short-lasting but strong deviations from the pH range, mainly towards more alkaline conditions. Heavy, light and clay mineral analyses proved to be a useful tool to determine the (paleo)hydrology of alluvial-fluvial fan systems in tropical arid to semiarid climates.

  9. Enhanced Fan Noise Modeling for Turbofan Engines (United States)

    Krejsa, Eugene A.; Stone, James R.


    This report describes work by consultants to Diversitech Inc. for the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to revise the fan noise prediction procedure based on fan noise data obtained in the 9- by 15 Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel at GRC. The purpose of this task is to begin development of an enhanced, analytical, more physics-based, fan noise prediction method applicable to commercial turbofan propulsion systems. The method is to be suitable for programming into a computational model for eventual incorporation into NASA's current aircraft system noise prediction computer codes. The scope of this task is in alignment with the mission of the Propulsion 21 research effort conducted by the coalition of NASA, state government, industry, and academia to develop aeropropulsion technologies. A model for fan noise prediction was developed based on measured noise levels for the R4 rotor with several outlet guide vane variations and three fan exhaust areas. The model predicts the complete fan noise spectrum, including broadband noise, tones, and for supersonic tip speeds, combination tones. Both spectra and directivity are predicted. Good agreement with data was achieved for all fan geometries. Comparisons with data from a second fan, the ADP fan, also showed good agreement.

  10. Fluvial landscapes of the Harappan civilization. (United States)

    Giosan, Liviu; Clift, Peter D; Macklin, Mark G; Fuller, Dorian Q; Constantinescu, Stefan; Durcan, Julie A; Stevens, Thomas; Duller, Geoff A T; Tabrez, Ali R; Gangal, Kavita; Adhikari, Ronojoy; Alizai, Anwar; Filip, Florin; VanLaningham, Sam; Syvitski, James P M


    The collapse of the Bronze Age Harappan, one of the earliest urban civilizations, remains an enigma. Urbanism flourished in the western region of the Indo-Gangetic Plain for approximately 600 y, but since approximately 3,900 y ago, the total settled area and settlement sizes declined, many sites were abandoned, and a significant shift in site numbers and density towards the east is recorded. We report morphologic and chronologic evidence indicating that fluvial landscapes in Harappan territory became remarkably stable during the late Holocene as aridification intensified in the region after approximately 5,000 BP. Upstream on the alluvial plain, the large Himalayan rivers in Punjab stopped incising, while downstream, sedimentation slowed on the distinctive mega-fluvial ridge, which the Indus built in Sindh. This fluvial quiescence suggests a gradual decrease in flood intensity that probably stimulated intensive agriculture initially and encouraged urbanization around 4,500 BP. However, further decline in monsoon precipitation led to conditions adverse to both inundation- and rain-based farming. Contrary to earlier assumptions that a large glacier-fed Himalayan river, identified by some with the mythical Sarasvati, watered the Harappan heartland on the interfluve between the Indus and Ganges basins, we show that only monsoonal-fed rivers were active there during the Holocene. As the monsoon weakened, monsoonal rivers gradually dried or became seasonal, affecting habitability along their courses. Hydroclimatic stress increased the vulnerability of agricultural production supporting Harappan urbanism, leading to settlement downsizing, diversification of crops, and a drastic increase in settlements in the moister monsoon regions of the upper Punjab, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh.

  11. An inventory and risk-based prioritization of Steep Creek Fans in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holm Kris


    Full Text Available In June 2013, heavy rainfall caused flooding on most rivers in the province of Alberta, Canada, producing one of Canada’s most expensive natural disasters with about $6 billion (CDN in damage. Flooding inundated several municipalities including downtown Calgary, the fourth-largest city in Canada. Debris flows and debris floods caused extensive highway closures and damages to development on alluvial fans. Following these events, the Government of Alberta requested an inventory of all fans intersecting municipal development, major roads and highways in Alberta. Such fans may be subject to debris flow, debris flood (mud flows, and/or flood hazards. The study area spans the entirety of the Alberta Rocky Mountains, approximately 51,000 km2 (7% of Alberta. We characterize 710 fans in terms of hazard level and presence and types of elements at risk. We statistically analyse watershed attributes to predict the dominant fan hydrogeomorphic process types. All fans under provincial jurisdiction are assigned priority ratings based on hazard levels and the presence and value of elements at risk. The prioritization is risk-based as it considers both hazards and potential consequences. Of the fans prioritized, 13% intersected parcels containing land and residential developments with an assessed value of $2.4 billion (CDN, and the remainder were crossed by roads, pipelines or transmission lines. We present the study results on an interactive, searchable web application that can support ongoing hazard and risk assessments and risk reduction planning.

  12. Measurement and analysis of radiated sound from a low speed fan with a large tip gap. (United States)

    Bilka, M J; Anthoine, J; Schram, C


    The wake flow field and radiated sound from a low speed axial fan is studied experimentally. The fan geometry uses controlled diffusion blades and is designed with a low aspect ratio (0.9). The fan is installed with a large tip gap, approximately 10% of the blade span. The radiated sound field is analyzed using a known trailing edge noise formulation. First, the model is compared to an experiment of a single airfoil in a wind tunnel to assess the predictive capabilities. Second, measurements of the fan are made at two different blade loading conditions. Hot wire measurements are made in the near wake of the fan to assess the extent of the tip leakage flow for each condition. The radiated sound fields are compared with the trailing edge noise theory. Use is made of the wake measurements as an input to a surface pressure model. When the fan is operated with the optimal blade loading, the influence of the tip leakage flow is found to be of secondary acoustic impact. When the fan is operated at a high loading condition for the blades, a more significant leakage flow develops and is found to be responsible for the dominant radiated sound.

  13. Prototype Morphing Fan Nozzle Demonstrated (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Jun; Song, Gang-Bing


    Ongoing research in NASA Glenn Research Center's Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch to develop smart materials technologies for aeropropulsion structural components has resulted in the design of the prototype morphing fan nozzle shown in the photograph. This prototype exploits the potential of smart materials to significantly improve the performance of existing aircraft engines by introducing new inherent capabilities for shape control, vibration damping, noise reduction, health monitoring, and flow manipulation. The novel design employs two different smart materials, a shape-memory alloy and magnetorheological fluids, to reduce the nozzle area by up to 30 percent. The prototype of the variable-area fan nozzle implements an overlapping spring leaf assembly to simplify the initial design and to provide ease of structural control. A single bundle of shape memory alloy wire actuators is used to reduce the nozzle geometry. The nozzle is subsequently held in the reduced-area configuration by using magnetorheological fluid brakes. This prototype uses the inherent advantages of shape memory alloys in providing large induced strains and of magnetorheological fluids in generating large resistive forces. In addition, the spring leaf design also functions as a return spring, once the magnetorheological fluid brakes are released, to help force the shape memory alloy wires to return to their original position. A computerized real-time control system uses the derivative-gain and proportional-gain algorithms to operate the system. This design represents a novel approach to the active control of high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines. Researchers have estimated that such engines will reduce thrust specific fuel consumption by 9 percent over that of fixed-geometry fan nozzles. This research was conducted under a cooperative agreement (NCC3-839) at the University of Akron.

  14. Experimental Evaluation of Installed Cooking Exhaust Fan Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C.; Delp, William W.; Apte, Michael G.


    The installed performance of cooking exhaust fans was evaluated through residential field experiments conducted on a sample of 15 devices varying in design and other characteristics. The sample included two rear downdraft systems, two under-cabinet microwave over range (MOR) units, three different installations of an under-cabinet model with grease screens across the bottom and no capture hood, two devices with grease screens covering the bottom of a large capture hood (one under-cabinet, one wall-mount chimney), four under-cabinet open hoods, and two open hoods with chimney mounts over islands. Performance assessment included measurement of airflow and sound levels across fan settings and experiments to quantify the contemporaneous capture efficiency for the exhaust generated by natural gas cooking burners.Capture efficiency is defined as the fraction of generated pollutants that are removed through the exhaust and thus not available for inhalation of household occupants. Capture efficiency (CE) was assessed for various configurations of burner use (e.g., single front, single back, combination of one front and one back, oven) and fan speed setting. Measured airflow rates were substantially lower than the levels noted in product literature for many of the units. This shortfall was observed for several units costing in excess of $1000. Capture efficiency varied widely (from<5percent to roughly 100percent) across devices and across conditions for some devices. As expected, higher capture efficiencies were achieved with higher fan settings and the associated higher air flow rates. In most cases, capture efficiencies were substantially higher for rear burners than for front burners. The best and most consistent performance was observed for open hoods that covered all cooktop burners and operated at higher airflow rates. The lowest capture efficiencies were measured when a front burner was used with a rear backdraft system or with lowest fan setting for above the range

  15. Composite Fan Blade Design for Advanced Engine Concepts (United States)

    Abumeri, Galib H.; Kuguoglu, Latife H.; Chamis, Christos C.


    The aerodynamic and structural viability of composite fan blades of the revolutionary Exo-Skeletal engine are assessed for an advanced subsonic mission using the NASA EST/BEST computational simulation system. The Exo-Skeletal Engine (ESE) calls for the elimination of the shafts and disks completely from the engine center and the attachment of the rotor blades in spanwise compression to a rotating casing. The fan rotor overall adiabatic efficiency obtained from aerodynamic analysis is estimated at 91.6 percent. The flow is supersonic near the blade leading edge but quickly transitions into a subsonic flow without any turbulent boundary layer separation on the blade. The structural evaluation of the composite fan blade indicates that the blade would buckle at a rotor speed that is 3.5 times the design speed of 2000 rpm. The progressive damage analysis of the composite fan blade shows that ply damage is initiated at a speed of 4870 rpm while blade fracture takes place at 7640 rpm. This paper describes and discusses the results for the composite blade that are obtained from aerodynamic, displacement, stress, buckling, modal, and progressive damage analyses. It will be demonstrated that a computational simulation capability is readily available to evaluate new and revolutionary technology such as the ESE.

  16. Fan Fuel Casting Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhoff, Seth D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    LANL was approached to provide material and design guidance for a fan-shaped fuel element. A total of at least three castings were planned. The first casting is a simple billet mold to be made from high carbon DU-10Mo charge material. The second and third castings are for optimization of the actual fuel plate mold. The experimental scope for optimization is only broad enough for a second iteration of the mold design. It is important to note that partway through FY17, this project was cancelled by the sponsor. This report is being written in order to capture the knowledge gained should this project resume at a later date.

  17. Fan-delta and interdeltaic shoreline sediments of Middle Devonian Granite Wash and Keg River clastics, Red Earth field, north Alberta basin, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabry, H.


    A detailed sedimentological investigation of over 4000 ft of core and 500 well logs of the Middle Devonian granite wash and Keg River clastics in the Red Earth field, North Alberta basin, Canada, has led to the recognition of a granite wash subaerial fan-delta system that is laterally continuous with a Keg River subaqueous delta component along an eastern shoreline of the ancestral Peace River arch. The subaerial fan delta includes alluvial fan facies, sheet wash and mud flows, and playa lakes. The subaqueous delta component includes lower shoreface, upper shoreface, beach-foreshore, eolian sand dunes, lagoon, washover sands, tidal channels and flats, and supratidal carbonates and anhydrites. Within this system, six mappable units are defined. A conceptual depositional model for the sequence depicts four main events. (1) Erosion of Peach River arch uplifted fault blocks, which produced coarse-grained fan-delta sediments in an adjacent fault-bounded margin. Subsequent fluvial reworking resulted in the deposition of thick, lenticular, wedge-shaped alluvial fans of granite wash. (2) Progradation of alluvial fans seaward into the Keg River Sea. (3) Transgression by Middle Devonian seas from the east, which reworked alluvial fans and led to deposition of discontinuous linear sand bodies represented by the Keg River regressive shoreline sediments. (4) Restriction of the sea by the Presqu'ile barrier reef to the north, which deposited evaporites of the Muskeg Formation over the whole sequence. Modern analog to this fan-delta system is the coastal fans of the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Red Earth field contains over 27 million bbl of recoverable oil, related to a combination structural-stratigraphic trap.

  18. Fluvial processes on Mars: Erosion and sedimentation (United States)

    Squyres, Steven W.


    One of the most important discoveries of the Mariner 9 and Viking missions to Mars was evidence of change of the Martian surface by the action of liquid water. From the standpoint of a Mars Rover/Sample Return Mission, fluvial activity on Mars is important in two ways: (1) channel formation has deeply eroded the Martian crust, providing access to relatively undisturbed subsurface units; and (2) much of the material eroded from channels may have been deposited in standing bodies of liquid water. The most striking fluvial erosion features on Mars are the outflow channels. A second type of channel apparently caused by flow of liquid water is the valley systems. These are similar to terrestial drainage systems. The sedimentary deposits of outflow channels are often difficult to identfy. No obvious deposits such as deltaic accumulations are visible in Viking images. Another set of deposits that may be water lain and that date approx. from the epoch of outflow channels are the layered deposits in the Valles Marineris. From the standpoint of a Mars Rover/Sample Return mission, the problem with all of these water-lain sediments is their age, or rather the lack of it.

  19. Metapopulation capacity of evolving fluvial landscapes (United States)

    Bertuzzo, Enrico; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Rinaldo, Andrea


    The form of fluvial landscapes is known to attain stationary network configurations that settle in dynamically accessible minima of total energy dissipation by landscape-forming discharges. Recent studies have highlighted the role of the dendritic structure of river networks in controlling population dynamics of the species they host and large-scale biodiversity patterns. Here, we systematically investigate the relation between energy dissipation, the physical driver for the evolution of river networks, and the ecological dynamics of their embedded biota. To that end, we use the concept of metapopulation capacity, a measure to link landscape structures with the population dynamics they host. Technically, metapopulation capacity is the leading eigenvalue λM of an appropriate "landscape" matrix subsuming whether a given species is predicted to persist in the long run. λM can conveniently be used to rank different landscapes in terms of their capacity to support viable metapopulations. We study how λM changes in response to the evolving network configurations of spanning trees. Such sequence of configurations is theoretically known to relate network selection to general landscape evolution equations through imperfect searches for dynamically accessible states frustrated by the vagaries of Nature. Results show that the process shaping the metric and the topological properties of river networks, prescribed by physical constraints, leads to a progressive increase in the corresponding metapopulation capacity and therefore on the landscape capacity to support metapopulations—with implications on biodiversity in fluvial ecosystems.

  20. Design definition study of a NASA/Navy lift/cruise fan technology V/STOL airplane: Risk assessment addendum to the final report (United States)

    Zabinsky, J. M.; Burnham, R. W.; Flora, C. C.; Gotlieb, P.; Grande, D. L.; Gunnarson, D. W.; Howard, W. M.; Hunt, D.; Jakubowski, G. W.; Johnson, P. E.


    An assessment of risk, in terms of delivery delays, cost overrun, and performance achievement, associated with the V/STOL technology airplane is presented. The risk is discussed in terms of weight, structure, aerodynamics, propulsion, mechanical drive, and flight controls. The analysis ensures that risks associated with the design and development of the airplane will be eliminated in the course of the program and a useful technology airplane that meets the predicted cost, schedule, and performance can be produced.

  1. Being of service: "X-Files" fans and social engagement


    Bethan Jones


    I explore the ways in which celebrity charity and fan activism can lead to civic engagement and social change. Fan studies has moved away from the traditional view of fans as psychologically deficient and has begun to examine resistance within the cultural productions of fandom—fan fiction, for example, addressing gender imbalances in popular TV shows. However, scholarship on celebrity-focused fans still retains much of the stigmatizing language that mars early writing about fans. I examine t...

  2. Variables and potential models for the bleaching of luminescence signals in fluvial environments (United States)

    Gray, Harrison J.; Mahan, Shannon


    Luminescence dating of fluvial sediments rests on the assumption that sufficient sunlight is available to remove a previously obtained signal in a process deemed bleaching. However, luminescence signals obtained from sediment in the active channels of rivers often contain residual signals. This paper explores and attempts to build theoretical models for the bleaching of luminescence signals in fluvial settings. We present two models, one for sediment transported in an episodic manner, such as flood-driven washes in arid environments, and one for sediment transported in a continuous manner, such as in large continental scale rivers. The episodic flow model assumes that the majority of sediment is bleached while exposed to sunlight at the near surface between flood events and predicts a power-law decay in luminescence signal with downstream transport distance. The continuous flow model is developed by combining the Beer–Lambert law for the attenuation of light through a water column with a general-order kinetics equation to produce an equation with the form of a double negative exponential. The inflection point of this equation is compared with the sediment concentration from a Rouse profile to derive a non-dimensional number capable of assessing the likely extent of bleaching for a given set of luminescence and fluvial parameters. Although these models are theoretically based and not yet necessarily applicable to real-world fluvial systems, we introduce these ideas to stimulate discussion and encourage the development of comprehensive bleaching models with predictive power.

  3. Model Projections of Future Fluvial Sediment Delivery to Major Deltas Under Environmental Change (United States)

    Darby, S. E.; Dunn, F.; Nicholls, R. J.; Cohen, S.; Zarfl, C.


    Deltas are important hot spots for climate change impacts on which over half a billion people live worldwide. Most of the world's deltas are sinking as a result of natural and anthropogenic subsidence and due to eustatic sea level rise. The ability to predict rates of delta aggradation is therefore critical to assessments of the extent to which sedimentation can potentially offset sea level rise, but our ability to make such predictions is severely hindered by a lack of insight into future trends of the fluvial sediment load supplied to their deltas by feeder watersheds. To address this gap we investigate fluvial sediment fluxes under future environmental change for a selection (47) of the world's major river deltas. Specifically, we employed the numerical model WBMsed to project future variations in mean annual fluvial sediment loads under a range of environmental change scenarios that account for changes in climate, socio-economics and dam construction. Our projections indicate a clear decrease (by 34 to 41% on average, depending on the specific scenario) in future fluvial sediment supply to most of the 47 deltas. These reductions in sediment delivery are driven primarily by anthropogenic disturbances, with reservoir construction being the most influential factor globally. Our results indicate the importance of developing new management strategies for reservoir construction and operation.

  4. Electric fans for reducing adverse health impacts in heatwaves. (United States)

    Gupta, Saurabh; Carmichael, Catriona; Simpson, Christina; Clarke, Mike J; Allen, Claire; Gao, Yang; Chan, Emily Y Y; Murray, Virginia


    Heatwaves are hot weather events, which breach regional or national thresholds, that last for several days. They are likely to occur with increasing frequency in some parts of the world. The potential consequences were illustrated in Europe in August 2003 when there were an estimated 30,000 excess deaths due to a heatwave. Electric fans might be used with the intention of reducing the adverse health effects of a heatwave. Fans do not cool the ambient air but can be used to draw in cooler air from outside when placed at an open window. The aim of the fans would be to increase heat loss by increasing the efficiency of all normal methods of heat loss, but particularly by evaporation and convection methods. However, it should be noted that increased sweating can lead to dehydration and electrolyte imbalances if these fluids and electrolytes are not replaced quickly enough. Research has also identified important gaps in knowledge about the use of fans, which might lead to their inappropriate use. To determine whether the use of electric fans contributes to, or impedes, heat loss at high ambient temperatures during a heatwave, and to contribute to the evidence base for the public health impacts of heatwaves. We sought unpublished and published studies that had been published in any language. The review team were able to assess studies reported in English, Chinese, Dutch, French and German; and reports in other languages would have been translated into English as necessary. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Indian biomedical literature (IndMED and MedIND) and databases of Chinese literature (Chinese Journal Net and Digital Periodical of WanFang Data). The most recent electronic searches were done in April 2012. We also checked the reference lists of relevant articles and the websites of relevant national and international organisations, and consulted with researchers and policy makers with experience in

  5. The Right to Be a Fan (United States)

    Gutierrez, Peter


    Reading experts have consistently cited the importance of independent reading, reading for pleasure, and fostering "a love of reading." Unfortunately, fanning the fire of fan readership is not so easy in the service of our clear-cut and standards-aligned curricula, except perhaps in small, carefully channeled doses. Moreover, the impetus for such…

  6. Fluvial geomorphology on Earth-like planetary surfaces: A review. (United States)

    Baker, Victor R; Hamilton, Christopher W; Burr, Devon M; Gulick, Virginia C; Komatsu, Goro; Luo, Wei; Rice, James W; Rodriguez, J A P


    Morphological evidence for ancient channelized flows (fluvial and fluvial-like landforms) exists on the surfaces of all of the inner planets and on some of the satellites of the Solar System. In some cases, the relevant fluid flows are related to a planetary evolution that involves the global cycling of a volatile component (water for Earth and Mars; methane for Saturn's moon Titan). In other cases, as on Mercury, Venus, Earth's moon, and Jupiter's moon Io, the flows were of highly fluid lava. The discovery, in 1972, of what are now known to be fluvial channels and valleys on Mars sparked a major controversy over the role of water in shaping the surface of that planet. The recognition of the fluvial character of these features has opened unresolved fundamental questions about the geological history of water on Mars, including the presence of an ancient ocean and the operation of a hydrological cycle during the earliest phases of planetary history. Other fundamental questions posed by fluvial and fluvial-like features on planetary bodies include the possible erosive action of large-scale outpourings of very fluid lavas, such as those that may have produced the remarkable canali forms on Venus; the ability of exotic fluids, such as methane, to create fluvial-like landforms, as observed on Saturn's moon, Titan; and the nature of sedimentation and erosion under different conditions of planetary surface gravity. Planetary fluvial geomorphology also illustrates fundamental epistemological and methodological issues, including the role of analogy in geomorphological/geological inquiry.

  7. Blade Vibration Measurement System for Unducted Fans (United States)

    Marscher, William


    With propulsion research programs focused on new levels of efficiency and noise reduction, two avenues for advanced gas turbine technology are emerging: the geared turbofan and ultrahigh bypass ratio fan engines. Both of these candidates are being pursued as collaborative research projects between NASA and the engine manufacturers. The high bypass concept from GE Aviation is an unducted fan that features a bypass ratio of over 30 along with the accompanying benefits in fuel efficiency. This project improved the test and measurement capabilities of the unducted fan blade dynamic response. In the course of this project, Mechanical Solutions, Inc. (MSI) collaborated with GE Aviation to (1) define the requirements for fan blade measurements; (2) leverage MSI's radar-based system for compressor and turbine blade monitoring; and (3) develop, validate, and deliver a noncontacting blade vibration measurement system for unducted fans.

  8. Advanced Noise Control Fan Aerodynamic Performance (United States)

    Bozak, Richard F., Jr.


    The Advanced Noise Control Fan at the NASA Glenn Research Center is used to experimentally analyze fan generated acoustics. In order to determine how a proposed noise reduction concept affects fan performance, flow measurements can be used to compute mass flow. Since tedious flow mapping is required to obtain an accurate mass flow, an equation was developed to correlate the mass flow to inlet lip wall static pressure measurements. Once this correlation is obtained, the mass flow for future configurations can be obtained from the nonintrusive wall static pressures. Once the mass flow is known, the thrust and fan performance can be evaluated. This correlation enables fan acoustics and performance to be obtained simultaneously without disturbing the flow.

  9. Computing Gröbner fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukuda, K.; Jensen, Anders Nedergaard; Thomas, R.R.


    This paper presents algorithms for computing the Gröbner fan of an arbitrary polynomial ideal. The computation involves enumeration of all reduced Gröbner bases of the ideal. Our algorithms are based on a uniform definition of the Gröbner fan that applies to both homogeneous and non-homogeneous i...... are not always normal fans of polyhedra in which case reverse search applies automatically. Computational results using our implementation of these algorithms in the software package Gfan are included.......This paper presents algorithms for computing the Gröbner fan of an arbitrary polynomial ideal. The computation involves enumeration of all reduced Gröbner bases of the ideal. Our algorithms are based on a uniform definition of the Gröbner fan that applies to both homogeneous and non...

  10. Fan-fold shielded electrical leads (United States)

    Rohatgi, Rajeev R.; Cowan, Thomas E.


    Fan-folded electrical leads made from copper cladded Kapton, for example, with the copper cladding on one side serving as a ground plane and the copper cladding on the other side being etched to form the leads. The Kapton is fan folded with the leads located at the bottom of the fan-folds. Electrical connections are made by partially opening the folds of the fan and soldering, for example, the connections directly to the ground plane and/or the lead. The fan folded arrangement produces a number of advantages, such as electrically shielding the leads from the environment, is totally non-magnetic, and has a very low thermal conductivity, while being easy to fabricate.

  11. Results of an Advanced Fan Stage Operating Over a Wide Range of Speed and Bypass Ratio. Part 1; Fan Stage Design and Experimental Results (United States)

    Suder, Kenneth L.; Prahst, Patricia S.; Thorp, Scott A.


    NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program is investigating turbine-based combined cycle (TBCC) propulsion systems for access to space because it provides the potential for aircraft-like, space-launch operations that may significantly reduce launch costs and improve safety. To this end, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and General Electric (GE) teamed to design a Mach 4 variable cycle turbofan/ramjet engine for access to space. To enable the wide operating range of a Mach 4+ variable cycle turbofan ramjet required the development of a unique fan stage design capable of multi-point operation to accommodate variations in bypass ratio (10 ), fan speed (7 ), inlet mass flow (3.5 ), inlet pressure (8 ), and inlet temperature (3 ). In this paper, NASA has set out to characterize a TBCC engine fan stage aerodynamic performance and stability limits over a wide operating range including power-on and hypersonic-unique "windmill" operation. Herein, we will present the fan stage design, and the experimental test results of the fan stage operating from 15 to 100 percent corrected design speed. Whereas, in the companion paper, we will provide an assessment of NASA s APNASA code s ability to predict the fan stage performance and operability over a wide range of speed and bypass ratio.

  12. Turbofan gas turbine engine with variable fan outlet guide vanes (United States)

    Wood, Peter John (Inventor); Zenon, Ruby Lasandra (Inventor); LaChapelle, Donald George (Inventor); Mielke, Mark Joseph (Inventor); Grant, Carl (Inventor)


    A turbofan gas turbine engine includes a forward fan section with a row of fan rotor blades, a core engine, and a fan bypass duct downstream of the forward fan section and radially outwardly of the core engine. The forward fan section has only a single stage of variable fan guide vanes which are variable fan outlet guide vanes downstream of the forward fan rotor blades. An exemplary embodiment of the engine includes an afterburner downstream of the fan bypass duct between the core engine and an exhaust nozzle. The variable fan outlet guide vanes are operable to pivot from a nominal OGV position at take-off to an open OGV position at a high flight Mach Number which may be in a range of between about 2.5-4+. Struts extend radially across a radially inwardly curved portion of a flowpath of the engine between the forward fan section and the core engine.

  13. Tamarix, hydrology and fluvial geomorphology: Chapter 7 (United States)

    Auerbach, Daniel A.; Merritt, David M.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Sher, Anna A; Quigley, Martin F.


    This chapter explores the impact of hydrology and fluvial geomorphology on the distribution and abundance of Tamarix as well as the reciprocal effects of Tamarix on hydrologic and geomorphic conditions. It examines whether flow-regime alteration favors Tamarix establishment over native species, and how Tamarix stands modify processes involved in the narrowing of river channels and the formation of floodplains. It begins with an overview of the basic geomorphic and hydrologic character of rivers in the western United States before analyzing how this setting has contributed to the regional success of Tamarix. It then considers the influence of Tamarix on the hydrogeomorphic form and function of rivers and concludes by discussing how a changing climate, vegetation management, and continued water-resource development affect the future role of Tamarix in these ecosystems.

  14. Bright Streaks and Dark Fans (United States)


    The south polar region of Mars is covered every year by a layer of carbon dioxide ice. In a region called the 'cryptic terrain,' the ice is translucent and sunlight can penetrate through the ice to warm the surface below. The ice layer sublimates (evaporates) from the bottom. The dark fans of dust seen in this image come from the surface below the layer of ice, carried to the top by gas venting from below. The translucent ice is 'visible' by virtue of the effect it has on the tone of the surface below, which would otherwise have the same color and reflectivity as the fans. Bright streaks in this image are fresh frost. The CRISM team has identified the composition of these streaks to be carbon dioxide. Observation Geometry Image PSP_003113_0940 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 26-Mar-2007. The complete image is centered at -85.8 degrees latitude, 106.0 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 244.9 km (153.0 miles). At this distance the image scale is 49.0 cm/pixel (with 2 x 2 binning) so objects 147 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 50 cm/pixel . The image was taken at a local Mars time of 06:20 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 79 degrees, thus the sun was about 11 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 207.6 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  15. School spirits: alcohol and collegiate sports fans. (United States)

    Nelson, Toben F; Wechsler, Henry


    While studies have addressed alcohol use and related problems among college athletes, little is known about the drinking patterns of non-athletes who are sports fans. This study examines the relationship between alcohol use and interest in collegiate sports on two levels. First, do sports fans in college binge drink more and exhibit more negative alcohol-related outcomes than other students? Second, do colleges with large numbers of sports fans have higher rates of heavy drinking and accompanying secondhand effects affecting other students? The study analyzed the responses of a nationally representative sample of students who completed questionnaires in the spring of 1999 regarding their extracurricular activities and substance use. The responses of 3445 student sports fans were compared to those of 8405 students who were not sports fans. More sports fans drank alcohol, engaged in binge drinking, had a heavy drinking style and reported alcohol-related problems than nonfans. The percentage of sports fans at a school was associated with binge drinking rates and the secondhand effects. The implications for those working with college athletics and for alcohol prevention personnel are discussed. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  16. Dynamic response of Hovercraft lift fans (United States)

    Moran, D. D.


    Hovercraft lift fans are subjected to varying back pressure due to wave action and craft motions when these vehicles are operating in a seaway. The oscillatory back pressure causes the fans to perform dynamically, exhibiting a hysteresis type of response and a corresponding degradation in mean performance. Since Hovercraft motions are influenced by variations in lift fan pressure and discharge, it is important to understand completely the nature of the dynamic performance of lift fans in order to completely solve the Hovercraft seakeeping problem. The present study was performed to determine and classify the instabilities encountered in a centrifugal fan operating against time-varying back pressure. A model-scale experiment was developed in which the fan discharge was directed into a flow-measuring device, terminating in a rotating valve which produced an oscillatory back pressure superimposed upon a mean aerodynamic resistance. Pressure and local velocity were measured as functions of time at several locations in the fan volute. The measurements permitted the identification of rotating (or propagating) stall in the impeller. One cell and two cell configurations were classified and the transient condition connecting these two configurations was observed. The mechanisms which lead to rotating stall in a centrifugal compressor are presented and discussed with specific reference to Hovercraft applications.

  17. The origin of dose distributions in fluvial sediments, and the prospect of dating single grains from fluvial deposits using optically stimulated luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olley, J.M.; Caitcheon, G.G.; Roberts, R.G.


    We examine the causes of the asymmetric distributions of dose observed from measurements of the optically stimulated luminescence emitted by small aliquots of fluvial quartz, and deduce that the asymmetry arises as a result of samples being composed of a mix of mainly well bleached grains with grains that were effectively unbleached at the time of deposition. We demonstrate that the shapes of the dose distributions can be used to assess the likelihood that aliquots consist only of grains that were well-bleached at the time of deposition. The more asymmetric the distribution, the greater the probability that the aliquots with the lowest dose most closely represent the true burial dose. Single grains with differing doses are present in each of the samples examined, and the population with the lowest dose gives an optical age consistent with the expected burial age. This result implies that the beta-dose heterogeneity in these deposits is small, and that the effects of micro-dosimetric variations on optical dating of individual grains are not significant for these samples. We demonstrate that single-grain dating of fluvial material is possible and practicable using standard Risoe optical dating equipment, and we conclude that application of a new regenerative-dose protocol to single grains of quartz, using the lowest dose population to estimate the burial dose, is the best available means of obtaining reliable luminescence ages for heterogeneously bleached fluvial sediments

  18. FANS-3D Users Guide (ESTEP Project ER 201031) (United States)


    TECHNICAL DOCUMENT 3293 August 2016 FANS -3D User’s Guide (ESTEP Project ER-201031) Pei-Fang Wang SSC Pacific Hamn-Ching...1.1 THEORY AND NUMERICAL ALGORITHM OF FANS CODE ............................................. 1 2. FANS -3D SOFTWARE DOCUMENTATION AND EXECUTION...5 3. FANS -3D CODE PARALLELIZATION

  19. 30 CFR 75.310 - Installation of main mine fans. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Installation of main mine fans. 75.310 Section... mine fans. (a) Each main mine fan shall be— (1) Installed on the surface in an incombustible housing... that gives a signal at the mine when the fan either slows or stops. A responsible person designated by...

  20. 30 CFR 75.302 - Main mine fans. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main mine fans. 75.302 Section 75.302 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.302 Main mine fans. Each coal mine shall be ventilated by one or more main mine fans. Booster fans shall not be installed underground to assist main mine...

  1. 30 CFR 75.331 - Auxiliary fans and tubing. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary fans and tubing. 75.331 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.331 Auxiliary fans and tubing. (a) When auxiliary fans and tubing are used for face ventilation, each auxiliary fan shall be— (1...

  2. Optimizing Circular Side-Resonators to Reduce Computer Fan Noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, M.J.J.; Beltman, W.M.


    One of the main noise sources in computers are the cooling fans. Tonal noise at the rotational frequency of the fan, the blade passing frequency (BPF) and its higher harmonics are important in fan noise. So called 'side-resonators' integrated in the duct of an in-duct axial fan cause an impedance

  3. 30 CFR 57.8519 - Underground main fan controls. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground main fan controls. 57.8519 Section... Ventilation Surface and Underground § 57.8519 Underground main fan controls. All underground main fans shall have controls placed at a suitable protected location remote from the fan and preferably on the surface...

  4. Structural Evaluation of Exo-Skeletal Engine Fan Blades (United States)

    Kuguoglu, Latife; Abumeri, Galib; Chamis, Christos C.


    The available computational simulation capability is used to demonstrate the structural viability of composite fan blades of innovative Exo-Skeletal Engine (ESE) developed at NASA Glenn Research Center for a subsonic mission. Full structural analysis and progressive damage evaluation of ESE composite fan blade is conducted through the NASA in-house computational simulation software system EST/BEST. The results of structural assessment indicate that longitudinal stresses acting on the blade are in compression. At a design speed of 2000 rpm, pressure and suction surface outer most ply stresses in longitudinal, transverse and shear direction are much lower than the corresponding composite ply strengths. Damage is initiated at 4870 rpm and blade fracture takes place at rotor speed of 7735 rpm. Damage volume is 51 percent. The progressive damage, buckling, stress and strength results indicate that the design at hand is very sound because of the factor of safety, damage tolerance, and buckling load of 6811 rpm.

  5. New Fan Engine Noise-Reduction Concept Using Trailing Edge Blowing of Fan Blades Demonstrated (United States)

    Heidelberg, Laurence J.


    A major source of noise in commercial turbofan engines is the interaction of the fan blade wakes with the fan exit vanes (stators). These wakes can be greatly reduced by filling them with air blown out of the blade trailing edge. Extensive testing of this concept has demonstrated significant noise reductions. These tests were conducted on a low-speed, 4- ft-diameter fan using hollow blades at NASA Glenn Research Center's Aeroacoustic Propulsion Laboratory (AAPL).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Solinski


    Full Text Available This article is a main part of "Internal differentiate of subculture group of football fans in Poland" project. Author has tried to show how the subculture of football fans can be differentiate. Author ha presented three different subgroups of Polish fans. It is very important to divide this subculture, because each subgroup has different mentality and style. That is why I have paid the most attention on this element.

  7. CF6 jet engine performance improvement: New fan (United States)

    Fasching, W. A.


    As part of the NASA sponsored engine component improvement program, and fan package was developed to reduce fuel consumption in current CF6 turbofan aircraft engine. The new fan package consist of an improved fan blade, reduced fan tip clearance due to a fan case stiffener, and a smooth fan casing tip shroud. CF6 engine performance and acoustic tests demonstrated the predicted 1.8% improvement in cruise sfc without an increase in engine noise. Power management thrust/fan speed characteristics were defined. Mechanical and structural integrity was demonstrated in model fan rotor photoelastic stress tests, full-size fan blade bench fatigue tests, and CF6 engine bird ingestion, crosswind, and cyclic endurance tests. The fan was certified in the CF6-500c2/E2 engines and is in commerical service on the Boeing 747-200, Douglas DC-10-30, and Atrbus industrie A300B aircraft.

  8. Compounding effects of sea level rise and fluvial flooding. (United States)

    Moftakhari, Hamed R; Salvadori, Gianfausto; AghaKouchak, Amir; Sanders, Brett F; Matthew, Richard A


    Sea level rise (SLR), a well-documented and urgent aspect of anthropogenic global warming, threatens population and assets located in low-lying coastal regions all around the world. Common flood hazard assessment practices typically account for one driver at a time (e.g., either fluvial flooding only or ocean flooding only), whereas coastal cities vulnerable to SLR are at risk for flooding from multiple drivers (e.g., extreme coastal high tide, storm surge, and river flow). Here, we propose a bivariate flood hazard assessment approach that accounts for compound flooding from river flow and coastal water level, and we show that a univariate approach may not appropriately characterize the flood hazard if there are compounding effects. Using copulas and bivariate dependence analysis, we also quantify the increases in failure probabilities for 2030 and 2050 caused by SLR under representative concentration pathways 4.5 and 8.5. Additionally, the increase in failure probability is shown to be strongly affected by compounding effects. The proposed failure probability method offers an innovative tool for assessing compounding flood hazards in a warming climate.

  9. Active Vibration Reduction of Titanium Alloy Fan Blades (FAN1) Using Piezoelectric Materials (United States)

    Choi, Benjamin; Kauffman, Jeffrey; Duffy, Kirsten; Provenza, Andrew; Morrison, Carlos


    The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing smart adaptive structures to improve fan blade damping at resonances using piezoelectric (PE) transducers. In this paper, a digital resonant control technique emulating passive shunt circuits is used to demonstrate vibration reduction of FAN1 Ti real fan blade at the several target modes. Single-mode control and multi-mode control using one piezoelectric material are demonstrated. Also a conceptual study of how to implement this digital control system into the rotating fan blade is discussed.

  10. How to do things with fan subs: Media engagement as subcultural capital in anime fan subbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Schules


    Full Text Available Anime fandom has been a fairly constant subject in fan scholarship, although only recently have conversations about fan subbing begun to circulate. As useful as those conversations are, none have directly dealt either with the mechanisms of fan subbing, particularly the use of linear notes, as a practice or with how these subs intersect with the flows of subcultural capital. Fan subbing, both as a productive and a consumptive practice, plays a small but influential part in subcultural capital. Engagement with media is a compositional element of such capital in this community.

  11. Aerodynamic Modelling and Optimization of Axial Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Dan Nørtoft

    A numerically efficient mathematical model for the aerodynamics oflow speed axial fans of the arbitrary vortex flow type has been developed.The model is based on a blade-element principle, whereby therotor is divided into a number of annular streamtubes.For each of these streamtubes relations...... and integrated propertiesshow that the computed results agree well with the measurements.Integrating a rotor-only version of the aerodynamic modelwith an algorithm for numerical designoptimization, enables the finding of an optimum fan rotor.The angular velocity of the rotor, the hub radius and the spanwise...... of fan efficiency in a design interval of flow rates,thus designinga fan which operates well over a range of different flow conditions.The optimization scheme was used to investigate the dependence ofmaximum efficiency on1: the number of blades,2: the width of the design interval and3: the hub radius...

  12. Reduction of fan noise: A concept (United States)

    Simonson, M. R.


    Acoustic materials strategically located within or near noise sources are effective for noise abatement on wing mounted lift fans, nozzles, engines and other noise sources. Panels are straightforward and easily adaptable to situations outside of aircraft technology.

  13. NASA ISS Portable Fan Assembly Acoustics (United States)

    Boone, Andrew; Allen, Christopher S.; Hess, Linda F.


    The Portable Fan Assembly (PFA) is a variable speed fan that can be used to provide additional ventilation inside International Space Station (ISS) modules as needed for crew comfort or for enhanced mixing of the ISS atmosphere. This fan can also be configured with a Shuttle era lithium hydroxide (LiOH) canister for CO2 removal in confined areas partially of fully isolated from the primary Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) on ISS which is responsible for CO2 removal. This report documents noise emission levels of the PFA at various speed settings and configurations. It also documents the acoustic attenuation effects realized when circulating air through the PFA inlet and outlet mufflers and when operating in its CO2 removal configuration (CRK) with a LiOH canister (sorbent bed) installed over the fan outlet.

  14. Mexican Fan Palm - Orange Co. [ds350 (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This dataset provides the known distribution of Mexican fan palm (Washingtonia robusta) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June, 2007...

  15. Magnetic anomalies in Central Bengal fan

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.C.S.; Lakshminarayana, S.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.

    Total magnetic field anomalies recorded over the Central Bengal Fan are analysed and the depths to the magnetic basement are computed using the analytical signal and the Werner deconvolution methods. To the west and east of 85 degrees E...

  16. Results of an Advanced Fan Stage Operating Over a Wide Range of Speed and Bypass Ratio. Part 2; Comparison of CFD and Experimental Results (United States)

    Celestina, Mark L.; Suder, Kenneth L.; Kulkarni, Sameer


    NASA and GE teamed to design and build a 57 percent engine scaled fan stage for a Mach 4 variable cycle turbofan/ramjet engine for access to space with multipoint operations. This fan stage was tested in NASA's transonic compressor facility. The objectives of this test were to assess the aerodynamic and aero mechanic performance and operability characteristics of the fan stage over the entire range of engine operation including: 1) sea level static take-off; 2) transition over large swings in fan bypass ratio; 3) transition from turbofan to ramjet; and 4) fan wind-milling operation at high Mach flight conditions. This paper will focus on an assessment of APNASA, a multistage turbomachinery analysis code developed by NASA, to predict the fan stage performance and operability over a wide range of speeds (37 to 100 percent) and bypass ratios.

  17. Sloping fan travertine, Belen, New Mexico, USA (United States)

    Cook, Megan; Chafetz, Henry S.


    Pliocene to Quaternary age travertines are very well-exposed in quarries near Belen, New Mexico, U.S.A., on the western edge of the Rio Grande Rift system. A series of hillside springs produced travertine tongues tens of meters thick and hundreds of meters long. The accumulations represent deposits from individual springs as well as the amalgamation of deposits. The overall architecture is predominantly composed of sloping fans with a smaller component of terrace mounds. The sloping fan deposits commonly have a dip of step morphology. As a consequence of vertical accretion in the pools, terrace mounds morphed into sloping fans. The travertine is composed of a variety of commonly reported constituents, i.e., centimeter thick laminae of bacterial shrubs and oncoids, foam rock, sheets and rafts, and finely crystalline crusts that occur throughout the sloping fan and terrace mound accumulations. Sheets and rafts formed as precipitates in pools on the surfaces of the fans and terraces as well as spelean deposits on the water surfaces of pools within cavities in the overall accumulation. Thus, the spelean rafts provide valuable indicators of original horizontality in the sloping fan strata. In addition, intraformational breccias, composed of locally torn-up travertine intraclastic boulders and deposited in with other travertine, and extraformational breccias, composed of torn-up travertine intraclasts mixed with siliciclastic fines and sand and Paleozoic limestone clasts transported downslope from higher on the hillside, are a common constituent in the sloping fan accumulation. The Belen travertines provide a very well-exposed example of sloping fan travertines and may provide relevant data with regard to the subsurface Aptian Pre-Salt deposits, offshore Brazil.

