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Sample records for assess dietary nutrients

  1. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID): New Tool for Assessing Nutrient Intake from Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate information on the nutrient composition of dietary supplements is essential for determining their contribution to dietary intake. This year, the preliminary release of dietary supplement composition information is now available for researchers' use in evaluating diet and health interrelatio...

  2. Dietary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program's goals in Dietary Assessment are to increase the precision of dietary intake estimates by improving self-report of dietary intake and the analytic procedures for processing reported information.

  3. Performance of a short dietary questionnaire to assess nutrient intake using regression-based weights. : Evaluation of a short dietary questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Vercambre, Marie-Noël; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Niravong, Maryvonne; Berr, Claudine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Ragusa, Stéphane

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the performance of a short dietary questionnaire, using weights to estimate nutrient intake. DESIGN: Using dietary data collected in 1993-1995 from a large cohort of French women, stepwise regression analysis was used to identify the food groups that best predicted nutrient intakes, resulting in a short list of twenty-three foods. This list was used to design a twenty-three-item dietary questionnaire. Nutrient intake was estimated from the answers to the twenty-three q...

  4. Aplicação das Dietary Reference Intakes na avaliação da ingestão de nutrientes para indivíduos Application of Dietary Reference Intakes for assessment of individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirce Maria Lobo Marchioni

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação do estado nutricional é uma das práticas clínicas fundamentais para tomar-se a decisão quanto ao diagnóstico nutricional de um indivíduo e à conduta dietética a ser-lhe prescrita. A adequação da ingestão de nutrientes é um dos componentes da avaliação nutricional e é feita a partir de valores de referência que se constituem em estimativas das necessidades fisiológicas desses nutrientes e metas de ingestão dos mesmos. Colocam-se hoje à disposição dos profissionais um novo conjunto de valores de referência que constituem um avanço importante no modo de interpretar a adequação dietética: as Dietary Reference Intakes. Este artigo aborda os métodos propostos para avaliação da adequação da ingestão de nutriente às necessidades do indivíduo, utilizando os novos valores de referências.The nutritional status assessment is one of the fundamental clinical approaches in making a decision about nutritional diagnosis and dietetic behavior, in order to prescribe an adequate diet therapy. The evaluation of nutrient intakes is a component of the nutritional assessment and it is made from estimates of nutrient physiological needs and goals for good nutrition, known as reference values. A new group of reference values is recently available for health professionals: the Dietary Reference Intakes, which represent an important progress in the field of dietary assessment interpretation. This paper discusses the proposed methods for the individual nutrient intake assessment, using the Dietary Reference Intakes.

  5. Foods, Nutrients, and Dietary Patterns: Interconnections and Implications for Dietary Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapsell, Linda C; Neale, Elizabeth P; Satija, Ambika; Hu, Frank B

    2016-05-01

    Dietary guidelines provide evidence-based statements on food choices to meet nutritional requirements and reduce the risk of prevailing chronic disease. They involve a substantial amount of research translation, and their implementation has important health consequences. Foods, however, are complex combinations of nutrients and other compounds that act synergistically within the food and across food combinations. In addition, the evidence base underpinning dietary guidelines accesses research that reflects different study designs, with inherent strengths and limitations. We propose a systematic approach for the review of evidence that begins with research on dietary patterns. This research will identify the combinations of foods that best protect, or appear deleterious to, health. Next, we suggest that evidence be sought from research that focuses on the effects of individual foods. Finally, nutrient-based research should be considered to explain the mechanisms by which these foods and dietary patterns exert their effects, take into account the effects of ingredients added to the food supply, and enable assessments of dietary sufficiency. The consideration of individual nutrients and food components (e.g., upper limits for saturated fat, added sugar, and sodium) provides important benchmarks for evaluating overall diet quality. The concepts of core and discretionary foods (nutrient-rich and nutrient-poor foods, respectively) enable distinctions between foods, and this has implications for the relation between food policy and food manufacturing. In summary, evidence supporting healthy dietary patterns provides the foundation for the development of dietary guidelines. Further reference to individual foods and nutrients follows from the foundation of healthy dietary patterns. PMID:27184272

  6. Nutrient Intake and Dietary Practices of Elite Volleyball Athletes during the Competition Day

    OpenAIRE

    Janaka Prasanna Gamage; Angela Silva

    2014-01-01

    Adequate quality and quantity of athletes’ competition day diet is critically important for better performance and optimum recovery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of nutrient intake and dietary practices of Sri Lankan national volleyball players during a day of a major competition. Dietary practices of 76 athletes (43 males and 33 females) were surveyed using 24-hour dietary recall method. Energy and macronutrient intakes were quantitatively assessed in relation to compet...

  7. Traditional and modern Greenlandic food - Dietary composition, nutrients and contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: High levels of n-3 fatty acids and other nutrients in traditional Inuit food appear to provide some protection against the typical diseases of affluent industrialized societies: cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. An increased intake of imported food among Inuits will probably increase their frequency of these diseases. However, since the 1970s it has become evident that the marine-based Inuit diet also contains high levels of potentially toxic lipophilic organic pollutants and heavy metals. Since these two food related opposing health effects appear to be inseparable, the phenomenon has been known as 'The Arctic Dilemma'. However, both the fatty acid composition and the contaminant levels vary in Greenlandic food items. Thus in principle it is possible to compose a diet where the benefits and risks are better balanced. Our objectives of this study were to compare traditional and modern meals in Greenland concerning the dietary composition, nutrients, and health indicators among the consumers. Study design: The present study was a cross-sectional dietary survey as part of the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment, Human Health Programme (AMAP). These results were compared with older dietary surveys in Greenland. Methods: Dietary components, fatty acids, and nutrients in 90 local meals collected by duplicate portion method in Uummannaq town, north Greenland 2004 and in Narsaq, south Greenland 2006, were compared with 177 duplicate meals sampled in the village of Igdslorsuit, Uummannaq, district, 1976 and also compared with other dietary studies in Greenland 1953-1987. Anthropometric measures (weight, height, and body mass index, BMI) and blood lipids were measured as health indicators among the participants. Results: Between the traditional foods sampled or analysed 30-50 years ago and the modern food from 2004 to 2006, significant differences were found in the dietary composition. The percentage of local food had decreased, to a present average of

  8. Traditional and modern Greenlandic food - Dietary composition, nutrients and contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutch, Bente [Centre for Arctic Environmental Medicine, Aarhus University, Building 260, Vennelyst Boulevard 6, DK-8000, Aarhus (Denmark)], E-mail: bd@mil.au.dk; Dyerberg, Jorn [Capio Diagnostic, a.s., Nygaardsvej 32, DK-2100, Copenhagen O (Denmark); Pedersen, Henning Sloth [Centre for Arctic Environmental Medicine, Aarhus University, Building 260, Vennelyst Boulevard 6, DK-8000, Aarhus (Denmark); Centre of Primary Health Care, Box 1001, DK-3900 Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark); Aschlund, Ejner; Hansen, Jens C. [Centre for Arctic Environmental Medicine, Aarhus University, Building 260, Vennelyst Boulevard 6, DK-8000, Aarhus (Denmark)

    2007-10-01

    Objectives: High levels of n-3 fatty acids and other nutrients in traditional Inuit food appear to provide some protection against the typical diseases of affluent industrialized societies: cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. An increased intake of imported food among Inuits will probably increase their frequency of these diseases. However, since the 1970s it has become evident that the marine-based Inuit diet also contains high levels of potentially toxic lipophilic organic pollutants and heavy metals. Since these two food related opposing health effects appear to be inseparable, the phenomenon has been known as 'The Arctic Dilemma'. However, both the fatty acid composition and the contaminant levels vary in Greenlandic food items. Thus in principle it is possible to compose a diet where the benefits and risks are better balanced. Our objectives of this study were to compare traditional and modern meals in Greenland concerning the dietary composition, nutrients, and health indicators among the consumers. Study design: The present study was a cross-sectional dietary survey as part of the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment, Human Health Programme (AMAP). These results were compared with older dietary surveys in Greenland. Methods: Dietary components, fatty acids, and nutrients in 90 local meals collected by duplicate portion method in Uummannaq town, north Greenland 2004 and in Narsaq, south Greenland 2006, were compared with 177 duplicate meals sampled in the village of Igdslorsuit, Uummannaq, district, 1976 and also compared with other dietary studies in Greenland 1953-1987. Anthropometric measures (weight, height, and body mass index, BMI) and blood lipids were measured as health indicators among the participants. Results: Between the traditional foods sampled or analysed 30-50 years ago and the modern food from 2004 to 2006, significant differences were found in the dietary composition. The percentage of local food had decreased, to a present

  9. Technology-assisted dietary assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fengqing; Mariappan, Anand; Boushey, Carol J.; Kerr, Deb; Lutes, Kyle D.; Ebert, David S.; Delp, Edward J.

    2008-02-01

    Dietary intake provides valuable insights for mounting intervention programs for prevention of disease. With growing concern for adolescent obesity, the need to accurately measure diet becomes imperative. Assessment among adolescents is problematic as this group has irregular eating patterns and have less enthusiasm for recording food intake. Preliminary studies among adolescents suggest that innovative use of technology may improve the accuracy of diet information from young people. In this paper, we propose a novel food record method using a mobile device that will provide an accurate account of daily food and nutrient intake among adolescents. Our approach includes the use of image analysis tools for identification and quantification of food consumption. Images obtained before and after food is consumed can be used to estimate the diet of an individual. In this paper we describe our initial results and indicate the potential of the proposed system.

  10. Merging dietary assessment with the adolescent lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schap, T E; Zhu, F; Delp, E J; Boushey, C J

    2014-01-01

    The use of image-based dietary assessment methods shows promise for improving dietary self-report among children. The Technology Assisted Dietary Assessment (TADA) food record application is a self-administered food record specifically designed to address the burden and human error associated with conventional methods of dietary assessment. Users would take images of foods and beverages at all eating occasions using a mobile telephone or mobile device with an integrated camera [e.g. Apple iPhone, Apple iPod Touch (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA, USA); Nexus One (Google, Mountain View, CA, USA)]. Once the images are taken, the images are transferred to a back-end server for automated analysis. The first step in this process is image analysis (i.e. segmentation, feature extraction and classification), which allows for automated food identification. Portion size estimation is also automated via segmentation and geometric shape template modeling. The results of the automated food identification and volume estimation can be indexed with the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies to provide a detailed diet analysis for use in epidemiological or intervention studies. Data collected during controlled feeding studies in a camp-like setting have allowed for formative evaluation and validation of the TADA food record application. This review summarises the system design and the evidence-based development of image-based methods for dietary assessment among children. PMID:23489518

  11. Personal dietary assessment using mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariappan, Anand; Bosch, Marc; Zhu, Fengqing; Boushey, Carol J.; Kerr, Deborah A.; Ebert, David S.; Delp, Edward J.

    2009-02-01

    Dietary intake provides valuable insights for mounting intervention programs for prevention of disease. With growing concern for adolescent obesity, the need to accurately measure diet becomes imperative. Assessment among adolescents is problematic as this group has irregular eating patterns and have less enthusiasm for recording food intake. Preliminary studies among adolescents suggest that innovative use of technology may improve the accuracy of diet information from young people. In this paper we describe further development of a novel dietary assessment system using mobile devices. This system will generate an accurate account of daily food and nutrient intake among adolescents. The mobile computing device provides a unique vehicle for collecting dietary information that reduces burden on records that are obtained using more classical approaches. Images before and after foods are eaten can be used to estimate the amount of food consumed.

  12. Comparison of dietary food and nutrient intakes by supplement use in pregnant and lactating women in Seoul

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyesook; Jang, Won; Kim, Ki-Nam; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Chung, Hae-Kyung; Yang, Eun-Ju; Kim, Hye-Young; Lee, Jin-Hee; Moon, Gui-Im; Lee, Jin-Ha; Kang, Tae-Seok; Chang, Namsoo

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to compare the dietary food and nutrient intakes according to supplement use in pregnant and lactating women in Seoul. The subjects were composed of 201 pregnant and 104 lactating women, and their dietary food intake was assessed using the 24-h recall method. General information on demographic and socioeconomic factors, as well as health-related behaviors, including the use of dietary supplements, were collected. About 88% and 60% of the pregnant and lactating women t...

  13. Assessment of the effect of esterified propoxylated glycerol (EPG) on the status of fat-soluble vitamins and select water-soluble nutrients following dietary administration to humans for 8 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Michael H; Bechtel, David H

    2014-12-01

    This double-blind, randomized, controlled study assessed the effect of esterified propoxylated glycerol (EPG) on fat-soluble vitamins and select nutrients in human subjects. For 8 weeks, 139 healthy volunteers consumed a core diet providing adequate caloric and nutrient intakes. The diet included items (spread, muffins, cookies, and biscuits) providing EPG (10, 25, and 40 g/day) vs. margarine alone (control). EPG did not significantly affect circulating retinol, α-tocopherol, or 25-OH D2, but circulating β-carotene and phylloquinone were lower in the EPG groups, and PIVKA-II levels were higher; 25-OH D3 increased but to a lesser extent than the control. The effect might be related to EPG acting as a lipid "sink" during gastrointestinal transit. No effects were seen in secondary endpoint measures (physical exam, clinical pathology, serum folate, RBC folate, vitamin B12, zinc, iron, calcium, phosphorus, osteocalcin, RBP, intact PTH, PT, PTT, cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides). Gastrointestinal adverse events (gas with discharge; diarrhea; oily spotting; oily evacuation; oily stool; liquid stool; soft stool) were reported more frequently by subjects receiving 25 or 40 g/day of EPG. In general, the incidence and duration of these symptoms correlated directly with EPG dietary concentration. The results suggest 10 g/day of EPG was reasonably well tolerated. PMID:25497998

  14. A new multivariate measurement error model with zero-inflated dietary data, and its application to dietary assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Saijuan; Midthune, Douglas; Guenther, Patricia M.; Krebs-Smith, Susan M; Kipnis, Victor; Dodd, Kevin W; Buckman, Dennis W.; Tooze, Janet A.; Freedman, Laurence; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2011-01-01

    In the United States the preferred method of obtaining dietary intake data is the 24-hour dietary recall, yet the measure of most interest is usual or long-term average daily intake, which is impossible to measure. Thus, usual dietary intake is assessed with considerable measurement error. Also, diet represents numerous foods, nutrients and other components, each of which have distinctive attributes. Sometimes, it is useful to examine intake of these components separately, but increasingly nu...

  15. Coronary heart disease prevention: nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Tucker, Katherine L

    2011-08-17

    Diet is a key modifiable risk factor in the prevention and risk reduction of coronary heart disease (CHD). Results from the Seven Countries Study in the early 1970s spurred an interest in the role of single nutrients such as total fat in CHD risk. With accumulating evidence, we have moved away from a focus on total fat to the importance of considering the quality of fat. Recent meta-analyses of intervention studies confirm the beneficial effects of replacing saturated fat with polyunsaturated fatty acids on CHD risk. Scientific evidence for a detrimental role of trans fat intake from industrial sources on CHD risk has led to important policy changes including listing trans fatty acid content on the "Nutrition Facts" panel and banning the use of trans fatty acids in food service establishments in some cities. The effects of such policy changes on changes in CHD incidence are yet to be evaluated. There has been a surging interest in the protective effects of vitamin D in primary prevention. Yet, its associations with secondary events have been mixed and intervention studies are needed to clarify its role in CHD prevention. Epidemiological and clinical trial evidence surrounding the benefit of B vitamins and antioxidants such as carotenoids, vitamin E, and vitamin C, have been contradictory. While pharmacological supplementation of these vitamins in populations with existing CHD has been ineffective and, in some cases, even detrimental, data repeatedly show that consumption of a healthy dietary pattern has considerable cardioprotective effects for primary prevention. Results from these studies and the general ineffectiveness of nutrient-based interventions have shifted interest to the role of foods in CHD risk reduction. The strongest and most consistent protective associations are seen with fruit and vegetables, fish, and whole grains. Epidemiological and clinical trial data also show risk reduction with moderate alcohol consumption. In the past decade, there has

  16. Avaliação da ingestão de nutrientes de crianças de uma creche filantrópica: aplicação do Consumo Dietético de Referência Assessment of nutrients intake of children in a charity daycare center: application of Dietary Reference Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseane Moreira Sampaio Barbosa

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: comparar a adequação aparente da ingestão dos nutrientes utilizando os valores de referência "Consumo Dietético de Referência" (Dietary Reference Intake-DRIs de 35 crianças de uma creche filantrópica, em dois momentos, no ato da matrícula (momento 1 e após seis meses de freqüência na creche (momento 2. MÉTODOS: A avaliação sócio-demográfica foi realizada através de questionário abordando renda, escolaridade, condições de moradia e saneamento básico. Para avaliação do consumo alimentar, no ato da matrícula, a história dietética foi determinada em entrevista com o responsável, com o propósito de obter informações sobre consumo habitual da criança na sua residência. Após o período de seis meses foi utilizado o método de pesagem direta de alimentos (na creche complementando com o consumo alimentar da criança na residência. A análise dos nutrientes como proteínas, ferro, cálcio e vitamina C, além das fibras alimentares, foi realizada através um programa computacional. Para comparar a adequação dos nutrientes nos dois momentos do estudo utilizou-se o teste t de Student para dados pareados (p OBJECTIVES: to compare nutrients intake apparent adequacy through reference values of Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs of 35 children of a charity daycare center in two instances, when they enrolled (instance 1 and six months after (instance 2. METHODS: socio-demographic assessment was performed through a questionnaire collecting information pertaining to income, school level, living conditions and basic sanitation. To assess food consumption at enrollment, dietary history was informed through an interview with the parent, family member or guardian on the usual intake of the child at home. Following a six month period the weighed food record method (in the daycare center was performed complemented by the food intake of the child at home. Nutrient analysis such as proteins, iron, calcium and vitamin C in

  17. IAEA-NBS international workshop. Practical analytical approaches to the assessment of human dietary intake of nutrients, toxic constituents and radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the workshop was to seek a better understanding of the problems related to dietary research and monitoring studies. There was a general agreement that more natural matrix standard reference materials (SRM), especially for radionuclides, should be developed. These should focus on organic nutritients, radionuclides, pesticides, and industrial chemicals, in addition to the ongoing efforts to certify inorganic constituents. It was suggested that when SRMs are prepared, there should be a large enough quantity made for the maximum length of time possible, and the available analytical information updated. Refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  18. Development and validation of a Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) to assess the dietary quality of school lunches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Marianne; Toft, Ulla; Andersen, Klaus K.;

    2012-01-01

    school food programme. In addition thirty-two lunches provided at eighteen other public schools were included. Subjects A total of 254 school lunches. Results A higher Meal IQ score was associated with a higher overall dietary quality, including lower contents of fat, saturated fat and added sugars......Objective School lunch programmes are one strategy to promote healthier dietary habits in children, but better evaluation tools for assessing the dietary quality of such programmes are needed. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a simple index to assess the dietary quality of...... school lunches for children aged 7–13 years. Design A Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) was developed to consist of seven components (nutrients and food groups) based on dietary issues for children aged 7–13 years, which were identified in a national dietary survey. The Meal IQ was validated...

  19. Assessment of chromium content of feedstuffs, their estimated requirement, and effects of dietary chromium supplementation on nutrient utilization, growth performance, and mineral balance in summer-exposed buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Muneendra; Kaur, Harjit; Tyagi, Amrish; Mani, Veena; Deka, Rijusmita Sarma; Chandra, Gulab; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2013-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the chromium content of different feedstuffs, their estimated requirement, and effect of dietary Cr supplementation on nutrient intake, nutrient utilization, growth performance, and mineral balance in buffalo calves during summer season. Levels of Cr was higher in cultivated fodder, moderate in cakes and cereal grains, while straw, grasses, and non-conventional feeds were poor in Cr content. To test the effect of Cr supplementation in buffalo calves, 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 ppm of inorganic Cr were fed to 24 buffalo calves. Buffalo calves were randomly assigned to four treatments (n = 6) and raised for 120 days. A metabolic trial for a period of 7 days was conducted after 3 months of dietary treatments. Blood samples were collected at fortnight interval for plasma mineral estimation. The results suggested that dietary Cr supplementation in summer did not have any affects (P > 0.05) on feed consumption, growth performance, nitrogen balance, and physiological variables. However, dietary Cr supplementation had significant effect (P 0.05) balance and plasma levels of other trace minerals. The estimated Cr requirement of buffalo calves during summer season was calculated to be 0.044 mg/kg body mass and 10.37 ppm per day. In conclusion, dietary Cr supplementation has regardless effect on feed consumption, mass gain, and nutrient utilization in buffalo calves reared under heat stress conditions. However, supplementation of Cr had positive effect on its balance and plasma concentration without interacting with other trace minerals. PMID:23963742

  20. Nutrient Intake and Dietary Practices of Elite Volleyball Athletes during the Competition Day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaka Prasanna Gamage

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Adequate quality and quantity of athletes’ competition day diet is critically important for better performance and optimum recovery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of nutrient intake and dietary practices of Sri Lankan national volleyball players during a day of a major competition. Dietary practices of 76 athletes (43 males and 33 females were surveyed using 24-hour dietary recall method. Energy and macronutrient intakes were quantitatively assessed in relation to competition using a computerized nutrition analysis software and local food database. Questionnaire was used to examine supplement intake and fluid intake strategies. The results were compared with current nutrition recommendations for these athletes. Mean daily energy intakes were 2309+365 kcal (30.9+5.7 kcal.kg-1.body weight in male and 1829+383 kcal (30.8+6.8 kcal.kg-1.body weight in female athletes. These intake values were 31% and 18% lower than recommended daily energy intake for active Sri Lankan male and female adults, respectively. Daily carbohydrate and protein intakes of all athletes were 5.6+1.0 g.kg-1.day-1 and 0.91+0.37 g.kg-1.day-1, respectively, lower than the recommendations. Total energy, carbohydrate, and protein intake of female athletes were significantly lower than those of males (p<0.05. Frequency of snack intake and calorie content of snacks and main meals in the pre-competition period was sub-optimal. Nutrient intake and dietary practices of national level volleyball players during competition days are sub-optimal and do not meet the current nutrition recommendations. According to the results, it is recommended that athletes use nutrition counselling and strategies for optimizing dietary practices during the competition days.

  1. Nutrient acquisition across a dietary shift: fruit feeding butterflies crave amino acids, nectivores seek salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenscraft, Alison; Boggs, Carol L

    2016-05-01

    Evolutionary dietary shifts have major ecological consequences. One likely consequence is a change in nutrient limitation-some nutrients become more abundant in the diet, others become more scarce. Individuals' behavior should change accordingly to match this new limitation regime: they should seek out nutrients that are deficient in the new diet. We investigated the relationship between diet and responses to nutrients using adult Costa Rican butterflies with contrasting feeding habits, testing the hypothesis that animals will respond more positively to nutrients that are scarcer in their diets. Via literature searches and our own data, we showed that nitrogen and sodium are both at lower concentration in nectar than in fruit. We therefore assessed butterflies' acceptance of sodium and four nitrogenous compounds that ranged in complexity from inorganic nitrogen (ammonium chloride) to protein (albumin). We captured wild butterflies, offered them aqueous solutions of each substance, and recorded whether they accepted (drank) or rejected each substance. Support for our hypothesis was mixed. Across the sexes, frugivores were four times more likely to accept amino acids (hydrolyzed casein) than nectivores, in opposition to expectation. In males, nectivores accepted sodium almost three times more frequently than frugivores, supporting expectations. Together, these results suggest that in butterflies, becoming frugivorous is associated with an increased receptivity to amino acids and decreased receptivity to sodium. Nectivory and frugivory are widespread feeding strategies in organisms as diverse as insects, birds, and bats; our results suggest that these feeding strategies may put different pressures on how animals fulfill their nutritional requirements. PMID:26267402

  2. Dietary assessment methods in epidemiologic studies

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Jee-Seon; Oh, Kyungwon; Kim, Hyeon Chang

    2014-01-01

    Diet is a major lifestyle-related risk factor of various chronic diseases. Dietary intake can be assessed by subjective report and objective observation. Subjective assessment is possible using open-ended surveys such as dietary recalls or records, or using closed-ended surveys including food frequency questionnaires. Each method has inherent strengths and limitations. Continued efforts to improve the accuracy of dietary intake assessment and enhance its feasibility in epidemiological studies...

  3. Effects of dietary nutrient composition on de novo lipogenesis in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekmann, Kim Schøn

    far, there are no indications that differences in nutrient digestibility coefficients can explain these differences, since gilthead sea bream largely digests dietary nutrients similarly or better than salmonids. As dietary nutrients upon digestion can be endogenously converted into other nutrients or...... metabolites, it can be hard to quantitatively conclude on the fate of them. Using stable isotope tracers (such as 13C labelled starch or protein) allows us to trace specific nutrients and determine to which extent they are endogenously converted into other metabolites. The present thesis comprises three...... supporting papers which look into the conversion of dietary starch and protein into body lipids as well as the consequences of this on fatty acid profile of the fish. Results from paper I showed that between 4.2 and 8.4% of digested starch was converted into body lipids de novo, corresponding to a synthesis...

  4. How-To-Do-It: Dietary Recommendations and Nutrient Content of Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneman, James A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes an exercise that students can use to evaluate their intake of specific nutrients in relation to the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA). Discusses the practicality and concepts involved in the RDA and procedures for dietary analysis. Provides a chart of the RDA and student worksheets for dietary self analysis. (CW)

  5. Rapid assessment of dietary calcium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordblad, Mikaela; Graham, Fiona; Mughal, M Zulf; Padidela, Raja

    2016-07-01

    A five-food item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a 3-day food diary (3DFD) were used to estimate daily dietary calcium (Ca) intake in 32 patients aged 1-17 years. Median and IQR of Ca intake from 3DFD was 840 mg and 438 mg while from FFQ it was 700 mg and 987 mg, respectively. The non-parametrical Bland-Altman limits of agreement plot between two methods showed that most of the values fell between the limits of agreement at +794 mg and -388 mg. The FFQ had a specificity of 93% in identifying children who consumed inadequate amount of dietary Ca and a sensitivity of 78% in identifying children whose dietary Ca intake exceeded UK's Reference Nutrient Intake. Thus the FFQ allows rapid estimation of children with low daily dietary Ca intake in the clinic setting; however it does not replace 3DFD. PMID:26662924

  6. Effects of dietary protein concentration on performance and nutrient digestibility in Pekin ducks during aflatoxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Murdoch, R; Zhang, Q; Shafer, D J; Applegate, T J

    2016-04-01

    A 14-d study was conducted to determine the impact of dietary crude protein concentration on performance, serum biochemistry, and nutrient digestive functions in Pekin ducklings during aflatoxicosis. A total of 144 male Pekin ducklings were randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments arranged in a 2×2 factorial with 2 crude protein (CP) (20 and 24% on an analyzed basis) with or without 0.2 mg/kg aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) (0.21 mg/kg analyzed). The AFB1 reduced BW gain, feed intake, and breast muscle weight by 33 to 43% (PPekin ducklings primarily through inhibited feed intake, as well as influence nutrient digestion processes (jejunum morphology, digestive enzyme activity, and apparent energy digestibility). Higher dietary CP can improve growth performance of ducklings regardless of AF exposure, but did not interact with dietary AFB1 on performance, serum biochemistry, or nutrient digestion in Pekin ducklings from hatch to 14 d. PMID:26740138

  7. Dietary, Nutrient Patterns and Blood Essential Elements in Chinese Children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fankun; Wu, Fengyun; Zou, Shipu; Chen, Ying; Feng, Chang; Fan, Guangqin

    2016-01-01

    Dietary or nutrient patterns represent the combined effects of foods or nutrients, and elucidate efficaciously the impact of diet on diseases. Because the pharmacotherapy on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was reported be associated with certain side effects, and the etiology of ADHD is multifactorial, this study investigated the association of dietary and nutrient patterns with the risk of ADHD. We conducted a case-control study with 592 Chinese children including ADHD (n = 296) and non-ADHD (n = 296) aged 6-14 years old, matched by age and sex. Dietary and nutrient patterns were identified using factor analysis and a food frequency questionnaire. Blood essential elements levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. A fish-white meat dietary pattern rich in shellfish, deep water fish, white meat, freshwater fish, organ meat and fungi and algae was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.006). Further analysis found that a mineral-protein nutrient pattern rich in zinc, protein, phosphorus, selenium, calcium and riboflavin was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.014). Additionally, the blood zinc was also negatively related to ADHD (p = 0.003). In conclusion, the fish-white meat dietary pattern and mineral-protein nutrient pattern may have beneficial effects on ADHD in Chinese children, and blood zinc may be helpful in distinguishing ADHD in Chinese children. PMID:27338457

  8. Dietary, Nutrient Patterns and Blood Essential Elements in Chinese Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fankun; Wu, Fengyun; Zou, Shipu; Chen, Ying; Feng, Chang; Fan, Guangqin

    2016-01-01

    Dietary or nutrient patterns represent the combined effects of foods or nutrients, and elucidate efficaciously the impact of diet on diseases. Because the pharmacotherapy on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was reported be associated with certain side effects, and the etiology of ADHD is multifactorial, this study investigated the association of dietary and nutrient patterns with the risk of ADHD. We conducted a case-control study with 592 Chinese children including ADHD (n = 296) and non-ADHD (n = 296) aged 6–14 years old, matched by age and sex. Dietary and nutrient patterns were identified using factor analysis and a food frequency questionnaire. Blood essential elements levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. A fish-white meat dietary pattern rich in shellfish, deep water fish, white meat, freshwater fish, organ meat and fungi and algae was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.006). Further analysis found that a mineral-protein nutrient pattern rich in zinc, protein, phosphorus, selenium, calcium and riboflavin was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.014). Additionally, the blood zinc was also negatively related to ADHD (p = 0.003). In conclusion, the fish-white meat dietary pattern and mineral-protein nutrient pattern may have beneficial effects on ADHD in Chinese children, and blood zinc may be helpful in distinguishing ADHD in Chinese children. PMID:27338457

  9. The effects of dietary fiber level on nutrient digestibility in growing pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wenjuan; Li, Defa; Liu, Ling; Zang, Jianjun; Duan, Qiwu; Yang, Wenjun; Zhang, Liying

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of total dietary fiber level on nutrient digestibility and the relationship between apparent total tract digestibility of total dietary fiber, and soluble dietary fiber, insoluble dietary fiber and available energy. Sugar beet pulp was as the only fiber source. The experiment was designed as a 6 × 6 Latin square with an adaptation period of 7 d followed by a 5-d total collection of feces and urine. Feed intake tended to decrease (P =0...

  10. Effects of dietary brown propolis on nutrient intake and digestibility in feedlot lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonilson Araújo da Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study tested brown propolis in crude or extract form as a feed supplement for feedlot lambs to identify the type that most improves in vivo nutrient digestibility. Digestibility was assessed by both total fecal collection and internal markers and the results obtained by these techniques were compared. The completely randomized design was used to compare feed intake and nutrient digestibility of 24 male lambs aged seven months among four dietary treatments (crude brown propolis, propolis ethanol extract, monensin sodium, and control. Methods of feces collection were compared using a completely randomized split-plot design, with experimental diets corresponding to the main factor and the methods to estimate fecal production as the sub-factor. The diets had a roughage:concentrate ratio of 50:50, with Tifton-85 bermudagrass hay (Cynodon spp. as roughage, and ground corn, soybean meal and minerals as concentrate. The lambs fed diets with crude propolis had higher feed intake than those fed diets containing monensin sodium. The different diets did not affect dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, or acid detergent fiber digestibility, but crude propolis supplementation provided higher ether extract digestibility than monensin sodium. Nutrient digestibility, as indicated by indigestible neutral detergent fiber, indigestible acid detergent fiber and sequentially-determined indigestible acid detergent fiber, was lower than that found with the fecal collection method. The addition of brown propolis has the same effect as monensin, but neither maximized nutrient availability in the diet of feedlot lambs at 7 months of age. Digestibility assessment using the internal markers indigestible neutral detergent fiber, indigestible acid detergent fiber and sequentially-determined indigestible acid detergent fiber is not an efficient method compared with total feces collection.

  11. A critical assessment of some biomarker approaches linked with dietary intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crews, H.; Alink, G.; Andersen, Rikke;

    2001-01-01

    interactions and the role of measuring total antioxidant capacity is considered in some detail. In contrast to most nutrients, there is a marked lack of biomarkers of either exposure or effect for most non-nutrients. The role of biological effect monitoring is considered for dietary contaminants, fumonisins...... alter the validity or adequacy of a marker. Vitamin A is discussed in relation to the difficulties which can arise when there are several biomarkers that may be available to assess exposure to one nutrient. Vitamin B-12 is discussed in relation to the dietary choices made by individuals. Possible...

  12. Influence of dietary energy, nutrient density and environmental temperature on pullet performance in early lay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, T A; Balnave, D

    1988-03-01

    1. Alterations in dietary metabolisable energy (ME) concentration had a limited influence on food and nutrient intakes and egg mass output of hens in early lay kept at the prevailing air (10 degrees to 24 degrees C), cold (6 degrees to 16 degrees C) or hot (25 degrees to 35 degrees C) temperatures. 2. Energy intakes were not improved by increasing the dietary concentrations of nutrients other than energy. 3. At prevailing air and cold temperatures all dietary ME-nutrient density combinations allowed hens to meet the recommended daily protein intake but only hens fed the most concentrated diets were able to meet this recommendation at hot temperatures. 4. Even the highest intakes of ME and protein achieved at hot temperatures failed to increase egg mass output to the values attained on any diet at cold temperatures. PMID:3382975

  13. A holistic view of dietary carbohydrate utilization in lobster: digestion, postprandial nutrient flux, and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Viera, Leandro; Perera, Erick; Casuso, Antonio; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Gutierrez, Odilia; Scull, Idania; Carrillo, Olimpia; Martos-Sitcha, Juan A; García-Galano, Tsai; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Crustaceans exhibit a remarkable variation in their feeding habits and food type, but most knowledge on carbohydrate digestion and utilization in this group has come from research on few species. The aim of this study was to make an integrative analysis of dietary carbohydrate utilization in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We used complementary methodologies such as different assessments of digestibility, activity measurements of digestive and metabolic enzymes, and post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites. Several carbohydrates were well digested by the lobster, but maize starch was less digestible than all other starches studied, and its inclusion in diet affected protein digestibility. Most intense hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the gastric chamber of lobster occurred between 2-6 h after ingestion and afterwards free glucose increased in hemolymph. The inclusion of wheat in diet produced a slow clearance of glucose from the gastric fluid and a gradual increase in hemolymph glucose. More intense hydrolysis of protein in the gastric chamber occurred 6-12 h after ingestion and then amino acids tended to increase in hemolymph. Triglyceride concentration in hemolymph rose earlier in wheat-fed lobsters than in lobsters fed other carbohydrates, but it decreased the most 24 h later. Analyses of metabolite levels and activities of different metabolic enzymes revealed that intermolt lobsters had a low capacity to store and use glycogen, although it was slightly higher in wheat-fed lobsters. Lobsters fed maize and rice diets increased amino acid catabolism, while wheat-fed lobsters exhibited higher utilization of fatty acids. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the type of carbohydrate ingested had a profound effect on overall metabolism. Although we found no evidence of a protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate, differences in the kinetics of their digestion and absorption impacted lobster metabolism determining the fate of other nutrients. PMID:25268641

  14. A holistic view of dietary carbohydrate utilization in lobster: digestion, postprandial nutrient flux, and metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Rodríguez-Viera

    Full Text Available Crustaceans exhibit a remarkable variation in their feeding habits and food type, but most knowledge on carbohydrate digestion and utilization in this group has come from research on few species. The aim of this study was to make an integrative analysis of dietary carbohydrate utilization in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We used complementary methodologies such as different assessments of digestibility, activity measurements of digestive and metabolic enzymes, and post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites. Several carbohydrates were well digested by the lobster, but maize starch was less digestible than all other starches studied, and its inclusion in diet affected protein digestibility. Most intense hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the gastric chamber of lobster occurred between 2-6 h after ingestion and afterwards free glucose increased in hemolymph. The inclusion of wheat in diet produced a slow clearance of glucose from the gastric fluid and a gradual increase in hemolymph glucose. More intense hydrolysis of protein in the gastric chamber occurred 6-12 h after ingestion and then amino acids tended to increase in hemolymph. Triglyceride concentration in hemolymph rose earlier in wheat-fed lobsters than in lobsters fed other carbohydrates, but it decreased the most 24 h later. Analyses of metabolite levels and activities of different metabolic enzymes revealed that intermolt lobsters had a low capacity to store and use glycogen, although it was slightly higher in wheat-fed lobsters. Lobsters fed maize and rice diets increased amino acid catabolism, while wheat-fed lobsters exhibited higher utilization of fatty acids. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the type of carbohydrate ingested had a profound effect on overall metabolism. Although we found no evidence of a protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate, differences in the kinetics of their digestion and absorption impacted lobster metabolism determining the fate of other

  15. Traditional and modern Greenlandic food - dietary composition, nutrients and contaminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deutch, Bente; Dyerberg, Jørn; Pedersen, Henning Sloth;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: High levels of n-3 fatty acids and other nutrients in traditional Inuit food appear to provide some protection against the typical diseases of affluent industrialized societies: cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. An increased intake of imported food among Inuits will probabl...

  16. The Intake of Energy and Selected Nutrients by Thai Urban Sedentary Workers: An Evaluation of Adherence to Dietary Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Katiya Ivanovitch; Jeeranun Klaewkla; Rewadee Chongsuwat; Chukiat Viwatwongkasem; Wanicha Kitvorapat

    2014-01-01

    Rapid changes in Thailand’s nutrition and lifestyles have led to increasing diet-related pathologies among people with sedentary occupations. This study examines the extent to which the dietary intake of nutrients and energy by a sample of Thai sedentary workers conforms to the Thai Dietary Reference Intakes (Thai DRIs). The nutrients and energy intake estimates were based on self-reported information collected with a single 24-hour dietary recall and nonweighed 2-day food record. The study p...

  17. A critical assessment of some biomarker approaches linked with dietary intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crews, H.; Alink, G.; Andersen, Rikke; Braesco, V.; Holst, B.; Maiani, G.; Ovesen, L.; Scotter, M.; Solfrizzo, M.; Berg, R. van den; Verhagen, H.; Williamson, G.

    2001-01-01

    alter the validity or adequacy of a marker. Vitamin A is discussed in relation to the difficulties which can arise when there are several biomarkers that may be available to assess exposure to one nutrient. Vitamin B-12 is discussed in relation to the dietary choices made by individuals. Possible......In this review many examples are given of the complexities involved in using some biomarkers in relation to assessing the effects of dietary exposure, when there is frequently a need to determine changes following long-term low level exposure to dietary components. These range from understanding...

  18. Dietary patterns of adolescents in Germany - Associations with nutrient intake and other health related lifestyle characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richter Almut

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to identify dietary patterns among a representative sample of German adolescents and their associations with energy and nutrient intake, socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics, and overweight status. Methods In the analysis, data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents were used. The survey included a comprehensive dietary history interview conducted among 1272 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. Dietary patterns were determined with principal component analysis (PCA based on 48 food groups, for boys and girls separately. Results Three dietary patterns among boys and two among girls were identified. Among boys, high adherence to the 'western' pattern was associated with higher age, lower socioeconomic status (SES, and lower physical activity level (PA. High adherence to the 'healthy' pattern among boys, but not among girls, was associated with higher SES, and higher PA. Among boys, high adherence to the 'traditional' pattern was associated with higher age. Among girls, high adherence to the 'traditional and western' pattern was associated with lower age, lower SES and more hours watching TV per day. The nutrient density of several vitamins and minerals, particularly of B-vitamins and calcium, increased with increasing scores of the 'healthy' pattern among both sexes. Conversely, with increasing scores of the 'western' pattern among boys, most nutrient densities decreased, particularly of fibre, beta-carotene, vitamin D, biotin and calcium. Among girls with higher scores of the 'traditional and western' pattern, nutrient densities of vitamin A, C, E, K and folate decreased. Among boys, high adherence to the 'traditional' pattern was correlated with higher densities of vitamin B12 and vitamin D and lower densities of fibre, magnesium and iron. No significant associations between dietary patterns and overweight were found. Conclusions Higher scores for

  19. Increasing Plant Based Foods or Dairy Foods Differentially Affects Nutrient Intakes: Dietary Scenarios Using NHANES 2007–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Cifelli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Diets rich in plant foods and lower in animal-based products have garnered increased attention among researchers, dietitians and health professionals in recent years for their potential to, not only improve health, but also to lessen the environmental impact. However, the potential effects of increasing plant-based foods at the expense of animal-based foods on macro- and micronutrient nutrient adequacy in the U.S. diet is unknown. In addition, dairy foods are consistently under consumed, thus the impact of increased dairy on nutrient adequacy is important to measure. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to use national survey data to model three different dietary scenarios to assess the effects of increasing plant-based foods or dairy foods on macronutrient intake and nutrient adequacy. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007–2010 for persons two years and older (n = 17,387 were used in all the analyses. Comparisons were made of usual intake of macronutrients and shortfall nutrients of three dietary scenarios that increased intakes by 100%: (i plant-based foods; (ii protein-rich plant-based foods (i.e., legumes, nuts, seeds, soy; and (iii milk, cheese and yogurt. Scenarios (i and (ii had commensurate reductions in animal product intake. In both children (2–18 years and adults (≥19 years, the percent not meeting the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR decreased for vitamin C, magnesium, vitamin E, folate and iron when plant-based foods were increased. However the percent not meeting the EAR increased for calcium, protein, vitamin A, and vitamin D in this scenario. Doubling protein-rich plant-based foods had no effect on nutrient intake because they were consumed in very low quantities in the baseline diet. The dairy model reduced the percent not meeting the EAR for calcium, vitamin A, vitamin D, magnesium, and protein, while sodium and saturated fat levels increased. Our modeling shows that

  20. Increasing Plant Based Foods or Dairy Foods Differentially Affects Nutrient Intakes: Dietary Scenarios Using NHANES 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifelli, Christopher J; Houchins, Jenny A; Demmer, Elieke; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2016-01-01

    Diets rich in plant foods and lower in animal-based products have garnered increased attention among researchers, dietitians and health professionals in recent years for their potential to, not only improve health, but also to lessen the environmental impact. However, the potential effects of increasing plant-based foods at the expense of animal-based foods on macro- and micronutrient nutrient adequacy in the U.S. diet is unknown. In addition, dairy foods are consistently under consumed, thus the impact of increased dairy on nutrient adequacy is important to measure. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to use national survey data to model three different dietary scenarios to assess the effects of increasing plant-based foods or dairy foods on macronutrient intake and nutrient adequacy. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010 for persons two years and older (n = 17,387) were used in all the analyses. Comparisons were made of usual intake of macronutrients and shortfall nutrients of three dietary scenarios that increased intakes by 100%: (i) plant-based foods; (ii) protein-rich plant-based foods (i.e., legumes, nuts, seeds, soy); and (iii) milk, cheese and yogurt. Scenarios (i) and (ii) had commensurate reductions in animal product intake. In both children (2-18 years) and adults (≥19 years), the percent not meeting the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) decreased for vitamin C, magnesium, vitamin E, folate and iron when plant-based foods were increased. However the percent not meeting the EAR increased for calcium, protein, vitamin A, and vitamin D in this scenario. Doubling protein-rich plant-based foods had no effect on nutrient intake because they were consumed in very low quantities in the baseline diet. The dairy model reduced the percent not meeting the EAR for calcium, vitamin A, vitamin D, magnesium, and protein, while sodium and saturated fat levels increased. Our modeling shows that increasing plant

  1. Effects of Supplemental Dietary Chromium on Yield and Nutrient Digestibility of Laying Hens Under Low Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    ŞAHİN, Kazım; ERTAŞ, O. Nihat; GÜLER, Talat; ÇİFTÇİ, Mehmet

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of chromium picolinate (CrPi) added into diet containing 710.3 ppb chromium on yield and nutrient digestibility of laying hens at low temperature. Forty-six-week-old laying hens were randomly assigned to four groups of 30 hens per group. Treatment groups were fed different supplemental dietary chromium levels. Thus, hens were fed diets with no supplemental chromium (Control Group), 100 ppb of supplemental chromium (100 Group), 200 ppb of s...

  2. Targeting specific nutrient deficiencies in protein-restricted diets: some practical facts in PKU dietary management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Filipa B; Alves, Rita C; Oliva-Teles, M Teresa; Costa, Anabela S G; Fernandes, Telmo J R; Almeida, Manuela F; Torres, Duarte; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2014-12-01

    Among aminoacidopathies, phenylketonuria (PKU) is the most prevalent one. Early diagnosis in the neonatal period with a prompt nutritional therapy (low natural-protein and phenylalanine diet, supplemented with phenylalanine-free amino acid mixtures and special low-protein foods) remains the mainstay of the treatment. Data considering nutrient contents of cooked dishes is lacking. In this study, fourteen dishes specifically prepared for PKU individuals were analysed, regarding the lipid profile and iron and zinc contents. These dishes are poor sources of essential nutrients like Fe, Zn or n-3 fatty acids, reinforcing the need for adequate supplementation to cover individual patients' needs. This study can contribute to a more accurate adjustment of PKU diets and supplementation in order to prevent eventual nutritional deficiencies. This study contributes to a better understanding of nutrient intake from PKU patients' meals, showing the need for dietary supplementation. PMID:25277724

  3. 深圳市常住居民膳食结构与营养素摄入状况评价%ASSESSMENT OF DIETARY PATTERN AND NUTRIENTS INTAKE STATUS OF THE RESIDENTS IN SHENZHEN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小立; 袁雪丽; 卓志鹏; 宋金萍; 池洪珊; 徐健

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand current status of dietary pattern, nutrient intakes of the residents in Shenzhen, and provide scientific basis for developing hygiene policy and intervention strategy. Methods A sampling method of multiple stage probability proportional to the population size was used in this study. In stage one, 12 communities were randomly selected from 8 districts of Shenzhen based on population proportion from Feb. 2011 to Jul. 2011. In the second stage, 75 households (settled down in Shenzhen for 5 years or more) were randomly selected from each community. In each household, 15 years old or older members were enrolled to take dietary survey and health questionnaire. Results The average daily intakes of cereal, potato, beans, vegetables and eggs were 257.8, 336.7, 31.3g per person respectively, that reached the recommended intakes; while those of fruits, aquatic products, milk, legumes and nuts were 97.9, 59.9, 43.3, 15.5g, respectively, that were below the recommended intakes; but those of meat, oil and salt were 159.8, 41.8, 10.9g respectively, which were much higher than the recommended intakes. The average daily intakes per person of energy, and intakes of protein, fat, carbohydrate were 8.55 MJ (2043.7 kcal) 71.2, 88.3, 239.3g respectively. The energy ratio of protein, fat, and carbohydrate was 13.9%, 39.2%, 46.9% respectively. The energy ratio from cereal, animal foods and bean products were 35.4%, 23.0%, 4.0%respectively. The average daily intakes of nicotinic acid and vitamin E were sufficient while vitamin A, vitamin B1 and vitamin B2 were deficient. The average daily intakes of phosphorus, sodium, iron, manganese were sufficient and selenium, potassium were slightly lower than the Chinese Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNIs). The intaks of calcium,magnesium, zinc and copper were lower than RNIs. Conclusion The dietary pattern of the residents in Shenzhen has changed to some extent compared to the previous years. However, the intakes of fruits

  4. Effect of dietary acidification in broiler chickens: 1. Growth performance and nutrients ileal digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Khooshechin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary Orgacids® (organic acid; OA supplementation on the productive performance, nutrients ileal digestibility, relative weight of organs and serum enzyme activities in broiler chickens. One hundred-sixty Ross 308 male chicks were randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments: a nutritionally balanced basal diet supplemented with 0, 1, 2 and 3 OA g kg–1 of feed from 7 to 42 d of age. Each treatment had 4 replications with 10 broilers/replicate pen. As a result of this study, body weight, average daily gain and average daily feed intake increased (linear effect, P<0.05 at 3 g kg–1 of OA inclusion, whereas feed conversion ratio was negatively affected by dietary treatments (quadratic, P<0.05 as inclusion of OA increased to 2 g kg-1 and then decreased with further inclusion. Ileal digestibility of total phosphorus and relative weight of pancreas, heart and spleen increased (linear effect, P<0.05 with increasing inclusion of OA. Metabolizable energy corrected to zero nitrogen retention increased linearly and quadratically on increasing OA addition reaching a maximum at 2 g kg–1 diet. The results indicated that serum enzyme activity of alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase increased (linear effect, P<0.05 with increasing inclusion levels of OA, but lactate dehydrogenase decreased. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that the OA supplementation at 3 g kg–1 of the diet resulted in optimal growth performance and nutrients digestibility.

  5. Dietary taurine intake, nutrients intake, dietary habits and life stress by depression in Korean female college students: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Park Ji-Yeon; You Jeong-Soon; Chang Kyung-Ja

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the dietary taurine intake, nutrients intake, dietary habits and life stress by depression in Korean female college students. Methods In this study, research data were collected in March 2009 and 65 patients with depression and 65 controls without depression participated. The CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression) scale was used for depression measure and controls were matched for age. A 3-day recall method was used...

  6. Assessment of dietary intake among pregnant women in a rural area of western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xueli

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adequate maternal nutrient intake during pregnancy is important to ensure satisfactory birth outcomes. There are no data available on the usual dietary intake among pregnant women in rural China. The present study describes and evaluates the dietary intake in a cohort of pregnant women living in two counties of rural Shaanxi, western China. Methods 1420 pregnant women were recruited from a trial that examined the effects of micronutrient supplementation on birth outcomes. Dietary information was collected at the end of their trimester or after delivery with an interviewed-administrated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Nutrients intake was calculated from the FFQ and compared to the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR. The EAR cut-offs based on the Chinese Nutrition Society Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs were used to assess the prevalence of inadequate dietary intakes of energy, protein, calcium, zinc, riboflavin, vitamin C and folate. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis tests were used to compare nutrient intakes across subgroups. Results The mean nutrient intakes assessed by the FFQ was similar to those reported in the 2002 Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey from women living in rural areas except for low intakes of protein, fat, iron and zinc. Of the participants, 54% were at risk of inadequate intake of energy. There were high proportions of pregnant women who did not have adequate intakes of folate (97% and zinc (91%. Using the "probability approach", 64% of subjects had an inadequate consumption of iron. Conclusion These results reveal that the majority of pregnant women in these two counties had low intakes of nutrients that are essential for pregnancy such as iron and folate. Trial registration ISRCTN08850194.

  7. Feasibility and validity of mobile phones to assess dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Darren B; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Current limitations of conventional dietary assessment methods restrict the establishment of diet-disease relationships and efficacy of dietary interventions. Technology, in particular the use of mobile phones, may help resolve methodologic limitations, in turn improving the validity of dietary assessment and research and associated findings. This review aims to evaluate the validity, feasibility, and acceptability of dietary assessment methods that have been deployed on mobile phone platforms. In August 2013, electronic databases for health sciences were searched for English, peer-reviewed, full-text articles, published from January 1, 2001 onward; and accompanied by a hand search of available relevant publications from universities and government bodies. Studies were not limited by design, length, setting, or population group. Of 194 articles, 12 met eligibility criteria: mobile phone as the dietary recording platform and validation of energy and/or macronutrient intake against another dietary or biological reference method. Four dietary recoding methods had been validated on mobile phone platforms: electronic food diary, food photograph-assisted self-administered, 24 h recall, food photograph analysis by trained dietitians, and automated food photograph analysis. All mobile phone dietary assessment methods showed similar, but not superior, validity or reliability when compared with conventional methods. Participants' satisfaction and preferences for mobile phone dietary assessment methods were higher than those for conventional methods, indicating the need for further research. Validity testing in larger and more diverse populations, over longer durations is required to evaluate the efficacy of these methods in dietary research. PMID:24976425

  8. USDA develops a database for flavonoids to assess dietary intakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The beneficial health effects of dietary flavonoids continue to interest the scientific community in associating the flavonoid intakes and certain chronic diseases. Scientists at the Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) and the Food Surveys Research Group (FSRG), USDA planned a study of the intakes of fl...

  9. Assessment of Vitamin D in multivitamin/mineral dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin D is a nutrient of public health concern and is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available in dietary supplements. It is essential for bone growth and may have other roles in human health. To estimate current levels of intake, analytical data for vitamin D in foods and...

  10. Dietary and Developmental Regulation of Nutrient Transporter Gene Expression in the Small Intestine of Two Lines of Broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Elizabeth Ruth

    2008-01-01

    To better understand the digestive and absorptive capacities of the chick intestine so that we may feed diets that better meet the nutritional needs of the chick, it is important to understand how expression of nutrient transporter genes changes in response to various factors. A series of feeding trials were conducted to evaluate the dietary and developmental regulation of nutrient transporter mRNA abundance in the small intestine of two lines of broilers selected on corn-based (Line A) or wh...

  11. Effect of soil in nutrient cycle assessment at dairy farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Maricke; de Boer, Imke; van Dam, Jos; van Middelaar, Corina; Stoof, Cathelijne

    2016-04-01

    Annual farm nutrient cycle assessments give valuable insight in the nutrient cycles and nutrient losses at dairy farms. It describes nutrient use efficiencies for the entire farm and for the underlying components cattle, manure, crops and soil. In many modelling studies, soil is kept as a constant factor, while soil quality is vital for soil functioning of the ecosystem. Improving soil quality will improve the nutrient cycle, and will also have positive effect on the soil functions crop production, water cycling and greenhouse gas mitigation. Spatial variation of soil properties within a farm, however, are not included in annual nutrient cycle assessments. Therefore it is impossible to identify fields where most profit can be gained by improving farm management at field level, and it is not possible to identify and to quantify nutrient flow path ways. The aim of this study is to develop a framework to improve the annual nutrient cycle assessment at Dutch dairy farms, by including soil properties and their spatial variation within farms. Soil type and soil quality will be described by visual soil assessment of soil quality characteristics. The visual observations will be linked to the nutrient cycle assessment, using soil-hydrological model SWAP. We will demonstrate how soil quality at field level can impact on crop production, eutrophication potential and greenhouse gas potential at farm level. Also, we will show how this framework can be used by farmers to improve their farm management. This new approach is focusing on annual nutrient cycle assessment, but could also be used in life cycle assessment. It will improve understanding of soil functioning and dairy farm management.

  12. Effects of dietary carbohydrates and buffering capacity on nutrient digestibility and manure characteristics in finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroz, Z; Moeser, A J; Vreman, K; van Diepen, J T; van Kempen, T; Canh, T T; Jongbloed, A W

    2000-12-01

    A 2 x 3 factorial experiment was conducted with 24 finishing pigs (Yorkshire x [Finnish Landrace x Dutch Landrace]) to determine the effects of dietary buffering capacity (BC) and carbohydrate sources on apparent total tract digestibility (TD), N retention, and manure characteristics. Twelve of these pigs were fitted with steered ileo-cecal value cannulas to measure the apparent ileal digestibility (ID) of N. Experimental variables were two levels of BC (High = 600 mEq/kg and Low = 530 mEq/kg) and three dietary carbohydrates (tapioca [28%], soybean hulls [25%], and sugar beet pulp [25%]). The two levels of BC were achieved by adjusting the amounts of alkalogenic limestone and acidogenic Ca sulfate in the diet. Pigs were fed twice daily at 2.4 x maintenance requirement for metabolizable energy (418 kJ ME/BW(0.75)). Chromic oxide was used as an indigestible marker. Feces and urine were collected over 5 d for nutrient balance and in vitro measurements of pH and ammonia emission over 7 d. No significant interactions between BC and dietary carbohydrates on the ID, TD, N retention, or manure characteristics were observed. Lowering BC with Ca sulfate did not affect digestibility of most nutrients, except for a negative impact on the TD of Ca (P = 0.015) and Mg (P = 0.003). Although all pigs receiving Ca sulfate had more acidic urine (by 0.49 pH units; P = 0.001), ammonia emission from manure was not lowered, irrespective of the carbohydrate source. Carbohydrates affected significantly the ID and TD of most nutrients, whereas N retention remained similar (P > 0.10). Urinary N:fecal N ratios in manure of pigs fed diets with tapioca, soybean hulls, and beet pulp were 2.09, 1.35, and 1.67, respectively. These ratios corresponded with in vitro ammonia emission (169, 125, and 148 mmol/7 d; P = 0.023). In conclusion, these results indicate that the acidification of urine in pigs fed Ca sulfate in the presence of NSP-rich carbohydrates was achieved. However, acidity of manure and

  13. Design, development and validation of software for modelling dietary exposure to food chemicals and nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, C; Naddy, B; Rohan, D; Sexton, J

    2003-10-01

    The Monte Carlo computational system for stochastic modelling of dietary exposure to food chemicals and nutrients is presented. This system was developed through a European Commission-funded research project. It is accessible as a Web-based application service. The system allows and supports very significant complexity in the data sets used as the model input, but provides a simple, general purpose, linear kernel for model evaluation. Specific features of the system include the ability to enter (arbitrarily) complex mathematical or probabilistic expressions at each and every input data field, automatic bootstrapping on subjects and on subject food intake diaries, and custom kernels to apply brand information such as market share and loyalty to the calculation of food and chemical intake. PMID:14555354

  14. The impact of changing dietary Na/K ratio's in growth and nutrient utilisation in juvenile African Catfish Clarias Gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dersjant-Li, Y.; Sheng Wu, W.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of dietary Na/K ratios on feed intake, growth, nutrient utilisation, plasma and body mineral concentration in juvenile African catfish were investigated. Four Na/K ratios, 0.2, 0.7, 1.5, 2.5 (mmol/mmol), were tested in a randomised experimental design with three replications in each trea

  15. Dietary energy nutrient distribution, calcium, iron and zinc in young and old Asians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu-Tso, P.; Fuentes-Cano, M.; Tam, C.F. (California State Univ., Los Angeles (United States))

    1992-02-26

    The objective of this study is to examine whether ethnic eating patterns influence dietary nutrient intakes in young and old Asians. The authors experimental groups included young CSLA Asian students and their parents or close relatives. Most of them lived in the same households. Three-day dietary records were analyzed for protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, iron, and zinc by the Nutritionist III computer program and statistically analyzed using Mustat. No statistical difference was observed in the KCAL distribution of protein, fat, and carbohydrate and both groups met the guidelines of 20%, 30%, and 50%, respectively. However, mean KCAL intakes of both groups were found to be about 79% of NRC-RDA. No statistical difference was found in % RDA for Ca and Zn between groups, except % RDA for Fe. With respect to RDA, the older Asians consumed more Fe than the younger Asians. It is noteworthy that they did not meet the RDA requirements for Ca and Zn. Since recent Asian immigrants and refugees often suffer from a high incidence of infectious disease such as tuberculosis, these observations of low intakes of KCAL, Ca, and Zn, may, at least in part, contribute to disease.

  16. Nutrients, foods, dietary patterns and telomere length: Update of epidemiological studies and randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas-Simoes, Tania-Marisa; Ros, Emilio; Sala-Vila, Aleix

    2016-04-01

    Identifying simple strategies to prevent or delay age-associated pathologies is a major public health concern. Attrition of telomeres, chromatin structures that help maintain genome stability, leads to cell death or senescence. Thus telomere length is a reliable hallmark of biological aging and the risk of developing age-related chronic diseases through common oxidation and inflammation mechanisms. Variability in telomere shortening that is independent of chronological age suggests that it is a modifiable factor, which may be explained in part by lifestyle variables such as smoking, adiposity, physical exercise, and diet. Here we summarize data from published studies focused on nutrition (nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns) and telomere length. Research on the topic is incipient and most data comes from epidemiologic studies, often cross-sectional in design. Consistent with well-known evidence of benefit or harm for chronic age-related diseases, dietary antioxidants and consumption of antioxidant-rich, plant-derived foods help maintain telomere length. In contrast, total and saturated fat intake and consumption of refined flour cereals, meat and meat products, and sugar-sweetened beverages relate to shorter telomeres. Data on alcohol and dairy products is controversial. There is evidence that adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with longer telomeres. Randomized clinical trials are limited to seafood-derived long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, with promising results. To fill the many gaps in our knowledge of the aging process and confirm nutrition as a useful tool to counteract biological aging more research is warranted, particularly observational studies using repeated measurements of telomere length and randomized trials of foods and dietary patterns with sequential telomere analyses. PMID:26975532

  17. Effects of decreased dietary roughage concentration on energy metabolism and nutrient balance in finishing beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, K E; Brown-Brandl, T M; Freetly, H C

    2014-01-01

    The optimal roughage concentration required in feedlot diets changes continuously for many reasons such as source, availability, price, and interaction with other ingredients in the diet. Wet distillers grains and solubles (WDGS) are common in finishing diets and they contain relatively high amounts of fiber compared with other grains they replace. Therefore, concentration of roughage could be altered when WDGS are included in feedlot diets. There has been very little data published regarding the effects of roughage concentration on energy metabolism and nutrient balance in beef steers. Therefore, the effects of roughage concentration in dry-rolled corn (DRC)-based diets containing 25% WDGS were evaluated in 8 steers (BW = 362 ± 3.71 kg) using a replicated Latin square. Data were analyzed with the fixed effects of dietary treatment and period and random effects of square and steer within square were included in the model. Diets consisted of 25% WDGS and the balance being DRC and coarsely ground alfalfa hay (AH) replacing corn at 2% (AH-2), 6% (AH-6), 10% (AH-10), and 14% (AH-14) of dietary dry matter. As a proportion of GE intake, fecal energy loss increased linearly (P = 0.02), and DE decreased linearly (P = 0.02) as dietary level of AH increased. Methane energy loss, as a proportion of GE intake, increased linearly (P Neutral detergent fiber and OM excretion also increased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing AH in the diet. The increased NDF and OM excretion were likely caused by the difference in digestibility of AH and DRC. PMID:24352959

  18. Dietary and Built Environment Assessment in a Latino Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sarah; Calloway, Stephanie A.; Maida, I. Tatiana; Rakel, David P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Assessment of basic dietary intake and community nutrition environment is lacking and needed to improve health outcomes for the growing U.S. Latino community. Purpose: The dietary intake and community nutrition environment of a Latino population in the Midwest was evaluated. Methods: In a community clinic, Block Food Frequency…

  19. Assessment of dietary habits of patients with recurrent depressive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefańska, Ewa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was evaluation of selected dietary habits of patients with recurrent depressive disorders. Methods. The study included 150 patients (75 patients suffering from recurrent depressive disorders. and 75 healthy people aged 18-64 years. The assessment of dietary habits was carried out by using a food frequency questionnaire. Results. It has been shown that in the compared groups of women, patients with depression consumed significantly less groats (p<0.001, rice (p= 0.02, red meat (p<0.01, fish (p<0.01, vegetables (p<0.001, fruits (p<0.01 and wine (p<0.001 in comparison with women without depression, and they were significantly more likely to consume wheat-rye bread (p= 0.03, cheese (p=0.02, butter (p=0.03, cream (p<0.01, lard (p <0.001, coffee (p=0.03 and sugar (p=0.02 in comparison with women without depression. Statistically significant differences between the two groups of men were diagnosed in the frequent intake of lard (p<0.001 and less frequent vegetable oils (p<0.01, beer (p= 0.01, and fast food (p<0.01 for men with depression compared with men in the control group. Conclusions. In the treatment of patients with depression during the declared change of diet, the need for nutrition education on the principles of rational nutrition should be taken into attention, including the selection of appropriate food groups in order to ensure an optimal supply of all necessary to the proper functioning of the body’s nutrients.

  20. King eider use an income strategy for egg production: a case study for incorporating individual dietary variation into nutrient allocation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppel, Steffen; Powell, Abby N.; O'Brien, Diane M.

    2010-01-01

    The use of stored nutrients for reproduction represents an important component of life-history variation. Recent studies from several species have used stable isotopes to estimate the reliance on stored body reserves in reproduction. Such approaches rely on population-level dietary endpoints to characterize stored reserves (“capital”) and current diet (“income”). Individual variation in diet choice has so far not been incorporated in such approaches, but is crucial for assessing variation in nutrient allocation strategies. We investigated nutrient allocation to egg production in a large-bodied sea duck in northern Alaska, the king eider (Somateria spectabilis). We first used Bayesian isotopic mixing models to quantify at the population level the amount of endogenous carbon and nitrogen invested into egg proteins based on carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. We then defined the isotopic signature of the current diet of every nesting female based on isotope ratios of eggshell membranes, because diets varied isotopically among individual king eiders on breeding grounds. We used these individual-based dietary isotope signals to characterize nutrient allocation for each female in the study population. At the population level, the Bayesian and the individual-based approaches yielded identical results, and showed that king eiders used an income strategy for the synthesis of egg proteins. The majority of the carbon and nitrogen in albumen (C: 86 ± 18%, N: 99 ± 1%) and the nitrogen in lipid-free yolk (90 ± 15%) were derived from food consumed on breeding grounds. Carbon in lipid-free yolk derived evenly from endogenous sources and current diet (exogenous C: 54 ± 24%), but source contribution was highly variable among individual females. These results suggest that even large-bodied birds traditionally viewed as capital breeders use exogenous nutrients for reproduction. We recommend that investigations of nutrient allocation should incorporate individual

  1. Optical assessment of phytoplankton nutrient depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heath, M.R.; Richardson, Katherine; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    The ratio of light absorption at 480 and 665 nm by 90% acetone extracts of marine phytoplankton pigments has been examined as a potential indicator of phytoplankton nutritional status in both laboratory and field studies. The laboratory studies demonstrated a clear relationship between nutritional......-replete and nutrient-depleted cells. The field data suggest that the absorption ratio may be a useful indicator of nutritional status of natural phytoplankton populations, and can be used to augment the interpretation of other data....

  2. Dietary intake of nutrients and its correlation with fatigue in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sama Bitarafan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of nutrition in the progression of multiple sclerosis (MS and related complications such as fatigue has been reported by several studies. The aim of this study is the assessment of nutritional status and its relationship with fatigue in multiple sclerosis patients.This is a cross-sectional study, in which 101 relapsing-remitting MS patients were enrolled. The fatigue status was determined using the validated Persian version of of the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS. Dietary intake was assessed using a 3-day food record questionnaire and compared to dietary reference intake (DRI values. Association between variables was determined using Pearson Correlation Coefficient.In the preset study, 25 men and 76 women (total = 101 were enrolled. Analysis of dietary intake showed that daily intake of vitamin D, folate, calcium, and magnesium were significantly lower than DRI in all of patients. In men, zinc intake was significantly lower than DRI; while, in women, iron was significantly below the DRI level. After adjusting for energy, MFIS and its physical subscale were highly correlated with intake of folate and magnesium.Our findings support that lower magnesium and folate diets are correlated with higher fatigue scores in MS patients.

