WorldWideScience

Sample records for assess electronic travel

  1. Electronic Commerce, the Internet and Travel Cybermediaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul O'Brien

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available The purchase of a very expensive, complex holiday requires a great deal of information and reliable expert advice. The risks involved in such a purchase are substantial. Industry opinion leaders believe that consumers will continue to take advice from a human sales consultant before purchasing, with the exception of major corporate bookings and simple point to point bookings. This paper investigates the likely disintermediation effects of electronic commerce on Retail Travel Agents. It provides the basis for the development of a strategic framework for intermediaries that can be used to enhance business performance. The findings of exploratory interviews with travel industry opinion leaders are presented, together with recommended strategic responses for Retail Travel Agents.

  2. Research on backward traveling wave electron linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huaibi; Zheng Shuxin; Ding Xiaodong; Lin Yuzheng

    1999-01-01

    Future electron linacs require high gradient acceleration. The studies on the high shunt impedance backward traveling wave electron linac accelerating structure (BTW) are presented. At first, the characteristics of BTW are researched. The option of mode and optimal design methods of accelerating cavity for BTW are studied. A physical design method for BTW accelerators, including longitudinal and transversal particle dynamics, is given. Based on above studies, a 9 MeV BTW accelerating tube at 3π/4 mode with frequency 2856 MHz for inspecting large container as radiation source at customs is designed, and a comparison with disk-loaded waveguide accelerating tube is made. The result of research leads to the conclusion that backward traveling wave accelerating structure is preferable. Because BTW has higher effective shunt impedance, shorter filling time and more stable operation

  3. 41 CFR 301-71.105 - Must we issue a written or electronic travel authorization in advance of travel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or electronic travel authorization in advance of travel? 301-71.105 Section 301-71.105 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 71-AGENCY TRAVEL ACCOUNTABILITY REQUIREMENTS Travel Authorization § 301-71.105...

  4. Travel Efficiency Assessment Method: Three Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This slide presentation summarizes three case studies EPA conducted in partnership with Boston, Kansas City, and Tucson, to assess the potential benefits of employing travel efficiency strategies in these areas.

  5. The assessment of collective dose for travellers travelling by water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Qingyu; Jiang Ping; Jin Hua

    1992-06-01

    The major contribution to the various radiation exposure received by mankind comes from natural radiation. Some environmental change caused by human beings and some activities of mankind may decrease or increase the radiation exposure level from natural radiation. People travelling by air will receive more exposure dose and by water will receive less. China has about 18000 km coast line and the inland water transportation is very flourishing. According to statistic data from Ministry of Transportation in 1988, the turnover in that year was about 2 x 10 10 man.km. The total number of fisherman for inshore fishing was nearly two million reported by Ministry of Farming, Animal Husbandry and Fishery. We measured 212 points in six typical shipping lines of inshore lines and inland rivers, and the distance was 5625 km. The average natural radiation exposure dose rate received by travellers in each shipping line was calculated. From that the assessment of collective dose equivalent for passengers by water and fishermen was derived. The value is 32.7 man.Sv for passengers and 265.3 man.Sv for fishermen

  6. The assessment of collective dose for travellers travelling by water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Qingyu; Jian Ping; Jin Hua

    1994-01-01

    The major contribution to various radiation exposure received by mankind comes from natural radiation. Some environmental change caused by human beings and some activities of mankind may decrease or increase the radiation exposure level from natural radiation. China has about 18000 km coast line and the inland water transportation is very flourishing. According to statistic data from Ministry of Transportation in 1988, the turnover in that year was about 2 x 10 10 man·km. The total number of fisherman for inshore fishing was nearly two millions reported by Ministry of Farming, Animal Husbandry and Fishery. We measured exposure dose rates over 212 points in six typical shipping lines of inshore lines and inland rivers, and the distance was 5625 km. The average natural radiation exposure dose rate received by travellers in each shipping line was calculated. From that the assessment of collective dose equivalent for passengers by water and fishermen was derived. The value is 32.7 man·Sv for passengers and 265.3 man·Sv for fishermen

  7. Have Computer, Will Not Travel: Meeting Electronically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurland, Norman D.

    1983-01-01

    Beginning with two different scenarios depicting a face-to-face conference on the one hand and, on the other, a computer or electronic conference, the author argues the advantages of electronic conferencing and describes some of its uses. (JBM)

  8. 41 CFR 301-71.3 - May we use electronic signatures on travel documents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... signatures on travel documents? 301-71.3 Section 301-71.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 71-AGENCY TRAVEL ACCOUNTABILITY REQUIREMENTS General § 301-71.3 May we use electronic signatures on travel documents? Yes, if you...

  9. Adolescent school travel: Is online mapping a practical alternative to GPS-assessed travel routes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stewart, Tom; Schipperijn, Jasper; Snizek, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    AbstractBackground Geographically accurate travel routes are necessary to estimate exposure to the environment and its potential influence on travel behaviour. Although assessing travel behaviours with Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers is increasingly common, these protocols place......-reporting error seems more pronounced for longer routes, and when multiple travel modes are used. Researchers should consider the advantages (e.g., ease of collection) and disadvantages (e.g., lack of temporal information) when deciding if the data obtainable are sufficient to answer their research questions....

  10. Exposure Data for Travel Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N O; Koornstra, Matthijs; Broughton, Jeremy

    1999-01-01

    This report illustrates why risk and exposure data are critical for policymaking at local, national and EU levels.Conclusions are drawn about the evaluation and use of risk information for different modes and estimates are presented for the fatality risk of various travel modes in the EU....

  11. Electron detector with a traVelling wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharov, A.S.; Kazakov, V.M.; Kozlov, O.V.

    1979-01-01

    Basic principles of operation of a travelling-wave detector designed to measure the shapes of nanosecond electron pulses are discussed. Propagation of electrons through the input window into the detector results in spreading of TEM waves to both sides. The energy of the wave propagating towards resistor R is absorbed by the latter, while the wave propagating in the opposite direction hits a register. Thus good matching of all the detector elements results in the absence of reflection and standing waves which provides extremely high time resolution and minimum distortion of the electron pulse shape. The detector constitutes a piece of a cylindrical coaxial line whose impedance is equal to the impedance of a transmission line. On one side the detector is loaded onto resistor R equal to the wave resistance of the detector. On the other side the detector is loaded onto the transmission line which connects the detector with a wide-range register. The design and calculation of a detector having a time resolution of about 0.1 ns are presented. The results of testing the coaxial detector When measuring electron pulses with a duration of 60 ns and frequency of 1818 MHz have shown that the developed detector (external diameter being 63 mm, internal diameter 18 mm, length 400 mm) provides the 0.2 ns time resolution

  12. Importation of yellow fever into China: assessing travel patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Leong, W Y

    2017-07-01

    Rapid increase in trade and a growing air passenger market encourages high travel volume between the regions associated with increasing risks of such importations including China. Eleven Chinese workers infected during the 2016 yellow fever (YF) outbreak in Angola imported YF into China highlighting the potential for spread into Asia. Using outbound and inbound travel data, we assessed travel patterns from and to YF endemic countries in relation to China. Among YF endemic countries, Angola has the second highest number of travellers into China and also receives the second highest number of Chinese visitors. We estimated that China needs around half a million YF vaccine doses to cover their population travelling to YF endemic countries. The recent importation cases into China also unmasked the low YF vaccination coverage among Chinese travellers and workers to Angola, indicating the need to ensure better adherence to the International Health Regulations. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017.. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. rf traveling-wave electron gun for photoinjectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaer, Mattia; Citterio, Alessandro; Craievich, Paolo; Reiche, Sven; Stingelin, Lukas; Zennaro, Riccardo

    2016-07-01

    The design of a photoinjector, in particular that of the electron source, is of central importance for free electron laser (FEL) machines where a high beam brightness is required. In comparison to standard designs, an rf traveling-wave photocathode gun can provide a more rigid beam with a higher brightness and a shorter pulse. This is illustrated by applying a specific optimization procedure to the SwissFEL photoinjector, for which a brightness improvement up to a factor 3 could be achieved together with a double gun output energy compared to the reference setup foreseeing a state-of-the-art S-band rf standing-wave gun. The higher brightness is mainly given by a (at least) double peak current at the exit of the gun which brings benefits for both the beam dynamics in the linac and the efficiency of the FEL process. The gun design foresees an innovative coaxial rf coupling at both ends of the structure which allows a solenoid with integrated bucking coil to be placed around the cathode in order to provide the necessary focusing right after emission.

  14. rf traveling-wave electron gun for photoinjectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Schaer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The design of a photoinjector, in particular that of the electron source, is of central importance for free electron laser (FEL machines where a high beam brightness is required. In comparison to standard designs, an rf traveling-wave photocathode gun can provide a more rigid beam with a higher brightness and a shorter pulse. This is illustrated by applying a specific optimization procedure to the SwissFEL photoinjector, for which a brightness improvement up to a factor 3 could be achieved together with a double gun output energy compared to the reference setup foreseeing a state-of-the-art S-band rf standing-wave gun. The higher brightness is mainly given by a (at least double peak current at the exit of the gun which brings benefits for both the beam dynamics in the linac and the efficiency of the FEL process. The gun design foresees an innovative coaxial rf coupling at both ends of the structure which allows a solenoid with integrated bucking coil to be placed around the cathode in order to provide the necessary focusing right after emission.

  15. Electronic network for monitoring travellers' diarrhoea and detection of an outbreak caused by Salmonella enteritidis among overseas travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, K; Inouye, S; Okabe, N; Taniguchi, K; Izumiya, H; Watanabe, H; Matsumoto, Y; Yokota, T; Hashimoto, S; Sagara, H

    1999-12-01

    The Traveller's Diarrhoea Network, by which the Infectious Disease Surveillance Center is electronically connected with two major airport quarantine stations and three infectious disease hospitals, was launched in February 1988 in Japan. The data on travellers' diarrhoea detected is reported weekly by e-mail. Two clusters of infection among travellers returning from Italy were reported by two airport quarantine stations at the end of September 1998. A total of 12 salmonella isolates from 2 clusters were examined. All were identified as Salmonella enteritidis, phage type 4 and showed identical banding patterns on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A case-control study showed that the scrambled eggs served at the hotel restaurant in Rome were the likely source of this outbreak. This outbreak could not have been detected promptly and investigated easily without the e-mail network. International exchange of data on travellers' diarrhoea is important for preventing and controlling food-borne illnesses infected abroad.

  16. Travelling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    homes very soon becomes a misplaced sentiment. However well planned a journey may be and how- ever important and tiring the attendances at meet- ings are, at some stage of every day the traveller finds himself in an hotel room and loneliness starts closing in from all four walls. No matter how luxu- rious the hotel may ...

  17. 8 CFR 217.5 - Electronic System for Travel Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Required elements. ESTA will collect such information as the Secretary deems necessary to issue a travel... changes his or her name; (3) The alien changes his or her gender; (4) The alien's country of citizenship...

  18. Validity of instruments to assess students' travel and pedestrian safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranowski Tom

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safe Routes to School (SRTS programs are designed to make walking and bicycling to school safe and accessible for children. Despite their growing popularity, few validated measures exist for assessing important outcomes such as type of student transport or pedestrian safety behaviors. This research validated the SRTS school travel survey and a pedestrian safety behavior checklist. Methods Fourth grade students completed a brief written survey on how they got to school that day with set responses. Test-retest reliability was obtained 3-4 hours apart. Convergent validity of the SRTS travel survey was assessed by comparison to parents' report. For the measure of pedestrian safety behavior, 10 research assistants observed 29 students at a school intersection for completion of 8 selected pedestrian safety behaviors. Reliability was determined in two ways: correlations between the research assistants' ratings to that of the Principal Investigator (PI and intraclass correlations (ICC across research assistant ratings. Results The SRTS travel survey had high test-retest reliability (κ = 0.97, n = 96, p Conclusions These validated instruments can be used to assess SRTS programs. The pedestrian safety behavior checklist may benefit from further formative work.

  19. Electron and VLF travel time differences for wave-particle interactions at L=4: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rash, J.P.S.; Scourfield, M.W.J.; Dougherty, M.K.

    1984-01-01

    The cyclotron resonance or gyroresonance interaction has been widely invoked as a generation mechanism for discrete VLF emissions and plasmaspheric hiss. This interaction involves electrons and VLF waves travelling in opposite directions along a geomagnetic field line. We examine, for an interaction region in the equatorial plane at L=4, the energy of the resonant electrons as a function of VLF wave frequency and ambient equatorial electron density. Then for two different spatial configurations of the interaction and two standard plasma distribution models we examine the difference in travel times to a ground-based observer in the Southern hemisphere for the electrons and waves taking part in the interaction. This difference in travel times is shown as a function of VLF wave frequency and equatorial electron density. The results, and their significance for observations of auroral electrons and VLF at Sanae, Antarctica, are discussed and compared with similar results for the Cerenkov interaction discussed in an earlier paper

  20. The effect of a new intercity expressway based on travel time reliability using electronic toll collection data

    OpenAIRE

    Yamazaki, H.; Uno, N.; Kurauchi, F.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a method of evaluating the level of service of road networks, based on the average travel time and travel time reliability using electronic toll collection (ETC) data. The authors focused on the variance in travel time under normal circumstances, thus, traffic accidents were removed from the database, and any effect of individual vehicle preference was excluded. They evaluated the travel time distribution based on the average travel time from ETC data for each 15-min inte...

  1. German travelers' preferences for travel vaccines assessed by a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Christine; Curran, Desmond; Anastassopoulou, Anastassia; De Moerlooze, Laurence

    2018-02-08

    Many travelers to regions with endemic infectious diseases do not follow health authorities' recommendations regarding vaccination against vaccine-preventable infectious diseases, before traveling. The determinants of individual travelers' decisions to vaccinate before traveling are largely unknown. This study aimed to provide this information using a discrete choice experiment (DCE) administered to four types of German travelers: (1) business travelers; (2) travelers visiting friends and relatives (VFR); (3) leisure travelers; and (4) backpackers. A DCE survey was developed, pretested and administered online. It included a series of choice questions in which respondents chose between two hypothetical vaccines, each characterized by four disease attributes with varying levels describing the of risk, health impact, curability and transmissibility of the disease they would prevent (described with four disease attributes with varying levels of risk, health impact, curability and transmissibility), and varying levels of four vaccine attributes (duration of protection, number of doses required, time required for vaccination, and vaccine cost). A random-parameters logit model was used to estimate the importance weights each traveler type placed on the various attribute levels. These weights were used to calculate mean monetary equivalents (MMEs) of changes in each attribute (holding all others constant) and of hypothetical disease-vaccine combinations. All traveler types' choices indicated that they attached the greatest importance to the risk and health impact of disease and to the vaccine cost whereas the other disease and vaccine attributes were less important for their decisions about travel vaccines. An option of not choosing any of the vaccine-pairs presented was rarely selected indicating that travelers' generally prefer to be vaccinated rather than not. The MMEs of changes in vaccine attributes indicated a very high variability between the individual travelers

  2. Traveling waves in a free-electron laser with an electromagnetic wiggler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olumi, Mohsen; Maraghechi, B; Rouhani, M H

    2011-01-01

    The propagation of electromagnetic traveling wave in a free-electron laser (FEL) with an electromagnetic wiggler is investigated using the relativistic fluid-Maxwell formulation. By adapting the traveling-wave ansatz, three coupled, nonlinear ordinary differential equations are obtained describing the nonlinear propagation of the coupled wave. These equations may be used to study saturation in FELs. By linearizing the nonlinear equations dispersion relations for the traveling wave are obtained. Numerical solution of the small-signal traveling dispersion relation reveals the coupling of radiation to both slow and fast space-charge waves. It is shown that the traveling wave, which is not a normal mode in a laboratory frame, becomes a normal mode in terms of a transformed variable.

  3. Validity of instruments to assess students' travel and pedestrian safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Jason A; Watson, Kathy; Baranowski, Tom; Nicklas, Theresa A; Uscanga, Doris K; Hanfling, Marcus J

    2010-05-18

    Safe Routes to School (SRTS) programs are designed to make walking and bicycling to school safe and accessible for children. Despite their growing popularity, few validated measures exist for assessing important outcomes such as type of student transport or pedestrian safety behaviors. This research validated the SRTS school travel survey and a pedestrian safety behavior checklist. Fourth grade students completed a brief written survey on how they got to school that day with set responses. Test-retest reliability was obtained 3-4 hours apart. Convergent validity of the SRTS travel survey was assessed by comparison to parents' report. For the measure of pedestrian safety behavior, 10 research assistants observed 29 students at a school intersection for completion of 8 selected pedestrian safety behaviors. Reliability was determined in two ways: correlations between the research assistants' ratings to that of the Principal Investigator (PI) and intraclass correlations (ICC) across research assistant ratings. The SRTS travel survey had high test-retest reliability (kappa = 0.97, n = 96, p < 0.001) and convergent validity (kappa = 0.87, n = 81, p < 0.001). The pedestrian safety behavior checklist had moderate reliability across research assistants' ratings (ICC = 0.48) and moderate correlation with the PI (r = 0.55, p = < 0.01). When two raters simultaneously used the instrument, the ICC increased to 0.65. Overall percent agreement (91%), sensitivity (85%) and specificity (83%) were acceptable. These validated instruments can be used to assess SRTS programs. The pedestrian safety behavior checklist may benefit from further formative work.

  4. Assessing the risk of work-related international travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druckman, Myles; Harber, Philip; Liu, Yihang; Quigley, Robert L

    2014-11-01

    To identify factors affecting the likelihood of requiring medical services during international business trips. Data from more than 800,000 international trips and medical assistance cases provided to 48 multinational corporations in 2009. Travel destination countries were grouped into four a priori risk-related categories. Travel to "low" medical risk countries in aggregate accounted for more hospitalizations and medical evacuations than travel to "high" medical risk countries. Nevertheless, the risk per trip was much higher for travel to higher medical risk countries. Corporations with employees on international travel should allocate sufficient resources to manage and ideally prevent medical issues during business travel. Travel medicine must focus on more than infectious diseases, and programs are necessary for both high- and low-risk regions. Improved understanding of travel-related needs determines resource allocation and risk mitigation efforts.

  5. Results of the Fall 2007 UC Davis Campus Travel Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Congleton, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Our collective transportation choices have far-reaching effects both locally and globally, from traffic congestion to global warming. While the concerted actions of many travelers working together could make significant inroads into solving these problems, a single traveler working alone could not. This report presents a snapshot of campus travel at the outset of the 2007-2008 academic year, measures campus mode split and average vehicle ridership, collects UC Davis travelers' opinions about ...

  6. Compact toroidal energy storage device with relativistically densified electrons through the use of travelling magnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, W.; Faehl, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    A new concept for a small compact multimegajoule energy storage device utilizing relativistically densified electron beam circulating in a torus is presented. The electron cloud is produced through inductive charge injection by a travelling magnetic wave circulating the torus. Parameters are given for two representative toroidal energy storage devices, consisting of 1 m and 32 m in radius respectively, which could store more than 4 x 10 17 electrons and 30' MJ in energy. The concept utilizes the idea that large electric and magnetic fields can be produced by a partially space-charge neutralized intense relativistic electron beam which could become many orders of magnitude greater than the externally applied field confining the beam. In the present approach, the electron cloud densification can be achieved gradually by permitting multiple traversals of the magnetic wave around the torus. The magnetic mirror force acts on the orbital magnetic electron dipole moment and completely penetrates the entire electron cloud. As the electrons gain relativistic energies, the beam can be continuously densified at the front of the travelling wave, where the magnetic field is rising with time. The use of travelling magnetic wave to accelerate an electron cloud and the use of large electric field at the thusly accelerated cloud form the basis for a high beam intensity and hence high energy storage. Technical considerations and several potential applications, which include the driving of a powerful gyrotron, are discussed

  7. A stated adaptation approach to assess changes in individuals’ activity-travel behavior in presence of personalized travel information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parvaneh, Zahra; Arentze, Theo; Timmermans, Harry

    2014-01-01

    The rapid and inevitable growth of availability of travel information for travellers has increased expectations among policy makers about the benefits of travel information. It is increasingly expected that providing advanced travel information can trigger particular travel behaviors that would

  8. Travel risk assessment, advice and vaccinations in immunocompromised travellers (HIV, solid organ transplant and haematopoeitic stem cell transplant recipients): A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, A K; Trubiano, J A; Spelman, D W

    2015-01-01

    International travellers with immunocompromising conditions such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, solid organ transplantation (SOT) and haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are at a significant risk of travel-related illnesses from both communicable and non-communicable diseases, depending on the intensity of underlying immune dysfunction, travel destinations and activities. In addition, the choice of travel vaccinations, timing and protective antibody responses are also highly dependent on the underlying conditions and thus pose significant challenges to the health-care providers who are involved in pre-travel risk assessment. This review article provides a framework of understanding and approach to aforementioned groups of immunocompromised travellers regarding pre-travel risk assessment and management; in particular travel vaccinations, infectious and non-infectious disease risks and provision of condition-specific advice; to reduce travel-related mortality and morbidity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Physics design of a 10 MeV, 6 kW travelling wave electron linac

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present the physics design of a 10 MeV, 6 kW S-band (2856 MHz) electron linear accelerator (linac), which has been recently built and successfully operated at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore. The accelerating structure is a 2 π / 3 mode constant impedance travelling wave structure, which ...

  10. Impact of data source on travel time reliability assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Travel time reliability measures are becoming an increasingly important input to the mobility and : congestion management studies. In the case of Maryland State Highway Administration, reliability : measures are key elements in the agencys Annual ...

  11. Assessing the Predictability of Scheduled-Vehicle Travel Times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiesyte, Dalia; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2009-01-01

    One of the most desired and challenging services in collective transport systems is the real-time prediction of the near-future travel times of scheduled vehicles, especially public buses, thus improving the experience of the transportation users, who may be able to better schedule their travel......, and also enabling system operators to perform real-time monitoring. While travel-time prediction has been researched extensively during the past decade, the accuracies of existing techniques fall short of what is desired, and proposed mathematical prediction models are often not transferable to other...... systems because the properties of the travel-time-related data of vehicles are highly context-dependent, making the models difficult to fit. We propose a framework for evaluating various predictability types of the data independently of the model, and we also compare predictability analysis results...

  12. Physical design of 9 MeV travelling wave electron linac accelerating tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huaibi; Ding Xiaodong; Lin Yuzheng

    2000-01-01

    An accelerating tube is described. It is a part of an accelerator used for inspection of vehicle cargoes in rail cars, trucks, shipping containers, or airplanes in customs. A klystron with power of 4 MW and frequency of 2856 MHz will be applied to supply microwave power. The electrons can be accelerated by a travelling wave in the accelerating tube about 220 cm long, with a buncher whose capture efficiency is more than 80%. Energy of electrons after travelling through the tube can reach 9 MeV (pulse current intensity 170 mA) or 6 MeV (pulse current intensity 300 mA). Physical design of the accelerating tube, including the calculations of longitudinal particle dynamics, structure parameter and working character is carried out

  13. Power efficiency optimization of disk-loaded waveguide traveling wave structure of electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jinghe; Li Jinhai; Li Chunguang

    2014-01-01

    Disk-loaded waveguide traveling wave structure (TWS), which is widely used in scientific research and industry, is a vital accelerating structure in electron linear accelerator. The power efficiency is an important parameter for designing TWS, which greatly effects the expenses for the fabrication and commercial running. The key parameters related with power efficiency were studied for TWS optimization. The result was proved by experiment result, and it shows some help for accelerator engineering. (authors)

  14. 75 FR 47701 - Electronic System for Travel Authorization (ESTA): Travel Promotion Fee and Fee for Use of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities. \\10\\ U.S. Office of Travel and Tourism... Protection (CBP) also invites comments on the economic, environmental or federalism effects of the rule, as... Department of Commerce, Office of Travel and Tourism Industries, CBP estimated the future number of VWP...

  15. Real-time traveler information market assessment white paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    This report takes a multi-modal look at the lay of the land of the real-time traveler information : market in the United States. This includes identification and characterization of the gaps in the : domestic industry with respect to data cover...

  16. Optical emission from a high-refractive-index waveguide excited by a traveling electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwamura, Yuji; Yamada, Minoru; Okamoto, Ryuichi; Kanai, Takeshi; Fares, Hesham

    2008-01-01

    An optical emission scheme was demonstrated, in which a high-refractive-index waveguide is excited by a traveling electron beam in a vacuum environment. The waveguide was made of Si-SiO 2 layers. The velocity of light propagating in the waveguide was slowed down to 1/3 of that in free space due to the high refractive index of Si. The light penetrated partly into the vacuum in the form of a surface wave. The electron beam was emitted from an electron gun and propagated along the surface of the waveguide. When the velocity of the electron coincided with that of the light, optical emission was observed. This emission is a type of Cherenkov radiation and is not conventional cathode luminescence from the waveguide materials because Si and SiO 2 are transparent to light at the emitted wavelength. This type of emission was observed in an optical wavelength range from 1.2 to 1.6 μm with an electron acceleration voltage of 32-42 kV. The characteristics of the emitted light, such as the polarization direction and the relation between the acceleration voltage of the electron beam and the optical wavelength, coincided well with the theoretical results. The coherent length of an electron wave in the vacuum was confirmed to be equal to the electron spacing, as found by measuring the spectral profile of the emitted light

  17. Travel medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To define the practice of travel medicine, provide the basics of a comprehensive pretravel consultation for international travelers, and assist in identifying patients who might require referral to travel medicine professionals. Sources of information Guidelines and recommendations on travel medicine and travel-related illnesses by national and international travel health authorities were reviewed. MEDLINE and EMBASE searches for related literature were also performed. Main message Travel medicine is a highly dynamic specialty that focuses on pretravel preventive care. A comprehensive risk assessment for each individual traveler is essential in order to accurately evaluate traveler-, itinerary-, and destination-specific risks, and to advise on the most appropriate risk management interventions to promote health and prevent adverse health outcomes during travel. Vaccinations might also be required and should be personalized according to the individual traveler’s immunization history, travel itinerary, and the amount of time available before departure. Conclusion A traveler’s health and safety depends on a practitioner’s level of expertise in providing pretravel counseling and vaccinations, if required. Those who advise travelers are encouraged to be aware of the extent of this responsibility and to refer all high-risk travelers to travel medicine professionals whenever possible. PMID:25500599

  18. Bandwidth broadening effect in a traveling-wave-tube amplifier by using impulse electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Sang Wook; Choi, Jin Joo; Kim, Seon Joo

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a wideband amplification mechanism involving an impulse electron beam. To prove broadband amplification with the impulse beam, we perform 3-dimensional particle-in-cell (3D PIC) code simulation. An impulse electron beam with a pulse width of 1 ns with electric potential 17.2 kV is injected into an interaction circuit of a coupled-cavity traveling-wave-tube (CCTWT) driven by a continuous-wave (CW) signal of 29.1 GHz. The resulting output bandwidth was 2.96%, and the peak output power of 713 W was the same as that obtained with CW operation at a single frequency. The simulation yielded very similar results with ultra short impulse signal from the simulation.

  19. Traveler information and tourism : assessment of traveler information and 511 impacts upon tourist destinations and national parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-08

    The study focused on traveler information systems in tourism areas and the impacts of those traveler information efforts. Case studies were conducted on four sites: Acadia National Park and Bar Harbor, Maine; Branson, Missouri; the I-81 Corridor in t...

  20. Assessment of Smolt Condition for Travel Time Analysis, 1993-1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrock, Robin M; Beeman, John W; VanderKooi, Scott P [US Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Cook, WA

    1999-02-01

    The assessment of smolt condition for travel time analysis (ASCTTA) project provided information on the level of smoltification in Columbia River hatchery and wild salmonid stocks to the Fish Passage Center (FPC), for the primary purpose of in-river management of flows.

  1. The assessment of the collective dose for China population travelling by water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Qingyu; Jiang Ping; Jin Hua

    1992-01-01

    The exposure dose rate at 212 points in six shipping lines of the inshore and inland rivers has been measured and the average natural sources exposure dose rate which may be received by the travellers in each shipping line has got. The assessment of collective dose equivalent for the travellers on the shipping lines and the fishery people on the sea has done. In 1988, the collective dose equivalent from natural sources received by Chinese population travelled on the shipping lines of the inshore and inland rivers was 32.7 man·Sv, and the collective dose equivalent from natural sources received by fishery people on the sea was 265.3 man·Sv. The average dose equivalent rate from natural sources at various stayed point received by people of China is given

  2. Assessment of Smolt Condition for Travel Time Analysis Project, 1987-1997 Project Review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrock, Robin M.; Hans, Karen M.; Beeman, John W. [US Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Cook, WA

    1997-12-01

    The assessment of Smolt Condition for Travel Time Analysis Project (Bonneville Power Administration Project 87-401) monitored attributes of salmonid smolt physiology in the Columbia and Snake River basins from 1987 to 1997, under the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program, in cooperation with the Smolt Monitoring Program of the Fish Passage Center. The primary goal of the project was to investigate the physiological development of juvenile salmonids related to migration rates. The assumption was made that the level of smolt development, interacting with environmental factos such as flow, would be reflected in travel times. The Fish Passage Center applied the physiological measurements of smolt condition to Water Budget management, to regulate flows so as to decrease travel time and increase survival.

  3. Travelling in the eastern Mediterranean with landscape character assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Jaber, N.; Abunnasr, Y.; Abu Yahya, A.; Boulad, N.; Christou, O.; Dimitropoulos, G.; Dimopoulos, T.; Gkoltsiou, K.; Khreis, N.; Manolaki, P.; Michael, K.; Odeh, T.; Papatheodoulou, A.; Sorotou, A.; Sinno, S.; Suliman, O.; Symons, N.; Terkenli, T.; Trigkas, Vassilis; Trovato, M. G.; Victora, M.; Zomeni, M.; Vogiatzakis, I. N.

    2015-06-01

    Following its application in Northern Europe, Landscape Character Assessment has also been implemented in Euro-Mediterranean countries as a tool for classifying, describing and assessing landscapes. Many landscape classifications employed in the Euro-Mediterranean area are similar in philosophy and application to the ones developed in Northern Europe. However, many aspects of landform, climate, land-use and ecology, as well as socio-economic context are distinctive of Mediterranean landscapes. The paper discusses the conceptual and methodological issues faced during landscape mapping and characterisation in four East-Mediterranean countries (within the MEDSCAPES project): Cyprus, Greece, Jordan and Lebanon. The major hurdles to overcome during the first phase of methodology development include variation in availability, quality, scale and coverage of spatial datasets between countries and also terminology semantics around landscapes. For example, the concept of landscape - a well-defined term in Greek and English - did not exist in Arabic. Another issue is the use of relative terms like 'high mountains,' `uplands' `lowlands' or ' hills'. Such terms, which are regularly used in landscape description, were perceived slightly differently in the four participating countries. In addition differences exist in nomenclature and classification systems used by each country for the dominant landscape-forming factors i.e. geology, soils and land use- but also in the cultural processes shaping the landscapes - compared both to each other and to the Northern-European norms. This paper argues for the development of consistent, regionally adapted, relevant and standardised methodologies if the results and application of LCA in the eastern Mediterranean region are to be transferable and comparable between countries.

  4. THE ELECTRONIC COMMERCE IN THE TRAVEL AGENCIES’ ACTIVITIES IN BULGARIA AND TERMS OF REFERENCE FOR ITS ELABORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velina Kazandzhieva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The data used in the paper and the sources of information studied, show regaining of the positions and the role of travel agencies in the distribution system of tourism. The main trends and special features of the European on-line tourist market have been analyzed, as well as the state of the electronic commerce in travel agencies in Bulgaria. Alternatives and values-generating strategies for the intermediary business through efficient use of the advantages of е-commerce have been pointed out.

  5. Provision of travel medicine advice through community pharmacies: assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practices of pharmacists in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Nur Akmar; See, Yee Lian

    2016-10-01

    The risk for travel-related illnesses has increased with significant growth in international travel, but very few travellers seek travel advice. Community pharmacists can play a vital role in the provision of travel medicine advice due to their accessibility. This study aimed to assess travel medicine knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) among community pharmacists in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A self-administered KAP questionnaire was distributed to a convenience sample of pharmacists in Kuala Lumpur identified from the list of licensed community pharmacists in Malaysia year 2014. Questionnaires were returned by 111 pharmacists of 143 distributed (response rate, 78%). Most of the respondents (82%) were not trained in travel medicine. Overall, mean knowledge score was 4.4 ( ± 1.7), indicating a moderate level of knowledge on a variety of travel-related health issues. Community pharmacists who graduated from foreign universities possessed significantly higher knowledge scores than did those who graduated locally (P pharmacy curricula, continuous pharmacy education or certified training may improve the quality of travel advice given and allow pharmacists to be recognised as a credible source of information on travel medicine. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  6. Physics design of a 10 MeV, 6 kW travelling wave electron linac for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, Nita S.; Dhingra, Rinky; Kumar, Vinit

    2016-01-01

    We present the physics design of a 10 MeV, 6 kW S-band (2856 MHz) electron linear accelerator (linac), which has been recently built and successfully operated at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore. The accelerating structure is a 2π/3 mode constant impedance travelling wave structure, which comprises travelling wave buncher cells, followed by regular accelerating cells. The structure is designed to accelerate 50 keV electron beam from the electron gun to 10 MeV. This paper describes the details of electromagnetic design simulations to fix the mechanical dimensions and tolerances, as well as heat loss calculations in the structure. Results of design simulations have been compared with those obtained using approximate analytical formulae. The beam dynamics simulation with space charge is performed and the required magnetic field profile for keeping the beam focussed in the linac has been evaluated and discussed. An important feature of a travelling wave linac (in contrast with standing wave linac) is that it accepts the RF power over a band of frequencies. Three dimensional transient simulations of the accelerating structure along with the input and output couplers have been performed using the software CST-MWS to explicitly demonstrate this feature. (author)

  7. A global travelers' electronic health record template standard for personal health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Chuan; Detmer, Don E; Shabbir, Syed-Abdul; Nguyen, Phung Anh; Jian, Wen-Shan; Mihalas, George I; Shortliffe, Edward H; Tang, Paul; Haux, Reinhold; Kimura, Michio

    2012-01-01

    Tourism as well as international business travel creates health risks for individuals and populations both in host societies and home countries. One strategy to reduce health-related risks to travelers is to provide travelers and relevant caregivers timely, ongoing access to their own health information. Many websites offer health advice for travelers. For example, the WHO and US Department of State offer up-to-date health information about countries relevant to travel. However, little has been done to assure travelers that their medical information is available at the right place and time when the need might arise. Applications of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) utilizing mobile phones for health management are promising tools both for the delivery of healthcare services and the promotion of personal health. This paper describes the project developed by international informaticians under the umbrella of the International Medical Informatics Association. A template capable of becoming an international standard is proposed. This application is available free to anyone who is interested. Furthermore, its source code is made open.

  8. Assessment of the potential for international dissemination of Ebola virus via commercial air travel during the 2014 west African outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoch, Isaac I; Creatore, Maria I; Cetron, Martin S; Brownstein, John S; Pesik, Nicki; Miniota, Jennifer; Tam, Theresa; Hu, Wei; Nicolucci, Adriano; Ahmed, Saad; Yoon, James W; Berry, Isha; Hay, Simon I; Anema, Aranka; Tatem, Andrew J; MacFadden, Derek; German, Matthew; Khan, Kamran

    2015-01-03

    The WHO declared the 2014 west African Ebola epidemic a public health emergency of international concern in view of its potential for further international spread. Decision makers worldwide are in need of empirical data to inform and implement emergency response measures. Our aim was to assess the potential for Ebola virus to spread across international borders via commercial air travel and assess the relative efficiency of exit versus entry screening of travellers at commercial airports. We analysed International Air Transport Association data for worldwide flight schedules between Sept 1, 2014, and Dec 31, 2014, and historic traveller flight itinerary data from 2013 to describe expected global population movements via commercial air travel out of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. Coupled with Ebola virus surveillance data, we modelled the expected number of internationally exported Ebola virus infections, the potential effect of air travel restrictions, and the efficiency of airport-based traveller screening at international ports of entry and exit. We deemed individuals initiating travel from any domestic or international airport within these three countries to have possible exposure to Ebola virus. We deemed all other travellers to have no significant risk of exposure to Ebola virus. Based on epidemic conditions and international flight restrictions to and from Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone as of Sept 1, 2014 (reductions in passenger seats by 51% for Liberia, 66% for Guinea, and 85% for Sierra Leone), our model projects 2.8 travellers infected with Ebola virus departing the above three countries via commercial flights, on average, every month. 91,547 (64%) of all air travellers departing Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone had expected destinations in low-income and lower-middle-income countries. Screening international travellers departing three airports would enable health assessments of all travellers at highest risk of exposure to Ebola virus infection

  9. Quantifying the impact on navigation performance in visually impaired: Auditory information loss versus information gain enabled through electronic travel aids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Kreilinger

    Full Text Available This study's purpose was to analyze and quantify the impact of auditory information loss versus information gain provided by electronic travel aids (ETAs on navigation performance in people with low vision. Navigation performance of ten subjects (age: 54.9±11.2 years with visual acuities >1.0 LogMAR was assessed via the Graz Mobility Test (GMT. Subjects passed through a maze in three different modalities: 'Normal' with visual and auditory information available, 'Auditory Information Loss' with artificially reduced hearing (leaving only visual information, and 'ETA' with a vibrating ETA based on ultrasonic waves, thereby facilitating visual, auditory, and tactile information. Main performance measures comprised passage time and number of contacts. Additionally, head tracking was used to relate head movements to motion direction. When comparing 'Auditory Information Loss' to 'Normal', subjects needed significantly more time (p<0.001, made more contacts (p<0.001, had higher relative viewing angles (p = 0.002, and a higher percentage of orientation losses (p = 0.011. The only significant difference when comparing 'ETA' to 'Normal' was a reduced number of contacts (p<0.001. Our study provides objective, quantifiable measures of the impact of reduced hearing on the navigation performance in low vision subjects. Significant effects of 'Auditory Information Loss' were found for all measures; for example, passage time increased by 17.4%. These findings show that low vision subjects rely on auditory information for navigation. In contrast, the impact of the ETA was not significant but further analysis of head movements revealed two different coping strategies: half of the subjects used the ETA to increase speed, whereas the other half aimed at avoiding contacts.

  10. Design study of a traveling-wave Thomson-scattering experiment for the realization of optical free electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiniger, Klaus; Loeser, Markus; Pausch, Richard; Schramm, Ulrich [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Albach, Daniel; Debus, Alexander; Roeser, Fabian; Siebold, Matthias; Bussmann, Michael [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We present an experimental setup strategy for the realization of an optical free-electron laser (OFEL) in the Traveling-Wave Thomson-Scattering geometry (TWTS). In TWTS, the electric field of petawatt class, pulse-front tilted laser pulses is used to provide an optical undulator field. This is passed by a relativistic electron bunch so that electron direction of motion and laser propagation direction enclose an interaction angle. The combination of side scattering and pulse-front tilt provides continuous overlap of electrons and laser pulse over meter scale distances which are achieved with centimeter wide laser pulses. An experimental challenge lies in shaping of these wide laser pulses in terms of laser dispersion compensation along the electron trajectory and focusing. In the talk we show how diffraction gratings in combination with mirrors are used to introduce and control dispersion of the laser in order to provide a plane wave laser field along the electron trajectory. Furthermore we give tolerance limits on alignment errors to operate the OFEL. Example setups illustrate functioning and demonstrate feasibility of the scheme.

  11. Roadway network productivity assessment : system-wide analysis under variant travel demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    The analysis documented in this report examines the hypothesis that the system-wide productivity of a metropolitan freeway system in peak periods is higher in moderate travel demand conditions than in excessive travel demand conditions. The approach ...

  12. Assessing segment- and corridor-based travel-time reliability on urban freeways : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Travel time and its reliability are intuitive performance measures for freeway traffic operations. The objective of this project was to quantify segment-based and corridor-based travel time reliability measures on urban freeways. To achieve this obje...

  13. An assessment of travel time for spills management - using HEC-RAS water quality analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Disley, Tom; Gharabaghi, Bahram; Perdikaris, John [University of Guelph, Guelph, (Canada); Singh, Amanjot; Dougherty, Jennifer [Credit Valley Conservation Authority, Mississauga, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    In order to mitigate the detrimental effects that contaminants such as petrochemical and chemical spills may have on the environment it is critical to understand their transport. This paper presented an assessment of travel time for spills management using HEC-RAS water quality analysis on the Credit River Watershed. It is a 1000 km2 area of urban and rural landscapes drained by 90 km of the main Credit River. The study focused on the mixing characteristics of 5 stream reaches in the Credit River watershed. Dye tracing was done under three different flow conditions to obtain a longitudinal dispersion coefficient, which is a necessary parameter for predicting and modelling time concentration curves downstream of a spill. The longitudinal dispersion coefficient was input into the US Army Corp of Engineers, Hydrologic Engineering Centers River Analysis System (HEC RAS) to predict time concentration curves. The HEC RAS model produced average travel time close to those measured in the field after final calibration was completed.

  14. An assessment of travel time for spills management - using HEC-RAS water quality analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disley, Tom; Gharabaghi, Bahram; Perdikaris, John; Singh, Amanjot; Dougherty, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    In order to mitigate the detrimental effects that contaminants such as petrochemical and chemical spills may have on the environment it is critical to understand their transport. This paper presented an assessment of travel time for spills management using HEC-RAS water quality analysis on the Credit River Watershed. It is a 1000 km2 area of urban and rural landscapes drained by 90 km of the main Credit River. The study focused on the mixing characteristics of 5 stream reaches in the Credit River watershed. Dye tracing was done under three different flow conditions to obtain a longitudinal dispersion coefficient, which is a necessary parameter for predicting and modelling time concentration curves downstream of a spill. The longitudinal dispersion coefficient was input into the US Army Corp of Engineers, Hydrologic Engineering Centers River Analysis System (HEC RAS) to predict time concentration curves. The HEC RAS model produced average travel time close to those measured in the field after final calibration was completed.

  15. How accessible are coral reefs to people? A global assessment based on travel time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maire, Eva; Cinner, Joshua; Velez, Laure; Huchery, Cindy; Mora, Camilo; Dagata, Stephanie; Vigliola, Laurent; Wantiez, Laurent; Kulbicki, Michel; Mouillot, David

    2016-04-01

    The depletion of natural resources has become a major issue in many parts of the world, with the most accessible resources being most at risk. In the terrestrial realm, resource depletion has classically been related to accessibility through road networks. In contrast, in the marine realm, the impact on living resources is often framed into the Malthusian theory of human density around ecosystems. Here, we develop a new framework to estimate the accessibility of global coral reefs using potential travel time from the nearest human settlement or market. We show that 58% of coral reefs are located travel time from the market is a strong predictor of fish biomass on coral reefs. We also highlight a relative deficit of protection on coral reef areas near people, with disproportional protection on reefs far from people. This suggests that conservation efforts are targeting low-conflict reefs or places that may already be receiving de facto protection due to their isolation. Our global assessment of accessibility in the marine realm is a critical step to better understand the interplay between humans and resources. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  16. A simple method to assess unsaturated zone time lag in the travel time from ground surface to receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Marcelo R; Jones, Jon P; Frind, Emil O; Rudolph, David L

    2013-01-01

    In contaminant travel from ground surface to groundwater receptors, the time taken in travelling through the unsaturated zone is known as the unsaturated zone time lag. Depending on the situation, this time lag may or may not be significant within the context of the overall problem. A method is presented for assessing the importance of the unsaturated zone in the travel time from source to receptor in terms of estimates of both the absolute and the relative advective times. A choice of different techniques for both unsaturated and saturated travel time estimation is provided. This method may be useful for practitioners to decide whether to incorporate unsaturated processes in conceptual and numerical models and can also be used to roughly estimate the total travel time between points near ground surface and a groundwater receptor. This method was applied to a field site located in a glacial aquifer system in Ontario, Canada. Advective travel times were estimated using techniques with different levels of sophistication. The application of the proposed method indicates that the time lag in the unsaturated zone is significant at this field site and should be taken into account. For this case, sophisticated and simplified techniques lead to similar assessments when the same knowledge of the hydraulic conductivity field is assumed. When there is significant uncertainty regarding the hydraulic conductivity, simplified calculations did not lead to a conclusive decision. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Design of hybrid electron linac with standing wave buncher and traveling wave structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutsaev, S.V.; Sobenin, N.P.; Smirnov, A.Yu.; Kamenschikov, D.S.; Gusarova, M.A.; Nikolskiy, K.I.; Zavadtsev, A.A.; Lalayan, M.V.

    2011-01-01

    A disk-loaded waveguide (DLW) is the most common structure for compact linear accelerators working in a traveling wave (TW) regime. Among its advantages are high shunt impedance and manufacturing simplicity. The other popular structure is an on-axis coupled bi-periodical accelerating structure (BAS) that works in standing wave (SW) regime. Both the standing and the traveling wave regimes have their own advantages and disadvantages. The design of the hybrid accelerator with SW buncher and TW accelerating section presented in this paper unites the advantages of both regimes. For example, the buncher in the hybrid accelerator is shorter than in a pure TW accelerator, and it requires no solenoid; this structure is more technologically convenient as it does not require a circulator. The other way to combine the advantages of DLW and BAS is to design a magnetic coupled disk-loaded waveguide (DLW-M). This paper also presents the results of a survey study that analyzed the electrodynamical parameters of such a structure and compared them with those of DLW. The experimental data is also presented. Higher order modes, multipacting discharge and thermal simulations show that DLW-M structure is more preferable to classical DLW.

  18. Comparison of geographic methods to assess travel patterns of persons diagnosed with HIV in Philadelphia: how close is close enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart, Michael G; Share, Amanda M; Shpaner, Mark; Brady, Kathleen A

    2015-02-01

    Travel distance to medical care has been assessed using a variety of geographic methods. Network analyses are less common, but may generate more accurate estimates of travel costs. We compared straight-line distances and driving distance, as well as average drive time and travel time on a public transit network for 1789 persons diagnosed with HIV between 2010 and 2012 to identify differences overall, and by distinct geographic areas of Philadelphia. Paired t-tests were used to assess differences across methods, and analysis of variance was used to assess between-group differences. Driving distances were significantly longer than straight-line distances (ptravel costs, and may improve models to predict medical care outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Electron Emission And Beam Generation Using Ferroelectric Cathodes (electron Beam Generation, Lead Lanthanum Zicronate Titanate, High Power Traveling Wave Tube Amplfier)

    CERN Document Server

    Flechtner, D D

    1999-01-01

    In 1989, researchers at CERN published the discovery of significant electron emission (1– 100 A/cm2) from Lead- Lanthanum-Zirconate-Titanate (PLZT). The publication of these results led to international interest in ferroelectric cathodes studies for use in pulsed power devices. At Cornell University in 1991, experiments with Lead-Zirconate-Titanate (PZT) compositions were begun to study the feasibility of using this ferroelectric material as a cathode in the electron gun section of High Power Traveling Wave Tube Amplifier Experiments. Current-voltage characteristics were documented for diode voltages ranging from 50– 500,000 V with anode cathode gaps of.5– 6 cm. A linear current-voltage relation was found for voltages less than 50 kV. For diode voltages ≥ 200 kV, a typical Child-Langmuir V3/2 dependence was observed...

  20. Comparison of the effect of annular and solid electron beams on linear and nonlinear traveling wave tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sheykhe

    Full Text Available The present paper, compares the effect of the annular and solid electron beam on the efficiency of linear and nonlinear TWTs. To do this, first we introduce four different geometric structure of the beam-helix. Then, we calculate the output power of each structure, in linear and nonlinear modes, at different frequencies using the numerical solution of the mathematical equations of the multi-frequency Eulerian model. Now, plot the output power in terms of distance for each structure at different frequencies and compare them. In a linear tube, the effect of annular beams on the output power is better than the solid beam, while this affects the frequency in nonlinear tubes. It is shown that in linear regime the power increase linearly with frequency but for nonlinear regimes is nonlinear. Keywords: Annular beam, Solid beam, Circuit power, Nonlinear, Traveling wave tube, Helix

  1. Cartographic Mapping and Travel Burden to Assess and Develop Strategies to Improve Minority Access to National Cancer Clinical Trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruner, Deborah Watkins; Pugh, Stephanie L.; Yeager, Katherine A.; Bruner, Jesse; Curran, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To assess how accrual to clinical trials is related to US minority population density relative to clinical trial site location and distance traveled to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) clinical trial sites. Methods and Materials: Data included member site address and ZIP codes, patient accrual, and patient race or ethnicity and ZIP code. Geographic Information System maps were developed for overall, Latino, and African American accrual to trials by population density. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to assess differences in distance traveled by site, type of trial, and race or ethnicity. Results: From 2006 to 2009, 6168 patients enrolled on RTOG trials. The RTOG US site distribution is generally concordant with overall population density. Sites with highest accrual are located throughout the United States and parts of Canada and do not cluster, nor does highest minority accrual cluster in areas of highest US minority population density. Of the 4913 US patients with complete data, patients traveled a median of 11.6 miles to participate in clinical trials. Whites traveled statistically longer distances (12.9 miles; P<.0001) to participate, followed by Latinos (8.22 miles) and African Americans (5.85 miles). Patients were willing to drive longer distances to academic sites than community sites, and there was a trend toward significantly longer median travel for therapeutic versus cancer control or metastatic trials. Conclusions: Location matters, but only to a degree, for minority compared with nonminority participation in clinical trials. Geographic Information System tools help identify gaps in geographic access and travel burden for clinical trials participation. Strategies that emerged using these tools are discussed.

  2. Cartographic Mapping and Travel Burden to Assess and Develop Strategies to Improve Minority Access to National Cancer Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Deborah Watkins; Pugh, Stephanie L.; Yeager, Katherine A.; Bruner, Jesse; Curran, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess how accrual to clinical trials is related to U.S. minority population density relative to clinical trial site location and distance traveled to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) clinical trials sites. Methods Data included member site address and zip codes, patient accrual, and patient race/ethnicity and zip code. Geographic Information System (GIS) maps were developed for overall, Latino and African American accrual to trials by population density. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to assess differences in distance traveled by site, type of trial and race/ethnicity. Results From 2006–2009, 6168 patients enrolled on RTOG trials. RTOG U.S. site distribution is generally concordant with overall population density. Sites with highest accrual are located throughout the U.S. and parts of Canada and do not cluster, nor does highest minority accrual cluster in areas of highest U.S. minority population density. Of the 4913 U.S. patients with complete data, patients traveled a median of 11.6 miles to participate in clinical trials. Whites traveled statistically longer distances (12.9 miles; p<0.0001) to participate followed by Latinos (8.22 miles), and African Americans (5.85 miles). Patients were willing to drive longer distances to academic sites than community sites and there was a trend toward significantly longer median travel for therapeutic vs cancer control or metastatic trials. Conclusions Location matters, but only to a degree, for minority compared to non-minority participation in clinical trials. GIS tools help identify gaps in geographic access and travel burden for clinical trials participation. Strategies that emerged using these tools are discussed. PMID:26281827

  3. Cartographic Mapping and Travel Burden to Assess and Develop Strategies to Improve Minority Access to National Cancer Clinical Trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruner, Deborah Watkins, E-mail: deborah.w.bruner@emory.edu [Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Pugh, Stephanie L. [NRG Oncology Statistics and Data Management Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Yeager, Katherine A.; Bruner, Jesse; Curran, Walter [Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Purpose: To assess how accrual to clinical trials is related to US minority population density relative to clinical trial site location and distance traveled to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) clinical trial sites. Methods and Materials: Data included member site address and ZIP codes, patient accrual, and patient race or ethnicity and ZIP code. Geographic Information System maps were developed for overall, Latino, and African American accrual to trials by population density. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to assess differences in distance traveled by site, type of trial, and race or ethnicity. Results: From 2006 to 2009, 6168 patients enrolled on RTOG trials. The RTOG US site distribution is generally concordant with overall population density. Sites with highest accrual are located throughout the United States and parts of Canada and do not cluster, nor does highest minority accrual cluster in areas of highest US minority population density. Of the 4913 US patients with complete data, patients traveled a median of 11.6 miles to participate in clinical trials. Whites traveled statistically longer distances (12.9 miles; P<.0001) to participate, followed by Latinos (8.22 miles) and African Americans (5.85 miles). Patients were willing to drive longer distances to academic sites than community sites, and there was a trend toward significantly longer median travel for therapeutic versus cancer control or metastatic trials. Conclusions: Location matters, but only to a degree, for minority compared with nonminority participation in clinical trials. Geographic Information System tools help identify gaps in geographic access and travel burden for clinical trials participation. Strategies that emerged using these tools are discussed.

  4. Cartographic Mapping and Travel Burden to Assess and Develop Strategies to Improve Minority Access to National Cancer Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Deborah Watkins; Pugh, Stephanie L; Yeager, Katherine A; Bruner, Jesse; Curran, Walter

    2015-11-01

    To assess how accrual to clinical trials is related to US minority population density relative to clinical trial site location and distance traveled to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) clinical trial sites. Data included member site address and ZIP codes, patient accrual, and patient race or ethnicity and ZIP code. Geographic Information System maps were developed for overall, Latino, and African American accrual to trials by population density. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to assess differences in distance traveled by site, type of trial, and race or ethnicity. From 2006 to 2009, 6168 patients enrolled on RTOG trials. The RTOG US site distribution is generally concordant with overall population density. Sites with highest accrual are located throughout the United States and parts of Canada and do not cluster, nor does highest minority accrual cluster in areas of highest US minority population density. Of the 4913 US patients with complete data, patients traveled a median of 11.6 miles to participate in clinical trials. Whites traveled statistically longer distances (12.9 miles; P<.0001) to participate, followed by Latinos (8.22 miles) and African Americans (5.85 miles). Patients were willing to drive longer distances to academic sites than community sites, and there was a trend toward significantly longer median travel for therapeutic versus cancer control or metastatic trials. Location matters, but only to a degree, for minority compared with nonminority participation in clinical trials. Geographic Information System tools help identify gaps in geographic access and travel burden for clinical trials participation. Strategies that emerged using these tools are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Virtual Travel Agencies - Tourist Value through Travel Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Anckar, Bill

    1999-01-01

    Anckar, B. (1999), ?Virtual Travel Agencies - Tourist Value through Travel Information Systems?. IAMSR Research Report 5/99. Institute for Advanced Management Systems Research, ?bo Akademi University. As electronic commerce enables the tourist service providers to sell their products directly to the consumer, travel agencies are faced with the imminent threat of being by-passed in the travel industry chain in the information age. This paper suggests that virtual travel agencies can compete su...