  18. Wordplay, mindplay: Fan fiction and postclassical narratology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerle Van Steenhuyse


    Full Text Available Recent narrative theories on story worlds, or the worlds evoked by narratives, call attention to the process of fan reading and the role which the canon plays in that process. This paper posits that such theories can help us understand literary techniques that make a difference on the level of the reading experience that is implied by fan fiction texts. This is illustrated with a close reading of Naguabo's "The Mother of All Marriage Proposals," a Jane Austen fic.

  19. Measuring Fan-Blade-Tip Displacements (United States)

    Berry, Robert F., Jr.


    Magnets and Hall-effect transducers used to monitor tip-to-shroud clearances. Mounting permanent magnet in end of fan blade and monitoring tip-to-shroud distance by use of output of Hall-effect transducers affixed to surface of shroud. Transducers provide real-time information. By placing magnets in each fan-blade tip, complete set monitored sequentially as each blade rotates past sensor. Application in many rotating machines, providing surrounding materials nonmagnetic and temperatures not severe.

  20. Investigation of fluvial landforms in the north-eastern Pannonian Basin, using cartographic materials from the XIX-XXI Centuries (United States)

    Robu, Delia; Niga, Bogdan; Perşoiu, Ioana


    The study area is located in the north-eastern Pannonian Basin, and covers approximately 3700 km2. Using cartographic materials for the last 155 years, we analyzed and defined river network and relict fluvial morphologies created by the rivers Tur, Someş, Homorod and Crasna. Database extraction from each set of historical maps was performed by field verification and validation, associated to GIS techniques. Relict fluvial morphologies on the Someş alluvial cone comprise a wide variety of channel typologies and sizes, drainage directions and their consequent typology, which indicates a complex fluvial evolution. The dominant category of relict fluvial morphology is represented by the meander loop. Following the quantitative analysis on the successive sets of maps we identified and delimited meander loops and meandering paths formed prior to the reference year 1860. Generally, the post-1860 relict fluvial morphologies are secondary morphologies, as the keynote is given by those formed previous to the reference moment 1860. An analysis of the share of the relict fluvial morphologies on the three sets of reference cartographic materials (the second Austro-Hungarian topographic survey, Google Earth and orthophotoplans) highlights that most relict fluvial morphologies were identified on the second Austro-Hungarian topographic survey, followed by those identified in Google Earth and orthophotoplans. The map of fluvial morphologies constructed in this study enables a discussion on drainage directions, based on the observation that a series of abandoned meander loops and segments follow clear directions. We applied several quantitative indices in assessing the relict fluvial morphology (radius of curvature, paleochannel width). Consequently, we identified underfit stream sectors with meander loops larger than the modern ones Someş meanders (on the Racta River), uncharacteristic features such as braided riverbed reaches, a high frequency of meander scrolls present on the

  1. Fan-out in gene regulatory networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauro Herbert M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In synthetic biology, gene regulatory circuits are often constructed by combining smaller circuit components. Connections between components are achieved by transcription factors acting on promoters. If the individual components behave as true modules and certain module interface conditions are satisfied, the function of the composite circuits can in principle be predicted. Results In this paper, we investigate one of the interface conditions: fan-out. We quantify the fan-out, a concept widely used in electrical engineering, to indicate the maximum number of the downstream inputs that an upstream output transcription factor can regulate. The fan-out is shown to be closely related to retroactivity studied by Del Vecchio, et al. An efficient operational method for measuring the fan-out is proposed and shown to be applied to various types of module interfaces. The fan-out is also shown to be enhanced by self-inhibitory regulation on the output. The potential role of an inhibitory regulation is discussed. Conclusions The proposed estimation method for fan-out not only provides an experimentally efficient way for quantifying the level of modularity in gene regulatory circuits but also helps characterize and design module interfaces, enabling the modular construction of gene circuits.

  2. Head injury from fan blades among children. (United States)

    Alias, Azmi; Krishnapillai, Ravi; Teng, Hong Wah; Abd Latif, Ahmad Zubaidi; Adnan, Johari Siregar


    Head injury caused by fan blades is rare among children. We analysed 14 cases of such injury and discuss the causes, type of injury and preventive measures. A retrospective analysis of 14 cases of children who were admitted to the Pediatric Neurosurgical Unit of Hospital Kuala Lumpur after sustaining head injuries caused by fan blades between January 2000 and December 2002 was performed. The causes of fan-blade head injury included jumping on the upper bunk of a bunk-bed, climbing on a ladder, climbing up onto a table, and being lifted by an adult. Thirteen patients were injured by ceiling fans and one by falling onto an uncovered table fan. School-aged boys were the predominant victims. Mean patient age was 7.9 years (range, 1.0-12.2 years). There was a twin peak incidence of when the accidents occurred: just before lunch in the afternoon and bedtime at night. The types of injury were scalp lacerations, compound depressed fractures and multiple intracranial haemorrhages. Two patients had the complication of wound infection, and one of these patients developed cerebral spinal fluid leak. One patient died from severe head injuries. Safety awareness among parents and caretakers are important as fan-blade head injury among children is preventable.

  3. Australian Queer Science Fiction Fans. (United States)

    Kerry, Stephen Craig


    Science fiction (sf) does more than provide a fleeting moment of entertainment; it has many personal and social functions. In addition to offering audiences "romantic escapism" (Gerrold, 1996, pp. 5-6), sf also enables the "postulation of an alternative reality from which to contemplate this one" (Gerrold, 1996, pp. 5-6); as such, it is especially important "for groups which have had limited stakes in the status quo" (Jenkins, 1995, p. 242). To date, no research has been undertaken on the relationship between Australian queers and sf fandom. This article reports the findings of an online survey and explores the psycho-social features of Australian queer sf fans and why they like the genre. While the characteristics of this sample mirror those of Australian queers generally, they also have slightly higher rates of mental illness and are far more likely to state they have "no religion." Furthermore, while enjoying the "sciency" (P10, bisexual woman) aspects of sf, Australian queers also like the "poignant metaphors for our own civilization" (P45, asexual man).

  4. Field methods for measurement of fluvial sediment (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas K.; Glysson, G. Douglas


    This chapter describes equipment and procedures for collection and measurement of fluvial sediment. The complexity of the hydrologic and physical environments and man's ever-increasing data needs make it essential for those responsible for the collection of sediment data to be aware of basic concepts involved in processes of erosion, transport, deposition of sediment, and equipment and procedures necessary to representatively collect sediment data. In addition to an introduction, the chapter has two major sections. The 'Sediment-Sampling Equipment' section encompasses discussions of characteristics and limitations of various models of depth- and point-integrating samplers, single-stage samplers, bed-material samplers, bedload samplers, automatic pumping samplers, and support equipment. The 'Sediment-Sampling Techniques'` section includes discussions of representative sampling criteria, characteristics of sampling sites, equipment selection relative to the sampling conditions and needs, depth and point-integration techniques, surface and dip sampling, determination of transit rates, sampling programs and related data, cold-weather sampling, bed-material and bedload sampling, measuring total sediment discharge, and measuring reservoir sedimentation rates.

  5. Fluvial dike breaching due to overtopping: how different is it from dam breaching? (United States)

    Rifai, Ismail; Erpicum, Sébastien; Archambeau, Pierre; Violeau, Damien; Pirotton, Michel; El kadi Abderrezzak, Kamal; Dewals, Benjamin


    .g., seven times faster for a 150 % increase in the inflow discharge). When an equilibrium state is reached at the end of the test, the breach centreline orientation is found consistent with the theory of flow over a lateral weir. In the experiments, the boundary condition at the downstream end of the main channel is a lumped representation of river characteristics downstream of the breach section. In real-world conditions, these river characteristics influence the flow partition between the breach and the main channel. Therefore, we tested several downstream boundary conditions (perforated plane, rectilinear weir and sluice gate). For the same inflow discharge and water levels, they lead to significantly different breach geometries. The findings of this research shed light on key mechanisms occurring in fluvial dike breaching, which differ substantially from those in dam breaching. These specific features need to be incorporated in flood risk analyses involving fluvial dike breaching. This research also delivers a unique experimental database of high resolution continuous monitoring of the breach geometry under various flow conditions. The datasets are freely available for engineers and researchers willing to assess the performance of numerical models to simulate dike breaching and resulting flood. References Müller, C., Frank, P.-J., Hager, W.H. (2016). Dyke overtopping: effects of shape and headwater elevation. Journal of Hydraulic Research, 54(4), 410-422. Rifai, I., Erpicum, S., Archambeau, P., Violeau, D., Pirotton, M., El kadi Abderrezzak, K., Dewals, B. (2016). Monitoring topography of laboratory fluvial dike models subjected to breaching based on a laser profilometry technique. Proc. International Symposium on River Sedimentation (ISRS), 19-22 September 2016, Stuttgart. Rifai, I., Erpicum, S., Archambeau, P., Violeau, D., Pirotton, M., El kadi Abderrezzak, K., Dewals, B. (2017a). Overtopping induced failure of non-cohesive, homogenous fluvial dikes. Water Resources

  6. Fluvial geomorphology on Earth-like planetary surfaces: A review (United States)

    Baker, Victor R.; Hamilton, Christopher W.; Burr, Devon M.; Gulick, Virginia C.; Komatsu, Goro; Luo, Wei; Rice, James W.; Rodriguez, J.A.P.


    Morphological evidence for ancient channelized flows (fluvial and fluvial-like landforms) exists on the surfaces of all of the inner planets and on some of the satellites of the Solar System. In some cases, the relevant fluid flows are related to a planetary evolution that involves the global cycling of a volatile component (water for Earth and Mars; methane for Saturn’s moon Titan). In other cases, as on Mercury, Venus, Earth’s moon, and Jupiter’s moon Io, the flows were of highly fluid lava. The discovery, in 1972, of what are now known to be fluvial channels and valleys on Mars sparked a major controversy over the role of water in shaping the surface of that planet. The recognition of the fluvial character of these features has opened unresolved fundamental questions about the geological history of water on Mars, including the presence of an ancient ocean and the operation of a hydrological cycle during the earliest phases of planetary history. Other fundamental questions posed by fluvial and fluvial-like features on planetary bodies include the possible erosive action of large-scale outpourings of very fluid lavas, such as those that may have produced the remarkable canali forms on Venus; the ability of exotic fluids, such as methane, to create fluvial-like landforms, as observed on Saturn’s moon, Titan; and the nature of sedimentation and erosion under different conditions of planetary surface gravity. Planetary fluvial geomorphology also illustrates fundamental epistemological and methodological issues, including the role of analogy in geomorphological/geological inquiry. PMID:29176917

  7. CFD Study of an Annular-Ducted Fan Lift System for VTOL Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Jiang


    Full Text Available The present study aimed at assessing a novel annular-ducted fan lift system for VTOL aircraft through computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations. The power and lift efficiency of the lift fan system in hover mode, the lift and drag in transition mode, the drag and flight speed of the aircraft in cruise mode and the pneumatic coupling of the tip turbine and jet exhaust were studied. The results show that the annular-ducted fan lift system can have higher lift efficiency compared to the rotor of the Apache helicopter; the smooth transition from vertical takeoff to cruise flight needs some extra forward thrust to overcome a low peak of drag; the aircraft with the lift fan system enclosed during cruise flight theoretically may fly faster than helicopters and tiltrotors based on aerodynamic drag prediction, due to the elimination of rotor drag and compressibility effects on the rotor blade tips; and pneumatic coupling of the tip turbine and jet exhaust of a 300 m/s velocity can provide enough moment to spin the lift fan. The CFD results provide insight for future experimental study of the annular-ducted lift fan VTOL aircraft.

  8. Neural bases of ingroup altruistic motivation in soccer fans. (United States)

    Bortolini, Tiago; Bado, Patrícia; Hoefle, Sebastian; Engel, Annerose; Zahn, Roland; de Oliveira Souza, Ricardo; Dreher, Jean-Claude; Moll, Jorge


    Humans have a strong need to belong to social groups and a natural inclination to benefit ingroup members. Although the psychological mechanisms behind human prosociality have extensively been studied, the specific neural systems bridging group belongingness and altruistic motivation remain to be identified. Here, we used soccer fandom as an ecological framing of group membership to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying ingroup altruistic behaviour in male fans using event-related functional magnetic resonance. We designed an effort measure based on handgrip strength to assess the motivation to earn money (i) for oneself, (ii) for anonymous ingroup fans, or (iii) for a neutral group of anonymous non-fans. While overlapping valuation signals in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) were observed for the three conditions, the subgenual cingulate cortex (SCC) exhibited increased functional connectivity with the mOFC as well as stronger hemodynamic responses for ingroup versus outgroup decisions. These findings indicate a key role for the SCC, a region previously implicated in altruistic decisions and group affiliation, in dovetailing altruistic motivations with neural valuation systems in real-life ingroup behaviour.

  9. Spatial Distribution of Landslides Triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake: Implications for Landslide Fluvial Mobilization and Earthquake Source Mechanism (United States)

    Li, G.; West, A.; Hilton, R. G.


    Assessing the spatial distribution of earthquake-induced landslides is important for quantifying the fluvial evacuation of landslide material [Hovius et al., 2011], for deriving information about earthquake sources [Meunier et al., 2013], and for understanding the role of earthquakes in shaping surface topography and in driving orogen evolution. The 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake is characterized by large magnitude, widespread coseismic landsliding, typical mountainous ridge-and-valley topography of the region, and comprehensive geophysical observation. Previous work on landslides associated with the Wenchuan earthquake has focused on the occurrences of landslide-induced hazards and spatial relations between the landslide locations and the seismic features (i.e., the surface ruptures and the epicenter) [e.g., Dai et al., 2011; Gorum et al., 2011]. Little attention has been paid to how the landslide distribution determines the fluvial mobilization of landslide material or quantitative landslide-earthquake source mechanism inversion, even though the Wenchuan event provides an ideal case study to explore these problems for a larger magnitude earthquake than has yet been considered. We obtained a landslide inventory for the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake using high-resolution remote imagery and a semi-automated mapping algorithm. Here we report the results from spatial and statistical analysis of this landslide map using a digital elevation model (DEM) framework. We present the probability distribution of primary parameters (i.e., slope, aspect, elevation, and area density of all landslides) of the landslide inventory and discuss their relations to regional topographic features (i.e., river channels and mountain ridges). The landslide-river channel connectivity and landslide mobility were estimated using different hillslope-channel transition cutoffs. The landslide density and the probability of slope failure were calculated for all lithological units within the Longmen

  10. Fan relationship management in football - going beyond traditional product offerings to win the hearts of fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Kenneth


    The management and control of fan relations should go beyond a football club?s traditional product and service offerings and touch the important experiential side of the football economy. This will create a stronger platform to optimize ROI, ROE and ROO relating to different fan segments....

  11. Novel Crosstalk Measurement Method for Multi-Core Fiber Fan-In/Fan-Out Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Feihong; Ono, Hirotaka; Abe, Yoshiteru


    We propose a new crosstalk measurement method for multi-core fiber fan-in/fan-out devices utilizing the Fresnel reflection. Compared with the traditional method using core-to-core coupling between a multi-core fiber and a single-mode fiber, the proposed method has the advantages of high reliability...

  12. The linkage between hillslope vegetation changes and late-Quaternary fluvial-system aggradation in the Mojave Desert revisited (United States)

    Pelletier, J. D.


    Valley-floor-channel and alluvial-fan deposits and terraces in the southwestern US record multiple episodes of late Quaternary fluvial aggradation and incision. Perhaps the most well constrained of these episodes took place from the latest Pleistocene to the present in the Mojave Desert. One hypothesis for this episode, i.e. the paleo-vegetation change hypothesis (PVCH), posits that a reduction in hillslope vegetation cover associated with the transition from Pleistocene woodlands to Holocene desert scrub generated a pulse of sediment that triggered a primary phase of aggradation downstream, followed by channel incision, terrace abandonment, and initiation of a secondary phase of aggradation further downstream. A second hypothesis, i.e. the extreme-storm hypothesis, attributes episodes of aggradation and incision to changes in the frequency and/or intensity of extreme storms. In the past decade a growing number of studies has advocated the extreme-storm hypothesis and challenged the PVCH on the basis of inconsistencies in both timing and process. Here I show that in eight out of nine sites where the timing of fluvial-system aggradation in the Mojave Desert is reasonably well constrained, measured ages of primary aggradation and/or incision are consistent with the predictions of the PVCH if the time-transgressive nature of paleo-vegetation changes with elevation is fully taken into account. I also present an alternative process model for PVCH that is more consistent with available data and produces sediment pulses primarily via an increase in drainage density (i.e. a transformation of hillslopes into low-order channels) rather than solely via an increase in sediment yield from hillslopes. This paper further documents the likely important role of changes in upland vegetation cover and drainage density in driving fluvial-system response during semiarid-to-arid climatic changes.

  13. On the study of wavy leading-edge vanes to achieve low fan interaction noise (United States)

    Tong, Fan; Qiao, Weiyang; Xu, Kunbo; Wang, Liangfeng; Chen, Weijie; Wang, Xunnian


    The application of wavy leading-edge vanes to reduce a single-stage axial fan noise is numerically studied. The aerodynamic and acoustic performance of the fan is numerically investigated using a hybrid unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS)/acoustic analogy method (Goldstein equations). First, the hybrid URANS/Goldstein method is developed and successfully validated against experiment results. Next, numerical simulations are performed to investigate the noise reduction effects of the wavy leading-edge vanes. The aerodynamic and acoustic performance is assessed for a fan with vanes equipped with two different wavy leading-edge profiles and compared with the performance of conventional straight leading-edge vanes. Results indicate that a fan with wavy leading-edge vanes produces lower interaction noise than the baseline fan without a significant loss in aerodynamic performance. In fact, it is demonstrated that wavy leading-edge vanes have the potential to lead to both aerodynamic and acoustic improvements. The two different wavy leading-edge profiles are shown to successfully reduce the fan tone sound power level by 1.2 dB and 4.3 dB, respectively. Fan efficiency is also improved by about 1% with one of the tested wavy leading-edge profiles. Large eddy simulation (LES) is also performed for a simplified fan stage model to assess the effects of wavy leading-edge vanes on the broadband fan noise. Results indicate that the overall sound power level of a fan can be reduced by about 4 dB with the larger wavy leading-edge profile. Finally, the noise reduction mechanisms are investigated and analysed. It is found that the wavy leading-edge profiles can induce significant streamwise vorticity around the leading-edge protuberances and reduce pressure fluctuations (especially at locations of wavy leading-edge hills) and unsteady forces on the stator vanes. The underlying mechanism of the reduced pressure fluctuations is also discussed by examining the magnitude

  14. Acceptance test report MICON software exhaust fan control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck, R.D.


    This test procedure specifies instructions for acceptance testing of software for exhaust fan control under Project ESPT (Energy Savings Performance Contract). The software controls the operation of two emergency exhaust fans when there is a power failure. This report details the results of acceptance testing for the MICON software upgrades. One of the modifications is that only one of the emergency fans will operate at all times. If the operating fan shuts off or fails, the other fan will start and the operating fan will be stopped

  15. Unsteady Landscapes: Climatic and Tectonic Controls on Fluvial Terrace Formation (United States)

    Clubb, F. J.; Mudd, S. M.


    Fluvial terraces are common landforms throughout mountainous regions which represent abandoned remnants of active river systems and their floodplains. The formation of these landforms points to a fundamental unsteadiness in the incision rate of the fluvial network, providing important information on channel response to climatic, tectonic, and base-level forcing, sediment storage and dynamics within mountainous systems, and the relative importance of lateral and vertical incision rates. In his 1877 Report on the Geology of the Henry Mountains, G.K. Gilbert suggested that strath terraces may form due to climatically-driven increase in sediment supply, causing armouring of the channel bed and hindering vertical incision. An alternative hypothesis suggests that strath terraces may be preserved through progressive tectonic uplift or base-level fall. These different formation mechanisms should result in varying distribution of terrace elevations along channels: if terraces are formed through climate-driven variations in sediment supply, we might expect that terrace elevations would be random, whereas progressive fluvial incision should result in a series of terraces with a systematic elevation pattern. Here we test alternative hypotheses for strath terrace formation using a new method for objectively and rapidly identifying terrace surfaces from digital elevation models (DEMs) over large spatial scales. Our new method identifies fluvial terraces using their gradient and elevation compared to the modern channel, thresholds of which are statistically calculated from the DEM and do not need to be set manually by the user. We use this method to extract fluvial terraces for every major river along the coast of California, and quantify their distribution and elevation along the fluvial long profile. Our results show that there is no systematic pattern in terrace elevations despite a well-constrained spatial variation in uplift rates, suggesting that terraces in this region do

  16. Study on performance of centripetal fan, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejiri, Eiji; Shirakura, Masaaki; Tagori, Tetsuo; Enomoto, Hisao.


    Centripetal fans are radial flow type fans which gather air from outer side into inner side. The construction is simple, and when heat exchangers are arranged around them, cooled air can be discharged upward only by connecting simple ducts, accordingly, centripetal fans are suitable to the ventilating fans for superlarge cooling towers of nuclear power plants. The static pressure rise is obtained only by the diffuser action of impellers, therefore, they are not suitable to pumps and compressors, and their use is limited only to fans. Centrifugal force exerts negative effect on static pressure rise, accordingly, the ratio of internal diameter/external diameter of impellers cannot be made very small. In this study, a small model with impeller diameter of 0.6 m was used, and its overall performance, the performance of moving blades in the range of stable operation, the rotating stall characteristics in the region of low flow rate, and the effect of side wind on the overall performance in outdoor use were examined. By changing the angle of inclination of entrance guide vanes, the range of stable operation was expanded, and the pressure coefficient and efficiency were increased. (Kako, I.)

  17. Calciclastic submarine fans: An integrated overview (United States)

    Payros, Aitor; Pujalte, Victoriano


    Calciclastic submarine fans are rare in the stratigraphic record and no bona fide present-day analogue has been described to date. Possibly because of that, and although calciclastic submarine fans have long intrigued deep-water carbonate sedimentologists, they have largely been overlooked by the academic and industrial communities. To fill this gap we have compiled and critically reviewed the existing sedimentological literature on calciclastic submarine fans, thus offering an updated view of this type of carbonate slope sedimentary system. Calciclastic submarine fans range in length from just a few to more than 100 km. Three different types can be distinguished: (1) Coarse-grained, small-sized (reefs was hampered by cool waters, nutrient enrichment or oligophoty. Another circumstance that contributes to the transfer of shallow-water sediments to the distal ramp slope is a low sea level, forcing the carbonate factory closer to the slope break and destabilizing sediments by increased pore-water pressure. However, the most important factor controlling the development of calciclastic submarine fans was the existence of an efficient funnelling mechanism forcing sediment gravity flows to merge downslope and build up a point-sourced sedimentary accumulation. In most cases this occurred through a major slope depression associated with tectonic structures, an inherited topography, or large-scale mass failures.

  18. Applying fluvial geomorphology to river channel management: Background for progress towards a palaeohydrology protocol (United States)

    Gregory, K. J.; Benito, G.; Downs, P. W.


    Significant developments have been achieved in applicable and applied fluvial geomorphology as shown in publications of the last three decades, analyzed as the basis for using results of studies of environmental change as a basis for management. The range of types of publications and of activities are more pertinent to river channel management as a result of concern with sustainability, global climate change, environmental ethics, ecosystem health concepts and public participation. Possible applications, with particular reference to river channel changes, include those concerned with form and process, assessment of channel change, urbanization, channelization, extractive industries, impact of engineering works, historical changes in land use, and restoration with specific examples illustrated in Table 1. In order to achieve general significance for fluvial geomorphology, more theory and extension by modelling methods is needed, and examples related to morphology and process characteristics, integrated approaches, and changes of the fluvial system are collected in Table 2. The ways in which potential applications are communicated to decision-makers range from applicable outputs including publications ranging from review papers, book chapters, and books, to applied outputs which include interdisciplinary problem solving, educational outreach, and direct involvement, with examples summarized in Table 3. On the basis of results gained from investigations covering periods longer than continuous records, a protocol embracing palaeohydrological inputs for application to river channel management is illustrated and developed as a synopsis version (Table 4), demonstrating how conclusions from geomorphological research can be expressed in a format which can be considered by managers.

  19. The Brahmaputra River: a stratigraphic analysis of Holocene avulsion and fluvial valley reoccupation history (United States)

    Hartzog, T. R.; Goodbred, S. L.


    The Brahmaputra River, one of the world's largest braided streams, is a major component of commerce, agriculture, and transportation in India and Bangladesh. Hence any significant change in course, morphology, or behavior would be likely to influence the regional culture and economy that relies on this major river system. The history of such changes is recorded in the stratigraphy deposited by the Brahmaputra River during the Holocene. Here we present stratigraphic analysis of sediment samples from the boring of 41 tube wells over a 120 km transect in the upper Bengal Basin of northern Bangladesh. The transect crosses both the modern fluvial valley and an abandoned fluvial valley about 60 km downstream of a major avulsion node. Although the modern Brahmaputra does not transport gravel, gravel strata are common below 20 m with fluvial sand deposits dominating most of the stratigraphy. Furthermore, the stratigraphy preserves very few floodplain mud strata below the modern floodplain mud cap. These preliminary findings will be assessed to determine their importance in defining past channel migration, avulsion frequency, and the reoccupation of abandoned fluvial valleys. Understanding the avulsion and valley reoccupation history of the Brahmaputra River is important to assess the risk involved with developing agriculture, business, and infrastructure on the banks of modern and abandoned channels. Based on the correlation of stratigraphy and digital surface elevation data, we hypothesize that the towns of Jamalpur and Sherpur in northern Bangladesh were once major ports on the Brahmaputra River even though they now lie on the banks of small underfit stream channels. If Jamalpur and Sherpur represent the outer extent of the Brahmaputra River braid-belt before the last major avulsion, these cities and any communities developed in the abandoned braid-belt assume a high risk of devastation if the next major avulsion reoccupies this fluvial valley. It is important to

  20. Pre-vegetation fluvial floodplains and channel-belts in the Late Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Santa Bárbara group (Southern Brazil) (United States)

    Marconato, André; de Almeida, Renato Paes; Turra, Bruno Boito; Fragoso-Cesar, Antônio Romalino dos Santos


    One key element to the understanding of the dynamics of pre-vegetation fluvial systems is the reconstruction of processes operating on their floodplains given that, in modern systems, channel banks and floodplains are the environments most affected by plant colonization. Notwithstanding, few pre-vegetation floodplains have been described, and major questions regarding their most basic characteristics are still unresolved. In order to address these questions, detailed analysis of coeval channel-belt, fluvial floodplain and alluvial-fan deposits from the Santa Bárbara Group (Late Neoproterozoic to Early Cambrian, southern Brazil) was performed. While floodplain facies resemble ephemeral stream deposits, being coarser-grained than modern floodplains and marked by the stacking of flood event cycles, channel-belt deposits show composite bars, which do not present conclusive evidence for high water discharge variation. The floodplain deposits show particular features common to other pre-vegetation fluvial systems, such as better preserved small-scale structures, lack of bioturbation, and abundance of cross-laminated sandstones, while other features differ from previous depositional models, namely abundant mudcracks and evidence of soil formation. The lateral variation of depositional systems recorded in the Santa Bárbara Group shows contrasting signatures of water discharge variation in sand-dominated coeval environments, and offers an example of the relation between different alluvial environments before the evolution of land plants.

  1. Comparison of BacT/Alert FAN and FAN Plus Bottles with Conventional Medium for Culturing Cerebrospinal Fluid. (United States)

    Yoo, In Young; Chun, Sejong; Song, Dong Joon; Huh, Hee Jae; Lee, Nam Yong


    We compared the BacT/Alert system FAN and FAN Plus media to conventional media for culturing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with 2,545 samples. FAN/FAN Plus bottles showed better performance for isolating microorganisms in CSF than conventional media (positive rate, 7.2% [182/2,545] versus 3.1% [80/2,545]). The incremental recovery rate of Cryptococcus neoformans from FAN Plus bottles was higher than that from FAN bottles. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr I. Popovskyi


    Full Text Available Relevance of material presented in the article, due to extensive use of high-performance computers to create modern information systems, including the NAPS of Ukraine. Most computers in NAPS of Ukraine work on Intel Pentium processors at speeds from 600 MHz to 3 GHz and release a lot of heat, which requires the installation of the system unit 2-3 additional fans. The fan is always works on full power, that leads to rapid deterioration and high level (up to 50 dB noise. In order to meet ergonomic requirements it is proposed to іnstall a computer system unit and an additional control unit ventilators, allowing independent control of each fan. The solution is applied at creation of information systems planning research in the National Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine on Internet basis.

  3. Noise Measurements of the VAIIPR Fan (United States)

    Mendoza, Jeff; Weir, Don


    This final report has been prepared by Honeywell Aerospace, Phoenix, Arizona, a unit of Honeywell International, Inc., documenting work performed during the period September 2004 through November 2005 for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, under the Revolutionary Aero-Space Engine Research (RASER) Program, Contract No. NAS3- 01136, Task Order 6, Noise Measurements of the VAIIPR Fan. The NASA Task Manager was Dr. Joe Grady, NASA Glenn Research Center, Mail Code 60-6, Cleveland, Ohio 44135. The NASA Contract Officer was Mr. Albert Spence, NASA Glenn Research Center, Mail Code 60-6, Cleveland, Ohio 44135. This report focuses on the evaluation of internal fan noise as generated from various inflow disturbances based on measurements made from a circumferential array of sensors located near the fan and sensors upstream of a serpentine inlet.

  4. Optimism Bias in Fans and Sports Reporters. (United States)

    Love, Bradley C; Kopeć, Łukasz; Guest, Olivia


    People are optimistic about their prospects relative to others. However, existing studies can be difficult to interpret because outcomes are not zero-sum. For example, one person avoiding cancer does not necessitate that another person develops cancer. Ideally, optimism bias would be evaluated within a closed formal system to establish with certainty the extent of the bias and the associated environmental factors, such that optimism bias is demonstrated when a population is internally inconsistent. Accordingly, we asked NFL fans to predict how many games teams they liked and disliked would win in the 2015 season. Fans, like ESPN reporters assigned to cover a team, were overly optimistic about their team's prospects. The opposite pattern was found for teams that fans disliked. Optimism may flourish because year-to-year team results are marked by auto-correlation and regression to the group mean (i.e., good teams stay good, but bad teams improve).

  5. Optimism Bias in Fans and Sports Reporters (United States)

    Love, Bradley C.


    People are optimistic about their prospects relative to others. However, existing studies can be difficult to interpret because outcomes are not zero-sum. For example, one person avoiding cancer does not necessitate that another person develops cancer. Ideally, optimism bias would be evaluated within a closed formal system to establish with certainty the extent of the bias and the associated environmental factors, such that optimism bias is demonstrated when a population is internally inconsistent. Accordingly, we asked NFL fans to predict how many games teams they liked and disliked would win in the 2015 season. Fans, like ESPN reporters assigned to cover a team, were overly optimistic about their team’s prospects. The opposite pattern was found for teams that fans disliked. Optimism may flourish because year-to-year team results are marked by auto-correlation and regression to the group mean (i.e., good teams stay good, but bad teams improve). PMID:26352146

  6. Fan blade crack diagnosis method study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Fu


    Full Text Available This article presents a discrete mathematical model for fan blades and theoretically analyses the mathematical relationship between the location and depth of crack and fan blade natural frequency. On the basis of the blade mathematical model, using the theoretical computed natural frequency as the fault feature, this article proposes a fast and efficient fan blade crack fault diagnosis method. Transfer matrix method is used to calculate the first three-order blade natural frequencies under different crack cases and then to build the database in MATLAB. Subsequently, the damaged blade can be detected using changes in natural frequencies by solving the reverse problem. The experimental result shows that this discrete mathematical model can get the exact solution of natural frequency, and the method has certain application value.

  7. Reduction of power of clinker cooling fan. Kurinka reikyaku fan no doryoku teigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshiyoshi, A. (Tohoku Development Co. Ltd., Miyagi (Japan))


    A power reduction was reported of the clinker cooling fan of a cement plant. An additional waste heat recovery duct of a cement firing equipment was installed and the wind velocity of the duct was reduced to decrease the draft ressistance. Resultant excess force of the fan eliminated the runner operation and the related power was reduced. The waste heat boiler adopted the system for recovering the waste heat from the refrigerator of clinker (AQC). In other words, the waste heat of the AQC was re-used for cooling the clinker to raise the gas temperature at the boiler inlet as much as possible. The waste heat was planned initially of one fan but the air volume increased after two fans were installed finally. As a result, the duct wind velocity was increased, requiring more fan power. A duct was then installed to reduce the wind velocity. Surplus fan force cut the fan runners by about 4%, and 6,300,000 yen per year energy saving was achieved. 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Sport fans' impressions of gay male athletes. (United States)

    Campbell, Jamonn; Cothren, Denise; Rogers, Ross; Kistler, Lindsay; Osowski, Anne; Greenauer, Nathan; End, Christian


    The purpose of this study was to examine sport fans' impressions of gay male athletes. Participants formed impressions of a fictional athlete from their favorite team after reading a short scenario about the player. The scenarios described the athlete as being gay or straight, and either becoming a distraction or not causing a distraction to the team. While males' ratings of the athlete did not significantly differ, female fans formed significantly more positive impressions of the gay male player than the straight athlete. These results are discussed in terms of the ingroup bias and the shifting culture of homophobia in sport.

  9. Homophobia, heteronormativity, and slash fan fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April S. Callis


    Full Text Available I analyze the relationship between homophobia/heteronormativity and slash fan fiction. Through reading and coding almost 6,000 pages of Kirk/Spock fan fiction written from 1978 to 2014, I illuminate shifts in how normative gender and sexuality are portrayed by K/S authors. Writers of K/S, while ostensibly writing about the 23rd century, consciously or unconsciously include cultural norms from the 20th and 21st centuries. Thus, slash becomes a lens through which readers can view a decrease in both homophobia and heteronormativity in US culture over the past several decades.

  10. Mass balancing of hollow fan blades (United States)

    Kielb, R. E.


    A typical section model is used to analytically investigate the effect of mass balancing as applied to hollow, supersonic fan blades. A procedure to determine the best configuration of an internal balancing mass to provide flutter alleviation is developed. This procedure is applied to a typical supersonic shroudless fan blade which is unstable in both the solid configuration and when it is hollow with no balancing mass. The addition of an optimized balancing mass is shown to stabilize the blade at the design condition.

  11. Homophobia, heteronormativity, and slash fan fiction


    April S. Callis


    I analyze the relationship between homophobia/heteronormativity and slash fan fiction. Through reading and coding almost 6,000 pages of Kirk/Spock fan fiction written from 1978 to 2014, I illuminate shifts in how normative gender and sexuality are portrayed by K/S authors. Writers of K/S, while ostensibly writing about the 23rd century, consciously or unconsciously include cultural norms from the 20th and 21st centuries. Thus, slash becomes a lens through which readers can view a decrease in ...

  12. Fan-less long range alpha detector (United States)

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Bounds, John A.


    A fan-less long range alpha detector which operates by using an electrical field between a signal plane and the surface or substance to be monitored for air ions created by collisions with alpha radiation. Without a fan, the detector can operate without the possibility of spreading dust and potential contamination into the atmosphere. A guard plane between the signal plane and the electrically conductive enclosure and maintained at the same voltage as the signal plane, reduces leakage currents. The detector can easily monitor soil, or other solid or liquid surfaces.

  13. Design and evaluation of an aeroacoustic wind tunnel for measurement of axial flow fans. (United States)

    Bilka, M; Anthoine, J; Schram, C


    An anechoic wind tunnel dedicated to fan self-noise studies has been designed and constructed at the von Karman Institute The multi-chamber, mass flow driven design allows for all fan performance characteristics, aerodynamic quantities (e.g., wake turbulence measurements), and acoustic properties to be assessed in the same facility with the same conditions. The acoustic chamber performance is assessed using the optimum reference method and found to be within the ISO 3745 standards down to 150 Hz for pure tone and broadband source mechanisms. The additional influence of installation effects of an aerodynamic inlet was found to create a scattered sound field only near the source location, while still providing good anechoic results at more distant sound pressure measurement positions. It was found to have inflow properties, span-wise uniformity, and low turbulence intensity, consistent with those desired for fan self-noise studies. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  14. Highstand shelf fans: The role of buoyancy reversal in the deposition of a new type of shelf sand body (United States)

    Steel, Elisabeth; Simms, Alexander R.; Warrick, Jonathan; Yokoyama, Yusuke


    Although sea-level highstands are typically associated with sediment-starved continental shelves, high sea level does not hinder major river floods. Turbidity currents generated by plunging of sediment-laden rivers at the fluvial-marine interface, known as hyperpycnal flows, allow for cross-shelf transport of suspended sand beyond the coastline. Hyperpycnal flows in southern California have deposited six subaqueous fans on the shelf of the northern Santa Barbara Channel in the Holocene. Using eight cores and nine grab samples, we describe the deposits, age, and stratigraphic architecture of two fans in the Santa Barbara Channel. Fan lobes have up to 3 m of relief and are composed of multiple hyperpycnite beds ∼5 cm to 40 cm thick. Deposit architecture and geometry suggest the hyperpycnal flows became positively buoyant and lifted off the seabed, resulting in well-sorted, structureless, elongate sand lobes. Contrary to conventional sequence stratigraphic models, the presence of these features on the continental shelf suggests that active-margin shelves may locally develop high-quality reservoir sand bodies during sea-level highstands, and that such shelves need not be solely the site of sediment bypass. These deposits may provide a Quaternary analogue to many well-sorted sand bodies in the rock record that are interpreted as turbidites but lack typical Bouma-type features.

  15. Experiencing fan activism: Understanding the power of fan activist organizations through members' narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neta Kligler-Vilenchik


    Full Text Available Fan activism, forms of civic engagement and political participation growing out of experiences of fandom, is a powerful mode of mobilization, particularly for young people. Building on 40 interviews with members of two organizations representing different configurations of fan activism, this article discusses three emerging elements that are key to the experience of membership in such groups. We suggest that the strength of fan activist groups builds on successfully combining these elements: two that are common to fandom, shared media experiences and a sense of community, and one that is traditionally ascribed to volunteerism and activism, the wish to help.

  16. Improving Fan System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This is one of a series of sourcebooks on motor-driven equipment produced by the Industrial Technologies Program. It provides a reference for industrial fan systems users, outlining opportunities to improve fan system performance.

  17. Fan Duct Heat Exchanger for Turbine Cooling Air, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposal is for the design of a fan duct heat exchanger in order to improve aircraft fuel burn. The fan duct heat exchanger decreases the temperature of the 15%...

  18. Fan action and political participation on "The Colbert Report"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Schulzke


    Full Text Available The Colbert Report merges the increasingly popular political satire genre with fan activism. The result is that the fan community helps to construct Colbert's malleable character and demonstrates symbolic power through its willingness to act. The fans are usually a nonpartisan force, acting to produce entertainment rather than substantive political change. However, this can be politically meaningful, as the fans' projects promote collective action, parallel political activities like voting and protesting, and encourage critical thinking about political information.

  19. Patterns of alcohol and drugs consumption in young soccer fans


    Rodrigues, Anelise Lopes; Sarriera, Jorge Castellá


    Alcohol and drug consumption among young soccer fans have been associated with violence in soccer context. This study aims to determine patterns of alcohol, marijuana and cocaine consumption in a sample of 1,130 soccer fans residents in the Rio Grande do Sul State, as well as to verify if there are differences regarding gender, age and if the participant is member of organized fan soccer or not. From a questionnaire available through Internet, soccer fan answered the frequency they generally ...

  20. F232 Development of Jet Fan by CFD


    川久保, 知己; 小田, 憲司; 山方, 章弘; Tomoki, KAWAKUBO; Kenji, ODA; Akihiro, YAMAGATA; IHI; IHI; IHI; Turbo & Hydraulic Machinery Dept., Technical Development & Engineering Center; Rotating Machinery Engineering Dept., Rotating Machinery Division, Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd.; Turbo & Hydraulic Machinery Dept., Technical Development & Engineering Center


    Axial jet fans are used in many tunnels to extract automobile emissions and improve the visibility, as well as provide refuge passages in case of fire. The Japan Highway Public Corporation reviewed the specifications for such tunnel jet fans in 2002, and required higher grade specifications than for previous tunnel jet fans. To meet these requirements, IHI has developed a new series of high performance jet fans using CFD technology.

  1. 78 FR 25626 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans... (United States)


    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans and Ceiling Fan... for residential ceiling fans and ceiling fan light kits in the Federal Register. This document... other aspect of the rulemaking for ceiling fans and ceiling fan light kits. The comment period is...

  2. 16 CFR 305.13 - Labeling for ceiling fans. (United States)


    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling for ceiling fans. 305.13 Section... Disclosures § 305.13 Labeling for ceiling fans. (a) Ceiling fans—(1) Content. Any covered product that is a ceiling fan shall be labeled clearly and conspicuously on the principal display panel with the following...

  3. Dead links, vaporcuts, and creativity in fan edit replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Wille


    Full Text Available In my examination of a Star Wars prequel trilogy fan edit reportedly made by Topher Grace, I introduce the term vaporcut to describe fan edits with reputations that may generate critical discourse but that are not publicly released. I explore the ways some fan editors attempt to recreate intangible projects but inevitably produce variant works that reflect their own creative perspectives.

  4. 30 CFR 57.8529 - Auxiliary fan systems (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary fan systems 57.8529 Section 57.8529 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Underground Only § 57.8529 Auxiliary fan systems When auxiliary fan systems are used, such systems shall...

  5. 30 CFR 75.311 - Main mine fan operation. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main mine fan operation. 75.311 Section 75.311... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.311 Main mine fan operation. (a) Main mine fans shall be continuously operated, except as otherwise approved in the ventilation plan, or when...

  6. 30 CFR 57.8525 - Main fan maintenance. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main fan maintenance. 57.8525 Section 57.8525 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Underground Only § 57.8525 Main fan maintenance. Main fans shall be maintained according to either the...

  7. 76 FR 50739 - Hung Ta Fan: Debarment Order (United States)


    ...] Hung Ta Fan: Debarment Order AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... (the FD&C Act) debarring Hung Ta Fan for a period of 5 years from importing articles of food or.... Fan was convicted of a felony under Federal law for conduct relating to the importation into the...

  8. Suspended sediment transport trough a large fluvial-tidal channel network (United States)

    Wright, Scott A.; Morgan-King, Tara L.


    The confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, CA, forms a large network of interconnected channels, referred to as the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (the Delta). The Delta comprises the transition zone from the fluvial influences of the upstream rivers and tidal influences of San Francisco Bay downstream. Formerly an extensive tidal marsh, the hydrodynamics and geomorphology of Delta have been substantially modified by humans to support agriculture, navigation, and water supply. These modifications, including construction of new channels, diking and draining of tidal wetlands, dredging of navigation channels, and the operation of large pumping facilities for distribution of freshwater from the Delta to other parts of the state, have had a dramatic impact on the physical and ecological processes within the Delta. To better understand the current physical processes, and their linkages to ecological processes, the USGS maintains an extensive network of flow, sediment, and water quality gages in the Delta. Flow gaging is accomplished through use of the index-velocity method, and sediment monitoring uses turbidity as a surrogate for suspended-sediment concentration. Herein, we present analyses of the transport and dispersal of suspended sediment through the complex network of channels in the Delta. The primary source of sediment to the Delta is the Sacramento River, which delivers pulses of sediment primarily during winter and spring runoff events. Upon reaching the Delta, the sediment pulses move through the fluvial-tidal transition while also encountering numerous channel junctions as the Sacramento River branches into several distributary channels. The monitoring network allows us to track these pulses through the network and document the dominant transport pathways for suspended sediment. Further, the flow gaging allows for an assessment of the relative effects of advection (the fluvial signal) and dispersion (from the tides) on the sediment pulses as they

  9. Fluvial organic carbon losses from oil palm plantations on tropical peat, Sarawak, Southeast Asia (United States)

    Cook, Sarah; Page, Susan; Evans, Chris; Whelan, Mick; Gauci, Vincent; Lip Khoon, Kho


    peatland carbon budget. Given the increasing expansion of oil palm plantations on tropical peat, within Southeast Asia, it is essential that fluvial organic carbon data is incorporated into assessment criteria, helping countries to better monitor, report and verify their land-based greenhouse gas emissions.

