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Sample records for assess dietary intake

  1. Assessment of dietary intake in Spanish university students of health sciences.

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    Correa-Rodríguez, María; Pocovi, Gabriela; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Rueda-Medina, Blanca

    2018-05-01

    Nutritional intake during early ages has been associated to disease onset later in life. This study aimed to assess dietary intake in Spanish university students of health sciences as compared to national recommended dietary intakes (DRIs). A cross-sectional study was conducted including 585 university students of health sciences aged 18-25 years. Dietary intake was assessed using a 72-h diet recall. A control group was selected from Spanish National Dietary Intake Survey (ENIDE) data. Intake of energy, protein, fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol was significantly lower (p<0.001) in university students compared to controls, while fiber intake showed the opposite trend (p<0.001). Total fat and carbohydrate intake was consistent with recommendations, but protein intake was lower than recommended. Intake of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) was markedly higher than nutrition goals, while intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) was lower. Both students and the reference control group did not reach the optimal dietary intake of iodine and vitamins D and E, while sodium intake was excessive in both groups. Dietary habits of university students were mainly characterized by low intakes of energy, protein, fats, fatty acids, and cholesterol, and high intake of fiber as compared to the general population. Intake of iodine and vitamins D and E was low, while sodium intake was excessive in both university students and the general population. Dietary interventions should be considered to prevent nutritional deficiencies and to ensure a balanced diet. Copyright © 2018 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Dietary intake assessment using integrated sensors and software

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    Shang, Junqing; Pepin, Eric; Johnson, Eric; Hazel, David; Teredesai, Ankur; Kristal, Alan; Mamishev, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    The area of dietary assessment is becoming increasingly important as obesity rates soar, but valid measurement of the food intake in free-living persons is extraordinarily challenging. Traditional paper-based dietary assessment methods have limitations due to bias, user burden and cost, and therefore improved methods are needed to address important hypotheses related to diet and health. In this paper, we will describe the progress of our mobile Diet Data Recorder System (DDRS), where an electronic device is used for objective measurement on dietary intake in real time and at moderate cost. The DDRS consists of (1) a mobile device that integrates a smartphone and an integrated laser package, (2) software on the smartphone for data collection and laser control, (3) an algorithm to process acquired data for food volume estimation, which is the largest source of error in calculating dietary intake, and (4) database and interface for data storage and management. The estimated food volume, together with direct entries of food questionnaires and voice recordings, could provide dietitians and nutritional epidemiologists with more complete food description and more accurate food portion sizes. In this paper, we will describe the system design of DDRS and initial results of dietary assessment.

  3. Assessment of dietary lutein, zeaxanthin and lycopene intakes and sources in the Spanish survey of dietary intake (2009-2010).

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    Estévez-Santiago, Rocío; Beltrán-de-Miguel, Beatriz; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the intake and major dietary sources of lutein, zeaxanthin and lycopene (non-provitamin A carotenoids) in Spain using food consumption data from the Spanish National Dietary Intake Survey (2009-2010). Three-day diaries and one 24-h recall were used to collect dietary data and a software application that includes HPLC data was used. Average intake of those carotenoids was 4290.8 μg/d (67.1% total carotenoid intake), mainly from vegetables (3414.0 μg/d), followed by fruits (393.5 μg/d), oils/fats (204.0 μg/d) and eggs/egg products (170.0 μg/d). Main sources of lutein and zeaxanthin were vegetables (62.9% total diet, 1235.2 μg/person/d). Lycopene intake was 3055.6 μg/d (71.2% of non-provitamin A carotenoids), mainly from tomato and by-products (86.3%) and watermelon. Red- and orange-colored fruits and vegetables were the major contributors of non-provitamin carotenoids (3219.0 μg/person/d). Balanced diets should favor fruits and vegetables over other dietary sources (oils, eggs, processed foods) that contain components to be consumed with moderation.

  4. Assessment of Daily Food and Nutrient Intake in Japanese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Using Dietary Reference Intakes

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    Naoto Nakamura

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Medical nutrition therapy for the management of diabetes plays an important role in preventing diabetes complications and managing metabolic control. However, little is known about actual eating habits of individuals with type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM, especially in Japan. Therefore, we sought to (1 assess the dietary intake of individuals with T2DM, and (2 characterize their intake relative to national recommendations. This cross-sectional study involved 149 patients (77 males and 72 females aged 40–79 years with T2DM recruited at a Kyoto hospital. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Under-consumption, adequacy, and over-consumption, of nutrients were compared to the age- and sex-based standards of the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes. Among the results, most notable are (1 the inadequacy of diets in men with respect to intake of vitamins and minerals, likely owing to low intake of vegetables and fruits; (2 excess contributions of fat intake to total energy in both sexes; and (3 excess consumption of sweets and beverages relative to the national average. The prevalence of diabetes complications may be increasing because of a major gap between the typical dietary intake of individuals with T2DM and dietary recommendation.

  5. Usability of mobile phone food records to assess dietary intake in adolescents

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    Mobile technologies are emerging as a valuable tool to collect and assess dietary intake. Adolescents readily accept and adopt new technologies, hence, a food record application (FRapp) may provide an accurate mechanism to monitor dietary intake. We examined the usability of a FRapp in 17 free-livin...

  6. How dietary intake has been assessed in African countries? A systematic review.

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    Vila-Real, Catarina; Pimenta-Martins, Ana; Gomes, Ana Maria; Pinto, Elisabete; Maina, Ndegwa Henry

    2018-04-13

    Dietary patterns are often considered as one of the main causes of non-communicable diseases worldwide. It is of utmost importance to study dietary habits in developing countries since this work is scarce. To summarize the most recent research conducted in this field in African countries, namely the most used methodologies and tools. A systematic review was conducted on MEDLINE®/PubMed, aiming to identify scientific publications focused on studies of dietary intake of different African populations, in a ten-year period. Papers not written in English/Portuguese/Spanish, studies developed among African people but not developed in African countries, studies aiming to assess a particular nutrient/specific food/food toxin and studies that assessed dietary intake among children were excluded. Out of 99 included studies, the 24-hour recall and the food-frequency questionnaire were the most used dietary intake assessment tools, used to assess diet at an individual level. It was also observed that often country-unspecific food composition databases are used, and the methodologies employed are poorly validated and standardized. There is an emergent need to improve the existing food databases by updating food data and to develop suitable country-specific databases for those that do not have their own food composition table.

  7. Comparison of strategies for assessing nutritional adequacy in elite female athletes' dietary intake.

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    Heaney, Susan; O'Connor, Helen; Gifford, Janelle; Naughton, Geraldine

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to compare strategies for assessing nutritional adequacy in the dietary intake of elite female athletes. Dietary intake was assessed using an adapted food-frequency questionnaire in 72 elite female athletes from a variety of sports. Nutritional adequacy was evaluated and compared using mean intake; the proportion of participants with intakes below Australian nutrient reference values (NRV), U.S. military dietary reference intakes (MDRI), and current sports nutrition recommendations; and probability estimates of nutrient inadequacy. Mean energy intake was 10,551 +/- 3,836 kJ/day with macronutrient distribution 18% protein, 31% fat, and 46% carbohydrate, consistent with Australian acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges. Mean protein intake (1.6 g . kg(-1) . d(-1)) was consistent with (>1.2 g . kg(-1) . d(-1)), and carbohydrate intake (4.5 g . kg(-1) . d(-1)), below, current sports nutrition recommendations (>5 g . kg(-1) . d(-1)), with 30% and 65% of individuals not meeting these levels, respectively. Mean micronutrient intake met the relevant NRV and MDRI except for vitamin D and folate. A proportion of participants failed to meet the estimated average requirement for folate (48%), calcium (24%), magnesium (19%), and iron (4%). Probability estimates of inadequacy identified intake of folate (44%), calcium (22%), iron (19%), and magnesium (15%) as inadequate. Interpretation of dietary adequacy is complex and varies depending on whether the mean, proportion of participants below the relevant NRV, or statistical probability estimate of inadequacy is used. Further research on methods to determine dietary adequacy in athlete populations is required.

  8. Validation of the MEDFICTS dietary questionnaire: A clinical tool to assess adherence to American Heart Association dietary fat intake guidelines

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    Bindeman Jody

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary assessment tools are often too long, difficult to quantify, expensive to process, and largely used for research purposes. A rapid and accurate assessment of dietary fat intake is critically important in clinical decision-making regarding dietary advice for coronary risk reduction. We assessed the validity of the MEDFICTS (MF questionnaire, a brief instrument developed to assess fat intake according to the American Heart Association (AHA dietary "steps". Methods We surveyed 164 active-duty US Army personnel without known coronary artery disease at their intake interview for a primary prevention cardiac intervention trial using the Block food frequency (FFQ and MF questionnaires. Both surveys were completed on the same intake visit and independently scored. Correlations between each tools' assessment of fat intake, the agreement in AHA step categorization of dietary quality with each tool, and the test characteristics of the MF using the FFQ as the gold standard were assessed. Results Subjects consumed a mean of 36.0 ± 13.0% of their total calories as fat, which included saturated fat consumption of 13.0 ± 0.4%. The majority of subjects (125/164; 76.2% had a high fat (worse than AHA Step 1 diet. There were significant correlations between the MF and the FFQ for the intake of total fat (r = 0.52, P 70 [high fat diet] was negligible (kappa statistic = 0.036. The MF was accurate at the extremes of fat intake, but could not reliably identify the 3 AHA dietary classifications. Alternative MF cutpoints of 50 (high fat diet were highly sensitive (96%, but had low specificity (46% for a high fat diet. ROC curve analysis identified that a MF score cutoff of 38 provided optimal sensitivity 75% and specificity 72%, and had modest agreement (kappa = 0.39, P Conclusions The MEDFICTS questionnaire is most suitable as a tool to identify high fat diets, rather than discriminate AHA Step 1 and Step 2 diets. Currently recommended

  9. Evaluating the relationship between plasma and skin carotenoids and reported dietary intake in elementary school children to assess fruit and vegetable intake

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    Accurate assessment of dietary intake of children can be challenging due to the limited reliability of current dietary assessment methods in children. While plasma carotenoid concentrations has been used to assess fruit and vegetable intake, this testing is rarely conducted in school settings in chi...

  10. Relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary fiber intake in Danish adults.

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    Vuholm, Stine; Lorenzen, Janne K; Kristensen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Differences in habitual dietary fiber intake may modify effects of dietary fiber interventions, thus measurement of habitual dietary fiber intake is relevant to apply in intervention studies on fiber-rich foods, and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is a commonly used method. Rye bread is the major contributor of dietary fiber in the Danish population, and a nation-specific FFQ is therefore needed. The aim of this study was to assess the relative validity and reproducibility of a self-administered quantitative FFQ designed to assess total dietary fiber intake among Danish adults. In order to assess the relative validity of the FFQ, a total of 125 participants completed both a 7-day weighed dietary recording (DR) and an FFQ consisting of 60 questions. To evaluate the reproducibility of the FFQ, a sub-group of 12 participants subsequently completed an FFQ approximately 6 months later. Estimates of mean dietary fiber intake were 24.9±9.8 and 28.1±9.4 g/day when applying the FFQ and DR, respectively, where FFQ estimates were ~12% lower (pfiber intake of the two methods was r=0.63 (pfiber intake (g/day), adequate ranking of subjects according to their dietary fiber intake, and good reproducibility. The FFQ is therefore believed to be a valuable tool for epidemiology and screening in human interventions, where intake of dietary fibers is of specific interest.

  11. A Mobile Phone App for Dietary Intake Assessment in Adolescents: An Evaluation Study.

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    Svensson, Åsa; Larsson, Christel

    2015-11-03

    There is a great need for dietary assessment methods that suit the adolescent lifestyle and give valid intake data. To develop a mobile phone app and evaluate its ability to assess energy intake (EI) and total energy expenditure (TEE) compared with objectively measured TEE. Furthermore, to investigate the impact of factors on reporting accuracy of EI, and to compare dietary intake with a Web-based method. Participants 14 to 16 years of age were recruited from year nine in schools in Gothenburg, Sweden. In total, 81 adolescents used the mobile phone app over 1 to 6 days. TEE was measured with the SenseWear Armband (SWA) during the same or proximate days. Individual factors were assessed with a questionnaire. A total of 15 participants also recorded dietary intake using a Web-based method. The mobile phone app underestimated EI by 29% on a group level (Pmobile phone app was 1.19 times the value of TEE measured by the SWA on a group level (Pmobile phone app stratified by gender showed that accuracy of the mobile phone app was higher among boys. EI, nutrients, and food groups assessed with the mobile phone app and Web-based method among 15 participants were not significantly different and several were significantly correlated, but strong conclusions cannot be drawn due to the low number of participants. By using a mobile phone dietary assessment app, on average 71% of adolescents' EI was captured. The accuracy of reported dietary intake was higher with lower BMI z-score and if a weekend day was included in the record. The daily question in the mobile phone app about physical activity could accurately rank the participants' TEE.

  12. Dietary diversity and nutrient intake adequacy among women in Iwo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary diversity and nutrient intake adequacy among women in Iwo Local Government Area, Osun State Nigeria. ... A 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire was used to assess the food intake of the respondents, which was converted into nutrient intake using adapted Total Dietary Assessment (TDA) software. Dietary ...

  13. A Mobile Phone App for Dietary Intake Assessment in Adolescents: An Evaluation Study

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    Svensson, Åsa

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a great need for dietary assessment methods that suit the adolescent lifestyle and give valid intake data. Objective To develop a mobile phone app and evaluate its ability to assess energy intake (EI) and total energy expenditure (TEE) compared with objectively measured TEE. Furthermore, to investigate the impact of factors on reporting accuracy of EI, and to compare dietary intake with a Web-based method. Methods Participants 14 to 16 years of age were recruited from year nine in schools in Gothenburg, Sweden. In total, 81 adolescents used the mobile phone app over 1 to 6 days. TEE was measured with the SenseWear Armband (SWA) during the same or proximate days. Individual factors were assessed with a questionnaire. A total of 15 participants also recorded dietary intake using a Web-based method. Results The mobile phone app underestimated EI by 29% on a group level (Pphone app was 1.19 times the value of TEE measured by the SWA on a group level (Pphone app stratified by gender showed that accuracy of the mobile phone app was higher among boys. EI, nutrients, and food groups assessed with the mobile phone app and Web-based method among 15 participants were not significantly different and several were significantly correlated, but strong conclusions cannot be drawn due to the low number of participants. Conclusions By using a mobile phone dietary assessment app, on average 71% of adolescents’ EI was captured. The accuracy of reported dietary intake was higher with lower BMI z-score and if a weekend day was included in the record. The daily question in the mobile phone app about physical activity could accurately rank the participants’ TEE. PMID:26534783

  14. Assessment of dietary intake among pregnant women in a rural area of western China

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    Zhang Xueli

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adequate maternal nutrient intake during pregnancy is important to ensure satisfactory birth outcomes. There are no data available on the usual dietary intake among pregnant women in rural China. The present study describes and evaluates the dietary intake in a cohort of pregnant women living in two counties of rural Shaanxi, western China. Methods 1420 pregnant women were recruited from a trial that examined the effects of micronutrient supplementation on birth outcomes. Dietary information was collected at the end of their trimester or after delivery with an interviewed-administrated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Nutrients intake was calculated from the FFQ and compared to the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR. The EAR cut-offs based on the Chinese Nutrition Society Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs were used to assess the prevalence of inadequate dietary intakes of energy, protein, calcium, zinc, riboflavin, vitamin C and folate. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis tests were used to compare nutrient intakes across subgroups. Results The mean nutrient intakes assessed by the FFQ was similar to those reported in the 2002 Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey from women living in rural areas except for low intakes of protein, fat, iron and zinc. Of the participants, 54% were at risk of inadequate intake of energy. There were high proportions of pregnant women who did not have adequate intakes of folate (97% and zinc (91%. Using the "probability approach", 64% of subjects had an inadequate consumption of iron. Conclusion These results reveal that the majority of pregnant women in these two counties had low intakes of nutrients that are essential for pregnancy such as iron and folate. Trial registration ISRCTN08850194.