  6. Risk assessment of integrated electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornsson, Bjarni Thor; Sigurdardottir, Gudlaug; Stefansson, Stefan Orri

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes the security concerns related to Electronic Health Records (EHR) both in registration of data and integration of systems. A description of the current state of EHR systems in Iceland is provided, along with the Ministry of Health's future vision and plans. New legislation provides the opportunity for increased integration of EHRs and further collaboration between institutions. Integration of systems, along with greater availability and access to EHR data, requires increased security awareness since additional risks are introduced. The paper describes the core principles of information security as it applies to EHR systems and data. The concepts of confidentiality, integrity, availability, accountability and traceability are introduced and described. The paper discusses the legal requirements and importance of performing risk assessment for EHR data. Risk assessment methodology according to the ISO/IEC 27001 information security standard is described with examples on how it is applied to EHR systems.

  7. Thermomechanical Assessment of the Collector for the Hollow Electron Lens

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, George Bowers

    2017-01-01

    The hollow electron lens (HEL) is a system proposed for the High Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider LHC (HL-LHC) [1]. Being considered for installation at LHC point 4, the HEL improves halo control and collimation of proton beams in the collider [2]. This is achieved by creating a hollow tube of electrons using an electron gun. This axisymmetric electron cloud travels around the proton beam for a few meters, overlapping with the proton beam halo, until the electron cloud is dissipated in a collector, which is the focus of this project. A 3D image of the HEL system is found in Figure 1 and a further technical description of such electron lenses is available in [3].

  8. Bifurcations of nonlinear ion acoustic travelling waves in the frame of a Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation in magnetized plasma with a kappa distributed electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar Samanta, Utpal; Saha, Asit; Chatterjee, Prasanta

    2013-01-01

    Bifurcations of nonlinear propagation of ion acoustic waves (IAWs) in a magnetized plasma whose constituents are cold ions and kappa distributed electron are investigated using a two component plasma model. The standard reductive perturbation technique is used to derive the Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation for IAWs. By using the bifurcation theory of planar dynamical systems to this ZK equation, the existence of solitary wave solutions and periodic travelling wave solutions is established. All exact explicit solutions of these travelling waves are determined. The results may have relevance in dense space plasmas

  9. Life cycle assessment of electronic waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jinglan; Shi, Wenxiao; Wang, Yutao; Chen, Wei; Li, Xiangzhi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Life cycle assessment of electronic waste recycling is quantified. • Key factors for reducing the overall environmental impact are indentified. • End-life disposal processes provide significant environmental benefits. • Efficiently reduce the improper disposal amount of e-waste is highly needed. • E-waste incineration can generate significant environmental burden. - Abstract: Life cycle assessment was conducted to estimate the environmental impact of electronic waste (e-waste) treatment. E-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario is environmentally beneficial because of the low environmental burden generated from human toxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, freshwater ecotoxicity, and marine ecotoxicity categories. Landfill and incineration technologies have a lower and higher environmental burden than the e-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario, respectively. The key factors in reducing the overall environmental impact of e-waste recycling are optimizing energy consumption efficiency, reducing wastewater and solid waste effluent, increasing proper e-waste treatment amount, avoiding e-waste disposal to landfill and incineration sites, and clearly defining the duties of all stakeholders (e.g., manufacturers, retailers, recycling companies, and consumers)

  10. Life cycle assessment of electronic waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jinglan, E-mail: hongjing@sdu.edu.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Shandong University Climate Change and Health Center, Public Health School, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Shi, Wenxiao [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wang, Yutao [School of Life Science, Shandong University, Shanda South Road 27, Jinan 250100 (China); Chen, Wei [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Li, Xiangzhi, E-mail: xiangzhi@sdu.edu.cn [School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Life cycle assessment of electronic waste recycling is quantified. • Key factors for reducing the overall environmental impact are indentified. • End-life disposal processes provide significant environmental benefits. • Efficiently reduce the improper disposal amount of e-waste is highly needed. • E-waste incineration can generate significant environmental burden. - Abstract: Life cycle assessment was conducted to estimate the environmental impact of electronic waste (e-waste) treatment. E-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario is environmentally beneficial because of the low environmental burden generated from human toxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, freshwater ecotoxicity, and marine ecotoxicity categories. Landfill and incineration technologies have a lower and higher environmental burden than the e-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario, respectively. The key factors in reducing the overall environmental impact of e-waste recycling are optimizing energy consumption efficiency, reducing wastewater and solid waste effluent, increasing proper e-waste treatment amount, avoiding e-waste disposal to landfill and incineration sites, and clearly defining the duties of all stakeholders (e.g., manufacturers, retailers, recycling companies, and consumers)

  11. Should travellers to rabies-endemic countries be pre-exposure vaccinated? An assessment of post-exposure prophylaxis and pre-exposure prophylaxis given to Danes travelling to rabies-endemic countries 2000-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Annette H; Rodriguez, Anna B; Nielsen, Jens; Cowan, Susan A

    2016-04-01

    Since 2000, a steady increase of vaccines used for both rabies Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and rabies Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) given to Danish travellers was observed. This study aims to evaluate whether the increase of PEP and PrEP was due to increased travelling, increased awareness of the need for PrEP, or more animal bites per travel, leading to more PEP being administered, in order to assess the need for changing the recommendations. We also described in which countries Danish travelers most frequently reported possible exposure to rabies, and evaluated the timeliness of rabies PEP, including rabies immunoglobulin (RIG). We included all Danes reported to the National Database for Rabies Treatment as having started rabies PEP either abroad or after returning to Denmark, between 2000 and 2012. Data on the yearly number of Danish travelers from 2004 to 2012 to Thailand were collected to calculate the incidence of animal bites at this destination. We also included data on rabies vaccines sold for PrEP or for booster vaccination in Denmark. PEP after possible exposure to rabies abroad increased yearly by 8.8 %. Likewise vaccines sold for PrEP increased by 8.2% annually. The number of Danish travelers to Thailand increased by 7.3% per year, resulting in a stable incidence of animal bites per 100,000 travelers. Seventy-five % started PEP in the country of exposure, while only 10 % received RIG. The yearly increase in PEP and PrEP are parallel to the yearly increase in number of travelers, and can thus be explained by the increased rate of traveling, and not by a rise in awareness of rabies risk or more bites per traveler.Even short term travelers should be given the option of including PrEP in their travel immunisation program, as PEP and especially RIG is not always available in rabies-endemic countries. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Travel Time Reliability in Indiana

    OpenAIRE

    Martchouk, Maria; Mannering, Fred L.; Singh, Lakhwinder

    2010-01-01

    Travel time and travel time reliability are important performance measures for assessing traffic condition and extent of congestion on a roadway. This study first uses a floating car technique to assess travel time and travel time reliability on a number of Indiana highways. Then the study goes on to describe the use of Bluetooth technology to collect real travel time data on a freeway and applies it to obtain two weeks of data on Interstate 69 in Indianapolis. An autoregressive model, estima...

  13. INTEGRATION OF THE SAP CONCEPT IN THE EMPLOYEE ASSESSMENT OF TRAVEL AGENCIES IN SUCEAVA COUNTY THROUGH MYSTERY SHOPPING TYPE METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Valentin HAPENCIUC

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Being on a positive trend and addressing to a market that is less willing to compromise, the tourism industry develops a highly complex content, represented by various organizations and services, having as a main objective meeting the expectations of consumers of tourism services and reporting to the challenges of contemporary dynamics generated by the emergence of new information technologies. To respond effectively to these issues, tourism requires among other things a modern HR management. For travel agencies, human resources are the main asset of the company that serves to implement the entity's objectives. The most important qualities of the travel agent are polite attitude, promptness, sagacity and firmness. However, the ability to display with celerity their own capabilities - intellectual, psycho-motivational and persuasive - represents the quintessence of the travel agent profession. When we refer to these features, in the universal tourism language we talk about SAP concept: Speed, Accuracy, Politeness. Therefore, the major objective of this study aims to assess the employees of travel agencies from Suceava County in terms of SAP components using three different methods of qualitative research: Mystery Shopping, Mystery Calling and Mystery Emailing.

  14. Life cycle assessment of electronic waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jinglan; Shi, Wenxiao; Wang, Yutao; Chen, Wei; Li, Xiangzhi

    2015-04-01

    Life cycle assessment was conducted to estimate the environmental impact of electronic waste (e-waste) treatment. E-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario is environmentally beneficial because of the low environmental burden generated from human toxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, freshwater ecotoxicity, and marine ecotoxicity categories. Landfill and incineration technologies have a lower and higher environmental burden than the e-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario, respectively. The key factors in reducing the overall environmental impact of e-waste recycling are optimizing energy consumption efficiency, reducing wastewater and solid waste effluent, increasing proper e-waste treatment amount, avoiding e-waste disposal to landfill and incineration sites, and clearly defining the duties of all stakeholders (e.g., manufacturers, retailers, recycling companies, and consumers). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Modular Low-Heater-Power Cathode/Electron Gun Assembly for Microwave and Millimeter Wave Traveling Wave Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintucky, Edwin G.

    2000-01-01

    A low-cost, low-mass, electrically efficient, modular cathode/electron gun assembly has been developed by FDE Inc. of Beaverton, Oregon, under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. This new assembly offers significant improvements in the design and manufacture of microwave and millimeter wave traveling-wave tubes (TWT's) used for radar and communications. It incorporates a novel, low-heater-power, reduced size and mass, high-performance barium dispenser type thermionic cathode and provides for easy integration of the cathode into a large variety of conventional TWT circuits. Among the applications are TWT's for Earth-orbiting communication satellites and for deep space communications, where future missions will require smaller spacecraft, higher data transfer rates (higher frequencies and radiofrequency output power), and greater electrical efficiency. A particularly important TWT application is in the microwave power module (a hybrid microwave/millimeter wave amplifier consisting of a low-noise solid-state driver, a small TWT, and an electronic power conditioner integrated into a single compact package), where electrical efficiency and thermal loading are critical factors and lower cost is needed for successful commercialization. The design and fabrication are based on practices used in producing cathode ray tubes (CRT's), which is one of the most competitive and efficient manufacturing operations in the world today. The approach used in the design and manufacture of thermionic cathodes and electron guns for CRT's has been optimized for fully automated production, standardization of parts, and minimization of costs. It is applicable to the production of similar components for microwave tubes, with the additional benefits of low mass and significantly lower cathode heater power (less than half that of dispenser cathodes presently used in TWT s). Modular cathode/electron gun assembly. The modular

  16. Assessment of Siemens plessey electronic personal dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirning, C.R.; Lopez, S.; Yuen, P.S.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the results of a laboratory assessment of the performance of a new type of personal dosimeter. The Electronic Personal Dosimeter, or EPD, was developed jointly by the National Radiological Protection Board and Siemens Plessey Controls Limited, both of the United Kingdom. Twenty pre-production units of the EPD and a reader were purchased by Ontario Hydro for the assessment. The tests were conducted jointly by Ontario Hydro's Health and Safety Division and AECL Research's Chalk River Laboratories (CRL), with funding from the Candu Owner's Group. A total of 26 tests were conducted, divided between Ontario Hydro and AECL. The test results were compared with the relevant requirements of three standards. In general, the performance of the EPD was found to be quite acceptable. It met most of the relevant requirements of the three standards and most of the design specifications. However, the following deficiencies were found: slow response time; sensitivity to high-frequency EMF; poor resistance to dropping; and an alarm that is not loud enough. In addition, the response of the EPD to low-energy beta rays may be too low for some applications. There were serious problems with the reliability of operation of the pre production EPDs used in these tests. 9 refs., 34 tabs., 20 figs

  17. Assessment of Siemens plessey electronic personal dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirning, C R; Lopez, S [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada); Yuen, P S [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the results of a laboratory assessment of the performance of a new type of personal dosimeter. The Electronic Personal Dosimeter, or EPD, was developed jointly by the National Radiological Protection Board and Siemens Plessey Controls Limited, both of the United Kingdom. Twenty pre-production units of the EPD and a reader were purchased by Ontario Hydro for the assessment. The tests were conducted jointly by Ontario Hydro`s Health and Safety Division and AECL Research`s Chalk River Laboratories (CRL), with funding from the Candu Owner`s Group. A total of 26 tests were conducted, divided between Ontario Hydro and AECL. The test results were compared with the relevant requirements of three standards. In general, the performance of the EPD was found to be quite acceptable. It met most of the relevant requirements of the three standards and most of the design specifications. However, the following deficiencies were found: slow response time; sensitivity to high-frequency EMF; poor resistance to dropping; and an alarm that is not loud enough. In addition, the response of the EPD to low-energy beta rays may be too low for some applications. There were serious problems with the reliability of operation of the pre production EPDs used in these tests. 9 refs., 34 tabs., 20 figs.

  18. Travel agency electronic business

    OpenAIRE

    Bjelobrk, Jelena

    2018-01-01

    Turizem in informacijska tehnologija sta dve največji in najbolj dinamični panogi v današnjem času. Obe panogi se zelo hitro razvijata in povpraševanje po njiju strmo raste. Posebno vlogo pri tem ima internet, ki je prenosni medij in omogoča najcenejši prenos podatkov in povezuje ljudi. Prav tako ima internet zelo pomembno vlogo pri turističnem trženju saj je njegova funkcija zelo pomembna pri distribuciji turističnih storitev. Internet predstavlja zelo pomembno vlogo za potencialnega turista...

  19. Travel expenses

    OpenAIRE

    Pištěková, Petra

    2014-01-01

    The thesis "Travel expenses" is dedicated to the travel expenses according to Czech legislation. The aim is to describe the travel reimbursement and to analyze the providing of compensation travel expenses on example of the elementary art school Zruč nad Sázavou. The purpose of this analysis is primarily to find an optimal solution to the problem of determining the place of regular workplace for the travel expenses. The theoretical part focuses on the identification and definition of all prin...

  20. EPA’s Travel Efficiency Method (TEAM) AMPO Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentation describes EPA’s Travel Efficiency Assessment Method (TEAM) assessing potential travel efficiency strategies for reducing travel activity and emissions, includes reduction estimates in Vehicle Miles Traveled in four different geographic areas.

  1. Travel Characteristics and Commuting Pattern of Lagos Metropolis Residents: an Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OSOBA, Samson Babatunde

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban travel is not solely the function of travel, but also on people’s participation in activities and how these were done. This study utilized 2,500 households’ samples in Lagos metropolis. The questionnaire about intra-city trip patterns was administered in direct proportion to the population size of each Local Government Areas (LGAs. Systematic sampling technique was used to select every tenth building on the identified streets. lt is observed that more than 95% of residents depends on roads, while less than 5% depends on Rail and Ferry. Work and business trips characterized the weekdays, while social, shopping and recreation trips dominate the weekends. This situation leads to too many vehicular traffic on the roads during the peak periods, leading to congestion and loss of valuable man-hours. Transportation planners in Lagos need to develop alternative intra-city transportation systems.

  2. Intangibles Factors and Quality Assessment of the Service Received in Travel Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Esteban Alberdi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation of travel agencies to the standards of the New Economy is leading to a trend towards restructuring the sector aimed at finding new competitive strategies. The growing importance of intangible assets in achieving such strategies has motivated this study, which has tried to identify those intangible factors, present in the provision of the service, that have a direct relationship with the client's perception of a differentiation in the service received.

  3. Connected Traveler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    The Connected Traveler framework seeks to boost the energy efficiency of personal travel and the overall transportation system by maximizing the accuracy of predicted traveler behavior in response to real-time feedback and incentives. It is anticipated that this approach will establish a feedback loop that 'learns' traveler preferences and customizes incentives to meet or exceed energy efficiency targets by empowering individual travelers with information needed to make energy-efficient choices and reducing the complexity required to validate transportation system energy savings. This handout provides an overview of NREL's Connected Traveler project, including graphics, milestones, and contact information.

  4. Assessment of Electron Beam Welding in Shipyard Construction,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    ELECTRON BEAM APPLICATORS QUESTIONNAIRE 1. Applicators Name: McCay Tool & Engr. Co. 2. Address: 1449 West Lark, Fenton , Mo. 3...had very li tt le undercut and requ ired no cosmet ic pass. TESTING AND RESULTS ’re~t ing wi ~ pt-f’)rimev oil spc inens inl t he- fol lowing manner. 1...Penetration Cosmet . c Accelerating Voltage (KV) 75 70 Beam Current (ma) 115 30 Travel Speed (IPM) 8 18 Beam focus (Amps programmed) 4.38 4.70 Gun to Work

  5. Using a network model to assess risk of forest pest spread via recreational travel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank H Koch

    Full Text Available Long-distance dispersal pathways, which frequently relate to human activities, facilitate the spread of alien species. One pathway of concern in North America is the possible spread of forest pests in firewood carried by visitors to campgrounds or recreational facilities. We present a network model depicting the movement of campers and, by extension, potentially infested firewood. We constructed the model from US National Recreation Reservation Service data documenting more than seven million visitor reservations (including visitors from Canada at campgrounds nationwide. This bi-directional model can be used to identify likely origin and destination locations for a camper-transported pest. To support broad-scale decision making, we used the model to generate summary maps for 48 US states and seven Canadian provinces that depict the most likely origins of campers traveling from outside the target state or province. The maps generally showed one of two basic spatial patterns of out-of-state (or out-of-province origin risk. In the eastern United States, the riskiest out-of-state origin locations were usually found in a localized region restricted to portions of adjacent states. In the western United States, the riskiest out-of-state origin locations were typically associated with major urban areas located far from the state of interest. A few states and the Canadian provinces showed characteristics of both patterns. These model outputs can guide deployment of resources for surveillance, firewood inspections, or other activities. Significantly, the contrasting map patterns indicate that no single response strategy is appropriate for all states and provinces. If most out-of-state campers are traveling from distant areas, it may be effective to deploy resources at key points along major roads (e.g., interstate highways, since these locations could effectively represent bottlenecks of camper movement. If most campers are from nearby areas, they may

  6. Evidence-based risk assessment and communication: a new global dengue-risk map for travellers and clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentes, Emily S; Lash, R Ryan; Johansson, Michael A; Sharp, Tyler M; Henry, Ronnie; Brady, Oliver J; Sotir, Mark J; Hay, Simon I; Margolis, Harold S; Brunette, Gary W

    2016-06-01

    International travel can expose travellers to pathogens not commonly found in their countries of residence, like dengue virus. Travellers and the clinicians who advise and treat them have unique needs for understanding the geographic extent of risk for dengue. Specifically, they should assess the need for prevention measures before travel and ensure appropriate treatment of illness post-travel. Previous dengue-risk maps published in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Yellow Book lacked specificity, as there was a binary (risk, no risk) classification. We developed a process to compile evidence, evaluate it and apply more informative risk classifications. We collected more than 839 observations from official reports, ProMED reports and published scientific research for the period 2005-2014. We classified each location as frequent/continuous risk if there was evidence of more than 10 dengue cases in at least three of the previous 10 years. For locations that did not fit this criterion, we classified locations as sporadic/uncertain risk if the location had evidence of at least one locally acquired dengue case during the last 10 years. We used expert opinion in limited instances to augment available data in areas where data were sparse. Initial categorizations classified 134 areas as frequent/continuous and 140 areas as sporadic/uncertain. CDC subject matter experts reviewed all initial frequent/continuous and sporadic/uncertain categorizations and the previously uncategorized areas. From this review, most categorizations stayed the same; however, 11 categorizations changed from the initial determinations. These new risk classifications enable detailed consideration of dengue risk, with clearer meaning and a direct link to the evidence that supports the specific classification. Since many infectious diseases have dynamic risk, strong geographical heterogeneities and varying data quality and availability, using this approach for other diseases can

  7. Traveling Exhibitions as Sites for Informal Learning: Assessing Different Strategies with Field Trips to Traveling Exhibitions at Non-Museum Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker, Richard J. W.; Badger, James

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the use of different pedagogical techniques to create an intellectually engaging experience for middle school students who visited a traveling exhibition from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum at a non-museum host site: the University of North Georgia Dahlonega's Library and Technology Center. The findings of this…

  8. Socio-educational assessment of electronic games

    OpenAIRE

    Gulbinas, Rokas; Rapkauskaitė, Gintarė

    2015-01-01

    This article presents social pedagogic opportunities of electronic games played by middle to high school students. Survey of 5th to 12th class students reveals electronical game properties and their correlations with student emotional state, social activity, ability to create and maintain social relations, delinquent traits and academic diffculties. Results and observations of this study are important for social pedagogues and the rest of educational process organizators, for parents trying t...

  9. EAST: Developing an Electronic Assessment and Storage Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Katherine I.; Fernandez, Eugenia; Milionis, Tracey M.; Williamson, David M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the purpose, development, analysis, prototyping, and features of the Electronic Assessment and Storage Tool (EAST). The Web-based system aids curriculum assessment at Purdue School of Engineering and Technology at Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis through the ability to easily store artifacts in electronic form, support…

  10. An Activity-Based Assessment of the Potential Impacts of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Energy and Emissions Using One-Day Travel Data

    OpenAIRE

    Recker, W. W.; Kang, J. E.

    2010-01-01

    With the success of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) in the automobile market, Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) are emerging as the next evolution of this attractive alternative. PHEV market penetration is expected to lead to lower gasoline consumption and less emission. The main objective of this research is to assess PHEVs’ energy profile impacts based on simulation of vehicles used in activity and travel patterns drawn from the 2000-2001 California Statewide Household Travel Survey....

  11. Assessment and refinement of real-time travel time algorithms for use in practice : final report, October 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    The FHWA has strongly encouraged transportation departments to display travel times on their Dynamic Message Signs (DMS). The Oregon : Department of Transportation (ODOT) currently displays travel time estimates on three DMSs in the Portland metropol...

  12. Travel-related health problems in Japanese travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yasutaka; Kudo, Koichiro

    2009-09-01

    Although the number of Japanese individuals traveling abroad has increased steadily, reaching approximately 17.3 million in 2007, the incidence of various travel-related health problems in Japan remains unknown. The travel-related health problems of Japanese travelers returning to Japan from abroad are analyzed by assessing the records. Data were collected retrospectively on returning travelers who visited the authors' travel clinic during the period from January 2005 through to December 2006 with any health problem acquired overseas. A total of 345 patients were included in this study (200 male, 145 female; average age, 34+/-12.3 years). Reasons for travel included leisure (45.8%); business (39.1%); visiting friends and relatives or accompanying other travelers (8.7%); volunteering (3.8%); and long stays in order to study or live (2.6%). The most visited destination was Asia (n=260), followed by Africa (n=105). The most commonly reported health problems were gastro-intestinal infections (39.1%), followed by respiratory tract infections (16.2%), animal bites (8.1%), and skin problems (5.8%). Together, malaria and dengue accounted for 10% of diagnoses in 125 febrile patients (36.2%). Although the profile of travel-related health problems in Japanese travelers is similar to that of Western travelers, the characteristics of travel were quite different. Therefore Japanese travel advice should be tailored to suit the Japanese traveler.

  13. Acquisition of extended spectrum β-lactamases during travel abroad-A qualitative study among Swedish travellers examining their knowledge, risk assessment, and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund, Susanne; Fagerberg, Ingegerd; Örtqvist, Åke; Broliden, Kristina; Tammelin, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Travel to foreign countries involves the risk of becoming a carrier of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, especially when the destination is a country with a high prevalence of this type of bacteria. The aim of this study was to learn about the knowledge of antibiotic resistance, and the behaviour and risk-taking among travellers, who had become carriers of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL)-producing bacteria during travel to a high-prevalence country. A modified version of grounded theory was used to analyse 15 open interviews. The analysis resulted in a core category: A need for knowledge to avoid risk-taking . Before the journey, the participants did not perceive there to be any risk of becoming a carrier of antibiotic- resistant bacteria. The low level of knowledge of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and transmission routes influenced their behaviour and risk-taking during their journey, resulting in them exposing themselves to risk situations. After their trip, the majority did not believe that their personal risk behaviour could have caused them to become carriers of ESBL. The participants' lack of knowledge of antibiotic-resistant bacteria resulted in unconscious risk-taking during their journey, which may have resulted in becoming carriers of ESBL-producing bacteria.

  14. Self-diagnosis of malaria by travelers and expatriates: assessment of malaria rapid diagnostic tests available on the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltha, Jessica; Gillet, Philippe; Heutmekers, Marloes; Bottieau, Emmanuel; Van Gompel, Alfons; Jacobs, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In the past malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for self-diagnosis by travelers were considered suboptimal due to poor performance. Nowadays RDTs for self-diagnosis are marketed and available through the internet. The present study assessed RDT products marketed for self-diagnosis for diagnostic accuracy and quality of labeling, content and instructions for use (IFU). Diagnostic accuracy of eight RDT products was assessed with a panel of stored whole blood samples comprising the four Plasmodium species (n = 90) as well as Plasmodium negative samples (n = 10). IFUs were assessed for quality of description of procedure and interpretation and for lay-out and readability level. Errors in packaging and content were recorded. Two products gave false-positive test lines in 70% and 80% of Plasmodium negative samples, precluding their use. Of the remaining products, 4/6 had good to excellent sensitivity for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum (98.2%-100.0%) and Plasmodium vivax (93.3%-100.0%). Sensitivity for Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae diagnosis was poor (6.7%-80.0%). All but one product yielded false-positive test lines after reading beyond the recommended reading time. Problems with labeling (not specifying target antigens (n = 3), and content (desiccant with no humidity indicator (n = 6)) were observed. IFUs had major shortcomings in description of test procedure and interpretation, poor readability and lay-out and user-unfriendly typography. Strategic issues (e.g. the need for repeat testing and reasons for false-negative tests) were not addressed in any of the IFUs. Diagnostic accuracy of RDTs for self-diagnosis was variable, with only 4/8 RDT products being reliable for the diagnosis of P. falciparum and P. vivax, and none for P. ovale and P. malariae. RDTs for self-diagnosis need improvements in IFUs (content and user-friendliness), labeling and content before they can be considered for self-diagnosis by the traveler.

  15. Federal Government Electronic Bulletin Boards: An Assessment with Policy Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertot, John Carlo; McClure, Charles R.

    1993-01-01

    Identifies and analyzes federal government electronic bulletin boards; assesses the types of information available to users, including costs and technological access issues; discusses federal information policy; and considers the role of federal bulletin boards in accessing and managing electronic government information. (Contains 29 references.)…

  16. Using Electronic Portfolios for Second Language Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Patricia W.; Davesne, Celine

    2009-01-01

    Portfolio assessment as developed in Europe presents a learner-empowering alternative to computer-based testing. The authors present the European Language Portfolio (ELP) and its American adaptations, LinguaFolio and the Global Language Portfolio, as tools to be used with the Common European Framework of Reference for languages and the American…

  17. Assessment of Safety Standards for Automotive Electronic Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study that assessed and compared six industry and government safety standards relevant to the safety and reliability of automotive electronic control systems. These standards include ISO 26262 (Road Vehicles - ...

  18. A global map of travel time to cities to assess inequalities in accessibility in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, D. J.; Nelson, A.; Gibson, H. S.; Temperley, W.; Peedell, S.; Lieber, A.; Hancher, M.; Poyart, E.; Belchior, S.; Fullman, N.; Mappin, B.; Dalrymple, U.; Rozier, J.; Lucas, T. C. D.; Howes, R. E.; Tusting, L. S.; Kang, S. Y.; Cameron, E.; Bisanzio, D.; Battle, K. E.; Bhatt, S.; Gething, P. W.

    2018-01-01

    The economic and man-made resources that sustain human wellbeing are not distributed evenly across the world, but are instead heavily concentrated in cities. Poor access to opportunities and services offered by urban centres (a function of distance, transport infrastructure, and the spatial distribution of cities) is a major barrier to improved livelihoods and overall development. Advancing accessibility worldwide underpins the equity agenda of ‘leaving no one behind’ established by the Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations. This has renewed international efforts to accurately measure accessibility and generate a metric that can inform the design and implementation of development policies. The only previous attempt to reliably map accessibility worldwide, which was published nearly a decade ago, predated the baseline for the Sustainable Development Goals and excluded the recent expansion in infrastructure networks, particularly in lower-resource settings. In parallel, new data sources provided by Open Street Map and Google now capture transportation networks with unprecedented detail and precision. Here we develop and validate a map that quantifies travel time to cities for 2015 at a spatial resolution of approximately one by one kilometre by integrating ten global-scale surfaces that characterize factors affecting human movement rates and 13,840 high-density urban centres within an established geospatial-modelling framework. Our results highlight disparities in accessibility relative to wealth as 50.9% of individuals living in low-income settings (concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa) reside within an hour of a city compared to 90.7% of individuals in high-income settings. By further triangulating this map against socioeconomic datasets, we demonstrate how access to urban centres stratifies the economic, educational, and health status of humanity.

  19. A global map of travel time to cities to assess inequalities in accessibility in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, D J; Nelson, A; Gibson, H S; Temperley, W; Peedell, S; Lieber, A; Hancher, M; Poyart, E; Belchior, S; Fullman, N; Mappin, B; Dalrymple, U; Rozier, J; Lucas, T C D; Howes, R E; Tusting, L S; Kang, S Y; Cameron, E; Bisanzio, D; Battle, K E; Bhatt, S; Gething, P W

    2018-01-18

    The economic and man-made resources that sustain human wellbeing are not distributed evenly across the world, but are instead heavily concentrated in cities. Poor access to opportunities and services offered by urban centres (a function of distance, transport infrastructure, and the spatial distribution of cities) is a major barrier to improved livelihoods and overall development. Advancing accessibility worldwide underpins the equity agenda of 'leaving no one behind' established by the Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations. This has renewed international efforts to accurately measure accessibility and generate a metric that can inform the design and implementation of development policies. The only previous attempt to reliably map accessibility worldwide, which was published nearly a decade ago, predated the baseline for the Sustainable Development Goals and excluded the recent expansion in infrastructure networks, particularly in lower-resource settings. In parallel, new data sources provided by Open Street Map and Google now capture transportation networks with unprecedented detail and precision. Here we develop and validate a map that quantifies travel time to cities for 2015 at a spatial resolution of approximately one by one kilometre by integrating ten global-scale surfaces that characterize factors affecting human movement rates and 13,840 high-density urban centres within an established geospatial-modelling framework. Our results highlight disparities in accessibility relative to wealth as 50.9% of individuals living in low-income settings (concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa) reside within an hour of a city compared to 90.7% of individuals in high-income settings. By further triangulating this map against socioeconomic datasets, we demonstrate how access to urban centres stratifies the economic, educational, and health status of humanity.

  20. Assessing the value and market attractiveness of the accessible tourism industry in Europe: a focus on major travel and leisure companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Bowtell

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the accessible tourism market potential, alongside the implications of operating in the accessible tourism market and an assessment of major travel and leisure company involvement. The research focused on providing a market value forecast using historic data from 2005 and extrapolating this to 2025. An examination of the reasons for and against major travel and leisure company involvement in the accessible tourism market was accompanied by an analysis of managerial perceptions. Design/methodology/approach – The exploration of travel patterns of disabled tourists, in particular spend per head per holiday, was used to measure the value of the demand side of accessible tourism. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with employees of major travel and leisure companies in managerial positions. Findings – The study indicates that the accessible tourism market is a distinct sector, possessing the capacity for extensive future growth, and thus presents major travel providers with a potentially substantial and lucrative market, generating potential revenues of �88.6 billion by 2025. Research limitations/implications – Due to a lack of existing data an assumption had to be made on the evolution of travel spend per head per holiday. However, the formula used, using GDP/Capita growth, is a recognised way of forecasting this kind of data in the travel and leisure industry. Originality/value – This is the first paper to provide an examination of the reasons for and against major travel and leisure company involvement in the accessible tourism market, as well providing a forecast of the market value up to 2025.

  1. Travel Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search the Division of Finance site DOF State of Alaska Finance Home Content Area Accounting Charge Cards Top Department of Administration logo Alaska Department of Administration Division of Finance Search You are here Administration / Finance / Travel Travel The Department of Administration administers the

  2. READS: the rapid electronic assessment documentation system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hickey, Ann

    2012-12-13

    Patient documentation is time consuming and can detract from care. The authors report a novel computer programme that manipulates routinely collected information to quantify nursing workload, along with the reason for admission, functional status, estimates of in-hospital mortality and life expectancy. The programme stores information in a database, and produces a print-out in a situation\\/background\\/assessment\\/recommendation (SBAR) format. The average time taken to enter 629 patient encounters was 6.6 minutes. Pain was the most common presentation for low workload patients, while high workload patients often presented with altered mental status and reduced mobility. There was only a modest correlation between the risk of death and nursing workload. The programme measures nursing workload without further paperwork, and improves routine documentation with a legible brief report that is automatically generated. This report can be shared and provides data that is immediately available for day-to-day care, audit, quality control and service planning.

  3. Travellers' diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Charles D

    2003-02-01

    Risk of travellers' diarrhoea is about 7% in developed countries and 20-50% in the developing world. Options for prevention include education and chemoprophylaxis. Vaccination is a promising but incomplete option. Achieving behaviour modification of food and water choices among tourists is difficult. Bismuth subsalicylate (BSS)-containing compounds are about 62% effective in the prevention of travellers' diarrhoea. Antibiotics are about 84% effective in preventing travellers' diarrhoea. Routine prophylaxis of travellers' diarrhoea, especially with antibiotics, should be discouraged. Oral rehydration is generally important in the treatment of diarrhoea, but travellers' diarrhoea is only infrequently dehydrating in adults. The addition of oral rehydration solutions confers no additional benefit to loperamide in the treatment of travellers' diarrhoea in adults. Presently, the most active of the antibiotics routinely available for treatment are members of the fluoroquinolone group. Antibiotics that are not absorbed such as aztreonam and a rifampicin-like agent, rifaximin, are both effective. The latter might become a therapy of choice once it is routinely available, due to predictably less adverse reactions with a non-absorbed antibiotic. Preliminary results with azithromycin look very promising. Less severe disease can be treated with a variety of non-antibiotic agents (e.g. BSS-containing compounds, loperamide and a calmodulin inhibitor, zaldaride). The combination of an antibiotic and loperamide is superior to treatment with either agent alone in a several studies and is arguably the treatment of choice for distressing travellers' diarrhoea.

  4. Maldives : Electronic Government Procurement Readiness Assessment and Roadmap

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    The assessment focuses on the degree of readiness of Government of The Maldives's (GoTM's) current public procurement environment for making a transition from traditional paper-based, manual methods of procurement transaction processing and communication to electronic government procurement (e-GP). The e-GP Assessment was discussed individually with informed respondents in the public and p...

  5. Factors Adopting E-Travel Website: The Case of Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Pujani; Alfitman; Refdinal Nazir

    2012-01-01

    E-travel is travel agency-s companies employing internet and website as e-commerce context. This study presents numerous initial key factors of electronic travel model based on small travel agencies perspectives. Browsing previous studies related to website travel activities are conducted. Five small travel agencies in Indonesia has been deeply interviewed in case studies. The finding of this research is identifying numerous characteristics and dimension factors and travel website operations ...

  6. The Development of Shared Understandings of Assessment Policy: Travelling between Global and Local Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adie, Lenore

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, teachers' enactment of assessment policy within demands for accountability and consistency of teacher judgements is considered. Evidence is drawn from a qualitative study involving 50 middle school teachers from Queensland, Australia, who participated in online social moderation meetings with teachers located in dispersed areas…

  7. Sustainable hydropower in Lower Mekong Countries: Technical assessment and training travel report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadjerioua, Boualem [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Witt, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), through their partnership with the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), requested the support of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide specialized technical assistance as part of the Smart Infrastructure for the Mekong (SIM) Program in Thailand. Introduced in July 2013 by U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, SIM is a U.S. Government Inter-Agency program that provides Lower Mekong partner countries with targeted, demand-driven technical and scientific assistance to support environmentally sound, climate conscious and socially equitable infrastructure, clean energy development, and water resources optimization. The U.S. Government is committed to supporting sustainable economic development within the region by providing tools, best practices, technical assistance, and lessons learned for the benefit of partner countries. In response to a request from the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT), a SIM project was developed with two main activities: 1) to promote hydropower sustainability and efficiency through technical assessment training at two existing hydropower assets in Thailand, and 2) the design and implementation of one national and two or three regional science and policy workshops, to be co-hosted with EGAT, to build common understanding of and commitment to environmental and social safeguards for Mekong Basin hydropower projects. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is leading the technical assessment (Activity 1), and has contracted ORNL to provide expert technical assistance focused on increasing efficiency at existing projects, with the goal of increasing renewable energy generation at little to no capital cost. ORNL is the leading national laboratory in hydropower analysis, with a nationally recognized and highly qualified team of scientists addressing small to large-scale systems (basin-, regional-, and national-scale) energy generation optimization analysis for DOE. The

  8. Projected Zika Virus Importation and Subsequent Ongoing Transmission after Travel to the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games - Country-Specific Assessment, July 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grills, Ardath; Morrison, Stephanie; Nelson, Bradley; Miniota, Jennifer; Watts, Alexander; Cetron, Martin S

    2016-07-22

    Zika virus belongs to the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae; it is transmitted to humans primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito (e.g., Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus) (1). Zika virus has been identified as a cause of congenital microcephaly and other serious brain defects (2). As of June 30, 2016, CDC had issued travel notices for 49 countries and U.S. territories across much of the Western hemisphere (3), including Brazil, where the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games (Games of the XXXI Olympiad, also known as Rio 2016; Games) will be hosted in Rio de Janeiro in August and September 2016. During the Games, mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission is expected to be low because August and September are winter months in Brazil, when cooler and drier weather typically reduces mosquito populations (4). CDC conducted a risk assessment to predict those countries susceptible to ongoing Zika virus transmission resulting from introduction by a single traveler to the Games. Whereas all countries are at risk for travel-associated importation of Zika virus, CDC estimated that 19 countries currently not reporting Zika outbreaks have the environmental conditions and population susceptibility to sustain mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus if a case were imported from infection at the Games. For 15 of these 19 countries, travel to Rio de Janeiro during the Games is not estimated to increase substantially the level of risk above that incurred by the usual aviation travel baseline for these countries. The remaining four countries, Chad, Djibouti, Eritrea, and Yemen, are unique in that they do not have a substantial number of travelers to any country with local Zika virus transmission, except for anticipated travel to the Games. These four countries will be represented by a projected, combined total of 19 athletes (plus a projected delegation of about 60 persons), a tiny fraction of the 350,000-500,000 visitors expected at the Games.* Overall

  9. An overview of travel-associated central nervous system infectious diseases: risk assessment, general considerations and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Morteza; Is'haqi, Arman; Is'haqi, Mohammad Ali; Jonaidi Jafari, Nematollah; Rahamaty, Fatemeh; Banki, Abdolali

    2014-08-01

    Nervous system infections are among the most important diseases in travellers. Healthy travellers might be exposed to infectious agents of central nervous system, which may require in-patient care. Progressive course is not uncommon in this family of disorders and requires swift diagnosis. An overview of the available evidence in the field is, therefore, urgent to pave the way to increase the awareness of travel-medicine practitioners and highlights dark areas for future research. In November 2013, data were collected from PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge (1980 to 2013) including books, reviews, and peer-reviewed literature. Works pertained to pre-travel care, interventions, vaccinations related neurological infections were retrieved. Here we provide information on pre-travel care, vaccination, chronic nervous system disorders, and post-travel complications. Recommendations with regard to knowledge gaps, and state-of-the-art research are made. Given an increasing number of international travellers, novel dynamic ways are available for physicians to monitor spread of central nervous system infections. Newer research has made great progresses in developing newer medications, detecting the spread of infections and the public awareness. Despite an ongoing scientific discussion in the field of travel medicine, further research is required for vaccine development, state-of-the-art laboratory tests, and genetic engineering of vectors.

  10. Assessing cost-effectiveness in obesity: active transport program for primary school children--TravelSMART Schools Curriculum program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, Marj; Haby, Michelle M; Swinburn, Boyd; Carter, Robert

    2011-05-01

    To assess from a societal perspective the cost-effectiveness of a school program to increase active transport in 10- to 11-year-old Australian children as an obesity prevention measure. The TravelSMART Schools Curriculum program was modeled nationally for 2001 in terms of its impact on Body Mass Index (BMI) and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) measured against current practice. Cost offsets and DALY benefits were modeled until the eligible cohort reached age 100 or died. The intervention was qualitatively assessed against second stage filter criteria ('equity,' 'strength of evidence,' 'acceptability to stakeholders,' 'feasibility of implementation,' 'sustainability,' and 'side-effects') given their potential impact on funding decisions. The modeled intervention reached 267,700 children and cost $AUD13.3M (95% uncertainty interval [UI] $6.9M; $22.8M) per year. It resulted in an incremental saving of 890 (95%UI -540; 2,900) BMI units, which translated to 95 (95% UI -40; 230) DALYs and a net cost per DALY saved of $AUD117,000 (95% UI dominated; $1.06M). The intervention was not cost-effective as an obesity prevention measure under base-run modeling assumptions. The attribution of some costs to nonobesity objectives would be justified given the program's multiple benefits. Cost-effectiveness would be further improved by considering the wider school community impacts.

  11. Travelers' Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Road Safety - 8 Steps MERS Health Advisory poster MERS Pictogram CDC Guide for Healthy Travel Website ... alcohol-based hand sanitizer. In general, it’s a good idea to keep your hands away from your ...

  12. Travelers' Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3, Avoid Nonessential Travel Health Infrastructure Breakdown in Venezuela May 15, 2018 More Alert Level 2, Practice ... Vision Using this Site Legal Link to Us Policies FOIA Accessibility Privacy No FEAR Act Inspector General ...

  13. Travelling Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karen-Margrethe

    2013-01-01

    Review of "Travelling Concepts, Metaphors, and Narratives: Literary and Cultural Studies in an Age of Interdisciplinary Research" ed. by Sibylle Baumgarten, Beatrice Michaelis and Ansagar Nünning, Trier; Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2012......Review of "Travelling Concepts, Metaphors, and Narratives: Literary and Cultural Studies in an Age of Interdisciplinary Research" ed. by Sibylle Baumgarten, Beatrice Michaelis and Ansagar Nünning, Trier; Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2012...

  14. Development and Implementation of the Ebola Traveler Monitoring Program and Clinical Outcomes of Monitored Travelers during October - May 2015, Minnesota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron DeVries

    Full Text Available In October 2014, the United States began actively monitoring all persons who had traveled from Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone in the previous 21 days. State public health departments were responsible for monitoring all travelers; Minnesota has the largest Liberian population in the United States. The MDH Ebola Clinical Team (ECT was established to assess travelers with symptoms of concern for Ebola virus disease (EVD, coordinate access to healthcare at appropriate facilities including Ebola Assessment and Treatment Units (EATU, and provide guidance to clinicians.Minnesota Department of Health (MDH began receiving traveler information collected by U.S. Customs and Border Control and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention staff on October 21, 2014 via encrypted electronic communication. All travelers returning from Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea during 10/21/14-5/15/15 were monitored by MDH staff in the manner recommended by CDC based on the traveler's risk categorization as "low (but not zero", "some" and "high" risk. When a traveler reported symptoms or a temperature ≥100.4° F at any time during their 21-day monitoring period, an ECT member would speak to the traveler and perform a clinical assessment by telephone or via video-chat. Based on the assessment the ECT member would recommend 1 continued clinical monitoring while at home with frequent telephone follow-up by the ECT member, 2 outpatient clinical evaluation at an outpatient site agreed upon by all parties, or 3 inpatient clinical evaluation at one of four Minnesota EATUs. ECT members assessed and approved testing for Ebola virus infection at MDH. Traveler data, calls to the ECT and clinical outcomes were logged on a secure server at MDH.During 10/21/14-5/15/15, a total of 783 travelers were monitored; 729 (93% traveled from Liberia, 30 (4% Sierra Leone, and 24 (3% Guinea. The median number monitored per week was 59 (range 45-143. The median age was 35 years; 136 (17% were

  15. Development and Implementation of the Ebola Traveler Monitoring Program and Clinical Outcomes of Monitored Travelers during October - May 2015, Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Aaron; Talley, Pamela; Sweet, Kristin; Kline, Susan; Stinchfield, Patricia; Tosh, Pritish; Danila, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In October 2014, the United States began actively monitoring all persons who had traveled from Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone in the previous 21 days. State public health departments were responsible for monitoring all travelers; Minnesota has the largest Liberian population in the United States. The MDH Ebola Clinical Team (ECT) was established to assess travelers with symptoms of concern for Ebola virus disease (EVD), coordinate access to healthcare at appropriate facilities including Ebola Assessment and Treatment Units (EATU), and provide guidance to clinicians. Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) began receiving traveler information collected by U.S. Customs and Border Control and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention staff on October 21, 2014 via encrypted electronic communication. All travelers returning from Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea during 10/21/14-5/15/15 were monitored by MDH staff in the manner recommended by CDC based on the traveler's risk categorization as "low (but not zero)", "some" and "high" risk. When a traveler reported symptoms or a temperature ≥100.4° F at any time during their 21-day monitoring period, an ECT member would speak to the traveler and perform a clinical assessment by telephone or via video-chat. Based on the assessment the ECT member would recommend 1) continued clinical monitoring while at home with frequent telephone follow-up by the ECT member, 2) outpatient clinical evaluation at an outpatient site agreed upon by all parties, or 3) inpatient clinical evaluation at one of four Minnesota EATUs. ECT members assessed and approved testing for Ebola virus infection at MDH. Traveler data, calls to the ECT and clinical outcomes were logged on a secure server at MDH. During 10/21/14-5/15/15, a total of 783 travelers were monitored; 729 (93%) traveled from Liberia, 30 (4%) Sierra Leone, and 24 (3%) Guinea. The median number monitored per week was 59 (range 45-143). The median age was 35 years; 136 (17%) were aged

  16. Business travel and behavioral and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle, Andrew G; Revenson, Tracey A; Friedman, Michael

    2017-12-21

    Assess associations between business travel and behavioral and mental health. Cross-sectional analyses of de-identified electronic medical record data from EHE International, Inc. a provider of corporate wellness programs. Higher levels of business travel were associated with poorer outcomes. Compared to traveling 1-6 nights/month for work, those who traveled 21 + nights were more likely to: smoke (prevalence ratio = 3.74, 95% CI 2.56, 5.46), report trouble sleeping (PR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.09, 1.71), be sedentary (PR = 1.95, 95%CI 1.56, 2.43) and score above clinical thresholds for alcohol dependence (CAGE score>1: PR = 2.04, 95% CI 1.26, 3.29), and mild or worse anxiety (GAD-7 Score>4: PR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.29, 2.21) and depression symptoms (PHQ-9 Score>4: PR = 2.27, 95%CI 1.70, 3.03). Employers should provide programs to help employees manage stress and maintain health while traveling for work.

  17. Preliminary Assessment of the Flow of Used Electronics, In ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is the largest growing municipal waste stream in the United States. The improper disposal of e-waste has environmental, economic, and social impacts, thus there is a need for sustainable stewardship of electronics. EPA/ORD has been working to improve our understanding of the quantity and flow of electronic devices from initial purchase to final disposition. Understanding the pathways of used electronics from the consumer to their final disposition would provide insight to decision makers about their impacts and support efforts to encourage improvements in policy, technology, and beneficial use. This report is the first stage of study of EPA/ORD's efforts to understand the flows of used electronics and e-waste by reviewing the regulatory programs for the selected states and identifying the key lessons learned and best practices that have emerged since their inception. Additionally, a proof-of-concept e-waste flow model has been developed to provide estimates of the quantity of e-waste generated annually at the national level, as well as for selected states. This report documents a preliminary assessment of available data and development of the model that can be used as a starting point to estimate domestic flows of used electronics from generation, to collection and reuse, to final disposition. The electronics waste flow model can estimate the amount of electronic products entering the EOL management phase based on unit sales dat

  18. Migrants, health, and happiness: Evidence that health assessments travel with migrants and predict well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljunge, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Health assessments correlate with health outcomes and subjective well-being. Immigrants offer an opportunity to study persistent social influences on health where the social conditions are not endogenous to individual outcomes. This approach provides a clear direction of causality from social conditions to health, and in a second stage to well-being. Natives and immigrants from across the world residing in 30 European countries are studied using survey data. The paper applies within country analysis using both linear regressions and two stage least squares. Natives' and immigrants' individual characteristics have similar predictive power for health, except Muslim immigrants who experience a sizeable health penalty. Average health reports in the immigrant's birth country have a significant association with the immigrant's current health. Almost a quarter of the birth country health variation is brought by the immigrants, while conditioning on socioeconomic characteristics. There is no evidence of the birth country predictive power declining neither as the immigrant spends more time in the residence country nor over the life course. The second stage estimates indicate that a one standard deviation improvement in health predicts higher happiness by 1.72 point or 0.82 of a standard deviation, more than four times the happiness difference of changing employment status from unemployed to employed. Studying life satisfaction yields similar results. Health improvements predict substantial increases in individual happiness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Travelers' Health: Rubella

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stamaril clinics Disease Directory Resources Resources for Travelers Adventure Travel Animal Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Evite ... Minute Travel Long-Term Travel Mass Gatherings Medical Tourism Mental Health Motion Sickness Natural Disasters Pregnant Travelers ...

  20. Physics design of a 10 MeV, 6 kW travelling wave electron linac for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-10-11

    Oct 11, 2016 ... We present the physics design of a 10 MeV, 6 kW S-band (2856 MHz) electron linear ... linac (in contrast with standing wave linac) is that it accepts the RF power over a band of frequencies. Three- ... structures are preferred for relatively higher energy ... klystron in a TW linac, which results in cost reduction.

  1. Organisational travel plans for improving health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, Jamie; Macmillan, Alexandra; Connor, Jennie; Bullen, Chris; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2010-03-17

    Dependence on car use has a number of broad health implications, including contributing to physical inactivity, road traffic injury, air pollution and social severance, as well as entrenching lifestyles that require environmentally unsustainable energy use. Travel plans are interventions that aim to reduce single-occupant car use and increase the use of alternatives such as walking, cycling and public transport, with a variety of behavioural and structural components. This review focuses on organisational travel plans for schools, tertiary institutes and workplaces. These plans are closely aligned in their aims and intervention design, having emerged from a shared theoretical base. To assess the effects of organisational travel plans on health, either directly measured, or through changes in travel mode. We searched the following electronic databases; Transport (1988 to June 2008), MEDLINE (1950 to June 2008), EMBASE (1947 to June 2008), CINAHL (1982 to June 2008), ERIC (1966 to June 2008), PSYCINFO (1806 to June 2008), Sociological Abstracts (1952 to June 2008), BUILD (1989 to 2002), Social Sciences Citation Index (1900 to June 2008), Science Citation Index (1900 to June 2008), Arts & Humanities Index (1975 to June 2008), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (to August 2008), CENTRAL (to August 2008), Cochrane Injuries Group Register (to December 2009), C2-RIPE (to July 2008), C2-SPECTR (to July 2008), ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (1861 to June 2008). We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles, conference proceedings and Internet sources. We did not restrict the search by date, language or publication status. We included randomised controlled trials and controlled before-after studies of travel behaviour change programmes conducted in an organisational setting, where the measured outcome was change in travel mode or health. Both positive and negative health effects were included. Two authors independently assessed eligibility, assessed trial

  2. Improving health through policies that promote active travel: A review of evidence to support integrated health impact assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazelle, A. de; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J.; Antó, J.M.; Brauer, M.; Briggs, D.; Braun-Fahrlander, C.; Cavill, N.; Cooper, A.R.; Desqueyroux, H.; Fruin, S.; Hoek, G.; Panis, L.I.; Janssen, N.; Jerrett, M.; Joffe, M.; Andersen, Z.J.; Kempen, E. van; Kingham, S.; Kubesch, N.; Leyden, K.M.; Marshall, J.D.; Matamala, J.; Mellios, G.; Mendez, M.; Nassif, H.; Ogilvie, D.; Peiró, R.; Pérez, K.; Rabl, A.; Ragettli, M.; Rodríguez, D.; Rojas, D.; Ruiz, P.; Sallis, J.F.; Terwoert, J.; Toussaint, J.-F.; Tuomisto, J.; Zuurbier, M.; Lebret, E.

    2011-01-01

    Substantial policy changes to control obesity, limit chronic disease, and reduce air pollution emissions, including greenhouse gasses, have been recommended. Transportation and planning policies that promote active travel by walking and cycling can contribute to these goals, potentially yielding

  3. Exposure assessment of workers in printed electronics workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Sohn, Eun Kyung; Ahn, Jin Soo; Ahn, Kangho; Kim, Keun Soo; Lee, Jong Hwan; Lee, Taik Min; Yu, Il Je

    2013-07-01

    Printed electronics uses converging technologies, such as printing, fine mechanics, nanotechnology, electronics and other new technologies. Consequently, printed electronics raises additional health and safety concerns to those experienced in the traditional printing industry. This study investigated two printed electronics workplaces based on a walk-through survey and personal and area sampling. All the printed electronics operations were conducted in a cleanroom. No indication of exposure to excess silver nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was found. While the organic solvents were lower than current occupational exposure limits, there was a lack of engineering controls, such as local exhaust ventilation, correct enclosure and duct connections. There was also an insufficient quantity of personal protective equipment, and some organic solvents not described in the safety data sheets (SDSs) were detected in the air samples. Plus, the cleaning work, a major emissions operation, was not conducted within a hood, and the cleaning waste was not properly disposed of. Therefore, the present exposure assessment results from two printed electronics workplaces suggest that the printed electronics industry needs to take note of the occupational safety and health risks and hazards already established by the traditional printing industry, along with new risks and hazards originating from converging technologies such as nanotechnology.