  10. Tipping points in Anthropocene fluvial dynamics (United States)

    Notebaert, Bastiaan; Broothaerts, Nils; Verstraeten, Gert; Berger, Jean-François; Houbrechts, Geoffrey


    the river partially maintains its braided pattern. The Amblève River in the Belgian Ardennes uplands underwent less dramatic changes. Large parts of the catchment are deforested during the last 700 years, leading to an increase in floodplain sedimentation. Despite this major sediment pulse, change in floodplain morphology remained limited to an increase in bank height. We argue that a combination of floodplain and channel morphology, the fine texture of supplied sediment and the high stream power of channel forming events result is a system that is less sensitive to change. Also the relative short time of impact may play a role. These three examples demonstrate the varying impact of human deforestation on floodplain geomorphology. For the Dijle and Valdaine region this lead to dramatic changes once a certain tipping point is reached. In contrast the Amblève river is more resilient to human impact due to its specific morphological setting. The morphology of the catchments and the nature of supplied sediments plays a major role in the sensitivity of fluvial systems to environmental impact. Once the tipping points are reached, it is difficult for the river to revert to its original state and floodplains remain highly impacted.

  11. Optimisation of efficiency of axial fans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruyt, Nicolaas P.; Pennings, P.C.; Faasen, R.


    A three-stage research project has been executed to develop ducted axial-fans with increased efficiency. In the first stage a design method has been developed in which various conflicting design criteria can be incorporated. Based on this design method, an optimised design has been determined

  12. Online Fan Fiction, Global Identities, and Imagination (United States)

    Black, Rebecca W.


    Based on longitudinal data from a three year ethnographic study, this article uses discourse analytic methods to explore the literacy and social practices of three adolescent English language learners writing in an online fan fiction community. Theoretical constructs within globalization and literacy studies are used to describe the influences of…

  13. Saving energy via high-efficiency fans. (United States)

    Heine, Thomas


    Thomas Heine, sales and market manager for EC Upgrades, the retrofit arm of global provider of air movement solutions, ebm-papst A&NZ, discusses the retrofitting of high-efficiency fans to existing HVAC equipment to 'drastically reduce energy consumption'.

  14. Submersible fans and pumps for cryogenic fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark, J.W.


    Submersible electric motor driven fans of three sizes have been designed, built and operated at 21 0 K at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The largest is a 100-mm diameter, 2 stage vaneaxial fan with a nominal capacity of 6 L/s at 2 m head. It is driven by a 4 pole, 3 phase induction motor that runs at 1750 rpm. The next smaller one is an 85-mm diameter centrifugal pump. It pumps 3 L/s at a head of 5 m. The third is a 75-mm single stage vaneaxial fan with a nominal capacity is 3 L/s at a head of 2 m. The 85-mm pump and the 75-mm fan are driven by 2 pole, 3 phase induction motors running at 3550 rpm. The motors were modified to operate submerged in the cryogenic fluid. The pumps have been operated in liquid hydrogen, liquid deuterium, and pressurized helium gas at 21 0 K. They can also operate with denser fluids such as liquid nitrogen, but rotational speed, capacity, and head will be reduced. They have been operated while submerged in liquid helium

  15. Fan Affinity Laws from a Collision Model (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Shayak


    The performance of a fan is usually estimated using hydrodynamical considerations. The calculations are long and involved and the results are expressed in terms of three affinity laws. In this paper we use kinetic theory to attack this problem. A hard sphere collision model is used, and subsequently a correction to account for the flow behaviour…

  16. The Ashgate Research Companion to Fan Cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stijn Reijnders; Linda Duits; dr. Koos Zwaan


    Fans constitute a very special kind of audience. They have been marginalized, ridiculed and stigmatized, yet at the same time they seem to represent the vanguard of new relationships with and within the media. ‘Participatory culture’ has become the new normative standard. Concepts derived from early

  17. Impact of gate fan-in and fan-out limits on optoelectronic digital circuits. (United States)

    Ji, L; Heuring, V P


    The impact of gate fan-in and fan-out limits on digital circuit delay is discussed with a set of benchmark circuits. This research presents the advantages of exploiting the ability of optoelectronic gates to perform both logic operations and optical interconnections with systematic optimization. It is possible for gate-level optical interconnected optoelectronic circuits to compete with their pure silicon counterparts in terms of the combinational circuit delay and system clock rate.

  18. Modeling of Broadband Liners Applied to the Advanced Noise Control Fan (United States)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Jones, Michael G.; Sutliff, Daniel L.


    The broadband component of fan noise has grown in relevance with an increase in bypass ratio and incorporation of advanced fan designs. Therefore, while the attenuation of fan tones remains a major factor in engine nacelle acoustic liner design, the simultaneous reduction of broadband fan noise levels has received increased interest. As such, a previous investigation focused on improvements to an established broadband acoustic liner optimization process using the Advanced Noise Control Fan (ANCF) rig as a demonstrator. Constant-depth, double-degree of freedom and variable-depth, multi-degree of freedom liner designs were carried through design, fabrication, and testing. This paper addresses a number of areas for further research identified in the initial assessment of the ANCF study. Specifically, incident source specification and uncertainty in some aspects of the predicted liner impedances are addressed. This information is incorporated in updated predictions of the liner performance and comparisons with measurement are greatly improved. Results illustrate the value of the design process in concurrently evaluating the relative costs/benefits of various liner designs. This study also provides further confidence in the integrated use of duct acoustic propagation/radiation and liner modeling tools in the design and evaluation of novel broadband liner concepts for complex engine configurations.

  19. Experimental Investigation of a Forward Swept Rotor in a Multistage Fan with Inlet Distortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aspi R. Wadia


    Full Text Available Previous studies of transonic swept rotors in single stage fans have demonstrated the potential of significant improvements in both efficiency and stall margin with forward swept blading. This paper extends the assessment of the payoff derived from forward sweep to multistage configurations. The experimental investigation compare two builds of an advanced two-stage fan configuration tested alternately with a radial and a forward swept stage 1 blade. In the two-stage evaluations, the testing was extended to include the effect on inlet flow distortion. While the common second stage among the two builds prevented the overall fan from showing clean inlet performance and stability benefits with the forward swept rotor 1, this configuration did demonstrate superior front stage efficiency and tolerance to inlet distortion. Having obtained already low distortion sensitivity with the radial rotor 1 configuration relative to current production military fan standards, the sensitivity to inlet distortion was halved with the forward swept rotor 1 configuration. In the case of the 180-degree one-per-rev distortion pattern, the two-stage configuration was evaluated both with and without inlet guide vanes (IGVs. The presence of the inlet guide vanes had a profound impact in lowering the two-stage fan's sensitivity with inlet distortion.

  20. Bydrage ta de kennis fan it libben, de persoan en it wurk fan Dr. Eeltsje Halbersma 1797-1858

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    It doel fan dizze dissertaesje is yn 'e earste pleats nij materiael to bringen oer Dr. Eeltsje. De wichtichste boarnen foar syn libben en syn wurk binne syn brieven oan Ds, Joast. Oant nou ta wie fan dy brieven mar in lyts bytsje bikend wurden, Dêrneist binne fansels ek de brieven fan Ds. Joast en

  1. Regenerative Blower for EVA Suit Ventilation Fan (United States)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Paul, Heather L.


    Portable life support systems in future space suits will include a ventilation subsystem driven by a dedicated fan. This ventilation fan must meet challenging requirements for pressure rise, flow rate, efficiency, size, safety, and reliability. This paper describes research and development that showed the feasibility of a regenerative blower that is uniquely suited to meet these requirements. We proved feasibility through component tests, blower tests, and design analysis. Based on the requirements for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) ventilation fan, we designed the critical elements of the blower. We measured the effects of key design parameters on blower performance using separate effects tests, and used the results of these tests to design a regenerative blower that will meet the ventilation fan requirements. We assembled a proof-of-concept blower and measured its performance at sub-atmospheric pressures that simulate a PLSS ventilation loop environment. Head/flow performance and maximum efficiency point data were used to specify the design and operating conditions for the ventilation fan. We identified materials for the blower that will enhance safety for operation in a lunar environment, and produced a solid model that illustrates the final design. The proof-of-concept blower produced the flow rate and pressure rise needed for the CSSE ventilation subsystem while running at 5400 rpm, consuming only 9 W of electric power using a non-optimized, commercial motor and controller and inefficient bearings. Scaling the test results to a complete design shows that a lightweight, compact, reliable, and low power regenerative blower can meet the performance requirements for future space suit life support systems.

  2. Northern San Andreas Fault slip rates on the Santa Cruz Mountain section: 10Be dating of an offset alluvial fan complex, Sanborn County Park, Saratoga, CA (United States)

    Guns, K. A.; Prentice, C. S.; DeLong, S. B.; Kiefer, K.; Blisniuk, K.; Burgmann, R.


    To better assess seismic hazard and fault behavior along the southern peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area on the Santa Cruz Mountain section of the San Andreas Fault, we combine field observations and high-resolution lidar topography data with 10Be exposure dating on offset landforms to estimate geologic fault slip rates. Our mapping at Sanborn County Park near Saratoga reveals a progression of alluvial fans and debris flows offset from their upstream sources by dextral slip on the San Andreas Fault. These upstream sources are 3 drainages, Todd Creek, Service Road Creek and Aubry Creek. Coarse alluvial deposits from each of these creeks contain large Tertiary sandstone boulders of varying size and abundance, derived from the Vaqueros Formation, that allow us to constrain the provenance of offset alluvial deposits to their upstream sources. Initial reconstruction, based on clast-count data on lithology and size from Todd Creek (n=68), Service Road Creek (N=32) and the offset deposits (n=68), suggest ≥140 m of dextral fault movement. Initial 10Be cosmogenic dating of sandstone boulders on an offset deposit from Service Road Creek yields a maximum date of 8 ka, a date uncorrected for hillslope residence and fluvial transport of inherited 10Be concentrations. These data suggest a minimum slip rate of at least 17 mm/yr on the Santa Cruz Mountain section of the San Andreas Fault in the peninsula. Ongoing analysis will refine this fault slip rate. Our preliminary data underscore the potential of this site to provide geologic slip rate estimates, and therefore answer a question critical to seismic hazard assessment, in a region where steep terrain, mass wasting, vegetation and urban development have generally made slip rate estimates challenging to obtain.

  3. Numerical Simulation of single-stage axial fan operation under dusty flow conditions (United States)

    Minkov, L. L.; Pikushchak, E. V.


    Assessment of the aerodynamic efficiency of the single-stage axial flow fan under dusty flow conditions based on a numerical simulation using the computational package Ansys-Fluent is proposed. The influence of dust volume fraction on the dependences of the air volume flow rate and the pressure drop on the rotational speed of rotor is demonstrated. Matching functions for formulas describing a pressure drop and volume flow rate in dependence on the rotor speed and dust content are obtained by numerical simulation for the single-stage axial fan. It is shown that the aerodynamic efficiency of the single-stage axial flow fan decreases exponentially with increasing volume content of dust in the air.

  4. Field migration rates of tidal meanders recapitulate fluvial morphodynamics. (United States)

    Finotello, Alvise; Lanzoni, Stefano; Ghinassi, Massimiliano; Marani, Marco; Rinaldo, Andrea; D'Alpaos, Andrea


    The majority of tidal channels display marked meandering features. Despite their importance in oil-reservoir formation and tidal landscape morphology, questions remain on whether tidal-meander dynamics could be understood in terms of fluvial processes and theory. Key differences suggest otherwise, like the periodic reversal of landscape-forming tidal flows and the widely accepted empirical notion that tidal meanders are stable landscape features, in stark contrast with their migrating fluvial counterparts. On the contrary, here we show that, once properly normalized, observed migration rates of tidal and fluvial meanders are remarkably similar. Key to normalization is the role of tidal channel width that responds to the strong spatial gradients of landscape-forming flow rates and tidal prisms. We find that migration dynamics of tidal meanders agree with nonlinear theories for river meander evolution. Our results challenge the conventional view of tidal channels as stable landscape features and suggest that meandering tidal channels recapitulate many fluvial counterparts owing to large gradients of tidal prisms across meander wavelengths. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  5. Does deposition depth control the OSL bleaching of fluvial sediment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunningham, A. C.; Wallinga, J.; Hobo, N.; Versendaal, A. J.; Makaske, B.; Middelkoop, H.


    The Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) signal from fluvial sediment often contains a remnant from the previous deposition cycle, leading to a partially bleached equivalent-dose distribution. Although identification of the burial dose is of primary concern, the degree of bleaching could

  6. The contribution of bank and surface sediments to fluvial sediment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sediment source studies involving a simple mixing model was undertaken in the Pra River Basin in Ghana using a single tracer 210Pb to determine the relative contribution of surface and bank sediments to the fluvial sediment transport. Sediment source tracing was performed on the basis of sub-basins by comparing the ...

  7. Influence of fluvial sandstone architecture on geothermal energy production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, C.J.L.; Maghami Nick, Hamidreza M.; Weltje, G.J.; Donselaar, M.E.; Bruhn, D.F.


    Fluvial sandstone reservoirs composed of stacked meander belts are considered as potential geothermal resources in the Netherlands. Net-to-gross, orientation and stacking pattern of the channel belts is of major importance for the connectivity between the injection and production well in such

  8. Field migration rates of tidal meanders recapitulate fluvial morphodynamics (United States)

    Finotello, Alvise; Lanzoni, Stefano; Ghinassi, Massimiliano; Marani, Marco; Rinaldo, Andrea; D'Alpaos, Andrea


    The majority of tidal channels display marked meandering features. Despite their importance in oil-reservoir formation and tidal landscape morphology, questions remain on whether tidal-meander dynamics could be understood in terms of fluvial processes and theory. Key differences suggest otherwise, like the periodic reversal of landscape-forming tidal flows and the widely accepted empirical notion that tidal meanders are stable landscape features, in stark contrast with their migrating fluvial counterparts. On the contrary, here we show that, once properly normalized, observed migration rates of tidal and fluvial meanders are remarkably similar. Key to normalization is the role of tidal channel width that responds to the strong spatial gradients of landscape-forming flow rates and tidal prisms. We find that migration dynamics of tidal meanders agree with nonlinear theories for river meander evolution. Our results challenge the conventional view of tidal channels as stable landscape features and suggest that meandering tidal channels recapitulate many fluvial counterparts owing to large gradients of tidal prisms across meander wavelengths.

  9. Response of a dryland fluvial system to climate–tectonic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 125; Issue 6. Response of a dryland fluvial system to climate–tectonic perturbations during the Late Quaternary: Evidence from Rukmawati River basin, Kachchh, western India. Archana Das Falguni Bhattacharya B K Rastogi Gaurav Chauhan Mamata Ngangom ...

  10. Response of a dryland fluvial system to climate–tectonic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dryland rivers, dominated by short-lived, localised and highly variable flow due to discrete precipitation events, have characteristic preservation potential, which serves as suitable archives towards understanding the climate–tectonic coupling. In the present study, we have investigated the fluvial records of a major,.

  11. The Female Vikings, a women's fan group in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mintert, Svenja-Maria; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula


    on the historical development of a Danish women-only fan group called 'The Female Vikings', which support a professional football club, Lyngby Boldklub (BK), in a city north of Copenhagen. The article explores the backgrounds and motivations of female fans, as well as their ways of staging femininity in a man......'s world. Drawing on available information about football and fans in Denmark, we have reconstructed the developments of both Lyngby BK and its supporters. Special focus was placed on the histories and cultures as well as the experiences of female fans in this club. Insights into the foundation...... of the women's fan group were provided by problem-centred interviews which also contained open questions. The foundation and activities of the Female Vikings show how women can perform gender in the fan's stands and how they play a significant role in the fan movement. The interviews also reveal the loyalty...

  12. Fan-beam intensity modulated proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Patrick; Westerly, David; Mackie, Thomas


    Purpose: This paper presents a concept for a proton therapy system capable of delivering intensity modulated proton therapy using a fan beam of protons. This system would allow present and future gantry-based facilities to deliver state-of-the-art proton therapy with the greater normal tissue sparing made possible by intensity modulation techniques.Methods: A method for producing a divergent fan beam of protons using a pair of electromagnetic quadrupoles is described and particle transport through the quadrupole doublet is simulated using a commercially available software package. To manipulate the fan beam of protons, a modulation device is developed. This modulator inserts or retracts acrylic leaves of varying thickness from subsections of the fan beam. Each subsection, or beam channel, creates what effectively becomes a beam spot within the fan area. Each channel is able to provide 0–255 mm of range shift for its associated beam spot, or stop the beam and act as an intensity modulator. Results of particle transport simulations through the quadrupole system are incorporated into the MCNPX Monte Carlo transport code along with a model of the range and intensity modulation device. Several design parameters were investigated and optimized, culminating in the ability to create topotherapy treatment plans using distal-edge tracking on both phantom and patient datasets.Results: Beam transport calculations show that a pair of electromagnetic quadrupoles can be used to create a divergent fan beam of 200 MeV protons over a distance of 2.1 m. The quadrupole lengths were 30 and 48 cm, respectively, with transverse field gradients less than 20 T/m, which is within the range of water-cooled magnets for the quadrupole radii used. MCNPX simulations of topotherapy treatment plans suggest that, when using the distal edge tracking delivery method, many delivery angles are more important than insisting on narrow beam channel widths in order to obtain conformal target coverage

  13. Characterization of Composite Fan Case Resins (United States)

    Dvoracek, Charlene M.


    The majority of commercial turbine engines that power today s aircraft use a large fan driven by the engine core to generate thrust which dramatically increases the engine s efficiency. However, if one of these fan blades fails during flight, it becomes high energy shrapnel, potentially impacting the engine or puncturing the aircraft itself and thus risking the lives of passengers. To solve this problem, the fan case must be capable of containing a fan blade should it break off during flight. Currently, all commercial fan cases are made of either just a thick metal barrier or a thinner metal wall surrounded by Kevlar-an ultra strong fiber that elastically catches the blade. My summer 2004 project was to characterize the resins for a composite fan case that will be lighter and more efficient than the current metal. The composite fan case is created by braiding carbon fibers and injecting a polymer resin into the braid. The resin holds the fibers together, so at first using the strongest polymer appears to logically lead to the strongest fan case. Unfortunately, the stronger polymers are too viscous when melted. This makes the manufacturing process more difficult because the polymer does not flow as freely through the braid, and the final product is less dense. With all of this in mind, it is important to remember that the strength of the polymer is still imperative; the case must still contain blades with high impact energy. The research identified which polymer had the right balance of properties, including ease of fabrication, toughness, and ability to transfer the load to the carbon fibers. Resin deformation was studied to better understand the composite response during high speed impact. My role in this research was the testing of polymers using dynamic mechanical analysis and tensile, compression, and torsion testing. Dynamic mechanical analysis examines the response of materials under cyclic loading. Two techniques were used for dynamic mechanical analysis

  14. Fan-beam intensity modulated proton therapy. (United States)

    Hill, Patrick; Westerly, David; Mackie, Thomas


    This paper presents a concept for a proton therapy system capable of delivering intensity modulated proton therapy using a fan beam of protons. This system would allow present and future gantry-based facilities to deliver state-of-the-art proton therapy with the greater normal tissue sparing made possible by intensity modulation techniques. A method for producing a divergent fan beam of protons using a pair of electromagnetic quadrupoles is described and particle transport through the quadrupole doublet is simulated using a commercially available software package. To manipulate the fan beam of protons, a modulation device is developed. This modulator inserts or retracts acrylic leaves of varying thickness from subsections of the fan beam. Each subsection, or beam channel, creates what effectively becomes a beam spot within the fan area. Each channel is able to provide 0-255 mm of range shift for its associated beam spot, or stop the beam and act as an intensity modulator. Results of particle transport simulations through the quadrupole system are incorporated into the MCNPX Monte Carlo transport code along with a model of the range and intensity modulation device. Several design parameters were investigated and optimized, culminating in the ability to create topotherapy treatment plans using distal-edge tracking on both phantom and patient datasets. Beam transport calculations show that a pair of electromagnetic quadrupoles can be used to create a divergent fan beam of 200 MeV protons over a distance of 2.1 m. The quadrupole lengths were 30 and 48 cm, respectively, with transverse field gradients less than 20 T/m, which is within the range of water-cooled magnets for the quadrupole radii used. MCNPX simulations of topotherapy treatment plans suggest that, when using the distal edge tracking delivery method, many delivery angles are more important than insisting on narrow beam channel widths in order to obtain conformal target coverage. Overall, the sharp distal

  15. Sediment dynamics in the Rhine catchment : Quantification of fluvial response to climate change and human impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkens, G.


    Fluvial systems are strongly responsive to changes in climate and land use — but take their time to show it. Accurate prediction of the timing and degree of future fluvial response requires comprehensive understanding of fluvial response in the past. This PhD-thesis studied the response of the river

  16. The Fluvial Archives Group: 20 years of research connecting fluvial geomorphology and palaeoenvironments (United States)

    Cordier, Stéphane; Briant, Becky; Bridgland, David; Herget, Jürgen; Maddy, Darrel; Mather, Anne; Vandenberghe, Jef


    The Fluvial Archives Group (FLAG) was formed in 1996 under the auspices of the British Quaternary Research Association (QRA). The rationale for its creation was the desire to bring together those working across timescales encompassing the last few million years to the Holocene and even modern process studies. The principles of uniformitarianism are important in the validation of this grouping of interests, with the modern and recent providing analogues from which the older and longer-timescale sequences can be more readily interpreted. The creation of FLAG occurred in the context of improved understanding of terrestrially-based Quaternary sequences and at a time when knowledge of the environmental significance of river systems had also seen great advances, following several decades of engineering experience and research into the management of such systems. This field was subsequently transformed in the European Union by the Water Framework Directive (WFD, 2000), which promoted a strategy for the re-naturalization of rivers. Above all, the WFD implied the (re-)establishment of an initial, pre-anthropogenic, reference state, the recovery of which was a prime aim. This would be a demanding task, considering that rivers are characterized by constant change, even without anthropogenic intervention. The evidence for and understanding of such change, observable at various timescales, is very much the business of FLAG (see below, section 6).

  17. Signatures of Late Pleistocene fluvial incision in an Alpine landscape (United States)

    Leith, Kerry; Fox, Matthew; Moore, Jeffrey R.


    Uncertainty regarding the relative efficacy of fluvial and glacial erosion has hindered attempts to quantitatively analyse the Pleistocene evolution of alpine landscapes. Here we show that the morphology of major tributaries of the Rhone River, Switzerland, is consistent with that predicted for a landscape shaped primarily by multiple phases of fluvial incision following a period of intense glacial erosion after the mid-Pleistocene transition (∼0.7 Ma). This is despite major ice sheets reoccupying the region during cold intervals since the mid-Pleistocene. We use high-resolution LiDAR data to identify a series of convex reaches within the long-profiles of 18 tributary channels. We propose these reaches represent knickpoints, which developed as regional uplift raised tributary bedrock channels above the local fluvial baselevel during glacial intervals, and migrated upstream as the fluvial system was re-established during interglacial periods. Using a combination of integral long-profile analysis and stream-power modelling, we find that the locations of ∼80% of knickpoints in our study region are consistent with that predicted for a fluvial origin, while the mean residual error over ∼100 km of modelled channels is just 26.3 m. Breaks in cross-valley profiles project toward the elevation of former end-of-interglacial channel elevations, supporting our model results. Calculated long-term uplift rates are within ∼15% of present-day measurements, while modelled rates of bedrock incision range from ∼1 mm/yr for low gradient reaches between knickpoints to ∼6-10 mm/yr close to retreating knickpoints, typical of observed rates in alpine settings. Together, our results reveal approximately 800 m of regional uplift, river incision, and hillslope erosion in the lower half of each tributary catchment since 0.7 Ma.

  18. The biophysical and physiological basis for mitigated elevations in heart rate with electric fan use in extreme heat and humidity. (United States)

    Ravanelli, Nicholas M; Gagnon, Daniel; Hodder, Simon G; Havenith, George; Jay, Ollie


    Electric fan use in extreme heat wave conditions has been thought to be disadvantageous because it might accelerate heat gain to the body via convection. However, it has been recently shown that fan use delays increases in heart rate even at high temperatures (42 °C) in young adults. We here assess the biophysical and physiological mechanisms underlying the apparently beneficial effects of fan use. Eight males (24 ± 3 y; 80.7 ± 11.7 kg; 2.0 ± 0.1 m 2 ) rested at either 36 °C or 42 °C, with (F) or without (NF) electric fan use (4.2 m/s) for 120 min while humidity increased every 7.5 min by 0.3 kPa from a baseline value of 1.6 kPa. Heart rate (HR), local sweat rate (LSR), cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC), core and mean skin temperatures, and the combined convective/radiative heat loss (C+R), evaporative heat balance requirements (E req ) and maximum evaporative potential (E max ) were assessed. C+R was greater with fan use at 36 °C (F 8 ± 6, NF 2 ± 2 W/m 2 ; P = 0.04) and more negative (greater dry heat gain) with fan use at 42 °C (F -78 ± 4, NF -27 ± 2 W/m 2 ; P fan use. However, fan use resulted in a greater E max at baseline humidity at both 36 °C (F 343 ± 10, NF 153 ± 5 W/m 2 ; P fan use but not without a fan, LSR was higher in NF at both 36 °C (P = 0.04) and 42 °C (P = 0.05), and skin temperature was higher in NF at 42 °C (P = 0.05), but no differences in CVC or core temperatures were observed (all P > 0.05). These results suggest that the delayed increase in heart rate with fan use during extreme heat and humidity is associated with improved evaporative efficiency.

  19. Energy labeling for electric fans in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlia, T.M.I.; Masjuki, H.H.; Taha, F.M.; Rahim, N.A.; Saidur, R.


    To reduce energy consumption in the residential sector, Malaysia Energy Commission is considering implementing energy labels for household electrical appliances including electric fans in 2005. The purpose of the energy labels is to provide the consumers a guideline to compare the size, features, price and efficiency of the appliance. This paper discusses the energy label for electric fans in this country based on Malaysian Standards developed by a technical committee that reviewed the performance of household electrical appliances. This study includes methodology for the calculation of the energy efficiency star rating and projected energy usage, performance requirements, details of the energy label and the requirements for the valid application in Malaysia. The label also can be adopted for other household electrical appliances with only slight modifications

  20. Noise study in laboratories with exhaust fans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, G.H.; Hashmi, R.; Shareef, A.


    Noise study has been carried out in 25 laboratories fitted with exhaust fans. We have studied A- Weighted equivalent sound pressure levels (dB(A) LAeJ and equivalent octave band sound pressure levels (dB L/sub eq/ in each of the laboratories surveyed. The data collected has been analyzed for Preferred Speech Interference Levels (PSIL). The results show that the interior noise levels in these laboratories vary from 59.6 to 72.2 dB(A) L/sub Aeq/, which are very high and much beyond the interior noise limits recommended for laboratories. Some ways and means to limit emission of high-level noise from exhaust fans are also discussed. (author)

  1. Optical measurement of unducted fan blade deflections (United States)

    Kurkov, A. P.


    A nonintrusive optical method for measuring unducted fan (or propeller) blade deflections is described and evaluated. The measurement does not depend on blade surface reflectivity. Deflection of a point at the leading edge and a point at the trailing edge in a plane nearly perpendicular to the pitch axis is obtained with a single light beam generated by a low-power, helium-neon laser. Quantitative analyses are performed from taped signals on a digital computer. Averaging techniques are employed to reduce random errors. Measured static deflections from a series of high-speed wind tunnel tests of a counterrotating unducted fan model are compared with available, predicted deflections, which are also used to evaluate systematic errors.

  2. 'Bataille's boys': postmodernity, Fascists and football fans. (United States)

    Smith, T


    In his analysis of football hooliganism, Anthony King claims to reveal the historical, conceptual scheme young, male supporters draw upon. This 'masculine vision', he states, is similar to that held by the Freikorps. Both groups are said to adhere to modernist notions of masculinity, sexuality and nationhood, reinforced by rituals which maintain boundaries between these 'proper' males and deviant 'others'. Occasionally, football hooligans breach these boundaries in acts of postmodern transgression. King also claims that fans link sex and violence in their imaginations. In this response I examine King's critique of his fellow theorists; challenge his 'Freikorps-Fans' analogy; demonstrate the problem he has in establishing the sex-violence link and question the relevance of his concept of postmodernity.

  3. Jet Engine Fan Blade Containment Using an Alternate Geometry (United States)

    Carney, K.S.; Pereira, J.M.; Revilock, D.M.; Matheny, P.


    With a goal of reducing jet engine weight, simulations of a fan blade containment system with an alternate geometry were tested and analyzed. A projectile simulating a fan blade was shot at two alternate geometry containment case configurations using a gas gun. The first configuration was a flat plate representing a standard case configuration. The second configuration was a flat plate with a radially convex curve section at the impact point. The curved surface was designed to force the blade to deform plastically, dissipating energy before the full impact of the blade is received by the plate. The curved case was able to tolerate a higher impact velocity before failure. The computational model was developed and correlated with the tests and a weight savings assessment was performed. For the particular test configuration used in this study the ballistic impact velocity of the curved plate was approximately 60 m/s (200 ft/s) greater than that of the flat plate. For the computational model to successfully duplicate the test, the very high strain rate behavior of the materials had to be incorporated.

  4. A note on Ramsey numbers for fans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yanbo; Broersma, Haitze J.; Chen, Yaojun

    For two given graphs G1 and G2, the Ramsey number R(G1,G2) is the smallest integer N such that, for any graph G of order N, either G contains G1 as a subgraph or the complement of G contains G2 as a subgraph. A fan Fl is l triangles sharing exactly one vertex. In this note, it is shown that R(Fn,

  5. Mementoes: Raul Seixas’ fans and their collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Abonizio


    Full Text Available Raul Seixas’ fans are collectors of several objects. In order to unveil the relationship of the collectors with the idol, with others, and with themselves, I reviewed the letters sent to Raul Rock Club and analyzed his collection. The articulations among the various forms of relating with objects of the singer, or that refer to him, show that the collectible objects, more than vehicles of social reproduction, can function as poetic devices.

  6. Gigapixel Images Connect Sports Teams with Fans (United States)


    Technology developed at Ames Research Center to take high-resolution imagery on Mars is now being used in baseball stadiums across the country. New York City-based Major League Baseball Advanced Media LP customized the platform to accommodate in-game shots that capture nearly the whole stadium. Fans navigate the photos online and tag themselves and their friends using social media tools.

  7. Quaternary landscape development, alluvial fan chronology and erosion of the Mecca Hills at the southern end of the San Andreas Fault zone (United States)

    Gray, Harrison J.; Owen, Lewis A.; Dietsch, Craig; Beck, Richard A.; Caffee, Marc A.; Finkelman, Robert B.; Mahan, Shannon


    Quantitative geomorphic analysis combined with cosmogenic nuclide 10Be-based geochronology and denudation rates have been used to further the understanding of the Quaternary landscape development of the Mecca Hills, a zone of transpressional uplift along the southern end of the San Andreas Fault, in southern California. The similar timing of convergent uplifts along the San Andreas Fault with the initiation of the sub-parallel San Jacinto Fault suggest a possible link between the two tectonic events. The ages of alluvial fans and the rates of catchment-wide denudation have been integrated to assess the relative influence of climate and tectonic uplift on the development of catchments within the Mecca Hills. Ages for major geomorphic surfaces based on 10Be surface exposure dating of boulders and 10Be depth profiles define the timing of surface stabilization to 2.6 +5.6/–1.3 ka (Qyf1 surface), 67.2 ± 5.3 ka (Qvof2 surface), and 280 ± 24 ka (Qvof1 surface). Comparison of 10Be measurements from active channel deposits (Qac) and fluvial terraces (Qt) illustrate a complex history of erosion, sediment storage, and sediment transport in this environment. Beryllium-10 catchment-wide denudation rates range from 19.9 ± 3.2 to 149 ± 22.5 m/Ma and demonstrate strong correlations with mean catchment slope and with total active fault length normalized by catchment area. The lack of strong correlation with other geomorphic variables suggests that tectonic uplift and rock weakening have the greatest control. The currently measured topography and denudation rates across the Mecca Hills may be most consistent with a model of radial topographic growth in contrast to a model based on the rapid uplift and advection of crust.

  8. "Emotions-Only" versus "Special People": Genre in fan discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa Ellen Stein


    Full Text Available This essay looks at genre as a complex set of discursive threads running unevenly through production, TV text, and fan reception. Through a case study of the reception of fan favorite Roswell, this essay interrogates the role of genre in spectatorship. In its mixing of teen and science fiction elements, Roswell trod upon contested generic spaces, eliciting strong reaction from its viewers. Connections between genre and gender came to the fore, as producer commentary linked science fiction with male audiences and teen romance with female audiences. Fans responded with analyses that greatly complicated and at times overtly rejected industrial suppositions regarding the gendered work of genre. Through these fan conversations, we can witness the complexity of genre as discursive thread moving through not only TV texts but also multivariant fan responses. I intend this essay to work at two levels. My analysis of fan responses to Roswell models the possibilities of a close study of genre discourse. At the same time, my case study probes the nature of genre in fan engagement, as genre discourses intersect with other fan concerns such as character identification, perceptions of textual quality, and questions of gender representation. While we cannot necessarily look to fan accounts for proof of how viewers engage with genre, they do tell us how fans frame their engagement with genre, how they incorporate genre into their performance of fannishness, and how they perform and thus enact genre itself as a shared cultural process.

  9. Fan edits and the legacy of The Phantom Edit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Wille


    Full Text Available A fan edit can generally be defined as an alternative version of a film or television text created by a fan. It offers a different viewing experience, much as a song remix offers a different listening experience. The contemporary wave of fan edits has emerged during the remix zeitgeist of digital media and at a time when digital video editing technology has become more affordable and popular. The increasing number of alternative versions of films and the works of revisionist Hollywood filmmakers such as George Lucas have contributed to a greater public understanding of cinema as a fluid medium instead of one that exists in a fixed form. The Phantom Edit (2000, a seminal fan edit based on Lucas's Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace (1999, inspired new ranks of fan editors. However, critics have misunderstood fan edits as merely the work of disgruntled fans. In order to provide a critical and historical basis for studies in fan editing as a creative practice, I examine previous interpretations of fan edits in the context of relevant contemporary works, and I use an annotated chronology of The Phantom Edit to trace its influence on subsequent fan editing communities and uncover their relationship with intellectual property disputes.

  10. Fan Blade Deflection Measurement and Analyses Correlation (United States)

    Mehmed, Oral; Janetzke, David C.


    Steady deflection measurements were taken of two identical NASA/Pratt & Whitney-designed fan blades while they were rotating in a vacuum in NASA Lewis Research Center's Dynamic Spin Facility. The one-fifth-scale fan blades, which have a tip diameter of 22 in. and a pinroot retention, are of sparshell construction and were unducted for this test. The purpose of the test was to measure the change of the radial deflection of the blade tip and blade angle at selected radial stations along the blade span with respect to rotational speed. The procedure for radial deflection measurement had no precedent and was newly developed for this test. Radial deflection measurements were made to assure adequate tip clearance existed between the fan blades and the duct for a follow-on wind tunnel test. Also, blade angle deflection measurements were desired before pitchsetting parts for the wind tunnel test were finish machined. During the test, laser beams were aimed across the blade path into photodiodes to give signals that were used to determine blade angle change or tip radial deflection. These laser beams were set parallel to the spin axis at selected radial stations.

  11. The influence of large, chronic landslides on the fluvial system (United States)

    Tunnicliffe, J. F.; Leenman, A.; Reeve, M.


    Most rivers draining the Raukumara Range of New Zealand's East Cape are subject to episodic sediment deliveries by transient landsliding and debris flows. The landscape is underlain by relatively weak lithologies, and has been subject to forest clearing in the past. There are a few notably large (>40 ha) and long-lived (chronic) gully complexes that significantly impact trunk channels with varying but persistent additions of gravel and sand at the decadal scale. This leads to channel widening, discontinuities in grain-size trends, and accelerated valley-filling downstream: the transport equilibrium within the trunk channel is typically reset beyond this confluence zone. The study area thus offers good scope for improving our understanding of the nature of channel coupling with major lateral sediment sources, and the balance of possible morphologic and textural responses to sediment loading over decades. Using three case studies from the Waiapu and Raukokore valleys, we use photogrammetry and field surveys to assess geomorphic coupling between chronic landslides and rivers, and consider the explanatory power of variables such as relative sediment loads, relative grain size differential, and the geometry of the tributary confluence, including channel slopes and the confinement of valley walls. The addition of sand and friable gravel material from landslides and gullies leads to augmented transport capacity and pronounced fining. Trunk channel slope moderates the buildup or evacuation of sediment storage in confluence fans and bars. The major valleys downstream are the ultimate buffers for these large sediment loads before delivery to the Pacific, changing the configuration of their storage zones over decades. By studying this exceptionally active landscape, we derive important insights into changes in channel sediment regime.

  12. Thermal management of pico projector using a piezoelectric fan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyu, Jin-Cherng; Tsai, Ho-Min


    Highlights: • A fin-equipped pico projector cooled by a vibrating piezoelectric fan was studied. • The piezoelectric fan was actuated with four different frequencies at 90 V rms . • Both the heater power and the fan vibrating frequency affected the fan amplitude. • Forced and natural convection might be equally significant at a high heater power. • Fan amplitude strongly affected the thermal resistance of pico projector. - Abstract: A fin-array-equipped test pico projector with horizontal or vertical orientation was cooled by a vibrating piezoelectric fan in this study. The 47 mm × 10 mm piezoelectric fan was operated at 90 V rms at a frequency ranging from 135.5 Hz to 129.5 Hz. It was found that the fan vibrating amplitude was affected by both the input power of the heater and the fan operating frequency. The thermal resistance of the fan-cooled test pico projector not always reduced as the heater power increased, and would be equally affected by both forced convection and natural convection depending on Gr and Re numbers. Such phenomenon that might arise from the temperature effect on the fan blade material and the fluidic damping was especially marked when the plate-fin-array-equipped test pico projector was horizontally tested. The results also showed that the pin-fin array was more favorable than plate-fin array for the cooling of test pico projector as a piezoelectric fan vibrated at a specific frequency, regardless of the orientation. When the pin-fin array was cooled by a vibrating piezoelectric fan at 133.5 Hz at 7 W in a horizontally and vertically oriented projector, the maximum thermal resistance reduction was about 3.4 °C/W and 3.8 °C/W, respectively

  13. Advanced Low-Noise Research Fan Stage Design (United States)

    Neubert, Robert; Bock, Larry; Malmborg, Eric; Owen-Peer, William


    This report describes the design of the Advanced Low-Noise Research Fan stage. The fan is a variable pitch design, which is designed at the cruise pitch condition. Relative to the cruise setting, the blade is closed at takeoff and opened for reverse thrust operation. The fan stage is a split flow design with fan exit guide vanes (FEGVs) and core stators. The fan stage design is combined with a nacelle and engine core duct to form a powered fan/nacelle subscale model. This model is intended for use in combined aerodynamic, acoustic, and structural testing in a wind tunnel. The fan has an outer diameter of 22 in. and a hub-to-tip of 0.426 in., which allows the use of existing NASA fan and cowl force balance and rig drive systems. The design parameters were selected to permit valid acoustic and aerodynamic comparisons with the Pratt & Whitney (P&W) 17- and 22-in. rigs previously tested under NASA contract. The fan stage design is described in detail. The results of the design axisymmetric and Navier-Stokes aerodynamic analysis are presented at the critical design conditions. The structural analysis of the fan rotor and attachment is included. The blade and attachment are predicted to have adequate low-cycle fatigue life and an acceptable operating range without resonant stress or flutter. The stage was acoustically designed with airfoil counts in the FEGV and core stator to minimize noise. A fan/FEGV tone analysis developed separately under NASA contract was used to determine the optimum airfoil counts. The fan stage was matched to the existing nacelle, designed under the previous P&W low-noise contract, to form a fan/nacelle model for wind tunnel testing. It is an axisymmetric nacelle for convenience in testing and analysis. Previous testing confirmed that the nacelle performed as required at various aircraft operating conditions.

  14. Experimental investigation of fluvial dike breaching due to flow overtopping (United States)

    El Kadi Abderrezzak, K.; Rifai, I.; Erpicum, S.; Archambeau, P.; Violeau, D.; Pirotton, M.; Dewals, B.


    The failure of fluvial dikes (levees) often leads to devastating floods that cause loss of life and damages to public infrastructure. Overtopping flows have been recognized as one of the most frequent cause of dike erosion and breaching. Fluvial dike breaching is different from frontal dike (embankments) breaching, because of specific geometry and boundary conditions. The current knowledge on the physical processes underpinning fluvial dike failure due to overtopping remains limited. In addition, there is a lack of a continuous monitoring of the 3D breach formation, limiting the analysis of the key mechanisms governing the breach development and the validation of conceptual or physically-based models. Laboratory tests on breach growth in homogeneous, non-cohesive sandy fluvial dikes due to flow overtopping have been performed. Two experimental setups have been constructed, permitting the investigation of various hydraulic and geometric parameters. Each experimental setup includes a main channel, separated from a floodplain by a dike. A rectangular initial notch is cut in the crest to initiate dike breaching. The breach development is monitored continuously using a specific developed laser profilometry technique. The observations have shown that the breach develops in two stages: first the breach deepens and widens with the breach centerline being gradually shifted toward the downstream side of the main channel. This behavior underlines the influence of the flow momentum component parallel to the dike crest. Second, the dike geometry upstream of the breach stops evolving and the breach widening continues only toward the downstream side of the main channel. The breach evolution has been found strongly affected by the flow conditions (i.e. inflow discharge in the main channel, downstream boundary condition) and floodplain confinement. The findings of this work shed light on key mechanisms of fluvial dike breaching, which differ substantially from those of dam

  15. Active Processes: Bright Streaks and Dark Fans (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2 In a region of the south pole known informally as 'Ithaca' numerous fans of dark frost form every spring. HiRISE collected a time lapse series of these images, starting at Ls = 185 and culminating at Ls = 294. 'Ls' is the way we measure time on Mars: at Ls = 180 the sun passes the equator on its way south; at Ls = 270 it reaches its maximum subsolar latitude and summer begins. In the earliest image (figure 1) fans are dark, but small narrow bright streaks can be detected. In the next image (figure 2), acquired at Ls = 187, just 106 hours later, dramatic differences are apparent. The dark fans are larger and the bright fans are more pronounced and easily detectable. The third image in the sequence shows no bright fans at all. We believe that the bright streaks are fine frost condensed from the gas exiting the vent. The conditions must be just right for the bright frost to condense. Observation Geometry Image PSP_002622_0945 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 16-Feb-2007. The complete image is centered at -85.2 degrees latitude, 181.5 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 246.9 km (154.3 miles). At this distance the image scale is 49.4 cm/pixel (with 2 x 2 binning) so objects 148 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 50 cm/pixel . The image was taken at a local Mars time of 05:46 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 88 degrees, thus the sun was about 2 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 185.1 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  16. Revitalizing a mature oil play: Strategies for finding and producing unrecovered oil in frio fluvial-deltaic sandstone reservoirs at South Texas. Annual report, October 1994--October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtz, M.; Knox, P.; McRae, L. [and others


    The Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone oil play of South Texas has produced nearly 1 billion barrels of oil, yet it still contains about 1.6 billion barrels of unrecovered mobile oil and nearly the same amount of residual oil resources. Interwell-scale geologic facise models of Frio Fluvial-deltaic reservoirs are being combined with engineering assessments and geophysical evaluations in order to determine the controls that these characteristics exert on the location and volume or unrecovered mobile and residual oil. Progress in the third year centered on technology transfer. An overview of project tasks is presented.