  15. Pre-season dietary intake of professional soccer players.

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    Raizel, Raquel; da Mata Godois, Allan; Coqueiro, Audrey Yule; Voltarelli, Fabrício Azevedo; Fett, Carlos Alexandre; Tirapegui, Julio; de Paula Ravagnani, Fabricio Cesar; de Faria Coelho-Ravagnani, Christianne

    2017-12-01

    Despite the well-documented importance of nutrition in optimizing performance and health, the dietary intake of soccer players has attracted little attention. We aimed to assess the pre-season dietary intake of professional soccer players and its adequacy in macro and micronutrients. The pre-season dietary intake of 19 male athletes was assessed using a semi-structured 3-day food record. To determine dietary adequacy and excess, energy and macronutrient intake were compared with the Brazilian dietary reference values for athletes, and micronutrients were compared with the Estimated Average Requirement - EAR (minimum recommendation) and Tolerable Upper Intake Level - UL (maximum recommendation). Mean daily energy intake (40.74±12.81 kcal/kg) was adequate. However, there was a low carbohydrate intake (5.44±1.86 g/kg/day) and a high amount of protein and fat (1.91±0.75 and 1.27±0.50 g/kg/day, respectively). Sodium intake (3141.77±939.76 mg/day) was higher than UL (2300 mg/day), while the majority of players showed daily intake of vitamin A (74%), vitamin D (100%), folate (58%), calcium and magnesium (68%) below the EAR (625, 10 and 320 µg/day, 800 and 330 mg/day, respectively). The dietary intake of professional soccer players was adequate in energy, but inadequate in macro and micronutrients, which suggests the need to improve nutritional practices to sustain the physical demands of soccer during pre-season.

  16. Screening for dietary fat intake of grade six children: self-assessment vs. maternal assessment.

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    Wenhold, Friede; MacIntyre, Una; Rheeder, Paul

    2014-10-01

    As part of justifiable nutrition promotion, this study aimed to determine internal consistency of a dietary fat screener and to compare self-assessment to maternal assessment of fat intake of grade six (about 12 years old) learners in a South African public primary school. The children completed in school a pictorial, quantitative food frequency-type screener consisting of 10 high-fat food categories; mothers individually completed a text version. Internal consistency was measured with item-total correlations, Cronbach's alpha and the split-half method. Child-mother comparison was based on kappa (κ) statistics, McNemar's tests, Wilcoxon signed-rank test and the Bland-Altman method. In total, 101 (93.5%) children and 78 (72.2%) mothers responded. The screener was internally consistent, regardless of data source and statistical technique. For portion sizes and frequency of intake, children consistently reported higher intake than mothers. This resulted in systematic error, also evidenced by a significant difference from zero for the difference between child's and mother's final test scores for the whole group, and for boys and girls separately (always P fat or prudent intake was identical, yet the chance-corrected agreement was poor (κ = 0.16) and non-agreement was non-symmetrical (P = 0.001). Children and mothers reported high fat intakes (93% and 75%, respectively). It was concluded that the dietary fat screener was internally consistent, yet children and mothers did not agree in their assessment. The high fat intakes reported by children and mothers warrant measurement refinement and implementation of primary prevention programmes. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Estimate of dietary phosphorus intake using 24-h urine collection

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    Morimoto, Yuuka; Sakuma, Masae; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Akitsu; Matsushita, Asami; Umeda, Minako; Ishikawa, Makoto; Taketani, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji; Arai, Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    Increases in serum phosphorus levels and dietary phosphorus intake induces vascular calcification, arterial sclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Limiting phosphorus intake is advisable, however, no assessment methods are capable of estimating dietary phosphorus intake. We hypothesized that urinary phosphorus excretion can be translated into estimation of dietary phosphorus intake, and we evaluated whether a 24-h urine collection method could estimate dietary phosphorus intake. Thirty two healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Subjects collected urine samples over 24 h and weighed dietary records. We calculated dietary protein intake and phosphorus intake from dietary records and urine collection, and investigated associations between the two methods in estimating protein and phosphorus intake. Significant positive correlations were observed between dietary records and UC for protein and phosphorus intake. The average intakes determined from dietary records were significantly higher than from urine collection for both protein and phosphorus. There was a significant positive correlation between both the phosphorus and protein difference in dietary records and urine collection. The phosphorus-protein ratio in urine collection was significantly higher than in dietary records. Our data indicated that the 24-h urine collection method can estimate the amount of dietary phosphorus intake, and the results were superior to estimation by weighed dietary record. PMID:25120281

  18. Usefulness and Pitfalls in Sodium Intake Estimation: Comparison of Dietary Assessment and Urinary Excretion in Chilean Children and Adults.

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    Campino, Carmen; Hill, Caroline; Baudrand, Rene; Martínez-Aguayo, Alejandro; Aglony, Marlene; Carrasco, Carmen A; Ferrada, Clarita; Loureiro, Carolina; Vecchiola, Andrea; Bancalari, Rodrigo; Grob, Francisca; Carvajal, Cristian A; Lagos, Carlos F; Valdivia, Carolina; Tapia-Castillo, Alejandra; Fuentes, Cristobal A; Mendoza, Carolina; Garcia, Hernan; Uauy, Ricardo; Fardella, Carlos E

    2016-10-01

    High sodium intake has been associated with various noncommunicable disease like hypertension, cardiovascular disease, or stroke. To estimate accurately sodium intake is challenging in clinical practice. We investigate the usefulness and limitations of assessing sodium intake simultaneously by dietary assessment and urinary samples in both children and adults. We used a cross-sectional study design inviting 298 Chilean subjects (74 children and 222 adults) aged between 9 and 66 years of both genders. Sodium intake by dietary assessment was obtained from Chilean food composition data, based on FAO tables. Sodium and creatinine excretion were measured in 24-hour urine samples, in all participants. Adequate urinary collection was obtained in 81% of children (59/74) and 61% of adults (135/222). The mean sodium intake by dietary assessment was similar to the sodium excretion in 24 hours (3,121±1,153mg/d vs. 3,114±1,353mg/24h, P = nonsignificant) in children but was significantly lower (3,208±1,284mg/d vs. 4,160±1,651mg/24h, P < 0.001) in adults. In both children and adults, sodium intake correlated with urinary sodium excretion (r = 0.456, P < 0.003 and r = 0.390, P < 0.001, respectively). Secondary analyses also suggested that the dietary assessment was more inaccurate in overweight adult subjects. Our results showed that average sodium intake was higher than recommended in both children and adults (WHO ≤2,000mg/d). The sodium intake estimated by dietary assessment correlated with urinary excretion in all subjects, but in obese adults was more inaccurate than in children. Future studies to validate the appropriate test to assess sodium intake by age and nutritional status are warranted. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2016. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Relative validity of the food frequency questionnaire used to assess dietary intake in the Leiden Longevity Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streppel, M.T.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Meyboom, S.; Beekman, M.; Craen, A.J.M.; Slagboom, P.E.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background - Invalid information on dietary intake may lead to false diet-disease associations. This study was conducted to examine the relative validity of the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used to assess dietary intake in the Leiden Longevity Study. Methods - A total of 128 men and women

  20. Electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA): relative validity of a mobile phone application to measure intake of food groups.

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    Rangan, Anna M; Tieleman, Laurissa; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Tang, Lie Ming; Hebden, Lana; Roy, Rajshri; Kay, Judy; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2016-06-01

    Automation of dietary assessment can reduce limitations of established methodologies, by alleviating participant and researcher burden. Designed as a research tool, the electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA) is a food record in mobile phone application format. The present study aimed to examine the relative validity of the e-DIA with the 24-h recall method to estimate intake of food groups. A sample of eighty university students aged 19-24 years recorded 5 d of e-DIA and 3 d of recall within this 5-d period. The three matching days of dietary data were used for analysis. Food intake data were disaggregated and apportioned to one of eight food groups. Median intakes of food groups were similar between the methods, and strong correlations were found (mean: 0·79, range: 0·69-0·88). Cross-classification by tertiles produced a high level of exact agreement (mean: 71 %, range: 65-75 %), and weighted κ values were moderate to good (range: 0·54-0·71). Although mean differences (e-DIA-recall) were small (range: -13 to 23 g), limits of agreement (LOA) were relatively large (e.g. for vegetables, mean difference: -4 g, LOA: -159 to 151 g). The Bland-Altman plots showed robust agreement, with minimum bias. This analysis supports the use of e-DIA as an alternative to the repeated 24-h recall method for ranking individuals' food group intake.

  1. Validation of a Tablet Application for Assessing Dietary Intakes Compared with the Measured Food Intake/Food Waste Method in Military Personnel Consuming Field Rations

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    Mavra Ahmed

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The collection of accurate dietary intakes using traditional dietary assessment methods (e.g., food records from military personnel is challenging due to the demanding physiological and psychological conditions of training or operations. In addition, these methods are burdensome, time consuming, and prone to measurement errors. Adopting smart-phone/tablet technology could overcome some of these barriers. The objective was to assess the validity of a tablet app, modified to contain detailed nutritional composition data, in comparison to a measured food intake/waste method. A sample of Canadian Armed Forces personnel, randomized to either a tablet app (n = 9 or a weighed food record (wFR (n = 9, recorded the consumption of standard military rations for a total of 8 days. Compared to the gold standard measured food intake/waste method, the difference in mean energy intake was small (−73 kcal/day for tablet app and −108 kcal/day for wFR (p > 0.05. Repeated Measures Bland-Altman plots indicated good agreement for both methods (tablet app and wFR with the measured food intake/waste method. These findings demonstrate that the tablet app, with added nutritional composition data, is comparable to the traditional dietary assessment method (wFR and performs satisfactorily in relation to the measured food intake/waste method to assess energy, macronutrient, and selected micronutrient intakes in a sample of military personnel.

  2. Validity and Reproducibility of the Iodine Dietary Intake Questionnaire Assessment Conducted for Young Polish Women

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    Malowaniec, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse a designed brief iodine dietary intake questionnaire based on a food frequency assessment (IOdine Dietary INtake Evaluation-Food Frequency Questionnaire—IODINE-FFQ), including the assessment of validity and reproducibility in a group of 90 Polish women aged 20–35 years. Participants collected 3-day dietary records and filled in the IODINE-FFQ twice (FFQ1—directly after the dietary record and FFQ2—6 weeks later). The analysis included an assessment of validity (comparison with the results of the 3-day dietary record) and of reproducibility (comparison of the results obtained twice—FFQ1 and FFQ2). In the analysis of validity, a Bland-Altman index of 5.5% and 4.4% was recorded, respectively for FFQ1 and FFQ2. In the analysis of reproducibility it was 6.7%, but the share of individuals correctly classified into tertiles was over 70% (weighted κ of 0.675). It was stated, that assessment of IODINE-FFQ revealed a satisfactory level of validity and reproducibility in the analysis of Bland-Alman plot. The IODINE-FFQ may be indicated as a tool for the assessment of iodine intake in the young women in Poland, however further studies should be considered in order to obtain the practical tool for public health specialists. Due to the lack of validated iodine-specific food frequency questionnaires for countries of Eastern Europe, the IODINE-FFQ may be adjusted for courtiers other than Poland including iodine-fortified products. PMID:28661461

  3. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

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    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-12-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary sugars intake. Only thirteen countries (all in the developed world) appear to report estimates of sugars intake from national nutrition surveys at more than one point in time. Definitions of dietary sugars that were used include 'total sugars', 'non-milk extrinsic sugars', 'added sugars', sucrose' and 'mono- and disaccharides'. This variability in terminology across countries meant that comparisons were limited to within countries. Hence trends in dietary sugars intake were examined by country for the whole population (where data permitted), and for specific or combined age and sex subpopulations. Findings indicate that in the majority of population comparisons, estimated dietary sugars intake is either stable or decreasing in both absolute (g/d) and relative (% energy) terms. An increase in sugars intake was observed in few countries and only in specific subpopulations. In conclusion, the findings from the present review suggest that, in the main, dietary sugars intake are decreasing or stable. A consistent approach to estimation of dietary sugars intake from national nutrition surveys is required if more valid estimates of changes in dietary sugars intakes are required in the future.

  4. Validity and Reproducibility of a Habitual Dietary Fibre Intake Short Food Frequency Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Genelle; Brough, Louise; Murphy, Rinki; Hedderley, Duncan; Butts, Chrissie; Coad, Jane

    2016-09-10

    Low dietary fibre intake has been associated with poorer health outcomes, therefore having the ability to be able to quickly assess an individual's dietary fibre intake would prove useful in clinical practice and for research purposes. Current dietary assessment methods such as food records and food frequency questionnaires are time-consuming and burdensome, and there are presently no published short dietary fibre intake questionnaires that can quantify an individual's total habitual dietary fibre intake and classify individuals as low, moderate or high habitual dietary fibre consumers. Therefore, we aimed to develop and validate a habitual dietary fibre intake short food frequency questionnaire (DFI-FFQ) which can quickly and accurately classify individuals based on their habitual dietary fibre intake. In this study the DFI-FFQ was validated against the Monash University comprehensive nutrition assessment questionnaire (CNAQ). Fifty-two healthy, normal weight male (n = 17) and female (n = 35) participants, aged between 21 and 61 years, completed the DFI-FFQ twice and the CNAQ once. All eligible participants completed the study, however the data from 46% of the participants were excluded from analysis secondary to misreporting. The DFI-FFQ cannot accurately quantify total habitual dietary fibre intakes, however, it is a quick, valid and reproducible tool in classifying individuals based on their habitual dietary fibre intakes.

  5. Dietary Intake of Competitive Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spendlove, Jessica; Mitchell, Lachlan; Gifford, Janelle; Hackett, Daniel; Slater, Gary; Cobley, Stephen; O'Connor, Helen

    2015-07-01

    Competitive bodybuilders are well known for extreme physique traits and extremes in diet and training manipulation to optimize lean mass and achieve a low body fat. Although many of the dietary dogmas in bodybuilding lack scientific scrutiny, a number, including timing and dosing of high biological value proteins across the day, have more recently been confirmed as effective by empirical research studies. A more comprehensive understanding of the dietary intakes of bodybuilders has the potential to uncover other dietary approaches, deserving of scientific investigation, with application to the wider sporting, and potential health contexts, where manipulation of physique traits is desired. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of dietary intake practices of competitive bodybuilders, evaluate the quality and currency of the existing literature, and identify research gaps to inform future studies. A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted from the earliest record until March 2014. The search combined permutations of the terms 'bodybuilding', 'dietary intake', and 'dietary supplement'. Included studies needed to report quantitative data (energy and macronutrients at a minimum) on habitual dietary intake of competitive bodybuilders. The 18 manuscripts meeting eligibility criteria reported on 385 participants (n = 62 women). Most studies were published in the 1980-1990s, with three published in the past 5 years. Study methodological quality was evaluated as poor. Energy intake ranged from 10 to 24 MJ/day for men and from 4 to 14 MJ/day for women. Protein intake ranged from 1.9 to 4.3 g/kg for men and from 0.8 to 2.8 g/kg for women. Intake of carbohydrate and fat was 6 months from competition) or immediate post-competition period and lowest during competition preparation (≤6 months from competition) or competition week. The most commonly reported dietary supplements were protein powders/liquids and amino acids. The studies failed to provide

  6. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The

  7. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    OpenAIRE

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-01-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary...

  8. Dietary intakes in people with irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corfe Bernard M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS is a functional bowel disorder characterised by episodes of abdominal pain associated with altered bowel habits. Many IBS sufferers believe that diet may play a role in triggering these episodes and may avoid certain foods. However relatively few studies have undertaken a dietary assessment in IBS sufferers to examine the wider impact of the condition upon diet. Methods 104 individuals with IBS were recruited and asked to complete a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. The data were analysed against Dietary Reference Values for food energy and nutrients for the United Kingdom and observed intakes for the general population and for differences between IBS subtypes and the UK population. Results The data show that the dietary intakes of this population of IBS sufferers met the UK Dietary Reference Values. The average energy intake of the population exceeded the Estimated Average Requirements of the UK population and the balance of macronutrients was favourable. Intakes of selected micronutrients significantly exceeded the reference nutrient intakes. There were no differences between IBS subtypes. Conclusions The IBS subpopulation appear to have an adequate and balanced macronutrient intake with no evidence of inadequate micronutrient intake.