  4. Travelers' diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett-Connor, E

    1973-03-01

    On the average, one-fourth of North Americans visiting developing countries experience a self-limited diarrheal illness that interferes with holiday or business activities. Recent work suggests that these episodes are caused by a small inoculum of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli which are common in the country visited and rare in the country of origin. Neither antimicrobial treatment nor anti-diarrheal agents have proven benefit once the illness has begun. Despite its frequent use, iodochlorhydroxyquin has not been shown in double blind studies to be effective as a preventive agent, and may be dangerous. The status of furazolidone for prevention of tourist diarrhea is questionable. Both neomycin sulfate and phythalylsulfathiazole have demonstrated efficacy as chemoprophylactics in Mexico. However, their use should be restricted to limited types of travel and travelers. General admonitions concerning avoidance of certain ingestibles are recommended; despite questionable value in preventing travelers' diarrhea such precautions may prevent more serious gastrointestinal illness.

  5. Secondary-electron-emission losses in multistage depressed collectors and traveling-wave-tube efficiency improvements with carbon collector electrode surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramins, P.; Ebihara, B. T.

    1986-01-01

    Secondary-electron-emission losses in multistage depressed collectors (MDC's) and their effects on overall traveling-wave-tube (TWT) efficiency were investigated. Two representative TWT's and several computer-modeled MDC's were used. The experimental techniques provide the measurement of both the TWT overall and the collector efficiencies. The TWT-MDC performance was optimized and measured over a wide range of operating conditions, with geometrically identical collectors, which utilized different electrode surface materials. Comparisons of the performance of copper electrodes to that of various forms of carbon, including pyrolytic and iisotropic graphites, were stressed. The results indicate that: (1) a significant improvement in the TWT overall efficiency was obtained in all cases by the use of carbon, rather than copper electrodes, and (2) that the extent of this efficiency enhancement depended on the characteristics of the TWT, the TWT operating point, the MDC design, and collector voltages. Ion textured graphite was found to be particularly effective in minimizing the secondary-electron-emission losses. Experimental and analytical results, however, indicate that it is at least as important to provide a maximum amount of electrostatic suppression of secondary electrons by proper MDC design. Such suppression, which is obtained by ensuring that a substantial suppressing electric field exists over the regions of the electrodes where most of the current is incident, was found to be very effective. Experimental results indicate that, with proper MDC design and the use of electrode surfaces with low secondary-electron yield, degradation of the collector efficiency can be limited to a few percent.

  6. PERii electronic journals: Assessing access and use by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is based on the findings of a study that assessed the awareness of Programme for Enhancement of Resources Initiative (PERii) electronic journals, their use and challenges encountered by postgraduate students. The study was carried out at the University of Dar es Salaam and involved postgraduate students in ...

  7. Nepal : Electronic Government Procurement Readiness Assessment and Roadmap

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    The assessment focused on the degree of readiness of Government of Nepal's (GoN's) current public procurement environment for making a transition from a traditional paper-based, manual procurement transaction processing and communication to electronic government procurement (e-GP). Some 20 public and private sector organizations, involved in a wide range of functions that relate to public...

  8. Electronic Rubrics to Assess Competences in ICT Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Manuela Raposo; De La Serna, Manuel Cebrian; Martinez-Figueira, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Helping students to acquire specific competences is nowadays one of the basic pillars of university teaching; therefore its evaluation and accreditation is of key importance. As of late, rubrics and in particular electronic rubrics (e-rubrics) have become an important resource to assess competences and guide students in their learning processes.…

  9. Assessment of legibility and completeness of handwritten and electronic prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarrak, Ahmed I; Al Rashidi, Eman Abdulrahman; Fatani, Rwaa Kamil; Al Ageel, Shoog Ibrahim; Mohammed, Rafiuddin

    2014-12-01

    To assess the legibility and completeness of handwritten prescriptions and compare with electronic prescription system for medication errors. Prospective study. King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Handwritten prescriptions were received from clinical units of Medicine Outpatient Department (MOPD), Primary Care Clinic (PCC) and Surgery Outpatient Department (SOPD) whereas electronic prescriptions were collected from the pediatric ward. The handwritten prescription was assessed for completeness by the checklist designed according to the hospital prescription and evaluated for legibility by two pharmacists. The comparison between handwritten and electronic prescription errors was evaluated based on the validated checklist adopted from previous studies. Legibility and completeness of prescriptions. 398 prescriptions (199 handwritten and 199 e-prescriptions) were assessed. About 71 (35.7%) of handwritten and 5 (2.5%) of electronic prescription errors were identified. A significant statistical difference (P prescriptions in omitted dose and omitted route of administration category of error distribution. The rate of completeness in patient identification in handwritten prescriptions was 80.97% in MOPD, 76.36% in PCC and 85.93% in SOPD clinic units. Assessment of medication prescription completeness was 91.48% in MOPD, 88.48% in PCC, and 89.28% in SOPD. This study revealed a high incidence of prescribing errors in handwritten prescriptions. The use of e-prescription system showed a significant decline in the incidence of errors. The legibility of handwritten prescriptions was relatively good whereas the level of completeness was very low.

  10. Human travel and traveling bedbugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaunay, Pascal

    2012-12-01

    A dramatic increase of reported bedbug (Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus) infestations has been observed worldwide over the past decade. Bedbug infestations have also been detected across a wide range of travel accommodations, regardless of their comfort and hygiene levels. Travelers are increasingly exposed to the risks of bedbug bites, infestation of personal belongings, and subsequent contamination of newly visited accommodations and their homes. We searched Medline publications via the PubMed database. National bedbug recommendations, textbooks, newspapers, and Centers for Disease Control websites were also searched manually. To detect infested sites, avoid or limit bedbug bites, and reduce the risk of contaminating one's belongings and home, bedbug biology and ecology must be understood. A detailed search of their most classic hiding niches is a key to finding adult bedbugs, nymphs, eggs, and feces or traces of blood from crushed bedbugs. Locally, bedbugs move by active displacement to feed (bite) during the night. Bed, mattress, sofa, and/or curtains are the most frequently infested places. If you find bedbugs, change your room or, even better, the hotel. Otherwise, travelers should follow recommendations for avoiding bedbugs and their bites during the night and apply certain simple rules to avoid infesting other sites or their home. Travelers exposed to bedbugs can minimize the risks of bites and infestation of their belongings, and must also do their civic duty to avoid contributing to the subsequent contamination of other hotels and, finally, home. © 2012 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  11. Dynamics of positron beam from a convertor target while beam additional accelerating in a travelling wave electron linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhilavyan, L.Z.; Karev, A.I.

    1981-01-01

    The results of experimental and theoretical investigations of the dynamics of a positron beam produced in a tantalum converter of the 6 mm thickness in the process of beam reacceleration in an electron linac (ELA) are presented. The mean finite positron currents and their dependences on the accelerating electric field are measured. The energy spectra of accelerated positrons are given. A good agreement between the calculated and experimental data is shown. As a result of investigations some peculiarities of positron production on the ELA intersection targets, which are defined by both the initial positron beam parameters from the converter and the dynamics of positron reacceleration in the ELA [ru

  12. Approaches to groundwater travel time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, P.; Klavetter, E.; Peters, R.

    1989-01-01

    One of the objectives of performance assessment for the Yucca Mountain Project is to estimate the groundwater travel time at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to determine whether the site complies with the criteria specified in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10 CFR 60.113 (a). The numerical standard for performance in these criteria is based on the groundwater travel time along the fastest path of likely radionuclide transport from the disturbed zone to the accessible environment. The concept of groundwater travel time as proposed in the regulations, does not have a unique mathematical statement. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the ambiguities associated with the regulatory specification of groundwater travel time, two different interpretations of groundwater travel time, and the effect of the two interpretations on estimates of the groundwater travel time

  13. Approaches to groundwater travel time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, P.; Klavetter, E.; Peters, R.

    1989-01-01

    One of the objectives of performance assessment for the Yucca Mountain Project is to estimate the groundwater travel time at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to determine whether the site complies with the criteria specified in the Code of Federal Regulations. The numerical standard for performance in these criteria is based on the groundwater travel time along the fastest path of likely radionuclide transport from the disturbed zone to the accessible environment. The concept of groundwater travel time, as proposed in the regulations, does not have a unique mathematical statement. The purpose of this paper is to discuss (1) the ambiguities associated with the regulatory specification of groundwater travel time, (2) two different interpretations of groundwater travel time, and (3) the effect of the two interpretations on estimates of the groundwater travel time. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  14. The Infl uence of Electronic-Word-of-Mouth on Travel Intentionamong Foreign Students in Malaysia: Does Gender ReallyMatter?

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnapillai, Gengeswari; Ying, Kwok See

    2017-01-01

    As an attractive educational hub within this region, Malaysia currently accommodates an enormous number of foreign students. These students are known for their inclination towards tour and travel activities during their spare time. In view of the potential contribution of foreign students’ travel activities towards the nation, this study attempts to examine the tour behaviour among foreign students in Malaysia. This study specifically focuses on the foreign students’ travel intention and poss...

  15. Meat Quality Assessment by Electronic Nose (Machine Olfaction Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundar Balasubramanian

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last twenty years, newly developed chemical sensor systems (so called “electronic noses” have made odor analyses possible. These systems involve various types of electronic chemical gas sensors with partial specificity, as well as suitable statistical methods enabling the recognition of complex odors. As commercial instruments have become available, a substantial increase in research into the application of electronic noses in the evaluation of volatile compounds in food, cosmetic and other items of everyday life is observed. At present, the commercial gas sensor technologies comprise metal oxide semiconductors, metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors, organic conducting polymers, and piezoelectric crystal sensors. Further sensors based on fibreoptic, electrochemical and bi-metal principles are still in the developmental stage. Statistical analysis techniques range from simple graphical evaluation to multivariate analysis such as artificial neural network and radial basis function. The introduction of electronic noses into the area of food is envisaged for quality control, process monitoring, freshness evaluation, shelf-life investigation and authenticity assessment. Considerable work has already been carried out on meat, grains, coffee, mushrooms, cheese, sugar, fish, beer and other beverages, as well as on the odor quality evaluation of food packaging material. This paper describes the applications of these systems for meat quality assessment, where fast detection methods are essential for appropriate product management. The results suggest the possibility of using this new technology in meat handling.

  16. Meat quality assessment by electronic nose (machine olfaction technology).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti, Mahdi; Mohtasebi, Seyed Saeid; Siadat, Maryam; Balasubramanian, Sundar

    2009-01-01

    Over the last twenty years, newly developed chemical sensor systems (so called "electronic noses") have made odor analyses possible. These systems involve various types of electronic chemical gas sensors with partial specificity, as well as suitable statistical methods enabling the recognition of complex odors. As commercial instruments have become available, a substantial increase in research into the application of electronic noses in the evaluation of volatile compounds in food, cosmetic and other items of everyday life is observed. At present, the commercial gas sensor technologies comprise metal oxide semiconductors, metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors, organic conducting polymers, and piezoelectric crystal sensors. Further sensors based on fibreoptic, electrochemical and bi-metal principles are still in the developmental stage. Statistical analysis techniques range from simple graphical evaluation to multivariate analysis such as artificial neural network and radial basis function. The introduction of electronic noses into the area of food is envisaged for quality control, process monitoring, freshness evaluation, shelf-life investigation and authenticity assessment. Considerable work has already been carried out on meat, grains, coffee, mushrooms, cheese, sugar, fish, beer and other beverages, as well as on the odor quality evaluation of food packaging material. This paper describes the applications of these systems for meat quality assessment, where fast detection methods are essential for appropriate product management. The results suggest the possibility of using this new technology in meat handling.

  17. Assessment of Electronic Absentee System for Elections (EASE) Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-30

    No. DODIG-2015-135 J U N E 3 0 , 2 0 1 5 Assessment of Electronic Absentee System for Elections (EASE) Grants Mission Our mission is to provide...efficiency; advises the Secretary of Defense and Congress; and informs the public. Vision Our vision is to be a model oversight organization in the Federal...Government by leading change, speaking truth, and promoting excellence—a diverse organization , working together as one professional team, recognized

  18. Assessment of printability for printed electronics patterns by measuring geometric dimensions and defining assessment parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Sung Woong; Kim, Cheol; Kim, Chung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    The printability of patterns for printed electronic devices determines the performance, yield rate, and reliability of the devices; therefore, it should be assessed quantitatively. In this paper, parameters for printability assessment of printed patterns for width, pinholes, and edge waviness are suggested. For quantitative printability assessment, printability grades for each parameter are proposed according to the parameter values. As examples of printability assessment, printed line patterns and mesh patterns obtained using roll-to-roll gravure printing are used. Both single-line patterns and mesh patterns show different levels of printability, even in samples obtained using the same printing equipment and conditions. Therefore, for reliable assessment, it is necessary to assess the printability of the patterns by enlarging the sampling area and increasing the number of samples. We can predict the performance of printed electronic devices by assessing the printability of the patterns that constitute them

  19. Assessment of printability for printed electronics patterns by measuring geometric dimensions and defining assessment parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Sung Woong [Dept. of Robotics Engineering, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Cheol; Kim, Chung Hwan [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The printability of patterns for printed electronic devices determines the performance, yield rate, and reliability of the devices; therefore, it should be assessed quantitatively. In this paper, parameters for printability assessment of printed patterns for width, pinholes, and edge waviness are suggested. For quantitative printability assessment, printability grades for each parameter are proposed according to the parameter values. As examples of printability assessment, printed line patterns and mesh patterns obtained using roll-to-roll gravure printing are used. Both single-line patterns and mesh patterns show different levels of printability, even in samples obtained using the same printing equipment and conditions. Therefore, for reliable assessment, it is necessary to assess the printability of the patterns by enlarging the sampling area and increasing the number of samples. We can predict the performance of printed electronic devices by assessing the printability of the patterns that constitute them.

  20. Traveling questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that uncertainty and nonknowledge, and not just research results, can be important vehicles of translation through which genetic research participation comes to affect the lives of research participants. Based on interviews with participants in a genetic research project, I....... Research questions, and not just results, may serve as a generative form of knowledge that can travel as fast as any answer....

  1. Assessing urban context-induced change in individual activity travel patterns : case study of new railway station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arentze, T.A.; Borgers, A.W.J.; Ponjé, M.M.W.; Stams, A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Findings are reported of selective descriptive analyses that were conducted to examine whether the opening of a new railway station had induced any changes in the activity travel patterns of a panel of house holds. In particular, changes in choices related to trip generation, trip chaining,

  2. Design implications of incorporating employee profiles and workplace activity levels in travel demand management led parking demand assessments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Letebele, MO

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available spaces when the demand for parking is ever increasing. A more fundamental question, however, is how to better understand travel behaviour to enable the design of sustainable transport services, of which parking form part, in line with policy instruments...

  3. Is the closest facility the one actually used? An assessment of travel time estimation based on mammography facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford-Teaster, Jennifer; Lange, Jane M; Hubbard, Rebecca A; Lee, Christoph I; Haas, Jennifer S; Shi, Xun; Carlos, Heather A; Henderson, Louise; Hill, Deirdre; Tosteson, Anna N A; Onega, Tracy

    2016-02-18

    Characterizing geographic access depends on a broad range of methods available to researchers and the healthcare context to which the method is applied. Globally, travel time is one frequently used measure of geographic access with known limitations associated with data availability. Specifically, due to lack of available utilization data, many travel time studies assume that patients use the closest facility. To examine this assumption, an example using mammography screening data, which is considered a geographically abundant health care service in the United States, is explored. This work makes an important methodological contribution to measuring access--which is a critical component of health care planning and equity almost everywhere. We analyzed one mammogram from each of 646,553 women participating in the US based Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium for years 2005-2012. We geocoded each record to street level address data in order to calculate travel time to the closest and to the actually used mammography facility. Travel time between the closest and the actual facility used was explored by woman-level and facility characteristics. Only 35% of women in the study population used their closest facility, but nearly three-quarters of women not using their closest facility used a facility within 5 min of the closest facility. Individuals that by-passed the closest facility tended to live in an urban core, within higher income neighborhoods, or in areas where the average travel times to work was longer. Those living in small towns or isolated rural areas had longer closer and actual median drive times. Since the majority of US women accessed a facility within a few minutes of their closest facility this suggests that distance to the closest facility may serve as an adequate proxy for utilization studies of geographically abundant services like mammography in areas where the transportation networks are well established.

  4. Can we use digital life-log images to investigate active and sedentary travel behaviour? Results from a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodges Steve

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active travel such as walking and cycling has potential to increase physical activity levels in sedentary individuals. Motorised car travel is a sedentary behaviour that contributes to carbon emissions. There have been recent calls for technology that will improve our ability to measure these travel behaviours, and in particular evaluate modes and volumes of active versus sedentary travel. The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate the potential efficacy of a new electronic measurement device, a wearable digital camera called SenseCam, in travel research. Methods Participants (n = 20 were required to wear the SenseCam device for one full day of travel. The device automatically records approximately 3,600 time-stamped, first-person point-of-view images per day, without any action required by the wearer. Participants also completed a self-report travel diary over the same period for comparison, and were interviewed afterwards to assess user burden and experience. Results There were a total of 105 confirmed journeys in this pilot. The new SenseCam device recorded more journeys than the travel diary (99 vs. 94. Although the two measures demonstrated an acceptable correlation for journey duration (r = 0.92, p Conclusions Direct observation of travel behaviour from time-stamped images shows considerable potential in the field of travel research. Journey duration derived from direct observation of travel behaviour from time-stamped images appears to suggest over-reporting of self-reported journey duration.

  5. An empirical assessment of service quality in the context of travel agencies in the Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Ciunova-Shuleska; Nikolina Palamidovska; Marija Grishin

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the service quality of travel agencies in the Republic of Macedonia from a customer perspective. Its authors applied a modified version of the SERVQUAL instrument for measuring service quality. The results of the performed paired sample t-testing indicated significant differences between expectations and perceptions, with two exceptions. A positive correlation was identified between expectation means and perception means as well as between perception means and gap scor...

  6. Travel patterns of cancer surgery patients in a regionalized system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew K; Shara, Nawar M; Zeymo, Alexander; Harris, Katherine; Estes, Randy; Johnson, Lynt B; Al-Refaie, Waddah B

    2015-11-01

    Regionalization of complex surgeries has increased patient travel distances possibly leaving a substantial burden on those at risk for poorer surgical outcomes. To date, little is known about travel patterns of cancer surgery patients in regionalized settings. To inform this issue, we sought to assess travel patterns of those undergoing a major cancer surgery within a regionalized system. We identified 4733 patients who underwent lung, esophageal, gastric, liver, pancreatic, and colorectal resections from 2002-2014 within a multihospital system in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Patient age, race and/or ethnicity, and insurance status were extracted from electronic health records. We used Geographical Information System capabilities in R software to estimate travel distance and map patient addresses based on cancer surgery type and these characteristics. We used visual inspection, analysis of variance, and interaction analyses to assess the distribution of travel distances between patient populations. A total of 48.2% of patients were non-white, 49.9% were aged >65 y, and 54.9% had private insurance. Increased travel distance was associated with decreasing age and those undergoing pancreatic and esophageal resections. Also, black patients tend to travel shorter distances than other racial and/or ethnic groups. These maps offer a preliminary understanding into variations of geospatial travel patterns among patients receiving major cancer surgery in a Mid-Atlantic regionalized setting. Future research should focus on the impact of regionalization on timely delivery of surgical care and other quality metrics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An empirical assessment of service quality in the context of travel agencies in the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Ciunova-Shuleska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the service quality of travel agencies in the Republic of Macedonia from a customer perspective. Its authors applied a modified version of the SERVQUAL instrument for measuring service quality. The results of the performed paired sample t-testing indicated significant differences between expectations and perceptions, with two exceptions. A positive correlation was identified between expectation means and perception means as well as between perception means and gap score means, with a negative correlation identified between expectation means and gap means. Furthermore, factor analysis of the gap score means was performed, revealing the existence of 3 dimensions: customer orientation, reliability and tangibles. Data analysis showed negative gaps between expectations and perception on all three dimensions. Finally, by using the ANOVA test, significant differences among the gap scores of the three different classes of travel agencies (with “A”, “B” and “C” licenses were determined, both in total and with regard to the identified dimensions. There are a number of areas of the travel agencies’ service quality where enhancements are needed in order to satisfy the customers more fully.

  8. Tourist perceptions of air travel and climate change: an assessment of the polluters pay principle in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Peck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an ongoing debate about possible taxation of air travel and the inclusion of aviation in emission trading schemes. One proposal is the introduction of a carbon tax as part of a broad range of mitigation options to address climate change. However, the effectiveness of such a tax depends largely on the responsiveness to it by tourists. Consequently, the aim of the study is to explore the attitudes of domestic tourists in South Africa toward the introduction of a carbon tax, together with their knowledge and perceptions of climate change. Therefore, the perceptions of the polluters pay principle amongst domestic tourists who use air travel in South Africa are investigated. Data was collected using a structured survey involving two hundred domestic air travel passengers at O.R. Tambo International airport, selected through a random sampling technique. The study is the first of its kind in South Africa and it concludes that the average domestic tourist has moderate to good knowledge regarding climate change, believes climate change to be very serious and in need of attention and is willing to pay a carbon tax in order to offset their contribution to climate change; provided that it is regulated and used effectively.

  9. Malaria: prevention in travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Ashley M

    2010-07-12

    Malaria transmission occurs most frequently in environments with humidity greater than 60% and ambient temperature of 25 °C to 30 °C. Risks increase with longer visits and depend on activity. Infection can follow a single mosquito bite. Incubation is usually 10 to 14 days but can be up to 18 months depending on the strain of parasite. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-drug preventive interventions in non-pregnant adult travellers? What are the effects of drug prophylaxis in non-pregnant adult travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria vaccines in adult and child travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria interventions in child travellers, pregnant travellers, and in airline pilots? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to November 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 79 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: aerosol insecticides, amodiaquine, air conditioning and electric fans, atovaquone-proguanil, biological control measures, chloroquine (alone or with proguanil), diethyltoluamide (DEET), dietary supplementation, doxycycline, electronic mosquito repellents, full-length and light-coloured clothing, insecticide-treated clothing/nets, mefloquine, mosquito coils and vapourising mats, primaquine, pyrimethamine-dapsone, pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine, smoke, topical (skin-applied) insect repellents, and vaccines.

  10. The impact of injection anxiety on education of travelers about common travel risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Lorraine M; Farquharson, Lorna; O'Dwyer, Niamh A; Behrens, Ron H

    2014-01-01

    Despite many travelers receiving at least one vaccination during the pre-travel consultation, little is known about travelers' fear of injections and the impact this may have on educating travelers about health risks associated with their trip. This study aimed to investigate: (1) the prevalence of injection anxiety in travelers attending a pre-travel consultation, (2) whether anxiety due to anticipating a vaccination adversely affects recall of information and advice, and (3) whether clinicians can recognize travelers' anxiety, and how they respond to anxious travelers. Consecutive adult travelers (N = 105) attending one of two inner-city travel clinics completed self-report measures of state anxiety, injection anxiety, and symptoms of needle phobia immediately before and after their pre-travel consultation. Clinicians were also asked to rate travelers' anxiety and report any anxiety management strategies. Standardized information was presented during the consultation and recall of information and advice was assessed immediately post-consultation. Delayed recall (24 hours) was assessed for a subsample (20%) of participants. More than one third of travelers reported feeling nervous or afraid when having an injection (39%). Travelers' state anxiety was related to their psychological and physiological reactions to needles, and reduced significantly post-consultation. Recall of information and advice varied, with failure of recall ranging from 2 to 70% across 15 items, and delayed recall being significantly lower. No relationship was found between recall and anxiety. Clinician-rated anxiety moderately correlated with travelers' self-reported anxiety. A significant proportion of travelers experienced injection anxiety when attending the pre-travel consultation, with some travelers reporting symptoms consistent with criteria for Blood Injection Injury phobia. There were important gaps in recall of information and advice about common travel risks. Although no

  11. Travel itinerary uncertainty and the pre-travel consultation--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Gerard; Md Nor, Muhammad Najmi

    2016-01-01

    Risk assessment relies on the accuracy of the information provided by the traveller. A questionnaire was administered to 83 consecutive travellers attending a travel medicine clinic. The majority of travellers was uncertain about destinations within countries, transportation or type of accommodation. Most travellers were uncertain if they would be visiting malaria regions. The degree of uncertainty about itinerary potentially impacts on the ability of the travel medicine specialist to perform an adequate risk assessment, select appropriate vaccinations and prescribe malaria prophylaxis. This study reveals high levels of traveller uncertainty about their itinerary which may potentially reduce the effectiveness of their pre-travel consultation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of International society of travel medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Assessing the effect of electron density in photon dose calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seco, J.; Evans, P. M.

    2006-01-01

    Photon dose calculation algorithms (such as the pencil beam and collapsed cone, CC) model the attenuation of a primary photon beam in media other than water, by using pathlength scaling based on the relative mass density of the media to water. In this study, we assess if differences in the electron density between the water and media, with different atomic composition, can influence the accuracy of conventional photon dose calculations algorithms. A comparison is performed between an electron-density scaling method and the standard mass-density scaling method for (i) tissues present in the human body (such as bone, muscle, etc.), and for (ii) water-equivalent plastics, used in radiotherapy dosimetry and quality assurance. We demonstrate that the important material property that should be taken into account by photon dose algorithms is the electron density, and not the mass density. The mass-density scaling method is shown to overestimate, relative to electron-density predictions, the primary photon fluence for tissues in the human body and water-equivalent plastics, where 6%-7% and 10% differences were observed respectively for bone and air. However, in the case of patients, differences are expected to be smaller due to the large complexity of a treatment plan and of the patient anatomy and atomic composition and of the smaller thickness of bone/air that incident photon beams of a treatment plan may have to traverse. Differences have also been observed for conventional dose algorithms, such as CC, where an overestimate of the lung dose occurs, when irradiating lung tumors. The incorrect lung dose can be attributed to the incorrect modeling of the photon beam attenuation through the rib cage (thickness of 2-3 cm in bone upstream of the lung tumor) and through the lung and the oversimplified modeling of electron transport in convolution algorithms. In the present study, the overestimation of the primary photon fluence, using the mass-density scaling method, was shown

  13. Green Routing Fuel Saving Opportunity Assessment: A Case Study on California Large-Scale Real-World Travel Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Lei [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Holden, Jacob [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gonder, Jeffrey D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wood, Eric W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-07-31

    New technologies, such as connected and automated vehicles, have attracted more and more researchers for improving the energy efficiency and environmental impact of current transportation systems. The green routing strategy instructs a vehicle to select the most fuel-efficient route before the vehicle departs. It benefits the current transportation system with fuel saving opportunity through identifying the greenest route. This paper introduces an evaluation framework for estimating benefits of green routing based on large-scale, real-world travel data. The framework has the capability to quantify fuel savings by estimating the fuel consumption of actual routes and comparing to routes procured by navigation systems. A route-based fuel consumption estimation model, considering road traffic conditions, functional class, and road grade is proposed and used in the framework. An experiment using a large-scale data set from the California Household Travel Survey global positioning system trajectory data base indicates that 31% of actual routes have fuel savings potential with a cumulative estimated fuel savings of 12%.

  14. Green Routing Fuel Saving Opportunity Assessment: A Case Study on California Large-Scale Real-World Travel Data: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Lei; Holden, Jacob; Gonder, Jeff; Wood, Eric

    2017-07-13

    New technologies, such as connected and automated vehicles, have attracted more and more researchers for improving the energy efficiency and environmental impact of current transportation systems. The green routing strategy instructs a vehicle to select the most fuel-efficient route before the vehicle departs. It benefits the current transportation system with fuel saving opportunity through identifying the greenest route. This paper introduces an evaluation framework for estimating benefits of green routing based on large-scale, real-world travel data. The framework has the capability to quantify fuel savings by estimating the fuel consumption of actual routes and comparing to routes procured by navigation systems. A route-based fuel consumption estimation model, considering road traffic conditions, functional class, and road grade is proposed and used in the framework. An experiment using a large-scale data set from the California Household Travel Survey global positioning system trajectory data base indicates that 31% of actual routes have fuel savings potential with a cumulative estimated fuel savings of 12%.

  15. How to Make Mathematical eContent Travel Well

    OpenAIRE

    Caprotti, Olga; Pauna, Matti; Seppälä, Mika

    2009-01-01

    Electronic content produced for education travels well when it can be reused across national borders and in different curricular frameworks. In this article, we discuss what features of mathematical e-content contribute to making it travel well.

  16. Environmental assessment: Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This Environmental Assessment has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to fulfill its obligations pursuant to Sect. 102 of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (Public Law 91-190). The proposed federal action addressed in this document is DOE's funding of a Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at Newport News, Virginia. DOE intends to contract with the Southeastern Universities Research Association (SURA) for operation of CEBAF, a continuous wave (CW) linear accelerator system (linac) capable of providing high-duty-factor beams throughout the energy range from 0.5 to 4.0 GeV. CEBAF will be the first of its kind worldwide and will offer a multi-GeV energy, high-intensity, high-duty-factor electron beam for use by the US nuclear physics community in research on the states of nuclear matter and the short-distance behavior of nuclei. The CEBAF project is largely in the conceptual design stage, with some components in the preliminary design stage. Construction is anticipated to begin in 1987 and be completed by 1992

  17. Travelers' Health: HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Last-Minute Travel Long-Term Travel Mass Gatherings Medical Tourism Mental Health Motion Sickness Natural Disasters Pregnant Travelers ... for purposes of medical treatment (see Chapter 2, Medical Tourism ), the blood and blood products used in the ...

  18. International travel and vaccinations.

    OpenAIRE

    Rizvon, M K; Qazi, S; Ward, L A

    1999-01-01

    With the increase in global travel, no disease is beyond the reach of any population. Traveling patients should be advised to follow food and water precautions and encouraged to receive the recommended immunizations. Travel medicine plays a vital role not only in limiting the morbidity of travel-related illnesses but also in limiting the spread of diseases. This article addresses the common issues related to travel, reviews the care of the immunocompromised traveler, and updates the available...

  19. Electronic Monitoring Systems to Assess Urinary Incontinence: A Health Technology Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is involuntary leakage of urine and can affect people of all ages. Incidence rises as people age, often because of reduced mobility or conditions affecting the nervous system, such as dementia and stroke. Urinary incontinence can be a distressing condition and can harm a person's physical, financial, social, and emotional well-being. People with urinary incontinence are susceptible to skin irritation, pressure sores, and urinary tract infections. Urinary incontinence is also associated with an increased risk of falls in older adults.This health technology assessment examined the effectiveness of, budget impact of, and patient values and preferences about electronic monitoring systems to assess urinary incontinence for residents of long-term care homes or geriatric hospital inpatients with complex conditions. A clinical evidence review of the published clinical literature was conducted to June 9, 2017. Critical appraisal of the clinical evidence included assessment of risk of bias and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group criteria to reflect the certainty of the evidence.We calculated the funding required for an electronic urinary incontinence monitoring system in the first year of implementation (when facilities would buy the systems) and in subsequent years.We interviewed six people with urinary incontinence and two caregivers, who described ways urinary incontinence affected daily life. We included one observational study in the clinical review. Most of the 31 participants in the observational study were female (78%) and required high levels of care, primarily because of cognitive impairment. The quality of evidence for all outcomes was very low owing to potential risk of bias and indirectness. We are consequently uncertain about how electronic monitoring systems affect management of urinary incontinence.For patients living in long-term care homes who are eligible for the technology, we

  20. Kapitza–Dirac effect with traveling waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayrapetyan, Armen G; Götte, Jörg B; Grigoryan, Karen K; Petrosyan, Rubik G

    2015-01-01

    We report on the possibility of diffracting electrons from light waves traveling inside a dielectric medium. We show that, in the frame of reference which moves with the group velocity of light, the traveling wave acts as a stationary diffraction grating from which electrons can diffract, similar to the conventional Kapitza–Dirac effect. To characterize the Kapitza–Dirac effect with traveling light waves, we make use of the Hamiltonian Analogy between electron optics and quantum mechanics and apply the Helmholtz–Kirchhoff theory of diffraction. (fast track communication)

  1. Assessment of the possibility of increasing a load - carrying strength of truss bridges of overhead travelling cranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał MUSIOŁ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A possibility of increasing the load-carrying strength of truss bridges of overhead travelling cranes by transferring a part of a useful load from the main truss (which transfers directly the load originated from road wheels of the crane carriage on the parallel auxiliary truss by means of increasing rigidity of truss members joining both trusses - was presented in the paper. The verification of a static relief of the main truss by the auxiliary one as a function of rigidity of transverse and skew space trusses was performed. The A. Blum method was used in analytical calculations. The obtained results were verified by means of the ANSYS 12.1 program utilising the finite element method (FEM.

  2. The Connected Traveler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Stanley

    2017-04-24

    The Connected Traveler project is a multi-disciplinary undertaking that seeks to validate potential for transformative transportation system energy savings by incentivizing energy efficient travel behavior.

  3. Environmental assessment of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles using naturalistic drive cycles and vehicle travel patterns: A Michigan case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, Brandon M.; Kelly, Jarod C.; Lee, Tae-Kyung; Keoleian, Gregory A.; Filipi, Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) use grid electricity as well as on-board gasoline for motive force. These multiple energy sources make prediction of PHEV energy consumption challenging and also complicate evaluation of their environmental impacts. This paper introduces a novel PHEV energy consumption modeling approach and compares it to a second approach from the literature, each using actual trip patterns from the 2009 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS). The first approach applies distance-dependent fuel efficiency and on-road electricity consumption rates based on naturalistic or real world, driving information to determine gasoline and electricity consumption. The second uses consumption rates derived in accordance with government certification testing. Both approaches are applied in the context of a location-specific case study that focuses on the state of Michigan. The two PHEV models show agreement in electricity demand due to vehicle charging, gasoline consumption, and life cycle environmental impacts for this case study. The naturalistic drive cycle approach is explored as a means of extending location-specific driving data to supplement existing PHEV impact assessments methods. - Highlights: • Travel patterns from survey data are combined with naturalistic drive cycles. • More realistic PHEV energy modeling using these synthesized real-world drive cycles. • Methodology is demonstrated for PHEVs in Michigan but applicable for other regions. • Energy and emissions findings have major implications for PHEV standards and policy

  4. The Utility of Rural and Underserved Designations in Geospatial Assessments of Distance Traveled to Healthcare Services: Implications for Public Health Research and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Lee Smith

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Health disparities research in rural populations is based on several common taxonomies identified by geography and population density. However, little is known about the implications of different rurality definitions on public health outcomes. To help illuminate the meaning of different rural designations often used in research, service delivery, or policy reports, this study will (1 review the different definitions of rurality and their purposes; (2 identify the overlap of various rural designations in an eight-county Brazos Valley region in Central Texas; (3 describe participant characteristic profiles based on distances traveled to obtain healthcare services; and (4 examine common profile characteristics associated with each designation. Data were analyzed from a random sample from 1,958 Texas adults participating in a community assessment. K-means cluster analysis was used to identify natural groupings of individuals based on distance traveled to obtain three healthcare services: medical care, dental care, and prescription medication pick-up. Significant variation in cluster representation and resident characteristics was observed by rural designation. Given widely used taxonomies for designating areas as rural (or provider shortage in health-related research, this study highlights differences that could influence research results and subsequent program and policy development based on rural designation.

  5. The utility of rural and underserved designations in geospatial assessments of distance traveled to healthcare services: implications for public health research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Dickerson, Justin B; Wendel, Monica L; Ahn, Sangnam; Pulczinski, Jairus C; Drake, Kelly N; Ory, Marcia G

    2013-01-01

    Health disparities research in rural populations is based on several common taxonomies identified by geography and population density. However, little is known about the implications of different rurality definitions on public health outcomes. To help illuminate the meaning of different rural designations often used in research, service delivery, or policy reports, this study will (1) review the different definitions of rurality and their purposes; (2) identify the overlap of various rural designations in an eight-county Brazos Valley region in Central Texas; (3) describe participant characteristic profiles based on distances traveled to obtain healthcare services; and (4) examine common profile characteristics associated with each designation. Data were analyzed from a random sample from 1,958 Texas adults participating in a community assessment. K-means cluster analysis was used to identify natural groupings of individuals based on distance traveled to obtain three healthcare services: medical care, dental care, and prescription medication pick-up. Significant variation in cluster representation and resident characteristics was observed by rural designation. Given widely used taxonomies for designating areas as rural (or provider shortage) in health-related research, this study highlights differences that could influence research results and subsequent program and policy development based on rural designation.

  6. What proportion of international travellers acquire a travel-related illness? A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, Kristina M; Kozarsky, Phyllis E; Ryan, Edward T; Chen, Lin H; Sotir, Mark J

    2017-09-01

    As international travel increases, travellers may be at increased risk of acquiring infectious diseases not endemic in their home countries. Many journal articles and reference books related to travel medicine cite that between 22-64% of international travellers become ill during or after travel; however, this information is minimal, outdated and limited by poor generalizability. We aim to provide a current and more accurate estimate of the proportion of international travellers who acquire a travel-related illness. We identified studies via PubMed or travel medicine experts, published between January 1, 1976-December 31, 2016 that included the number of international travellers acquiring a travel-related illness. We excluded studies that focused on a single disease or did not determine a rate based on the total number of travellers. We abstracted information on traveller demographics, trip specifics, study enrollment and follow-up and number of ill travellers and their illnesses. Of 743 studies, nine met the inclusion criteria. The data sources were from North America (four studies) and Europe (five studies). Most travellers were tourists, the most frequent destination regions were Asia and Africa, and the median trip duration ranged from 8-21 days. Six studies enrolled participants at the travellers' pre-travel consultation. All studies collected data through either extraction from the medical record, weekly diaries, or pre- and post-travel questionnaires. Data collection timeframes varied by study. Between 6-87% of travellers became ill across all studies. Four studies provided the best estimate: between 43-79% of travellers who frequently visited developing nations (e.g. India, Tanzania, and Kenya) became ill; travellers most frequently reported diarrhoea. This is the most comprehensive assessment available on the proportion of international travellers that develop a travel-related illness. Additional cohort studies would provide needed data to more precisely

  7. Assessment of a nanoparticle bridge platform for molecular electronics measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafri, S H M; Blom, T; Leifer, K; Stroemme, M; Welch, K; Loefaas, H; Grigoriev, A; Ahuja, R

    2010-01-01

    A combination of electron beam lithography, photolithography and focused ion beam milling was used to create a nanogap platform, which was bridged by gold nanoparticles in order to make electrical measurements and assess the platform under ambient conditions. Non-functionalized electrodes were tested to determine the intrinsic response of the platform and it was found that creating devices in ambient conditions requires careful cleaning and awareness of the contributions contaminants may make to measurements. The platform was then used to make measurements on octanethiol (OT) and biphenyldithiol (BPDT) molecules by functionalizing the nanoelectrodes with the molecules prior to bridging the nanogap with nanoparticles. Measurements on OT show that it is possible to make measurements on relatively small numbers of molecules, but that a large variation in response can be expected when one of the metal-molecule junctions is physisorbed, which was partially explained by attachment of OT molecules to different sites on the surface of the Au electrode using a density functional theory calculation. On the other hand, when dealing with BPDT, high yields for device creation are very difficult to achieve under ambient conditions. Significant hysteresis in the I-V curves of BPDT was also observed, which was attributed primarily to voltage induced changes at the interface between the molecule and the metal.

  8. Use assessment of electronic power sources for SMAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scotti, A.

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to assess the efficacy of the use of modern technologies for power supplies in Shielded Metal Are Welding (SMAW. Coupon tests were welded by using a series of five different classes of commercial electrodes, covering their current ranges. Both a conventional electromagnetic and an electronic (inverter power sources were employed. Fusion rate, deposition efficiency, bead finish and weld geometry were measured at each experiment. Current and voltage signals were acquired at a high rate to evaluate the dynamic behavior of the power sources. The static performances of both power sources were also determined. The results showed that despite the remarkable differences between the power supplies, based on static and dynamic characterizations, no significant difference was noticed in the operational behavior of the electrodes, in the given conditions, apart from a better anti-stick performance obtained with the electronic power source.

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la eficacia del uso de tecnologías modernas para fuentes de energía en soldaduras con electrodo revestido (Shielded Metal Are Welding -SMAW-. Los materiales de ensayo se soldaron usando una serie de cinco clases diferentes de electrodos comerciales, cubriendo sus rangos de corriente. Para esto se utilizó una fuente de energía electromagnética convencional y una fuente de energía electrónica (inversora. La tasa de fusión, eficiencia de deposición, terminación del cordón así como el diseño de la soldadura se midieron en cada experimento. Las señales de corriente y voltaje se obtuvieron a una proporción alta para evaluar el comportamiento dinámico de las fuentes de energía. También se determinó la actuación estática de ambas fuentes. Los resultados mostraron que a pesar de las diferencias notables entre los suministros de energía, no se nota diferencia alguna significante en la conducta de trabajo de los electrodos, en

  9. Travel-related MERS-CoV cases: An assessment of exposures and risk factors in a group of Dutch travellers returning from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, May 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.B. Fanoy (Ewout B.); M.A.B. van der Sande (Marianne); M. Kraaij-Dirkzwager (Marleen); K. Dirksen (Kees); M. Jonges (Marcel); W. van der Hoek (Wim); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); D.V. Werf (Douwe Vander); G.J.B. Sonder (Gerard); C. van der Weijden (Charlie); J. van der Heuvel (Jet); L.B.S. Gelinck (Luc); J.W. Bouwhuis (Jolande); A.B. van Gageldonk-Lafeber (Rianne)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ In May 2014, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection, with closely related viral genomes, was diagnosed in two Dutch residents, returning from a pilgrimage to Medina and Mecca, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). These patients travelled with a

  10. Assessment of compost maturity by using an electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Rafael; Giráldez, Inmaculada; Palma, Alberto; Jesús Díaz, M

    2016-02-01

    The composting process produces and emits hundreds of different gases. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can provide information about progress of composting process. This paper is focused on the qualitative and quantitative relationships between compost age, as sign of compost maturity, electronic-nose (e-nose) patterns and composition of compost and composting gas at an industrial scale plant. Gas and compost samples were taken at different depths from composting windrows of different ages. Temperature, classical chemical parameters, O2, CO, combustible gases, VOCs and e-nose profiles were determined and related using principal component analysis (PCA). Factor analysis carried out to a data set including compost physical-chemical properties, pile pore gas composition and composting time led to few factors, each one grouping together standard composting parameters in an easy to understand way. PCA obtained from e-nose profiles allowed the classifying of piles, their aerobic-anaerobic condition, and a rough estimation of the composting time. That would allow for immediate and in-situ assessment of compost quality and maturity by using an on-line e-nose. The e-nose patterns required only 3-4 sensor signals to account for a great percentage (97-98%) of data variance. The achieved patterns both from compost (chemical analysis) and gas (e-nose analysis) samples are robust despite the high variability in feedstock characteristics (3 different materials), composting conditions and long composting time. GC-MS chromatograms supported the patterns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A cross-sectional study of pre-travel health-seeking practices among travelers departing Sydney and Bangkok airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, Anita E; Watkins, Rochelle E; Iamsirithaworn, Sopon; Nilvarangkul, Kessarawan; MacIntyre, C Raina

    2012-05-02

    Pre-travel health assessments aim to promote risk reduction through preventive measures and safe behavior, including ensuring travelers are up-to-date with their immunizations. However, studies assessing pre-travel health-seeking practices from a variety of medical and non-medical sources and vaccine uptake prior to travel to both developing and developed countries within the Asia-Pacific region are scarce. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted between July and December 2007 to assess pre-travel health seeking practices, including advice from health professionals, health information from other sources and vaccine uptake, in a sample of travelers departing Sydney and Bangkok airports. A two-stage cluster sampling technique was used to ensure representativeness of travelers and travel destinations. Pre-travel health seeking practices were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire distributed at the check-in queues of departing flights. Logistic regression models were used to identify significant factors associated with seeking pre-travel health advice from a health professional, reported separately for Australian residents, residents of other Western countries and residents of countries in Asia. A total of 843 surveys were included in the final sample (Sydney 729, response rate 56%; Bangkok 114, response rate 60%). Overall, pre-travel health information from any source was sought by 415 (49%) respondents with 298 (35%) seeking pre-travel advice from a health professional, the majority through general practice. Receipt of a pre-travel vaccine was reported by 100 (12%) respondents. Significant factors associated with seeking pre-travel health advice from a health professional differed by region of residence. Asian travelers were less likely to report seeking pre-travel health advice and uptake of pre-travel vaccines than Australian or other Western travelers. Migrant Australians were less likely to report seeking pre-travel health advice than Australian

  12. A cross-sectional study of pre-travel health-seeking practices among travelers departing Sydney and Bangkok airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Pre-travel health assessments aim to promote risk reduction through preventive measures and safe behavior, including ensuring travelers are up-to-date with their immunizations. However, studies assessing pre-travel health-seeking practices from a variety of medical and non-medical sources and vaccine uptake prior to travel to both developing and developed countries within the Asia-Pacific region are scarce. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were conducted between July and December 2007 to assess pre-travel health seeking practices, including advice from health professionals, health information from other sources and vaccine uptake, in a sample of travelers departing Sydney and Bangkok airports. A two-stage cluster sampling technique was used to ensure representativeness of travelers and travel destinations. Pre-travel health seeking practices were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire distributed at the check-in queues of departing flights. Logistic regression models were used to identify significant factors associated with seeking pre-travel health advice from a health professional, reported separately for Australian residents, residents of other Western countries and residents of countries in Asia. Results A total of 843 surveys were included in the final sample (Sydney 729, response rate 56%; Bangkok 114, response rate 60%). Overall, pre-travel health information from any source was sought by 415 (49%) respondents with 298 (35%) seeking pre-travel advice from a health professional, the majority through general practice. Receipt of a pre-travel vaccine was reported by 100 (12%) respondents. Significant factors associated with seeking pre-travel health advice from a health professional differed by region of residence. Asian travelers were less likely to report seeking pre-travel health advice and uptake of pre-travel vaccines than Australian or other Western travelers. Migrant Australians were less likely to report seeking pre-travel health

  13. Light and electron microscope assessment of the lytic activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Microcystis cells were exposed to copper, B. mycoides B16 and Triton X-100, in order to ascertain the level of cell membrane damage. The membrane cell damage ... The electron microscopy observations appeared to reveal at least two mechanisms of Microcystis lysis (contact and parasitism). The light and electron ...

  14. PERii electronic journals: Assessing access and use by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peter G. Underwood

    institutional subscription to electronic journals through the Programme for Enhancement of .... These strategies include the promotion and marketing of these .... assist students and other library users to access PERii electronic journals resources. ..... Smith, H. Bukirwa, H. Mukasa, O. Snell, P. Adeh-Nsoh, S. Mbuyita, ...

  15. Essential travel medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Zuckerman, Jane N; Leggat, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This 1st edition of Essential Travel Medicine provides an excellent concise introduction to the specialty of Travel Medicine. This core text will enable health care practitioners particularly those new to the clinical practice of Travel Medicine, to gain a fundamental understanding of the diverse and complex issues which can potentially affect the health of the many millions of people who undertake international travel. Jane N Zuckerman is joined by Gary W Brunette from CDC and Peter A Leggat from Australia as Editors. Leading international specialists in their fields have contributed authoritative chapters reflecting current knowledge to facilitate best clinical practice in the different aspects of travel medicine. The aim of Essential Travel Medicine is to provide a comprehensive guide to Travel Medicine as well as a fundamental knowledge base to support international undergraduate and postgraduate specialty training programmes in the discipline of Travel Medicine. The 1st edition of Essential Travel ...

  16. Application of Life Cycle Assessment on Electronic Waste Management: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Mianqiang; Xu, Zhenming

    2017-04-01

    Electronic waste is a rich source of both valuable materials and toxic substances. Management of electronic waste is one of the biggest challenges of current worldwide concern. As an effective and prevailing environmental management tool, life cycle assessment can evaluate the environmental performance of electronic waste management activities. Quite a few scientific literatures reporting life cycle assessment of electronic waste management with significant outcomes have been recently published. This paper reviewed the trends, characteristics, research gaps, and challenges of these studies providing detailed information for practitioners involved in electronic waste management. The results showed that life cycle assessment studies were most carried out in Europe, followed by Asia and North America. The research subject of the studies mainly includes monitors, waste printed circuit boards, mobile phones, computers, printers, batteries, toys, dishwashers, and light-emitting diodes. CML was the most widely used life cycle impact assessment method in life cycle assessment studies on electronic waste management, followed by EI99. Furthermore, 40% of the reviewed studies combined with other environmental tools, including life cycle cost, material flow analysis, multi-criteria decision analysis, emergy analysis, and hazard assessment which came to more comprehensive conclusions from different aspects. The research gaps and challenges including uneven distribution of life cycle assessment studies, life cycle impact assessment methods selection, comparison of the results, and uncertainty of the life cycle assessment studies were examined. Although life cycle assessment of electronic waste management facing challenges, their results will play more and more important role in electronic waste management practices.

  17. Health, sustainability and student travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Gill; Morris, Jenny; Wade, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    A survey of 246 pre-registration nursing students in a University in the South West of England was carried out to explore the impact of course related travel on the student experience. Results from the survey indicated that students' main mode of transport to practice placements was by car which reflects the rural nature of the South West and the relative paucity of public transport. Long distances that many students travel to their study centre and to placements, and the concurrent financial strain that this creates, impacted negatively on the student experience. Students recognised the need to travel to a place of study and clinical placements and suggestions of minimising the negative impact of travel were offered. These included the increased use of electronic delivery of lectures, attendance at local university premises, the provision of shared transport to placements and placements closer to the student's home. Few students, however, considered the environmental impact of travel. Higher Education Institutions need to address issues of sustainability through promoting student wellbeing and taking steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. It is therefore important that student awareness of sustainability related issues is increased as well as focusing on reducing the environmental impact through organisational change. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Air pollution as a risk factor in health impact assessments of a travel mode shift towards cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Wasif; Forsberg, Bertil; Johansson, Christer; Sommar, Johan Nilsson

    2018-01-01

    Promotion of active commuting provides substantial health and environmental benefits by influencing air pollution, physical activity, accidents, and noise. However, studies evaluating intervention and policies on a mode shift from motorized transport to cycling have estimated health impacts with varying validity and precision. To review and discuss the estimation of air pollution exposure and its impacts in health impact assessment studies of a shift in transport from cars to bicycles in order to guide future assessments. A systematic database search of PubMed was done primarily for articles published from January 2000 to May 2016 according to PRISMA guidelines. We identified 18 studies of health impact assessment of change in transport mode. Most studies investigated future hypothetical scenarios of increased cycling. The impact on the general population was estimated using a comparative risk assessment approach in the majority of these studies, whereas some used previously published cost estimates. Air pollution exposure during cycling was estimated based on the ventilation rate, the pollutant concentration, and the trip duration. Most studies employed exposure-response functions from studies comparing background levels of fine particles between cities to estimate the health impacts of local traffic emissions. The effect of air pollution associated with increased cycling contributed small health benefits for the general population, and also only slightly increased risks associated with fine particle exposure among those who shifted to cycling. However, studies calculating health impacts based on exposure-response functions for ozone, black carbon or nitrogen oxides found larger effects attributed to changes in air pollution exposure. A large discrepancy between studies was observed due to different health impact assessment approaches, different assumptions for calculation of inhaled dose and different selection of dose-response functions. This kind of assessments

  19. Air pollution as a risk factor in health impact assessments of a travel mode shift towards cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Wasif; Forsberg, Bertil; Johansson, Christer; Sommar, Johan Nilsson

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Promotion of active commuting provides substantial health and environmental benefits by influencing air pollution, physical activity, accidents, and noise. However, studies evaluating intervention and policies on a mode shift from motorized transport to cycling have estimated health impacts with varying validity and precision. Objective: To review and discuss the estimation of air pollution exposure and its impacts in health impact assessment studies of a shift in transport from cars to bicycles in order to guide future assessments. Methods: A systematic database search of PubMed was done primarily for articles published from January 2000 to May 2016 according to PRISMA guidelines. Results: We identified 18 studies of health impact assessment of change in transport mode. Most studies investigated future hypothetical scenarios of increased cycling. The impact on the general population was estimated using a comparative risk assessment approach in the majority of these studies, whereas some used previously published cost estimates. Air pollution exposure during cycling was estimated based on the ventilation rate, the pollutant concentration, and the trip duration. Most studies employed exposure-response functions from studies comparing background levels of fine particles between cities to estimate the health impacts of local traffic emissions. The effect of air pollution associated with increased cycling contributed small health benefits for the general population, and also only slightly increased risks associated with fine particle exposure among those who shifted to cycling. However, studies calculating health impacts based on exposure-response functions for ozone, black carbon or nitrogen oxides found larger effects attributed to changes in air pollution exposure. Conclusion: A large discrepancy between studies was observed due to different health impact assessment approaches, different assumptions for calculation of inhaled dose and different

  20. Measuring Workplace Travel Behaviour: Validity and Reliability of Survey Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Petrunoff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this study was to assess the (previously untested reliability and validity of survey questions commonly used to assess travel mode and travel time. Methods. Sixty-five respondents from a staff survey of travel behaviour conducted in a south-western Sydney hospital agreed to complete a travel diary for a week, wear an accelerometer over the same period, and twice complete an online travel survey an average of 21 days apart. The agreement in travel modes between the self-reported online survey and travel diary was examined with the kappa statistic. Spearman’s correlation coefficient was used to examine agreement of travel time from home to workplace measured between the self-reported online survey and four-day travel diary. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA time of active and nonactive travellers was compared by t-test. Results. There was substantial agreement between travel modes (K=0.62, P<0.0001 and a moderate correlation for travel time (ρ=0.75, P<0.0001 reported in the travel diary and online survey. There was a high level of agreement for travel mode (K=0.82, P<0.0001 and travel time (ρ=0.83, P<0.0001 between the two travel surveys. Accelerometer data indicated that for active travellers, 16% of the journey-to-work time is MVPA, compared with 6% for car drivers. Active travellers were significantly more active across the whole workday. Conclusions. The survey question “How did you travel to work this week? If you used more than one transport mode specify the one you used for the longest (distance portion of your journey” is reliable over 21 days and agrees well with a travel diary.