  17. Year-round variations in the fluvial transport load of particulate 137Cs in a forested catchment affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshi Matsunaga; Takahiro Nakanishi; Mariko Atarashi-Andoh; Erina Takeuchi; Kotomi Muto; Katsunori Tsuduki; Syusaku Nishimura; Jun Koarashi; Shigeyoshi Otosaka; Tsutomu Sato


    Particulate 137 Cs was collected from stream water for 2 years to assess the long-term trend of 137 Cs discharge from a forest after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident. A seasonal increase in the fluvial transport load of particulate 137 Cs in suspended solids (SS) was observed in July-October when rainfall was abundant. The 137 Cs load was controlled by the SS load. This control was attributed to cesium affinity for phyllosilicate clay minerals as verified by the low extractability of particulate 137 Cs. These findings indicate the fluvial particulate 137 Cs load is significantly related to the climate and geomorphological features of Japan. (author)

  18. A concept for a counterrotating fan with reduced tone noise (United States)

    Dittmar, James H.


    As subsonic jet engine designs incorporate higher bypass ratios to reduce jet noise and increase engine cycle efficiency, the fan noise becomes a significant part of the perceived total noise. The conventional method of reducing fan tone noise is to design a low tip-speed device. An alternative approach of using a counterrotating fan with a high number of rotor blades is investigated in this report. The source of noise at the blade passing frequency of this device is the rotor-only mechanism, which is cut off for a subsonic tip speed rotor. The interaction noise occurs at twice the blade passing frequency, which, for this fan, was shifted high enough in frequency to be above the perceived noise rating range. The result was a counterrotating fan which had more potential for tone noise reduction than does the conventional fan. A potential broadband noise reduction was also indicated.

  19. Global effects of agriculture on fluvial dissolved organic matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graeber, Daniel; Boëchat, Iola; Encina, Francisco


    DOM across climate zones of the northern and southern hemispheres. Both extensive and intensive farming altered fluvial DOM towards a more microbial and less plant-derived composition. Moreover, intensive farming significantly increased dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) concentrations. The DOM......Agricultural land covers approximately 40% of Earth’s land surface and affects hydromorphological, biogeochemical and ecological characteristics of fluvial networks. In the northern temperate region, agriculture also strongly affects the amount and molecular composition of dissolved organic matter...... composition change and DON concentration increase differed among climate zones and could be related to the intensity of current and historical nitrogen fertilizer use. As a result of agriculture intensification, increased DON concentrations and a more microbial-like DOM composition likely will enhance...

  20. 30 CFR 57.8534 - Shutdown or failure of auxiliary fans. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shutdown or failure of auxiliary fans. 57.8534... Ventilation Underground Only § 57.8534 Shutdown or failure of auxiliary fans. (a) Auxiliary fans installed and... fan maintenance or fan adjustments where air quality is maintained in compliance with the applicable...

  1. 78 FR 16443 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans... (United States)


    ... Standards for Ceiling Fans and Ceiling Fan Light Kits AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... consider amending the energy conservation standards for ceiling fans and ceiling fan light kits. DOE . Follow the instructions for submitting comments. Email: CeilingFan[email protected

  2. Taphonomy of plants in a paratropical fluvial system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, R.J.


    Investigation of the subenvironments of a modern paratropical fluvial system in southern Mexico indicates that certain depositional settings are relatively accurate in representing the local flora. Epiphytes, lianas, and those woody plants that are a small fraction of the standing biomass occur in sediments in approximate proportion to their representation (number of individuals) in the vegetation. A paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the flood plain as a whole can be made from the plants preserved when all subenvironments provide conditions for fossilization and when plant parts from each environment are retrieved in large quantities. However, discrepancies arise in reconstruction from the preservational qualities of distinct subenvironments and from differences in plant species composition among the subenvironments. For example, sites at a channel margin provide ideal preservational potential, but the plants preserved are low in specific diversity relative to the flood-plain forest, reflecting only those plants that live at the edge of the water. Important sedimentologic differences also exist among subenvironments of a fluvial system. A combination of potential plant-macrofossil and sedimentologic indicators can be used to characterize the subenvironments most likely to preserve plants. Ancient fluvial and upper deltaic sediments in Washington state have been investigated for fossil macrofloras and sedimentary structures. Subenvironments have been characterized based on the diversity and taxonomic composition of the preserved floras as well as on sedimentological criteria. The Eocene sediments support the hypothesis that within a fluvial system, dramatic floristic differences exist among subenvironments. Paleoecologic and evolutionary reconstructions can be improved with knowledge of the probable taphonomic biases of each depositional site.

  3. Floodplains: the forgotten and abused component of the fluvial system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heritage George


    Full Text Available River restoration is strongly focussed on in-channel initiatives driven by fisheries interests and a continued desire for river stability. This contrasts greatly with the inherently mobile nature of watercourses. What is often overlooked is the fact that many rivers have developed floodplain units that would naturally operate as integrated functional systems, moderating the effects of extreme floods by distributing flow energy and sediment transport capacity through out of bank flooding. Floodplain utilisation for farming activities and landowner intransigence when it comes to acknowledging that the floodplain is part of the river system, has resulted in floodplains being the most degraded fluvial morphologic unit, both in terms of loss of form and function and sheer levels of spatial impact. The degradation has been facilitated by the failure of regulatory mechanisms to adequately acknowledge floodplain form and function. This is testament to the ‘inward looking’ thinking behind national assessment strategies. This paper reviews the state of floodplain systems drawing on quantitative data from England and Wales to argue for greater consideration of the floodplain in relation to river management. The database is poor and must be improved, however it does reveal significant loss of watercourse-floodplain connectivity linked to direct flood alleviation measures and also to altered flood frequency as a result of river downcutting following river engineering. These latter effects have persisted along many watercourses despite the historic nature of the engineering interventions and will continue to exacerbate the risk of flooding to downstream communities. We also present several examples of the local and wider values of reinstating floodplain form and function, demonstrating major ecological gains, improvement to downstream flood reduction, elevation of water quality status and reductions in overall fine sediment loss from farmland. A re

  4. Numerical Study of Transition of an Annular Lift Fan Aircraft


    Yun Jiang; Bo Zhang


    The present study aimed at studying the transition of annular lift fan aircraft through computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The oscillations of lift and drag, the optimization for the figure of merit, and the characteristics of drag, yawing, rolling and pitching moments in transition are studied. The results show that a two-stage upper and lower fan lift system can generate oscillations of lift and drag in transition, while a single-stage inner and outer fan lift system can elimin...

  5. Improving the energy efficiency of mine fan assemblages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Souza, Euler


    Energy associated with ventilating an underground operation comprises a significant portion of a mine operation's base energy demand and is consequently responsible for a large percentage of the total operating costs. Ventilation systems may account from 25 to 40% of the total energy costs and 40–50% of the energy consumption of a mine operation. Fans are the most important mechanical devices used to ventilate underground mines and the total fan power installed in a single mine operation can easily exceed 10,000 kW. Investigations of a number of mine main fan installations have determined their assemblage to be, in general, very energy inefficient. The author has found that 40–80% of the energy consumed by a main fan is used to overcome the resistance of fan assemblage components. This paper presents how engineering design principles can be applied to improve the performance and efficiency of fan installations, resulting in substantial reductions in power consumption, operating cost and greenhouse gas emissions. A detailed case study is presented to demonstrate that, by designing fan assemblages using proper engineering concepts of fluid physics and industrial ventilation design, main fan systems will operate at efficiencies well above 80–90% (compared to common operating efficiencies of between 20 and 65%), resulting in a drastic reduction in a mine's overall costs and base electrical and energy loads. - Highlights: • Increases in fan assemblage efficiencies with minimum capital investment. • Improved designs for substantial fan power and operating cost savings. • General solutions and tactics for improving existing main fan installations. • Case study presented to demonstrate proper design of fan assemblages.

  6. On-site testing of crop drying fans


    Winkelman, Paul M.


    The commercial peanut dryers used today were first conceived when energy was relatively inexpensive. Since then, energy costs have increased significantly, and more efficient peanuts dryers are desirable. To evaluate dryer efficiency, a mobile fan test facility was designed, built and calibrated for on-site fan airflow and energy measurements. Four-, six-, and eight-trailer peanut dryers were tested for performance. The characteristics observed were delivery of fan airflow as compared to m...

  7. Multiple Episodes of Recent Gully Activity Indicated by Gully Fan Stratigraphy in Eastern Promethei Terra, Mars. (United States)

    Schon, S.; Head, J.; Fassett, C.


    similar to those seen in terrestrial alluvial fans [12,13]. The western portion of the fan is contained within the depression, while the younger eastern portion overlies and obscures any potential evidence of the ridge structure. A very striking and unusual feature of this gully fan is the large number of superposed impact craters; due to their density and similar diameter, we interpret these to be secondary craters from a large nearby primary impact crater. The depositional lobes of the fan can be divided into two groups: 1) those that predate the secondary crater population and 2) younger lobes that are superposed on the secondary craters. Numerous secondary craters (~1-25 m-diameter) superpose the lowermost stratigraphic lobe (Fig. 1, A), while at least three younger lobes (Fig. 1, C1, D1, and D2) directly superpose the cratered lobe. The emplacement date of these secondaries provides a robust maximum age for the youngest lobes of this fan, and therefore the most recent fluvial activity of the gully. Most gullies either have no superposed impact craters [3,7] or are too small to date with any certainty using crater counts [14]. Therefore, locating and dating the parent impact crater of these secondaries is critical to constrain the chronology and origin of gully systems. Rayed-Crater Source of the Secondary Craters Regional reconnaissance for the origin of the secondary craters led to the discovery of a previously unidentified rayed crater complex (consisting of an ~18 km-diameter outer crater and an ~7 km-diameter inner crater) approximately 175 km southwest of the gully system. Distinctive rays are observed in THEMIS nighttime thermal inertia data, but are not observable as albedo contrasts in THEMIS visible data, consistent with other identifications of young rayed craters on Mars [15,16]. The rims of both craters are distinct and consistent with the morphology of very young impact craters on Mars. The inner crater has a greater depth to diameter ratio than the

  8. A combined morphometric, sedimentary, GIS and modelling analysis of flooding and debris flow hazard on a composite alluvial fan, Caveside, Tasmania (United States)

    Kain, Claire L.; Rigby, Edward H.; Mazengarb, Colin


    Two episodes of intense flooding and sediment movement occurred in the Westmorland Stream alluvial system near Caveside, Australia in January 2011 and June 2016. The events were investigated in order to better understand the drivers and functioning of this composite alluvial system on a larger scale, so as to provide awareness of the potential hazard from future flood and debris flow events. A novel combination of methods was employed, including field surveys, catchment morphometry, GIS mapping from LiDAR and aerial imagery, and hydraulic modelling using RiverFlow-2D software. Both events were initiated by extreme rainfall events (fan. The impacts of the 2011 and 2016 events on the farmland appeared similar; however, there were differences in sediment source and transport processes that have implications for understanding recurrence probabilities. A debris flow was a key driver in the 2011 event, by eroding the stream channel in the forested watershed and delivering a large volume of sediment downstream to the alluvial fan. In contrast, modelled flooding velocities suggest the impacts of the 2016 event were the result of an extended period of extreme stream flooding and consequent erosion of alluvium directly above the current fan apex. The morphometry of the catchment is better aligned with values from fluvially dominated fans found elsewhere, which suggests that flooding represents a more frequent future risk than debris flows. These findings have wider implications for the estimation of debris flow and flood hazard on alluvial fans in Tasmania and elsewhere, as well as further demonstrating the capacity of combined hydraulic modelling and geomorphologic investigation as a predictive tool to inform hazard management practices in environments affected by flooding and sediment movement.

  9. A measuring stand for a ducted fan aircraft propulsion unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlaváček David


    Full Text Available The UL-39 ultra-light aircraft which is being developed by the Department of Aerospace Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, is equipped with an unconventional ducted fan propulsion unit. The unit consists of an axial fan driven by a piston engine and placed inside a duct ended with a nozzle. This article describes the arrangement of a modernised measuring stand for this highly specific propulsion unit which will be able to measure the fan pressure ratio and velocity field in front of and behind the fan and its characteristic curve.

  10. K-pop Reception and Participatory Fan Culture in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Yeon Sung


    Full Text Available K-pop’s popularity and its participatory fan culture have expanded beyond Asia and become significant in Europe in the past few years. After South Korean pop singer Psy’s “Gangnam Style” music video topped the Austrian chart in October 2012, the number and size of K-pop events in Austria sharply increased, with fans organizing various participatory events, including K-pop auditions, dance festivals, club meetings, quiz competitions, dance workshops, and smaller fan-culture gatherings. In the private sector, longtime fans have transitioned from participants to providers, and in the public sector, from observers to sponsors. Through in-depth interviews with event organizers, sponsors, and fans, this article offers an ethnographic study of the reception of K-pop in Europe that takes into consideration local interactions between fans and Korean sponsors, perspectives on the genre, patterns of social integration, and histories. As a case study, this research stresses the local situatedness of K-pop fan culture by arguing that local private and public sponsors and fans make the reception of K-pop different in each locality. By exploring local scenes of K-pop reception and fan culture, the article demonstrates the rapidly growing consumption of K-pop among Europeans and stresses multidirectional understandings of globalization.

  11. Single photon emission computed tomography by using fan beam collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Yoshihisa


    A multislice fan beam collimator which has parallel collimation along the cephalic-caudul axis of a patient and converging collimation within planes that are perpendicular to that axis was designed for a SPECT system with a rotating scintillation camera, and it was constructed by the lead casting method which was developed in recent years. A reconstruction algorithm for fan beam SPECT was formed originally by combining the reconstruction algorithm of the parallel beam SPECT with that of the fan beam X-ray CT. The algorithm for fan beam SPECT was confirmed by means of computer simulation and a head phantom filled with diluted radionuclide. Not only 99m Tc but also 123 I was used as a radionuclide. A SPECT image with the fan beam collimator was compared with that of a parallel hole, low energy, high resolution collimator which was routinely used for clinical and research SPECT studies. Both system resolution and sensitivity of the fan beam collimator were ∼20% better than those of the parallel hole collimator. Comparing SPECT images obtained from fan beam collimator with those of parallel hole collimator, the SPECT images using fan beam collimator had far better resolution. A fan beam collimator is a useful implement for the SPECT study. (author)

  12. The Mechanical Impact of Aerodynamic Stall on Tunnel Ventilation Fans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Sheard


    Full Text Available This paper describes work aimed at establishing the ability of a tunnel ventilation fan to operate without risk of mechanical failure in the event of aerodynamic stall. The research establishes the aerodynamic characteristics of a typical tunnel ventilation fan when operated in both stable and stalled aerodynamic conditions, with and without an anti-stall stabilisation ring, with and without a “nonstalling” blade angle and at full, half, and one quarter design speed. It also measures the fan’s peak stress, thus facilitating an analysis of the implications of the experimental results for mechanical design methodology. The paper concludes by presenting three different strategies for tunnel ventilation fan selection in applications where the selected fan will most likely stall. The first strategy selects a fan with a low-blade angle that is nonstalling. The second strategy selects a fan with a high-pressure developing capability. The third strategy selects a fan with a fitted stabilisation ring. Tunnel ventilation system designers each have their favoured fan selection strategy. However, all three strategies can produce system designs within which a tunnel ventilation fan performs reliably in-service. The paper considers the advantages and disadvantages of each selection strategy and considered the strengths and weaknesses of each.

  13. Floodplain forest succession reveals fluvial processes: A hydrogeomorphic model for temperate riparian woodlands. (United States)

    Egger, Gregory; Politti, Emilio; Lautsch, Erwin; Benjankar, Rohan; Gill, Karen M; Rood, Stewart B


    River valley floodplains are physically-dynamic environments where fluvial processes determine habitat gradients for riparian vegetation. These zones support trees and shrubs whose life stages are adapted to specific habitat types and consequently forest composition and successional stage reflect the underlying hydrogeomorphic processes and history. In this study we investigated woodland vegetation composition, successional stage and habitat properties, and compared these with physically-based indicators of hydraulic processes. We thus sought to develop a hydrogeomorphic model to evaluate riparian woodland condition based on the spatial mosaic of successional phases of the floodplain forest. The study investigated free-flowing and dam-impacted reaches of the Kootenai and Flathead Rivers, in Idaho and Montana, USA and British Columbia, Canada. The analyses revealed strong correspondence between vegetation assessments and metrics of fluvial processes indicating morphodynamics (erosion and shear stress), inundation and depth to groundwater. The results indicated that common successional stages generally occupied similar hydraulic environments along the different river segments. Comparison of the spatial patterns between the free-flowing and regulated reaches revealed greater deviation from the natural condition for the braided channel segment than for the meandering segment. This demonstrates the utility of the hydrogeomorphic approach and suggests that riparian woodlands along braided channels could have lower resilience than those along meandering channels and might be more vulnerable to influences such as from river damming or climate change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fluvial response time during continuous climate change: A new formulation and applications to climatically and tectonically modulated bedrock fluvial channels (United States)

    Goren, L.; Petit, C.


    Fluvial channels respond to changing tectonic and climatic conditions by adjusting their patterns of erosion and relief. It is therefore expected that by examining these patterns, we can infer the tectonic and climatic conditions that shaped the channels. However, the potential interference between climatic and tectonic signals complicates this inference. Within the framework of the stream power model that describes incision rates of mountainous bedrock rivers, climate variability has two effects: first, it influences the erosive power of the river, causing local slope change, and second, it changes the fluvial response time, that controls the rate at which tectonic and climatic variations are communicated upstream. Because of this dual role, the definition of the response time during continuous climate change has so far been elusive, which hindered our understanding of environmental signal propagation and preservation in the fluvial topography. Here, we propose a new definition of fluvial response time that is based on an analytic solution of the stream power model during any general tectonic and climatic histories. This response time depends on space, time, and climatic history, and it allows using river long profiles to recover either the tectonic history or the climatic history. Furthermore, analytic study of landscape evolution during periodic climate change reveals that high frequency climatic oscillations (with respect to the response time), such as Milankovitch cycles, are topographically damped. The new response time definition is applied to the analysis of the Tinee river tributaries in the southern French Alps. Tributaries long profile is used to recover the incision history of the Tinee main trunk, which shows periodic, high incision rate pulses correlated with interglacial episodes. Similar incision histories are recovered for the past 100 ky when assuming constant climatic conditions or periodic climatic oscillations following global temperature curve.

  15. Fluvial landscape development in the southwestern Kalahari during the Holocene - Chronology and provenance of fluvial deposits in the Molopo Canyon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramisch, Arne; Bens, Oliver; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter


    are sparse and often discontinuous. Hence, little is known about Holocene environmental change in this region. This study focuses on reconstructing paleoenvironmental change from the timing and provenance of fluvial deposits located within the Molopo Canyon, which connects the southern Kalahari drainage......The southern Kalahari drainage network is in a key position to analyze spatiotemporal changes in the tropical easterly and the temperate westerly circulation over the Southern African subcontinent. However, due to the prevailing aridity, paleoenvironmental archives within the southwestern Kalahari...

  16. Fan beam intensity modulated proton therapy (United States)

    Hill, Patrick M.

    A fan beam proton therapy is developed which delivers intensity modulated proton therapy using distal edge tracking. The system may be retrofit onto existing proton therapy gantries without alterations to infrastructure in order to improve treatments through intensity modulation. A novel range and intensity modulation system is designed using acrylic leaves that are inserted or retracted from subsections of the fan beam. Leaf thicknesses are chosen in a base-2 system and motivated in a binary manner. Dose spots from individual beam channels range between 1 and 5 cm. Integrated collimators attempting to limit crosstalk among beam channels are investigated, but found to be inferior to uncollimated beam channel modulators. A treatment planning system performing data manipulation in MATLAB and dose calculation in MCNPX is developed. Beamlet dose is calculated on patient CT data and a fan beam source is manually defined to produce accurate results. An energy deposition tally follows the CT grid, allowing straightforward registration of dose and image data. Simulations of beam channels assume that a beam channel either delivers dose to a distal edge spot or is intensity modulated. A final calculation is performed separately to determine the deliverable dose accounting for all sources of scatter. Treatment plans investigate the effects that varying system parameters have on dose distributions. Beam channel apertures may be as large as 20 mm because the sharp distal falloff characteristic of proton dose provides sufficient intensity modulation to meet dose objectives, even in the presence of coarse lateral resolution. Dose conformity suffers only when treatments are delivered from less than 10 angles. Jaw widths of 1--2 cm produce comparable dose distributions, but a jaw width of 4 cm produces unacceptable target coverage when maintaining critical structure avoidance. Treatment time for a prostate delivery is estimated to be on the order of 10 minutes. Neutron production

  17. The Lower Cretaceous Way Group of northern Chile: An alluvial fan-fan delta complex (United States)

    Flint, S.; Clemmey, H.; Turner, P.


    Alluvial fan sediments of the Lower Cretaceous Coloso Basin in northern Chile were deposited in a half-graben and derived from andesitic volcanics of a former island arc. Transport directions were towards the east, away from the present-day Peru-Chile trench. Grain flow, density modified grain flow and sheetflow processes were responsible for most of the sediment deposition with cohesive debris flows playing only a minor part. An early phase of conglomerate deposition (Coloso Formation) into a restricted basin records the transition from proximal fan facies with abundant grain flows and remobilized screes to mid-fan facies dominated by sheetflows. Stratiform copper mineralization near the top of the lower conglomerates is related to the unroofing of the Jurassic island arc. This mineralization comprises copper sulphide-cemented sands and gravels and formed by the reaction of mineralized detritus with diagenetic and hydrothermal solutions. A later phase of deposition (Lombriz Formation) includes sandstones, siltstones and conglomerates with a source area different from the Coloso Formation. This change in source may be related to strike-slip tectonics as the basin extended. The Lombriz conglomerates pass distally (eastwards) into red sandstones and purple siltstones with thin limestones deposited under marine conditions. This sequence is interpreted as a major fan delta complex. It passes conformably into marine carbonates of the Tableado Formation signifying the complete drowning of the basin in lower Cretaceous times.

  18. Performance Calculations for a Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Fan Stage from Sparse Measurements (United States)

    Hirt, Stefanie M.; Wolter, John D.; Arend, David J.; Hearn, Tristan A.; Hardin, Larry W.; Gazzaniga, John A.


    A test of the Boundary Layer Ingesting-Inlet / Distortion-Tolerant Fan was completed in NASA Glenn's 8-Foot by 6-Foot supersonic wind tunnel. Inlet and fan performance were measured by surveys using a set of rotating rake arrays upstream and downstream of the fan stage. Surveys were conducted along the 100 percent speed line and a constant exit corrected flow line passing through the aerodynamic design point. These surveys represented only a small fraction of the data collected during the test. For other operating points, data was recorded as snapshots without rotating the rakes which resulted in a sparser set of recorded data. This paper will discuss analysis of these additional, lower measurement density data points to expand our coverage of the fan map. Several techniques will be used to supplement the snapshot data at test conditions where survey data also exists. The supplemented snapshot data will be compared with survey results to assess the quality of the approach. Effective methods will be used to analyze the data set for which only snapshots exist.

  19. Energy dissipation in the blade tip region of an axial fan (United States)

    Bizjan, B.; Milavec, M.; Širok, B.; Trenc, F.; Hočevar, M.


    A study of velocity and pressure fluctuations in the tip clearance flow of an axial fan is presented in this paper. Two different rotor blade tip designs were investigated: the standard one with straight blade tips and the modified one with swept-back tip winglets. Comparison of integral sound parameters indicates a significant noise level reduction for the modified blade tip design. To study the underlying mechanisms of the energy conversion and noise generation, a novel experimental method based on simultaneous measurements of local flow velocity and pressure has also been developed and is presented here. The method is based on the phase space analysis by the use of attractors, which enable more accurate identification and determination of the local flow structures and turbulent flow properties. Specific gap flow energy derived from the pressure and velocity time series was introduced as an additional attractor parameter to assess the flow energy distribution and dissipation within the phase space, and thus determines characteristic sources of the fan acoustic emission. The attractors reveal a more efficient conversion of the pressure to kinetic flow energy in the case of the modified (tip winglet) fan blade design, and also a reduction in emitted noise levels. The findings of the attractor analysis are in a good agreement with integral fan characteristics (efficiency and noise level), while offering a much more accurate and detailed representation of gap flow phenomena.

  20. The Effect of Using an Electric Fan on Dyspnea in Chinese Patients With Terminal Cancer. (United States)

    Wong, Sio Leng; Leong, Sok Man; Chan, Cheng Man; Kan, Sut Peng; Cheng, Hon Wai Benjamin


    Fan therapy is often suggested for relieving the symptom of dyspnea in patients with advanced cancer, but relevant literature among Asians is limited. Phase 2 clinical trial to assess the clinical feasibility and outcome of using an electric fan to alleviate the symptom of dyspnea in Chinese patients with advanced cancer. Thirty patients with advanced cancer having unresolved breathlessness were recruited from Hospice and Palliative Care Centre of Kiang Wu Hospital in Macau. Participants were randomly and equally allocated to the experimental group and the control group, respectively. Verbal numerical rating scale (NRS) of breathlessness, respiratory rate (RR), and saturation of peripheral oxygen (SpO 2 ) was collected before and after the intervention. T test was used to analyze the data collected. There was a significant difference in the NRS scores of the experimental group ( P fan therapy, whereas no significant difference was found in the objective statistic results of RR and SpO 2 . No significant difference ( P > .05) was found in the control group for all the 3 variables before and after routine treatment. The results of the study suggested that fan therapy could be effective in alleviating dyspnea in Chinese patients with advanced cancer. It should be considered as one of the nonpharmacological treatment option. Future large-scale phase 3 clinical trials are warranted.

  1. Levitated Duct Fan (LDF) Aircraft Auxiliary Generator (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Emerson, Dawn C.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.


    This generator concept includes a novel stator and rotor architecture made from composite material with blades attached to the outer rotating shell of a ducted fan drum rotor, a non-contact support system between the stator and rotor using magnetic fields to provide levitation, and an integrated electromagnetic generation system. The magnetic suspension between the rotor and the stator suspends and supports the rotor within the stator housing using permanent magnets attached to the outer circumference of the drum rotor and passive levitation coils in the stator shell. The magnets are arranged in a Halbach array configuration.

  2. Noise suppressor for turbo fan jet engines (United States)

    Cheng, D. Y. (Inventor)


    A noise suppressor is disclosed for installation on the discharge or aft end of a turbo fan engine. Within the suppressor are fixed annular airfoils which are positioned to reduce the relative velocity between the high temperature fast moving jet exhaust and the low temperature slow moving air surrounding it. Within the suppressor nacelle is an exhaust jet nozzle which constrains the shape of the jet exhaust to a substantially uniform elongate shape irrespective of the power setting of the engine. Fixed ring airfoils within the suppressor nacelle therefore have the same salutary effects irrespective of the power setting at which the engine is operated.

  3. The linkages among hillslope-vegetation changes, elevation, and the timing of late-Quaternary fluvial-system aggradation in the Mojave Desert revisited (United States)

    Pelletier, J. D.


    Valley-floor-channel and alluvial-fan deposits and terraces in the southwestern US record multiple episodes of late-Quaternary fluvial-system aggradation and incision. Perhaps the most well-constrained of these episodes took place from the latest Pleistocene to the present in the Mojave Desert. One hypothesis for this episode - i.e., the paleovegetation-change hypothesis (PVCH) - posits that a reduction in hillslope vegetation cover associated with the transition from Pleistocene woodlands to Holocene desert scrub generated a pulse of sediment that triggered a primary phase of aggradation downstream, followed by channel incision, terrace abandonment, and initiation of a secondary phase of aggradation further downstream. A second hypothesis - i.e., the extreme-storm hypothesis - attributes episodes of aggradation and incision to changes in the frequency and/or intensity of extreme storms. In the past decade a growing number of studies has advocated the extreme-storm hypothesis and challenged the PVCH on the basis of inconsistencies in both timing and process. Here I show that in eight out of nine sites where the timing of fluvial-system aggradation in the Mojave Desert is reasonably well constrained, measured ages of primary aggradation are consistent with the predictions of the PVCH if the time-transgressive nature of paleovegetation changes with elevation is fully taken into account. I also present an alternative process model for PVCH that is more consistent with available data and produces sediment pulses primarily via an increase in drainage density (i.e., a transformation of hillslopes into low-order channels) rather than solely via an increase in sediment yield from hillslopes. This paper further documents the likely important role of changes in upland vegetation cover and drainage density in driving fluvial-system response during semiarid-to-arid climatic changes.

  4. Tectonically controlled fan delta and submarine fan sedimentation of late Miocene age, southern Temblor Range, California (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Thomson, Alan


    The Santa Margarita Formation in the southern Temblor Range, composed of conglomerate and subordinate sandstone, evolved as a large complex of fan deltas and submarine fans in late Miocene time. An 80 to 90-m.y.-old granitic basement of the Salinian block and an accompanying 23.5-m.y.-old volcanic field now located in the northern Gabilan Range and the Pinnacles area, respectively, were the primary source terranes. In general, the fan deltas crop out along the west side of the southern Temblor Range, whereas the proximal parts of the submarine fans crop out along the east side of the range. The fan deltas consist of subaerial topset beds and low-angle basinward-dipping subaqueous foreset beds. Strata interpreted to be topset beds are composed largely of conglomerate with thick to very thick horizontal beds and matrix-supported clasts. Most of the thick to very thick conglomerate beds are internally massive and disorganized. Strata interpreted as foreset beds are composed of thick-bedded, large-scale, low-angle, cross-stratified conglomerate and sandstone units which commonly are internally massive. Abundant molluskan macrofossils such as Ostrea and Pecten are present in the subaqueous foreset beds; many have been displaced downslope from their original site of deposition. Conglomerate- and sandstone-filled submarine canyons, through which coarse-grained detritus was transported to the adjacent submarine fans, locally have cut into the foreset beds of the fan deltas. These submarine canyon deposits are generally better stratified than adjacent foreset-bed deposits, and they consist of thick horizontal beds, internally massive or normally graded, arranged in fining- and thinning-upward sequences. Isolated and composite conglomerate- and sandstone-filled channels, which crop out on the east flank of the southern Temblor Range, are interpreted as proximal submarine-fan channel deposits. These channel-form conglomerate and sandstone deposits are characterized by thick

  5. Case study of French and Spanish fan reception of Game of Thrones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Bourdaa


    Full Text Available The reception of the American TV show Game of Thrones (2011– by French and Spanish fans and nonfans is addressed via a qualitative methodology, the goal of which is to understand how European viewers perceive themselves as fans and what it means for them to be fans. Analysis of characteristics of a specifically European reception helps us learn what fan studies tell us about fans and what fans really think about fandoms.

  6. Featured Image: Waves in a Coronal Fan (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    The inset in this Solar Dynamics Observatory image shows a close-up view of a stunning coronal fan extending above the Suns atmosphere. These sweeping loops were observed on 7 March 2012 by a number of observatories, revealing the first known evidence of standing slow magnetoacoustic waves in cool coronal fan loops. The oscillations of the loops, studied in a recent article led by Vaibhav Pant (Indian Institute of Astrophysics), were triggered by blast waves that were generated by X-class flares from the distant active region AR 11429 (marked withthe yellow box at left). The overplotted X-ray curve in the top right corner of the image (click for the full view) shows the evolution of the flares that perturbed the footpoints of the loops. You can check out the video of the action below, and follow the link to the original article to read more about what these oscillations tell us about the Suns activity. CitationV. Pant et al 2017 ApJL 847 L5. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa880f

  7. The Retarding Force on a Fan-Cart Reversing Direction (United States)

    Aurora, Tarlok S.; Brunner, Bernard J.


    In introductory physics, students learn that an object tossed upward has a constant downward acceleration while going up, at the highest point and while falling down. To demonstrate this concept, a self-propelled fan cart system is used on a frictionless track. A quick push is given to the fan cart and it is allowed to move away on a track under…

  8. Using Fan Fiction to Teach Critical Reading and Writing Skills (United States)

    Kell, Tracey


    In this article, the author talks about fan fiction, which is defined by Jenkins (2008) as "original stories and novels which are set in the fictional universe of favorite television series, films, comics, games or other media properties." Fan fiction generally involves writing stories with a combination of established characters and established…

  9. The performance of a centrifugal fan with enlarged impeller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunxi; Song Lingwang; Jia Yakui


    Highlights: → The influence of impeller enlargement is evaluated numerically and experimentally. → Variation equations of the operation points for enlarged impellers are derived. → Impeller enlargement leads to louder fan noise due to reduced impeller-volute gap. - Abstract: The influence of enlarged impeller in unchanged volute on G4-73 type centrifugal fan performance is investigated in this paper. Comparisons are conducted between the fan with original impeller and two larger impellers with the increments in impeller outlet diameter of 5% and 10% respectively in the numerical and experimental investigations. The internal characteristics are obtained by the numerical simulation, which indicate there is more volute loss in the fan with larger impeller. Experiment results show that the flow rate, total pressure rise, shaft power and sound pressure level have increased, while the efficiency have decreased when the fan operates with larger impeller. Variation equations on the performance of the operation points for the fan with enlarged impellers are suggested. Comparisons between experiment results and the trimming laws show that the trimming laws for usual situation can predict the performance of the enlarged fan impeller with less error for higher flow rate, although the situation of application is not in agreement. The noise frequency analysis shows that higher noise level with the larger impeller fan is caused by the reduced impeller-volute gap.

  10. Motivational variables that influence fan attendance in domestic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is the support of sport fans that underpins the sports industry, where they are in supreme authority and without which the golden core of the game has no currency. ... The motivational measures revealed in the study may be used by sport marketers to develop marketing communication strategies in various aspects of fan ...

  11. Acoustic Measurements of an Uninstalled Spacecraft Cabin Ventilation Fan Prototype (United States)

    Koch, L. Danielle; Brown, Clifford A.; Shook, Tony D.; Winkel, James; Kolacz, John S.; Podboy, Devin M.; Loew, Raymond A.; Mirecki, Julius H.


    Sound pressure measurements were recorded for a prototype of a spacecraft cabin ventilation fan in a test in the NASA Glenn Acoustical Testing Laboratory. The axial fan is approximately 0.089 m (3.50 in.) in diameter and 0.223 m (9.00 in.) long and has nine rotor blades and eleven stator vanes. At design point of 12,000 rpm, the fan was predicted to produce a flow rate of 0.709 cu m/s (150 cfm) and a total pressure rise of 925 Pa (3.72 in. of water) at 12,000 rpm. While the fan was designed to be part of a ducted atmospheric revitalization system, no attempt was made to throttle the flow or simulate the installed configuration during this test. The fan was operated at six speeds from 6,000 to 13,500 rpm. A 13-microphone traversing array was used to collect sound pressure measurements along two horizontal planes parallel to the flow direction, two vertical planes upstream of the fan inlet and two vertical planes downstream of the fan exhaust. Measurements indicate that sound at blade passing frequency harmonics contribute significantly to the overall audible noise produced by the fan at free delivery conditions.

  12. Procedure for Balancing an Air Distribution System with Decentralised Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunner, Amalie; Hultmark, Göran; Vorre, Anders


    there is a potential for energy saving. In this study the calculated saving in the power consumption for the main fan was found to be 40%. The results also show that when dampers are replaced with decentralised fans with the same efficiency the overall power saving potential was 16%. In the study a mock-up...

  13. Amateur mythographies: Fan fiction and the myth of myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Willis


    Full Text Available This paper draws on classical scholarship on myth in order to critically examine three ways in which scholars and fans have articulated a relationship between fan fiction and myth. These are (1 the notion of fan fiction as a form of folk culture, reclaiming popular story from corporate ownership; (2 the notion of myth as counterhegemonic, often feminist, discourse; (3 the notion of myth as a commons of story and a universal story world. I argue that the first notion depends on an implicit primitivizing of fan fiction and myth, which draws ultimately on the work of Gottfried von Herder in the 18th century and limits our ability to produce historically and politically nuanced understandings of fan fiction. The second notion, which is visible in the work of Henry Jenkins and Constance Penley, is more helpful because of its attention to the politics of narration. However, it is the third model of myth, as a universal story world, where we find the richest crossover between fan fiction's creative power and contemporary classical scholarship on myth, especially in relation to Sarah Iles Johnston's analysis of hyperserial narrative. I demonstrate this through some close readings of fan fiction from the Greek and Roman Mythology fandom on Archive of Our Own. I conclude the paper by extending Johnston's arguments to show that fan-fictional hyperseriality, specifically, can be seen as mythic because it intervenes not only in the narrative worlds of its source materials but also in the social world of its telling.

  14. Facilitating Attuned Interactions: Using the FAN Approach to Family Engagement (United States)

    Gilkerson, Linda


    Erikson Institute's Fussy Baby Network® (FBN) is a national model prevention program known for its approach to family engagement called the FAN (Gilkerson & Gray, 2014; Gilkerson et al., 2012). The FAN is both a conceptual framework and a practical tool to facilitate attunement in helping relationships and promote reflective practice. This…

  15. Rivers through geological time : the fluvial contribution to understanding of our planet.


    Bridgland, D.R.; Bennett, J.A.; McVicar-Wright, S.E.; Scrivener, R.C.


    Fluvial rocks and sediments form an important part of the geological record from the terrestrial environment, from the Archaean to the recent. Precambrian fluvial archives record the change in Earth's atmosphere from anoxic to oxygen-rich, while the absence of land plants led to significant differences between Precambrian and Palaeozoic fluvial regimes and those from later in the geological record. In the Mesozoic and Cenozoic river valleys were populated by land animals and their deposits ar...

  16. Preliminary Aerodynamic Investigation of Fan Rotor Blade Morphing (United States)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.


    Various new technologies currently under development may enable controlled blade shape variability, or so-called blade morphing, to be practically employed in aircraft engine fans and compressors in the foreseeable future. The current study is a relatively brief, preliminary computational fluid dynamics investigation aimed at partially demonstrating and quantifying the aerodynamic potential of fan rotor blade morphing. The investigation is intended to provide information useful for near-term planning, as well as aerodynamic solution data sets that can be subsequently analyzed using advanced acoustic diagnostic tools, for the purpose of making fan noise comparisons. Two existing fan system models serve as baselines for the investigation: the Advanced Ducted Propulsor fan with a design tip speed of 806 ft/sec and a pressure ratio of 1.294, and the Source Diagnostic Test fan with a design tip speed of 1215 ft/sec and a pressure ratio of 1.470. Both are 22-in. sub-scale, low-noise research fan/nacelle models that have undergone extensive experimental testing in the 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The study, restricted to fan rotor blade morphing only, involves a fairly simple blade morphing technique. Specifically, spanwise-linear variations in rotor blade-section setting angle are applied to alter the blade shape; that is, the blade is linearly retwisted from hub to tip. Aerodynamic performance comparisons are made between morphed-blade and corresponding baseline configurations on the basis of equal fan system thrust, where rotor rotational speed for the morphed-blade fan is varied to change the thrust level for that configuration. The results of the investigation confirm that rotor blade morphing could be a useful technology, with the potential to enable significant improvements in fan aerodynamic performance. Even though the study is very limited in scope and confined to simple geometric perturbations of two existing fan

  17. c-fans and Newton polyhedra of algebraic varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazarnovskii, B Ya


    To every algebraic subvariety of a complex torus there corresponds a Euclidean geometric object called a c-fan. This correspondence determines an intersection theory for algebraic varieties. c-fans form a graded commutative algebra with visually defined operations. The c-fans of algebraic varieties lie in the subring of rational c-fans. It seems that other subrings may be used to construct an intersection theory for other categories of analytic varieties. We discover a relation between an old problem in the theory of convex bodies (the so-called Minkowski problem) and the ring of c-fans. This enables us to define a correspondence that sends any algebraic curve to a convex polyhedron in the space of characters of the torus

  18. Sports Fans, Alcohol Use, and Violent Behavior: A Sociological Review. (United States)

    Ostrowsky, Michael K


    This review makes four contributions to the sociological study of sports fans, alcohol use, and violent behavior. First, this article focuses explicitly on the relationship between alcohol use and violent behavior among sports fans. This is a worldwide social problem, yet it is quite understudied. Second, this article synthesizes the fragmented literature on alcohol use and violent behavior among sports fans. Third, this article identifies four broad sets of risk factors-sociocultural, event/venue, police, and crowd-that appear to be closely related to violent behavior among sports fans. Finally, to help explain the possible correlation between alcohol and violence among sports fans, this article draws upon the key understandings from the literature on alcohol and violence in wider society. The article concludes with suggestions for future research. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Fluvial geomorphology: where do we go from here? (United States)

    Smith, Derald G.


    The evolution of geomorphology and in particular, fluvial geomorphology, is at a crossroads. Currently, the discipline is dismally organized, without focus or direction, and is practised by individualists who rarely collaborate in numbers significant enough to generate major research initiatives. If the discipline is to mature and to prosper, we must make some very difficult decisions that will require major changes in our ways of thinking and operating. Either the field stays in its current operational mode and becomes a backwater science, or it moves forward and adopts the ways of the more competitive sectors of the earth and biosciences. For the discipline to evolve, fluvial geomorphologists must first organize an association within North America or at the international level. The 3rd International Geomorphology Conference may be a start, but within that organization we must develop our own divisional and/or regional organizations. Within the Quaternary geology/geomorphology divisions of the Geological Socieity of America (GSA), Association of American Geographers (AAG), American Geophysical Union (AGU) and British Geomorphology Research Group (BGRG) the voice of fluvial geomorphology is lost in a sea of diverse and competitive interests, though there is reason for hope resulting from some recent initiatives. In Canada, we have no national geomorphology organization per se; our closest organization is Canqua (Canadian Quaternary Association). Next, fluvial researchers must collaborate, by whatever means, to develop "scientific critical mass" in order to generate ideas and long-range goals of modest and major scientific importance. These projects will help secure major research funding without which, research opportunities will diminish and initiating major new research will become nearly impossible. Currently, we are being surpassed by the glaciologists, remote sensors, ecologists, oceanographers, climatologists-atmospheric researchers and some Quaternary

  20. Hydrodynamic and sedimentological controls governing formation of fluvial levees (United States)

    Johnston, G. H.; Edmonds, D. A.; David, S. R.; Czuba, J. A.