  3. Effect of Dietary Nutrient Density on Small Intestinal Phosphate Transport and Bone Mineralization of Broilers during the Growing Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Zhiqiang; Song, Zhigang; Yang, Yu; Tian, Wenxia; Guo, Yuming

    2016-01-01

    A 2 × 4 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary nutrient density on growth performance, small intestinal epithelial phosphate transporter expression, and bone mineralization of broiler chicks fed with diets with different nutrient densities and nonphytate phosphorus (NPP) levels. The broilers were fed with the same starter diets from 0 to 21 days of age. In the grower phase (day 22 to 42), the broilers were randomly divided into eight groups according to body weight. Relatively high dietary nutrient density (HDND) and low dietary nutrient density (LDND) diets were assigned metabolic energy (ME) values of 3,150 and 2,950 kcal/kg, respectively. Crude protein and essential amino acid levels were maintained in the same proportion as ME to prepare the two diet types. NPP levels were 0.25%, 0.30%, 0.35%, and 0.40% of the diets. Results showed that a HDND diet significantly increased the body weight gain (BWG) of broilers and significantly decreased the feed conversion ratio and NPP consumed per BWG. HDND significantly decreased tibial P content of the broilers. Conversely, mRNA expression of NaPi-IIb and protein expression of calbindin were significantly increased in the intestine of broilers fed a HDND diet. HDND also increased vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression, especially at a relatively low dietary NPP level (0.25%). The mRNA expression of NaPi-IIa in the kidneys was significantly increased at a relatively low dietary NPP level (0.25%) to maintain P balance. Tibial P, calcium, and ash content were significantly decreased, as were calbindin and VDR expression levels in the intestine at a low NPP level. Therefore, HDND improved the growth rate of broilers and increased the expression of phosphate and calcium transporter in the small intestine, but adversely affected bone mineralization. PMID:27100791

  4. Dietary N,N-dimethylglycine supplementation improves nutrient digestibility and attenuates pulmonary hypertension syndrome in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmar, I D; Cools, A; Buyse, J; Roose, P; Janssens, G P J

    2010-12-01

    N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG) is an intermediary metabolite in cellular choline and betaine metabolism. The present trial aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary DMG on nutrient digestibility and development of pulmonary hypertension syndrome in broilers. A total of 64 14-day-old broiler hens (Ross-308) were raised until age 40 days under cold environmental temperature conditions (15 °C) and were fed a high energy feed in order to incite pulmonary hypertension. Birds were randomly assigned to two groups of which each group had eight replicate pens of four birds each. Test diets contained 0 or 167 mg Na-DMG (Taminizer(®) D; Taminco N.V., Ghent, Belgium)/kg feed. N,N-dimethylglycine supplementation resulted in a significant improvement in apparent faecal digestibility of crude protein and nitrogen-free extract. Further, fulminant ascites was numerically lowered by DMG and incidence of pulmonary hypertension decreased significantly from 44.8% in the control group to 14.6% in the DMG group. Finally, fasted plasma level of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) was twofold in the control group in relation to the DMG group. In conclusion, these data demonstrate beneficial effects of DMG on digestibility of non-fat fractions, on fat metabolism and on progression towards broiler ascites syndrome. PMID:20662970

  5. The digestion of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) fibre and the effect of kiwifruit on the digestibility of other dietary nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Carlos A; Saigeman, Stuart; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J

    2016-04-15

    The effect of dietary kiwifruit inclusion level on the digestibility of kiwifruit fibre and dietary nutrients was studied. Ileal cannulated pigs (50±1.9 kg) were fed a fibre-free diet for seven days (n=14) followed by kiwifruit-containing diets (133 or 266 g kiwifruit/kg dry matter) (n=7) for 44 days followed by the fibre-free diet (n=14) for seven days. Faecal and ileal samples were collected on days 5, 11, 21, 35, 49 and 56. The soluble kiwifruit fibre was highly digested in the foregut (80%), and the insoluble fibre in the hindgut (95%). Increasing the kiwifruit inclusion level decreased the apparent ileal and faecal digestibilities of several nutrients (P0.05). PMID:26616986

  6. Effects of Dietary Lysine Levels on Apparent Nutrient Digestibility and Serum Amino Acid Absorption Mode in Growing Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, P. L.; Yan, H C; X.Q. Wang; Zhang, C. M.; Zhu, C; Shu, G; Jiang, Q. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of different dietary lysine levels on the apparent nutrient digestibility, the serum amino acid (AA) concentration, and the biochemical parameters of the precaval and portal vein blood in growing pigs. In Experiment 1, 15 noncannulated pigs received diets with different lysine densities (0.65%, 0.95%, and 1.25% lysine) for 13 d. A total collection digestion test was performed, and blood samples were collected from the precaval vein at th...

  7. Effect of Nutrients, Dietary Supplements and Vitamins on Cognition: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Forbes, Scott C.; Holroyd-Leduc, Jayna M.; Poulin, Marc J.; Hogan, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Observational studies have suggested that various nutrients, dietary supplements, and vitamins may delay the onset of age-associated cognitive decline and dementia. We systematically reviewed recent randomized controlled trials investigating the effect of nutritional interventions on cognitive performance in older non-demented adults. Methods We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for articles published between 2003 and 2013. We included randomized trials of ...

  8. Intestinal Water Absorption Varies with Expected Dietary Water Load among Bats but Does Not Drive Paracellular Nutrient Absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Edwin R; Brun, Antonio; Gontero-Fourcade, Manuel; Fernández-Marinone, Guido; Cruz-Neto, Ariovaldo P; Karasov, William H; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Rapid absorption and elimination of dietary water should be particularly important to flying species and were predicted to vary with the water content of the natural diet. Additionally, high water absorption capacity was predicted to be associated with high paracellular nutrient absorption due to solvent drag. We compared the water absorption rates of sanguivorous, nectarivorous, frugivorous, and insectivorous bats in intestinal luminal perfusions. High water absorption rates were associated with high expected dietary water load but were not highly correlated with previously measured rates of (paracellular) arabinose clearance. In conjunction with these tests, we measured water absorption and the paracellular absorption of nutrients in the intestine and stomach of vampire bats using luminal perfusions to test the hypothesis that the unique elongated vampire stomach is a critical site of water absorption. Vampire bats' gastric water absorption was high compared to mice but not compared to their intestines. We therefore conclude that (1) dietary water content has influenced the evolution of intestinal water absorption capacity in bats, (2) solvent drag is not the only driver of paracellular nutrient absorption, and (3) the vampire stomach is a capable but not critical location for water absorption. PMID:26658415

  9. The contribution of school meals to energy and nutrient intake of Swedish children in relation to dietary guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Persson Osowski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Sweden, school meals are served free of charge and Swedish law states that school meals must be nutritious. Nevertheless, data on children's energy and nutrient intake from school meals are scarce. Objective: The aim was to describe the contribution of school meals to Swedish children's nutrient and energy intake during weekdays and compare this to the reference values based on the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR, which have been adopted as the official Swedish recommendations. Design: A cross-sectional food consumption survey was performed on 1,840 Swedish children attending Grade 2 (mean age 8.6 and Grade 5 (mean age 11.7. The children's nutrient and energy intake was compared to the reference values based on the NNR. Results: The mean intake from school meals of energy, carbohydrates, dietary fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, and vitamins D and E did not reach the reference values and the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA and sodium exceeded the reference values in both age groups (significant differences, all p≤0.001. Additionally, the pupils in Grade 5 did not reach the reference values for folate, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, selenium, and zinc (significant differences, all p≤0.001. Standardized for energy, dietary fiber, PUFA, and vitamins D and E did not reach the reference values, whereas the reference values for SFA and sodium were exceeded in both age groups (significant differences, all p≤0.001. Conclusions: The study pointed to some central nutrients in need of improvement as regards school meals in Sweden, namely the quality of fat, dietary fiber, sodium, vitamin D, and iron. Some of these results may be attributed to the children not reporting eating the recommended number of calories, the children omitting some components of the meal, or underreporting, as a consequence of which the reference values for several nutrients were not met.

  10. Short Tools to Assess Young Children's Dietary Intake: A Systematic Review Focusing on Application to Dietary Index Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda K. Bell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary indices evaluate diet quality, usually based on current dietary guidelines. Indices can therefore contribute to our understanding of early-life obesity-risk dietary behaviours. Yet indices are commonly applied to dietary data collected by onerous methods (e.g., recalls or records. Short dietary assessment instruments are an attractive alternative to collect data from which to derive an index score. A systematic review of studies published before April 2013 was conducted to identify short (≤50 items tools that measure whole-of-diet intake of young children (birth-five years and are applicable to dietary indices, in particular screening obesogenic dietary behaviours. The search identified 3686 papers of which 16, reporting on 15 tools (n=7, infants and toddlers birth-24 months; n=8, preschoolers 2–5 years, met the inclusion criteria. Most tools were food frequency questionnaires (n=14, with one innovative dietary questionnaire identified. Seven were tested for validity or reliability, and one was tested for both. Six tools (n=2, infants and toddlers; n=4, preschoolers are applicable for use with current dietary indices, five of which screen obesogenic dietary behaviours. Given the limited number of brief, valid and reliable dietary assessment tools for young children to which an index can be applied, future short tool development is warranted, particularly for screening obesogenic dietary behaviours.

  11. The impact of dietary protein levels on nutrient digestibility and water and nitrogen balances in eventing horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C A A; Azevedo, J F; Martins, J A; Barreto, M P; Silva, V P; Julliand, V; Almeida, F Q

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the impact of dietary protein levels on nutrient digestibility and water and nitrogen balances in conditioning eventing horses. Twenty-four Brazilian Sport Horses, male and female (8.0 to 15.0 yr; 488 ± 32 kg BW), were used in a randomized design with 4 levels of CP diets: 7.5%, 9.0%, 11.0%, and 13.0%. A digestion assay was performed with partial feces collection over 4 d, followed by 1 d of total urine collection. Data were submitted to regression analysis and adjusted to linear and quadratic models (P water intake, total water intake, or fecal water excretion. Urinary excretion values showed a linear increase in response to increased dietary protein levels, but no impact was observed on water balance, with an average of 8.4 L/d. Nitrogen intake (NI), N absorption (NA), and urinary N increased linearly as a function of increasing dietary protein levels. There was no impact of dietary protein levels on N retention (NR), with an average of 7.5 g N/d. Nitrogen retention as a percentage of NI or NA showed no significant changes in the function of dietary protein levels. There was an impact of dietary protein levels on the digestibility coefficient of CP, NDF, ADF, and digestible protein intake on conditioning eventing horses. The 11.6% CP level in the diet provided an intake of 2.25 g CP/kg BW and 0.37 g N/kg BW, and this intake was the most appropriate for the conditioning of intensely exercised horses, considering the responses related to NI, NA, and the estimated NR to NA ratio. The NDF and ADF responses indicated that dietary fiber was more digested with an increased amount of N in the digestive tract. PMID:25568371

  12. Soil nutrient assessment for urban ecosystems in Hubei, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Guo Li

    Full Text Available Recent urban landscape vegetation surveys conducted in many cities in China identified numerous plant nutrient deficiencies, especially in newly developed cities. Soil nutrients and soil nutrient management in the cities of Hubei province have not received adequate attention to date. The aims of this study were to characterize the available nutrients of urban soils from nine cities in Hubei province, China, and to assess how soil nutrient status is related to land use type and topography. Soil nutrients were measured in 405 sites from 1,215 soil samples collected from four land use types (park, institutional [including government building grounds, municipal party grounds, university grounds, and garden city institutes], residential, and roadside verges and three topographies (mountainous [142-425 m a.s.l], hilly [66-112 m a.s.l], and plain [26-30 m a.s.l]. Chemical analyses showed that urban soils in Hubei had high pH and lower soil organic matter, available nitrogen (N, available phosphorus (P, and available boron (B concentrations than natural soils. Nutrient concentrations were significantly different among land use types, with the roadside and residential areas having greater concentrations of calcium (Ca, sulfur (S, copper (Cu, manganese (Mn, and zinc (Zn that were not deficient against the recommended ranges. Topographic comparisons showed statistically significant effects for 8 of the 11 chemical variables (p < 0.05. Concentrations of N, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, and Mn in plain cities were greater than those in mountainous cities and show a negative correlation with city elevation. These results provide data on urban soils characteristics in land use types and topography, and deliver significant information for city planners and policy makers.

  13. The Intake of Energy and Selected Nutrients by Thai Urban Sedentary Workers: An Evaluation of Adherence to Dietary Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiya Ivanovitch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid changes in Thailand’s nutrition and lifestyles have led to increasing diet-related pathologies among people with sedentary occupations. This study examines the extent to which the dietary intake of nutrients and energy by a sample of Thai sedentary workers conforms to the Thai Dietary Reference Intakes (Thai DRIs. The nutrients and energy intake estimates were based on self-reported information collected with a single 24-hour dietary recall and nonweighed 2-day food record. The study participants were Thai adults aged 20–50 years employed in sedentary occupations. A convenience sample of 215 healthy individuals (75 males and 140 females was based on four randomly selected worksites in the Bangkok metropolitan area. For male participants, the study found a median energy intake of 1,485 kcal/day, with 54.4% of energy coming from carbohydrate, 15.9% from protein, and 29.6% from fat. Females’ median energy intake was 1,428 kcal/day, 56% of which came from carbohydrate, 16.2% from protein, and 28.6% from fat. Both genders showed insufficient intake of fiber and most micronutrients. This study provides the material for preventive public health interventions focusing on nutrition-related diseases affecting Thailand’s rapidly growing sedentary workforce.

  14. Macro-micro nutrients interactions: dietary fats' influence on vitamin A metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Giordano, Elena

    2011-01-01

    It’s known that vitamin A (retinoids) and dietary fats are closely related nutritionally and that the ingestion of dietary fats is a major determinant in the absorption of vitamin A . This study focuses on investigating previously un-noticed mechanisms of interactions between different types of fats, with special emphasis on conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and vitamin A metabolism. Specifically we examined the effects of dietary CLA on intestinal absorption and tissue uptake of retinoids. Sinc...

  15. Effect of various dietary nutrient density on the growth performance of local male ducks and their crosse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A.K Bintang

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Three hundred day-old male ducklings were allocated randomly into 12 treatment combinations in 3 x 4 factorial design . Three levels of dietary density ration i.e : Low(12% /2,000 kcal, medium (16%/2,500 kcal and high (20%/3,000 kcal and 2 breeds of local ducks Tegal (TT and Mojosari (MM and their crossbreds (Tegal x Mojosari (TM and Mojosari x Tegal (MT were applied. Each treatment combination consisted of5 replicates, each of 5 birds. The experiment was carried out for 8 weeks and measurements were weekly feed intake, body weight, weight and/or percentage of carcass, internal organs and abdominal fat. Results indicated that no significant interaction was detected between dietary nutrient density and the breeds of ducks on all parameters measured . Breeds of duck, as well as their crosses did not affect growth performance and other parameters . On the other hand, nutrient density influenced growth performance significantly, except for percentage of carcass and internal organs . In general, feed intake, body weight gain, feed efficiency, carcass weight and abdominal fat of ducks fed low density ration were significantly lower than those fed medium density, which were also lower than those fed high nutrient density diet . Weghtand length of intestine and kidney weight, of ducks fed low density diet however, were higher than the two other treatments .

  16. Global assessment of nutrient loads to the world's largest lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Gabriel; Reder, Klara; Malsy, Marcus; Eisner, Stephanie; Flörke, Martina

    2015-04-01

    Lakes are essential resources of drinking water for a large part of mankind. Even so, most of the industrial and domestic waste water is discharged - often untreated - into rivers and streams that are finally the tributaries of these important freshwater bodies. Additionally, diffuse nutrient sources such as fertilizer and atmospheric deposition exacerbate existing algal blooms and low oxygen concentrations in rivers, lakes, and reservoirs. In this tense atmosphere of competing water uses, it is necessary to analyze all sources of pollution as well as their total contributions in order to protect these water bodies against deterioration. Finally, this is a general and urgently needed basis for developing recommendations for involved stakeholders and decision makers. Therefore, the project eartH2Observe, initiated and financed by the European Commission, creates the necessary and underlying quantitative and qualitative hydrological and water use data. In this context, information for global as well as for regional water resource assessments is being prepared based on new earth observations and an ensemble of global hydrological models. As a member of this ensemble, WaterGAP3 provides global estimates of lake water quality relevant parameters on a 5 arc minutes grid, namely total phosphorus and total nitrogen. These nutrient loads to lakes from different sources such as industrial fertilizer, organic fertilizer, domestic loads, atmospheric deposition, and urban surface runoff are estimated for the period 1990 to 2010 in a monthly time step. Whereas nutrient loads and their changes into numerous lakes worldwide are calculated, a special focus is set on nutrient loads into the large and shallow Lake Peipus, which is located between Estonia and Russia and subject to blooms of harmful cyanobacteria. We present estimates, trends, as well as sources of present nutrient loads (TN and TP) to the world's largest lakes with detailed insights to the Lake Peipus situation

  17. Assessing the construct validity of five nutrient profiling systems using diet modeling with linear programming

    OpenAIRE

    Clerfeuille, E; Vieux, Florent; Lluch, A; Darmon, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient profiling classifies individual food products according to their nutrient content. According to the WHO (World Health Organization), validation is a key step in the development of a nutrient profiling system. The aim was to assess the construct validity of five European nutrient profiling systems (Choices, Keyhole, (AFSSA), European Commission (EC) system and FoodProfiler). Construct validity was assessed for each of the five-selected nutrient profiling systems by testing whether hea...

  18. A Novel Dietary Assessment Method to Measure a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Using the Mobile Food Record: Protocol and Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia J. Harray

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The world-wide rise in obesity parallels growing concerns of global warming and depleting natural resources. These issues are often considered separately but there may be considerable benefit to raising awareness of the impact of dietary behaviours and practices on the food supply. Australians have diets inconsistent with recommendations, typically low in fruit and vegetables and high in energy-dense nutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDNP. These EDNP foods are often highly processed and packaged, negatively influencing both health and the environment. This paper describes a proposed dietary assessment method to measure healthy and sustainable dietary behaviours using 4-days of food and beverage images from the mobile food record (mFR application. The mFR images will be assessed for serves of fruit and vegetables (including seasonality, dairy, eggs and red meat, poultry and fish, ultra-processed EDNP foods, individually packaged foods, and plate waste. A prediction model for a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Index will be developed and tested for validity and reliability. The use of the mFR to assess adherence to a healthy and sustainable diet is a novel and innovative approach to dietary assessment and will have application in population monitoring, guiding intervention development, educating consumers, health professionals and policy makers, and influencing dietary recommendations.

  19. A Novel Dietary Assessment Method to Measure a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Using the Mobile Food Record: Protocol and Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harray, Amelia J; Boushey, Carol J; Pollard, Christina M; Delp, Edward J; Ahmad, Ziad; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Mukhtar, Syed Aqif; Kerr, Deborah A

    2015-07-01

    The world-wide rise in obesity parallels growing concerns of global warming and depleting natural resources. These issues are often considered separately but there may be considerable benefit to raising awareness of the impact of dietary behaviours and practices on the food supply. Australians have diets inconsistent with recommendations, typically low in fruit and vegetables and high in energy-dense nutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDNP). These EDNP foods are often highly processed and packaged, negatively influencing both health and the environment. This paper describes a proposed dietary assessment method to measure healthy and sustainable dietary behaviours using 4-days of food and beverage images from the mobile food record (mFR) application. The mFR images will be assessed for serves of fruit and vegetables (including seasonality), dairy, eggs and red meat, poultry and fish, ultra-processed EDNP foods, individually packaged foods, and plate waste. A prediction model for a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Index will be developed and tested for validity and reliability. The use of the mFR to assess adherence to a healthy and sustainable diet is a novel and innovative approach to dietary assessment and will have application in population monitoring, guiding intervention development, educating consumers, health professionals and policy makers, and influencing dietary recommendations. PMID:26151176

  20. Poor dietary diversity and low nutrient density of the complementary diet for 6- to 24-month-old children in urban and rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Mieke; Laubscher, Ria; Berti, Cristiana

    2016-07-01

    Infants and toddlers have high nutritional requirements relative to body size but consume small amounts of food and therefore need nutrient-dense complementary foods. A cross-sectional study included children aged 6-24 months, stratified in three age categories (6-11 months, 12-17 months and 18-24 months) and randomly selected from an urban (n = 158) and a rural (n = 158) area, both of low socio-economic status, in the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa. Dietary diversity and nutrient density of the complementary diet (excluding breast milk and formula milk) based on a repeated 24-h dietary recall was assessed. For breastfeeding children, nutrient density of the complementary diet was adequate for protein, vitamin A and vitamin C; and inadequate for 100% of children for zinc, for >80% of children for calcium, iron and niacin; and between 60% and 80% of children for vitamin B6 and riboflavin. Urban/rural differences in density for animal and plant protein, cholesterol and fibre occurred in 18-24-month-old children. Fewer than 25% of children consumed ≥4 food groups, with no urban/rural differences. Higher dietary diversity was associated with higher nutrient density for protein and several of the micronutrients including calcium, iron and zinc. The poor nutrient density for key micronutrients can probably be ascribed to lack of dietary variety, and little impact of mandatory fortification of maize meal/wheat flour on infants/toddlers' diet. Targeted strategies are needed to enable mothers to feed their children a more varied diet. PMID:25138429

  1. Interactive effects of dietary protein concentration and aflatoxin B1 on performance, nutrient digestibility, and gut health in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Naehrer, K; Applegate, T J

    2016-06-01

    A 20-day trial was conducted to determine the impact of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and dietary protein concentration on performance, nutrient digestibility, and gut health in broiler chicks. The 6 dietary treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with 3 crude protein (CP) concentrations (16, 22, and 26%) with or without 1.5 mg/kg AFB1 Each diet was fed to 6 replicate cages (6 chicks per cage) from zero to 20 d of age. Endogenous N and amino acid loss were estimated from birds fed a N-free diet with or without 1.5 mg/kg AFB1 A significant interaction between AFB1 and CP concentration was observed for growth performance, where reduction of BW gain, feed intake, gain:feed ratio, and breast muscle weight by AFB1 were most profound in birds fed the 16%-CP diet, and were completely eliminated when birds were fed the 26%-CP diet (AFB1 by CP interaction; P ≤ 0.023). Similarly, AFB1 reduced serum albumin, total protein, and globulin concentrations in birds fed 16 and 22% CP diets, but not in those fed the 26%-CP (AFB1 by CP interaction; P ≤ 0.071). Gut permeability was increased in birds fed AFB1-contamiated diets as measured by serum lactulose/rhamnose ratio (main effect; P = 0.04). Additionally, AFB1 tended to increase endogenous N loss (P = 0.09), and significantly reduced apparent ileal digestible energy and standardized ileal N and amino acid digestibility in birds fed the 16%-CP diet, while birds fed higher dietary CP were not affected (AFB1 by CP interaction; P ≤ 0.01). Further, AFB1 increased the translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein (4EBP1), claudin1, and multiple jejunal amino acid transporters expression (main effect; P ≤ 0.04). Results from this study indicate that a 1.5 mg AFB1/kg diet significantly impairs growth, major serum biochemistry measures, gut barrier, endogenous loss, and energy and amino acid digestibility. Aflatoxicosis can be augmented by low dietary CP, while higher dietary CP completely eliminated the impairment of

  2. The MARINA model (Model to Assess River Inputs of Nutrients to seAs)

    OpenAIRE

    Strokal, Maryna; Kroeze, Carolien; Wang, Mengru; Bai, Zhaohai; Ma, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Chinese agriculture has been developing fast towards industrial food production systems that discharge nutrient-rich wastewater into rivers. As a result, nutrient export by rivers has been increasing, resulting in coastal water pollution. We developed a Model to Assess River Inputs of Nutrients to seAs (MARINA) for China. The MARINA Nutrient Model quantifies river export of nutrients by source at the sub-basin scale as a function of human activities on land. MARINA is a downscaled version for...

  3. An assessment and analysis of dietary practices of Irish jockeys

    OpenAIRE

    O'Loughlin, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Background: Horse racing is a weight category sport in which jockeys must chronically maintain a low body mass to compete, over a protracted season. The need to relentlessly align body mass with racing limits appears to encourage the use of short-term and potentially dangerous acute weight loss strategies. The purpose of this study was to investigate and assess the dietary habits of Irish Jockeys using established methods as well as incorporating novel sensing technologies. Methods: The ...

  4. Is “Processed” a Four-Letter Word? The Role of Processed Foods in Achieving Dietary Guidelines and Nutrient Recommendations123

    OpenAIRE

    Dwyer, Johanna T; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Clemens, Roger A.; Schmidt, David B.; Freedman, Marjorie R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper, based on the symposium “Is ‘Processed’ a Four-Letter Word? The Role of Processed Foods in Achieving Dietary Guidelines and Nutrient Recommendations in the U.S.” describes ongoing efforts and challenges at the nutrition–food science interface and public health; addresses misinformation about processed foods by showing that processed fruits and vegetables made important dietary contributions (e.g., fiber, folate, potassium, vitamins A and C) to nutrient intake among NHANES 2003–2006...

  5. Effects of dietary carbohydrates and buffering capacity on nutrient digestibility and manure characteristics in finishing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mroz, Z.; Moeser, A.J.; Vreman, K.; Diepen, van J.T.; Kempen, van T.; Canh, T.T.; Jongbloed, A.W.

    2000-01-01

    A 2 × 3 factorial experiment was conducted with 24 finishing pigs (Yorkshire x [Finnish Landrace x Dutch Landrace]) to determine the effects of dietary buffering capacity (BC) and carbohydrate sources on apparent total tract digestibility (TD), N retention, and manure characteristics. Twelve of thes

  6. Dietary nutrients associated with short and long sleep duration. Data from a nationally representative sample☆

    OpenAIRE

    Grandner, Michael A.; Jackson, Nicholas; Gerstner, Jason R.; Knutson, Kristen L.

    2013-01-01

    Short sleep duration is associated with weight gain and obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, psychiatric illness, and performance deficits. Likewise, long sleep duration is also associated with poor physical and mental health. The role of a healthy diet in habitual sleep duration represents a largely unexplored pathway linking sleep and health. This study evaluated associations between habitual sleep parameters and dietary/nutritional variables obtained via the National Health and Nutri...

  7. Development of a New Branded UK Food Composition Database for an Online Dietary Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Michelle C.; Hancock, Neil; Albar, Salwa A.; Brown, Helen; Greenwood, Darren C.; Hardie, Laura J.; Frost, Gary S.; Wark, Petra A.; Cade, Janet E.

    2016-01-01

    The current UK food composition tables are limited, containing ~3300 mostly generic food and drink items. To reflect the wide range of food products available to British consumers and to potentially improve accuracy of dietary assessment, a large UK specific electronic food composition database (FCDB) has been developed. A mapping exercise has been conducted that matched micronutrient data from generic food codes to “Back of Pack” data from branded food products using a semi-automated process. After cleaning and processing, version 1.0 of the new FCDB contains 40,274 generic and branded items with associated 120 macronutrient and micronutrient data and 5669 items with portion images. Over 50% of food and drink items were individually mapped to within 10% agreement with the generic food item for energy. Several quality checking procedures were applied after mapping including; identifying foods above and below the expected range for a particular nutrient within that food group and cross-checking the mapping of items such as concentrated and raw/dried products. The new electronic FCDB has substantially increased the size of the current, publically available, UK food tables. The FCDB has been incorporated into myfood24, a new fully automated online dietary assessment tool and, a smartphone application for weight loss. PMID:27527214

  8. Dietary Habits, Nutrients and Bone Mass in Spanish Premenopausal Women: The Contribution of Fish to Better Bone Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian F. Calderon-Garcia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The moderate consumption of fish is recommended for a healthy diet and is also a feature of the Mediterranean diet. Fish is a major food group in diets throughout the world, and studies show that fish consumption is associated with a lower risk of a number of conditions. Spain has one of the highest annual per capita consumptions of fish worldwide. As fish is a source of high quality protein; n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; vitamins, such as A and D; and minerals, such as selenium, calcium, iodine, magnesium, copper and zinc, nutrients that have positive effects on bone characteristics, it has been proposed that its consumption could improve bone health. In this cross-sectional study, we have investigated the relationship between dietary habits and nutrient intake of 151 Spanish premenopausal women and analyzed the association of fish consumption on bone mass measured by quantitative ultrasound of the phalanges. A higher (P < 0.05 bone mass and vitamin D intake (P < 0.05 was observed in the group with a fish intake of 5–7 servings/week. We conclude that increased fish consumption is helpful in maintaining an adequate bone mass in Spanish premenopausal women.

  9. Effects of dietary Centella asiatica (L.) Urban on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood composition in piglets vaccinated with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneewan, Chamroon; Mekbungwan, Apichai; Charerntantanakul, Wasin; Yamauchi, Kohsho; Yamauchi, Koh-en

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the effects of Centella asiatica (L.) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and blood composition in piglets, 32 nursery pigs were fed 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% dietary C. asiatica (L.) from 15 to 90 kg BW. At 30 kg BW, nutrient digestibility was measured and at 35 kg BW piglets were vaccinated with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Hematological parameters were checked at 40 and 80 kg BW. Compared with the control, growth performance was not affected. The ether extract, ash and calcium digestibility were lower at 0.5%, and dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, phosphorus and energy digestibility were lower at 1.0% (Phyopneumoniae did not differ except that at 40 kg the cholesterol of 0.5% was lower (Phyopneumoniae-specific antibodies tended to be higher with increasing levels of C. asiatica (L.) (Pmycoplasma immunity to M. hyopneumoniae might suggest that C. asiatica (L.) has no function to elevate body weight but has the potential to enhance innate immunity. PMID:24612418

  10. Role of Nutritional Supplements Complementing Nutrient-Dense Diets: General Versus Sport/Exercise-Specific Dietary Guidelines Related to Energy Expenditure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Susan; Greenwood, Mike

    A nutrient-dense diet is a critical aspect in attaining optimal exercise training and athletic performance outcomes. Although including safe and effective nutritional supplements in the dietary design can be extremely helpful in promoting adequate caloric ingestion, they are not sufficient for promoting adequate caloric ingestion based on individualized caloric expenditure needs without the proper diet. Specifically, a strategic and scientifically based nutrient-dense dietary profile should be created by qualified professionals to meet the sport/exercise-specific energy demands of any individual involved in select training intensity protocols. Finally, ingesting the right quantity and quality of nutrient dense calories at precise windows of opportunity becomes vital in attaining desired training and/or competitive performance outcomes.

  11. The Application of Isotope Techniques in Nutrient Assessment and Management in Riverine Systems. Present and Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of sources contribute to nutrients in rivers and nutrients may subsequently take various pathways and undergo different transformation processes. We first review representative types of isotopes and the roles of isotope techniques that have been or could be used for nutrient assessment and management. We then present technical, financial and logistical matters to be considered in selecting appropriate isotope techniques for nutrient assessment and management. Lastly we propose several approaches on the application of isotope techniques to make more effective the studies and management of nutrients in rivers in the near future. (author)

  12. Assessment on Dietary Melamine Exposure from Tainted Infant Formula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU-DONG JIA; NING LI; ZHU-TIAN WANG; YUN-FENG ZHAO; YONG-NING WU; WEI-XING YAN

    2009-01-01

    Objective To estimate the dietary melamine exposure in Chinese infants and young children from the consumption of melamine adulterated Sanlu infant formula. Methods Four age groups of infants and young children (3, 6, 12, and 24 months) were chosen as the assessed subjects and the maximum amount of infant formula consumption was estimated based on the recommended usage level in the package insert of Sanlu infant formula and other brands. Melamine was analyzed in 111 Sanlu infant formula samples collected from the markets in Beijing and Gansu province using the LC-MS-MS with a limit of quantification of 0.05 mg/kg. Four levels of melamine concentration were chosen to estimate the dietary intakes, including the mean, median, 90th percentile, and maximum. Results The infants of 3 months had the highest intake of melamine, and with the increase of the age (month), the intake decreased. Based on the median melamine concentration (1 000 mg/kg) as an example, the melamine intakes for the infants of 3, 6, 12, and 24 months were 23.4, 21.4, 15.0, and 8.6 mg/kg bw/d, respectively. Conclusion Dietary melamine intakes from tainted Sanlu infant formula significantly exceeded the TDI level (0.2 mg/kg bw/d) recommended by the WHO Expert Meeting in 2008. However, the present assessment has some limitations including the poor representative samples, the varied melamine concentrations in the adulterated Sanlu infant formula, and other brand infant formula possibly consumed by these infants.

  13. Heme, an Essential Nutrient from Dietary Proteins, Critically Impacts Diverse Physiological and Pathological Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagmohan Hooda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Heme constitutes 95% of functional iron in the human body, as well as two-thirds of the average person’s iron intake in developed countries. Hence, a wide range of epidemiological studies have focused on examining the association of dietary heme intake, mainly from red meat, with the risks of common diseases. High heme intake is associated with increased risk of several cancers, including colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer and lung cancer. Likewise, the evidence for increased risks of type-2 diabetes and coronary heart disease associated with high heme intake is compelling. Furthermore, recent comparative metabolic and molecular studies of lung cancer cells showed that cancer cells require increased intracellular heme biosynthesis and uptake to meet the increased demand for oxygen-utilizing hemoproteins. Increased levels of hemoproteins in turn lead to intensified oxygen consumption and cellular energy generation, thereby fueling cancer cell progression. Together, both epidemiological and molecular studies support the idea that heme positively impacts cancer progression. However, it is also worth noting that heme deficiency can cause serious diseases in humans, such as anemia, porphyrias, and Alzheimer’s disease. This review attempts to summarize the latest literature in understanding the role of dietary heme intake and heme function in diverse diseases.

  14. Statement on a refined dietary exposure assessment of erythritol (E 968) taking into account additional data provided

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to food (ANS)

    2013-01-01

    Following a request by the European Commission, the Scientific Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Foods (ANS) carried out an assessment of the dietary exposure to erythritol and concluded on the safety of the proposed use in beverages at a maximum use level of 2.5 %, taking into account additional exposure data provided to the Panel. Anticipated exposure to erythritol from its use as food additive including soft-drinks containing a mean concentration of 2.5 % erythritol wou...

  15. Effect of Nutrients, Dietary Supplements and Vitamins on Cognition: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Scott C.; Holroyd-Leduc, Jayna M.; Poulin, Marc J.; Hogan, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Observational studies have suggested that various nutrients, dietary supplements, and vitamins may delay the onset of age-associated cognitive decline and dementia. We systematically reviewed recent randomized controlled trials investigating the effect of nutritional interventions on cognitive performance in older non-demented adults. Methods We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for articles published between 2003 and 2013. We included randomized trials of ≥ 3 months’ duration that examined the cognitive effects of a nutritional intervention in non-demented adults > 40 years of age. Meta-analyses were done when sufficient trials were available. Results Twenty-four trials met inclusion criteria (six omega-3 fatty acids, seven B vitamins, three vitamin E, eight other interventions). In the meta-analyses, omega-3 fatty acids showed no significant effect on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores (four trials, mean difference 0.06, 95% CI −0.08 – 0.19) or digit span forward (three trials, mean difference −0.02, 95% CI −0.30 – 0.25), while B vitamins showed no significant effect on MMSE scores (three trials, mean difference 0.02, 95% CI −0.22 – 0.25). None of the vitamin E studies reported significant effects on cognitive outcomes. Among the other nutritional interventions, statistically significant differences between the intervention and control groups on at least one cognitive domain were found in single studies of green tea extract, Concord grape juice, chromium picolinate, beta-carotene, two different combinations of multiple vitamins, and a dietary approach developed for the control of hypertension. Conclusions Omega-3 fatty acids, B vitamins, and vitamin E supplementation did not affect cognition in non-demented middle-aged and older adults. Other nutritional interventions require further evaluation before their use can be advocated for the prevention of age-associated cognitive decline and dementia. PMID

  16. Approach of the US food and nutrition board to daily nutrient requirements : a useful basis for the European discussion on risk assessment of nutrients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussaard, J.H.; Berg, H. van den; Hermus, R.J.J.; Walter, P.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the approach of the US Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) to daily nutrient requirements and its relevance for Europe. Setting: A workshop for experts from academia and regulatory bodies, together with members from the FNB Dietary Reference Intakes Subcommittee on Upper Reference L

  17. Validation of Personal Digital Photography to Assess Dietary Quality among People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elinder, L. S.; Brunosson, A.; Bergstrom, H.; Hagstromer, M.; Patterson, E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dietary assessment is a challenge in general, and specifically in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). This study aimed to evaluate personal digital photography as a method of assessing different aspects of dietary quality in this target group. Method: Eighteen adults with ID were recruited from community residences and…

  18. Inorganic nitrite and nitrate: evidence to support consideration as dietary nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Nathan S; Ivy, John L

    2015-08-01

    There are now indisputable health benefits of nitrite and nitrate derived from food sources or when administered in a clinical setting for specific diseases. Most of the published reports identify the production of nitric oxide (NO) as the mechanism of action for nitrite and nitrate. Basic science as well as clinical studies demonstrates that nitrite and/or nitrate can restore NO homeostasis as an endothelium-independent source of NO that may be a redundant system for endogenous NO production. Nitrate must first be reduced to nitrite by oral commensal bacteria and then nitrite must be further reduced to NO along the physiological oxygen gradient. The purpose of this review is to define their role as indispensable nutrients needed for maintaining NO homeostasis and describe the daily intake required to achieve a threshold of activation as well as define the upper tolerable limits based on published literature in PubMed databases. Optimal ranges of intake will be discussed to maximize the benefits while mitigating any potential risks of overexposure to these naturally occurring anions. This information will allow for future research using safe and effective doses of nitrite and nitrate in long-term clinical trials to effectively test their roles in disease prevention or treatment. PMID:26189149

  19. Validation of the MEDFICTS dietary questionnaire: A clinical tool to assess adherence to American Heart Association dietary fat intake guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindeman Jody

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary assessment tools are often too long, difficult to quantify, expensive to process, and largely used for research purposes. A rapid and accurate assessment of dietary fat intake is critically important in clinical decision-making regarding dietary advice for coronary risk reduction. We assessed the validity of the MEDFICTS (MF questionnaire, a brief instrument developed to assess fat intake according to the American Heart Association (AHA dietary "steps". Methods We surveyed 164 active-duty US Army personnel without known coronary artery disease at their intake interview for a primary prevention cardiac intervention trial using the Block food frequency (FFQ and MF questionnaires. Both surveys were completed on the same intake visit and independently scored. Correlations between each tools' assessment of fat intake, the agreement in AHA step categorization of dietary quality with each tool, and the test characteristics of the MF using the FFQ as the gold standard were assessed. Results Subjects consumed a mean of 36.0 ± 13.0% of their total calories as fat, which included saturated fat consumption of 13.0 ± 0.4%. The majority of subjects (125/164; 76.2% had a high fat (worse than AHA Step 1 diet. There were significant correlations between the MF and the FFQ for the intake of total fat (r = 0.52, P 70 [high fat diet] was negligible (kappa statistic = 0.036. The MF was accurate at the extremes of fat intake, but could not reliably identify the 3 AHA dietary classifications. Alternative MF cutpoints of 50 (high fat diet were highly sensitive (96%, but had low specificity (46% for a high fat diet. ROC curve analysis identified that a MF score cutoff of 38 provided optimal sensitivity 75% and specificity 72%, and had modest agreement (kappa = 0.39, P Conclusions The MEDFICTS questionnaire is most suitable as a tool to identify high fat diets, rather than discriminate AHA Step 1 and Step 2 diets. Currently recommended

  20. Further investigations on the effect of dietary manipulations of nutrients on early egg weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, K

    1995-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine: 1) whether the beneficial effects of increasing the dietary protein on egg weight during the early stages of egg production is due to a higher intake of methionine or total nitrogen and other essential amino acids; and 2) whether the beneficial effect of supplemental fat on egg weight during the early stages of egg production is due to a higher intake of linoleic acid or the presence of fat per se in the diet. Experiment 1 involved the factorial arrangements of three levels of protein (17, 19, and 21%) and three levels of methionine (.34, .38, and .42%). Experiment 2 involved a control diet with no supplemental fat or with a supplemental level of 2 or 4% of tallow, blended fat, or corn oil. Experiment 3 involved factorial arrangements of two body weight groups (light and heavy), two levels of blended fat (0 and 4%), and two levels of protein (17 and 21%). Pullets were fed the experimental diets from 18 to 38 wk of age in all of the experiments. In Experiment 3, pullets from different regimens were maintained on a 16.5% protein diet up to 62 wk of age. Egg weight responses during the early stages of egg production to increasing the protein or methionine level (Experiment 1) or supplemental sources of fats (Experiment 2) were small and only the methionine effect on egg weight was significant (P feeds to a 16.5% protein diet. Egg weight of the heavy-weight groups remained greater than the light-weight groups for the entire experiment (P < .05). PMID:7899214

  1. Nutritional status of pre-pregnant and pregnant women residing in Bogor district, Indonesia: a cross-sectional dietary and nutrient intake study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madanijah, Siti; Briawan, Dodik; Rimbawan, Rimbawan; Zulaikhah, Zulaikhah; Andarwulan, Nuri; Nuraida, Lilis; Sundjaya, Tonny; Murti, Laksmi; Shah, Priyali; Bindels, Jacques

    2016-07-01

    The diet of Indonesian women of childbearing age is relatively poor, posing increased risk for suboptimal pregnancy outcome. In a cross-sectional study including 403 women in three economic quintiles (Q), we investigated differences in dietary intake and nutrition sufficiency according to economic status and whether regular dietary intakes of pregnant women (PW, n 203) differ from that of pre-pregnant women (PPW, n 200). Dietary intake data were collected using 2×24 h dietary recall and FFQ. Energy, protein, Fe, Ca, Zn, vitamin A and vitamin C intakes were calculated utilising Food Composition Tables and compared with Indonesian recommendations for adequacy. Energy and protein intakes recommendation were considered insufficient. A higher intake of milk/dairy products (Q3, Q4), fruits and vegetables (Q2) and snacks (Q3) in PW was observed compared with PPW, but insufficient to meet nutrient requirements. Nutrient intake calculations showed insufficiency in 26 % of PPW for protein and up to 70 % for Fe. Deficient nutrient intakes in PW were found in 49 % of the subjects for energy and up to 85 % for Fe. Energy and protein intakes decreased with decreasing economic quintiles in PPW and PW. Ca and vitamin A intakes were lower in Q2 compared with Q4. The proportion of animal protein in Q2-PW was low (31 %). Biochemical status parameters in a subset showed that anaemia and Fe and Zn deficiencies were prevalent among PPW and PW. Habitual diets in the study area did not meet the nutrient requirements for both PPW and PW across the investigated economic groups. PMID:27079653

  2. Protective Effects of Dietary Supplementation with a Combination of Nutrients in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengyuan Wang

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of intervention with a combination of nutrients in the amyloid precursor protein-presenilin (APP-PSN C57BL/6J double transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD.A total of 72 2-month-old APP-PSN mice were randomly assigned to three groups. The model group (MG was fed regular, unsupplemented chow, while the low- and high-dose treatment groups (LG and HG, respectively were given a combination of nutrients that included phosphatidylserine, blueberry extracts, docosahexaenoic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid as part of their diet. An additional 24 wild-type littermates that were fed unsupplemented chow served as the negative control group (NG. After 3 and 7 months of treatment, the cognitive performance was assessed with the Morris water maze and the shuttle box escape/avoidance task, and the biochemical parameters and oxidative stress were evaluated in both the blood and brain.An improvement in antioxidant capacity was observed in the treatment groups relative to the MG at 3 months, while superior behavioral test results were observed in the mice of the HG and NG groups. In the MG, pycnosis was detected in neuronal nuclei, and a loss of neurons was observed in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus. At 7 months, the β-amyloid1-42 peptide accumulation was significantly elevated in the MG but was markedly lower in the mice fed the nutrient combination. The antioxidant capacity and behavioral test scores were also higher in these mice.Early intervention with a combination of nutrients should be considered as a strategy for preventing cognitive decline and other symptoms associated with AD.

  3. Effects of live yeast dietary supplementation on nutrient digestibility and fecal microflora in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stercova, E; Kumprechtova, D; Auclair, E; Novakova, J

    2016-07-01

    The effects of live yeast (strain CNCM I-4407; Actisaf Sc 47; Phileo Lesaffre Animal Care, Marcq-en-Baroeul, France) administration on nutrient digestibility and fecal microflora in dogs were investigated. The study included 24 young beagle dogs. They were allocated in control and live yeast (LY) groups (6 males and 6 females in each). During the Adaptation (d 1 to 28) and Trial (d 29 to 70) periods, the dogs received a standard dry pelleted diet. In the Trial period, the LY dogs were given capsuled Actisaf Sc 47 at 1 g/kg live weight with at 2.9 × 10 cfu/g. The control dogs received empty capsules. Live weight and feed consumption were recorded. Blood samples for complete blood count (CBC) and serum biochemistry (urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, and alanine aminotransferase) and fecal samples for pH, microbiology, DM, lactic acid, and ammonia and digestibility evaluation were collected during the Trial period from each dog. The LY dogs had a higher ( < 0.05) weight gain during the Trial period than the control ones. Feed consumption was not adversely affected by LY. The CBC values and urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, and alanine aminotransferase were not adversely affected by LY. Live yeast did not significantly influence pH of fresh feces. Fecal lactic acid and ammonia concentrations were not affected. The LY dogs showed lower ( < 0.05) Escherichia coli and fecal enterococci counts in feces than the control ones. Lactic acid bacteria, Clostridium perfringens, and total coliforms did not show any significant differences between the treatments. The LY dogs showed a higher ( < 0.05) apparent digestibility of NDF. Digestibilities of DM, ash, crude fiber, CP, and fat were not influenced. PMID:27482677

  4. Development of a protocol to assess dietary intake among Hispanics who have low literacy skills in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, G K; Woodruff, S I; Candelaria, J I; Rupp, J W; Elder, J P

    1996-12-01

    Hispanic adults who had low literacy in English (n = 14.3) and who attended community college English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) classes, completed 24-hour dietary recalls using version 2.5 of the computerized Minnesota Nutrition Data System (NDS), which included many Hispanic foods. The purposes of our study were to assess the appropriateness of NDS for a Hispanic group who had low literacy in English, to describe the development and implementation of training procedures for NDS interviewers, and to discuss the special problems that occurred using the enhanced version of NDS. Further, nutrient, intakes for the study population, as calculated using NDS, were compared with nutrient estimates from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES). Results suggest that version 2.5 of NDS is a useful tool for collecting dietary information for Hispanics who have low literacy in English. Challenges encountered during data collection for this study could be categorized into three types: regional differences in foods, food preparation differences, and lack of appropriate options in NDS for preparation methods. Generally, the study group and HHANES participants had similar intakes, although the study group tended to have a more healthful nutrition profile. Overall, findings indicate that NDS is a promising assessment tool for nutrition practitioners who work with Hispanics who have low literacy in English. Continued improvements to the NDS system can correct its shortcomings related to regional/ cultural food differences. PMID:8948390

  5. Evaluation of nutritional knowledge of second grade school children and assessment of their dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kherkheulidze, M; Kavlashvili, N; Kandelaki, E; Manjavidze, T

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was assessment of the general nutrition knowledge and physical activity rate among the first grade school age children and evaluation of their diet and nutritional skills based on the parental interviews. Cross-sectional study was conducted in randomly selected schools of Tbilisi. In each school was selected one group of the second grade children and their parents by cluster selection method. A population of 290 children aged 6-8 years and their parents were interviewed. The statistical analysis was carried out by means of the SPPS 17. Questionnaires, except those with incomplete answers (n=30), were used for the analytical data. The study shows that in general, the level of knowledge related to rich sources of nutrients was poor. The most of the children can't identify the role of calcium (72,6%), proteins (68,1%) and iron (84,6 %). Children prefer to eat and select foods which they like (71,8%), such as sweets and cakes, hamburgers, chips and etc. The study showed that the most of the children (83,3%) have normal weight for age, underweight was revealed in 3,1% of children, more frequent was overweight (12,3%) and obesity (1,4%). There wasn't significant difference of overweight and underweight distribution in boys and girls. The assessment of child dietary intake show, that intake of fruits and vegetables, as well as milk and milk products is quite low, while intake of bread and pastry, and sweets and cakes are quite high. Daily consumption of sweets and snacks was significantly higher in girls (64.2%) than in boys (47.5%) (pbreakfast, in frequent cases children eat very fast (26,1%), 47,8 % of children need to remind to wash hands before eating, most children 60,4% view TV during the meal time or play computer games. The most of the children play the active games approximately 30-60 minutes, quite often children play active games only 20-30 minutes that is much less then WHO recommendations. The parent questionnaires reveal that most

  6. Dietary intake of nutrients and its correlation with fatigue in multiple sclerosis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sama Bitarafan; Mohammad-Hossein Harirchian; Shahriar Nafissi; Mohammad-Ali Sahraian; Mansoureh Togha; Fereydoun Siassi; Ahmad Saedisomeolia; Elham Alipour; Nakisa Mohammadpour; Maryam Chamary; Niyaz Mohammadzadeh Honarvar; Ali-Akbar Saboor-Yaraghi

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of nutrition in the progression of multiple sclerosis (MS) and related complications such as fatigue has been reported by several studies. The aim of this study is the assessment of nutritional status and its relationship with fatigue in multiple sclerosis patients. Methods This is a cross-sectional study, in which 101 relapsing-remitting MS patients were enrolled. The fatigue status was determined using the validated Persian version of of the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale...

  7. Absorption of carbohydrate-derived nutrients in sows as influenced by types and contents of dietary fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serena, A; Jørgensen, H; Bach Knudsen, K E

    2009-01-01

    crossover design. Variations in dietary concentration and solubility of dietary fiber were obtained by substituting starch-rich wheat and barley in the LF diet with dietary fiber-rich co-products (sugar beet pulp, potato pulp, pectin residue, brewers spent grain, pea hulls, and seed residue, which have...

  8. Prospective association between cancer risk and an individual dietary index based on the British Food Standards Agency Nutrient Profiling System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnenfeld, Mathilde; Julia, Chantal; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Méjean, Caroline; Ducrot, Pauline; Péneau, Sandrine; Deschasaux, Mélanie; Latino-Martel, Paule; Fezeu, Léopold; Hercberg, Serge; Touvier, Mathilde

    2015-11-28

    The Food Standards Agency Nutrient Profiling System (FSA-NPS) constitutes the basis for the Five-Colour Nutrition Label suggested in France to be put on the front-of-pack of food products. At the individual level, a dietary index (FSA-NPS DI) has been derived and validated and corresponds to a weighted mean of all FSA-NPS scores of foods usually consumed by the individual, reflecting the nutritional quality of his/her diet. Our aim was to investigate the association between the FSA-NPS DI and cancer risk in a large cohort. This prospective study included 6435 participants to the SUpplémentation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants cohort (1994-2007) who completed at least six 24 h dietary records during the first 2 years of follow-up. FSA-NPS DI was computed for each subject (higher values representing lower nutritional quality of the diet). After a median follow-up of 12·6 years, 453 incident cancers were diagnosed. Associations were characterised by multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. The FSA-NPS DI was directly associated with overall cancer risk (hazard ratio (HR)for a 1-point increment=1·08 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·15), P trend=0·02; HRQ5 v. Q1=1·34 (95 % CI 1·00, 1·81), P trend=0·03). This association tended to be more specifically observed in subjects with moderate energy intake (≤median, HRfor a 1-point increment=1·10 (95 % CI 1·01-1·20), P trend=0·03). No association was observed in subjects with higher energy intake (P trend=0·3). Results were not statistically significant for breast and prostate cancer risks. For the first time, this study investigated the prospective association between the FSA-NPS individual score and cancer risk. The results suggest that unhealthy food choices may be associated with a 34 % increase in overall cancer risk, supporting the public health relevance of developing front-of-pack nutrition labels based on this score. PMID:26393396

  9. Effect of dietary nitrate level on enteric methane production, hydrogen emission, rumen fermentation, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olijhoek, D W; Hellwing, A L F; Brask, M; Weisbjerg, M R; Højberg, O; Larsen, M K; Dijkstra, J; Erlandsen, E J; Lund, P

    2016-08-01

    Nitrate may lower methane production in ruminants by competing with methanogenesis for available hydrogen in the rumen. This study evaluated the effect of 4 levels of dietary nitrate addition on enteric methane production, hydrogen emission, feed intake, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, and blood methemoglobin. In a 4×4 Latin square design 4 lactating Danish Holstein dairy cows fitted with rumen, duodenal, and ileal cannulas were assigned to 4 calcium ammonium nitrate addition levels: control, low, medium, and high [0, 5.3, 13.6, and 21.1g of nitrate/kg of dry matter (DM), respectively]. Diets were made isonitrogenous by replacing urea. Cows were fed ad libitum and, after a 6-d period of gradual introduction of nitrate, adapted to the corn-silage-based total mixed ration (forage:concentrate ratio 50:50 on DM basis) for 16d before sampling. Digesta content from duodenum, ileum, and feces, and rumen liquid were collected, after which methane production and hydrogen emissions were measured in respiration chambers. Methane production [L/kg of dry matter intake (DMI)] linearly decreased with increasing nitrate concentrations compared with the control, corresponding to a reduction of 6, 13, and 23% for the low, medium, and high diets, respectively. Methane production was lowered with apparent efficiencies (measured methane reduction relative to potential methane reduction) of 82.3, 71.9, and 79.4% for the low, medium, and high diets, respectively. Addition of nitrate increased hydrogen emissions (L/kg of DMI) quadratically by a factor of 2.5, 3.4, and 3.0 (as L/kg of DMI) for the low, medium, and high diets, respectively, compared with the control. Blood methemoglobin levels and nitrate concentrations in milk and urine increased with increasing nitrate intake, but did not constitute a threat for animal health and human food safety. Microbial crude protein synthesis and efficiency were unaffected. Total volatile fatty acid

  10. Effect of dietary supplementation of mannan-oligosaccharides on performance, blood metabolites, ileal nutrient digestibility, and gut microflora in Escherichia coli-challenged laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanian, R; Ashnagar, M

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of different levels of mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) on performance, egg quality, immune responses, and gut microflora in laying hens exposed to Escherichia coli (E. coli) challenge. A total of 180 Hy-Line W-36 laying hens, 55 wk of age, were randomly distributed among 5 dietary treatments with 6 replicates of 6 hens each. Experimental diets consisted of 5 graded levels of MOS (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2% of diet). The study lasted 77 d including 7 d for adaptation and 70 d as the main experimental period subdivided into two 35-d periods. The results showed increases (Phens fed on 0.1% MOS-supplemented diet. Feed intake and egg weight, however, were not influenced by dietary treatments throughout the experimental period. Compared to control birds, supplemental MOS resulted in 9.8% (Phen-day egg production and egg mass, respectively, during the entire experimental period. Dietary supplementation with 0.1 to 0.2% MOS decreased (Phens supplemented with 0.05% MOS. Although dietary MOS supplementation had no effect on ileal E. coli and total bacteria enumerations, it resulted in a decrease (Playing hens under bacterial challenge could improve productive performance probably through modification of intestinal bacterial populations and improving nutrient digestibility. PMID:26188028

  11. Effect of dietary inclusion of sorghum milling waste on growth response, nutrient utilisation, gut characteristics and cecal microflora of weaner rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oso, Oladele A; Sobayo, Richard; Jegede, Vincent; Fafiolu, Adeboye; Iyasere, Oluwaseun Serah; Dele, Peter; Bamgbose, Adeyemi; Cecilia, Adesida

    2011-06-01

    Growth response, nutrient digestibility and cecal microflora of 80 male, mixed breed weaner rabbits fed with varying dietary inclusions of sorghum milling waste (SMW) was investigated. Four experimental diets were formulated such that SMW was included at 0 (control), 100, 200 and 300 g/kg, respectively. Each dietary treatment was performed on 20 rabbits. Feed intake increased (P < 0.05) while final live weight and feed conversion ratio of rabbits decreased (P < 0.05) following increased dietary inclusion of SMW. Rabbits fed with 100 and 200 g/kg SMW had similar feed conversion ratios, weight gain, crude fiber, dry matter and crude protein digestibility values. Rabbits fed with 300 g/kg SMW recorded the lowest (P < 0.05) hot carcass weight, dressing percentage and rack weight. Similar dressing percentage and rack weight were recorded for rabbits fed with control diet, 100 and 200 g/kg SMW. The weight of cecal content increased (P < 0.05) with increased dietary inclusion levels of SMW. Rabbits fed with 300 g/kg SMW recorded the lowest (P < 0.05) coliform and lactobaccillus counts. Dietary inclusion of up to 200 g/kg SMW supported improved growth response and carcass yield without imposing any detrimental effect on cecal microflora. PMID:21615842

  12. Usability of mobile phone food records to assess dietary intake in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobile technologies are emerging as a valuable tool to collect and assess dietary intake. Adolescents readily accept and adopt new technologies, hence, a food record application (FRapp) may provide an accurate mechanism to monitor dietary intake. We examined the usability of a FRapp in 17 free-livin...

  13. Saliency-aware food image segmentation for personal dietary assessment using a wearable computer

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hsin-Chen; Jia, Wenyan; Sun, Xin; Li, Zhaoxin; Li, Yuecheng; Fernstrom, John D.; Burke, Lora E.; Baranowski, Thomas; Sun, Mingui

    2015-01-01

    Image-based dietary assessment has recently received much attention in the community of obesity research. In this assessment, foods in digital pictures are specified, and their portion sizes (volumes) are estimated. Although manual processing is currently the most utilized method, image processing holds much promise since it may eventually lead to automatic dietary assessment. In this paper we study the problem of segmenting food objects from images. This segmentation is difficult because of ...

  14. Dietary Patterns in Pregnancy and Effects on Nutrient Intake in the Mid-South: The Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood (CANDLE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances A. Tylavsky

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Dietary patterns are sensitive to differences across socio-economic strata or cultural habits and may impact programing of diseases in later life. The purpose of this study was to identify distinct dietary patterns during pregnancy in the Mid-South using factor analysis. Furthermore, we aimed to analyze the differences in the food groups and in macro- and micronutrients among the different food patterns. The study was a cross-sectional analysis of 1155 pregnant women (mean age 26.5 ± 5.4 years; 62% African American, 35% Caucasian, 3% Other; and pre-pregnancy BMI 27.6 ± 7.5 kg/m2. Using food frequency questionnaire data collected from participants in the Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood (CANDLE study between 16 and 28 weeks of gestation, dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis. Three major dietary patterns, namely, Healthy, Processed, and US Southern were identified among pregnant women from the Mid-South. Further analysis of the three main patterns revealed four mixed dietary patterns, i.e., Healthy-Processed, Healthy-US Southern, Processed-US Southern, and overall Mixed. These dietary patterns were different (p < 0.001 from each other in almost all the food items, macro- and micro nutrients and aligned across socioeconomic and racial groups. Our study describes unique dietary patterns in the Mid-South, consumed by a cohort of women enrolled in a prospective study examining the association of maternal nutritional factors during pregnancy that are known to affect brain and cognitive development by age 3.

  15. Assessment of Dietary Iodine Intakes by 3-Day Dietary Records in Zhejiang Residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang-qiang DING; Zhe MO; Li-chun HUANG; Xiao-ming LOU; Yan ZOU; Guang-ming MAO

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the dietary iodine intake of the residents in Zhejiang province.MethodsThe cluster sampling method was applied to select 9798 residents in Zhejiang province except pregnant and lactating women. Their dietary intakes were investigated for 3 days, and dietary iodine intake was calculated based on the food composition table. Salts and drinking water samples were collected for iodine measurement by colorimetric titration or spectrophotometer method.Results The median dietary iodine intake was 272.36μg/d for all residents, with an ascending trend by age (χ2=102.27,P< 0.05). The median dietary iodine intake was the highest among those living in inland and sub-coastal areas and the lowest in the coastal areas (χ2=666.20,P < 0.05). The percentages of residents with dietary iodine intake lower than the Chinese RNI were 19.10%, 35.37%, 11.76%, 7.36% in all areas, the coastal, sub-coastal and inland areas, respectively. In addition, 14.49%, 13.04%, 12.10%, 19.51% of residents in all areas, the coastal, sub-coastal and inland areas had an excess iodine intake (greater than the Chines UL) respectively. The contributions to the dietary iodine intake were 73.45% by salts, 1.22% by drinking water and 25.16% by foods. The inland areas had the highest contribution rate by salts (81.64%), and the lowest contribution rate by water (0.79%); the coastal area had the lowest contribution rate by salts (65.37%), and the highest contribution rate by laver and sea fish (23.57%, 2.48%).ConclusionThe dietary iodine intakes in Zhejiang sub-coastal and inland areas were at an appropriate or safe level, while it was insufficient in the residents living in the coastal areas. Nutrition education should be specialized so as to reduce iodine intake in the inland areas, and increase iodine salt consumption in the coastal areas.

  16. Application of Isotope Techniques for Assessing Nutrient Dynamics in River Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutrients are necessary for the growth and survival of animals, plants and other organisms. However, industrial, agricultural and urban development has dramatically increased nutrient levels in river systems, including nitrogen and phosphorus containing substances, degrading water quality, causing acidification and eutrophication and affecting aquatic ecosystems. Nutrient assessment and management in river systems has been an important part of water resource management for the past few decades, but the provision of appropriate and effective nutrient assessment and management continues to be a challenge for water resource managers and policy makers. Difficulties in assessment and management are due in part to the fact that nutrients in rivers may originate from a variety of sources, take numerous pathways and transform into other substances. This publication presents the application of isotope techniques as a powerful tool for evaluating the sources, pathways, transformation, and fate of nutrients in river systems, focusing on nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon containing substances. Eleven researchers using various isotope techniques for different aspects of nutrient studies and two IAEA officers met in a technical meeting and discussed a publication that could assist water resource managers in dealing with nutrient assessment and management issues in river systems. These researchers also recognized the need for careful consideration in selecting appropriate isotope techniques in view of not only technical, but also financial, human resources and logistical capabilities, among others. These contributors are listed as major authors in the later pages of this document. This publication aims at serving water resource managers as a guidebook on the application of isotope techniques in nutrient assessment and management, but it is also expected to be of practical aid for other interested and concerned individuals and organization.

  17. Why is it important to improve dietary assessment methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food frequency questionnaires, which measure a person's usual intake over a defined period of time, and 24-hour recalls, in which a person records everything eaten or drunk during the previous 24 hours, are commonly used to collect dietary information.

  18. A review of the use of information and communication technologies for dietary assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo, J.; Engelen, A.; Molag, M.L.; Roesle, J.; Serra-Majem, L.

    2009-01-01

    Presently used dietary-assessment methods often present difficulties for researchers and respondents, and misreporting errors are common. Methods using information and communication technologies (ICT) may improve quality and accuracy. The present paper presents a systematic literature review describ

  19. Validation of two food frequency questionnaires for dietary calcium assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea, Hacker-Thompson; Robertson, Trina P.; Sellmeyer, Deborah E.

    2009-01-01

    Easily utilized questionnaires estimating dietary calcium intake would be a valuable asset to promoting skeletal health and a helpful research tool. Two calcium questionnaires, one online and one printed, were each compared to dietary calcium intake measured by a three-day diet record. Women completed the questionnaires in a randomized order and kept a 3-day food record at home, returning it by mail. The ethnicity of the 140 study participants was 102 Caucasian, 12 African American, 16 Asian,...

  20. A Nutritional-Toxicological Assessment of Antarctic Krill Oil versus Fish Oil Dietary Supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Bengtson Nash, Susan M.; Martin Schlabach; Nichols, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Fish oil dietary supplements and complementary medicines are pitched to play a role of increasing strategic importance in meeting daily requirements of essential nutrients, such as long-chain (≥C20, LC) omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D. Recently a new product category, derived from Antarctic krill, has been launched on the omega-3 nutriceutical market. Antarctic krill oil is marketed as demonstrating a greater ease of absorption due to higher phospholipid content, as being so...

  1. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... variety of nutrients from a variety of food groups. A balanced approach is best. Narrator: Dietary guidelines ... your daily calorie level. Each of the food groups contains a variety of beneficial nutrients. For example, ...

  2. Application and interpretation of multiple statistical tests to evaluate validity of dietary intake assessment methods

    OpenAIRE

    Lombard, Martani J; Steyn, Nelia P; Charlton, Karen E; Senekal, Marjanne

    2015-01-01

    Background Several statistical tests are currently applied to evaluate validity of dietary intake assessment methods. However, they provide information on different facets of validity. There is also no consensus on types and combinations of tests that should be applied to reflect acceptable validity for intakes. We aimed to 1) conduct a review to identify the tests and interpretation criteria used where dietary assessment methods was validated against a reference method and 2) illustrate the ...

  3. Isotope-aided studies of nutrient cycling and soil fertility assessment in humid pasture systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maintenance of primary productivity in grazed ecosystems depends on the orderly cycling of mineral nutrients. Potential applications of nuclear techniques to the study of soil fertility assessment and nutrient cycling are discussed for the plant nutrients N, P, K and S. The bioavailability of extrinsic and intrinsic sources of mineral nutrients are also discussed. With improvements in analytical technology, it appears feasible to use 15N in grazed pasture ecosystems for N cycling studies. Sulphur cycling in soil/plant/grazing animal systems has been successfully studied, and further opportunities exist using 35S to study nutrient flows in grazed grassland systems. Opportunities also appear for increased application of tracer technology in the evaluation of mineral intakes and mineral bioavailability to ruminants grazing semi-arid grassland herbage under native soil fertility, with supplemental fertilization, and in the evaluation of mineral supplementation procedures. Root system distribution and function also can be studied advantageously using tracer techniques. (author)

  4. Evaluation of the Effect of Low Dietary Fermentable Carbohydrate Content on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics, and Meat Quality in Finishing Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, S. M.; Hwang, J H; Kim, I. H.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 96 pigs (49.23±3.20 kg) were used in an 11 wk growth trial to evaluate the effect of fermentable carbohydrate (FC) content on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrient, blood profile, and meat quality. The dietary treatments were: i) negative control (NC), basal diet, ii) positive control (PC), NC+antibiotics (positive control diet with 5 ppm flavomycin), iii) PCL, PC-13% lower FC, and iv) NCL, NC-13% lower FC. The growth performance (average daily g...

  5. Nutrient Status Assessment in Individuals and Populations for Healthy Aging—Statement from an Expert Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péter, Szabolcs; Saris, Wim H. M.; Mathers, John C.; Feskens, Edith; Schols, Annemie; Navis, Gerjan; Kuipers, Folkert; Weber, Peter; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    A workshop organized by the University Medical Center Groningen addressed various current issues regarding nutrient status of individuals and populations, tools and strategies for its assessment, and opportunities to intervene. The importance of nutrient deficiencies and information on nutrient status for health has been illustrated, in particular for elderly and specific patient groups. The nutrient profile of individuals can be connected to phenotypes, like hypertension or obesity, as well as to socio-economic data. This approach provides information on the relationship between nutrition (nutrient intake and status) and health outcomes and, for instance, allows us to use the findings to communicate and advocate a healthy lifestyle. Nutrition is complex: a broader profile of nutrients should be considered rather than focusing solely on a single nutrient. Evaluating food patterns instead of intake of individual nutrients provides better insight into relationships between nutrition and health and disease. This approach would allow us to provide feedback to individuals about their status and ways to improve their nutritional habits. In addition, it would provide tools for scientists and health authorities to update and develop public health recommendations. PMID:26694458

  6. Comparison of 4 nutrient databases with chemical composition data from the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension trial. DASH Collaborative Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, M L; Karanja, N M; Lin, P H; Obarzanek, E; Phillips, K M; Laws, R L; Vollmer, W M; O'Connor, E A; Champagne, C M; Windhauser, M M

    1999-08-01

    Accuracy of computerized nutrient databases is an important consideration in selecting a nutrient analysis system. We project compared the nutrient content of daily menus calculated from 4 microcomputer programs to chemical analysis of menus analyzed for the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) trial. Thirty-six menus were entered at 2 independent DASH sites using the ESHA Food Processor, Minnesota Nutrition Data System, Moore's Extended Nutrient Database, and Nutritionist IV databases. Food prepared according to these menus was chemically analyzed at the Food Analysis Laboratory Control Center at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Biochemistry, Blacksburg. Estimates for 13 nutrients were compared: energy, total fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, carbohydrate, protein, cholesterol, calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, and sodium. The overall intraclass correlation between the 2 sites' data entry was 0.998; thus, values were averaged for analyses. Databases varied significantly in their mean deviations from chemical analyses values for saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids, potassium, magnesium, and iron (P < .05); however, these differences were small (< 10%). Absolute deviations, which estimate the combined effect of bias and precision, were significantly different among databases for energy, saturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated acids. Absolute differences from the laboratory values varied by < 15%, except for iron. All 4 databases were comparable in accuracy and precision and performed well. Criteria for database selection depends not only on overall database accuracy, especially for nutrients of interest, but also on the ease of use of the program, relevant features of the associated software; and cost. PMID:10450294

  7. Dietary patterns among the Metro Atlanta Cohort: implications for population-based longitudinal dietary pesticide exposure and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riederer, Anne M; Pearson, Melanie A; Lu, Chensheng

    2011-01-01

    Characterizing dietary consumption patterns is critical to dietary pesticide exposure assessment. We compared consumption patterns between adults (age 18-60) in the Metro Atlanta Cohort (MAC), a longitudinal study of pesticide exposure among Atlanta residents, and US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) adults. We focused on foods commonly eaten by US adults and foods likely to contain certain pesticide residues. MAC participants provided consumption data for 6 days per month for 1 year using a web-based data collection tool. We defined "percent eaters" as the percent of participants who reported eating a particular food in 24 h. We computed the NHANES weighted percent eaters and 95% confidence limits (CLs) using the 24-h dietary recall data. We calculated the MAC percent eaters for each sampling day and the percent of days this number fell below, within, or above the NHANES 95% CLs. We also re-sampled the MAC percent eaters across sampling days to find whether the resulting distribution resembled the NHANES estimate, and used the Kruskal-Wallis test to evaluate whether season affected the number of MAC eaters of a particular food on a given sampling day. In general, across all sampling days, a greater proportion of MAC participants reported eating banana, broccoli, cream, grapes, lettuce, onion, peach, pear, peas, strawberries, string beans, and tomatoes than the national estimate, whereas the proportion of apple, spinach, ketchup and white bread/roll eaters was similar, and the proportion of milk drinkers was lower. Season predicted the number of MAC peach and strawberry eaters but not other foods. The data show how a higher proportion of Atlanta adults may eat certain foods (e.g., peaches in summer or strawberries in spring) than the national average depending on season or other factors. An exposure assessment that ignored this difference could underestimate dietary pesticide intakes. PMID:20354565

  8. Methods and validity of dietary assessments in four Scandinavian populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingham, S; Wiggins, H S; Englyst, H;

    1982-01-01

    and duplicate collections of all food eaten, was validated by chemical analysis of the duplicates, by measuring 24-hour urine and fecal nitrogen excretion, and by comparing the constituents of the urine samples collected during the survey with similar collections 1-2 weeks later. There were good...... after the survey, thereby implying that dietary habits had not changed as a result of the investigative technique. It is concluded that the dietary data are indicative of current patterns of food consumption and are sufficiently valid for comparison with data on cancer risk in the 4 areas....