  9. [Assessment of dietary iodine intake of population in non-high-iodine areas in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoyu; Li, Fengqin; Liu, Zhaoping; He, Yuna; Sui, Haixia; Mao, Weifeng; Liu, Sana; Yan, Weixing; Li, Ning; Chen, Junshi

    2011-03-01

    To assess the potential risk of dietary iodine insufficiency of population in non-high-iodine areas (water iodine China. The dietary iodine intake of 13 age-sex population groups were estimated by combining the data of iodine intake from food, table salt and drinking water. Two conditions were considered: consuming iodized salt or non-iodized salt. The data of food and table salt consumption were derived from the Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey in 2002. Water consumption was calculated as the recommended water intake. Iodine contents of food, table salt and water were calculated from China Food Composition Table and iodine surveillance data. Under the condition of consuming iodized salt, the average iodine intake of all population groups was higher than the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI), while the iodine intakes of individuals above Upper Limits (UL) and below RNI were 5.8% and 13.4% respectively, and the iodine intake of individuals lower than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) was 9.4% in adults above 18 years of age (including pregnant and lactating women). If non-iodized salt was consumed, the average iodine intake of most sex-age population groups was higher than RNI, but the iodine intake of 97.6% of individuals would be lower than RNI, while the iodine intake of 97.4% of adults would be lower than EAR. The contribution of iodine from table salt was much higher than that from drinking water and food in the condition of consuming iodized salt, while food was the predominant contributor of dietary iodine in the condition of consuming non-iodized salt. The health risk of iodine deficiency was higher than that of iodine excess in areas where water iodine was China, and the risk of iodine insufficiency was much higher if non-iodized salt was consumed. Iodized salt should be the main sources of dietary iodine intake for population in areas where water iodine was China.

  10. Dietary protein intake in Dutch elderly people : a focus on protein sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieland, Michael; Borgonjen-Van den Berg, Karin J.; Van Loon, Luc J. C.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sufficient high quality dietary protein intake is required to prevent or treat sarcopenia in elderly people. Therefore, the intake of specific protein sources as well as their timing of intake are important to improve dietary protein intake in elderly people. OBJECTIVES: to assess the

  11. Dietary protein intake in Dutch elderly people: a focus on protein sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieland, C.A.B.; Borgonjen-van den Berg, K.J.; Loon, van L.J.C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sufficient high quality dietary protein intake is required to prevent or treat sarcopenia in elderly people. Therefore, the intake of specific protein sources as well as their timing of intake are important to improve dietary protein intake in elderly people. Objectives: to assess the

  12. Assessment of Dietary Intake Patterns and Their Correlates among University Students in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Pascale; Jomaa, Lamis; Issa, Carine; Farhat, Ghada; Salamé, Joseph; Zeidan, Nina; Baldi, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Unhealthy dietary habits are major risk factors for chronic diseases, particularly if adopted during early years of adulthood. Limited studies have explored the food consumption patterns among young adults in Lebanon. Our study aimed to examine common dietary patterns and their correlates among a large sample of university student population in Lebanon, focusing on correlation with gender and body mass index (BMI). Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 3384 students, using a proportionate cluster sample of Lebanese students from both public and private universities. A self-administered food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake of university students. Factor analysis of food items and groups, cluster analysis of dietary patterns, and multivariate regressions were carried out. Results: Three dietary patterns were identified among university youth namely a vegetarian/low calorie dietary pattern (characterized mainly by consumption of plant-based food while avoiding “western” food, composite dishes, and bread); a mixed dietary pattern (characterized by high consumption of plant-based food, followed by composite dishes, bread, and a low consumption of western type food); and finally, a westernized dietary pattern (characterized by high consumption of white bread and western food, and a strong avoidance of plant food and composite dishes). We observed significant differences between males and females in terms of their reported food intake and dietary patterns. Females were particularly more prone to adopt the vegetarian/low calorie diet than males (ORa = 1.69; p universities (p = 0.053). Students with high income and obese students (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) were more likely to consume vegetarian/low calorie diets (p university students reported a higher consumption of the westernized dietary pattern as compared to female university students in Lebanon, while the latter reported a higher adoption of a

  13. Dietary sodium intake: scientific basis for public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelton, Paul K

    2015-01-01

    National and international agencies recommend a reduction in dietary sodium intake. However, some have questioned the wisdom of these policies. The goal of this report was to assess the findings and quality of studies that have examined the relationship between dietary sodium and both blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Literature review of the available observational studies and randomized controlled trials, including systematic reviews and meta-analyses. A large body of evidence from observational studies and clinical trials documents a direct relationship between dietary sodium intake and the level of blood pressure, especially in persons with a higher level of blood pressure, African-Americans, and those who are older or have comorbidity, including chronic kidney disease. A majority of the available observational reports support the presence of a direct relationship between dietary sodium intake and cardiovascular disease but the quality of the evidence according to most studies is poor. The limited information available from clinical trials is consistent with a beneficial effect of reduced sodium intake on incidence of cardiovascular disease. The scientific underpinning for policies to reduce the usual intake of dietary sodium is strong. In the United States and many other countries, addition of sodium during food processing has led to a very high average intake of dietary sodium, with almost everyone exceeding the recommended goals. National programs utilizing voluntary and mandatory approaches have resulted in a successful reduction in sodium intake. Even a small reduction in sodium consumption is likely to yield sizable improvement in population health. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Nutritional status of Iranian women with rheumatoid arthritis: an assessment of dietary intake and disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, Jalal; Mohtadinia, Javad; Kolahi, Soasan; Bakhtiyari, Mahmood; Delpisheh, Ali

    2011-09-01

    Long-standing chronic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis are known to be associated with impairment of nutritional status to some degree. The present study aimed to assess nutritional status of women with rheumatoid arthritis and compare their ingestion of certain micronutrients with dietary reference intakes. In this cross-sectional study, 90 eligible women were recruited. After examination, all patients were evaluated on the basis of disease activity score, calculated using the number of tender and swollen joints, patient global assessment of pain and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP). A three-day 24 h recall was completed and a 10 ml fasting blood sample was obtained to assess the plasma levels of malondialdehyde, total antioxidant and CRP. Despite normal BMI, intake of energy and micronutrients including calcium, folic acid, zinc, magnesium and vitamin B6 were considerably lower compared with the dietary reference intakes. There was no significant relationship between intake of different nutrients or food groups and disease activity score and the biochemical markers including malondialdehyde, CRP and total antioxidant. Intake of energy and some micronutrients were significantly lower than the recommended values. However, no relationship was found between intake of different food groups or nutrients with disease activity or serum antioxidant capacity.

  15. Short Tools to Assess Young Children's Dietary Intake: A Systematic Review Focusing on Application to Dietary Index Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda K. Bell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary indices evaluate diet quality, usually based on current dietary guidelines. Indices can therefore contribute to our understanding of early-life obesity-risk dietary behaviours. Yet indices are commonly applied to dietary data collected by onerous methods (e.g., recalls or records. Short dietary assessment instruments are an attractive alternative to collect data from which to derive an index score. A systematic review of studies published before April 2013 was conducted to identify short (≤50 items tools that measure whole-of-diet intake of young children (birth-five years and are applicable to dietary indices, in particular screening obesogenic dietary behaviours. The search identified 3686 papers of which 16, reporting on 15 tools (n=7, infants and toddlers birth-24 months; n=8, preschoolers 2–5 years, met the inclusion criteria. Most tools were food frequency questionnaires (n=14, with one innovative dietary questionnaire identified. Seven were tested for validity or reliability, and one was tested for both. Six tools (n=2, infants and toddlers; n=4, preschoolers are applicable for use with current dietary indices, five of which screen obesogenic dietary behaviours. Given the limited number of brief, valid and reliable dietary assessment tools for young children to which an index can be applied, future short tool development is warranted, particularly for screening obesogenic dietary behaviours.

  16. Eating attitude, lifestyle practices and dietary intakes of female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eating attitude was evaluated using the EAT-26 questionnaire, lifestyle practice was assessed using the adapted health promoting lifestyle questionnaire (HPLP II) while 24-hour dietary recall and pretested food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the dietary intakes and pattern of the participants. Data were ...

  17. Dietary intake and biological measurement of folate: A qualitative review of validation studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Y.H.; Vollset, S.E.; Boonstra, A.; Chajes, V.; Ueland, P.M.; Slimani, N.

    2013-01-01

    Folate is a nutrient of major health significance, but its dietary intake assessment is particularly complex to quantify through traditional approaches. Attempts have been made to validate dietary instruments for assessing folate intake against circulating concentration biomarkers. However, this

  18. Quantitative food frequency questionnaire and assessment of dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, S; Goyle, A; Gupta, R

    1998-01-01

    India is a land of varied foods and food habits. This makes the task of collecting dietary and nutrient intake data difficult. Methods need to be devised to improve the accuracy in reporting intakes by various population subgroups. There is an urgent need to develop a questionnaire that is simple enough to be administered on a large sample and whose validity and reproducibility has been quantified. Regional differences in food habits and availability will have to be taken into account in the questionnaire design. Packaging of food items with definite portion sizes is not a common practice in Indian markets and labels on food products are neither very informative nor descriptive. Epidemiologists addressing the effects of diet have generally used questionnaires that inquire about the frequency of specified foods consumed and sometimes also attempt to quantify usual portion sizes. A number of investigators have conveyed, apparently independently, that the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) as a method of dietary assessment is best suited for most epidemiological applications. A food frequency list can form the basis for nutrition education and allows the dietician and the patient to relate individual eating patterns to specific foods. Other advantages of the FFQ are that it is independent of the ability or inclination of an individual to maintain a diary and also provides immediate feedback to patients, physicians and counsellors.

  19. Dietary polyphenol intake in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Rothwell, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    were collected using a standardized 24-h dietary recall software administered to 36,037 adult subjects. Dietary data were linked with Phenol-Explorer, a database with data on 502 individual polyphenols in 452 foods and data on polyphenol losses due to cooking and food processing. RESULTS: Mean total....... The current cross-sectional analysis aimed at estimating dietary intakes of all currently known individual polyphenols and total intake per class and subclass, and to identify their main food sources in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. METHODS: Dietary data at baseline...... polyphenol intake was the highest in Aarhus-Denmark (1786 mg/day in men and 1626 mg/day in women) and the lowest in Greece (744 mg/day in men and 584 mg/day in women). When dividing the subjects into three regions, the highest intake of total polyphenols was observed in the UK health-conscious group...

  20. Dietary tryptophan intake and suicide rate in industrialized nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin; Tran, Ulrich S

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the ecological association of dietary tryptophan intake and suicide rates across industrialized nations. Tryptophan, an essential amino acid, is the rate-limiting precursor of serotonin biosynthesis. The serotonergic system has been strongly implicated in the neurobiology of suicide. Contemporary male and female suicide rates for the general population (42 countries) and the elderly (38 countries) were correlated with national estimates of dietary tryptophan intake. Measures of tryptophan intake were significantly negatively associated to national suicide rates. Controlling for national affluence, total alcohol consumption and happiness levels slightly attenuated these associations, but left all of them negative. The effect is an ecological (group-level) finding. Estimated per capita tryptophan supply is only a proxy for actual consumption. Developed nations ranking high in dietary tryptophan intake rank low in suicide rates, independent of national wealth, alcohol intake and happiness.

  1. Nutritional status and dietary intake in tribal children of Bihar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, R J; Singh, P

    1999-01-01

    To assess the dietary intake and nutritional status in children of the tribal areas of Bihar. Cross sectional survey with two stage probability proportional to size sampling. Study covered 396 villages from 17 tribal districts of Bihar. 1847 preschool children (0-6 Years) were studied. 24 hours recall method was used to assess the nutrition intake and anthropometric measurements included height and weight. Nutritional intake was compared with Indian Council of Medical Research recommended dietary allowances (RDA) and nutritional status assessed by SD classification. The intake of protein was broadly in line with the recommended dietary allowances (RDA) in all age groups among children. However, the average intake of energy and other nutrients was lower in allage groups as compared to RDA. Calorie deficiency was 38% whereas protein deficiency was about 19%. More than half of the children were caloric deficient in Katihar, Bokaro, Godda and Singhbhum (east and west). The overall prevalence of stunting was about 60% and underweight about 55% and was comparable in boys and girls. However, wasting was more frequent in girls (urban - 34.5% vs. 16.3% and rural - 34.9% vs 18%). The level of malnutrition was not very different in rural and urban areas. The nutritional status and dietary intakes of tribal children in Bihar is very poor. Urgent remedial measures are required in this context, particularly on a war footing in especially vulnerable districts identified by this survey.

  2. Plasma biomarker of dietary phytosterol intake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Lin

    Full Text Available Dietary phytosterols, plant sterols structurally similar to cholesterol, reduce intestinal cholesterol absorption and have many other potentially beneficial biological effects in humans. Due to limited information on phytosterol levels in foods, however, it is difficult to quantify habitual dietary phytosterol intake (DPI. Therefore, we sought to identify a plasma biomarker of DPI.Data were analyzed from two feeding studies with a total of 38 subjects during 94 dietary periods. DPI was carefully controlled at low, intermediate, and high levels. Plasma levels of phytosterols and cholesterol metabolites were assessed at the end of each diet period. Based on simple ordinary least squares regression analysis, the best biomarker for DPI was the ratio of plasma campesterol to the endogenous cholesterol metabolite 5-α-cholestanol (R2 = 0.785, P 0.600; P < 0.01.The ratio of plasma campesterol to the coordinately regulated endogenous cholesterol metabolite 5-α-cholestanol is a biomarker of dietary phytosterol intake. Conversely, plasma phytosterol levels alone are not ideal biomarkers of DPI because they are confounded by large inter-individual variation in absorption and turnover of non-cholesterol sterols. Further work is needed to assess the relation between non-cholesterol sterol metabolism and associated cholesterol transport in the genesis of coronary heart disease.

  3. Dietary intake of zinc in the population of Jiangsu Province, China.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Q.; Boonstra, A.; Shi, Z.; Pan, X.; Yuan, B.; Dai, Yue; Zhao, J.; Zimmermann, M.B.; Kok, F.J.; Zhou, M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate dietary zinc and other divalent minerals intake among the population of Jiangsu Province. Methods: 3,867 subjects aged 4-89 years were representatively sampled in two urban and six rural areas of Jiangsu Province. Dietary intake was assessed using 24-hour recalls on three

  4. Dietary intake of organic pollutants in children from Catalonia, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocio, A.; Falco, G.; Llobet, J.M.; Domingo, J.L. [Lab. of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Reus (Spain); Mueller, L. [SGS GmbH, Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    Potential human toxicity of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is well known. Moreover, it is also well established that dietary intake is the major route of human exposure for most POPs. In recent years, concern on dietary intake of POPs and other organic environmental contaminants has notably increased. Dietary intake of these pollutants is of special interest in children populations, who in relation to their body weights consume greater quantities of food than adults. Consequently, they are more exposed to potentially toxic pollutants. In 2000, a wide survey on dietary intake of a number of organic contaminants by the general population of Catalonia Spain was carried out. The levels of the following pollutants were determined in an important number of food samples belonging to various food groups: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The present study was undertaken to estimate the dietary intake of the above pollutants by children between 4 and 9 years old, as well as to assess the potential health risks derived from this intake.

  5. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake assessment from 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hexiang; Tang, Jun; Huang, Lichun; Shen, Xianghong; Zhang, Ronghua; Chen, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Aluminium was measured in 2580 samples of 15 food groups and dietary exposure was estimated. Samples were purchased and analysed during 2010 to 2014. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (mean 4862 mg/kg), laver (mean 455.2 mg/kg) and fried twisted cruller (mean 392.4 mg/kg). Dietary exposure to aluminium was estimated for Zhejiang residents. The average dietary exposure to aluminium via 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province was 1.15 mg/kg bw/week, which is below the provisional tolerable weekly intake of 2 mg/kg bw /week. Jellyfish is the main Al contributor, providing 37.6% of the daily intake via these 15 food groups. This study provided new information on aluminium levels and assessment of aluminium (Al) dietary exposure in Zhejiang Province of China.

  6. Assessment of dietary sodium intake using a food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour urinary sodium excretion: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Rachael M; Farmer, Victoria L; Nettleton, Alice; Cameron, Claire M; Cook, Nancy R; Campbell, Norman R C

    2017-12-01

    Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) are often used to assess dietary sodium intake, although 24-hour urinary excretion is the most accurate measure of intake. The authors conducted a systematic review to investigate whether FFQs are a reliable and valid way of measuring usual dietary sodium intake. Results from 18 studies are described in this review, including 16 validation studies. The methods of study design and analysis varied widely with respect to FFQ instrument, number of 24-hour urine collections collected per participant, methods used to assess completeness of urine collections, and statistical analysis. Overall, there was poor agreement between estimates from FFQ and 24-hour urine. The authors suggest a framework for validation and reporting based on a consensus statement (2004), and recommend that all FFQs used to estimate dietary sodium intake undergo validation against multiple 24-hour urine collections. ©2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Evaluation of dietary intake in Danish adults by means of an index based on food-based dietary guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Vibeke K; Fagt, Sisse; Trolle, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    The diet quality index is a useful tool in assessing food and nutrient intake in individuals with high vs. low degree of compliance towards the dietary guidelines, and provides a valuable tool in future studies investigating variations in dietary intakes with respect to lifestyle, demographic...