    Fluvial levees are familiar features found on the margins of river channels, yet we know little about what controls their presence, height, and shape. These attributes of levees are important because they control sediment transfer from channel to floodplain and flooding patterns along a river system. Despite the familiarity and importance of levees, there is a surprising lack of basic geomorphic data on fluvial levees. Because of this we seek to understand: 1) where along rivers do levees tend to occur?; 2) what geomorphic and hydrodynamic variables control cross-sectional shape of levees? We address these questions by extracting levee shape from LiDAR data and by collecting hydrodynamic and sedimentological data from reaches of the Tippecanoe River, the White River, and the Muscatatuck River, Indiana, USA. Fluvial levees are extracted from a 1.5-m resolution LiDAR bare surface model and compared to hydrological, sedimentological, and geomorphological data from USGS stream gages. We digitized banklines and extracted levee cross-sections to calculate levee slope, taper, height, e-folding length, and e-folding width. To answer the research questions, we performed a multivariable regression between the independent variables—channel geometry, sediment grain size and concentration, flooding conditions, and slope—and the dependent levee variables. We find considerable variation in levee presence and shape in our field data. On the Muscatatuck River levees occur on 30% of the banks compared to 10% on the White River. Moreover, levees on the Muscatatuck are on average 3 times wider than the White River. This is consistent with the observation that the Muscatatuck is finer-grained compared to the White River and points to sedimentology being an important control on levee geomorphology. Future work includes building a morphodynamic model to understand how different hydrodynamic and geomorphic conditions control levee geometry.

  1. Variability in fluvial geomorphic response to anthropogenic disturbance (United States)

    Verstraeten, Gert; Broothaerts, Nils; Van Loo, Maarten; Notebaert, Bastiaan; D'Haen, Koen; Dusar, Bert; De Brue, Hanne


    Humans have greatly impacted the processes and intensities of erosion, sediment transport and storage since the introduction of agriculture. In many regions around the world, accelerated floodplain sedimentation can be related to increases in human pressure on the environment. However, the relation between the intensity of anthropogenic disturbance and the magnitude of change in fluvial sediment dynamics is not straightforward and often non-linear. Here, we review a number of case studies from contrasting environmental settings in the European loess belt, the Eastern Mediterranean mountain ranges and the eastern USA. Detailed field-based sediment archive studies and sediment budgets covering time periods ranging from 200 to over 5000 year, as well as the use of pollen and sediment provenance techniques, show that no overarching concept of changes in floodplain sedimentation following anthropogenic disturbance can be established. Slope-channel (dis)connectivity controls the existence of thresholds or tipping points that need to be crossed before significant changes in downstream sediment dynamics are recorded following human impact. This coupling can be related to characteristics of human pressure such as its duration, intensity and spatial patterns, but also to the geomorphic and tectonic setting. Furthermore, internal feedback mechanisms, such as those between erosion and soil thickness, further complicate the story. All these factors controlling the propagation of sediment from eroding hillslopes to river channels vary between regions. Hence, only unique patterns of fluvial geomorphic response can be identified. As a result, unravelling the human impact from current-day sediment archives and predicting the impact of future human disturbances on fluvial sediment dynamics remain a major challenge. This has important implications for interpreting contemporary sediment yields as well as downstream sediment records in large floodplains, deltas and the marine

  2. Impacts of fluvial sedimentary heterogeneities on CO2 storage performance (United States)

    Issautier, B. H.; Viseur, S.; Audigane, P. D.


    The heterogeneity of fluvial systems is a key parameter in sedimentology due to the associated impacts on flow performance. In a broader context, fluvial reservoirs are now targets for CO2 storage projects in several sedimentary basins (Paris Basin, North German Basin), thus calling for detailed characterization of reservoir behaviour and capacity. Fluvial reservoirs are a complex layout of highly heterogeneous sedimentary bodies with varying connectivity, depending on the sedimentary history of the system. Reservoir characterization must determine (a) the nature and dimension of the sedimentary bodies, and (b) the connectivity drivers and their evolution throughout the stratigraphic succession. Based on reservoir characterization, geological modelling must account for this information and can be used as a predictive tool for capacity estimation. Flow simulation, however, describes the reservoir behaviour with respect to CO2 injection. The present work focuses on fluvial reservoir performance and was carried out as part of a PhD (2008-2011) dedicated to the impact of sedimentary heterogeneity on CO2 storage performance. The work comprises three steps: ? Reservoir characterization based on detailed fieldwork (sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy) carried out in Central Arabia on the Minjur Sandstone. Twelve depositional environments and their associated heterogeneity are identified, and their layout is presented in a high-resolution sequence stratigraphy analysis. This step is summed up in a 3D geological model. ? Conceptual modelling based on this field data, using gOcad software and an in-house python code. The purpose was to study, for a given architecture, the impact of sedimentary heterogeneity on storage capacity estimations using two models: one with heterogeneity within the sedimentary fill (model A); the other without heterogeneity within the sedimentary fill (model B). A workflow was designed to estimate and compare the storage capacities for a series

  3. Fluvial archives, a valuable record of vertical crustal deformation (United States)

    Demoulin, A.; Mather, A.; Whittaker, A.


    The study of drainage network response to uplift is important not only for understanding river system dynamics and associated channel properties and fluvial landforms, but also for identifying the nature of crustal deformation and its history. In recent decades, geomorphic analysis of rivers has proved powerful in elucidating the tectonic evolution of actively uplifting and eroding orogens. Here, we review the main recent developments that have improved and expanded qualitative and quantitative information about vertical tectonic motions (the effects of horizontal deformation are not addressed). Channel long profiles have received considerable attention in the literature, and we briefly introduce basic aspects of the behaviour of bedrock rivers from field and numerical modelling perspectives, before describing the various metrics that have been proposed to identify the information on crustal deformation contained within their steady-state characteristics. Then, we review the literature dealing with the transient response of rivers to tectonic perturbation, through the production of knickpoints propagating through the drainage network. Inverse modelling of river profiles for uplift in time and space is also shown to be very effective in reconstructing regional tectonic histories. Finally, we present a synthetic morphometric approach for deducing the tectonic record of fluvial landscapes. As well as the erosional imprint of tectonic forcing, sedimentary deposits, such as fluvial terrace staircases, are also considered as a classical component of tectonic geomorphology. We show that these studies have recently benefited from rapid advances in dating techniques, allowing more reliable reconstruction of incision histories and estimation of incision rates. The combination of progress in the understanding of transient river profiles and larger, more rigorous data sets of terrace ages has led to improved understanding of river erosion and the implications for terrace

  4. Lacustrine-fluvial interactions in Australia's Riverine Plains (United States)

    Kemp, Justine; Pietsch, Timothy; Gontz, Allen; Olley, Jon


    Climatic forcing of fluvial systems has been a pre-occupation of geomorphological studies in Australia since the 1940s. In the Riverine Plain, southeastern Australia, the stable tectonic setting and absence of glaciation have combined to produce sediment loads that are amongst the lowest in the world. Surficial sediments and landforms exceed 140,000 yr in age, and geomorphological change recorded in the fluvial, fluvio-lacustrine and aeolian features have provided a well-studied record of Quaternary environmental change over the last glacial cycle. The region includes the Willandra Lakes, whose distinctive lunette lakes preserve a history of water-level variations and ecological change that is the cornerstone of Australian Quaternary chronostratigraphy. The lunette sediments also contain an ancient record of human occupation that includes the earliest human fossils yet found on the Australian continent. To date, the lake-level and palaeochannel records in the Lachlan-Willandra system have not been fully integrated, making it difficult to establish the regional significance of hydrological change. Here, we compare the Willandra Lakes environmental record with the morphology and location of fluvial systems in the lower Lachlan. An ancient channel belt of the Lachlan, Willandra Creek, acted as the main feeder channel to Willandra Lakes before channel avulsion caused the lakes to dry out in the late Pleistocene. Electromagnetic surveys, geomorphological and sedimentary evidence are used to reconstruct the evolution of the first new channel belt following the avulsion. Single grain optical dating of floodplain sediments indicates that sedimentation in the new Middle Billabong Palaeochannel had commenced before 18.4 ± 1.1 ka. A second avulsion shifted its upper reaches to the location of the present Lachlan River by 16.2 ± 0.9 ka. The timing of these events is consistent with palaeohydrological records reconstructed from Willandra Lakes and with the record of

  5. Modelos numéricos para redes fluviales


    Jacovkis, Pablo Miguel


    En este trabajo se resuelven numéricamente por métodos implícitos en diferencias finitas las ecuaciones hiperbólicas casilineales de Saint-Venant del flujo no estacionario unidimensional gradualmente variado de aguas poco profundas sobre superficiales y fondo fijo para sistemas fluviales de tipo arborescente (cuencas) y deltaico en que tienen que considerar las condiciones de compatibilidad de los puntos de confluencia (condiciones de Stoker) Linealizando y discretizando según el método de P...

  6. Fluvial Volumes, Timescales, and Intermittency in Milna Crater, Mars (United States)

    Buhler, P.; Fassett, C. I.; Head, J. W.; Lamb, M. P.


    Ancient lake deposits and valley networks on Mars provide strong evidence that its surface was once modified by liquid water, but the extent of that modification is still debated. Ancient lacustrine deposits in Milna Crater provide insight into the timescale and fluid volume required to construct fluvially derived sedimentary deposits near the Noachian-Hesperian boundary. Placing the lacustrine deposits their regional context in Paraná Valles provides a quantitative measurement of the intermittency of large, water-mediated sediment transport events in that region.

  7. Life, death and revival of debris-flow fans on Earth and Mars : fan dynamics and climatic inferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/374023190


    Alluvial fans are ubiquitous landforms in high-relief regions on Earth and Mars. They have a semi-conical shape and are located at the transition between highlands and adjacent basins. Alluvial fans can form by a range of processes including debris flows, which are water-laden masses of soil and

  8. The biophysical and physiological basis for mitigated elevations in heart rate with electric fan use in extreme heat and humidity (United States)

    Ravanelli, Nicholas M.; Gagnon, Daniel; Hodder, Simon G.; Havenith, George; Jay, Ollie


    Electric fan use in extreme heat wave conditions has been thought to be disadvantageous because it might accelerate heat gain to the body via convection. However, it has been recently shown that fan use delays increases in heart rate even at high temperatures (42 °C) in young adults. We here assess the biophysical and physiological mechanisms underlying the apparently beneficial effects of fan use. Eight males (24 ± 3 y; 80.7 ± 11.7 kg; 2.0 ± 0.1 m2) rested at either 36 °C or 42 °C, with (F) or without (NF) electric fan use (4.2 m/s) for 120 min while humidity increased every 7.5 min by 0.3 kPa from a baseline value of 1.6 kPa. Heart rate (HR), local sweat rate (LSR), cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC), core and mean skin temperatures, and the combined convective/radiative heat loss (C+R), evaporative heat balance requirements (Ereq) and maximum evaporative potential (Emax) were assessed. C+R was greater with fan use at 36 °C (F 8 ± 6, NF 2 ± 2 W/m2; P = 0.04) and more negative (greater dry heat gain) with fan use at 42 °C (F -78 ± 4, NF -27 ± 2 W/m2; P incremental increases in humidity. Within the humidity range that a rise in HR was prevented by fan use but not without a fan, LSR was higher in NF at both 36 °C ( P = 0.04) and 42 °C ( P = 0.05), and skin temperature was higher in NF at 42 °C ( P = 0.05), but no differences in CVC or core temperatures were observed (all P > 0.05). These results suggest that the delayed increase in heart rate with fan use during extreme heat and humidity is associated with improved evaporative efficiency.

  9. Perceptions on the effect of small electric fans on comfort inside bed nets in southern Ghana: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Jaeger, Mulako S; Briët, Olivier J T; Keating, Joseph; Ahorlu, Collins K; Yukich, Joshua O; Oppong, Samuel; Nardini, Peter; Pfeiffer, Constanze


    Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are known to be highly effective in reducing malaria transmission, morbidity and mortality. However, among those owning an LLIN, use rates are often suboptimal. A reported barrier to bed net use is discomfort due to heat. This qualitative study was part of a larger evaluation conducted in communities without electricity in rural Ghana to assess whether 0.8 W solar powered net fans can increase net use. Twenty-three key informant interviews with household heads in the study communities in Shai-Osudoku District, southern Ghana, were conducted from July to August 2015. The purpose of the interviews was to obtain insight into perceptions of participants about the net fan system in relation to LLIN use. While all study participants reported using LLINs, with mosquito nuisance prevention as the prime motivation, heat was also mentioned as a key barrier to net use. Respondents appreciated the net fans because they improved comfort inside bed nets. The LED light on the fan stand became the main source of light at night and positively influenced the perception of the intervention as a whole. The general acceptance of the net fan system by the study participants highlights the potential of the intervention to improve comfort inside mosquito nets. This, therefore, has a potential to increase bed net use in areas with low access to electricity.

  10. The Ebro Deep-Sea Fan system (United States)

    Nelson, C.H.; Maldonado, A.; Coumes, F.; Got, H.; Manaco, A.


    The Ebro Fan System consists of en echelon channel-levee complexes, 50??20 km in area and 200-m thick. A few strong reflectors in a generally transparent seismic facies identify the sand-rich channel floors and levee crests. Numerous continuous acoustic reflectors characterize overbank turbidites and hemipelagites that blanket abandoned channel-levee complexes. The interlobe areas between channel complexes fill with homogeneous mud and sand from mass flow and overbank deposition; these exhibit a transparent seismic character. The steep continental rise and sediment 'drainage' of Valencia Trough at the end of the channel-levee complexes prevent the development of distributary channels and midfan lobe deposits. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  11. FOD impact testing of composite fan blades (United States)

    Johns, R. H.


    The results of impact tests on large, fiber composite fan blades for aircraft turbofan engine applications are discussed. Solid composite blades of two different sizes and designs were tested. Both graphite/epoxy and boron/epoxy were evaluated. In addition, a spar-shell blade design was tested that had a boron/epoxy shell bonded to a titanium spar. All blades were tested one at a time in a rotating arm rig to simulate engine operating conditions. Impacting media included small gravel, two inch diameter ice balls, gelatin, and RTV foam-simulated birds, as well as starlings and pigeons. The results showed little difference in performance between the graphite and boron/epoxy blades. The results also indicate that composite blades may be able to tolerate ice ball and small bird impacts but need improvement to tolerate birds in the small duck and larger category.

  12. Impact testing on composite fan blades (United States)

    Johns, R. H.


    The results of impact tests on large, fiber composite fan blades for aircraft turbofan engine applications are discussed. Solid composite blades of two different sizes and designs were tested. Both graphite/epoxy and boron/epoxy were evaluated. In addition, a spar-shell blade design was tested that had a boron/epoxy shell bonded to a titanium spar. All blades were tested one at a time in a rotating arm rig to simulate engine operating conditions. Impacting media included small gravel, two inch diameter ice balls, gelatin and RTV foam-simulated birds, as well as starlings and pigeons. The results showed little difference in performance between the graphite and boron/epoxy blades. The results also indicate that composite blades may be able to tolerate ice ball and small bird impacts but need improvement to tolerate birds in the small duck and larger category.

  13. Fluvial sediment fingerprinting: literature review and annotated bibliography (United States)

    Williamson, Joyce E.; Haj, Adel E.; Stamm, John F.; Valder, Joshua F.; Prautzch, Vicki L.


    The U.S. Geological Survey has evaluated and adopted various field methods for collecting real-time sediment and nutrient data. These methods have proven to be valuable representations of sediment and nutrient concentrations and loads but are not able to accurately identify specific source areas. Recently, more advanced data collection and analysis techniques have been evaluated that show promise in identifying specific source areas. Application of field methods could include studies of sources of fluvial sediment, otherwise referred to as sediment “fingerprinting.” The identification of sediment is important, in part, because knowing the primary sediment source areas in watersheds ensures that best management practices are incorporated in areas that maximize reductions in sediment loadings. This report provides a literature review and annotated bibliography of existing methodologies applied in the field of fluvial sediment fingerprinting. This literature review provides a bibliography of publications where sediment fingerprinting methods have been used; however, this report is not assumed to provide an exhaustive listing. Selected publications were categorized by methodology with some additional summary information. The information contained in the summary may help researchers select methods better suited to their particular study or study area, and identify methods in need of more testing and application.

  14. western mediterranean fluvial history - an attempt to correlate (United States)

    Faust, Dominik; Wolf, Daniel


    Western mediterranean fluvial history - an attempt to correlate Dominik Faust & Daniel Wolf (TU Dresden, Germany) Correlation of fluvial sediments over large distances is a challenging issue. However it is worth to try it when reliable and robust data are available. Location of the sites to be correlated play a decesive role. So we considered possible pitfalls (tectonic activity, halokinetic movements, sea level changes, disorder inherent to the system itself) to find and chose the best exposures in order to built up a standard profile for every single river system. Three selected rivers were worked out in detail, the Guadalquivir sequences however are used complementary . We attempt to correlate • The Oued Medjerda standard profile from Northern Tunisia (Faust et al. 2004; Zielhofer & Faust 2008) • The Rio Jarama standard profile for Central Spain (Wolf et al. 2013) • The Rio Guadalete standard profile for Southern Spain (Wolf et al. in review) • (The Rio Guadalquivir) We aim to propose a correlation scheme in order to visualize analog and inconsistent trends and to discuss possible driving forces.

  15. Fluvial biogeomorphology in the Anthropocene: Managing rivers and managing landscapes. (United States)

    Viles, Heather


    Biogeomorphology considers the many, and often complex, interactions between ecological and geomorphological processes. The concept of the Anthropocene deserves greater attention by scientists working on biogeomorphology, as will be demonstrated in this talk though a focus on fluvial environments. Rivers and river systems have been the subject of long-term human interference and management across the world, often in the form of direct manipulation of biogeomorphic interactions. Up to the present three broadly-defined phases of the Anthropocene can be identified - the Palaeoanthropocene, the Industrial Revolution and the Great Acceleration. Each of these broad phases of the Anthropocene has different implications for fluvial biogeomorphology and river management. The nature and dynamics of tufa-depositing systems provide good examples of the differing Anthropocene situations and will be focused on in this talk. We may now be entering a fourth phase of the Anthropocene called 'Earth system stewardship'. In terms of better understanding and managing the biogeomorphic interactions within rivers in such a phase, an improved conceptualisation of the Anthropocene and the complex web of interactions between human, ecological and geomorphological processes is needed.

  16. Fans of Columbine shooters Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Ryan Rico


    Full Text Available On April 20, 1999, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold murdered 12 students and one teacher at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, in what was then the deadliest school shooting in American history. Despite causing a national panic and serving as a flash point for larger narratives on bullying, gun control, and media violence, both boys have gained active online fans. These fandoms dedicated to the Columbine shooters are widely referred to as dark examples of Internet communities, while the fans are also frequently denigrated as unstable and violent outcasts. Such dark online fandoms are yet to permeate mainstream culture or to challenge the preexisting perception of these communities as breeding grounds for the next wave of school shooters. While studies have covered the types of fans and their myriad interests, the field remains focused on more conventional examples of fan communities. In an effort to challenge and expand the object of focus when we study fandom, this qualitative study examines Columbine fans and their activity in order to understand the dominant motives they appear to have for engaging with and around such controversial figures and then concludes by exploring how this community might help us reflect more broadly on our concept of fandom. Redeeming these fans as part of diverse and complex communities of social relevance can demonstrate how even a dark fandom such as that of these Columbine shooters provides valuable cultural insights and benefits the field of fan studies.

  17. Soap operas and the history of fan discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Ford


    Full Text Available For decades, fans of U.S. soap operas have formed social networks surrounding their shows, and they did so even before the concept entered the vernacular. Soap fans, who started on a geographically local scale and built their communities through grassroots efforts, have found a variety of venues to connect with one another over the past several decades. This study looks at the pre-Internet development of these social networks to show how that trajectory relates to the current online community of soap opera fans. Although several scholars have studied soap opera fandom, few have taken an historical approach at understanding the trajectory of soap fandom, a view especially necessary in an era where online social networks are at the center of audience studies and where cornerstone U.S. soap operas are struggling to retain relevance and audience. To fill this gap, I argue that understanding fan networks today requires looking back to previous methods of fan networking. Soaps' longevity (the youngest U.S. soap is more than 20 years old and frequency (all U.S. daytime soaps are daily make them crucial texts in demonstrating how the roots of fan social networks in a pre-Internet era helped shape that fandom's transition onto the Internet, and they also illustrate the continued evolution of these networks as fans move online.

  18. Understanding Himalayan erosion and the significance of the Nicobar Fan (United States)

    McNeill, Lisa C.; Dugan, Brandon; Backman, Jan; Pickering, Kevin T.; Pouderoux, Hugo F. A.; Henstock, Timothy J.; Petronotis, Katerina E.; Carter, Andrew; Chemale, Farid; Milliken, Kitty L.; Kutterolf, Steffen; Mukoyoshi, Hideki; Chen, Wenhuang; Kachovich, Sarah; Mitchison, Freya L.; Bourlange, Sylvain; Colson, Tobias A.; Frederik, Marina C. G.; Guèrin, Gilles; Hamahashi, Mari; House, Brian M.; Hüpers, Andre; Jeppson, Tamara N.; Kenigsberg, Abby R.; Kuranaga, Mebae; Nair, Nisha; Owari, Satoko; Shan, Yehua; Song, Insun; Torres, Marta E.; Vannucchi, Paola; Vrolijk, Peter J.; Yang, Tao; Zhao, Xixi; Thomas, Ellen


    A holistic view of the Bengal-Nicobar Fan system requires sampling the full sedimentary section of the Nicobar Fan, which was achieved for the first time by International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 362 west of North Sumatra. We identified a distinct rise in sediment accumulation rate (SAR) beginning ∼9.5 Ma and reaching 250-350 m/Myr in the 9.5-2 Ma interval, which equal or far exceed rates on the Bengal Fan at similar latitudes. This marked rise in SAR and a constant Himalayan-derived provenance necessitates a major restructuring of sediment routing in the Bengal-Nicobar submarine fan. This coincides with the inversion of the Eastern Himalayan Shillong Plateau and encroachment of the west-propagating Indo-Burmese wedge, which reduced continental accommodation space and increased sediment supply directly to the fan. Our results challenge a commonly held view that changes in sediment flux seen in the Bengal-Nicobar submarine fan were caused by discrete tectonic or climatic events acting on the Himalayan-Tibetan Plateau. Instead, an interplay of tectonic and climatic processes caused the fan system to develop by punctuated changes rather than gradual progradation.

  19. Reactive control of subsonic axial fan noise in a duct. (United States)

    Liu, Y; Choy, Y S; Huang, L; Cheng, L


    Suppressing the ducted fan noise at low frequencies without varying the flow capacity is still a technical challenge. This study examines a conceived device consisting of two tensioned membranes backed with cavities housing the axial fan for suppression of the sound radiation from the axial fan directly. The noise suppression is achieved by destructive interference between the sound fields from the axial fan of a dipole nature and sound radiation from the membrane via vibroacoustics coupling. A two-dimensional model with the flow effect is presented which allows the performance of the device to be explored analytically. The air flow influences the symmetrical behavior and excites the odd in vacuo mode response of the membrane due to kinematic coupling. Such an asymmetrical effect can be compromised with off-center alignment of the axial fan. Tension plays an important role to sustain the performance to revoke the deformation of the membrane during the axial fan operation. With the design of four appropriately tensioned membranes covered by a cylindrical cavity, the first and second blade passage frequencies of the axial fan can be reduced by at least 20 dB. The satisfactory agreement between experiment and theory demonstrates that its feasibility is practical.

  20. Preliminary Geological Map of the Peace Vallis Fan Integrated with In Situ Mosaics From the Curiosity Rover, Gale Crater, Mars (United States)

    Sumner, D. Y.; Palucis, M.; Dietrich, B.; Calef, F.; Stack, K. M.; Ehlmann, B.; Bridges, J.; Dromart, J.; Eigenbrode, J.; Farmer, J.; hide


    A geomorphically defined alluvial fan extends from Peace Vallis on the NW wall of Gale Crater, Mars into the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover landing ellipse. Prior to landing, the MSL team mapped the ellipse and surrounding areas, including the Peace Vallis fan. Map relationships suggest that bedded rocks east of the landing site are likely associated with the fan, which led to the decision to send Curiosity east. Curiosity's mast camera (Mastcam) color images are being used to refine local map relationships. Results from regional mapping and the first 100 sols of the mission demonstrate that the area has a rich geological history. Understanding this history will be critical for assessing ancient habitability and potential organic matter preservation at Gale Crater.

  1. A hydro-geochemical study of Nahr-Ibrahim catchment area: Fluvial metal transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korfali, Samira


    peaks only to calcite, dolomite and quartz. No speciation of metals in flood plain soils was done, nor XRD. The flood plain contains mostly terra rossa soils high in oxides and it is expected that the Ferric soil phase would have a major role in metal retention. The objective of this study is a complete hydro-geochemical survey of Nahr-Ibrahim catchment area and this study would clarify fluvial metal transport within the catchment area. The outcome of this work might assess the factors that influence water quality. This is attained through an improved knowledge of river hydrology, texture of sediment and soil, minerals in soil and sediment and soil and sediment geochemistry

  2. K-pop Reception and Participatory Fan Culture in Austria


    Sang-Yeon Sung


    K-pop’s popularity and its participatory fan culture have expanded beyond Asia and become significant in Europe in the past few years. After South Korean pop singer Psy’s “Gangnam Style” music video topped the Austrian chart in October 2012, the number and size of K-pop events in Austria sharply increased, with fans organizing various participatory events, including K-pop auditions, dance festivals, club meetings, quiz competitions, dance workshops, and smaller fan-culture gatherings. In the ...

  3. Design of flood protection for transportation alignments on alluvial fans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, R.H.


    The method of floodplain delineation on alluvial fans developed for the national flood insurance program is modified to provide estimates of peak flood flows at transportation alignments crossing an alluvial fan. The modified methodology divides the total alignment length into drainage design segments and estimates the peak flows that drainage structures would be required to convey as a function of the length of the drainage design segment, the return period of the event, and the location of the alignment on the alluvial fan. An example of the application of the methodology is provided. 16 refs., 5 figs

  4. Radon concentration in the springs of the alluvial fan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Kimiko; Ishii, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Masao


    Rokugo alluvial fan is one of the typical stratified alluvial fans which have grown in the east edge of Yokote basin in Akita Prefecture. Many of Rokugo's springs are gushing out from 45 m to 50 m above the sea level where city town have been developed. Mechanism of gushing out of spring is closely bound up with the landform of this area. There is nearly no radon existing in the surface water, but in groundwater, radon concentrations are stable in every stratums and infiltration of groundwater to surface water. We would like to obtain some hydrological information by measuring radon concentration in water samples of Rokugo alluvial fan. (author)

  5. Multiple view fan beam polarimetry on Tokamak devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geck, W.R.; Domier, C.W.; Luhmann, N.C.


    A polarimeter diagnostic is under development which utilizes several fan beams to accumulate line integrated Faraday rotation data in a Tokamak plasma. The utilization of a fan beam configuration over that of conventional vertical view polarimeter systems significantly reduces access requirements. The high angular separation inherent in a fan beam implementation increases plasma coverage and eliminates the necessity of assumed plasma symmetries to generate high quality current density profiles. Codes have been developed to generate these high-resolution two-dimensional images of the plasma current profile from data collected at arbitrary positions and viewing angles. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  6. The Star Wars franchise, fan edits, and Lucasfilm [symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forrest Phillips


    Full Text Available Fan edits assert that fan authority is on par with that of a work's original creator; this authority is generated not only through the argument, but through the structure of the text itself. Fan edits adhere to classical filmmaking techniques, creating coherent plots and editing for continuity. These recut texts are emblematic of current ownership debates; they are the read/write culture brought to fandom. The Star Wars series of films are among the most frequently recut texts and are my focus here.

  7. Channel systems and lobe construction in the Mississippi Fan (United States)

    Garrison, L. E.; Kenyon, Neil H.; Bouma, A.H.


    Morphological features on the Mississippi Fan in the eastern Gulf of Mexico were mapped using GLORIA II, a long-range side-scan sonar system. Prominent is a sinuous channel flanked by well-developed levees and occasional crevasse splays. The channel follows the axis and thickest part of the youngest fan lobe; seismic-reflection profiles offer evidence that its course has remained essentially constant throughout lobe development. Local modification and possible erosion of levees by currents indicates a present state of inactivity. Superficial sliding has affected part of the fan lobe, but does not appear to have been a factor in lobe construction. ?? 1982 A. M. Dowden, Inc.

  8. Gender constructions and negotiations of female football fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenneis, Verena; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula


    While both the media and the academic literature focus primarily on male fans, in particular on violence and the prevention of hooliganism, little is known about female football supporters. This is also true of Denmark, a country that is known for its high degree of gender equality. This article...... aims to give insight into gender constructions and negotiations of female football fans in the stands. Drawing on a social constructivist perspective to gender and Bourdieu's (1984) approaches to field, capital and habitus, we explored the experiences and opinions of female fans. The methods employed...

  9. A Field Study of Wall Furnace Venting and Coincident Exhaust Fan Usage in 16 Northern California Apartments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Less, Brennan D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Delp, William W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Brooks, Andrew [Association for Energy Affordability, Emeryville, CA (United States); Cohn, Sebastian [Association for Energy Affordability, Emeryville, CA (United States); Finn, Brian [Association for Energy Affordability, Emeryville, CA (United States)


    To inform efforts to improve combustion appliance testing in residential energy efficiency programs, we studied the frequency of coincident fan use and depressurization-induced downdrafting and spillage from atmospherically vented (i.e., natural draft) wall furnaces in airtight apartments. Indoor environmental conditions, heating appliance operation, use of exhaust fans, and cooking with stovetop or oven were monitored for approximately three weeks each in 16 apartment units in two buildings in Northern California. Apartments also were assessed using standard combustion appliance safety test methods and enhanced protocols. Monitoring occurred in February and March of 2016, with heating demand corresponding to 7.3 ± 0.5 heating degree-days at a 65ºF reference temperature. Most of the furnaces spilled combustion products when the apartments were depressurized in the “worst-case” challenge condition of all exhaust fans operating at their highest settings and all windows closed. Many also spilled under less challenging conditions (e.g., with kitchen exhaust fan on low and bathroom fan operating). On average, bathroom exhaust fans were operated 3.9% of monitored minutes (13.5% max), and cooking (burner or kitchen fan operation) occurred 4.6% of minutes (max 13.3%). Event lengths averaged 17 minutes (max 540) and 34 minutes (max 324), respectively. Their coincident operation averaged 0.34% of minutes (max 2.0%), with average event length of 13 minutes (max 92 minutes). This suggests that the operation of apartment units at or near the currently used worst-case challenge condition is quite rare. Wall furnace burners operated an average of 2.8% of minutes (max of 8.9%), with average burner cycle length of 14 minutes (max 162). Coincident bath fan use, cooking and wall furnace operation was very rare, occurring only a handful of times across all apartments. The highest rate was 0.075% of monitored minutes in one apartment, and the longest event length was 12 minutes

  10. Modeling plan-form deltaic response to changes in fluvial sediment supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nienhuis, J.H.; Ashton, A.D.; Roos, Pieter C.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Giosan, L.; Kranenburg, W.M.; Horstman, E.M.; Wijnberg, K.M.


    This study focuses on the effects of changes in fluvial sediment supply on the plan-form shape of wave-dominated deltas. We apply a one-line numerical shoreline model to calculate shoreline evolution after (I) elimination and (II) time-periodic variation of fluvial input. Model results suggest four

  11. Implications from Sedimentary records in Fluvial Terraces for Geomorphological Evolution in the Puli Basin, Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tseng, C.H.; Wenske, D.; Böse, M.; Reimann, T.; Lüthgens, C.; Frechen, Manfred


    Fluvial terraces play an important role for research on previous geomorphic processes as their sediments can record various sedimentation stages. In the mountains of central Taiwan, however, the formation time of sediments in the Puli Basin is still unclear. In this study, we investigate the fluvial

  12. The influence of fluvial reservoir architecture on geothermal energy production in Hot Sedimentary Aquifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, C.J.L.


    Currently six geothermal doublets are realized in the WNB. Five of these doublets target the same Lower Cretaceous fluvial sandstone interval, the Nieuwerkerk Formation. About 40 exploration licences are granted. Many of them also have sandstones in the same fluvial interval, the Nieuwerkerk

  13. 30 CFR 77.212 - Draw-off tunnel ventilation fans; installation. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Draw-off tunnel ventilation fans; installation... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.212 Draw-off tunnel ventilation fans; installation. When fans are used to ventilate draw-off tunnels the fans shall be: (a) Installed on the surface; (b...

  14. 78 FR 19606 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnace Fans (United States)


    ... Procedures for Residential Furnace Fans AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department... referred to as ``furnace fans.'' DOE proposes a test procedure that would be applicable to furnace fans..., even though DOE interprets its authority as encompassing more than just circulation fans used in...

  15. Representation of American versus non-American fans in Baillie Walsh's Springsteen & I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, M.C.


    This article explores the representation of American versus non-American fans in Baillie Walsh's 2013 crowd/fan-sourced documentary Springsteen & I. The film—as much as it was fed by a wide and international range of fan-produced material—ultimately produced and presented one particular type of fan

  16. 14 CFR 33.27 - Turbine, compressor, fan, and turbosupercharger rotors. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbine, compressor, fan, and... Turbine, compressor, fan, and turbosupercharger rotors. (a) Turbine, compressor, fan, and... affect turbine, compressor, fan, and turbosupercharger rotor structural integrity will not be exceeded in...

  17. Hockey Fans in Training (Hockey FIT) pilot study protocol: a gender-sensitized weight loss and healthy lifestyle program for overweight and obese male hockey fans. (United States)

    Gill, Dawn P; Blunt, Wendy; De Cruz, Ashleigh; Riggin, Brendan; Hunt, Kate; Zou, Guangyong; Sibbald, Shannon; Danylchuk, Karen; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Gray, Cindy M; Wyke, Sally; Bunn, Christopher; Petrella, Robert J


    Effective approaches that engage men in weight loss and lifestyle change are important because of worldwide increases, including in Canada, in obesity and chronic diseases. Football Fans in Training (FFIT), developed in Scotland, successfully tackled these problems by engaging overweight/obese male football fans in sustained weight loss and positive health behaviours, through program deliveries at professional football stadia. Aims: 1) Adapt FFIT to hockey within the Canadian context and integrate with HealtheSteps™ (evidence-based lifestyle program) to develop Hockey Fans in Training (Hockey FIT); 2) Explore potential for Hockey FIT to help overweight/obese men lose weight and improve other outcomes by 12 weeks, and retain these improvements to 12 months; 3) Evaluate feasibility of recruiting and retaining overweight/obese men; 4) Evaluate acceptability of Hockey FIT; and 5) Conduct program optimization via a process evaluation. We conducted a two-arm pilot pragmatic randomized controlled trial (pRCT) whereby 80 overweight/obese male hockey fans (35-65 years; body-mass index ≥28 kg/m 2 ) were recruited through their connection to two junior A hockey teams (London and Sarnia, ON) and randomized to Intervention (Hockey FIT) or Comparator (Wait-List Control). Hockey FIT includes a 12-week Active Phase (classroom instruction and exercise sessions delivered weekly by trained coaches) and a 40-week Maintenance Phase. Data collected at baseline and 12 weeks (both groups), and 12 months (Intervention only), will inform evaluation of the potential of Hockey FIT to help men lose weight and improve other health outcomes. Feasibility and acceptability will be assessed using data from self-reports at screening and baseline, program fidelity (program observations and coach reflections), participant focus group discussions, coach interviews, as well as program questionnaires and interviews with participants. This information will be analyzed to inform program

  18. Conceptual design studies of a V/STOL civil lift fan transport including effect of size and fan pressure ratio (United States)


    Conceptual design studies of V/STOL Lift Fan Commercial short-haul transport aircraft for the 1980-85 time period were studied to determine their technical and economic feasibility. The remote lift fan configurations with a variation in fan pressure ratio from 1.2 to 1.5 were investigated. Also studied were variation in stage length from 200 nautical miles to 800 nautical miles and cruise Mach numbers of 0.75 and 0.85. These results indicate a four engine configuration was feasible. The 95 PNdb noise footprint would be approximately 45 acres and the DOC's would be about 60% greater than conventional transports.

  19. Fluvial sediment supply to a mega-delta reduced by shifting tropical-cyclone activity. (United States)

    Darby, Stephen E; Hackney, Christopher R; Leyland, Julian; Kummu, Matti; Lauri, Hannu; Parsons, Daniel R; Best, James L; Nicholas, Andrew P; Aalto, Rolf


    The world's rivers deliver 19 billion tonnes of sediment to the coastal zone annually, with a considerable fraction being sequestered in large deltas, home to over 500 million people. Most (more than 70 per cent) large deltas are under threat from a combination of rising sea levels, ground surface subsidence and anthropogenic sediment trapping, and a sustainable supply of fluvial sediment is therefore critical to prevent deltas being 'drowned' by rising relative sea levels. Here we combine suspended sediment load data from the Mekong River with hydrological model simulations to isolate the role of tropical cyclones in transmitting suspended sediment to one of the world's great deltas. We demonstrate that spatial variations in the Mekong's suspended sediment load are correlated (r = 0.765, P sediment load reaching the delta is delivered by runoff generated by rainfall associated with tropical cyclones. Furthermore, we estimate that the suspended load to the delta has declined by 52.6 ± 10.2 megatonnes over recent years (1981-2005), of which 33.0 ± 7.1 megatonnes is due to a shift in tropical-cyclone climatology. Consequently, tropical cyclones have a key role in controlling the magnitude of, and variability in, transmission of suspended sediment to the coast. It is likely that anthropogenic sediment trapping in upstream reservoirs is a dominant factor in explaining past, and anticipating future, declines in suspended sediment loads reaching the world's major deltas. However, our study shows that changes in tropical-cyclone climatology affect trends in fluvial suspended sediment loads and thus are also key to fully assessing the risk posed to vulnerable coastal systems.

  20. A CFD Case Study of a Fan Stage with Split Flow Path Subject to Total Pressure Distortion Inflow (United States)

    To, Wai-Ming


    This report is the documentation of the work performed under the Hypersonic Project of the NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program. It was funded through Task Number NNC10E444T under GESS-2 Contract NNC06BA07B. The objective of the task is to develop advanced computational tools for the simulation of multi-stage turbomachinery in support of aeropropulsion. This includes work elements in extending the TURBO code and validating the multi-stage URANS (Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes) simulation results with the experimental data. The unsteady CFD (Computation Fluid Dynamics) calculations were performed in full wheel mode with and without screen generated total pressure distortion at the computational inflow boundary, as well as in single passage phase lag mode for uniform inflow. The experimental data were provided by NASA from the single stage RTA (Revolutionary Turbine Accelerator) fan test program.Significant non-uniform flow condition at the fan-face of the aeropropulsion system is frequentlyencountered in many of the advanced aerospace vehicles. These propulsion systems can be eithera podded or an embedded design employed in HWB (Hybrid Wing Body) airframe concept. It isalso a topic of interest in military applications, in which advanced air vehicles have already deployedsome form of embedded propulsion systems in their design because of the requirementsof compact and low observable inlets. Even in the conventional airframe/engine design, the fancould operate under such condition when the air vehicle is undergoing rapid maneuvering action.It is believed that a better understanding of the fan’s aerodynamic and aeromechanical responseto this type of operating condition or off design operation would be beneficial to designing distortiontolerant blades for improved engine operability.The objective for this research is to assess the capability of turbomachinery code as an analysistool in understanding the effects and evaluating the impact of flow distortion

  1. Heat sends wimbledon fans to a&e. (United States)


    Emergency nurses at the south London hospital that serves Wimbledon treated an influx of tennis fans suffering the effects of heatstroke last week. St George's in Tooting reported that the numbers were up on previous years.

  2. Pathological effects of cyanobacteria on sea fans in southeast Florida. (United States)

    Kiryu, Y; Landsberg, J H; Peters, E C; Tichenor, E; Burleson, C; Perry, N


    In early August 2008, observations by divers indicated that sea fans, particularly Gorgonia ventalina, Gorgonia flabellum, and Iciligorgia schrammi, were being covered by benthic filamentous cyanobacteria. From August 2008 through January 2009 and again in April 2009, tissue samples from a targeted G. ventalina colony affected by cyanobacteria and from a nearby, apparently healthy (without cyanobacteria) control colony, were collected monthly for histopathological examination. The primary cellular response of the sea fan to overgrowth by cyanobacteria was an increase in the number of acidophilic amoebocytes (with their granular contents dispersed) that were scattered throughout the coenenchyme tissue. Necrosis of scleroblasts and zooxanthellae and infiltration of degranulated amoebocytes were observed in the sea fan surface tissues at sites overgrown with cyanobacteria. Fungal hyphae in the axial skeleton were qualitatively more prominent in cyanobacteria-affected sea fans than in controls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Quiet, High-Efficiency Vaneaxial Fans, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During this Phase I effort, CRG proposes to demonstrate the ability to significantly reduce the acoustic signature of vaneaxial fans by establishing quiet...

  4. Acceptance test procedure MICON software exhaust fan control modifications; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SILVAN, G.R.


    This acceptance test verifies the MICON program changes for the new automatic transfer switch ATS-2 alarms, the Closed Loop Cooling isolator status, the CB-3 position alarm, and the alarms for the new emergency fan damper backup air compressor

  5. Autonomous Composite Fan Containment Integrity Monitoring (AUTOCONFIRM) System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New engine fan blade containment structures are being manufactured with advanced composite structures such that they can withstand blade-out events. The use of...

  6. Conceptual design studies of lift/cruise fans for military transports (United States)


    A study program for conceptual design studies of remote lift and lift/cruise fan systems to meet the requirements of military V/STOL aircraft was conducted. Parametric performance and design data are presented for fans covering a range of pressure ratios, including both single and two stage fan concepts. The gas generator selected for these fan systems was the J101-GE-100 engine. Noise generation and transient response were determined for selected fan systems.

  7. Modeling fluvial erosion on regional to continental scales (United States)

    Howard, Alan D.; Dietrich, William E.; Seidl, Michele A.


    The fluvial system is a major concern in modeling landform evolution in response to tectonic deformation. Three stream bed types (bedrock, coarse-bed alluvial, and fine-bed alluvial) differ in factors controlling their occurrence and evolution and in appropriate modeling approaches. Spatial and temporal transitions among bed types occur in response to changes in sediment characteristics and tectonic deformation. Erosion in bedrock channels depends upon the ability to scour or pluck bed material; this detachment capacity is often a power function of drainage area and gradient. Exposure of bedrock in channel beds, due to rapid downcutting or resistant rock, slows the response of headwater catchments to downstream baselevel changes. Sediment routing through alluvial channels must account for supply from slope erosion, transport rates, abrasion, and sorting. In regional landform modeling, implicit rate laws must be developed for sediment production from erosion of sub-grid-scale slopes and small channels.