  9. Monthly and seasonal evaluation of dietary nutrients and their relationships with blood and milk parameters in lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozad S.H.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Monthly and seasonal variations among dietary, blood and milk parameters and their interrelationships were investigated during the lactation period in Holstein dairy cows in order to determine reliable dietary indices that could be useful in the studies related to milk yield improvement. Samples were prepared monthly, up to 11 months of lactation and were analyzed by the current laboratory methods using appropriate kits. Mean monthly and seasonal comparison of the dietary, blood and milk values were different among sampling times (p<0.05. The overall mean for dietary energy (ME, crude fiber (CF, moisture, ash, phosphorus (DP, calcium (DCa, ether extract (EE and crude protein (CP were 1.38 Mcal/KgDM, 20.4%, 42.8%, 5.5%, 0.34%, 0.76%, 2.39% and 10.2%, respectively. Correlations were found between dietary DP/Ca (r=-0.73, DP/EE (r=0.67, DP/ash (r=0.79, DP/moisture (r=0.84, DP/ME (r=0.60, Ca/ash (r=0.95, Ca/moisture (r=-0.64, and DCa/moisture (r=-0.93. Correlations among dietary, blood, and milk parameters revealed different relationships with the most important correlations between DP and blood parameters, and CP with blood and milk parameters. Among blood parameters glucose, BHB, SK, AST, GGT, neutrophils and lymphocytes. Milk parameters: Mg, Ca, and lactose showed the strongest relationships with dietary parameters. In conclusion, the dietary, blood and milk values were different during the lactation months and seasons. Dietary CP, Ca and DP could be applied as relevant indices in studies related to milk production improvement in dairy herds.

  10. Evaluation of nutrient variability in highly consumed "fast foods" under the National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA's National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program generates means and standard errors (S.E.) of nutrients in foods from nationally representative sample sets used in dietary assessment and consumer education. However, genetic makeup, growing/shipping/storage conditions, preparation techniques, and ...

  11. 78 FR 13874 - Watershed Modeling To Assess the Sensitivity of Streamflow, Nutrient, and Sediment Loads to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... AGENCY Watershed Modeling To Assess the Sensitivity of Streamflow, Nutrient, and Sediment Loads to Climate Change and Urban Development in 20 U.S. Watersheds AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... public comment period for the draft document titled Watershed Modeling to Assess the Sensitivity...

  12. A prospective assessment of food and nutrient intake in a population of Malawian children at risk for kwashiorkor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to determine what foods, nutrients, and dietary patterns are associated with development of kwashiorkor in populations of vulnerable 1- to 3-year-old Malawian children. This was a prospective observational study conducted in 8 rural villages. Upon enrollment, demographic, anthropom...

  13. Beyond Wishful Thinking: Integrating Consumer Preferences in the Assessment of Dietary Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Irz, Xavier; Leroy, Pascal; Requillart, Vincent; Soler, Louis Georges

    2016-01-01

    Convenience, taste, and prices are the main determinants of food choices. Complying with dietary recommendations therefore imposes a “taste cost” on consumers, potentially hindering adoption of those recommendations. The study presents and applies a new methodology, based on economic theory, to quantify this taste cost and assess the health and welfare effects of different dietary recommendations. Then, by comparison of those effects, we identify socially desirable recommendations that are mo...

  14. Stability of dietary patterns assessed with reduced rank regression; the Zutphen Elderly Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jankovic, Nicole; Steppel, Martinette T; Kampman, Ellen; de Groot, Lisette CPGM; Boshuizen, Hendriek C.; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S; Kromhout, Daan; Feskens, Edith JM

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reduced rank regression (RRR) combines exploratory analysis with a-priori knowledge by including risk factors in the model. Dietary patterns, derived from RRR analysis, can be interpreted by the chosen risk factor profile and give an indication of positive or adverse health effects for a specific disease. Our aim was to assess the stability of dietary patterns derived by RRR over time. METHODS: We used data from 467 men, aged 64-85 years, participating in the 1985 and 1990 examina...

  15. A Critical Assessment of the Ecological Assumptions Underpinning Compensatory Mitigation of Salmon-Derived Nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Scott F.; Marcarelli, Amy M.; Baxter, Colden V.; Wipfli, Mark S.

    2015-09-01

    We critically evaluate some of the key ecological assumptions underpinning the use of nutrient replacement as a means of recovering salmon populations and a range of other organisms thought to be linked to productive salmon runs. These assumptions include: (1) nutrient mitigation mimics the ecological roles of salmon, (2) mitigation is needed to replace salmon-derived nutrients and stimulate primary and invertebrate production in streams, and (3) food resources in rearing habitats limit populations of salmon and resident fishes. First, we call into question assumption one because an array of evidence points to the multi-faceted role played by spawning salmon, including disturbance via redd-building, nutrient recycling by live fish, and consumption by terrestrial consumers. Second, we show that assumption two may require qualification based upon a more complete understanding of nutrient cycling and productivity in streams. Third, we evaluate the empirical evidence supporting food limitation of fish populations and conclude it has been only weakly tested. On the basis of this assessment, we urge caution in the application of nutrient mitigation as a management tool. Although applications of nutrients and other materials intended to mitigate for lost or diminished runs of Pacific salmon may trigger ecological responses within treated ecosystems, contributions of these activities toward actual mitigation may be limited.

  16. Evaluation of dietary intake in Danish adults by means of an index based on food-based dietary guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Vibeke K; Fagt, Sisse; Trolle, Ellen;

    2012-01-01

    The diet quality index is a useful tool in assessing food and nutrient intake in individuals with high vs. low degree of compliance towards the dietary guidelines, and provides a valuable tool in future studies investigating variations in dietary intakes with respect to lifestyle, demographic and...

  17. Relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary fiber intake in Danish adults

    OpenAIRE

    Vuholm, Stine; Lorenzen, Janne K.; Kristensen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Background: Differences in habitual dietary fiber intake may modify effects of dietary fiber interventions, thus measurement of habitual dietary fiber intake is relevant to apply in intervention studies on fiber-rich foods, and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is a commonly used method. Rye bread is the major contributor of dietary fiber in the Danish population, and a nation-specific FFQ is therefore needed.Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the relative validity and reproducib...

  18. Nutrient yield of the Apalachicola River flood plain, Florida; water-quality assessment plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattraw, H.C., Jr.; Elder, John F.

    1980-01-01

    The Apalachicola River in northwestern Florida is the location of one of four current U.S. Geological Survey National River Quality Assessments. The investigation of the Apalachicola River and flood plain is designed to quantify the organic detritus and nutrient yield to the productive, estuarine Apalachicola Bay. The extensive riverine flood plain is subject to seasonal flooding which transports large quantities of accumulated, decaying leaf litter from the flood plain into the river and ultimately into Apalachicola Bay. The Apalachicola River Quality Assessment has four major objectives; (1) Determine the accumulation of organic substances and trace elements in benthic organisms and fine-grained sediments; (2) Define the distribution of the major tree communities on the flood plain; (3) Assess the role of leaf fall and decomposition on nutrient yield; and (4) Identify and quantify major sources and pathways of nutrients to the river. Extensive emphasis is given to investigation approaches and techniques to facilitate technology transfer to similar wetland ecosystems. (USGS)

  19. Overcoming Barriers: Adolescents’ Experiences Using a Mobile Phone Dietary Assessment App

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Åsa; Magnusson, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of new technology has the potential to increase participation rates in dietary studies and improve the validity of collected dietary data. However, to evaluate the usability of developed dietary methods, qualitative studies of participants’ experiences and perceptions are needed. Objective To explore adolescents’ experiences using a newly developed mobile phone dietary assessment app, with a focus on factors that could affect their recording of dietary intake. Methods Focus group interviews were conducted with 75 participants who had used a newly developed mobile phone dietary assessment app in a quantitative evaluation study. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis and the theoretical framework of Self Determination Theory was applied. Results The adolescents’ use of the mobile phone dietary assessment app was characterized by their struggle to overcome several perceived barriers. Facilitators that helped adolescents complete the method were also identified. Motivation was found to be an important facilitator, and intrinsically motivated participants completed the method because they found it fun to use. The autonomous extrinsically motivated participants completed the method for the greater good, in order to contribute to the study. The controlled extrinsically motivated participants completed the method to get a reward or avoid punishment. Amotivated participants did not complete the method. More motivated participants were assumed to be more able to overcome barriers and needed less facilitators. Conclusions Future studies that examine the recording of food intake should include systematic efforts that aim to minimize identified barriers and promote identified facilitators. Further research should specifically aim at studying methods for (and effects of) increasing intrinsic motivation by supporting autonomy, competence, and relatedness among adolescents asked to participate in dietary studies. PMID:27473462

  20. Dietary Behaviors and Nutritional Assessment of Young Male Isfahani Wrestlers

    OpenAIRE

    Pooya Daneshvar; Mitra Hariri; Reza Ghiasvand; Gholamreza Askari; Leila Darvishi; Bijan Iraj; Nafiseh Shokri Mashhadi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Young athletes have more nutritional needs than other adolescents because of physical activity and physical development. Optimal athletic performance results from a combination of factors including training, body composition, and nutrition. Despite the increased interest in nutrition and use of dietary supplements to enhance performance, some athletes might be consuming diets that are less than optimal. In wrestling it is common practice to optimize one′s body composition and body...

  1. Assessment of intake of iron and nutrients that affect bioavailability of daily food rations of girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Broniecka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION AND AIM In a human body iron occurs at a level of 3 to 5 g, 60-70 % of which are in hemoglobin, ca. 10% in myoglobin, and ca. 3% are accumulated in enzymes of cellular respiration or enzymes degrading toxic hydrogen peroxide. The other part of iron is accumulated in liver, spleen, kidneys and bone marrow. The dietary deficiency of iron appears at its insufficient level in a diet and at impaired absorption of iron ions present in food products by a body. Groups at an especially high risk of iron deficiencies include, among others, menstruating girls in the pubescence period and women with heavy and irregular menstruations, as well as vegetarians and patients with chronic enteritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake of iron and nutrients that affect its bioavailability from daily food rations of girls. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 159 girls aged 17-18, students of high schools in the city of Wroclaw. The study was conducted between November 2010 and ay 2011. Girls were divided into 3 subgroups according to the BMI score. Girls’ diets were analyzed with the method of a direct interview of the last 24 hours before the test and the interview was repeated seven times. RESULTS The present study demonstrated that the intake of iron from food rations of almost all the girls surveyed was below the requirements defined for this age group. Statistically significant differences were noted in the intake of energy and nutrients among the three distinguished subgroups of girls. CONCLUSIONS Food rations of the surveyed girls were characterized by a low, compared to dietary allowances, calorific value, which resulted in deficiencies of nutrients increasing iron bioavailability.

  2. Saliency-aware food image segmentation for personal dietary assessment using a wearable computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Image-based dietary assessment has recently received much attention in the community of obesity research. In this assessment, foods in digital pictures are specified, and their portion sizes (volumes) are estimated. Although manual processing is currently the most utilized method, image processing h...

  3. The contribution of school meals to energy and nutrient intake of Swedish children in relation to dietary guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Persson Osowski, Christine; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Enghardt Barberi, Heléne; Becker, Wulf

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Sweden, school meals are served free of charge and Swedish law states that school meals must be nutritious. Nevertheless, data on children’s energy and nutrient intake from school meals are scarce.Objective: The aim was to describe the contribution of school meals to Swedish children’s nutrient and energy intake during weekdays and compare this to the reference values based on the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR), which have been adopted as the official Swedish recommenda...

  4. Using skin carotenoids to assess potential dietary changes after one academic year in the Shaping Healthy Choices Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reported dietary intake is often used in community interventions to assess intake of fruits and vegetables (F/V); however, dietary assessment methods are inaccurate, and time and labor intensive. Skin carotenoids are a potential biomarker to assess F/V intake given that carotenoids are predominately...

  5. Life cycle assessment of pig slurry treatment technologies for nutrient redistribution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ten Hoeve, Marieke; Hutchings, Nicholas John; Peters, Gregory;

    2014-01-01

    Animal slurry management is associated with a range of impacts on fossil resource use and the environment. The impacts are greatest when large amounts of nutrient-rich slurry from livestock production cannot be adequately utilised on adjacent land. To facilitate nutrient redistribution, a range of...... different technologies are available. This study comprised a life cycle assessment of the environmental impacts from handling 1000. kg of pig slurry ex-animal. Application of untreated pig slurry onto adjacent land was compared with using four different treatment technologies to enable nutrient...... combination of values derived from the literature and simulations with the Farm-N model for Danish agricultural and climatic conditions. The environmental impact categories assessed were climate change, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, terrestrial acidification, natural resource use, and soil...

  6. Dietary biomarkers: advances, limitations and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedrick Valisa E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The subjective nature of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods presents numerous challenges to obtaining accurate dietary intake and nutritional status. This limitation can be overcome by the use of dietary biomarkers, which are able to objectively assess dietary consumption (or exposure without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors. The need for dietary biomarkers was addressed by the Institute of Medicine, who recognized the lack of nutritional biomarkers as a knowledge gap requiring future research. The purpose of this article is to review existing literature on currently available dietary biomarkers, including novel biomarkers of specific foods and dietary components, and assess the validity, reliability and sensitivity of the markers. This review revealed several biomarkers in need of additional validation research; research is also needed to produce sensitive, specific, cost-effective and noninvasive dietary biomarkers. The emerging field of metabolomics may help to advance the development of food/nutrient biomarkers, yet advances in food metabolome databases are needed. The availability of biomarkers that estimate intake of specific foods and dietary components could greatly enhance nutritional research targeting compliance to national recommendations as well as direct associations with disease outcomes. More research is necessary to refine existing biomarkers by accounting for confounding factors, to establish new indicators of specific food intake, and to develop techniques that are cost-effective, noninvasive, rapid and accurate measures of nutritional status.

  7. Effects of dietary crude protein and rumen-degradable protein concentrations on urea recycling, nitrogen balance, omasal nutrient flow, and milk production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsvangwa, T; Davies, K L; McKinnon, J J; Christensen, D A

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how interactions between dietary crude protein (CP) and rumen-degradable protein (RDP) concentrations alter urea-nitrogen recycling, nitrogen (N) balance, omasal nutrient flow, and milk production in lactating Holstein cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (711±21kg of body weight; 91±17d in milk at the start of the experiment) were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments and 29-d experimental periods. Four cows in one Latin square were fitted with ruminal cannulas to allow ruminal and omasal sampling. The dietary treatment factors were CP (14.9 vs. 17.5%; dry matter basis) and RDP (63 vs. 69% of CP) contents. Dietary RDP concentration was manipulated by including unprocessed or micronized canola meal. Diet adaptation (d 1-20) was followed by 8d (d 21-29) of sample and data collection. Continuous intrajugular infusions of [(15)N(15)N]-urea (220mg/d) were conducted for 4d (d 25-29) with concurrent total collections of urine and feces to estimate N balance and whole-body urea kinetics. Proportions of [(15)N(15)N]- and [(14)N(15)N]-urea in urinary urea, and (15)N enrichment in feces were used to calculate urea kinetics. For the low-CP diets, cows fed the high-RDP diet had a greater DM intake compared with those fed the low-RDP diet, but the opposite trend was observed for cows fed the high-CP diets. Dietary treatment had no effect on milk yield. Milk composition and milk component yields were largely unaffected by dietary treatment; however, on the low-CP diets, milk fat yield was greater for cows fed the low-RDP diet compared with those fed the high-RDP diet, but it was unaffected by RDP concentration on the high-CP diets. On the high-CP diets, milk urea nitrogen concentration was greater in cows fed the high-RDP diet compared with those fed the low-RDP diet, but it was unaffected by RDP concentration on the low-CP diets. Ruminal NH3-N concentration tended to

  8. AGGREGATIONS OF LEVEL III ECOREGIONS FOR NATIONAL NUTRIENT ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggregations of level III Ecoregions for the National Nutrient Assessment and Management Strategy: This map of draft aggregation of level III ecoregions of the conterminous United States defines broad areas within which there are general similarities in the quality and types of e...

  9. Web-based Dietary Assessment for 8-11 Year Old School-children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia

    DASC the children’s school lunch was photographed and weighed before and after lunch. During the week after the baseline food- and activity recording fasting blood samples were taken. The acceptability of WebDASC was assessed with a questionnaire. Energy intake (EI) estimated with WebDASC was evaluated......Background and aim The potential health effects of a New Nordic Diet (NND) are to be tested in the Danish OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) School Meal study among 8-11- year-old school-children. Valid and reliable dietary...... assessment methods are essential for identifying how eating habits may change in response to the intervention and for identifying the impact of the children’s dietary habits on their health and weight status. Several challenges are connected to collecting dietary data from children including their cognitive...

  10. Development and Evaluation of a Web-based Computer-Assisted Personal Interview System (CAPIS) for Open-ended Dietary Assessments among Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sangah; Park, Eunyoung; Sun, Dong Han; You, Tae-Kyoung; Lee, Myung-Joo; Hwang, Soochan; Paik, Hee Young; Joung, Hyojee

    2014-07-01

    The accuracy of dietary assessments has emerged as a major concern in nutritional epidemiology and new dietary assessment tools using computer technology to increase accuracy have been developed in many countries. The purpose of this study was to develop a web-based computer-assisted personal interview system (CAPIS) for conducting dietary assessment and to evaluate its practical utilization among Koreans. The client software was developed using Microsoft's ClickOnce technology, which allows communication with a database system via an http server to add or retrieve data. The system consists of a tracking system for the subject and researcher, a data-input system during the interview, a calculation system for estimating food and nutrient intake, a data-output system for presenting the results, and an evaluation system for assessing the adequacy of nutrient and food intake. Databases of the nutrient composition of common food (n = 3,642), recipes for common dishes (n = 1,886), and photos of serving sizes for food and dishes (n = 4,152) were constructed, and logical processes for data collection, calculation, and output were developed. The functionality, on-site applicability, and efficiency of CAPIS were evaluated in a convenience sample of 181 participants (61 males, 120 females; aged 24 to 85) by comparing with manual 24 hour recall method with paper questionnaire. The CAPIS was functioned adequately in the field survey in terms of completeness of function, security, and compliance of researcher and subjects. Regarding on-site applicability, 23.2%, 32.6%, 35.4%, and 43.7% of subjects reported that CAPIS was easier to recall their diet, to estimate the amount consumed, to communicate with the interviewer, and to concentrate on the interview than the manual method with paper questionnaire, respectively. Although CAPIS required more interview time (9 min 42 sec) compared to the manual method (7 min 30 sec), it saved time and cost for data coding and entry (15 min 35

  11. The effect of dietary crude protein and phosphorus on grass-fed dairy cow production, nutrient status, and milk heat stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, M; O'Donovan, M; Elliott, C T; Bailey, J S; Watson, C J; Lalor, S T J; Corrigan, B; Fenelon, M A; Lewis, E

    2015-01-01

    Dietary crude protein (CP) and phosphorus (P) have the potential to alter dairy cow production, nutrient status, and milk heat stability, specifically in early lactation. This study examined the effect of supplementary concentrates with different CP and P concentrations on blood N and P status and on milk yield, composition, and heat stability. The concentrates [4kg of dry matter (DM) concentrate per cow daily] were fed to grazing dairy cows (13kg DM grass) during early lactation. Forty-eight spring-calving dairy cows were allocated to 4 treatments: high CP, high P (HPrHP; 302g/kg DM CP, 6.8g/kg DM P), medium CP, high P (MPrHP; 202g/kg DM CP, 4.7g/kg DM P), low CP, high P (LPrHP; 101g/kg DM CP, 5.1g/kg DM P), and low CP, low P (LPrLP; 101g/kg DM CP, 0.058g/kg DM P), for 8wk. Levels of N excretion were significantly higher in animals fed the HPrHP and MPrHP concentrates; P excretion was significantly lower in animals fed the LPrLP concentrate. Reducing the level of P in the diet (LPrLP concentrate) resulted in a significantly lower blood P concentration, whereas milk yield and composition (fat and protein) were not affected by either CP or P in the diet. The effect of the interaction between treatment and time on milk urea N was significant, reflecting the positive correlation between dietary CP and milk nonprotein N. Increasing supplementary CP and P (HPrHP) in the diet resulted in significantly lower milk heat stability at pH 6.8. The findings show that increasing dietary CP caused a decrease in milk heat stability, which reduced the suitability of milk for processing. The study also found that increasing dietary CP increased milk urea N and milk nonprotein N. Increasing dietary P increased fecal P excretion. These are important considerations for milk processors and producers for control of milk processing and environmental parameters. PMID:25465549

  12. Development of databases for use in validation studies of probabilistic models of dietary exposure to food chemicals and nutrients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leclerq, C.; Arcella, D.; Armentia, A.; Boon, P.E.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Gilsenan, M.B.; Thompson, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    The data currently available in the European Union in terms of food consumption and of food chemical and nutrient concentration data present many limitations when used for estimating intake. The most refined techniques currently available were used within the European Union FP5 Monte Carlo project t

  13. Estimation of the dietary nutrient profile of free-roaming feral cats: possible implications for nutrition of domestic cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, E.A.; Bosch, G.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    Cats are strict carnivores and in the wild rely on a diet solely based on animal tissues to meet their specific and unique nutritional requirements. Although the feeding ecology of cats in the wild has been well documented in the literature, there is no information on the precise nutrient profile to

  14. Dietary total antioxidant capacity is associated with plasmatic antioxidant capacity, nutrient intake and lipid and DNA damage in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedile, Natalia; Canuto, Raquel; de Col, Camila Dallavechia; de Sene, Juliane Souza; Stolfo, Adriana; Wisintainer, Gabrielle Nunes de Souza; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas; Salvador, Mirian

    2016-06-01

    Dietary total antioxidant capacity (DTAC) seems to be associated with reducing risk of diseases. However, data about the influence of the DTAC on oxidative stress parameters are scarce. The aim of this study was to estimate the DTAC and its influence on plasma total antioxidant capacity (PTAC), and damage to lipids, proteins and DNA in healthy women. It was found a positive correlation between DTAC and PTAC in young and healthy subjects, where presumably the endogenous defenses are fully functional. DTAC and PTAC were positively correlated with the intake of known antioxidants, including vitamin C and polyphenols. The DTAC exhibited a negative correlation with lipid oxidative damage, while PTAC showed a negative correlation with DNA damage. This data contributes to better understanding of the recommended dietary antioxidant intake for promoting health. PMID:27018203

  15. Statistical Dimensioning of Nutrient Loading Reduction: LLR Assessment Tool for Lake Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotamäki, Niina; Pätynen, Anita; Taskinen, Antti; Huttula, Timo; Malve, Olli

    2015-08-01

    Implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) has set a great challenge on river basin management planning. Assessing the water quality of lakes and coastal waters as well as setting the accepted nutrient loading levels requires appropriate decision supporting tools and models. Uncertainty that is inevitably related to the assessment results and rises from several sources calls for more precise quantification and consideration. In this study, we present a modeling tool, called lake load response (LLR), which can be used for statistical dimensioning of the nutrient loading reduction. LLR calculates the reduction that is needed to achieve good ecological status in a lake in terms of total nutrients and chlorophyll a (chl- a) concentration. We show that by combining an empirical nutrient retention model with a hierarchical chl- a model, the national lake monitoring data can be used more efficiently for predictions to a single lake. To estimate the uncertainties, we separate the residual variability and the parameter uncertainty of the modeling results with the probabilistic Bayesian modeling framework. LLR has been developed to answer the urgent need for fast and simple assessment methods, especially when implementing WFD at such an extensive scale as in Finland. With a case study for an eutrophic Finnish lake, we demonstrate how the model can be utilized to set the target loadings and to see how the uncertainties are quantified and how they are accumulating within the modeling chain.

  16. Epigenetic Contributions to the Relationship between Cancer and Dietary Intake of Nutrients, Bioactive Food Components, and Environmental Toxicants

    OpenAIRE

    Su, L. Joseph; Mahabir, Somdat; Ellison, Gary L; McGuinn, Laura A.; Reid, Britt C.

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression that occur without a change in DNA sequence. Cancer is a multistep process derived from combinational crosstalk between genetic alterations and epigenetic influences through various environmental factors. The observation that epigenetic changes are reversible makes them an attractive target for cancer prevention. Until recently, there have been difficulties studying epigenetic mechanisms in interactions between dietary factors a...

  17. Provision of lipid-based nutrient supplements to Honduran children increases their dietary macro- and micronutrient intake without displacing other foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flax, Valerie L; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Reinhart, Greg A; Bentley, Margaret E

    2015-12-01

    Inadequate energy intake and poor diet quality are important causes of chronic child undernutrition. Strategies for improving diet quality using lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) are currently being tested in several countries. To date, information on children's dietary intakes during LNS use is available only from Africa. In this study, we collected 24-h dietary recalls at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months on Honduran children (n = 298) participating in a cluster-randomised trial of LNS. Generalised estimating equations were used to examine differences in number of servings of 12 food groups in the LNS and control arms, and multi-level mixed effects models were used to compare macro- and micronutrient intakes. Models accounted for clustering and adjusted for child's age, season and breastfeeding status. Mean daily servings of 12 food groups did not differ by study arm at baseline and remained similar throughout the study with the exception of groups that were partially or entirely supplied by LNS (nuts and nut butters, fats, and sweets). Baseline intakes of energy, fat, carbohydrates, protein, folate and vitamin A, but not vitamin B12, iron and zinc were lower in the LNS than control arm. The change in all macro- and micronutrients from baseline to each study visit was larger for the LNS arm than the control, except for carbohydrates from baseline to 9 months. These findings indicate that LNS improved the macro- and micronutrient intakes of young non-malnourished Honduran children without replacing other foods in their diet. PMID:25819697

  18. Assessing dietary intake of drug abusing Hispanic adults with and without HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug abuse is an important risk factor for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) among Hispanics in the Northeastern United States and both drug abuse and HIV are associated with nutritional deficiencies. The selection of a dietary assessment method most appropriate for Hispanic adults with/without HIV...

  19. Assessment of Dietary Intakes of Filipino-Americans: Implications for Food Frequency Questionnaire Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Kozlow, Marilyn; Matt, Georg E.; Rock, Cheryl L.; de la Rosa, Ruth; Conway, Terry L.; Romero, Romina A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe food consumption practices of Filipino-American adults, to describe how they respond to a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) as a function of acculturation and sex, and to suggest modifications to the FFQ to improve dietary assessment among Filipino-Americans. Methods: Twenty-one…

  20. Effect of dietary supplementation of Pulvis Curcuma Longa on the voluntary feed intake, nutrient digestibility and Growth performance of Broiler rabbits under summer stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaraj

    Full Text Available Eighteen four weeks’ old weaned Broiler rabbits of comparable body weights were allotted to three dietary treatment groups of six rabbits in each group namely T0 (basal control diet, T1 (basal diet added with Turmeric (Curcuma longa Rhizoid Powder, TRP, at the ratio of 150mg and T2 ( basal diet added with TRP at the ratio of 300mg/100g diet. Feeding cum growth trial and digestion trial were during summer months of April, May and June to study voluntary feed intake, growth rate and nutrient utilization by the experimental animals. TRP included in the diets of experimental groups consisting 6.72 % CP, 5.04% ether extract, 3.96% crude fibre, 7.85% total ash. Depression in voluntary feed intake due to summer stress did not alter due to the inclusion of turmeric powder. The weekly mean body weight gain, feed conversion efficiency and digestibility of nutrients did not show significant difference by the supplementation of turmeric rhizome powder in the diets of rabbit in present study. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(8.000: 369-372

  1. The Effect of Dietary Replacement of Ordinary Rice with Red Yeast Rice on Nutrient Utilization, Enteric Methane Emission and Rumen Archaeal Diversity in Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L. Z.; Zhou, M. L.; Wang, J. W.; Wu, D.; Yan, T.

    2016-01-01

    Twenty castrated Boer crossbred goats were used in the present study with two treatments to examine the effect of dietary replacement of ordinary rice with red yeast rice on nutrient utilization, enteric methane emission and ruminal archaea structure and composition. Two treatment diets contained (DM basis) 70.0% of forage, 21.8% of concentrates and 8.2% of either ordinary rice (control) or red yeast rice (RYR). Nutrient utilization was measured and enteric methane emissions were determined in respiration chambers. Results showed that RYR had significantly lower digestibility of N and organic matter compared to control group. However, feeding red yeast rice did not affect N retention as g/d or a proportion of N intake, and reduced heat production as MJ/d or as a proportion of metabolizable energy intake, thus leading to a higher proportion of metabolizable energy intake to be retained in body tissue. RYR also had significantly lower methane emissions either as g/d, or as a proportion of feed intake. Although feeding red yeast rice had no negative effect on any rumen fermentation variables, it decreased serum contents of total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. In the present study, 75616 archaeal sequences were generated and clustered into 2364 Operational Taxonomic Units. At the genus level, the predominant archaea in the rumen of goats was Methanobrevibacter, which was significantly inhibited with the supplementation of red yeast rice. In conclusion, red yeast rice is a potential feed ingredient for mitigation of enteric methane emissions of goats. However, caution should be taken when it is used because it may inhibit the digestibility of some nutrients. Further studies are required to evaluate its potential with different diets and animal species, as well as its effects on animal health and food safety. PMID:27467559

  2. Evaluation of a diet quality index based on the probability of adequate nutrient intake (PANDiet using national French and US dietary surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric O Verger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Existing diet quality indices often show theoretical and methodological limitations, especially with regard to validation. OBJECTIVE: To develop a diet quality index based on the probability of adequate nutrient intake (PANDiet and evaluate its validity using data from French and US populations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The PANDiet is composed of adequacy probabilities for 24 nutrients grouped into two sub-scores. The relationship between the PANDiet score and energy intake were investigated. We evaluated the construct validity of the index by comparing scores for population sub-groups with 'a priori' differences in diet quality, according to smoking status, energy density, food intakes, plasma folate and carotenoid concentrations. French and US implementations of the PANDiet were developed and evaluated using national nutritional recommendations and dietary surveys. RESULTS: The PANDiet was not correlated with energy for the French implementation (r = -0.02, P>0.05 and correlated at a low level for the US implementation (r = -0.11, P<0.0001. In both implementations, a higher PANDiet score (i.e. a better diet quality was associated with not smoking, having a lower-energy-dense diet, consuming higher amounts of fruits, vegetables, fish, milk and other dairy products and lower amounts of cheese, pizza, eggs, meat and processed meat, and having higher plasma folate and carotenoid concentrations after controlling for appropriate factors (all P<0.05, carotenoid data for US not available. CONCLUSIONS: The PANDiet provides a single score that measures the adequacy of nutrient intake and reflects diet quality. This index is adaptable for use in different countries and relevant at the individual and population levels.

  3. High Levels of Dietary Supplement Vitamins A, C and E are Absorbed in the Small Intestine and Protect Nutrient Transport Against Chronic Gamma Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Marjolaine; Neti, Prasad V S V; Kemp, Francis W; Azzam, Edouard I; Ferraris, Ronaldo P; Howell, Roger W

    2015-11-01

    We examined nutrient transport in the intestines of mice exposed to chronic low-LET 137Cs gamma rays. The mice were whole-body irradiated for 3 days at dose rates of 0, 0.13 and 0.20 Gy/h, for total dose delivery of 0, 9.6 or 14.4 Gy, respectively. The mice were fed either a control diet or a diet supplemented with high levels of vitamins A, C and E. Our results showed that nutrient transport was perturbed by the chronic irradiation conditions. However, no apparent alteration of the macroscopic intestinal structures of the small intestine were observed up to day 10 after initiating irradiation. Jejunal fructose uptake measured in vitro was strongly affected by the chronic irradiation, whereas uptake of proline, carnosine and the bile acid taurocholate in the ileum was less affected. D-glucose transport did not appear to be inhibited significantly by either 9.6 or 14.4 Gy exposure. In the 14.4 Gy irradiated groups, the diet supplemented with high levels of vitamins A, C and E increased intestinal transport of fructose compared to the control diet (day 10; t test, P = 0.032), which correlated with elevated levels of vitamins A, C and E in the plasma and jejunal enterocytes. Our earlier studies with mice exposed acutely to 137Cs gamma rays demonstrated significant protection for transport of fructose, glucose, proline and carnosine. Taken together, these results suggest that high levels of vitamins A, C and E dietary supplements help preserve intestinal nutrient transport when intestines are irradiated chronically or acutely with low-LET gamma rays. PMID:26484399

  4. Assessing the adequacy of essential nutrient intake in obese dogs undergoing energy restriction for weight loss: a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    German, Alexander J.; Holden, Shelley L; Serisier, Samuel; Queau, Yann; Biourge, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Background Canine obesity is usually treated with dietary energy restriction, but data are limited regarding nutritional adequacy. The aim of the current study was to compare intake of essential nutrients with National Research Council recommendations in obese dogs during weight management with a purpose-formulated diet. Methods Twenty-seven dogs were included in this non-randomised retrospective observational cohort study. All were determined to be systemically well, and without significant ...

  5. Nutrition and health in infancy and childhood : an epidemiological approach to the assessment of dietary habits, their determinants and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Lars Åke

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to describe the distribution of feeding habits and dietary habits of Swedish children of different ages, to search for determinants of the observed distributions and to analyse some possible implications of those habits regarding health and growth. The present results emanate from a longitudinal study of feeding, growth and development of 312 infants and from a cross-sectional study on the dietary habits of 738 children aged 4,8 and 13 years. The dietary assessement ...

  6. Life-Cycle Assessment of Advanced Nutrient Removal Technologies for Wastewater Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Sheikh M; Eckelman, Matthew J; Onnis-Hayden, Annalisa; Gu, April Z

    2016-03-15

    Advanced nutrient removal processes, while improving the water quality of the receiving water body, can also produce indirect environmental and health impacts associated with increases in usage of energy, chemicals, and other material resources. The present study evaluated three levels of treatment for nutrient removal (N and P) using 27 representative treatment process configurations. Impacts were assessed across multiple environmental and health impacts using life-cycle assessment (LCA) following the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and Other Environmental Impacts (TRACI) impact-assessment method. Results show that advanced technologies that achieve high-level nutrient removal significantly decreased local eutrophication potential, while chemicals and electricity use for these advanced treatments, particularly multistage enhanced tertiary processes and reverse osmosis, simultaneously increased eutrophication indirectly and contributed to other potential environmental and health impacts including human and ecotoxicity, global warming potential, ozone depletion, and acidification. Average eutrophication potential can be reduced by about 70% when Level 2 (TN = 3 mg/L; TP = 0.1 mg/L) treatments are employed instead of Level 1 (TN = 8 mg/L; TP = 1 mg/L), but the implementation of more advanced tertiary processes for Level 3 (TN = 1 mg/L; TP = 0.01 mg/L) treatment may only lead to an additional 15% net reduction in life-cycle eutrophication potential. PMID:26871301

  7. Evaluation of a Mobile Phone Image-Based Dietary Assessment Method in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E. Rollo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Image-based dietary records have limited evidence evaluating their performance and use among adults with a chronic disease. This study evaluated the performance of a 3-day mobile phone image-based dietary record, the Nutricam Dietary Assessment Method (NuDAM, in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Criterion validity was determined by comparing energy intake (EI with total energy expenditure (TEE measured by the doubly-labelled water technique. Relative validity was established by comparison to a weighed food record (WFR. Inter-rater reliability was assessed by comparing estimates of intake from three dietitians. Ten adults (6 males, age: 61.2 ± 6.9 years old, BMI: 31.0 ± 4.5 kg/m2 participated. Compared to TEE, mean EI (MJ/day was significantly under-reported using both methods, with a mean ratio of EI:TEE 0.76 ± 0.20 for the NuDAM and 0.76 ± 0.17 for the WFR. Correlations between the NuDAM and WFR were mostly moderate for energy (r = 0.57, carbohydrate (g/day (r = 0.63, p < 0.05, protein (g/day (r = 0.78, p < 0.01 and alcohol (g/day (rs = 0.85, p < 0.01, with a weaker relationship for fat (g/day (r = 0.24. Agreement between dietitians for nutrient intake for the 3-day NuDAM (Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC = 0.77–0.99 was lower when compared with the 3-day WFR (ICC = 0.82–0.99. These findings demonstrate the performance and feasibility of the NuDAM to assess energy and macronutrient intake in a small sample. Some modifications to the NuDAM could improve efficiency and an evaluation in a larger group of adults with T2DM is required.

  8. Nutrient Database Development: An Historical Perspective from the Framingham Nutrition Studies

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) are commonly used in nutritional epidemiology to assess habitual eating habits. Development of an appropriate food and nutrient database is required for translating information derived from FFQs into estimates of nutrient intake, dietary quality or for absolute or rank-ordered nutritional risk assessment. We discuss the procedures used recently in designing an historical nutrient database to analyze an FFQ administered in 1984–1988 to Framingham Offspring-...

  9. Nutrient adequacy during weight loss interventions: a randomized study in women comparing the dietary intake in a meal replacement group with a traditional food group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bovee Vicki

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safe and effective weight control strategies are needed to stem the current obesity epidemic. The objective of this one-year study was to document and compare the macronutrient and micronutrient levels in the foods chosen by women following two different weight reduction interventions. Methods Ninety-six generally healthy overweight or obese women (ages 25–50 years; BMI 25–35 kg/m2 were randomized into a Traditional Food group (TFG or a Meal Replacement Group (MRG incorporating 1–2 meal replacement drinks or bars per day. Both groups had an energy-restricted goal of 5400 kJ/day. Dietary intake data was obtained using 3-Day Food records kept by the subjects at baseline, 6 months and one-year. For more uniform comparisons between groups, each diet intervention consisted of 18 small group sessions led by the same Registered Dietitian. Results Weight loss for the 73% (n = 70 completing this one-year study was not significantly different between the groups, but was significantly different (p ≤ .05 within each group with a mean (± standard deviation weight loss of -6.1 ± 6.7 kg (TFG, n = 35 vs -5.0 ± 4.9 kg (MRG, n = 35. Both groups had macronutrient (Carbohydrate:Protein:Fat ratios that were within the ranges recommended (50:19:31, TFG vs 55:16:29, MRG. Their reported reduced energy intake was similar (5729 ± 1424 kJ, TFG vs 5993 ± 2016 kJ, MRG. There was an improved dietary intake pattern in both groups as indicated by decreased intake of saturated fat (≤ 10%, cholesterol ( Conclusion In this one-year university-based intervention, both dietitian-led groups successfully lost weight while improving overall dietary adequacy. The group incorporating fortified meal replacements tended to have a more adequate essential nutrient intake compared to the group following a more traditional food group diet. This study supports the need to incorporate fortified foods and/or dietary supplements while following an energy

  10. 运动员的膳食评价%Methods for Dietary Assessment of Athletes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方子龙; 武桂新; 王启荣

    2012-01-01

    介绍了运动员食物和营养素摄入的评价方法,主要包括4个方面:(1)食物摄入量的评价方法,(2)膳食评价中的常见问题,(3)运动员食物摄入量评价的特殊问题,(4)膳食分析。膳食评价的方法有很多,如:膳食记录法、24 h膳食回顾法和食物频率问卷调查法。在膳食评价过程中,误报、零食、报告的坦率性以及评价的时间范围,都是需要注意的问题。另外,还要考虑运动员不同训练周期阶段的特殊问题、液体摄入、营养补充品和体重管理的问题。为了更有效地进行膳食评价分析,需选择恰当的食物成分数据库和营养分析软件。准确和全面的营养评价对客观地了解运动员的营养状况并提出膳食建议非常重要。%The article introduces the assessment methods for athletes' intake of food and nutritions, including assessment methods for food intake, problems in dietary assessment, special questions regarding athletes' food intake and dietary analysis. There are quite a few dietary assessment methods, such as keeping minutes of food intake, 24-hour dietary review and questionnaire for food-intake frequency, etc. In the process of dietary assessment, misinformation, snacks, frankness of declaration and the time and scope of assessment are the issues that are worth noticing.Besides, special questions in athletes' different training cycles, liquid intake, nutritional supplements and weight control need to be taken into consideration. In order to make dietary assessment more effective, appropriate food ingredients data base and nutritional analysis software are indispensable. A correct and general nutritional assessment is very important in order to know athletes' nutritional status and offer suggestions for diet.

  11. Socio-Economic Differences in Food Group and Nutrient Intakes Among Young Women in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    McCartney, Daniel; Younger, Katherine; Walsh, Joanne; O'Neill, Marie; Sheridan, Claire; Kearney, John(Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, U.S.A.)

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate socio-economic disparities in food and nutrient intakes among young Irish women. A total of 221 disadvantaged and seventy-four non-disadvantaged women aged 18-35 years were recruited. Diet was assessed using a diet history protocol. Of the total population, 153 disadvantaged and sixty-three non-disadvantaged women were classified as plausible dietary reporters. Food group intakes, nutrient intakes and dietary vitamin and mineral concentrations per MJ of ...

  12. Socio-Economic Differences in Food Group and Nutrient Intakes Among Young Women in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    McCartney, Daniel; Younger, Katherine; Kearney, John(Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, U.S.A.)

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate socio-economic disparities in food and nutrient intakes among young Irish women. A total of 221 disadvantaged and seventy-four non-disadvantaged women aged 18–35 years were recruited. Diet was assessed using a diet history protocol. Of the total population, 153 disadvantaged and sixty-three non-disadvantaged women were classified as plausible dietary reporters. Food group intakes, nutrient intakes and dietary vitamin and mineral concentrations per MJ of ...

  13. Participatory scenario development for integrated assessment of nutrient flows in a Catalan river catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Caille

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Rivers in developed regions are under significant stress due to nutrient enrichment generated mainly by human activities. Excess nitrogen and phosphorus emissions are the product of complex dynamic systems influenced by various factors such as demographic, socio-economic and technological development. Using a Catalan river catchment, La Tordera (North-East of Spain, as a case study of an integrated and interdisciplinary environmental assessment of nutrient flows, we present and discuss the development of narrative socio-economic scenarios through a participatory process for the sustainable management of the anthropogenic sources of nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus. In this context, scenarios are an appropriate tool to assist nutrient emissions modelling, and to assess impacts, possible pathways for socio-economic development and associated uncertainties. Evaluated against the 1993–2003 baseline period, scenarios target the 2030 horizon, i.e. through the implementation process of the Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC. After a critical examination of the methodology used in the participatory development of socio-economic scenarios, we present four possible futures (or perspectives for the Catalan river catchment conceived by stakeholders invited to a workshop. Keys to the success of such a participatory process were trust, which enhanced openness, and disagreements, which fostered the group's creativity for scenario development. The translation of narrative socio-economic scenarios into meaningful nutrient emission scenarios is also discussed. By integrating findings of natural sciences and socio-economic analysis, we aim to assist decision makers and stakeholders in evaluating optimal management strategies for the anthropogenic sources of nitrogen and phosphorus.

  14. Participatory scenario development for integrated assessment of nutrient flows in a Catalan river catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caille, F.; Riera, J. L.; Rodríguez-Labajos, B.; Middelkoop, H.; Rosell-Melé, A.

    2007-11-01

    Rivers in developed regions are under significant stress due to nutrient enrichment generated mainly by human activities. Excess nitrogen and phosphorus emissions are the product of complex dynamic systems influenced by various factors such as demographic, socio-economic and technological development. Using a Catalan river catchment, La Tordera (North-East of Spain), as a case study of an integrated and interdisciplinary environmental assessment of nutrient flows, we present and discuss the development of narrative socio-economic scenarios through a participatory process for the sustainable management of the anthropogenic sources of nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus. In this context, scenarios are an appropriate tool to assist nutrient emissions modelling, and to assess impacts, possible pathways for socio-economic development and associated uncertainties. Evaluated against the 1993-2003 baseline period, scenarios target the 2030 horizon, i.e. through the implementation process of the Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC). After a critical examination of the methodology used in the participatory development of socio-economic scenarios, we present four possible futures (or perspectives) for the Catalan river catchment conceived by stakeholders invited to a workshop. Keys to the success of such a participatory process were trust, which enhanced openness, and disagreements, which fostered the group's creativity for scenario development. The translation of narrative socio-economic scenarios into meaningful nutrient emission scenarios is also discussed. By integrating findings of natural sciences and socio-economic analysis, we aim to assist decision makers and stakeholders in evaluating optimal management strategies for the anthropogenic sources of nitrogen and phosphorus.

  15. Participatory scenario development for integrated assessment of nutrient flows in a Catalan river catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Caille

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Rivers in developed regions are under significant stress due to nutrient enrichment generated mainly by human activities. Excess nitrogen and phosphorus emissions are the product of complex dynamic systems influenced by various factors such as demographic, socio-economic and technological development. Using a Catalan river catchment, La Tordera (North-East of Spain, as a case study of an integrated and interdisciplinary environmental assessment of nutrient flows, we present and discuss the development of socio-economic scenarios through a participatory process for the sustainable management of the anthropogenic sources of nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus. In this context, scenarios are an appropriate tool to assist nutrient emissions modelling, and to assess impacts, possible pathways for socio-economic development and associated uncertainties. Evaluated against the 1993–2003 baseline period, scenarios target the 2030 horizon, i.e., through the implementation process of the Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC. After a critical examination of the methodology used in the participatory development of socio-economic scenarios, we present four possible futures (or perspectives for the Catalan river catchment conceived by stakeholders invited to a workshop. Keys to the success of such a participatory process were trust, which enhanced openness, and disagreements, which fostered the group's creativity for scenario development. The translation of narrative socio-economic scenarios into meaningful nutrient emission scenarios is also presented. By integrating findings of natural sciences and socio-economic analysis, we aim to assist decision makers and stakeholders in evaluating optimal management strategies for the anthropogenic sources of nitrogen and phosphorus.

  16. Nitrógeno dietario como un nutriente limitante en aves frugívoras Dietary nitrogen as a limiting nutrient in frugivorous birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOSQUE CARLOS

    2000-09-01

    las complejas interacciones involucradas en la regulación de las necesidades proteicas de las aves frugívorasFruit pulp is considered nutritionally inadequate for frugivorous birds because of its low protein content. Consequently, frugivores are expected to minimize their nitrogen losses as an adaptation to frugivory . In this review we examine properties of fruit and physiological traits of frugivores that affect their ability to subsist on fruit diets. Most tropical and temperate fruit seem to contain enough nitrogen to satisfy bird’s requirements if their food intake was adjusted to meet their energy needs, but requirements depend on body mass. Birds of larger body size should require foods having a higher ratio of nitrogen to energy than smaller species. However, digestible nitrogen may in fact be limiting because fruit pulp seems to contain considerable amounts of nonproteinaceous nitrogen and an amino acid composition that deviates from that required by birds. Both of these characteristics of fruit pulps should augment nitrogen losses of frugivores and consequently their needs when consuming natural diets. In terms of their physiology, we expect frugivores to maximize their nitrogen extraction efficiency from the diet and hint the possibility that low urinary nitrogen losses of frugivores might be related to a low metabolic rate. Minimization of endogenous fecal losses could be the most important adaptation of frugivores to subsist on nitrogen poor diets. It is not evident how specialized frugivores can have lower than expected nitrogen requirements when compared to birds of other dietary groups. We suggest several areas of research that should improve our understanding of the complex interactions involved in the regulation of protein needs of frugivorous birds

  17. Comparative validity of the ASSO–Food Frequency Questionnaire for the web-based assessment of food and nutrients intake in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garden Tabacchi

    2015-04-01

    assessment of dietary consumption in adolescents to adequately rank food, energy and nutrient intakes at a group level.

  18. Life cycle assessment of manure management and nutrient recycling from a Chinese pig farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yiming; Stichnothe, Heinz; Schuchardt, Frank; Li, Guoxue; Huaitalla, Roxana Mendoza; Xu, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Driven by the growing numbers of intensified pig farms around cities in China, there are problems of nutrient surplus and shortage of arable land for utilising the manure. Hence, sustainable livestock systems with effective manure management are needed. The objective of this study is to compare the existing manure treatment of a typical pig farm in Beijing area (separate collection of faeces; 'Gan qing fen' system) with an alternative system and to identify the nutrients flow of the whole farm in order to quantify environmental burdens and to estimate the arable land required for sustainable nutrients recycling. Life cycle assessment is used for this purpose. Acidification potential (AP), eutrophication potential (EP) and global warming potential (GWP) are analysed in detail; the functional unit is the annual production of the pig farm. The results show that the cropland area demand for sustainable land application of the effluent can be reduced from 238 to 139 ha with the alternative system. It is possible to transfer 29% of total nitrogen, 87% of phosphorus, 34% of potassium and 75% of magnesium to the compost, and to reduce the total AP, EP and GWP of manure management on the farm by 64.1%, 96.7% and 22%, respectively, compared with the current system. Besides an effective manure management system, a full inventory of the regional nutrients flow is needed for sustainable development of livestock systems around big cities in China. PMID:24293069

  19. Beyond Wishful Thinking: Integrating Consumer Preferences in the Assessment of Dietary Recommendations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Irz

    Full Text Available Convenience, taste, and prices are the main determinants of food choices. Complying with dietary recommendations therefore imposes a "taste cost" on consumers, potentially hindering adoption of those recommendations. The study presents and applies a new methodology, based on economic theory, to quantify this taste cost and assess the health and welfare effects of different dietary recommendations. Then, by comparison of those effects, we identify socially desirable recommendations that are most compatible with consumer preferences (i.e., that best balance health benefits against"taste cost" and should be prioritized for promotion. The methodology proceeds in three-steps: first, an economic-behavioral model simulates how whole diets would change if consumers complied with dietary recommendations; second, an epidemiological model estimates the number of deaths avoided (DA due to the dietary change; third, an efficiency analysis weighs the health benefits against the taste and policy costs of each recommendation. The empirical model is calibrated using French data. We find that recommendations to reduce consumption of red meat and soft-drinks, or raise consumption of milk products and fish/seafood impose relatively moderate taste costs. By comparison, recommendations related to F&V consumption and, to a lesser extent, butter/cream/cheese, snacks, and all meats impose larger taste costs on consumers. The F&V recommendation is the costliest for consumers to comply with, but it also reduces diet-related mortality the most, so that a large budget could be allocated to promoting F&V consumption while keeping this policy cost-beneficial. We conclude that promotion of most dietary recommendations improves social welfare. Our framework complements the programming models available in nutrition and public health: those models are best used to identify dietary targets, following which our framework identifies cost-beneficial ways of moving towards those

  20. Beyond Wishful Thinking: Integrating Consumer Preferences in the Assessment of Dietary Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irz, Xavier; Leroy, Pascal; Réquillart, Vincent; Soler, Louis-Georges

    2016-01-01

    Convenience, taste, and prices are the main determinants of food choices. Complying with dietary recommendations therefore imposes a "taste cost" on consumers, potentially hindering adoption of those recommendations. The study presents and applies a new methodology, based on economic theory, to quantify this taste cost and assess the health and welfare effects of different dietary recommendations. Then, by comparison of those effects, we identify socially desirable recommendations that are most compatible with consumer preferences (i.e., that best balance health benefits against"taste cost") and should be prioritized for promotion. The methodology proceeds in three-steps: first, an economic-behavioral model simulates how whole diets would change if consumers complied with dietary recommendations; second, an epidemiological model estimates the number of deaths avoided (DA) due to the dietary change; third, an efficiency analysis weighs the health benefits against the taste and policy costs of each recommendation. The empirical model is calibrated using French data. We find that recommendations to reduce consumption of red meat and soft-drinks, or raise consumption of milk products and fish/seafood impose relatively moderate taste costs. By comparison, recommendations related to F&V consumption and, to a lesser extent, butter/cream/cheese, snacks, and all meats impose larger taste costs on consumers. The F&V recommendation is the costliest for consumers to comply with, but it also reduces diet-related mortality the most, so that a large budget could be allocated to promoting F&V consumption while keeping this policy cost-beneficial. We conclude that promotion of most dietary recommendations improves social welfare. Our framework complements the programming models available in nutrition and public health: those models are best used to identify dietary targets, following which our framework identifies cost-beneficial ways of moving towards those targets. PMID:27362764

  1. Dietary Assessment on a Mobile Phone Using Image Processing and Pattern Recognition Techniques: Algorithm Design and System Prototyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Yasmine; Nguyen, Duc Thanh; Tran, Minh Khoi; Li, Wanqing

    2015-08-01

    Dietary assessment, while traditionally based on pen-and-paper, is rapidly moving towards automatic approaches. This study describes an Australian automatic food record method and its prototype for dietary assessment via the use of a mobile phone and techniques of image processing and pattern recognition. Common visual features including scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT), local binary patterns (LBP), and colour are used for describing food images. The popular bag-of-words (BoW) model is employed for recognizing the images taken by a mobile phone for dietary assessment. Technical details are provided together with discussions on the issues and future work. PMID:26225994

  2. Dietary Assessment on a Mobile Phone Using Image Processing and Pattern Recognition Techniques: Algorithm Design and System Prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmine Probst

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dietary assessment, while traditionally based on pen-and-paper, is rapidly moving towards automatic approaches. This study describes an Australian automatic food record method and its prototype for dietary assessment via the use of a mobile phone and techniques of image processing and pattern recognition. Common visual features including scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT, local binary patterns (LBP, and colour are used for describing food images. The popular bag-of-words (BoW model is employed for recognizing the images taken by a mobile phone for dietary assessment. Technical details are provided together with discussions on the issues and future work.

  3. Cognitive enhancement in middle-aged and old cats with dietary supplementation with a nutrient blend containing fish oil, B vitamins, antioxidants and arginine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuanlong; Araujo, Joseph A; Burrows, Joey; de Rivera, Christina; Gore, Asa; Bhatnagar, Sandeep; Milgram, Norton W

    2013-07-14

    Cognitive dysfunction syndrome is a major disease affecting old cats and is the consequence of severe and irreversible loss of brain cells and brain atrophy. The present study focused on the hypothesis that the optimal strategy for promoting successful brain ageing is to target risk factors associated with brain ageing and dementia. We used a nutritional strategy involving supplementation with a blend of nutrients (antioxidants, arginine, B vitamins and fish oil) to test this hypothesis. Middle-aged and old cats between 5·5 and 8·7 years of age were assigned to cognitively equivalent control or treatment groups based on prior cognitive experience and performance on baseline cognitive tests. The cats in the treatment group were maintained on a diet supplemented with the nutrient blend and the cats in the control group were maintained on the identical base diet without the additional supplementation. After an initial wash-in period, all cats were tested on a battery of cognitive test protocols. The cats fed the test diet showed significantly better performance on three of four test protocols: a protocol assessing egocentric learning, a protocol assessing discrimination and reversal learning and a protocol focused on acquisition of a spatial memory task. The results support the hypothesis that brain function of middle-aged and old cats can be improved by the nutrient blend that was selected to minimise or eliminate the risk factors associated with brain ageing and dementia. PMID:23211671

  4. The impact of food and nutrient-based standards on primary school children's lunch and total dietary intake: a natural experimental evaluation of government policy in England.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Spence

    Full Text Available In 2005, the nutritional content of children's school lunches in England was widely criticised, leading to a major policy change in 2006. Food and nutrient-based standards were reintroduced requiring primary schools to comply by September 2008. We aimed to determine the effect of the policy on the nutritional content at lunchtime and in children's total diet. We undertook a natural experimental evaluation, analysing data from cross-sectional surveys in 12 primary schools in North East England, pre and post policy. Dietary data were collected on four consecutive days from children aged 4-7 years (n = 385 in 2003-4; n = 632 in 2008-9. We used linear mixed effect models to analyse the effects of gender, year, and lunch type on children's mean total daily intake. Both pre- and post-implementation, children who ate a school lunch consumed less sodium (mean change -128 mg, 95% CI: -183 to -73 mg in their total diet than children eating home-packed lunches. Post-implementation, children eating school lunches consumed a lower % energy from fat (-1.8%, -2.8 to -0.9 and saturated fat (-1.0%; -1.6 to -0.5 than children eating packed lunches. Children eating school lunches post implementation consumed significantly more carbohydrate (16.4 g, 5.3 to 27.6, protein (3.6 g, 1.1 to 6.0, non-starch polysaccharides (1.5 g, 0.5 to 1.9, vitamin C (0.7 mg, 0.6 to 0.8, and folate (12.3 µg, 9.7 to 20.4 in their total diet than children eating packed lunches. Implementation of school food policy standards was associated with significant improvements in the nutritional content of school lunches; this was reflected in children's total diet. School food- and nutrient-based standards can play an important role in promoting dietary health and may contribute to tackling childhood obesity. Similar policy measures should be considered for other environments influencing children's diet.

  5. School Meal Program Participation and Its Association with Dietary Patterns and Childhood Obesity. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Philip; Briefel, Ronette; Wilson, Ander; Dodd, Allison Hedley

    2009-01-01

    We used data from the School Nutrition Dietary Assessment III Study to examine the dietary patterns of school meal program participants and nonparticipants and the relationship between school meal participation and children's BMI and risk of overweight or obesity. School Breakfast Program (SBP) participants consumed more low nutrient energy dense…

  6. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Pregnancy Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuyang Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy will affect the outcomes for the mother and the baby. Many analyses of the relationship between diet and outcome are often based on a single or a few food items or nutrients. However, foods are not consumed in isolation and dietary patterns can be used to assess the whole diet consumed. The use of dietary pattern analysis to understand nutritional intake and pregnancy outcome is becoming more and more popular. Many published studies have showed the association between maternal dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome. This review examined articles about the relationship between maternal dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome. As a modifiable factor, dietary patterns may be more applicable to clinical and pregnant health interventions.

  7. A mobile phone user interface for image-based dietary assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ziad; Khanna, Nitin; Kerr, Deborah A.; Boushey, Carol J.; Delp, Edward J.

    2014-02-01

    Many chronic diseases, including obesity and cancer, are related to diet. Such diseases may be prevented and/or successfully treated by accurately monitoring and assessing food and beverage intakes. Existing dietary assessment methods such as the 24-hour dietary recall and the food frequency questionnaire, are burdensome and not generally accurate. In this paper, we present a user interface for a mobile telephone food record that relies on taking images, using the built-in camera, as the primary method of recording. We describe the design and implementation of this user interface while stressing the solutions we devised to meet the requirements imposed by the image analysis process, yet keeping the user interface easy to use.

  8. Including Life Cycle Assessment for decision-making in controlling wastewater nutrient removal systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corominas, Lluís; Larsen, Henrik Fred; Flores-Alsina, Xavier;

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to evaluate the performance of seventeen control strategies in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). It tackles the importance of using site-specific factors for nutrient enrichment when decision-makers have to select best operating...... systems (e.g. open coastal areas) the most eco-friendly strategies differ from the ones dealing with discharging into P-deficient (e.g. lakes and rivers) and N&P-deficient systems (e.g. coastal zones). More particularly, the results suggest that strategies that promote increased nutrient removal and....../or energy savings present an environmental benefit for N&P and P-deficient systems. This is not the case when addressing N-deficient systems for which the use of chemicals (even for improving N removal efficiencies) is not always beneficial for the environment. A sensitivity analysis on using weighting of...

  9. Total and dialyzable levels of manganese from duplicate meals and influence of other nutrients: Estimation of daily dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Ryenold, Carlos; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel; Lopez-Ga De La Serrana, Herminia; Perez-Valero, Vidal; Lopez-Martinez, Maria C

    2008-07-01

    Both total and dialyzable Mn levels were determined in 108 duplicate meals during 36 consecutive days. Both mineral fractions were measured by a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) method previously optimized. A total mean Mn fraction of 1.03±0.49mg was found in the meals. The Mn supplied by the meals is directly and significantly (pprotein). The mean Mn fraction dialyzed through the dialysis membrane was 0.23±0.17mg (22.0±8.93% as bioaccessible fraction). The total and dialyzable Mn fractions found for breakfasts were significantly lower (ppercentage of dialyzable element, were not significantly different among the three primary meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner). A significant correlation between the total and the dialyzable fraction of Mn in meals was found (pprotein and several amino acid levels (p cereals, legumes, vegetables and fruits, would be primary sources of bioaccessible Mn in the diet. The bioaccessibility of Mn was only significant influenced by energy, carbohydrates and Se levels present in meals. The mean Mn daily dietary intake (DDI) was 3.05±0.61mgday(-1). PMID:26054271

  10. Assessment of Dietary Practice Among Diabetic Patients in the United Arab Emirates

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Kaabi, Juma; Al-Maskari, Fatma; Saadi, Hussein; Afandi, Bachar; Parkar, Hasratali; Nagelkerke, Nicolaas

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess dietary practices and risk profile (hypertension, obesity, lipid profile and glycemic control) among people with diabetes in Al-Ain District, United Arab Emirates (UAE). METHODS: During 2006, we performed a cross-sectional study of diabetic patients attending diabetic outpatient clinics at Tawam Hospital and primary health care centers in Al-Ain District. Subjects completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire, blood pressure, body mass ind...

  11. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Shakhaoat Hossain; Md. Alamgir Hossain; Md. Abdur Rahman; Md Mainul Islam; Md Atiqur Rahman; Tanveer Mehedi Adyel

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to assess the health risk of pesticide residues via dietary intake of vegetables collected from four top agro-based markets of Dhaka, Bangladesh. High performance liquid chromatography with a photo diode array detector (HPLC-PDA) was used to determine six organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, parathion, ethion, acephate, fenthion), two carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran) and one pyrethroid (cypermethrin) pesticide residues in twelve samples of three comm...

  12. ASSESSMENT OF DIETARY HABITS AND LIFESTYLE OF THE MEDICAL STUDENTS OF AGARTALA GOVERNMENT MEDICAL COLLEGE

    OpenAIRE

    Shishir; Anjan

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION : Medical students represent a significant community inv estment and promoting their health preserves this investment. This study aims assessing the dietary habits and risky lifestyle behavior among the MBBS students. MATERIALS AND METHOD : A cross - sectional study was conducted among MBBS students of all four pro fessional years of Agartala Government Medical College, Tripura, selecting in total 200 students (50 students from each year) th...

  13. Taking Advantage of the Strengths of 2 Different Dietary Assessment Instruments to Improve Intake Estimates for Nutritional Epidemiology

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, R. J.

    2012-01-24

    With the advent of Internet-based 24-hour recall (24HR) instruments, it is now possible to envision their use in cohort studies investigating the relation between nutrition and disease. Understanding that all dietary assessment instruments are subject to measurement errors and correcting for them under the assumption that the 24HR is unbiased for usual intake, here the authors simultaneously address precision, power, and sample size under the following 3 conditions: 1) 1-12 24HRs; 2) a single calibrated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ); and 3) a combination of 24HR and FFQ data. Using data from the Eating at America\\'s Table Study (1997-1998), the authors found that 4-6 administrations of the 24HR is optimal for most nutrients and food groups and that combined use of multiple 24HR and FFQ data sometimes provides data superior to use of either method alone, especially for foods that are not regularly consumed. For all food groups but the most rarely consumed, use of 2-4 recalls alone, with or without additional FFQ data, was superior to use of FFQ data alone. Thus, if self-administered automated 24HRs are to be used in cohort studies, 4-6 administrations of the 24HR should be considered along with administration of an FFQ.

  14. Comparison of a Full Food-Frequency Questionnaire with the Three-Day Unweighted Food Records in Young Polish Adult Women: Implications for Dietary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalkowska, Joanna; Slowinska, Malgorzata A.; Slowinski, Dariusz; Dlugosz, Anna; Niedzwiedzka, Ewa; Wadolowska, Lidia

    2013-01-01

    The food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the food record (FR) are among the most common methods used in dietary research. It is important to know that is it possible to use both methods simultaneously in dietary assessment and prepare a single, comprehensive interpretation. The aim of this study was to compare the energy and nutritional value of diets, determined by the FFQ and by the three-day food records of young women. The study involved 84 female students aged 21–26 years (mean of 22.2 ± 0.8 years). Completing the FFQ was preceded by obtaining unweighted food records covering three consecutive days. Energy and nutritional value of diets was assessed for both methods (FFQ-crude, FR-crude). Data obtained for FFQ-crude were adjusted with beta-coefficient equaling 0.5915 (FFQ-adjusted) and regression analysis (FFQ-regressive). The FFQ-adjusted was calculated as FR-crude/FFQ-crude ratio of mean daily energy intake. FFQ-regressive was calculated for energy and each nutrient separately using regression equation, including FFQ-crude and FR-crude as covariates. For FR-crude and FFQ-crude the energy value of diets was standardized to 2000 kcal (FR-standardized, FFQ-standardized). Methods of statistical comparison included a dependent samples t-test, a chi-square test, and the Bland-Altman method. The mean energy intake in FFQ-crude was significantly higher than FR-crude (2740.5 kcal vs. 1621.0 kcal, respectively). For FR-standardized and FFQ-standardized, significance differences were found in the mean intake of 18 out of 31 nutrients, for FR-crude and FFQ-adjusted in 13 out of 31 nutrients and FR-crude and FFQ-regressive in 11 out of 31 nutrients. The Bland-Altman method showed an overestimation of energy and nutrient intake by FFQ-crude in comparison to FR-crude, e.g., total protein was overestimated by 34.7 g/day (95% Confidence Interval, CI: −29.6, 99.0 g/day) and fat by 48.6 g/day (95% CI: −36.4, 133.6 g/day). After regressive transformation of FFQ, the

  15. Reproducibility and Validity of a Food Frequency Questionnaire for Assessing Dietary Consumption via the Dietary Pattern Method in a Chinese Rural Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Liu

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ that was developed to assess the overall dietary consumption via dietary pattern method in a rural population in southwest China.A total of 179 participants aged between 40 and 70 years old were included in this study. Participants administered FFQ at baseline (FFQ1 and one year later (FFQ2 to assess the reproducibility. Six 3-day 24-hour recalls (24HRs were completed between the administrations of two FFQs to determine the validity. Dietary patterns from three separate dietary sources were derived by using principle component factor analysis. Comparisons between dietary pattern scores were made by using Pearson or intraclass correlation coefficient, cross-classification analysis, weighted kappa (κ statistic and Bland-Altman analysis. The de-attenuated method was adopted to correct the monthly and seasonally variation and the partial correlation analysis was used correct the influence by total energy intake.Two major dietary factors, labeled as prudent pattern and processed food pattern, were identified. The prudent pattern was characterized by higher factor loadings of wheat, rice, fresh vegetables, bean products, nuts, red meat, white meat and fresh eggs; and the processed food pattern was characterized by higher factor loadings of pickled vegetables, preserved vegetables and salted meat. Between Two FFQs, intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.57 for prudent pattern and 0.55 for processed food pattern, partial Pearson correlation coefficients were 0.51 for the prudent pattern and 0.56 for the processed food pattern; weighted κ statistic ranged from 0.45 (for the prudent pattern to 0.56 (for the processed food pattern. Between FFQs and 24HRs, de-attenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.54 to 0.78 for the prudent pattern and from 0.55 to 0.61 for the processed food pattern; partial Pearson correlation coefficients ranged

  16. Dietary antioxidants and flight exercise in female birds affect allocation of nutrients to eggs: how carry-over effects work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrip, Megan M; Seeram, Navindra P; Yuan, Tao; Ma, Hang; McWilliams, Scott R

    2016-09-01

    Physiological challenges during one part of the annual cycle can carry over and affect performance at a subsequent phase, and antioxidants could be one mediator of trade-offs between phases. We performed a controlled experiment with zebra finches to examine how songbirds use nutrition to manage trade-offs in antioxidant allocation between endurance flight and subsequent reproduction. Our treatment groups included (1) a non-supplemented, non-exercised group (control group) fed a standard diet with no exercise beyond that experienced during normal activity in an aviary; (2) a supplemented non-exercised group fed a water- and lipid-soluble antioxidant-supplemented diet with no exercise; (3) a non-supplemented exercised group fed a standard diet and trained to perform daily endurance flight for 6 weeks; and (4) a supplemented exercised group fed an antioxidant-supplemented diet and trained to perform daily flight for 6 weeks. After flight training, birds were paired within treatment groups for breeding. We analyzed eggs for lutein and vitamin E concentrations and the plasma of parents throughout the experiment for non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity and oxidative damage. Exercised birds had higher oxidative damage levels than non-exercised birds after flight training, despite supplementation with dietary antioxidants. Supplementation with water-soluble antioxidants decreased the deposition of lipid-soluble antioxidants into eggs and decreased yolk size. Flight exercise also lowered deposition of lutein, but not vitamin E, to eggs. These findings have important implications for future studies of wild birds during migration and other oxidative challenges. PMID:27582563

  17. A Novel Dietary Assessment Method to Measure a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Using the Mobile Food Record: Protocol and Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Harray, Amelia J; Boushey, Carol J; Pollard, Christina M; Delp, Edward J.; Ziad Ahmad; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Syed Aqif Mukhtar; Kerr, Deborah A

    2015-01-01

    The world-wide rise in obesity parallels growing concerns of global warming and depleting natural resources. These issues are often considered separately but there may be considerable benefit to raising awareness of the impact of dietary behaviours and practices on the food supply. Australians have diets inconsistent with recommendations, typically low in fruit and vegetables and high in energy-dense nutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDNP). These EDNP foods are often highly processed and pac...