  1. What are the health benefits of active travel? A systematic review of trials and cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda E Saunders

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increasing active travel (primarily walking and cycling has been widely advocated for reducing obesity levels and achieving other population health benefits. However, the strength of evidence underpinning this strategy is unclear. This study aimed to assess the evidence that active travel has significant health benefits. METHODS: The study design was a systematic review of (i non-randomised and randomised controlled trials, and (ii prospective observational studies examining either (a the effects of interventions to promote active travel or (b the association between active travel and health outcomes. Reports of studies were identified by searching 11 electronic databases, websites, reference lists and papers identified by experts in the field. Prospective observational and intervention studies measuring any health outcome of active travel in the general population were included. Studies of patient groups were excluded. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies from 12 countries were included, of which six were studies conducted with children. Five studies evaluated active travel interventions. Nineteen were prospective cohort studies which did not evaluate the impact of a specific intervention. No studies were identified with obesity as an outcome in adults; one of five prospective cohort studies in children found an association between obesity and active travel. Small positive effects on other health outcomes were found in five intervention studies, but these were all at risk of selection bias. Modest benefits for other health outcomes were identified in five prospective studies. There is suggestive evidence that active travel may have a positive effect on diabetes prevention, which may be an important area for future research. CONCLUSIONS: Active travel may have positive effects on health outcomes, but there is little robust evidence to date of the effectiveness of active transport interventions for reducing obesity. Future evaluations of such

  2. Travelling with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulla S; Jensen-Fangel, Søren; Pedersen, Gitte

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe travel patterns, extent of professional pre-travel advice and health problems encountered during travel among HIV-infected individuals. METHODS: During a six-month period a questionnaire was handed out to 2821 adult HIV-infected individuals attending any...... of the eight Danish medical HIV care centers. RESULTS: A total of 763 individuals responded. During the previous two years 49% had travelled outside Europe; 18% had travelled less and 30% were more cautious when choosing travel destination than before the HIV diagnosis. Pre-travel advice was sought by only 38......%, and travel insurance was taken out by 86%. However, 29%/74% did not inform the advisor/the insurance company about their HIV status. Nearly all patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were adherent, but 58% worried about carrying HIV-medicine and 19% tried to hide it. Only 19% experienced...

  3. End to End Travel

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — E2 Solutions is a web based end-to-end travel management tool that includes paperless travel authorization and voucher document submissions, document approval...

  4. Traveling with Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on traveling and dining out at restaurants with food allergies. Travel Tips for the U.S. and Other Countries Get information about medications and food labeling practices in select countries. Spam Control Text: ...

  5. HIV and travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhwerk, M A; Richens, J; Zuckerman, Jane N

    2006-01-01

    There is a high demand for travel among HIV-positive individual. This demand arises partly from those who have benefited from advances in antiretroviral therapy as well as those with disease progression. The key to a successful and uneventful holiday lies in careful pre-trip planning, yet many patients fail to obtain advice before travelling. Travel advice for HIV patients is becoming increasingly specialized. In addition to advice on common travel-related infectious diseases, HIV-positive travellers are strongly advised to carry information with them and they need specific advice regarding country entry restrictions, HIV inclusive travel insurance, safety of travel vaccinations and highly active antiretroviral therapy-related issues. A wide range of relevant issues for the HIV-positive traveller are discussed in this review and useful websites can be found at the end.

  6. Traveling Safely with Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medications Safely My Medicine List How to Administer Traveling Safely with Medicines Planes, trains, cars – even boats ... your trip, ask your pharmacist about how to travel safely with your medicines. Make sure that you ...

  7. Travelers' Health: Leishmaniasis, Visceral

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as the United States reflects travel and immigration patterns. VL is uncommon in US travelers and ... whqlibdoc.who.int/trs/WHO_TRS_949_eng.pdf . Chapter 3 - Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous Chapter 3 - Leptospirosis File ...

  8. Traveling and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Traveling and Asthma KidsHealth / For Kids / Traveling and Asthma Print en ... pack it, too. How Can I Avoid My Asthma Triggers? Staying at a hotel Ask for a ...

  9. DOD TRAVEL IMPROPER PAYMENTS: Fiscal Year 2006 Reporting Was Incomplete and Planned Improvement Efforts Face Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    WIlliams, McCoy

    2007-01-01

    ... was incomplete because it understated the full extent of travel improper payments. The DOD travel payment data used to assess the program s risk of significant improper payments only included payments processed by the Defense Travel System (DTS...

  10. Traveling wave laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregg, D.W.; Kidder, R.E.; Biehl, A.T.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described for generating a traveling wave laser pulse of almost unlimited energy content wherein a gain medium is pumped into a traveling wave mode, the traveling wave moving at essentially the velocity of light to generate an amplifying region or zone which moves through the medium at the velocity of light in the presence of directed stimulating radiation, thereby generating a traveling coherent, directed radiation pulse moving with the amplification zone through the gain medium. (U.S.)

  11. Travel, infection and immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Soonawala, Darius

    2016-01-01

    Preface: The content of this thesis is based on research that was conducted at the travel and vaccination clinic at Leiden University Medical Centre (LUMC). This clinic provides pre-travel care to the general population, and to special groups of travellers, such as patients who use immunosuppressants or who have chronic diseases. The clinic is closely connected to the department of Infectious Diseases at LUMC. The setting of a travel clinic within an academic medical hospital, provides unique...

  12. Travel, infection and immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soonawala, Darius

    2016-01-01

    Preface: The content of this thesis is based on research that was conducted at the travel and vaccination clinic at Leiden University Medical Centre (LUMC). This clinic provides pre-travel care to the general population, and to special groups of travellers, such as patients who use

  13. Travel Agent Course Outline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    Written for college entry-level travel agent training courses, this course outline can also be used for inservice training programs offered by travel agencies. The outline provides information on the work of a travel agent and gives clear statements on what learners must be able to do by the end of their training. Material is divided into eight…

  14. Modelling urban travel times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, F.

    2011-01-01

    Urban travel times are intrinsically uncertain due to a lot of stochastic characteristics of traffic, especially at signalized intersections. A single travel time does not have much meaning and is not informative to drivers or traffic managers. The range of travel times is large such that certain

  15. Travel and disease vector ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarry, John W

    2011-03-01

    There are approximately twenty species of hard (ixodid) ticks worldwide that frequently affect human populations, many of which are associated with serious, sometimes fatal disease(s). When a tick travel souvenir is presented in the clinic, the risk must be immediately assessed by identifying the tick in question, ascertaining its disease vector status and determining if there has been the opportunity for the transfer of potential pathogens. This short review on identification of disease vector ticks and aspects of blood feeding and disease transmission includes the results of an examination of 59 specimens removed from UK domestic travellers and international travellers between 2002 and 2010. Sixteen tick species belonging to six genera were recorded and almost all showed evidence of blood feeding, which appears to contradict the view that because of their size, adult ticks are found early and therefore present an insignificant risk. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A cross-sectional study of pre-travel health-seeking practices among travelers departing Sydney and Bangkok airports

    OpenAIRE

    Heywood Anita E; Watkins Rochelle E; Iamsirithaworn Sopon; Nilvarangkul Kessarawan; MacIntyre C

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Pre-travel health assessments aim to promote risk reduction through preventive measures and safe behavior, including ensuring travelers are up-to-date with their immunizations. However, studies assessing pre-travel health-seeking practices from a variety of medical and non-medical sources and vaccine uptake prior to travel to both developing and developed countries within the Asia-Pacific region are scarce. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were conducted between July and De...

  17. Travel personae of American pleasure travelers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, S.; Tussyadiah, Iis; Mazanec, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Travel style has been shown to be a useful concept for understanding travelers. In this study it is argued that the portfolio of trips (specifically, the portfolio of various trip styles) one takes can be used to describe his/her overall travel persona. Network analysis was used to examine...... personae which, in turn, are related to their choices of places visited and their response to advertising materials. It was concluded that the framework provided by these findings along with new tools on the Internet offer the potential to develop highly personalized communications with existing...

  18. Assessment of root surfaces of apicected teeth: A scanning electron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the apical surface characteristics and presence of dental cracks in single‑rooted premolars, resected 3.0 mm from the root apex, using the Er: YAG laser, tungsten carbide bur, and diamond‑coated tip, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Experimental design: Thirty ...

  19. Traveling wave laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregg, D.W.; Kidder, R.E.; Biehl, A.T.

    1975-01-01

    The invention broadly involves a method and means for generating a traveling wave laser pulse and is basically analogous to a single pass light amplifier system. However, the invention provides a traveling wave laser pulse of almost unlimited energy content, wherein a gain medium is pumped in a traveling wave mode, the traveling wave moving at essentially the velocity of light to generate an amplifying region or zone which moves through the medium at the velocity of light in the presence of directed stimulating radiation, thereby generating a traveling coherent, directed radiation pulse moving with the amplification zone through the gain medium. (U.S.)

  20. Travelers' Health: Water Disinfection for Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Road Safety - 8 Steps MERS Health Advisory poster MERS Pictogram CDC Guide for Healthy Travel Website ... compressed carbon, or large-pore hollow-fiber filter elements are sufficient to remove bacteria and protozoan cysts ...

  1. Electronic cigarettes: incorporating human factors engineering into risk assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ling; Rudy, Susan F; Cheng, James M; Durmowicz, Elizabeth L

    2014-01-01

    Objective A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the impact of human factors (HF) on the risks associated with electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and to identify research gaps. HF is the evaluation of human interactions with products and includes the analysis of user, environment and product complexity. Consideration of HF may mitigate known and potential hazards from the use and misuse of a consumer product, including e-cigarettes. Methods Five databases were searched through Januar...

  2. Topic Map for Authentic Travel

    OpenAIRE

    Wandsvik, Atle; Zare, Mehdi

    2007-01-01

    E-business is a new trend in Internet use. Authentic travel is an approach to travel and travel business which helps the traveler experience what is authentic in the travel destination. But how can the traveler find those small authentic spots and organize them together to compose a vacation? E-business techniques, combined withTopic Maps, can help.

  3. Development of a measurement approach to assess time children participate in organized sport, active travel, outdoor active play, and curriculum-based physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghese, Michael M; Janssen, Ian

    2018-03-22

    Children participate in four main types of physical activity: organized sport, active travel, outdoor active play, and curriculum-based physical activity. The objective of this study was to develop a valid approach that can be used to concurrently measure time spent in each of these types of physical activity. Two samples (sample 1: n = 50; sample 2: n = 83) of children aged 10-13 wore an accelerometer and a GPS watch continuously over 7 days. They also completed a log where they recorded the start and end times of organized sport sessions. Sample 1 also completed an outdoor time log where they recorded the times they went outdoors and a description of the outdoor activity. Sample 2 also completed a curriculum log where they recorded times they participated in physical activity (e.g., physical education) during class time. We describe the development of a measurement approach that can be used to concurrently assess the time children spend participating in specific types of physical activity. The approach uses a combination of data from accelerometers, GPS, and activity logs and relies on merging and then processing these data using several manual (e.g., data checks and cleaning) and automated (e.g., algorithms) procedures. In the new measurement approach time spent in organized sport is estimated using the activity log. Time spent in active travel is estimated using an existing algorithm that uses GPS data. Time spent in outdoor active play is estimated using an algorithm (with a sensitivity and specificity of 85%) that was developed using data collected in sample 1 and which uses all of the data sources. Time spent in curriculum-based physical activity is estimated using an algorithm (with a sensitivity of 78% and specificity of 92%) that was developed using data collected in sample 2 and which uses accelerometer data collected during class time. There was evidence of excellent intra- and inter-rater reliability of the estimates for all of these types of

  4. Travel characteristics and health practices among travellers at the travellers' health and vaccination clinic in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Vernon J; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2006-10-01

    Singapore has a fast-growing travel industry, but few studies have been done on travel characteristics and travel health practices. This study describes the profile and healthseeking behaviour of travellers attending a travel health clinic in Singapore. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on travellers attending the Traveller's Health and Vaccination Centre (THVC) between September and November 2002 using a standardised questionnaire. Information obtained included individual demographic and medical information, travel patterns, vaccination status and travel health practices. Four hundred and ninetyfive (74%) eligible travellers seen at THVC responded to the questionnaire. Their mean age was 36 years; 77% were professionals, managers, executives, and businessmen, students, and white collar workers. Asia was the main travel destination, and most travelled for leisure and resided in hotels or hostels. The median duration of travel was 16 days. Although >90% had previously travelled overseas, only 20% had previously sought pre-travel advice. Malays were significantly underrepresented (P travel advice compared with Chinese, Indians and Malays. Factors associated with seeking pre-travel advice included travel outside of Asia, especially Africa and South America. Singaporean travellers travel more often to cities rather than rural areas, compared with non-Asian travellers. Asia is the preferred destination, and travel outside of Asia is perceived as more risky and is associated with seeking pre-travel advice and vaccinations. Travel patterns and behaviours need to be taken into account when developing evidence-based travel medicine in Asia.

  5. 41 CFR 301-2.1 - Must I have authorization to travel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... authorization to travel? 301-2.1 Section 301-2.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 2-GENERAL RULES § 301-2.1 Must I have authorization to travel? Yes, generally you must have written or electronic authorization prior to incurring any...

  6. Strength assessment of a cryostat used by the hollow electron test station.

    CERN Document Server

    Efremov, Filip

    2015-01-01

    The following report explains the work I have done on my summer student work project and the experience I have gained during the process. The work consisted of a strength assessment of a cryogenic vacuum insulated vessel according to European regulations. The cryogenic vacuum insulated vessel is used for the cooling of the solenoids. The solenoids are used in the hollow electron test station and create the magnetic fields used for testing electron guns and validating the concept of a hollow electron lens.

  7. Travel Experience in hotels for the MICE Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Gurkina, Anastasija

    2013-01-01

    The following report is a research-oriented bachelor thesis that investigates the travel experience in the business oriented concentrated in MICE Industry. The objective of this thesis was to assess and measure the level of satisfaction of the MICE travellers in hotels, as well as to find out what are the services and aspects of the hotel that influences the most on the travel experience. The MICE travellers due to the purposes of their visit require specific services from the hotel t...

  8. TRAVEL AND HOME LEAVE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Administrative procedures for : Travel to the home station and home leave (hl) Additional travel to the home station (at) Travel to the home station and home leave for family reasons (hlf) As part of the process of simplifying administrative procedures, HR and AS Divisions have devised a new, virtually automatic procedure for payment of travel expenses to the home station. The changes are aimed at rationalising administrative procedures and not at reducing benefits. The conditions of eligibility are unchanged. The new procedure, which will be operational with effect from 1st June 2002, will greatly simplify the administrative processing of claims for travel expenses and the recording of home leaves. Currently, requests for payment are introduced manually into the Advances and Claims system (AVCL) by divisional secretariats. All travel to the home station starting prior to 1st June 2002 will be processed according to the existing system whereas that starting on 1st June and after will be processed accordi...

  9. Health risks, travel preparation, and illness among public health professionals during international travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Victor; Warnock, Eli; Ramana Dhara, V; Jean-Louis, Lee Ann; Sotir, Mark J; Kozarsky, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    Few data currently exist on health risks faced by public health professionals (PHP) during international travel. We conducted pre- and post-travel health surveys to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP), and illnesses among PHP international travelers. Anonymous surveys were completed by PHP from a large American public health agency who sought a pre-travel medical consult from September 1, 2009, to September 30, 2010. Surveys were completed by 122 participants; travelers went to 163 countries. Of the 122 respondents, 97 (80%) reported at least one planned health risk activity (visiting rural areas, handling animals, contact with blood or body fluids, visiting malarious areas), and 50 (41%) reported exposure to unanticipated health risks. Of the 62 travelers who visited malarious areas, 14 (23%) reported inconsistent or no use of malaria prophylaxis. Illness during travel was reported by 33 (27%) respondents. Most of the PHP travelers in our study reported at least one planned health risk activity, and almost half reported exposure to unanticipated health risks, and one-quarter of travelers to malarious areas reported inconsistent or no use of malaria chemoprophylaxis. Our findings highlight that communication and education outreach for PHP to prevent travel-associated illnesses can be improved. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Health challenges of young travelers visiting friends and relatives compared with those traveling for other purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Pauline; Yanni, Emad; Jentes, Emily S; Hamer, Davidson H; Chen, Lin H; Wilson, Mary E; Macleod, William B; Ooi, Winnie W; Kogelman, Laura; Karchmer, Adolf W; Barnett, Elizabeth D

    2012-09-01

    The study objective was to assess differences in demographics and travel health challenges between youths ≤18 years old traveling internationally to visit friends and relatives (VFRs) compared with those traveling for other purposes (non-VFR). The Boston Area Travel Medicine Network consists of 5 clinics collecting anonymous data from international pretravel consultations. Data on all travelers ≤18 years of age seen between January 2008 and July 2010 were used. VFRs were compared with non-VFRs on demographics, primary language, trip characteristics, travel vaccinations administered, malaria prophylaxis and antidiarrheal medications prescribed. Thirty-five percent (610/1731) listed VFR as their purpose of travel. Almost half of VFRs were travel to countries that were yellow fever holoendemic, had malaria risk and were high-risk for typhoid (44% versus 20%, 39% versus 12%, 25% versus 15%, P travel-related morbidity, healthcare providers should be prepared to give travel advice to parents of VFR infants and children, particularly those US-born VFRs with foreign-born parents, regarding antimalarial and antidiarrheal medications and preventing yellow fever, malaria and typhoid.

  11. FORMS OF YOUTH TRAVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Moisã Claudia Olimpia; Moisã Claudia Olimpia

    2011-01-01

    Taking into account the suite of motivation that youth has when practicing tourism, it can be said that the youth travel takes highly diverse forms. These forms are educational tourism, volunteer programs and “work and travel”, cultural exchanges or sports tourism and adventure travel. In this article, we identified and analyzed in detail the main forms of youth travel both internationally and in Romania. We also illustrated for each form of tourism the specific tourism products targeting you...

  12. Travelling-wave-sustained discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlueter, Hans; Shivarova, Antonia

    2007-01-01

    This review is on discharges maintained by travelling waves: new plasma sources, discovered in 1974 and considered as a prototype of the gas discharges according to their definition as nonlinear systems which unify in a self-consistent manner plasmas and fields. In the presentation here of the fluid-plasma models of the diffusion-controlled regime of the travelling-wave-sustained discharges (TWSDs), the basic features of the discharge maintenance-the discharge self-consistency and the electron heating in the high-frequency field-are stressed. Operation of stationary and pulsed discharges, discharge maintenance without and in external magnetic fields as well as discharge production in different gases (argon, helium, helium-argon gas mixtures and hydrogen) are covered. Modulation instability of diffusion-controlled discharges and discharge filamentation at higher gas pressures are also included in the review. Experimental findings which motivate aspects of the reported modelling are pointed out

  13. Substituting telecommunications for travel - Feasible or desirable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vleck, E. M.

    1974-01-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in telecommunications and examines the detailed structure of travel to estimate the feasibility of substituting telecommunications for various travel objectives. The impact of travel is analyzed from a social, economic, energy, and pollution standpoint to assess the desirability of substitution. Perhaps 35-50% of the nation's travel could, in theory, be replaced by very advanced telecommunications (such as a much improved large-screen teleconferencing network), but public resistance would be massive. Much economic dislocation would result since, for example, over 25% of retail sales are travel-related. The energy savings would be modest since only 25% of the nation's energy is consumed by transportation. However, all pollution would be reduced substantially since transportation accounts for 75% of the carbon monoxide, 60% of the hydrocarbon, and 55% of the nitrogen oxide pollution in the nation. Problems related to the implementation of large-scale substitution are discussed.

  14. Travelling or not?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helles, Rasmus; Lai, Signe Sophus

    2017-01-01

    -12) travelling to multiple countries on several continents. The article shows that there are systematic differences in terms of formal characteristics, themes, and characters’ communicative style between the series that travel and the series that do not. Especially, the analysis finds that the presence of strong...... female lead characters is systematically linked to the positive travel patterns of the series, and that this cuts across different genres of series. The analysis also finds that series, which have explicitly low production values and simple narrative structure, systematically travels poorer....

  15. Malaria incidence and prevention among European and North American travellers to Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    Lobel, H. O.; Phillips-Howard, P. A.; Brandling-Bennett, A. D.; Steffen, R.; Campbell, C. C.; Huong, A. Y.; Were, J. B.; Moser, R.

    1990-01-01

    A longitudinal survey was conducted among travellers departing from Nairobi airport to determine the use of malaria prevention measures and assess the risk for malaria while travelling in Kenya. Among 5489 European and North American travellers, 68 different drug regimens were used for prophylaxis, and 48% of travellers used both regular chemoprophylaxis and more than 1 antimosquito measure during travel; 52% of 3469 travellers who used chemoprophylaxis did so without interruption during thei...

  16. Electronic Assessment of Physical Decline in Geriatric Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahzadeh, Ramin; Ghasemzadeh, Hassan; Shahrokni, Armin

    2018-03-08

    The purpose of this review is to explore state-of-the-art remote monitoring and emerging new sensing technologies for in-home physical assessment and their application/potential in cancer care. In addition, we discuss the main functional and non-functional requirements and research challenges of employing such technologies in real-world settings. With rapid growth in aging population, effective and efficient patient care has become an important topic. Advances in remote monitoring and in its forefront in-home physical assessment technologies play a fundamental role in reducing the cost and improving the quality of care by complementing the traditional in-clinic healthcare. However, there is a gap in medical research community regarding the applicability and potential outcomes of such systems. While some studies reported positive outcomes using remote assessment technologies, such as web/smart phone-based self-reports and wearable sensors, the cancer research community is still lacking far behind. Thorough investigation of more advanced technologies in cancer care is warranted.

  17. Pre-Travel Medical Preparation of Business and Occupational Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nomana M.; Jentes, Emily S.; Brown, Clive; Han, Pauline; Rao, Sowmya R.; Kozarsky, Phyllis; Hagmann, Stefan H.F.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Ryan, Edward T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to understand more about pre-travel preparations and itineraries of business and occupational travelers. Methods: De-identified data from 18 Global TravEpiNet clinics from January 2009 to December 2012 were analyzed. Results: Of 23,534 travelers, 61% were non-occupational and 39% occupational. Business travelers were more likely to be men, had short times to departure and shorter trip durations, and commonly refused influenza, meningococcal, and hepatitis B vaccines. Most business travelers indicated that employers suggested the pre-travel health consultation, whereas non-occupational travelers sought consultations because of travel health concerns. Conclusions: Sub-groups of occupational travelers have characteristic profiles, with business travelers being particularly distinct. Employers play a role in encouraging business travelers to seek pre-travel consultations. Such consultations, even if scheduled immediately before travel, can identify vaccination gaps and increase coverage. PMID:26479857

  18. Pre-travel care for immunocompromised and chronically ill travellers: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aalst, Mariëlle; Verhoeven, Roos; Omar, Freshta; Stijnis, Cornelis; van Vugt, Michèle; de Bree, Godelieve J; Goorhuis, Abraham; Grobusch, Martin P

    2017-09-01

    Immunocompromised and chronically ill travellers (ICCITs) are susceptible to travel related diseases. In ICCITs, pre-travel care regarding vaccinations and prophylactics is complex. We evaluated the protection level by preventive measures in ICCITs by analysing rates of vaccination protection, antibody titres, and the prescription of standby antibiotics. We analysed, and reported according to STROBE guidelines, pre-travel care data for ICCITs visiting the medical pre-travel clinic at the Academic Medical Centre, The Netherlands from 2011 to 2016. We analysed 2104 visits of 1826 ICCITs. Mean age was 46.6 years and mean travel duration 34.5 days. ICCITs on immunosuppressive treatment (29.7%), HIV (17.2%) or diabetes mellitus (10.2%) comprised the largest groups. Most frequently visited countries were Suriname, Indonesia, and Ghana. Most vaccination rates were >90%. Of travellers in high need of hepatitis A and B protection, 56.6 and 75.7%, underwent titre assessments, respectively. Of ICCITs with a respective indication, 50.6% received a prescription for standby antibiotics. Vaccination rates in our study population were overall comparable to those of healthy travellers studied previously in our centre. However, regarding antibody titre assessments and prescription of standby antibiotics, this study demonstrates that uniform pre-travel guidelines for ICCITs are highly needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Study on the Filament Yarns Spreading Techniques and Assessment Methods of the Electronic Fiberglass Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Chen, Shouhui; Zheng, Tianyong; Ning, Xiangchun; Dai, Yifei

    2018-03-01

    The filament yarns spreading techniques of electronic fiberglass fabric were developed in the past few years in order to meet the requirements of the development of electronic industry. Copper clad laminate (CCL) requires that the warp and weft yarns of the fabric could be spread out of apart and formed flat. The penetration performance of resin could be improved due to the filament yarns spreading techniques of electronic fiberglass fabric, the same as peeling strength of CCL and drilling performance of printed circuit board (PCB). This paper shows the filament yarns spreading techniques of electronic fiberglass fabric from several aspects, such as methods and functions, also with the assessment methods of their effects.

  20. CARLSON WAGONLIT TRAVEL

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    CARLSON WAGONLIT TRAVEL informs you that our agency will be closed from 22 December 2006 at 16:30 until 8 January 2007 at 8:30. For all URGENT MATTERS you can contact our CARLSON WAGONLIT TRAVEL branch at W.H.O. (Mr Pierre Plumettaz), phone: 022 791 55 95. We wish you already a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year!

  1. CARLSON WAGONLIT TRAVEL

    CERN Document Server

    CARLSON WAGONLIT TRAVEL

    2004-01-01

    CARLSON WAGONLIT TRAVEL informs you that our agency will be closed from 17 December 2004 at 16:30 until 3 January 2005 at 8:30. For all URGENT MATTERS you can contact our CARLSON WAGONLIT TRAVEL branch at WHO (Mr Pierre Plumettaz), phone: 022 788 10 65 We wish you already a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year!

  2. Value of travel time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Knowingly or not, people generally place economic value on their time. Wage workers are paid a rate per hour, and service providers may charge per hour of their time. In the transportation realm, travelers place a value on their travel time and have ...

  3. Travel health prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    All around the world there has been a rapid growth in the number of international travels. According to the World Tourism Organisation the number of international tourist arrivals reached 1,235 billion in 2016 and continues to grow at a high rate. This has been much due to the development of air transport (including low-cost airlines), increasingly common economic migration, a growing number of travellers visiting friends and relatives, and an increase in medical tourism. With tropical destinations becoming increasingly popular among travellers, doctors have seen a rising number of patients who seek medical advice on health risks prevalent in hot countries and health prevention measures to be taken in tropical destinations, especially where sanitation is poor. The risk for developing a medical condition while staying abroad depends on a variety of factors, including the traveller's general health condition, health prevention measures taken before or during travel (vaccinations, antimalarial chemoprophylaxis, health precautions during air, road and sea travel, proper acclimatisation, prevention of heat injuries, protection against local flora and fauna, personal hygiene, water, food and feeding hygiene), as well as the prevalence of health risk factors in a given location. Health prevention is a precondition for safe travel and maintaining good physical health; in the era of a rapid growth in international tourism it has become of key importance for all travellers.

  4. Travel and transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bill, Jan; Roesdahl, Else

    2007-01-01

    On the interrelationship between travel, transport and society; on land transport, sea and river transport, and on winter transport;  on the related technologies and their developments......On the interrelationship between travel, transport and society; on land transport, sea and river transport, and on winter transport;  on the related technologies and their developments...

  5. Travel/Travelers and Parasitic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the world and specific country. Many infectious diseases transmitted in food and water can also be acquired directly through the fecal-oral route. Parasitic Illnesses That Can Be Acquired During Travel* From Contaminated Food and Water More ... filariasis African sleeping sickness Onchoceriasis *This list ...

  6. Assessing accuracy of an electronic provincial medication repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Price Morgan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Jurisdictional drug information systems are being implemented in many regions around the world. British Columbia, Canada has had a provincial medication dispensing record, PharmaNet, system since 1995. Little is known about how accurately PharmaNet reflects actual medication usage. Methods This prospective, multi-centre study compared pharmacist collected Best Possible Medication Histories (BPMH to PharmaNet profiles to assess accuracy of the PharmaNet profiles for patients receiving a BPMH as part of clinical care. A review panel examined the anonymized BPMHs and discrepancies to estimate clinical significance of discrepancies. Results 16% of medication profiles were accurate, with 48% of the discrepant profiles considered potentially clinically significant by the clinical review panel. Cardiac medications tended to be more accurate (e.g. ramipril was accurate >90% of the time, while insulin, warfarin, salbutamol and pain relief medications were often inaccurate (80–85% of the time. 1215 sequential BPMHs were collected and reviewed for this study. Conclusions The PharmaNet medication repository has a low accuracy and should be used in conjunction with other sources for medication histories for clinical or research purposes. This finding is consistent with other, smaller medication repository accuracy studies in other jurisdictions. Our study highlights specific medications that tend to be lower in accuracy.

  7. Ocean acoustic tomography - Travel time biases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiesberger, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    The travel times of acoustic rays traced through a climatological sound-speed profile are compared with travel times computed through the same profile containing an eddy field. The accuracy of linearizing the relations between the travel time difference and the sound-speed deviation at long ranges is assessed using calculations made for two different eddy fields measured in the eastern Atlantic. Significant nonlinearities are found in some cases, and the relationships of the values of these nonlinearities to the range between source and receiver, to the anomaly size associated with the eddies, and to the positions of the eddies are studied. An analytical model of the nonlinearities is discussed.

  8. Prevention of influenza among travellers attending at a UK travel clinic: beliefs and perceptions. A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuet-Aumatell, Cristina; Toovey, Stephen; Zuckerman, Jane N

    2013-07-01

    Travellers' compliance with measures to prevent influenza through the use of antivirals and influenza vaccine remains very poor despite influenza being one of the commonest travel and vaccine-preventable diseases. A study was undertaken to assess travellers' beliefs, perceptions and intentions to take antivirals for the treatment and prevention of influenza during the H1N1 pandemic. A cross-sectional survey (n = 96) of travellers who attended the Royal Free Travel Health Centre, London, UK was undertaken in September 2009. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by a traveller in advance of their pre-travel health consultation. Logistic regression identified variables independently associated with compliance. Influenza vaccination uptake for the 5 years preceding the study was found to be 20·8%. This was statistically significantly higher for older travellers and those with underlying health conditions (P study identifies some beliefs and perceptions travellers consider with regard to the therapeutic and preventive influenza use of antivirals during the H1N1 pandemic; it underscores the importance of travellers receiving hemisphere appropriate influenza vaccination. The external validity of these study findings requires further corroboration involving other travel clinics and different cohorts of travellers during seasonal activity or outbreaks of influenza. These findings could guide the development of future strategies for the prevention of influenza in travellers. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. NADIM-Travel: A Multiagent Platform for Travel Services Aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Ameur, Houssein; Bédard, François; Vaucher, Stéphane; Kropf, Peter; Chaib-draaa, Brahim; Gérin-Lajoie, Robert

    2010-01-01

    With the Internet as a growing channel for travel services distribution, sophisticated travel services aggregators are increasingly in demand. A travel services aggregation platform should be able to manage the heterogeneous characteristics of the many existing travel services. It should also be as scalable, robust, and flexible as possible. Using multiagent technology, we designed and implemented a multiagent platform for travel services aggregation called NADIM-Travel. In this platform, a p...

  10. Enquiries to the United Kingdom National Travel Advice Line by healthcare professionals regarding immunocompromised travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joanna E; Patel, Dipti

    2016-03-01

    People who travel while immunocompromised are more at risk of serious travel-related infection. Their condition, medications or treatments can contraindicate, decrease the effectiveness of or increase the toxicity of vaccinations or malaria chemoprophylaxis. Therefore, immunocompromised travellers require careful assessment and specialized pre-travel advice. The aims of this study were to investigate enquiries by healthcare professionals (HCPs) to the UK National Travel Health Network and Centre (NaTHNaC) advice line regarding travellers with immunocompromise and to identify their most common concerns. Documentation for all calls taken by advisers at the London office during 2013 was reviewed. Of the 4910 enquiries to the London NaTHNaC advice line, 397 calls concerned immunocompromised travellers (8.1%). The majority of immunocompromised travellers were planning to visit Sub-Saharan Africa (53%) for the purpose of tourism (43%). Sixty-seven percent of enquiries concerned vaccine use, 11% were about malaria chemoprophylaxis, 20% were about both and 2% were for other reasons. Causes of immunocompromise included inflammatory or autoimmune conditions (43%), cancer (18%), splenic dysfunction (13%), immunosuppressive drugs (12%), human immunodeficiency virus (11%), primary immunodeficiency (1%), neutropenia (0.5%) and thymus abnormalities (0.5%). There were frequent enquires to the advice line by UK HCPs regarding immunocompromised travellers. The travellers in this study had a wide range of underlying medical conditions and varying levels of immunocompromise. These enquiries may reflect a lack of clarity in current national guidelines, difficulties in interpreting them or both. Establishing the reasons for these deficiencies as well as the reasons behind UK HCP concerns and lack of confidence requires further investigation. This research has highlighted potential knowledge gaps and will help inform future guidance and educational activities for UK HCPs advising

  11. Travel time data collection handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    This Travel Time Data Collection Handbook provides guidance to transportation : professionals and practitioners for the collection, reduction, and presentation : of travel time data. The handbook should be a useful reference for designing : travel ti...

  12. Cost-effectiveness of electronic training in domestic violence risk assessment: ODARA 101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, N Zoe; Ham, Elke

    2015-03-01

    The need for domestic violence training has increased with the development of evidence-based risk assessment tools, which must be scored correctly for valid application. Emerging research indicates that training in domestic violence risk assessment can increase scoring accuracy, but despite the increasing popularity of electronic training, it is not yet known whether it can be an effective method of risk assessment training. In the present study, 87 assessors from various professions had training in the Ontario Domestic Assault Risk Assessment either face-to-face or using an electronic training program. The two conditions were equally effective, as measured by performance on a post-training skill acquisition test. Completion rates were 100% for face-to-face and 86% for electronic training, an improvement over a previously evaluated manual-only condition. The estimated per-trainee cost of electronic training was one third that of face-to-face training and expected to decrease. More rigorous evaluations of electronic training for risk assessment are recommended. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE CULTURAL HERITAGE, TRAVEL n TOURISM, AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugulan Diana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The cultural heritage, including, according to the UNESCO definition, the assembly of monuments, groups of buildings, and sites which are of outstanding universal value from the historical, aesthetic, ethnological or anthropological point of view, represents an important asset that can be engaged and capitalized in order to support the sustainable development. Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs in order to provide a better quality of life for everyone, now and for generations to come, has become a concern and, in the same time, a priority for all the stakeholders of the society. Turning to the best account of the cultural heritage also represents an important driver for the sustainable development of the travel and tourism industry, as the cultural sites, institutions, goods and services, appropriately capitalized, represent significant attractions for the international and domestic tourists. The integration of the principles of sustainable development in the current functioning of the travel and tourism industry led to the development and implementation of the concept of sustainable tourism. The paper explores in a distinctive manner the relationships between the cultural heritage and the travel and tourism industry, respectively the cultural heritage and the sustainable development based on a set of related statistical indicators, and the specific secondary data, expressing the extent of the cultural heritage, the development of the travel and tourism industry, and the attained level of sustainable development in ten Central and Eastern European countries, members of the European Union. There are two major research questions the paper aims to answer: (1 How significant is the relationship between the cultural heritage and the development of the travel and tourism industry? (2 Is there a noteworthy connection between the cultural heritage and the sustainable

  14. Intercity Travel Demand Analysis Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Lu; Hai Zhu; Xia Luo; Lei Lei

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that intercity travel is an important component of travel demand which belongs to short distance corridor travel. The conventional four-step method is no longer suitable for short distance corridor travel demand analysis for the time spent on urban traffic has a great impact on traveler's main mode choice. To solve this problem, the author studied the existing intercity travel demand analysis model, then improved it based on the study, and finally established a combined model...

  15. Preparing for International Travel and Global Medical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Swaminatha V; Strehlow, Matthew C

    2017-05-01

    Thorough pretravel preparation and medical consultation can mitigate avoidable health and safety risks. A comprehensive pretravel medical consultation should include an individualized risk assessment, immunization review, and discussion of arthropod protective measures, malaria prophylaxis, traveler's diarrhea, and injury prevention. Travel with children and jet lag reduction require additional planning and prevention strategies; travel and evacuation insurance may prove essential when traveling to less resourced countries. Consideration should also be given to other high-risk travel scenarios, including the provision of health care overseas, adventure and extreme sports, water environments and diving, high altitude, and terrorism/unstable political situations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. NIKHEF traveling wave monitor: user guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sluijk, T.

    1984-01-01

    The NIKHEF Travelling Wave Monitor (TWM) is a sensitive, non intercepting device to measure beam displacement. The measurement is independent of the beam intensity. The TWM consists of a waveguide assembly and separate electronics assembly. Specifications are given, as well as instructions for use. (Auth./G.J.P.)

  17. Travelers' Health: Meningococcal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Zika Travel Information World Map of Zika Country Classification Technical Guidance Risk of Zika Virus at Your ... Meningococcal meningitis is characterized by sudden onset of headache, fever, and stiffness of the neck, sometimes accompanied ...

  18. Travel during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 36 weeks of pregnancy. Some domestic airlines restrict travel completely or require a medical certificate during the last month of pregnancy. For international flights, the cutoff point often is earlier, sometimes as early as 28 ...

  19. Tips for Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avoid bringing bed bugs home by taking precautions when traveling such as inspecting bedding and luggage racks in hotel rooms, and upon returning home unpacking directly into a washing machine and dry at high temperatures.

  20. Pregnancy and travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    When traveling by land: You should be on the road no more than 5 to 6 hours a day. Always wear your seatbelt. ... of fluids. Women with health problems may need extra oxygen when flying. Talk to your provider before ...

  1. Caregiving and travel patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This study explored the impact of caregiving for older adults on mobility and travel : patterns. Specifically, the focus was on how caregivers managed trips on behalf of : another who receives care. Caregiving is becoming increasingly common as the :...

  2. Malaria and Tropical Travel

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Malaria is a serious mosquito-borne disease that can lead to death. This podcast discusses malaria risk when traveling to tropical areas, as well as how to protect yourself and your family from malaria infection.

  3. Traveling-wave photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietala, V.M.; Vawter, G.A.

    1993-12-14

    The traveling-wave photodetector of the present invention combines an absorptive optical waveguide and an electrical transmission line, in which optical absorption in the waveguide results in a photocurrent at the electrodes of the electrical transmission line. The optical waveguide and electrical transmission line of the electrically distributed traveling-wave photodetector are designed to achieve matched velocities between the light in the optical waveguide and electrical signal generated on the transmission line. This velocity synchronization provides the traveling-wave photodetector with a large electrical bandwidth and a high quantum efficiency, because of the effective extended volume for optical absorption. The traveling-wave photodetector also provides large power dissipation, because of its large physical size. 4 figures.

  4. Malaria and Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Providers, Emergency Consultations, and General Public. Contact Us Malaria and Travelers for U.S. Residents Recommend on Facebook ... may be at risk for infection. Determine if malaria transmission occurs at the destinations Obtain a detailed ...

  5. Travelers' Health: Scabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Books, Journals, Articles & Websites Resources for the Travel Industry Yellow Book Contents Chapter 3 (83) Scabies more ... have crusted scabies. Contact with items such as clothing and bed linens that have been used by ...

  6. Carlson Wagonlit Travel

    CERN Multimedia

    Carlson Wagonlit Travel

    2005-01-01

    Dear customers, On 3 January we informed you that the airlines had decided to cease paying commission to travel agencies in Switzerland. This measure has since been progressively introduced, with rare exceptions. Consequently, in agreement with CERN, we are obliged to apply new transaction fees for private travel, with immediate effect. Carlson Wagonlit Travel (CWT) offers: A personalized, professional and competent consultancy service To seek the most economical and best solution adapted to your needs Neutrality in comparing prices and benefits Additional information concerning e.g. visa regulations, insurance, vaccinations, etc. Support in the event of problems We draw your attention to the fact that, in spite of the increase, these prices remain very competitive on today's market. Thank you for your trust and understanding. Yours truly, Carlson Wagonlit Travel CERN agency

  7. Illinois travel statistics, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The 2008 Illinois Travel Statistics publication is assembled to provide detailed traffic : information to the different users of traffic data. While most users of traffic data at this level : of detail are within the Illinois Department of Transporta...

  8. Illinois travel statistics, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The 2009 Illinois Travel Statistics publication is assembled to provide detailed traffic : information to the different users of traffic data. While most users of traffic data at this level : of detail are within the Illinois Department of Transporta...

  9. Illinois travel statistics, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The 2010 Illinois Travel Statistics publication is assembled to provide detailed traffic : information to the different users of traffic data. While most users of traffic data at this level : of detail are within the Illinois Department of Transporta...

  10. Travelling with football teams

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ultimately on the performance of the teams on the playing field and not so much ... However, travelling with a football team presents the team physician .... physician to determine the nutritional ..... diarrhoea in elite athletes: an audit of one team.

  11. Travelers' Health: Cryptosporidiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... associated diarrhea; cryptosporidiosis was associated with travel to Asia, particularly India, and Latin America. Another study found ... immunochromatographic cartridge assays, and microscopy with modified acid-fast staining. ... and water precautions (see Chapter 2, Food & Water ...

  12. Impact of advice given to travelers concerning the main infectious risks associated with traveling in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestelle, C; Aymeric, S; Maakaroun-Vermesse, Z; Pouliquen, A; Bernard, L; Chandenier, J; Grammatico-Guillon, L

    2015-06-01

    The prevention of sanitary risks related to traveling in the tropics implies delivering a large amount of information to travelers. The objective of our study was to assess the knowledge acquired by travelers during a pre-travel consultation. A before and after study was conducted among 202 travelers having consulted at the Tours international vaccine center. We used self-administrated questionnaires (score out of 100 marks) concerning diet, hygiene, anti-vectorial prevention (AVP), and sexual-transmitted infections (STI). The scores obtained before and after consultation were compared globally and for each topic. The travelers' global knowledge had improved after consultation (66.1 vs. 75.5%; P traveling compared to humanitarian mission prepared ahead of departure time). The recommendations for diet were less well acquired in travelers > 50 years of age than in those travel consultation improves the travelers' knowledge for the main prevention measures but does not allow them to acquire all required knowledge. Taking into account the travelers' initial knowledge and their ability to learn could improve the impact of the pre-travel consultation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Business travel and sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    AGUILERA, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Although it contributes significantly to the demand for transport, in particular air transport, business travel has been relatively neglected in thinking about the strategies needed to promote more sustainable mobility practices. This paper provides a two-stage approach to this subject. We begin by showing how the sustainability of business travel is relevant not only in environmental terms, but also from an economic and social perspective. In the second stage, we consider the strategies that...

  14. Travel Market Switzerland 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Laesser, Christian; Bieger, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Technical Report and Results - In 2007, for the seventeenth time since 1972, a survey on the travel behaviour of the Swiss population was conducted. The database resulting from this project (Travel Market Switzerland 2007) is still the most extensive on private trips by the Swiss resident population. Private trips are defined/ delimited as all journeys by private persons with at least one overnight stay outside their home and their normal life and work environment. They include all types of l...

  15. Advice to Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    1975-01-01

    Travelers, particularly those whose tastes or occupations lead to deviation from the usual tourist routes, are at a small but significant risk of acquiring certain diseases they would be unlikely to encounter had they remained in the continental United States. Many of these infections can be rendered unlikely even for the most adventuresome traveler through the appropriate use of immunization and chemoprophylaxis. Other infections are currently unpreventable and the physician's responsibility lies in their premorbid detection. PMID:1154779

  16. Self-reported illness among Boston-area international travelers: A prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin H.; Han, Pauline V.; Wilson, Mary E.; Stoney, Rhett J.; Jentes, Emily S.; Benoit, Christine; Ooi, Winnie W.; Barnett, Elizabeth D.; Hamer, Davidson H.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background The Boston Area Travel Medicine Network surveyed travelers on travel-related health problems. Methods Travelers were recruited 2009–2011 during pre-travel consultation at three clinics. The investigation included pre-travel data, weekly during-travel diaries, and a post-travel questionnaire. We analyzed demographics, trip characteristics, health problems experienced, and assessed the relationship between influenza vaccination, influenza prevention advice, and respiratory symptoms. Results Of 987 enrolled travelers, 628 (64%) completed all surveys, of which 400 (64%) reported health problems during and/or after travel; median trip duration was 12 days. Diarrhea affected the most people during travel (172) while runny/stuffy nose affected the most people after travel (95). Of those with health problems during travel, 25% stopped or altered plans; 1% were hospitalized. After travel, 21% stopped planned activities, 23% sought physician or other health advice; one traveler was hospitalized. Travelers who received influenza vaccination and influenza prevention advice had lower rates of respiratory symptoms than those that received influenza prevention advice alone (18% vs 28%, P = 0.03). Conclusions A large proportion of Boston-area travelers reported health problems despite pre-travel consultation, resulting in inconveniences. The combination of influenza prevention advice and influenza immunization was associated with fewer respiratory symptoms than those who received influenza prevention advice alone. PMID:27687076

  17. The New England travel market: changes in generational travel patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney B. Warnick

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine and explore the New England domestic travel market trends, from 1979 through 1991 within the context of generations. The existing travel markets, who travel to New England, are changing by age cohorts and specifically within different generations. The New England changes in generational travel patterns do not reflect national...

  18. Using electronic clinical practice audits as needs assessment to produce effective continuing medical education programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Doug; Staples, John; Pittman, Carmen; Stepanko, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    The traditional needs assessment used in developing continuing medical education programs typically relies on surveying physicians and tends to only capture perceived learning needs. Instead, using tools available in electronic medical record systems to perform a clinical audit on a physician's practice highlights physician-specific practice patterns. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of implementing an electronic clinical audit needs assessment process for family physicians in Canada. A clinical audit of 10 preventative care interventions and 10 chronic disease interventions was performed on family physician practices in Alberta, Canada. The physicians used the results from the audit to produce personalized learning needs, which were then translated into educational programming. A total of 26 family practices and 4489 patient records were audited. Documented completion rates for interventions ranged from 13% for ensuring a patient's tetanus vaccine is current to 97% of pregnant patients receiving the recommended prenatal vitamins. Electronic medical record-based needs assessments may provide a better basis for developing continuing medical education than a more traditional survey-based needs assessment. This electronic needs assessment uses the physician's own patient outcome information to assist in determining learning objectives that reflect both perceived and unperceived needs.

  19. Previous exposure in a high-risk area for travellers' diarrhoea within the past year is associated with a significant protective effect for travellers' diarrhoea: a prospective observational cohort study in travellers to South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenzli, Esther; Juergensen, David; Kling, Kerstin; Jaeger, Veronika K; DeCrom, Susan; Steffen, Robert; Widmer, Andreas F; Battegay, Manuel; Hatz, Christoph; Neumayr, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Travellers' diarrhoea is the most common health problem in travellers. Depending on the region visited, up to 40% of travellers develop diarrhoea during a 2-week trip. The aim of this study was to assess risk factors for TD among travellers to the Indian subcontinent. An observational prospective multicentre cohort study investigated travellers to the Indian subcontinent. Participants completed questionnaires assessing the incidence of travellers' diarrhoea and identifying potential risk factors. Covariates were assessed univariately, followed by a multivariate regression. Two-hundred and twenty-six travellers were enrolled into the study, 178 filled in both pre- and post-travel questionnaires. Overall, the attack rate of travellers' diarrhoea was 38.2%. Travel destination is a key risk factor for the occurrence of TD. Travelling to India or Nepal vs Bhutan is associated with an increased risk for TD (OR 6.68 and 6.62, respectively). A length of stay of more than 3 weeks compared to less than 2 weeks is also associated with a significantly increased risk (OR 5.45). Having stayed in a high-risk area for travellers' diarrhoea within the past year before the current trip is associated with a significantly decreased risk (OR 0.19). No association was found between consumption of high risk food (i.e. tap water, ice cream, raw meat and hamburgers) and travellers' diarrhoea. Travellers' diarrhoea is a frequent problem in travellers to the Indian subcontinent. Previous exposure in a high-risk area for travellers' diarrhoea within the past year appears to have a significant protective effect. Furthermore, an association between the occurrence of travellers' diarrhoea and travel destination and length of stay, respectively, was observed. Consumption of risk food did not confer a TD risk in our study. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. Travels in Architectural History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Deriu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Travel is a powerful force in shaping the perception of the modern world and plays an ever-growing role within architectural and urban cultures. Inextricably linked to political and ideological issues, travel redefines places and landscapes through new transport infrastructures and buildings. Architecture, in turn, is reconstructed through visual and textual narratives produced by scores of modern travellers — including writers and artists along with architects themselves. In the age of the camera, travel is bound up with new kinds of imaginaries; private records and recollections often mingle with official, stereotyped views, as the value of architectural heritage increasingly rests on the mechanical reproduction of its images. Whilst students often learn about architectural history through image collections, the place of the journey in the formation of the architect itself shifts. No longer a lone and passionate antiquarian or an itinerant designer, the modern architect eagerly hops on buses, trains, and planes in pursuit of personal as well as professional interests. Increasingly built on a presumption of mobility, architectural culture integrates travel into cultural debates and design experiments. By addressing such issues from a variety of perspectives, this collection, a special 'Architectural Histories' issue on travel, prompts us to rethink the mobile conditions in which architecture has historically been produced and received.

  1. The feasibility of using electronic clinical outcome assessments in people with schizophrenia and their informal caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolley C

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chloe Tolley,1 Diana Rofail,2 Adam Gater,1 Justine K Lalonde31Adelphi Values Ltd, Bollington, UK; 2Roche Products Ltd, Welwyn Garden City, UK; 3Roche S.A.S, Paris, France Abstract: Many clinical outcome assessments (COAs were originally developed for completion via pen and paper. However, in recent years there have been movements toward electronic capture of such data in an effort to reduce missing data, provide time-stamped records, minimize administrative burden, and avoid secondary data entry errors. Although established in many patient populations, the implications of using electronic COAs in schizophrenia are unknown. In accordance with International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR Task Force recommendations, in-depth cognitive debriefing and usability interviews were conducted with people with schizophrenia (n=12, their informal (unpaid caregivers (n=12, and research support staff (n=6 to assess the suitability of administration of various electronic COA measures using an electronic tablet device. Minimal issues were encountered by participants when completing or administering the COAs in electronic format, with many finding it easier to complete instruments in this mode than by pen and paper. The majority of issues reported were specific to the device functionality rather than the electronic mode of administration. Findings support data collection via electronic tablet in people with schizophrenia and their caregivers. The appropriateness of other forms of electronic data capture (eg, smartphones, interactive voice response systems, etc is a topic for future investigation. Keywords: ePRO, eCOA, mode of administration, electronic data capture, usability 

  2. Navigation API Route Fuel Saving Opportunity Assessment on Large-Scale Real-World Travel Data for Conventional Vehicles and Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Lei [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Holden, Jacob [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gonder, Jeffrey D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-06

    The green routing strategy instructing a vehicle to select a fuel-efficient route benefits the current transportation system with fuel-saving opportunities. This paper introduces a navigation API route fuel-saving evaluation framework for estimating fuel advantages of alternative API routes based on large-scale, real-world travel data for conventional vehicles (CVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The navigation APIs, such Google Directions API, integrate traffic conditions and provide feasible alternative routes for origin-destination pairs. This paper develops two link-based fuel-consumption models stratified by link-level speed, road grade, and functional class (local/non-local), one for CVs and the other for HEVs. The link-based fuel-consumption models are built by assigning travel from a large number of GPS driving traces to the links in TomTom MultiNet as the underlying road network layer and road grade data from a U.S. Geological Survey elevation data set. Fuel consumption on a link is calculated by the proposed fuel consumption model. This paper envisions two kinds of applications: 1) identifying alternate routes that save fuel, and 2) quantifying the potential fuel savings for large amounts of travel. An experiment based on a large-scale California Household Travel Survey GPS trajectory data set is conducted. The fuel consumption and savings of CVs and HEVs are investigated. At the same time, the trade-off between fuel saving and time saving for choosing different routes is also examined for both powertrains.