  8. Biophysical controls on organic carbon fluxes in fluvial networks (United States)

    Battin, Tom J.; Kaplan, Louis A.; Findlay, Stuart; Hopkinson, Charles S.; Marti, Eugenia; Packman, Aaron I.; Newbold, J. Denis; Sabater, Francesc


    Metabolism of terrestrial organic carbon in freshwater ecosystems is responsible for a large amount of carbon dioxide outgassing to the atmosphere, in contradiction to the conventional wisdom that terrestrial organic carbon is recalcitrant and contributes little to the support of aquatic metabolism. Here, we combine recent findings from geophysics, microbial ecology and organic geochemistry to show geophysical opportunity and microbial capacity to enhance the net heterotrophy in streams, rivers and estuaries. We identify hydrological storage and retention zones that extend the residence time of organic carbon during downstream transport as geophysical opportunities for microorganisms to develop as attached biofilms or suspended aggregates, and to metabolize organic carbon for energy and growth. We consider fluvial networks as meta-ecosystems to include the acclimation of microbial communities in downstream ecosystems that enable them to exploit energy that escapes from upstream ecosystems, thereby increasing the overall energy utilization at the network level.

  9. Fluvial sediment transport: Analytical techniques for measuring sediment load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Sediment transport data are often used for the evaluation of land surface erosion, reservoir sedimentation, ecological habitat quality and coastal sediment budgets. Sediment transport by rivers is usually considered to occur in two major ways: (1) in the flow as a suspended load and (2) along the bed as a bed load. This publication provides guidance on selected techniques for the measurement of particles moving in both modes in the fluvial environment. The relative importance of the transport mode is variable and depends on the hydraulic and sedimentary conditions. The potential user is directed in the selection of an appropriate technique through the presentation of operating principles, application guidelines and estimated costs. Techniques which require laboratory analysis are grab sample, pump sample, depth sample, point integrated and radioactive tracers. Techniques which will continuously record data are optical backscattering, nuclear transmission, single frequency acoustic and laser diffraction

  10. Should electric fans be used during a heat wave? (United States)

    Jay, Ollie; Cramer, Matthew N; Ravanelli, Nicholas M; Hodder, Simon G


    Heat waves continue to claim lives, with the elderly and poor at greatest risk. A simple and cost-effective intervention is an electric fan, but public health agencies warn against their use despite no evidence refuting their efficacy in heat waves. A conceptual human heat balance model can be used to estimate the evaporative requirement for heat balance, the potential for evaporative heat loss from the skin, and the predicted sweat rate, with and without an electrical fan during heat wave conditions. Using criteria defined by the literature, it is clear that fans increase the predicted critical environmental limits for both the physiological compensation of endogenous/exogenous heat, and the onset of cardiovascular strain by an air temperature of ∼3-4 °C, irrespective of relative humidity (RH) for the young and elderly. Even above these critical limits, fans would apparently still provide marginal benefits at air temperatures as high as 51.1 °C at 10%RH for young adults and 48.1 °C at 10%RH for the elderly. Previous concerns that dehydration would be exacerbated with fan use do not seem likely, except under very hot (>40 °C) and dry (fans by a minor amount (∼20-30 mL/h). Relative to the peak outdoor environmental conditions reported during ten of the most severe heat waves in recent history, fan use would be advisable in all of these situations, even when reducing the predicted maximum sweat output for the elderly. The protective benefit of fans appears to be underestimated by current guidelines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Soap operas and the history of fan discussion


    Sam Ford


    For decades, fans of U.S. soap operas have formed social networks surrounding their shows, and they did so even before the concept entered the vernacular. Soap fans, who started on a geographically local scale and built their communities through grassroots efforts, have found a variety of venues to connect with one another over the past several decades. This study looks at the pre-Internet development of these social networks to show how that trajectory relates to the current online community...

  12. Design and Construction of a Remote Controlled Fan Regulator


    Mahmud Shehu AHMED; Abubakar Sadiq MOHAMMED; Temitope George ONIMOLE; Paul Obafemi ATTAH


    The paper presents a simple design and implementation of a remote controlled fan regulator. It enables the user to operate a fan regulator from approximately 10 meters away. The remote transmits a tone using an infrared light-emitting diode. This tone is decoded by a receiver, since the receiver only switches when the tone is received. The system was broken down into simpler functional blocks namely; infra-red transmitter, infra-red sensor, signal amplifier, control logic, sampler, control st...

  13. Flutter of a fan blade in supersonic axial flow (United States)

    Kielb, Robert E.; Ramsey, John K.


    An application of a simple aeroelastic model to an advanced supersonic axial flow fan is presented. Lane's cascade theory is used to determine the unsteady aerodynamic loads. Parametric studies are performed to determine the effects of mode coupling, Mach number, damping, pitching axis location, solidity, stagger angle, and mistuning. The results show that supersonic axial flow fan and compressor blades are susceptible to a strong torsional mode flutter having critical reduced velocities which can be less than one.

  14. Compound simulation of fluvial floods and storm surges in a global coupled river-coast flood model: Model development and its application to 2007 Cyclone Sidr in Bangladesh (United States)

    Ikeuchi, Hiroaki; Hirabayashi, Yukiko; Yamazaki, Dai; Muis, Sanne; Ward, Philip J.; Winsemius, Hessel C.; Verlaan, Martin; Kanae, Shinjiro


    Water-related disasters, such as fluvial floods and cyclonic storm surges, are a major concern in the world's mega-delta regions. Furthermore, the simultaneous occurrence of extreme discharges from rivers and storm surges could exacerbate flood risk, compared to when they occur separately. Hence, it is of great importance to assess the compound risks of fluvial and coastal floods at a large scale, including mega-deltas. However, most studies on compound fluvial and coastal flooding have been limited to relatively small scales, and global-scale or large-scale studies have not yet addressed both of them. The objectives of this study are twofold: to develop a global coupled river-coast flood model; and to conduct a simulation of compound fluvial flooding and storm surges in Asian mega-delta regions. A state-of-the-art global river routing model was modified to represent the influence of dynamic sea surface levels on river discharges and water levels. We conducted the experiments by coupling a river model with a global tide and surge reanalysis data set. Results show that water levels in deltas and estuaries are greatly affected by the interaction between river discharge, ocean tides and storm surges. The effects of storm surges on fluvial flooding are further examined from a regional perspective, focusing on the case of Cyclone Sidr in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta in 2007. Modeled results demonstrate that a >3 m storm surge propagated more than 200 km inland along rivers. We show that the performance of global river routing models can be improved by including sea level dynamics.

  15. Fluvial responses to the Weichselian ice sheet advances and retreats: implications for understanding river paleohydrology and pattern changes in Central Poland (United States)

    Weckwerth, Piotr


    The evolution of the fluvial systems during the Weichselian Pleniglacial in the Toruń Basin (Central Poland) was investigated through sedimentological investigation and paleohydraulic analysis. Within the basin, three fluvial cycles deposited after successive phases of the ice advance which took place 50, 28 and 20 ka ago. Successions of four fluvial lithotypes characterize each fluvial formation, that are related to the paleoenvironmental changes (e.g., climate instability and changes in the river regime) which affected the channel hydraulics and morphology. The successions comprise river-style metamorphosis between high-energy sand-bed meandering rivers (lithotype M1), high-energy sand-bed braided rivers (lithotype B1), and medium-energy sand-bed braided rivers with either unit bars (lithotype B2) or compound bars (lithotype B3) reflects the maturity stage of sand-bed-braided river evolution in the basin. The assessment of the fluvial sedimentary environments enabled the construction of a quantitative model of the changes in the river channel pattern in relation to the climate oscillation. Both the paleohydrological controls and their sedimentary consequences are discussed in the article. Lithotypes M1 and B1 represent riverbed modeled under supercritical flow condition. Deposition of lithotype B2 corresponded to the river channel pattern transformation and was manifested by decreasing flow velocity (energy losses associated with bedform roughness and with the transportation of coarser particles). The flow velocity was generally greater in rivers of lithotype B3 and energy of sedimentary environment was more stable than during the deposition of lithotype B2.

  16. Estuarine abandoned channel sedimentation rates record peak fluvial discharge magnitudes (United States)

    Gray, A. B.; Pasternack, G. B.; Watson, E. B.


    Fluvial sediment deposits can provide useful records of integrated watershed expressions including flood event magnitudes. However, floodplain and estuarine sediment deposits evolve through the interaction of watershed/marine sediment supply and transport characteristics with the local depositional environment. Thus extraction of watershed scale signals depends upon accounting for local scale effects on sediment deposition rates and character. This study presents an examination of the balance of fluvial sediment dynamics and local scale hydro-geomorphic controls on alluviation of an abandoned channel in the Salinas River Lagoon, CA. A set of three sediment cores contained discrete flood deposits that corresponded to the largest flood events over the period of accretion from 1969 to 2007. Sedimentation rates scaled with peak flood discharge and event scale sediment flux, but were not influenced by longer scale hydro-meteorological activities such as annual precipitation and water yield. Furthermore, the particle size distributions of flood deposits showed no relationship to event magnitudes. Both the responsiveness of sedimentation and unresponsiveness of particle size distributions to hydro-sedimentological event magnitudes appear to be controlled by aspects of local geomorphology that influence the connectivity of the abandoned channel to the Salinas River mainstem. Well-developed upstream plug bar formation precluded the entrainment of coarser bedload into the abandoned channel, while Salinas River mouth conditions (open/closed) in conjunction with tidal and storm surge conditions may play a role in influencing the delivery of coarser suspended load fractions. Channel adjacent sediment deposition can be valuable records of hydro-meteorological and sedimentological regimes, but local depositional settings may dominate the character of short term (interdecadal) signatures.

  17. Dating fluvial archives of the Riverine Plain, Southeastern Australia (United States)

    Mueller, Daniela; Cohen, Tim; Reinfelds, Ivars; Jacobs, Zenobia; Shulmeister, James


    The Riverine Plain of Southeastern Australia is characterized by a multiplicity of relict river channels. Compared to the modern drainage system the most prominent of those distinct features are defined by large bankfull channel widths, large meander wavelengths and coarse sediment loads. Such morphological differences provide evidence for regimes of higher discharge, stemming from significant changes in runoff volumes, flood-frequency regimes and sediment supply. An existing geochronology for some of these channels is based on multi-grain thermoluminescence (Murrumbidgee River; Page et al., 1996) or radio-carbon dating (Goulburn River; Bowler, 1978) and indicates enhanced fluvial activity between 30 to 13 ka. The absence of exact Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21 ± 3 ka) ages of the Murrumbidgee palaeochannels was interpreted to indicate decreased fluvial activity during the peak of the LGM but was not inferred for the nearby Goulburn River. Recent developments in optical dating, especially measurements of individual grains of quartz, allow for an examination of these previous findings. Key sites along the Murrumbidgee and Goulburn Rivers have been revisited and new sites of the adjacent Murray River have been investigated. A revised, high-resolution geochronology based on single-grain optically stimulated luminescence dating is used to examine the precise occurrence of those massive channels and their implications for the Southern Hemisphere LGM. References: Page, K., Nanson, G., Price, D. (1996). Chronology of Murrumbidgee River palaeochannels on the Riverine Plain, southeastern Australia. Journal of Quaternary Science 11(4): 311-326. Bowler, J. (1978). Quaternary Climate and Tectonics in the Evolution of the Riverine Plain, Southeastern Australia. In: Davies, J. & Williams, M. (Editors). Landform Evolution in Australia, Australian National University Press: Canberra. p. 70-112.

  18. Formation of topographically inverted fluvial deposits on Earth and Mars (United States)

    Hayden, A.; Lamb, M. P.; Fischer, W. W.; Ewing, R. C.; McElroy, B. J.


    Sinuous ridges interpreted as exhumed river deposits (so-called "inverted channels") are common features on Mars that show promise for quantifying ancient martian surface hydrology. Morphological similarity of these inverted channels to river channels led to a "landscape inversion hypothesis" in which the geometries of ridges and ridge networks accurately reflect the geometries of the paleo-river channels and networks. An alternative "deposit inversion hypothesis" proposes that ridges represent eroded fluvial channel-belt deposits with channel-body geometries that may differ significantly from those of the rivers that built the deposit. To investigate these hypotheses we studied the sedimentology and morphology of inverted channels in Jurassic and Cretaceous outcrops in Utah and the Aeolis Dorsa region of Mars. Ridges in Utah extend for hundreds of meters, are tens of meters wide, and stand up to 30 meters above the surrounding plain. A thick ribbon-geometry sandstone or conglomerate body caps overbank mudstone, paleosols, and thin crevasse-splay sandstone beds. Caprock beds consist of stacked dune- to bar-scale trough cross sets, mud intraclasts, and in cases scroll bars indicating meandering. In plan view, ridge networks bifurcate; however, crosscutting relationships show that distinct sandstone channel bodies at distinct stratigraphic levels intersect at these junctions. Ridge-forming sandstone bodies have been narrowed from their original dimensions by cliff retreat and bisected by modern fluvial erosion and mass wasting. We therefore interpret the sinuous ridges in Utah as eroded remnants of channel-belt sandstone bodies formed by laterally migrating and avulsing rivers rather than channel fills - consistent with deposit inversion. If the sinuous ridges in Aeolis Dorsa also formed by deposit inversion, river widths previously interpreted under the landscape inversion hypothesis are overestimated by up to a factor of 10 and discharges by up to a factor of 100.

  19. Improved Fluvial Geomorphic Interpretation Derived From DEM Differencing (United States)

    Wheaton, J. M.; Brasington, J.; Brewer, P. A.; Darby, S.; Pasternack, G. B.; Sear, D.; Vericat, D.; Williams, R.


    Technological advances over the past two decades in remotely-sensed and ground-based topographic surveying technologies have made the rapid acquisition of topographic data in the fluvial environment possible at spatial resolutions and extents previously unimaginable. Consequently, monitoring geomorphic changes and estimating fluvial sediment budgets through comparing repeat topographic surveys (DEM differencing) has now become a tractable, affordable approach for both research purposes and long-term monitoring associated with river restoration. However, meaningful quantitative geomorphic interpretation of repeat topographic surveys has received little attention from either researchers or practitioners. Previous research has shown that quantitative estimates of erosion and deposition from DEM differencing are highly sensitive to DEM uncertainty, with minimum level of detection techniques typically discarding between 40% and 90% of the predicted changes. A series of new methods for segregating reach-scale sediment budgets into their specific process components, while accounting for the influence of DEM uncertainty, were developed and explored to highlight distinctive geomorphic signatures between different styles of change. To illustrate the interpretive power of the techniques in different settings, results are presented from analyses across a range of gravel-bed river types: a) the braided River Feshie, Scotland, UK; b) the formerly gravel-mined, wandering Sulphur Creek, California, USA; c) a heavily regulated reach of the Mokelumne River, California, USA that has been subjected to over 5 years of spawning habitat rehabilitation; and d) a restored meandering channel and floodplain of the Highland Water, New Forest, UK. Despite fundamentally different process suites between the study sites, the budget segregation technique is in each case able to aid in more reliable and meaningful geomorphic interpretations of DEM differences.

  20. Broadband Liner Optimization for the Source Diagnostic Test Fan (United States)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Jones, Michael G.


    The broadband component of fan noise has grown in relevance with the utilization of increased bypass ratio and advanced fan designs. Thus, while the attenuation of fan tones remains paramount, the ability to simultaneously reduce broadband fan noise levels has become more appealing. This paper describes a broadband acoustic liner optimization study for the scale model Source Diagnostic Test fan. Specifically, in-duct attenuation predictions with a statistical fan source model are used to obtain optimum impedance spectra over a number of flow conditions for three liner locations in the bypass duct. The predicted optimum impedance information is then used with acoustic liner modeling tools to design liners aimed at producing impedance spectra that most closely match the predicted optimum values. Design selection is based on an acceptance criterion that provides the ability to apply increased weighting to specific frequencies and/or operating conditions. Typical tonal liner designs targeting single frequencies at one operating condition are first produced to provide baseline performance information. These are followed by multiple broadband design approaches culminating in a broadband liner targeting the full range of frequencies and operating conditions. The broadband liner is found to satisfy the optimum impedance objectives much better than the tonal liner designs. In addition, the broadband liner is found to provide better attenuation than the tonal designs over the full range of frequencies and operating conditions considered. Thus, the current study successfully establishes a process for the initial design and evaluation of novel broadband liner concepts for complex engine configurations.

  1. THz Beam Shaper Realizing Fan-Out Patterns (United States)

    Liebert, K.; Rachon, M.; Siemion, A.; Suszek, J.; But, D.; Knap, W.; Sypek, M.


    Fan-out elements create an array of beams radiating at particular angles along the propagation axis. Therefore, they are able to form a matrix of equidistant spots in the far-field diffraction region. In this work, we report on the first fan-out structures designed for the THz range of radiation. Two types of light-dividing fan-out structures are demonstrated: (i) the 3×1 matrix fan-out structure based on the optimized binary phase grating and (ii) the 3×3 fan-out structure designed on the basis of the well-known Dammann grating. The structures were generated numerically and manufactured using the 3D printing technique with polyamide PA12. To obtain equal powers and symmetry of diffracted beams, the computer-aided optimization algorithm was used. Diffractive optical elements designed for 140 and 282 GHz were evaluated experimentally at both these frequencies using illumination with the wavefront coming from the point-like source. Described fan-out elements formed uniform intensity and equidistant energy distribution in agreement with the numerical simulations.

  2. "The florals": Female fans over 50 in the Sherlock fandom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Nybro Petersen


    Full Text Available This article uses e-mail interviews with nine female fans to explore what it means to be a fan over the age of 50 of the popular BBC drama Sherlock (2010–. The research aims to better understand the role of fandom in later life, in particular how the participants in this study negotiate their perceptions of their subjective age in relation to being a fan in this part of their life course. This study combines theory on cultural gerontology with fan studies and mediatization theory in order to understand the dynamics and processes that guide fans' negotiations of subjective age as well as the role of fan practices and the affordances of social media in these processes. I argue that fandom, as a manifestation of a mediatized culture, augments the relevance of subjective age and informs the way in which participants in middle and later life perceive and negotiate their own subjective age specifically in relation to fandom as youth culture, women's passion, and creativity.

  3. D0 Cryo Ventilation Fan Controls and Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markley, D.


    This engineering note describes how exhaust fan 6 (EF-6) and exhaust fan 7 (EF-7) are controlled and monitored. Since these two fans are a vital link in the ODH safety system, they will be monitored, controlled and periodically operated by the programmable logic controller (PLC). If there should be a fault in the ventilation system, the PLC will print a warning message to the cryo control room printer and flash a descriptive warning on the ODH/ventilation graphics page. This fault is also logged to the Xpresslink graphics alarm page and to an alarm history hard disk file. The ventilation failure is also an input to the auto dialer which will continue it's automatic sequence until acknowledged. EF-6 delivers 13000 C.F.M. and is considered emergency ventilation. EF-7 delivers 4500 C.F.M. and will run 24 hrs a day. Both ventilation fans are located in an enclosed closet in the TRD gas room. Their ductwork, both inlets and outlets run along side the pipe chase, but are separated by an airtight wall. Their combination motor control starter cabinets are located in the TRD room in plain visible sight of the fans with the closet door open. The fans have signs that state they are automatically controlled and can energize at any time.

  4. The origin of dose distributions in fluvial sediments, and the prospect of dating single grains from fluvial deposits using optically stimulated luminescence

    CERN Document Server

    Olley, J M; Roberts, R G


    We examine the causes of the asymmetric distributions of dose observed from measurements of the optically stimulated luminescence emitted by small aliquots of fluvial quartz, and deduce that the asymmetry arises as a result of samples being composed of a mix of mainly well bleached grains with grains that were effectively unbleached at the time of deposition. We demonstrate that the shapes of the dose distributions can be used to assess the likelihood that aliquots consist only of grains that were well-bleached at the time of deposition. The more asymmetric the distribution, the greater the probability that the aliquots with the lowest dose most closely represent the true burial dose. Single grains with differing doses are present in each of the samples examined, and the population with the lowest dose gives an optical age consistent with the expected burial age. This result implies that the beta-dose heterogeneity in these deposits is small, and that the effects of micro-dosimetric variations on optical dati...

  5. Errors in body composition using fan beam DXA due to variation in fat distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, M.; Pocock, N. [St Vincents Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine and Bone Densitometry; Noakes, K. [Princess Alexandria Hospital, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). Department of Endocrinology


    Full text: DXA while primarily developed and used to determine bone Mineral Density (BMD) and Bone Mineral Content (BMC) can also be used to determine body composition. Fan Beam DXA instruments cause inherent magnification of scanned structures which can lead to significant errors in BMC and geometric measures. We have assessed the magnification effect of fan beam DXA on body composition with alteration of fat distribution in a laboratory model. The phantom consisted of an aluminium bar, water bath and 3 different quantities of animal fat. Scans were performed in triplicate using a Lunar Expert and an Hologic QDR 4500. The fat was positioned either at the same height as the aluminium spine or at a height of 28.5 cm. The results presented (mean of 3 scans) are for the Lunar Expert. The fat mass, % fat and total tissue mass were calculated for the fat at baseline and elevated positions. It is concluded that the use of fan beam DXA for body composition may lead to magnification errors secondary to variation in distribution of fat 1 tab.

  6. Structural Analysis and Optimization of a Composite Fan Blade for Future Aircraft Engine (United States)

    Coroneos, Rula M.


    This report addresses the structural analysis and optimization of a composite fan blade sized for a large aircraft engine. An existing baseline solid metallic fan blade was used as a starting point to develop a hybrid honeycomb sandwich construction with a polymer matrix composite face sheet and honeycomb aluminum core replacing the original baseline solid metallic fan model made of titanium. The focus of this work is to design the sandwich composite blade with the optimum number of plies for the face sheet that will withstand the combined pressure and centrifugal loads while the constraints are satisfied and the baseline aerodynamic and geometric parameters are maintained. To satisfy the requirements, a sandwich construction for the blade is proposed with composite face sheets and a weak core made of honeycomb aluminum material. For aerodynamic considerations, the thickness of the core is optimized whereas the overall blade thickness is held fixed so as to not alter the original airfoil geometry. Weight is taken as the objective function to be minimized by varying the core thickness of the blade within specified upper and lower bounds. Constraints are imposed on radial displacement limitations and ply failure strength. From the optimum design, the minimum number of plies, which will not fail, is back-calculated. The ply lay-up of the blade is adjusted from the calculated number of plies and final structural analysis is performed. Analyses were carried out by utilizing the OpenMDAO Framework, developed at NASA Glenn Research Center combining optimization with structural assessment.

  7. Quaternary fluvial response to climate change in glacially influenced river systems (United States)

    Cordier, Stéphane; Adamson, Kathryn; Delmas, Magali; Calvet, Marc; Harmand, Dominique


    Over the last few decades, many studies in Europe and other continents have focused on the fluvial response to climate forcing in unglaciated basins. However, glacial activity may have a profound impact on the behaviour of the fluvial systems located downstream. In comparison to ice-free basins, these systems are characterised by distinctive hydrological and sediment supply regimes. Over Quaternary timescales, the fluvial records are influenced by periglacial (in non-glaciated areas), proglacial, and paraglacial processes. Understanding the impacts of these processes on the formation and preservation of the Quaternary geomorphological and sedimentary archives is key for our understanding of glacial-fluvial interactions. We investigate the impact of Quaternary glacial activity on fluvial sediment transfer, deposition, and preservation. Using existing studies from across Europe, we create a database of glaciofluvial geomorphology, sedimentology, and geochronology. This is used to examine how glacial forcing of fluvial systems varies spatially in different basin settings, and temporally over successive Milankovitch cycles. In particular, we focus on the ways in which the primary glacial-fluvial depositional signal could be distinguished from periglacial and paraglacial reworking and redeposition.

  8. Braidplain, floodplain and playa lake, alluvial-fan, aeolian and palaeosol facies composing a diversified lithogenetical sequence in the permian and triassic of South Devon (England) (United States)

    Mader, Detlef

    The Permian and Triassic of South Devon (England) are a continental red bed sequence of very diversified lithogenetical composition. Within the thick series, the distribution of the main depositional environments being fluvial braidplain, fluvial floodplain and playa lake, alluvial fan, aeolian dune and calcrete palaeosol changes repeatedly in both horizontal and vertical direction. Significant sedimentary milieus such as aeolian dunes and calcrete palaeosols occur repeatedly within the succession, but are also lacking in several parts of the sequence. Fluvial braidplain deposits comprise conglomerates, sandstones, intraformational reworking horizons and mudstones and originate in channels and overbank plains of a braided river system. Conglomerates and sandstones are formed by migration of bars and spreading out of sheets during infilling of streams and aggradation of flats. Gravel is often enriched as lag pockets or veneers within steeper scour holes and kolk pots or on the plane floor of the watercourse. Finer-grained sandstones and mudstones are laid down by suspension settling in stagnant water bodies such as small lakes in the overbank area and residual pools in interbar depressions during low-stage or waning-flow in active channels or in abandoned streams. Spectacular bioturbation features in some sandstones with both horizontal tubes and vertical burrows testify to the colonization of the sediments at the bottom of the rivers with declining discharge and transport capacity. Intraformational reworking horizons with ghost-like remnants of degraded sandstones, mudstones and pedogenic carbonates document partially severe condensation of the sequence by removal of some facies elements from the depositional record. The occasionally occurring gravel-bearing mudstones or silty-clayey sandstones represent products of high-energy water surges overspilling the channel banks and transporting sandy and gravelly bed-load in limited amounts beyond the levee wall. The

  9. Genes2FANs: connecting genes through functional association networks (United States)


    Background Protein-protein, cell signaling, metabolic, and transcriptional interaction networks are useful for identifying connections between lists of experimentally identified genes/proteins. However, besides physical or co-expression interactions there are many ways in which pairs of genes, or their protein products, can be associated. By systematically incorporating knowledge on shared properties of genes from diverse sources to build functional association networks (FANs), researchers may be able to identify additional functional interactions between groups of genes that are not readily apparent. Results Genes2FANs is a web based tool and a database that utilizes 14 carefully constructed FANs and a large-scale protein-protein interaction (PPI) network to build subnetworks that connect lists of human and mouse genes. The FANs are created from mammalian gene set libraries where mouse genes are converted to their human orthologs. The tool takes as input a list of human or mouse Entrez gene symbols to produce a subnetwork and a ranked list of intermediate genes that are used to connect the query input list. In addition, users can enter any PubMed search term and then the system automatically converts the returned results to gene lists using GeneRIF. This gene list is then used as input to generate a subnetwork from the user’s PubMed query. As a case study, we applied Genes2FANs to connect disease genes from 90 well-studied disorders. We find an inverse correlation between the counts of links connecting disease genes through PPI and links connecting diseases genes through FANs, separating diseases into two categories. Conclusions Genes2FANs is a useful tool for interpreting the relationships between gene/protein lists in the context of their various functions and networks. Combining functional association interactions with physical PPIs can be useful for revealing new biology and help form hypotheses for further experimentation. Our finding that disease genes in

  10. Authigenic Carbonate Fans from Lower Jurassic Marine Shales (Alberta, Canada) (United States)

    Martindale, R. C.; Them, T. R., II; Gill, B. C.; Knoll, A. H.


    Authigenic aragonite seafloor fans are a common occurrence in Archean and Paleoproterozoic carbonates, as well as Neoproterozoic cap carbonates. Similar carbonate fans are rare in Phanerozoic strata, with the exception of two mass extinction events; during the Permo-Triassic and Triassic-Jurassic boundaries, carbonate fans formed at the sediment-water interface and within the sediment, respectively. These crystal fans have been linked to carbon cycle perturbations at the end of the Permian and Triassic periods driven by rapid flood volcanism. The Early Jurassic Toarcian Ocean Anoxic Event (T-OAE) is also correlated with the emplacement of a large igneous province, but biological consequences were more modest. We have identified broadly comparable fibrous calcite layers (2-10 cm thick) in Pliensbachian-Toarcian cores from Alberta, Canada. This work focuses on the geochemical and petrographic description of these fans and surrounding sediment in the context of the T-OAE. At the macroscale, carbonates exhibit a fan-like (occasionally cone-in-cone) structure and displace the sediment around them as they grew. At the microscale, the carbonate crystals (pseudomorphs of aragonite) often initiate on condensed horizons or shells. Although they grow in multiple directions (growth within the sediment), the predominant crystal growth direction is towards the sediment-water interface. Resedimentation of broken fans is evidence that crystal growth was penecontemporaneous with sedimentation. The carbon isotope composition of the fans (transects up bladed crystals) and elemental abundances within the layers support shallow subsurface, microbially mediated growth. The resemblance of these Early Jurassic fibrous calcite layers to those found at the end-Triassic and their paucity in the Phanerozoic record suggest that analogous processes occurred at both events. Nevertheless, the Pliensbachian-Toarcian carbonate fans occur at multiple horizons and while some are within the T

  11. Fluvial response to the last Holocene rapid climate change in the Northwestern Mediterranean coastlands (United States)

    Degeai, Jean-Philippe; Devillers, Benoît; Blanchemanche, Philippe; Dezileau, Laurent; Oueslati, Hamza; Tillier, Margaux; Bohbot, Hervé


    The variability of fluvial activity in the Northwestern Mediterranean coastal lowlands and its relationship with modes of climate change were analysed from the late 9th to the 18th centuries CE. Geochemical analyses were undertaken from a lagoonal sequence and surrounding sediments in order to track the fluvial inputs into the lagoon. An index based on the K/S and Rb/S ratios was used to evidence the main periods of fluvial activity. This index reveals that the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) was a drier period characterized by a lower fluvial activity, while the Little Ice Age (LIA) was a wetter period with an increase of the river dynamics. Three periods of higher than average fluvial activity were evidenced at the end of the first millennium CE (ca. 900-950 cal yr CE), in the first half of the second millennium CE (ca. 1150-1550 cal yr CE), and during the 1600s-1700s CE (ca. 1650-1800 cal yr CE). The comparison of these fluvial periods with other records of riverine or lacustrine floods in Spain, Italy, and South of France seems to indicate a general increase in fluvial and flood patterns in the Northwestern Mediterranean in response to the climate change from the MCA to the LIA, although some episodes of flooding are not found in all records. Besides, the phases of higher than average fluvial dynamics are in good agreement with the North Atlantic cold events evidenced from records of ice-rafted debris. The evolution of fluvial activity in the Northwestern Mediterranean coastlands during the last millennium could have been driven by atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns.

  12. Morphology of fluvial levee series along a river under human influence, Maros River, Hungary (United States)

    Kiss, Tímea; Balogh, Márton; Fiala, Károly; Sipos, György


    The development and morphometry of fluvial levees reflect the connection between channel and overbank processes, which can be altered by various human activities. The aims of this study are to investigate the morphology and spatial characteristics of fluvial levees and evaluate the role of some local- and catchment-scale human activities on their medium-term (150 years) development. This study applies LiDAR data along a 53-km-long reach of the Maros River in Hungary. Six fluvial levee types are identified based on the beginning and end of their evolution. These levee types were generated by local nineteenth century channel regulation works (cutoffs) and mid-twentieth century channel narrowing, which was caused by gravel mining and water impoundment in the upstream sections. However, other human activities also influenced the development of active fluvial levees because their horizontal evolution could have been limited by embanked flood-protection levees or the widening of low-lying floodplain benches that were generated by channel narrowing. Additionally, revetment constructions influenced their vertical parameters as higher fluvial levees developed along the fixed banks. Generally, the older active fluvial levees are wider, while the younger active levees are narrower with steeper slopes but not always lower. On the low-lying floodplain levels (benches), the youngest fluvial levees evolved quite rapidly and consist of coarser material. Currently, only 9.8- to 38-year return-period floods could cover the fluvial levees, contributing to their evolution. This fact and the development of fluvial levee series with two-three members reflect a gradual decoupling of the channel from the floodplain.

  13. Numerical modeling of episodic sediment supply events to headwater channels and subsequent fluvial sediment transport (United States)

    Müller, T.; Hassan, M. A.


    In steep headwater catchments episodic events can rapidly contribute large amounts of sediment to the channel network. The fluvial system may react to this input in different ways, ranging from a swift evacuation of the contributed material to a long term morphological adjustment of the channel. How this response affects fluvial sediment transport is poorly understood and is scope of our study. We set up a numerical model to investigate how different magnitudes, frequencies and grain size distributions (GSD) of sediment supply events influence the sediment dynamics in the fluvial system. We used a randomized time series of disturbances and simulated subsequent fluvial reworking using a bed load transport model. Besides tracking the volume of stored sediment, we investigate changes in the GSD of the channel. In our model, the GSD of the fluvial channel approaches the GSD of the sediment input under high supply conditions, in which large quantities of material are supplied by a high frequency of events. This results in an exceedance of the ability of the fluvial system to significantly evacuate the supply. On the other hand, if the fluvial system is given enough time to rework the input material, the GSD of the channel gets coarser with time, as the smaller grain sizes are transported away. We further analyze the conditions under which the system is stable or more sensitive to changes in the magnitude or frequency of sediment supply. Our model shows how the combination of episodic time scales of disturbances and constant time scales of fluvial reworking results in temporal patterns of fluvial sediment transport.

  14. Landform Evolution Modeling of Specific Fluvially Eroded Physiographic Units on Titan (United States)

    Moore, J. M.; Howard, A. D.; Schenk, P. M.


    Several recent studies have proposed certain terrain types (i.e., physiographic units) on Titan thought to be formed by fluvial processes acting on local uplands of bedrock or in some cases sediment. We have earlier used our landform evolution models to make general comparisons between Titan and other ice world landscapes (principally those of the Galilean satellites) that we have modeled the action of fluvial processes. Here we give examples of specific landscapes that, subsequent to modeled fluvial work acting on the surfaces, produce landscapes which resemble mapped terrain types on Titan.

  15. Effect of a ceiling fan ventilation system on finishing young bulls' health, behaviour and growth performance. (United States)

    Magrin, L; Brscic, M; Lora, I; Rumor, C; Tondello, L; Cozzi, G; Gottardo, F


    This research aimed at assessing the effects of a ceiling fan ventilation system on health, feeding, social behaviour and growth response of finishing young bulls fattened indoors during a mild summer season. A total of 69 Charolais young bulls were housed in six pens without any mechanical ventilation system (Control) and in six pens equipped with ceiling fans. The experimental period lasted 98 days from June until mid-September 2014. Four experimental days were considered in order to assess the effect of the ventilation system under two different microclimatic conditions: 2 alert days at monthly interval with temperature humidity index (THI) between 75 and 78, and 2 normal days with THI⩽74. Health and behaviour of the bulls were evaluated through 8-h observation sessions starting after morning feed delivery. The study was carried out during a rather cool summer with a climate average THI of 68.9 and 4 days with average THI>75. Despite these mild climate conditions, ceiling fans lowered litter moisture and acted as a preventive measure for bulls' dirtiness (odd ratio=47.9; 95% CI 19.6 to 117.4). The risk of abnormal breathing was increased for Control bulls (odd ratio=40.7; 95% CI 5.4 to 304.2). When exposed to alert THI conditions, respiration rate and panting scores increased and rumination duration dropped in Control bulls compared with bulls provided with a ceiling fan. During observations under alert THI, bulls spent less time eating, more time being inactive and consumed more water compared with normal THI conditions. Bulls' daily dry matter intake measured during the observation sessions decreased on alert compared with normal THI days (Pbehaviour (rumination, lying down and drinking water) and respiration rate, however. The lack of a significant improvement of bulls' growth response should not discourage beef farmers from using ceiling fans in indoor systems, considering the likely increase in frequency and intensity of heat waves in the planet

  16. Dominant mechanisms for the delivery of fine sediment and phosphorus to fluvial networks draining grassland dominated headwater catchments. (United States)

    Perks, M T; Owen, G J; Benskin, C McW H; Jonczyk, J; Deasy, C; Burke, S; Reaney, S M; Haygarth, P M


    Recent advances in monitoring technology have enabled high frequency, in-situ measurements of total phosphorus and total reactive phosphorus to be undertaken with high precision, whilst turbidity can provide an excellent surrogate for suspended sediment. Despite these measurements being fundamental to understanding the mechanisms and flow paths that deliver these constituents to river networks, there is a paucity of such data for headwater agricultural catchments. The aim of this paper is to deduce the dominant mechanisms for the delivery of fine sediment and phosphorus to an upland river network in the UK through characterisation of the temporal variability of hydrological fluxes, and associated soluble and particulate concentrations for the period spanning March 2012-February 2013. An assessment of the factors producing constituent hysteresis is undertaken following factor analysis (FA) on a suite of measured environmental variables representing the fluvial and wider catchment conditions prior to, and during catchment-wide hydrological events. Analysis indicates that suspended sediment is delivered to the fluvial system predominantly via rapidly responding pathways driven by event hydrology. However, evidence of complex, figure-of-eight hysteresis is observed following periods of hydrological quiescence, highlighting the importance of preparatory processes. Sediment delivery via a slow moving, probably sub-surface pathway does occur, albeit infrequently and during low magnitude events at the catchment outlet. Phosphorus is revealed to have a distinct hysteretic response to that of suspended sediment, with sub-surface pathways dominating. However, high magnitude events were observed to exhibit threshold-like behaviour, whereby activation and connection of usually disconnected depositional zones to the fluvial networks results in the movement of vast phosphorus fluxes. Multiple pathways are observed for particulate and soluble constituents, highlighting the

  17. Fan-structure wave as a source of earthquake instability (United States)

    Tarasov, Boris


    Today frictional shear resistance along pre-existing faults is considered to be the lower limit on rock shear strength at confined compression corresponding to the seismogenic layer. This determines the lithospheric strength and the primary earthquake mechanism associated with frictional stick-slip instability on pre-existing faults. This paper introduces a recently identified shear rupture mechanism providing a paradoxical feature of hard rocks - the possibility of shear rupture propagation through the highly confined intact rock mass at shear stress levels significantly less than frictional strength. In the new mechanism the rock failure, associated with consecutive creation of small slabs (known as 'domino-blocks') from the intact rock in the rupture tip, is driven by a fan-shaped domino structure representing the rupture head. The fan-head combines such unique features as: extremely low shear resistance (below the frictional strength), self-sustaining stress intensification in the rupture tip (providing easy formation of new domino-blocks), and self-unbalancing conditions in the fan-head (making the failure process inevitably spontaneous and violent). An important feature of the fan-mechanism is the fact that for the initial formation of the fan-structure an enhanced local shear stress is required, however, after completion of the fan-structure it can propagate as a dynamic wave through intact rock mass at shear stresses below the frictional strength. Paradoxically low shear strength of pristine rocks provided by the fan-mechanism determines the lower limit of the lithospheric strength and favours the generation of new faults in pristine rocks in preference to frictional stick-slip instability along pre-existing faults. The new approach reveals an alternative role of pre-existing faults in earthquake activity: they represent local stress concentrates in pristine rock adjoining the fault where special conditions for the fan-mechanism nucleation are created

  18. "I'm Buffy, and you're history": Putting fan studies into history [editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Reagin


    Full Text Available This essay kicks off the special historical issue of Transformative Works and Cultures by offering an overview of the ways in which fan communities have been studied by academic historians, and how fan studies has written the history of fan communities. The essay discusses historical work done by amateur fan historians throughout the 20th century; what academic historians can offer fan communities; why academic historians could benefit from studying fandoms as part of the history of popular culture; and what fan studies as a discipline might gain from a broader historical analysis of fandoms.

  19. Numerical Study of Transition of an Annular Lift Fan Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Jiang


    Full Text Available The present study aimed at studying the transition of annular lift fan aircraft through computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations. The oscillations of lift and drag, the optimization for the figure of merit, and the characteristics of drag, yawing, rolling and pitching moments in transition are studied. The results show that a two-stage upper and lower fan lift system can generate oscillations of lift and drag in transition, while a single-stage inner and outer fan lift system can eliminate the oscillations. The characteristics of momentum drag of the single-stage fans in transition are similar to that of the two-stage fans, but with the peak of drag lowered from 0.63 to 0.4 of the aircraft weight. The strategy to start transition from a negative angle of attack −21° further reduces the peak of drag to 0.29 of the weight. The strategy also reduces the peak of pitching torque, which needs upward extra thrusts of 0.39 of the weight to eliminate. The peak of rolling moment in transition needs differential upward thrusts of 0.04 of the weight to eliminate. The requirements for extra thrusts in transition lead to a total thrust–weight ratio of 0.7, which makes the aircraft more efficient for high speed cruise flight (higher than 0.7 Ma.

  20. Fan array wind tunnel: a multifunctional, complex environmental flow manipulator (United States)

    Dougherty, Christopher; Veismann, Marcel; Gharib, Morteza


    The recent emergence of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has reshaped the aerospace testing environment. Traditional closed-loop wind tunnels are not particularly suited nor easily retrofit to take advantage of these coordinated, controls-based rotorcraft. As such, a highly configurable, novel wind tunnel aimed at addressing the unmet technical challenges associated with single or formation flight performance of autonomous drone systems is presented. The open-loop fan array wind tunnel features 1296 individually controllable DC fans arranged in a 2.88m x 2.88m array. The fan array can operate with and without a tunnel enclosure and is able to rotate between horizontal and vertical testing configurations. In addition to standard variable speed uniform flow, the fan array can generate both unsteady and shear flows. Through the aid of smaller side fan array units, vortex flows are also possible. Conceptual design, fabrication, and validation of the tunnel performance will be presented, including theoretical and computational predictions of flow speed and turbulence intensity. Validation of these parameters is accomplished through standard pitot-static and hot-wire techniques. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) of various complex flows will also be shown. This material is based upon work supported by the Center for Autonomous Systems and Technologies (CAST) at the Graduate Aerospace Laboratories of the California Institute of Technology (GALCIT).

  1. Aeromechanics Analysis of a Boundary Layer Ingesting Fan (United States)

    Bakhle, Milind A.; Reddy, T. S. R.; Herrick, Gregory P.; Shabbir, Aamir; Florea, Razvan V.


    Boundary layer ingesting propulsion systems have the potential to significantly reduce fuel burn but these systems must overcome the challe nges related to aeromechanics-fan flutter stability and forced response dynamic stresses. High-fidelity computational analysis of the fan a eromechanics is integral to the ongoing effort to design a boundary layer ingesting inlet and fan for fabrication and wind-tunnel test. A t hree-dimensional, time-accurate, Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes computational fluid dynamics code is used to study aerothermodynamic and a eromechanical behavior of the fan in response to both clean and distorted inflows. The computational aeromechanics analyses performed in th is study show an intermediate design iteration of the fan to be flutter-free at the design conditions analyzed with both clean and distorte d in-flows. Dynamic stresses from forced response have been calculated for the design rotational speed. Additional work is ongoing to expan d the analyses to off-design conditions, and for on-resonance conditions.

  2. An intelligent FFR with a self-adjustable ventilation fan. (United States)

    Zhou, Song; Li, Hui; Shen, Shengnan; Li, Siyu; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaotie; Yang, James


    This article presents an intelligent Filtering Facepiece Respirator (FFR) with a self-adjustable ventilation fan for improved comfort. The ventilation fan with an intelligent control aims to reduce temperature, relative humidity, and CO 2 concentrations inside the facepiece. Compared with a previous version of the FFR, the advantage of this new FFR is the intelligent control of the fan's rotation speed based on the change in temperature and relative humidity in the FFR dead space. The design of the control system utilizes an 8-bit, ultra-low power STC15W404AS microcontroller (HongJin technology, Shenzhen, China), and adopts a high-precision AM2320 device (AoSong electronic, Guangzhou, China) as temperature and relative humidity sensor so that control of temperature and relative humidity is realized in real time within the FFR dead space. The ventilation fan is intelligently driven and runs on a rechargeable lithium battery with a power-save mode that provides a correspondingly longer operational time. Meanwhile, the design is simplistic. Two experiments were performed to determine the best location to place the fan.