  18. Dietary Assessment on a Mobile Phone Using Image Processing and Pattern Recognition Techniques: Algorithm Design and System Prototyping

    OpenAIRE

    Yasmine Probst; Duc Thanh Nguyen; Minh Khoi Tran; Wanqing Li

    2015-01-01

    Dietary assessment, while traditionally based on pen-and-paper, is rapidly moving towards automatic approaches. This study describes an Australian automatic food record method and its prototype for dietary assessment via the use of a mobile phone and techniques of image processing and pattern recognition. Common visual features including scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT), local binary patterns (LBP), and colour are used for describing food images. The popular bag-of-words (BoW) mo...

  19. Identification of diet-disease relations through dietary pattern approach: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Esmaillzadeh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    • Recently, diet-disease relations have been recommended to be looked for through dietary pattern approach rather than traditional approach (nutrient or food-oriented approach. Dietary pattern analysis allows consideration of the entire diet, rather than individual foods or ingredients. This approach can be particularly useful when traditional analyses in nutritional epidemiology cannot move beyond weak associations. The dietary pattern approach is more realistic than the food-based or nutrient approach, in that inter-correlations and biological interactions between foods and nutrients confound the associations of a single food or nutrient with a certain chronic disease. Several studies provide evidence supporting use of the dietary pattern approach in nutritional epidemiology. Most of these studies indicate that empirically derived food intake patterns by statistical methods are related to chronic diseases. This review aims to provide more detailed information about the methods of measurement, advantages and disadvantages of the dietary pattern approach and to assess whether major dietary patterns are related to the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance.
    • KEYWORDS: Dietary patterns, factor analysis, cluster analysis, diet, dietary assessment.>

  20. Assessment of Economic Loss Caused by Agricultural Non-point Source Nutrient Loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Liang-qian; CHEN Feng-hui

    2012-01-01

    Taking Zhejiang Province as an example, we use the JOHNES export coefficient model to estimate the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) load of agricultural planting, livestock and poultry breeding and rural living non-point source in 2009. Based on the protection cost method in environmental economics, we quantitatively assess the economic loss caused by these three types of non-point source nutrient loss. The results show that in TN non-point source load, the load of land for planting accounts for 57.48%, the load of rural living accounts for 30.22%, and the load of livestock and poultry breeding accounts for 12.30%; in TP non-point source load, the load of rural living accounts for 46.18%, the load of livestock and poultry breeding accounts for 29.00%, and the load of land for planting accounts for 24.82%. The economic loss arising from the agricultural non-point source nutrient loss is equivalent to 2.329 424 7 billion yuan per year (the loss from land for planting accounts for 55.46%; the loss from rural living accounts for 31.21%; the loss from livestock and poultry breeding accounts for 13.33%). It indicates that in order to reduce the loss arising from agricultural non-point source nutrient loss, we should pay attention to controlling the land for planting and rural living source.

  1. Development of a Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess the Dietary Intake of a Multi-Ethnic Urban Asian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithya Neelakantan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessing habitual food consumption is challenging in multi-ethnic cosmopolitan settings. We systematically developed a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ in a multi-ethnic population in Singapore, using data from two 24-h dietary recalls from a nationally representative sample of 805 Singapore residents of Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicity aged 18–79 years. Key steps included combining reported items on 24-h recalls into standardized food groups, developing a food list for the FFQ, pilot testing of different question formats, and cognitive interviews. Percentage contribution analysis and stepwise regression analysis were used to identify foods contributing cumulatively ≥90% to intakes and individually ≥1% to intake variance of key nutrients, for the total study population and for each ethnic group separately. Differences between ethnic groups were observed in proportions of consumers of certain foods (e.g., lentil stews, 1%–47%; and pork dishes, 0%–50%. The number of foods needed to explain variability in nutrient intakes differed substantially by ethnic groups and was substantially larger for the total population than for separate ethnic groups. A 163-item FFQ covered >95% of total population intake for all key nutrients. The methodological insights provided in this paper may be useful in developing similar FFQs in other multi-ethnic settings.

  2. Assessment of Economic Loss Caused by Agricultural Non-point Source Nutrient Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Liang-qian; Chen, Feng-hui

    2012-01-01

    Taking Zhejiang Province as an example, we use the JOHNES export coefficient model to estimate the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) load of agricultural planting, livestock and poultry breeding and rural living non-point source in 2009. Based on the protection cost method in environmental economics, we quantitatively assess the economic loss caused by these three types of non-point source nutrient loss. The results show that in TN non-point source load, the load of land for plant...

  3. The MARINA model (Model to Assess River Inputs of Nutrients to seAs): Model description and results for China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strokal, Maryna; Kroeze, Carolien; Wang, Mengru; Bai, Zhaohai; Ma, Lin

    2016-08-15

    Chinese agriculture has been developing fast towards industrial food production systems that discharge nutrient-rich wastewater into rivers. As a result, nutrient export by rivers has been increasing, resulting in coastal water pollution. We developed a Model to Assess River Inputs of Nutrients to seAs (MARINA) for China. The MARINA Nutrient Model quantifies river export of nutrients by source at the sub-basin scale as a function of human activities on land. MARINA is a downscaled version for China of the Global NEWS-2 (Nutrient Export from WaterSheds) model with an improved approach for nutrient losses from animal production and population. We use the model to quantify dissolved inorganic and organic nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) export by six large rivers draining into the Bohai Gulf (Yellow, Hai, Liao), Yellow Sea (Yangtze, Huai) and South China Sea (Pearl) in 1970, 2000 and 2050. We addressed uncertainties in the MARINA Nutrient model. Between 1970 and 2000 river export of dissolved N and P increased by a factor of 2-8 depending on sea and nutrient form. Thus, the risk for coastal eutrophication increased. Direct losses of manure to rivers contribute to 60-78% of nutrient inputs to the Bohai Gulf and 20-74% of nutrient inputs to the other seas in 2000. Sewage is an important source of dissolved inorganic P, and synthetic fertilizers of dissolved inorganic N. Over half of the nutrients exported by the Yangtze and Pearl rivers originated from human activities in downstream and middlestream sub-basins. The Yellow River exported up to 70% of dissolved inorganic N and P from downstream sub-basins and of dissolved organic N and P from middlestream sub-basins. Rivers draining into the Bohai Gulf are drier, and thus transport fewer nutrients. For the future we calculate further increases in river export of nutrients. The MARINA Nutrient model quantifies the main sources of coastal water pollution for sub-basins. This information can contribute to formulation of

  4. Life cycle assessment of pig slurry treatment technologies for nutrient redistribution in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Hoeve, Marieke; Hutchings, Nicholas J; Peters, Gregory M; Svanström, Magdalena; Jensen, Lars S; Bruun, Sander

    2014-01-01

    Animal slurry management is associated with a range of impacts on fossil resource use and the environment. The impacts are greatest when large amounts of nutrient-rich slurry from livestock production cannot be adequately utilised on adjacent land. To facilitate nutrient redistribution, a range of different technologies are available. This study comprised a life cycle assessment of the environmental impacts from handling 1000 kg of pig slurry ex-animal. Application of untreated pig slurry onto adjacent land was compared with using four different treatment technologies to enable nutrient redistribution before land application: (a) separation by mechanical screw press, (b) screw press separation with composting of the solid fraction, (c) separation by decanter centrifuge, and (d) decanter centrifuge separation with ammonia stripping of the liquid fraction. Emissions were determined based on a combination of values derived from the literature and simulations with the Farm-N model for Danish agricultural and climatic conditions. The environmental impact categories assessed were climate change, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, terrestrial acidification, natural resource use, and soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus storage. In all separation scenarios, the liquid fraction was applied to land on the pig-producing (donor) farm and the solid fraction transported to a recipient farm and utilised for crop production. Separation, especially by centrifuge, was found to result in a lower environmental impact potential than application of untreated slurry to adjacent land. Composting and ammonia stripping either slightly increased or slightly decreased the environmental impact potential, depending on the impact category considered. The relative ranking of scenarios did not change after a sensitivity analysis in which coefficients for field emissions of nitrous oxide, ammonia and phosphorus were varied within the range cited in the literature. Therefore, the best

  5. Distribution of nutrients and eutrophication assessment in the Bohai Sea of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiulin; CUI Zhengguo; GUO Quan; HAN Xiurong; WANG Jiangtao

    2009-01-01

    Water samples were collected in 120 stations in the Bohai Sea of China to analyze the distribution of dissolved nutrients and assess the degree of eutrophication in August 2002. The result shows that the average concentration of DIN increased and the PO4-P concentration sharply decreased compared to the previous data of corresponding period. The high concentrations of DIN and PO4-P occurred in coastal waters, especially in the bays and some river estuaries, while the high concentrations of SiO3-Si in the surface and middle depth occurred in the central area of the Bohai Sea. The average ratio of DIN/ PO4-P was much higher than the Redfield Ratio (16:1). Apparently, PO4-P was one of the limiting nutrient for phytoplankton growing in the sea. The average concentrations of DON and DOP were higher than their inorganic forms. The results of eutrophication assessment show that 22.1% of all stations were classified as violating the concentration levels of the National Seawater Quality Standard (GB 3097-1997) for DIN and only 3.9% for PO4-P. The average eutrophication index in the overall area was 0.21±0.22 and the high values occurred in Bohai Bay, Liaodong Bay and near the Yellow River estuary. This means that the state of eutrophication was generally mesotrophic in the Bohai Sea, but relatively worse in the bays, especially some river estuaries.

  6. A short food-group-based dietary questionnaire is reliable and valid for assessing toddlers' dietary risk in relatively advantaged samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Lucinda K; Golley, Rebecca K; Magarey, Anthea M

    2014-08-28

    Identifying toddlers at dietary risk is crucial for determining who requires intervention to improve dietary patterns and reduce health consequences. The objectives of the present study were to develop a simple tool that assesses toddlers' dietary risk and investigate its reliability and validity. The nineteen-item Toddler Dietary Questionnaire (TDQ) is informed by dietary patterns observed in Australian children aged 14 (n 552) and 24 (n 493) months and the Australian dietary guidelines. It assesses the intake of 'core' food groups (e.g. fruit, vegetables and dairy products) and 'non-core' food groups (e.g. high-fat, high-sugar and/or high-salt foods and sweetened beverages) over the previous 7 d, which is then scored against a dietary risk criterion (0-100; higher score = higher risk). Parents of toddlers aged 12-36 months (Socio-Economic Index for Areas decile range 5-9) were asked to complete the TDQ for their child (n 111) on two occasions, 3·2 (SD 1·8) weeks apart, to assess test-retest reliability. They were also asked to complete a validated FFQ from which the risk score was calculated and compared with the TDQ-derived risk score (relative validity). Mean scores were highly correlated and not significantly different for reliability (intra-class correlation = 0·90, TDQ1 30·2 (SD 8·6) v. TDQ2 30·9 (SD 8·9); P= 0·14) and validity (r 0·83, average TDQ ((TDQ1+TDQ2)/2) 30·5 (SD 8·4) v. FFQ 31·4 (SD 8·1); P= 0·05). All the participants were classified into the same (reliability 75 %; validity 79 %) or adjacent (reliability 25 %; validity 21 %) risk category (low (0-24), moderate (25-49), high (50-74) and very high (75-100)). Overall, the TDQ is a valid and reliable screening tool for identifying at-risk toddlers in relatively advantaged samples. PMID:24886781

  7. Perspective on Dietary Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Organic Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles M. Benbrook

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that organically produced food has lower risks of pesticide contamination than food that is not organically produced. However, organically produced food is not entirely free of pesticide residues. A large, high-quality U.S. Department of Agriculture database reports pesticide residues in several dozen organic and conventionally grown foods on an annual basis, and supports detailed analyses of the frequency of residues in conventional and organic food, the number of residues found in an average sample of food, residue levels, and potential dietary risk. These data are used to estimate pesticide dietary exposures and relative risk levels, and to assess the impacts of the current pesticide-related provisions of the National Organic Program (NOP rule. Fraud appears to be rare based on the available data. Most prohibited residues found in organic produce are detected at levels far below the residues typically found in food grown with pesticides. Relatively high-risk residues are more common in imported foods—both organic and conventional—compared to domestically grown food. The authors conclude that incorporating relative dietary risk into the organic standard would be a more precautionary, risk-based approach than targeting enforcement to organic foods found to contain 5% or more of the applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA tolerance.

  8. Application of nutrient intake values (NIVs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorster, Hester H; Murphy, Suzanne P; Allen, Lindsay H; King, Janet C

    2007-03-01

    The process of applying nutrient intake values (NIVs) for dietary assessment, planning, and implementing programs is discussed in this paper. In addition to assessing, monitoring, and evaluating nutritional situations, applications include planning food policies, strategies, and programs for promotion of optimal nutrition and preventing and treating malnutrition (both over- and undernutrition). Other applications include nutrition education, food and nutrient legislation, marketing and labeling, research, product development, food procurement and trade (import and export), food aid, and therapeutic (clinical) nutrition. Specific examples of how NIVs are used to develop food labels, fortification policies, and food-based dietary guidelines are described. Applications in both developed and developing countries are also described. In summary, NIVs are the scientific backbone of all aspects of nutrition policy in countries and regions worldwide. PMID:17521123

  9. Field investigation to assess nutrient emission from paddy field to surface water in river catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogure, Kanami; Aichi, Masaatsu; Zessner, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    In order to maintain good river environment, it is remarkably important to understand and to control nutrient behavior such as Nitrogen and Phosphorus. Our former research dealing with nutrient emission analysis in the Tone River basin area in Japan, in addition to urban and industrial waste water, nutrient emission from agricultural activity is dominant pollution source into the river system. Japanese style agriculture produces large amount of rice and paddy field occupies large areas in Japanese river basin areas. While paddy field can deteriorate river water quality by outflow of fertilizer, it is also suggested that paddy field has water purification function. As we carried out investigation in the Tone River Basin area, data were obtained which dissolved nitrogen concentration is lower in discharging water from paddy field than inflowing water into the field. Regarding to nutrient emission impact from paddy field, sufficient data are required to discuss quantitatively seasonal change of material behavior including flooding season and dry season, difference of climate condition, soil type, and rice species, to evaluate year round comprehensive impact from paddy field to the river system. In this research, field survey in paddy field and data collection relating rice production were carried out as a preliminary investigation to assess how Japanese style paddy field contributes year round on surface water quality. Study sites are three paddy fields located in upper reach of the Tone River basin area. The fields are flooded from June to September. In 2014, field investigations were carried out three times in flooding period and twice in dry period. To understand characteristics of each paddy field and seasonal tendency accompanying weather of agricultural event, short term investigations were conducted and we prepare for further long term investigation. Each study site has irrigation water inflow and outflow. Two sites have tile drainage system under the field and

  10. Risk Assessment on Dietary Exposure to Aflatoxin B1 in Post-Harvest Peanuts in the Yangtze River Ecological Region

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoxia Ding; Linxia Wu; Peiwu Li; Zhaowei Zhang; Haiyan Zhou; Yizhen Bai; Xiaomei Chen; Jun Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Based on the 2983 peanut samples from 122 counties in six provinces of China’s Yangtze River ecological region collected between 2009–2014, along with the dietary consumption data in Chinese resident nutrition and health survey reports from 2002 and 2004, dietary aflatoxin exposure and percentiles in the corresponding statistics were calculated by non-parametric probability assessment, Monte Carlo simulation and bootstrap sampling methods. Average climatic conditions in the Yangtze River ecol...

  11. Predictors for Reporting of Dietary Assessment Methods in Food-based Randomized Controlled Trials over a Ten-year Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Yasmine; Zammit, Gail

    2016-09-01

    The importance of monitoring dietary intake within a randomized controlled trial becomes vital to justification of the study outcomes when the study is food-based. A systematic literature review was conducted to determine how dietary assessment methods used to monitor dietary intake are reported and whether assisted technologies are used in conducting such assessments. OVID and ScienceDirect databases 2000-2010 were searched for food-based, parallel, randomized controlled trials conducted with humans using the search terms "clinical trial," "diet$ intervention" AND "diet$ assessment," "diet$ method$," "intake," "diet history," "food record," "food frequency questionnaire," "FFQ," "food diary," "24-hour recall." A total of 1364 abstracts were reviewed and 243 studies identified. The size of the study and country of origin appear to be the two most common predictors of reporting both the dietary assessment method and details of the form of assessment. The journal in which the study is published has no impact. Information technology use may increase in the future allowing other methods and forms of dietary assessment to be used efficiently. PMID:26212597

  12. Assessing the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of adaptive e-Learning to improve dietary behaviour: protocol for a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michie Susan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The composition of habitual diets is associated with adverse or protective effects on aspects of health. Consequently, UK public health policy strongly advocates dietary change for the improvement of population health and emphasises the importance of individual empowerment to improve health. A new and evolving area in the promotion of dietary behavioural change is e-Learning, the use of interactive electronic media to facilitate teaching and learning on a range of issues, including diet and health. The aims of this systematic review are to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of adaptive e-Learning for improving dietary behaviours. Methods/Design The research will consist of a systematic review and a cost-effectiveness analysis. Studies will be considered for the review if they are randomised controlled trials, involving participants aged 13 or over, which evaluate the effectiveness or efficacy of interactive software programmes for improving dietary behaviour. Primary outcome measures will be those related to dietary behaviours, including estimated intakes of energy, nutrients and dietary fibre, or the estimated number of servings per day of foods or food groups. Secondary outcome measures will be objective clinical measures that are likely to respond to changes in dietary behaviours, such as anthropometry or blood biochemistry. Knowledge, self-efficacy, intention and emotion will be examined as mediators of dietary behaviour change in order to explore potential mechanisms of action. Databases will be searched using a comprehensive four-part search strategy, and the results exported to a bibliographic database. Two review authors will independently screen results to identify potentially eligible studies, and will independently extract data from included studies, with any discrepancies at each stage settled by a third author. Standardised forms and criteria will be used. A descriptive analysis of included

  13. Development of a Mobile User Interface for Image-based Dietary Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sungye; Schap, TusaRebecca; Bosch, Marc; Maciejewski, Ross; Delp, Edward J; Ebert, David S.; Boushey, Carol J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a mobile user interface for image-based dietary assessment. The mobile user interface provides a front end to a client-server image recognition and portion estimation software. In the client-server configuration, the user interactively records a series of food images using a built-in camera on the mobile device. Images are sent from the mobile device to the server, and the calorie content of the meal is estimated. In this paper, we describe and discuss the design and...

  14. Saliency-aware food image segmentation for personal dietary assessment using a wearable computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Image-based dietary assessment has recently received much attention in the community of obesity research. In this assessment, foods in digital pictures are specified, and their portion sizes (volumes) are estimated. Although manual processing is currently the most utilized method, image processing holds much promise since it may eventually lead to automatic dietary assessment. In this paper we study the problem of segmenting food objects from images. This segmentation is difficult because of various food types, shapes and colors, different decorating patterns on food containers, and occlusions of food and non-food objects. We propose a novel method based on a saliency-aware active contour model (ACM) for automatic food segmentation from images acquired by a wearable camera. An integrated saliency estimation approach based on food location priors and visual attention features is designed to produce a salient map of possible food regions in the input image. Next, a geometric contour primitive is generated and fitted to the salient map by means of multi-resolution optimization with respect to a set of affine and elastic transformation parameters. The food regions are then extracted after contour fitting. Our experiments using 60 food images showed that the proposed method achieved significantly higher accuracy in food segmentation when compared to conventional segmentation methods. (paper)

  15. Saliency-aware food image segmentation for personal dietary assessment using a wearable computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Chen; Jia, Wenyan; Sun, Xin; Li, Zhaoxin; Li, Yuecheng; Fernstrom, John D.; Burke, Lora E.; Baranowski, Thomas; Sun, Mingui

    2015-02-01

    Image-based dietary assessment has recently received much attention in the community of obesity research. In this assessment, foods in digital pictures are specified, and their portion sizes (volumes) are estimated. Although manual processing is currently the most utilized method, image processing holds much promise since it may eventually lead to automatic dietary assessment. In this paper we study the problem of segmenting food objects from images. This segmentation is difficult because of various food types, shapes and colors, different decorating patterns on food containers, and occlusions of food and non-food objects. We propose a novel method based on a saliency-aware active contour model (ACM) for automatic food segmentation from images acquired by a wearable camera. An integrated saliency estimation approach based on food location priors and visual attention features is designed to produce a salient map of possible food regions in the input image. Next, a geometric contour primitive is generated and fitted to the salient map by means of multi-resolution optimization with respect to a set of affine and elastic transformation parameters. The food regions are then extracted after contour fitting. Our experiments using 60 food images showed that the proposed method achieved significantly higher accuracy in food segmentation when compared to conventional segmentation methods.

  16. 血液透析患者膳食营养素摄入状况调查%Investigation of Dietary Nutrients Intake in Nemodialysis Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑霞

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解血液透析患者的膳食情况,并对其食物构成、营养素含量进行分析,以指导合理膳食,改善营养状况,更好地配合临床治疗。方法:采用膳食记录和24h回顾法对患者进行连续3d的饮食调查,根据2004、21309年版《中国食物成分表》计算出每日营养素的摄入量,与中国居民膳食营养素参考摄入量进行比较评价。结果:大部分血液透析患者膳食中谷类、蛋类摄入偏低,肉、奶、蔬莱、水果摄入不足。食物组成中以米、面、谷类摄入为主,杂粮摄入较少;肉食品以猪肉为主,海产品及蛋类、奶类摄入较少。营养素摄入中能量和蛋白质的摄入水平偏低;钠过量;钙、镁、磷等宏量元素和锌、铁、铜、硒、锰等微量元素摄入不足;维生素B,、维生素B,、维生素c等均未达到RNI要求。结论:我院血液透析患者膳食摄入普遍不足,膳食结构不合理,应根据个体情况进行调整。%[Objective] To understand the diet of hematodialysis patients and analyze the compositions of food and contents of nutrient to guide patients' rational diet, improve their nutritional status, and make them match clinical trenment preferablely. [Method] Use the diet records and 24h diet review to make a 3d diet investigation on the basis of Zhong Guo Shi Wu Cheng Fen Biao published in 2004 and 2009 to compute the everyday nutrient intake of hematodialysis patients and compare it with Food Nutriment Intake of Chinese Resident. [Result] Intake of grain, eggs , meat, milk, vegetables, fruits of most of hemodialysis patients was inadequate. Rice and grain was their main food, and the intake of food grain other than wheat and rice was less. They took pork as their main animal food but ate less marine product, eggs and milk. Energy, protein, macroelement (Ca, Mg, P, ect) and microelement (Zn, Fe, Cu, Se, Mn, ect) was insufficient in their nutrient

  17. Harmonisation of food categorisation systems for dietary exposure assessments among European children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Neve, Melissa; Sioen, Isabelle; Boon, Polly;

    2010-01-01

    Within the European project called EXPOCHI (Individual Food Consumption Data and Exposure Assessment Studies for Children), 14 different European individual food consumption databases of children were used to conduct harmonised dietary exposure assessments for lead, chromium, selenium and food...... colours. For this, two food categorisation systems were developed to classify the food consumption data in such a way that these could be linked to occurrence data of the considered compounds. One system served for the exposure calculations of lead, chromium and selenium. The second system was developed...... for the exposure assessment of food colours. The food categories defined for the lead, chromium and selenium exposure calculations were used as a basis for the food colour categorisation, with adaptations to optimise the linkage with the food colour occurrence data. With this work, an initial impetus...

  18. 32P assessed phosphate uptake by tomato plants Hebros in relation to soil nutrient substance supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake of phosphates by tomato plants, cv.Hebros, was assessed by 32P in a vegetation pot experiment. Leached meadow-cinnamon soil was used, taken from a stationary field experiment to which, for a period of eight years, various rates of NPK were applied. As a result of that significant changes occurred in the soil nutrient substance supplies (concerning total and mobile forms of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, pH and salts concentration). It was established that the coefficient of phasphate utilization by tomato plants was the highest (19.15%) on soil receiving a N210P210K210 fertilizer application. Long-term fertilization with higher rates at a 1:1:1 NPK ratio increased the content of nutrient substances in the soil, but the coefficient of utilization of available phosphate diminished and was lowest (11.40%) in the case when a N960P960K720 mineral fertilizer rate was applied. Following prolonged mineral fertilization with growing N rates (from 240 up to 720 kg/ha) at a background of P720K210, the coefficient of phosphate utilization by tomato plants also diminished from 16.16 to 12.26%. (author)

  19. Do Overweight Adolescents Adhere to Dietary Intervention Messages? Twelve-Month Detailed Dietary Outcomes from Curtin University’s Activity, Food and Attitudes Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyla L. Smith

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary components of adolescent obesity interventions are rarely evaluated with comprehensive reporting of dietary change. The objective was to assess dietary change in overweight adolescents, including adherence to dietary intervention. The dietary intervention was part of a multi-component intervention (CAFAP targeting the physical activity, sedentary and healthy eating behaviors of overweight adolescents (n = 69. CAFAP was a staggered entry, within-subject, waitlist controlled clinical trial with 12 months of follow up. Diet was assessed using three-day food records and a brief eating behavior questionnaire. Changes in dietary outcomes were assessed using linear mixed models, adjusted for underreporting. Food record data suggested reduced adherence to dietary intervention messages over time following the intervention, despite conflicting information from the brief eating behavior questionnaire. During the intervention, energy intake was stable but favorable nutrient changes occurred. During the 12 month maintenance period; self-reported eating behaviors improved, energy intake remained stable but dietary fat and saturated fat intake gradually returned to baseline levels. Discrepancies between outcomes from brief dietary assessment methods and three-day food records show differences between perceived and actual intake, highlighting the need for detailed dietary reporting. Further, adherence to dietary intervention principles reduces over time, indicating a need for better maintenance support.

  20. Review: Assessing potential dietary toxicity of heavy metals in selected vegetables and food crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ISLAM Ejaz ul; YANG Xiao-e; HE Zhen-li; MAHMOOD Qaisar

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metals, such as cadmium, copper, lead, chromium and mercury, are important environmental pollutants,particularly in areas with high anthropogenic pressure. Their presence in the atmosphere, soil and water, even in traces can cause serious problems to all organisms, and heavy metal bioaccumulation in the food chain especially can be highly dangerous to human health. Heavy metals enter the human body mainly through two routes namely: inhalation and ingestion, ingestion being the main route of exposure to these elements in human population. Heavy metals intake by human populations through food chain has been reported in many countries. Soil threshold for heavy metal toxicity is an important factor affecting soil environmental capacity of heavy metal and determines heavy metal cumulative loading limits. For soil-plant system, heavy metal toxicity threshold is the highest permissible content in the soil (total or bioavailable concentration) that does not pose any phytotoxic effects or heavy metals in the edible parts of the crops does not exceed food hygiene standards. Factors affecting the thresholds of dietary toxicity of heavy metal in soil-crop system include: soil type which includes soil pH, organic matter content, clay mineral and other soil chemical and biochemical properties; and crop species or cultivars regulated by genetic basis for heavy metal transport and accumulation in plants. In addition, the interactions of soil-plant root-microbes play important roles in regulating heavy metal movement from soil to the edible parts of crops. Agronomic practices such as fertilizer and water managements as well as crop rotation system can affect bioavailability and crop accumulation of heavy metals, thus influencing the thresholds for assessing dietary toxicity of heavy metals in the food chain. This paper reviews the phytotoxic effects and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in vegetables and food crops and assesses soil heavy metal thresholds for potential dietary

  1. Effects of dietary addition of cellulase and a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product on nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and enteric methane emissions in growing goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qi; Wu, Jian; Wang, Min; Zhou, Chuanshe; Han, Xuefeng; Odongo, Edwin Nicholas; Tan, Zhiliang; Tang, Shaoxun

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of dietary cellulase (243 U/g, derived from Neocallimastix patriciarum) and a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (yeast product) on ruminal fermentation characteristics, enteric methane (CH4) emissions and methanogenic community in growing goats. The experiment was conducted in a 5 × 5 Latin square design using five Xiangdong black wether goats. The treatments included a Control and two levels of cellulase (0.8 g and 1.6 g/kg dry matter intake (DMI), i.e. 194 U/kg and 389 U/kg DMI, respectively) crossed over with two levels (6 g or 12 g/kg DMI) of the yeast product. There were no significant differences regarding feed intake, apparent digestibility of organic matter, neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre among all the treatments. In comparison with the Control, the ruminal ammonia N concentration was decreased (p = 0.001) by cellulase and yeast product addition. The activities of carboxymethylcellulase and xylanase were decreased after cellulase addition. Moreover, dietary cellulase and yeast product addition led to a significant reduction (p < 0.05) of enteric CH4 emissions although the diversity and copy numbers of methanogens among treatments were not dissimilar. The present results indicate that the combination of cellulase and yeast fermentation product can reduce the production of CH4 energy and mitigate the enteric CH4 emissions to a certain degree. PMID:27032031

  2. Dietary Fibre and Prebiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Bellei G; Haslberger A

    2012-01-01

    Dietary fibre intake is associated with a myriad of health benefits. Among others, their fermentation by the microbiota results in the formation of short chain fatty acids, which protect against pathogenic bacteria. Together with dietary fibres, prebiotics are colonic nutrients but prebiotics are degraded and utilized only by beneficial bacteria, namely bifidobacteria and/or lactobacilli. (S. Macfarlane, 2010)

  3. A nutritional-toxicological assessment of Antarctic krill oil versus fish oil dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson Nash, Susan M; Schlabach, Martin; Nichols, Peter D

    2014-09-01

    Fish oil dietary supplements and complementary medicines are pitched to play a role of increasing strategic importance in meeting daily requirements of essential nutrients, such as long-chain (≥ C20, LC) omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D. Recently a new product category, derived from Antarctic krill, has been launched on the omega-3 nutriceutical market. Antarctic krill oil is marketed as demonstrating a greater ease of absorption due to higher phospholipid content, as being sourced through sustainable fisheries and being free of toxins and pollutants; however, limited data is available on the latter component. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP) encompass a range of toxic, man-made contaminants that accumulate preferentially in marine ecosystems and in the lipid reserves of organisms. Extraction and concentration of fish oils therefore represents an inherent nutritional-toxicological conflict. This study aimed to provide the first quantitative comparison of the nutritional (EPA and DHA) versus the toxicological profiles of Antarctic krill oil products, relative to various fish oil categories available on the Australian market. Krill oil products were found to adhere closely to EPA and DHA manufacturer specifications and overall were ranked as containing intermediate levels of POP contaminants when compared to the other products analysed. Monitoring of the pollutant content of fish and krill oil products will become increasingly important with expanding regulatory specifications for chemical thresholds. PMID:25170991

  4. A Nutritional-Toxicological Assessment of Antarctic Krill Oil versus Fish Oil Dietary Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Bengtson Nash

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil dietary supplements and complementary medicines are pitched to play a role of increasing strategic importance in meeting daily requirements of essential nutrients, such as long-chain (≥C20, LC omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D. Recently a new product category, derived from Antarctic krill, has been launched on the omega-3 nutriceutical market. Antarctic krill oil is marketed as demonstrating a greater ease of absorption due to higher phospholipid content, as being sourced through sustainable fisheries and being free of toxins and pollutants; however, limited data is available on the latter component. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP encompass a range of toxic, man-made contaminants that accumulate preferentially in marine ecosystems and in the lipid reserves of organisms. Extraction and concentration of fish oils therefore represents an inherent nutritional-toxicological conflict. This study aimed to provide the first quantitative comparison of the nutritional (EPA and DHA versus the toxicological profiles of Antarctic krill oil products, relative to various fish oil categories available on the Australian market. Krill oil products were found to adhere closely to EPA and DHA manufacturer specifications and overall were ranked as containing intermediate levels of POP contaminants when compared to the other products analysed. Monitoring of the pollutant content of fish and krill oil products will become increasingly important with expanding regulatory specifications for chemical thresholds.

  5. Evaluating the relationship between plasma and skin carotenoids and reported dietary intake in elementary school children to assess fruit and vegetable intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate assessment of dietary intake of children can be challenging due to the limited reliability of current dietary assessment methods in children. While plasma carotenoid concentrations has been used to assess fruit and vegetable intake, this testing is rarely conducted in school settings in chi...

  6. Probabilistic assessment of the cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to endocrine disrupting pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christiansen, Sofie; Boberg, Julie; Axelstad, Marta; Herrmann, Susan S; Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Hass, Ulla

    2013-05-01

    The four pesticides epoxiconazole, prochloraz, procymidone and tebuconazole, are commonly used pesticides, all suspected of acting as endocrine disrupters. In the present study, we assessed the acute cumulative dietary exposure to the women of child bearing age and the general population of Denmark to these pesticides from the intake of fruit and vegetables. The assessment was carried out using the probabilistic approach combined with the relative potency factor (RPF) approach. Residue data for prochloraz, procymidone, and tebuconazole were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme 2006-2009, while residue data for epoxiconazole were obtained from the Swedish monitoring programme carried out in the period 2007-2009. Food consumption data were obtained from the Danish nationwide dietary survey conducted in 2000-2002. Relative potency factors for the four pesticides were obtained from rat studies. Prochloraz was used as the index compound. All four pesticides increased nipple retention in male offspring, and epoxiconazole, prochloraz, and tebuconazole also increased the gestation period in pregnant rat dams. For women of childbearing age, the high-end cumulative exposure (99.9th percentile) was calculated to 9% of the Adjusted Reference Value (ARV) for the effect on nipple retention and to 1% of the ARV for the effect on increased gestation period. PMID:23333574

  7. Assessing infant exposure to persistent organic pollutants via dietary intake in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toms, Leisa-Maree Leontjew; Hearn, Laurence; Mueller, Jochen F; Harden, Fiona A

    2016-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs); organochlorine pesticides (OCPs); and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) persist in the environment, bioaccumulate, and pose a risk of causing adverse human health effects. Typically, exposure assessments undertaken by modeling existing intake data underestimate the concentrations of these chemicals in infants. This study aimed to determine concentrations of POPs in infant foods, assess exposure via dietary intake and compare this to historical exposure. Fruit purees, meat and vegetables, dairy desserts, cereals and jelly foods (n = 33) purchased in 2013 in Brisbane, Australia were analyzed. For OCPs and PCBs, concentrations ranged up to 95 pg/g fw and for PBDEs up to 32 pg/g fw with most analytes below the limit of detection. Daily intake is dependent on type and quantity of foods consumed. Consumption of a 140 g meal would result in intake ranging from 0 to 4.2 ng/day, 4.4 ng/day and 13.3 ng/day, for OCPs, PBDEs and PCBs, respectively. PBDEs were detected in 3/33 samples, OCPs in 9/33 samples and PCBs in 13/33 samples. Results from this study indicate exposure for infants via dietary (in contrast to dust and breast milk) intake in Australia contribute only a minor component to total exposure. PMID:26710981

  8. Statement on a refined dietary exposure assessment of erythritol (E 968 taking into account additional data provided

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Following a request by the European Commission, the Scientific Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Foods (ANS carried out an assessment of the dietary exposure to erythritol and concluded on the safety of the proposed use in beverages at a maximum use level of 2.5 %, taking into account additional exposure data provided to the Panel. Anticipated exposure to erythritol from its use as food additive including soft-drinks containing a mean concentration of 2.5 % erythritol would be in the range of 0.004-0.04 g/kg bw/day for toddlers, 0-0.05 g/kg bw/day for children, 0-0.08 g/kg bw/day for adolescents, 0-0.14 g/kg bw/day for adults, and 0-0.01 g/kg bw/day for the elderly. At high level, exposure estimates would be in the range of 0.29-0.48 g/kg bw/day (toddlers, 0.13-0.76 g/kg bw/day (children, 0.04-0.50 g/kg bw/day (adolescents, 0.05-0.43 g/kg bw/day (adults, and 0.01-0.25 g/kg bw/day (the elderly. The main categories contributing to the exposure to erythritol were table-top sweeteners and soft drinks for all age groups except toddlers where soft drinks were the only main contributor. The Panel concluded that based on the new data provided on use levels of erythritol in foods and on the basis of the extension of the authorisation for the use of erythritol to soft drinks at a use level of 2.5 % the Margin of Safety of 1.54 is too low to protect children adequately.

  9. Development and Pilot Testing of 24-Hour Multiple-Pass Recall to Assess Dietary Intake of Toddlers of Somali- and Iraqi-Born Mothers Living in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navnit Kaur Grewal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop, test, and evaluate a 24-h recall procedure to assess the dietary intake of toddlers of Somali- and Iraqi-born mothers living in Norway. A protocol for a 24-h multiple-pass recall procedure, registration forms, and visual tools (a picture library for food identification and portion size estimation was developed and tested in 12 mothers from Somalia and Iraq with children aged 10–21 months. Five female field workers were recruited and trained to conduct the interviews. Evaluation data for the 24-h recall procedure were collected from both the mothers and the field workers. Nutrient intake was calculated using a Norwegian dietary calculation system. Each child’s estimated energy intake was compared with its estimated energy requirement. Both the mothers and the field workers found the method feasible and the visual tools useful. The estimated energy intake corresponded well with the estimated energy requirement for most of the children (within mean ± 2 SD, except for three. The pilot study identified the need for additional foods in the picture library and some crucial aspects in training and supervising the field workers to reduce sources of error in the data collection.

  10. Nutritional adequacy of dietary intake in women with anorexia nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients is essential for the establishment of dietary treatment. Design: Women, aged 19 to 30 years, with both restricting and binge purge types of AN, participating in an ecological momentary assessment study, completed three nonc...

  11. Probabilistic assessment of the cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to endocrine disrupting pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christiansen, Sofie; Boberg, Julie; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Herrmann, Susan Strange; Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Hass, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    The four pesticides epoxiconazole, prochloraz, procymidone and tebuconazole, are commonly used pesticides, all suspected of acting as endocrine disrupters. In the present study, we assessed the acute cumulative dietary exposure to the women of child bearing age and the general population of Denmark...... studies. Prochloraz was used as the index compound. All four pesticides increased nipple retention in male offspring, and epoxiconazole, prochloraz, and tebuconazole also increased the gestation period in pregnant rat dams. For women of childbearing age, the high-end cumulative exposure (99.9th percentile...... to these pesticides from the intake of fruit and vegetables. The assessment was carried out using the probabilistic approach combined with the relative potency factor (RPF) approach. Residue data for prochloraz, procymidone, and tebuconazole were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme 2006...

  12. Saturated fat supplementation interacts with dietary forage neutral detergent fiber content during the immediate postpartum and carryover periods in Holstein cows: Production responses and digestibility of nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantoni, P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S

    2015-05-01

    Forty-eight multiparous cows were used in a randomized complete block design experiment with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine the interaction between a highly saturated free FA supplement (SFFA) and dietary forage neutral detergent fiber (fNDF) content on production responses and nutrient digestibility of dairy cows in the postpartum period. Treatment diets were offered from 1 to 29d postpartum (postpartum period; PP) and contained 20 or 26% fNDF (50:50 corn silage:alfalfa silage and hay, dry matter basis) and 0 or 2% SFFA [Energy Booster 100 (Milk Specialties Global, Eden Prairie, MN); 96.1% FA: 46.2% C18:0 and 37.0% C16:0]. From 30 to 71d postpartum (carryover period), a common diet (~23% fNDF, 0% SFFA) was offered to all cows to evaluate carryover effects of the treatment diets early in lactation. During the PP, higher fNDF decreased dry matter intake (DMI) by 2.0 kg/d, whereas SFFA supplementation increased it by 1.4kg/d. In addition, high fNDF with 0% SFFA decreased DMI compared with the other diets and this difference increased throughout the PP. Treatments did not affect 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield during the PP but did during the carryover period when SFFA supplementation decreased 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield for the low-fNDF diet (51.1 vs. 58.7kg/d), but not for the high-fNDF diet (58.5 vs. 58.0kg/d). During the PP, lower fNDF and SFFA supplementation decreased body condition score loss. A tendency for an interaction between fNDF and SFFA indicated that low fNDF with 2% SFFA decreased body condition score loss compared with the other diets (-0.49 vs. -0.89). During the PP, lower fNDF and 2% SFFA supplementation decreased feed efficiency (3.5% fat-corrected milk/DMI) by 0.30 and 0.23 units, respectively. The low-fNDF diet with 2% SFFA decreased feed efficiency compared with other diets early in the PP, but this difference decreased over time. Supplementation of SFFA in the PP favored energy partitioning to body reserves and

  13. Assessing dietary exposure to cadmium in a metal recycling community in Vietnam: Age and gender aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study estimates the dietary exposure to cadmium (Cd), and associated potential health risks, for individuals living and working in a metal recycling community (n = 132) in Vietnam in comparison to an agricultural (reference) community (n = 130). Individual-level exposure to Cd was estimated through analysis of staple foodstuffs combined with information from a food frequency questionnaire. Individual-level exposure estimates were compared with published ‘safe’ doses to derive a Hazard Quotient (HQ) for each member of the study population. Looking at the populations as a whole, there were no significant differences in the diets of the two villages. However, significantly more rice was consumed by working age adults (18–60 years) in the recycling village compared to the reference village (p 3), while 20% of adult participants from the reference village had an HQ > 1. We found an elevated health risk from dietary exposure to Cd in the metal recycling village compared to the reference community. WHO standard of 0.4 mg Cd/kg rice may not be protective where people consume large amounts of rice/have relatively low body weight. - Highlights: ► First individual-level risk assessment of cadmium in recycling villages of Vietnam. ► Dietary analysis undertaken for a recycling community and an agricultural community. ► No significant differences were found between the diets of the two populations. ► 87% of people in the recycling community had elevated health risk. ► WHO standard (0.4 mg Cd/kg rice) may not be protective for rice-based cultures.

  14. No association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms among a community-dwelling population in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara Norio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of the associations between diet and depression have primarily focused on single nutrients or foods. Recently, dietary patterns representing a combination of foods have attracted more interest than individual nutrient. The objective of this study was to examine the association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms among a community-dwelling population in Japan. Methods We examined the association between dietary patterns and the risk of depression among 791 Japanese community-dwelling individuals. Diet was assessed with a validated brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ. Dietary patterns from 52 predefined food groups [energy-adjusted food (g/d] were extracted by principal component analysis. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D with a cut-off point of 16 was used to assess the prevalence of depression. Results A total of 97 subjects (12.3% were classified as having depression. Four dietary patterns were identified: “Healthy”, “Western”, “Bread and confectionery”, and “Alcohol and accompanying” dietary patterns. After adjusting for potential confounders, the dietary patterns were not related to the risk of depression. Conclusions The present study failed to find associations between dietary patterns and the risk of depression. However, the interpretation of our results was hampered by the lack of certain data, including employment physical activity and longitudinal observations. Potential associations between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms were not completely ruled out. Future research exploring dietary patterns and depressive symptoms is warranted.

  15. Dietary Intake, Body Mass Index, Exercise, and Alcohol: Are College Women Following the Dietary Guidelines for Americans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anding, Jenna D.; Suminski, Richard R.; Boss, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed the diet, exercise, and health habits of female college students, calculating body mass index, assessing physical activity, and estimating food and nutrient intake. Overall, no participants had adopted all of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Diets were nutritionally adequate but exceeded national recommendations for fat, sugar, and…

  16. First release of the Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database: Nutrient estimates and methodology for 18 vitamins and minerals in adult multivitamin/minerals (MVMs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) is a federal initiative to provide analytical validation of ingredients in dietary supplements. The first release on vitamins and minerals in adult MVMs is now available. Multiple lots of >100 representative adult MVMs were chemically analyzed for ...

  17. Application of the SPARROW model to assess surface-water nutrient conditions and sources in the United States Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Daniel R.; Johnson, Henry M.

    2013-01-01

    The watershed model SPARROW (Spatially Referenced Regressions on Watershed attributes) was used to estimate mean annual surface-water nutrient conditions (total nitrogen and total phosphorus) and to identify important nutrient sources in catchments of the Pacific Northwest region of the United States for 2002. Model-estimated nutrient yields were generally higher in catchments on the wetter, western side of the Cascade Range than in catchments on the drier, eastern side. The largest source of locally generated total nitrogen stream load in most catchments was runoff from forestland, whereas the largest source of locally generated total phosphorus stream load in most catchments was either geologic material or livestock manure (primarily from grazing livestock). However, the highest total nitrogen and total phosphorus yields were predicted in the relatively small number of catchments where urban sources were the largest contributor to local stream load. Two examples are presented that show how SPARROW results can be applied to large rivers—the relative contribution of different nutrient sources to the total nitrogen load in the Willamette River and the total phosphorus load in the Snake River. The results from this study provided an understanding of the regional patterns in surface-water nutrient conditions and should be useful to researchers and water-quality managers performing local nutrient assessments.

  18. Assessment of changes in potential nutrient limitation in an impounded river after application of lanthanum-modified bentonite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Grant B; Lurling, Miquel; Spears, Bryan M

    2016-06-15

    With the advent of phosphorus (P)-adsorbent materials and techniques to address eutrophication in aquatic systems, there is a need to develop interpretive techniques to rapidly assess changes in potential nutrient limitation. In a trial application of the P-adsorbent, lanthanum-modified bentonite (LMB) to an impounded section of the Canning River, Western Australia, a combination of potential P, nitrogen (N) and silicon (Si) nutrient limitation diagrams based on dissolved molar nutrient ratios and actual dissolved nutrient concentrations have been used to interpret trial outcomes. Application of LMB resulted in rapid and effective removal of filterable reactive P (FRP) from the water column and also effectively intercepted FRP released from bottom sediments until the advent of a major unseasonal flood event. A shift from potential N-limitation to potential P-limitation also occurred in surface waters. In the absence of other factors, the reduction in FRP was likely to be sufficient to induce actual nutrient limitation of phytoplankton growth. The outcomes of this experiment underpins the concept that, where possible in the short-term, in managing eutrophication the focus should not be on the limiting nutrient under eutrophic conditions (here N), but the one that can be made limiting most rapidly and cost-effectively (P). PMID:26879191

  19. A prospective assessment of dietary patterns in Muslim subjects with type 2 diabetes who undertake fasting during Ramadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil K Vasan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim was to assess the dietary pattern during Ramadan season among type 2 diabetic Muslim subjects who underwent fasting and intensive dietary counseling. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among 70 Muslim subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus who undertook fasting during Ramadan and was part of a randomized control trial using pioglitazone published previously. All subjects were subjected to a dietary assessment and counseling at three stages, i.e., initiation of the study, mid-Ramadan and post-Ramadan, by a trained dietician. Dietary assessment was done by the 24-hour dietary recall method and the food frequency questionnaire. Diabetic diet sheets were dispensed to subjects based on their body mass index (BMI, daily activity, and needs. Results: The mean caloric intake between pre-Ramadan (before fasting and mid-Ramadan (15 days after fasting were 1506.80 kcal and 1614.29 (P = 0.001 respectively. The distribution of active components pre and during Ramadan were: carbohydrates (g 260.76 and 265.35 g (P = 0.001, proteins (g 43.64 and 46.19 (P = 0.001 and fat (g was 32.88 and 44.16 (P = 0.0001 respectively. The percentage of energy from dietary carbohydrate prior to fasting (64.11 ± 6.73 and during fasting (68.41 ± 4.41 remained almost unchanged but statistically significant when compared at different intervals before and during fasting. Fat intake increased significantly during fasting (P = < 0.001. Conclusions: The dietary composition in a type 2 diabetic Muslim population who undertook fasting during Ramadan showed a mean increase in consumption of all components of diet during the period of fasting. Nutritional compliance during such a time seems to be difficult and warrants repeated counseling and regular follow-up to achieve targets.

  20. Assessment of wool waste and hair waste as soil amendment and nutrient source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D

    2005-01-01

    A field and two container experiments were conducted to assess uncomposted wool and hair wastes as a nutrient source for crops and to evaluate their potential to improve soil biological and chemical properties. Overall, addition of wool or hair waste to soil increased yields of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. 'Trakia'), thorn apple (Datura innoxia Mill. 'Inka'), peppermint (Mentha x piperita L. 'Black Mitchum'), and garden sage (Salvia officinalis L. 'Desislava'), increased NH(4)-N and NO(3)-N in soil, increased total N (and protein) content in plant tissue, stimulated soil microbial biomass, and decreased mycorrhizae colonization of plant roots of thorn apple but not in basil. Wool and hair waste additions to soil altered slightly the content and composition of plant secondary metabolites (essential oils or alkaloids); however, overall the constituents remained within the "typical" range for the respective crops. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis demonstrated that wool and hair wastes decompose slowly under field or greenhouse conditions, and act as a slow release S, N, P, and K fertilizer. These results, along with the measured concentrations of NO(3)-N in soil at harvest, suggest that the addition of wool or hair waste of only 3.3 g kg(-1) of soil may support two to five harvests or crops under greenhouse conditions and two to four field seasons in field production systems, and would improve soil biological and chemical characteristics. Further research is needed to optimize the rate of application of these waste materials to the nutrient requirements of specific crops to avoid nitrate leaching into the ground water. In addition, the effect of wool and hair waste on other environmental end points should also be further investigated before specific recommendations for growers are provided. PMID:16275732

  1. An assessment of dietary exposure to glyphosate using refined deterministic and probabilistic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, C L; Harris, C A

    2016-09-01

    Glyphosate is a herbicide used to control broad-leaved weeds. Some uses of glyphosate in crop production can lead to residues of the active substance and related metabolites in food. This paper uses data on residue levels, processing information and consumption patterns, to assess theoretical lifetime dietary exposure to glyphosate. Initial estimates were made assuming exposure to the highest permitted residue levels in foods. These intakes were then refined using median residue levels from trials, processing information, and monitoring data to achieve a more realistic estimate of exposure. Estimates were made using deterministic and probabilistic methods. Exposures were compared to the acceptable daily intake (ADI)-the amount of a substance that can be consumed daily without an appreciable health risk. Refined deterministic intakes for all consumers were at or below 2.1% of the ADI. Variations were due to cultural differences in consumption patterns and the level of aggregation of the dietary information in calculation models, which allows refinements for processing. Probabilistic exposure estimates ranged from 0.03% to 0.90% of the ADI, depending on whether optimistic or pessimistic assumptions were made in the calculations. Additional refinements would be possible if further data on processing and from residues monitoring programmes were available. PMID:27371367

  2. Developing a web-based dietary sodium screening tool for personalized assessment and feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcand, JoAnne; Abdulaziz, Kasim; Bennett, Carol; L’Abbé, Mary R.; Manuel, Douglas G.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary sodium reduction is commonly used in the treatment of hypertension, heart and liver failure, and chronic kidney disease. Sodium reduction is also an important public health problem since most of the Canadian population consumes sodium in excess of their daily requirements. Lack of awareness about the amount of sodium consumed and the sources of sodium in diet is common, and undoubtedly a major contributor to excess sodium consumption. There are few known tools available to screen and provide personalized information about sodium in the diet. Therefore, we developed a web-based sodium intake screening tool called the Salt Calculator (www.projectbiglife.ca), which is publicly available for individuals to assess the amount and sources of sodium in their diet. The Calculator contains 23 questions focusing on restaurant foods, packaged foods, and added salt. Questions were developed using sodium consumption data from the Canadian Community Health Survey cycle 2.2 and up-to-date information on sodium levels in packaged and restaurant food databases from the University of Toronto. The Calculator translates existing knowledge about dietary sodium into a tool that can be accessed by the public as well as integrated into clinical practice to address the high levels of sodium presently in the Canadian diet. PMID:24552393

  3. The feasibility and utility of grocery receipt analyses for dietary assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Yan

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To establish the feasibility and utility of a simple data collection methodology for dietary assessment. Design Using a cross-sectional design, trained data collectors approached adults (~20 – 40 years of age at local grocery stores and asked whether they would volunteer their grocery receipts and answer a few questions for a small stipend ($1. Methods The grocery data were divided into 3 categories: "fats, oils, and sweets," "processed foods," and "low-fat/low-calorie substitutions" as a percentage of the total food purchase price. The questions assessed the shopper's general eating habits (eg, fast-food consumption and a few demographic characteristics and health aspects (eg, perception of body size. Statistical Analyses Performed. Descriptive and analytic analyses using non-parametric tests were conducted in SAS. Results Forty-eight receipts and questionnaires were collected. Nearly every respondent reported eating fast food at least once per month; 27% ate out once or twice a day. Frequency of fast-food consumption was positively related to perceived body size of the respondent (p = 0.02. Overall, 30% of the food purchase price was for fats, oils, sweets, 10% was for processed foods, and almost 6% was for low-fat/low-calorie substitutions. Households where no one was perceived to be overweight spent a smaller proportion of their food budget on fats, oils, and sweets than did households where at least one person was perceived to be overweight (p = 0.10; household where the spouse was not perceived to be overweight spent less on fats, oils, and sweets (p = 0.02 and more on low-fat/low-calorie substitutions (p = 0.09 than did households where the spouse was perceived to be overweight; and, respondents who perceived themselves to be overweight spent more on processed foods than did respondents who did not perceive themselves to be overweight (p = 0.06. Conclusion This simple dietary assessment method, although global in

  4. Integrated assessment of agricultural land use policies on nutrient pollution and sustainable development in Taihu Basin, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, P.; Feng, S.; Loon, van M.; Luo, X.; Kang, C.; Lubbers, M.T.M.H.; Kanellopoulos, A.; Wolf, J.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Qu, F.

    2012-01-01

    Water pollution in Chinese lakes is a major problem. To reduce nutrient pollution and enhance sustainable development in Taihu Basin, China, an integrated assessment of the impacts of agricultural land use policies has been performed, using the technical coefficient generator TechnoGIN and the bio-e

  5. Assessing nutrient cycling in the soil/plant/animal system of semi-arid pasture lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotopic labelling is helpful in understanding the fate of nutrient fertilizers and determining the chemical and biochemical mechanisms that affect nutrient cycling through the soil/plant/animal system. Use of isotopic P and S in grassland systems is briefly discussed. Plant growth is discussed in response to nutrient levels in soil extracts and plant tissue. Optimizing plant growth will generally ensure high yields of quality forage that will result in good animal performance. (author)

  6. Dietary boron, brain function, and cognitive performance.

    OpenAIRE

    Penland, J G

    1994-01-01

    Although the trace element boron has yet to be recognized as an essential nutrient for humans, recent data from animal and human studies suggest that boron may be important for mineral metabolism and membrane function. To investigate further the functional role of boron, brain electrophysiology and cognitive performance were assessed in response to dietary manipulation of boron (approximately 0.25 versus approximately 3.25 mg boron/2000 kcal/day) in three studies with healthy older men and wo...

  7. Risk-benefit evaluation of fish from Chinese markets: Nutrients and contaminants in 24 fish species from five big cities and related assessment for human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Zhen-Yu, E-mail: zdu@nifes.no [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Zhang, Jian [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, 100050 (China); Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen (Norway); Wang, Chunrong; Li, Lixiang; Man, Qingqing [Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, 100050 (China); Lundebye, Anne-Katrine; Froyland, Livar [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), N-5817 Bergen (Norway)

    2012-02-01

    The risks and benefits of fish from markets in Chinese cities have not previously been fully evaluated. In the present study, 24 common fish species with more than 400 individual samples were collected from markets from five big Chinese cities in 2007. The main nutrients and contaminants were measured and the risk-benefit was evaluated based on recommended nutrient intakes and risk level criteria set by relevant authorities. The comprehensive effects of nutrients and contaminants in marine oily fish were also evaluated using the data of two related human dietary intervention trials performed in dyslipidemic Chinese men and women in 2008 and 2010, respectively. The results showed that concentrations of contaminants analyzed including DDT, PCB{sub 7}, arsenic and cadmium were much lower than their corresponding maximum limits with the exception of the mercury concentration in common carp. Concentrations of POPs and n-3 LCPUFA, mainly EPA and DHA, were positively associated with the lipid content of the fish. With a daily intake of 80-100 g marine oily fish, the persistent organic pollutants in fish would not counteract the beneficial effects of n-3 LCPUFA in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers. Marine oily fish provided more effective protection against CVD than lean fish, particularly for the dyslipidemic populations. The risk-benefit assessment based on the present daily aquatic product intake in Chinese urban residents (44.9 and 62.3 g for the average values for all cities and big cities, respectively) indicated that fish, particularly marine oily fish, can be regularly consumed to achieve optimal nutritional benefits from n-3 LCPUFA, without causing significant contaminant-related health risks. However, the potential health threat from contaminants in fish should still be emphasized for the populations consuming large quantities of fish, particularly wild fish. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We collected 24 fish species with more than

  8. Risk–benefit evaluation of fish from Chinese markets: Nutrients and contaminants in 24 fish species from five big cities and related assessment for human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risks and benefits of fish from markets in Chinese cities have not previously been fully evaluated. In the present study, 24 common fish species with more than 400 individual samples were collected from markets from five big Chinese cities in 2007. The main nutrients and contaminants were measured and the risk–benefit was evaluated based on recommended nutrient intakes and risk level criteria set by relevant authorities. The comprehensive effects of nutrients and contaminants in marine oily fish were also evaluated using the data of two related human dietary intervention trials performed in dyslipidemic Chinese men and women in 2008 and 2010, respectively. The results showed that concentrations of contaminants analyzed including DDT, PCB7, arsenic and cadmium were much lower than their corresponding maximum limits with the exception of the mercury concentration in common carp. Concentrations of POPs and n-3 LCPUFA, mainly EPA and DHA, were positively associated with the lipid content of the fish. With a daily intake of 80–100 g marine oily fish, the persistent organic pollutants in fish would not counteract the beneficial effects of n-3 LCPUFA in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers. Marine oily fish provided more effective protection against CVD than lean fish, particularly for the dyslipidemic populations. The risk–benefit assessment based on the present daily aquatic product intake in Chinese urban residents (44.9 and 62.3 g for the average values for all cities and big cities, respectively) indicated that fish, particularly marine oily fish, can be regularly consumed to achieve optimal nutritional benefits from n-3 LCPUFA, without causing significant contaminant-related health risks. However, the potential health threat from contaminants in fish should still be emphasized for the populations consuming large quantities of fish, particularly wild fish. - Highlights: ► We collected 24 fish species with more than 400 individual samples

  9. Effect of dietary supplementation with a formulated nutrient mixture together with whey-based protein on immune response of young and old mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aging is associated with dysregulation of the immune response. Nutrient supplementation has been shown to help maintain a healthy immune system during aging. In this study we fed young (4-5 mo) and old (23-24 mo) C57BL/6 mice, a diet supplemented with a formulated nutrient mixture and whey proteins ...

  10. Dietary patterns in India: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rosemary; Milner, James; Joy, Edward J M; Agrawal, Sutapa; Dangour, Alan D

    2016-07-01

    Dietary patterns analysis is an emerging area of research. Identifying distinct patterns within a large dietary survey can give a more accurate representation of what people are eating. Furthermore, it allows researchers to analyse relationships between non-communicable diseases (NCD) and complete diets rather than individual food items or nutrients. However, few such studies have been conducted in developing countries including India, where the population has a high burden of diabetes and CVD. We undertook a systematic review of published and grey literature exploring dietary patterns and relationships with diet-related NCD in India. We identified eight studies, including eleven separate models of dietary patterns. Most dietary patterns were vegetarian with a predominance of fruit, vegetables and pulses, as well as cereals; dietary patterns based on high-fat, high-sugar foods and more meat were also identified. There was large variability between regions in dietary patterns, and there was some evidence of change in diets over time, although no evidence of different diets by sex or age was found. Consumers of high-fat dietary patterns were more likely to have greater BMI, and a dietary pattern high in sweets and snacks was associated with greater risk of diabetes compared with a traditional diet high in rice and pulses, but other relationships with NCD risk factors were less clear. This review shows that dietary pattern analyses can be highly valuable in assessing variability in national diets and diet-disease relationships. However, to date, most studies in India are limited by data and methodological shortcomings. PMID:27146890

  11. Use of hydroponics culture to assess nutrient supply by treated wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrover, M.; Moya, G.; Vadell, J.

    2009-07-01

    The use of treated wastewater for irrigation is increasing, especially in those areas where water resources are limited. Treated wastewaters contain nutrients that are useful for plant growth and help to reduce fertilizers needs. Nutrient content of these waters depends on the treatment system. (Author)

  12. Assessment of management-dependent nutrient losses in tropical industrial tree plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackensen, Jens; Klinge, Rudolf; Ruhiyat, Daddy; Fölster, Horst

    2003-03-01

    Industrial tree plantations in the tropics usually follow short rotations and intensive site management including slash and burn, and the use of heavy machinery. We attempt to quantify the implied nutrient losses (harvest export, erosion, slash and burn, leaching) in order to give plantation managers a chance to understand the significance of their planning and decisions. We used the scarce globally available information and a case study plantation in East Kalimantan, Indonesia (Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus deglupta). Adaptation involves problems and is discussed in some detail. Results are approximate only. Assuming a harvest volume of 200 m3 ha(-1), we assessed a loss of 427-680 kg ha(-1) N, 12-13 kg ha(-1) P, 178-252 kg ha(-1) Ca, 276-370 kg ha(-1) K, and 45-57 kg ha(-1) Mg per rotation. Of this overall loss, stand harvest accounted for 18-29% (N), 21-30% (P), 56-26% (K), 48-64% (Ca) and 22-37% (Mg). This means that the cumulative loss by erosion, slash and burn, and leaching exceeds that of the harvest. These losses can be influenced by management. PMID:12733794

  13. Assessment of macro and micro nutrients around brick kilns agricultural environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Halim Farhad Sikder

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Brick kiln is well known as one of the main sources of air pollution; however, the pollutants produced from it do not remain in the air, they ultimately fall down to the soil and pollute the surroundings, therefore, this study was carried out to assess the status of macro (N, P, K and S and micro nutrients (Fe, Mn and Zn, Cu in the agricultural environment near the brick kilns of Young Brahmaputra and Jamuna Floodplain soils. Composite soil and plant samples were collected from four distances such as 250 m, 500 m, 1000 m, and 1500 m in three different sites. Sulphur (2352–3378 mg kg−1, Zn (86–156 mg kg−1 and Cu (24.7–46.9 mg kg−1 are found in the elevated levels near brick kiln soils that is released due to burning of poor quality coal and fire woods. The alarming news is that plant uptake of S and micro nutrients in the nearest areas of the brick kilns are significantly higher than the areas far from the brick production and their concentration ranges from 23 mg kg−1 to 101 mg kg−1 for Zn, 10–41 mg kg−1 for Cu, 35–1309 mg kg−1 for Fe, 26–126 mg kg−1 for Mn and 2590–mg kg−1 for S. Data indicates both soil and plant received maximum amount of micronutrients and S concentrations within 500–1000 m distances from brick kilns. Iron and Mn concentrations vary within a permissible limit but the plant uptake is high. Nitrogen concentrations is increasing with the distance from the brick kilns in both soils and plants but no definite pattern of P and K accumulation was found. Research suggested avoiding agricultural practice nearby brick kiln soils due to micronutrient contamination in order to preserve adjoined agricultural environment.

  14. Assessment of the nutrient removal effectiveness of floating treatment wetlands applied to urban retention ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Yu; Sample, David J

    2014-05-01

    during the growth period. The temperature effects described by the modified Arrhenius equation revealed that pickerelweed is sensitive to temperature and provides considerable phosphorus removal when water temperature is greater than 25 °C. However, the nutrient removal effectiveness of this plant species may be negligible for water temperatures below 15 °C. The study also assessed potential effects of shading from the FTW mats on water temperature, DO, pH, and attached-to-substrate periphyton/vegetation. PMID:24594756

  15. A Dish-based Semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for assessment of dietary intakes in epidemiologic studies in Iran: Design and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Hassanzadeh Keshteli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Earlier forms of food frequency questionnaire (FFQ used in Iran have extensive lists of foods, traditional categories and food-based design, mostly with the interviewer-administered approach. The aim of the current paper is to describe the development of a dish-based, machine-readable, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (DFQ. Methods: Within the framework of the Study on the Epidemiology of Psychological, Alimentary Health and Nutrition project, we created a novel FFQ using Harvard FFQ as a model. Results: The following steps were taken to develop the questionnaire: Construction of a list of commonly consumed Iranian foods, definition of portion sizes, design of response options for consumption frequency of each food item and finally a pilot test of the preliminary DFQ. From a comprehensive list of foods and mixed dishes, we included those that were nutrient-rich, consumed reasonably often or contributed to between-person variations. We focused on mixed dishes, rather than their ingredients, along with foods. To shorten the list, the related food items or mixed dishes were categorized together in one food group. These exclusions resulted in a list of 106 foods or dishes in the questionnaire. The portion sizes used in the FFQ were obtained from our earlier studies that used dietary recalls and food records. The frequency response options for the food list varied from 6-9 choices from "never or less than once a month" to "12 or more times per day". Conclusions: The DFQ could be a reasonable dietary assessment tool for future epidemiological studies in the country. Validation studies are required to assess the validity and reliability of this newly developed questionnaire.