  8. Nutritional status and dietary intake of urban residents in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amare Bemnet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is paucity of data on the dietary intake and nutritional status of urban Ethiopians which necessitates comprehensive nutritional assessments. Therefore, the present study was aimed at evaluating the dietary intake and nutritional status of urban residents in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods This cross-sectional community based nutrition survey was conducted by involving 356 participants (71.3% female and 28.7% male with mean age of 37.3 years. Subjects were selected by random sampling. Socio demographic data was collected by questionnaire. Height, weight, hip circumference and waist circumference were measured following standard procedures. Dietary intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire and 24-h dietary recall. The recommended dietary allowance was taken as the cut-off point for the assessment of the adequacy of individual nutrient intake. Results Undernourished, overweight and obese subjects composed 12.9%, 21.3% and 5.9% of the participants, respectively. Men were taller, heavier and had higher waist to hip ratio compared to women (P  Conclusions The overall risk of nutritional inadequacy among the study participants was high along with their poor dietary intake. Hence, more stress should be made on planning and implementing nutritional programmes in urban settings aimed at preventing or correcting micronutrient and some macronutrient deficiencies which may be useful in preventing nutrition related diseases in life.

  9. Dietary vitamin A intakes of Filipino elders with adequate or low liver vitamin A concentrations as assessed by the deuterated-retinol-dilution method: implications for dietary requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribaya-Mercado, Judy D; Solon, Florentino S; Fermin, Liza S; Perfecto, Christine S; Solon, Juan Antonio A; Dolnikowski, Gregory G; Russell, Robert M

    2004-04-01

    The vitamin A requirements of elderly humans have not been studied. In a cross-sectional study of 60-88-y-old men (n = 31) and women (n = 31) in rural Philippines, we assessed the dietary intakes of elders with adequate (> or = 0.07 micromol/g) or low (value for elders. The mean (+/- SD) vitamin A intakes of the men and women with adequate vitamin A in liver were 135 +/- 86 and 134 +/- 104 microg retinol activity equivalents (RAE)/d, respectively; intakes of the men and women with low vitamin A in liver were 75 +/- 53 and 60 +/- 27 microg RAE/d, respectively. Total-body vitamin A or liver vitamin A but not serum retinol correlated with dietary RAE, preformed vitamin A, beta-carotene, fat, and protein. An estimated acceptable or sufficient dietary vitamin A intake associated with adequate liver vitamin A concentrations in elders is 6.45 microg RAE/kg body wt; for a reference 76-kg man and a 61-kg woman, these values are approximately 500 and 400 microg RAE/d, respectively. The dietary vitamin A intakes of elders with adequate or low liver vitamin A concentrations as estimated by use of the deuterated-retinol-dilution technique are useful for assessing vitamin A requirements.

  10. National Children's Study Dietary Assessment Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Children's Study dietary assessment workshop was an opportunity for experts in dietary assessment methodology to gather and discuss the current state of knowledge about methodologies used to assess dietary intake during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence.

  11. Dietary taurine intake, nutrients intake, dietary habits and life stress by depression in Korean female college students: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Yeon; You, Jeong-Soon; Chang, Kyung-Ja

    2010-08-24

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the dietary taurine intake, nutrients intake, dietary habits and life stress by depression in Korean female college students. In this study, research data were collected in March 2009 and 65 patients with depression and 65 controls without depression participated. The CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression) scale was used for depression measure and controls were matched for age. A 3-day recall method was used for dietary assessment (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day). Average height, weight and body mass index (BMI) were 161.3+/-0.5 cm, 55.3+/-1.0 kg and 21.2+/-0.4 kg/m2 for depression patients and those of control group were 161.4+/-0.7 cm, 53.1+/-0.8 kg and 20.3+/-0.2 kg/m2, respectively. Average dietary taurine intakes of depression patients and control group were 89.1 and 88.0 mg/day, respectively. There was no significant difference in dietary taurine intake between depression patients and control group. The average intakes of vitamin A (pdepression patients were significantly lower compared to control group. The average total dietary habit score of depression patients (47.2) was significantly lower than that of control group (51.3) (pdepression patients compare to control group. The average scores of total life stress (pdepression patients were significantly higher than those of control group except faculty problem score. These results show that depression patients have poor dietary habits and unbalanced nutrition status. Also depression patients have higher life stress score.Therefore, continuous nutrition education and counselling for good dietary habits and balanced nutrition status are needed to prevent depression in Korean college students.

  12. Nutrient intakes of US infants, toddlers, and preschoolers meet or exceed dietary reference intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butte, Nancy F; Fox, Mary Kay; Briefel, Ronette R; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Dwyer, Johanna T; Deming, Denise M; Reidy, Kathleen C

    2010-12-01

    To assess the usual nutrient intakes of 3,273 US infants, toddlers, and preschoolers, aged 0 to 47 months, surveyed in the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2008; and to compare data on the usual nutrient intakes for the two waves of FITS conducted in 2002 and 2008. The FITS 2008 is a cross-sectional survey of a national random sample of US children from birth through age 47 months. Usual nutrient intakes derived from foods, beverages, and supplements were ascertained using a telephone-administered, multiple-pass 24-hour dietary recall. Infants aged birth to 5 months (n=382) and 6 to 11 months (n=505), toddlers aged 12 to 23 months (n=925), and preschoolers aged 24 to 47 months (n=1,461) were surveyed. All primary caregivers completed one 24-hour dietary recall and a random subsample (n=701) completed a second 24-hour dietary recall. The personal computer version of the Software for Intake Distribution Estimation was used to estimate the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles, as well as the proportions below and above cutoff values defined by the Dietary Reference Intakes or the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Usual nutrient intakes met or exceeded energy and protein requirements with minimal risk of vitamin and mineral deficiencies. The usual intakes of antioxidants, B vitamins, bone-related nutrients, and other micronutrients were adequate relative to the Adequate Intakes or Estimated Average Requirements, except for iron and zinc in a small subset of older infants, and vitamin E and potassium in toddlers and preschoolers. Intakes of synthetic folate, preformed vitamin A, zinc, and sodium exceeded Tolerable Upper Intake Level in a significant proportion of toddlers and preschoolers. Macronutrient distributions were within acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges, except for dietary fat, in some toddlers and preschoolers. Dietary fiber was low in the vast majority of toddlers and preschoolers, and saturated fat intakes exceeded

  13. Healthy-eater self-schema and dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noureddine, Samar; Stein, Karen

    2009-03-01

    The types and amounts of foods consumed have been shown to influence the health risks of individuals. Empirical evidence has documented a link between high dietary fat and low fiber intake and the risks for cardiovascular disease, some types of cancer, and obesity. Dietary surveys of Americans show higher fat and lower fiber intake than stipulated in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, despite the noted increase in public awareness regarding the importance of adopting healthy eating habits. The lack of congruence between the availability of dietary knowledge and behavioral adherence to dietary recommendations suggests a need to further understand the predictors of dietary intake. In this study, the authors used the schema model of the self-concept to explore the role of self-beliefs in predicting dietary intake in community-dwelling, working-class, middle-aged adults.

  14. Relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary fiber intake in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuholm, Stine; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Kristensen, Mette Bredal

    2014-01-01

    months later. Results: Estimates of mean dietary fiber intake were 24.999.8 and 28.199.4 g/day when applying the FFQ and DR, respectively, where FFQ estimates were 12% lower (pB0.001). Pearson’s correlation coefficient between the estimated dietary fiber intake of the two methods was r0.63 (pB0......: The developed FFQ showed moderate underestimation of dietary fiber intake (g/day), adequate ranking of subjects according to their dietary fiber intake, and good reproducibility. The FFQ is therefore believed to be a valuable tool for epidemiology and screening in human interventions, where intake of dietary...

  15. Plasma biomarker of dietary phytosterol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaobo; Racette, Susan B; Ma, Lina; Wallendorf, Michael; Spearie, Catherine Anderson; Ostlund, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    Dietary phytosterols, plant sterols structurally similar to cholesterol, reduce intestinal cholesterol absorption and have many other potentially beneficial biological effects in humans. Due to limited information on phytosterol levels in foods, however, it is difficult to quantify habitual dietary phytosterol intake (DPI). Therefore, we sought to identify a plasma biomarker of DPI. Data were analyzed from two feeding studies with a total of 38 subjects during 94 dietary periods. DPI was carefully controlled at low, intermediate, and high levels. Plasma levels of phytosterols and cholesterol metabolites were assessed at the end of each diet period. Based on simple ordinary least squares regression analysis, the best biomarker for DPI was the ratio of plasma campesterol to the endogenous cholesterol metabolite 5-α-cholestanol (R2 = 0.785, P 0.600; P phytosterol intake. Conversely, plasma phytosterol levels alone are not ideal biomarkers of DPI because they are confounded by large inter-individual variation in absorption and turnover of non-cholesterol sterols. Further work is needed to assess the relation between non-cholesterol sterol metabolism and associated cholesterol transport in the genesis of coronary heart disease.

  16. Assessing dietary intake in childhood cancer survivors: Food frequency questionnaire versus 24-hour diet recalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet r...

  17. Dietary intakes of pesticides based on community duplicate diet samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Lisa Jo; Xue, Jianping; Brown, G Gordon; McCombs, Michelle; Nishioka, Marcia; Michael, Larry C

    2014-01-15

    The calculation of dietary intake of selected pesticides was accomplished using food samples collected from individual representatives of a defined demographic community using a community duplicate diet approach. A community of nine participants was identified in Apopka, FL from which intake assessments of organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid pesticides were made. From these nine participants, sixty-seven individual samples were collected and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Measured concentrations were used to estimate dietary intakes for individuals and for the community. Individual intakes of total OP and pyrethroid pesticides ranged from 6.7 to 996 ng and 1.2 to 16,000 ng, respectively. The community intake was 256 ng for OPs and 3430 ng for pyrethroid pesticides. The most commonly detected pesticide was permethrin, but the highest overall intake was of bifenthrin followed by esfenvalerate. These data indicate that the community in Apopka, FL, as represented by the nine individuals, was potentially exposed to both OP and pyrethroid pesticides at levels consistent with a dietary model and other field studies in which standard duplicate diet samples were collected. Higher levels of pyrethroid pesticides were measured than OPs, which is consistent with decreased usage of OPs. The diversity of pyrethroid pesticides detected in food samples was greater than expected. Continually changing pesticide usage patterns need to be considered when determining analytes of interest for large scale epidemiology studies. The Community Duplicate Diet Methodology is a tool for researchers to meet emerging exposure measurement needs that will lead to more accurate assessments of intake which may enhance decisions for chemical regulation. Successfully determining the intake of pesticides through the dietary route will allow for accurate assessments of pesticide exposures to a community of individuals, thereby significantly enhancing the research benefit

  18. Dietary Fiber Intake in Relation to Knee Pain Trajectory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhaoli; Lu, Na; Niu, Jingbo; Felson, David T; Zhang, Yuqing

    2017-09-01

    Dietary fiber may reduce knee pain, in part by lowering body weight and reducing inflammation. In this study, we assessed whether fiber intake was associated with patterns of knee pain development. In a prospective, multicenter cohort of 4,796 men and women ages 45-79 years with or at risk of knee osteoarthritis, participants underwent annual followups for 8 years. Dietary fiber intake was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to identify Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index pain trajectories, which were assessed for associations with dietary fiber intake using polytomous regression models. Of the eligible participants (4,470 persons and 8,940 knees, mean ± SD age 61.3 ± 9.1 years, 58% women), 4.9% underwent knee replacement and were censored at the time of surgery. Four distinct knee pain patterns were identified: no pain (34.5%), mild pain (38.1%), moderate pain (21.2%), and severe pain (6.2%). Dietary total fiber was inversely related to membership in the moderate or severe pain groups (P ≤ 0.006 for trend for both). Subjects in the highest versus those in the lowest quartile of total fiber intake had a lower risk of belonging to the moderate pain pattern group (odds ratio [OR] 0.76 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.61-0.93]) and severe pain pattern group (OR 0.56 [95% CI 0.41-0.78]). Similar results were found with grain fiber and these 2 pain pattern groups. Our findings suggest that a high intake of dietary total or grain fiber, particularly the recommended daily fiber average intake of 25 gm per day, is associated with a lower risk of developing moderate or severe knee pain over time. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  19. Is there an association between dietary intake and academic achievement: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, T; Goldman, S; Pursey, K; Lim, R

    2017-04-01

    The majority of literature examining the effect of dietary behaviour on academic achievement has focused on breakfast consumption only. Here, we aim to systematically review the literature investigating the broader effects of dietary intake and behaviours on school-aged children's academic achievement. A search was undertaken across seven databases using keywords. For studies to be included, they needed to be conducted in: school-aged children (5-18 years); assess and report: (i) a measure of academic performance; (ii) a measure of dietary intake/behaviour; and (iii) the association between dietary intake/behaviours and academic performance. Forty studies were included in the review. The majority of studies were cross-sectional in design (n = 33) and studied children aged >10 years, with very few reports in younger age groups. More than 30 different dietary assessment tools were used, with only 40% of those using a validated/standardised assessment method. Half the studies collected outcomes of academic achievement objectively from a recognised educational authority, whereas 10 studies used self-reported measures. The dietary outcomes most commonly reported to have positive associations with academic achievement were: breakfast consumption (n = 12) and global diet quality/meal patterns (n = 7), whereas negative associations reported with junk/fast food (n = 9). This review highlights that moderate associations exist for dietary intakes characterised by regular breakfast consumption, lower intakes of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and overall diet quality with respect to outcomes of academic achievement. Future studies should consider the use of validated dietary assessment methods and standardised reporting of academic achievement. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  20. An assessment of the dietary fiber intake of selected students in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, colon cancer and heart disease. This study ... The study showed that the dietary fiber intake of the students was adequate. ... Keywords: Dietary Fiber, Cereal Fruits Vegetables, University Students ...

  1. Food Intake and Success or Failure of Dietary Restraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, D.J.; Strien, T. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Determination of success and failure of dietary restraint in relation to food intake in 510 females. Methods: Food intake as measured with the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was assessed in low vs. high restrained eaters and overeaters, as measured with the DEBQ (Dutch Eating

  2. New mobile methods for dietary assessment: review of image-assisted and image-based dietary assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boushey, C J; Spoden, M; Zhu, F M; Delp, E J; Kerr, D A

    2017-08-01

    For nutrition practitioners and researchers, assessing dietary intake of children and adults with a high level of accuracy continues to be a challenge. Developments in mobile technologies have created a role for images in the assessment of dietary intake. The objective of this review was to examine peer-reviewed published papers covering development, evaluation and/or validation of image-assisted or image-based dietary assessment methods from December 2013 to January 2016. Images taken with handheld devices or wearable cameras have been used to assist traditional dietary assessment methods for portion size estimations made by dietitians (image-assisted methods). Image-assisted approaches can supplement either dietary records or 24-h dietary recalls. In recent years, image-based approaches integrating application technology for mobile devices have been developed (image-based methods). Image-based approaches aim at capturing all eating occasions by images as the primary record of dietary intake, and therefore follow the methodology of food records. The present paper reviews several image-assisted and image-based methods, their benefits and challenges; followed by details on an image-based mobile food record. Mobile technology offers a wide range of feasible options for dietary assessment, which are easier to incorporate into daily routines. The presented studies illustrate that image-assisted methods can improve the accuracy of conventional dietary assessment methods by adding eating occasion detail via pictures captured by an individual (dynamic images). All of the studies reduced underreporting with the help of images compared with results with traditional assessment methods. Studies with larger sample sizes are needed to better delineate attributes with regards to age of user, degree of error and cost.