  3. Numerical Analysis of Erosion Caused by Biomimetic Axial Fan Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Qiu Zhang


    Full Text Available Damage caused by erosion has been reported in several industries for a wide range of situations. In the present work, a new method is presented to improve the erosion resistance of machine components by biomimetic method. A numerical investigation of solid particle erosion in the standard and biomimetic configuration blade of axial fan is presented. The analysis consists in the application of the discrete phase model, for modeling the solid particles flow, and the Eulerian conservation equations to the continuous phase. The numerical study employs computational fluid dynamics (CFD software, based on a finite volume method. User-defined function was used to define wear equation. Gas/solid flow axial fan was simulated to calculate the erosion rate of the particles on the fan blades and comparatively analyzed the erosive wear of the smooth surface, the groove-shaped, and convex hull-shaped biomimetic surface axial flow fan blade. The results show that the groove-shaped biomimetic blade antierosion ability is better than that of the other two fan blades. Thoroughly analyze of antierosion mechanism of the biomimetic blade from many factors including the flow velocity contours and flow path lines, impact velocity, impact angle, particle trajectories, and the number of collisions.

  4. Fluvial facies reservoir productivity prediction method based on principal component analysis and artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyu Gao


    Full Text Available It is difficult to forecast the well productivity because of the complexity of vertical and horizontal developments in fluvial facies reservoir. This paper proposes a method based on Principal Component Analysis and Artificial Neural Network to predict well productivity of fluvial facies reservoir. The method summarizes the statistical reservoir factors and engineering factors that affect the well productivity, extracts information by applying the principal component analysis method and approximates arbitrary functions of the neural network to realize an accurate and efficient prediction on the fluvial facies reservoir well productivity. This method provides an effective way for forecasting the productivity of fluvial facies reservoir which is affected by multi-factors and complex mechanism. The study result shows that this method is a practical, effective, accurate and indirect productivity forecast method and is suitable for field application.

  5. Salmon habitat use, tidal-fluvial estuary - Columbia River Estuary Tidal Habitats (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of the tidal-fluvial estuary study is to determine the estuary's contribution to the spatial structure and life history diversity of Columbia River salmon...

  6. Fluvial processes and vegetation - Glimpses of the past, the present, and perhaps the future. (United States)

    Hupp, Cliff R.; Osterkamp, Waite R.


    "Most research before 1960 into interactions among fluvial processes, resulting landforms, and vegetation was descriptive. Since then, however, research has become more detailed and quantitative permitting numerical modeling and applications including agricultural-erosion abatement and rehabilitation of altered

  7. Advanced Prototype Fan Operating Experience, Post Test Evaluation, and Refurbishment for PLSS 2.0 Test Use (United States)

    Hodgson, Edward; Oehler, William; Dionne, Steve; Converse, David; Jennings, Mallory A.


    NASA s plans for Extravehicular Activity (EVA) portable life support systems for future exploration missions result in different design requirements than those which led to the combined fan / pump / separator in the current ISS Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). To meet these new requirements, NASA contracted with Hamilton Sundstrand to provide two new prototype fans designed to meet anticipated future system requirements. Based on design trade studies, a high speed fan with mechanical bearing support of the rotating elements and a novel non-metallic barrier canned motor design was developed and implemented in the deliverable prototypes. The prototypes, which used two different bearing lubricants, have been extensively tested in both stand-alone and integrated system tests in NASA laboratories and proven to meet the anticipated performance requirements. Subsequently, they have been subjected to post test inspection and analysis in Hamilton Sundstrand laboratories to assess the effects of integrated operation and resultant exposure to vent loop contaminants. Results have confirmed expectations that one of the lubricants would be superior in this application and the prototype fans have been reassembled with new bearings with the superior lubricant. They have now been returned to the Johnson Space Center for further testing and maturation as part of NASA s PLSS 2.0 integrated test effort. This paper will discuss the test history of these units, resulting test data, the results of post test evaluation, and plans for further testing in the near future.

  8. Rivers under ice: fluvial erosion beneath decaying ice sheets (United States)

    Jansen, John D.; Codilean, Alexandru T.; Stroeven, Arjen P.; Fabel, Derek; Hättestrand, Clas; Kleman, Johan; Harbor, Jon M.; Heyman, Jakob; Kubik, Peter W.; Xu, Sheng


    The century-long debate over the origins of inner gorges cut within larger valleys that were repeatedly covered by Quaternary glaciers hinges upon whether the gorges are fluvial forms eroded by subaerial rivers, or subglacial forms cut beneath ice. We apply cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating to seven inner gorges along ~500 km of the former Fennoscandia ice sheet margin in combination with a new deglaciation isochron map. We show that the timing of bedrock exposure matches the advent of ice-free conditions, strongly suggesting that inner gorges were cut by channelised subglacial meltwater while simultaneously being shielded from cosmic rays by overlying ice. Given the exceptional hydraulic efficiency required for subglacial meltwater channels to erode bedrock and evacuate debris, we deduce that inner gorges are the product of ice sheets undergoing intense surface melting akin to that currently occurring on the Greenland ice sheet. The lack of postglacial river erosion in our seven inner gorges leads us to propose that channelised subglacial meltwater-boosted possibly by abrupt supraglacial lake drainage-may be a key driver of valley deepening on the Baltic Shield over multiple glacial cycles.

  9. Using Mobile Marketing to Engage NASCAR Fans and Increase Sales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Mobile marketing displays engage the consumer. This sponsorship activation tactic is highly visible at NASCAR races. Some common elements include show cars, interactive race simulators, video games and race suit/equipment displays. The authors of this study argue that by using mobile marketing effectively as a sponsorship activation tactic, the race fans derive more enjoyment from the race experience. This increased enjoyment links to higher product sales for the sponsor. The implications of this study show that sponsors in other sports should use mobile marketing to increase the fan satisfaction of the game experience in order to increase their product sales. Additionally, event mangers should support mobile marketing as a sponsorship activation tactic with the intention of increasing fan enjoyment and improving attendance.

  10. A Fan Concept to Meet the 2017 Noise Goals (United States)

    Dittmar, James H.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has established a goal of a 20 EPNdB reduction of aircraft noise by the year 2017. This paper proposes a fan concept for an engine that may meet this noise goal. The concept builds upon technology established during the Advanced Subsonic Technology Program which should show a 10 dB reduction potential. The new concept uses a two stage fan which allows low tip speed while still maintaining a reasonable total pressure rise across the two stages. The concept also incorporates many other noise reduction techniques in addition to low tip speed including a low number of exit guide vanes, swept and leaned guide vanes, a high subsonic Mach number inlet and syncrophased rotors to obtain active noise cancellation. The fan proposed in this paper is calculated to be able to achieve the 2017 noise goal.

  11. Effect of Number of Blades on Performance of Ceiling Fans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeeb Ehsan


    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of number of blades on ceiling fan performance is discussed. This approach helps to satisfy tradeoff between high air flow (performance and power consumption (energy efficiency. Specifically, variation from two to six blades is considered with nonlinear forward sweep profile. Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS technique is used to model the flow field induced by the ceiling fan inside a generic room. The performance is gauged through response parameters namely volumetric flow rate, mass flow rate, torque and energy efficiency. The results indicate that mass and volumetric flow rates are maximized for six blade configuration and energy efficiency is maximized for two blade configuration. The study indicates the importance of tradeoff between high air flow through ceiling fan and associated energy efficiency.

  12. Historicizing video game series through fan art discourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Švelch


    Full Text Available In this article, we argue that fannish histories should not be dismissed as mere nostalgia over past experiences of one's own media fandom. Instead they should be understood as complex narratives which combine various historical layers (personal, productional, fictional and influence the future reception of and anticipation for sequels. They also shed light on the personal histories of fans, which are often juxtaposed with extratextual and fictional histories of a video game series. The subjective nature of these historical discourses is not to be seen as a constraint but as a feature of everyday history which points to the prominence of historicizing in fan cultures of video game series. These topics are examined in the selected multimodal material from the site DeviantArt consisting of fan art pieces, authorial captions, and respective comments inspired by two single-player video game series: Tomb Raider and Mass Effect.

  13. Design Optimization of a Centrifugal Fan with Splitter Blades (United States)

    Heo, Man-Woong; Kim, Jin-Hyuk; Kim, Kwang-Yong


    Multi-objective optimization of a centrifugal fan with additionally installed splitter blades was performed to simultaneously maximize the efficiency and pressure rise using three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and hybrid multi-objective evolutionary algorithm. Two design variables defining the location of splitter, and the height ratio between inlet and outlet of impeller were selected for the optimization. In addition, the aerodynamic characteristics of the centrifugal fan were investigated with the variation of design variables in the design space. Latin hypercube sampling was used to select the training points, and response surface approximation models were constructed as surrogate models of the objective functions. With the optimization, both the efficiency and pressure rise of the centrifugal fan with splitter blades were improved considerably compared to the reference model.

  14. Automatic Lamp and Fan Control Based on Microcontroller (United States)

    Widyaningrum, V. T.; Pramudita, Y. D.


    In general, automation can be described as a process following pre-determined sequential steps with a little or without any human exertion. Automation is provided with the use of various sensors suitable to observe the production processes, actuators and different techniques and devices. In this research, the automation system developed is an automatic lamp and an automatic fan on the smart home. Both of these systems will be processed using an Arduino Mega 2560 microcontroller. A microcontroller is used to obtain values of physical conditions through sensors connected to it. In the automatic lamp system required sensors to detect the light of the LDR (Light Dependent Resistor) sensor. While the automatic fan system required sensors to detect the temperature of the DHT11 sensor. In tests that have been done lamps and fans can work properly. The lamp can turn on automatically when the light begins to darken, and the lamp can also turn off automatically when the light begins to bright again. In addition, it can concluded also that the readings of LDR sensors are placed outside the room is different from the readings of LDR sensors placed in the room. This is because the light intensity received by the existing LDR sensor in the room is blocked by the wall of the house or by other objects. Then for the fan, it can also turn on automatically when the temperature is greater than 25°C, and the fan speed can also be adjusted. The fan may also turn off automatically when the temperature is less than equal to 25°C.

  15. Backprojection filtering for variable orbit fan-beam tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullberg, G.T.; Zeng, G.L.


    Backprojection filtering algorithms are presented for three variable Orbit fan-beam geometries. Expressions for the fan beam projection and backprojection operators are given for a flat detector fan-beam geometry with fixed focal length, with variable focal length, and with fixed focal length and off-center focusing. Backprojection operators are derived for each geometry using transformation of coordinates to transform from a parallel geometry backprojector to a fan-beam backprojector for the appropriate geometry. The backprojection operator includes a factor which is a function of the coordinates of the projection ray and the coordinates of the pixel in the backprojected image. The backprojection filtering algorithm first backprojects the variable orbit fan-beam projection data using the appropriately derived backprojector to obtain a 1/r blurring of the original image then takes the two-dimensional (2D) Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of the backprojected image, then multiples the transformed image by the 2D ramp filter function, and finally takes the inverse 2D FFT to obtain the reconstructed image. Computer simulations verify that backprojectors with appropriate weighting give artifact free reconstructions of simulated line integral projections. Also, it is shown that it is not necessary to assume a projection model of line integrals, but the projector and backprojector can be defined to model the physics of the imaging detection process. A backprojector for variable orbit fan-beam tomography with fixed focal length is derived which includes an additional factor which is a function of the flux density along the flat detector. It is shown that the impulse response for the composite of the projection and backprojection operations is equal to 1/r

  16. "Cultural acupuncture": Fan activism and the Harry Potter Alliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Jenkins


    Full Text Available Fan activists have struggled to defend series from cancellation, defend themselves from cease and desist orders, promote alternative representations, and raise money for charity. Building on this background, this article examines how the Harry Potter Alliance encourages young people to speak out as fans on a broad range of human rights and social justice issues through what the group's leader, Andrew Slack, calls "cultural acupuncture." The group's practice of mapping the fictional content world onto real-world concerns helps empower young people to become civicly engaged and politically active.

  17. Air Distribution in Rooms with a Fan-Driven Convector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Bindels, Rob H.W.; Michalak, Lukasz


    Experiments with a fan-driven convector used for both heating and cooling are de.scribed in this paper. Only the cooling situation is considered. The convector is positioned in the upper corner ofthe room, and from there the cold air is let out through the device along the ceiling. The airflow...... of 210 W. From the measurements, limitations for the fan-driven convector are set up in a design graph based onflow elements from the convector, amaximumvelocity assumption, and a critical vertical temperature gradient in the room. The limits for the curves in the design graph are found by analyzing...

  18. Design and Construction of a Remote Controlled Fan Regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud Shehu AHMED


    Full Text Available The paper presents a simple design and implementation of a remote controlled fan regulator. It enables the user to operate a fan regulator from approximately 10 meters away. The remote transmits a tone using an infrared light-emitting diode. This tone is decoded by a receiver, since the receiver only switches when the tone is received. The system was broken down into simpler functional blocks namely; infra-red transmitter, infra-red sensor, signal amplifier, control logic, sampler, control stepper, output control logic, load and display unit. Details of each subunit are described in the paper.

  19. Condition monitoring of fans with rolling element bearings: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuten, J.M.; Kurre, M.D.


    A technique to predict impending bearing failures is currently nder development. Research was conducted to detmine the current state of the art of diagnostic monitoring of axial flow fan bearings. On the basis of this knowledge, a system was designed and built to monitor and store spectrum information of the vibration levels of a number of large axial-flow fan bearings. The system was in operation collecting data for almost 3 years. Results of the background research and analyis of data collected are presented along with methods for predicting impending failure. 25 refs., 32 figs.

  20. Towards a three-component model of fan loyalty: a case study of Chinese youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-xiao Zhang

    Full Text Available The term "fan loyalty" refers to the loyalty felt and expressed by a fan towards the object of his/her fanaticism in both everyday and academic discourses. However, much of the literature on fan loyalty has paid little attention to the topic from the perspective of youth pop culture. The present study explored the meaning of fan loyalty in the context of China. Data were collected by the method of in-depth interviews with 16 young Chinese people aged between 19 and 25 years who currently or once were pop fans. The results indicated that fan loyalty entails three components: involvement, satisfaction, and affiliation. These three components regulate the process of fan loyalty development, which can be divided into four stages: inception, upgrade, zenith, and decline. This model provides a conceptual explanation of why and how young Chinese fans are loyal to their favorite stars. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  1. Low-pressure reversible axial fan designed with different specific work of elementary stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović Božidar P.


    Full Text Available Low-pressure axial fan impellers designed according to the principle of equal specific work of all elementary stages have blades whose profile near the fan hub is under a significantly larger inclination angle than at the impeller periphery. In order to minimize the spatial curvature of the fan blades and the fan hub length, impeller blades of low-pressure axial fans can be designed with different specific work of elementary stages, so that the specific work of elementary stages is smaller at the hub than at the periphery. This paper presents the operating characteristics of a low-pressure reversible axial fan with straight blade profiles, designed with different specific work of elementary stages. The fan was tested on a standard test rig, with air intake loading on the suction side of the fan.

  2. Development Specification for the FN-323/324, Oxygen Ventilation Loop Fan Assembly (United States)

    Ralston, Russell; Campbell, Colin


    This specification establishes the requirements for design, performance, safety, and manufacture of the FN-323/324, Oxygen Ventilation Loop Fan Assembly as part of the Advanced EMU (AEMU) Portable Life Support System (PLSS). Fan development for the advanced Portable Life Support System (PLSS) began in 2009 with the development of Fan 1.0. This fan was used in PLSS 2.0 for circulation of the ventilation loop gas. Fan 2.0 was delivered in 2015 and will be used in the PLSS 2.5 Live Loads test series. This fan used the same motor as Fan 1.0, but had a larger volute and impeller in hopes of achieving lower speeds. The next iteration of the advanced PLSS fan is the subject of the requirements contained within this document, and will be used with the PLSS 2.5 -302 configuration.

  3. Are Catchment Denudation Signals Stored in Alluvial-Fan Stratigraphy? Measuring Paleodenudation Rates Using Cosmogenic Radionuclides in the Pleistocene Pleasant Canyon Complex, Panamint Mountains, California (United States)

    Mason, C. C.; Them, T. R., II; Romans, B.


    Linked erosional-depositional systems such as relatively small catchment-fan systems are excellent natural laboratories for the study of signal propagation and storage in stratigraphic archives. Changing boundary conditions in erosional catchments transmit signals down system to be encoded in stratigraphy as variation in cosmogenic isotope concentrations and, potentially, patterns in depositional architecture. We examine a linked catchment-fan system on the western flank of the Panamint Mountains, California, using cosmogenic nuclides to quantify modern and paleo-sediment flux from catchment to fan in order to test coupling between sediment supply rates and preserved stratigraphic patterns. We measure 26Al/10Be in quartz from: 1) modern sediment in active channels at two drainage basin outlets, and 2) vertical transects through outcrops of mid-Pleistocene alluvial fan sediments. 10Be concentrations in modern sediment establish baseline catchment-averaged denudation rates, and allow comparison of contemporary rates to published late Quaternary denudation rates. 26Al/10Be ratios from mid-Pleistocene outcrops provide an age model, while 10Be concentrations yield a record of paleodenudation. Isotope concentration variability/contribution from modern production is assessed with paired samples from equivalent stratigraphic intervals and paired shielded-unshielded samples. We constrain the areal extent of the paleo-Pleasant Canyon fan complex using empirical relationships from modern catchment-fan systems in the region. These fan-area estimates were combined with sedimentologic facies and process interpretations derived from high-resolution characterization of the outcrop to reconstruct stacking patterns and a baselevel history utilized in a depositional model helping to contextualize paleodenudation rates.

  4. Unsteady Fast Random Particle Mesh method for efficient prediction of tonal and broadband noises of a centrifugal fan unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Heo


    Full Text Available In this study, efficient numerical method is proposed for predicting tonal and broadband noises of a centrifugal fan unit. The proposed method is based on Hybrid Computational Aero-Acoustic (H-CAA techniques combined with Unsteady Fast Random Particle Mesh (U-FRPM method. The U-FRPM method is developed by extending the FRPM method proposed by Ewert et al. and is utilized to synthesize turbulence flow field from unsteady RANS solutions. The H-CAA technique combined with U-FRPM method is applied to predict broadband as well as tonal noises of a centrifugal fan unit in a household refrigerator. Firstly, unsteady flow field driven by a rotating fan is computed by solving the RANS equations with Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD techniques. Main source regions around the rotating fan are identified by examining the computed flow fields. Then, turbulence flow fields in the main source regions are synthesized by applying the U-FRPM method. The acoustic analogy is applied to model acoustic sources in the main source regions. Finally, the centrifugal fan noise is predicted by feeding the modeled acoustic sources into an acoustic solver based on the Boundary Element Method (BEM. The sound spectral levels predicted using the current numerical method show good agreements with the measured spectra at the Blade Pass Frequencies (BPFs as well as in the high frequency range. On the more, the present method enables quantitative assessment of relative contributions of identified source regions to the sound field by comparing predicted sound pressure spectrum due to modeled sources.

  5. Morphogenesis and Morphometry of Alluvial Fans in the High Atlas Morocco: A Geomorphological Model of the Fans of the Wadi Beni Mhammed, Souss Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahoucine Chakir


    Full Text Available Morphosedimentary study of alluvial fans formed by the Wadi Beni Mhammed, on the southern piedmont of the western High-Atlas, has indicated three main generations of deposits. Their ages range from ancient (Plio-Pleistocene to Holocene and recent formations. The first generation, comprising small boundary fans, was deposited prior to lateral migration and subsequent entrenchment of the drainage pattern (the combination of the Wadis Aït Mekhlouf and Ida Ou Merouane. The confluence of these powerful streams gave birth to the principal fan that extends to the Souss valley. The third generation of fans was constructed after the incision of the principal fan, by the re-activation of a high secondary fan that was formed from downstream progradation. The morphological characteristics of the fans, such as their area, shape and gradient, are determined from catchment data and, in particular, from the lithology of their provenance areas, which defines the nature of gravel material, sedimentation processes and, finally, the distribtion of constituent materials. Fan shape also depends on the available accommodation space on the piedmont. The Wadi Beni Mhammed fans are elongated, because they are constrained by the mega fans of Wadis Irguitene and Aoukourta. DOI: International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 293-311

  6. Monitoring Fluvial Topography at Hyperspatial Resolutions with UAS imagery and Structure from Motion (United States)

    Carbonneau, P.; James, T. D.; Black, M.


    Monitoring is a fundamental task in remote sensing. As measurement technology progresses, there is a growing interest in hyperspatial (specialist photogrammetry knowledge. The result is a low-cost, virtually unsupervised process that could foreshadow a new era of widespread hyperspatial topographic data. However, a widespread usage of SfM in fluvial geomorphology will require a rigorous assessment of the associated errors and limitations, a process which has only just begun. Here we present the findings of an experiment aimed at exploring the fundamental limitations of SfM in a fluvial geomorphology context. Our specific aims are to test the suitability of SfM as a hyperspatial topography production method and to explore the relationships between the number of raw images, the resolution of the raw images and the final quality of the resulting point clouds. We compare topographic point clouds generated from SfM and with LiDAR at two scales. First, a simple experiment was conducted on the Science Site of Durham University where an outdoor building was scanned with terrestrial LiDAR and photographed with a small format camera. Second, a field experiment was conducted on a water-worked pro-glacial braiding plain on the arctic island of Svalbard where imagery was acquired with a small Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) and airborne LiDAR data was acquired through the European Facility for Airborne Reseeaarch (EUFAR) and the NERC Airborne Remote Sensing Facility (ARSF). SfM was used to produce point clouds from the imagery which were directly compared to the LiDAR point clouds without being rasterised. Increasing the number of images does not lead to better quality point clouds. Increasing the image resolution, even in complex terrain, does not increase the quality of the topographic data. However, in certain conditions, the data quality of the SfM point clouds matches that of the LiDAR data. For the ground experiment, SfM delivered an optimal standard deviation of error of 1

  7. OSL age determinations of Pleistocene fluvial deposits in Central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emílio A.A. Soares


    Full Text Available Absolute dating methods have been used in chronological studies of geological processes and sedimentary units of Quaternary age in Central Amazonia, Brazil. Although radiocarbon dating has been very useful in archaeological research and soil studies, the temporal interval of this method is inefficient in evaluating the sedimentation aspects and geological events from the beginning of the Quaternary in the Amazon basin. The use of crystal luminescence dating has been one of the most promising tool for determining the absolute dating of Quaternary deposits in the Amazonian region. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL dating, following the MAR and SAR protocols, in a tectonic-sedimentary study of Quaternary fluvial deposits in the confluence area of the Negro and Solimões rivers, indicated ages from 1.3 (Holocene to about 67.4 kyears (Late Pleistocene for these sediments. Low radioactive isotope concentrations were found about 2ppm for 235U and 238U; 5ppm for 232Th; and the 40K concentrations were almost zero. A comparison was made between MAR and SAR protocols taking into account the fluvial depositional process.Métodos de datação absoluta têm sido usados em estudos cronológicos de processos geológicos e unidades sedimentares de idade quaternária na Amazônia Central, Brasil. Embora as datações pelo 14C tenham sido muito úteis na pesquisa arqueológica e estudos de solos, o intervalo de tempo abrangido por este método é ineficiente para avaliar aspectos da sedimentação e eventos geológicos do início do Quaternário na bacia Amazônica. O uso da datação por luminescência de cristais tem sido uma das ferramentas mais promissoras para a determinação da idade absoluta de depósitos quaternários na região amazônica. A datação por luminescência opticamente estimulada (LOE, seguindo os protocolos MAR e SAR, em um estudo tectono-sedimentar de depósitos aluviais quaternários da área de confluência dos rios Negro e Solim

  8. Process sedimentology of submarine fan deposits - new perspectives (United States)

    Postma, George


    To link submarine fan process sedimentology with sand distribution, sand body architecture, texture and fabric, the field geologist studies sedimentary facies, facies associations (fan elements) and stratigraphy. Facies analysis resides on factual knowledge of modern fan morphodynamics and physical modelling of en-masse sediment transport. Where do we stand after 55 years of submarine research, i.e. the date when the first submarine fan model was launched by Arnold Bouma in 1962? Since that date students of submarine fans have worked on a number of important, recurring questions concerned with facies analysis of submarine successions in outcrop and core: 1. What type of sediment transport produced the beds? 2. What facies can be related to initial flow conditions? 3. What is the significance of grain size jumps and bounding surface hierarchy in beds consisting of crude and spaced stratification (traction carpets)? Do these point to multi flow events or to flow pulsations by one and the same event? 4. What facies associations relate to the basic elements of submarine fans? 5. What are the autogenic and allogenic signatures in submarine fans? Particularly in the last decade, the enormous technical advancement helped to obtain high-quality data from observations of density flows in modern canyons, deep basins and deep-water delta slopes (refs 1,2,3). In combination with both physical (refs 4,5) and numerical modelling (ref 6) these studies broke new ground into our understanding of density flow processes in various submarine environments and have led to new concepts of submarine fan building by super- and subcritical high-density flow (ref 7). Do these new concepts provide better answers to our recurrent questions related to the morphodynamics of submarine fans and prediction of sand body architecture? In discussing this open question, I shall 1. apply the new concepts to a modern and ancient example of a channel-lobe-transition-zone (ref 8); 2. raise the problem of

  9. Fluctuating pressures on fan blades of a turbofan engine, flight test investigation (United States)

    Schoenster, J. A.


    Miniature pressure transducers were used to measure the fluctuating pressure on the fan blades of a JT15D engine in flight to aid in understanding fan-noise generation. Although the blade pressures can be considered very useful in determining far-field noise sources in the subsonic fan-blade tip speeds, other mechanisms, and as shock waves in the transonic and supersonic fan-blade tip speeds, limit their usefulness in these higher speed ranges.

  10. Time to raise the standards for FANS. (United States)

    Jacoby, Lynne; Berger, Brian


    To obtain the best results from their organizations' food service programs, hospital leaders should conduct in-depth assessments of the programs with the guidance of individuals who possess expertise in the broader food service industry. Such an assessment should comprise three broad steps: A contractual best-practice evaluation. A financial analysis. An operational assessment.

  11. Geochemistry of Fluvial Sediments from Geregu, Southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiotomre Emmanuel E.


    Full Text Available Geochemical analysis of fluvial sediments on the banks of River Ero using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry illustrates their maturity, provenance and tectonic setting. The analysed sediment samples show low SiO2/Al2O3 ratios of 2.92-2.99 (units FL_A, FL_B and FL_E and high SiO2/Al2O3 ratios of 4.064-4.852 (units FL_C, FL_D, FL_F and FL_G. Sediments were geochemically classified as shales (units FL_A, FL_B and FL_E and greywackes (units FL_C, FL_D, FL_F and FL_G. Variability in sediment maturity (FL_F > FL_G >FL_C >FL_D >FL_A > FL_B > FL_E parallels a decreasing order in the ratios of SiO2/Al2O3 and K2O/Al2O3, as well as the proportion of quartz grains and matrix components. Evidence from Al2O3/TiO2, K2O, Rb, La/Co, Th/Co, Cr/ Th, Th/Cr, La/Th-Hf, Th-Hf-Co and rare earth element contents of sediment samples suggest felsic protoliths of upper continental crust in a passive margin tectonic setting. An insignificant contribution of mafic components from the source is, however, inferred based on the Ni and Cr contents of the sediment samples. Combined Eu anomalies <0.85 and (Gd/Ybn ratios <2.0 (1.53- 1.82, average 1.65 suggest post-Archean protoliths.

  12. Fluvial erosion and post-erosional processes on Titan (United States)

    Jaumann, R.; Brown, R.H.; Stephan, K.; Barnes, J.W.; Soderblom, L.A.; Sotin, Christophe; Le, Mouelic S.; Clark, R.N.; Soderblom, J.; Buratti, B.J.; Wagner, R.; McCord, T.B.; Rodriguez, S.; Baines, K.H.; Cruikshank, D.P.; Nicholson, P.D.; Griffith, C.A.; Langhans, M.; Lorenz, R.D.


    The surface of Titan has been revealed by Cassini observations in the infrared and radar wavelength ranges as well as locally by the Huygens lander instruments. Sand seas, recently discovered lakes, distinct landscapes and dendritic erosion patterns indicate dynamic surface processes. This study focus on erosional and depositional features that can be used to constrain the amount of liquids involved in the erosional process as well as on the compositional characteristics of depositional areas. Fluvial erosion channels on Titan as identified at the Huygens landing site and in RADAR and Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) observations have been compared to analogous channel widths on Earth yielding average discharges of up to 1600 m3/s for short recurrence intervals that are sufficient to move centimeter-sized sediment and significantly higher discharges for long intervals. With respect to the associated drainage areas, this roughly translates to 1-150 cm/day runoff production rates with 10 years recurrence intervals and by assuming precipitation this implies 0.6-60 mm/h rainfall rates. Thus the observed surface erosion fits with the methane convective storm models as well as with the rates needed to transport sediment. During Cassini's T20 fly-by, the VIMS observed an extremely eroded area at 30?? W, 7?? S with resolutions of up to 500 m/pixel that extends over thousands of square kilometers. The spectral characteristics of this area change systematically, reflecting continuous compositional and/or particle size variations indicative of transported sediment settling out while flow capacities cease. To account for the estimated runoff production and widespread alluvial deposits of fine-grained material, release of area-dependent large fluid volumes are required. Only frequent storms with heavy rainfall or cryovolcanic induced melting can explain these erosional features. ?? 2008 Elsevier Inc.

  13. Marine intervals in Neogene fluvial deposits of western Amazonia (United States)

    Boonstra, Melanie; Troelstra, Simon; Lammertsma, Emmy; Hoorn, Carina


    Amazonia is one of the most species rich areas on Earth, but this high diversity is not homogeneous over the entire region. Highest mammal and tree-alpha diversity is found in the fluvio-lacustrine Pebas system, a Neogene wetland associated with rapid radiation of species. The estuarine to marine origin of various modern Amazonian fish, plants, and invertebrates has been associated with past marine ingressions into this freshwater Pebas system. The exact nature and age of these invasions is, however, debated. Here we present new evidence from fluvial and fluvio-lacustrine deposits of Neogene age in southeast Colombia, that point to periods of widespread marine conditions in western Amazonia. Our evidence is based on an analysis of marine palynomorphs, such as organic linings of foraminifera and dinoflagellate cysts, present in dark sandy clay sediments that outcrop along the Caqueta and Amazon rivers. Characteristically, the foraminiferal linings can be assigned to three benthic morphotypes only, e.g. Ammonia, Elphidium and Trochammina. This low diversity assemblage is associated with estuarine/marginal marine conditions. No distinct marine elements such as shelf or planktonic species were encountered. The observed foraminiferal linings and dinocyst assemblages are typical for a (eutrophic) shallow marine environment, suggesting that the Pebas freshwater wetland system occasionally changed to (marginal) marine. Although some reworked elements are found, a typical Neogene dinocyst taxon is commonly found supporting in situ deposition. Sedimentological features typical for tidal conditions that are reported for sites in Peru and northeastern Brazil likely relate to these marine ingressions. Sea level changes as well as foreland basin development related to Andes formation may have facilitated the entry of marine water during the Neogene.

  14. Dynamic LiDAR-NDVI classification of fluvial landscape units (United States)

    Ramírez-Núñez, Carolina; Parrot, Jean-François


    The lower basin of the Coatzacoalcos River is a wide floodplain in which, during the wet season, local and major flooding are distinguished. Both types of floods, intermittent and regional, are important in terms of resources; the regional flood sediments enrich the soils of the plains and intermittent floods allow obtaining aquatic resources for subsistence during the heatwave. In the floodplain different abandoned meanders and intermittent streams are quickly colonized by aquatic vegetation. However, from the 1990s, the Coatzacoalcos River floodplain has important topographic changes due to mining, road and bridges construction; erosion and sedimentation requires continuous parcel boundaries along with the increasing demand of channel reparation, embankments, levees and bridges associated to tributaries. NDVI data, LiDAR point cloud and various types of flood simulations taking into account the DTM are used to classify the dynamic landscape units. These units are associated to floods in relation with water resources, agriculture and livestock. In the study area, the first returns of the point cloud allow extracting vegetation strata. The last returns correspond to the bare earth surface, especially in this area with few human settlements. The surface that is not covered by trees or by aquatic vegetation, correspond to crops, pastures and bare soils. The classification is obtained by using the NDVI index coupled with vegetation strata and water bodies. The result shows that 47.96% of the area does not present active vegetation and it includes 31.53% of bare soils. Concerning the active vegetation, pastures, bushes and trees represent respectively 25.59%, 11.14% and 13.25%. The remaining 1.25% is distributed between water bodies with aquatic vegetation, trees and shrubs. Dynamic landscape units' classification represents a tool for monitoring water resources in a fluvial plain. This approach can be also applied to forest management, environmental services and

  15. Sedimentology: general introduction and definitions : fluvial sediment and channel morphology (United States)

    Wolff, Roger G.; Benedict, Paul C.


    Sedimentology, the study of sedimentary rocks and the processes by which they are formed, includes and is related to a large number of phenomena. Sedimentology includes the five fundamental processes defined by the term sediaentation --weathering, erosion, transportation, deposition and diagenesis. Sedimentology shares with geomorphology the study of the surface features of the earth. Sedimentology also shares with hydrology the study of river.--channels. River channels are formed in part or in total as a result of flowing water and sediment transport, commonly called the "work of the rivers." This survey of published literature was made to aid in arriving at definitions which would be acceptable to, and representative of, a majority of professional personnel actively engaged in laboratory and field investigations related to the "work of the river." The definitions in this list are intended to explain the terms used in studies of fluvial sediment and channel morphology. No set of definitions can expect universal acceptance, however, i t is hoped that this compilation will be considered a summary and synthesis of present and past usage and that it will serve as a starting point for future usage. Multiple references are cited from textbooks, glossaries and dictionaries, scientific journals and u.s. Government publications. To obtain a mutual understanding and enhance precision, many of the proposed definitions are a composite of those selected from papers or reports covering research studies and field investigations. A draft of this glossary has been reviewed by a group of interested personnel. The results of this review have been carefully considered and the originally-suggested definitions have been revised accordingly, resulting in the present compilation. R. G. Wolff, with the help of Mrs. v. Blatcher, carried out the literature search and compilation of terms and the review results. Paul c. Benedict approved or composed the definitions as presented in this

  16. Effect of surface texture and structure on the development of stable fluvial armors (United States)

    Bertin, Stephane; Friedrich, Heide


    Stable fluvial armors are found in river systems under conditions of partial sediment transport and limited sediment supply, a common occurrence in nature. Stable armoring is also readily recreated in experimental flumes. Initially, this bed stabilizing phenomenon was examined for different flow discharges and solely related to surface coarsening and bedload transport reduction. The models developed suggest a specific armor composition (i.e., texture) dependent on the parent bed material and formative discharge. Following developments in topographic remote sensing, recent research suggests that armor structure is an important control on bed stability and roughness. In this paper, replicated flume runs during which digital elevation models (DEMs) were collected from both exposed and flooded gravel beds are used to interpret armoring manifestations and to assess their replicability. A range of methodologies was used for the analysis, providing information on (i) surface grain size and orientation, (ii) bed-elevation distributions, (iii) the spatial coherence of the elevations at the grain-scale, (iv) surface slope and aspect, (v) grain imbrication and (vi) the spatial variability in DEM properties. The bed-surface topography was found to be more responsive than bed-material size to changes in flow strength. Our experimental results also provide convincing evidence that gravel-beds' response to water-work during parallel degradation is unique (i.e., replicable) given the formative parameters. Based on this finding, relationships between the armors' properties and formative parameters are proposed, and are supported by adding extensive data from previous research.

  17. The legacy of lead (Pb) in fluvial bed sediments of an urban drainage basin, Oahu, Hawaii. (United States)

    Hotton, Veronica K; Sutherland, Ross A


    The study of fluvial bed sediments is essential for deciphering the impact of anthropogenic activities on water quality and drainage basin integrity. In this study, a systematic sampling design was employed to characterize the spatial variation of lead (Pb) concentrations in bed sediment of urban streams in the Palolo drainage basin, southeastern Oahu, Hawaii. Potentially bioavailable Pb was assessed with a dilute 0.5 N HCl extraction of the sediment layer of 169 samples from Palolo, Pukele, and Waiomao streams. Contamination of bed sediments was associated with the direct transport of legacy Pb from the leaded gasoline era to stream channels via a dense network of storm drains linked to road surfaces throughout the basin. The Palolo Stream had the highest median Pb concentration (134 mg/kg), and the greatest road and storm drain densities, the greatest population, and the most vehicle numbers. Lower median Pb concentrations were associated with the less impacted Pukele Stream (24 mg/kg), and Waiomao Stream (7 mg/kg). The median Pb enrichment ratio values followed the sequence of Palolo (68) > Pukele (19) > Waiomao (8). Comparisons to sediment quality guidelines and potential toxicity estimates using a logistic regression model (LRM) indicated a significant potential risk of Palolo Stream bed sediments to bottom-dwelling organisms.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Castro


    Full Text Available Traditional techniques for classifying the average grain size in gravel bars require manual measurements of each grain diameter. Aiming productivity, more efficient methods have been developed by applying remote sensing techniques and digital image processing. This research proposes an Object-Based Image Analysis methodology to classify gravel bars in fluvial channels. First, the study evaluates the performance of multiresolution segmentation algorithm (available at the software eCognition Developer in performing shape recognition. The linear regression model was applied to assess the correlation between the gravels’ reference delineation and the gravels recognized by the segmentation algorithm. Furthermore, the supervised classification was validated by comparing the results with field data using the t-statistic test and the kappa index. Afterwards, the grain size distribution in gravel bars along the upper Bananeiras River, Brazil was mapped. The multiresolution segmentation results did not prove to be consistent with all the samples. Nonetheless, the P01 sample showed an R2 =0.82 for the diameter estimation and R2=0.45 the recognition of the eliptical ft. The t-statistic showed no significant difference in the efficiencies of the grain size classifications by the field survey data and the Object-based supervised classification (t = 2.133 for a significance level of 0.05. However, the kappa index was 0.54. The analysis of the both segmentation and classification results did not prove to be replicable.

  19. 30 CFR 57.22209 - Auxiliary fans (I-C mines). (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary fans (I-C mines). 57.22209 Section 57... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22209 Auxiliary fans (I-C mines). Electric auxiliary fans shall be approved by MSHA under the applicable requirements of 30 CFR part 18...

  20. Surface morphology of fans in the high-Arctic periglacial environment of Svalbard : Controls and processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haas, Tjalling|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/374023190; Kleinhans, Maarten G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/217675123; Carbonneau, Patrice E.; Rubensdotter, Lena; Hauber, Ernst


    Fan-shaped landforms occur in all climatic regions on Earth. They have been extensively studied in many of these regions, but there are few studies on fans in periglacial, Arctic and Antarctic regions. Fans in such regions are exposed to many site-specific environmental conditions in addition to

  1. 75 FR 31323 - Energy Efficiency Program: Energy Conservation Standards Furnace Fans: Public Meeting and... (United States)


    ... Fans: Public Meeting and Availability of the Framework Document AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... (hereinafter referred to as ``furnace fans''). To inform interested parties and to facilitate this process, DOE...: . DATES: DOE...

  2. FANS Simulation of Propeller Wash at Navy Harbors (ESTEP Project ER-201031) (United States)


    TECHNICAL REPORT 2085 August 2016 FANS Simulation of Propeller Wash at Navy Harbors (ESTEP Project ER-201031) Pei-Fang Wang SSC Pacific Hamn...4 2.1 FANS Model Simulation Results for DDG 51 Ship ............................................................ 5 2.2 Disturbed Velocity...15 3.1 FANS Model Simulation Results for Tugboat with Ducted Propellers ..............................18 3.2 Disturbed Velocity Profiles

  3. Interaction between Dutch soccer teams and fans: a mathematical analysis through cooperative game theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, D.; Driessen, Theo


    Inspired by the first lustrum of the Club Positioning Matrix (CPM) for professional Dutch soccer teams, we model the interaction between soccer teams and their potential fans as a cooperative cost game based on the annual voluntary sponsorships of fans in order to validate their fan registration in

  4. 78 FR 62494 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans (United States)


    ... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... rulemaking to consider setting energy conservation standards for ceiling fans. Specifically, DOE seeks information on the interaction between ceiling fan and air conditioning usage. To inform interested parties...

  5. 75 FR 41102 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Furnace Fans: Reopening of Public... (United States)


    ... Furnace Fans: Reopening of Public Comment Period AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... work of residential heating and cooling systems (``furnace fans''). The comment period closed on July 6... information relevant to the furnace fan rulemaking will be accepted until July 27, 2010. ADDRESSES: Interested...

  6. Football fan aggression: The importance of low basal cortisol and a fair referee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meij, L.; Klauke, F; Moore, H.L.; Ludwig, Y.S.; Almela, M.; van Lange, P.A.M.


    Fan aggression in football (soccer) is a societal problem that affects many countries worldwide. However, to date, most studies use an epidemiological or survey approach to explain football fan aggression. This study used a controlled laboratory study to advance a model of predictors for fan

  7. 75 FR 37453 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning Dimmer and Fan Speed Switch Controls (United States)


    ... Determination Concerning Dimmer and Fan Speed Switch Controls AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... country of origin of certain dimmer and fan speed switch controls which may be offered to the United... determination CBP concluded that Mexico is the country of origin of the dimmer and fan speed switch controls for...

  8. 77 FR 68151 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: Main Fan... (United States)


    ... for OMB Review; Comment Request: Main Fan Operation and Inspection (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A Mines... Administration (MSHA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Main Fan Operation and Inspection...: Potentially gassy (explosive) conditions underground are largely controlled by main fans. When accumulations...

  9. 30 CFR 57.4131 - Surface fan installations and mine openings. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface fan installations and mine openings. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4131 Surface fan installations... stored within 100 feet of mine openings or within 100 feet of fan installations used for underground...

  10. 78 FR 51749 - Proposed Information Collection; Ventilation Plan and Main Fan Maintenance Record (Pertains to... (United States)


    ...; Ventilation Plan and Main Fan Maintenance Record (Pertains to Metal and Nonmetal Underground Mines) AGENCY... proposed information collection for updating Ventilation Plan and Main Fan Maintenance Record 30 CFR 57... or revisions must be submitted to MSHA for review and comment. The main ventilation fans for an...

  11. Tectonic controls on the geomorphic evolution of alluvial fans in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Piedmont Zone has formed as a result of coalescing alluvial fans,alluvial aprons and talus deposits.The fans have differential morphologies and aggradation processes within a common climatic zone and similar litho-tectonic setting of the catchment area. Morphotectonic analysis reveals that the fan morphologies and ...

  12. 30 CFR 57.22203 - Main fan operation (I-C mines). (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main fan operation (I-C mines). 57.22203... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22203 Main fan operation (I-C mines). Main fans shall be operated continuously while ore production is in progress. ...

  13. 30 CFR 75.312 - Main mine fan examinations and records. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main mine fan examinations and records. 75.312... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.312 Main mine fan examinations and records. (a) To assure electrical and mechanical reliability of main mine fans, each main mine...