  16. Assessing dietary exposure to cadmium in a metal recycling community in Vietnam: Age and gender aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minh, Ngo Duc [Vietnamese Academy of Agriculture Sciences, Soils and Fertilizers Research Institute (SFRI), Tu Liem, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hough, Rupert Lloyd, E-mail: rupert.hough@hutton.ac.uk [The James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen, AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Thuy, Le Thi [Vietnamese Academy of Agriculture Science, Institute of Agricultural Environment (IAE), Tu Liem, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nyberg, Ylva [Department of Crop Production Ecology, PO Box 7043, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Mai, Le Bach [National Institute of Nutrition, 48b Tang Bat Ho, Hoan Kiem, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Vinh, Nguyen Cong [Vietnamese Academy of Agriculture Sciences, Soils and Fertilizers Research Institute (SFRI), Tu Liem, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Khai, Nguyen Manh [Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Ha Noi University of Science (HUS-VNU), 334 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Oeborn, Ingrid [Department of Crop Production Ecology, PO Box 7043, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2012-02-01

    This study estimates the dietary exposure to cadmium (Cd), and associated potential health risks, for individuals living and working in a metal recycling community (n = 132) in Vietnam in comparison to an agricultural (reference) community (n = 130). Individual-level exposure to Cd was estimated through analysis of staple foodstuffs combined with information from a food frequency questionnaire. Individual-level exposure estimates were compared with published 'safe' doses to derive a Hazard Quotient (HQ) for each member of the study population. Looking at the populations as a whole, there were no significant differences in the diets of the two villages. However, significantly more rice was consumed by working age adults (18-60 years) in the recycling village compared to the reference village (p < 0.001). Rice was the main staple food with individuals consuming 461 {+-} 162 g/d, followed by water spinach (103 {+-} 51 kg/d). Concentrations of Cd in the studied foodstuffs were elevated in the metal recycling village. Values of HQ exceeded unity for 87% of adult participants of the metal recycling community (39% had a HQ > 3), while 20% of adult participants from the reference village had an HQ > 1. We found an elevated health risk from dietary exposure to Cd in the metal recycling village compared to the reference community. WHO standard of 0.4 mg Cd/kg rice may not be protective where people consume large amounts of rice/have relatively low body weight. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First individual-level risk assessment of cadmium in recycling villages of Vietnam. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dietary analysis undertaken for a recycling community and an agricultural community. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No significant differences were found between the diets of the two populations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 87% of people in the recycling community had elevated health risk. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer WHO standard (0.4 mg Cd/kg rice) may

  17. Assessment of daily dietary intake of Hg and some essential elements in diets of children from the Amazon region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daily dietary intake of Hg and some essential elements in diets of children from communities in the Jau National Park, Amazon region, were assessed. Diet samples were analyzed for total Hg content using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry and Ca, Fe, K, Na, Se and Zn contents by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The weekly tolerable provisional intake for Hg in the communities studied varied from 13 to 57 μg of Hg per kg of body weight, exceeding the limit of 5 μg x kg-1 set by the WHO. Comparison of the daily dietary intake values to the new Dietary Reference Intakes (4-8 years), showed prevalence of inadequacy. (author)

  18. Baseline Depressive Symptoms, Completion of Study Assessments, and Behavior Change in a Long-Term Dietary Intervention Among Breast Cancer Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Julie B; Pierce, John P.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Cadmus-Bertram, Lisa A.; Flatt, Shirley W.; Madanat, Hala; Newman, Vicky A.; Nichols, Jeanne F.; Natarajan, Loki

    2015-01-01

    Background Depressive symptoms can lower adherence and change in dietary studies. Behavioral activation may reduce these effects. Purpose This study aims to assess relationships among depressive symptoms on adherence and dietary change in the Women’s Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) Study Methods Secondary analyses from the WHEL Study, which achieved major dietary change in breast cancer survivors (N = 2817), were conducted. Logistic regressions were undertaken of baseline depressive symptoms...

  19. Identifying small groups of foods that can predict achievement of key dietary recommendations: data mining of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey, 2008–12

    OpenAIRE

    PHILIPPE J. GIABBANELLI; Adams, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Objective Many dietary assessment methods attempt to estimate total food and nutrient intake. If the intention is simply to determine whether participants achieve dietary recommendations, this leads to much redundant data. We used data mining techniques to explore the number of foods that intake information was required on to accurately predict achievement, or not, of key dietary recommendations. Design We built decision trees for achievement of recommendations for fruit and vegetables, sodiu...

  20. Dietary Assessment of Major Trends in U.S. Food Consumption, 1970-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, Hodan Farah; Buzby, Jean C.

    2008-01-01

    This report examines major trends in the amount of food available for consumption in the United States between 1970 and 2005 using data from the ERS Food Availability (Per Capita) Data System. The report also estimates whether Americans are meeting Federal dietary recommendations for each of the major food groups by comparing the data with dietary recommendations in the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the MyPyramid Food Guidance System. Findings show that Americans do not meet the F...

  1. Imaged based estimation of food volume using circular referents in dietary assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Wenyan; Yue, Yaofeng; Fernstrom, John D.; YAO, Ning; Sclabassi, Robert J.; Fernstrom, Madelyn H.; Sun, Mingui

    2011-01-01

    Measuring food volume (portion size) is a critical component in both clinical and research dietary studies. With the wide availability of cell phones and other camera-ready mobile devices, food pictures can be taken, stored or transmitted easily to form an image based dietary record. Although this record enables a more accurate dietary recall, a digital image of food usually cannot be used to estimate portion size directly due to the lack of information about the scale and orientation of the ...

  2. Assessing validity of a short food frequency questionnaire on present dietary intake of elderly Icelanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eysteinsdottir Tinna

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies exist on the validity of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs administered to elderly people. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of a short FFQ on present dietary intake, developed specially for the AGES-Reykjavik Study, which includes 5,764 elderly individuals. Assessing the validity of FFQs is essential before they are used in studies on diet-related disease risk and health outcomes. Method 128 healthy elderly participants (74 y ± 5.7; 58.6% female answered the AGES-FFQ, and subsequently filled out a 3-day weighed food record. Validity of the AGES-FFQ was assessed by comparing its answers to the dietary data obtained from the weighed food records, using Spearman's rank correlation, Chi-Square/Kendall's tau, and a Jonckheere-Terpstra test for trend. Result For men a correlation ≥ 0.4 was found for potatoes, fresh fruits, oatmeal/muesli, cakes/cookies, candy, dairy products, milk, pure fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee, tea and sugar in coffee/tea (r = 0.40-0.71. A lower, but acceptable, correlation was also found for raw vegetables (r = 0.33. The highest correlation for women was found for consumption of rye bread, oatmeal/muesli, raw vegetables, candy, dairy products, milk, pure fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee and tea (r = 0.40-0.61. An acceptable correlation was also found for fish topping/salad, fresh fruit, blood/liver sausage, whole-wheat bread, and sugar in coffee/tea (r = 0.28-0.37. Questions on meat/fish meals, cooked vegetables and soft drinks did not show a significant correlation to the reference method. Pearson Chi-Square and Kendall's tau showed similar results, as did the Jonckheere-Terpstra trend test. Conclusion A majority of the questions in the AGES-FFQ had an acceptable correlation and may be used to rank individuals according to their level of intake of several important foods/food groups. The AGES-FFQ on present diet may therefore be used to study the relationship between

  3. Evaluation of a Diet Quality Index Based on the Probability of Adequate Nutrient Intake (PANDiet) Using National French and US Dietary Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Verger, Eric O.; François Mariotti; Holmes, Bridget A.; Damien Paineau; Jean-François Huneau

    2012-01-01

    Background: Existing diet quality indices often show theoretical and methodological limitations, especially with regard to validation. [br/] Objective: To develop a diet quality index based on the probability of adequate nutrient intake (PANDiet) and evaluate its validity using data from French and US populations. Material and Methods: The PANDiet is composed of adequacy probabilities for 24 nutrients grouped into two sub-scores. The relationship between the PANDiet score and energy intake...

  4. Assessing Sediment-Nutrient Export Rate and Soil Degradation in Mai-Negus Catchment, Northern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Gebreyesus Brhane Tesfahunegn; Vlek, Paul L. G.

    2013-01-01

    Even though soil degradation challenges sustainable development, the use of degradation indicators such as nutrient export (NE) and nutrient replacement cost is not well documented at landform level. This study is aimed to investigate the extent of soil degradation, NE rates, and their replacement cost across landforms in the Mai-Negus catchment, northern Ethiopia. Different erosion-status sites (aggrading, stable, and eroded) in the landforms were identified, and soil samples were randomly c...

  5. Assessment of biomass functionalities in a biofilm membrane bioreactor (BF-MBR) targeting biological nutrient removal

    OpenAIRE

    Kjørlaug, Oda Marie

    2013-01-01

    High concentrations of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and organicmatter can cause serious eutrophication in receiving water bodies. In biologicalwastewater treatment microorganisms remove nutrients from thewastewater and ensure that these components in the final effluent stay atacceptable levels.A biofilm membrane bioreactor (BF-MBR) removing nitrogen, phosphorusand carbon from municipal wastewater was operated for 85 days. Anassessment of the process focusing on the biomass in the va...

  6. Effect of dietary education program on the nutrient intake in diabetic patients%膳食宣教方式对糖尿病患者营养素摄入的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆伟群; 张东云

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of dietary education program on the nutrient intake in diabetic patients .Methods:Patients with di-abetes were randomly divided into the control group and the observation group, the former provided traditional nutrition education for diabetes and the latter traditional nutrition education with real -food based dietary education for this disease.The nutrient intake before and after education was compared in the two groups.Results:In the control group, both energy and carbohydrate intake was significantly lower and the intake of dietary fi-ber, calcium, vitamin B2 and vitamin C was significantly higher after intervention than that before intervention ( P <0.05).In the observation group, the intake of energy, carbohydrate, fat, cholesterol and salt after intervention was significantly lower, while the intake of dietary fiber, cal-cium, Fe, Zinc, vitamin B1, vitamin B2 and vitamin C was significantly higher than that before intervention ( P <0.05).After intervention, the intake of energy, fat, cholesterol and salt was significantly lower and the intake of dietary fiber, calcium, Fe, Zinc, vitamin B1 and vitamin C was significantly higher in the observation group than that in the control group ( P <0 .05 ) .Conclusion:There is a great effect of traditional nutrition education with real-food based dietary education on the improvement of the nutrient intake for diabetic patients .%目的:探讨膳食宣教对糖尿病患者营养素摄入的影响。方法:将糖尿病患者随机分为对照组和观察组,对照组给予传统的糖尿病营养宣教,观察组在此基础上给予膳食实物宣教,比较两组患者在宣教前后的营养素摄入情况。结果:对照组干预后的热量和碳水化合物摄入量明显低于干预前,膳食纤维、钙、维生素B2和维生素C 的摄入量明显高于干预前( P <0.05);观察组干预后的热量、碳水化合物、脂肪、胆固醇、盐摄入量均明

  7. Validation of the Diet Quality Index for Adolescents by Comparison with Biomarkers, Nutrient and Food Intakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vyncke, Krishna; Cruz Fernandez, Estefania; Fajó-Pascual, Marta;

    2013-01-01

    developed Diet Quality Index for Adolescents (DQI-A) is a good surrogate measure for adherence to FBDG, and whether adherence to these FBDG effectively leads to better nutrient intakes and nutritional biomarkers in adolescents. Participants included 1804 European adolescents who were recruited in the...... Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) Study. Dietary intake was assessed by two, non-consecutive 24 h recalls. A DQI-A score, considering the components' dietary quality, diversity and equilibrium, was calculated. Associations between the DQI-A and food and nutrient intakes and...

  8. Nutritional assessment of patients with head and neck cancer in North-East India and dietary intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinandan Bhattacharjee

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Nutritional Assessment Index has been found to be the best index to evaluate malnutrition. The daily requirement of nutrients for HNCA patients can be satisfactorily met by adopting specific diet chart presented in our study. As no structured diet plan are available in literature, our diet chart can act as a template diet appropriate for HNCA patients of this region.

  9. Diet during pregnancy:dietary patterns and weight gain rate among Finnish pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Arkkola, T. (Tuula)

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Proper nutrition and optimal weight status in pregnancy are important for both the mother and her child. The present study was aimed at assessment of maternal food and nutrient intake, dietary supplement use, dietary patterns, and weight during pregnancy. Additionally, associations between maternal weight, socio-demographic and perinatal factors and advanced beta cell autoimmunity in the offspring were examined. The results from a one-year cohort of mothers entering the ongoi...

  10. 非酒精性脂肪肝病患者体脂成分及膳食营养素摄入分析%Body fat composition and dietary nutrients intake analysis with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳丽; 张宝; 管石侠; 侯丽丽; 蒋建华

    2015-01-01

      对照组明显上升,碳水化合物、蛋白质、膳食纤维、总胆固醇( TC)、尿素氮( BUN)、肌酐( Cr)两组间差异无统计学意义。结论通过NAFLD患者体脂成分测定及其膳食营养素摄入调查,NAFLD组人群膳食结构不够合理,人体成分分析与饮食因素相关性很大,高能量、高脂肪是NAFLD的膳食危险因素,肥胖、高血糖、高血脂、内脏脂肪面积高是NAFLD的患病危险因素。%Objective To study the correlation between diet nutrition,body composition analysis and the occurrence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease ( NAFLD) . Methods 82 cases of NAFLD patients and 82 cases of normal con-trols were selected. Questionnaire survey, physical measurement, body composition and liver ultrasound were con-ducted for selected population. The physical examination reports of selected population were collected. The general situation of individuals and different kinds of food and the intake amount was investigated by using self-designed health questionnaire and food frequency questionnaire, respectively. Results Compared with normal control group, the daily intake of total energy and fat for per person, the body mass index (BMI),visceral fat area(VFA), percentage of body fat( PBF) ,waist hip ratio( WHR) among the investigated subjects with NAFLD were significan-gtly higher. Fasting blood glucose(FBG), triglycerides(TG),alanine transaminase(ALT),aspartate transaminase (AST),very low density lipoprotein(VLDL) and blood uric acid(UA) were increased than NC group. There was no statistical significance in carbohydrates, protein, dietary fiber, total cholesterol ( TC ) , blood urea nitrogen ( BUN) , creatinine ( Cr) between the two groups. Conclusion By the determination of body fat composition and investigation of dietary nutrients intake of the NAFLD patients,this paper discovers that the intake of basic nutrients among the investigated subjects is adequate to satisfy the demand of human body, but the diet

  11. Use of hydroponics culture to assess nutrient supply by treated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrover, Maria; Moyà, Gabriel; Vadell, Jaume

    2013-09-30

    The use of treated wastewater for irrigation is increasing, especially in those areas where water resources are limited. Treated wastewaters contain nutrients that are useful for plant growth and help to reduce fertilizers needs. Nutrient content of these waters depends on the treatment system. Nutrient supply by a treated wastewater from a conventional treatment plant (CWW) and a lagooned wastewater from the campus of the University of Balearic Islands (LWW) was tested in an experiment in hydroponics conditions. Half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution (HNS) was used as a control. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings were grown in 4 L containers filled with the three types of water. Four weeks after planting, barley was harvested and root and shoot biomass was measured. N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na and Fe contents were determined in both tissues and heavy metal concentrations were analysed in shoots. N, P and K concentrations were lower in LWW than in CWW, while HNS had the highest nutrient concentration. Dry weight barley production was reduced in CWW and LWW treatments to 49% and 17%, respectively, comparing to HNS. However, to a lesser extent, reduction was found in shoot and root N content. Treated wastewater increased Na content in shoots and roots of barley and Ca and Cr content in shoots. However, heavy metals content was lower than toxic levels in all the cases. Although treated wastewater is an interesting water resource, additional fertilization is needed to maintain a high productivity in barley seedlings. PMID:23708198

  12. Assessing nutrient losses with soil erosion under different tillage systems and their implications on water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munodawafa, Adelaide

    An increased public perception of the role of agriculture in non-point source pollution has stimulated the need for information on the effect of conventional and sustainable agricultural management systems on water quality. While information on run-off and soil erosion is readily available in Zimbabwe, there is dearth of knowledge on the relative losses of nutrients as a result of soil erosion and their effect on water quality. This study sought to quantify the amount of nutrients lost as a result of soil erosion and thus enable conclusions to be drawn on the implications on water quality. Research work was carried out in the semi-arid region of Zimbabwe under granite-derived, inherently infertile sandy soils. Soil erosion was quantified under three tillage systems conventional tillage (CT); mulch ripping (MR); tied ridging (TR) over three years. Run-off and sediments were analysed for N, P and K. The results showed that N and K losses were significantly higher ( p soils, P losses were also low across all treatments (nutrients, which would in turn reduce the quality of surface waters, due to high nutrient concentrations of especially, N, which stimulates the growth of algae and other aquatic weeds. The gravity of the situation would be higher, where soils are more fertile. MR and TR were efficient in reducing soil erosion and thus nutrient losses with run-off and sediments. Pollution of surface water sources can be greatly reduced if conservation tillage systems are used.

  13. Compliance with dietary and nutrient recommendations in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Granada cohort at recruitment Adecuación de la ingesta dietética de la cohorte del Estudio Prospectivo Europeo sobre Nutrición y Cáncer (EPIC-Granada a las ingestas recomendadas y objetivos nutricionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Molina-Montes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The overall intake of energy and nutrients in the Granada EPIC-cohort (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition is examined in order to assess compliance with the Spanish Nutritional Objectives (NO and the Recommended Intakes (RI. Methods: During recruitment (1992-1996, 7,789 participants, aged 35-69, were asked about diet through a validated diet history questionnaire. Nutrient intake is compared to the NO and RI that were valid at that time. Risk of inadequate intake is estimated as the percentage of the sample with intakes: ≤ 1/3 RI (high risk, ≤ 2/3 RI- > 1/3 RI (moderate risk, ≤ RI- > 2/3 RI, > RI. Differences in intakes have been analyzed by sex and age, and by smoking status and BMI. Results: The daily intake of nutrients did not meet the NO as the total contribution of energy from proteins and fats exceeded these guidelines. Whilst intake of most nutrients was above the RI, the amount of iron, magnesium and vitamins D and E provided by the diet was not enough to meet the RI: in women aged 20-49 years, about 55% were at moderate risk for iron inadequacy, and a 20% of women for magnesium. Both sexes were at high risk of inadequacy for vitamin D, although sunlight exposure may supply adequate amounts. Never smokers showed a higher compliance to the NO. Conclusion: At recruitment, the nutrient profile of the diet was unbalanced. The observed nutrient inadequacy for iron, magnesium and vitamin E might be attributed to inappropriate dietary habits, and may have implications for future disease risk.Introducción: Se ha evaluado la ingesta de energía y de nutrientes de la cohorte EPIC-Granada (Estudio Prospectivo Europeo sobre Nutrición y Cáncer en relación con la adecuación a los Objetivos Nutricionales españoles (ON y a las ingestas recomendadas (IR. Métodos: Durante el reclutamiento (1992-1996, 7,789 participantes (de 35-69 anos de edad fueron entrevistados sobre su dieta mediante el metodo de

  14. Monetary Value of Diet Is Associated with Dietary Quality and Nutrient Adequacy among Urban Adults, Differentially by Sex, Race and Poverty Status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May A Beydoun

    Full Text Available The association between monetary value of the diet (MVD, $/day with dietary quality was examined using a large sample of urban US adults, differentially by socio-demographic factors.This was a cross-sectional study of 2,111 participants, aged 30-64y, using data from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span Study. Dietary quality indices included Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010 and Mean Adequacy Ratio (MAR, (two 24-hr recalls. A national food price database was used to estimate MVD. Multiple linear/logistic regression analyses were conducted stratifying separately by sex, race and poverty status.Women had significantly higher HEI-2010 scores than men (43.35 vs 41.57 out of 100, respectively, whereas MAR scores were higher for men (76.8 vs 69.9, out of 100, reflecting energy intake gender differentials. Importantly, a $3/day higher MVD (IQR: $3.70/d (Q1 to $6.62/d (Q4 was associated with a 4.98±0.35 higher total HEI-2010 and a 3.88±0.37 higher MAR score, after energy-adjustment and control for key confounders. For HEI-2010 and MAR, stronger associations were observed among participants above poverty and among women, whilethe MVD vs. HEI-2010 association was additionally stronger among Whites. Sex and poverty status differentials were observed for many MAR and some HEI-2010 components.Despite positive associations between measures of dietary quality and MVD, particularly above poverty and among women, approaching compliance with the Dietary Guidelines (80 or more for HEI-2010 requires a substantially higher MVD. Thus, nutrition education may further improve people's decision-making regarding food venues and dietary choices.

  15. Analyses of single nucleotide polymorphisms in selected nutrient-sensitive genes in weight-regain prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lesli Hingstrup; Ängquist, Lars Henrik; Vimaleswaran, Karani S;

    2012-01-01

    Differences in the interindividual response to dietary intervention could be modified by genetic variation in nutrient-sensitive genes.......Differences in the interindividual response to dietary intervention could be modified by genetic variation in nutrient-sensitive genes....

  16. Assessment of dietary intake of trace elements through Pakistani integrated diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A research study related to the determination and assessment of essential and potentially toxic trace elements in Pakistani integrated diets was undertaken at PINSTECH from 1986-90 under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP). During this period eight different integrated human diets of the residents of the Islamabad and Gujranwala were prepared by taking into consideration their respective food habits in summer and winter seasons. Instrumental as well as radiochemical neutron activation analyses in combination with the atomic absorption spectrometry were utilized for the precise and accurate determination of up to 23 elements in the diet samples. This work has helped us obtain the base line values for studying trace elements nutrition, inadequacy, imbalances and toxicity. Further, this would help, in future, to monitor the degree of contamination from foreign chemicals. The weekly dietary intake values were calculated which showed that our foods contain fairly adequate quantity of essential trace elements. The diet samples analyzed showed no contamination level to an extent to cause an adverse impact on human health. (author). 23 refs, 5 figs, 21 tabs

  17. A review on indexes and dietary assessment methods for determining the quality of diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Pinheiro Volp

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To summarize the different indexes most frequently used to evaluate the quality of diets, as well as the dietary assessment methods used for scoring, pointing out their advantages and disadvantages. Methods: We performed a literature search, with no daterestriction, on primary indexed sources and in the databases SciELO, PubMed, Medline, Lilacs, Dedalus and ILSI Web of Knowledge. The keywords used were diet (ary quality, diet (ary patterns, diet quality index, Mediterranean diet and nutrition. Then, the cited references were reviewed, classifying the information by index. Results: The most widely indexes used are Diet Quality Index, Healthy Eating Index and Alternative Mediterranean Diet Score, using the food frequency questionnaire or a combination of the 24-hour recall and food (s record (s. Conclusion: The determination of feeding patterns through indices is a relatively easy process; however, to have confidence in the results is necessary to know the biases thateach index and instrument has, as well as its construction and punctuation.

  18. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shakhaoat Hossain

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to assess the health risk of pesticide residues via dietary intake of vegetables collected from four top agro-based markets of Dhaka, Bangladesh. High performance liquid chromatography with a photo diode array detector (HPLC-PDA was used to determine six organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, parathion, ethion, acephate, fenthion, two carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran and one pyrethroid (cypermethrin pesticide residues in twelve samples of three common vegetables (tomato, lady’s finger and brinjal. Pesticide residues ranged from below detectable limit (<0.01 to 0.36 mg/kg. Acephate, chlorpyrifos, ethion, carbaryl and cypermethrin were detected in only one sample, while co-occurrence occurred twice for fenitrothion and parathion. Apart from chlorpyrifos in tomato and cypermethrin in brinjal, all pesticide residues exceeded the maximum residue limit (MRL. Hazard risk index (HRI for ethion (10.12 and carbaryl (1.09 was found in lady’s finger and tomato, respectively. Rest of the pesticide residues were classified as not a health risk. A continuous monitoring and strict regulation should be enforced regarding control of pesticide residues in vegetables and other food commodities.

  19. ASSESSMENT OF DIETARY HABITS AND LIFESTYLE OF THE MEDICAL STUDENTS OF AGARTALA GOVERNMENT MEDICAL COLLEGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishir

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Medical students represent a significant community inv estment and promoting their health preserves this investment. This study aims assessing the dietary habits and risky lifestyle behavior among the MBBS students. MATERIALS AND METHOD : A cross - sectional study was conducted among MBBS students of all four pro fessional years of Agartala Government Medical College, Tripura, selecting in total 200 students (50 students from each year through stratified random sampling method. Data was collected via a self - administered questionnaire and analyzed on SPSS (version 21 data sheet. RESULTS : The study population constitutes 64% male and 36% fe male students with mean age 20.77±1. 18 years. The mean BMI for males was 22.7±2.98 and for f emales 21.9±3.25, whereas 18. 5% of all respondents were overweight. 11% of study popula tion used to take food away from home/ mess mor e than 5 times a week. Also 69. 5 % of all students and 86. 5% of the overweight students take junk food mor e than 5 times a week; about 2. 5% students were smokers and 6.5% of students take alcohol. CONCLUSION: T his study showed that more consumption of fast food and fatty food, academic stress and more prevalence to Pre - hypertension are the major lifestyle risky behavior among the MBBS students of this institute.

  20. A simple dietary assessment tool to monitor food intake of hospitalized adult patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiningsari, Dwi; Shahar, Suzana; Manaf, Zahara Abdul; Susetyowati, Susetyowati

    2016-01-01

    Background/objectives Monitoring food intake of patients during hospitalization using simple methods and minimal training is an ongoing problem in hospitals. Therefore, there is a need to develop and validate a simple, easy to use, and quick tool that enables staff to estimate dietary intake. Thus, this study aimed to develop and validate the Pictorial Dietary Assessment Tool (PDAT). Subjects and methods A total of 37 health care staff members consisting of dietitians, nurses, and serving assistants estimated 130 breakfast and lunch meals consumed by 67 patients using PDAT. PDAT was developed based on the hospital menu that consists of staple food (rice or porridge), animal source protein (chicken, meat, eggs, and fish), and non-animal source protein (tau fu and tempeh), with a total of six pictorials of food at each meal time. Weighed food intake was used as a gold standard to validate PDAT. Agreement between methods was analyzed using correlations, paired t-test, Bland–Altman plots, kappa statistics, and McNemar’s test. Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic were calculated to identify whether patients who had an inadequate food intake were categorized as at risk by the PDAT, based on the food weighing method. Agreement between different backgrounds of health care staff was calculated by intraclass correlation coefficient and analysis of variance test. Results There was a significant correlation between the weighing food method and PDAT for energy (r=0.919, P0.05). The PDAT and food weighing method showed a satisfactory agreement beyond chance (k) (0.81 for staple food and animal source protein; 0.735 for non-animal source protein). Intraclass correlation coefficient ranged between 0.91 and 0.96 among respondents. There were no differences in energy, protein, carbohydrate, and fat intake estimated among health care staff (P=0.967; P=0.951; P=0.888; P=0.847, respectively). Conclusion In conclusion, PDAT provides

  1. 西藏牧区居民膳食碘及营养素摄入量调查%A dietary survey on iodine and other nutrients in pastoral areas of Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜丹; 李素梅; 李秀维; 王海燕; 李淑华; 尼玛仓决; 旦增桑布; 庄广秀

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate dietary intake of iodine and other iodine deficiency - related nutrients in the pastoral areas, and evaluate iodine nutrition status of the population. Methods 30 families with target population including children aged 8 to 10, women of child - bearing age and male adults were selected respectively in pastoral Dangxiong County and agricultural Qushui County of Lhasa, three consecutive days of dietary survey with 24 - hour history recalls on respondents, the drinking water and edible salt were collected for testing iodine content and the daily intake of iodine, protein, vitamins, etc. Were calculated. Results In the pastoral areas and agricultural areas the median iodine intake per capita per day from drinking water were 2. 5 u,g, 2. 1 jxg, with no statistically significant difference; daily dietary iodine intake per capita in pastoral areas was higher than agricultural areas (Z = -8.242, P < 0.001), but lower than the recommended intake; Except carbohydrates, the dietary nutrients intake of pastoral population were significantly higher than the population of agricultural areas ( P <0. 001). Conclusions In environmental iodine deficiency of Tibet, people were lack of dietary iodine intake, but other nutrients supply including protein, calories, vitamin A, iron and selenium were relatively abundant, which maybe an important factor of the low prevalence rate of I-odine Deficiency Disorders in pastoral areas.%目的 调查西藏牧区居民膳食碘和其他与碘缺乏病相关的营养素摄入量,评价人群碘营养状况.方法 在研究点当雄县牧区和对照点曲水县农区各抽取30户家庭,采用24 h回顾法对成年男子、育龄妇女及8~ 10岁儿童进行连续3天的膳食调查,采集家庭饮用水、食用盐、主要食物样品检测碘含量,计算每日碘摄入量和蛋白质、维生素等营养素摄入量.结果 西藏牧区和对照农区每人每日饮水碘摄入量的中位数分别为2.5 μg、2.1 μg

  2. Nutrients and heavy metals assessment in the Pampanga River Basin, Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims to assess the surface water quality within the Pampanga River Basin and the pollution in terms of siting and the concentrations of nutrients and heavy metals that drain finally into the Manila Bay. Surface water samples from non-point sources along the Pampanga River were collected from within and nearby the watershed to serve as reference values representing forestry, croplands, fisheries, livestock and domestic uses. Nitrates value in water were determined using ion chromatography method and heavy metals such as lead, cadmium. chromium, arsenic, mercury and nickel were determined using inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer method. Using the Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, the following were analyzed namely: total phosphorous, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, zinc, copper, iron and manganese. On surface water quality, laboratory analysis showed the presence of nitrate as NO3-1 in water throughout the 249.2 km stretch of Pampanga River. Nitrate loading was evident from the forestry areas down to the extensive agricultural areas although all concentrations for the two seasons are below the allowable limit of 10mg/L for class C (DAO 90-34). Almost all sampling sites failed to meet the ASEAN marine water quality criterion of 0.06 mg/L for nitrate. The Pampanga River contributed directly to the phosphorous loading into the Bay considering concentrations near the river mouth at 0.67 and 0.09 ppm during the wet and dry seasons, respectively. Small-scale mining has contributed to high concentrations of lead, arsenic, chromium and cadmium in the upstream of Pampanga River. Among point sources, dumpsite contributes the most to pollution considering high content of nitrate, total phosphorous, lead, arsenic, chromium and cadmium from its effluent. Waste management particularly near the river mouth is critical to reduce further levels of nitrate, total phosphorous and heavy metals. Periodic monitoring of local government units would be

  3. A Diet Score Assessing Norwegian Adolescents' Adherence to Dietary Recommendations-Development and Test-Retest Reproducibility of the Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handeland, Katina; Kjellevold, Marian; Wik Markhus, Maria; Eide Graff, Ingvild; Frøyland, Livar; Lie, Øyvind; Skotheim, Siv; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Dahl, Lisbeth; Øyen, Jannike

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of adolescents' dietary habits is challenging. Reliable instruments to monitor dietary trends are required to promote healthier behaviours in this group. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess adolescents' adherence to Norwegian dietary recommendations with a diet score and to report results from, and test-retest reliability of, the score. The diet score involved seven food groups and one physical activity indicator, and was applied to answers from a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) administered twice. Reproducibility of the score was assessed with Cohen's Kappa (κ statistics) at an interval of three months. The setting was eight lower-secondary schools in Hordaland County, Norway, and subjects were adolescents (n = 472) aged 14-15 years and their caregivers. Results showed that the proportion of adolescents consistently classified by the diet score was 87.6% (κ = 0.465). For food groups, proportions ranged from 74.0% to 91.6% (κ = 0.249 to κ = 0.573). Less than 40% of the participants were found to adhere to recommendations for frequencies of eating fruits, vegetables, added sugar, and fish. Highest compliance to recommendations was seen for choosing water as beverage and limit the intake of red meat. The score was associated with parental socioeconomic status. The diet score was found to be reproducible at an acceptable level. Health promoting work targeting adolescents should emphasize to increase the intake of recommended foods to approach nutritional guidelines. PMID:27483312

  4. Diet quality, nutrient intake, weight status, and feeding environments of girls meeting or exceeding the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations for total dietary fat

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Y.; Birch, L. L.

    2002-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that children consume no more than 30% but no less than 20% of energy as dietary fat intake, and tills recommendation, is accompanied by suggestions that fat calories should be replaced by eating more grain products, fruits, vegetables, low fat datiy products, beans, lean meat, poultry, fish, and other protein rich foods. In comparing diets of girls meeting this AAP recommendation with girls who consumed diets higher in fat, we noted that gi...

  5. Assessment of Dietary Intake Patterns and Their Correlates among University Students in Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Salameh, Pascale; Jomaa, Lamis; Issa, Carine; Farhat, Ghada; Salamé, Joseph; Zeidan, Nina; Baldi, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Unhealthy dietary habits are major risk factors for chronic diseases, particularly if adopted during early years of adulthood. Limited studies have explored the food consumption patterns among young adults in Lebanon. Our study aimed to examine common dietary patterns and their correlates among a large sample of university student population in Lebanon, focusing on correlation with gender and body mass index (BMI). Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 3384 stud...

  6. Construction of an N-nitroso database for assessing dietary intake

    OpenAIRE

    Stuff, Janice E.; Goh, Eugenia T.; Barrera, Stephanie L.; Bondy, Melissa L.; Forman, Michele R.

    2009-01-01

    Dietary N-nitroso compounds are carcinogens synthesized during food processing from two main classes of precursors, oxides of nitrogen and amines or amides. Quantification of the dietary intake of N-nitroso compounds is significant to human cancers, including those of the stomach and upper gastro-intestinal tract, colon, and brain. Previous studies investigating these cancers primarily used proxy estimates of N-nitroso intake and not a full and complete database. In this report, we describe t...

  7. Incidental nutrient transfers: Assessing critical times in agricultural catchments using high-resolution data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Mairead; Jordan, Phil; Melland, Alice R; Mellander, Per-Erik; McDonald, Noeleen; Shortle, Ger

    2016-05-15

    Managing incidental losses associated with liquid slurry applications during closed periods has significant cost and policy implications and the environmental data required to review such a measure are difficult to capture due to storm dependencies. Over four years (2010-2014) in five intensive agricultural catchments, this study used high-resolution total and total reactive phosphorus (TP and TRP), total oxidised nitrogen (TON) and suspended sediment (SS) concentrations with river discharge data to investigate the magnitude and timing of nutrient losses. A large dataset of storm events (defined as 90th percentile discharges), and associated flow-weighted mean (FWM) nutrient concentrations and TP/SS ratios, was used to indicate when losses were indicative of residual or incidental nutrient transfers. The beginning of the slurry closed period was reflective of incidental and residual transfers with high storm FWM P (TP and TRP) concentrations, with some catchments also showing elevated storm TP:SS ratios. This pattern diminished at the end of the closed period in all catchments. Total oxidised N behaved similarly to P during storms in the poorly drained catchments and revealed a long lag time in other catchments. Low storm FWM P concentrations and TP:SS ratios during the weeks following the closed period suggests that nutrients either weren't applied during this time (best times chosen) or that they were applied to less risky areas (best places chosen). For other periods such as late autumn and during wet summers, where storm FWM P concentrations and TP:SS ratios were high, it is recommended that an augmentation of farmer knowledge of soil drainage characteristics with local and detailed current and forecast soil moisture conditions will help to strengthen existing regulatory frameworks to avoid storm driven incidental nutrient transfers. PMID:26933967

  8. 卵形鲳鲹的营养需求研究及其配合饲料研发%Review of nutrient requirements and formula dietary for trachinotus ovatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐媛媛; 张蕉南; 艾春香; 胡兵

    2013-01-01

    As one of the most important mariculture species, Trachinotus ovatus culture has been a certain scale. It is very important to promote Trachinotus ovatus aquaculture of the stan⁃dardization, normalization, intensification, and improve the quality of formula dietary for Trachi⁃notus ovatus. This article reviews the nutritional requirements, including the requirements of pro⁃tein, amino acids, lipids, carbohydrates, and vitamins of Trachinotus ovatus, and the research &development of formula dietary at home and abroad in recent years. It helps to accumulate the basic information to the further studies on nutrient requirements and formulated dietary for Trachinotus ovatus, and push forward the sustainable development of Trachinotus ovatus healthy aquaculture.%  卵形鲳鲹(Trachinotus ovatus)作为我国重要的海水养殖鱼类,其养殖已形成一定的规模。推进其标准化、规范化、集约化养殖业的发展,提升其配合饲料质量是非常重要的。文章综述了近几年国内外有关卵形鲳鲹的蛋白质、氨基酸、脂类、糖类和维生素等营养素的营养需求研究及其配合饲料研发的成果,以期为进一步开展卵形鲳鲹营养需求研究及其配合饲料开发积累基础资料,推进卵形鲳鲹健康养殖持续发展。

  9. Bone nutrients for vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangels, Ann Reed

    2014-07-01

    The process of bone mineralization and resorption is complex and is affected by numerous factors, including dietary constituents. Although some dietary factors involved in bone health, such as calcium and vitamin D, are typically associated with dairy products, plant-based sources of these nutrients also supply other key nutrients involved in bone maintenance. Some research suggests that vegetarian diets, especially vegan diets, are associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD), but this does not appear to be clinically significant. Vegan diets are not associated with an increased fracture risk if calcium intake is adequate. Dietary factors in plant-based diets that support the development and maintenance of bone mass include calcium, vitamin D, protein, potassium, and soy isoflavones. Other factors present in plant-based diets such as oxalic acid and phytic acid can potentially interfere with absorption and retention of calcium and thereby have a negative effect on BMD. Impaired vitamin B-12 status also negatively affects BMD. The role of protein in calcium balance is multifaceted. Overall, calcium and protein intakes in accord with Dietary Reference Intakes are recommended for vegetarians, including vegans. Fortified foods are often helpful in meeting recommendations for calcium and vitamin D. Plant-based diets can provide adequate amounts of key nutrients for bone health. PMID:24898231

  10. THE NUTRIENT COMPOSITION OF THE DIET OF BOTTLENOSE DOLPHINS (TURSIOPS TRUNCATUS) IS BETTER ASSESSED RELATIVE TO METABOLIZABLE ENERGY THAN DRY MATTER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardente, Amanda J; Hill, Richard C

    2015-06-01

    Nutrient concentrations in a diet can be expressed either "as fed," relative to dry matter (DM), or relative to metabolizable energy (ME). Most published literature evaluates the diet of dolphins by comparing nutrient content relative to DM. Nevertheless, ME requirements, not DM, determine how much food dolphins need to maintain their body condition. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate why it is important to calculate the ME content of fish fed to dolphins and compare nutrient concentrations in dolphin diets relative to ME, not DM. Two studies that compared the nutrient composition of fish species on a DM basis were reevaluated. The ME content of each fish species was calculated and found to vary widely among species, from 0.94 to 1.58 Mcal/kg as fed. Water, mineral, and fat concentrations relative to ME also varied markedly among fish species. To demonstrate the magnitude of nutrient content differences between fish, the percent change in nutrient concentration for each species was calculated relative to herring. The percent changes for DM and ME analyses were then compared. Percent change in nutrient concentration was either over- or underestimated on a DM basis when compared with the percent change on an ME basis. Notable discrepancies were evident among important nutrients, such as crude protein, water, and sodium. Caretakers of managed dolphins must account for differences in energy density when deciding how much to feed and assessing the nutrient composition of the diet. PMID:26056869

  11. Assessment of flavonoid and fatty acid intake by chemical analysis of biomarkers and of duplicate diets.

    OpenAIRE

    Vries, de, P.M.

    1998-01-01

    Dietary intake is important to investigate the relationship between diet and the occurrence of disease. However, it is difficult to assess the intake of nutrients such as flavonoids, minor fatty acids and plant sterols because the data on these nutrients in food composition tables are insufficient or because the bioavailability of these nutrients differs between foods. The results of studies investigating the relationship of these nutrients to disease are inconsistent, perhaps because of erro...

  12. Zinc, iron and calcium are major limiting nutrients in the complementary diets of rural Kenyan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Elaine; Chege, Peter; Kimiywe, Judith; Wiesmann, Doris; Hotz, Christine

    2015-12-01

    Poor quality infant and young child (IYC) diets contribute to chronic under-nutrition. To design effective IYC nutrition interventions, an understanding of the extent to which realistic food-based strategies can improve dietary adequacy is required. We collected 24-h dietary recalls from children 6-23 months of age (n = 401) in two rural agro-ecological zones of Kenya to assess the nutrient adequacy of their diets. Linear programming analysis (LPA) was used to identify realistic food-based recommendations (FBRs) and to determine the extent to which they could ensure intake adequacy for 12 nutrients. Mean nutrient densities of the IYC diets were below the desired level for four to nine of the 10 nutrients analysed, depending on the age group. Mean dietary diversity scores ranged from 2.1 ± 1.0 among children 6-8 months old in Kitui County to 3.7 ± 1.1 food groups among children 12-23 months old in Vihiga County. LPA confirmed that dietary adequacy for iron, zinc and calcium will be difficult to ensure using only local foods as consumed. FBRs for breastfed children that promote the daily consumption of cows'/goats' milk (added to porridges), fortified cereals, green leafy vegetables, legumes, and meat, fish or eggs, 3-5 times per week can ensure dietary adequacy for nine and seven of 12 nutrients for children 6-11 and 12-23 months old, respectively. For these rural Kenyan children, even though dietary adequacy could be improved via realistic changes in habitual food consumption practices, alternative interventions are needed to ensure dietary adequacy at the population level. PMID:26778799

  13. Dietary Exposure Assessment of Danish Consumers to Dithiocarbamate Residues in Food: a Comparison of the Deterministic and Probabilistic Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Andersen, Jens Hinge; Petersen, Annette;

    2008-01-01

    Probabilistic and deterministic estimates of the acute and chronic exposure of the Danish populations to dithiocarbamate residues were performed. The Monte Carlo Risk Assessment programme (MCRA 4.0) was used for the probabilistic risk assessment. Food consumption data were obtained from the...... nationwide dietary survey conducted in 2000-02. Residue data for 5721 samples from the monitoring programme conducted in the period 1998-2003 were used for dithiocarbamates, which had been determined as carbon disulphide. Contributions from 26 commodities were included in the calculations. Using the...

  14. Gut health immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory functions of gut enzyme digested high protein micro-nutrient dietary supplement-Enprocal

    OpenAIRE

    Kanwar Rupinder K; Kanwar Jagat R

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Enprocal is a high-protein micro-nutrient rich formulated supplementary food designed to meet the nutritional needs of the frail elderly and be delivered to them in every day foods. We studied the potential of Enprocal to improve gut and immune health using simple and robust bioassays for gut cell proliferation, intestinal integrity/permeability, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities. Effects of Enprocal were compared with whey protein concentra...

  15. Electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA): relative validity of a mobile phone application to measure intake of food groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangan, Anna M; Tieleman, Laurissa; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Tang, Lie Ming; Hebden, Lana; Roy, Rajshri; Kay, Judy; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2016-06-01

    Automation of dietary assessment can reduce limitations of established methodologies, by alleviating participant and researcher burden. Designed as a research tool, the electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA) is a food record in mobile phone application format. The present study aimed to examine the relative validity of the e-DIA with the 24-h recall method to estimate intake of food groups. A sample of eighty university students aged 19-24 years recorded 5 d of e-DIA and 3 d of recall within this 5-d period. The three matching days of dietary data were used for analysis. Food intake data were disaggregated and apportioned to one of eight food groups. Median intakes of food groups were similar between the methods, and strong correlations were found (mean: 0·79, range: 0·69-0·88). Cross-classification by tertiles produced a high level of exact agreement (mean: 71 %, range: 65-75 %), and weighted κ values were moderate to good (range: 0·54-0·71). Although mean differences (e-DIA-recall) were small (range: -13 to 23 g), limits of agreement (LOA) were relatively large (e.g. for vegetables, mean difference: -4 g, LOA: -159 to 151 g). The Bland-Altman plots showed robust agreement, with minimum bias. This analysis supports the use of e-DIA as an alternative to the repeated 24-h recall method for ranking individuals' food group intake. PMID:27121045

  16. Assessment of nutrient deficiencies in maize in nutrient omission trials and long-term field experiments in the West African Savanna

    OpenAIRE

    Nziguheba, G.; Tossah, B.K.; Diels, J.; Franke, A.C.; Aihou, K.; Iwuafor, E.N.O.; Nwoke, C.; Merckx, R.

    2009-01-01

    Low soil fertility is one of the main constraints to crop production in the West African savanna. However, the response of major cereals to fertilizer applications is often far below the potential yields. Low fertilizer efficiency, inadequacy of current fertilizer recommendations, and the ignorance of nutrients other than N, P, and K may limit crop production. Nutrient limitations to maize production were identified in on-farm trials in Togo and in several long-term experiments in Nigeria and...

  17. Towards an Agro-Industrial Ecology: A review of nutrient flow modelling and assessment tools in agro-food systems at the local scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Mena, Hugo; Nesme, Thomas; Pellerin, Sylvain

    2016-02-01

    Improvement in nutrient recycling in agriculture is essential to maintain food production while minimising nutrient pollution of the environment. For this purpose, understanding and modelling nutrient cycles in food and related agro-industrial systems is a crucial task. Although nutrient management has been addressed at the plot and farm scales for many years now in the agricultural sciences, there is a need to upscale these approaches to capture the additional drivers of nutrient cycles that may occur at the local, i.e. district, scale. Industrial ecology principles provide sound bases to analyse nutrient cycling in complex systems. However, since agro-food social-ecological systems have specific ecological and social dimensions, we argue that a new field, referred to as "Agro-Industrial Ecology", is needed to study these systems. In this paper, we review the literature on nutrient cycling in complex social-ecological systems that can provide a basis for Agro-Industrial Ecology. We identify and describe three major approaches: Environmental Assessment tools, Stock and Flow Analysis methods and Agent-based models. We then discuss their advantages and drawbacks for assessing and modelling nutrient cycles in agro-food systems in terms of their purpose and scope, object representation and time-spatial dynamics. We finally argue that combining stock-flow methods with both agent-based models and environmental impact assessment tools is a promising way to analyse the role of economic agents on nutrient flows and losses and to explore scenarios that better close the nutrient cycles at the local scale. PMID:26599147

  18. Development and validation of a food frequency questionnaire for dietary intake assessment among multi-ethnic primary school-aged children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatihah, Fadil; Ng, Boon Koon; Hazwanie, Husin; Norimah, A Karim; Shanita, Safii Nik; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Poh, Bee Koon

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to develop and validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess habitual diets of multi-ethnic Malaysian children aged 7–12 years. METHODS A total of 236 primary school children participated in the development of the FFQ and 209 subjects participated in the validation study, with a subsample of 30 subjects participating in the reproducibility study. The FFQ, consisting of 94 food items from 12 food groups, was compared with a three-day dietary record (3DR) as the reference method. The reproducibility of the FFQ was assessed through repeat administration (FFQ2), seven days after the first administration (FFQ1). RESULTS The results of the validation study demonstrated good acceptance of the FFQ. Mean intake of macronutrients in FFQ1 and 3DR correlated well, although the FFQ intake data tended to be higher. Cross-classification of nutrient intake between the two methods showed that < 7% of subjects were grossly misclassified. Moderate correlations noted between the two methods ranged from r = 0.310 (p < 0.001) for fat to r = 0.497 (p < 0.001) for energy. The reproducibility of the FFQ, as assessed by Cronbach’s alpha, ranged from 0.61 (protein) to 0.70 (energy, carbohydrates and fat). Spearman’s correlations between FFQ1 and FFQ2 ranged from rho = 0.333 (p = 0.072) for protein to rho = 0.479 (p < 0.01) for fat. CONCLUSION These findings indicate that the FFQ is valid and reliable for measuring the average intake of energy and macronutrients in a population of multi-ethnic children aged 7–12 years in Malaysia. PMID:26702165

  19. WebDASC: a web-based dietary assessment software for 8-11-year-old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Trolle, Ellen; Christensen, Tue;

    2014-01-01

    intended to measure dietary change resulting from a school-based intervention. Methods:  WebDASC was developed as a self-administered tool that could be used by 8-11-year-old children with or without parent's aid. The development of WebDASC followed a prototyping approach: focus groups, informal interviews......Background:  The present study describes the development and formative evaluation of the Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children (WebDASC). WebDASC is part of the OPUS project ('Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet') and was......, literature review, and usability tests preceded its release. Special consideration was given to age-appropriate design issues. Results:  In WebDASC an animated armadillo guides respondents through six daily eating occasions and helps them report foods and beverages previously consumed. A database of 1300...

  20. WebDASC: a web-based dietary assessment software for 8-11-year-old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Trolle, Ellen; Christensen, Tue;

    intended to measure dietary change resulting from a school-based intervention. Methods:  WebDASC was developed as a self-administered tool that could be used by 8-11-year-old children with or without parent's aid. The development of WebDASC followed a prototyping approach: focus groups, informal interviews......Background:  The present study describes the development and formative evaluation of the Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children (WebDASC). WebDASC is part of the OPUS project ('Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet') and was......, literature review, and usability tests preceded its release. Special consideration was given to age-appropriate design issues. Results:  In WebDASC an animated armadillo guides respondents through six daily eating occasions and helps them report foods and beverages previously consumed. A database of 1300...

  1. Past, Present, and Future Nutrient Quality of a Small Southeastern River: A Pre-Dam Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Stewart

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Riverine dams alter both the physical environment and water chemistry, thus affecting species assemblages within these environments. In the United States, dam construction is on the decline and there is a growing trend for dam removal. The Choctawhatchee, Pea, and Yellow Rivers Watershed Management Authority had initiated the permitting process for placing a reservoir dam on the Little Choctawhatchee River (LCR, a tributary to the Choctawhatchee River. The purpose of the proposed reservoir was water supply, and while the permit application has been suspended, history shows that this or related projects are likely to arise in the future. This study collected data on nutrient quality seasonally (four times from 12 sites in the LCR watershed from October 2007 to June 2008 in order to determine pre-dam conditions and to compare these data to historical and regional information. Historical and current nutrient concentrations were elevated throughout the watershed, in most cases above suggested criteria, and indicated that water quality of the river was and continues to be nutrient rich. A future reservoir at recent levels of water quality will likely be highly eutrophic, and anthropogenic influences will further stress this ecosystem and its water quality as the urban region expands.

  2. Associations between dietary patterns and semen quality in men undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vujkovic, M.; de Vries, J. H.; Dohle, G. R.; Bonsel, G. J.; Lindemans, J.; Macklon, N. S.; van der Spek, P. J.; Steegers, E. A. P.; Steegers-Theunissen, R. P. M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates whether dietary patterns, substantiated by biomarkers, are associated with semen quality. In 161 men of subfertile couples undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment in a tertiary referral clinic in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, we assessed nutrient intakes and performed princ

  3. Randomization to plant-based dietary approaches leads to larger short-term improvements in Dietary Inflammatory Index scores and macronutrient intake compared with diets that contain meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Wirth, Michael D; Shivappa, Nitin; Wingard, Ellen E; Fayad, Raja; Wilcox, Sara; Frongillo, Edward A; Hébert, James R

    2015-02-01

    Studies have examined nutrient differences among people following different plant-based diets. However, all of these studies have been observational. The aim of the present study was to examine differences in nutrient intake and Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) scores among overweight and obese (body mass index 25.0-49.9 kg/m(2)) adults randomized to receive dietary instruction on a vegan (n = 12), vegetarian (n = 13), pescovegetarian (n = 13), semivegetarian (n = 13), or omnivorous (n = 12) diet during a 6-month randomized controlled trial. Nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and DII score were assessed via two 24-hour dietary recalls (Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall) at baseline and at 2 and 6 months. Differences in nutrient intake and the DII were examined using general linear models with follow-up tests at each time point. We hypothesized that individuals randomized to the vegan diet would have lower DII scores and greater improvements in fiber, carbohydrate, fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol at both 2 and 6 months as compared with the other 4 diets. Participants randomized to the vegan diet had significantly greater changes in most macronutrients at both time points, including fat and saturated fat, as well as cholesterol and, at 2 months, fiber, as compared with most of the other diet groups (Ps Vegan, vegetarian, and pescovegetarian participants all saw significant improvements in the DII score as compared with semivegetarian participants at 2 months (Ps vegan and vegetarian diets, should be given consideration. PMID:25532675

  4. Assessment of intake of iron and nutrients that affect bioavailability of daily food rations of girls

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Broniecka; Joanna Wyka; Monika Bronkowska; Ewa Piotrowska; Jadwiga Biernat

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND AIM In a human body iron occurs at a level of 3 to 5 g, 60-70 % of which are in hemoglobin, ca. 10% in myoglobin, and ca. 3% are accumulated in enzymes of cellular respiration or enzymes degrading toxic hydrogen peroxide. The other part of iron is accumulated in liver, spleen, kidneys and bone marrow. The dietary deficiency of iron appears at its insufficient level in a diet and at impaired absorption of iron ions present in food products by a body. Groups at an especially...

  5. Nutrient removal using biosorption activated media: preliminary biogeochemical assessment of an innovative stormwater infiltration basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Wanielista, Martin P.; Chang, Ni-Bin; Xuan, Zhemin; Harris, Willie G.

    2012-01-01

    Soil beneath a stormwater infiltration basin receiving runoff from a 22.7 ha predominantly residential watershed in central Florida, USA, was amended using biosorption activated media (BAM) to study the effectiveness of this technology in reducing inputs of nitrogen and phosphorus to groundwater. The functionalized soil amendment BAM consists of a 1.0:1.9:4.1 mixture (by volume) of tire crumb (to increase sorption capacity), silt and clay (to increase soil moisture retention), and sand (to promote sufficient infiltration), which was applied to develop a prototype stormwater infiltration basin utilizing nutrient reduction and flood control sub-basins. Comparison of nitrate/chloride (NO3-/Cl-) ratios for the shallow groundwater indicate that prior to using BAM, NO3- concentrations were substantially influenced by nitrification or variations in NO3- input. In contrast, for the prototype basin utilizing BAM, NO3-/Cl- ratios indicate minor nitrification and NO3- losses with the exception of one summer sample that indicated a 45% loss. Biogeochemical indicators (denitrifier activity derived from real-time polymerase chain reaction and variations in major ions, nutrients, dissolved and soil gases, and stable isotopes) suggest NO3- losses are primarily attributable to denitrification, whereas dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium is a minor process. Denitrification was likely occurring intermittently in anoxic microsites in the unsaturated zone, which was enhanced by increased soil moisture within the BAM layer and resultant reductions in surface/subsurface oxygen exchange that produced conditions conducive to increased denitrifier activity. Concentrations of total dissolved phosphorus and orthophosphate (PO43-) were reduced by more than 70% in unsaturated zone soil water, with the largest decreases in the BAM layer where sorption was the most likely mechanism for removal. Post-BAM PO43-/Cl- ratios for shallow groundwater indicate predominantly minor increases and

  6. Nutrient removal using biosorption activated media: Preliminary biogeochemical assessment of an innovative stormwater infiltration basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Reilly, Andrew M., E-mail: aoreilly@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, Florida Water Science Center, 12703 Research Pkwy, Orlando, FL 32826 (United States); Wanielista, Martin P., E-mail: Martin.Wanielista@ucf.edu [University of Central Florida, Water Research Center and Stormwater Management Academy, 4000 Central Florida Blvd, Building 91, Suite 442, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Chang, Ni-Bin, E-mail: Ni-bin.Chang@ucf.edu [University of Central Florida, Department of Civil, Environmental, and Construction Engineering, 4000 Central Florida Blvd, Building 91, Suite 442, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Xuan, Zhemin, E-mail: zheminxuan@gmail.com [University of Central Florida, Department of Civil, Environmental, and Construction Engineering, 4000 Central Florida Blvd, Building 91, Suite 442, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Harris, Willie G., E-mail: apatite@ufl.edu [University of Florida, Soil and Water Science Department, 2169 McCarty Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Soil beneath a stormwater infiltration basin receiving runoff from a 23 ha predominantly residential watershed in north-central Florida, USA, was amended using biosorption activated media (BAM) to study the effectiveness of this technology in reducing inputs of nitrogen and phosphorus to groundwater. The functionalized soil amendment BAM consists of a 1.0:1.9:4.1 mixture (by volume) of tire crumb (to increase sorption capacity), silt and clay (to increase soil moisture retention), and sand (to promote sufficient infiltration), which was applied to develop an innovative stormwater infiltration basin utilizing nutrient reduction and flood control sub-basins. Comparison of nitrate/chloride (NO{sub 3}{sup -}/Cl{sup -}) ratios for the shallow groundwater indicates that prior to using BAM, NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentrations were substantially influenced by nitrification or variations in NO{sub 3}{sup -} input. In contrast, for the new basin utilizing BAM, NO{sub 3}{sup -}/Cl{sup -} ratios indicate minor nitrification and NO{sub 3}{sup -} losses with the exception of one summer sample that indicated a 45% loss. Biogeochemical indicators (denitrifier activity derived from real-time polymerase chain reaction and variations in major ions, nutrients, dissolved and soil gases, and stable isotopes) suggest that NO{sub 3}{sup -} losses are primarily attributable to denitrification, whereas dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium is a minor process. Denitrification was likely occurring intermittently in anoxic microsites in the unsaturated zone, which was enhanced by the increased soil moisture within the BAM layer and resultant reductions in surface/subsurface oxygen exchange that produced conditions conducive to increased denitrifier activity. Concentrations of total dissolved phosphorus and orthophosphate (PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}) were reduced by more than 70% in unsaturated zone soil water, with the largest decreases in the BAM layer where sorption was the most likely mechanism

  7. Probabilistic acute dietary exposure assessments to captan and tolylfluanid using several European food consumption and pesticide concentration databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, Polly E.; Svensson, Kettil; Moussavian, Shahnaz; van der Voet, Hilko; Petersen, Annette; Ruprich, Jiri; Debegnach, Francesca; de Boer, Waldo J.; van Donkersgoed, Gerda; Brera, Carlo; van Klaveren, Jacob D.; Busk, Leif

    2009-01-01

    Probabilistic dietary acute exposure assessments of captan and tolylfluanid were performed for the populations of the Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands and Sweden. The basis for these assessments was national databases for food consumption and pesticide concentration data harmonised...... at the level of raw agricultural commodity. Data were obtained from national food consumption surveys and national monitoring programmes and organised in an electronic platform of databases connected to probabilistic software. The exposure assessments were conducted by linking national food...... consumption data either (1) to national pesticide concentration data or (2) to a pooled database containing all national pesticide concentration data. We show that with this tool national exposure assessments can be performed in a harmonised way and that pesticide concentrations of other countries can be...

  8. Flooding dynamics and nutrient retention in the middle Ebro floodplain: experimental assessment and numerical modeling

    OpenAIRE

    González Sanchis, María del Carmen

    2012-01-01

    El presente trabajo destaca la simulación numérica como herramienta capaz de reproducir y predecir los principales procesos que producen y mantienen los ecosistemas de llanuras de inundación. Para ello, la dinámica del flujo, la actividad geomorfológica, la sedimentación y la captura de nutrientes de la llanura de inundación, son evaluadas experimentalmente. Seguidamente, los datos experimentales son incluidos en un modelo numérico para desarrollar una herramienta completa de simulación capaz...

  9. 41种葡萄枝条废弃物中膳食纤维及营养成分研究%Dietary Fiber and Nutrients from the Grape Vines of 41 Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛雯; 房玉林; 孙艳; 郭志君; 孟江飞; 刘文昊

    2012-01-01

    研究不同品种的葡萄枝条的基本组成成分含量,并对不同品种、不同来源的葡萄枝条中各组分含量的差异性进行比较.以41种葡萄枝条为试验材料,对膳食纤维、果胶、半纤维素、纤维素、木质素,可溶性蛋白、可溶性糖进行测定.结果表明:部分葡萄品种的枝条中同一组分的含量存在显著差异.41种葡萄枝条中纤维素的含量范围为284.2~418.0 mg/g;半纤维素的含量范围为7.6~25.6 mg/g;果胶的含量范围为81.6~209.6 mg/g;木质素的含量范围为283.6~491.6 mg/g.总膳食纤维的含量范围为927.0~981.2 mg/g,可溶性膳食纤维的含量范围为81.0~108.2mg/g,不溶性膳食纤维的含量范围为801.4~904.4 mg/g,蛋白质的含量范围为4.928~8.627mg/g,可溶性糖的含量范围为47.9~186.7 mg/g.葡萄枝条中含有较高的膳食纤维,不同品种的葡萄枝条中同一组分含量不同,部分品种间有显著差异.%Dietary fibers and nutrients from the grape vines of 41 cultivars were measured to search new sources of dietary fibers, and to examine the differences among the cultivars. The results indicated that the ranges of the contents of different components in the grape vines of 41 cultivars were as follows: cellulose :284. 2 to 418. 0 mg/g, hemicellulose: 7. 6 to 25. 6 mg/g, pectin; 81. 6 to 209. 6 mg/g, lignin- 283. 6 to 491. 6 mg/g, total dietary fibers: 927. 0 to 981. 2 mg/g, soluble dietary fibers: 81. 0 to 108. 2 mg/g, insoluble dietary fibers: 801. 4 to 904. 4 mg/g, protein: 4. 928 to 8. 627 mg/g, and soluble sugar: 47, 9 to 186. 7 mg/g. The results demonstrated that grape vines were rich in dietary fibers. Differences were found in the contents of the same component among different cultivars, some were in significant level.

  10. Recommendations for a trans-European dietary assessment method in children between 4 and 14 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L. F.; Lioret, S.; Brants, H.;

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The main objective of European Food Consumption Validation (EFCOVAL)-child Project is to define and evaluate a trans-European methodology for undertaking national representative dietary surveys among children in the age group of 4-14 years. In the process of identifying the...

  11. Assessment of Sources and Dietary Intake of Isoflavone in the U.S. Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soy products are a major source of dietary isoflavones, with weak estrogenic, and other biological properties that may contribute to the reduction of the risk of some chronic diseases, such as certain cancers, i.e. prostate and melanoma. This presentation will examine sources of isoflavones in the d...

  12. Dietary biomarkers: advances, limitations and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Hedrick Valisa E; Dietrich Andrea M; Estabrooks Paul A; Savla Jyoti; Serrano Elena; Davy Brenda M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The subjective nature of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods presents numerous challenges to obtaining accurate dietary intake and nutritional status. This limitation can be overcome by the use of dietary biomarkers, which are able to objectively assess dietary consumption (or exposure) without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors. The need for dietary biomarkers was addressed by the Institute of Medicine, who recognized the lack of nutritional biomarkers as a ...

  13. Development of a diet quality index assessing adherence to the Swedish nutrition recommendations and dietary guidelines in the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort.

    OpenAIRE

    Drake, Isabel; Gullberg, Bo; Ericson, Ulrika; Sonestedt, Emily; Nilsson, Jan; Wallström, Peter; Hedblad, Bo; Wirfält, Elisabet

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a diet quality index (DQI) that assesses adherence to the Swedish nutrition recommendations (SNR) and the Swedish dietary guidelines (SDG). DESIGN: A cross-sectional study within the Malmö Diet and Cancer (MDC) cohort. A diet history method collected dietary data, a structured questionnaire lifestyle and socio-economic information, and anthropometric data were collected by direct measurements. The index (DQI-SNR) included six components: SFA, PUFA, fish and shellfish, di...

  14. Estimate of dietary intake of chloropropanols (3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP) and health risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Pavesi Arisseto; Eduardo Vicente; Regina Prado Zanes Furlani; Maria Cecília de Figueiredo Toledo

    2013-01-01

    Chloropropanols, including 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and 1,3-dichloropropan-2-ol (1,3-DCP), comprise a group of chemical contaminants with carcinogenic and genotoxic properties. They have been found in a variety of processed foods and food ingredients, such as hydrolyzed vegetable protein, soy sauce, cereal-based products, malt-derived ingredients, and smoked foods. This study aimed to assess the dietary exposure to 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP in Brazil and verify whether the presence of t...

  15. Assessment of algae meal as a ruminant feedstuff: Nutrient digestibility in sheep as a model species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, R S; Van Emon, M L; Loy, D D; Hansen, S L

    2015-11-01

    Heterotrophic microalgae combined with soyhulls forms an algae meal (ALG), which contains partially deoiled microalgae (PDM; 57% DM basis) and soyhulls (43%). Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of PDM and ALG on lamb digestibility. In Exp. 1, 8 wethers (23.02 ± 0.54 kg) were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to determine the effect of the PDM portion of ALG on total tract nutrient digestibility. Diets included a soyhull-based control (CON; 53% soyhulls), 10% PDM from ALG, 20% PDM from ALG (PDM20), and 30% PDM from ALG. Dry matter and OM intake and fecal DM and OM output were similar ( ≥ 0.11) between CON- and ALG-fed lambs. Urine output linearly increased ( = 0.02) as PDM increased in diets. Dry matter, OM, NDF, and ADF digestibility linearly decreased ( diets. Ether extract digestibility did not differ ( = 0.24) between CON- and PDM-fed lambs. Nitrogen digestibility and N retention linearly decreased ( ≤ 0.05) as PDM increased in the diet. In Exp. 2, to determine the effects of ALG on diet and nutrient digestibility and N retention, 10 whiteface cross wethers (33.71 ± 0.55 kg) were used in a replicated 5 × 5 Latin square. Diets included a cracked corn-based control (CORN), 15% ALG, 30% ALG, 45% ALG (ALG45), and 60% ALG (ALG60). Dry matter and OM digestibility linearly ( sheep than for ALG-fed sheep and linearly ( ≤ 0.03) increased as ALG increased in the diet. Ether extract digestibility was lesser ( = 0.002) for CORN than ALG, with a linear ( = 0.002) increase as ALG inclusion increased. There was a cubic ( = 0.03) effect for N digestibility with ALG45 and ALG60 being lesser and CORN being greater than all other treatments. Retention of N and plasma urea N concentration did not differ ( ≥ 0.22) between CORN and ALG. Nonfibrous carbohydrate digestibility linearly ( diet. These results suggest that the PDM portion of ALG may be less digestible than soyhulls in ruminants, and differences in N retention in Exp. 1 may suggest an

  16. Assessment of nutrient removal in vegetated and unvegetated gravel bed mesocosm treatment wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constructed wetlands are being considered more frequently as an option for wastewater treatment around the world. However, widespread application of this technology requires further understanding of the system performance. Such knowledge is necessary to develop improved models, better characterize the essential treatment processes and improve the reliability in performance. The goal of achieving predictable levels of wastewater amelioration with minimal performance variability is an essential part of securing regulatory approval for treatment wetland systems. Laboratory mesocosms or unit-wetlands are being utilized and novel in-situ calibration methods are being applied to reference and compare kinetics of wastewater contaminant transformations. Tracer studies are being applied to reference plant and biofilm development within and between mesocosms with respect to carbon and nitrogen. Through detailed characterization of these unit wetlands, aspects of nutrient removal are being systematically examined. This paper will highlight the unit-wetland approach and experimental results juxtaposed the relevant literature surrounding wetland treatment of wastewater. (author)

  17. Risk Assessment on Dietary Exposure to Aflatoxin B1 in Post-Harvest Peanuts in the Yangtze River Ecological Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Ding

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the 2983 peanut samples from 122 counties in six provinces of China’s Yangtze River ecological region collected between 2009–2014, along with the dietary consumption data in Chinese resident nutrition and health survey reports from 2002 and 2004, dietary aflatoxin exposure and percentiles in the corresponding statistics were calculated by non-parametric probability assessment, Monte Carlo simulation and bootstrap sampling methods. Average climatic conditions in the Yangtze River ecological region were calculated based on the data from 118 weather stations via the Thiessen polygon method. The survey results found that the aflatoxin contamination of peanuts was significantly high in 2013. The determination coefficient (R2 of multiple regression reflected by the aflatoxin B1 content with average precipitation and mean temperature in different periods showed that climatic conditions one month before harvest had the strongest impact on aflatoxin B1 contamination, and that Hunan and Jiangxi provinces were greatly influenced. The simulated mean aflatoxin B1 intake from peanuts at the mean peanut consumption level was 0.777–0.790 and 0.343–0.349 ng/(kg·d for children aged 2–6 and standard adults respectively. Moreover, the evaluated cancer risks were 0.024 and 0.011/(100,000 persons·year respectively, generally less than China’s current liver cancer incidence of 24.6 cases/(100,000 persons·year. In general, the dietary risk caused by peanut production and harvest was low. Further studies would focus on the impacts of peanut circulation and storage on aflatoxin B1 contamination risk assessment in order to protect peanut consumers’ safety and boost international trade.