  3. Pre-travel advice at a crossroad: Medical preparedness of travellers to South and Southeast-Asia - The Hamburg Airport Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolling, Thierry; Mühlenpfordt, Melina; Addo, Marylyn M; Cramer, Jakob P; Vinnemeier, Christof D

    Specific travel-related recommendations exist for the prevention or self-treatment of infectious diseases contracted by travellers to the tropics. In the current study, we assessed the medical preparedness per these recommendations, focusing on whether travellers carried antidiarrheal and antimalarial medication with them stratified by type of pre-travel advice. We surveyed travellers departing from Hamburg International Airport to South or Southeast Asia, using a questionnaire on demographic, medical and travel characteristics. 975 travellers were analysed - the majority (817, 83%) being tourists. A large proportion packed any antidiarrheal medication (612, 63%) - most frequently loperamide (440, 72%). Only 176 of 928 (19%) travellers to destinations with low-to medium risk for malaria packed a recommended antimalarial medication. The majority (162, 17%) of them carried antimalarials as stand-by emergency treatment (SBET). 468 (48%) travellers had a pre-travel medical consultation. This lead to higher odds of carrying SBET- with the highest odds associated with a consultation at a travel medicine specialist (OR 7.83 compared to no consultation). Attending a travel medicine specialist was associated with better adherence to current recommendations concerning the carriage of stand-by emergency treatment of malaria. However, the proportion of travellers seeking pre-travel health advice was overall low in our population. Promoting pre-travel consultations may, therefore, lead to higher adherence to the current recommendations in travel medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Travel risk behaviours and uptake of pre-travel health preventions by university students in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, Anita E; Zhang, Meng; MacIntyre, C Raina; Seale, Holly

    2012-02-17

    Forward planning and preventative measures before travelling can significantly reduce the risk of many vaccine preventable travel-related infectious diseases. Higher education students may be at an increased risk of importing infectious disease as many undertake multiple visits to regions with higher infectious disease endemicity. Little is known about the health behaviours of domestic or international university students, particularly students from low resource countries who travel to high-resource countries for education. This study aimed to assess travel-associated health risks and preventative behaviours in a sample of both domestic and international university students in Australia. In 2010, a 28 item self-administered online survey was distributed to students enrolled at the University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. Multiple methods of distributing links to the online survey were utilised. The survey examined the international travel history, travel intentions, infection control behaviours and self-reported vaccination history. A total of 1663 respondents completed the online survey, 22.1% were international students and 83.9% were enrolled at an undergraduate level. Half had travelled internationally in the previous 12 months, with 69% of those travelling only once during that time with no difference in travel from Australia between domestic and international students (p = 0.8). Uptake of pre-travel health advice was low overall with 68% of respondents reporting they had not sought any advice from a health professional prior to their last international trip. Domestic students were more likely to report uptake of a range of preventative travel health measures compared to international students, including diarrhoeal medication, insect repellent, food avoidance and condoms (P students reported low risk perception of travel threats and a low corresponding concern for these threats. Our study highlights the need to educate students about the risk

  5. Hepatitis B vaccination in travelers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonder, Gerard J. B.

    2008-01-01

    An increasing number of travelers travel to hepatitis B-endemic countries. In travel medicine, vaccinations should be advised according to risks. The actual incidence of hepatitis B infection in short-term tourists is very low and probably not higher than it is for people who do not travel. There is

  6. Travel health attitudes among Turkish business travellers to African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, Engin Burak; Kayabas, Uner; Binbasioglu, Hulisi; Otlu, Baris; Bayindir, Yasar; Bozdogan, Bulent; Karatas, Mehmet

    The number of international travellers is increasing worldwide. Although health risks related to international travel are important and generally well-understood, the perception of these risks was unclear among Turkish travellers. We aimed to evaluate the attitudes and health risk awareness of Turkish travellers travelling to African countries. A survey was performed of Turkish travellers bound for Africa from Istanbul International Ataturk Airport in July 2013. A total of 124 travellers were enrolled in the study. Among them, 62.9% had information about their destination but only 11.3% had looked for information on health problems related to travel and their destination. Of all travellers, 53.2% had at least one vaccination before travelling. The most commonly administered vaccine was for typhoid. Among the travellers, 69.3% and 80.6% had "no idea" about yellow fever vaccination and malaria prophylaxis, respectively. A positive correlation was found between a higher level of travellers' education and receiving the recommended vaccination for the destination. Our study revealed significant gaps in the vaccination and chemoprophylaxis uptake of Turkish travellers departing to Africa. An awareness and training program should be developed for travellers, as well as public health workers, to address health risks related to travel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessing electronic health record systems in emergency departments: Using a decision analytic Bayesian model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Assuli, Ofir; Leshno, Moshe

    2016-09-01

    In the last decade, health providers have implemented information systems to improve accuracy in medical diagnosis and decision-making. This article evaluates the impact of an electronic health record on emergency department physicians' diagnosis and admission decisions. A decision analytic approach using a decision tree was constructed to model the admission decision process to assess the added value of medical information retrieved from the electronic health record. Using a Bayesian statistical model, this method was evaluated on two coronary artery disease scenarios. The results show that the cases of coronary artery disease were better diagnosed when the electronic health record was consulted and led to more informed admission decisions. Furthermore, the value of medical information required for a specific admission decision in emergency departments could be quantified. The findings support the notion that physicians and patient healthcare can benefit from implementing electronic health record systems in emergency departments. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Meningococcal vaccination for international travellers from Greece visiting developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavli, Androula; Katerelos, Panagiotis; Smeti, Paraskevi; Maltezou, Helena C

    2016-01-01

    Meningococcal meningitis is a serious disease. Travel-associated infection for the general traveller is low; however regular epidemics in indigenous population, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. Our aim was to assess meningococcal vaccination for international travellers from Greece. A prospective questionnaire-based study was conducted during 2009-2013. A total of 5283 travellers were studied (median age: 39.2 years); Meningococcal tetravalent vaccine (A,C,W135,Y) was delivered to 1150 (21.8%) of them. Of those who travelled to the Middle East and sub-Saharan Africa, 73.1% and 21.2% received meningococcal vaccine, respectively. Of those travellers who travelled to sub-Saharan Africa from November to June and from July to October, 22.1% and 20.6% were vaccinated with meningococcal vaccine, respectively. Of all travellers who travelled for travelled for recreation, and 13.8% of those who travelled for work. Of travellers who stayed in urban, in rural, and in urban and rural areas, 32%, 11.6% and 12.7% were vaccinated, respectively. Meningococcal vaccine was delivered to 29.2%, 21.1%, 19.4% and 5.1% of those who stayed in hotels, at local people's home, in camps, and on ships, respectively. The association of meningococcal vaccine administration with the destination, duration and purpose of travel, area of stay and type of accommodation was statistically significant. There is a need to improve meningococcal vaccine recommendations for travellers from Greece, particularly for high risk populations, such as VFRs, business travellers and those visiting sub-Saharan Africa especially during the dry season. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of coronary artery bypass graft patency by multidetector computed tomography and electron-beam tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piers, LH; Dorgelo, J; Tio, RA; Jessurun, GAJ; Oudkerk, M; Zijlstra, F

    This case report describes the use of retrospectively ECG-gated 16-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and electron-beam tomography (EBT) for assessing bypass graft patency in two patients with recurrent angina after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The results of each tomographic

  10. Travel Health Advisory Group: a joint travel industry and travel health Special Interest Group promoting healthy travel in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggat, Peter A; Zwar, Nicholas; Hudson, Bernie

    2012-09-01

    The Travel Health Advisory Group (THAG), established in 1997, is a joint initiative between the travel industry and travel health professionals in Australia that aims to promote healthy travel. THAG seeks to promote cooperation in improving the health of travellers between the travel industry and travel medicine professionals and to raise public awareness of the importance of travel health. From 2011, THAG has been a Special Interest Group of The Australasian College of Tropical Medicine and its membership has been active in several areas, including web-based travel health information, travel health promotion, media releases, research and education in Australia. Information is given on the objectives, membership and an overview of the various activities of the group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Travelers' Health: Trypanosomiasis, American (Chagas Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stamaril clinics Disease Directory Resources Resources for Travelers Adventure Travel Animal Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Evite ... Minute Travel Long-Term Travel Mass Gatherings Medical Tourism Mental Health Motion Sickness Natural Disasters Pregnant Travelers ...

  12. Travel-associated infection presenting in Europe (2008-12): an analysis of EuroTravNet longitudinal, surveillance data, and evaluation of the effect of the pre-travel consultation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlagenhauf, Patricia; Weld, Leisa; Goorhuis, Abraham; Gautret, Philippe; Weber, Rainer; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Lopez-Vélez, Rogelio; Jensenius, Mogens; Cramer, Jakob P.; Field, Vanessa K.; Odolini, Silvia; Gkrania-Klotsas, Effrossyni; Chappuis, Francois; Malvy, Denis; van Genderen, Perry J. J.; Mockenhaupt, Frank; Jauréguiberry, Stéphane; Smith, Catherine; Beeching, Nicholas J.; Ursing, Johan; Parola, Philippe; Grobusch, Martin P.

    2015-01-01

    Travel is important in the acquisition and dissemination of infection. We aimed to assess European surveillance data for travel-related illness to profile imported infections, track trends, identify risk groups, and assess the usefulness of pre-travel advice. We analysed travel-associated morbidity

  13. Using the NASA Task Load Index to Assess Workload in Electronic Medical Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Darren; Kushniruk, Andre W; Borycki, Elizabeth M

    2015-01-01

    Electronic medical records (EMRs) has been expected to decrease health professional workload. The NASA Task Load Index has become an important tool for assessing workload in many domains. However, its application in assessing the impact of an EMR on nurse's workload has remained to be explored. In this paper we report the results of a study of workload and we explore the utility of applying the NASA Task Load Index to assess impact of an EMR at the end of its lifecycle on nurses' workload. It was found that mental and temporal demands were the most responsible for the workload. Further work along these lines is recommended.

  14. Application of hydrogeology and groundwater-age estimates to assess the travel time of groundwater at the site of a landfill to the Mahomet Aquifer, near Clinton, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Robert T.; Buszka, Paul M.

    2016-03-02

    The U.S. Geological Survey used interpretations of hydrogeologic conditions and tritium-based groundwater age estimates to assess the travel time of groundwater at a landfill site near Clinton, Illinois (the “Clinton site”) where a chemical waste unit (CWU) was proposed to be within the Clinton landfill unit #3 (CLU#3). Glacial deposits beneath the CWU consist predominantly of low-permeability silt- and clay-rich till interspersed with thin (typically less than 2 feet in thickness) layers of more permeable deposits, including the Upper and Lower Radnor Till Sands and the Organic Soil unit. These glacial deposits are about 170 feet thick and overlie the Mahomet Sand Member of the Banner Formation. The Mahomet aquifer is composed of the Mahomet Sand Member and is used for water supply in much of east-central Illinois.Eight tritium analyses of water from seven wells were used to evaluate the overall age of recharge to aquifers beneath the Clinton site. Groundwater samples were collected from six monitoring wells on or adjacent to the CLU#3 that were open to glacial deposits above the Mahomet aquifer (the upper and lower parts of the Radnor Till Member and the Organic Soil unit) and one proximal production well (approximately 0.5 miles from the CLU#3) that is screened in the Mahomet aquifer. The tritium-based age estimates were computed with a simplifying, piston-flow assumption: that groundwater moves in discrete packets to the sampled interval by advection, without hydrodynamic dispersion or mixing.Tritium concentrations indicate a recharge age of at least 59 years (pre-1953 recharge) for water sampled from deposits below the upper part of the Radnor Till Member at the CLU#3, with older water expected at progressively greater depth in the tills. The largest tritium concentration from a well sampled by this study (well G53S; 0.32 ± 0.10 tritium units) was in groundwater from a sand deposit in the upper part of the Radnor Till Member; the shallowest permeable unit

  15. Travel risk behaviours and uptake of pre-travel health preventions by university students in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heywood Anita E

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Forward planning and preventative measures before travelling can significantly reduce the risk of many vaccine preventable travel-related infectious diseases. Higher education students may be at an increased risk of importing infectious disease as many undertake multiple visits to regions with higher infectious disease endemicity. Little is known about the health behaviours of domestic or international university students, particularly students from low resource countries who travel to high-resource countries for education. This study aimed to assess travel-associated health risks and preventative behaviours in a sample of both domestic and international university students in Australia. Methods In 2010, a 28 item self-administered online survey was distributed to students enrolled at the University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. Multiple methods of distributing links to the online survey were utilised. The survey examined the international travel history, travel intentions, infection control behaviours and self-reported vaccination history. Results A total of 1663 respondents completed the online survey, 22.1% were international students and 83.9% were enrolled at an undergraduate level. Half had travelled internationally in the previous 12 months, with 69% of those travelling only once during that time with no difference in travel from Australia between domestic and international students (p = 0.8. Uptake of pre-travel health advice was low overall with 68% of respondents reporting they had not sought any advice from a health professional prior to their last international trip. Domestic students were more likely to report uptake of a range of preventative travel health measures compared to international students, including diarrhoeal medication, insect repellent, food avoidance and condoms (P Conclusions Our study highlights the need to educate students about the risk associated with travel and improve preventative

  16. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  17. Schistosomiasis and international travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corachan, Manuel

    2002-08-15

    Infection with Schistosoma species is acquired by exposure to fresh water that harbors cercariae released by infected snails. Although the route of infection is clear, clinical presentation of the established infection in the nonimmune tourist typically differs from that in the local population of areas of endemicity. For the health care practitioner, the traveler's syndrome presents distinctive management problems: water-transmitted bacterial and viral infections may coexist, and identification of the stage of disease at presentation, along with identification of the causative species, will maximize treatment options. Travel medicine clinics serve as epidemiological antennae, helping to identify the dynamics of species transmission in geographically distinct areas. Education of persons traveling to areas of endemicity and the development of mechanical protection against exposure are needed.

  18. [Viral hepatitis in travellers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Cândida

    2007-01-01

    Considering the geographical asymmetric distribution of viral hepatitis A, B and E, having a much higher prevalence in the less developed world, travellers from developed countries are exposed to a considerable and often underestimated risk of hepatitis infection. In fact a significant percentage of viral hepatitis occurring in developed countries is travel related. This results from globalization and increased mobility from tourism, international work, humanitarian and religious missions or other travel related activities. Several studies published in Europe and North America shown that more than 50% of reported cases of hepatitis A are travel related. On the other hand frequent outbreaks of hepatitis A and E in specific geographic areas raise the risk of infection in these restricted zones and that should be clearly identified. Selected aspects related with the distribution of hepatitis A, B and E are reviewed, particularly the situation in Portugal according to the published studies, as well as relevant clinical manifestations and differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Basic prevention rules considering enteric transmitted hepatitis (hepatitis A and hepatitis E) and parenteral transmitted (hepatitis B) are reviewed as well as hepatitis A and B immunoprophylaxis. Common clinical situations and daily practice "pre travel" advice issues are discussed according to WHO/CDC recommendations and the Portuguese National Vaccination Program. Implications from near future availability of a hepatitis E vaccine, a currently in phase 2 trial, are highlighted. Potential indications for travellers to endemic countries like India, Nepal and some regions of China, where up to 30% of sporadic cases of acute viral hepatitis are caused by hepatitis E virus, are considered. Continued epidemiological surveillance for viral hepatitis is essential to recognize and control possible outbreaks, but also to identify new viral hepatitis agents that may emerge as important global health

  19. The Electronic Health Record Objective Structured Clinical Examination: Assessing Student Competency in Patient Interactions While Using the Electronic Health Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagioli, Frances E; Elliot, Diane L; Palmer, Ryan T; Graichen, Carla C; Rdesinski, Rebecca E; Ashok Kumar, Kaparaboyna; Galper, Ari B; Tysinger, James W

    2017-01-01

    Because many medical students do not have access to electronic health records (EHRs) in the clinical environment, simulated EHR training is necessary. Explicitly training medical students to use EHRs appropriately during patient encounters equips them to engage patients while also attending to the accuracy of the record and contributing to a culture of information safety. Faculty developed and successfully implemented an EHR objective structured clinical examination (EHR-OSCE) for clerkship students at two institutions. The EHR-OSCE objectives include assessing EHR-related communication and data management skills. The authors collected performance data for students (n = 71) at the first institution during academic years 2011-2013 and for students (n = 211) at the second institution during academic year 2013-2014. EHR-OSCE assessment checklist scores showed that students performed well in EHR-related communication tasks, such as maintaining eye contact and stopping all computer work when the patient expresses worry. Findings indicated student EHR skill deficiencies in the areas of EHR data management including medical history review, medication reconciliation, and allergy reconciliation. Most students' EHR skills failed to improve as the year progressed, suggesting that they did not gain the EHR training and experience they need in clinics and hospitals. Cross-institutional data comparisons will help determine whether differences in curricula affect students' EHR skills. National and institutional policies and faculty development are needed to ensure that students receive adequate EHR education, including hands-on experience in the clinic as well as simulated EHR practice.

  20. Carlson Wagonlit Travel

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    We would like to inform you that our agency will be closed from 21st December 2008 at 16:30 until 5th January 2009 at 8:30. For all URGENT MATTERS you can contact our CARLSON WAGONLIT TRAVEL at Rue du Nant in Geneva (Team 3), phone: 058 322 26 20. The agency will be open on 22nd, 23rd, 29th and 30th December. We wish you a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year! CARLSON WAGONLIT TRAVEL CERN Agency

  1. Intergalactic Travel Bureau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Olivia; Rosin, Mark; Guerilla Science Team

    2014-03-01

    The Intergalactic Travel Bureau is an interactive theater outreach experience that engages the public in the incredible possibilities of space tourism. The Bureau is staffed by professional actors, who play the role of space travel agents, and professional astrophysicists, who play the role of resident scientists. Members of the public of all ages were invited to visit with bureau staff to plan the vacation of their dreams-to space. We describe the project's successful nine day run in New York in August 2013. Funded by the American Physical Society Public Outreach and Informing the Public Grants.

  2. Have eggs. Will travel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroløkke, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Feminist scholars have critically questioned the practices and ethics of reproductive mobility. While the reproductive mobility of fertility patients has been foregrounded, little is known of egg donor mobility including the experiences of travelling internationally to donate eggs. Based on written...... stories and photographic material provided by forty-two egg donors, this article uses feminist cluster analysis and the concept of eggpreneurship to illustrate how global egg donors negotiate reproductive agency and choice when they travel internationally to donate their eggs. In their stories, global egg...

  3. Methodology and consistency of slant and vertical assessments for ionospheric electron content models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Pajares, Manuel; Roma-Dollase, David; Krankowski, Andrzej; García-Rigo, Alberto; Orús-Pérez, Raül

    2017-12-01

    A summary of the main concepts on global ionospheric map(s) [hereinafter GIM(s)] of vertical total electron content (VTEC), with special emphasis on their assessment, is presented in this paper. It is based on the experience accumulated during almost two decades of collaborative work in the context of the international global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) service (IGS) ionosphere working group. A representative comparison of the two main assessments of ionospheric electron content models (VTEC-altimeter and difference of Slant TEC, based on independent global positioning system data GPS, dSTEC-GPS) is performed. It is based on 26 GPS receivers worldwide distributed and mostly placed on islands, from the last quarter of 2010 to the end of 2016. The consistency between dSTEC-GPS and VTEC-altimeter assessments for one of the most accurate IGS GIMs (the tomographic-kriging GIM `UQRG' computed by UPC) is shown. Typical error RMS values of 2 TECU for VTEC-altimeter and 0.5 TECU for dSTEC-GPS assessments are found. And, as expected by following a simple random model, there is a significant correlation between both RMS and specially relative errors, mainly evident when large enough number of observations per pass is considered. The authors expect that this manuscript will be useful for new analysis contributor centres and in general for the scientific and technical community interested in simple and truly external ways of validating electron content models of the ionosphere.

  4. Feasibility and acceptance of electronic quality of life assessment in general practice: an implementation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochen Michael M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients' health related quality of life (HRQoL has rarely been systematically monitored in general practice. Electronic tools and practice training might facilitate the routine application of HRQoL questionnaires. Thorough piloting of innovative procedures is strongly recommended before the conduction of large-scale studies. Therefore, we aimed to assess i the feasibility and acceptance of HRQoL assessment using tablet computers in general practice, ii the perceived practical utility of HRQoL results and iii to identify possible barriers hindering wider application of this approach. Methods Two HRQoL questionnaires (St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire SGRQ and EORTC QLQ-C30 were electronically presented on portable tablet computers. Wireless network (WLAN integration into practice computer systems of 14 German general practices with varying infrastructure allowed automatic data exchange and the generation of a printout or a PDF file. General practitioners (GPs and practice assistants were trained in a 1-hour course, after which they could invite patients with chronic diseases to fill in the electronic questionnaire during their waiting time. We surveyed patients, practice assistants and GPs regarding their acceptance of this tool in semi-structured telephone interviews. The number of assessments, HRQoL results and interview responses were analysed using quantitative and qualitative methods. Results Over the course of 1 year, 523 patients filled in the electronic questionnaires (1–5 times; 664 total assessments. On average, results showed specific HRQoL impairments, e.g. with respect to fatigue, pain and sleep disturbances. The number of electronic assessments varied substantially between practices. A total of 280 patients, 27 practice assistants and 17 GPs participated in the telephone interviews. Almost all GPs (16/17 = 94%; 95% CI = 73–99%, most practice assistants (19/27 = 70%; 95% CI = 50–86% and the majority of

  5. Traveling wave tube and method of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancil, Bernard K. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A traveling wave tube includes a glass or other insulating envelope having a plurality of substantially parallel glass rods supported therewithin which in turn support an electron gun, a collector and an intermediate slow wave structure. The slow wave structure itself provides electrostatic focussing of a central electron beam thereby eliminating the need for focussing magnetics and materially decreasing the cost of construction as well as enabling miniaturization. The slow wave structure advantageously includes cavities along the electron beam through which the r.f. energy is propagated, or a double, interleaved ring loop structure supported by dielectric fins within a ground plane cylinder disposed coaxially within the glass envelope.

  6. Pre-travel preparation practices among business travellers to tropical and subtropical destinations: results from the Athens International Airport Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavli, Androula; Silvestros, Chrysovalantis; Patrinos, Stavros; Lymperi, Ioanna; Maltezou, Helena C

    2014-01-01

    The number of business travellers from Greece to tropical and subtropical areas has recently increased. The study aimed to assess travel health preparation practices of business travellers departing to Africa, the Middle East and Asia. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted at Athens International Airport, from 1st of November 2011 to 30th of April 2013. A total of 684 business travellers participated in the study; the majority were men (86.1%), of Greek nationality (95.3%), with tertiary education (90.8%) and employed (98%). Their mean age was 40 years; 62% and 26% of them were 35-49 and 19-34 years of age respectively. 84.8% were travelling alone. Most frequent destinations were the Middle East (46.8%) and sub-Saharan Africa (16%). For 23.5% of the travellers it was their first trip to a tropical or subtropical country. Only 58.8% pursued pre-travel health consultation; vaccination and malaria chemoprophylaxis were administered to 24.7% and 25.7% of the travellers, respectively. Hepatitis A and typhoid vaccination rates were lower than expected (70% and 35%, respectively). Nearly half of the travellers who visited malaria endemic areas did not receive any chemoprophylaxis. Having elementary education level, travelling to the Middle East or North Africa, travelling for less than 1 month duration, and staying in a house or a hotel were associated with a higher probability of not pursuing health consultation. Significant gaps were found in pre-travel health practices of business travellers departing to Africa, the Middle East and Asia. Strategies should be developed in order to improve awareness of business travellers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Flu and Holiday Travel

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-12-13

    This podcast explains the ways people can stay healthy and avoid the flu when traveling this winter.  Created: 12/13/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/13/2010.

  8. Travel time reliability modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This report includes three papers as follows: : 1. Guo F., Rakha H., and Park S. (2010), "A Multi-state Travel Time Reliability Model," : Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, n 2188, : pp. 46-54. : 2. Park S.,...

  9. [Pre-travel advice and patient education of Hungarian travellers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengyel, Ingrid; Felkai, Péter

    2018-03-01

    According to international surveys, over half of the travellers face some kind of health issue when travelling. The overwhelming majority of travel-related illnesses can be prevented with pre-travel medical consultations, but the syllabus and content of the consultation have to match the travel habits and culture of the given society. This publication explores the specificities and travel habits of Hungarian travellers. One hundred participants of a travel exhibition completed a survey about their international travel. As the survey was not representative, the data could only be processed through simple statistical methods. However, since the exhibition was presumably attended by those wishing to travel, the conclusions drawn from the results are worth publishing, since no similar survey in Hungary has been published before. Based on the suitable classification of age groups in travel medicine, 11% of the participants were adolescents / young adults (aged 15-24), 81% adults (25-59) and 8% elderly (60-74). Twenty-eight percent of the participants travel multiple times a year, 40% yearly and 32% of them less frequently; 16% of the adults, 8% of the adolescents and 4% of the elderly age group travel multiple times a year. The travel destinations of Hungarian travellers have remained practically unchanged since a study was conducted 13 years ago: the vast majority (95%) travelled within Europe, 2% to the United States, and 11% of them elsewhere. Since Hungarians do not travel to endemic areas, only 5% consulted their general practitioners (GPs) prior to travelling, and 29% did when they had to be vaccinated. Forty-two percent of those wishing to travel never consult their GPs, even though 29% of them are aware of some chronic illness. Instead, 51% gather their health information from the internet and only 6% from their doctors. By the contradiction between the poor health status of the majority of Hungarian travellers and the negligence of seeking pre-travel advice

  10. Do British travel agents provide adequate health advice for travellers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, D A; Burke, J; Bouskill, E; Conn, G; Edwards, P; Gillespie, D

    2000-01-01

    Travel-related illness is a burden for primary care, with more than two million travellers consulting a general practitioner each year. The annual cost of travel-related illness in the United Kingdom is 11 million Pounds. Travel agents are in a unique position to influence this burden as the most common and most serious problems are preventable with simple advice and/or immunisation. This study, using covert researchers, suggests this potential is not being fully utilised. PMID:10954940

  11. The Tourist Itinerary Travel Loop: historical and contemporary travel characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Lundgren, Jan O.

    2012-01-01

    In today’s tourist travel, the travel loop represents a very popular itinerary design, although the circumstances under which it is applied, as well as its geographic scale, often differ from the grandiose loop designs of centuries past. During the past couple of decades, a popular kind of new travel has emerged, the cruise-ship travel phenomenon, which often is arranged as quite an extensive itinerary loop. . However, the cruises can also be transoceanic, even global, with the tourist flying...

  12. Assessing Electronic Cigarette-Related Tweets for Sentiment and Content Using Supervised Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Cole-Lewis, Heather; Varghese, Arun; Sanders, Amy; Schwarz, Mary; Pugatch, Jillian; Augustson, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) continue to be a growing topic among social media users, especially on Twitter. The ability to analyze conversations about e-cigarettes in real-time can provide important insight into trends in the public?s knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs surrounding e-cigarettes, and subsequently guide public health interventions. Objective Our aim was to establish a supervised machine learning algorithm to build predictive classification models that assess T...

  13. Assessment of electronic component failure rates on the basis of experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitsch, R.

    1991-01-01

    Assessment and prediction of failure rates of electronic systems are made using experimental data derived from laboratory-scale tests or from the practice, as for instance from component failure rate statistics or component repair statistics. Some problems and uncertainties encountered in an evaluation of such field data are discussed in the paper. In order to establish a sound basis for comparative assessment of data from various sources, the items of comparison and the procedure in case of doubt have to be defined. The paper explains two standard methods proposed for practical failure rate definition. (orig.) [de

  14. Validation of a multimodal travel simulator with travel information provision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chorus, C.G.; Molin, E.J.E.; Arentze, T.A.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Wee, van G.P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a computer based travel simulator for collecting data concerning the use of next-generation ATIS and their effects on traveler decision making in a multimodal travel environment. The tool distinguishes itself by presenting a completely abstract multimodal transport network, where

  15. Valuation of Travel Time and TravelIer Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, Piet

    2003-01-01

    The value of travel time plays an important role in cost benefit analysis of infrastructureprojects. However, the issue of uncertainty on travel times and the implications this has forestimations of travel time values has received much less attention in the literature. In thispaper we compare

  16. Traveler information services in rural tourism areas : appendix B, qualitative interviews and focus groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-30

    This report documents results from surveys which were conducted for qualitatively assessing the use of traveler information services in rural areas. The focus of the surveys was to identify those factors which influence travel planning and thus impro...

  17. Comparison of methods for measuring travel time at Florida freeways and arterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Travel time is an important performance measure used to assess the traffic operational quality of various types of highway : facilities. Previous research funded by the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) on travel time reliability developed,...

  18. Writing Travel in the Anthropocene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graulund, Rune

    2016-01-01

    the Anthropocene - which is to say an age in which nowhere, not the furthest reachest of the stratosphere nor the lowest point in the marine abyss, are untouched by the activities and detritus of humankind. The essay will give a short overview of the manner in which the notion of 'travel' has been contested......Travel writing critics have proclaimed the end of travel since at least the beginning of the 20th Century. Yet the global age of the 21st century presents us with a range a problems that challenge the notion of travel in manners that neither travellers, travel writers, nor travel writing critics...... could have imagined just a century ago. Globalisation and increased mobility, whether it is that of the privileged few who can travel on holiday on jet airplanes, or that of the immigrant labourer seeking employment by crossing borders on foot, have meant millions (if not indeed billions) are constantly...

  19. Knowledge Representation in Travelling Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe; Locmele, Gunta

    2014-01-01

    Today, information travels fast. Texts travel, too. In a corporate context, the question is how to manage which knowledge elements should travel to a new language area or market and in which form? The decision to let knowledge elements travel or not travel highly depends on the limitation...... and the purpose of the text in a new context as well as on predefined parameters for text travel. For texts used in marketing and in technology, the question is whether culture-bound knowledge representation should be domesticated or kept as foreign elements, or should be mirrored or moulded—or should not travel...... at all! When should semantic and pragmatic elements in a text be replaced and by which other elements? The empirical basis of our work is marketing and technical texts in English, which travel into the Latvian and Danish markets, respectively....

  20. Travel opinion leaders and seekers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoo, Kyung-Hyan; Gretzel, Ulrike; Zach, Florian

    2011-01-01

    While opinion leadership has been recognized as important in tourism, there has been very little empirical research investigating the phenomenon. Given new developments in social media technologies, it is especially important to understand whether travel opinion leadership and seeking are drivers...... of specific social media perceptions and behaviours. Based on an online survey of US online travellers, this paper seeks to identify travel opinion leaders and seekers and their characteristics. Further, the research conducted investigated linkages between travel opinion leadership/seeking and travel social...... media use. The findings suggest that travel opinion leadership and seeking are distinct but connected. Both opinion leaders and seekers are technology savvy, young, educated, involved in travel planning and engaged in social media use for travel. What distinguishes opinion leaders is their greater...

  1. International business travel: impact on families and travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espino, C M; Sundstrom, S M; Frick, H L; Jacobs, M; Peters, M

    2002-05-01

    Spouses and staff of the World Bank Group (WBG) were questioned about the impact of international business travel on families and travellers. Dependent variables were self reported stress, concern about the health of the traveller, and negative impact on the family. We hypothesised that several travel factors (independent variables) would be associated with these impacts. These travel factors had to do with the frequency, duration, and predictability of travel and its interference with family activities. Survey forms were developed and distributed to all spouses of travelling staff as well as a small sample of operational staff. Kendall's tau b correlation coefficients of response frequencies were computed with the data from scaled items. Written responses to open ended questions were categorised. Response rates for spouses and staff were 24% and 36%, respectively. Half the spouse sample (n=533) and almost 75% of the staff sample (n=102) reported high or very high stress due to business travel. Self reported spouse stress was associated with six out of eight travel factors. Female spouses, those with children, and younger spouses reported greater stress. Self reported staff stress was significantly associated with four out of nine travel factors. Further insight into how business travel affects families and staff (including children's behavioural changes) and how families cope was gained through responses to written questions. The findings support the notion that lengthy and frequent travel and frequent changes in travel dates which affect family plans, all characteristic of WBG missions, negatively affects many spouses and children (particularly young children) and that the strain on families contributes significantly to the stress staff feel about their travel. Policies or management practices that take into consideration family activities and give staff greater leeway in controlling and refusing travel may help relieve stress.

  2. Integrating Hazardous Materials Characterization and Assessment Tools to Guide Pollution Prevention in Electronic Products and Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Carl

    Due to technology proliferation, the environmental burden attributed to the production, use, and disposal of hazardous materials in electronics have become a worldwide concern. The major theme of this dissertation is to develop and apply hazardous materials assessment tools to systematically guide pollution prevention opportunities in the context of electronic product design, manufacturing and end-of-life waste management. To this extent, a comprehensive review is first provided on describing hazard traits and current assessment methods to evaluate hazardous materials. As a case study at the manufacturing level, life cycle impact assessment (LCIA)-based and risk-based screening methods are used to quantify chemical and geographic environmental impacts in the U.S. printed wiring board (PWB) industry. Results from this industrial assessment clarify priority waste streams and States to most effectively mitigate impact. With further knowledge of PWB manufacturing processes, select alternative chemical processes (e.g., spent copper etchant recovery) and material options (e.g., lead-free etch resist) are discussed. In addition, an investigation on technology transition effects for computers and televisions in the U.S. market is performed by linking dynamic materials flow and environmental assessment models. The analysis forecasts quantities of waste units generated and maps shifts in environmental impact potentials associated with metal composition changes due to product substitutions. This insight is important to understand the timing and waste quantities expected and the emerging toxic elements needed to be addressed as a consequence of technology transition. At the product level, electronic utility meter devices are evaluated to eliminate hazardous materials within product components. Development and application of a component Toxic Potential Indicator (TPI) assessment methodology highlights priority components requiring material alternatives. Alternative

  3. Assessing strain mapping by electron backscatter diffraction and confocal Raman microscopy using wedge-indented Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, Lawrence H.; Vaudin, Mark D.; Stranick, Stephan J.; Stan, Gheorghe; Gerbig, Yvonne B.; Osborn, William; Cook, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    The accuracy of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) for small-scale strain mapping are assessed using the multi-axial strain field surrounding a wedge indentation in Si as a test vehicle. The strain field is modeled using finite element analysis (FEA) that is adapted to the near-indentation surface profile measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The assessment consists of (1) direct experimental comparisons of strain and deformation and (2) comparisons in which the modeled strain field is used as an intermediate step. Direct experimental methods (1) consist of comparisons of surface elevation and gradient measured by AFM and EBSD and of Raman shifts measured and predicted by CRM and EBSD, respectively. Comparisons that utilize the combined FEA–AFM model (2) consist of predictions of distortion, strain, and rotation for comparison with EBSD measurements and predictions of Raman shift for comparison with CRM measurements. For both EBSD and CRM, convolution of measurements in depth-varying strain fields is considered. The interconnected comparisons suggest that EBSD was able to provide an accurate assessment of the wedge indentation deformation field to within the precision of the measurements, approximately 2×10"−"4 in strain. CRM was similarly precise, but was limited in accuracy to several times this value. - Highlights: • We map strain by electron backscatter diffraction and confocal Raman microscopy. • The test vehicle is the multi-axial strain field of wedge-indented silicon. • Strain accuracy is assessed by direct experimental intercomparison. • Accuracy is also assessed by atomic force microscopy and finite element analyses. • Electron diffraction measurements are accurate; Raman measurements need refinement.

  4. Assessing strain mapping by electron backscatter diffraction and confocal Raman microscopy using wedge-indented Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, Lawrence H.; Vaudin, Mark D.; Stranick, Stephan J.; Stan, Gheorghe; Gerbig, Yvonne B.; Osborn, William; Cook, Robert F., E-mail: robert.cook@nist.gov

    2016-04-15

    The accuracy of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) for small-scale strain mapping are assessed using the multi-axial strain field surrounding a wedge indentation in Si as a test vehicle. The strain field is modeled using finite element analysis (FEA) that is adapted to the near-indentation surface profile measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The assessment consists of (1) direct experimental comparisons of strain and deformation and (2) comparisons in which the modeled strain field is used as an intermediate step. Direct experimental methods (1) consist of comparisons of surface elevation and gradient measured by AFM and EBSD and of Raman shifts measured and predicted by CRM and EBSD, respectively. Comparisons that utilize the combined FEA–AFM model (2) consist of predictions of distortion, strain, and rotation for comparison with EBSD measurements and predictions of Raman shift for comparison with CRM measurements. For both EBSD and CRM, convolution of measurements in depth-varying strain fields is considered. The interconnected comparisons suggest that EBSD was able to provide an accurate assessment of the wedge indentation deformation field to within the precision of the measurements, approximately 2×10{sup −4} in strain. CRM was similarly precise, but was limited in accuracy to several times this value. - Highlights: • We map strain by electron backscatter diffraction and confocal Raman microscopy. • The test vehicle is the multi-axial strain field of wedge-indented silicon. • Strain accuracy is assessed by direct experimental intercomparison. • Accuracy is also assessed by atomic force microscopy and finite element analyses. • Electron diffraction measurements are accurate; Raman measurements need refinement.

  5. GPS in Travel and Activity Surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Hovgesen, Henrik Harder

    2004-01-01

    The use of GPS-positioning as a monitoring tool in travel and activity surveys opens up a range of possibilities. Using a personal GPS device, the locations and movements of respondents can be followed over a longer period of time. It will then be possible to analyse how the use of urban spaces...... are embedded in the wider context of activity patterns (work, school etc.). The general pattern of everyday itineraries, including route choice and time spent at different locations ?on the way? can also be analysed. If the personal GPS device is combined with an electronic questionnaire, for example...... area. The paper presents the possibilities in travel and activity surveys with GPS and electronic questionnaires. Demonstrative mapping of test data from passive GPS registration of Copenhagen respondents is presented. The different survey possibilities given a combination of GPS and PDA based...

  6. Assessing and ameliorating the influence of the electron beam on carbon nanotube oxidation in environmental transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Ai Leen; Sinclair, Robert

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we examine how the imaging electron beam can induce damage in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at varying oxygen gas pressures and electron dose rates using environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM). Our studies show that there is a threshold cumulative electron dose which brings about damage in CNTs in oxygen – through removal of their graphitic walls – which is dependent on O_2 pressure, with a 4–5 fold decrease in total electron dose per decade increase at a lower pressure range (10"−"6 to 10"−"5 mbar) and approximately 1.3 –fold decrease per decade increase at a higher pressure range (10"−"3 to 10"0 mbar). However, at a given pressure, damage in CNTs was found to occur even at the lowest dose rate utilized, suggesting the absence of a lower limit for the latter parameter. This study provides guidelines on the cumulative dose required to damage nanotubes in the 10"−"7 mbar to 10"0 mbar pressure regimes, and discusses the role of electron dose rate and total electron dose on beam-induced CNT degradation experiments. - Highlights: • The electron beam ionizes gas molecules in ETEM and affects experimental outcomes. • Beam-induced damage in CNTs occurs at varying O_2 pressures and electron dose rates. • There is a threshold cumulative dose to damage CNTs which depends on O_2 pressure. • At a given pressure, CNT damage occurs even at the electron dose rate utilized.

  7. CARLSON WAGONLIT TRAVEL

    CERN Multimedia

    CARLSON WAGONLIT TRAVEL

    2004-01-01

    CARLSON WAGONLIT TRAVEL would like to remind you of the entry formalities applicable to those travelling to the United States. Nationals of Switzerland and of the following countries : Andorra, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brunei, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Liechtenstein, Luxemburg, Monaco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, San Marino, Singapore, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom, entering the United States under the Visa Waiver Program (no visa requirement), must be in possession of an machine-readable passport that is valid for at least six months after the date of the return trip. Children, including infants, must have their own passport. An entry in the parents' passport is not sufficient. For entry into the United States, an e-ticket (fax or e-mail confirmation or passenger receipt) or a return ticket to the departure point or a ticket to a subsequent onward destination (valid for 90 days) must be presented together with the green ...

  8. Travelers In The Night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Albert D.

    2014-11-01

    Travelers In The Night is an engaging and informative series of two minute radio programs about asteroids, comets, spacecraft, and other objects in space. The pieces are evergreen in that they are current but not dated. They are published on the Public Radio Exchange and carried by a number of radio stations. For teachers, students, and kids of all ages, the script for each piece and the start of a path for further inquiry can be found on the website travelersinthenight.org . The Travelers InThe Night Pieces are written and produced by an observing member of the Catalina Sky Survey Team at the University of Arizona. DPS members are encouraged to submit program ideas which can be developed to feature their research efforts.

  9. Leisure and Travel Choice

    OpenAIRE

    María José Caride; Eduardo L. Giménez

    2003-01-01

    It is commonly recognized the relevance of transportation costs for studying recre- ational demand. However, these costs are related with travel and modal choice deci- sions. This paper o ers a theoretical explanation of the new generation of the demand for recreational goods at destiny after the introduction of a new transportation mode that is not the cheapest nor the fastest among the available modes. The main feature of the model deals with the transportation mode-dependent preferences. T...

  10. Choice, changeover, and travel

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, William M.

    1982-01-01

    Since foraging in nature can be viewed as instrumental behavior, choice between sources of food, known as “patches,” can be viewed as choice between instrumental response alternatives. Whereas the travel required to change alternatives deters changeover in nature, the changeover delay (COD) usually deters changeover in the laboratory. In this experiment, pigeons were exposed to laboratory choice situations, concurrent variable-interval schedules, that were standard except for the introduction...

  11. Diversity does not travel!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rebecca; Meriläinen, Susan; Tienari, Janne

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter we offer insights into the social construction of diversity in Finnish organizations and society. In Finnish organizations, gender is highlighted while other markers of diversity are blotted out. 'Non-Finns' become subject to cultural assimilation. The US-based concept of Diversit...... Management becomes adopted and adapted in particular ways. Standardized concepts of diversity and its management do not travel, rather they become translated locally. In organizational practice, globalization is slow and laborious....

  12. Malaria and Tropical Travel

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-15

    Malaria is a serious mosquito-borne disease that can lead to death. This podcast discusses malaria risk when traveling to tropical areas, as well as how to protect yourself and your family from malaria infection.  Created: 5/15/2008 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 5/29/2008.

  13. A new calculational method to assess the therapeutic potential of Auger electron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humm, J.L.; Charlton, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses a new computer code to estimate the efficacy of Auger electron sources in cancer therapy. Auger electron emission accompanies the decay of many radionuclides already commonly used in nuclear medicine, for example; 99m Tc and 201 Tl. The range of these electrons is in general sub-cellular, therefore, the toxicity of the source depends on the site of decay relative to the genetic material of the cell. Electron track structure methods have been used which enable the study of energy deposition from Auger sources down to the Angstrom level. A figure for the minimum energy required per single strand break is obtained by fitting our energy deposition calculations for 125 I decays in a model of the DNA to experimental data on break lengths from 125 I labeled plasmid fragments. This method is used to investigate the efficiency of double strand break production by other Auger sources which have potential value for therapy. The high RBE of Auger sources depends critically on the distance between the source and target material. The application of Auger emitters for therapy may necessitate a carrier molecule that can append the source to the DNA. Many DNA localizing agents are known in the field of chemotherapy, some of which could be carrier molecules for Auger sources; the halogenated thymidine precursors are under scrutiny in this field. The activation of Auger cascades in situ by high energy, collimated X ray and neutron beams is also assessed

  14. Development and Implementation of an Electronic Clinical Formative Assessment: Dental Faculty and Student Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkup, Michele L; Adams, Brooke N; Meadows, Melinda L; Jackson, Richard

    2016-06-01

    A traditional summative grading structure, used at Indiana University School of Dentistry (IUSD) for more than 30 years, was identified by faculty as outdated for assessing students' clinical performance. In an effort to change the status quo, a feedback-driven assessment was implemented in 2012 to provide a constructive assessment tool acceptable to both faculty and students. Building on the successful non-graded clinical evaluation employed at Baylor College of Dentistry, IUSD implemented a streamlined electronic formative feedback model (FFM) to assess students' daily clinical performance. An important addition to this evaluation tool was the inclusion of routine student self-assessment opportunities. The aim of this study was to determine faculty and student response to the new assessment instrument. Following training sessions, anonymous satisfaction surveys were examined for the three user groups: clinical faculty (60% response rate), third-year (D3) students (72% response rate), and fourth-year (D4) students (57% response rate). In the results, 70% of the responding faculty members preferred the FFM over the summative model; however, 61.8% of the D4 respondents preferred the summative model, reporting insufficient assessment time and low faculty participation. The two groups of students had different responses to the self-assessment component: 70.2% of the D4 respondents appreciated clinical self-assessment compared to 46% of the D3 respondents. Overall, while some components of the FFM assessment were well received, a phased approach to implementation may have facilitated a transition more acceptable to both faculty and students. Improvements are being made in an attempt to increase overall satisfaction.

  15. Multisite Assessment of Nursing Continuing Education Learning Needs Using an Electronic Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, Susan; Jackson, Stephanie; Cook, Lesley; Reed, Joanne Williams; Blakeney, Keshia; Zimbro, Kathie; Parker, Cindy

    2016-02-01

    A continued education needs assessment and associated education plan are required for organizations on the journey for American Nurses Credentialing Center Magnet® designation. Leveraging technology to support the assessment and analysis of continuing education needs was a new venture for a 12-hospital regional health system. The purpose of this performance improvement project was to design and conduct an enhanced process to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of gathering data on nurses' preferences and increase nurse satisfaction with the learner assessment portion of the process. Educators trialed the use of a standardized approach via an electronic survey tool to replace the highly variable processes previously used. Educators were able to view graphical summary of responses by category and setting, which substantially decreased analysis and action planning time for education implementation plans at the system, site, or setting level. Based on these findings, specific continuing education action plans were drafted for each category and classification of nurses. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Incidence, risk factors and treatment of diarrhoea among Dutch travellers: reasons not to routinely prescribe antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belderok, Sanne-Meike; van den Hoek, Anneke; Kint, Joan A; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F; Sonder, Gerard Jb

    2011-10-29

    Travellers' diarrhoea (TD) is the most common infectious disease among travellers. In the Netherlands, stand-by or prophylactic antibiotics are not routinely prescribed to travellers. This study prospectively assessed the incidence rate, risk factors, and treatment of TD among immunocompetent travellers. Persons who attended the travel clinic of the Public Health Service Amsterdam in 2006-2007 before short-term travel to tropical and subtropical countries were invited to answer a questionnaire regarding sociodemographics and travel purpose; they were also asked to keep a daily structured travel diary, recording their itinerary, symptoms, and self-medication or consultation with a doctor. Diarrhoea episodes containing blood or mucous were considered severe. Of 1202 travellers, the median age was 38 years, and the median travel duration 3 weeks. Of all episodes, 96% were mild. The median duration of TD was 2 days and significantly shorter in subsequent episodes compared to first episodes (p sex, a Western country of birth, and tourism as the purpose of travel. The lowest risk was in travellers to South America. An independent risk factor for subsequent episodes was female sex. In total, 5% of travellers used antibiotics; of those, 92% had mild diarrhoea, and 53% received antibiotics over the counter. TD is common among travellers, but the overall course is mild, not requiring treatment. The incidence rates for first and second episodes are comparable. Female sex is a risk factor for the first episode, as well as subsequent ones. Prescription antibiotics are not needed in short-term healthy travellers.

  17. Time - A Traveler's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickover, Clifford A.

    1999-09-01

    "Bucky Fuller thought big," Wired magazine recently noted, "Arthur C. Clarke thinks big, but Cliff Pickover outdoes them both." In his newest book, Cliff Pickover outdoes even himself, probing a mystery that has baffled mystics, philosophers, and scientists throughout history--What is the nature of time?In Time: A Traveler's Guide , Pickover takes readers to the forefront of science as he illuminates the most mysterious phenomenon in the universe--time itself. Is time travel possible? Is time real? Does it flow in one direction only? Does it have a beginning and an end? What is eternity? Pickover's book offers a stimulating blend of Chopin, philosophy, Einstein, and modern physics, spiced with diverting side-trips to such topics as the history of clocks, the nature of free will, and the reason gold glitters. Numerous diagrams ensure readers will have no trouble following along.By the time we finish this book, we understand a wide variety of scientific concepts pertaining to time. And most important, we will understand that time travel is, indeed, possible.

  18. When CERN travels abroad

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    For the first time the new CERN travelling exhibition has gone abroad. The venue is Torino, in Italy, where it is being shown at the Museum of Natural Science in the framework of the activities of the EuroScience Open Forum (ESOF 2010). Soon after the event, the exhibition will fly to Copenhagen. The CERN traveling exhibition was inaugurated in 2009. The new ‘Accelerating Science’ exhibition was inaugurated in 2009 as part of the celebrations to mark the 450th anniversary of the University of Geneva. “CERN’s travelling exhibition is an important tool for outreach in our Member states as it carries the main messages that constitute the backbone of the Laboratory’s education and communication policy”, explains Rolf Landua, head of the Education Group, which manages the exhibition. “The 2010 European Science Open Forum in Torino will gather a lot of experts and visitors from the general public who will be able to experience in an ...

  19. Carlson Wagonlit Travel

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Carlson Wagonlit Travel wishes to remind you of the following conditions concerning travel to the USA. Passport conditions Since 26 October 2004, nationals of the countries covered by the US Visa Waiver Programme have been required to present a valid machine-readable passport when entering the United States. Failing this, they require a valid US non-immigrant visa in addition to their passport. Passports issued after 25 October 2005 must also bear a digital photograph. Passports issued after 25 October 2006 must contain biometric data to allow visa-free entry to the US. Advanced Passenger Information System (APIS) form Since 4 October 2005, all non-US citizens travelling to the USA have been required to complete the APIS form before departure and present it when they check in. This new procedure will certainly increase the time it takes to check in. We therefore advise passengers to present themselves at the respective check-in desk in good time. The APIS form can be downloaded from our homepage: w...

  20. [Travelers, mad, wandering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaschetto, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the notion of "wandering" through the use of some phenomena enrolled at the dawn of modernity such as the Rousseau dromomanie's philosopher and writer, the origin of the first mad traveler (Albert Dadas), epidemics of mad travelers Europe and romantic tourism (with renewed acquires significance in the "beat generation" of the twentieth century). These historical facts are "mounting" as play contemporary manifestations such as loss, disorientation, to lose one's way, and wandering without reducing them only to clinical psychosis. Readings of classic psychiatrists such as Régis, Foville, Sérieux and Capgras, Tissié, go hand in hand with the current readings of the philosopher Ian Hacking and critics of pop culture as S. Reynolds and D. Diederichsen, illustrating how the travel's phenomenon can make different subjective configurations depending on historical times. In conclusion it is noted that not only psychosis exposes the wandering soul of suffering but there are also subject positions (as will be exemplified in a clinical case) and go no further nesting wandering into human existence.

  1. Update on traveler's diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strum, W B

    1988-07-01

    Traveler's diarrhea affects a substantial number of travelers to high-risk areas of the world. The key to controlling this troublesome disease is prevention. The most important preventive measures depend on educating patients to consume only safe foods and pure water. Physicians cannot overemphasize the importance of avoiding high-risk foods and of boiling water if a safe water supply is not available. Prophylactic medications are a secondary consideration and should be prescribed with discretion. In most cases, diarrhea is mild and self-limited, requiring only fluid and electrolyte replacement and perhaps an antidiarrheal agent. In moderate to severe cases, the addition of an antimicrobial agent may be of benefit. Until an efficacious polyvalent vaccine is developed, caution and common sense, together with discretionary dietary and hygienic practices, are the best defenses against traveler's diarrhea. The ultimate solution is greatly improved sanitation and personal hygiene, especially in high-risk countries. However, only dreamers will consider waiting for this transformation to occur.

  2. Transferring 2001 National Household Travel Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Patricia S [ORNL; Reuscher, Tim [ORNL; Schmoyer, Richard L [ORNL; Chin, Shih-Miao [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    Policy makers rely on transportation statistics, including data on personal travel behavior, to formulate strategic transportation policies, and to improve the safety and efficiency of the U.S. transportation system. Data on personal travel trends are needed to examine the reliability, efficiency, capacity, and flexibility of the Nation's transportation system to meet current demands and to accommodate future demand. These data are also needed to assess the feasibility and efficiency of alternative congestion-mitigating technologies (e.g., high-speed rail, magnetically levitated trains, and intelligent vehicle and highway systems); to evaluate the merits of alternative transportation investment programs; and to assess the energy-use and air-quality impacts of various policies. To address these data needs, the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) initiated an effort in 1969 to collect detailed data on personal travel. The 1969 survey was the first Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS). The survey was conducted again in 1977, 1983, 1990, 1995, and 2001. Data on daily travel were collected in 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990 and 1995. In 2001, the survey was renamed the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) and it collected both daily and long-distance trips. The 2001 survey was sponsored by three USDOT agencies: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). The primary objective of the survey was to collect trip-based data on the nature and characteristics of personal travel so that the relationships between the characteristics of personal travel and the demographics of the traveler can be established. Commercial and institutional travel were not part of the survey. Due to the survey's design, data in the NHTS survey series were not recommended for estimating travel statistics for categories smaller than the combination of Census division (e.g., New

  3. Center for Molecular Electronics, University of Missouri, St. Louis. Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to authorize the University of Missouri, St. Louis to proceed with the detailed design and construction of the proposed Center for Molecular Electronics. The proposed Center would consist of laboratories and offices housed in a three-story building on the University campus. The proposed modular laboratories would be adaptable for research activities principally related to physics, chemistry, and electrical engineering. Proposed research would include the development and application of thin-film materials, semi-conductors, electronic sensors and devices, and high-performance polymers. Specific research for the proposed Center has not yet been formulated, therefore, specific procedures for any particular process or study cannot be described at this time. The proposed construction site is an uncontaminated panel of land located on the University campus. This report contains information about the environmental assessment that was performed in accordance with this project.

  4. Assessing the quantum physics impacts on future x-ray free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Mark J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Anisimov, Petr Mikhaylovich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-06

    A new quantum mechanical theory of x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) has been successfully developed that has placed LANL at the forefront of the understanding of quantum effects in XFELs. Our quantum theory describes the interaction of relativistic electrons with x-ray radiation in the periodic magnetic field of an undulator using the same mathematical formalism as classical XFEL theory. This places classical and quantum treatments on the same footing and allows for a continuous transition from one regime to the other eliminating the disparate analytical approaches previously used. Moreover, Dr. Anisimov, the architect of this new theory, is now considered a resource in the international FEL community for assessing quantum effects in XFELs.