  3. Dietary Fiber Intake Is Inversely Associated with Periodontal Disease among US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Samara Joy; Trak-Fellermeier, Maria Angelica; Joshipura, Kaumudi; Dye, Bruce A

    2016-12-01

    Approximately 47% of adults in the United States have periodontal disease. Dietary guidelines recommend a diet providing adequate fiber. Healthier dietary habits, particularly an increased fiber intake, may contribute to periodontal disease prevention. Our objective was to evaluate the relation of dietary fiber intake and its sources with periodontal disease in the US adult population (≥30 y of age). Data from 6052 adults participating in NHANES 2009-2012 were used. Periodontal disease was defined (according to the CDC/American Academy of Periodontology) as severe, moderate, mild, and none. Intake was assessed by 24-h dietary recalls. The relation between periodontal disease and dietary fiber, whole-grain, and fruit and vegetable intakes were evaluated by using multivariate models, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and dentition status. In the multivariate logistic model, the lowest quartile of dietary fiber was associated with moderate-severe periodontitis (compared with mild-none) compared with the highest dietary fiber intake quartile (OR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.69). In the multivariate multinomial logistic model, intake in the lowest quartile of dietary fiber was associated with higher severity of periodontitis than dietary fiber intake in the highest quartile (OR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.62). In the adjusted logistic model, whole-grain intake was not associated with moderate-severe periodontitis. However, in the adjusted multinomial logistic model, adults consuming whole grains in the lowest quartile were more likely to have more severe periodontal disease than were adults consuming whole grains in the highest quartile (OR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.62). In fully adjusted logistic and multinomial logistic models, fruit and vegetable intake was not significantly associated with periodontitis. We found an inverse relation between dietary fiber intake and periodontal disease among US adults ≥30 y old. Periodontal disease was associated with low whole

  4. Urinary fructose: a potential biomarker for dietary fructose intake in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johner, S A; Libuda, L; Shi, L; Retzlaff, A; Joslowski, G; Remer, T

    2010-11-01

    Recently, urinary fructose and sucrose excretion in 24-h urine have been established experimentally as new biomarkers for dietary sugar intake in adults. Our objective was to investigate 1) whether the fructose biomarker is also applicable in free-living children and 2) for what kind of sugar it is standing for. Intakes of added and total sugar (including additional sugar from fruit and fruit juices) were assessed by 3-day weighed dietary records in 114 healthy prepubertal children; corresponding 24-h urinary fructose excretion was measured photometrically. The associations between dietary sugar intakes and urinary fructose excretion were examined using linear regression models. To determine whether one of the two sugar variables may be better associated with the urinary biomarker, the statistical Pitman's test was used. Added and total sugar correlated significantly with urinary fructose, but the linear regression indicated a weak association between intake of added sugar and urinary log-fructose excretion (β=0.0026, R(2)=0.055, P=0.01). The association between total sugar intake and log-urinary fructose (β=0.0040, R(2)=0.181, Pestimation of total sugar intake than for the estimation of added dietary sugar intake in children. However, as excreted fructose stems almost exclusively from the diet (both from food-intrinsic and added intakes), it can be assumed that urinary fructose represents a potential biomarker for total dietary fructose intake, irrespective of its source.

  5. Dietary calcium intake and sunlight exposure among children aged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional rickets can be caused by either or both calcium and vitamin D deficiencies, and can frequently occur in Africa. In Ethiopia, limited evidence exists regarding the calcium intake of children and their sunlight exposure practices. The purpose of this study was to assess information regarding dietary calcium intake and ...

  6. A measurement error approach to assess the association between dietary diversity, nutrient intake, and mean probability of adequacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Maria L; Carriquiry, Alicia

    2010-11-01

    Collection of dietary intake information requires time-consuming and expensive methods, making it inaccessible to many resource-poor countries. Quantifying the association between simple measures of usual dietary diversity and usual nutrient intake/adequacy would allow inferences to be made about the adequacy of micronutrient intake at the population level for a fraction of the cost. In this study, we used secondary data from a dietary intake study carried out in Bangladesh to assess the association between 3 food group diversity indicators (FGI) and calcium intake; and the association between these same 3 FGI and a composite measure of nutrient adequacy, mean probability of adequacy (MPA). By implementing Fuller's error-in-the-equation measurement error model (EEM) and simple linear regression (SLR) models, we assessed these associations while accounting for the error in the observed quantities. Significant associations were detected between usual FGI and usual calcium intakes, when the more complex EEM was used. The SLR model detected significant associations between FGI and MPA as well as for variations of these measures, including the best linear unbiased predictor. Through simulation, we support the use of the EEM. In contrast to the EEM, the SLR model does not account for the possible correlation between the measurement errors in the response and predictor. The EEM performs best when the model variables are not complex functions of other variables observed with error (e.g. MPA). When observation days are limited and poor estimates of the within-person variances are obtained, the SLR model tends to be more appropriate.

  7. Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Dietary Patterns of Preadolescents Attending Schools in the Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepper, Martha J.; Chai, Weiwen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The present study examined dietary intake of fruit and vegetables and dietary patterns of preadolescents attending schools in the Midwest. Methods: A total of 506 students (11.2 ± 1.3 years) from four public and private schools in Nebraska completed a validated 41-item Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess their dietary intake.…

  8. Dietary intake of dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher-Gabernig, Elke; Mischek, Daniela; Moche, Wolfgang; Prean, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) should be assessed regularly. In order to evaluate the contamination levels in various food products on the Austrian market and to assess the dietary exposure of the Austrian population for the first time, a national monitoring programme was conducted from 2005 to 2011. The 235 food products comprised meat, poultry, game and offal, fish and fish products, milk and dairy products, eggs, animal fats and vegetable oils. To estimate the dietary intakes of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, mean concentrations in food were combined with the respective food consumption data from the Austrian food consumption survey. Estimated dietary intakes were expressed as toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQs 1998). The mean intakes for PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs were estimated as 0.77, 0.75 and 0.61 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1) for children, women and men, respectively. The main contributors to total intake were milk and dairy products followed by fish and fish products for children and women, and meat, poultry, game and offal for men (65% and 15% for children, 67% and 14% for women, and 63% and 19% for men, respectively). Comparison of the estimated dietary intakes with the toxicological reference values shows that both children and adults are well below those values.

  9. Zinc Biofortification of Rice in China: A stimulation of zinc intake with different dietary patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Y.; Boonstra, A.; Yuan, B.; Pan, X.; Dai, Yue

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 2819 adults aged 20 years and above was undertaken in 2002 in Jiangsu Province. Zinc intake was assessed using a consecutive 3-day 24-h dietary recall method. Insufficient and excess intake was determined according to the Chinese Dietary Recommended Intakes. Four distinct

  10. Status of Dietary Intake of Calcium in Women of Reproductive Age in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nighat Yaseen Sofi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium (Ca plays an important role in bone formation. Attaining optimal bone mass and peak bone densities is essential to prevent osteoporotic fractures in future life. In conditions of Ca deficiency, Ca from the bones maintains the blood levels of Ca leading to its depletion in bones. Calcium depletion leads to poor bone density and a higher risk of osteoporosis particularly in women who have repeated episodes of pregnancy and lactation.Aim & Objective: To assess the dietary intake of calcium.Material Methods: the study was conducted among 200 healthy women of reproductive age group of 20-49 years.Result: The dietary intake of calcium was less than the Recommended Dietary Allowances of 600mg/day. Women from upper socioeconomic class had a higher intake of dietary calcium 435±268 mg/day as compared to women from low socioeconomic class with a dietary intake of 295±163 mg/day.Conclusion: The dietary intake of calcium improved with an increase in socioeconomic class.

  11. Dietary intake of Croatian lactating women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Krešić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional inadequacies during lactation may affect the well-being of both the mother and the infant. For this reason, breast-feeding women usually pay attention to their dietary practice during the breast-feeding period. The aim of this study was to examine changes in dietary intake of Croatian lactating women during six months postpartum. The study sample consisted of 83 lactating women whose diet records were collected at three measurements rounds: at 1 ± 0.25, 3 ± 0.25 and 6 ± 0.25 months postpartum. The mothers´ diets were investigated using two consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. Energy and nutrient intakes were estimated using a nutritional database. The obtained results have shown that the diet of Croatian lactating women is hypocaloric (65.73 – 79.52 % DRI, p < 0.001 and deficient in magnesium, zinc, vitamins A, B1, B6, D and folate. Also evident was a moderate imbalance in the distribution of energy percentages from macronutrients. During six months postpartum, lactating women continuously decreased food intake resulting in a gradual decrease in energy intake (p < 0.001 and in the intake of all micronutrients. However, during six months postpartum, lactating women increased the share of total fat in energy intake (p = 0.006 and the share of saturated fatty acids (p = 0.048, while the share of monounsaturated fatty acids in total energy intake decreased (p = 0.004. It could be concluded that it is worthwhile to further study the nutritional status of Croatian lactating women during this vulnerable period especially regarding their micronutrients intake in order to achieve the recommended dietary requirements.

  12. Dietary intake of metals by Mumbai adult population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghunath, R. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Tripathi, R.M. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India)]. E-mail: rmt@apsara.barc.ernet.in; Suseela, B. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Bhalke, Sunil [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Shukla, V.K. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Puranik, V.D. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2006-03-01

    Daily intake of 12 metals (Na, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Mg, Pb, Cd, Co and Ni) by Mumbai adult population were assessed by analysing duplicate diet samples. These metals were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and stripping voltammetric techniques. A total of 250 diet samples containing 170 vegetarian diet and 80 non-vegetarian diet collected during April 2003 to March 2004 were analysed during this study. Daily dietary intakes of 2.4 g Na and 1.2 g K were observed for Mumbai adults. Daily dietary intakes of Ca, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and Mg were 367, 1.0, 6.3, 6.7, 2.0 and 304 mg, respectively. Pb, Cd, Co and Ni intakes by Mumbai adults were 32.3, 2.2, 2.2 and 108 {mu}g/day, respectively. From this study it has been observed that the intake of toxic metals such as Pb, Cd and Ni is much lower than the tolerable daily intake derived from PTWI given by FAO/WHO and could not be considered harmful in this group of subjects. Daily intake of the studied 12 metals was found to be higher in non-vegetarian diet compared to the vegetarian diet (P < 0.02, 0.01)

  13. Dietary intake of metals by Mumbai adult population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghunath, R.; Tripathi, R.M.; Suseela, B.; Bhalke, Sunil; Shukla, V.K.; Puranik, V.D.

    2006-01-01

    Daily intake of 12 metals (Na, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Mg, Pb, Cd, Co and Ni) by Mumbai adult population were assessed by analysing duplicate diet samples. These metals were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and stripping voltammetric techniques. A total of 250 diet samples containing 170 vegetarian diet and 80 non-vegetarian diet collected during April 2003 to March 2004 were analysed during this study. Daily dietary intakes of 2.4 g Na and 1.2 g K were observed for Mumbai adults. Daily dietary intakes of Ca, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and Mg were 367, 1.0, 6.3, 6.7, 2.0 and 304 mg, respectively. Pb, Cd, Co and Ni intakes by Mumbai adults were 32.3, 2.2, 2.2 and 108 μg/day, respectively. From this study it has been observed that the intake of toxic metals such as Pb, Cd and Ni is much lower than the tolerable daily intake derived from PTWI given by FAO/WHO and could not be considered harmful in this group of subjects. Daily intake of the studied 12 metals was found to be higher in non-vegetarian diet compared to the vegetarian diet (P < 0.02, 0.01)

  14. A very-low-fat vegan diet increases intake of protective dietary factors and decreases intake of pathogenic dietary factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewell, Antonella; Weidner, Gerdi; Sumner, Michael D; Chi, Christine S; Ornish, Dean

    2008-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that dietary factors in plant-based diets are important in the prevention of chronic disease. This study examined protective (eg, antioxidant vitamins, carotenoids, and fiber) and pathogenic (eg, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol) dietary factors in a very-low-fat vegan diet. Ninety-three early-stage prostate cancer patients participated in a randomized controlled trial and were assigned to a very-low-fat (10% fat) vegan diet supplemented with soy protein and lifestyle changes or to usual care. Three-day food records were collected at baseline (n=42 intervention, n=43 control) and after 1 year (n=37 in each group). Analyses of changes in dietary intake of macronutrients, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, and isoflavones from baseline to 1 year showed significantly increased intake of most protective dietary factors (eg, fiber increased from a mean of 31 to 59 g/day, lycopene increased from 8,693 to 34,464 mug/day) and significantly decreased intake of most pathogenic dietary factors (eg, saturated fatty acids decreased from 20 to 5 g/day, cholesterol decreased from 200 to 10 mg/day) in the intervention group compared to controls. These results suggest that a very-low-fat vegan diet can be useful in increasing intake of protective nutrients and phytochemicals and minimizing intake of dietary factors implicated in several chronic diseases.

  15. Vitamin D Dietary Intake Questionnaire Validation Conducted among Young Polish Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głąbska, Dominika; Guzek, Dominika; Sidor, Patrycja; Włodarek, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Due to inadequate intake of Vitamin D, identification of individuals characterised by the highest risk of deficiencies is one of the more crucial tasks for public health. The aim of the presented study was to assess the validity and reproducibility of the designed Vitamin D dietary intake questionnaire based on food frequency assessment—VIDEO-FFQ (VItamin D Estimation Only—Food Frequency Questionnaire) in a group of Polish women aged 20–30 years. Seventy-five participants kept a three-day dietary record and filled out the VIDEO-FFQ twice (immediately after the three-day dietary record and after six weeks). The assessment of validity and reproducibility was conducted by verifying standard errors of estimation, median differences, and percentages of individuals classified into tertiles, correlations and Bland-Altman plots. The Vitamin D intake for the majority of the surveyed women was inadequate as over 85% of them were characterised by values of intake lower than 5.0 μg per day. The results allowed concluding that a high accuracy of the VIDEO-FFQ was achieved. The required Bland-Altman index values lower than 5.0% were obtained, confirming satisfactory validity and reproducibility. The VIDEO-FFQ may be deemed a convenient practical tool for the estimation of Vitamin D intake in young women. PMID:26742070

  16. Assessment of imidacloprid and acetamiprid residues in okra and eggplant grown in peri-urban areas and their dietary intake in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjad, A.; Akhtar, S.; Randhawa, M.; Binyameen, M.

    2018-01-01

    This research work was designed to estimate the gradually increasing use of insecticides on vegetables to create awareness among the consumers regarding their insecticide residues. The main aim of this study is to highlight the harmful effects of insecticides in comparison with dietary intake assessment of vegetables. In this regard, total 180 (n = 60×3) samples of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and eggplant (Solanum melongena) comprising of 30 samples vegetable were collected from the peri-urban farming system of Multan, Faisalabad and Gujranwala to assess insecticide residues along with their dietary intake assessment. The selected samples were quantified for the insecticide residues by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) technique equipped with UV/Visible detector. Results revealed that imidacloprid residues found in eggplant (0.226 mg Kg-1) and okra (0.176 mg Kg-1) from Multan region were greater than the residues reported from Gujranwala and Faisalabad. Out of all analyzed samples for imidacloprid and acetamaprid residues, 58% and 65% samples contained detectable residues respectively. Whereas 10% and 15% samples exceeded their maximum residue limits (MRLs) established by European Commission. Dietary intake assessment for imidacloprid and acetamiprid was calculated as per their maximum permissible intake (MPI) values i.e. 3.84 and 4.48 mg person-1day-1, respectively, which revealed that although a reasonable proportion of samples exceeded MRLs but their consumption was found within safe limit. (author)

  17. Validity of Dietary Assessment in Athletes: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Capling

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary assessment methods that are recognized as appropriate for the general population are usually applied in a similar manner to athletes, despite the knowledge that sport-specific factors can complicate assessment and impact accuracy in unique ways. As dietary assessment methods are used extensively within the field of sports nutrition, there is concern the validity of methodologies have not undergone more rigorous evaluation in this unique population sub-group. The purpose of this systematic review was to compare two or more methods of dietary assessment, including dietary intake measured against biomarkers or reference measures of energy expenditure, in athletes. Six electronic databases were searched for English-language, full-text articles published from January 1980 until June 2016. The search strategy combined the following keywords: diet, nutrition assessment, athlete, and validity; where the following outcomes are reported but not limited to: energy intake, macro and/or micronutrient intake, food intake, nutritional adequacy, diet quality, or nutritional status. Meta-analysis was performed on studies with sufficient methodological similarity, with between-group standardized mean differences (or effect size and 95% confidence intervals (CI being calculated. Of the 1624 studies identified, 18 were eligible for inclusion. Studies comparing self-reported energy intake (EI to energy expenditure assessed via doubly labelled water were grouped for comparison (n = 11 and demonstrated mean EI was under-estimated by 19% (−2793 ± 1134 kJ/day. Meta-analysis revealed a large pooled effect size of −1.006 (95% CI: −1.3 to −0.7; p < 0.001. The remaining studies (n = 7 compared a new dietary tool or instrument to a reference method(s (e.g., food record, 24-h dietary recall, biomarker as part of a validation study. This systematic review revealed there are limited robust studies evaluating dietary assessment methods in athletes. Existing

  18. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Forsum, Elisabet; Henriksson, Hanna; Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva; Larsson, Christel; Maddison, Ralph; Timpka, Toomas; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-15

    Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH), which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare energy intake (EI) using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water (DLW); and (b) to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years) within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP) obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH) was not statistically different from TEE (DLW) (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680 kJ/24 h, respectively). No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665-0.896, p foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials.