  18. Risk Assessment on Dietary Exposure to Aflatoxin B₁ in Post-Harvest Peanuts in the Yangtze River Ecological Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaoxia; Wu, Linxia; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Zhaowei; Zhou, Haiyan; Bai, Yizhen; Chen, Xiaomei; Jiang, Jun

    2015-10-01

    Based on the 2983 peanut samples from 122 counties in six provinces of China's Yangtze River ecological region collected between 2009-2014, along with the dietary consumption data in Chinese resident nutrition and health survey reports from 2002 and 2004, dietary aflatoxin exposure and percentiles in the corresponding statistics were calculated by non-parametric probability assessment, Monte Carlo simulation and bootstrap sampling methods. Average climatic conditions in the Yangtze River ecological region were calculated based on the data from 118 weather stations via the Thiessen polygon method. The survey results found that the aflatoxin contamination of peanuts was significantly high in 2013. The determination coefficient (R²) of multiple regression reflected by the aflatoxin B₁ content with average precipitation and mean temperature in different periods showed that climatic conditions one month before harvest had the strongest impact on aflatoxin B₁ contamination, and that Hunan and Jiangxi provinces were greatly influenced. The simulated mean aflatoxin B₁ intake from peanuts at the mean peanut consumption level was 0.777-0.790 and 0.343-0.349 ng/(kg·d) for children aged 2-6 and standard adults respectively. Moreover, the evaluated cancer risks were 0.024 and 0.011/(100,000 persons·year) respectively, generally less than China's current liver cancer incidence of 24.6 cases/(100,000 persons·year). In general, the dietary risk caused by peanut production and harvest was low. Further studies would focus on the impacts of peanut circulation and storage on aflatoxin B₁ contamination risk assessment in order to protect peanut consumers' safety and boost international trade. PMID:26501322

  19. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population......-based health outcome evidence was not sufficient to define a safe upper intake level for sodium. Recent studies have extended this conclusion to show that a sodium intake below 2,300 mg/day is associated with increased mortality. In spite of this increasing body of evidence, the AHA, Centers for Disease...... Control (CDC), other public health advisory bodies, and major medical journals have continued to support the current policy of reducing dietary sodium....

  20. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) Applicability on Nutrients Loadings Prediction in Mountainous Lower Bear Malad River (LBMR) Watershed, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salha, A. A.; Stevens, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    The application of watershed simulation models is indispensable when pollution is generated by a nonpoint source. These models should be able to simulate large complex watersheds with varying soils, land use and management conditions over long periods of time. This study presents the application of Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to investigate, manage, and research the transport and fate of nutrients in (Subbasin HUC 16010204) Lower Bear Malad River (LBMR) watershed, Box elder County, Utah. Water quality problems arise primarily from high phosphorus and total suspended sediment concentrations that were caused by increasing agricultural and farming activities and complex network of canals and ducts of varying sizes and carrying capacities that transport water (for farming and agriculture uses). Using the available input data (Digital Elevation Model (DEM), land use/Land cover (LULC), soil map and weather and climate data for 20 years (1990-2010) to predict the water quantity and quality of the LBMR watershed using a spatially distributed model version of hydrological ArcSWAT model (ArcSWAT 2012.10_1.14). No previous studies have been found in the literature regarding an in-depth simulation study of the Lower Bear Malad River (LBMR) watershed to simulate stream flow and to quantify the associated movement of nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment. It is expected that the model mainly will predict monthly mean total phosphorus (TP) concentration and loadings in a mountainous LBRM watershed (steep Wellsville mountain range with peak of (2,857 m)) having into consideration the snow and runoff variables affecting the prediction process. The simulated nutrient concentrations were properly consistent with observations based on the R2 and Nash- Sutcliffe fitness factors. Further, the model will be able to manage and assess the land application in that area with corresponding to proper BMPs regarding water quality management. Keywords: Water Quality Modeling; Soil and

  1. Improving Training Condition Assessment in Endurance Cyclists: Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and Ophiocordyceps sinensis Dietary Supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Rossi; Daniela Buonocore; Elisa Altobelli; Federico Brandalise; Valentina Cesaroni; Davide Iozzi; Elena Savino; Fulvio Marzatico

    2014-01-01

    The main reasons for taking daily dietary supplements are to maintain good health, to improve homeostasis, and to create conditions for reducing the risk of disease. Due to growing market demand, the search for effective, nontoxic, natural compounds with antioxidant and ergogenic properties has increasingly become a matter of interest. This paper describes how a specific combination of fungal supplements can help improve the performance of endurance athletes. We report the effects of a brief ...

  2. Dietary Tools To Modulate Glycogen Storage In Fish Muscle: A Proteomic Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Tomé S.; Matos, Elisabete; Cordeire, Odete; Wulff, Tune; Goncalves, Amparo; Nunes, Maria Leonor; Dias, Jorge; Jessen, Flemming; Rodrigues, Pedro M.

    2011-01-01

    Post-mortem flesh deterioration is dependent on the energy reserves present at the time of death. Early depletion of muscle glycogen leads to the buildup of lactate and to the early onset of rigor mortis, resulting in the activation of endogenous proteases and the degradation of myofibrillar proteins, and consequent muscle softening. The purpose of this study was to modulate the energy status of the muscle at the time of death through the use of dietary muscle buffering compounds, namely glyc...

  3. Assessment of dietary patterns in nutritional epidemiology: principal component analysis compared with confirmatory factor analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Varraso, Raphaëlle; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Monier, Florent; Le Moual, Nicole; de Batlle, Jordi; Miranda, Gemma; Pison, Christophe,; Romieu, Isabelle; Kauffmann, Francine; Maccario, Jean

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the field of nutritional epidemiology, principal component analysis (PCA) has been used to derive patterns, but the robustness of interpretation might be an issue when the sample size is small. The authors proposed the alternative use of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to define such patterns. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to compare dietary patterns derived through PCA and CFA used as equivalent approaches in terms of stability and relevance. DESIGN: PCA and CFA were performed in ...

  4. Evaluation of the Relative Validity of the Short Diet Questionnaire for Assessing Usual Consumption Frequencies of Selected Nutrients and Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryna Shatenstein

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A 36-item Short Diet Questionnaire (SDQ was developed to assess usual consumption frequencies of foods providing fats, fibre, calcium, vitamin D, in addition to fruits and vegetables. It was pretested among 30 community-dwelling participants from the Québec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Successful Aging, “NuAge” (n = 1793, 52.4% women, recruited in three age groups (70 ± 2 years; 75 ± 2 years; 80 ± 2 years. Following revision, the SDQ was administered to 527 NuAge participants (55% female, distributed among the three age groups, both sexes and languages (French, English prior to the second of three non-consecutive 24 h diet recalls (24HR and validated relative to the mean of three 24HR. Full data were available for 396 participants. Most SDQ nutrients and fruit and vegetable servings were lower than 24HR estimates (p < 0.05 except calcium, vitamin D, and saturated and trans fats. Spearman correlations between the SDQ and 24HR were modest and significant (p < 0.01, ranging from 0.19 (cholesterol to 0.45 (fruits and vegetables. Cross-classification into quartiles showed 33% of items were jointly classified into identical quartiles of the distribution, 73% into identical and contiguous quartiles, and only 7% were frankly misclassified. The SDQ is a reasonably accurate, rapid approach for ranking usual frequencies of selected nutrients and foods. Further testing is needed in a broader age range.

  5. A Multi-Center Assessment of Nutrient Levels and Foods Provided by Hospital Patient Menus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trang, Susan; Fraser, Jackie; Wilkinson, Lori; Steckham, Katherine; Oliphant, Heather; Fletcher, Heather; Tzianetas, Roula; Arcand, JoAnne

    2015-11-01

    Diets of high nutritional quality can aid in the prevention and management of malnutrition in hospitalized patients. This study evaluated the nutritional quality of hospital patient menus. At three large acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada, 84 standard menus were evaluated, which included regular and carbohydrate-controlled diets and 3000 mg and 2000 mg sodium diets. Mean levels of calories, macronutrients and vitamins and minerals provided were calculated. Comparisons were made with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) and Canada's Food Guide (CFG) recommendations. Calorie levels ranged from 1281 to 3007 kcal, with 45% of menus below 1600 kcal. Protein ranged from 49 to 159 g (0.9-1.1 g/kg/day). Energy and protein levels were highest in carbohydrate-controlled menus. All regular and carbohydrate-controlled menus provided macronutrients within the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges. The proportion of regular diet menus meeting the DRIs: 0% for fiber; 7% for calcium; 57% for vitamin C; and 100% for iron. Compared to CFG recommended servings, 35% met vegetables and fruit and milk and alternatives, 11% met grain products and 8% met meat and alternatives. These data support the need for frequent monitoring and evaluation of menus, food procurement and menu planning policies and for sufficient resources to ensure menu quality. PMID:26569294

  6. A Multi-Center Assessment of Nutrient Levels and Foods Provided by Hospital Patient Menus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Trang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Diets of high nutritional quality can aid in the prevention and management of malnutrition in hospitalized patients. This study evaluated the nutritional quality of hospital patient menus. At three large acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada, 84 standard menus were evaluated, which included regular and carbohydrate-controlled diets and 3000 mg and 2000 mg sodium diets. Mean levels of calories, macronutrients and vitamins and minerals provided were calculated. Comparisons were made with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI and Canada’s Food Guide (CFG recommendations. Calorie levels ranged from 1281 to 3007 kcal, with 45% of menus below 1600 kcal. Protein ranged from 49 to 159 g (0.9–1.1 g/kg/day. Energy and protein levels were highest in carbohydrate-controlled menus. All regular and carbohydrate-controlled menus provided macronutrients within the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges. The proportion of regular diet menus meeting the DRIs: 0% for fiber; 7% for calcium; 57% for vitamin C; and 100% for iron. Compared to CFG recommended servings, 35% met vegetables and fruit and milk and alternatives, 11% met grain products and 8% met meat and alternatives. These data support the need for frequent monitoring and evaluation of menus, food procurement and menu planning policies and for sufficient resources to ensure menu quality.

  7. ASSESSMENT OF NUTRIENT ADEQUACY OF ADULT RESIDENTS IN CHINA%中国成年居民营养素摄入状况的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范轶欧; 刘爱玲; 何宇纳; 杨晓光; 徐贵发; 马冠生

    2012-01-01

    目的 使用ISU方法计算营养素的日常摄入量(UI),评估中国成年居民的营养素摄入状况.方法 使用“2002年中国居民营养与健康状况调查”数据,采用美国爱荷华州立大学(Iowa State Unirersity,ISU)方法计算43 672名成年居民的碳水化合物、蛋白质、钙、铁、锌、硒、镁、维生素B1和维生素B2的UI,并将UI与平均需要量(EAR)比较,评估这些营养素摄入不足的比例;将宏量营养素供能比的UI与可接受宏量营养素分布范围(AMDRs)或适宜摄入量(AI)比较,评估宏量营养素摄入是否合理. 结果 我国成年居民碳水化合物和蛋白质供能比UI均值均在推荐范围之内,脂肪供能比UI均值稍高于AI上限;碳水化合物供能比低于AI下限的比例约为40%,蛋白质供能比低于AMDRs下限的比例约为20%,脂肪供能比高于AI上限比例约为50%.我国成年居民钙、锌、硒、镁、维生素B1和维生素B2摄入不足比例均较高,其中钙摄入不足的比例超过95%,维生素B1和维生素B2摄入不足的比例均达到了80%以上.结论 我国成年居民宏量营养素供能比例不合理,膳食钙、锌、硒、镁、维生素B1和维生素B2摄入不足状况较为严重.%Objective To estimate the usual nutrients intake distributions of adults in China by Iowa State University, ISU) method in order to assess the prevalence of inadequate or excessive nutrients intakes with the Dietary Reference Intakes as reference values. Method The data of China National Nutrition and Health Survey in 2002 were used for analysis. After estimating the usual nutrients intake distributions of carbohydrate, protein, fat, calcium, iron, zinc, selenium, magnesium, thiamine and riboflavin by ISU method among 43 672 adults, the estimated average requirements (EAR) were used as cutoff points for verifying the proportion of individuals having inadequate nutrients intake. The usual intakes of macronutrients outside the acceptable

  8. Cost assessment and ecological effectiveness of nutrient reduction options for mitigating Phaeocystis colony blooms in the Southern North Sea: an integrated modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancelot, Christiane; Thieu, Vincent; Polard, Audrey; Garnier, Josette; Billen, Gilles; Hecq, Walter; Gypens, Nathalie

    2011-05-01

    Nutrient reduction measures have been already taken by wealthier countries to decrease nutrient loads to coastal waters, in most cases however, prior to having properly assessed their ecological effectiveness and their economic costs. In this paper we describe an original integrated impact assessment methodology to estimate the direct cost and the ecological performance of realistic nutrient reduction options to be applied in the Southern North Sea watershed to decrease eutrophication, visible as Phaeocystis blooms and foam deposits on the beaches. The mathematical tool couples the idealized biogeochemical GIS-based model of the river system (SENEQUE-RIVERSTRAHLER) implemented in the Eastern Channel/Southern North Sea watershed to the biogeochemical MIRO model describing Phaeocystis blooms in the marine domain. Model simulations explore how nutrient reduction options regarding diffuse and/or point sources in the watershed would affect the Phaeocystis colony spreading in the coastal area. The reference and prospective simulations are performed for the year 2000 characterized by mean meteorological conditions, and nutrient reduction scenarios include and compare upgrading of wastewater treatment plants and changes in agricultural practices including an idealized shift towards organic farming. A direct cost assessment is performed for each realistic nutrient reduction scenario. Further the reduction obtained for Phaeocystis blooms is assessed by comparison with ecological indicators (bloom magnitude and duration) and the cost for reducing foam events on the beaches is estimated. Uncertainty brought by the added effect of meteorological conditions (rainfall) on coastal eutrophication is discussed. It is concluded that the reduction obtained by implementing realistic environmental measures on the short-term is costly and insufficient to restore well-balanced nutrient conditions in the coastal area while the replacement of conventional agriculture by organic farming

  9. Assessment of nonpoint-source nutrient discharges from the Switzer Creek basin, Steuben County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    Switzer Creek, tributary to the upper Susquehanna River basin, drains a 3.55 sq mi watershed that is 51% agricultural and 49% forested. From November 1978 to September 1980, Switzer Creek discharged 1,000 tons of suspended sediment, or 0.44 tons/acre. The maximum instantaneous suspended sediment concentration of 3 ,840 mg/L occurred during high water on September 14, 1979. Nitrogen loads, composed of nitrite plus nitrate total kjeldahl nitrogen, totaled 11 and 3.5 pounds/acre, respectively. Eighty percent of the total nitrogen load was transported during base flow. Of the nitrogen load transported during base flow, 88% was nitrite plus nitrate; of the total nitrogen load transported during high flows, 85% was organic nitrogen. Nearly 90% of the phosphorus load was transported during high flows as a result of its affinity for particulate matter. The load of total phosphorus as P totaled 0.63 pounds/acre, and total orthophosphorus as P totaled 0.19 pounds/acre. Nitrite plus nitrate from atmospheric sources totaled 8.4 pounds/acre, and ammonium totaled 3.9 pounds/acre. Equations relate streamflow to concentration and load of eight selected nutrients. (USGS)

  10. Preliminary assessment of nutritional value of plant-based diets in relation to human nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberoumand, Ali

    2009-01-01

    In this research, we present preliminary nutritional data for traditional vegetables and fruits including their content of mineral elements (calcium, potassium, sodium, zinc, and iron) and antioxidant phenolic compounds levels. Eight vegetables and vegetables were studied. Plant foods Asparagus officinalis DC, Chlorophytum comosum Linn., Cordia myxa Roxb., Portulaca oleracia Linn. and Solanum indicum Linn. were collected in Behbehan, south Iran, and also Alocacia indica Sch., Eulophia ocherata Lindl. and Momordica dioica Roxb. were collected from the south of India. Nutrients were measured with food analytical standard methods. The results of this study provide evidence that these local traditional vegetables, which do not require formal cultivation, could be important contributors to improving the nutritional content of Pune and Behbehan people. Results indicate that 50% of the vegetables have significant energy values ranging from 281.4 to 303.9 kcal/100 g. From this study, it was determined that five vegetables, namely A. officinalis, C. comosum, E. ocherata, P. oleracia and S. indicum, provide mineral concentrations exceeding 2% of the plant dry weight and are much higher than typical mineral concentrations in conventional edible vegetables; they are thus recommended for future commercial cultivation. High levels of antioxidant compounds were noticed in P. oleracia and S. indicum. The three plants S. indicum, A. officinalis and P. oleracia are suitable for high-temperature food processes. PMID:19274594

  11. 深圳市居民代谢综合征与膳食营养素关系%Relationship between metabolic syndrome and dietary nutrients intake in residents of Shenzhen city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷林; 周海滨; 彭绩; 刘小立

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MS) and dietary nutrients intake in residents of Shenzhen for making dietary control strategies. Methods Totally 3 498 people aged IS years and above were sampled at random with multistage stratified sampling. All subjects took a questionnaire survey and anthropometric and laboratory test. The metabolic syndrome definition was based on the criterion recommended by Chinese Association of Diabetes (2004). Results The standardized prevalence of MS in the residents was 7.76% , which was significant higher than that of Guangdong residents. The t-test analysis indicated that there were obvious differences in potassium, sodium, iron, manganese , and retinol intake between the residents with and without MS (P < 0.05). The multi variate logistic analysis indicated that taking excessive vitamin B2(odds ratio [OR] = 0.281), vitamin E( OR =0.928), and iron (OR = 1.061) were the important risk factors for MS. Conclusion The dietary nutrients intake is related with metabolic syndrome and appropriate nutrition intervention is very important to prevent and control the occurrence of MS.%目的 探讨广东深圳居民代谢综合征与膳食营养素摄入水平的关系,为制订膳食营养防治策略提供科学依据.方法用多阶段分层整群随机抽样的方法,对深圳市≥15岁常住居民3 498人进行问卷调查,人体测量及实验室检查;代谢综合征的诊断标准采用中华医学会糖尿病协会推荐的标准.结果 调查人群MS患病率为7.20%(252/3 498);男性MS患病率为9.42%( 146/1 550),高于女性的5.44%( 106/1 948),差异有统计学意义(x2 =20.43,P<0.001);15~,45~,60~69岁MS患病率分别为3.84%、12.50%、21.37%,MS患病率随着年龄的增长逐渐增加(x趋势2= 148.53,P<0.001);15岁~组和45岁~组男性MS患病率均高于同年龄段女性,≥60岁的女性MS患病率超过男性;深圳居民MS患者的钠、铁、锰摄

  12. Application of the BRAFO tiered approach for benefit–risk assessment to case studies on dietary interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhagen, Hans; Andersen, Rikke; Antoine, Jean-Michel;

    2011-01-01

    The respective examples, described in this paper, illustrate how the BRAFO-tiered approach, on benefit–risk assessment, can be tested on a wide range of case studies. Various results were provided, ranging from a quick stop as the result of non-genuine benefit–risk questions to continuation through...... the tiers into deterministic/probabilistic calculations. The paper illustrates the assessment of benefits and risks associated with dietary interventions. The BRAFO tiered approach is tested with five case studies. In each instance, the benefit–risk approach is tested on the basis of existing...... evaluations for the individual effects done by others; no new risk or benefit evaluations were made. The following case studies were thoroughly analysed: an example of food fortification, folic acid fortification of flour, macronutrient replacement/food substitution; the isocaloric replacement of saturated...

  13. Probabilistic assessment of the cumulative dietary acute exposure of the population of Denmark to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christensen, Tue

    2009-01-01

    Organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides are acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides and as such have a common mode of action. We assessed the cumulative acute exposure of the population of Denmark to 25 organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide residues from the consumption of fruit, vegetables...... and cereals. The probabilistic approach was used in the assessments. Residue data obtained from the Danish monitoring programme carried out in the period 2004-2007, which included 6704 samples of fruit, vegetables and cereals, were used in the calculations. Food consumption data were obtained from...... the nationwide dietary survey conducted in 2000-2002. Contributions from 43 commodities were included in the calculations. We used the relative potency factor (RPF) approach to normalize the toxicity of the various organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides to the two index compounds chlorpyriphos...

  14. Nutritional Adequacy of Dietary Intake in Women with Anorexia Nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan K. Raatz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN patients is essential for the treatment. Therefore, estimates of total energy and nutrient consumption were made in a group of young women (19 to 30 years with restricting and binge purge subtypes of AN participating in an ecological momentary assessment study. Participants completed three nonconsecutive 24-hour diet recalls. Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by subtype and by quartiles of energy intake and compared to the age specific Dietary Reference Intake (DRI levels, as well as to the reported intakes from the What We Eat In America (WWEIA dietary survey 2011–2012. Reported intake was determined for energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients. The mean body mass index (BMI for all participants was 17.2 ± 0.1 kg/m2. Reported nutrient intake was insufficient for participants in quartiles 1–3 of both AN subtypes when compared to the DRIs. Intake reported by participants in quartile 4 of both subgroups met requirements for most nutrients and even met or exceeded estimated energy needs. Counseling of AN patients should be directed to total food consumption to improve energy intake and to reduce individual nutritional gaps.

  15. Assessing the sensitivity of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to dietary endosulfan exposure using tissue biochemistry and histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incorporation of plant-based ingredients, and the possible carry-over of pesticides such as endosulfan, in fish feeds may present new toxicological challenges to aquacultural species. Biological responses of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to a 35-day dietary endosulfan exposure at levels ranging from 4 to 710 μg kg-1 were assessed using tissue histology and biochemistry. Liver 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deacetylase (EROD) activity was significantly elevated in the highest exposure group (710 μg kg-1) by day 35. Other hepatic indicators of stress impacts and responses (glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase activities and hepatic α-tocopherol content) remained unchanged. Branchial Na+, K+-ATPase activity was significantly reduced at day 14 in the highest exposure group, but returned to control levels by day 35. Conversely, intestinal Na+, K+-ATPase activity was significantly inhibited at day 35, but again only at the highest exposure level. In contrast to the biochemical results, hepatic and intestinal histology revealed effects of exposure even at the lowest dose tested (4 μg kg-1). In the posterior intestine, pathology was characterised by vacuolation and fusion of villi, and in the most severe cases, loss of epithelial integrity in villi tips. In the liver the primary effects were glycogen depletion and lipidosis. These changes were typical of a generalised stress response. While histology endpoints may prove to be the most sensitive indicators of dietary endosulfan exposure, the organismal relevance of these structural changes must be considered in the absence of effects in other biomarkers at dietary levels less than 710 μg kg-1

  16. Assessment of indicators and collection methodology to estimate nutrient digestibility in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Felizardo Pereira Soares

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Dry fecal matter production was estimated from neutral detergent indicators on indigestible fiber, indigestible acid detergent fiber, indigestible dry matter, incubated for 144 hours and 288 hours, as well as chromium oxide (Cr2O3 and enriched and purified isolated lignin (LIPE® in two sampling schemes (3 and 5 days on buffaloes. Sample consisted of five castrated animals with average weight of 300 ± 0.6 kg fed on elephant grass cv Cameroon (Pennisetum purpureum. Experimental design consisted of randomized blocks in subdivided plots. Production of dry fecal matter was overestimated when using Cr2O3, indigestible acid detergent fiber 144 hours, indigestible neutral detergent fiber 144 hours, indigestible neutral detergent fiber 288 hours and indigestible dry matter 144 hours, while indigestible acid detergent fiber 288 hours, indigestible dry matter 288 hours and LIPE® did not differ from total collection. The same result was observed for apparent digestibility of nutrients. There was no difference in dry fecal matter production and digestibility between both collection periods of 3 and 5 days, demonstrating that a collection period of three days can be used to estimate dry fecal matter production in buffaloes. A three-day period of sample collection, in order to estimate dry fecal matter production and apparent digestibility coefficients, is therefore recommended. The use of LIPE®, fibers in indigestible acid detergent and indigestible dry matter as indicators, both latter incubated for 288 hours, result in accurate estimates of dry fecal matter production in confined buffaloes, fed on a forage based diet.

  17. Monitoring subsurface microbial and nutrient transport to assess treatment capability of at- grade septic system designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cey, E.; Motz, E.; Chu, A.; Ryan, C.

    2009-05-01

    By design, septic systems release pathogenic microbes, nutrients and other chemical contaminants into the subsurface and have the potential to adversely impact groundwater quality. Newer at-grade septic system designs discharge wastewater effluent on the soil surface, however, relatively little research has been conducted on transport processes and treatment efficacy for these systems. The objective of this study was to investigate physical, biological, and chemical processes beneath two at-grade wastewater treatment systems. Secondary treated effluent from the Fish Creek wastewater treatment plant in Calgary is being applied to soil through the two at-grade systems in volumes equivalent to a three-bedroom household. A dye tracer was also introduced with the effluent to aid in the evaluation of subsurface flow patterns and the identification of soil sampling locations. An extensive vadose zone monitoring system, consisting of suction lysimeters, tensiometers, time domain reflectometry probes, thermistors, and soil vapour probes, was installed to track the effluent through the soil profile. Fecal coliform, total coliform, and E. Coli, as well as other physical and chemical parameters, are being monitored in-situ. Soil samples for microbial and chemical analysis have also been obtained by excavating portions of the infiltration area beneath the two systems. Chemical and dye tracers showed relatively rapid migration of effluent to depths of up to 1.5 m below surface. Preliminary pathogen results indicate an approximately four log reduction in E. Coli concentrations at 10 cm depth and six log reduction at 60 cm depth. Continued monitoring of these pilot systems will provide valuable data on subsurface pathogen migration and the suitability of at-grade systems for treating wastewater and reducing the risk of groundwater contamination.

  18. Dietary Tools To Modulate Glycogen Storage In Fish Muscle: A Proteomic Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Tomé S.; Matos, Elisabete; Cordeire, Odete;

    isonitrogenous and isolipidic. Fish were slaughtered by immersion in ice-salt water slurry and muscle samples were immediately obtained from three fish of each tank, for a total of six muscle samples per treatment. Sarcoplasmic proteins were extracted from each muscle sample, separated/quantified by 2D-DIGE and...... proteins, and consequent muscle softening. The purpose of this study was to modulate the energy status of the muscle at the time of death through the use of dietary muscle buffering compounds, namely glycerol and maslinic acid. Four fish groups of gilthead seabream (in duplicate) were fed for three months...

  19. Feasibility of dietary assessment methods, other tools and procedures for a pan-European food consumption survey among infants, toddlers and children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ocké, Marga; Brants, Henny; Dofkova, Marcela;

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To test the feasibility of tools and procedures for a pan-European food consumption survey among children 0-10 years and to recommend one of two tested dietary assessment methods. Methods Two pilot studies including 378 children were conducted in Belgium and the Czech Republic in the Pilot...... logistically more challenging by the interviewers. Conclusions Both dietary assessment methods with related tools and administration protocols were evaluated as feasible. The administration protocol with two 1-day food diaries with completion interviews offers more advantages for the future pan-European survey...

  20. Eating out of home and dietary adequacy in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Teresa; Severo, Milton; Oliveira, Andreia; Ramos, Elisabete; Rodrigues, Sara; Lopes, Carla

    2015-07-01

    The present study aims to describe dietary intake and dietary adequacy according to eating location in preschool children. A sub-sample of 2414 children from the Generation XXI birth cohort (Porto, Portugal), evaluated during the follow-up between 2009 and 2011, was included. Dietary intake was assessed by 3 d food diaries and four groups of children were defined according to the eating location: 'Home' ( ≥ 80% of meals at home), 'Other homes', 'Preschool' and 'Restaurants'. A dietary adequacy index was developed based on general recommendations for children; a higher score represents a better dietary adequacy. The comparison of nutrients and foods daily intake according to the eating location groups was performed by ANOVA and ANCOVA to adjust for potential confounders. Children classified in 'Preschool' group ate significantly more vegetables, fruit, bread and fish, and less meat, compared to children classified into the 'Home' group. Children classified in the 'Restaurants' group ate more cakes, salty snacks and fruit juices than children in 'Home' group; and less vegetables, dairy products and pasta/rice/potatoes. In 'Restaurants' children obtained the lowest mean score of the dietary adequacy index (15.5, 95% CI 14.8, 16.3) and in 'Preschool' children had the highest mean score (18.3, 95% CI 18.1, 18.4), corresponding to a better dietary adequacy. Preschools seem to have a relevant role in promoting the intake of healthy foods in preschool children. The consumption in restaurants/coffee shops seems to contribute to energy-dense food intake and reduced consumption of nutrient-dense foods. PMID:26082269

  1. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on principles for deriving and applying Dietary Reference Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the general principles for development and application of Dietary Reference Values (DRVs). These quantitative reference values for nutrient intakes for healthy individuals and populations are based on...... health criteria. Derived from DRVs, nutrients goals and recommendations take into account other criteria such as food composition or dietary habits, and may be used for assessment and planning of diets. It is proposed to derive the following DRVs: 1) Population Reference Intakes (PRI), 2) Average...... Requirement (AR), 3) Lower Threshold Intake (LTI), 4) Adequate Intake (AI), 5) Reference Intake ranges for macronutrients (RI). Nutrient requirements differ with age, sex and physiological condition. The Panel proposes to define the age ranges used for each nutrient on a case-by-case basis depending on the...

  2. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Forsum, Elisabet; Henriksson, Hanna; Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva; Larsson, Christel; Maddison, Ralph; Timpka, Toomas; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH), which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare energy intake (EI) using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water (DLW); and (b) to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years) within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP) obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH) was not statistically different from TEE (DLW) (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680 kJ/24 h, respectively). No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665-0.896, p < 0.001). In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials. PMID:26784226

  3. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Delisle Nyström

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH, which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a to compare energy intake (EI using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE measured via doubly labelled water (DLW; and (b to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH was not statistically different from TEE (DLW (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680kJ/24 h, respectively. No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665–0.896, p < 0.001. In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials.

  4. Gut health immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory functions of gut enzyme digested high protein micro-nutrient dietary supplement-Enprocal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanwar Rupinder K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enprocal is a high-protein micro-nutrient rich formulated supplementary food designed to meet the nutritional needs of the frail elderly and be delivered to them in every day foods. We studied the potential of Enprocal to improve gut and immune health using simple and robust bioassays for gut cell proliferation, intestinal integrity/permeability, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities. Effects of Enprocal were compared with whey protein concentrate 80 (WPC, heat treated skim milk powder, and other commercially available milk derived products. Results Enprocal (undigested and digested (Enprocal D selectively enhanced cell proliferation in normal human intestinal epithelial cells (FHs74-Int and showed no cytotoxicity. In a dose dependent manner Enprocal induced cell death in Caco-2 cells (human colon adencarcinoma epithelial cells. Digested Enprocal (Enprocal D: gut enzyme cocktail treated maintained the intestinal integrity in transepithelial resistance (TEER assay, increased the permeability of horseradish peroxidase (HRP and did not induce oxidative stress to the gut epithelial cells. Enprocal D upregulated the surface expression of co-stimulatory (CD40, CD86, CD80, MHC I and MHC II molecules on PMA differentiated THP-1 macrophages in coculture transwell model, and inhibited the monocyte/lymphocyte (THP-1/Jurkat E6-1 cells-epithelial cell adhesion. In cytokine secretion analyses, Enprocal D down-regulated the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α and up-regulated IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-10. Conclusion Our results indicate that Enprocal creates neither oxidative injury nor cytotoxicity, stimulates normal gut cell proliferation, up regulates immune cell activation markers and may aid in the production of antibodies. Furthermore, through downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, Enprocal appears to be beneficial in reducing the effects of chronic gut inflammatory diseases such as

  5. Should nutrient profile models be ‘category specific' or ‘across-the-board'? A comparison of the two systems using diets of British adults

    OpenAIRE

    Scarborough, P; Arambepola, C; Kaur, A.; Bhatnagar, P.; Rayner, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Nutrient profile models have the potential to help promote healthier diets. Some models treat all foods equally (across-the-board), some consider different categories of foods separately (category specific). This paper assesses whether across-the-board or category-specific nutrient profile models are more appropriate tools for improving diets. Subjects/Methods: Adult respondents to a British dietary survey were split into four groups using a diet quality index. Fifteen ...

  6. Assessment of the removal of estrogenicity in biological nutrient removal wastewater treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal of estrogenicity in a University of Cape Town-biological nutrient removal (UCT-BNR) wastewater treatment process was investigated using pilot and bench scale systems, batch experiments and mathematical modeling. In the pilot BNR process, 96 ± 5% of the estrogenicity exerted by the influent wastewater was removed by the treatment process. The degradation efficiencies in the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones of the pilot BNR bioreactor were 11 ± 9%, 18 ± 2% and 93 ± 10%, respectively. In order to further understand the performance of the BNR process in the removal of estrogenicity from wastewater, a bench scale BNR process was operated with synthetic wastewater dosed with E1 and E2. The removal of estrogenicity in the bench scale system (95 ± 5%) was comparable to the pilot BNR process and the degradation efficiencies were estimated to be 8 ± 0.8%, 38 ± 4% and 85 ± 22% in the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones, respectively. A biotransformation model developed to predict the fate of E1 and E2 in batch tests using the sludge from the BNR process was calibrated using the data from the experiments. The biotransformation rate constants for the transformation of E2 to E1 were estimated as 71 ± 1.5, 31 ± 3.3 and 1 ± 0.9 L g COD−1 d−1 for the aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic batch tests, respectively, while the corresponding biotransformation rate constants for the transformation of E1 were estimated to be 7.3 ± 1.0, 3 ± 2.0, and 0.85 ± 0.6 L·g COD−1 d−1. A steady state mass balance model formulated to describe the interactions between E2 and E1 in BNR activated sludge reasonably described the fate of E1 and E2 in the BNR process. - Highlights: • Comparable estrogenicity removal was observed from two BNR processes. • Pseudo first order model described the transformation of E2 and E1 in BNR process. • Biotransformation of E1 in BNR activated sludge controls the degradation of E2

  7. Assessment of the removal of estrogenicity in biological nutrient removal wastewater treatment processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogunlaja, O.O., E-mail: oogunlaj@uwaterloo.ca; Parker, W.J., E-mail: wjparker@uwaterloo.ca

    2015-05-01

    The removal of estrogenicity in a University of Cape Town-biological nutrient removal (UCT-BNR) wastewater treatment process was investigated using pilot and bench scale systems, batch experiments and mathematical modeling. In the pilot BNR process, 96 ± 5% of the estrogenicity exerted by the influent wastewater was removed by the treatment process. The degradation efficiencies in the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones of the pilot BNR bioreactor were 11 ± 9%, 18 ± 2% and 93 ± 10%, respectively. In order to further understand the performance of the BNR process in the removal of estrogenicity from wastewater, a bench scale BNR process was operated with synthetic wastewater dosed with E1 and E2. The removal of estrogenicity in the bench scale system (95 ± 5%) was comparable to the pilot BNR process and the degradation efficiencies were estimated to be 8 ± 0.8%, 38 ± 4% and 85 ± 22% in the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones, respectively. A biotransformation model developed to predict the fate of E1 and E2 in batch tests using the sludge from the BNR process was calibrated using the data from the experiments. The biotransformation rate constants for the transformation of E2 to E1 were estimated as 71 ± 1.5, 31 ± 3.3 and 1 ± 0.9 L g COD{sup −1} d{sup −1} for the aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic batch tests, respectively, while the corresponding biotransformation rate constants for the transformation of E1 were estimated to be 7.3 ± 1.0, 3 ± 2.0, and 0.85 ± 0.6 L·g COD{sup −1} d{sup −1}. A steady state mass balance model formulated to describe the interactions between E2 and E1 in BNR activated sludge reasonably described the fate of E1 and E2 in the BNR process. - Highlights: • Comparable estrogenicity removal was observed from two BNR processes. • Pseudo first order model described the transformation of E2 and E1 in BNR process. • Biotransformation of E1 in BNR activated sludge controls the degradation of E2.

  8. 日粮纤维来源对生长猪养分消化率的影响%Effects of Dietary Fiber Sources on the Digestibility of Nutrients for Growing Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟丽辉; 庞敏; 朱丽媛; 吴维达; 卢庆萍; 张宏福

    2015-01-01

    本试验旨在研究3种不同来源的日粮纤维( DF)对生长猪养分和总能( GE)的表观全肠道消化率( ATTD)、表观回肠消化率( AID)及后肠发酵率的影响。试验采用有重复的4×3不完全拉丁方设计,包括4种试验饲粮和3个饲养周期,每个周期12 d。这4种饲粮分别为基础饲粮、甜菜粕饲粮、麦麸饲粮和燕麦麸饲粮(3种纤维饲粮分别以20%的甜菜粕、麦麸、燕麦麸替代基础饲粮)。选择8头在回肠末端安装简单T 型瘘管的杜×长×大三元杂交阉公猪[初始体重(19.0±1.8) kg],分别在3个饲养周期交替饲喂4种试验饲粮。结果表明:生长猪饲粮干物质( DM)、粗蛋白质( CP)、GE、粗灰分( ash)和碳水化合物( CHO)的ATTD、AID及后肠发酵率均受DF来源的显著影响(P<0.05)。甜菜粕、麦麸和燕麦麸饲粮组DM、GE和CHO的ATTD显著低于基础饲粮组( P<0.05),甜菜粕饲粮组CP的ATTD显著低于其他3种饲粮组( P<0.05)。饲粮组DM、GE、ash和CHO的AID从高到低的顺序为:基础饲粮>燕麦麸、麦麸饲粮>甜菜粕饲粮。甜菜粕与燕麦麸饲粮组CP的AID显著低于其他2种饲粮组( P<0.05)。可溶性日粮纤维( SDF)含量最高的甜菜粕饲粮,其组DM、GE、ash与CHO的后肠发酵率显著高于其他3种饲粮组(P<0.05)。甜菜粕饲粮组 DM、GE 与 CHO 的后肠消化率分别比基础饲粮组的高12.4%、7.81%和12.6%( P<0.05)。综上所述,DF来源(麦麸、燕麦麸或甜菜粕)会显著改变生长猪饲粮GE和养分消化率,而富含SDF的甜菜粕可显著提高饲粮各养分在后肠的发酵率。%The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary fiber ( DF) sources on the determination of apparent total tract digestibility ( ATTD ) , apparent ileal digestibility ( AID ) and hindgut fermentation rate of nutrients and

  9. Dietary control of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bayoumy, K; Chung, F L; Richie, J; Reddy, B S; Cohen, L; Weisburger, J; Wynder, E L

    1997-11-01

    Many laboratory studies and human epidemiological data suggest that most cancer deaths are attributable to lifestyle, including nutritional factors and tobacco and alcohol consumption. Tobacco consumption is causally related to cancer of the lung, mouth, larynx, esophagus, bladder, kidney, and pancreas. Nutrients and non-nutrient dietary components probably account for cancer of the colon, breast, prostate, and stomach. This report is based on literature and our own data pertaining to the role of dietary fat, calories, and fiber in the development of colon and breast cancer. We also discuss the evidence from epidemiological, mechanistic, and preclinical efficacy studies indicating a protective effect of micronutrients, non-nutrients, and certain antioxidants in food against oral and lung cancers. Given the continuing cancer burden and the relatively slow impact of proven cancer treatment strategies in reducing cancer mortality, it is essential to evaluate promising nutrients and non-nutrients in foods as chemopreventive agents in persons at increased risk for cancer. Development of reliable intermediate biomarkers is valuable for clinical chemoprevention intervention trials. The purpose of this report is to provide the reader with plausible approaches to cancer control. PMID:9349690

  10. Phytometric Assessment of Fertility of Roadside Soils and Its Relationship with Major Nutrients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Akbar, K. F.; Hale, W.H.G.; Šerá, Božena; Ashraf, I.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 5 (2012), s. 1141-1145. ISSN 1230-1485 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC10032; GA MŠk(CZ) LD11040 Keywords : roadside verges * soil fertility * phytometric assessment * NPK analyses Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.462, year: 2012

  11. Efficacy of algal metrics for assessing nutrient and organic enrichment in flowing waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, S.D.; Mueller, D.K.; Spahr, N.E.; Munn, M.D.; Dubrovsky, N.M.

    2008-01-01

    1. Algal-community metrics were calculated for periphyton samples collected from 976 streams and rivers by the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Programme during 1993–2001 to evaluate national and regional relations with water chemistry and to compare whether algal-metric values differ significantly among undeveloped and developed land-use classifications.

  12. Climate friendly dietary guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Trolle, Ellen; Mogensen, Lisbeth; Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the present Danish diet could be changed in a climate friendly direction that follows the recommendations of a healthy diet.The carbon footprint (CF) of an average Danish diet was calculated and compared to CF of a recommended healthy diet by 1) modifying the average diet according to the Danish food based dietary guidelines, 2) and adjusting to ensure an iso-energy content and a nutrient content according to the Nordic Nutrient Recommendations. Af...

  13. 上海市居民膳食中铅镉暴露水平评估%Assessment on the dietary exposure of lead and cadmium in Shanghai residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘弘; 吴春峰; 陆屹; 方亚敏; 高围溦; 邢之慧; 陆冬磊

    2011-01-01

    Objective To obtain the basic data of lead and cadmium exposure from food for Shanghai residents, and to estimate the health risk of dietary lead and cadmium contamination in Shanghai. Methods A method recommended by WHO on the dietary exposure assessment of chemicals in food was applied. Surveillance on the content of lead and cadmium in food combined with a survey on dietary nutrients intake of Shanghai residents was conducted. Results The average dietary lead and cadmium exposure of Shanghai residents per week were estimated to be 0.006 2 mg/kg BW and 0.002 5 mg/kg BW, accounted for 24.77% and 35.06% of provisional tolerable weekly intake ( PTWI), respectively.The dietary lead and cadmium exposure per week of top consumers ( the food consumption was higher than the upper 90th percentile) were estimated to be 0.012 3 and 0.004 8 mg/kg Bw, accounted for 49.08% and 68.09% of PTWI.Conclusion The level of dietary cadmium exposure in Shanghai residents was higher than that of dietary lead exposure.Although both dietary lead and cadmium exposure level in Shanghai residents is usually lower than PTWI, cutting it down is necessary.%目的 了解上海市居民膳食中铅、镉暴露的基础数据,评估上海市市售食品中铅、镉污染的危险性.方法 对上海市市售食品中铅、镉含量进行监测,并结合上海市居民膳食营养素摄入量调查,应用WHO推荐的食品中化学污染物膳食暴露评估方法,对上海市居民膳食中铅、镉暴露水平进行评估.结果 上海市居民平均每周膳食中铅、镉暴露量分别为0.006 2、0.002 5 mg/kg BW,占暂定每周可耐受摄入量(PTWI)的24.77%、35.06%.高端消费人群(食物消费量第90百分位数)每周膳食中铅、镉暴露量分别为0.012 3和0.0048 mg/kg BW,占PTWI的49.08%、68.09%.结论 上海市居民膳食中镉暴露水平高于铅暴露水平,正常情况下均低于PTWI,但仍有进一步降低的必要.

  14. Assessment of mycorrhizal colonisation and soil nutrients in unmanaged fire-impacted soils from two target restoration sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, J. M.; Oliveira, R. S.; Franco, A. R.; Ritz, K.; Nunan, N.; Castro, P. M. L.

    2010-07-01

    The mycorrhizal colonisation of plants grown in unmanaged soils from two restoration sites with a fire history in Northern Portugal was evaluated from the perspective of supporting restoration programmes. To promote restoration of original tree stands, Quercus ilex L. and Pinus pinaster Ait. were used as target species on two sites, denoted Site 1 and 2 respectively. The aim of the study was to assess whether mycorrhizal propagules that survived fire episodes could serve as in situ inoculum sources, and to analyse the spatial distribution of soil nutrients and mycorrhizal parameters. In a laboratory bioassay, P. pinaster and Q. ilex seedlings were grown on soils from the target sites and root colonisation by ectomycorrhizal (ECM) and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi was determined. The ECM root colonisation levels found indicated that soil from Site 2 contained sufficient ECM propagules to serve as a primary source of inoculum for P. pinaster. The low levels of ECM and AM colonisation obtained on the roots of plants grown in soil from Site 1 indicated that the existing mycorrhizal propagules might be insufficient for effective root colonisation of Q. ilex. Different ECM morphotypes were found in plants grown in soil from the two sites. At Site 2 mycorrhizal parameters were found to be spatially structured, with significant differences in ECM colonisation and soil P concentrations between regions of either side of an existing watercourse. The spatial distribution of mycorrhizal propagules was related to edaphic parameters (total C and extractable P), and correlations between soil nutrients and mycorrhizal parameters were found. (Author) 31 refs.

  15. Dietary intake is associated with human chronotype as assessed by both morningness-eveningness score and preferred midpoint of sleep in young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato-Mito, Natsuko; Shibata, Shigenobu; Sasaki, Satoshi; Sato, Kazuto

    2011-08-01

    We analyzed the association between dietary intake and chronotype as assessed by both Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) score and preferred midpoint of sleep in 112 young Japanese women. Dietary intake was assessed by a brief, self-administered diet history questionnaire. A lower MEQ score (evening-type tendency) showed a significant association with a lower energy-adjusted intake of protein, calcium, magnesium, zinc, vitamins (D, riboflavin, and B(6)), and vegetables, and with a higher intake of noodles. Furthermore, a later midpoint of sleep showed a significant association with a lower energy-adjusted intake of protein, cholesterol, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, vitamins (D, riboflavin, B(6), and B(12)), soy, fish and shellfish, and eggs, and with a higher intake of noodles, bread, and confections. These data suggest that evening chronotype is associated with inadequate dietary habits such as low vitamin and mineral intakes. PMID:21495902

  16. A nutrition mathematical model to account for dietary supply and requirements of energy and nutrients for domesticated small ruminants: the development and evaluation of the Small Ruminant Nutrition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlindo Tedeschi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A mechanistic model that predicts nutrient requirements and biological values of feeds for sheep (Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System; CNCPS-S was expanded to include goats and the name was changed to the Small Ruminant Nutrition System (SRNS. The SRNS uses animal and environmental factors to predict metabolizable energy (ME and protein, and Ca and P requirements. Requirements for goats in the SRNS are predicted based on the equations developed for CNCPS-S, modified to account for specific requirements of goats, including maintenance, lactation, and pregnancy requirements, and body reserves. Feed biological values are predicted based on carbohydrate and protein fractions and their ruminal fermentation rates, forage, concentrate and liquid passage rates, and microbial growth. The evaluation of the SRNS for sheep using published papers (19 treatment means indicated no mean bias (MB; 1.1 g/100 g and low root mean square prediction error (RMSPE; 3.6 g/100g when predicting dietary organic matter digestibility for diets not deficient in ruminal nitrogen. The SRNS accurately predicted gains and losses of shrunk body weight (SBW of adult sheep (15 treatment means; MB = 5.8 g/d and RMSPE = 30 g/d when diets were not deficient in ruminal nitrogen. The SRNS for sheep had MB varying from -34 to 1 g/d and RSME varying from 37 to 56 g/d when predicting average daily gain (ADG of growing lambs (42 treatment means. The evaluation of the SRNS for goats based on literature data showed accurate predictions for ADG of kids (31 treatment means; RMSEP = 32.5 g/d; r2= 0.85; concordance correlation coefficient, CCC, = 0.91, daily ME intake (21 treatment means; RMSEP = 0.24 Mcal/d g/d; r2 = 0.99; CCC = 0.99, and energy balance (21 treatment means; RMSEP = 0.20 Mcal/d g/d; r2 = 0.87; CCC = 0.90 of goats. In conclusion, the SRNS for sheep can accurately predict dietary organic matter digestibility, ADG of growing lambs and changes in SBW of mature sheep. The SRNS

  17. Exposure assessment of adult intake of bisphenol A (BPA) with emphasis on canned food dietary exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, Matthew; Schecter, Arnold; Paepke, Olaf; Shropshire, William; Christensen, Krista; Birnbaum, Linda

    2015-04-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-volume, synthetic compound found in epoxy resins and plastics used in food packaging. Food is believed to be a major source of BPA intake. In this study, we measured the concentration of BPA in convenience samplings of foodstuffs purchased in Dallas, Texas. Sampling entailed collection of 204 samples of fresh, frozen, and canned foods in two rounds in 2010. BPA was positive in 73% of the canned food samples, while it was found in only 7% of non-canned foods at low concentrations. The results of this food sampling program were used to calculate adult dietary intakes of BPA. A pathway approach combined food intakes, a "canned fraction" parameter which described what portion of total intake of that food came from canned products, and measured food concentrations. Dietary intakes were calculated as 12.6 ng/kg-day, of which 12.4 ng/kg-day was from canned foods. Canned vegetable intakes alone were 11.9 ng/kg-day. This dietary intake was compared to total intakes of BPA estimated from urine measurements of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Total adult central tendency intakes ranged from 30 to 70 ng/kg-day for NHANES cycles between 2005 and 2010. Three possibilities were explored to explain the difference between these two approaches for intake estimation. Not all foods which may have been canned, particularly canned beverages such as soft drinks, were sampled in our food sampling program. Second, non-food pathways of exposure may be important for adults, including thermal paper exposures, and dust and air exposures. Finally, our canned food concentrations may not be adequately representative of canned foods in the United States; they were found to be generally lower compared to canned food concentrations measured in six other worldwide food surveys including three in North America. Our finding that canned food concentrations greatly exceeded non-canned concentrations was consistent with other studies, and

  18. Effect of maternal dietary intake on the weight of the newborn in Aligarh city, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisa M Durrani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed (1 To record the nutrient intake of the respondents and compare the same with the available recommended dietary allowances (RDA. (2 To assess the correlation between maternal dietary intake and the weight of newborn. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and ninety two pregnant women. Study Area: Five hospitals of Aligarh city, Uttar Pradesh. Study Tool and Data Collection: Interview schedule was administered to record information regarding dietary intake and weight of newborn. The data collection was initiated in April 2009 and was completed in March′ 2010. Data Analysis: Statistical analysis was done by using version SPSS 17. Frequency distributions were calculated for all variables. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to determine the influence of the dietary intake on the birth weight of newborn. Results: Results revealed that the nutrient intake in all trimesters of pregnancy was lower as compared to RDA. There were significant correlations between the nutrient intake of the mothers and the weight of newborn in all trimesters of pregnancy (P=0.01. Conclusion: It was found that the dietary intake during all trimesters of pregnancy were significantly associated with the birth weight.

  19. Micro nutrient Daily Intake of Elementary School Children in Bandung as Determined by Using NAA and AAS Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micro nutrients in human diet are known to be among the most essential sources of nutrition, that required by the human body in small amount to maintain normal physiological function. Micro nutrient malnutrition (MNM) is widespread all over the world, mostly in the developing country, where young children tend to be the most at risk of developing micro nutrient deficiencies. In Indonesia, data of micro nutrient status of children is limited. Therefore, the assessment of micro nutrient intake of young children is needed to carry out. Food samples were taken by duplicate diet method of 19 elementary school children in Bandung and were analyzed using neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Quality control of data analysis was assessed using SRM NIST 1548a Typical Diet. The result was giving the average daily intake of Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se and Zn were 228, 0.15, 0.57, 9.3, 929, 106, 2,1, 2314, 0.022 and 4.6 mg/day respectively and gives 22, 527, 86, 111, 17, 54, 116, 49 and 63% of Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) values. Its generally concluded that these children are still lack of micro nutrient intake, and many of them were below their recommended dietary allowances. These result were expected could be used as baseline data and reference to encourage government and related institution in making policies for public health improvement and micro nutrient malnutrition solution as well. (author)

  20. Watershed Modeling to Assess the Sensitivity of Streamflow, Nutrient, and Sediment Loads to Potential Climate Change and Urban Development in 20 U.S. Watersheds (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed modeling was conducted in 20 large, U.S. watersheds to assess the sensitivity of streamflow, nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus), and sediment loading to a range of plausible mid-21st Century climate change and urban development scenarios in different regions of the nati...

  1. Applying INAA to assess dietary intake of elements through fish from coastal areas near Vishakhapatnam, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essential and toxic element concentrations were measured in fish from coastal areas of Pudimadaka near Vishakhapatnam by neutron activation analysis. Elemental concentrations were observed to be within guideline values fit for human consumption. Correlation among elements suggests similar biogeochemical properties and possibly similar sources. The daily dietary intake values were comparable with reported literature from India and ICRP reference man. Hazard Quotients for all elements were <1. These data will serve as baseline values of elemental concentrations that can be compared with future elemental levels during the operational and post-operational stages of the nuclear facility to be set up at this location. They can also be useful for further studies to identify the spatial and seasonal variations of elements in fish species and monitor the concentration level of elements in this region. (author)

  2. Design and pilot testing of a dietary assessment methodology for children at school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Laursen, Rikke; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    with both healthy eating and sustainable consumption (organic food). The relationship between them forms the background in this study. Evidence has shown that caterers serving organic food tend to also serve healthier meals than their non-organic counterparts but, so far, no studies have been carried...... out in school food environments. Aim: The aim of this report was to investigate and develop appropriate methods for studying the link between healthy eating practices and organic food procurement policies using Danish public elementary schools as a setting. Methods: Based on relevant scientific...... literature, the Danish Dietary Recommendations, and inspired by other successful studies, a self-administered questionnaire investigating children’s eating habits was designed. After testing by an Expert Evaluation Panel and Think Aloud Interviews adjustments were integrated. Conclusion: If special attention...

  3. WebDASC: a web-based dietary assessment software for 8-11-year-old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Trolle, Ellen; Christensen, Tue;

    Background:  The present study describes the development and formative evaluation of the Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children (WebDASC). WebDASC is part of the OPUS project ('Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet') and was......, literature review, and usability tests preceded its release. Special consideration was given to age-appropriate design issues. Results:  In WebDASC an animated armadillo guides respondents through six daily eating occasions and helps them report foods and beverages previously consumed. A database of 1300...... food items is available either through category browse or free text search, aided by a spell check application. A type-in format is available for foods not otherwise found through category browse or text search. Amount consumed is estimated by selecting the closest portion size among four different...

  4. Individualized nutritional recommendations: do we have the measurements needed to assess risk and make dietary recommendations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Lenore

    2004-02-01

    Is the information currently available to adjust nutritional recommendations and develop individualized nutrition? No. There is not even the information needed for setting dietary recommendations with confidence now at the group level. Will it be available soon? The answer to this question depends on the drive and will of the nutritional community, the success in recruiting funding to the area, the education of nutritionists and the spawning of great ideas and approaches. The emerging tools of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics are enabling the in-depth study of relationships between diet, genetics and metabolism. The advent of technologies can be compared with the discovery of the microscope and the new dimensions of scientific visualization enabled by that discovery. Nutritionists stand at the crest of new waves of data that can be generated, and new methods for their digestion will be required. To date, the study of dietary requirements has been based largely on a black box approach. Subjects are supplemented or depleted and clinical outcomes are observed. Few recommendations are based on metabolic outcomes. Metabolomics and nutrigenomics promise tools with which recommendations can be refined to meet individual requirements and the potential of individualized nutrition can be explored. As yet, these tools are not being widely applied in nutritional research and are rarely being applied by nutritionists. The result is often interesting research that is frequently nutritionally flawed, resulting in inappropriate conclusions. Nutritional education is needed to put nutritionists at the forefront of the development of applications for these technologies, creating a generation of nutrigenomicists. A new generation of nutritionists should be working interdisciplinarily with geneticists, molecular biologists and bioinformaticians in the development of research strategies. The present paper reviews the current status of nutrigenomic research, the current

  5. EPR as an analytical tool in assessing the mineral nutrients and irradiated food products-vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasuna, C. P. Lakshmi; Chakradhar, R. P. S.; Rao, J. L.; Gopal, N. O.

    2008-12-01

    EPR spectral investigations of some commonly available vegetables in south India, which are of global importance like Daucus carota (carrot), Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (cluster beans), Coccinia indica (little gourd) and Beta vulgaris (beet root) have been carried out. In all the vegetable samples a free radical corresponding to cellulose radical is observed. Almost all the samples under investigation exhibit Mn ions in different oxidation states. The temperature variation EPR studies are done and are discussed in view of the paramagnetic oxidation states. The radiation-induced defects have also been assessed by using the EPR spectra of such irradiated food products.

  6. Assessment on dietary iodine intake in three areas of Zhejiang province, 2009%2009年浙江省3个城市居民膳食碘摄入量评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄李春; 章荣华; 刘丽萍; 顾昉; 吴文倩; 管旭辉; 李筱薇

    2012-01-01

    目的 评估浙江省不同地区居民膳食碘摄入水平.方法 2009年在浙江省内陆和沿海地区抽取杭州、台州、舟山市180户家庭共497人,采用总膳食研究方法进行膳食调查,统计人群各种食物的消费量,按照所得的食物消费量数据烹调加工并混合成可食的各种食物类别制作成膳食样品.采用四甲基氢氧化铵提取-电感耦合等离子体-质谱法测定膳食样品中碘含量.食物消费量与样品(烹饪加工后的熟样)中碘含量相乘得到碘膳食摄入量.以2001年中国营养学会公布的碘推荐摄入量(RNI)和可耐受最高摄入量(UL),评估膳食碘摄入量.结果3个城市居民膳食碘摄入为421.0 μg/d(标准人),M=358.5 μg/d.P5(第5百分位数)、P25、P75、P90、P95分别为145.7、267.6、495.6、774.1、1273.0 μ g/d.5.2%的居民每日膳食碘摄入低于RNI,87.5%的居民每日膳食碘处于RNI与UL之间,7.2%的居民每日膳食碘摄入超过UL.不考虑烹饪损失,食盐每日供给的碘占膳食碘摄入量的81.6%.加工烹饪食物后,膳食碘的57.2%来源于蔬菜类,13.0%来源于谷类,8.5%来源于水产类.每日膳食碘摄入超过UL的人群其海藻类摄入明显高于每日膳食碘摄入小于RNI人群和膳食碘处于RNI-UL之间的人群.结论 浙江省3个城市居民总体膳食碘摄入量尚未达到最高限值,且碘摄入不足与摄入过高情况并存,碘盐和海藻类食物是膳食碘的主要来源.%Objective To assess the level of dietary iodine intake in three areas of Zhejiang and the related policy on universal salt iodization in the province.Methods The study involved 497residents from 180 families living in Hangzhou,Taizhou,Zhoushan cities,representing coastal and inland areas in Zhejiang province in 2009.A total diet study was applied to obtain the typical diet samples at three study areas through food consumption,aggregation,sampling and preparation processes.The contents of iodine in

  7. Exploration of different methods to assess dietary acrylamide exposure in pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brantsaeter, A.L.; Haugen, M.; Mul, de A.; Bjellaas, T.; Becher, G.; Klaveren, van J.D.; Alexander, J.; Meltzer, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    We assessed dietary exposure to acrylamide in 119 pregnant Norwegian women. The aim of the study was to explore three different methods for estimation of long-term intake of acrylamide and whether it is possible by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to identify pregnant women with high exposure to

  8. 新诊断的2型糖尿病患者营养素摄入量与营养参考指数(DRIs)对比分析%A comparative analysis of nutrients intake of newly diagnosed patients versus Dietary Reference Intake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车千红; 赵晴; 孙灿; 郭佳琦

    2012-01-01

    目的 将新诊断的T2DM患者营养素摄入量与中国居民膳食营养素参考摄入量(DRIs)对比分析.方法 采用24h膳食调查法连续3d对新诊断的T2DM患者进行膳食调查,计算每人每日热能和各种营养素的摄入量,结果与DRIs对比分析.结果 调查组人均脂肪摄入量明显高于推荐水平;维生素C、膳食纤维、钙等营养素平均每日摄入量均低于推荐水平.结论 提倡食物多样性,以中国居民平衡膳食宝塔为参照依据,对T2DM患者给予有针对性的营养素补充.%Objective To comparatively analyze the nutrient intake of patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), for providing a scientific basis for preventing T2DM. Methods The 24 hours dietary investigation for 3 days in patients newly diagnosed as T2DM was adopted, calculating total energy and various nutrients intakes per person per day. We compared the surveyed results with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Results The average daily fat intake was significantly higher in survey group than in the DRIs recommendation. The average daily intake of micronutrients such as dietary fiber, vitamin C, calcium etc was lower in survey group than in DRIs recommendation. Conclusions Advocating food diversification and following the Chinese residents balanced meal pagoda as reference, patients with type 2 diabetes may be given a targeted nutrient supplement

  9. Dietary intakes in people with irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corfe Bernard M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS is a functional bowel disorder characterised by episodes of abdominal pain associated with altered bowel habits. Many IBS sufferers believe that diet may play a role in triggering these episodes and may avoid certain foods. However relatively few studies have undertaken a dietary assessment in IBS sufferers to examine the wider impact of the condition upon diet. Methods 104 individuals with IBS were recruited and asked to complete a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. The data were analysed against Dietary Reference Values for food energy and nutrients for the United Kingdom and observed intakes for the general population and for differences between IBS subtypes and the UK population. Results The data show that the dietary intakes of this population of IBS sufferers met the UK Dietary Reference Values. The average energy intake of the population exceeded the Estimated Average Requirements of the UK population and the balance of macronutrients was favourable. Intakes of selected micronutrients significantly exceeded the reference nutrient intakes. There were no differences between IBS subtypes. Conclusions The IBS subpopulation appear to have an adequate and balanced macronutrient intake with no evidence of inadequate micronutrient intake.

  10. Comparison of a Full Food-Frequency Questionnaire with the Three-Day Unweighted Food Records in Young Polish Adult Women: Implications for Dietary Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Ewa Niedzwiedzka; Anna Dlugosz; Dariusz Slowinski; Slowinska, Malgorzata A.; Joanna Kowalkowska; Lidia Wadolowska

    2013-01-01

    The food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the food record (FR) are among the most common methods used in dietary research. It is important to know that is it possible to use both methods simultaneously in dietary assessment and prepare a single, comprehensive interpretation. The aim of this study was to compare the energy and nutritional value of diets, determined by the FFQ and by the three-day food records of young women. The study involved 84 female students aged 21–26 years (mean of 22.2...

  11. Harmonisation of food consumption data format for dietary exposure assessments of chemicals analysed in raw agricultural commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Polly E; Ruprich, Jiri; Petersen, Annette; Moussavian, Shahnaz; Debegnach, Francesca; van Klaveren, Jacob D

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, we present an approach to format national food consumption data at raw agricultural commodity (RAC) level. In this way, the data is both formatted in a harmonised way given the comparability of RACs between countries, and suitable to assess the dietary exposure to chemicals analysed in RACs at a European level. In this approach, consumption data needs to be converted to edible part of RAC (e-RAC) level using a RAC conversion database. To subsequently use this data in exposure assessments, both e-RACs and RACs analysed in chemical control programmes should be classified via a uniform system. Furthermore, chemical concentrations in RACs may need to be converted to e-RAC level using processing factors. To illustrate the use of this approach, we describe how the Dutch RAC conversion database was used to convert consumption data of four national consumption surveys to e-RAC level, and the use of the FAO/WHO Codex Classification system of Foods and Animal Feeds to harmonise the classification. We demonstrate that this approach works well for pesticides and glycoalkaloids, and is an essential step forward in the harmonisation of risk assessment procedures within Europe when addressing chemicals analysed in RACs by all national food control systems. PMID:19682531

  12. Impact assessment on DFS supplementation Post NHE on nutrient intake of critically anemic pregnant mothers in a tribal set up of Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Nair

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adequate nutrition is essential during pregnancy to ensure optimal fetal growth. Especially maternal Iron and Iodine deficiency have negative and irreversible effects of the developing fetus. Double Fortified Salt (DFS with both iodine and iron was later proposed by NIN to be simple and inexpensive public health strategy to control iron and iodine deficiencies. Efficacy trials were run by Nair et al., 2007 using DFS showed a beneficial effect on population by an increase of 4-5% change in the iron status of the highly malnourished subjects.  Objectives: The study has focused on the impact of DFS along with nutrient intake on critically anemic pregnant mothers in tribal areas of Jhagadia with 58% of preterm deliveries. Materials and Methods: Present study was carried out in Bharuch District. From this area 135 pregnant mothers were enrolled. NHE regarding consumption of DFS and dietary improvement was provided. Reinforcement was carried out after 1 month of supplementation with DFS. Results: Out of 135 subjects, 40% were UIC deficient, 75% were moderately anemic, 15% and 10% were mild and severely anemic respectively.  DFS (1mg iron and 40ppm iodine/g supplementation and Nutrition Health Education for 2 months showed statistical non-significant change in UIE and iron status of the pregnant mothers. Significant increment in both macro and micro nutrient intake from pre to post intervention period was observed. Conclusion: Owing to the fact that dietary contribution of Iron was only 7mg/day, it is clearly evident that even DFS and IFA supplementation showed no significant improvement in iron status. Dense nutrition is the key element for improving maternal nutritional status.

  13. Age dependent values of dietary intake for assessing human exposures to environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed information concerning human food consumption patterns necessary for relating pollutant body burdens to environmental contamination levels was compiled to be used in lieu of site-specific data for calculating health impacts arising from the ingestion of food containing various levels of such pollutants as radionuclides, toxic heavy metals, insecticides and many others. This paper examines available data on human food consumption rates and estimates dietary intake rates by individuals of various ages. Ingestion parameters include intake rates of water and other beverages, milk, vegetables, fruits, meat, poultry, grain and fish. Information was analyzed from documented surveys of individuals within households and from interviews and personal communications. Although average intake rates are often the only data reported in the literature, ranges as well as averages are included in this paper whenever possible. Various results are tabulated including per capita food consumption in 1955 and 1965 and changes in per capita consumption as well as changes by urbanization. Details of milk consumption are presented by selected sex-age groups. Solid food intake is given by age group. Market basket quantities of foods consumed daily are also tabulated. (author)

  14. Symbiotic essential amino acids provisioning in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus) under various dietary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Thomas; Sabree, Zakee

    2016-01-01

    Insect gut microbes have been shown to provide nutrients such as essential amino acids (EAAs) to their hosts. How this symbiotic nutrient provisioning tracks with the host’s demand is not well understood. In this study, we investigated microbial essential amino acid (EAA) provisioning in omnivorous American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana), fed low-quality (LQD) and comparatively higher-quality dog food (DF) diets using carbon stable isotope ratios of EAAs (δ13CEAA). We assessed non-dietary EAA input, quantified as isotopic offsets (Δ13C) between cockroach (δ13CCockroach EAA) and dietary (δ13CDietary EAA) EAAs, and subsequently determined biosynthetic origins of non-dietary EAAs in cockroaches using 13C-fingerprinting with dietary and representative bacterial and fungal δ13CEAA. Investigation of biosynthetic origins of de novo non-dietary EAAs indicated bacterial origins of EAA in cockroach appendage samples, and a mixture of fungal and bacterial EAA origins in gut filtrate samples for both LQD and DF-fed groups. We attribute the bacteria-derived EAAs in cockroach appendages to provisioning by the fat body residing obligate endosymbiont, Blattabacterium and gut-residing bacteria. The mixed signatures of gut filtrate samples are attributed to the presence of unassimilated dietary, as well as gut microbial (bacterial and fungal) EAAs. This study highlights the potential impacts of dietary quality on symbiotic EAA provisioning and the need for further studies investigating the interplay between host EAA demands, host dietary quality and symbiotic EAA provisioning in response to dietary sufficiency or deficiency. PMID:27231663

  15. Water quality in Atlantic rainforest mountain rivers (South America): quality indices assessment, nutrients distribution, and consumption effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avigliano, Esteban; Schenone, Nahuel

    2016-08-01

    The South American Atlantic rainforest is a one-of-a-kind ecosystem considered as a biodiversity hotspot; however, in the last decades, it was intensively reduced to 7 % of its original surface. Water resources and water quality are one of the main goods and services this system provides to people. For monitoring and management recommendations, the present study is focused on (1) determining the nutrient content (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, and phosphate) and physiochemical parameters (temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, and total dissolved solids) in surface water from 24 rainforest mountain rivers in Argentina, (2) analyzing the human health risk, (3) assessing the environmental distribution of the determined pollutants, and (4) analyzing water quality indices (WQIobj and WQImin). In addition, for total coliform bacteria, a dataset was used from literature. Turbidity, total dissolved solids, and nitrite (NO2 (-)) exceeded the guideline value recommended by national or international guidelines in several sampling stations. The spatial distribution pattern was analyzed by Principal Component Analysis and Factor Analysis (PCA/FA) showing well-defined groups of rivers. Both WQI showed good adjustment (R (2) = 0.89) and rated water quality as good or excellent in all sampling sites (WQI > 71). Therefore, this study suggests the use of the WQImin for monitoring water quality in the region and also the water treatment of coliform, total dissolved solids, and turbidity. PMID:27083909

  16. Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis to assess dietary intake of selenium in Korean adults from meat and eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selenium is a key constituent of enzyme in glutathione peroxidase, which is effective in decreasing various types of oxidative stress, Thus, the adequacy of selenium intake is very important in decreasing the risks of various degenerating diseases such as cardiovascular disease, or certain cancers. Lately, the intake of animal foods is increasing among Koreans owing to a dietary transition toward a western style. This study was conducted to measure the selenium content in meat and eggs, and then assessed the selenium intake from these foods. Forty frequently eaten items among meat and eggs were analyzed using an Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The selenium content in 100g of raw meat and eggs ranged from 8.1ug to 50.9ug. In particular, 100g of beef contained 12.4ug to 50.9ug of selenium; pork, 11.2ug to 22.6ug chicken, 10.2ug to 13.7ug and eggs, 28.6ug to 43.0ug. Thus, beef viscera and chicken eggs contain the highest amounts of selenium among these groups. 100g of Pork belly, the most frequently eaten meat type among Koreans, contains 14.6ug of selenium. An evaluation of dietary selenium intake shows that the total selenium supply from meats and eggs was 28.4ug/day and 27.5 ug/day in adult men and women, respectively. These are over one-half of the Korean RNI (Recommended Daily Intake) of 55ug/day. (author)

  17. How well do preschoolers identify healthy foods? Development and preliminary validation of the Dietary Interview Assessing Nutritional Awareness (DIANA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Paulo A

    2015-09-01

    The current study aimed to develop and initially validate a brief Dietary Interview Assessing Nutritional Awareness (DIANA) that mapped onto the Stop-Light Diet System. Participants for this study included 69 preschool children (83% boys; mean age = 5.13 years; 86% Latino) recruited from two summer programs. Children were presented with 24 pictures and were asked to name the food and indicate how healthy they felt each food was by pointing to a smiley face (very healthy = Green/Go food), neutral face (somewhat healthy = Yellow/Slow food), or a sad face (not healthy at all = Red/Whoa foods). Psychometric properties of the DIANA were assessed via a baseline assessment while children were re-administered the DIANA within 4-6 weeks to ascertain the test-retest reliability. Discriminant validity was also assessed in an exploratory fashion with a small subsample (n = 11) of children who participated in a healthy-lifestyle intervention program (HIP). Results indicated that the internal consistency of the DIANA for both the expressive knowledge and the health classification scales was acceptable (α = .83 and .82, respectively) along with the test-retest reliability (ICC = .86 and .81, respectively). Lastly, children who participated in HIP experienced greater gains in their ability to classify food based on the Stop-Light System and greater expressive knowledge of Green/Go foods compared to children who did not participate in the intervention suggesting adequate construct validity. These findings highlight the feasibility and utility of the DIANA in assessing young children's knowledge of foods and their relative healthiness as well as its potential sensitivity to intervention effects. PMID:25998236

  18. Nutritional knowledge and dietary habits survey in high school population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosavljević, Dragana; Mandić, Milena L; Banjari, Ines

    2015-03-01

    During adolescence, young people are in a sensitive transition period when they gradually take over the responsibility for their own eating habits, health attitudes and behaviours and create lifelong habits so it is essential that they adopt healthy habits according to dietary recommendations. Knowledge is one of the factors necessary for the changes in dietary habits. The'objective of this study was to gain insight in nutritional knowledge and dietary habits of adolescents. The sample included 117 adolescents aged 17-19 years. Self-administered, anonymous questionnaire, representing modified version of General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire was used to assess general characteristics, nutritional knowledge about nutrients, dietary recommendations, sources of nutrients, diet-disease relationship, and dietary habits. Less than one third of adolescents showed satisfactory knowledge, but boys, adolescents from rural environment and overweight adolescents showed significantly lower knowledge unlike others. Meal skipping was present habit, especially for breakfast consumption. Especially high consumption of meat and meat products was noted for boys, while fruit and vegetables for girls. Fad dieting was quite practiced habit, especially in girls and overweight adolescents. Among girls, high consumption of sweets was confirmed, while boys showed high consumption of soft drinks. Television presents the main source of infor- mation about nutrition for adolescents. Collected data shows similarity with other research in Europe and North America that confirm strong influence of globalization and fast spread of unhealthy habits. The results pointed out weak spots in nutritional knowledge and revealed unhealthy eating habits. This information is necessary for the development of new approaches to modulate their knowledge and consequently act on their behaviour. Behavioral changes would include higher number of meals per day, regular breakfast consumption, higher intake of fish

  19. Developing technological solutions for dietary assessment in children and young people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several technology based systems for diet assessment among children have been developed. Reports on these systems were incorporated into this special journal issue. This is the first compendium of reports on diet assessment among children. The different systems vary from simple to complex, and from ...