  5. An Electronic Competency-Based Evaluation Tool for Assessing Humanitarian Competencies in a Simulated Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Andrea B; Hulme, Jennifer M; Nugus, Peter; Cranmer, Hilarie H; Coutu, Melanie; Johnson, Kirsten

    2017-06-01

    The evaluation tool was first derived from the formerly Consortium of British Humanitarian Agencies' (CBHA; United Kingdom), now "Start Network's," Core Humanitarian Competency Framework and formatted in an electronic data capture tool that allowed for offline evaluation. During a 3-day humanitarian simulation event, participants in teams of eight to 10 were evaluated individually at multiple injects by trained evaluators. Participants were assessed on five competencies and a global rating scale. Participants evaluated both themselves and their team members using the same tool at the end of the simulation exercise (SimEx). All participants (63) were evaluated. A total of 1,008 individual evaluations were completed. There were 90 (9.0%) missing evaluations. All 63 participants also evaluated themselves and each of their teammates using the same tool. Self-evaluation scores were significantly lower than peer-evaluations, which were significantly lower than evaluators' assessments. Participants with a medical degree, and those with humanitarian work experience of one month or more, scored significantly higher on all competencies assessed by evaluators compared to other participants. Participants with prior humanitarian experience scored higher on competencies regarding operating safely and working effectively as a team member. This study presents a novel electronic evaluation tool to assess individual performance in five of six globally recognized humanitarian competency domains in a 3-day humanitarian SimEx. The evaluation tool provides a standardized approach to the assessment of humanitarian competencies that cannot be evaluated through knowledge-based testing in a classroom setting. When combined with testing knowledge-based competencies, this presents an approach to a comprehensive competency-based assessment that provides an objective measurement of competency with respect to the competencies listed in the Framework. There is an opportunity to advance the use of

  6. Assessing and ameliorating the influence of the electron beam on carbon nanotube oxidation in environmental transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Ai Leen, E-mail: alkoh@stanford.edu [Stanford Nano Shared Facilities, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Sinclair, Robert [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2017-05-15

    In this work, we examine how the imaging electron beam can induce damage in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at varying oxygen gas pressures and electron dose rates using environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM). Our studies show that there is a threshold cumulative electron dose which brings about damage in CNTs in oxygen – through removal of their graphitic walls – which is dependent on O{sub 2} pressure, with a 4–5 fold decrease in total electron dose per decade increase at a lower pressure range (10{sup −6} to 10{sup −5} mbar) and approximately 1.3 –fold decrease per decade increase at a higher pressure range (10{sup −3} to 10{sup 0} mbar). However, at a given pressure, damage in CNTs was found to occur even at the lowest dose rate utilized, suggesting the absence of a lower limit for the latter parameter. This study provides guidelines on the cumulative dose required to damage nanotubes in the 10{sup −7} mbar to 10{sup 0} mbar pressure regimes, and discusses the role of electron dose rate and total electron dose on beam-induced CNT degradation experiments. - Highlights: • The electron beam ionizes gas molecules in ETEM and affects experimental outcomes. • Beam-induced damage in CNTs occurs at varying O{sub 2} pressures and electron dose rates. • There is a threshold cumulative dose to damage CNTs which depends on O{sub 2} pressure. • At a given pressure, CNT damage occurs even at the electron dose rate utilized.

  7. Home range and travels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  8. Developing a stability assessment method for power electronics-based microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Peter M.

    Modern microgrids with microsources and energy storage are dependent on power electronics for control and regulation. Under certain circumstances power electronics can be destabilizing to the system due to an effect called negative incremental impedance. A careful review of the theory and literature on the subject is presented. This includes stability criteria for both AC and DC systems, as well as a discussion on the limitations posed by the analysis. A method to integrate stability assessment with higher-level microgrid architectural design is proposed. Crucial to this is impedance characterization of individual components, which was accomplished through simulation. DC and AC impedance measurement blocks were created in Matlab simulink to automate the process. A detailed switching-level model of a DC microgrid was implemented in simulink, including wind turbine microsource, battery storage, and three phase inverter. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) was included to maximize the efficiency of the turbine and was implemented through three rectifier alternatives and control schemes. The stability characteristics of each was compared in the final analysis. Impedance data was collected individually from the components and used to assess stability in the system as a whole. The results included the assessment of stability, margin, and unstable operating points to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  9. Defining asthma and assessing asthma outcomes using electronic health record data: a systematic scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Sallakh, Mohammad A; Vasileiou, Eleftheria; Rodgers, Sarah E; Lyons, Ronan A; Sheikh, Aziz; Davies, Gwyneth A

    2017-06-01

    There is currently no consensus on approaches to defining asthma or assessing asthma outcomes using electronic health record-derived data. We explored these approaches in the recent literature and examined the clarity of reporting.We systematically searched for asthma-related articles published between January 1, 2014 and December 31, 2015, extracted the algorithms used to identify asthma patients and assess severity, control and exacerbations, and examined how the validity of these outcomes was justified.From 113 eligible articles, we found significant heterogeneity in the algorithms used to define asthma (n=66 different algorithms), severity (n=18), control (n=9) and exacerbations (n=24). For the majority of algorithms (n=106), validity was not justified. In the remaining cases, approaches ranged from using algorithms validated in the same databases to using nonvalidated algorithms that were based on clinical judgement or clinical guidelines. The implementation of these algorithms was suboptimally described overall.Although electronic health record-derived data are now widely used to study asthma, the approaches being used are significantly varied and are often underdescribed, rendering it difficult to assess the validity of studies and compare their findings. Given the substantial growth in this body of literature, it is crucial that scientific consensus is reached on the underlying definitions and algorithms. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  10. Warfarin monitoring in nursing homes assessed by case histories. Do recommendations and electronic alerts affect judgements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teruel, Reyes Serrano; Thue, Geir; Fylkesnes, Svein Ivar; Sandberg, Sverre; Kristoffersen, Ann Helen

    2017-09-01

    Older adults treated with warfarin are prone to complications, and high-quality monitoring is essential. The aim of this case history based study was to assess the quality of warfarin monitoring in a routine situation, and in a situation with an antibiotic-warfarin interaction, before and after receiving an electronic alert. In April 2014, a national web-based survey with two case histories was distributed among Norwegian nursing home physicians and general practitioners working part-time in nursing homes. Case A represented a patient on stable warfarin treatment, but with a substantial INR increase within the therapeutic interval. Case B represented a more challenging patient with trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole (TMS) treatment due to pyelonephritis. In both cases, the physicians were asked to state the next warfarin dose and the INR recall interval. In case B, the physicians could change their suggestions after receiving an electronic alert on the TMS-warfarin interaction. Three hundred and ninety eight physicians in 292 nursing homes responded. Suggested INR recall intervals and warfarin doses varied substantially in both cases. In case A, 61% gave acceptable answers according to published recommendations, while only 9% did so for case B. Regarding the TMS-warfarin interaction in case history B, the electronic alert increased the percentage of respondents correctly suggesting a dose reduction from 29% to 53%. Having an INR instrument in the nursing home was associated with shortened INR recall times. Practical advice on handling of warfarin treatment and drug interactions is needed. Electronic alerts as presented in electronic medical records seem insufficient to change practice. Availability of INR instruments may be important regarding recall time.

  11. Travel advice for the immunocompromised traveler: prophylaxis, vaccination, and other preventive measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel RR

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rupa R Patel,1 Stephen Y Liang,1 Pooja Koolwal,2 Frederick Matthew Kuhlmann1 1Division of Infectious Diseases, 2Division of Medical Education, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA Abstract: Immunocompromised patients are traveling at increasing rates. Physicians caring for these complex patients must be knowledgeable in pretravel consultation and recognize when referral to an infectious disease specialist is warranted. This article outlines disease prevention associated with international travel for adults with human immunodeficiency virus, asplenia, solid organ and hematopoietic transplantation, and other immunosuppressed states. While rates of infection may not differ significantly between healthy and immunocompromised travelers, the latter are at greater risk for severe disease. A thorough assessment of these risks can ensure safe and healthy travel. The travel practitioners’ goal should be to provide comprehensive risk information and recommend appropriate vaccinations or prevention measures tailored to each patient’s condition. In some instances, live vaccines and prophylactic medications may be contraindicated. Keywords: immunocompromised, vaccines, travel, malaria, diarrhea

  12. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding travel health among Muscat International Airport travelers in Oman: Identifying the gaps and addressing the challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abri, Seif S; Abdel-Hady, Doaa M; Al-Abaidani, Idris S

    2016-06-01

    Although the majority of travel-associated communicable diseases can be prevented, the public health burden of these diseases remains significant. Relatively little is known about how travelers know and perceive the health risks associated with travel and how they utilize preventive measures before and while traveling abroad. This study was conducted to determine the level of the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of Muscat International Airport travelers about travel health in order to assess the knowledge gap and the need for travel health services in Oman. A cross-sectional study was conducted over a period of 1week using a self-administered questionnaire. The overall level of knowledge about vaccine-preventable diseases, food safety, and preventive measures against insect bites of the participants was inadequate. The practice concerning preventive travel health measures, such as the use of specific immunizations and antimalarial prophylaxis, was very limited, and influenced by some personal and travel-related factors. The inadequate level of travelers' knowledge and poor utilization of travel medicine services highlights the need for the provisions of specialized travel medicine services at the national level and to develop educational materials promoting the importance of pre-travel health advice. Copyright © 2016 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Data description and quality assessment of ionospheric electron density profiles for ARPA modeling project. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conkright, R.O.

    1977-03-01

    This report presents a description of the automated method used to produce electron density (N(h)) profiles from ionograms recorded on 35mm film and an assessment of the resulting data base. A large data base of about 30,000 profiles was required for an ionospheric modeling project. This motivated a search for an automated method of producing profiles. The automated method used is fully described, the resulting data are given a quality grade, and the noon and midnight profiles are presented. Selected portions of this data base are compared with profiles produced by the standard profiling method in use by the Environmental Data Service at Boulder, Colorado

  14. Reduction of travellers' diarrhoea by WC/rBS oral cholera vaccine in young, high-risk travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrell, Josep Ma Ramon; Aumatell, Cristina Masuet; Ramos, Sergi Morchon; Mestre, Laura Gavaldà; Salas, Carme Micheo

    2009-06-19

    A bidirectional cohort study investigates whether pre-travel vaccination with whole cell/recombinant B subunit inactivated, killed oral cholera vaccine reduces the incidence of diarrhoea in young adult travellers to high-risk areas. Risk of travellers' diarrhoea was assessed according to destination and reason for travel in high-risk travellers of a travel clinic in Barcelona, Spain. Those at high-risk between January and December 2005 were advised on water/food safety and hygiene. High-risk travellers between January and December 2006 were additionally vaccinated with WC/rBS oral cholera vaccine. Data regarding diarrhoea were gathered by structured telephone interview or e-mailed questionnaire following the travellers' return. The incidence of diarrhoea in the group vaccinated with WC/rBS oral cholera vaccine (n=321) was 17.4%, compared with 39.7% in the non-vaccinated group (n=337) (adjusted risk ratio 0.40). The first episode was significantly shorter in the vaccinated group (mean 2.3 days) than in the non-vaccinated group (mean 3.8 days) (pyoung, high-risk travellers. Vaccination with the WC/rBS oral cholera vaccine as well as food safety and hygiene advice could offer effective means of reducing the risk of diarrhoea while abroad.

  15. Fellow travellers: Working memory and mental time travel in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dere, Ekrem; Dere, Dorothea; de Souza Silva, Maria Angelica; Huston, Joseph P; Zlomuzica, Armin

    2017-03-19

    The impairment of mental time travel is a severe cognitive symptom in patients with brain lesions and a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. Whether animals are also able to mentally travel in time both forward and backward is still a matter of debate. In this regard, we have proposed a continuum of mental time travel abilities across different animal species, with humans being the species with the ability to perform most sophisticated forms of mental time travel. In this review and perspective article, we delineate a novel approach to understand the evolution, characteristics and function of human and animal mental time travel. Furthermore, we propose a novel approach to measure mental time travel in rodents in a comprehensive manner using a test battery composed of well-validated and easy applicable tests. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Health hazards of international travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossar, J H; Reid, D

    1989-01-01

    The growth of travel and the increasing numbers of those affected by travel-related illnesses, some of a serious nature, will cause this subject to demand the attention of the medical profession, the travel trade, travellers themselves and the health authorities of countries receiving tourists. Provision of appropriate advice for the traveller is a shared responsibility, best channelled mainly through travel agencies; it can moreover be shown to be cost-beneficial. Continued monitoring of illness in travellers and provision of information systems geared to this problem and its prevention are fully justified. They should be based on traditional channels of communication and currently-available modern technology, and be readily accessible to medical and related workers. Increased collaboration between medical workers, health educators and those involved in the travel trade would be a positive and useful contribution towards the reduction of illness and discomfort among travellers and the associated expense incurred by the various national health services concerned. There are clearly economic benefits from the development of international tourism, but these have to be balanced in countries accepting tourists by attention to the prevention of illnesses associated with travel.

  17. Electronic Self-report Assessment--Cancer (ESRA-C): Working towards an integrated survey system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karras, Bryant T; Wolpin, Seth; Lober, William B; Bush, Nigel; Fann, Jesse R; Berry, Donna L

    2006-01-01

    The Clinical Informatics Research Group and Biobehavioral Nursing and Health Systems at the University of Washington are working with interdisciplinary teams to improve patient care and tracking of patient-reported symptoms and outcomes by creating an extensible web-based survey and intervention platform. The findings and cumulative experience from these processes have led to incremental improvements and variations in each new implementation of the platform. This paper presents progress in the first year of a three-year NIH study entitled Electronic Self Report Assessment--Cancer (ESRA-C). The project's goals are to enhance and evaluate the web-based computerized patient self-reporting and assessment system at the Seattle Cancer Care Alliance. Preliminary work and lessons learned in the modification of the platform and enhancements to the system will be described.

  18. [Hand hygiene technique assessment using electronic equipment in 26 Hungarian healthcare institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehotsky, Ákos; Morvai, Júlia; Szilágyi, László; Bánsághi, Száva; Benkó, Alíz; Haidegger, Tamás

    2017-07-01

    Hand hygiene is probably the most effective tool of nosocomial infection prevention, however, proper feedback and control is needed to develop the individual hand hygiene practice. Assessing the efficiency of modern education tools, and digital demonstration and verification equipment during their wide-range deployment. 1269 healthcare workers took part in a training organized by our team. The training included the assessment of the participants' hand hygiene technique to identify the most often missed areas. The hand hygiene technique was examined by a digital device. 33% of the participants disinfected their hands incorrectly. The most often missed sites are the fingertips (33% on the left hand, 37% on the right hand) and the thumbs (42% on the left hand, 32% on the right hand). The feedback has a fundamental role in the development of the hand hygiene technique. With the usage of electronic devices feedback can be provided efficiently and simply. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(29): 1143-1148.

  19. Maximal thickness of the normal human pericardium assessed by electron-beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delille, J.P.; Hernigou, A.; Sene, V.; Chatellier, G.; Boudeville, J.C.; Challande, P.; Plainfosse, M.C.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the maximal value of normal pericardial thickness with an electron-beam computed tomography unit allowing fast scan times of 100 ms to reduce cardiac motion artifacts. Electron-beam computed tomography was performed in 260 patients with hypercholesterolemia and/or hypertension, as these pathologies have no effect on pericardial thickness. The pixel size was 0.5 mm. Measurements could be performed in front of the right ventricle, the right atrioventricular groove, the right atrium, the left ventricle, and the interventricular groove. Maximal thickness of normal pericardium was defined at the 95th percentile. Inter-observer and intra-observer reproducibility studies were assessed from additional CT scans by the Bland and Altman method [24]. The maximal thickness of the normal pericardium was 2 mm for 95 % of cases. For the reproducibility studies, there was no significant relationship between the inter-observer and intra-observer measurements, but all pericardial thickness measurements were ≤ 1.6 mm. Using electron-beam computed tomography, which assists in decreasing substantially cardiac motion artifacts, the threshold of detection of thickened pericardium is statistically established as being 2 mm for 95 % of the patients with hypercholesterolemia and/or hypertension. However, the spatial resolution available prevents a reproducible measure of the real thickness of thin pericardium. (orig.)

  20. Maximal thickness of the normal human pericardium assessed by electron-beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delille, J.P.; Hernigou, A.; Sene, V.; Chatellier, G.; Boudeville, J.C.; Challande, P.; Plainfosse, M.C. [Service de Radiologie Centrale, Hopital Broussais, Paris (France)

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the maximal value of normal pericardial thickness with an electron-beam computed tomography unit allowing fast scan times of 100 ms to reduce cardiac motion artifacts. Electron-beam computed tomography was performed in 260 patients with hypercholesterolemia and/or hypertension, as these pathologies have no effect on pericardial thickness. The pixel size was 0.5 mm. Measurements could be performed in front of the right ventricle, the right atrioventricular groove, the right atrium, the left ventricle, and the interventricular groove. Maximal thickness of normal pericardium was defined at the 95th percentile. Inter-observer and intra-observer reproducibility studies were assessed from additional CT scans by the Bland and Altman method [24]. The maximal thickness of the normal pericardium was 2 mm for 95 % of cases. For the reproducibility studies, there was no significant relationship between the inter-observer and intra-observer measurements, but all pericardial thickness measurements were {<=} 1.6 mm. Using electron-beam computed tomography, which assists in decreasing substantially cardiac motion artifacts, the threshold of detection of thickened pericardium is statistically established as being 2 mm for 95 % of the patients with hypercholesterolemia and/or hypertension. However, the spatial resolution available prevents a reproducible measure of the real thickness of thin pericardium. (orig.) With 6 figs., 1 tab., 31 refs.

  1. Vulnerability assessment of a space based weapon platform electronic system exposed to a thermonuclear weapon detonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, C. L.; Johnson, J. O.

    Rapidly changing world events, the increased number of nations with inter-continental ballistic missile capability, and the proliferation of nuclear weapon technology will increase the number of nuclear threats facing the world today. Monitoring these nation's activities and providing an early warning and/or intercept system via reconnaissance and surveillance satellites and space based weapon platforms is a viable deterrent against a surprise nuclear attack. However, the deployment of satellite and weapon platform assets in space will subject the sensitive electronic equipment to a variety of natural and man-made radiation environments. These include Van Allen Belt protons and electrons; galactic and solar flare protons; and neutrons, gamma rays, and x-rays from intentionally detonated fission and fusion weapons. In this paper, the MASH vl.0 code system is used to estimate the dose to the critical electronics components of an idealized space based weapon platform from neutron and gamma-ray radiation emitted from a thermonuclear weapon detonation in space. Fluence and dose assessments were performed for the platform fully loaded, and in several stages representing limited engagement scenarios. The results indicate vulnerabilities to the Command, Control, and Communication bay instruments from radiation damage for a nuclear weapon detonation for certain source/platform orientations. The distance at which damage occurs will depend on the weapon yield (n,(gamma)/kiloton) and size (kilotons).

  2. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of US practitioners who provide pre-travel advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogelman, Laura; Barnett, Elizabeth D; Chen, Lin H; Quinn, Emily; Yanni, Emad; Wilson, Mary E; Benoit, Christine; Karchmer, Adolf W; Ooi, Winnie W; Jentes, Emily S; Hamer, Davidson H

    2014-01-01

    As international travel increases, many health care professionals are being asked to provide pre-travel advice. We designed an anonymous web-based survey to assess the extent to which primary care providers (PCPs) provide travel medicine advice and how their understanding and delivery of itinerary-specific advice and management compare with that of travel medicine specialists. We surveyed randomly selected US PCPs registered in the Pri-Med Institute (now pmiCME) database and US travel medicine specialists from the International Society of Travel Medicine (ISTM), American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH), and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) yellow fever (YF) vaccine provider mailing lists. SAS software (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA) was used for all analyses. Of 14,932 e-mails sent to valid e-mail addresses, 902 yielded complete or partially completed surveys (6.0% response rate). Eighty percent of respondents personally provided pre-travel advice (95% of travel medicine specialists versus 73% of PCPs). About two thirds of PCPs (68%) providing pre-travel consultations saw travelers per year whereas 30% of travel medicine specialists saw travelers per year. More travel medicine specialists (59%) than PCPs (18%) saw >500 travelers per year. Familiarity with travel-specific vaccines (YF, Japanese encephalitis) and provision of written educational materials increased as volume of travelers increased. Familiarity with antimalarial side effects and malaria resistance patterns, and knowledge scores based on brief pre-travel scenarios were higher in travel medicine specialists, ASTMH or ISTM certificate holders, and respondents who saw more pre-travel patients. Many PCP survey participants provided pre-travel advice, but most saw few travelers. Volume of travelers and holding an ASTMH or ISTM certificate had the greatest influence on knowledge of travel medicine and provision of appropriate advice and recommendations. Creating easily

  3. Incidence, risk factors and treatment of diarrhoea among Dutch travellers: reasons not to routinely prescribe antibiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belderok, S.M.; van den Hoek, A.; Kint, J.A.; van der Loeff, M.F.S.; Sonder, G.J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Travellers' diarrhoea (TD) is the most common infectious disease among travellers. In the Netherlands, stand-by or prophylactic antibiotics are not routinely prescribed to travellers. This study prospectively assessed the incidence rate, risk factors, and treatment of TD among

  4. Incidence, risk factors and treatment of diarrhoea among Dutch travellers: reasons not to routinely prescribe antibiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belderok, Sanne-Meike; van den Hoek, Anneke; Kint, Joan A.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Sonder, Gerard Jb

    2011-01-01

    Travellers' diarrhoea (TD) is the most common infectious disease among travellers. In the Netherlands, stand-by or prophylactic antibiotics are not routinely prescribed to travellers. This study prospectively assessed the incidence rate, risk factors, and treatment of TD among immunocompetent

  5. Compliance with malaria chemoprophylaxis and preventative measures against mosquito bites among Dutch travellers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobelens, F. G.; Leentvaar-Kuijpers, A.

    1997-01-01

    Self-reported compliance with a malaria chemoprophylaxis regimen of proguanil (PG) plus chloroquine (CQ) was assessed in a cohort of 547 Dutch travellers who visited a single travel clinic when travelling to various areas endemic for falciparum malaria. 503 (92%) had taken PG/CQ prophylaxis, but

  6. The elderly, the young and the pregnant traveler -- A retrospective data analysis from a large Swiss Travel Center with a special focus on malaria prophylaxis and yellow fever vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Veronika K; Tschudi, Nadine; Rüegg, Rolanda; Hatz, Christoph; Bühler, Silja

    2015-01-01

    Vulnerable individuals such as elderly, children/adolescents and pregnant/breastfeeding women increasingly travel overseas. We describe the travel and vaccination patterns of these groups at the largest Travel Clinic in Switzerland especially focusing on travel to yellow fever and malaria-endemic countries, and yellow fever vaccination (YFV) and malaria medications. An analysis of pre-travel visits between 2010 and 2012 at the Travel Clinic of the University of Zurich, was performed assessing differences between the elderly, young and middle-aged travelers as well as between pregnant/breastfeeding and other female travelers. Overall, the vulnerable groups did not differ from other travelers regarding their travel patterns. YFV was the most often administered vaccine to elderly travelers; half of them received it for the first time. More than 30% of children/adolescents received YFV, but no child below six months was vaccinated. 80% of young travelers and a similar percentage of pregnant women went to malaria-endemic regions. Twenty-five pregnant/breastfeeding women traveled to YF endemic areas. Travel patterns of vulnerable travelers are comparable to those of other travelers. In view of the limited data on malaria medications and precautions against YFV during pregnancy and at the extreme ages of life, giving travel advice to these groups is challenging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of methodology for assessment of absorbed dose and stopping power for low energy conversion electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Ivan Pedro Salati de

    1995-08-01

    The evaluation of absorbed dose in the case of external and internal contamination due to radionuclides is sometimes hard, because of the difficulties in the assessment of the absorbed dose caused by electrons with energy less than 100 KeV in mucous membrane. In this work, a methodology for assessment of absorbed dose and stopping power in VYNS (co-polymer of polivinyl chloride - acetate) absorbers, for the 62.5 KeV and 84-88 KeV energy 109 Cd conversion electrons, working with a 4 π proportional pressurized detector, is presented. In order to assure the reproducibility of measurement conditions, one of the detector halves has been used to obtain a spectrum of a thin 109 Cd source, without absorber. The other half of the detector was used in concomitance to obtain spectra with different thicknesses if absorber. The absorbed energy was obtained subtracting each spectrum with absorber from the spectrum without absorber, which were stored in a microcomputer connected to signal processing systems by ACE type interface. The VYNS weight and thickness were evaluated using common radionuclide metrology procedures. As VYNS has characteristics similar to a tissue equivalent material, the results obtained are consistent with dosimetric concepts and have a good agreement with those of the literature. (author)

  8. Monitoring travellers from Ebola-affected countries in New South Wales, Australia: what is the impact on travellers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn Chan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amidst an Ebola virus disease (EVD epidemic of unprecedented magnitude in west Africa, concerns about the risk of importing EVD led to the introduction of programs for the screening and monitoring of travellers in a number of countries, including Australia. Emerging reports indicate that these programs are feasible to implement, however rigorous evaluations are not yet available. We aimed to evaluate the program of screening and monitoring travellers in New South Wales. Methods We conducted a mixed methods study to evaluate the program of screening and monitoring travellers in New South Wales. We extracted quantitative data from the Notifiable Conditions Information Management System database and obtained qualitative data from two separate surveys of public health staff and arrivals, conducted by phone. Results Between 1 October 2014 and 13 April 2015, public health staff assessed a total of 122 out of 123 travellers. Six people (5% developed symptoms compatible with EVD and required further assessment. None developed EVD. Aid workers required lower levels of support compared to other travellers. Many travellers experienced stigmatisation. Public health staff were successful in supporting travellers to recognise and manage symptoms. Conclusion We recommend that programs for monitoring travellers should be tailored to the needs of different populations and include specific strategies to remediate stigmatisation.

  9. Environmental Management Assessment of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This report documents the results of the Environmental Management Assessment performed at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) in Newport News, Virginia. During this assessment, activities and records were reviewed and interviews were conducted with personnel from the CEBAF Site Office; the CEBAF management and operating contractor (M ampersand O), Southeastern Universities Research Association, Inc. (SURA); the Oak Ridge Field Office (OR); and the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Office, the Office of Energy Research (ER). The onsite portion of the assessment was conducted from March 8 through March 19, 1993, by the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24) located within the office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH). DOE 5482.1 B, ''Environment, Safety and Health Appraisal Program,'' and Secretary of Energy Notice (SEN)-6E-92, ''Departmental Organizational and Management Arrangements,'' establish the mission of EH-24 to provide comprehensive, independent oversight of Department-wide environmental programs on behalf of the Secretary of Energy. The ultimate goal of EH-24 is enhancement of environmental protection and minimization of risk to public health and the environment. EH-24 accomplishes its mission utilizing systematic and periodic evaluations of the Department's environmental programs within line organizations, and through use of supplemental activities which serve to strengthen self-assessment and oversight functions within program, field, and contractor organizations

  10. Time travel a history

    CERN Document Server

    Gleick, James

    2016-01-01

    From the acclaimed author of The Information and Chaos, here is a mind-bending exploration of time travel: its subversive origins, its evolution in literature and science, and its influence on our understanding of time itself. The story begins at the turn of the previous century, with the young H. G. Wells writing and rewriting the fantastic tale that became his first book and an international sensation: The Time Machine. It was an era when a host of forces was converging to transmute the human understanding of time, some philosophical and some technological: the electric telegraph, the steam railroad, the discovery of buried civilizations, and the perfection of clocks. James Gleick tracks the evolution of time travel as an idea that becomes part of contemporary culture—from Marcel Proust to Doctor Who, from Jorge Luis Borges to Woody Allen. He investigates the inevitable looping paradoxes and examines the porous boundary between pulp fiction and modern physics. Finally, he delves into a temporal shift that...

  11. Anthropological Invariants in Travel Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Marchetti, C.

    1994-01-01

    Personal travel appears to be much more under the control of basic instinct than of economic drive. This may be the reason for the systematic mismatch between the results of cost benefit analysis and the actual behavior of travelers. In this paper a list of the basic instincts that drive and contain travelers' behavior has been put together, showing how they mesh with technological progress and economic constraints.

  12. Pretravel health advice among international travelers visiting Cuzco, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabada, Miguel M; Maldonado, Fernando; Quispe, Wanda; Serrano, Edson; Mozo, Karen; Gonzales, Elsa; Seas, Carlos; Verdonck, Kristien; Echevarria, Juan I; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2005-01-01

    Cuzco, a Peruvian city of historical interest located 3,326 m above sea level, is a frequent destination for tourists. We conducted a descriptive study to assess the extent and sources of pretravel health advice received by international travelers before their arrival to Cuzco. Data were collected as part of a health survey among travelers. Between August and November 2002, travelers between 15 and 65 years old were invited to fill out a questionnaire in the departing area of Cuzco's international airport. A total of 5,988 travelers participated. The mean age was 35.4 years (SD 11.4 yr); 50.6% were female and 50.8% were single. Tourism was the reason for traveling in 90.2% of the participants, and 89.3% of them were traveling with companions. Pretravel health information was received by 93.6%. The median number of information sources was two, with books (41.5%), travel medicine clinics (38.8%), the Internet (23.3%), and general practitioners (22.7%) as the main sources. Most frequently received recommendations were about safe food and water consumption (85%), use of insect repellents (66.0%), sunburn protection (64.4%), and condom use (22%). Only 16.5% took medication to prevent altitude sickness, and 14.2% took medication to prevent traveler's diarrhea. Variables independently associated with receiving pretravel health information from a health care professional were female gender, country of residence other than the United States, length of stay in Cuzco > 7 days, length of stay in other Peruvian cities > 7 days, tourism as the main reason for visiting Cuzco, traveling with companions, and consulting of more than one source of information. Most travelers arriving to Cuzco had received pretravel health information, and the majority obtained it from more than one source. Recommendations addressed for specific health risks, such as altitude sickness prophylaxis, were received by few travelers.

  13. Telemedicine for health issues while abroad: interest and willingness to pay among travellers prior to departure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Laurence; Genton, Blaise

    2018-01-01

    Telemedicine is emerging as a useful tool to provide expert medical advice to individuals facing health issues while travelling in remote areas. Before embarking on the development of a telemedicine system, we conducted a survey to assess the needs and expectations of travellers for such a service, and evaluate opinions about the importance of various travel criteria that may determine the contract of such insurance. (i) To assess whether a telemedicine service is considered useful by travellers, (ii) to investigate which telecommunication medium is preferred, (iii) to determine which subgroup of travellers would be most interested in this service and (iv) to estimate the amount of money travellers would be willing to pay for a telemedicine service. Travellers coming to our clinic for pre-travel advice were given a questionnaire to be filled in before consultation. The questionnaire focused on demographics, travel details, health status, interest and willingness to pay for a telemedicine service. Among 307 returned questionnaires, 59% of travellers were interested in a telemedicine service. Email was the preferred communication medium for 63%, mobile phone for 46% and video calls for 31% individuals (multiple answers). Travellers aged ≥60 years and those with an immunocompromising condition tended to be more interested in telemedicine (respectively OR = 1.65; 95% CI: 0.75-3.62 and OR = 3.56; 95% CI: 0.41-30.95). The 99% of travellers were willing to pay for such a service. Median price was 50 USD (IQR: 30-50 USD). There was no correlation between travel duration and amount to be paid. Among individuals consulting for pre-travel advice at a specialized clinic, there is considerable interest in telemedicine, particularly among older and immunocompromised travellers. Based on these data, a pilot system using email communication to help travellers confronted with health issues while abroad was developed and implemented in our travel clinic.

  14. Validation of a Delirium Risk Assessment Using Electronic Medical Record Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, James L; Doherty, Kelly; Kelly, Brittany; Driver, Jane A; Archambault, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Identifying patients at risk for delirium allows prompt application of prevention, diagnostic, and treatment strategies; but is rarely done. Once delirium develops, patients are more likely to need posthospitalization skilled care. This study developed an a priori electronic prediction rule using independent risk factors identified in a National Center of Clinical Excellence meta-analysis and validated the ability to predict delirium in 2 cohorts. Retrospective analysis followed by prospective validation. Tertiary VA Hospital in New England. A total of 27,625 medical records of hospitalized patients and 246 prospectively enrolled patients admitted to the hospital. The electronic delirium risk prediction rule was created using data obtained from the patient electronic medical record (EMR). The primary outcome, delirium, was identified 2 ways: (1) from the EMR (retrospective cohort) and (2) clinical assessment on enrollment and daily thereafter (prospective participants). We assessed discrimination of the delirium prediction rule with the C-statistic. Secondary outcomes were length of stay and discharge to rehabilitation. Retrospectively, delirium was identified in 8% of medical records (n = 2343); prospectively, delirium during hospitalization was present in 26% of participants (n = 64). In the retrospective cohort, medical record delirium was identified in 2%, 3%, 11%, and 38% of the low, intermediate, high, and very high-risk groups, respectively (C-statistic = 0.81; 95% confidence interval 0.80-0.82). Prospectively, the electronic prediction rule identified delirium in 15%, 18%, 31%, and 55% of these groups (C-statistic = 0.69; 95% confidence interval 0.61-0.77). Compared with low-risk patients, those at high- or very high delirium risk had increased length of stay (5.7 ± 5.6 vs 3.7 ± 2.7 days; P = .001) and higher rates of discharge to rehabilitation (8.9% vs 20.8%; P = .02). Automatic calculation of delirium risk using an EMR algorithm identifies patients at

  15. Assessment of specific absorbed fractions for photons and electrons using average adult Japanese male phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manabe, Kentaro; Sato, Kaoru; Takahashi, Fumiaki

    2014-10-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is revising dose coefficients, which are effective and equivalent doses per unit intake of radionuclides, based on the 2007 Recommendations. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) of voxel phantoms having standard physiques and organ masses (physical characteristics) of Caucasian are used for calculation of the new dose coefficients. SAFs depend on physical characteristics of a phantom used for assessment of the SAFs. Therefore, the SAFs and the dose coefficients developed by ICRP reflect physical characteristics of Caucasian. On the other hand, physiques of adult Japanese are generally smaller than those of adult Caucasian, and organ masses are also different from each other. Consequently, it is expected that SAFs and dose coefficients with physical characteristics of adult Japanese are different from those of ICRP. It is important to understand the influence of the differences in physical characteristics between both races on SAFs and dose coefficients when using the SAFs and dose coefficients of ICRP for radiation protection for Japanese. In order to evaluate internal doses considering the physical characteristics of adult Japanese, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency plans to develop a comprehensive data set of SAFs for photons, electrons, alpha particles and neutrons using average adult Japanese male and female phantoms (male: JM-103, female: JF-103). This report presents a data set of photon and electron SAFs for JM-103. JM-103 was incorporated into the general purpose radiation transport code, MCNPX 2.6.0, and the SAFs were calculated by the MCNPX 2.6.0 for 25 energies from 10 keV to 10 MeV and for combinations of 67 source regions and 41 target organs. Influences of differences in physical characteristics between adult Japanese and Caucasian on SAFs was also examined by comparison between the calculated SAFs in this study and the SAFs of the reference adult male phantom of ICRP. The photon and electron

  16. Are Electronic and Paper Questionnaires Equivalent to Assess Patients with Overactive Bladder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Cristina; Farhan, Bilal; Nguyen, Nobel; Zhang, Lishi; Do, Rebecca; Nguyen, Danh V; Ghoniem, Gamal

    2018-03-30

    Overactive bladder syndrome is defined as urinary urgency, usually accompanied by frequency and nocturia, with or without urgency urinary incontinence in the absence of urinary tract infection or another obvious pathological condition. Electronic questionnaires have been used in a few specialties with the hope of improving treatment outcomes and patient satisfaction. However, they have not been widely used in the urological field. When treating overactive bladder, the main outcome is to improve patient quality of life. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate whether electronic questionnaires would be equally accepted as or preferred to paper questionnaires. The secondary objective was to look at the preference in relation to patient age, education and iPad® tablet familiarity. We prospectively evaluated the iList® electronic questionnaire application using a friendly iPad tablet in patients with overactive bladder who presented to the urology clinic at our institution. Each of the 80 patients who were recruited randomly completed the validated OABSS (Overactive Bladder Symptom Score) and the PPBC (Patient Perception of Bladder Condition) questionnaires in paper and electronic format on the tablet. Variables potentially associated with the outcomes of interest included demographic data, questionnaire method preference, patient response rate and iPad familiarity. We used the 2-sided Z-test to determine whether the proportion of patients who considered the tablet to be the same, better or much better than paper was significantly greater than 50%. The 2-sided chi-square test was applied to assess whether the intervention effect significantly differed among the demographic subgroups. A total of 80 patients 21 to 87 years old were enrolled in the study from November 2015 to August 2016. Of the patients 53% were female and 49% were 65 years or younger. The incidence of those who considered the tablet to be the same or better than paper was 82.5% (95% CI 74

  17. Leishmaniasis in travelers: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansueto, Pasquale; Seidita, Aurelio; Vitale, Giustina; Cascio, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne protozoan infection whose clinical spectrum ranges from asymptomatic infection to fatal visceral leishmaniasis. Over the last decades, an increase in imported leishmaniasis cases in developed, non-endemic countries, have been pointed-out from a review of the international literature. Among the possible causes are increasing international tourism, influx of immigrants from endemic regions and military operations. The main area for the acquisition of cutaneous leishmaniasis, especially for adventure travelers on long-term trips in highly-endemic forested areas, is represented from South America, whereas popular Mediterranean destinations are emerging as the main areas to acquire visceral variant. Leishmaniasis should be considered in the diagnostic assessment of patients presenting with a compatible clinical syndrome and a history of travel to an endemic area, even if this occurred several months or years before. Adventure travelers, researchers, military personnel, and other groups of travelers likely to be exposed to sand flies in endemic areas, should receive counseling regarding leishmaniasis and appropriate protective measures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of electronic dietary assessment tools in primary care: an interdisciplinary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Carolina; Brauer, Paula; Royall, Dawna; Keller, Heather; Hanning, Rhona M; DiCenso, Alba

    2015-02-25

    Dietary assessment can be challenging for many reasons, including the wide variety of foods, eating patterns and nutrients to be considered. In team-based primary care practice, various disciplines may be involved in assessing diet. Electronic-based dietary assessment (e-DA) instruments available now through mobile apps or websites can potentially facilitate dietary assessment. Providers views of facilitators and barriers related to e-DA instruments and their recommendations for improvement can inform the further development of these tools. The objective of this study was to explore provider perspectives on e-DA tools in mobile apps and websites. The exploratory sequential mixed methods design included interdisciplinary focus groups followed by a web-based survey sent to Family Health Teams throughout Ontario, Canada. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were completed. Focus group transcripts contributed to web-survey content, while interpretive themes added depth and context. 11 focus groups with 50 providers revealed varying perspectives on the use of e-DA for: 1) improving patients' eating habits; 2) improving the quality of dietary assessment; and, 3) integrating e-DA into the care process. In the web-survey 191 respondents from nine disciplines in 73 FHTs completed the survey. Dietitians reported greater use of e-DA than other providers (63% vs.19%; p = .000) respectively. There was strong interest among disciplines in the use of e-DA tools for the management of obesity, diabetes and heart disease, especially for patient self-monitoring. Barriers identified were: patients' lack of comfort with using technology, misinterpretation of e-DA results by patients, time and education for providers to interpret results, and time for providers to offer counselling. e-DA tools in mobile apps and websites may improve dietary counselling over time. Addressing the identified facilitators and barriers can potentially promote the uptake of e-DA into clinical practice.

  19. Assessment of COPD-related outcomes via a national electronic medical record database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asche, Carl; Said, Quayyim; Joish, Vijay; Hall, Charles Oaxaca; Brixner, Diana

    2008-01-01

    The technology and sophistication of healthcare utilization databases have expanded over the last decade to include results of lab tests, vital signs, and other clinical information. This review provides an assessment of the methodological and analytical challenges of conducting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) outcomes research in a national electronic medical records (EMR) dataset and its potential application towards the assessment of national health policy issues, as well as a description of the challenges or limitations. An EMR database and its application to measuring outcomes for COPD are described. The ability to measure adherence to the COPD evidence-based practice guidelines, generated by the NIH and HEDIS quality indicators, in this database was examined. Case studies, before and after their publication, were used to assess the adherence to guidelines and gauge the conformity to quality indicators. EMR was the only source of information for pulmonary function tests, but low frequency in ordering by primary care was an issue. The EMR data can be used to explore impact of variation in healthcare provision on clinical outcomes. The EMR database permits access to specific lab data and biometric information. The richness and depth of information on "real world" use of health services for large population-based analytical studies at relatively low cost render such databases an attractive resource for outcomes research. Various sources of information exist to perform outcomes research. It is important to understand the desired endpoints of such research and choose the appropriate database source.

  20. Travelling gradient thermocouple calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broomfield, G.H.

    1975-01-01

    A short discussion of the origins of the thermocouple EMF is used to re-introduce the idea that the Peltier and Thompson effects are indistinguishable from one another. Thermocouples may be viewed as devices which generate an EMF at junctions or as integrators of EMF's developed in thermal gradients. The thermal gradient view is considered the more appropriate, because of its better accord with theory and behaviour, the correct approach to calibration, and investigation of service effects is immediately obvious. Inhomogeneities arise in thermocouples during manufacture and in service. The results of travelling gradient measurements are used to show that such effects are revealed with a resolution which depends on the length of the gradient although they may be masked during simple immersion calibration. Proposed tests on thermocouples irradiated in a nuclear reactor are discussed

  1. SUNSCEEN FOR TRAVELLERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novita Lavi N

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The sun exposure brings negative effects on the skin such like early aging, spots and skin cancer as the most terrible effect. To reduce the adverse effects of the sun, it is not enough just to behavioral therapy, but also had no protection from the outside. Especially for travellers that exposed by the sun excessively. There is sunscreen, product specially formulated to absorb or deflect ultraviolet rays. A sunscreen preparation contains chemical compounds that can absorb, scatter or reflect sunlight on the skin. This writing contains about effect of ultraviolet, skin protection from ultraviolet from behavioral aspect, variaty and contents of sunscreen and sunscreen application for travellers. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  2. International Travelers' Sociodemographic, Health, and Travel Characteristics: An Italian Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiano, Gianmarco; Mercone, Astrid; Bagnoli, Alessandra; Nante, Nicola

    Approximately the 8% of travelers requires medical care, with the diagnosis of a vaccine-preventable disease. The aim of our study was to analyze the socio-demographic, health and travel characteristics of the Italian international travelers. We conducted a cross sectional study from January 2015 to June 2016, at the Travel Medicine Clinic of Siena, asking the doctor to interview patients who attended the Clinic, recording socio-demographic and travel information, malaria prophylaxis, vaccinations. The data were organized in a database and processed by software Stata®. We collected 419 questionnaires. Patients chose 71 countries for their travels; the favorite destinations were: India (6.31%), Thailand (6.31%), and Brazil (5.10%). The mean length of stay was 36.17 days. Italians, students, and freelancers tended to stay abroad for a longer time (mean: 36.4 days, 59.87 days and 64.16 days respectively). 33.17% of our sample used drugs for malaria chemoprophylaxis: 71.9% of them used Atovaquone/Proguanil (Malarone®), 26.6% used Mefloquine (Lariam®), 1.5% other drugs. The vaccinations that travelers mostly got in our study were to prevent hepatitis A (n = 264), the typhoid fever (n = 187), the Tetanus + Diphtheria + Pertussis (n = 165), the Yellow fever (n = 118) and the cholera (n = 78). Twenty-eight (6.68%) refused some recommended vaccinations. The vaccines mostly refused were for Typhoid fever (n = 20), hepatitis a (n = 9), and cholera (n = 9). Our results demonstrated that Italian international travelers are at-risk because of their poor vaccinations adherence. This implies that pre-travel counseling is fundamental to increase the knowledge of the risks and the compliance of future travelers. Copyright © 2016 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Elevating Learner Achievement Using Formative Electronic Lab Assessments in the Engineering Laboratory: A Viable Alternative to Weekly Lab Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baiyun; DeMara, Ronald F.; Salehi, Soheil; Hartshorne, Richard

    2018-01-01

    A laboratory pedagogy interweaving weekly student portfolios with onsite formative electronic laboratory assessments (ELAs) is developed and assessed within the laboratory component of a required core course of the electrical and computer engineering (ECE) undergraduate curriculum. The approach acts to promote student outcomes, and neutralize…

  4. Comparative assessment of metallurgical recovery of metals from electronic waste with special emphasis on bioleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, Anshu; Hait, Subrata

    2017-03-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) or electronic waste (e-waste) is one of the fastest growing waste streams in the urban environment worldwide. The core component of printed circuit board (PCB) in e-waste contains a complex array of metals in rich quantity, some of which are toxic to the environment and all of which are valuable resources. Therefore, the recycling of e-waste is an important aspect not only from the point of waste treatment but also from the recovery of metals for economic growth. Conventional approaches for recovery of metals from e-waste, viz. pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical techniques, are rapid and efficient, but cause secondary pollution and economically unviable. Limitations of the conventional techniques have led to a shift towards biometallurgical technique involving microbiological leaching of metals from e-waste in eco-friendly manner. However, optimization of certain biotic and abiotic factors such as microbial species, pH, temperature, nutrients, and aeration rate affect the bioleaching process and can lead to profitable recovery of metals from e-waste. The present review provides a comprehensive assessment on the metallurgical techniques for recovery of metals from e-waste with special emphasis on bioleaching process and the associated factors.

  5. Direct rate assessment of laccase catalysed radical formation in lignin by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Line; Andersen, Mogens Larsen; Meyer, Anne S.

    2017-01-01

    Laccases (EC 1.10.3.2) catalyse removal of an electron and a proton from phenolic hydroxyl groups, including phenolic hydroxyls in lignins, to form phenoxy radicals during reduction of O2. We employed electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) for real time measurement of such catalytic...... to suspensions of the individual lignin samples produced immediate time and enzyme dose dependent increases in intensity in the EPR signal with g-values in the range 2.0047–2.0050 allowing a direct quantitative monitoring of the radical formation and thus allowed laccase enzyme kinetics assessment on lignin...... for the radical formation rate in organosolv lignin was determined by response surface methodology to pH 4.8, 33 °C and pH 5.8, 33 °C for the Tv laccase and the Mt laccase, respectively. The results verify direct radical formation action of fungal laccases on lignin without addition of mediators and the EPR...

  6. Environmental hazards in Nepal: altitude illness, environmental exposures, injuries, and bites in travelers and expatriates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggild, Andrea K; Costiniuk, Cecilia; Kain, Kevin C; Pandey, Prativa

    2007-01-01

    Adventure travel necessarily places travelers at risk of environmental hazards. We assessed the burden of "environmental" hazards among a cohort of travelers and expatriates presenting to a large travel clinic in Nepal. Data on travelers and expatriates seen at the Canadian International Water and Energy Consultants (CIWEC) clinic in Kathmandu were prospectively collected and entered into the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network database. Data on individuals receiving predefined diagnoses related to environmental hazards were extracted and analyzed. Of 10,499 travelers and 4,854 expatriates in the database, 2,160 were diagnosed with 2,533 environment-related illnesses. Injuries were common among both travelers and expatriates [N= 788 (6.1%) and 328 (4.9%), respectively], while altitude illness was seen almost exclusively in travelers [N= 611 (4.7%) vs N= 8 (0.1%)]. Factors independently associated with environmental diagnoses include male gender (p tourism (p educational impact in others.

  7. Concordance between hypoxic challenge testing and predictive equations for hypoxic flight assessment in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients prior to air travel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohie Aldeen Abd Alzaher Khalifa

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: The present study supports on-HCT as a reliable, on-invasive and continuous methods determining the requirement for in-flight O2 are relatively constant. Predictive equations considerably overestimate the need for in-flight O2 compared to hypoxic inhalation test. Predictive equations are cheap, readily available methods of flight assessment, but this study shows poor agreement between their predictions and the measured individual hypoxic responses during HCT.

  8. Attempt to assess the infiltration of enamel made with experimental preparation using a scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skucha-Nowak, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    The resin infiltration technique, a minimally invasive method, involves the saturation, strengthening, and stabilization of demineralized enamel by a mixture of polymer resins without the need to use rotary tools or the risk of losing healthy tooth structures. To design and synthesize an experimental infiltrant with potential bacteriostatic properties.To compare the depth of infiltration of the designed experimental preparation with the infiltrant available in the market using a scanning electron microscope. Composition of the experimental infiltrant was established after analysis of 1H NMR spectra of the commercially available compounds that can penetrate pores of demineralized enamel. As the infiltrant should have bacteriostatic features by definition, an addition of 1% of monomer containing metronidazole was made. Thirty extracted human teeth were soaked in an acidic solution, which was to provide appropriate conditions for demineralization of enamel. Afterward, each tooth was divided along the coronal-root axis into two zones. One zone had experimental preparation applied to it (the test group), while the other had commercially available Icon (the control group). The teeth were dissected along the long axis and described above underwent initial observation with use of a Hitachi S-4200 scanning electron microscope. It was found that all samples contained only oxygen and carbon, regardless of the concentration of additions introduced into them. The occurrence of carbon is partially because it is a component of the preparation in question and partially because of sputtering of the sample with it. Hydrogen is also a component of the preparation, as a result of its phase composition; however, it cannot be detected by the EDS method. SEM, in combination with X-ray microanalysis, does not allow one to explicitly assess the depth of penetration of infiltration preparations into enamel.In order to assess the depth of penetration of infiltration preparations with use of

  9. Pre-travel advice seeking from GPs by travellers with chronic illness seen at a travel clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagneux-Brunon, Amandine; Andrillat, Carole; Fouilloux, Pascale; Daoud, Fatiha; Defontaine, Christiane; Charles, Rodolphe; Lucht, Frédéric; Botelho-Nevers, Elisabeth

    2016-03-01

    Travellers are ageing and frequently report chronic illness. Pre-travel health advice is crucial, particularly in this subgroup, and general practitioners (GPs) are first in line for treatment adjustment before departure. Our aim is to evaluate pre-travel health advice seeking from GPs by travellers with chronic illness seen at a travel clinic. A cross-sectional observational survey using a questionnaire was conducted between August 2013 and July 2014 in travellers attending the travel medicine clinic of a tertiary university hospital in France. During the study, 2019 travellers were included. Mean age was 39.4 years (±18.8). Three hundred and ninety-one (19.4%) travellers reported a history of a chronic illness. Arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus were the most frequently reported illnesses, affecting, respectively, 168 (8.3%) travellers and 102 (5.1%). Hajj pilgrims were more likely to report a history of chronic illness than other travellers. Only 810 (40.1%) travellers sought pre-travel advice from their GP. Six hundred and fifty-two (40.1%) healthy travellers and 158 (40.5%) travellers reporting chronic illness sought pre-travel advice from their GP (P = 0.96). Travellers with a history of chronic illness do not seek pre-travel health advice from their GP more frequently than healthy travellers. Travel health specialists are generally not the best practitioners to manage the care of underlying medical conditions presenting risks during travel. However, GPs offer continuity and disease management expertise to improve the specificity of pre-travel planning. Thus, ongoing collaboration between the traveller, GP and travel health specialist is likely to yield the best outcomes. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Carlson Wagonlit Travel is moving

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The renovation of the Main Building continues!   Because of this, Carlson Wagonlit Travel will move from building 62 to building 510 on 4 October and the agency will be closed in the afternoon. An emergency service will be organised for official travels only. Phone: 022 799 75 73 & 022 799 75 78 / e-mail: cern@carlsonwagonlit.ch

  11. U.S. holiday travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    The Thanksgiving and Christmas/New Years holiday periods are among the busiest long-distance travel periods of the year. During the 6-day Thanksgiving travel period, the number of long-distance trips (to and from a destination 50 miles or more awa...

  12. Rabies and Risk to Travelers

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Each year over 55,000 people die because of rabies, mostly from being bitten by rabid dogs. Over half of all rabies infections occur in children under the age of 15 who live in developing countries, but travelers are not immune. This podcast discusses some of the activities that put travelers at risk for rabies and describes ways to prevent infection.

  13. Travel and Adult Transformative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Steven K.

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological research study examines the lived experience of individual adult transformation in the context of travel. Adults throughout history have experienced profound personal and perception changes as a result of significant travel events. Transformative learning occurs through experience, crisis, and reflection, all of which are…

  14. U.S. business travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-01

    Americans make more than 405 million long-distance business trips per year, : accounting for 16% of all long-distance travel, according to a : preliminary analysis of the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS). : Conducted from 2001 to 2002, the NHT...

  15. 49 CFR 229.55 - Piston travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piston travel. 229.55 Section 229.55... Piston travel. (a) Brake cylinder piston travel shall be sufficient to provide brake shoe clearance when... piston travel may not exceed 11/2 inches less than the total possible piston travel. The total possible...

  16. Travel time variability and rational inattention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Jiang, Gege

    2017-01-01

    This paper sets up a rational inattention model for the choice of departure time for a traveler facing random travel time. The traveler chooses how much information to acquire about the travel time out-come before choosing departure time. This reduces the cost of travel time variability compared...

  17. Monitoring Travel Time Reliability on Freeways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tu, Huizhao

    2008-01-01

    Travel time and travel time reliability are important attributes of a trip. The current measures of reliability have in common that in general they all relate to the variability of travel times. However, travel time reliability does not only rely on variability but also on the stability of travel

  18. Local Dynamic Stability Assessment of Motion Impaired Elderly Using Electronic Textile Pants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Lockhart, Thurmon E; Jones, Mark; Martin, Tom

    2008-10-01

    A clear association has been demonstrated between gait stability and falls in the elderly. Integration of wearable computing and human dynamic stability measures into home automation systems may help differentiate fall-prone individuals in a residential environment. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the capability of a pair of electronic textile (e-textile) pants system to assess local dynamic stability and to differentiate motion-impaired elderly from their healthy counterparts. A pair of e-textile pants comprised of numerous e-TAGs at locations corresponding to lower extremity joints was developed to collect acceleration, angular velocity and piezoelectric data. Four motion-impaired elderly together with nine healthy individuals (both young and old) participated in treadmill walking with a motion capture system simultaneously collecting kinematic data. Local dynamic stability, characterized by maximum Lyapunov exponent, was computed based on vertical acceleration and angular velocity at lower extremity joints for the measurements from both e-textile and motion capture systems. Results indicated that the motion-impaired elderly had significantly higher maximum Lyapunov exponents (computed from vertical acceleration data) than healthy individuals at the right ankle and hip joints. In addition, maximum Lyapunov exponents assessed by the motion capture system were found to be significantly higher than those assessed by the e-textile system. Despite the difference between these measurement techniques, attaching accelerometers at the ankle and hip joints was shown to be an effective sensor configuration. It was concluded that the e-textile pants system, via dynamic stability assessment, has the potential to identify motion-impaired elderly.