  14. Using a Geospatial Model to Relate Fluvial Geomorphology to Macroinvertebrate Habitat in a Prairie River—Part 1: Genus-Level Relationships with Geomorphic Typologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna G. N. Meissner


    Full Text Available Modern river ecosystems undergo constant stress from disturbances such as bank stabilization, channelization, dams, and municipal, agricultural, and industrial water use. As these anthropogenic water requirements persist, more efficient methods of characterizing river reaches are essential. Benthic macroinvertebrates are helpful when evaluating fluvial health, because they are often the first group to react to contaminants that can then be transferred through them to other trophic levels. Hence, the purpose of this research is to use a geospatial model to differentiate instream macroinvertebrate habitats, and determine if the model is a viable method for stream evaluation. Through the use of ArcGIS and digital elevation models, the fluvial geomorphology of the Qu’Appelle River in Saskatchewan (SK was assessed. Four geomorphological characteristics of the river were isolated (sinuosity, slope, fractal dimension, and stream width and clustered through Principle Component Analysis (PCA, yielding sets of river reaches with similar geomorphological characteristics, called typologies. These typologies were mapped to form a geospatial model of the river. Macroinvertebrate data were aligned to the locations of the typologies, revealing several relationships with the fluvial geomorphology. A Kruskal-Wallis analysis and post hoc pairwise multiple comparisons were completed with the macroinvertebrate data to pinpoint significant genera, as related to the geospatial model.

  15. Identifying Crosscutting Concerns Using Fan-in Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin, M.; Van Deursen, A.; Moonen, L.


    Aspect mining is a reverse engineering process that aims at finding crosscutting concerns in existing systems. This paper proposes an aspect mining approach based on determining methods that are called from many different places, and hence have a high fan-in, which can be seen as a symptom of

  16. Così fan tutte: Brilliance or Buffoonery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Whitfield


    Full Text Available Hardly any opera has endured more scrutiny and self-preserving apology than Mozart’s Così fan tutte. Flagrant opposition and a long string of “rescue” attempts shroud the receptive history of the work. Since its premiere, Così fan tutte has long been recognized as a problem opera. Many critics found it implausible that Mozart—the consummate composer and man that warranted their idolization—could have stooped so low as to agree to such an immoral plot. The great beauty in Mozart’s musical parody is that it at once mocks and transforms the supposed superficial experiment of Lorenzo Da Ponte’s libretto. The parody in Così fan tutte must be correctly interpreted. It is rampant, but it exists for much more than a perfunctory laugh. The beauty of Mozart’s music—in both moments of wild parody and heartfelt emotion—succeeds in giving Così fan tutte a depth that is both challenging and transforming.

  17. Fans skriver videre på deres foretrukne historier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne


    Fans skriver videre på deres foretrukne historier Vi har kendt til at lære gennem børn og unges optagethed af populærkultur gennem de sidste tredive år, men alligevel kan man have betænkeligheder ved at involvere unges egenkultur, idet det kan problemati- seres, hvilke erkendelsesformer, der er her....

  18. On passion and sports fans: a look at football. (United States)

    Vallerand, Robert J; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Philippe, Frederick L; Lavigne, Geneviève L; Carbonneau, Noémie; Bonneville, Arielle; Lagacé-Labonté, Camille; Maliha, Gabrielle


    The purpose of the present research was to test the applicability of the Dualistic Model of Passion (Vallerand et al., 2003) to being a sport (football) fan. Three studies provided support for this dualistic conceptualization of passion. Study 1 showed that harmonious passion was positively associated with adaptive behaviours (e.g. celebrate the team's victory), whereas obsessive passion was positively associated with maladaptive behaviours (e.g. risking losing one's job to go to a game). Study 2 used a short Passion Scale and showed that harmonious passion was positively related to the positive affective life of fans during the 2006 FIFA World Cup, psychological health (self-esteem and life satisfaction), and public displays of adaptive behaviours (e.g. celebrate the team's victory into the streets), whereas obsessive passion was predictive of maladaptive affective life (e.g. hating opposing teams' fans) and behaviours (e.g. mocking opposing teams' fans). Finally, Study 3 examined the role of obsessive passion as a predictor of partner's conflict that in turn undermined partner's relationship satisfaction. Overall, the present results provided support for the Dualistic Model of Passion. The conceptual and applied implications of the findings are discussed.

  19. The Forming of AISI 409 sheets for fan blade manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foroni, F. D.; Menezes, M. A.; Moreira Filho, L. A.


    The necessity of adapting the standardized fan models to conditions of higher temperature has emerged due to the growth of concern referring to the consequences of the gas expelling after the Mont Blanc tunnel accident in Italy and France, where even though, with 100 fans in operation, 41 people died. The objective of this work is to present an alternative to the market standard fans considering a new technology in constructing blades. This new technology introduces the use of the stainless steel AISI 409 due to its good to temperatures of gas exhaust from tunnels in fire situation. The innovation is centered in the process of a deep drawing of metallic sheets in order to keep the ideal aerodynamic superficies for the fan ideal performance. Through the impression of circles on the sheet plane it is shown, experimentally, that, during the pressing process, the more deformed regions on the sheet plane of the blade can not reach the deformation limits of the utilized sheet material

  20. Intermittent Flow Regimes in a Transonic Fan Airfoil Cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lepicovsky


    velocity.To date, this flow behavior has only been observed in a linear transonic cascade. Further research is necessary to confirm this phenomenon occurs in actual transonic fans and is not the by-product of an endwall restricted linear cascade.

  1. Construction of an automated temperature sensing electric fan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An automated temperature-sensing fan regulator which controls the speed with respect to the sensed temperature, is designed and constructed. This design was implemented with simple and readily available electronics components at the local electric shops. The achieved results and its features when compared with ...

  2. The Nonrelativistic Scattering States of the Deng-Fan Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bentol Hoda Yazarloo


    Full Text Available The approximately analytical scattering state solution of the Schrodinger equation is obtained for the Deng-Fan potential by using an approximation scheme to the centrifugal term. Energy eigenvalues, normalized wave functions, and scattering phase shifts are calculated. We consider and verify two special cases: the l=0 and the s-wave Hulthén potential.

  3. Acceptance test report MICON software exhaust fan control modifications; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SILVAN, G.R.


    This report documents the results the acceptance test HNF-4108 which verifies the MICON program changes for the new automatic transfer switch ATS-2 alarms, the Closed Loop Cooling isolator status, the CB-3 position alarm, the alarms for the new emergency fan damper backup air compressor, and the generator sequencer logic

  4. Placing Fandom : Film Tourism in Contemporary Fan Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Waysdorf (Abby)


    markdownabstractFilm tourism – visiting places associated with a film or television show – is an increasingly visible and popular practice. It is now almost expected whenever a new movie or television show draws on a particular place as a setting. But how are these places experienced by the fans who

  5. Why do fans attend world Wrestling Entertainment? | Kruger | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research examined the travel motives of South African World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) fans at a live Smackdown event in July 2011, which was part of the WWE's world tour. Based on these motives, different market segments at the events were identified and profiled. This was the first time that the motives of ...

  6. Dimensions of attachment among fans within the South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attachment to the level of sport in general appeared to be the most highly correlated form of attachment with attendance. Fans appear to attach greater importance to the sport, the level of soccer and the team as opposed to specific players or the coach. The study proposes a framework reflecting both its practical application ...

  7. Blade Crack Detection of Centrifugal Fan Using Adaptive Stochastic Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingbing Hu


    Full Text Available Centrifugal fans are widely used in various industries as a kind of turbo machinery. Among the components of the centrifugal fan, the impeller is a key part because it is used to transform kinetic energy into pressure energy. Crack in impeller’s blades is one of the serious hidden dangers. It is important to detect the cracks in the blades as early as possible. Based on blade vibration signals, this research applies an adaptive stochastic resonance (ASR method to diagnose crack fault in centrifugal fan. The ASR method, which can utilize the optimization ability of the grid search method and adaptively realize the optimal stochastic resonance system matching input signals, may weaken the noise and highlight weak characteristic and thus can diagnose the fault accurately. A centrifugal fan test rig is established and experiments with three cases of blades are conducted. In comparison with the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD analysis and the traditional Fourier transform method, the experiment verified the effectiveness of the current method in blade crack detection.

  8. On a derivative-free fan-beam reconstruction formula. (United States)

    Wang, Ge; Wei, Yuchuan


    We clarify that the derivative-free fan-beam reconstruction formula [IEEE Trans. Image Process. 2, 543-547, 1993] only allows exact reconstruction of an object for a circular trajectory or at the origin of the coordinate system for a radially symmetric noncircular trajectory.

  9. Fans' multiple points of attachment and their influence on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rugby is one of South Africa's big three sports, alongside soccer and cricket. For many South African fans, rugby is a medium that provides entertainment, cultural identity and a sense of belonging to a particular sport. One of the main appeals for watching competitive sport events is the distinctive nature of competition.

  10. Motivational factors affecting fan decisions to attend Premier Soccer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Individuals' involvement in sport comes in different forms such as a profession, a hobby, or as entertainment. As part of the entertainment experience, an individual may be either a spectator or a fan. In South Africa, soccer is arguably the most popular sport, recreationally, economically as well as regarding active and ...

  11. Impact of cyclostationarity on fan broadband noise prediction (United States)

    Wohlbrandt, A.; Kissner, C.; Guérin, S.


    One of the dominant noise sources of modern Ultra High Bypass Ratio (UHBR) engines is the interaction of the rotor wakes with the leading edges of the stator vanes in the fan stage. While the tonal components of this noise generation mechanism are fairly well understood by now, the broadband components are not. This calls to further the understanding of the broadband noise generation in the fan stage. This article introduces a new extension to the Random Particle Mesh (RPM) method, which accommodates in-depth studies of the impact of cyclostationary wake characteristics on the broadband noise in the fan stage. The RPM method is used to synthesize a turbulence field in the stator domain using a URANS simulation characterized by time-periodic turbulence and mean flow. The rotor-stator interaction noise is predicted by a two-dimensional CAA computation of the stator cascade. The impact of cyclostationarity is decomposed into various effects, which are separately investigated. This leads to the finding that the periodic turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and periodic flow have only a negligible effect on the radiated sound power. The impact of the periodic integral length scale (TLS) is, however, substantial. The limits of a stationary representation of the TLS are demonstrated making this new extension to the RPM method indispensable when background and wake TKE are of comparable level. Good agreement of the predictions with measurements obtained from the 2015 AIAA Fan Broadband Noise Prediction Workshop are also shown.

  12. Axial-flow fan with eccentric rotor | Blaho | Zede Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Axial-flow fan with eccentric rotor. M Blaho. Abstract. No Abstract. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals ...

  13. The Alcyonacea (soft corals and sea fans) of Antsiranana Bay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alison J. Evans, Mark D. Steer and Elise M. S. Belle

    ABSTRACT. During the past two decades, the Alcyonacea (soft corals and sea fans) of the western Indian Ocean have been the subject of numerous studies investigating their ecology and distribution. Comparatively, Madagascar remains understudied. This article provides the first record of the distribution of Alcyonacea on.

  14. Modeling Fan Effects on the Time Course of Associative Recognition (United States)

    Schneider, Darryl W.; Anderson, John R.


    We investigated the time course of associative recognition using the response signal procedure, whereby a stimulus is presented and followed after a variable lag by a signal indicating that an immediate response is required. More specifically, we examined the effects of associative fan (the number of associations that an item has with other items…

  15. Life Sciences Laboratory 2 Fan Exhaust Mixing Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaherty, Julia E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Antonio, Ernest J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    An SF6 tracer release was performed in the LSL-II ventilation stack over the weekend of March 5, 2016. The primary purpose of this study was to experimentally determine the gaseous concentration of material from a fume hood to the fan outlet, as well as at typical worker locations, to gain an understanding of potential worker exposures impacts. Five different fan operating configurations were utilized to ensure that the full spectrum of historical operating configurations was addressed. Some summary points from this study include: •Relatively high concentrations were observed within the stack area. –Between 50 and 100% of the exhaust concentration may be observed within the stack. •Background concentrations were observed outside the stack area. –Workers outside the stack itself, but on the roof, are unlikely to be impacted by the exhaust. •Elevated concentrations on the order of 25% of the exhaust concentrations were observed within the Penthouse. •Transport time from a laboratory fume hood to the exhaust fan is within one to two minutes. •Penthouse concentrations climb from background levels to steady state over 15+ minutes. •Wind speed and wind direction did not play a significant role in the test outcomes. –A slight bias in the concentration distribution may be discernable based on wind speed and direction. •When both fans are operating, material from fume hoods on the east side preferentially flow through the east fan, while material from fume hoods on the west side preferentially flow through the west fan. This effectively doubles the concentration at that fan. This mixing study will inform other study components to develop a more complete picture of the worker potential exposure from LSL-II Rooftop activities. Estimating the mean concentration in the stack from chemical inventories and fume hood emissions for both current and historical laboratory activities is a separate effort. These estimates of mean ventilation

  16. Remote sensing of rivers: an emerging tool to facilitate management and restoration of fluvial systems (United States)

    Legleiter, C. J.; Overstreet, B. T.


    All phases of river restoration, from design to implementation to assessment, require spatially distributed, high-resolution data on channels and floodplains. Conventional field methods are cost prohibitive for large areas, but remote sensing presents an increasingly viable alternative for characterizing fluvial systems. For example, bathymetric maps useful for habitat assessment can be derived from readily available, free or low cost image data, provided depth measurements are available for calibration. In combination with LiDAR, spectrally-based bathymetry can be used to determine bed elevations for estimating scour and fill and/or to obtain topographic input data for morphodynamic modeling. New, water-penetrating green LiDAR systems that measure sub-aerial and submerged elevations could provide a single-sensor solution for mapping riparian environments. Our current research on the Snake River focuses on comparing optical- and LiDAR-based methods for retrieving depths and bed elevations. Multi-sensor surveys from 2012 and 2013 will allow us to evaluate each instrument's capabilities for measuring volumes of erosion and deposition in a dynamic gravel-bed river. Ongoing studies also suggest that additional river attributes, such as substrate composition and flow velocity, could be inferred from hyperspectral image data. In general, remote sensing has considerable potential to facilitate various aspects of river restoration, from site evaluation to post-project assessment. Moreover, by providing more extensive coverage, this approach favors an integrated, watershed perspective for planning, execution, and monitoring of sustainable restoration programs. To stimulate progress toward these objectives, our research group is now working to advance the remote sensing of rivers through tool development and sensor deployment. Bathymetric map of the Snake River, WY, derived from hyperspectral image data via optimal band ratio analysis. Flow direction is from right to left.

  17. In flight measurement of steady and unsteady blade surface pressure of a single rotation large scale advanced prop-fan installed on the PTA aircraft (United States)

    Parzych, D.; Boyd, L.; Meissner, W.; Wyrostek, A.


    An experiment was performed by Hamilton Standard, Division of United Technologies Corporation, under contract by LeRC, to measure the blade surface pressure of a large scale, 8 blade model prop-fan in flight. The test bed was the Gulfstream 2 Prop-Fan Test Assessment (PTA) aircraft. The objective of the test was to measure the steady and periodic blade surface pressure resulting from three different Prop-Fan air inflow angles at various takeoff and cruise conditions. The inflow angles were obtained by varying the nacelle tilt angles, which ranged from -3 to +2 degrees. A range of power loadings, tip speeds, and altitudes were tested at each nacelle tilt angle over the flight Mach number range of 0.30 to 0.80. Unsteady blade pressure data tabulated as Fourier coefficients for the first 35 harmonics of shaft rotational frequency and the steady (non-varying) pressure component are presented.

  18. A Study on Aerodynamic Characteristics and Noise of a Ring Fan


    佐々木, 壮一; 福田, 雅治; 林, 秀千人


    The ring fan is a blower that has a shroud at the tip side of the axial flow impeller. In this study, to clarify the influence of the flow around the impeller on the aerodynamic characteristics and noise of the fan is aimed. The following characteristics were obtained; the efficiency of the ring fan is improved about 13% than the current propeller fan, the specific noise level is reduced approximately 6dB. The potential of the blade tip vortex of the ring fan has been weakened by the shroud. ...

  19. Gas Turbine Engine Having Fan Rotor Driven by Turbine Exhaust and with a Bypass (United States)

    Suciu, Gabriel L. (Inventor); Chandler, Jesse M. (Inventor)


    A gas turbine engine has a core engine incorporating a core engine turbine. A fan rotor is driven by a fan rotor turbine. The fan rotor turbine is in the path of gases downstream from the core engine turbine. A bypass door is moveable from a closed position at which the gases from the core engine turbine pass over the fan rotor turbine, and moveable to a bypass position at which the gases are directed away from the fan rotor turbine. An aircraft is also disclosed.

  20. Fluvial signatures of modern and paleo orographic rainfall gradients (United States)

    Schildgen, Taylor; Strecker, Manfred


    arid precipitation regimes. Indeed, despite uniform lithology and uplift history, we see patterns in river steepness values and in chi plots that are consistest a rainfall gradient on the (former) windward side of the range and asymmetric precipitation across the range. We suggest that morphological aspects of the river networks in such regions are dominated by their history of changing climate. These morphologic signatures appear to persist for millions of years in NW Argentina, most likely because the transition from a wetter to a drier climate has prevented a rapid readjustment to new forcing conditions. Reference: Han, J., Gasparini, N.M., and Johnson, J.P., 2015, Measuring the imprint of orographic rainfall gradients on the morphology of steady-state numerical fluvial landscapes. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms, 40(10), 1334-1350.

  1. Biomarkers in Transit Reveal the Nature of Fluvial Integration (United States)

    Ponton, C.; West, A.; Feakins, S. J.; Galy, V.


    The carbon and hydrogen isotopic composition of vascular plant leaf waxes are common proxies for hydrologic and vegetation change. Sedimentary archives off major river systems are prime targets for continental paleoclimate studies under the assumption that rivers integrate changes in terrestrial organic carbon (OC) composition over their drainage basin. However, the proportional contribution of sources within the basin (e.g. head waters vs. floodplain) and the transit times of OC through the fluvial system remain largely unknown. This lack of quantifiable information about the proportions and timescales of integration within large catchments poses a challenge for paleoclimate reconstructions. To examine the sources of terrestrial OC eroded and supplied to a river system and the spatial distribution of these sources, we use compound specific isotope analysis (i.e. δ13C, Δ14C, and δD) on plant-derived leaf waxes, filtered from large volumes of river water (20-200L) along a major river system. We selected the Kosñipata River that drains the western flank of the Andes in Peru, joins the Madre de Dios River across the Amazonian floodplain, and ultimately contributes to the Amazon River. Our study encompassed an elevation gradient of >4 km, in an almost entirely forested catchment. Precipitation δD values vary by >50‰ due to the isotopic effect of elevation, a feature we exploit to identify the sources of plant wax n-alkanoic acids transported by the river. We used the δD plant wax values from tributary rivers as source constrains and the main stem values as the integrated signal. In addition, compound specific radiocarbon on individual chain length n-alkanoic acids provide unprecedented detail on the integrated age of these compounds. Preliminary results have established that 1) most of the OC transport occurs in the wet season; 2) total carbon transport in the Madre de Dios is dominated by lowland sources because of the large floodplain area, but initial data

  2. On-chip grating coupler array on the SOI platform for fan-in/fan-out of MCFs with low insertion loss and crosstalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Ye, Feihong; Peucheret, Christophe


    We report the design and fabrication of a compact multi-core fiber fan-in/fan-out using a grating coupler array on the SOI platform. The grating couplers are fully-etched, enabling the whole circuit to be fabricated in a single lithography and etching step. Thanks to the apodized design for the g......We report the design and fabrication of a compact multi-core fiber fan-in/fan-out using a grating coupler array on the SOI platform. The grating couplers are fully-etched, enabling the whole circuit to be fabricated in a single lithography and etching step. Thanks to the apodized design...

  3. Booster fans : some considerations for their usage in underground coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillies, S.; Slaughter, C. [Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States); Calizaya, F. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wu, H.W. [Gillies Wu Mining Technology Pty Ltd., Brisbane, QLD (Australia)


    This paper reported on a study that investigated the conditions under which booster fans can be used safely and efficiently in underground coal mines. Booster fans are installed in series with a main surface fan and are used to boost the air pressure of the ventilation air passing through it. Several coal mining countries use booster fans, but in the United States, they are only used in metal/non-metal mines due to concerns of uncontrolled recirculation. This study investigated installations of booster fans in non-US underground coal mines where safe and efficient atmospheric conditions are achieved. The purpose was to collect reliable information on airway resistances and flow requirements typical in large US coal mines. The study showed that safe booster fan installations are found in both high and low gas conditions, and sometimes where workings are located at great depths. The interlocking systems within the booster fan can control the underground fans and avoid recirculation when surface fans are unexpectedly turned off. Another purpose of the study was to determine when booster fans become a more viable solution in coal mines due to increases in air requirements at higher production rates. It was concluded that a new fan selection algorithm to produce recirculation-free ventilation designs will be developed to enable US coal mine operators to develop ventilation designs to extract coal seams from depths greater than 1000 m. 17 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Depositional facies and Hohokam settlement patterns of Holocene alluvial fans, N. Tucson Basin, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, J.J.


    The distribution of depositional facies on eight Holocene alluvial fans of varying dimensions is used to evaluate prehistoric Hohokam agricultural settlement patterns. Two facies are recognized: channel gravelly sand facies and overbank silty sand facies. No debris flow deposits occur. The channel facies is characterized by relatively well sorted stratified sands and gravels with common heavy mineral laminations. Overbank facies deposits are massive and very poorly sorted due to heavy bioturbation. Lithostratigraphic profiles from backhoe trenches and sediment size analysis document headward migration of depositional facies which results in fining upward sequences. Each sequence is a channel fan lobe with an underlying coarse grained channel sand which fines to overbank silty sands. Lateral and vertical variations in facies distributions show that depositional processes are affected by drainage basin area (fan size) and distance from fan head. Gravelly channel sands dominate at the headward portions of the fan and are more pervasive on large fans; overbank silty sands are ubiquitous at fan toes and approach closer to the fan head of smaller alluvial fans. When depositional facies are considered as records of water flow over an alluvial surface, the farming potential of each fan can be analyzed. Depositional models of alluvial fan sedimentation provide the basis for understanding Hohokam settlement patterns on active alluvial surfaces.

  5. Shaking table test study on seismic performance of dehydrogenation fan for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Kaiyan; Shi Weixing; Cao Jialiang; Wang Yang


    Seismic performance of the dehydrogenation fan for nuclear power plants was evaluated based on the shaking table test of earthquake simulation. Dynamic characteristics including the orthogonal tri-axial fundamental frequencies and equivalent damping ratios were measured by the white noise scanning method. Artificial seismic waves were generated corresponding to the floor acceleration response spectra for nuclear power plants. Furthermore, five OBE and one SSE shaking table tests for dehydrogenation fan were performed by using the artificial seismic waves as the seismic inputs along the orthogonal axis simultaneity. Operating function of dehydrogenation fan was monitored and observed during all seismic tests, and performance indexes of dehydrogenation fan were compared before and after seismic tests. The results show that the structural integrity and operating function of the dehydrogenation fan are perfect during all seismic tests; and the performance indexes of the dehydrogenation fan can remain consistent before and after seismic tests; the seismic performance of the dehydrogenation fan can satisfy relevant technical requirements. (authors)

  6. Performance/Noise Optimization of Centrifugal Fan Using Response Surface Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Donghui; Cheong, Cheolung [Pusan Nat’l Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Heo Seung [Korea Aerospace Industries, Sacheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae-Hoon; Jung, Jiwon [LG Electronics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, centrifugal fan blades used to circulate cold air inside a household refrigerator were optimized to achieve high performance and low noise by using the response surface method, which is frequently employed as an optimization algorithm when multiple independent variables affect one dependent variable. The inlet and outlet blade angles, and the inner radius, were selected as the independent variables. First, the fan blades were optimized to achieve the maximum volume flow rate. Based on this result, a prototype fan blade was manufactured using a 3-D printer. The measured P-Q curves confirmed the increased volume flow rate of the proposed fan. Then, the rotation speed of the new fan was decreased to match the P-Q curve of the existing fan. It was found that a noise reduction of 1.7 dBA could be achieved using the new fan at the same volume flow rate.

  7. Recent changes in sediment redistribution in the upper parts of the fluvial system of European Russia: regional aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Yermolaev


    Full Text Available Quantitative assessments of soil loss from cultivated land and sediment redistribution along pathways from cultivated fields to river channels have been undertaken using a range of different methods and techniques, including erosion models, detailed studies of sediment redistribution in representative catchments, monitoring of gully head retreat and evaluation of sediment deposition in ponds and small reservoirs. Most of the sediment eroded from arable land is deposited between the lower portions of the cultivated slopes and the river channels. Less than 15% of the eroded sediment is delivered to the river channels. Sediment redistribution rates in the upper parts of the fluvial system have declined during the last 25 years in both the western and eastern parts of the Russian Plain, because of a major reduction of surface runoff during snowmelt and a reduction of the area of arable land in some parts of the study area.

  8. Tiempo de vidrio y de abundancia. Saberes y oficios de la cultura fluvial en el Alto Magdalena, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Andrade Pérez


    Full Text Available The territories of the Magdalena River basin are currently undergoing changes, transformations, and socioeconomic impacts as a result of mega-development projects for navigability and the construction of hydroelectric projects. Applying the concept of Fluvial Culture, this text presents the adaptation process of two artisanal fishing settlements located in the region known as Salto de Honda in the Upper Magdalena province: the village of Puerto Bogotá (in the township of Guaduas, Cundinamarca and the township of Honda (Tolima. It proposes the option of adopting a perspective of socioecological systems, which makes it possible to carry out integrated assessment of the territory and joint (inhabitants and governmental entities construction of alternatives that consider the impacts of intervention on both the ecosystem and the culture.

  9. Pollutant fates in fluvial systems: on need of individual approach to each case study (United States)

    Matys Grygar, Tomas; Elznicova, Jitka; Novakova, Tereza


    To outline the pollutant fates in fluvial systems it is necessary to combine two main kinds of knowledge: sedimentation and erosion patterns of each individual river with spatio-temporal resolution higher than in most fluvial geomorphology/sedimentology studies and timing and way how the pollutants have entered the fluvial system. Most of these aspects are commonly neglected in environmental geochemistry, a domain to which pollution studies apparently belong. In fact, only when these two main components are established (at least in a qualitative manner), we can start reading (interpretation) of the fluvial sedimentary archives, e.g., decipher the way how the primary pollution signal has been distorted during passing through the fluvial system. We conducted empirical studies on Czech rivers impacted by pollution (by risk elements). We learnt how individual (site-specific) are the main processes responsible for the primary pollution input, spread through each fluvial system and inevitable secondary pollution ("lagged pollution improvement signal"). We will discuss main features of the story on pollutant fates in three different fluvial systems, which have not been impacted by "hard" river engineering and still undergo natural fluvial processes: 1. the Ohre (the Eger) impacted by production of Hg and its compounds, historical mining of Pb and more recent U ore processing, 2. the Ploucnice impacted by U mining, and 3. the Litavka, impacted by Pb-Zn(-Sb) mining and smelting. The Ohre is specific by most pollution having been temporarily deposited in an active channel, only minor reworking of older fluvial deposits diluting pollution during downstream transport, and pollution archives existing practically only in the form of lateral accretion deposits. The deposits of archive value are rare and can be revealed by detailed study of historical maps and well-planned field analysis, best using portable analytical instruments (XRF). The Ploucnice is specific by only transient

  10. The modern Kaoping transient fan offshore SW Taiwan: Morphotectonics and development (United States)

    Hsiung, Kan-Hsi; Yu, Ho-Shing; Chiang, Cheng-Shing


    Using bathymetry and seismic reflection profiles, this study examined and determined the transient nature of the Kaoping Fan located in the topographically complex slope offshore southwest Taiwan. Kaoping Fan is located west of the lower reach of the Kaoping Canyon at the lower Kaoping Slope, ranging from 2,200 to 3,000 m water depth, and has a relatively small areal extent restricted in the topographic lows confined by structural highs due to mud diapiric uplifting and thrust faulting. Kaoping Fan shows an asymmetrical triangular fan-shaped bathymetric feature elongated in an NW-SE direction but with a strong skew toward the east. The fan deposits consist of three main seismic facies: layered high-amplitude reflections in the upper section and stratified, parallel to sub-parallel low-amplitude reflections with variable continuity and channel fill facies in the lower section. In the absence of ground-truthing from core data, the seismic patterns suggest that the Kaoping Fan recorded the onset of channelized and over-bank deposits in the lower part and layered turbidite facies in the upper part subsequently. The development of the Kaoping Fan can be divided into three stages in terms of canyon activities and fan-feeding processes. Initially, Kaoping Fan was mainly fed by a point sediment source at the apex of the fan. Secondly, Kaoping Fan was maintained as a slope fan, mainly fed laterally by over-spilled sediments from the canyon. Finally, the Kaoping Canyon completely passes through the Kaoping Fan and supplies over-spilled sediments laterally, forming a transient fan with canyon incision and sediment by-passing. The accumulation of sediments and the growth of Kaoping Fan are primarily controlled by inherited complex paleo-topography and the evolution of Kaoping Canyon. The sediment delivery system of Kaoping Fan is characterized by lateral supply of over-spilling sediment flows and sediments bypassing to and beyond the base of slope. The Kaoping Fan together

  11. Modal analysis of an aircraft engine fan noise (United States)

    Gorodkova, Natalia; Chursin, Valeriy; Bersenev, Yuliy; Burdakov, Ruslan; Siner, Aleksandr; Viskova, Tatiana


    The fan is one of the main noise sources of an aircraft engine. To reduce fan noise and provide liner optimization in the inlet it is necessary to research modal structure of the fan noise. The present paper contains results of acoustic tests on installation for mode generation that consists of 34-channel generator and the inlet updated for mounting of 100 microphones, the experiments were provided in new anechoic chamber of Perm National Research Polytechnic University, the engine with the same inlet was also tested in the open test bench conditions, and results of the fan noise modal structure are presented. For modal structure educting, all 100 channels were synchronously registered in a given frequency range. The measured data were analyzed with PULSE analyzer using fast Fourier transform with a frequency resolution 8..16 Hz. Single modes with numbers from 0 to 35 at frequencies 500; 630; 800; 1000; 1250; 1600 Hz and different combinations of modes at frequencies 1000, 1600, 2000, 2500 Hz were set during tests. Modes with small enough numbers are generated well on the laboratory installation, high-number modes generate additional modes caused by a complicated interference pattern of sound field in the inlet. Open test bench results showed that there are also a lot of harmonic components at frequencies lower than fan BPF. Under 0.65 of cut off there is only one distinct mode, other modes with close and less numbers appear from 0.7 of cut off and above. At power regimes 0.76 and 0.94 of cut off the highest mode also changes from positive to negative mode number area. Numbers of the highest modes change smoothly enough with the growth of power regime. At power regimes with Mach>1 (0.7 of cut off and above) on circumference of blade wheel there is a well-defined noise of shock waves at rotor frequency harmonics that appears at the range between the first rotor frequency and fan blade passing frequency (BPF). It is planned to continue researching of sound field

  12. Ridge Orientations of the Ridge-Forming Unit, Sinus Meridiani, Mars-A Fluvial Explanation (United States)

    Wilkinson, M. Justin; Herridge, A.


    Imagery and MOLA data were used in an analysis of the ridge-forming rock unit (RFU) exposed in Sinus Meridiani (SM). This unit shows parallels at different scales with fluvial sedimentary bodies. We propose the terrestrial megafan as the prime analog for the RFU, and likely for other members of the layered units. Megafans are partial cones of fluvial sediment, with radii up to hundreds of km. Although recent reviews of hypotheses for the RFU units exclude fluvial hypotheses [1], inverted ridges in the deserts of Oman have been suggested as putative analogs for some ridges [2], apparently without appreciating The wider context in which these ridges have formed is a series of megafans [3], a relatively unappreciated geomorphic feature. It has been argued that these units conform to the megafan model at the regional, subregional and local scales [4]. At the regional scale suites of terrestrial megafans are known to cover large areas at the foot of uplands on all continents - a close parallel with the setting of the Meridiani sediments at the foot of the southern uplands of Mars, with its incised fluvial systems leading down the regional NW slope [2, 3] towards the sedimentary units. At the subregional scale the layering and internal discontinuities of the Meridiani rocks are consistent, inter alia, with stacked fluvial units [4]. Although poorly recognized as such, the prime geomorphic environment in which stream channel networks cover large areas, without intervening hillslopes, is the megafan [see e.g. 4]. Single megafans can reach 200,000 km2 [5]. Megafans thus supply an analog for areas where channel-like ridges (as a palimpsest of a prior landscape) cover the intercrater plains of Meridiani [6]. At the local, or river-reach scale, the numerous sinuous features of the RFU are suggestive of fluvial channels. Cross-cutting relationships, a common feature of channels on terrestrial megafans, are ubiquitous. Desert megafans show cemented paleo-channels as inverted

  13. Shaler: in situ analysis of a fluvial sedimentary deposit on Mars (United States)

    Edgar, Lauren; Gupta, Sanjeev; Rubin, David M.; Lewis, Kevin W.; Kocurek, Gary A.; Anderson, Ryan; Bell, James F.; Dromart, Gilles; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Grotzinger, John P.; Hardgrove, Craig; Kah, Linda C.; LeVeille, Richard A.; Malin, Michael C.; Mangold, Nicholas; Milliken, Ralph E.; Minitti, Michelle; Palucis, Marisa C.; Rice, Melissa; Rowland, Scott K.; Schieber, Juergen; Stack, Kathryn M.; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Wiens, Roger C.; Williams, Rebecca M.E.; Williams, Amy J.


    This paper characterizes the detailed sedimentology of a fluvial sandbody on Mars for the first time, and interprets its depositional processes and palaeoenvironmental setting. Despite numerous orbital observations of fluvial landforms on the surface of Mars, ground-based characterization of the sedimentology of such fluvial deposits has not previously been possible. Results from the NASA Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover provide an opportunity to reconstruct at fine scale the sedimentary architecture and palaeomorphology of a fluvial environment on Mars. This work describes the grain size, texture, and sedimentary facies of the Shaler outcrop, reconstructs the bedding architecture, and analyses cross-stratification to determine palaeocurrents. On the basis of bedset geometry and inclination, grain-size distribution, and bedform migration direction, this study concludes that the Shaler outcrop likely records the accretion of a fluvial barform. The majority of the outcrop consists of large-scale trough cross-bedding of coarse sand and granules. Palaeocurrent analyses and bedform reconstruction indicate that the beds were deposited by bedforms that migrated towards the northeast, across the surface of a bar that migrated southeast. Stacked cosets of dune cross-bedding suggest aggradation of multiple bedforms, which provides evidence for short periods of sustained flow during Shaler deposition. However, local evidence for aeolian reworking and the presence of potential desiccation cracks within the outcrop suggests that fluvial deposition may have been intermittent. The uppermost strata at Shaler are distinct in terms of texture and chemistry, and are inferred to record deposition from a different sediment dispersal system with a contrasting provenance. The outcrop as a whole is a testament to the availability of liquid water on the surface of Mars in its early history.

  14. Linking hydrologic and bedload transport models to simulate fluvial response to changing precipitation (United States)

    Wickert, A. D.; Ng, G. H. C.; Tofelde, S.; Savi, S.; Schildgen, T. F.; Alonso, R. N.; Strecker, M. R.


    Changes in precipitation can drive river aggradation or incision through their influence on both hillslope processes, which supply sediment to the channel, and sediment transport capacity, which moves sediment downstream. Whether a particular change in precipitation intensity and/or duration will result in aggradation or incision is difficult to predict due to these competing effects. In particular, fluvial response to climate change is sensitive to (1) thresholds and nonlinearities involved in sediment production and sediment transport, (2) how different modes of sediment production affect the grain size of the sediment provided to the channel, and (3) impacts of drainage basin geometry on sediment storage time and locations of rapid sediment production and/or transport. A better mechanistic understanding of the relationship between rainfall and river bed elevation changes will help us to understand modern river channel response to climate change and decipher the causes for fluvial terrace formation. Here we couple a hydrologic model, the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), with a model of sediment transport through a fluvial network, sedFlow, to predict patterns of bed elevation change. We first perform schematic example simulations on an idealized synthetic landscape with a single river channel to show how simple fluvial systems can respond to changes in rainfall. We then expand these numerical tests to full fluvial networks, in which the segments of the tributary network propagate signals of aggradation and incision, leading to a more complex response that embodies the interference between magnitudes and time-scales of sediment transfer in the tributary links. We showcase the possible complexity of the fluvial response with an example from the Quebrada del Toro of NW Argentina, which is currently experiencing rapid and spatially-variable aggradation and incision, possibly in response to an increase in extreme rainfall events in the east-central Andes.

  15. Señor Santo Niño Devotees' Lived Experiences in a Fluvial Parade

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    Norly C. Ibones


    Full Text Available The study intended to divulge the Señor Santo Niño devotees’ lived experiences in a fluvial parade as a component of the celebration of Cebu City’s Sinulog Festival. This utilized a phenomenological studies design of the respondents’ narratives on their lived experiences in the Sinulog Fluvial Parade. A bracketing process was adapted to separate the researcher’s perspective from the respondents’ lived experiences. Fluvial Parade espoused a significant celebration in the lives of the many devotees of Señor Santo Niño. Emotional bliss and peace of mind are evident in their faces as they welcomed Señor Santo Niño in his coming through his short voyage. They come to witness this event as a means of taking part in the celebration, expressing their gratitude to all the blessings, good health and many opportunities they have received, self-commitment and strong devotion to the child Jesus Christ. Fluvial parade showcased the Cebuano faith and tradition i.e. uniquely animistic and ritualistic Filipino. Señor Santo Niño symbolized as the giver of strength and the source of support among the devotees. As a whole, fluvial parade epitomized love, peace and unity, which heaved the Cebuanos to unconditional faith, as loyal devotees of the Holy Child Jesus. It is recommended that organizers of the annual fluvial parade will retain the best features of the celebration and will continue to find better ways to improve or disseminate information for wider participation and preservation of this unique Cebuano Christian heritage.

  16. Open-water and under-ice seasonal variations in trace element content and physicochemical associations in fluvial bed sediment. (United States)

    Doig, Lorne E; Carr, Meghan K; Meissner, Anna G N; Jardine, Tim D; Jones, Paul D; Bharadwaj, Lalita; Lindenschmidt, Karl-Erich


    Across the circumpolar world, intensive anthropogenic activities in the southern reaches of many large, northward-flowing rivers can cause sediment contamination in the downstream depositional environment. The influence of ice cover on concentrations of inorganic contaminants in bed sediment (i.e., sediment quality) is unknown in these rivers, where winter is the dominant season. A geomorphic response unit approach was used to select hydraulically diverse sampling sites across a northern test-case system, the Slave River and delta (Northwest Territories, Canada). Surface sediment samples (top 1 cm) were collected from 6 predefined geomorphic response units (12 sites) to assess the relationships between bed sediment physicochemistry (particle size distribution and total organic carbon content) and trace element content (mercury and 18 other trace elements) during open-water conditions. A subset of sites was resampled under-ice to assess the influence of season on these relationships and on total trace element content. Concentrations of the majority of trace elements were strongly correlated with percent fines and proxies for grain size (aluminum and iron), with similar trace element grain size/grain size proxy relationships between seasons. However, finer materials were deposited under ice with associated increases in sediment total organic carbon content and the concentrations of most trace elements investigated. The geomorphic response unit approach was effective at identifying diverse hydrological environments for sampling prior to field operations. Our data demonstrate the need for under-ice sampling to confirm year-round consistency in trace element-geochemical relationships in fluvial systems and to define the upper extremes of these relationships. Whether contaminated or not, under-ice bed sediment can represent a "worst-case" scenario in terms of trace element concentrations and exposure for sediment-associated organisms in northern fluvial systems

  17. Nove interpretacije fluvialnih sedimentov na krasu = New interpretations of fluvial sediments from the Kras

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    Andrej Mihevc


    Full Text Available Important unroofed caves with fluvial sediments from Divaški kras, Matarsko podoljePodgorski kras are presented. Extend of the phenomena and relation to the existingand karst surface and geomorphological meaning of them are described. Sedimentsthem were analysed and dated with different methods. The largest age of the sedimentfound in the unroofed cave excavated in Črnotiče quarry. In the cave wall fossil remainsstygobiont Marifugia cavatica were covered by 3.2-4.1 Ma old fluvial sediments.

  18. Fluvial sediment inputs to upland gravel bed rivers draining forested catchments: potential ecological impacts

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    S. D. Marks


    Full Text Available As identified by the detailed long-term monitoring networks at Plynlimon, increased sediment supply to upland fluvial systems is often associated with forestry land-use and practice. Literature is reviewed, in the light of recent results from Plynlimon sediment studies, to enable identification of the potential ecological impacts of fluvial particulate inputs to upland gravel bed rivers draining forested catchments similar to the headwaters of the River Severn. Both sediment transport and deposition can have significant impacts upon aquatic vertebrates, invertebrates and plants.

  19. A manual to identify sources of fluvial sediment (United States)

    Gellis, Allen C.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Schubauer-Berigan, Joseph


    sediment sources early in the design of the sediment budget will help later in deciding which tools are necessary to monitor erosion and/or deposition at these sources. Tools can range from rapid inventories to estimate the sediment budget or quantifying sediment erosion, deposition, and export through more rigorous field monitoring. In either approach, data are gathered and erosion and deposition calculations are determined and compared to the sediment export with a description of the error uncertainty. Findings are presented to local stakeholders and management officials.Sediment fingerprinting is a technique that apportions the sources of fine-grained sediment in a watershed using tracers or fingerprints. Due to different geologic and anthropogenic histories, the chemical and physical properties of sediment in a watershed may vary and often represent a unique signature (or fingerprint) for each source within the watershed. Fluvial sediment samples (the target sediment) are also collected and exhibit a composite of the source properties that can be apportioned through various statistical techniques. Using an unmixing-model and error analysis, the final apportioned sediment is determined.

  20. Evolution of the alluvial fans of the Luo River in the Weihe Basin, central China, controlled by faulting and climate change - A reevaluation of the paleogeographical setting of Dali Man site (United States)

    Rits, Daniël S.; van Balen, Ronald T.; Prins, Maarten A.; Zheng, Hongbo


    The Luo River is located in the southern part of the Chinese Loess Plateau and the northern part of the Weihe Basin, in Central China. In the basin it flows proximal to the site of the Luyang Wetland core, which is an important archive of climate change over the past 1 Myr in this region. In this paper, the contribution of the Luo River to the sedimentary record is analyzed by reconstructing the evolution of this river during the Middle to Late Pleistocene. It is argued that an alluvial fan of the Luo River has contributed to the sedimentary archive until approximately 200-240 ka. From this moment onwards, the fan became incised and terraces began to form. The formation of a new alluvial fan further downstream led to the disconnection of the Luo River from the Luyang Wetland core site. We propose that this series of events was caused by the displacement of an intra-basinal fault and the resultant faulting-forced folding, which caused increased relative subsidence, and thus increased sedimentation rates at the core site. Therefore, a complete sediment record in the 'Luyang Wetland' was preserved, despite the disconnection from the Luo River. The chronology of the fans and terraces was established using existing age control (U-series, ESR, OSL, pIRIR290 and magnetic susceptibility correlation), and through correlation of the loess-paleosol cover to marine isotope stages. Based on sedimentological characteristics of the fluvial sequence, we suggest that incision of the Luo River occurred in two steps. Small incisions took place at transitions to interglacials and the main incision phases occur at the transition from an interglacial to glacial climate. Due to the incision, basal parts of the oldest Luo River alluvial fan are exposed, and it is in one of these exposures that the famous Dali Man skull was retrieved. This study shows that the Dali Man did not live on a river terrace as previously thought, but on an aggrading alluvial fan, during wet, glacial conditions.