  20. Egg Intake and Dietary Quality among Overweight and Obese Mexican-American Postpartum Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Vega-López

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite their low cost and high nutrient density, the contribution of eggs to nutrient intake and dietary quality among Mexican-American postpartum women has not been evaluated. Nutrient intake and dietary quality, as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010, were measured in habitually sedentary overweight/obese (body mass index (BMI = 29.7 ± 3.5 kg/m2 Mexican-American postpartum women (28 ± 6 years and compared between egg consumers (n = 82; any egg intake reported in at least one of three 24-h dietary recalls and non-consumers (n = 57. Egg consumers had greater intake of energy (+808 kJ (193 kcal or 14%; p = 0.033, protein (+9 g or 17%; p = 0.031, total fat (+9 g or 19%; p = 0.039, monounsaturated fat (+4 g or 24%; p = 0.020, and several micronutrients than non-consumers. Regarding HEI-2010 scores, egg consumers had a greater total protein foods score than non-consumers (4.7 ± 0.7 vs. 4.3 ± 1.0; p = 0.004, and trends for greater total fruit (2.4 ± 1.8 vs. 1.9 ± 1.7; p = 0.070 and the total composite HEI-2010 score (56.4 ± 12.6 vs. 52.3 ± 14.4; p = 0.082. Findings suggest that egg intake could contribute to greater nutrient intake and improved dietary quality among postpartum Mexican-American women. Because of greater energy intake among egg consumers, recommendations for overweight/obese individuals should include avoiding excessive energy intake and incorporating eggs to a nutrient-dense, fiber-rich dietary pattern.

  1. Nutrient intake amongst rural adolescent girls of Wardha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliye C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the nutrient intake of rural adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried in four adopted villages of the Department of Community Medicine, M.G.I.M.S., Sewagram. A household survey was carried out in the villages. A list of all the adolescent girls in the age group of 10-19 years was prepared by enumeration through house-to-house visit. All adolescent girls were included in the study. A pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic variables and anthropometric variables. A 24 h recall method was used to assess nutrient intake. Data generated was entered and analyzed using epi_info 2000. Nutrient intake was compared with ICMR Recommended Dietary Allowances. Nutritional status was assessed by BMI for age. Results: The mean height of the adolescent girls was 142.9 cm. Overall, 57% of the adolescents were thin (BMI for age <5 th percentile for CDC 2000 reference and 43% of the adolescents were normal (BMI for age between 5 th - 85 th percentile for CDC 2000 reference. The average energy intake, which was 1239.6±176.4 kcal/day, was deficient of RDA by 39%. The average protein intake was 39.5±7 gm/day. It was deficient by 36% and the average iron intake, which was 13.2±2.5 mg/day, was deficient by 48%. Conclusion: The findings reiterate the dietary deficiency among adolescent girls which adversely affects the nutritional status. If the poor nutritional status is not corrected promptly before they become pregnant, it adversely affects the reproductive outcome. If we have to meet out the goals of Reproductive and Child Health Program, intervention strategies to improve the dietary intake of adolescent girls are needed so that their requirements of energy, protein, vitamins and minerals are met.

  2. Glycoalkaloids (α-chaconine and α-solanine) contents of selected Pakistani potato cultivars and their dietary intake assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Abdul; Randhawa, Muhammad Atif; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Asghar, Ali; Yasin, Muhammad; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2012-03-01

    Glycoalkaloids (α-solanine and α-chaconine) are naturally occurring toxic compounds in potato tuber (Solanum tuberosum L.) that cause acute intoxication in humans after their consumption. Present research was conducted to evaluate α-chaconine, α-solanine, and total glycoalkaloids (TGAs) contents in the peel and flesh portions by high-performance liquid chromatography method in selected Pakistani potato cultivars. The α-solanine content varies 45.98 ± 1.63 to 2742.60 ± 92.97 mg/100 g of dry weight (DW) in peel and from 4.01 ± 0.14 to 2466.56 ± 87.21 mg/100 g of DW in flesh. Similarly, α-chaconine content varied from 4.42 ± 0.16 to 6818.40 ± 211.07 mg/100 g of DW in potato peel and from 3.94 ± 0.14 to 475.33 ± 16.81 mg/100 g DW in flesh portion. The TGA concentration varied from 177.20 ± 6.26 to 5449.90 ± 192.68 mg/100 g of DW in peel and from 3.08 ± 0.11 to 14.69 ± 0.52 mg/100 g of DW in flesh portion of all the potato cultivars tested. All the potato cultivars contained lower concentration of TGA than the limits recommended as safe, except 2 cultivars, that is FD8-3 (2539.18 ± 89.77 mg/100 g of DW) and Cardinal (506.16 ± 17.90 mg/kg). The dietary intake assessment of potato cultivars revealed that Cardinal, FD 35-36, FD 8-3, and FD 3-9 contained higher amount of TGA in whole potato, although FD 8-3 only possessed higher content of TGA (154.93 ± 7.75) in its flesh portion rendering it unfit for human consumption. Practical Application:  This paper was based on the research conducted on toxic compounds present in all possible potato cultivars in Pakistan. Actually, we quantify the toxic compounds (glycoalkaloids) of potato cultivars through HPLC and their dietary assessment. This paper revealed safety assessment and their application in food industries especially potato processing. PMID:22329893

  3. Dietary intake of Alaska Native people in two regions and implications for health: the Alaska Native Dietary and Subsistence Food Assessment Project

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Jennifer S.; Elizabeth D. Nobmann; Asay, Elvin; Lanier, Anne P.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. To calculate the energy and nutrient intake in 2 regions of Alaska and to describe theimplications for development of chronic disease among Alaska Native people (AN).Study design. Cross-sectional observation; 10 villages and 2 hub communities in rural Alaska;333 participants ages 13 to 88 years old.Methods. Trained interviewers collected 24-hour diet recalls during 4 seasons.Results. In both regions, AN reported a combination of traditional Native foods and store boughtfoods; most...

  4. Improving Training Condition Assessment in Endurance Cyclists: Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and Ophiocordyceps sinensis Dietary Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Paola; Buonocore, Daniela; Altobelli, Elisa; Brandalise, Federico; Cesaroni, Valentina; Iozzi, Davide; Savino, Elena; Marzatico, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    The main reasons for taking daily dietary supplements are to maintain good health, to improve homeostasis, and to create conditions for reducing the risk of disease. Due to growing market demand, the search for effective, nontoxic, natural compounds with antioxidant and ergogenic properties has increasingly become a matter of interest. This paper describes how a specific combination of fungal supplements can help improve the performance of endurance athletes. We report the effects of a brief 3-month trial of two fungal supplements, Ganoderma lucidum and Cordyceps sinensis (3 capsules of O. sinensis and 2 capsules of G. lucidum per day), in 7 healthy male volunteers, aged between 30 and 40 years, who are all amateur cyclists that participate in "Gran Fondo" cycling races. This trial investigated the effects of fungal supplements on the level of physical fitness of the athletes by monitoring and comparing the following biomarkers just before and after physical exertion: the testosterone/cortisol ratio in the saliva and oxidative stress (DPPH free radical scavenging activity). A decrease of more than 30% in the testosterone/cortisol ratio after race compared to before race was considered as a risk factor for nonfunctional overreaching (NFO) or the overtraining syndrome (OTS). The results show that, after 3 months of supplementation, the testosterone/cortisol ratio changed in a statistically significant manner, thereby protecting the athletes from NFO and OTS. Antioxidant activity was measured by quantifying the scavenging ability of the human serum on the synthetic free radical DPPH. After 3 months of fungal supplementation, the data demonstrate an increased scavenger capacity of free radicals in the athletes' serum after the race, thereby protecting the athletes from oxidative stress. PMID:24799948

  5. Improving Training Condition Assessment in Endurance Cyclists: Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and Ophiocordyceps sinensis Dietary Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rossi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main reasons for taking daily dietary supplements are to maintain good health, to improve homeostasis, and to create conditions for reducing the risk of disease. Due to growing market demand, the search for effective, nontoxic, natural compounds with antioxidant and ergogenic properties has increasingly become a matter of interest. This paper describes how a specific combination of fungal supplements can help improve the performance of endurance athletes. We report the effects of a brief 3-month trial of two fungal supplements, Ganoderma lucidum and Cordyceps sinensis (3 capsules of O. sinensis and 2 capsules of G. lucidum per day, in 7 healthy male volunteers, aged between 30 and 40 years, who are all amateur cyclists that participate in “Gran Fondo” cycling races. This trial investigated the effects of fungal supplements on the level of physical fitness of the athletes by monitoring and comparing the following biomarkers just before and after physical exertion: the testosterone/cortisol ratio in the saliva and oxidative stress (DPPH free radical scavenging activity. A decrease of more than 30% in the testosterone/cortisol ratio after race compared to before race was considered as a risk factor for nonfunctional overreaching (NFO or the overtraining syndrome (OTS. The results show that, after 3 months of supplementation, the testosterone/cortisol ratio changed in a statistically significant manner, thereby protecting the athletes from NFO and OTS. Antioxidant activity was measured by quantifying the scavenging ability of the human serum on the synthetic free radical DPPH. After 3 months of fungal supplementation, the data demonstrate an increased scavenger capacity of free radicals in the athletes’ serum after the race, thereby protecting the athletes from oxidative stress.

  6. Hormone Use in Food Animal Production: Assessing Potential Dietary Exposures and Breast Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachman, Keeve E; Smith, Tyler J S

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the role of hormones in breast cancer etiology, following reports that heightened levels of endogenous hormones and exposure to exogenous hormones and other endocrine-disrupting chemicals through food and the environment are associated with increased breast cancer risk. Seven hormone drugs (testosterone propionate, trenbolone acetate, estradiol, zeranol, progesterone, melengestrol acetate, and bovine somatotropin) are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in food animals. There is concern that these drugs or their biologically active metabolites may accumulate in edible tissues, potentially increasing the risk of exposure for consumers. To date, the potential for human exposure to residues of these compounds in animal products, as well as the risks that may result from this exposure, is poorly understood. In this paper, we discuss the existing scientific evidence examining the toxicological significance of exposure to hormones used in food animal production in relation to breast cancer risk. Through a discussion of U.S. federal regulatory programs and the primary literature, we interpret the state of surveillance for residues of hormone drugs in animal products and discuss trends in meat consumption in relation to the potential for hormone exposure. Given the lack of chronic bioassays of oral toxicity of the seven hormone compounds in the public literature and the limitations of existing residue surveillance programs, it is not currently possible to provide a quantitative characterization of risks that result from the use of hormonal drugs in food animal production, complicating our understanding of the role of dietary hormone exposure in the population burden of breast cancer. PMID:26231238

  7. Nutrient Density and the Cost of Vegetables from Elementary School Lunches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishdorj, Ariun; Capps, Oral; Murano, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    Vegetables are the major source of the dietary fiber, magnesium, potassium, and vitamins A and C that are crucial in the diets of children. This study assessed the nutrient content of vegetables offered through the National School Lunch Program and examined the relation between the overall nutrient density of vegetable subgroups and the costs of nutrients offered and wasted before and after the changes in school meal standards. Using data collected from 3 elementary schools before and after the changes in school meal standards, we found that vegetable plate waste increased from 52% to 58%. Plate waste for starchy vegetables, exclusive of potatoes, was relatively high compared with other subgroups; however, plate waste for white potatoes was the lowest among any type of vegetable. Energy density; cost per 100 g, per serving, and per 100 kcal; and percentage daily value were calculated and used to estimate nutrient density value and nutrient density per dollar. Cost per 100 kcal was highest for red/orange vegetables followed by dark green vegetables; however, nutrient density for red/orange vegetables was the highest in the group and provided the most nutrients per dollar compared with other subgroups. Given that many vegetables are less energy dense, measuring vegetable costs per 100 g and per serving by accounting for nutrient density perhaps is a better way of calculating the cost of vegetables in school meals. PMID:26773034

  8. White Potatoes, Human Health, and Dietary Guidance12

    OpenAIRE

    Janet C. King; Slavin, Joanne L

    2013-01-01

    The white potato is a concentrated source of carbohydrate, dietary fiber, and resistant starch and continues to be the staple food of choice for many cultures. The white potato is also a concentrated source of vitamin C and potassium. Two of the nutrients in white potatoes, dietary fiber and potassium, have been designated as nutrients of concern in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Potatoes are often maligned in nutrition circles because of their suspected link to obesity, and popul...

  9. Market Assessment and Product Evaluation of Probiotic Containing Dietary Supplements Available in Bangladesh Market

    OpenAIRE

    Anjuman Ara Begum; Jakaria, D. M.; Sharif Md Anisuzzaman; Mahfuzul Islam; Siraje Arif Mahmud

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics containing food supplements available in Bangladesh market were identified and collected for assessment. To assess their label claim, they were resuspended into sterile distilled water. Then, series dilutions of each sample solution were prepared and immediately plated out, in duplicate, into De Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) agar. These plates were then incubated at 37°C for 48 hours and colonies were counted. Viable cell numbers stated on the labels were compared with actual viable cell...

  10. Local food-based complementary feeding recommendations developed by the linear programming approach to improve the intake of problem nutrients among 12-23-month-old Myanmar children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlaing, Lwin Mar; Fahmida, Umi; Htet, Min Kyaw; Utomo, Budi; Firmansyah, Agus; Ferguson, Elaine L

    2016-07-01

    Poor feeding practices result in inadequate nutrient intakes in young children in developing countries. To improve practices, local food-based complementary feeding recommendations (CFR) are needed. This cross-sectional survey aimed to describe current food consumption patterns of 12-23-month-old Myanmar children (n 106) from Ayeyarwady region in order to identify nutrient requirements that are difficult to achieve using local foods and to formulate affordable and realistic CFR to improve dietary adequacy. Weekly food consumption patterns were assessed using a 12-h weighed dietary record, single 24-h recall and a 5-d food record. Food costs were estimated by market surveys. CFR were formulated by linear programming analysis using WHO Optifood software and evaluated among mothers (n 20) using trial of improved practices (TIP). Findings showed that Ca, Zn, niacin, folate and Fe were 'problem nutrients': nutrients that did not achieve 100 % recommended nutrient intake even when the diet was optimised. Chicken liver, anchovy and roselle leaves were locally available nutrient-dense foods that would fill these nutrient gaps. The final set of six CFR would ensure dietary adequacy for five of twelve nutrients at a minimal cost of 271 kyats/d (based on the exchange rate of 900 kyats/USD at the time of data collection: 3rd quarter of 2012), but inadequacies remained for niacin, folate, thiamin, Fe, Zn, Ca and vitamin B6. TIP showed that mothers believed liver and vegetables would cause worms and diarrhoea, but these beliefs could be overcome to successfully promote liver consumption. Therefore, an acceptable set of CFR were developed to improve the dietary practices of 12-23-month-old Myanmar children using locally available foods. Alternative interventions such as fortification, however, are still needed to ensure dietary adequacy of all nutrients. PMID:26696232

  11. Comparison of estimated energy intake in children using a Web-based Dietary Assessment Software with accelerometer-estimated energy expenditure in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Hjort, Mads F.; Trolle, Ellen; Christensen, Tue; Brockhoff, Per B.; Andersen, Lene F.; Tetens, Inge; Matthiessen, Jeppe

    2013-01-01

    expenditure (TEE) as derived from accelerometers worn by the children during the same period. A second objective was to evaluate the WebDASC's usability. Design Eighty-one schoolchildren took part in what was the pilot study for the OPUS project, and they recorded their total diet using WebDASC and wore an......-induced thermogenesis. WebDASC's usability was assessed using a questionnaire. Parents could help their children record their diet and answer the questionnaire. Results Evaluated against TEE as derived from the accelerometers worn at the same time, the WebDASC performed just as well as other traditional methods of...... in Denmark. Dietary assessment was carried out using a program known as WebDASC (Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children) to collect data from the children. Objective To compare the energy intake (EI) of schoolchildren aged 8–11 estimated using the WebDASC system against the total energy...

  12. Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of children to kids’ meals at fast food restaurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, i.e., "kids meals". The nutrient quality of kids’ meals was assessed...

  13. In vitro assessment of antiproliferative action selectivity of dietary isothiocyanates for tumor versus normal human cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konić-Ristić Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Numerous epidemiological studies have shown beneficial effects of cruciferous vegetables consumption in cancer chemoprevention. Biologically active compounds of different Brassicaceae species with antitumor potential are isothiocyanates, present in the form of their precursors - glucosinolates. The aim of this study was to determine the selectivity of antiproliferative action of dietary isothiocyanates for malignant versus normal cells. Methods. Antiproliferative activity of three isothiocyanates abundant in human diet: sulforaphane, benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC and phenylethyl isothiocyanate, on human cervix carcinoma cell line - HeLa, melanoma cell line - Fem-x, and colon cancer cell line - LS 174, and on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, with or without mitogen, were determined by MTT colorimetric assay 72 h after their continuous action. Results. All investigated isothiocyanates inhibited the proliferation of HeLa, Fem-x and LS 174 cells. On all cell lines treated, BITC was the most potent inhibitor of cell proliferation with half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50 values of 5.04 mmoL m-3 on HeLa cells, 2.76 mmol m-3 on Fem-x, and 14.30 mmol m-3 on LS 174 cells. Antiproliferative effects on human PBMC were with higher IC50 than on malignant cells. Indexes of selectivity, calculated as a ratio between IC50 values obtained on PBMC and malignant cells, were between 1.12 and 16.57, with the highest values obtained for the action of BITC on melanoma Fem-x cells. Conclusion. Based on its antiproliferative effects on malignant cells, as well as the selectivity of the action to malignant vs normal cells, benzyl isothiocyanate can be considered as a promising candidate in cancer chemoprevention. In general, the safety of investigated compounds, in addition to their antitumor potential, should be considered as an important criterion in cancer chemoprevention. Screening of selectivity is a plausible approach to the evaluation

  14. Development of Goat - Palm Oil Integrated Production System : An Assessment Based on Feed Availability and Nutrient Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Simon P Ginting

    2006-01-01

    The integration of goats and palm oil plantation is prospective agricultural production systems that exploit the complement relationship among various components in the system . The main components are the oil palm trees, vegetation underneath the trees, processing plant of palm oil bunch, and the goat . The estimation of carrying capacity of the plantation system is based on the quantitative analysis on nutrient supply from various feed resources in the plantation system and nutrient require...

  15. Assessment of Potential Risks of Dietary RNAi to a Soil Micro-arthropod, Sinella curviseta Brook (Collembola: Entomobryidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huipeng; Xu, Linghua; Noland, Jeffrey E.; Li, Hu; Siegfried, Blair D.; Zhou, Xuguo

    2016-01-01

    RNAi-based genetically engineered (GE) crops for the management of insect pests are likely to be commercialized by the end of this decade. Without a workable framework for conducting the ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a standardized ERA protocol, however, the utility of RNAi transgenic crops in pest management remains uncertain. The overall goal of this study is to assess the risks of RNAi-based GE crops on a non-target soil micro-arthropod, Sinella curviseta, which could be exposed to plant-protected dsRNAs deposited in crop residues. Based on the preliminary research, we hypothesized that insecticidal dsRNAs targeting at the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, a billion-dollar insect pest, has no adverse impacts on S. curviseta, a soil decomposer. Following a tiered approach, we tested this risk hypothesis using a well-designed dietary RNAi toxicity assay. To create the worst-case scenario, the full-length cDNA of v-ATPase subunit A from S. curviseta were cloned and a 400 bp fragment representing the highest sequence similarity between target pest and non-target arthropods was selected as the template to synthesize insecticidal dsRNAs. Specifically, 10-days-old S. curviseta larvae were subjected to artificial diets containing v-ATPase A dsRNAs from both D. v. virgifera (dsDVV) and S. curviseta (dsSC), respectively, a dsRNA control, β-glucuronidase, from plant (dsGUS), and a vehicle control, H2O. The endpoint measurements included gene expression profiles, survival, and life history traits, such as developmental time, fecundity, hatching rate, and body length. Although, S. curviseta larvae developed significantly faster under the treatments of dsDVV and dsSC than the vehicle control, the combined results from both temporal RNAi effect study and dietary RNAi toxicity assay support the risk hypothesis, suggesting that the impacts of ingested arthropod-active dsRNAs on this representative soil decomposer are negligible. PMID:27471512

  16. Assessment of Potential Risks of Dietary RNAi to a Soil Micro-arthropod, Sinella curviseta Brook (Collembola: Entomobryidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huipeng; Xu, Linghua; Noland, Jeffrey E; Li, Hu; Siegfried, Blair D; Zhou, Xuguo

    2016-01-01

    RNAi-based genetically engineered (GE) crops for the management of insect pests are likely to be commercialized by the end of this decade. Without a workable framework for conducting the ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a standardized ERA protocol, however, the utility of RNAi transgenic crops in pest management remains uncertain. The overall goal of this study is to assess the risks of RNAi-based GE crops on a non-target soil micro-arthropod, Sinella curviseta, which could be exposed to plant-protected dsRNAs deposited in crop residues. Based on the preliminary research, we hypothesized that insecticidal dsRNAs targeting at the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, a billion-dollar insect pest, has no adverse impacts on S. curviseta, a soil decomposer. Following a tiered approach, we tested this risk hypothesis using a well-designed dietary RNAi toxicity assay. To create the worst-case scenario, the full-length cDNA of v-ATPase subunit A from S. curviseta were cloned and a 400 bp fragment representing the highest sequence similarity between target pest and non-target arthropods was selected as the template to synthesize insecticidal dsRNAs. Specifically, 10-days-old S. curviseta larvae were subjected to artificial diets containing v-ATPase A dsRNAs from both D. v. virgifera (dsDVV) and S. curviseta (dsSC), respectively, a dsRNA control, β-glucuronidase, from plant (dsGUS), and a vehicle control, H2O. The endpoint measurements included gene expression profiles, survival, and life history traits, such as developmental time, fecundity, hatching rate, and body length. Although, S. curviseta larvae developed significantly faster under the treatments of dsDVV and dsSC than the vehicle control, the combined results from both temporal RNAi effect study and dietary RNAi toxicity assay support the risk hypothesis, suggesting that the impacts of ingested arthropod-active dsRNAs on this representative soil decomposer are negligible. PMID:27471512

  17. Dietary Exposure to Benzyl Butyl Phthalate in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei; JIANG Ding Guo; SUI Hai Xia; WU Ping Gu; LIU Ai Dong; YANG Da Jin; LIU Zhao Ping; SONG Yan; LI Ning

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveBenzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) is a plasticizer used in food contact materials. Dietary exposure to BBP might lead to reproduction and developmental damages to human. The present paper was aimed to assess the health risk of BBP dietary exposure in Chinese population. MethodsThe BBP contents were detected in 7409 food samples from 25 foodcategories by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry operated in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The dietary exposures of BBP in different age and sex groups were estimated by combining the content data with food consumption data derived from 2002 China National Nutrient and Health Survey, and evaluated according to the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of BBP established by European Food safety Agency. ResultsIt was found that BBP was undetectable in most samples and the highest level was 1.69 mg/kg detected in a vegetable oil sample. The average dietary exposure of BBP in people aged≥2 years was 1.03 μg/kgbw perday and the highest average exposure was found in 2-6 years old children (1.98 μg/kg bw perday). The BBP exposure in 7-12 months old children excessed 10% of tolerable daily intake (TDI) in worst scenario. ConclusionThe health risk of BBP dietary exposure in Chinese population is low and, considering BBP alone, there is no safety concern.

  18. Assessment of Dietary Mercury Intake and Blood Mercury Levels in the Korean Population: Results from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Ah; Kwon, YoungMin; Kim, Suejin; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-01-01

    From a public health perspective, there is growing concern about dietary mercury intake as the most important source of mercury exposure. This study was performed to estimate dietary mercury exposure and to analyze the association between mercury intake and blood mercury levels in Koreans. The study subjects were 553 adults, comprising a 10% representative subsample of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012-2014, who completed a health examination, a face-to-face interview, and a three-day food record. Dietary mercury and methylmercury intakes were assessed from the three-day food record, and blood mercury concentration was measured using a mercury analyzer. The association between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury levels was analyzed by comparing the odds ratios for the blood mercury levels above the Human BioMonitoring (HBM) I value (5 μg/L) among the three groups with different mercury intakes. The average total mercury intake was 4.74 and 3.07 μg/day in males and females, respectively. The food group that contributed most to mercury intake was fish and shellfish, accounting for 77.8% of total intake. The geometric mean of the blood mercury concentration significantly and linearly increased with the mercury and methylmercury intakes (p mercury levels above the HBM I value in the highest mercury and methyl mercury intake group were 3.27 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.79-5.95) and 3.20 (95% CI 1.77-5.79) times higher than that of the lowest intake group, respectively. Our results provide compelling evidence that blood mercury level has a strong positive association with dietary intake, and that fish and shellfish contribute most to the dietary mercury exposure. PMID:27598185

  19. Environmental impacts of innovative dairy farming systems aiming at improved internal nutrient cycling: A multi-scale assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, W; Kros, J; Dolman, M A; Vellinga, Th V; de Boer, H C; Gerritsen, A L; Sonneveld, M P W; Bouma, J

    2015-12-01

    Several dairy farms in the Netherlands aim at reducing environmental impacts by improving the internal nutrient cycle (INC) on their farm by optimizing the use of available on-farm resources. This study evaluates the environmental performance of selected INC farms in the Northern Friesian Woodlands in comparison to regular benchmark farms using a Life Cycle Assessment. Regular farms were selected on the basis of comparability in terms of milk production per farm and per hectare, soil type and drainage conditions. In addition, the environmental impacts of INC farming at landscape level were evaluated with the integrated modelling system INITIATOR, using spatially explicit input data on animal numbers, land use, agricultural management, meteorology and soil, assuming that all farms practised the principle of INC farming. Impact categories used at both farm and landscape levels were global warming potential, acidification potential and eutrophication potential. Additional farm level indicators were land occupation and non-renewable energy use, and furthermore all farm level indicators were also expressed per kg fat and protein corrected milk. Results showed that both on-farm and off-farm non-renewable energy use was significantly lower at INC farms as compared with regular farms. Although nearly all other environmental impacts were numerically lower, both on-farm and off-farm, differences were not statistically significant. Nitrogen losses to air and water decreased by on average 5 to 10% when INC farming would be implemented for the whole region. The impact of INC farming on the global warming potential and eutrophication potential was, however, almost negligible (phosphorus to water at INC farms, illustrating the focus of these farms on closing the nitrogen cycle. PMID:26231773

  20. Market Assessment and Product Evaluation of Probiotic Containing Dietary Supplements Available in Bangladesh Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Anjuman Ara; Jakaria, D. M.; Anisuzzaman, Sharif Md; Islam, Mahfuzul; Mahmud, Siraje Arif

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics containing food supplements available in Bangladesh market were identified and collected for assessment. To assess their label claim, they were resuspended into sterile distilled water. Then, series dilutions of each sample solution were prepared and immediately plated out, in duplicate, into De Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) agar. These plates were then incubated at 37°C for 48 hours and colonies were counted. Viable cell numbers stated on the labels were compared with actual viable cell numbers. To assess the viability of the probiotics included in the products, probiotic strains were isolated from each of the four products and screened for inhibitory activity against six indicator strains. It was surprisingly found that although the viable cell numbers of all supplements were three to four log cycles lower than label claim of the products, however, this problem did not affect the inhibitory activity of the probiotic strains against indicator strains according to in vitro assessment. Legislation and regulation regarding prebiotic-probiotic containing products should be built up in Bangladesh to ensure quality products supply to the consumers. Moreover, manufacturers of probiotic containing products should take the responsibility for providing the consumer with scientifically and legally correct information. PMID:26649229

  1. Market Assessment and Product Evaluation of Probiotic Containing Dietary Supplements Available in Bangladesh Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjuman Ara Begum

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics containing food supplements available in Bangladesh market were identified and collected for assessment. To assess their label claim, they were resuspended into sterile distilled water. Then, series dilutions of each sample solution were prepared and immediately plated out, in duplicate, into De Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS agar. These plates were then incubated at 37°C for 48 hours and colonies were counted. Viable cell numbers stated on the labels were compared with actual viable cell numbers. To assess the viability of the probiotics included in the products, probiotic strains were isolated from each of the four products and screened for inhibitory activity against six indicator strains. It was surprisingly found that although the viable cell numbers of all supplements were three to four log cycles lower than label claim of the products, however, this problem did not affect the inhibitory activity of the probiotic strains against indicator strains according to in vitro assessment. Legislation and regulation regarding prebiotic-probiotic containing products should be built up in Bangladesh to ensure quality products supply to the consumers. Moreover, manufacturers of probiotic containing products should take the responsibility for providing the consumer with scientifically and legally correct information.

  2. Dietary exposure assessment of ß-lactam antibiotic residues in milk on Croatian market

    OpenAIRE

    Vragović, Natalija; Bažulić, D.; Zdolec, N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary screening report of the occurrence of β-lactam antibiotic residues in milk on Croatian market. The intensive animal production sometimes leads to the unavoidable presence of residues of veterinary drugs in food. However, it is possible to reduce the presence of residues in foods of animal origin by using the principles of good veterinary and good manufacturing practices, continuous control of food and using risk assessment approach. Method used for determin...

  3. Ecological Momentary Assessment of Bulimia Nervosa: Does Dietary Restriction Predict Binge Eating?

    OpenAIRE

    Zunker, Christie; Peterson, Carol B.; Crosby, Ross D.; Cao, Li; Engel, Scott G.; Mitchell, James E; Wonderlich, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between caloric restriction (CR) and binge eating (BE) using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Participants included 133 women with bulimia nervosa (BN) who completed an EMA protocol for 2 weeks. Logistic regression analyses tested whether CR increased the probability of BE episodes. The results revealed that the odds of BE increased on the day that restriction occurred as well as on the following day. In addition, both restrictio...

  4. Dietary exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in metropolitan population from China: a risk assessment based on probabilistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dongliang; Ye, Xiaolei; Xiao, Yonghua; Zhao, Nana; Long, Jia; Zhang, Piwei; Fan, Ying; Ding, Shibin; Jin, Xin; Tian, Chong; Xu, Shunqing; Ying, Chenjiang

    2015-11-01

    The intake of contaminated foods is an important exposure pathway for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). However, data on the occurrence of EDCs in foodstuffs are sporadic and the resultant risk of co-exposure is rarely concerned. In this study, 450 food samples representing 7 food categories (mainly raw and fresh food), collected from three geographic cities in China, were analyzed for eight EDCs using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Besides estrone (E1), other EDCs including diethylstilbestrol (DES), nonylphenol (NP), bisphenol A (BPA), octylphenol (OP), 17β-estradiol (E2), 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), and estriol (E3) were ubiquitous in food. Dose-dependent relationships were found between NP and EE2 (r=0.196, plocal food consumption, dietary EDCs exposure was estimated using the Monte Carlo Risk Assessment (MCRA) system. The 50th and 95th percentile exposure of any EDCs isomer were far below the tolerable daily intake (TDI) value identically. However, the sum of 17β-estradiol equivalents (∑EEQs) exposure in population was considerably larger than the value of exposure to E2, which implied the underlying resultant risk of multiple EDCs in food should be concern. In conclusion, co-exposure via food consumption should be considered rather than individual EDCs during health risk evaluation. PMID:26025473

  5. Model-based measurement of food portion size for image-based dietary assessment using 3D/2D registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietary assessment is important in health maintenance and intervention in many chronic conditions, such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, there is currently a lack of convenient methods for measuring the volume of food (portion size) in real-life settings. We present a computational method to estimate food volume from a single photographic image of food contained on a typical dining plate. First, we calculate the food location with respect to a 3D camera coordinate system using the plate as a scale reference. Then, the food is segmented automatically from the background in the image. Adaptive thresholding and snake modeling are implemented based on several image features, such as color contrast, regional color homogeneity and curve bending degree. Next, a 3D model representing the general shape of the food (e.g., a cylinder, a sphere, etc) is selected from a pre-constructed shape model library. The position, orientation and scale of the selected shape model are determined by registering the projected 3D model and the food contour in the image, where the properties of the reference are used as constraints. Experimental results using various realistically shaped foods with known volumes demonstrated satisfactory performance of our image-based food volume measurement method even if the 3D geometric surface of the food is not completely represented in the input image. (paper)

  6. Health risk assessment of heavy metals via dietary intake of wheat grown in Tianjin sewage irrigation area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangfeng; Wang, Zuwei; Wang, Jun; Guo, Jinting; Chen, Xijuan; Zhuang, Jie

    2015-12-01

    The possible health risks from heavy metal (Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Cd) contamination to the local population through the food chain were evaluated in Tianjin, China, a city with a long history of sewage irrigation. Results showed that the continuous application of wastewater has led to an accumulation of heavy metals in the soil, and 54.5 and 18.25% soil samples accumulated Cd and Zn in concentrations exceeding the permissible limits in China. Concentrations of heavy metals in wheat grain decreased in the order of Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Pb > Cd, and transfer factors for the six heavy metals showed the trend as Zn > Cd > Cu > Pb > Cr > Ni. The risk assessment for the six heavy metals through wheat consumption suggests that concentrations of Cr and Cd in some wheat samples exceed their reference oral dose for adults and children. In general, no target hazard quotient value of any individual element was greater than one, which means they are within the safe interval. However, 36.4 and 63.6% hazard index values for adults and children were greater than one, respectively. The health risk due to the added effects of heavy metals was significant for children and adults, and more attention should be paid tothe potential added threat fromheavy metals to the health of children via dietary intake of wheat in Tianjin. PMID:26433741

  7. Estimate of dietary intake of chloropropanols (3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP and health risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pavesi Arisseto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chloropropanols, including 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD and 1,3-dichloropropan-2-ol (1,3-DCP, comprise a group of chemical contaminants with carcinogenic and genotoxic properties. They have been found in a variety of processed foods and food ingredients, such as hydrolyzed vegetable protein, soy sauce, cereal-based products, malt-derived ingredients, and smoked foods. This study aimed to assess the dietary exposure to 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP in Brazil and verify whether the presence of these substances in foods could represent health risks. The intake was calculated by combining data on food consumption, provided by the Consumer Expenditure Survey 2008-2009, with the levels of contaminant occurrence determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The exposure to 3-MCPD ranged from 0.06 to 0.51 µg.kg bw-1.day-1 considering average and high consumers, while the intake of 1,3-DCP was estimated to be 0.0036 µg.kg bw-1.day-1 in the worst case scenario evaluated. Based on these results, it was verified that the Brazilians' exposure to chloropropanols does not present a significant health risk. However, the consumption of specific foods containing high levels of 3-MCPD could exceed the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake of 2 µg.kg bw-1 established for this compound and, therefore, represent a potential concern.

  8. Quantitative risk assessment on the dietary exposure of Finnish children and adults to nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suomi, Johanna; Ranta, Jukka; Tuominen, Pirkko; Putkonen, Tiina; Bäckman, Christina; Ovaskainen, Marja-Leena; Virtanen, Suvi M; Savela, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    Nitrite intake from the consumption of cured meat and tap water was estimated for Finnish children of 1, 3 and 6 years as well as Finnish adults of 25-74 years. Nitrite content in the foods was measured by capillary electrophoresis, and was then used together with individual food consumption data from the FINDIET 2007 and DIPP studies in a stochastic exposure assessment by a Monte Carlo Risk Assessment (MCRA) program. Nitrite intake from additive sources and tap water was assessed, and more than every 10th child between the ages 3 and 6 years was estimated to have a nitrite intake exceeding the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of nitrite. The high exposure levels were caused by frequent consumption of large portions of sausages, up to 350 g day(-1) or 750 g in 3 days, among the children. Median nitrite intake from cured meat was 0.016, 0.040, 0.033 and 0.005 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for children of 1, 3 and 6 years and adults, respectively. Bayesian estimation was employed to determine safe consumption levels of sausages and cold cuts for children, and these results gave rise to new national food consumption advice. PMID:26609554

  9. Dietary patterns and schizophrenia: a comparison with healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuruga K

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Koji Tsuruga,1 Norio Sugawara,1 Yasushi Sato,1 Manabu Saito,1 Hanako Furukori,2 Taku Nakagami,3 Kazuhiko Nakamura,1 Ippei Takahashi,4 Shigeyuki Nakaji,4 Norio Yasui-Furukori1 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Kuroishi-Akebono Hospital, Kuroishi, Japan; 3Department of Neuropsychiatry, Odate Municipal General Hospital, Odate, Japan; 4Department of Social Medicine, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan Background: It has been reported that the onset of schizophrenia and the physical complications after its onset are related to diet. Diet has been considered as a variable factor of the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. However, the results of studies on this relationship have been inconsistent. Nutrients are consumed as a mixture in the diet. It is difficult to study them in isolation because they may have mutually complementary effects. The aim of this study was to assess the association between dietary patterns and schizophrenia in Japan.Methods: The subjects comprised 237 outpatients aged 30–60 years (123 males and 114 females with diagnoses of either schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. The patient diagnoses were determined based on medical records. Patients were recruited between June 2011 and August 2011. As a reference group, 404 healthy volunteers aged 30–60 years (158 males and 246 females were also included. Demographic data (age, sex, and level of education were collected by face-to-face method interviews and self-administered questionnaires. We assessed eating habits over the last month using a validated brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. We detected dietary patterns through a principal component analysis of calorie-adjusted intake; two principal components were retained. The principal components for each dietary pattern and for each individual were divided into tertiles by principal component scores. Results: We

  10. Dose-to-dose variations with single packages of counterfeit medicines and adulterated dietary supplements as a potential source of false negatives and inaccurate health risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venhuis, B J; Zwaagstra, M E; Keizers, P H J; de Kaste, D

    2014-02-01

    In this report, we show three examples of how the variability in dose units in single packages of counterfeit medicines and adulterated dietary supplements may contribute to a false negative screening result and inaccurate health risk assessments. We describe a counterfeit Viagra 100mg blister pack and a box of an instant coffee both containing dose units with and without an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). We also describe a purportedly herbal slimming product with capsules that mutually differed in API and impurities. The adulterated dietary supplements contained sibutramine, benzyl-sibutramine, N-desmethyl-sibutramine (DMS), N,N-didesmethyl-sibutramine (DDMS) and several other related impurities. Counterfeit medicines and adulterated dietary supplements are a health risk because their quality is unreliable. Health risks are even greater when such unreliability extends to fundamental differences between dose units in one package. Because dose-to-dose variability for these products is unpredictable, the confidence interval of a sample size is unknown. Consequently, the analyses of a selection of dose units may not be representative for the package. In the worst case, counterfeit or unauthorised medicines are not recognised as such or a health risk is not identified. In order to reduce erroneous results particular care should be taken when analysing a composite of dose units, when finding no API in a dietary supplement and when finding conformity in a suspect counterfeit medicine. PMID:24291553

  11. Association between Parent and Child Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intakes as Assessed by 24-h Urinary Excretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Service, Carrie; Grimes, Carley; Riddell, Lynn; He, Feng; Campbell, Karen; Nowson, Caryl

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between parent and child sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake as assessed by 24-h urinary excretion (24hUE). Primary school children and their parent(s) provided one 24-h urine sample and information on cooking and children’s discretionary salt use. Valid urine samples were provided by 108 mothers (mean age 41.8 (5.1) (SD) years, Na 120 (45) mmol/day) (7.0 g/day salt equivalent) and 40 fathers (44.4 (4.9) years, Na 152 (49) mmol/day (8.9 g/day salt), and 168 offspring (51.8% male, age 9.1 (2.0) years, Na 101 (47) mmol/day (5.9 g/day salt). When adjusted for parental age, child age and gender a 17 mmol/day Na (1 g/day salt) increase in mother’s 24hUE was associated with a 3.4 mmol/day Na (0.2 g/day salt) increase in child’s salt 24hUE (p = 0.04) with no association observed between father and child. Sixty-seven percent of parents added salt during cooking and 37% of children added salt at the table. Children who reported adding table salt had higher urinary excretion than those who did not (p = 0.01). The association between mother and child Na intake may relate to the consumption of similar foods and highlights the importance of the home environment in influencing total dietary sodium intake. PMID:27043620

  12. Association between Parent and Child Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intakes as Assessed by 24-h Urinary Excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Service, Carrie; Grimes, Carley; Riddell, Lynn; He, Feng; Campbell, Karen; Nowson, Caryl

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between parent and child sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake as assessed by 24-h urinary excretion (24hUE). Primary school children and their parent(s) provided one 24-h urine sample and information on cooking and children's discretionary salt use. Valid urine samples were provided by 108 mothers (mean age 41.8 (5.1) (SD) years, Na 120 (45) mmol/day) (7.0 g/day salt equivalent) and 40 fathers (44.4 (4.9) years, Na 152 (49) mmol/day (8.9 g/day salt), and 168 offspring (51.8% male, age 9.1 (2.0) years, Na 101 (47) mmol/day (5.9 g/day salt). When adjusted for parental age, child age and gender a 17 mmol/day Na (1 g/day salt) increase in mother's 24hUE was associated with a 3.4 mmol/day Na (0.2 g/day salt) increase in child's salt 24hUE (p = 0.04) with no association observed between father and child. Sixty-seven percent of parents added salt during cooking and 37% of children added salt at the table. Children who reported adding table salt had higher urinary excretion than those who did not (p = 0.01). The association between mother and child Na intake may relate to the consumption of similar foods and highlights the importance of the home environment in influencing total dietary sodium intake. PMID:27043620

  13. Impact of dietary manipulation on nutrient flows and greenhouse gas emissions in cattle Impacto da manipulação dietética sobre os fluxos de nutrientes e as emissões de gases de efeito estufa na pecuária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermias Kebreab

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The growing global demand for meat and particularly in countries such as Brazil is expected to increase intensive animal production. Consequently the main pollutants of interest are nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and greenhouse gases (GHG. Nitrogen can be a problem through nitrate leaching to water bodies, ammonia, and nitrous oxide emissions to air. Phosphorus loading in soil from manure application can be the main issue due to the tendency of P to accumulate in soil and leach to groundwater and rivers. The sources of agricultural GHG emissions include methane from enteric fermentation, manure storage and spreading, and nitrous oxide mainly from application of manure on land. Dietary manipulation has proven to be an effective tool to reduce nutrient/mineral pollution and GHG emissions. Several studies have shown that decreasing crude protein in the diet could reduce N excretion and ammonia volatilization substantially without compromising productivity. Similarly, reducing P intake in dairy cattle has been shown to reduce P excretion by up to 10%. Changing the type of N and P consumed and energy level of diet has also been reported to affect the amount and type of N and P excreted. Dietary manipulation also has an impact on the amount of GHG emissions, particularly, from enteric fermentation. Feeding cattle with a high starch and low fiber diet, for example, reduces acetate production in the rumen, and leads to lower methane production. Emissions from stored manure from high fiber fed animals tend to be higher. Evidence is also available that diet affects emissions from manure applied soil. As level of production is increased to meet global demand for ruminant meat and milk products, dietary manipulation will be useful in addressing environmental concerns.A crescente demanda global por carne, em particular no Brasil, deverá aumentar a produção animal intensiva. Por conseguinte, os principais poluentes são o nitrogênio (N, fósforo (P e gases de

  14. Current issues in dietary acrylamide:formation,mitigation and risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, F.; Salome Mariotti, M.; Granby, Kit

    2014-01-01

    investigation of AA precursors, mechanisms of AA formation and AA mitigation technologies in potato, cereal and coffee products. Additionally, most relevant issues of AA risk assessment are discussed. New technologies tested from laboratory to industrial scale face, as a major challenge, the reduction of AA...... content of browned food, while still maintaining its attractive organoleptic properties. Reducing sugars such as glucose and fructose are the major contributors to AA in potato-based products. On the other hand, the limiting substrate of AA formation in cereals and coffee is the free amino acid asparagine....... For some products the addition of glycine or asparaginase reduces AA formation during baking. Since, for potatoes, the limiting substrate is reducing sugars, increases in sugar content in potatoes during storage then introduce some difficulties and potentially quite large variations in the AA content...

  15. Consumer attitudes about the role of multivitamins and other dietary supplements: report of a survey

    OpenAIRE

    Dickinson, Annette; MacKay, Douglas; Wong, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Background U.S. nutrition surveys find that intakes of many nutrients fall short of recommendations. The majority of U.S. adults use multivitamins and other dietary supplements as one means of improving nutrient intakes. Some policy makers and health professionals appear reluctant to recommend routine use of dietary supplements to fill nutrient gaps in the diet, in part because they are concerned that people will view the supplements as a substitute for dietary improvement and that the use of...

  16. Relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary fiber intake in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuholm, Stine; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Kristensen, Mette Bredal

    2014-01-01

    approximately 6 months later. Results: Estimates of mean dietary fiber intake were 24.999.8 and 28.199.4 g/day when applying the FFQ and DR, respectively, where FFQ estimates were 12% lower (pB0.001). Pearson’s correlation coefficient between the estimated dietary fiber intake of the two methods was r0.63 (pB0...

  17. Assessing the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of adaptive e-Learning to improve dietary behaviour: protocol for a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Michie Susan; Lock Karen; Landon Jane; Free Caroline; Ferguson Elaine; Harris Jody; Felix Lambert; Edwards Phil; Miners Alec; Murray Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The composition of habitual diets is associated with adverse or protective effects on aspects of health. Consequently, UK public health policy strongly advocates dietary change for the improvement of population health and emphasises the importance of individual empowerment to improve health. A new and evolving area in the promotion of dietary behavioural change is e-Learning, the use of interactive electronic media to facilitate teaching and learning on a range of issues, ...

  18. Dietary scores at midlife and healthy ageing in a French prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmann, Karen E; Andreeva, Valentina A; Camilleri, Géraldine M; Verger, Eric O; Jeandel, Claude; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2016-08-01

    Although nutrition has been advocated as a major determinant of healthy ageing (HA), studies investigating the link between dietary quality and HA are scarce. We investigated the association between adherence to French food-based and nutrient-based guidelines at midlife, as assessed by three dietary scores, and HA. HA was assessed in 2007-2009, among 2329 participants of the SUpplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux AntioXydants study aged 45-60 years at baseline (1994-1995) and initially free of diabetes, CVD and cancer. HA was defined as not developing any major chronic disease, good physical and cognitive functioning, no limitations in instrumental activities of daily living, no depressive symptoms, no health-related limitations in social life, good overall self-perceived health and no function-limiting pain. Data from repeated 24-h dietary records provided at baseline permitted the computation of the modified French Programme National Nutrition Santé-Guideline Score (mPNNS-GS), the Probability of Adequate Nutrient Intake Dietary Score (PANDiet) and the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I). Associations of these scores with HA were assessed by logistic regression. In 2007-2009, 42 % of men and 36 % of women met our criteria of HA. After adjustment for potential confounders, higher scores of the mPNNS-GS (ORquartile 4 v. quartile 1 1·44; 95 % CI 1·10, 1·87; P trend=0·006) and the PANDiet (1·28; 95 % CI 1·00, 1·64; P trend=0·03) were associated with higher odds of HA. We observed no association between DQI-I and HA. In conclusion, this study suggests a beneficial long-term role of high adherence to both food-based and nutrient-based French dietary guidelines for a HA process. PMID:27301412

  19. Differences in dietary pattern between obese and eutrophic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balthazar Emilia A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive consumption of energy is a decisive factor of obesity, but a simple quantitative assessment of consumption between obese and eutrophic individuals not always explains the problem, raising questions about the importance of the qualitative aspects of food. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences in nutrient composition and meal patterns between eutrophic and obese schoolchildren. Methods The diet of 83 children (42 obese and 41 eutrophic, aged between 7 and 11 years of age, was assessed by two non-consecutive dietary recalls. After the software analysis of macro and micronutrients composition, the different types and amount of legumes, fruits and vegetables were analyzed to verify the dietary patterns. Results No differences were verified in energy consumption between the groups (eutrophic = 1934.2 ± 672.7 kcal, obese = 1835.8 ± 621.2 kcal. In general, children showed consumption within the recommended ranges of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. The average consumption of fiber was higher in the eutrophic group (20.7 g when compared to the obese group (14.8 g. The dietary fiber was strongly correlated with the number of servings of beans (r = 0.77, when compared to fruits (r = 0.44 and leafy vegetables (r = 0.13. It was also observed that the higher the consumption of fiber and beans, the lower the proportion of dietary fat (r = -0.22 in the diet. Generally, there was a low consumption of fiber (20.7 g = eutrophic group/14.8 g = obese group, beans (1.1 portions in the eutrophic and obese groups, fruits (0.7 portions eutrophic group and 0.6 obese group and vegetables (1.3 eutrophic group and 1.1 obese group. Conclusions It is concluded that the obesity was more related to a dietary pattern of low intake of dietary fiber than excessive energy consumption and macronutrients imbalance.

  20. Nutritional and Anthropometric Assessment of the Scope for Dietary Optimization During Staging Prior to Pancreaticoduodenectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolitha S Goonetilleke

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Context Although several studies have examined peri-operative nutritional supplementation in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy all provided support at various timepoints with a variety of protocols. Objective This study undertakes a detailed nutritional and anthropometric assessment of patients due to undergo pancreaticoduodenectomy with particular reference to pre-operative nutritional status and perioperative outcome. Patients Twenty-six patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy. Setting A regional hepatobiliary service. Main outcome measures Nutritional, anthropometric and clinical course details. Design Data were collected prospectively. Results There was no significant change in any anthropometric index from baseline to immediately prior to surgery. However, there was a significant fall in BMI comparing baseline measurements to observations at time of discharge from hospital (P<0.001. There was, in addition, a significant difference between baseline and BMI at 3 months (P<0.001. Similar trends were observed in mid-arm circumference, triceps skin fold thickness and hand-grip. There was no inhospital or 3-month post-operative mortality in this series. Conclusion Nutritional and anthropometric indices remain stable from the time of index admission to operation. However, there is a drastic and sustained reduction in nutritional indices in the post-operative period with this deficiency being sustained at 3-months after operation.

  1. Evaluation of dietary intake in Danish adults by means of an index based on food-based dietary guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibeke K. Knudsen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on dietary intake and physical activity has been collected from a representative sample of the Danish population from 2003–2008. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to describe the habitual diet in Denmark and to evaluate the overall diet quality using a diet quality index based on the National Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG, which consists of seven guidelines regarding diet and one regarding physical activity. Design: Data from the Danish National Survey of Diet and Physical Activity 2003–2008 (n=3354 were included. The diet quality index was constructed based on five of the seven dietary guidelines. Individuals were categorised according to quartiles of the diet quality index, and food and nutrient intakes were estimated in each of the groups. Results: Macronutrient distribution did not meet recommendations in any of the groups, as energy from total fat and especially saturated fat was too high. A high intake of high-fat milk products, fat on bread and processed meat contributed to a high intake of total fat and saturated fat, and sugar-sweetened soft drinks contributed to a high intake of added sugars in the group below the lowest quartile of the diet quality index. Individuals above in the highest quartile had higher intakes of ‘healthy foods’ such as fish, fruit and vegetables, rye bread, and also a higher consumption of water and wine. Overall, intakes of micronutrients were sufficient in all groups. Conclusions: The diet quality index is a useful tool in assessing food and nutrient intake in individuals with high vs. low degree of compliance towards the dietary guidelines, and provides a valuable tool in future studies investigating variations in dietary intakes with respect to lifestyle, demographic and regional differences in Denmark.

  2. Diet History Questionnaire: Development of the DHQ Nutrient Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nutrient and food group database, created for analyzing the DHQ, is based on national dietary intake data from the 1994-96 US Department of Agriculture's Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII).

  3. Comparison of two food record-based dietary assessment methods for a pan-European food consumption survey among infants, toddlers, and children using data quality indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freisling, Heinz; C. Ocké, Marga; Casagrande, Corinne;

    2014-01-01

    -consecutive 1-day food diaries with data entry during a completion interview. The collected dietary data were compared between the two dietary assessment methods by country and by age groups: (i) <1 year; (ii) 1-3 years; (iii) >3-10 years. Results Overall, 70 % of the interviewers evaluated the work with EPIC......Purpose We aimed (1) to describe and evaluate the "EPIC-Soft DataEntry" application developed as a user-friendly data entry tool for pan-European and national food consumption surveys among infants and children, and (2) to compare two food record-based dietary assessment methods in terms of food...... description and quantification using data quality indicators. EPIC-Soft DataEntry was used for both methods. Methods Two pilot studies were performed in both Belgium and Czech Republic in a total of 376 children (3 months to 10 year olds): one using a consecutive 3-day food diary; and the second with two non...

  4. Climate friendly dietary guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Ellen; Mogensen, Lisbeth; Thorsen, Anne Vibeke;

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the present Danish diet could be changed in a climate friendly direction that follows the recommendations of a healthy diet. The carbon footprint (CF) of an average Danish diet was calculated and compared to CF of a recommended healthy diet by 1......) modifying the average diet according to the Danish food based dietary guidelines, 2) and adjusting to ensure an iso-energy content and a nutrient content according to the Nordic Nutrient Recommendations. Afterwards the healthy diet were changed further to reduce CF. CF from the diet was reduced by 4......%, if the healthy diet was eaten instead of the average current diet. However, if the diet was climate optimized by choosing foods with a low CF within the food groups; meat, vegetables and fruit, CF of this diet may be reduced by 23 % compared to CF of the average diet....

  5. Dietary Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber is a substance in plants. Dietary fiber is the kind you eat. It's a type of carbohydrate. You may also see it listed on a food label as soluble fiber or insoluble fiber. Both types have important health benefits. Good sources of dietary fiber include Whole grains Nuts ...

  6. Stability of the Framingham Nutritional Risk Score and its component nutrients over 8 years: The Framingham Nutrition Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kimokoti, Ruth W.; Newby, P. K.; Gona, Philimon; Zhu, Lei; Campbell, Wei R.; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Millen, Barbara E.

    2011-01-01

    Background / Objectives Diet quality indices are increasingly used in nutrition epidemiology as dietary exposures in relation to health outcomes. However, literature on long-term stability of these indices is limited. We aimed to assess the stability of the validated Framingham Nutritional Risk Score (FNRS) and its component nutrients over 8 years as well as the validity of the follow-up FNRS. Subjects / Methods Framingham Offspring/Spouse Study women and men (n=1 734) aged 22-76 years wwver ...

  7. Nutrient Utilization, Lactational Performance, and Profitability of Dairy Cows by Feeding Protein Supplements in High-Forage Lactation Diets

    OpenAIRE

    Neal, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Due to the increasing cost of soybean meal and concerns of excess N being excreted into the environment, new protein supplements have been developed. Two products that have shown potential in increasing N utilization efficiency are slow release urea (SRU; Optigen) and ruminal escape protein derived from yeast (YMP; DEMP). The objective of this study was to assess the effects of feeding these 2 supplements in high-forage [(54% of total dietary dry matter (DM)] dairy diets on nutrient utilizati...

  8. Nutrients for the aging eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmussen HM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Helen M Rasmussen,1 Elizabeth J Johnson2 1Educational Studies, Lesley University, Cambridge, MA, USA; 2Carotenoid and Health Laboratory, Jean Mayer US Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The incidence of age-related eye diseases is expected to rise with the aging of the population. Oxidation and inflammation are implicated in the etiology of these diseases. There is evidence that dietary antioxidants and anti-inflammatories may provide benefit in decreasing the risk of age-related eye disease. Nutrients of interest are vitamins C and E, β-carotene, zinc, lutein, zeaxanthin, and the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. While a recent survey finds that among the baby boomers (45–65 years old, vision is the most important of the five senses, well over half of those surveyed were not aware of the important nutrients that play a key role in eye health. This is evident from a national survey that finds that intake of these key nutrients from dietary sources is below the recommendations or guidelines. Therefore, it is important to educate this population and to create an awareness of the nutrients and foods of particular interest in the prevention of age-related eye disease. Keywords: nutrition, aging, eye health

  9. A comparative assessment of the potential use of alginates and dietary calcium manipulation as countermeasures to reduce the transfer of radiostrontium to the milk of dairy animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential of using different alginates or supplementary calcium as feed-additives to reduce the transfer of ingested radiostrontium to milk was assessed in dairy cattle fed a haylage/concentrate diet. The feed-additives compared were: calcium alginate (4% by dry matter), sodium alginate (4% by dry matter) and four levels of supplementation with CaCO3. Both alginates reduced the transfer of radiostrontium to milk by 30-40% without effecting diet palatability. However, the high present cost of alginates precludes their use as countermeasures. Dietary calcium supplementation reduced the transfer of 85Sr to milk broadly in agreement with previous predictions. From data relevant to dairy cattle in the United Kingdom it is suggested that dietary calcium intake could be doubled without exceeding recommended maximum intakes, thus decreasing the transfer of radiostrontium to milk by approximately 50%

  10. Nutrients Impact the Pathogenesis and Development of Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wan; Fang, Jing-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is a commonly diagnosed cancer and the cause of many cancer deaths worldwide. Nutrients might be crucial in the pathogenesis and development of colorectal cancer. Although a number of studies have demonstrated the potential effects of nutrients, many challenges still remain Summary A tremendous amount of research has emerged concerning the roles of nutrients in colorectal cancer during the past decades. Here, we review the latest research progress on nutrients, including vitamins, folic acid, calcium, selenium and dietary fiber, involved in colorectal cancer prevention Key Message Nutrients are commonly consumed in foods or dietary supplements. It is clear that nutrients could play an important role and influence colorectal cancer outcomes. The relationship between nutrients and colorectal risk is complex. Vitamins, folic acid, calcium, selenium and dietary fiber have been proposed as potential agents to prevent colorectal cancer. However, some studies found that these nutrients did not reduce the incidence of colorectal cancer Practical Implications The supplementary dose of nutrients, the length of time required to observe the effects and confounding factors during the study might influence the role of nutrients in the prevention of colorectal cancer. Therefore, more evidence from ongoing clinical trials with different population groups and longer follow-up periods is critical to determine the relationship between nutrients and colorectal cancer. PMID:27403415

  11. 伊犁州715例城市孕妇孕期膳食营养摄入状况分析%Evaluation of dietary nutrients intake for city pregnant women in Yili

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵斌; 哈尔哈西; 冯泰山

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the nutrients intake and dietary pattern of the pregnant women in Yili, Xinjiang, so as to provide the evidence for improving their nutritional status. Methods: The data about food intake in seven days was collected using the methods of accounting, weighing and the 24 hour - dietary recall, then convey the findings into the System Pregnancy Nutrition Monitoring. Results; Grain and tuberous crop were the main food, 4. 2% of all the food that objects intake was minor cereal in early pregnancy, 9. 5% in mid, 9. 1% late the amount of the consumption of dairy, fruit, vegetables, beans was higher than the level of the nation wide nutrition and health survey in China on the contrary, eggs and meats was lower than it, grain, tuberous crop, dairy and lean which were in taken in medial gestation compared to early and later gentatiaon has significant difference (P <0.05). The ratio of energy that supplied by carbohydrate was relative little, the intake of fat was much high, which was 3 times as higher as recommended the absence of the Iodine and Folate was serious, above 90% pregnant women were below recommended. The consumption of, calcium, iron, zinc vitamin A weren' t reach AI or RNI. The ratio of energy that supplied by protein, fat and arbohydrate was not reasonable, and so was the energy distribution of three meals in one day. Conclusion: We should encourage the pregnant women to increase marine products, lean, fruits and beans during the middle and late pregnancy, and increase the assimilation of excellent protein, calcium, i-ron, zinc and Vitamin A. We also proprely reduce the assimilation of saturated fatty acid.%目的 了解新疆伊犁地区孕妇孕期膳食摄入状况和膳食模式,为进一步改善和提高孕妇膳食营养状况提供原始资料.方法 采用24 h回顾调查法结合称重法、记账法、收集被调查者连续7d的膳食摄人情况;然后将调查内容输入由北京医网中心提供的孕期饮食营养分

  12. Development and Application of a Mechanistic Ecological Model for Assessment of TMDL for Nutrients over an Extended Range of Calibration Conditions: Truckee River, Nevada USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, J. T.; Caupp, C. L.; Runke, H. M.

    2002-05-01

    Water quality impairment associated with substandard dissolved oxygen (DO) levels has been observed for decades in the Truckee River, a desert river that is challenged by cultural eutrophication and modifications of its flow and channel. Benthic algae (periphyton) in this shallow river constitute a primary source of endogenous organic matter that creates an oxygen demand downstream from nutrient sources, which include treated municipal wastewater effluent, nonpoint source agricultural runoff, and groundwater seepage. The Dynamic Stream Simulation and Assessment Model (DSSAMt) was chosen to simulate water temperature, DO, nutrients, and periphyton. In order to establish credibility and robustness of DSSAMt results, we successfully simulated DO over annual periods during 1986-1996 that spanned an extended range of river discharge and nutrient loading conditions. Nitrogen loads from the Reno-Sparks municipal wastewater facility ranged over an order of magnitude during this period due to improvements in treatment processes. Monitoring programs for various ecological attributes of the river system were implemented and modified in response to the needs of the model development. DSSAMt applications to the Truckee River have included determination of pollutant assimilation capacity, instream flow needs, and the potential benefits of riparian and channel modification.

  13. Using Tracers to Assess the Impacts of Sediment and Nutrient Delivery in the Lake Burragorang Catchment Following Severe Wildfire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper summarises the findings of a four year project utilising fallout radionuclide's and geomorphologic methods to investigate the impacts on water quality of sediments and nutrients released following the 2001 bushfires to the Lake Burragorang catchment. This is the principal water supply for the city of Sydney which is the capital of the state of New South Wales, Australia. Three tracer budgets (137Cs, 210Pbex and 7Be) were constructed and showed that significant amounts of mineral and organic sediment and attached nutrients were eroded from burnt hillslopes in the months following the fires. Some storage on flatter footslope areas indicates the capacity for these areas to act as hillslope sediment buffers. The fire had a large impact on the characteristics of sediment delivered to the river network and the reservoir. A comparison of 137Cs and 210Pbex concentrations on eroded surface soil and river sediments showed that a high proportion of the post-fire river sediment was derived from surface erosion of hillslopes, in contrast to the pre-fire sediment sources which were dominated by erosion of sub-surface material from rivers and gullies. The characteristics of post-fire river sediment returned towards pre-fire conditions over four years as the pulse of sediment was stored and evacuated from the river network. The below-average rainfall and runoff in the post-fire period of vegetation recovery however, limited the total post-fire sediment yield to Lake Burragorang well below the potential yield that could have occurred in wetter conditions. The sediment and nutrient yields to Lake Burragorang in post-fire runoff events were one to two orders of magnitude larger than in pre-fire conditions due to the increased availability of sediment and nutrients. Monitoring the potential for phosphorus-fuelled algal blooms following post-fire runoff events may be an important post-fire water quality management strategy. (author)

  14. Assessment of the urban trees health status on the base of nutrient and pigment content in their leaves

    OpenAIRE

    SLAVEYA PETROVA; LILYANA YURUKOVA; ILIANA VELCHEVA

    2014-01-01

    Town settlements have different load level by emissions originated mostly from transport, industry and heating system. Their environmental and climate conditions are more or less changed that effect to growth, physiology and vigor of woody plants at the city public vegetation areas. Our study on determining the impact of urban environment on the tree health status was focused on the quantities of nutrients and main components of the pigment complex – chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoi...

  15. Relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary fiber intake in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuholm, Stine; Lorenzen, Janne K; Kristensen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    approximately 6 months later. Results: Estimates of mean dietary fiber intake were 24.999.8 and 28.199.4 g/day when applying the FFQ and DR, respectively, where FFQ estimates were 12% lower (pB0.001). Pearson’s correlation coefficient between the estimated dietary fiber intake of the two methods was r0.63 (pB0.......001), and 62% of the participants were grouped into the same tertile of intake according to the two methods. The estimates of mean dietary intake of first and second FFQ were very similar (22.294.0 and 23.394.1 g/day, respectively, p0.42) and showed a correlation of r0.95 (95% CI 0.830.99). Conclusion: The...