  19. Closing the gap in travel medicine: reframing research questions for a new era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin H; Leder, Karin; Wilson, Mary E

    2017-07-01

    Travel medicine needs are changing. New patterns of travel, including greater travel by individuals from emerging economies with different values in costs, risks and benefits, must be considered. This review aims to (1) highlight selected studies that have been published that address previously identified gaps in knowledge; (2) propose possible ways to consider questions regarding travel medicine practice for travelers from emerging economies, underscoring priorities for research focusing on these important populations; (3) highlight potential deficiencies in relevance of current international guidelines as they pertain to travelers from emerging economies; (4) frame research questions for travelers from emerging economies and (5) consider roles for ISTM in closing the gap. We reviewed past travel medicine research priorities published in 2010 to identify publications that responded to some research questions posed. We also reviewed CDC and WHO recommendations and assessed their applicability to travelers from emerging economies. Recent publications have responded to some research questions, but gaps remain and new questions have emerged. Re-framing of several key research questions is needed for travelers from emerging economies. A new challenge looms for traditional travel medicine fields to identify and attend to knowledge and guideline gaps, particularly to rethink questions regarding travel medicine to make them relevant for travelers from emerging economies. The International Society of Travel Medicine is well positioned to assist emerging economies assess their resources and needs, formulate research priorities and tailor the development of travel medicine into a framework aligned to their requirements. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. A note on the relevance of human population genetic variation and molecular epidemiology to assessing radiation health risk for space travellers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackley, M.E.; Curry, J.; Glickman, B.W.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss the relevance to space medicine of studies concerning human genetic variation and consequent variable disease susceptibility or sensitivity between individuals. The size of astronaut and cosmonaut populations is both presently and cumulatively small, and despite the launch of the International Space Station, unlikely to increase by orders of magnitude within the foreseeable future. In addition, astronauts-cosmonauts constitute unrepresentative samples of their national populations. While the context of exposure for the astronaut-cosmonaut group is one unlikely to be replicated elsewhere than in space, aspects of specific exposures may be simulated by events such as occupational radiation exposure or radiation therapy. Hence, population-based studies of genetic susceptibility or sensitivity to disease, especially where it is precipitated by events that may simulate consequences of the space environment, likely will prove of value in assessing long-term health risks

  1. Electron/positron measurements obtained with the Mars Science Laboratory Radiation Assessment Detector on the surface of Mars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, J.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.F.; Appel, J. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Experimental and Applied Physics; and others

    2016-04-01

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD), on board the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity, measures the energetic charged and neutral particles and the radiation dose rate on the surface of Mars. Although charged and neutral particle spectra have been investigated in detail, the electron and positron spectra have not been investigated yet. The reason for that is that they are difficult to separate from each other and because of the technical challenges involved in extracting energy spectra from the raw data. We use GEANT4 to model the behavior of the RAD instrument for electron/positron measurements.We compare Planetocosmics predictions for different atmospheric pressures and different modulation parameters Φ with the obtained RAD electron/positron measurements.We find that the RAD electron/positron measurements agree well with the spectra predicted by Planetocosmics. Both RAD measurements and Planetocosmics simulation show a dependence of the electron/positron fluxes on both atmospheric pressure and solar modulation potential.

  2. Quality assessment of Isfahan Medical Faculty web site electronic services and prioritizing solutions using analytic hierarchy process approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hajrahimi, Nafiseh; Dehaghani, Sayed Mehdi Hejazi; Hajrahimi, Nargess; Sarmadi, Sima

    2014-01-01

    Context: Implementing information technology in the best possible way can bring many advantages such as applying electronic services and facilitating tasks. Therefore, assessment of service providing systems is a way to improve the quality and elevate these systems including e-commerce, e-government, e-banking, and e-learning. Aims: This study was aimed to evaluate the electronic services in the website of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in order to propose solutions to improve them. F...

  3. International Development Research Centre Governor Travel Policy

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    André Lavoie

    business. Governors are required to travel to conduct IDRC business, attend ... of Governors, liaise with Centre management, and perform specific representational functions on ..... Travel between Points of Origin and Destination - Air Travel.

  4. Assessment of an electronic learning system for colon capsule endoscopy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Hirotsugu; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Yamada, Atsuo; Kakugawa, Yasuo; Nouda, Sadaharu; Terano, Akira

    2016-06-01

    Training for colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) procedures is currently performed as a lecture and hands-on seminar. The aims of this pilot study were to assess the utility of an electronic learning system for CCE (ELCCE) designed for the Japanese Association for Capsule Endoscopy using an objective scoring engine, and to evaluate the efficacy of ELCCE on the acquisition of CCE reading competence. ELCCE is an Internet-based learning system with the following steps: step 1, introduction; step 2, CCE reading competence assessment test (CCAT), which evaluates the competence of CCE reading prior to training; step 3, learning reading theory; step 4, training with guidance; step 5, training without guidance; step 6, final assessment; and step 7, the same as step 2. The CCAT, step 5 and step 6 were scored automatically according to: lesion detection, diagnosis (location, size, shape of lesion), management recommendations, and quality of view. Ten trainee endoscopists were initially recruited (cohort 1), followed by a validating cohort of 11 trainee endoscopists (cohort 2). All but one participant finished ELCCE training within 7 weeks. In step 6, accuracy ranged from 53 to 98 % and was not impacted by step 2 pretest scores. The average CCAT scores significantly increased between step 2 pretest and step 7 in both cohorts, from 42 ± 18 % to 79 ± 15 % in cohort 1 (p = 0.0004), and from 52 ± 15 % to 79 ± 14 % in cohort 2 (p = 0.0003). ELCCE is useful and effective for improving CCE reading competence.

  5. Initial Assessment of Electron and X-Ray Production and Charge Exchange in the NDCX-II Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to provide initial assessments of some atomic physics effects for the accelerator section of NDCX-II. There are several effects we address: the production of electrons associated with loss of beam ions to the walls, the production of electrons associated with ionization of background gas, the possibly resultant production of X-rays when these electrons hit bounding surfaces, and charge exchange of beam ions on background gas. The results presented here are based on a number of caveats that will be stated below, which we will attempt to remove in the near future.

  6. Carlson Wagonlit Travel

    CERN Multimedia

    Carlson Wagonlit Travel

    2005-01-01

    Chères clientes, chers clients, Le 3 janvier dernier, nous vous avons informé de la décision des compagnies aériennes de supprimer les commissions versées aux agences de voyages suisses. Cette mesure a été introduite progressivement pour être appliquées maintenant par toutes les compagnies, à quelques rares exceptions près. En conséquence, en accord avec le CERN, nous serons dans l'obligation d'appliquer une nouvelle liste de prix de nos transactions pour les voyages privés. Elle sera applicable dès le lundi 25 juillet 2005. Carlson Wagonlit Travel (CWT) vous propose : Son service de conseil personnalisé, professionnel et compétent Sa recherche de la solution la plus économique et la mieux adaptée à vos besoins Sa neutralité dans les comparaisons de prix et prestations Des informations com...

  7. Calculation of groundwater travel time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnett, R.C.; Sagar, B.; Baca, R.G.

    1984-12-01

    Pre-waste-emplacement groundwater travel time is one indicator of the isolation capability of the geologic system surrounding a repository. Two distinct modeling approaches exist for prediction of groundwater flow paths and travel times from the repository location to the designated accessible environment boundary. These two approaches are: (1) the deterministic approach which calculates a single value prediction of groundwater travel time based on average values for input parameters and (2) the stochastic approach which yields a distribution of possible groundwater travel times as a function of the nature and magnitude of uncertainties in the model inputs. The purposes of this report are to (1) document the theoretical (i.e., mathematical) basis used to calculate groundwater pathlines and travel times in a basalt system, (2) outline limitations and ranges of applicability of the deterministic modeling approach, and (3) explain the motivation for the use of the stochastic modeling approach currently being used to predict groundwater pathlines and travel times for the Hanford Site. Example calculations of groundwater travel times are presented to highlight and compare the differences between the deterministic and stochastic modeling approaches. 28 refs

  8. Experienced travel time prediction for congested freeways

    OpenAIRE

    Yildirimoglu, Mehmet; Geroliminis, Nikolaos

    2013-01-01

    Travel time is an important performance measure for transportation systems, and dissemination of travel time information can help travelers make reliable travel decisions such as route choice or departure time. Since the traffic data collected in real time reflects the past or current conditions on the roadway, a predictive travel time methodology should be used to obtain the information to be disseminated. However, an important part of the literature either uses instantaneous travel time ass...

  9. Assessment of specific absorbed fractions for photons and electrons using average adult Japanese female phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manabe, Kentaro; Sato, Kaoru; Takahashi, Fumiaki

    2016-12-01

    In the 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the procedure for calculating effective doses was modified as follows. Equivalent doses are evaluated using the male and female voxel phantoms on the basis of reference anatomical data of Caucasians, and effective doses are calculated using sex-averaged equivalent doses in applying tissue weighting factors. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs), which are essential data for calculating internal doses, depend on the body weights, organ masses, and positional relations of organs of the phantoms. Then, the dose coefficients, which are committed effective doses per unit intake of radionuclides, developed by ICRP on the basis of the 2007 Recommendations reflect the physical characteristics of Caucasians and are averaged over the sexes. Meanwhile, the physiques of adult Japanese are generally smaller than those of adult Caucasians, and organ masses are also different from each other. Therefore, dose coefficients reflecting Japanese physical characteristics are different from those of ICRP. Knowledge of the influence of race differences on dose coefficients is important to apply the sex averaged dose coefficients of ICRP to the Japanese system of radiation protection. SAF data based on phantoms which have Japanese physical characteristics is essential for assessment of the dose coefficients reflecting Japanese physical characteristics. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency constructed average adult Japanese phantoms, JM-103 (male) and JF-103 (female), and is developing a dose estimation method for internal exposure using these phantoms. This report provides photon and electron SAFs of JF-103. The data of this report and the previously published data of JM-103 are applicable to evaluate sex-specific and sex-averaged dose coefficients reflecting the physical characteristics of the average adult Japanese for intakes of radionuclides emitting photons and electrons. Appendix as CD-ROM. (J.P.N.)

  10. Industrial assessment of radiofrequency and microwave radiations: case study at electronic manufacturing industries in Penang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zaid Abdullah

    1996-01-01

    In electronic manufacturing industry, the applications of an equipment emitting radiofrequency radiation (RFR) are numerous and Increasing. It is known that exposure to RFR at sufficiently high intensity and duration can produce a variety of adverse health effects. This paper presents some results from an extensive studies in the RFR field measurements at frequency range from 100 MHz to 1 GHz. All measurements were performed inside factories located at the Penang Free Trade Zone. In this case, the factories chosen are those that manufacture the electronic components whereby the applications of RFR equipment are likely to be intensive compared to other type of industries. The measurement system used in this study are the portable spectrum-analyzer, the passive log-periodic antenna and a desktop computer for data analysis. Results from this study have indicated that the RFR exposure levels in most factories are in the range of 7.7 x 10 sup -4 - 4.31 x 10 sup -3 Wm sup -2 and 0.01 - 0. 741 Vm sup -1 for power density and electric strength measurement respectively. These ranges are at least 100 times lower compared to the RFR protection guidelines proposed by the American National Standard Institute (ANSI). However, the exposure levels inside the factory are consistently 10 sup -3 - 10 sup -4 higher than the levels caused by natural sources and is about 10 sup 2 - 10 sup 6 higher than the levels measured at a distance of 30 m from a low-power output mobile phone transmitter. In the case of the health effect assessment, no sufficient evidence has been found to indicate the potential consequences resulting from excessive RFR exposure. Nonetheless, many factories surveyed are unaware of the existence of the international guidelines and codes on the safe use of radiofrequency energy even though, some measures are being taken to protect their employees against RFR

  11. Accurate assessment of adherence: self-report and clinician report vs electronic monitoring of nebulizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Tracey; Goodacre, Lynne; Sutton, Chris; Pollard, Kim; Conway, Steven; Peckham, Daniel

    2011-08-01

    People with cystic fibrosis have a high treatment burden. While uncertainty remains about individual patient level of adherence to medication, treatment regimens are difficult to tailor, and interventions are difficult to evaluate. Self- and clinician-reported measures are routinely used despite criticism that they overestimate adherence. This study assessed agreement between rates of adherence to prescribed nebulizer treatments when measured by self-report, clinician report, and electronic monitoring suitable for long-term use. Seventy-eight adults with cystic fibrosis were questioned about their adherence to prescribed nebulizer treatments over the previous 3 months. Self-report was compared with clinician report and stored adherence data downloaded from the I-Neb nebulizer system. Adherence measures were expressed as a percentage of the prescribed regimen, bias was estimated by the paired difference in mean (95% CI) patient and clinician reported and actual adherence. Agreement between adherence measures was calculated using intraclass correlation coefficients (95% CI), and disagreements for individuals were displayed using Bland-Altman plots. Patient-identified prescriptions matched the medical record prescription. Median self-reported adherence was 80% (interquartile range, 60%-95%), whereas median adherence measured by nebulizer download was 36% (interquartile range, 5%-84.5%). Nine participants overmedicated and underreported adherence. Median clinician report ranged from 50% to 60%, depending on profession. Extensive discrepancies between self-report and clinician report compared with nebulizer download were identified for individuals. Self- and clinician-reporting of adherence does not provide accurate measurement of adherence when compared with electronic monitoring. Using inaccurate measures has implications for treatment burden, clinician prescribing practices, cost, and accuracy of trial data.

  12. Travel Time to Hospital for Childbirth: Comparing Calculated Versus Reported Travel Times in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, Hugo; Prunet, Caroline; Blondel, Béatrice; Charreire, Hélène; Combier, Evelyne; Le Vaillant, Marc; Amat-Roze, Jeanne-Marie; Zeitlin, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Timely access to health care is critical in obstetrics. Yet obtaining reliable estimates of travel times to hospital for childbirth poses methodological challenges. We compared two measures of travel time, self-reported and calculated, to assess concordance and to identify determinants of long travel time to hospital for childbirth. Methods Data came from the 2010 French National Perinatal Survey, a national representative sample of births (N = 14 681). We compared both travel time measures by maternal, maternity unit and geographic characteristics in rural, peri-urban and urban areas. Logistic regression models were used to study factors associated with reported and calculated times ≥30 min. Cohen's kappa coefficients were also calculated to estimate the agreement between reported and calculated times according to women's characteristics. Results In urban areas, the proportion of women with travel times ≥30 min was higher when reported rather than calculated times were used (11.0 vs. 3.6%). Longer reported times were associated with non-French nationality [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.3 (95% CI 1.0-1.7)] and inadequate prenatal care [aOR 1.5 (95% CI 1.2-2.0)], but not for calculated times. Concordance between the two measures was higher in peri-urban and rural areas (52.4 vs. 52.3% for rural areas). Delivery in a specialised level 2 or 3 maternity unit was a principal determinant of long reported and measured times in peri-urban and rural areas. Conclusions for Practice The level of agreement between reported and calculated times varies according to geographic context. Poor measurement of travel time in urban areas may mask problems in accessibility.

  13. Incidence, risk factors and treatment of diarrhoea among Dutch travellers: reasons not to routinely prescribe antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belderok Sanne-Meike

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Travellers' diarrhoea (TD is the most common infectious disease among travellers. In the Netherlands, stand-by or prophylactic antibiotics are not routinely prescribed to travellers. This study prospectively assessed the incidence rate, risk factors, and treatment of TD among immunocompetent travellers. Methods Persons who attended the travel clinic of the Public Health Service Amsterdam in 2006-2007 before short-term travel to tropical and subtropical countries were invited to answer a questionnaire regarding sociodemographics and travel purpose; they were also asked to keep a daily structured travel diary, recording their itinerary, symptoms, and self-medication or consultation with a doctor. Diarrhoea episodes containing blood or mucous were considered severe. Results Of 1202 travellers, the median age was 38 years, and the median travel duration 3 weeks. Of all episodes, 96% were mild. The median duration of TD was 2 days and significantly shorter in subsequent episodes compared to first episodes (p Conclusions TD is common among travellers, but the overall course is mild, not requiring treatment. The incidence rates for first and second episodes are comparable. Female sex is a risk factor for the first episode, as well as subsequent ones. Prescription antibiotics are not needed in short-term healthy travellers.

  14. A simple data fusion method for instantaneous travel time estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Do, Michael; Pueboobpaphan, R.; Miska, Marc; Kuwahara, Masao; van Arem, Bart; Viegas, J.M.; Macario, R.

    2010-01-01

    Travel time is one of the most understandable parameters to describe traffic condition and an important input to many intelligent transportation systems applications. Direct measurement from Electronic Toll Collection (ETC) system is promising but the data arrives too late, only after the vehicles

  15. A novel approach for honey pollen profile assessment using an electronic tongue and chemometric tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Luís G.; Veloso, Ana C.A.; Sousa, Mara E.B.C.; Estevinho, Letícia; Machado, Adélio A.S.C.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays the main honey producing countries require accurate labeling of honey before commercialization, including floral classification. Traditionally, this classification is made by melissopalynology analysis, an accurate but time-consuming task requiring laborious sample pre-treatment and high-skilled technicians. In this work the potential use of a potentiometric electronic tongue for pollinic assessment is evaluated, using monofloral and polyfloral honeys. The results showed that after splitting honeys according to color (white, amber and dark), the novel methodology enabled quantifying the relative percentage of the main pollens (Castanea sp., Echium sp., Erica sp., Eucaliptus sp., Lavandula sp., Prunus sp., Rubus sp. and Trifolium sp.). Multiple linear regression models were established for each type of pollen, based on the best sensors' sub-sets selected using the simulated annealing algorithm. To minimize the overfitting risk, a repeated K-fold cross-validation procedure was implemented, ensuring that at least 10–20% of the honeys were used for internal validation. With this approach, a minimum average determination coefficient of 0.91 ± 0.15 was obtained. Also, the proposed technique enabled the correct classification of 92% and 100% of monofloral and polyfloral honeys, respectively. The quite satisfactory performance of the novel procedure for quantifying the relative pollen frequency may envisage its applicability for honey labeling and geographical origin identification. Nevertheless, this approach is not a full alternative to the traditional melissopalynologic analysis; it may be seen as a practical complementary tool for preliminary honey floral classification, leaving only problematic cases for pollinic evaluation. - Highlights: • Honey's floral origin labeling is a legal requirement. • Melissopalynology analysis usually used to evaluate pollens profile is laborious. • A novel E-tongue based approach is applied to assess pollens relative

  16. A novel approach for honey pollen profile assessment using an electronic tongue and chemometric tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Luís G., E-mail: ldias@ipb.pt [Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus Santa Apolónia, 5301-855 Bragança (Portugal); CQ-VR, Centro de Química – Vila Real, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Apartado 1013, 5001-801 Vila Real (Portugal); Veloso, Ana C.A. [Instituto Politécnico de Coimbra, ISEC, DEQB, Rua Pedro Nunes, Quinta da Nora, 3030-199 Coimbra (Portugal); CEB-Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Sousa, Mara E.B.C.; Estevinho, Letícia [CIMO-Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus Santa Apolónia, 5301-855 Bragança (Portugal); Machado, Adélio A.S.C. [LAQUIPAI – Laboratório de Química Inorgânica Pura e de Aplicação Interdisciplinar, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências da, Universidade do Porto, Rua Campo Alegre n°. 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); and others

    2015-11-05

    Nowadays the main honey producing countries require accurate labeling of honey before commercialization, including floral classification. Traditionally, this classification is made by melissopalynology analysis, an accurate but time-consuming task requiring laborious sample pre-treatment and high-skilled technicians. In this work the potential use of a potentiometric electronic tongue for pollinic assessment is evaluated, using monofloral and polyfloral honeys. The results showed that after splitting honeys according to color (white, amber and dark), the novel methodology enabled quantifying the relative percentage of the main pollens (Castanea sp., Echium sp., Erica sp., Eucaliptus sp., Lavandula sp., Prunus sp., Rubus sp. and Trifolium sp.). Multiple linear regression models were established for each type of pollen, based on the best sensors' sub-sets selected using the simulated annealing algorithm. To minimize the overfitting risk, a repeated K-fold cross-validation procedure was implemented, ensuring that at least 10–20% of the honeys were used for internal validation. With this approach, a minimum average determination coefficient of 0.91 ± 0.15 was obtained. Also, the proposed technique enabled the correct classification of 92% and 100% of monofloral and polyfloral honeys, respectively. The quite satisfactory performance of the novel procedure for quantifying the relative pollen frequency may envisage its applicability for honey labeling and geographical origin identification. Nevertheless, this approach is not a full alternative to the traditional melissopalynologic analysis; it may be seen as a practical complementary tool for preliminary honey floral classification, leaving only problematic cases for pollinic evaluation. - Highlights: • Honey's floral origin labeling is a legal requirement. • Melissopalynology analysis usually used to evaluate pollens profile is laborious. • A novel E-tongue based approach is applied to assess pollens

  17. GH Travel & Mission Support System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — HTRAMS is a travel data collection system for GH that collects information on both the basic details of an employee's trips (destination, length, purpose, etc.) and...

  18. PPL Travel & Mission Support System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — PTRAMS is a travel data collection system for PPL that collects information on both the basic details of an employee's trips (destination, length, purpose, etc.) and...

  19. Traveler's Health: Avoid Bug Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Road Safety - 8 Steps MERS Health Advisory poster MERS Pictogram CDC Guide for Healthy Travel Website ... other accommodations that are air conditioned or have good window and door screens so bugs can’t ...

  20. Travelers' Health: Injuries and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Road Safety - 8 Steps MERS Health Advisory poster MERS Pictogram CDC Guide for Healthy Travel Website ... possible, fly on larger planes (>30 seats), in good weather, during the daylight hours, and with experienced ...

  1. DCHA Travel & Mission Support System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — DTRAMS is a travel data collection system for DCHA that collects information on both the basic details of an employee's trips (destination, length, purpose, etc.)...

  2. Transmedia storytelling on travel stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Baltar Moreno

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Travel stories form part of a great tradition inside Western Culture which has served historically to describe, to understand and to imagine other cul - tures and communities, far or near, being constituted into a real narra - tive genre. This type of story has been and is a reflection of the perception of the world based on the imaginary worlds created by the travelling narrators. How do modern authors of travel stories take advantage of the opportunities offered by transmedia storytelling? The present article explores the potential of these types of stories as a privileged object of study for transmedia storytelling studies, from the analysis of a sample of 80 narrative productions based on experiences of travel and presented in diverse editions of the Festival Le Grand Bivouac (France. It also shows the existence of a new contemporary trend inside this narrative form that transcends its literary nature.

  3. Bacterial infec tions in travellers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    namely bacterial causes of travellers' diarrhoea and skin infections, as well as .... Vaccination: protective efficacy against typhoid may be overcome by ingesting a high bacterial load. Vaccine ..... preparation such as cream sauce. Only after ...

  4. Travel time estimation using Bluetooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using a Bluetooth Probe Detection System (BPDS) to : estimate travel time in an urban area. Specifically, the study investigated the possibility of measuring overall congestion, the : ...

  5. Travel reliability inventory for Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The overarching goal of this research project is to enable state DOTs to document and monitor the reliability performance : of their highway networks. To this end, a computer tool, TRIC, was developed to produce travel reliability inventories from : ...

  6. Radiation hazard when we travel?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamat Omar

    2003-01-01

    It is apparent that we are all exposed to natural radiation while travelling from one place to another. Air and sea travelers receive the highest and the lowest radiation dose respectively. The doses received by on-land travelers are generally low although some places near the mineral and slag heaps show high radiation levels. With proper management and enforcement, the contribution from these heaps on the roadsides can be easily removed. The other important radiation source is the tunnels built through granite rocks. However, this is more concern to the construction workers rather than to travelers. Thus, the authors are of the opinion that it is worth to look into the radiation exposures to the tunnel construction workers

  7. Long distance travel ‘today’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Dane’s long distance travel. It is a part of the Drivers and Limits project about long distance travel. Long distance travel is in the project defined as infrequent travel with overnight stay. Danes 15-85 years-old travel in average 5.5 long distance travel...... per year og which a third is for international destinations, a third is for domestic second homes and a third are other domestic trips. However, 87% of the kilometres are for international destinations and only 4% are for domestic second homes. Travel activity is very uneven distributed with only half...... of the population having had a journey during the last three month. At the other hand 60% have travelled internationally during the last year and only 2% have never travelled abroad. The paper presents among other things how the travel activity is distributed on travel purpose and mode and how the mode choice...

  8. Electronic patient self-assessment and management (SAM): a novel framework for cancer survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Andrew J; Salz, Talya; Basch, Ethan; Cooperberg, Matthew R; Carroll, Peter R; Tighe, Foss; Eastham, James; Rosen, Raymond C

    2010-06-17

    We propose a novel framework for management of cancer survivorship: electronic patient Self-Assessment and Management (SAM). SAM is a framework for transfer of information to and from patients in such a way as to increase both the patient's and the health care provider's understanding of the patient's progress, and to help ensure that patient care follows best practice. Patients who participate in the SAM system are contacted by email at regular intervals and asked to complete validated questionnaires online. Patient responses on these questionnaires are then analyzed in order to provide patients with real-time, online information about their progress and to provide them with tailored and standardized medical advice. Patient-level data from the questionnaires are ported in real time to the patient's health care provider to be uploaded to clinic notes. An initial version of SAM has been developed at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) and the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) for aiding the clinical management of patients after surgery for prostate cancer. Pilot testing at MSKCC and UCSF suggests that implementation of SAM systems are feasible, with no major problems with compliance (> 70% response rate) or security. SAM is a conceptually simple framework for passing information to and from patients in such a way as to increase both the patient's and the health care provider's understanding of the patient's progress, and to help ensure that patient care follows best practice.

  9. A Comparative Health Risk Assessment of Electronic Cigarettes and Conventional Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsong Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although some studies have identified hazardous substances in electronic cigarette (EC liquids and emissions, there is limited information about the health risks of using ECs. Methods: In this study, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA health risk assessment model and findings of a literature review were used to determine and profile hazards. Focus was put on the toxicants reported in the literature on conventional cigarette (CC smoke that most strongly associated with adverse health effects. To evaluate their health risks, dose-response relationships and standard-use conditions were used to estimate average hazard exposures and to calculate the overall health risks of ECs and CCs, benchmarked against international guideline levels for each hazard. Results: Four hazards (acrolein, diethylene glycol, propylene glycol and cadmium reported in EC emissions and seven hazards (acetaldehyde, acrolein, formaldehyde, cadmium, CO, 4-(methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK, N′-nitrosonornicotine (NNN reported in CC emissions had maximum exposure levels higher than the guideline levels. Two hazards (acrolein, propylene glycol in EC emissions and five hazards (acetaldehyde, acrolein, formaldehyde, cadmium, NNN in CC emissions had average exposure levels higher than the guideline levels. Conclusions: Based on the conditions of use, ECs should be a safer nicotine-delivery product than CCs.

  10. Assessment of a Standardized ROS Production Profile in Humans by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Mrakic-Sposta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growing interest in the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS in health and disease, reliable quantitative noninvasive methods for the assessment of oxidative stress in humans are still lacking. EPR technique, coupled to a specific spin probe (CMH: 1-hydroxy-3-methoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine is here presented as the method of choice to gain a direct measurement of ROS in biological fluids and tissues. The study aimed at demonstrating that, differently from currently available “a posteriori” assays of ROS-induced damage by means of biomolecules (e.g., proteins and lipids spin-trapping EPR provides direct evidence of the “instantaneous” presence of radical species in the sample and, as signal areas are proportional to the number of excited electron spins, lead to absolute concentration levels. Using a recently developed bench top continuous wave system (e-scan EPR scanner, Bruker dealing with very low ROS concentration levels in small (50 μL samples, we successfully monitored rapid ROS production changes in peripheral blood of athletes after controlled exercise and sedentary subjects after antioxidant supplementation. The correlation between EPR results and data obtained by various enzymatic assays (e.g., protein carbonyls and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was determined too. Synthetically, our method allows reliable, quick, noninvasive quantitative determination of ROS in human peripheral blood.

  11. Electronic patient self-assessment and management (SAM: a novel framework for cancer survivorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tighe Foss

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We propose a novel framework for management of cancer survivorship: electronic patient Self-Assessment and Management (SAM. SAM is a framework for transfer of information to and from patients in such a way as to increase both the patient's and the health care provider's understanding of the patient's progress, and to help ensure that patient care follows best practice. Methods Patients who participate in the SAM system are contacted by email at regular intervals and asked to complete validated questionnaires online. Patient responses on these questionnaires are then analyzed in order to provide patients with real-time, online information about their progress and to provide them with tailored and standardized medical advice. Patient-level data from the questionnaires are ported in real time to the patient's health care provider to be uploaded to clinic notes. An initial version of SAM has been developed at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC and the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF for aiding the clinical management of patients after surgery for prostate cancer. Results Pilot testing at MSKCC and UCSF suggests that implementation of SAM systems are feasible, with no major problems with compliance (> 70% response rate or security. Conclusion SAM is a conceptually simple framework for passing information to and from patients in such a way as to increase both the patient's and the health care provider's understanding of the patient's progress, and to help ensure that patient care follows best practice.

  12. Coronary artery disease risk assessment from unstructured electronic health records using text mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonnagaddala, Jitendra; Liaw, Siaw-Teng; Ray, Pradeep; Kumar, Manish; Chang, Nai-Wen; Dai, Hong-Jie

    2015-12-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) often leads to myocardial infarction, which may be fatal. Risk factors can be used to predict CAD, which may subsequently lead to prevention or early intervention. Patient data such as co-morbidities, medication history, social history and family history are required to determine the risk factors for a disease. However, risk factor data are usually embedded in unstructured clinical narratives if the data is not collected specifically for risk assessment purposes. Clinical text mining can be used to extract data related to risk factors from unstructured clinical notes. This study presents methods to extract Framingham risk factors from unstructured electronic health records using clinical text mining and to calculate 10-year coronary artery disease risk scores in a cohort of diabetic patients. We developed a rule-based system to extract risk factors: age, gender, total cholesterol, HDL-C, blood pressure, diabetes history and smoking history. The results showed that the output from the text mining system was reliable, but there was a significant amount of missing data to calculate the Framingham risk score. A systematic approach for understanding missing data was followed by implementation of imputation strategies. An analysis of the 10-year Framingham risk scores for coronary artery disease in this cohort has shown that the majority of the diabetic patients are at moderate risk of CAD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Stability assessment of a multi-port power electronic interface for hybrid micro-grid applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsi, Pourya

    Migration to an industrial society increases the demand for electrical energy. Meanwhile, social causes for preserving the environment and reducing pollutions seek cleaner forms of energy sources. Therefore, there has been a growth in distributed generation from renewable sources in the past decade. Existing regulations and power system coordination does not allow for massive integration of distributed generation throughout the grid. Moreover, the current infrastructures are not designed for interfacing distributed and deregulated generation. In order to remedy this problem, a hybrid micro-grid based on nano-grids is introduced. This system consists of a reliable micro-grid structure that provides a smooth transition from the current distribution networks to smart micro-grid systems. Multi-port power electronic interfaces are introduced to manage the local generation, storage, and consumption. Afterwards, a model for this micro-grid is derived. Using this model, the stability of the system under a variety of source and load induced disturbances is studied. Moreover, pole-zero study of the micro-grid is performed under various loading conditions. An experimental setup of this micro-grid is developed, and the validity of the model in emulating the dynamic behavior of the system is verified. This study provides a theory for a novel hybrid micro-grid as well as models for stability assessment of the proposed micro-grid.

  14. Assessing the National Bioengineered Food Disclosure Standard of 2016: Can Americans Access Electronic Disclosure Information?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig F. Berning

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The debate as to whether to require mandatory labeling of genetically modified organism (GMO foods was partially settled on 29 July 2016, when President Obama signed the National Bioengineered Food Disclosure Standard into public law. In contrast to precipitating legislation passed by the State of Vermont that required disclosure of GMO ingredients on food shelves or food packages, the superseding National Standard allows firms to disclose bioengineered ingredients to consumers via symbols, electronic or digital links, or phone numbers, and further requires a study assessing the ability of consumers to access disclosure information by these means. This communication analyzes survey responses from 525 adults to investigate whether U.S. consumers are able to obtain information as per the disclosure methods allowed in the Federal legislation. The survey probes deeper to investigate consumer perceptions of genetically modified organisms and whether consumers would use the tools available to access disclosure about bioengineered ingredients. Findings from the survey show that 93.8% of respondents have the ability to access information via the disclosure methods permitted. Those in the lowest income group, and from the oldest age group are least likely to have such access. This provides the United State Department of Agriculture with information relevant to how they can implement the law and highlights particular demographic segments that may require additional attention to ensure the disclosed information is universally accessible.

  15. Assessing explicit error reporting in the narrative electronic medical record using keyword searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hui; Stetson, Peter; Hripcsak, George

    2003-01-01

    Many types of medical errors occur in and outside of hospitals, some of which have very serious consequences and increase cost. Identifying errors is a critical step for managing and preventing them. In this study, we assessed the explicit reporting of medical errors in the electronic record. We used five search terms "mistake," "error," "incorrect," "inadvertent," and "iatrogenic" to survey several sets of narrative reports including discharge summaries, sign-out notes, and outpatient notes from 1991 to 2000. We manually reviewed all the positive cases and identified them based on the reporting of physicians. We identified 222 explicitly reported medical errors. The positive predictive value varied with different keywords. In general, the positive predictive value for each keyword was low, ranging from 3.4 to 24.4%. Therapeutic-related errors were the most common reported errors and these reported therapeutic-related errors were mainly medication errors. Keyword searches combined with manual review indicated some medical errors that were reported in medical records. It had a low sensitivity and a moderate positive predictive value, which varied by search term. Physicians were most likely to record errors in the Hospital Course and History of Present Illness sections of discharge summaries. The reported errors in medical records covered a broad range and were related to several types of care providers as well as non-health care professionals.

  16. Use of the Electronic Medical Record to Assess Pancreas Size in Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virostko, John; Hilmes, Melissa; Eitel, Kelsey; Moore, Daniel J.; Powers, Alvin C.

    2016-01-01

    Aims This study harnessed the electronic medical record to assess pancreas volume in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and matched controls to determine whether pancreas volume is altered in T1D and identify covariates that influence pancreas volume. Methods This study included 25 patients with T1D and 25 age-, sex-, and weight-matched controls from the Vanderbilt University Medical Center enterprise data warehouse. Measurements of pancreas volume were made from medical imaging studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT). Results Patients with T1D had a pancreas volume 47% smaller than matched controls (41.16 ml vs. 77.77 ml, P pancreas volume normalized by subject body weight, body mass index, or body surface area (all P pancreas volume over time (~ 6% of volume/year), whereas five controls scanned a year apart did not exhibit a decline in pancreas size (P = 0.03). The pancreas was uniformly smaller on the right and left side of the abdomen. Conclusions Pancreas volume declines with disease duration in patients with T1D, suggesting a protracted pathological process that may include the exocrine pancreas. PMID:27391588

  17. Ground-water travel time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, H.; Grisak, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Ground-Water Travel Time Subgroup are presented

  18. Time travel in Goedel's space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfarr, J.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the motion of test particles in Goedel's universe. Both geodesical and nongeodesical motions are considered; the accelerations for nongeodesical motions are given. Examples for closed timelike world lines are shown and the dynamical conditions for time travel in Goedel's space-time are discussed. It is shown that these conditions alone do not suffice to exclude time travel in Goedel's space-time. (author)

  19. Sequentially pulsed traveling wave accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaso, George J [Livermore, CA; Nelson, Scott D [Patterson, CA; Poole, Brian R [Tracy, CA

    2009-08-18

    A sequentially pulsed traveling wave compact accelerator having two or more pulse forming lines each with a switch for producing a short acceleration pulse along a short length of a beam tube, and a trigger mechanism for sequentially triggering the switches so that a traveling axial electric field is produced along the beam tube in synchronism with an axially traversing pulsed beam of charged particles to serially impart energy to the particle beam.

  20. Characteristics and pre-travel preparation of travelers at a Canadian pediatric tertiary care travel clinic: A retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao Wei; Pell, Lisa G; Akseer, Nadia; Khan, Sarah; Lam, Ray E; Louch, Debra; Science, Michelle; Morris, Shaun K

    2016-01-01

    International travelers are susceptible to a wide spectrum of travel related morbidities. Despite rising number of international travelers in Canada, the demographics, risk profiles, and preventative strategies of high-risk traveler groups, including pediatric travelers visiting friends and relatives (VFRs) are not well described. A descriptive analysis was conducted on pre-travel consultations completed between January 2013 and August 2014 at a large pediatric tertiary care center in Toronto, Canada. Data on demographics, travel characteristics, and pre-travel interventions were extracted from 370 pre-travel consultations. Results were compared between all VFR and non-VFR travelers, as well as between children traveling to visit friends and relatives, for vacation, and for education and/or volunteer purposes. Forty-eight percent of consultations were for children travel to visit friends and/or relatives than for other purposes (29% vs 9%, p travel for >28 days than children traveling for vacation (43% vs 1%, p traveling for education/volunteer purposes (43% vs 21%, p = 0.03). Around half of cVFRs traveled to destinations in Asia (51%). The majority stayed with locals, friends and/or relatives (85%), and nearly all traveled to urban destinations (98%). The most prescribed interventions for children were azithromycin (84%), Dukoral (66%), and the hepatitis A vaccine (60%). Atovaquone/proguanil was the most commonly prescribed antimalarial for children. Children that travel to visit friends and relatives represent a unique travel group and may require specific considerations during pre-travel preparations. Our findings can help develop targeted pre-travel strategies for children VFRs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Intercity Travel Demand Analysis Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that intercity travel is an important component of travel demand which belongs to short distance corridor travel. The conventional four-step method is no longer suitable for short distance corridor travel demand analysis for the time spent on urban traffic has a great impact on traveler's main mode choice. To solve this problem, the author studied the existing intercity travel demand analysis model, then improved it based on the study, and finally established a combined model of main mode choice and access mode choice. At last, an integrated multilevel nested logit model structure system was built. The model system includes trip generation, destination choice, and mode-route choice based on multinomial logit model, and it achieved linkage and feedback of each part through logsum variable. This model was applied in Shenzhen intercity railway passenger demand forecast in 2010 as a case study. As a result, the forecast results were consistent with the actuality. The model's correctness and feasibility were verified.

  2. Infectious Risks of Traveling Abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin H; Blair, Barbra M

    2015-08-01

    A popular leisure activity, international travel can be associated with some infections. The most common travel-related illnesses appear to be gastrointestinal, dermatologic, respiratory, and systemic febrile syndromes. The pretravel medical consultation includes immunizations, malaria chemoprophylaxis, self-treatment for traveler's diarrhea, and advice on the prevention of a myriad of other infectious causes including dengue, chikungunya, rickettsiosis, leptospirosis, schistosomiasis, and strongyloidiasis. Travel to locations experiencing outbreaks such as Ebola virus disease, Middle East respiratory syndrome, avian influenza, and chikungunya call for specific alerts on preventive strategies. After travel, evaluation of an ill traveler must explore details of exposure, including destinations visited; activities; ingestion of contaminated food or drinks; contact with vectors, animals, fresh water, or blood and body fluids; and other potential exposures. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of infectious diseases is important in generating the differential diagnoses and testing accordingly. Empiric treatment is sometimes necessary when suspicion of a certain diagnosis is strong and confirmatory tests are delayed or lacking, particularly for infections that are rapidly progressive (for example, malaria) or for which timing of testing is prolonged (such as leptospirosis).

  3. UNderstanding uptake of Immunisations in TravellIng aNd Gypsy communities (UNITING): a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Cath; Dyson, Lisa; Bedford, Helen; Cheater, Francine M; Condon, Louise; Crocker, Annie; Emslie, Carol; Ireland, Lana; Kemsley, Philippa; Kerr, Susan; Lewis, Helen J; Mytton, Julie; Overend, Karen; Redsell, Sarah; Richardson, Zoe; Shepherd, Christine; Smith, Lesley

    2016-09-01

    the Bristol English Gypsy/Irish Traveller community. Language, literacy, discrimination, poor school attendance, poverty and housing were identified by Travellers and service providers as barriers for some. Trustful relationships with health professionals were important and continuity of care was valued. A few English-speaking Travellers described problems of booking and attending for immunisation. Service providers tailored their approach to Travellers, particularly the Roma. Funding cuts, NHS reforms and poor monitoring challenged their work. Five 'top-priority' interventions were agreed across communities and service providers to improve the immunisation among Travellers who are housed or settled on an authorised site: (1) cultural competence training for health professionals and frontline staff; (2) identification of Travellers in health records to tailor support and monitor uptake; (3) provision of a named frontline person in general practitioner practices to provide respectful and supportive service; (4) flexible and diverse systems for booking appointments, recall and reminders; and (5) protected funding for health visitors specialising in Traveller health, including immunisation. No Travellers living on the roadside or on unofficial encampments were interviewed. We should exert caution in generalising to these groups. To include development, implementation and evaluation of a national policy plan (and practice guidance plan) to promote the uptake of immunisation among Traveller communities. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN20019630 and UK Clinical Research Network Portfolio number 15182. This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 20, No. 72. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.

  4. Inter-temporal variation in the travel time and travel cost parameters of transport models

    OpenAIRE

    Börjesson, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The parameters for travel time and travel cost are central in travel demand forecasting models. Since valuation of infrastructure investments requires prediction of travel demand for future evaluation years, inter-temporal variation of the travel time and travel cost parameters is a key issue in forecasting. Using two identical stated choice experiments conducted among Swedish drivers with an interval of 13 years, 1994 and 2007, this paper estimates the inter-temporal variation in travel time...

  5. Danish long distance travel A study of Danish travel behaviour and the role of infrequent travel activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mette Aagaard

    2014-01-01

    , this is problematic. The average travel distance has steadily increased during the latest decades together with the increasing motorisation of daily travel and international aviation. Previously most focus has been on domestic daily travel activities, but globalisation has, together with changes in price structures......), the TU overnight survey, and the Danish Tourism Statistics from the Business and Holiday Survey (HBS). This has enabled focus on infrequent travel activities segmented relative to travel purpose, distance threshold, or travelling with overnight stays. At an overall level the thesis has three main.......g. socio-economic variables. The analysis of Danish travel activities described in the three different travel surveys has outlined detailed information on Danish travel behaviour at an aggregated level during the past two decades. It has above all revealed the significant role of leisure travel. Private...

  6. What Constitutes Adoption of the Web: A Methodological Problem in Assessing Adoption of the World Wide Web for Electronic Commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Marilyn Domas; Abels, Eileen G.; Gordon-Murnane, Laura

    1998-01-01

    Reports on methodological developments in a project to assess the adoption of the Web by publishers of business information for electronic commerce. Describes the approach used on a sample of 20 business publishers to identify five clusters of publishers ranging from traditionalist to innovator. Distinguishes between adopters and nonadopters of…

  7. Assessing Readiness for Integration of Electronic Learning into Business Education Programmes in Tertiary Institutions in Ebonyi State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwagwu, Lazarus; Azih, Nonye

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to assess readiness for integration of electronic learning into business education programmes in tertiary institutions in Ebonyi State. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The population was 37 business education lecturers and 748 Business Education Students in tertiary institutions that offer…

  8. An electronic portfolio for quantitative assessment of surgical skills in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Gómez, Serafín; Ostos, Elisa María Cabot; Solano, Juan Manuel Maza; Salado, Tomás Francisco Herrero

    2013-05-06

    We evaluated a newly designed electronic portfolio (e-Portfolio) that provided quantitative evaluation of surgical skills. Medical students at the University of Seville used the e-Portfolio on a voluntary basis for evaluation of their performance in undergraduate surgical subjects. Our new web-based e-Portfolio was designed to evaluate surgical practical knowledge and skills targets. Students recorded each activity on a form, attached evidence, and added their reflections. Students self-assessed their practical knowledge using qualitative criteria (yes/no), and graded their skills according to complexity (basic/advanced) and participation (observer/assistant/independent). A numerical value was assigned to each activity, and the values of all activities were summated to obtain the total score. The application automatically displayed quantitative feedback. We performed qualitative evaluation of the perceived usefulness of the e-Portfolio and quantitative evaluation of the targets achieved. Thirty-seven of 112 students (33%) used the e-Portfolio, of which 87% reported that they understood the methodology of the portfolio. All students reported an improved understanding of their learning objectives resulting from the numerical visualization of progress, all students reported that the quantitative feedback encouraged their learning, and 79% of students felt that their teachers were more available because they were using the e-Portfolio. Only 51.3% of students reported that the reflective aspects of learning were useful. Individual students achieved a maximum of 65% of the total targets and 87% of the skills targets. The mean total score was 345 ± 38 points. For basic skills, 92% of students achieved the maximum score for participation as an independent operator, and all achieved the maximum scores for participation as an observer and assistant. For complex skills, 62% of students achieved the maximum score for participation as an independent operator, and 98% achieved

  9. Travel style is a major risk factor for diarrhoea in India: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, V M; Jaeger, V K; Held, L; Hatz, C; Bühler, S

    2015-07-01

    Although some studies suggested specific foods/beverages as risk factors for travellers' diarrhoea (TD), details of transmission remain unclear. We assessed the influence of travel style (luxury/middle-class versus backpacking) on TD risk. TD attack rates were compared in a prospective study among travellers to India at the University of Zurich's Travel Clinic. Information on consumption of foods/beverages was collected. Seventy-one luxury/middle-class travellers and 21 backpackers completed the study; overall 37% suffered from TD (62% backpackers, 30% luxury/middle-class travellers, OR 4.43, p 0.022). Travel style rather than the consumption of specific foods/beverages appears to be a risk factor for TD development. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Morbidity among Israeli paediatric travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowicz, Shira; Schwartz, Eli

    2017-09-01

    International travel, particularly to developing countries, is becoming increasingly common among the Israeli population, including an increase in the number of travelling children. Since children are a distinct travellers' population, data about their post-travel morbidity are needed. A retrospective study which examined all children (0-19 years old) who presented to our centre after international travel from 1999 to 2015. About 314 children were seen. The mean age was 10 years (SD ± 5.8). Most of the patients (80.6%) were tourists, and the rest were expatriates. The main destinations visited were South-Asia (46.5%), Sub-Saharan Africa (33.4%), Latin-America (7%) and Europe (6.4%). Overall, the most common diagnoses were gastrointestinal (GI) (mainly chronic) disorders (30.6%), followed by febrile diseases (26.4%), among which 18.1% of patients were diagnosed with dengue fever and 12% with malaria. Dermatologic conditions accounted for 25.2%. Additional diagnoses were schistosomiasis (6.4%) and neuropsychiatric symptoms (2.2%). A substantial part, 10.8%, had eosinophilia, either symptomatic or asymptomatic. Travellers to Asia, compared to travellers to Africa, presented more commonly with GI illness (OR 2.02, 95% confidence interval 1.13-3.61), and dermatologic conditions (OR 1.94, 95% confidence interval 1.05-3.61). Morbidity was associated with a variety of transmission modes, such as food-borne illnesses (30.9%), bite and sting wounds (10.2%), mosquito-borne infections (8%), freshwater contact (6.7%) and tick-borne infections (2.2%). The main conditions seen in paediatric returning travellers were GI, febrile and dermatologic illnesses, some may be rare in their country of origin. Targeting care for the suspected pathogens based on updated knowledge of epidemiology and thorough travel history is essential. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. 2001 New York State NHTS: Travel Patterns of Special Populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Patricia S [ORNL; Reuscher, Tim [ORNL

    2010-03-01

    Policymakers rely on transportation statistics, including data on personal travel behavior, to formulate strategic transportation policies, and to improve the safety and efficiency of the U.S. transportation system. Data on personal travel trends are needed to examine the reliability, efficiency, capacity, and flexibility of the Nation's transportation system to meet current demands and accommodate future demands; to assess the feasibility and efficiency of alternative congestion-alleviating technologies (e.g., high-speed rail, magnetically levitated trains, intelligent vehicle and highway systems); to evaluate the merits of alternative transportation investment programs; and to assess the energy-use and air-quality impacts of various policies. To address these data needs, the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) initiated an effort in 1969 to collect detailed data on personal travel. The 1969 survey was the first Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS). The survey was conducted again in 1977, 1983, 1990, 1995, and 2001. Data on daily travel were collected in 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990 and 1995. Longer-distance travel was collected in 1977 and 1995. The 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) collected both daily and longer-distance trips in one survey. The 2001 survey was sponsored by three USDOT agencies: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). The primary objective of the survey was to collect trip-based data on the nature and characteristics of personal travel so that the relationships between the characteristics of personal travel and the demographics of the traveler can be established. Commercial and institutional travel was not part of the survey. New York State participated in the 2001 NHTS by procuring additional 12,000 sample households. These additional sample households allowed New York State to address transportation planning issues

  12. Danish long distance travel A study of Danish travel behaviour and the role of infrequent travel activities

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, Mette Aagaard; Rich, Jeppe; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2014-01-01

    Historically there has been a lack of knowledge with respect to long distance travel. Due to the considerable contribution of long distance travel to total travelled kilometres and the related energy consumption from the transport sector and derived impacts on greenhouse emissions, this is problematic. The average travel distance has steadily increased during the latest decades together with the increasing motorisation of daily travel and international aviation. Previously most focus has been...

  13. Towards More Responsible Business Travel : Green Travel Guide for Business Travellers

    OpenAIRE

    Aila, Anu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research type thesis is to find ways how to develop sustainability in business travel. The target is increase the level of understanding and knowledge to respect natural environment and local cultures and find the right channels and ways to raise the knowledge. The study has been done to raise the awareness how business travel can be more sustainable. This thesis analyzes sustainable tourism based on the economic, environmental, and socio-cultural considerations. Green...

  14. 8 CFR 1244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Travel abroad. 1244.15 Section 1244.15... REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After... Status shall not constitute permission to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by the...

  15. 49 CFR 230.76 - Piston travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piston travel. 230.76 Section 230.76... Tenders Brake and Signal Equipment § 230.76 Piston travel. (a) Minimum piston travel. The minimum piston travel shall be sufficient to provide proper brake shoe clearance when the brakes are released. (b...

  16. 8 CFR 244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Travel abroad. 244.15 Section 244.15 Aliens... NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After the grant of Temporary Protected Status... to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by the director pursuant to the Service's...

  17. A relational approach to analysing leisure travel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettema, D.F.; Schwanen, T.

    2012-01-01

    Leisure travel makes up a very significant part of daily travel and therefore needs to be considered in any travel demand management or general land use and transportation policy. Yet, research into leisure mobility has tended to ignore important aspects of leisure travel, such as its joint

  18. Patient awareness of need for hepatitis a vaccination (prophylaxis) before international travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Stephen J; Sharapov, Umid; Klevens, Monina

    2015-01-01

    Although hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is preventable through vaccination, cases associated with international travel continue to occur. The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency of international travel and countries visited among persons infected with HAV and assess reasons why travelers had not received hepatitis A vaccine before traveling. Using data from sentinel surveillance for HAV infection in seven US counties during 1996 to 2006, we examined the role of international travel in hepatitis A incidence and the reasons for patients not being vaccinated. Of 2,002 hepatitis A patients for whom travel history was available, 300 (15%) reported traveling outside of the United States. Compared to non-travelers, travelers were more likely to be female [odds ratio (OR) = 1.74 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.35, 2.24)], aged 0 to 17 years [OR = 3.30 (1.83, 5.94)], Hispanic [OR = 3.69 (2.81, 4.86)], Asian [OR = 2.00 (1.06, 3.77)], and were less likely to be black non-Hispanic [OR = 0.30 (0.11, 0.82)]. The majority, 189 (61.6%), had traveled to Mexico. The most common reason for not getting pre-travel vaccination was "Didn't know I could [or should] get shots" [100/154 (65%)]. Low awareness of HAV vaccination was the predominant reason for not being protected before travel. Different modes of traveler education could improve prevention of hepatitis A. To highlight the risk of infection before traveling to endemic countries including Mexico, travel and consulate websites could list reminders of vaccine recommendations. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. School-based travel : a mobility assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    This project contributes to developing a technical infrastructure to support the Safe Routes to School (SRTS) Program, : specifically to monitor its growth and to evaluate its effectiveness. Since its inception in 2005, the SRTS program : mandated by...

  20. Road pricing as an impetus for environment-friendly travel behavior : Results from a stated adaptation experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, D.; Cools, M.; Moons, E.; Wets, G.; Arentze, Theo A.; Timmermans, Harry J P

    2009-01-01

    An important policy instrument for governments to modify travel behavior and manage the increasing travel demand is the introduction of a congestion pricing system. In this study, the influence of a detailed classification of activities is examined to assess likely traveler response to congestion

  1. Uncertain travel times and activity schedules under conditions of space-time constraints and invariant choice heuristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasouli, S.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of uncertain travel times as reflected in travel time variability on the outcomes of individuals’ activity–travel scheduling decisions, assuming they are faced with fixed space–time constraints and apply the set of decision rules that they have developed

  2. The value of travel time variance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Engelson, Leonid

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the value of travel time variability under scheduling preferences that are defined in terms of linearly time varying utility rates associated with being at the origin and at the destination. The main result is a simple expression for the value of travel time variability...... that does not depend on the shape of the travel time distribution. The related measure of travel time variability is the variance of travel time. These conclusions apply equally to travellers who can freely choose departure time and to travellers who use a scheduled service with fixed headway. Depending...... on parameters, travellers may be risk averse or risk seeking and the value of travel time may increase or decrease in the mean travel time....