  19. Seasonal Changes in Soccer Players' Body Composition and Dietary Intake Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Brooke L; Kingsley, Michael; Leveritt, Michael D; Belski, Regina

    2017-12-01

    Devlin, BL, Kingsley, M, Leveritt, MD, and Belski, R. Seasonal changes in soccer players' body composition and dietary intake practices. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3319-3326, 2017-The aims of this study were 2-fold: to determine seasonal changes in dietary intake and body composition in elite soccer players and to evaluate the influence of self-determined individual body composition goals on dietary intake and body composition. This longitudinal, observational study assessed body composition (total mass, fat-free soft tissue mass, and fat mass) using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and dietary intake (energy and macronutrients) via multiple-pass 24-hour recalls, at 4 time points over a competitive season in elite soccer players from one professional club in the Australian A-League competition. Self-reported body composition goals were also recorded. Eighteen elite male soccer players took part (25 ± 5 years, 180.5 ± 7.4 cm, 75.6 ± 6.5 kg). Majority (≥67%) reported the goal to maintain weight. Fat-free soft tissue mass increased from the start of preseason (55,278 ± 5,475 g) to the start of competitive season (56,784 ± 5,168 g; p nutrition recommendations. The self-reported body composition goals did not strongly influence dietary intake practices or changes in body composition. This study has demonstrated that body composition changes over the course of a soccer season are subtle in elite soccer players despite relatively low self-reported intake of energy and carbohydrate.

  20. Assessing the Validity and Reproducibility of an Iron Dietary Intake Questionnaire Conducted in a Group of Young Polish Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głąbska, Dominika; Guzek, Dominika; Ślązak, Joanna; Włodarek, Dariusz

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse a designed brief iron dietary intake questionnaire based on a food frequency assessment (IRONIC-FFQ—IRON Intake Calculation-Food Frequency Questionnaire), including the assessment of validity and reproducibility in a group of 75 Polish women aged 20–30 years. Participants conducted 3-day dietary records and filled in the IRONIC-FFQ twice (FFQ1—directly after the dietary record and FFQ2—6 weeks later). The analysis included an assessment of validity (comparison with the results of the 3-day dietary record) and of reproducibility (comparison of the results obtained twice—FFQ1 and FFQ2). In the analysis of validity, the share of individuals correctly classified into tertiles was over 50% (weighted κ of 0.36), while analysis of correlation revealed correlation coefficients of almost 0.5. In the assessment of reproducibility, almost 80% of individuals were correctly classified and less than 3% were misclassified (weighted κ of 0.73), while a correlation coefficient higher than 0.85 was obtained. Both in the assessment of validity and of reproducibility, a Bland–Altman index of 6.7% was recorded (93.3% of compared pairs of results were in the acceptable range, attributed to differences within ± 2SD limit). Validation of the IRONIC-FFQ revealed a satisfactory level of validity and positively validated reproducibility. PMID:28264423

  1. The effect of nutrition knowledge and dietary iron intake on iron status in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Alecia J; Chalmers, Kerry A; Collins, Clare E; Patterson, Amanda J

    2014-10-01

    Previous research on the relationships between general nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, and dietary iron intake and iron status has produced inconsistent results. Currently, no study has focused on knowledge of dietary iron and its effect on dietary iron intake. This study aimed to determine whether nutrition knowledge of iron is related to dietary iron intake in young women, and subsequently whether greater knowledge and intake translates into better iron status. A cross-sectional assessment of nutrition knowledge of iron, dietary iron intake and iron status was conducted in women aged 18-35 years living in Newcastle, NSW, Australia. Iron status was assessed by serum ferritin, haemoglobin, soluble transferrin receptor and alpha-1-glycoprotein. One hundred and seven women (27.8 ± 4.7 years) completed the nutrition knowledge questionnaire and FFQ. Of these, 74 (70%) also had biomarkers of iron status measured. Mean iron intake was 11.2 ± 3.8 mg/day. There was no association between nutrition knowledge score and whether the women met the RDI for iron (F (1, 102) = .40, P = .53). A positive correlation was shown between nutrition knowledge score and iron intake (mg/day) (r = 0.25, P = .01). Serum ferritin was positively associated with the frequency of flesh food intake (r = .27 P = .02). Vegetarians (including partial vegetarians) had significantly lower serum ferritin levels than non-vegetarians (F (1, 71) = 7.44, P = .01). Significant positive correlations found between higher flesh food intake and biomarkers of iron status suggest that educating non-vegetarians about the benefits of increased flesh food consumption and vegetarians about dietary iron enhancers and inhibitors may have potential for addressing the high rates of iron deficiency among young women. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact on Dietary Intake of Removable Partial Dentures Replacing a Small Number of Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Chisato; Ikebe, Kazunori; Okada, Tadashi; Takeshita, Hajime; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the impact of wearing removable partial dentures (RPDs) replacing a small number of teeth on dietary intake. Participants had at least 20 teeth and were classified as Eichner B1 or B2. The participants underwent dental and oral examinations, and their dietary intake was assessed. Analysis of covariance showed that RPD wearers consumed more vegetables, n-3 fatty acids, calcium, vitamin A, and dietary fiber than nonwearers after adjusting for possible confounding factors. It is concluded that RPDs are effective for improving dietary intake even in participants who have lost a small number of teeth.

  3. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Delisle Nyström

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH, which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a to compare energy intake (EI using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE measured via doubly labelled water (DLW; and (b to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH was not statistically different from TEE (DLW (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680kJ/24 h, respectively. No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665–0.896, p < 0.001. In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials.

  4. Salt intake and the validity of a salt intake assessment system based on a 24-h dietary recall method in pregnant Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Michihiro; Tanno, Yumi; Hosaka, Miki; Metoki, Hirohito; Obara, Taku; Asayama, Kei; Hoshi, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Masakuni; Mano, Nariyasu; Imai, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Information regarding salt intake in pregnant women in Japan is limited. An electronic system for the assessment of salt intake using a 24-h dietary recall method has been developed in Japan. The objectives of the present study were to investigate salt intake in pregnant women and to compare the salt intake estimated by the electronic salt intake assessment system with that measured by 24-h urinary salt excretion (24-hUNaCl). Data were collected on 24-hUNaCl and salt intake estimated by the salt intake assessment system for 35 pregnant Japanese women at approximately 20 weeks of gestation. The adjusted 24-hUNaCl (24-hUNaCl/[the number of urinations during the examination day--the number of missing urine collections] × the number of urinations during the examination day, g/day) was used as a standard. The mean adjusted 24-hUNaCl was 7.7 ± 2.5 g/day, and mean systolic/diastolic blood pressure values were 106.1 ± 8.6/62.8 ± 6.5 mmHg. The adjusted 24-hUNaCl was significantly correlated with the salt intake estimated by the salt intake assessment system (r = 0.47, p = 0.004). Bland-Altman analysis showed no significant mean difference (adjusted 24-hUNaCl--salt intake estimated by the assessment system = -0.36 g/day, p = 0.4) and no significant proportional bias (p = 0.1). These results suggest that pregnant women in Japan restrict their salt intake, at least when they are being examined for salt intake. They also suggest that repeated use of the described system may be useful in estimating salt intake in pregnant women.

  5. Disclosure of genetic information and change in dietary intake: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva E Nielsen

    Full Text Available Proponents of consumer genetic tests claim that the information can positively impact health behaviors and aid in chronic disease prevention. However, the effects of disclosing genetic information on dietary intake behavior are not clear.A double-blinded, parallel group, 2:1 online randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine the short- and long-term effects of disclosing nutrition-related genetic information for personalized nutrition on dietary intakes of caffeine, vitamin C, added sugars, and sodium. Participants were healthy men and women aged 20-35 years (n = 138. The intervention group (n = 92 received personalized DNA-based dietary advice for 12-months and the control group (n = 46 received general dietary recommendations with no genetic information for 12-months. Food frequency questionnaires were collected at baseline and 3- and 12-months after the intervention to assess dietary intakes. General linear models were used to compare changes in intakes between those receiving general dietary advice and those receiving DNA-based dietary advice.Compared to the control group, no significant changes to dietary intakes of the nutrients were observed at 3-months. At 12-months, participants in the intervention group who possessed a risk version of the ACE gene, and were advised to limit their sodium intake, significantly reduced their sodium intake (mg/day compared to the control group (-287.3 ± 114.1 vs. 129.8 ± 118.2, p = 0.008. Those who had the non-risk version of ACE did not significantly change their sodium intake compared to the control group (12-months: -244.2 ± 150.2, p = 0.11. Among those with the risk version of the ACE gene, the proportion who met the targeted recommendation of 1500 mg/day increased from 19% at baseline to 34% after 12 months (p = 0.06.These findings demonstrate that disclosing genetic information for personalized nutrition results in greater changes in intake for some dietary components compared to

  6. [DIETARY INTAKE AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN ONCOLOGY PATIENTS WHO START TREATMENT WITH TYROSINE KINASE INHIBITORS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuera-Pulgar, Isabel; Ribed, Almudena; Carrascal-Fabian, M Luisa; Bretón-Lesmes, Irene; Romero-Jiménez, Rosa M; Cuerda-Compes, Cristina; Velasco-Gimeno, Cristina; Camblor-Álvarez, Miguel; García-Peris, Pilar

    2015-09-01

    in recent years, researching about new oral antineoplastics has progressed while its impact on dietary intake and nutritional status (NS) hasn't developed enough yet. dietary intake and NS assessment in patients who start treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) and evaluate its impact on them. an observational, prospective-six-months study, in which were included patients starting treatment with TKI. The intake was evaluated by a 24 h dietary record and a food frequency questionnaire. The NS was evaluated by anthropometric measurements and the patient-generated Global Subjective Assessment (PG-GSA); the results were compared with the Spanish references (SENC-semFYC, 2007 and O. Moreiras, 2013). Friedman test, χ2, Wilcoxon, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney were used in the statistical analysis. Significance p Weight loss was no significant, although a high percentage of the energy and protein requirements hadn't been reached. The caloric intake was positively related with the number of meals. Dietary habits did not change during treatment. dietary intake did not reach nutritional requirements at baseline. The TKI don't seem to affect the patient's intake and nutritional status. The research about these parameters before starting treatment could prevent future complications and it would guide the dietary advice. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of beverage intake and hydration status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; López-Ufano, Marisa; Castro-Quezada, Itandehui; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2015-02-26

    Water is the main constituent of the human body. It is involved in practically all its functions. It is particularly important for thermoregulation and in the physical and cognitive performance. Water balance reflects water intake and loss. Intake of water is done mainly through consumption of drinking water and beverages (70 to 80%) plus water containing foods (20 to 30%). Water loss is mainly due to excretion of water in urine, faeces and sweat. The interest in the type and quantity of beverage consumption is not new, and numerous approaches have been used to assess beverage intake, but the validity of these approaches has not been well established. There is no standardized questionnaire developed as a research tool for the evaluation of water intake in the general population. Sometimes, the information comes from different sources or from different methodological characteristics which raises problems of the comparability. In the European Union, current epidemiological studies that focus exclusively on beverage intake are scarce. Biomarkers of intake are able to objectively assess dietary intake/status without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors and also overcome the problem of intra-individual diet variability. Furthermore, some methods of measuring dietary intake used biomarkers to validate the data it collects. Biological markers may offer advantages and be able to improve the estimates of dietary intake assessment, which impact into the statistical power of the study. There is a surprising paucity of studies that systematically examine the correlation of beverages intake and hydration biomarker in different populations. A pilot investigation was developed to evaluate the comparative validity and reliability of newly developed interactive multimedia (IMM) versions compared to validated paper-administered (PP) versions of the Hedrick et al. beverage questionnaire. The study showed that the IMM appears to be a valid and reliable measure to assess

  8. Suboptimal Vitamin B Intakes of Zambian Preschool Children: Evaluation of 24-Hour Dietary Recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titcomb, Tyler J; Schmaelzle, Samantha T; Nuss, Emily T; Gregory, Jesse F; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2018-06-01

    Hidden hunger affects individuals who chronically consume an inadequate intake of at least 1 micronutrient and is associated with low dietary diversity. Little data are available on dietary intake or status assessment of B vitamins among preschool children in Zambia. The aim of this study was to assess 24-hour dietary recall records obtained from Zambian children aged 3 to 7 years for B vitamin intake in relation to adequacy and change over time in the same community. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were collected from 2 studies that were 2 years apart in the same district of Zambia. Data were retrospectively analyzed for B vitamin intake, that is, biotin, vitamin B 12 , folate, niacin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B 6 , riboflavin, and thiamin. The estimated average requirement (EAR) cut point method was used to assess inadequacy prevalence for EARs established by the Institute of Medicine in the United States. For all B vitamins, mean values were below the EARs established for children 4 to 8 years old. Relative to the EAR, children had the highest intakes of vitamin B 6 with inadequacies of 77.9% and 60.1% in 2010 and 2012, respectively. The highest prevalence of inadequate intake was associated with folate, where ≥95% of the children had intakes below the EAR in both studies. All median vitamin B intakes were inadequate among these young children in rural Zambia. Future researchers and policy makers may need to consider B vitamin status in resource-poor areas of the country.

  9. Are Dietary Intakes Related to Obesity in Children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Papandreou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The purpose of this study was to report obesity status and identify any dietary substances that may be related to obesity in healthy school children from Northern Greece. METHODS: Four hundred and twenty-five (n = 425 children were randomly selected to participate in the study. A 24-h recall of three days (two weekdays and one weekend day was used to analyze the dietary data of the subjects. RESULTS: Out of 425 subjects, 146 (34.3% of them were found to be overweight and obese. Energy, protein, carbohydrate and thiamin intake was statistically positively correlated with obesity while dietary iron intake was statistically negatively correlated with obesity. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the children with dietary iron deficiency were 1.128 (95% CI: 0.002, 0.161 P < 0.031 times more likely of being obese compared to the normal group after adjustment for energy intake. CONCLUSIONS: Although most of the dietary intakes of our subjects were adequate, special consideration should be given to energy, carbohydrate, protein, and sugar and iron intake especially and its relation to obesity. Furthermore, additional studies are required to investigate any possible relation of low dietary iron consumption and obesity.

  10. Estimated dietary sodium intake in haemodialysis patients using food frequency questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkza, Anastasia; Davenport, Andrew

    2017-10-01

    In clinical practice, dietary sodium assessment requires reliable and rapid screening tools. We wished to evaluate the usefulness of food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) in estimating dietary sodium intakes in haemodialysis patients. We used the Derby Salt Questionnaire (DSQ), and Scored Sodium Questionnaire (SSQ) to estimate sodium intake. Body composition was determined by bioimpedance. In total, 139 haemodialysis patients (95 men) completed the FFQs, with mean ± standard deviation age 67 ± 15 years. The mean FFQ scores were DSQ 3.5 ± 2.0 and SSQ 68.4 ± 24.5. Men had higher estimated dietary sodium intakes [DSQ median (range) 3.6 (0.6-10.1) versus female 2.2 (0.5-9.1), P = 0.007)]. Younger patients and those aged >75 years had the higher SSQ dietary sodium scores; 70.7 ± 27.8 and 76.8 ± 24.6 versus those aged 55-75 years, 61.8 ± 22.3, P = 0.04. Patients with greater estimated sodium intake had higher extracellular water (ECW) to intracellular water (ICW) ratios pre-dialysis [75.1 ±12.5 versus 67.7 ± 4.8, P sodium group (0.9 ± 13.7% versus 6.5 ± 14.1%, P = 0.04). Both questionnaires were acceptable to patients and identified higher estimated dietary sodium intake for men, those with greater ECW and, somewhat surprisingly, we found that older patients had a greater dietary sodium intake than expected. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.

  11. Nutritional Adequacy of Dietary Intake in Women with Anorexia Nervosa

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    Susan K. Raatz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN patients is essential for the treatment. Therefore, estimates of total energy and nutrient consumption were made in a group of young women (19 to 30 years with restricting and binge purge subtypes of AN participating in an ecological momentary assessment study. Participants completed three nonconsecutive 24-hour diet recalls. Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by subtype and by quartiles of energy intake and compared to the age specific Dietary Reference Intake (DRI levels, as well as to the reported intakes from the What We Eat In America (WWEIA dietary survey 2011–2012. Reported intake was determined for energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients. The mean body mass index (BMI for all participants was 17.2 ± 0.1 kg/m2. Reported nutrient intake was insufficient for participants in quartiles 1–3 of both AN subtypes when compared to the DRIs. Intake reported by participants in quartile 4 of both subgroups met requirements for most nutrients and even met or exceeded estimated energy needs. Counseling of AN patients should be directed to total food consumption to improve energy intake and to reduce individual nutritional gaps.