  16. Food and Nutrient Intake and Nutritional Status of Finnish Vegans and Non-Vegetarians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Liisa Elorinne

    Full Text Available Vegetarian and vegan diets have become more popular among adolescents and young adults. However, few studies have investigated the nutritional status of vegans, who may be at risk of nutritional deficiencies.To compare dietary intake and nutritional status of Finnish long-term vegans and non-vegetarians.Dietary intake and supplement use were estimated using three-day dietary records. Nutritional status was assessed by measuring biomarkers in plasma, serum, and urine samples. Vegans' (n = 22 data was compared with those of sex- and age-matched non-vegetarians (n = 19.All vegans adhered strictly to their diet; however, individual variability was marked in food consumption and supplementation habits. Dietary intakes of key nutrients, vitamins B12 and D, were lower (P < 0.001 in vegans than in non-vegetarians. Nutritional biomarker measurements showed lower concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OHD3, iodine and selenium (corrected for multiple comparisons, P < 0.001, Vegans showed more favorable fatty acid profiles (P < 0.001 as well as much higher concentrations of polyphenols such as genistein and daidzein (P < 0.001. Eicosapentaenoic acid proportions in vegans were higher than expected. The median concentration of iodine in urine was below the recommended levels in both groups.Long-term consumption of a vegan diet was associated with some favorable laboratory measures but also with lowered concentrations of key nutrients compared to reference values. This study highlights the need for nutritional guidance to vegans.

  17. Assessment of Dietary Intake Patterns among University Students in Lebanon: a focus on gender differences and overweight correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale eSalameh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Unhealthy dietary habits are a major risk factor for chronic diseases, particularly if adopted during early adulthood. In a study conducted on a large sample of university students from both public and private universities in Lebanon, we observed differences in obesity prevalence between males and females. Given this difference, the objective of this analysis was to define the different dietary patterns among university students, focusing on correlation with gender and body mass index (BMI. Methods : A cross-sectional study was carried out on 3384 students, using a proportionate cluster sample of Lebanese students from both public and private universities. Results : Three dietary patterns were identified among university youth namely, vegetarian/low calorie diet (mainly plant food while avoiding ‘western’ food, composite dishes, and bread; mixed diet (high consumption of plant food, followed by composite dishes, bread, and a low consumption of western type food, and finally the westernized diet (high consumption of white bread and western food, and a strong avoidance of plant food and composite dishes. We observed significant differences between males and females in terms of their reported food intake and dietary patterns. Females were particularly more prone to adopt the vegetarian/low calorie diet than males (ORa=1.69; p<0.001, while males were more likely to adopt a westernized diet (ORa=1.51; p<0.001, seemingly in private universities (p=0.053. Students with high income and obese students (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 were more likely to consume vegetarian/low calorie diets (P<0.05. Conclusion: Male university students, despite having a higher BMI, reported a higher consumption of food according to a westernized dietary pattern as compared to female university students in Lebanon, while the latter reported a higher adoption of a vegetarian diet. Health promotion programs are needed among university youth in Lebanon to address their

  18. The Preventable Causes of Death in the United States: Comparative Risk Assessment of Dietary, Lifestyle, and Metabolic Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaei, Goodarz; Ding, Eric L.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Taylor, Ben; Rehm, Jürgen; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Ezzati, Majid

    2009-01-01

    Background Knowledge of the number of deaths caused by risk factors is needed for health policy and priority setting. Our aim was to estimate the mortality effects of the following 12 modifiable dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors in the United States (US) using consistent and comparable methods: high blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and blood pressure; overweight–obesity; high dietary trans fatty acids and salt; low dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids (seafood), and fruits and vegetables; physical inactivity; alcohol use; and tobacco smoking. Methods and Findings We used data on risk factor exposures in the US population from nationally representative health surveys and disease-specific mortality statistics from the National Center for Health Statistics. We obtained the etiological effects of risk factors on disease-specific mortality, by age, from systematic reviews and meta-analyses of epidemiological studies that had adjusted (i) for major potential confounders, and (ii) where possible for regression dilution bias. We estimated the number of disease-specific deaths attributable to all non-optimal levels of each risk factor exposure, by age and sex. In 2005, tobacco smoking and high blood pressure were responsible for an estimated 467,000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 436,000–500,000) and 395,000 (372,000–414,000) deaths, accounting for about one in five or six deaths in US adults. Overweight–obesity (216,000; 188,000–237,000) and physical inactivity (191,000; 164,000–222,000) were each responsible for nearly 1 in 10 deaths. High dietary salt (102,000; 97,000–107,000), low dietary omega-3 fatty acids (84,000; 72,000–96,000), and high dietary trans fatty acids (82,000; 63,000–97,000) were the dietary risks with the largest mortality effects. Although 26,000 (23,000–40,000) deaths from ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, and diabetes were averted by current alcohol use, they were

  19. The preventable causes of death in the United States: comparative risk assessment of dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodarz Danaei

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the number of deaths caused by risk factors is needed for health policy and priority setting. Our aim was to estimate the mortality effects of the following 12 modifiable dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors in the United States (US using consistent and comparable methods: high blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol, and blood pressure; overweight-obesity; high dietary trans fatty acids and salt; low dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids (seafood, and fruits and vegetables; physical inactivity; alcohol use; and tobacco smoking. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used data on risk factor exposures in the US population from nationally representative health surveys and disease-specific mortality statistics from the National Center for Health Statistics. We obtained the etiological effects of risk factors on disease-specific mortality, by age, from systematic reviews and meta-analyses of epidemiological studies that had adjusted (i for major potential confounders, and (ii where possible for regression dilution bias. We estimated the number of disease-specific deaths attributable to all non-optimal levels of each risk factor exposure, by age and sex. In 2005, tobacco smoking and high blood pressure were responsible for an estimated 467,000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 436,000-500,000 and 395,000 (372,000-414,000 deaths, accounting for about one in five or six deaths in US adults. Overweight-obesity (216,000; 188,000-237,000 and physical inactivity (191,000; 164,000-222,000 were each responsible for nearly 1 in 10 deaths. High dietary salt (102,000; 97,000-107,000, low dietary omega-3 fatty acids (84,000; 72,000-96,000, and high dietary trans fatty acids (82,000; 63,000-97,000 were the dietary risks with the largest mortality effects. Although 26,000 (23,000-40,000 deaths from ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, and diabetes were averted by current alcohol use, they were outweighed by

  20. Comparative validity of the ASSO - Food Frequency Questionnaire for the web-based assessment of food and nutrients intake in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Tabacchi, Garden; Filippi, Anna Rita; Breda, João; Censi, Laura; Amodio, Emanuele; Napoli, Giuseppe; Bianco, Antonino; Jemni, Monèm; Firenze, Alberto; Mammina, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    Background: A new web-based food frequency questionnaire (the ASSO–FFQ) was developed within the ASSO Project funded by the Italian Ministry of Health.Objective: The aim of the present study is to assess the validity of the ASSO–FFQ at food groups, energy, and nutrients level.Design and subjects: The validation study compared the ASSO–FFQ against a weighted food record (WFR) measuring foods, beverages and supplements intake, compiled during the week following the ASSO–FFQ administration. Nine...

  1. The nutrient density approach to healthy eating: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The term 'nutrient density' for foods/beverages has been used loosely to promote the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans defined 'all vegetables, fruits, whole grains, fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products, seafood, lean meats and poultry, eggs, beans and...

  2. Valine Nutrient Recommendations for Ross × Ross 308 Broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies delineating dietary Val needs of modern commercial broilers are sparse. Three studies were conducted to determine the dietary Val nutrient minimum of Ross × Ross 308 male broilers. Three time periods were evaluated independently, 0 to 14 d (starter), 14 to 28 d (grower) and 28 to 42 d (finis...

  3. 中国部分农村地区2~7岁留守儿童膳食营养现况研究%Investigation on dietary nutrients among rural stranded children of 2-7 year olds in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段丹辉; 朱明元; 罗家有; 王政; 付楚慧; 张唯敏; 姚梅玲; 段桂琴

    2009-01-01

    目的 了解中国农村留守儿童膳食营养状况,为农村留守儿童营养干预提供科学依据.方法 采用多阶段分层整群随机抽样方法,随机选择农村2~7岁留守儿童1278名和对照儿童1273名作为调查对象.采用3日膳食称重法和食物摄人频率法进行膳食调查,并以中国营养学会推荐的膳食营养素参考摄入量(DRIs)为依据,评价农村留守儿童膳食能量和各种营养素的摄人状况.结果 农村留守儿童膳食以粮谷类和蔬菜类为主,留守儿童肉禽水产类、水果类及零食类等食物的摄入量低于对照儿童,差异有统计学意义.农村留守儿童能量、三大产热营养素及部分矿物质(钙、锌、硒、钾)和维生素(维生素A、维生素B1、维生素B2)的摄入量均低于推荐摄入量.农村留守儿童能量及主要营养素普遍摄入不足,能量摄入不足率在50%以上,蛋白质摄人不足率达80%以上,而钙、锌等矿物质和维生素B1、维生素B1等维生素的摄入不足率达90%以上.蛋白质来源中,优质蛋白质摄入量仅占总蛋白质摄入量的35%,而植物蛋白质占65%.此外植物性铁的摄入比例明显偏高,达到87%.结论 中国农村留守儿童的膳食结构不尽合理,能量和多种营养素摄入不足,能量、蛋白质及铁的来源不合理,膳食营养状况有待改善.%Objective To understand the dietary nutrients among rural stranded children.Methods 2551 children aged 2 to 7, including 1278 stranded children in the rural areas and another 1273 children served as controls were selected, using multistage stratified cluster random sampling. Dietary survey was performed with three-day weighing dietary method and questionnaire on food intake. Data on diet were analyzed and evaluated by the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) recommend by Chinese Nutrition Society, to evaluate the levels on energy and nutrient intake among stranded children in the rural areas. Results The dietary pattern

  4. Dietary early-life exposure to contaminated eels does not impair spatial cognitive performances in adult offspring mice as assessed in the Y-maze and the Morris water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dridi, Imen; Leroy, Delphine; Guignard, Cédric; Scholl, Georges; Bohn, Torsten; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Eppe, Gauthier; Soulimani, Rachid; Bouayed, Jaouad

    2014-12-01

    Many environmental contaminants are introduced via the diet and may act as neurotoxins and endocrine disrupters, especially influencing growing organisms in early life. The purpose of this study was to examine whether dietary exposure of dams to fish naturally contaminated with xenobiotics, especially with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and heavy metals (e.g., mercury and lead), resulted in cognitive function deficits in adult offspring mice. Daily, four groups of dams (n = 10/group) ingested standard diet plus paste with/without eels, during gestation and lactation, from gestational day (GD) six until post natal day (PND) 21 (weaning). Dams orally ingested a standardized amount of eel (0.8 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) containing the six non-dioxin-like (NDL) PCBs (Σ6 NDL-PCBs: 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180) at 0, 85, 216, and 400 ng kg(-1) d(-1). Results showed that early-life exposure to contaminated eels did not (compared to non-exposed controls) impair immediate working memory in the Y-maze in the offspring assessed at PND 38. Furthermore, it did not significantly impact spatial learning and retention memory as measured in the Morris water maze in adult offspring mice (PND 120-123). Our results suggest that perinatal exposure to contaminated eels does not affect spatial cognitive performances, as assessed by the Y-maze and Morris water maze at adult age. Adverse effects of xenobiotics reported earlier might be camouflaged by beneficial eel constituents, such as n-3 fatty acids. However, additional studies are needed to differentiate between potential positive and negative effects following consumption of food items both rich in nutrients and contaminants. PMID:25476192

  5. Dietary pattern and risk of multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Aloosh; Mansoureh Toghae; Mohammad Jamal Razeghi Jahromi; Soodeh Razeghi Jahromi

    2012-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that nutrition might play a role in the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, dietary patterns associated with MS risk are unknown. This study was conducted to compare the dietary patterns of patients with MS and healthy controls to find the relationship between dietary patterns and MS. Methods Usual dietary intake of 75 women with relapsing/remitting MS (RRMS) and 75 healthy controls were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire consisting of 168 ...

  6. Considerations when using longitudinal cohort studies to assess dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic and chronic health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrafford, Carolyn G; Barraj, Leila M; Tsuji, Joyce S

    2016-07-01

    Dietary arsenic exposure and chronic health outcomes are of interest, due in part to increased awareness and data available on inorganic arsenic levels in some foods. Recent concerns regarding levels of inorganic arsenic, the primary form of arsenic of human health concern, in foods are based on extrapolation from adverse health effects observed at high levels of inorganic arsenic exposure; the potential for the occurrence of these health effects from lower levels of dietary inorganic arsenic exposure has not been established. In this review, longitudinal cohort studies are evaluated for their utility in estimating dietary inorganic arsenic exposure and quantifying statistically reliable associations with health outcomes. The primary limiting factor in longitudinal studies is incomplete data on inorganic arsenic levels in foods combined with the aggregation of consumption of foods with varying arsenic levels into a single category, resulting in exposure misclassification. Longitudinal cohort studies could provide some evidence to evaluate associations of dietary patterns related to inorganic arsenic exposure with risk of arsenic-related diseases. However, currently available data from longitudinal cohort studies limit causal analyses regarding the association between inorganic arsenic exposure and health outcomes. Any conclusions should therefore be viewed with knowledge of the analytical and methodological limitations. PMID:27155067

  7. Assessment of different dietary fibers (tomato fiber, beet root fiber, and inulin) for the manufacture of chopped cooked chicken products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cava, Ramón; Ladero, Luis; Cantero, V; Rosario Ramírez, M

    2012-04-01

    Three dietary fibers (tomato fiber [TF], beet root fiber [BRF], and inulin) at 3 levels of addition (1%, 2%, and 3%) were assessed for the manufacture of chopped, cooked chicken products and compared with a control product without fiber added. The effect of fiber incorporation on (i) batters, (ii) cooked (30 min at 70 °C), and (iii) cooked and stored (for 10 d at 4 °C) chicken products were studied. The addition of the fiber to chicken meat products reduced the pH of chicken batters in proportional to the level of fiber addition. Fiber incorporation increased water-holding capacity but only the addition of TF reduced cook losses. The color of batters and cooked products was significantly modified by the type and level of fiber added. These changes were more noticeable when TF was added. Texture parameters were affected by the incorporation of TF and BRF; they increased the hardness in proportional to the level of addition. The addition of tomato and BRF to chicken meat products reduced lipid oxidation processes. These changes were dependent on the level of fiber added. The reduction of lipid oxidation processes was more marked in TF meat products than in products with other types of fibers. In contrast, the addition level of inulin increased TBA-RS numbers in chicken meat products. Although the addition of TF increased the redness of the meat products, the use of this fiber was more suitable as it reduced the extent of lipid oxidation processes. INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION: Nowadays, the reduction of fat and the increase of fiber content in meat products is one of the main goals of meat industry. Numerous sources of fiber can be added to the meat products; however, before that it is necessary to study their technological effect on raw and cooked meat products in order to evaluate their suitability for meat products manufacture. In addition, some of them could have beneficial effect on meat products conservation that could also increase their shelf life. PMID:22352766

  8. Dietary supplements in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, L M; Read, R S

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the dietary practices of athletes report that nutritional supplements are commonly used. Supplementation practices vary between sports and individual athletes; however, there is evidence that at least some athletes use a large number of supplements concurrently, often in doses that are very high in comparison with normal dietary intakes. In exploring supplementation practices we propose a classification system separating the supplements into dietary supplements and nutritional erogogenic aids. The dietary supplement is characterised as a product which can be used to address physiological or nutritional issues arising in sport. It may provide a convenient or practical means of consuming special nutrient requirements for exercise, or it may be used to prevent/reverse nutritional deficiencies that commonly occur among athletes. The basis of the dietary supplement is an understanding of nutritional requirements and physiological effects of exercise. When the supplement is used to successfully meet a physiological/nutritional goal arising in sport it may be demonstrated to improve sports performance. While there is some interest in refining the composition or formulation of some dietary supplements, the real interest belongs to the use or application of the supplement; i.e. educating athletes to understand and achieve their nutritional needs in a specific sports situation. The sports drink (carbohydrate-electrolyte replacement drink) is a well known example of a dietary supplement. Scientific attitudes towards the sports drink have changed over the past 20 years. Initial caution that carbohydrate-electrolyte fluids compromise gastric emptying during exercise has now been shown to be unjustified. Numerous studies have shown that 5 to 10% solutions of glucose, glucose polymers (maltodextrins) and other simple sugars all have suitable gastric emptying characteristics for the delivery of fluid and moderate amounts of carbohydrate substrate. The optimal

  9. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on nutrient requirements and dietary intakes of infants and young children in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    infants and young children in living Europe. Dietary intakes of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), iron, vitamin D and iodine (in some European countries) are low in infants and young children living in Europe, and particular attention should be paid to ensuring an appropriate supply...

  10. Dietary patterns in India: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Rosemary; Milner, James; Joy, Edward J. M.; Agrawal, Sutapa; Dangour, Alan D

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns analysis is an emerging area of research. Identifying distinct patterns within a large dietary survey can give a more accurate representation of what people are eating. Furthermore, it allows researchers to analyse relationships between non-communicable diseases (NCD) and complete diets rather than individual food items or nutrients. However, few such studies have been conducted in developing countries including India, where the population has a high burden of diabetes and CV...

  11. Assessment of Constructed Wetland in Nutrient Reduction, in the Commercial Scale Experiment Ponds of Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Tariq; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Guosen

    2016-03-01

    A free water surface constructed wetland (CW) was integrated into two commercial ponds of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, to evaluate the role of CW in reducing the excess nutrient concentration and other pollutants produced from the aquaculture waste. Hydraulic residence time was kept constant (24 h). There was a significant (p wetland inflow and wetland outflow. The performance of the CW was highly impacted by the low concentration of dissolved nutrients at the inflow of CW. Results showed about 43.8 ± 24.6 % NO3 (-), 25.7 ± 23.0 % NH4 (+), 14.3 ± 1.0 % NO2 (-), 28.4 ± 18.8 % DIN and 13.1 ± 10.0 % PO4 (3-) were removed. In agreement with previous published investigations, comparing values of pollutants before and after recirculation, this study concludes that a CW system can provide good water quality and minimize external water input. PMID:26679323

  12. Assessment of the environmental significance of nutrients and heavy metal pollution in the river network of Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dević, Gordana; Sakan, Sanja; Đorđević, Dragana

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the data for ten water quality variables collected during 2009 at 75 monitoring sites along the river network of Serbia are considered. The results are alarming because 48% of the studied sites were contaminated by Ni, Mn, Pb, As, and nutrients, which are key factors impairing the water quality of the rivers in Serbia. Special attention should be paid to Zn and Cu, listed in the priority toxic pollutants of US EPA for aquatic life protection. The employed Q-model cluster analysis grouped the data into three major pollution zones (low, moderate, and high). Most sites classified as "low pollution zones" (LP) were in the main rivers, whereas those classified as "moderate and high pollution zones" (MP and HP, respectively) were in the large and small tributaries/hydro-system. Principal component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA) showed that the dissolved metals and nutrients in the Serbian rivers varied depending on the river, the heterogeneity of the anthropogenic activities in the basins (influenced primarily by industrial wastewater, agricultural activities, and urban runoff pollution), and natural environmental variability, such as geological characteristics. In LP dominated non-point source pollution, such as agricultural and urban runoff, whereas mixed source pollution dominated in the MP and HP zones. These results provide information to be used for developing better pollution control strategies for the river network of Serbia. PMID:26593728

  13. Assessment of the characteristic of nutrients, total metals, and fecal coliform in Sibu Laut River, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Chen-Lin; Ling, Teck-Yee; Lee, Nyanti; Apun, Kasing

    2016-03-01

    The concentrations of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), total metals, and fecal coliform (FC) coupling with chlorophyll- a (chl- a), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and other general environmental parameters were evaluated at the sub-surface and near-bottom water columns of 13 stations in the Sibu Laut River during low and high slack waters. The results indicated that inorganic nitrogen (mainly nitrate) was the primary form of nitrogen whereas organic phosphorus was the major form of phosphorus. The abundance of total heavy metals in Sibu Laut River and its tributaries was in the order of Pb < Cu < Zn < Cd. Fecal coliform concentration was relatively low along Sibu Laut River. The shrimp farm effluents contributed a substantial amount of chl- a, BOD5, nutrients, and FC to the receiving creek except for total metals. Nevertheless, the influence was merely noticeable in the intake creek and amended rapidly along Selang Sibu River and brought minimal effects on the Sibu Laut River. Besides, the domestic sewage effluents from villages nearby also contributed a substantial amount of pollutants.

  14. Dietary Mineral Could Be One Key to Blood Pressure Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Dietary Mineral Could Be One Key to Blood Pressure Control People who didn't get enough daily ... nutrient magnesium might be a boon to good blood pressure, new research suggests. "Magnesium dilates arteries, and in ...

  15. Predicting the profile of nutrients available for absorption: from nutrient requirement to animal response and environmental impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.; Kebreab, E.; Mills, J.A.N.; Pellikaan, W.F.; López, S.; Bannink, A.; France, J.

    2007-01-01

    Current feed evaluation systems for dairy cattle aim to match nutrient requirements with nutrient intake at pre-defined production levels. These systems were not developed to address, and are not suitable to predict, the responses to dietary changes in terms of production level and product compositi

  16. Higher Dietary Choline and Betaine Intakes Are Associated with Better Body Composition in the Adult Population of Newfoundland, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gao

    Full Text Available Choline is an essential nutrient and betaine is an osmolyte and methyl donor. Both are important to maintain health including adequate lipid metabolism. Supplementation of dietary choline and betaine increase muscle mass and reduce body fat in animals. However, little data is available regarding the role of dietary choline and betaine on body composition in humans.To investigate the association between dietary choline and betaine intakes with body composition in a large population based cross-sectional study.A total of 3214 subjects from the CODING (Complex Disease in Newfoundland population: Environment and Genetics study were assessed. Dietary choline and betaine intakes were computed from the Willett Food Frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry following a 12-hour fast. Major confounding factors including age, sex, total calorie intake and physical activity level were controlled in all analyses.Significantly inverse correlations were found between dietary choline and betaine intakes, with all obesity measurements: total percent body fat (%BF, percent trunk fat (%TF, percent android fat (%AF, percent gynoid fat (%GF and anthropometrics: weight, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio in both women and men (r range from -0.13 to -0.47 for choline and -0.09 to -0.26 for betaine, p<0.001 for all. Dietary choline intake had stronger association than betaine. Moreover, obese subjects had the lowest dietary choline and betaine intakes, with overweight subjects in the middle, and normal weight subjects consumed the highest dietary choline and betaine (p<0.001. Vice versa, when subjects were ranked according to dietary choline and betaine intakes, subjects with the highest intake of both had the lowest %TF, %AF, %GF, %BF and highest %LM among the groups in both sexes.Our findings indicate that high dietary choline and betaine intakes are significantly associated with favorable body

  17. Adherence to the food-based Japanese dietary guidelines in relation to metabolic risk factors in young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Terumi; Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Sasaki, Satoshi; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2015-08-28

    While Japanese diets have attracted considerable attention because of, for example, the long-life expectancy in Japan, their health benefits have not been examined. In the present study, we cross-sectionally examined whether adherence to the food-based Japanese dietary guidelines is associated with metabolic risk factors in 1083 Japanese women aged 18-22 years. Based on the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top, adherence to the food-based Japanese dietary guidelines was assessed using dietary information on consumed servings of grain dishes, vegetable dishes, fish and meat dishes, milk and fruits and energy from snacks and alcoholic beverages during the preceding month, which was derived from a comprehensive diet history questionnaire. Higher dietary adherence was associated with higher intakes of protein, carbohydrate, dietary fibre, Na, K and vitamin C, and lower intakes of total and saturated fat. There was also an inverse association between dietary adherence and dietary energy density. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, dietary adherence was inversely associated with waist circumference (P for trend = 0·002). It also showed an inverse association with LDL-cholesterol concentrations (P for trend = 0·04). There was no association with the other metabolic risk factors examined, including BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total and HDL-cholesterol, TAG, glucose, glycated Hb and insulin concentrations. In conclusion, higher adherence to the food-based Japanese dietary guidelines, which was characterised by favourable dietary intakes of foods and nutrients as well as lower energy density, was associated with lower waist circumference and LDL-cholesterol concentrations in this group of young Japanese women. PMID:26212663

  18. Parâmetros ruminal, sangüíneo e urinário e digestibilidade de nutrientes em novilhas leiteiras recebendo diferentes níveis de monensina Effects of different dietary levels of monensin on nutrient digestibility and on ruminal, blood and urinary metabolites in dairy heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Morais de Oliveira

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se verificar a influência da inclusão de diferentes níveis do ionóforo monensina sódica na dieta sobre os parâmetros ruminal, sangüíneo e urinário e a digestibilidade aparente em novilhas leiteiras. Foram coletadas amostras de líquido ruminal (imediatamente antes e duas horas após a alimentação, sangue, urina e fezes de 28 novilhas da raça Holandesa mantidas em regime de confinamento por 84 dias. As dietas possuíam 32,84% de concentrado (grão de milho, farelo de soja, uréia e mistura mineral, 33,58% de silagem de milho e 33,58% de cana-de-açúcar na matéria seca. Os níveis de ionóforo avaliados foram 0, 14, 28 e 42 mg de monensina/kg de matéria seca da dieta. O experimento foi instalado conforme delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e sete repetições, realizando-se estudos de regressão e contrastes ortogonais. Antes da alimentação, a monensina não influenciou o pH ruminal e a concentração de amônia e dos ácidos acético, propiônico e butírico, mas promoveu redução da relação acetato:propionato. Duas horas após a alimentação, verificou-se redução do pH e da relação acetato:propionato; e aumento da concentração de ácido propiônico. O estudo de contrastes revelou que ocorreu diminuição da concentração de amônia antes da alimentação. Não foram verificadas mudanças significativas nas concentrações de glicose e uréia sangüínea. A monensina também não influenciou os consumos de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica, proteína bruta, extrato etéreo (EE, carboidratos totais (CHOT e fibra em detergente neutro. As digestibilidades da MS, EE e CHOT e a perda de nitrogênio urinário apresentaram respostas quadráticas.The objective of this trial was to study the effects of different dietary levels of the ionophore monensin on apparent digestibility of nutrients and on ruminal, blood, and urinary metabolites in dairy heifers. Samples of ruminal fluid (pre

  19. The 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee Scientific Report: Development and Major Conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millen, Barbara E; Abrams, Steve; Adams-Campbell, Lucile; Anderson, Cheryl Am; Brenna, J Thomas; Campbell, Wayne W; Clinton, Steven; Hu, Frank; Nelson, Miriam; Neuhouser, Marian L; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Story, Mary; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2016-05-01

    The Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) is published every 5 y jointly by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the USDA and provides a framework for US-based food and nutrition programs, health promotion and disease prevention initiatives, and research priorities. Summarized in this report are the methods, major conclusions, and recommendations of the Scientific Report of the 2015 US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC). Early in the process, the DGAC developed a conceptual model and formulated questions to examine nutritional risk and determinants and impact of dietary patterns in relation to numerous health outcomes among individuals aged ≥2 y. As detailed in the report, an expansive, transparent, and comprehensive process was used to address each question, with multiple opportunities for public input included. Consensus was reached on all DGAC's findings, including each conclusion and recommendation, and the entire report. When research questions were answered by original systematic literature reviews and/or with existing, high-quality expert reports, the quality and strength of the evidence was formally graded. The report was organized around the following 5 themes: 1) food and nutrient intakes and health: current status and trends; 2) dietary patterns, foods and nutrients, and health outcomes; 3) diet and physical activity behavior change; 4) food and physical activity environments; and 5) food sustainability and food safety. The following 3 cross-cutting topics were addressed: 1) sodium, 2) saturated fat, and 3) added sugars. Physical activity recommendations from recent expert reports were endorsed. The overall quality of the American diet was assessed to identify overconsumed and underconsumed nutrients of public health concern. Common food characteristics of healthy dietary patterns were determined. Features of effective interventions to change individual and population diet and physical activity behaviors in clinical, public

  20. Dietary Patterns and Blood Pressure in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndanuko, Rhoda N; Tapsell, Linda C; Charlton, Karen E; Neale, Elizabeth P; Batterham, Marijka J

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease, stroke, and kidney disease. To lower blood pressure (BP), several lifestyle changes are recommended such as weight loss, exercise, and following a healthy diet. Investigating the effect of single nutrients may have positive results, but food is consumed as part of a whole diet, resulting in nutrient interactions. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effect of dietary patterns on BP in adults. Studies that were published between January 1999 and June 2014 were retrieved using Scopus, Web of Science, and the MEDLINE database. Seventeen randomized controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis. The results suggest that healthy dietary patterns such as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet, Nordic diet, and Mediterranean diet significantly lowered systolic BP and diastolic BP by 4.26 mm Hg and 2.38 mm Hg, respectively. These diets are rich in fruit, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, seeds, nuts, fish, and dairy and low in meat, sweets, and alcohol. Lifestyle factors such as exercise and weight loss in combination with dietary changes may also reduce BP. Further research is needed to establish the effect of dietary patterns on BP in different cultures other than those identified in this review. The review was registered on PROSPERO (International prospective register of systematic reviews) as CRD42015016272. PMID:26773016

  1. Dietary Patterns : Identification and Health Implications in the Swedish Population

    OpenAIRE

    Ax, Erika

    2015-01-01

    We eat foods not nutrients. What is more, we eat them in combinations. Consequently, capturing our complex food habits is likely an advantage in nutrition research. The overall aim of this doctoral thesis was therefore to investigate dietary patterns in the Swedish population –nutrient intakes, nutritional biomarkers and health aspects. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in the developed world. However, the impact of dietary factors on disease risk is largely unknown. In Stud...

  2. Risks assessment of environmental exposure to certain organo chemicals in male rats: the possible modulatory effect of micro nutrients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a widely volatile organic compound, because of its widespread commercial use. So, TCE become a major environmental pollutant. It is the most frequently reported organic contaminant in ground water, so a considerable numbers of people are exposed to TCE via inhalation, through the skin or through drinking water and rarely through food. The main symptoms of exposure are headache, dizziness, and confusion, beyond the effects on the central nervous system, work place exposure to TCE has been associated with toxic effects in many organs including liver, kidney and testes in addition to attenuation to the immune system. The present study aims to investigate the possible modulatory effect of certain micro nutrients such as vitamin C and zinc alone and in combination on the damage of liver, kidney and testes of male rats intoxicated with trichloroethylene for 20 and 105 days. The results showed significant decrease in body and testes weight and increase in liver and kidney weights after long period of treatment with TCE. Some of the selected hematological and biochemical parameters of the rats intoxicated by TCE for short and long period significantly changed. The results revealed significant decrease in free tetraiodothyronine (thyroxine) (FT4) and significant increase in free triiodothyronine (FT3) and thyroid stimulating hormone (Thyrotropin) (TSH) in TCE-intoxicated rat groups for the two periods of treatment. Also results revealed significant decrease of total testosterone in TCE-intoxicated rat groups as compared to that of normal control. Also significant changes were detected in the level of immunoglobulins IgG and IgM.Histopathological examination of liver, kidney and testicular tissues showed significant alteration. The DNA damage was observed in both period of treatment and increased DNA damage with apoptosis was recorded after 105 days of the treatment. Withdrawal group recorded mild improvement in all changed parameters and the

  3. Nutrient regulation of human intestinal sugar transporter (SGLT1) expression.

    OpenAIRE

    Dyer, J; Hosie, K B; Shirazi-Beechey, S P

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The activity of most intestinal nutrient transporters is adaptively regulated by the type and amounts of nutrients entering the intestinal lumen. The concentration and activity of the intestinal Na+/glucose cotransporter (SGLT1) are regulated by dietary sugars in most animal species. The activity and abundance of SGLT1 in biopsy specimens removed from human jejunal regions exposed to, and having limited access to, luminal nutrients have been measured and compared. AIMS: To study t...

  4. Improvement of Meat Taste by Dietary Components

    OpenAIRE

    Fujimura, Shinobu; Kadowaki, Motoni

    2006-01-01

    Dietary nutrients play a significant part in determining growth rate and meat yield. It is known that the compositions of protein and total amino acids of meat are invariable by feeding treatments, hence the meat taste is considered to be invariable. However, the relationship of taste components of meat with nutrients is not fully elucidated, and there have been few reports on the effect of feeding treatments on taste-active components of chicken meat. Previously, restricted feeding and dieta...

  5. The time course of action of two neuroprotectants, dietary saffron and photobiomodulation, assessed in the rat retina

    OpenAIRE

    Marco, Fabiana Di; Romeo, Stefania; Nandasena, Charith; Purushothuman, Sivaraman; Adams, Charean; Bisti, Silvia; Stone, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dietary saffron and photobiomodulation (low-level infrared radiation, PBM) are emerging as therapeutically promising protectants for neurodegenerative conditions, such as the retinal dystrophies. In animal models, saffron and PBM, given in limited daily doses, protect retina and brain from toxin- or light-induced stress. This study addresses the rate at which saffron and PBM, given in daily doses, induce neuroprotection, using a light damage model of photoreceptor degeneration in ...

  6. Agar Sediment Test for Assessing the Suitability of Organic Waste Streams for Recovering Nutrients by the Aquatic Worm Lumbriculus variegatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Laarhoven

    Full Text Available An agar sediment test was developed to evaluate the suitability of organic waste streams from the food industry for recovering nutrients by the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv. The effects of agar gel, sand, and food quantities in the sediment test on worm growth, reproduction, and water quality were studied. Agar gel addition ameliorated growth conditions by reducing food hydrolysis and altering sediment structure. Best results for combined reproduction and growth were obtained with 0.6% agar-gel (20 ml, 10 g. fine sand, 40 g. coarse sand, and 105 mg fish food (Tetramin. With agar gel, ingestion and growth is more the result of addition of food in its original quality. Final tests with secondary potato starch sludge and wheat bran demonstrated that this test is appropriate for the comparison of solid feedstuffs and suspended organic waste streams. This test method is expected to be suitable for organic waste studies using other sediment dwelling invertebrates.

  7. Selenium, Chromium, and Vitamin D: What Dietitians Need to Know Regarding Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate nutrient data for dietary supplement composition are essential for determining supplements’ contribution to total dietary intake. To plan a nationwide adult multivitamin/mineral (MVM) study, the USDA Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) obtained prevalence information for the most common labeled...

  8. Carbohydrates and dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, P M

    2005-01-01

    The most widely spread eating habit is characterized by a reduced intake of dietary fiber, an increased intake of simple sugars, a high intake of refined grain products, an altered fat composition of the diet, and a dietary pattern characterized by a high glycemic load, an increased body weight and reduced physical activity. In this chapter the effects of this eating pattern on disease risk will be outlined. There are no epidemiological studies showing that the increase of glucose, fructose or sucrose intake is directly and independently associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis or coronary heart disease (CHD). On the other hand a large number of studies has reported a reduction of fatal and non-fatal CHD events as a function of the intake of complex carbohydrates--respectively 'dietary fiber' or selected fiber-rich food (e.g., whole grain cereals). It seems that eating too much 'fast' carbohydrate [i.e., carbohydrates with a high glycemic index (GI)] may have deleterious long-term consequences. Indeed the last decades have shown that a low fat (and consecutively high carbohydrate) diet alone is not the best strategy to combat modern diseases including atherosclerosis. Quantity and quality issues in carbohydrate nutrient content are as important as they are for fat. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that for cardiovascular disease prevention a high sugar intake should be avoided. There is growing evidence of the high impact of dietary fiber and foods with a low GI on single risk factors (e.g., lipid pattern, diabetes, inflammation, endothelial function etc.) as well as also the development of the endpoints of atherosclerosis especially CHD. PMID:16596802

  9. Vitamin D Addendum to USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies 3.0: Database developed for estimating vitamin D intakes from food and water in What We Eat In America, NHANES 2005-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin D has been identified as a nutrient of top public health concern because of its role in bone health and its link to other diseases and conditions. However, there are many knowledge gaps in the study of vitamin D, including lack of updated analytical data and accurate intake estimates from na...

  10. Predicting the profile of nutrients available for absorption: from nutrient requirement to animal response and environmental impact

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkstra, J.; Kebreab, E.; Mills, J. A. N.; Pellikaan, W.F.; López, S; Bannink, A.; France, J

    2007-01-01

    Current feed evaluation systems for dairy cattle aim to match nutrient requirements with nutrient intake at pre-defined production levels. These systems were not developed to address, and are not suitable to predict, the responses to dietary changes in terms of production level and product composition, excretion of nutrients to the environment, and nutrition related disorders. The change from a requirement to a response system to meet the needs of various stakeholders requires prediction of t...

  11. Energy balance and dietary habits of America's Cup sailors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Elisabetta; Delussu, Sofia A; Quattrini, Filippo M; Rodio, Angelo; Bernardi, Marco

    2007-08-01

    This research, which was conducted with crew members of an America's Cup team, had the following objectives: (a) to assess energy expenditure and intake during training; (b) to evaluate the sailors' diet, and (c) to identify any dietary flaws to determine the appropriate intake of nutrients, correct possible dietary mistakes, and improve their food habits. Energy expenditure was estimated on 15 sailors using direct measurements (oxygen consumption) and a 3-day activity questionnaire. Oxygen consumption was measured on sailors during both on-water America's Cup sailing training and dry-land fitness training. Composition of the diet was estimated using a 3-day food record. Average daily energy expenditure of the sailors ranged from 14.95 to 24.4 MJ, depending on body mass and boat role, with the highest values found in grinders and mastmen. Daily energy intake ranged from 15.7 to 23.3 MJ (from +6% to -18% of energy expenditure). The contributions of carbohydrate, protein, and fat to total energy intake were 43%, 18%, and 39% respectively, values that are not in accord with the recommended guidelines for athletes. Our results show the importance of assessing energy balance and food habits for America's Cup sailors performing different roles. The practical outcome of this study was that the sailors were given dietary advice and prescribed a Mediterranean diet, explained in specific nutrition lectures. PMID:17613739

  12. Letter to Veugelers, P.J. and Ekwaru, J.P., A Statistical Error in the Estimation of the Recommended Dietary Allowance for Vitamin D. Nutrients 2014, 6, 4472–4475; doi:10.3390/nu6104472

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Heaney

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently Veugelers and Ekwaru published data [1] indicating that, in its dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D, the Institute of Medicine (IOM had made a serious calculation error [2]. Using the same data set as had the IOM panel, these investigators showed that the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA for vitamin D had been underestimated by an order of magnitude. Veugelers and Ekwaru, using the IOM’s data, calculated an RDA of 8895 IU per day. They noted that there was some uncertainty in that estimate, inasmuch as this value required an extrapolation from the available data, which did not include individuals receiving daily vitamin D inputs above 2400 IU/day.[...

  13. Intervention effects on dietary intake among children by maternal education level: results of the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt W.; von Kappelgaard, Lene M.; Nielsen, Birgit M.;

    2015-01-01

    Dietary intake among Danish children, in general, does not comply with the official recommendations. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the 3-year effect of a multi-component school-based intervention on nutrient intake in children, and to examine whether an intervention effect......-based intervention resulted in changes in the dietary intake, particularly among children of mothers with a short education. As the dietary intake of this subgroup generally differs most from the recommendations, the results of the present study are particularly encouraging....... depended on maternal education level. A total of 307 children (intervention group: n 184; comparison group: n 123) were included in the present study. All had information on dietary intake pre- and post-intervention (mean age 6·8 and 9·5 years for intervention and comparison groups, respectively) assessed...

  14. A dietary risk assessment of the pyrethroid insecticide resmethrin associated with its use for West Nile Virus mosquito vector control in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley C. Carr

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of human illnesses associated with West Nile Virus (WNV occurred in New York City in 1999. Since then, it has gradually spread westwards, reaching northern California for the first time in 2005. WNV is transmitted by several mosquito species and birds serve as the main reservoir. Several control measures have been used, targeting both the aquatic larvae and the adult mosquitoes. In the latter case, roosting birds in trees are sprayed with pyrethroid insecticides because these are highly toxic to mosquitoes, but have low avian toxicity. A request was made to use a resmethrin-containing insecticide during the month of October 2005 in California. Because resmethrin was not registered for use on growing crops, concerns were raised about potential crop contamination. Therefore, an expedited dietary risk assessment was conducted on resmethrin. Developmental toxicity in the rat (NOELs of 25 or 40 mg/kg/day was used as the acute endpoint and dietary exposure was assessed using the DEEM-FCIDTM computer program. Only crops growing above ground during October were considered. Margins of Safety (MOS were found to be above 100, the level generally considered to be sufficient to protect public health when using an animal NOEL.

  15. The safety assessment of Pythium irregulare as a producer of biomass and eicosapentaenoic acid for use in dietary supplements and food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Roe, Charles L; Wen, Zhiyou

    2013-09-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6, n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5, n-3), and arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4 n-6), have multiple beneficial effects on human health and can be used as an important ingredient in dietary supplements, food, feed and pharmaceuticals. A variety of microorganisms has been used for commercial production of these fatty acids. The microorganisms in the Pythium family, particularly Pythium irregulare, are potential EPA producers. The aim of this work is to provide a safety assessment of P. irregulare so that the EPA derived from this species can be potentially used in various commercial applications. The genus Pythium has been widely recognized as a plant pathogen by infecting roots and colonizing the vascular tissues of various plants such as soybeans, corn and various vegetables. However, the majority of the Pythium species (including P. irregulare) have not been reported to infect mammals including humans. The only species among the Pythium family that infects mammals is P. insidiosum. There also have been no reports showing P. irregulare to contain mycotoxins or cause potentially allergenic responses in humans. Based on the safety assessment, we conclude that P. irregulare can be considered a safe source of biomass and EPA-containing oil for use as ingredients in dietary supplements, food, feed and pharmaceuticals. PMID:23900800

  16. Dietary protein absorption of the small intestine in human neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaart, Maaike W.; de Bruijn, Adrianus C. J. M.; Tibboel, Dick; Renes, Ingrid B.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The intestine plays a key role in the absorption of dietary proteins, which determines growth of human neonates. Bowel resection in the neonatal period brings loss of absorptive and protective surface and may consequently lead to malabsorption of dietary nutrients. However, there are no

  17. Effects of Environmental Factors on Nutrients Release at Sediment-Water Interface and Assessment of Trophic Status for a Typical Shallow Lake, Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dekun Hou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface sediment and water samples were collected from Daihai Lake to study the biogeochemical characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus, to estimate the loads of these nutrients, and to assess their effects on water quality. The contents and spatial distributions of total phosphorus (TP, total nitrogen (TN, and different nitrogen forms in sediments were analyzed. The results showed that concentrations of TN and TP in surface sediments ranged from 0.27 to 1.78 g/kg and from 558.31 to 891.29 mg/kg, respectively. Ratios of C : N ranged between 8.2 and 12.1, which indicated that nitrogen accumulated came mainly from terrestrial source. Ratios of N : P in all sampling sites were below 10, which indicated that N was the limiting nutrient for algal growth in this lake. Effects of environment factors on the release of nitrogen and phosphorus in lake sediments were also determined; high pH values could encourage the release of nitrogen and phosphorus. Modified Carlson’s trophic state index (TSIM and comprehensive trophic state index (TSIC were applied to ascertain the trophic classification of the studied lake, and the values of TSIM and TSIC ranged from 53.72 to 70.61 and from 47.73 to 53.67, respectively, which indicated that the Daihai Lake was in the stage of hypereutropher.

  18. Short-term role of the dietary total antioxidant capacity in two hypocaloric regimes on obese with metabolic syndrome symptoms: the RESMENA randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez-Legarrea Patricia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary strategies seem to be the most prescribed therapy in order to counteract obesity regarding not only calorie restriction, but also bioactive ingredients and the composition of the consumed foods. Dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC is gaining importance in order to assess the quality of the diet. Methods Ninety-six obese adults presenting metabolic syndrome (MetS symptoms completed an 8-week intervention trial to evaluate the effects of a novel dietary program with changes in the nutrient distribution and meal frequency and to compare it with a dietary pattern based on the American Heart Association (AHA guidelines. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were assessed at baseline and at the endpoint of the study, in addition to 48-hours food dietary records. Results Both diets equally (p > 0.05 improved MetS manifestations. Dietary TAC was the component which showed the major influence on body weight (p = 0.034, body mass index (p = 0.026, waist circumference (p = 0.083 and fat mass (p = 0.015 reductions. Transaminases (ALT and AST levels (p = 0.062 and p = 0.004, respectively were associated with lower TAC values. Conclusion RESMENA diet was as effective as AHA pattern for reducing MetS features. Dietary TAC was the most contributing factor involved in body weight and obesity related markers reduction. Trial registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01087086

  19. Relationship between anthropometric variables and nutrient intake in apparently healthy male elderly individuals: A study from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawelec Graham

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The elderly population is increasing worldwide, which warrants their nutritional status assessment more important. The present study was undertaken to establish the nutritional status of the least-studied elderly population in Pakistan. Methods This was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 526 generally healthy free-living elderly men (mean age: 68.9 yr; range: 50-98 yr from Peshawar, Pakistan. Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, WC were measured and BMI and WHR were calculated from these measurements following WHO standard procedures. Dietary intake was assessed by 24-hr dietary recall. Nutrients were calculated from the information on food intake. Nutrients in terms of % of RNI were calculated using WHO data on recommended intakes. Results Based on BMI, the numbers of obese, overweight and underweight elderly were 13.1, 3.1 and 10.8%, respectively. Age was negatively and significantly correlated with BMI (p = 0.0028. Energy (p = 0.0564 and protein intake (p = 0.0776 tended to decrease with age. There was a significant increase in % BF with age (p = p p Conclusions Malnutrition is common in apparently healthy elderly Pakistani men. Very few elderly have adequate nutrient intake. Obese and overweight had higher % BF as compared to normal weight elderly. Older age is associated with changes not only in anthropometrics and body composition but also in intake of key nutrients like energy and protein.

  20. Development of Goat - Palm Oil Integrated Production System : An Assessment Based on Feed Availability and Nutrient Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P Ginting

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The integration of goats and palm oil plantation is prospective agricultural production systems that exploit the complement relationship among various components in the system . The main components are the oil palm trees, vegetation underneath the trees, processing plant of palm oil bunch, and the goat . The estimation of carrying capacity of the plantation system is based on the quantitative analysis on nutrient supply from various feed resources in the plantation system and nutrient requirements for goat production . The goat demographic parameters, such as, prolificacy, fertility and fecundity are used to estimate the goat population size, dynamics and structures . The development of production model could be based on a certain production target, such as the number of animals sold or the amount of income (demand driven approach, or based on the availability of certain resources such as feed supply (supply driven approach . Using the demand driven approach, and considering 6000 heads of oneyear old goats to fill the Malaysian market as the production target, it is calculated that a population size of 3,636 does and 810 ha of palm oil plantation are required to meet this production target . In a typically medium-size oil palm plantation system (500 ha of oil palm plantation with one unit of small-scale palm oil bunch processing plant ( l ton/hour, the potency to supply metabolisable energy from various feed resources in the system is 2,778,800 Mcal/year, equivalent to a carrying capacity of 5,155 Goat Units/year . This system could carry 2,951 does and 295 bucks to produce 1,116 heads of one-year old goats annually . A medium-size oil palm plantation without processing plant unit, is potential in supplying metabolisable energy of 1,983,300 Mcal/year, equivalent to a carrying capacity of 3,680 Goat Units/year . In order to fill the export market to Malaysia, a number of 10 units of medium sized plantation with small scale plant processing or a

  1. Assessment of habitual energy and macronutrient intake in adults: comparison of a seven day food record with a dietary history interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høidrup, S.; Andreasen, A. H.; Osler, M.;

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To examine the quantitative agreement between a 7 day food record and a diet history interview when these are conducted under the same conditions and to evaluate whether the two methods assess habitual diet intake differently among subgroups of age and body mass index (BMI). Design......: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Population study, Denmark. Subjects: A total of 175 men and 173 women aged 30-60 y, selected randomly from a larger population sample of Danish adults. Interventions: All subjects had habitual diet intake assessed by a diet history interview and completed a 7 day food...... record within 3 weeks following the interview. The diet history interview and coding of records were performed by the same trained dietician. Main outcome measure: Median between-method difference in assessment of total energy intake, absolute intake of macronutrients, and nutrient energy percentages...

  2. Assessing the feasibility of N and P recovery by struvite precipitation from nutrient-rich wastewater: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ramesh; Pal, Parimal

    2015-11-01

    Literature on recovery of nitrogen and phosphorous from wastewater in the form of value-added struvite fertilizer has been critically reviewed towards the evolution of a sustainable management strategy. Presence of nitrogen and phosphorus is widespread in both domestic as well as industrial wastewater streams such as swine wastewater, landfill leachate, urine waste, dairy manure, coke wastewater, and beverage wastewater. Where these nitrogen and phosphorus compounds cause eutrophication of water bodies and considered as harmful discharges to the environment, they can be turned useful through simple chemical conversion into struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O). In extensive studies on wastewater treatment, aspects of recovery of valuable materials remain dispersed. In the present article, almost all relevant aspects of sources of raw materials, chemistry and technology of struvite production, and its detailed characterization have been captured in a systematic and classified way so as to help in planning and designing an integrated scheme of struvite production through conversion of nitrogen and phosphorus components of waste streams. The study will help in formulating a new waste management strategy in this context by shifting focus from removal to recovery of nutrients from waste streams. PMID:26408116

  3. Assessment of the urban trees health status on the base of nutrient and pigment content in their leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SLAVEYA PETROVA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Town settlements have different load level by emissions originated mostly from transport, industry and heating system. Their environmental and climate conditions are more or less changed that effect to growth, physiology and vigor of woody plants at the city public vegetation areas. Our study on determining the impact of urban environment on the tree health status was focused on the quantities of nutrients and main components of the pigment complex – chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids. Leaves of Acer platanoides L., Aesculus hippocastanum L. and Betula pendula Roth. were sampled from urban areas with different type of anthropogenic pressure in the town of Plovdiv (Bulgaria. Concentrations of the elements Ca, K, Mg, N, Na, P, and S were analyzed by ICP-MS. Health condition of trees in the city parks and suburban areas was acceptable, but in the central part and close to the industrial area it was non-satisfactory. This preliminary research pointed ecophysiological tools as useful to develop new criteria for sustainable urban arboriculture, including species selection (based on stress tolerance criteria, nursery hardening and preconditioning, and care after planting.

  4. Toxaphene levels in retail food from the Pearl River Delta area of South China and an assessment of dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, YouSheng; Liu, ZhiBin; Wu, DongTing; Zhang, JianQing; Zhou, Jian; Li, ShengNong; Lu, LinGeng; Lin, XiaoShi; Lu, ShaoYou; Peng, JinLing

    2016-06-01

    Limited literature exists on toxaphene contamination in food worldwide, particularly in mainland China. In this study, three toxaphene congeners, Parlar 26 (B8-1413), Parlar 50 (B9-1679) and Parlar 62 (B9-1025), were analyzed in five different food categories from the Pearl River Delta Area in China using isotope dilution high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS), and toxaphene levels in food were reported and toxaphene dietary intake by local residents estimated. The results showed that fish contained the highest toxaphene level with a median of 12.87 pg/g wet weight (ww), followed by poultry meat, egg products, livestock meat and vegetable, which had median levels of 5.8, 2.2, 1.89 and 0.67 pg/g ww, respectively. Parlar 50 and Parlar 26 were the predominant characteristic congeners in fish, and Parlar 26 was the predominant congener not only in poultry products and eggs, but also in livestock and vegetable. The estimated average daily intake found by local residents was 35.57 pg/kg body weight/day. Overall toxaphene levels and estimated dietary intake in the Pearl River Delta Area of South China are far lower than the European Maximum Residue Limits (EU MRLs), the German MRL for fish, and other international literature data. Therefore, the risk of adverse health effects from dietary intakes of toxaphene for the local residents is not considerable at the current time, but follow-ups are warranted to study dynamic changes of toxaphene in food in this area. PMID:26991380

  5. Dietary patterns derived by reduced rank regression (RRR) and depressive symptoms in Japanese employees: The Furukawa nutrition and health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Takako; Kochi, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Eguchi, Masafumi; Kurotani, Kayo; Tsuruoka, Hiroko; Ito, Rie; Kabe, Isamu; Kawakami, Norito; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Nanri, Akiko

    2015-09-30

    Depression has been linked to the overall diet using both exploratory and pre-defined methods. However, neither of these methods incorporates specific knowledge on nutrient-disease associations. The aim of the present study was to empirically identify dietary patterns using reduced rank regression and to examine their relations to depressive symptoms. Participants were 2006 Japanese employees aged 19-69 years. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Diet was assessed using a validated, self-administered diet history questionnaire. Dietary patterns were extracted by reduced rank regression with 6 depression-related nutrients as response variables. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios of depressive symptoms adjusted for potential confounders. A dietary pattern characterized by a high intake of vegetables, mushrooms, seaweeds, soybean products, green tea, potatoes, fruits, and small fish with bones and a low intake of rice was associated with fewer depressive symptoms. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios of having depressive symptoms were 0.62 (95% confidence interval, 0.48-0.81) in the highest versus lowest tertiles of dietary score. Results suggest that adherence to a diet rich in vegetables, fruits, and typical Japanese foods, including mushrooms, seaweeds, soybean products, and green tea, is associated with a lower probability of having depressive symptoms. PMID:26208984

  6. Validation of a digital photographic method for assessment of dietary quality of school lunch sandwiches brought from home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Marianne; Toft, Ulla; Andersen, Klaus K;

    2013-01-01

    from 0.89 to 0.97. The proportion of meals classified in the same or an adjacent quartile ranged from 98% (starch) to 100% (fruits, vegetables, fish, whole grain, and Meal IQ). There was no statistical difference between fish, fat, starch, whole grains, and Meal IQ using the two methods. Differences...... were found for fruits and vegetables; BlandAltman analyses showed a tendency to underestimate high amounts of these variables using the DPM. For interrater reliability, kappa statistics ranged from 0.59 to 0.82 across the dietary components and Meal IQ. Conclusions: The standardised DPM is a valid and...

  7. A STUDY OF MATERNAL DIETARY INTAKE DURING PREGNANCY IN RIYADH, SAUDI ARABIA

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid S Almurshed; Bani, Ibrahim A.; Al-Kanhal, Mohammed A.; Al-Amri, Mohammed A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective : This study was carried out to evaluate the dietary nutrient intake of pregnant women. The relationship between dietary intake and pregnancy outcome was also studied. Method: A total of 114 pregnant women were studied, using systematic random sampling. Results : The percentages of the mean nutrient intake below the recommended dietary allowances (RDA) for pregnant women were as the follows: 51.8%, 93.9%, 82.5% and 98.2% for energy, vitamin B1, calcium and iron, respectively...

  8. A nutrition mathematical model to account for dietary supply and requirements of energy and nutrients for domesticated small ruminants: the development and evaluation of the Small Ruminant Nutrition System

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Orlindo Tedeschi; Antonello Cannas; Danny Gene Fox

    2008-01-01

    A mechanistic model that predicts nutrient requirements and biological values of feeds for sheep (Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System; CNCPS-S) was expanded to include goats and the name was changed to the Small Ruminant Nutrition System (SRNS). The SRNS uses animal and environmental factors to predict metabolizable energy (ME) and protein, and Ca and P requirements. Requirements for goats in the SRNS are predicted based on the equations developed for CNCPS-S, modified to account for ...

  9. The Impact of Food and Nutrient-Based Standards on Primary School Children’s Lunch and Total Dietary Intake: A Natural Experimental Evaluation of Government Policy in England

    OpenAIRE

    Suzanne Spence; Jennifer Delve; Elaine Stamp; Matthews, John N. S.; Martin White(Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA); Adamson, Ashley J.

    2013-01-01

    In 2005, the nutritional content of children's school lunches in England was widely criticised, leading to a major policy change in 2006. Food and nutrient-based standards were reintroduced requiring primary schools to comply by September 2008. We aimed to determine the effect of the policy on the nutritional content at lunchtime and in children's total diet. We undertook a natural experimental evaluation, analysing data from cross-sectional surveys in 12 primary schools in North East England...

  10. Socio-economic differences in food group and nutrient intakes among young women in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Daniel M A; Younger, Katherine M; Walsh, Joanne; O'Neill, Marie; Sheridan, Claire; Kearney, John M

    2013-12-14

    The present study aimed to investigate socio-economic disparities in food and nutrient intakes among young Irish women. A total of 221 disadvantaged and seventy-four non-disadvantaged women aged 18-35 years were recruited. Diet was assessed using a diet history protocol. Of the total population, 153 disadvantaged and sixty-three non-disadvantaged women were classified as plausible dietary reporters. Food group intakes, nutrient intakes and dietary vitamin and mineral concentrations per MJ of energy consumed were compared between the disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged populations, as was compliance with dietary fibre, macronutrient and micronutrient intake guidelines. The disadvantaged women had lower intakes than the non-disadvantaged women of fruit, vegetables, fish, breakfast cereals, low-fat milk and wholemeal bread (all Pbread, sugar-sweetened beverages, fried potatoes and potato-based snacks (all P< 0·001) and full-fat milk (P= 0·014). Nutritionally, the disadvantaged women had higher fat, saturated fat and refined sugar intakes; lower dietary fibre, vitamin and mineral intakes; and lower dietary vitamin and mineral densities per MJ than their more advantaged peers. Non-achievement of carbohydrate (P= 0·017), fat (P< 0·001), saturated fat (P< 0·001), refined sugar (P< 0·001), folate (P= 0·050), vitamin C (P< 0·001), vitamin D (P= 0·047) and Ca (P= 0·019) recommendations was more prevalent among the disadvantaged women. Both groups showed poor compliance with Fe and Na guidelines. We conclude that the nutritional deficits present among these socially disadvantaged women are significant, but may be potentially ameliorated by targeted food-based interventions. PMID:23721781

  11. Dietary patterns associated with glycemic index and glycemic load among Alberta adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Laura E; Storey, Kate E; Fraser, Shawn N; Spence, John C; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Raine, Kim D; Hanning, Rhona M; McCargar, Linda J

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) of adolescents, based on a Web-based 24-h recall, and to investigate dietary predictors of GI and GL. In addition, the relationship between GI and GL and weight status was examined. A Web-based 24-h recall was completed by 4936 adolescents, aged 9-17 years; macronutrient and food group intakes were assessed using the ESHA Food Processor, the Canadian Nutrient File, and Canada's Food Guide. Dietary GI and GL were calculated based on published GI values for foods. Students provided self-reported height and mass. Multiple regression models assessed the ability of food group choices and food behaviours to predict GI and GL. Mean GI was 55 for girls and 56 for boys. Mean GL was 128 for girls and 168 for boys. Food group choices explained 26% of the variation in GI (p GL (p GL; however, these results disappeared when adjusted for total energy intake. The GI was positively correlated with body mass index in girls (r = 0.05, p = 0.02), and GL was significantly higher among nonoverweight boys than overweight boys. This study identified eating patterns related to daily GI and GL, and suggests certain dietary patterns that could have beneficial effects on health. It also showed that GI and GL were weakly related to weight status. PMID:19767800

  12. Digital food photography: Dietary surveillance and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    The method used for creating a database of approximately 20,000 digital images of multiple portion sizes of foods linked to the USDA's Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) is presented. The creation of this database began in 2002, and its development has spanned 10 years. Initially...

  13. Patterns of nutrient utilization. Implications for nitrogen metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutrients react within both the rumen and the ruminant body, and the patterns of availability of different nutrients greatly influence their net utilization. In the rumen, microbial capture of N substrates, especially ammonia, depends on the degree of synchronization between rates of production of N substrates and of ATP to drive microbial protein synthesis. The form of dietary carbohydrate and of dietary N and the frequency of feeding can all affect the efficiency of microbial growth and digestion. The pattern of supply of nutrients to the body will also influence nutrient utilization. Disparities between diurnal patterns of supply of volatile fatty acids from the rumen and amino acids from the intestines will result in changes in balance of metabolic pathways. The balance between supply of glucogenic and lipogenic nutrients will influence efficiency of fattening. A major factor determining the pattern of utilization/metabolism of amino acids is the metabolic demand for protein synthesis, which varies with physiological state. (author)

  14. Risk assessment of non-dietary exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) via house PM2.5, TSP and dust and the implications from human hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Huang, Min-juan; Chan, Chuen-Yu; Cheung, Kwai Chung; Wong, Ming Hung

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the cancer risk due to non-dietary PAHs exposure in home environment (inhalation and ingestion), exposure to fine particles (PM2.5) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of PM2.5, total suspend particles (TSP) and dust in homes at two urban centers of Pearl River Delta were assessed. House PM2.5 bound PAHs in Guangzhou (GZ) ranged from 10.0 to 61.9 ng m-3 and 0.72 to 8.15 ng m-3 in Hong Kong (HK). PAH profiles found in PM2.5, TSP and dust were different than that in hair (dominated by Nap and Phe). Pyr and Flu in house dust significantly correlated with that in hair (r = 0.69; 0.55, p houses of GZ (10-5-10-4) were significantly higher than those of HK (10-6-10-5), which were also significantly higher than the cancer risks associated with house dust intake (10-7-10-5) in GZ. PAHs exposure via non-dietary route (PM2.5 and dust) was found to be 1-3 times higher than fish consumption for children and contributed to 52-76% of total PAHs intake for children and 24-50% for adults in GZ.

  15. Dietary Sodium Suppresses Digestive Efficiency via the Renin-Angiotensin System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidemann, Benjamin J; Voong, Susan; Morales-Santiago, Fabiola I; Kahn, Michael Z; Ni, Jonathan; Littlejohn, Nicole K; Claflin, Kristin E; Burnett, Colin M L; Pearson, Nicole A; Lutter, Michael L; Grobe, Justin L

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fats and sodium are both palatable and are hypothesized to synergistically contribute to ingestive behavior and thereby obesity. Contrary to this hypothesis, C57BL/6J mice fed a 45% high fat diet exhibited weight gain that was inhibited by increased dietary sodium content. This suppressive effect of dietary sodium upon weight gain was mediated specifically through a reduction in digestive efficiency, with no effects on food intake behavior, physical activity, or resting metabolism. Replacement of circulating angiotensin II levels reversed the effects of high dietary sodium to suppress digestive efficiency. While the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan had no effect in mice fed low sodium, the AT2 receptor antagonist PD-123,319 suppressed digestive efficiency. Correspondingly, genetic deletion of the AT2 receptor in FVB/NCrl mice resulted in suppressed digestive efficiency even on a standard chow diet. Together these data underscore the importance of digestive efficiency in the pathogenesis of obesity, and implicate dietary sodium, the renin-angiotensin system, and the AT2 receptor in the control of digestive efficiency regardless of mouse strain or macronutrient composition of the diet. These findings highlight the need for greater understanding of nutrient absorption control physiology, and prompt more uniform assessment of digestive efficiency in animal studies of energy balance. PMID:26068176

  16. Toxicity of Pb-contaminated soil to Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and the use of the blood-dietary Pb slope in risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Chen, Yu; Henry, Paula; May, Thomas; Mosby, David; Rattner, Barnett A.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Sprague, Daniel; Weber, John

    2014-01-01

    This study relates tissue concentrations and toxic effects of Pb in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) to the dietary exposure of soil-borne Pb associated with mining and smelting. From 0% to 12% contaminated soil, by weight, was added to 5 experimental diets (0.12 to 382 mg Pb/kg, dry wt) and fed to the quail for 6 weeks. Benchmark doses associated with a 50% reduction in delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity were 0.62 mg Pb/kg in the blood, dry wt, and 27 mg Pb/kg in the diet. Benchmark doses associated with a 20% increase in the concentration of erythrocyte protoporphyrin were 2.7 mg Pb/kg in the blood and 152 mg Pb/kg in the diet. The quail showed no other signs of toxicity (histopathological lesions, alterations in plasma–testosterone concentration, and body and organ weights). The relation of the blood Pb concentration to the soil Pb concentration was linear, with a slope of 0.013 mg Pb/kg of blood (dry wt) divided by mg Pb/kg of diet. We suggest that this slope is potentially useful in ecological risk assessments on birds in the same way that the intake slope factor is an important parameter in risk assessments of children exposed to Pb. The slope may also be used in a tissue-residue approach as an additional line of evidence in ecological risk assessment, supplementary to an estimate of hazard based on dietary toxicity reference values.

  17. TO ASSESS NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF ADOLESCENTS (10-12 YEARS) FROM NON GOVERNMENT FUNDED SCHOOLS (PRIVATE) OF AN URBAN INDIAN CITY & KAP OF PARENTS/ TEACHERS REGARDING HEALTHY DIETARY AND LIFESTYLE BEHAVIORS FOR ADOLESCENTS.

    OpenAIRE

    Somila Surabhi; Meenakshi Bakshi Mehan; Sirimavo Nair

    2013-01-01

    To assess nutritional status of adolescents (10-12 years) from non government funded schools (private) of Gujarat, India. Teachers & parents of adolescent children were assessed regarding their knowledge, attitude and practices of healthy dietary & lifestyle behaviours. School canteen services were also critically evaluated. Parent’s willingness, to start a nutrition program in the school was also assessed. A cross sectional study was conducted on adolescents (10-12 years) from two selected p...

  18. The nutrient density approach to healthy eating: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklas, Theresa A; Drewnowski, Adam; O'Neil, Carol E

    2014-12-01

    The term 'nutrient density' for foods/beverages has been used loosely to promote the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans defined 'all vegetables, fruits, whole grains, fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products, seafood, lean meats and poultry, eggs, beans and peas (legumes), and nuts and seeds that are prepared without added solid fats, added sugars, and sodium' as nutrient dense. The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans further states that nutrient-dense foods and beverages provide vitamins, minerals and other substances that may have positive health effects with relatively few (kilo)calories or kilojoules. Finally, the definition states nutrients and other beneficial substances have not been 'diluted' by the addition of energy from added solid fats, added sugars or by the solid fats naturally present in the food. However, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee and other scientists have failed to clearly define 'nutrient density' or to provide criteria or indices that specify cut-offs for foods that are nutrient dense. Today, 'nutrient density' is a ubiquitous term used in the scientific literature, policy documents, marketing strategies and consumer messaging. However, the term remains ambiguous without a definitive or universal definition. Classifying or ranking foods according to their nutritional content is known as nutrient profiling. The goal of the present commentary is to address the research gaps that still exist before there can be a consensus on how best to define nutrient density, highlight the situation in the USA and relate this to wider, international efforts in nutrient profiling. PMID:25166614

  19. Livestock intensification and the influence of dietary change: A calorie-based assessment of competition for crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyle F; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2015-12-15

    Animal production exerts significant demands on land, water and food resources and is one of the most extensive means by which humans modify natural systems. Demand for animal source foods has more than tripled over the past 50years due to population growth and dietary change. As a result, the livestock sector has transitioned towards intensive and concentrated production systems. Typically, studies have divided types of animal production into intensive, mixed and grazing production systems. However, because a large percentage of animal production originates from mixed systems, dividing by such production types can make it difficult to quantify competition for crop production between direct human consumption and use as feed. To this end we employ a calorie-based approach to determine which animal calories were 'free' - in that they did not compete with human consumption for crop use - and consider to what extent alternative scenarios could have reduced this competition between food and feed. We find that growth in non-feed animal systems has only been able to keep pace with population growth and that feed-fed production has necessarily met increases in human dietary demand for animal products. Through solutions such as moderating diets for animal calories, choosing less resource-demanding animal products and maintaining the relative contribution of non-feed systems, between 1.3 and 3.6 billion fewer people would be in competition with feed for crop use. We also estimate that the feed crop calories required to support consumer waste of animal calories could feed an additional 235 million people. With human demand for animal products expected to continue increasing in the coming decades, the findings here provide insights into potential solutions and what the magnitude of their effect may be and suggest that there exist real opportunities for humankind to substantially reduce competition for crop use. PMID:26340584

  20. The role of water nitrogen retention in integrated nutrient management: assessment in a large basin using different modelling approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Grizzetti, Bruna; Passy, Paul; Billen, Gilles; Bouraoui, Fayçal; Garnier, Josette; Lassaletta, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the removal of nitrogen (temporary and permanent) in large river basins is complex due to the dependency on climate, hydrological and physical characteristics, and ecosystems functioning. Measurements are generally limited in number and do not account for the full integration of all processes contributing to nitrogen retention in the river basin. However, the estimation of nitrogen retention by the ecosystems is crucial to understanding the nitrate water pollution and the N 2 O emis...