  3. ORBDA: An openEHR benchmark dataset for performance assessment of electronic health record servers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Teodoro

    Full Text Available The openEHR specifications are designed to support implementation of flexible and interoperable Electronic Health Record (EHR systems. Despite the increasing number of solutions based on the openEHR specifications, it is difficult to find publicly available healthcare datasets in the openEHR format that can be used to test, compare and validate different data persistence mechanisms for openEHR. To foster research on openEHR servers, we present the openEHR Benchmark Dataset, ORBDA, a very large healthcare benchmark dataset encoded using the openEHR formalism. To construct ORBDA, we extracted and cleaned a de-identified dataset from the Brazilian National Healthcare System (SUS containing hospitalisation and high complexity procedures information and formalised it using a set of openEHR archetypes and templates. Then, we implemented a tool to enrich the raw relational data and convert it into the openEHR model using the openEHR Java reference model library. The ORBDA dataset is available in composition, versioned composition and EHR openEHR representations in XML and JSON formats. In total, the dataset contains more than 150 million composition records. We describe the dataset and provide means to access it. Additionally, we demonstrate the usage of ORBDA for evaluating inserting throughput and query latency performances of some NoSQL database management systems. We believe that ORBDA is a valuable asset for assessing storage models for openEHR-based information systems during the software engineering process. It may also be a suitable component in future standardised benchmarking of available openEHR storage platforms.

  4. ORBDA: An openEHR benchmark dataset for performance assessment of electronic health record servers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundvall, Erik; João Junior, Mario; Ruch, Patrick; Miranda Freire, Sergio

    2018-01-01

    The openEHR specifications are designed to support implementation of flexible and interoperable Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems. Despite the increasing number of solutions based on the openEHR specifications, it is difficult to find publicly available healthcare datasets in the openEHR format that can be used to test, compare and validate different data persistence mechanisms for openEHR. To foster research on openEHR servers, we present the openEHR Benchmark Dataset, ORBDA, a very large healthcare benchmark dataset encoded using the openEHR formalism. To construct ORBDA, we extracted and cleaned a de-identified dataset from the Brazilian National Healthcare System (SUS) containing hospitalisation and high complexity procedures information and formalised it using a set of openEHR archetypes and templates. Then, we implemented a tool to enrich the raw relational data and convert it into the openEHR model using the openEHR Java reference model library. The ORBDA dataset is available in composition, versioned composition and EHR openEHR representations in XML and JSON formats. In total, the dataset contains more than 150 million composition records. We describe the dataset and provide means to access it. Additionally, we demonstrate the usage of ORBDA for evaluating inserting throughput and query latency performances of some NoSQL database management systems. We believe that ORBDA is a valuable asset for assessing storage models for openEHR-based information systems during the software engineering process. It may also be a suitable component in future standardised benchmarking of available openEHR storage platforms. PMID:29293556

  5. Mechanobiological Assessment of TMJ Disc Surfaces: Nanoindentation and Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra M. Juran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Temporomandibular disc is a mechanically robust fibrocartilage tissue exhibiting highly elastic compressive, shear, and tensile moduli with structurally dense extracellular matrix that supports functional loading of the joint. The aim of this study was to illustrate structural complexities of the superior and inferior disc surfaces, to demonstrate the robust mechanical ability of the disc as a whole may be due to depth-dependent regional/layered variation, and also to provide characterization data imperative for future tissue engineering efforts focused on restoring function to the joint. Material and Methods: Nanoindentation was used to assess tissue zones in conjunction with detailed Transmission Electron Microscopy to define structural attributes that influence the temporomandibular disc function. Results: The disc architecture adjacent to the superior surface was shown to have three distinct regional segments within the interface layer: 1-a surface peripheral layer; 2-subsurface region; and 3-a layer of helical matrix bundles. The inferior surface displayed an interface layer (20 µm that showed limited cell populations with little depth-dependent structural variation, a stiffer elastic modulus and reduced energy dissipation compared to the superior surface. These data indicate that the primary function of the inferior surface is resistance to compression rather than load distribution during joint motion. Conclusions: These are the first works that demonstrate that the superior central surface of the he temporomandibular disc is structured in depth-dependent isometric layers, each of which provides different mechanical function supporting the bulk tissue’s properties. From a clinical perspective these data have potential to define regions susceptible to fatigue that may translate to diagnostic criteria to better define the stages of dysfunction.

  6. ORBDA: An openEHR benchmark dataset for performance assessment of electronic health record servers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, Douglas; Sundvall, Erik; João Junior, Mario; Ruch, Patrick; Miranda Freire, Sergio

    2018-01-01

    The openEHR specifications are designed to support implementation of flexible and interoperable Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems. Despite the increasing number of solutions based on the openEHR specifications, it is difficult to find publicly available healthcare datasets in the openEHR format that can be used to test, compare and validate different data persistence mechanisms for openEHR. To foster research on openEHR servers, we present the openEHR Benchmark Dataset, ORBDA, a very large healthcare benchmark dataset encoded using the openEHR formalism. To construct ORBDA, we extracted and cleaned a de-identified dataset from the Brazilian National Healthcare System (SUS) containing hospitalisation and high complexity procedures information and formalised it using a set of openEHR archetypes and templates. Then, we implemented a tool to enrich the raw relational data and convert it into the openEHR model using the openEHR Java reference model library. The ORBDA dataset is available in composition, versioned composition and EHR openEHR representations in XML and JSON formats. In total, the dataset contains more than 150 million composition records. We describe the dataset and provide means to access it. Additionally, we demonstrate the usage of ORBDA for evaluating inserting throughput and query latency performances of some NoSQL database management systems. We believe that ORBDA is a valuable asset for assessing storage models for openEHR-based information systems during the software engineering process. It may also be a suitable component in future standardised benchmarking of available openEHR storage platforms.

  7. Multi-Institutional Sharing of Electronic Health Record Data to Assess Childhood Obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Charles Bailey

    Full Text Available To evaluate the validity of multi-institutional electronic health record (EHR data sharing for surveillance and study of childhood obesity.We conducted a non-concurrent cohort study of 528,340 children with outpatient visits to six pediatric academic medical centers during 2007-08, with sufficient data in the EHR for body mass index (BMI assessment. EHR data were compared with data from the 2007-08 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES.Among children 2-17 years, BMI was evaluable for 1,398,655 visits (56%. The EHR dataset contained over 6,000 BMI measurements per month of age up to 16 years, yielding precise estimates of BMI. In the EHR dataset, 18% of children were obese versus 18% in NHANES, while 35% were obese or overweight versus 34% in NHANES. BMI for an individual was highly reliable over time (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.90 for obese children and 0.97 for all children. Only 14% of visits with measured obesity (BMI ≥95% had a diagnosis of obesity recorded, and only 20% of children with measured obesity had the diagnosis documented during the study period. Obese children had higher primary care (4.8 versus 4.0 visits, p<0.001 and specialty care (3.7 versus 2.7 visits, p<0.001 utilization than non-obese counterparts, and higher prevalence of diverse co-morbidities. The cohort size in the EHR dataset permitted detection of associations with rare diagnoses. Data sharing did not require investment of extensive institutional resources, yet yielded high data quality.Multi-institutional EHR data sharing is a promising, feasible, and valid approach for population health surveillance. It provides a valuable complement to more resource-intensive national surveys, particularly for iterative surveillance and quality improvement. Low rates of obesity diagnosis present a significant obstacle to surveillance and quality improvement for care of children with obesity.

  8. Assessing the accommodation response after near visual tasks using different handheld electronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini I. Moulakaki

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To assess the accommodation response after short reading periods using a tablet and a smartphone as well as determine potential differences in the accommodation response at various stimulus vergences using a Hartmann- Shack aberrometer. Methods: Eighteen healthy subjects with astigmatism of less than 1 D, corrected visual acuity of 20/20 or better, and normal findings in an ophthalmic examination were enrolled. Accommodation responses were obtained under three different conditions: accommodation system of the eye relaxed and visually stressed with a tablet and an smartphone for 10 min, at a distance of 0.25 m from the subject's eyes. Three measurements of accommodation response were monocularly acquired at stimulus vergences ranging from 0 to 4 D (1-D step. Results: No statistically significant differences were found in the accommodation responses among the conditions. A moderate but gradually increasing root mean square, coma-like aberration was found for every condition. Conversely, the spherical aberration decreased as stimulus vergences increased. These outcomes were identified in comparison to the one-to-one ideal accommodation response, implying that a certain lag value was present in all stimulus vergences different from 0 D. Conclusions: The results support the hypothesis that the difference between the ideal and real accommodation responses is mainly attributed to parameters associated with the accommodation process, such as the near visual acuity, depth of focus, pupil diameter, and wavefront aberrations. The wavefront aberrations were dependent on the 3-mm pupil size selected in this study. The accommoda tion response was not dependent on the electronic device employed in each condition, and it was mainly associated with young age and level of amplitude of accommodation of the subjects.

  9. Exploring the Positive Utility of Travel and Mode Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Why do people travel? Underlying most travel behavior research is the derived-demand paradigm of travel analysis, which assumes that travel demand is derived from the demand for spatially separated activities, traveling is a means to an end (reaching...

  10. Research and Assessment of Learning Environments through Photoelicitation: Graduate Student Perceptions of Electronics Manufacturing in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdanier, Catherine G. P.; Cox, Monica F.

    2015-01-01

    This research studies the positive and negative perceptions of graduate students from the United States studying issues of sustainable electronics and electronics manufacturing in India as part of a National Science Foundation Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship (IGERT) curriculum. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the…

  11. Toxigenic cutaneous diphtheria in a returned traveller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Rahim, Nur R; Koehler, Ann P; Shaw, Doug D; Graham, Caitlin R

    2014-12-31

    Diphtheria is rarely reported in Australia. A case of cutaneous diphtheria was reported to the South Australian Department for Health and Ageing in April 2013 in an Australian-born 18-year-old female following travel in India. The case presented with a skin ulcer on her toe. Toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae was isolated from a swab of the lesion. The case was treated with antibiotics. The public health response included infection control advice, assessing the case and household contacts for organism carriage and providing antimicrobial chemoprophylaxis to contacts. Although cutaneous diphtheria is not included as part of the Australian communicable disease surveillance case definition, this may be an oversight as international evidence demonstrates that it is a source of organism transmission and can potentially result in outbreaks among susceptible populations. This formed the rationale for the public health response to this particular case. The protocol for the public health management of diphtheria in South Australia has since been revised to include cutaneous lesions caused by the toxigenic strain of the organism as part of the surveillance case definition. This work is copyright. You may download, display, print and reproduce the whole or part of this work in unaltered form for your own personal use or, if you are part of an organisation, for internal use within your organisation, but only if you or your organisation do not use the reproduction for any commercial purpose and retain this copyright notice and all disclaimer notices as part of that reproduction. Apart from rights to use as permitted by the Copyright Act 1968 or allowed by this copyright notice, all other rights are reserved and you are not allowed to reproduce the whole or any part of this work in any way (electronic or otherwise) without first being given the specific written permission from the Commonwealth to do so. Requests and inquiries concerning reproduction and rights are to be sent

  12. Travel determinants and multi-scale transferability of national activity patterns to local populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henson, Kriste M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gou; ias, Konstadinos G [UCSB

    2010-11-30

    The ability to transfer national travel patterns to a local population is of interest when attempting to model megaregions or areas that exceed metropolitan planning organization (MPO) boundaries. At the core of this research are questions about the connection between travel behavior and land use, urban form, and accessibility. As a part of this process, a group of land use variables have been identified to define activity and travel patterns for individuals and households. The 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) participants are divided into categories comprised of a set of latent cluster models representing persons, travel, and land use. These are compared to two sets of cluster models constructed for two local travel surveys. Comparison of means statistical tests are used to assess differences among sociodemographic groups residing in localities with similar land uses. The results show that the NHTS and the local surveys share mean population activity and travel characteristics. However, these similarities mask behavioral heterogeneity that are shown when distributions of activity and travel behavior are examined. Therefore, data from a national household travel survey cannot be used to model local population travel characteristics if the goal to model the actual distributions and not mean travel behavior characteristics.

  13. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices evaluation about travel medicine in international travelers and medical students in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Lillo, Lisette; Medrano-Díaz, Jorge; Pérez, Carmen; Chacón, Rodrigo; Silva-Urra, Juan; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2009-01-01

    Because information about travel medicine in Chile is lacking, a knowledge, attitudes, and practices evaluation in international travelers and medical students was done. The travelers and medical students did not know the travel medicine and sanitary conditions of their destinations, although they perceived travel-associated health risks, but <10% had any vaccination and 5% got sick during international trips.

  14. 76 FR 43236 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR): Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances: Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ...; Sequence 5] Federal Travel Regulation (FTR): Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances: Notice of Public... public meeting. SUMMARY: The General Services Administration (GSA) is revising the Federal Travel Regulation (FTR) in an effort to streamline travel policies, increase travel efficiency and effectiveness...

  15. 76 FR 46216 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR): Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances: Notice of Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ...; Sequence 5] Federal Travel Regulation (FTR): Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances: Notice of Public... and the general public in an effort to streamline travel policies, incorporated travel efficiency and.... Flynn, Deputy Director, Office of Travel, Transportation & Asset Management. [FR Doc. 2011-19482 Filed 8...

  16. Costs of travel time uncertainty and benefits of travel time information: Conceptual model and numerical examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettema, D.F.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2006-01-01

    A negative effect of congestion that tends to be overlooked is travel time uncertainty. Travel time uncertainty causes scheduling costs due to early or late arrival. The negative effects of travel time uncertainty can be reduced by providing travellers with travel time information, which improves

  17. Observational Study of Travelers' Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuris

    1995-03-01

    Background: European air travelers returning from Algeria, Egypt, Mexico, Morocco, and Tunisia were interviewed about their experience of travelers' diseases upon arrival in Brussels. Diarrhea was mentioned by 37% of the adults and 27% of the children. These subjects were questioned about the types of measures taken, type and duration of drug treatment (if any), and about duration of diarrhea and side effects experienced. Methods: Final analysis was performed based on 2160 interviews. The largest proportion of diarrhea was reported in the age group 15-24 years (46%). Results: The majority of the 2160 subjects had opted for drug treatment (81%): 927 subjects for loperamide alone, 235 for loperamide in combination with nifuroxazide, and 178 for nifuroxazide alone. Other drugs had been used less frequently. The median time to recovery was 2.4 days with loperamide compared to 3.2 days with nifuroxazide and to 3.4 days for the no-treatment group. Conclusions: A stratification of the results by severity of the diarrhea suggests a rank of antidiarrheal potency as follows: loperamide > nifuroxazide > no-drug treatment. The side effect with the highest incidence was constipation (2.4% with loperamide). (J Travel Med 2:11-15, 1995) Travelers' diarrhea is usually defined as the passage of at least three unformed stools per day or any number of such stools when accompanied by fever, abdominal cramping, or vomiting. The definition may be broadened to include more trivial bowel disturbance.1,2 The duration of this self-limited disease generally is 3 to 5 days. Medical intervention aims at shortening the duration of disease, thus allowing the sufferer to resume his or her usual activities at an early stage. A shortened period of recovery to physical well-being has obvious favorable economic implications if the traveler is on business and may help the maintenance of a desired level of quality of life while a traveler is on holiday. An observational study of various medical

  18. Final Report DE-EE0005380: Assessment of Offshore Wind Farm Effects on Sea Surface, Subsurface and Airborne Electronic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Hao [The University of Texas at Austin; Hamilton, Mark F. [The University of Texas at Austin Applied Research Laboratories; Bhalla, Rajan [Science Applications International Corporation; Brown, Walter E. [The University of Texas at Austin Applied Research Laboratories; Hay, Todd A. [The University of Texas at Austin Applied Research Laboratories; Whitelonis, Nicholas J. [The University of Texas at Austin; Yang, Shang-Te [The University of Texas at Austin; Naqvi, Aale R. [The University of Texas at Austin

    2013-09-30

    Offshore wind energy is a valuable resource that can provide a significant boost to the US renewable energy portfolio. A current constraint to the development of offshore wind farms is the potential for interference to be caused by large wind farms on existing electronic and acoustical equipment such as radar and sonar systems for surveillance, navigation and communications. The US Department of Energy funded this study as an objective assessment of possible interference to various types of equipment operating in the marine environment where offshore wind farms could be installed. The objective of this project was to conduct a baseline evaluation of electromagnetic and acoustical challenges to sea surface, subsurface and airborne electronic systems presented by offshore wind farms. To accomplish this goal, the following tasks were carried out: (1) survey electronic systems that can potentially be impacted by large offshore wind farms, and identify impact assessment studies and research and development activities both within and outside the US, (2) engage key stakeholders to identify their possible concerns and operating requirements, (3) conduct first-principle modeling on the interactions of electromagnetic signals with, and the radiation of underwater acoustic signals from, offshore wind farms to evaluate the effect of such interactions on electronic systems, and (4) provide impact assessments, recommend mitigation methods, prioritize future research directions, and disseminate project findings. This report provides a detailed description of the methodologies used to carry out the study, key findings of the study, and a list of recommendations derived based the findings.

  19. Future Trends in Business Travel Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Keith J.

    2002-01-01

    This research surveys twenty large companies and their travellers to identify and evaluate the effects of pressures on the business travel market in the future. The influence of the following areas on the decision making process are addressed: (1) Corporate travel policies and increasing professionalism in corporate purchasing; (2) The development of global strategic airline alliances; (3) The emergence of low cost airlines on short haul markets; and (4) The development of internet based booking tools and travel agency IT. The survey shows differences in views between travel managers, and travellers with regard to corporate travel policies. While travel managers see policy rules, travellers interpret these as guidelines, indicating travel managers will need to take further actions to exercise true control of travel budgets. The data shows that companies are more likely to prescribe a class of airline ticket, than the choice of airline itself. Corporate hierarchical bias in travel policies is still common both for short and particularly long haul flying. Other findings show that while travel managers believe that their companies are likely to sign global deals with strategic airline groups within a five year period in a bid to consolidating spending, they also believe that nearly a third of short haul flying will be taken with low cost carriers, indicating further penetration in this business travel market by these carriers. The paper also provides other predictions about the business travel market, based on the survey findings.

  20. Improving the Assessment of Pediatric Chronic Pain: Harnessing the Potential of Electronic Diaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer N Stinson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Current methods for evaluating chronic pain in children suffer from methodological problems. Real-time data capture approaches using electronic diaries have been proposed as a new standard for pain measurement. However, there is limited information available regarding the development, feasibility and validity of these approaches in children. The present paper reviews problems with current measures; rationale for developing real-time data capture approaches using electronic diaries; mechanics of developing electronic pain diaries; current evidence regarding their usability, feasibility and validity; and discusses future directions for research in this area.

  1. Quantifying the association between obesity, automobile travel, and caloric intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Banafsheh; King, Douglas M; Jacobson, Sheldon H

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the association between average adult body mass index (BMI), automobile travel, and caloric intake in the US in order to predict future trends of adult obesity. Annual BMI data (1984-2010) from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), vehicle miles traveled data (1970-2009) from the Federal Highway Administration, licensed drivers data (1970-2009) from the Federal Highway Administration, and adult average daily caloric intake data (1970-2009) from the US Department of Agriculture were collected. A statistical model is proposed to capture multicollinearity across the independent variables. The proposed statistical model provides an estimate of changes in the average adult BMI associated with changes in automobile travel and caloric intake. According to this model, reducing daily automobile travel by one mile per driver would be associated with a 0.21 kg/m(2) reduction in the national average BMI after six years. Reducing daily caloric intake by 100 calories per person would be associated with a 0.16 kg/m(2) reduction in the national average BMI after three years. Making small changes in travel or diet choices may lead to comparable obesity interventions, implying that travel-based interventions may be as effective as dietary interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Fundamental Travel Demand Model Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Instances of transportation models are abundant and detailed "how to" instruction is available in the form of transportation software help documentation. The purpose of this paper is to look at the fundamental inputs required to build a transportation model by developing an example passenger travel demand model. The example model reduces the scale to a manageable size for the purpose of illustrating the data collection and analysis required before the first step of the model begins. This aspect of the model development would not reasonably be discussed in software help documentation (it is assumed the model developer comes prepared). Recommendations are derived from the example passenger travel demand model to suggest future work regarding the data collection and analysis required for a freight travel demand model.

  3. Elasticity of Long Distance Travelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mette Aagaard

    2011-01-01

    With data from the Danish expenditure survey for 12 years 1996 through 2007, this study analyses household expenditures for long distance travelling. Household expenditures are examined at two levels of aggregation having the general expenditures on transportation and leisure relative to five other...... aggregated commodities at the highest level, and the specific expenditures on plane tickets and travel packages at the lowest level. The Almost Ideal Demand System is applied to determine the relationship between expenditures on transportation and leisure and all other purchased non-durables within...... packages has higher income elasticity of demand than plane tickets but also higher than transportation and leisure in general. The findings within price sensitiveness are not as sufficient estimated, but the model results indicate that travel packages is far more price elastic than plane tickets which...

  4. Toxoplasmosis as a travel risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda-Arias, Juan C; Gómez-Marin, Jorge E; Bobić, Branko; Naranjo-Galvis, Carlos A; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite with worldwide distribution that infects more than one third of the global population. Primary infection in immunocompetent individuals is usually asymptomatic; however, different organs can be affected in immunocompromised individuals leading to the development of encephalitis, myocarditis or pneumonitis. The prevalence of infection with Toxoplasma as well as its genetic structure varies geographically and for that reason travel may be considered as a risk factor to acquire the infection. As toxoplasmosis is a foodborne disease, health care providers should give health education on prevention measures to all prospective travelers in order to decrease the risk of infection in endemic areas. This review presents an overview of the infection with T. gondii with some considerations for travelers to and from endemic zones. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ergonomic Assessment and Design of Electronic Ticket Booths in Mashhad City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Razavi

    2015-04-01

    .Conclusion: Vendors of electronic ticket booths are exposed to musculoskeletal and environmental health threats, in Mashhad. Relocating the booths, adjustingcounterand desk height can significantly reduce the risk of mentioned hazards

  6. Rabies and Risk to Travelers

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-10-01

    Each year over 55,000 people die because of rabies, mostly from being bitten by rabid dogs. Over half of all rabies infections occur in children under the age of 15 who live in developing countries, but travelers are not immune. This podcast discusses some of the activities that put travelers at risk for rabies and describes ways to prevent infection.  Created: 10/1/2007 by National Center for the Prevention, Detection and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID).   Date Released: 10/5/2007.

  7. Traveling-Wave Membrane Photomixers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, R. A.; Martin, S. C.; Nakamura, B. J.; Neto, A.; Pasqualini, D.; Siegel, P. H.; Kadow, C.; Gossard, A. C.

    2001-01-01

    Traveling-wave photomixers have superior performance when compared with lumped area photomixers in the 1 to 3 THz frequency range. Their large active area and distributed gain mechanism assure high thermal damage threshold and elimination of the capacitive frequency roll-off. However, the losses experienced by the radio frequency wave traveling along the coplanar strips waveguide (due to underlying semi-infinite GaAs substrate) were a serious drawback. In this paper we present device designs and an experimental setup that make possible the realization of photomixers on membranes which eliminate the losses.

  8. Value of travel time savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Masurier, P.; Polak, J.; Pawlak, Janet

    2015-01-01

    A team of specialist market researchers and Value of Time experts comprising members from SYSTRA, Imperial College London and the Technical University of Denmark has conducted a formal audit and peer review of research undertaken by Arup/ITS Leeds/Accent to derive Value of Travel Time Savings...... Preference (RP) models that were used to derive final Values of Travel Time (VTT). This report contains the findings of our audit and peer review of the procedures adopted by the research team during data collection of the three surveys (SP, RP and Employers Surveys); a peer review of the reported approach...

  9. Electron drift velocities in He and water mixtures: Measurements and an assessment of the water vapour cross-section sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urquijo, J. de; Juárez, A. M.; Basurto, E.; Ness, K. F.; Robson, R. E.; White, R. D.; Brunger, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    The drift velocity of electrons in mixtures of gaseous water and helium is measured over the range of reduced electric fields 0.1–300 Td using a pulsed-Townsend technique. Admixtures of 1% and 2% water to helium are found to produce negative differential conductivity (NDC), despite NDC being absent from the pure gases. The measured drift velocities are used as a further discriminative assessment on the accuracy and completeness of a recently proposed set of electron-water vapour cross-sections [K. F. Ness, R. E. Robson, M. J. Brunger, and R. D. White, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 024318 (2012)]. A refinement of the momentum transfer cross-section for electron-water vapour scattering is presented, which ensures self-consistency with the measured drift velocities in mixtures with helium to within approximately 5% over the range of reduced fields considered

  10. Pre-travel care for immunocompromised and chronically ill travellers: A retrospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aalst, Mariëlle; Verhoeven, Roos; Omar, Freshta; Stijnis, Cornelis; van Vugt, Michèle; de Bree, Godelieve J.; Goorhuis, Abraham; Grobusch, Martin P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Immunocompromised and chronically ill travellers (ICCITs) are susceptible to travel related diseases. In ICCITs, pre-travel care regarding vaccinations and prophylactics is complex. We evaluated the protection level by preventive measures in ICCITs by analysing rates of vaccination

  11. Safe travels? HIV transmission among Britons travelling abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, B; Gilbart, V L; Lawrence, J; Smith, R; Kall, M; Delpech, V

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the study was to identify and describe the characteristics of persons born in the UK who acquire HIV infection abroad. Analyses using case reports and follow-up data from the national HIV database held at the Health Protection Agency were performed. Fifteen per cent (2066 of 13 891) of UK-born adults diagnosed in England, Wales and Northern Ireland between 2002 and 2010 acquired HIV infection abroad. Thailand (534), the USA (117) and South Africa (108) were the countries most commonly reported. As compared with UK-born adults acquiring HIV infection in the UK, those acquiring HIV infection abroad were significantly (P sex with a commercial sex worker (5.6% vs. 1%, respectively). Among men infected in Thailand, 11% reported sex with a commercial sex worker. A substantial number of UK-born adults are acquiring HIV infection in countries with generalized HIV epidemics, and in common holiday destinations. Of particular concern is the high proportion of men infected reporting sex with a commercial sex worker. We recommend HIV prevention and testing efforts be extended to include travellers abroad, and that sexual health advice be provided routinely in travel health consultations and in occupational health travel advice packs, particularly to those travelling to high HIV prevalence areas and destinations for sex tourism. Safer sex messages should include an awareness of the potential detrimental health and social impacts of the sex industry. © 2012 British HIV Association.

  12. Change as a travel benefit: Exploring the impact of travel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims, firstly, at identifying the main dimensions of perceived change induced in young people by a travel experience and, secondly, at understanding which dimensions of the tourism experience have the greatest influence on this change. A survey was designed based on the contemporary literature and ...

  13. Collection Development "Mini-Travel Guides": Traveling Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    Predictions regarding how much traveling Americans will be doing this year and where they might go vary, but it is expected that many will cut back on what is increasingly considered a luxury. Even so, gasoline prices are down substantially from a year ago, the stronger dollar means better prices in Europe, and there are discounts in all areas of…

  14. Assessing Electronic Cigarette-Related Tweets for Sentiment and Content Using Supervised Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole-Lewis, Heather; Varghese, Arun; Sanders, Amy; Schwarz, Mary; Pugatch, Jillian; Augustson, Erik

    2015-08-25

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) continue to be a growing topic among social media users, especially on Twitter. The ability to analyze conversations about e-cigarettes in real-time can provide important insight into trends in the public's knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs surrounding e-cigarettes, and subsequently guide public health interventions. Our aim was to establish a supervised machine learning algorithm to build predictive classification models that assess Twitter data for a range of factors related to e-cigarettes. Manual content analysis was conducted for 17,098 tweets. These tweets were coded for five categories: e-cigarette relevance, sentiment, user description, genre, and theme. Machine learning classification models were then built for each of these five categories, and word groupings (n-grams) were used to define the feature space for each classifier. Predictive performance scores for classification models indicated that the models correctly labeled the tweets with the appropriate variables between 68.40% and 99.34% of the time, and the percentage of maximum possible improvement over a random baseline that was achieved by the classification models ranged from 41.59% to 80.62%. Classifiers with the highest performance scores that also achieved the highest percentage of the maximum possible improvement over a random baseline were Policy/Government (performance: 0.94; % improvement: 80.62%), Relevance (performance: 0.94; % improvement: 75.26%), Ad or Promotion (performance: 0.89; % improvement: 72.69%), and Marketing (performance: 0.91; % improvement: 72.56%). The most appropriate word-grouping unit (n-gram) was 1 for the majority of classifiers. Performance continued to marginally increase with the size of the training dataset of manually annotated data, but eventually leveled off. Even at low dataset sizes of 4000 observations, performance characteristics were fairly sound. Social media outlets like Twitter can uncover real-time snapshots of

  15. Assessing Electronic Cigarette-Related Tweets for Sentiment and Content Using Supervised Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole-Lewis, Heather; Varghese, Arun; Sanders, Amy; Schwarz, Mary; Pugatch, Jillian

    2015-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) continue to be a growing topic among social media users, especially on Twitter. The ability to analyze conversations about e-cigarettes in real-time can provide important insight into trends in the public’s knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs surrounding e-cigarettes, and subsequently guide public health interventions. Objective Our aim was to establish a supervised machine learning algorithm to build predictive classification models that assess Twitter data for a range of factors related to e-cigarettes. Methods Manual content analysis was conducted for 17,098 tweets. These tweets were coded for five categories: e-cigarette relevance, sentiment, user description, genre, and theme. Machine learning classification models were then built for each of these five categories, and word groupings (n-grams) were used to define the feature space for each classifier. Results Predictive performance scores for classification models indicated that the models correctly labeled the tweets with the appropriate variables between 68.40% and 99.34% of the time, and the percentage of maximum possible improvement over a random baseline that was achieved by the classification models ranged from 41.59% to 80.62%. Classifiers with the highest performance scores that also achieved the highest percentage of the maximum possible improvement over a random baseline were Policy/Government (performance: 0.94; % improvement: 80.62%), Relevance (performance: 0.94; % improvement: 75.26%), Ad or Promotion (performance: 0.89; % improvement: 72.69%), and Marketing (performance: 0.91; % improvement: 72.56%). The most appropriate word-grouping unit (n-gram) was 1 for the majority of classifiers. Performance continued to marginally increase with the size of the training dataset of manually annotated data, but eventually leveled off. Even at low dataset sizes of 4000 observations, performance characteristics were fairly sound. Conclusions Social media outlets

  16. Employing Electron Microscopy integrated with X-ray Spectroscopy for Kuntawa Landslide Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikedi, P. N.

    2016-12-01

    This work centres on Kuntawa landslide assessment owing to the enigmatic nature of a 2003 landslide which buried 4 people and a truck in Kuntawa village, of Nigeria. A Phenom ProX Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) integrated with Energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and Particlemetric software was employed to generate the morphology, particle size data, elemental identification data and topography (at 3500x) of earth samples scooped from the landslide site. For a core sample 1 at depth, d=3.75m, average circle equivalent diameter dav, area a and volume by area Va of 11.5 µm, 249 µm² and 3680µm³ were generated respectively; at d=3.785m, dav , a and Va of 6.19µm, 30.1µm² and 124µm³ were generated respectively; at d=3.82m, dav , a and Va of 11.5 µm, 130 µm² and 1380µm³ were generated respectively. For a core sample 2, at d=3.75m, dav, a and Va of 5.54 µm, 26 µm² and 108µm³ were generated respectively; at d=3.82m, dav , a and Va of 19.4µm, 338µm² and 5240µm³ were generated respectively; a total of 243 particles were scanned. One of the results from specific surface for samples 1 and 2, reveals that it would take twice and four times the amount of water needed to wet an entire surface both at d=3.82m than at d=3.785m and d=3.75m respectively. Additional laboratory facilities reveal that soil water content Š, volumetric water content Vwc, porosity Φ, soil water-filled pore space Wps, increased with increasing d; bulk density ρb, decreased with increasing d. Elemental composition at the landslide site were generated from the EDS: oxygen (O), Silicon (Si), Bromine (Br), iron (Fe), Carbon (C) and Aluminium (Al). O and C had the highest and lowest concentration of elemental compositions of 68.5% at 3.75m depth and 1% at 3.82m depth for samples 1 and 2, respectively. Keywords: EDS, Particlemetric, SEM.

  17. Quantitative Assessment of CRAND Contribution to the Inner Belt Electron Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Li, X.; Selesnick, R.; Schiller, Q. A.; Zhao, H.; Baker, D. N.; Temerin, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Following the direct identification and measurements of Cosmic Ray Albedo Neutron Decay (CRAND) produced electrons near the inner edge of the inner belt by Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE)1, we extend the study by addressing more comprehensive questions: (1) what is the relative CRAND contribution to the inner belt compared with electrons injected from further out? (2) How does this relative contribution vary with geomagnetic activity and electron energy? (3) What is the solar cycle dependence of CRAND electrons? In order to answer the above questions, extended data of relativistic electrons in the inner belt are needed for a much longer time period and also finer energy resolution is required. Therefore, we will show results regarding the above questions based on data including other low Earth orbit measurements in addition to CSSWE, such as SAMPEX/PET, DEMETER/IDP, and PROBA-V/EPT. [1] Li, Xinlin, Richard Selesnick, Quintin Schiller, Kun Zhang, Hong Zhao, Daniel Baker, and Michael Temerin (2017), Direct detection of albedo neutron decay electrons at the inner edge of the radiation belt and determination of neutron density in near-Earth space, Nature, under review.

  18. Traveling wave monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heus, H.; Heutenik, B.; Kroes, F.; Maaskant, A.; Sluyk, T.

    The signals of the monitors, by means of ''Prodlines,'' are first brought out of the radiation surroundings of the tunnel. These coaxial cables have a very low attenuation for 2856 Mc and they couple well thermally, thus originating the least possible phase differentials through thermal expansion. To remove the last tenths of millimeters, a calibration can then still be applied. Only after calibration does the relative measurement become absolute. The conversion electronics are located in the instrument boxes. Here the signals are first mixed to a lower frequency (10 Mc) from where it is easier to perform an amplitude-independent phase detection. To this effect, the signals are first ''limited,'' after which a phase detection can take place, independently of the amplitude (i.e., of the beam current). Subsequently, there is an amplification in the Lf amplifiers and 50 ohm driver steps. The signal can, even via long cables, be carried to an oscilloscope; it can also be sent via the video highway

  19. Space-Qualified Traveling-Wave Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Krawczyk, Richard; Simons, Rainee N.; Williams, Wallace D.; Robbins, Neal R.; Dibb, Daniel R.; Menninger, William L.; Zhai, Xiaoling; Benton, Robert T.

    2010-01-01

    The L-3 Communications Electron Technologies, Inc. Model 999HA traveling-wave tube (TWT), was developed for use as a high-power microwave amplifier for high-rate transmission of data and video signals from deep space to Earth (see figure). The 999HA is a successor to the 999H a non-space qualified TWT described in High-Power, High-Efficiency Ka-Band Traveling-Wave Tube (LEW-17900-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 2 (February 2007), page 32. Operating in the 31.8-to-32.3 GHz frequency band, the 999HA has been shown to generate 252 W of continuous- wave output power at 62 percent overall power efficiency a 75-percent increase in output power over the 999H. The mass of the 999HA is 35 percent less than that of the 999H. Moreover, taking account of the elimination of a Faraday cage that is necessary for operation of the 999H but is obviated by a redesign of high-voltage feed-throughs for the 999HA, the overall reduction in mass becomes 57 percent with an 82 percent reduction in volume. Through a series of rigorous tests, the 999HA has been qualified for operation aboard spacecraft with a lifetime exceeding seven years. Offspring of the 999HA will fly on the Kepler and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter missions.

  20. CELLDOSE: A Monte Carlo code to assess electron dose distribution - S values for 131I in spheres of various sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, C.; Zanotti-Fregonara, P.; Hindie, E; Hindie, E.

    2008-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation can be particularly suitable for modeling the microscopic distribution of energy received by normal tissues or cancer cells and for evaluating the relative merits of different radiopharmaceuticals. We used a new code, CELLDOSE, to assess electron dose for isolated spheres with radii varying from 2,500 μm down to 0.05 μm, in which 131 I is homogeneously distributed. Methods: All electron emissions of 131 I were considered,including the whole β - 131 I spectrum, 108 internal conversion electrons, and 21 Auger electrons. The Monte Carlo track-structure code used follows all electrons down to an energy threshold E-cutoff 7.4 eV. Results: Calculated S values were in good agreement with published analytic methods, lying in between reported results for all experimental points. Our S values were also close to other published data using a Monte Carlo code. Contrary to the latter published results, our results show that dose distribution inside spheres is not homogeneous, with the dose at the outmost layer being approximately half that at the center. The fraction of electron energy retained within the spheres decreased with decreasing radius (r): 87.1 % for r 2,500 μm, 8.73% for r 50 μm, and 1.18% for r 5 μm. Thus, a radioiodine concentration that delivers a dose of 100 Gy to a micro-metastasis of 2,500 μm radius would deliver 10 Gy in a cluster of 50 μm and only 1.4 Gy in an isolated cell. The specific contribution from Auger electrons varied from 0.25% for the largest sphere up to 76.8% for the smallest sphere. Conclusion: The dose to a tumor cell will depend on its position in a metastasis. For the treatment of very small metastases, 131 I may not be the isotope of choice. When trying to kill isolated cells or a small cluster of cells with 131 I, it is important to get the iodine as close as possible to the nucleus to get the enhancement factor from Auger electrons. The Monte Carlo code CELLDOSE can be used to assess the electron map deposit

  1. Freeway travel speed calculation model based on ETC transaction data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jiancheng; Yuan, Rongliang; Wang, Ru; Wang, Chang

    2014-01-01

    Real-time traffic flow operation condition of freeway gradually becomes the critical information for the freeway users and managers. In fact, electronic toll collection (ETC) transaction data effectively records operational information of vehicles on freeway, which provides a new method to estimate the travel speed of freeway. First, the paper analyzed the structure of ETC transaction data and presented the data preprocess procedure. Then, a dual-level travel speed calculation model was established under different levels of sample sizes. In order to ensure a sufficient sample size, ETC data of different enter-leave toll plazas pairs which contain more than one road segment were used to calculate the travel speed of every road segment. The reduction coefficient α and reliable weight θ for sample vehicle speed were introduced in the model. Finally, the model was verified by the special designed field experiments which were conducted on several freeways in Beijing at different time periods. The experiments results demonstrated that the average relative error was about 6.5% which means that the freeway travel speed could be estimated by the proposed model accurately. The proposed model is helpful to promote the level of the freeway operation monitoring and the freeway management, as well as to provide useful information for the freeway travelers.

  2. Pilot Ionosonde Network for Identification of Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, Bodo; Galkin, Ivan; Belehaki, Anna; Paznukhov, Vadym; Huang, Xueqin; Altadill, David; Buresova, Dalia; Mielich, Jens; Verhulst, Tobias; Stankov, Stanimir; Blanch, Estefania; Kouba, Daniel; Hamel, Ryan; Kozlov, Alexander; Tsagouri, Ioanna; Mouzakis, Angelos; Messerotti, Mauro; Parkinson, Murray; Ishii, Mamoru

    2018-03-01

    Traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) are the ionospheric signatures of atmospheric gravity waves. Their identification and tracking is important because the TIDs affect all services that rely on predictable ionospheric radio wave propagation. Although various techniques have been proposed to measure TID characteristics, their real-time implementation still has several difficulties. In this contribution, we present a new technique, based on the analysis of oblique Digisonde-to-Digisonde "skymap" observations, to directly identify TIDs and specify the TID wave parameters based on the measurement of angle of arrival, Doppler frequency, and time of flight of ionospherically reflected high-frequency radio pulses. The technique has been implemented for the first time for the Network for TID Exploration project with data streaming from the network of European Digisonde DPS4D observatories. The performance is demonstrated during a period of moderate auroral activity, assessing its consistency with independent measurements such as data from auroral magnetometers and electron density perturbations from Digisondes and Global Navigation Satellite System stations. Given that the different types of measurements used for this assessment were not made at exactly the same time and location, and that there was insufficient coverage in the area between the atmospheric gravity wave sources and the measurement locations, we can only consider our interpretation as plausible and indicative for the reliability of the extracted TID characteristics. In the framework of the new TechTIDE project (European Commission H2020), a retrospective analysis of the Network for TID Exploration results in comparison with those extracted from Global Navigation Satellite System total electron content-based methodologies is currently being attempted, and the results will be the objective of a follow-up paper.

  3. Travel Behavior Change in Older Travelers: Understanding Critical Reactions to Incidents Encountered in Public Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Sundling, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Accessibility of travel may be better understood if psychological factors underlying change in travel behavior are known. This paper examines older (65+) travelers? motives for changing their travel behavior. These changes are grounded in critical incidents earlier encountered in public-transport travel. A scientific framework is developed based on cognitive and behavioral theory. In 29 individual interviews, travelers? critical reactions (i.e., cognitive, emotional, and/or behavioral) to 77 ...

  4. Mind your travel ! Motivation, time use, and intent : Three factors of travel to be investigated

    OpenAIRE

    PAPON , Francis; Meissonnier , Joël

    2013-01-01

    The objective is to investigate the drivers of travel demand beyond the need to travel to destination; travellers may engage a trip for the sake of it, at least to some extent: travel includes a share of 'primary utility'. The paper focuses on two types of data and analysis: the primary utility of travel questions passed in the last French national travel survey, and eight dimensions of a trip proposed from a sociological analysis. The paper mixes these approaches and correlate survey answ...

  5. Effect of Rainfall on Travel Time and Accuracy of Travel Time prediction with rainfall

    OpenAIRE

    CHUNG, E; EL-FAOUZI, NE; KUWAHARA, M

    2007-01-01

    Travel time is an important parameter to report to travelers. From the user's perspective, accurate predictions and an estimate of their precision are more beneficial than the current travel time since conditions may change significantly before a traveler completes the journey. Past researches have developed travel time prediction models without considering accidents and rain. Normally accident and Rain may cause to increase travel time. Therefore, it may be interesting to consider Rain and a...

  6. Contact Frequency, Travel Time, and Travel Costs for Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, Jan; Linde, Louise; Hetland, Merete Lund

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate travel time, and travel cost related to contacts with health care providers for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) during a three-month period. Methods. Patient-reported travel time and travel cost were obtained from 2847 patients with RA. Eleven outpatient clinics across Denmark recruited patients to the study. Data collected included frequency, travel time and travel costs for contacts at rheumatology outpatient clinics, other outpatient clinics, general prac...

  7. Electron/positron measurements obtained with the Mars Science Laboratory Radiation Assessment Detector on the surface of Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Köhler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD, on board the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL rover Curiosity, measures the energetic charged and neutral particles and the radiation dose rate on the surface of Mars. Although charged and neutral particle spectra have been investigated in detail, the electron and positron spectra have not been investigated yet. The reason for that is that they are difficult to separate from each other and because of the technical challenges involved in extracting energy spectra from the raw data. We use GEANT4 to model the behavior of the RAD instrument for electron/positron measurements. We compare Planetocosmics predictions for different atmospheric pressures and different modulation parameters Φ with the obtained RAD electron/positron measurements. We find that the RAD electron/positron measurements agree well with the spectra predicted by Planetocosmics. Both RAD measurements and Planetocosmics simulation show a dependence of the electron/positron fluxes on both atmospheric pressure and solar modulation potential.

  8. Individual traveller health priorities and the pre-travel health consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Gerard T; Chen, Bingling; Avalos, Gloria

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the principal travel health priorities of travellers. The most frequently selected travel health concerns were accessing medical care abroad, dying abroad, insect bites, malaria, personal safety and travel security threats. The travel health risks of least concern were culture shock, fear of flying, jet lag and sexually transmitted infections. This study is the first to develop a hierarchy of self-declared travel health risk priorities among travellers. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The value of travel time variance

    OpenAIRE

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Engelson, Leonid

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the value of travel time variability under scheduling preferences that are de�fined in terms of linearly time-varying utility rates associated with being at the origin and at the destination. The main result is a simple expression for the value of travel time variability that does not depend on the shape of the travel time distribution. The related measure of travel time variability is the variance of travel time. These conclusions apply equally to travellers who can free...

  10. Does the use of alcohol-based hand gel sanitizer reduce travellers' diarrhea and gastrointestinal upset?: A preliminary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriey, Delphine; Delmont, Jean; Gautret, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Use of alcohol-based hand sanitizer is recommended by the CDC to reduce the risk for travellers' diarrhoea, but its effectiveness has not been assessed. We investigated the potential protective effect of hand sanitizer use on the occurrence of diarrhoea and/or vomiting in 200 international travellers, who were returning home, at an international airport. We also conducted a knowledge, aptitude and practice survey about hand gel use among international travellers consulting for pre-travel advice at a specialized clinic. 200 returning travellers were included of which 32.5% declared having used alcohol-based hand sanitizer during travel. Travellers who used hand sanitizer reported diarrhoea and vomiting significantly less frequently than those who did not (17% vs. 30%, OR = 0.47; 95% CI [0.21-0.97], p = 0.04). A total of 257 travellers consulting for pre-travel advice were included. A majority of travellers knew that hand sanitizer may be used for hand hygiene and had already used hand sanitizer; 72% planned to bring hand sanitizer during their next travel. Use of hand sanitizer is highly acceptable by travellers and is associated with a reduction in the incidence of travellers' diarrhoea and/or vomiting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Feasibility of utilizing a commercial eye tracker to assess electronic health record use during patient simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Jeffrey Allen; Stephenson, Laurel E; Gorsuch, Adriel; Parthasarathy, Keshav; Mohan, Vishnu

    2016-09-01

    Numerous reports describe unintended consequences of electronic health record implementation. Having previously described physicians' failures to recognize patient safety issues within our electronic health record simulation environment, we now report on our use of eye and screen-tracking technology to understand factors associated with poor error recognition during an intensive care unit-based electronic health record simulation. We linked performance on the simulation to standard eye and screen-tracking readouts including number of fixations, saccades, mouse clicks and screens visited. In addition, we developed an overall Composite Eye Tracking score which measured when, where and how often each safety item was viewed. For 39 participants, the Composite Eye Tracking score correlated with performance on the simulation (p = 0.004). Overall, the improved performance was associated with a pattern of rapid scanning of data manifested by increased number of screens visited (p = 0.001), mouse clicks (p = 0.03) and saccades (p = 0.004). Eye tracking can be successfully integrated into electronic health record-based simulation and provides a surrogate measure of cognitive decision making and electronic health record usability. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Improving extreme-scale problem solving: assessing electronic brainstorming effectiveness in an industrial setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornburg, Courtney C; Stevens, Susan M; Hendrickson, Stacey M L; Davidson, George S

    2009-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the effectiveness of individual versus group electronic brainstorming to address difficult, real-world challenges. Although industrial reliance on electronic communications has become ubiquitous, empirical and theoretical understanding of the bounds of its effectiveness have been limited. Previous research using short-term laboratory experiments have engaged small groups of students in answering questions irrelevant to an industrial setting. The present experiment extends current findings beyond the laboratory to larger groups of real-world employees addressing organization-relevant challenges during the course of 4 days. Employees and contractors at a national laboratory participated, either in a group setting or individually, in an electronic brainstorm to pose solutions to a real-world problem. The data demonstrate that (for this design) individuals perform at least as well as groups in producing quantity of electronic ideas, regardless of brainstorming duration. However, when judged with respect to quality along three dimensions (originality, feasibility, and effectiveness), the individuals significantly (p industrial reliance on electronic problem-solving groups should be tempered, and large nominal groups may be more appropriate corporate problem-solving vehicles.

  13. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMDs) risk assessment at core assembly production of electronic components manufacturing company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, N. M.; Zahid, M. N. O.

    2018-03-01

    This study conducted to assess the work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMDs) among the workers at core assembly production in an electronic components manufacturing company located in Pekan, Pahang, Malaysia. The study is to identify the WMDs risk factor and risk level. A set of questionnaires survey based on modified Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorder Questionnaires have been distributed to respective workers to acquire the WMDs risk factor identification. Then, postural analysis was conducted in order to measure the respective WMDs risk level. The analysis were based on two ergonomics assessment tools; Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) and Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA). The study found that 30 respondents out of 36 respondents suffered from WMDs especially at shoulder, wrists and lower back. The WMDs risk have been identified from unloading process, pressing process and winding process. In term of the WMDs risk level, REBA and RULA assessment tools have indicated high risk level to unloading and pressing process. Thus, this study had established the WMDs risk factor and risk level of core assembly production in an electronic components manufacturing company at Malaysia environment.

  14. Sustainability Assessment in Automotive and Electronics Supply Chains—A Set of Indicators Defined in a Multi-Stakeholder Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef-Peter Schöggl

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In automotive and electronics supply chains, sustainability assessment is gaining increasing importance. More stringent regulations and growing customer pressure are driving the change towards more environmentally, socially and economically responsible supply chains. Since this implies a rising use of resources for data collection, monitoring, exchange and assessment, the objective of this paper is to facilitate supply chain sustainability assessment. The present paper first provides a tailored set of 69 supply chain sustainability indicators for the European automotive and electronics industries. These were derived on the basis of a systematic literature review, together with 13 semi-structured interviews and five focus group workshops, all of which involved sustainability and industry experts. Second, the paper provides a case example of software-based supply chain sustainability data exchange. The extent to which sustainability information is currently exchanged in the two industries is also analyzed. The set of indicators is scientifically relevant since it considers all three dimensions of sustainability and is intended to allow for supply chain-wide sustainability assessment in two specific industries. It is also of high practical relevance since it was developed with and validated by industry experts, and also since it considers industrial and technical requirements for supply chain sustainability assessment in order to increase the efficiency of the work processes.

  15. A Qualitative Investigation to Underpin the Development of an Electronic Tool to Assess Nutrition Literacy in Australian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa M Cassar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition literacy is linked to health via its influence on dietary intake. There is a need for a tool to assess nutrition literacy in research and dietetic practice. We sought guidance from nutrition professionals on topic areas and features of an electronic nutrition literacy assessment tool for Australian adults. 28 experienced nutrition professionals engaged in a range of nutrition and dietetic work areas participated in six focus groups using a semi-structured interview schedule. Data were analysed using an inductive approach using NVivo 10 (QSR International, Pty Ltd., Doncaster, Australia, 2012. Key areas identified to assess nutrition literacy included specific nutrients versus foods, labels and packaging, construction of the diet, knowledge of the Australian Dietary Guidelines and Australian Guide to Healthy Eating, understanding of serve and portion sizes, ability to select healthier foods, and demographics such as belief systems and culture. Exploitation of electronic features to enhance visual and auditory displays, including interactive animations such as “drag and drop” and virtual reality situations, were discussed. This study provided insight into the most relevant topic areas and presentation format to assess the nutrition literacy of adult Australians. The visual, auditory, and interactive capacity of the available technology could enhance the assessment of nutrition literacy.

  16. A Qualitative Investigation to Underpin the Development of an Electronic Tool to Assess Nutrition Literacy in Australians Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassar, Alyssa M; Denyer, Gareth S; O'Connor, Helen T; Gifford, Janelle A

    2018-02-23

    Nutrition literacy is linked to health via its influence on dietary intake. There is a need for a tool to assess nutrition literacy in research and dietetic practice. We sought guidance from nutrition professionals on topic areas and features of an electronic nutrition literacy assessment tool for Australian adults. 28 experienced nutrition professionals engaged in a range of nutrition and dietetic work areas participated in six focus groups using a semi-structured interview schedule. Data were analysed using an inductive approach using NVivo 10 (QSR International, Pty Ltd., Doncaster, Australia, 2012). Key areas identified to assess nutrition literacy included specific nutrients versus foods, labels and packaging, construction of the diet, knowledge of the Australian Dietary Guidelines and Australian Guide to Healthy Eating, understanding of serve and portion sizes, ability to select healthier foods, and demographics such as belief systems and culture. Exploitation of electronic features to enhance visual and auditory displays, including interactive animations such as "drag and drop" and virtual reality situations, were discussed. This study provided insight into the most relevant topic areas and presentation format to assess the nutrition literacy of adult Australians. The visual, auditory, and interactive capacity of the available technology could enhance the assessment of nutrition literacy.

  17. On Labeled Traveling Salesman Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couetoux, Basile; Gourves, Laurent; Monnot, Jerome

    2008-01-01

    We consider labeled Traveling Salesman Problems, defined upon a complete graph of n vertices with colored edges. The objective is to find a tour of maximum (or minimum) number of colors. We derive results regarding hardness of approximation, and analyze approximation algorithms for both versions ...

  18. Package and Assisted Travel Arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Tot

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the ordinary legislative procedure before the European Parliament and the Council, there is a proposal of the European Commission for the adoption of a new directive that would bring the regulation of the contract on organized tours into line with current market development of organized trips. The proposal is intended to regulate the various combinations of travel services that are today offered to passengers, particularly online, which are identical or comparable to the travel services provided in a classic pre-arranged package. The subject of the paper are the provisions of the proposal of the directive which govern the field of application of the proposed directive, in particular the proposed changes regarding the concept of "package" contained in the European Commission proposal and amendments of the European Parliament, as well as the analysis of the proposed new concept of "assisted travel arrangements." The paper also critically refers to the method of targeted maximum harmonization as a proposed new intensity of the harmonization. The conclusion is that, despite the welcome updating of an outdated text of the directive on package travel which is line with the current market needs, the proposed text of the new directive is burdened with technical and complex definitions that could lead to significant difficulties in their transposition into the provisions of national law of the Member States.

  19. Travel Agent. Occupational Simulation Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Wayne

    This career exploration instructional booklet on the travel agent's occupation is one of several resulting from the rural southwestern Colorado CEPAC Project (Career Education Process of Attitude Change). Based on a job analysis and utilizing a programed instructional format, the following content is included: A brief description of what a travel…

  20. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.