  12. Nutritional adequacy of dietary intake in women with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Jahns, Lisa; Johnson, LuAnn K; Crosby, Ross; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott; Peterson, Carol; Le Grange, Daniel; Wonderlich, Stephen A

    2015-05-15

    Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients is essential for the treatment. Therefore, estimates of total energy and nutrient consumption were made in a group of young women (19 to 30 years) with restricting and binge purge subtypes of AN participating in an ecological momentary assessment study. Participants completed three nonconsecutive 24-hour diet recalls. Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by subtype and by quartiles of energy intake and compared to the age specific Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) levels, as well as to the reported intakes from the What We Eat In America (WWEIA) dietary survey 2011-2012. Reported intake was determined for energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients. The mean body mass index (BMI) for all participants was 17.2 ± 0.1 kg/m2. Reported nutrient intake was insufficient for participants in quartiles 1-3 of both AN subtypes when compared to the DRIs. Intake reported by participants in quartile 4 of both subgroups met requirements for most nutrients and even met or exceeded estimated energy needs. Counseling of AN patients should be directed to total food consumption to improve energy intake and to reduce individual nutritional gaps.

  13. Dietary intake and lifestyle behaviors of children in Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Digvijayini Bundhun

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to explore the dietary intake, fruit, vegetable and energy intake and lifestyle behaviors among Mauritian children. A validated questionnaire was used, assessing dietary intake, mean energy intake, mean body mass index (BMI, lifestyle behaviors as well as nutritional knowledge (NK among males and females. 336 children aged 6–12 years (165 males and 171 females from 8 public primary schools were recruited. Statistical analyses revealed that children consumed less nutritious foods such as fruits, vegetables and whole grains and more of refined and calorie-laden foods, with no significant differences across genders. Mean energy intake of children was 1522 ± 282.4 kcal per day while mean BMI was 17.5 ± 4.03 kg/m2. Majority of children had a low-to-moderate physical activity level (PAL, with males being more active than females on average (P = 0.021. 88.7% of children watched TV for more than an hour daily, with 84.8% of them reporting to be eating during the process. Females were more likely to be breakfast skippers (P = 0.003. Maximum frequency of snacking was twice daily (72.7% while consumption of fast food was once or twice weekly (44.0%. Results indicate the need for intervention with aim of improving the dietary and life quality of children in Mauritius.

  14. ESTIMATING DIETARY INTAKE AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF STUDENTS

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    Olga Sergeevna Aminova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Investigate dietary intake and nutritional status of students on the macronutrients consumption and body mass index. Materials and methods: The study involved 379 students aged 20,1±1,5. The survey was conducted with analyzing the frequency of food consumption. Nutritional status was assessed with body mass index. The results were processed with using a statistical software package Statistica 10.0 and MicrosoftExsel 2010. Results: Survey showed that most of the students ate three or four times a day, disorder of dietary pattern (eat less than 3times a day was observed in 23% women and 24% men. Estimating distribution of caloric intake during the day showed that 50% girls and 58% boys consumed the greatest amount of food for the evening food ingestion. Estimation of the average daily energy and macronutrients consumption has identified significant differences in sex groups. At the same time the excessive intake of dietary energy, due to the increased consumption of proteins and fats at students of both sexes were pointed. Average BMI values were assessed as normal in 66% students of both sexes. Underweight was registered in 25% women and 17% men. Overweight and obesity were found in 10% women and 18% men. Statistically significant differences in energy ration content among women with underweight and overweight were obtained. Such dependence has not been revealed in men. Conclusion: Study showed that nutrition of 70% students failed to meet hygienic requirements and had protein-fatty tendency.

  15. Differences in dietary intake during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients compared to women without cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Y C; van den Berg, M M G A; de Vries, J H M; Boesveldt, S; de Kruif, J Th C M; Buist, N; Haringhuizen, A; Los, M; Sommeijer, D W; Timmer-Bonte, J H N; van Laarhoven, H W M; Visser, M; Kampman, E; Winkels, R M

    2017-08-01

    Breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy often experience symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and loss of appetite that potentially affect dietary habits. This study assessed the intake of energy, macronutrients and food groups before and during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients compared with women without cancer, and determined the association between symptoms and energy and macronutrient intake. This study included 117 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients scheduled for chemotherapy and 88 women without cancer. Habitual intake before chemotherapy was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Two 24-h dietary recalls were completed on random days for each participant during the whole chemotherapy treatment for patients and within 6 months after recruitment for women without cancer. Shortly, after the dietary recall, participants filled out questionnaires on symptoms. Before chemotherapy, habitual energy and macronutrient intake was similar for breast cancer patients and women without cancer. During chemotherapy, breast cancer patients reported a significantly lower total energy, fat, protein and alcohol intake than women without cancer, as shown by a lower intake of pastry and biscuits, cheese, legumes and meat products. A decline in subjective taste perception, appetite and hunger and experiencing a dry mouth, difficulty chewing, lack of energy and nausea were associated with a lower energy intake. Symptoms induced by chemotherapy are associated with lower dietary intake and manifested by a lower intake of specific food groups. To ensure an optimal dietary intake during chemotherapy, it is important to monitor nutritional status and symptom burden during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients.

  16. Body Weight Status and Dietary Intakes of Urban Malay Primary School Children: Evidence from the Family Diet Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Yew Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is experiencing a rise in the prevalence of childhood obesity. Evidence for the relationship between dietary intake and body weight among Malaysian children is limited, with the impact of energy intake misreporting rarely being considered. This paper describes the dietary intakes of urban Malay children in comparison to national recommendations and by weight status. This cross-sectional Family Diet Study (n = 236 was conducted in five national primary schools in Malaysia (August 2013–October 2014. Data on socio-demographics, anthropometrics, 24-h dietary recalls, and food habits were collected from Malay families, consisting of a child aged 8 to 12 years and their main caregiver(s. Multivariable analyses were used to assess dietary intake-body weight relationships. The plausibility of energy intake was determined using the Black and Cole method. Approximately three in 10 Malay children were found to be overweight or obese. The majority reported dietary intakes less than national recommendations. Children with obesity had the lowest energy intakes relative to body weight (kcal/kg compared to children in other weight categories (F = 36.21, p < 0.001. A positive moderate correlation between energy intake and weight status was identified (r = 0.53, p < 0.001 after excluding energy intake mis-reporters (n = 95, highlighting the need for the validation of dietary assessment in obesity-related dietary research in Malaysia.

  17. Body Weight Status and Dietary Intakes of Urban Malay Primary School Children: Evidence from the Family Diet Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wai Yew; Burrows, Tracy; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley; Williams, Lauren T; Collins, Clare E; Chee, Winnie Siew Swee; Colyvas, Kim

    2017-01-20

    Malaysia is experiencing a rise in the prevalence of childhood obesity. Evidence for the relationship between dietary intake and body weight among Malaysian children is limited, with the impact of energy intake misreporting rarely being considered. This paper describes the dietary intakes of urban Malay children in comparison to national recommendations and by weight status. This cross-sectional Family Diet Study ( n = 236) was conducted in five national primary schools in Malaysia (August 2013-October 2014). Data on socio-demographics, anthropometrics, 24-h dietary recalls, and food habits were collected from Malay families, consisting of a child aged 8 to 12 years and their main caregiver(s). Multivariable analyses were used to assess dietary intake-body weight relationships. The plausibility of energy intake was determined using the Black and Cole method. Approximately three in 10 Malay children were found to be overweight or obese. The majority reported dietary intakes less than national recommendations. Children with obesity had the lowest energy intakes relative to body weight (kcal/kg) compared to children in other weight categories (F = 36.21, p < 0.001). A positive moderate correlation between energy intake and weight status was identified ( r = 0.53, p < 0.001) after excluding energy intake mis-reporters ( n = 95), highlighting the need for the validation of dietary assessment in obesity-related dietary research in Malaysia.

  18. Dietary fiber intake reduces risk for Barrett's esophagus and esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lingli; Zhang, Zhizhong; Xu, Jian; Xu, Gelin; Liu, Xinfeng

    2017-09-02

    Observational studies suggest an association between dietary fiber intake and risk of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal cancer. However, the results are inconsistent. To conduct a meta-analysis of observational studies to assess this association. All eligible studies were identified by electronic searches in PubMed and Embase through February 2015. Dose-response, subgroup, sensitivity, and publication bias analyses were performed. A total of 15 studies involving 16,885 subjects were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled odds ratio for the highest compared with the lowest dietary fiber intake was 0.52 (95% CI, 0.43-0.64). Stratified analyses for tumor subtype, study design, geographic location, fiber type, publication year, total sample size, and quality score yielded consistent results. Dose-response analysis indicated that a 10-g/d increment in dietary fiber intake was associated with a 31% reduction in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal cancer risk. Sensitivity analysis restricted to studies with control for conventional risk factors produced similar results, and omission of any single study had little effect on the overall risk estimate. Our findings indicate that dietary fiber intake is inversely associated with risk of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal cancer. Further large prospective studies are warranted.

  19. Maternal dietary fat intake during pregnancy is associated with infant temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Hanna C; Kuzava, Sierra E; Werner, Elizabeth A; Monk, Catherine

    2016-05-01

    Research with rodents and nonhuman primates suggests that maternal prenatal dietary fat intake is associated with offspring behavioral functioning indicative of risk for psychopathology. The extent to which these findings extend to humans remains unknown. The current study administered the Automated Self-Administered 24 hr Dietary Recall Questionnaire three times in pregnancy (n = 48) to examine women's dietary fat intake in relation to infant temperament assessed using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire at 4-months old. The amount of saturated fat that the mother consumed was considered as a moderator of the association between total fat intake and child temperament. Results from a series of multiple linear regressions indicate that greater total fat intake was associated with poorer infant regulation and lower surgency. However, this second effect was moderated by maternal saturated fat intake, such that total fat intake was only related to infant surgency when mothers consumed above the daily recommended allowance of saturated fat. Under conditions of high total fat and high saturated fat, infants were rated as lower on surgency; under conditions of low total fat yet high saturated fat, infants were rated as higher on surgency. There were no associations between maternal prenatal fat intake and infant negative reactivity. These findings provide preliminary evidence that pregnant women's dietary fat intake is associated with infants' behavioral development, though future research is needed to address this report's limitations: a relatively small sample size, the use of self-report measures, and a lack of consideration of maternal and infant postnatal diet. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Methodological considerations and future insights for 24-hour dietary recall assessment in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Emma; Bradley, Jennifer

    2018-03-01

    Dietary assessment has come under much criticism of late to the extent that it has been questioned whether self-reported methods of dietary assessment are worth doing at all. Widespread under-reporting of energy intake, limitations due to memory, changes to intake due to the burden of recording and social desirability bias all impact significantly on the accuracy of the dietary information collected. Under-reporting of energy intakes has long been recognized as a problem in dietary research with doubly labeled water measures of energy expenditure uncovering significant under-reporting of energy intakes across different populations and different dietary assessment methods. In this review we focus on dietary assessment with children with particular attention on the 24-hour dietary recall method. We look at the level of under-reporting of energy intakes and how this tends to change with age, gender and body mass index. We discuss potential alternatives to self-reported (or proxy-reported) dietary assessment methods with children, such as biomarkers, and how these do not enable the collection of information important to public health nutrition such as the cooking method, the mixture of foods eaten together or the context in which the food is consumed. We conclude that despite all of the challenges and flaws, the data collected using self-reported dietary assessment methods are extremely valuable. Research into dietary assessment methodology has resulted in significant increases in our understanding of the limitations of self-reported methods and progressive improvements in the accuracy of the data collected. Hence, future investment in dietary surveillance and in improving self-reported methods of intake can make vital contributions to our understanding of dietary intakes and are thus warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Gaussian Graphical Models Identify Networks of Dietary Intake in a German Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Khalid; Buijsse, Brian; Wirth, Janine; Schulze, Matthias B; Floegel, Anna; Boeing, Heiner

    2016-03-01

    Data-reduction methods such as principal component analysis are often used to derive dietary patterns. However, such methods do not assess how foods are consumed in relation to each other. Gaussian graphical models (GGMs) are a set of novel methods that can address this issue. We sought to apply GGMs to derive sex-specific dietary intake networks representing consumption patterns in a German adult population. Dietary intake data from 10,780 men and 16,340 women of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam cohort were cross-sectionally analyzed to construct dietary intake networks. Food intake for each participant was estimated using a 148-item food-frequency questionnaire that captured the intake of 49 food groups. GGMs were applied to log-transformed intakes (grams per day) of 49 food groups to construct sex-specific food networks. Semiparametric Gaussian copula graphical models (SGCGMs) were used to confirm GGM results. In men, GGMs identified 1 major dietary network that consisted of intakes of red meat, processed meat, cooked vegetables, sauces, potatoes, cabbage, poultry, legumes, mushrooms, soup, and whole-grain and refined breads. For women, a similar network was identified with the addition of fried potatoes. Other identified networks consisted of dairy products and sweet food groups. SGCGMs yielded results comparable to those of GGMs. GGMs are a powerful exploratory method that can be used to construct dietary networks representing dietary intake patterns that reveal how foods are consumed in relation to each other. GGMs indicated an apparent major role of red meat intake in a consumption pattern in the studied population. In the future, identified networks might be transformed into pattern scores for investigating their associations with health outcomes. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Dietary Protein Intake in Dutch Elderly People: A Focus on Protein Sources

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    Michael Tieland

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sufficient high quality dietary protein intake is required to prevent or treat sarcopenia in elderly people. Therefore, the intake of specific protein sources as well as their timing of intake are important to improve dietary protein intake in elderly people. Objectives: to assess the consumption of protein sources as well as the distribution of protein sources over the day in community-dwelling, frail and institutionalized elderly people. Methods: Habitual dietary intake was evaluated using 2- and 3-day food records collected from various studies involving 739 community-dwelling, 321 frail and 219 institutionalized elderly people. Results: Daily protein intake averaged 71 ± 18 g/day in community-dwelling, 71 ± 20 g/day in frail and 58 ± 16 g/day in institutionalized elderly people and accounted for 16% ± 3%, 16% ± 3% and 17% ± 3% of their energy intake, respectively. Dietary protein intake ranged from 10 to 12 g at breakfast, 15 to 23 g at lunch and 24 to 31 g at dinner contributing together over 80% of daily protein intake. The majority of dietary protein consumed originated from animal sources (≥60% with meat and dairy as dominant sources. Thus, 40% of the protein intake in community-dwelling, 37% in frail and 29% in institutionalized elderly originated from plant based protein sources with bread as the principle source. Plant based proteins contributed for >50% of protein intake at breakfast and between 34% and 37% at lunch, with bread as the main source. During dinner, >70% of the protein intake originated from animal protein, with meat as the dominant source. Conclusion: Daily protein intake in these older populations is mainly (>80% provided by the three main meals, with most protein consumed during dinner. More than 60% of daily protein intake consumed is of animal origin, with plant based protein sources representing nearly 40% of total protein consumed. During dinner, >70% of the protein intake originated from

  3. Assessment of Dietary Mercury Intake and Blood Mercury Levels in the Korean Population: Results from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2012–2014

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    Seong-Ah Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available From a public health perspective, there is growing concern about dietary mercury intake as the most important source of mercury exposure. This study was performed to estimate dietary mercury exposure and to analyze the association between mercury intake and blood mercury levels in Koreans. The study subjects were 553 adults, comprising a 10% representative subsample of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS 2012–2014, who completed a health examination, a face-to-face interview, and a three-day food record. Dietary mercury and methylmercury intakes were assessed from the three-day food record, and blood mercury concentration was measured using a mercury analyzer. The association between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury levels was analyzed by comparing the odds ratios for the blood mercury levels above the Human BioMonitoring (HBM I value (5 μg/L among the three groups with different mercury intakes. The average total mercury intake was 4.74 and 3.07 μg/day in males and females, respectively. The food group that contributed most to mercury intake was fish and shellfish, accounting for 77.8% of total intake. The geometric mean of the blood mercury concentration significantly and linearly increased with the mercury and methylmercury intakes (p < 0.001. The odds ratios for blood mercury levels above the HBM I value in the highest mercury and methyl mercury intake group were 3.27 (95% Confidence Interval (CI 1.79–5.95 and 3.20 (95% CI 1.77–5.79 times higher than that of the lowest intake group, respectively. Our results provide compelling evidence that blood mercury level has a strong positive association with dietary intake, and that fish and shellfish contribute most to the dietary mercury exposure.

  4. Assessment of Dietary Mercury Intake and Blood Mercury Levels in the Korean Population: Results from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2012–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Ah; Kwon, YoungMin; Kim, Suejin; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-01-01

    From a public health perspective, there is growing concern about dietary mercury intake as the most important source of mercury exposure. This study was performed to estimate dietary mercury exposure and to analyze the association between mercury intake and blood mercury levels in Koreans. The study subjects were 553 adults, comprising a 10% representative subsample of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012–2014, who completed a health examination, a face-to-face interview, and a three-day food record. Dietary mercury and methylmercury intakes were assessed from the three-day food record, and blood mercury concentration was measured using a mercury analyzer. The association between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury levels was analyzed by comparing the odds ratios for the blood mercury levels above the Human BioMonitoring (HBM) I value (5 μg/L) among the three groups with different mercury intakes. The average total mercury intake was 4.74 and 3.07 μg/day in males and females, respectively. The food group that contributed most to mercury intake was fish and shellfish, accounting for 77.8% of total intake. The geometric mean of the blood mercury concentration significantly and linearly increased with the mercury and methylmercury intakes (p mercury levels above the HBM I value in the highest mercury and methyl mercury intake group were 3.27 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.79–5.95) and 3.20 (95% CI 1.77–5.79) times higher than that of the lowest intake group, respectively. Our results provide compelling evidence that blood mercury level has a strong positive association with dietary intake, and that fish and shellfish contribute most to the dietary mercury exposure. PMID:27598185

  5. Using an FFQ to assess intakes of dietary flavonols and flavones among female adolescents in the Suihua area of northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Caihong; Wang, Hui; Wang, Dong; Chen, Yanping; Zhao, Yan; Xia, Wei

    2015-03-01

    The present study aimed to (i) evaluate the reproducibility and validity of a designed FFQ, (ii) apply the FFQ for estimating the dietary intakes of four flavonols and two flavones in female adolescents and (iii) explain their major dietary sources. The reproducibility between the first and second FFQ administrations (1 year interval) was estimated using the intra-class correlation coefficient. The validity of the first FFQ relative to the average of four three-day 24 h dietary recalls (24-HR) from four seasons was assessed using the Spearman correlation coefficient. Using a flavonoid content database, the individual flavonol and flavone intakes were calculated and the major food sources were estimated. Middle school in Suihua area of Heilongjiang Province, northern China. Female adolescents (n 887) aged 12-18 years. Better reproducibility and validity were obtained in the present study. The flavonol and flavone intakes were 16.29 and 4.31 mg/d, respectively. Quercetin and kaempferol were the major contributors (26.8 % and 23.7 %, respectively) to the total intake of flavonols and flavones. The main food sources of flavonols and flavones were apples (14.1 %), followed by potatoes (7.5 %), lettuce (7.3 %) and oranges (7.3 %). The dietary flavonol and flavone intakes among female adolescents in northern China were similar to those reported in several countries, but significant differences were observed in the food sources ascribed to the geographical location and dietary characteristics.

  6. Dietary intake and food sources of fatty acids in Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Therese A; Ambrosini, Gina; Beilin, Lawrie J; Mori, Trevor A; Oddy, Wendy H

    2011-02-01

    Dietary fat consumed during childhood and adolescence may be related to the development of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases in adulthood; however, there is a lack of information on specific fatty acid intakes and food sources in these populations. Our study aimed to assess fatty acid intakes in Australian adolescents, compare intakes with national guidelines, and identify major food sources of fatty acids. Dietary intake was assessed using measured 3-d records in 822 adolescents aged 13-15 y participating in The Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, Australia. Mean daily total fat intakes were 90 ± 25 g for boys and 73 ± 20 g for girls, with saturated fat contributing 14% of total energy intake. Mean contribution to daily energy intake for linoleic, alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids were 3.0%, 0.40%, 0.02%, 0.01%, and 0.04%, respectively, for boys, and 3.3%, 0.42%, 0.02%, 0.01%, and 0.05% for girls. To meet guidelines for chronic disease prevention, consumption of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in this population may need to increase up to three-fold and the proportion of saturated fat decrease by one-third. Girls were more likely to achieve the guidelines. Major food sources were dairy products for total fat, saturated fat and alpha-linolenic acid, margarines for linoleic acid, and fish for long-chain omega-3 fatty acids. Results suggest that for this population, a higher dietary intake of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, particularly for boys, and lower proportion of saturated fat is required to meet recommendations for prevention of chronic disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Defining the role of dietary intake in determining weight change in patients with cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrah, R; Kanbalian, M; Van Der Borch, C; Swinton, N; Wing, S; Jagoe, R T

    2018-02-01

    Weight loss is a cardinal feature of cachexia and is frequently associated with reduced food intake and anorexia. It is still unclear how much reduced food intake contributes to cancer-related weight loss and how effective increasing dietary energy and protein is in combating this weight loss. The relationship between weight change and both diet and change in dietary intake, was examined in patients with advanced stage cancer referred to a multidisciplinary clinic for management of cancer cachexia. A retrospective study of data for each of the first three clinic visits for patients seen between 2009 and 2015. Data on weight change, dietary intake and change in dietary intake were compared. Regression analysis was used to determine independent explanatory factors for weight change, including the impact of appetite level and a marker of systemic inflammation. Of 405 eligible patients, 320 had data on dietary intake available. Dietary intake varied widely at baseline: 26.9% reported very poor diet and only 17% were consuming recommended levels of energy and protein. A highly significant positive correlation was found between dietary energy or protein intake and weight change, both before and after being seen in the clinic. Anorexia was also significantly correlated with weight loss at each clinic visit. However, there was no similar overall correlation between change in dietary intake and change in weight. Many patients with advanced cancer and weight loss are consuming diets that would likely be insufficient to maintain weight even in healthy individuals. Higher consumption of protein and energy correlates with greater weight gain, but it is impossible to predict the response to increased nutritional intake when patients are first assessed. There is a pressing need to improve understanding of factors that modulate metabolic responses to dietary intake in patients with cancer cachexia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and

  8. Dietary intake in the dependent elderly: evaluation of the risk of nutritional deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Barrés, S; Martín, N; Canela, T; García-Barco, M; Basora, J; Arija, V

    2016-04-01

    Malnutrition is a frequent problem in elderly dependent patients and their prognosis is adversely affected. Assessment of food consumption and adequacy of energy and nutrient intake of dependent elderly is needed to plan any selected actions for this population. The study comprised a multicentre cross-sectional study of 190 users (≥65 years) of a home care programme provided by primary care centers in Tarragona (Spain), at nutritional risk (Mini Nutritional Assessment: 17-23.5 points). Food consumption was assessed using a semiquantitative validated food frequency questionnaire. Energy intake was compared with the Spanish dietary reference intake (DRI) and nutritional intakes with the DRI of the American Institute of Medicine. Mean (SD) age was 85.0 (7.2) years (67.5% female). The food items consumed were varied but lower than the recommended portions for cereals, fruits, vegetables and legumes. Energy intake was 7454.2 (1553.9 kJ day(-1)) [1781.6 (371.4) kcal day(-1)] (97.7% of recommended dietary allowance; RDA) and protein intake was 1.0 (0.4) g kg(-1) of weight (121.4% of RDA). Proteins provided 13.3%, carbohydrates provided 39.9% and fats provided 45.8% of energy intake. The intakes of calcium, vitamin D, vitamin E and folates were less than two-thirds of the RDA and their probability of inadequate intake was >85%. Dietary intakes of elderly dependent patients at nutritional risk were well balanced. In general, energy and protein intakes meet the recommendations. The diet was high in energy density, low in complex carbohydrates, high in simple carbohydrates and excessive in fats. The dependent elderly had inadequate intake of micronutrients often related to fragility, such as calcium, vitamin D, vitamin E and folates. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  9. The relationship between household income and dietary intakes of 1-10 year old urban Malaysian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Shariff, Zalilah; Lin, Khor Geok; Sariman, Sarina; Lee, Huang Soo; Siew, Chin Yit; Mohd Yusof, Barakatun Nisak; Mun, Chan Yoke; Mohamad, Maznorila

    2015-06-01

    Diet plays an important role in growth and development of children. However, dietary intakes of children living in either rural or urban areas can be influenced by household income. This cross-sectional study examined energy, nutrient and food group intakes of 749 urban children (1-10 years old) by household income status. Children's dietary intakes were obtained using food recall and record for two days. Diet adequacy was assessed based on recommended intakes of energy and nutrients and food group servings. For toddlers, all nutrients except dietary fiber (5.5 g) exceeded recommended intakes. Among older children (preschoolers and school children), calcium (548 mg, 435 mg) and dietary fiber (7.4 g, 9.4 g) did not meet recommendations while percentage of energy from total fat and saturated fats exceeded 30% and 10%, respectively. The mean sodium intakes of preschoolers (1,684 mg) and school children (2,000 mg) were relatively high. Toddlers in all income groups had similar energy and nutrient intakes and percentages meeting the recommended intakes. However, low income older children had lowest intakes of energy (P diets, particularly for older children. Parents and caregivers may need dietary guidance to ensure adequate quantity and quality of home food supply and foster healthy eating habits in children.

  10. Dietary calcium intake and the risk of colorectal cancer: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Changwoo; Shin, Aesun; Lee, Jeonghee; Lee, Jeeyoo; Park, Ji Won; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-12-16

    High intake of dietary calcium has been thought to be a protective factor against colorectal cancer. To explore the dose-response relationship in the associations between dietary calcium intake and colorectal cancer risk by cancer location, we conducted a case-control study among Korean population, whose dietary calcium intake levels are relatively low. The colorectal cancer cases and controls were recruited from the National Cancer Center in Korea between August 2010 and August 2013. Information on dietary calcium intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and locations of the colorectal cancers were classified as proximal colon cancer, distal colon cancer, and rectal cancer. Binary and polytomous logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between dietary calcium intake and risk of colorectal cancer. A total of 922 colorectal cancer cases and 2766 controls were included in the final analysis. Compared with the lowest calcium intake quartile, the highest quartile group showed a significantly reduced risk of colorectal cancer in both men and women. (Odds ratio (OR): 0.16, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.11-0.24 for men; OR: 0.16, 95% CI: 0.09-0.29 for women). Among the highest calcium intake groups, decrease in cancer risk was observed across all sub-sites of colorectum in both men and women. In conclusion, calcium consumption was inversely related to colorectal cancer risk in Korean population where national average calcium intake level is relatively lower than Western countries. A decreased risk of colorectal cancer by calcium intake was observed in all sub-sites in men and women.

  11. Low dietary intake of n-3 fatty acids, niacin, folate, and vitamin C in Korean patients with schizophrenia and the development of dietary guidelines for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Jin; Lim, So Young; Lee, Hee Jae; Lee, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Seunggi; Kim, Seon-Young; Kim, Jae-Min; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang; Yang, Soo Jin; Kim, Sung-Wan

    2017-09-01

    Inappropriate dietary intake and poor nutritional status are reported to be associated with metabolic syndrome and psychopathology in patients with schizophrenia. We hypothesized that inappropriate dietary habits and insufficient dietary intake of specific nutrients are associated with schizophrenia. To test the hypothesis, we assessed the dietary habits and nutritional intake of patients with schizophrenia and then developed suitable dietary guidelines. In total, 140 subjects (73 controls and 67 patients with schizophrenia from community mental health centers) were included, and dietary intakes were analyzed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. As a result, the proportion of overweight or obese patients was significantly higher in schizophrenia subjects (64.2%) compared with control subjects (39.7%) (P=.004). The male schizophrenia patients had significantly lower dietary intakes of protein, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), vitamin K, niacin, folate, and vitamin C than the male control subjects. In all multiple logistic regression models, subjects with the "low" dietary intake of protein, n-3 PUFAs, niacin, folate, and vitamin C had a significantly higher odds ratios for schizophrenia compared with those with the "high" dietary intake category of each nutrient. Therefore, maintenance of a healthy body weight and sufficient dietary intake of protein, PUFAs, niacin, folate, and vitamin C are recommended for Korean patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Daily Dietary Intake Patterns Improve after Visiting a Food Pantry among Food-Insecure Rural Midwestern Adults

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    Breanne N. Wright

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Emergency food pantries provide food at no cost to low-resource populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate single-day dietary intake patterns before and after visiting a food pantry among food-secure and food-insecure pantry clients. This observational cohort study comprised a paired, before-and-after design with a pantry visit as the intervention. Participants (n = 455 completed a demographic and food security assessment, and two 24-h dietary recalls. Adult food security was measured using the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module. Dietary intake patterns were assessed using Automated Self-Administered 24-h Recall data and classified by Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010 scores, dietary variety, number of eating occasions, and energy intake. Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests compared outcomes before and after a pantry visit. Mean dietary variety increased after the pantry visit among both food-secure (p = 0.02 and food-insecure (p < 0.0001 pantry clients. Mean energy intake (p = 0.0003, number of eating occasions (p = 0.004, and HEI-2010 component scores for total fruit (p < 0.001 and whole fruit (p < 0.0003 increased among food-insecure pantry clients only. A pantry visit may improve dietary intake patterns, especially among food-insecure pantry clients.

  13. Electronic 12-Hour Dietary Recall (e-12HR): Comparison of a Mobile Phone App for Dietary Intake Assessment With a Food Frequency Questionnaire and Four Dietary Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béjar, Luis María; Reyes, Óscar Adrián; García-Perea, María Dolores

    2018-06-15

    One of the greatest challenges in nutritional epidemiology is improving upon traditional self-reporting methods for the assessment of habitual dietary intake. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative validity of a new method known as the current-day dietary recall (or current-day recall), based on a smartphone app called 12-hour dietary recall, for determining the habitual intake of a series of key food and drink groups using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and four dietary records as reference methods. University students over the age of 18 years recorded their consumption of certain groups of food and drink using 12-hour dietary recall for 28 consecutive days. During this 28-day period, they also completed four dietary records on randomly selected days. Once the monitoring period was over, subjects then completed an FFQ. The two methods were compared using the Spearman correlation coefficient (SCC), a cross-classification analysis, and weighted kappa. A total of 87 participants completed the study (64% women, 56/87; 36% men, 31/87). For e-12HR versus FFQ, for all food and drink groups, the average SCC was 0.70. Cross-classification analysis revealed that the average percentage of individuals classified in the exact agreement category was 51.5%; exact agreement + adjacent was 91.8%, and no participant (0%) was classified in the extreme disagreement category. The average weighted kappa was 0.51. For e-12HR versus the four dietary records, for all food and drink groups, the average SCC was 0.63. Cross-classification analysis revealed that the average percentage of individuals classified in the exact agreement category was 47.1%; exact agreement + adjacent was 89.2%; and no participant (0%) was classified in the extreme disagreement category. The average weighted kappa was 0.47. Current-day recall, based on the 12-hour dietary recall app, was found to be in good agreement with the two reference methods (FFQ & four dietary records), demonstrating its

  14. Dietary intake, physical activity and body mass index among postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaya Ranasinghe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Nutrition plays a vital role in the quality of life in postmenopausal women. Aim: The aim is to determine the dietary intake, physical activity, and assess the body mass index (BMI among postmenopausal women. Settings and Design: A community-based sample survey. Materials and Methods: The present study included 140 postmenopausal women (40–70 years from Udupi, Manipal areas of Karnataka. The study was carried out between July and December 2013. Sociodemographic data were collected using a questionnaire. Anthropometric data included height, weight, waist, and hip circumference. Dietary intake was determined using 24 h dietary recall. Physical activity information was collected. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 software. Paired t-test was performed to determine the dietary adequacy. Results: Obesity was 42.1% among the study participants. Increased WHR and waist circumference were 82.1% and 77.1%. Mean daily intake of calcium and saturated fatty acids were significantly higher than recommended dietary allowance (RDA (P < 0.001. Mean intake of energy, protein, carbohydrate, mono and poly unsaturated fatty acid, fiber and sodium were significantly lower than RDA (P < 0.001. Average daily intake of cereals, pulses, roots and tubers, meat and products, fats and oils, green leafy, and other vegetables were significantly (P < 0.001 lower than RDA. Intake of fruits, milk and milk products, and sugar was significantly higher (P < 0.001 than RDA. Only 37.1% of women performed moderate or active exercises regularly. Conclusions: Even though, nutrient and food group deficiencies were observed among postmenopausal women physical inactivity and effects of menopausal transition instigate increased BMI imposing a need to educate on nutrition and physical activity.

  15. Evaluation of dietary Intake and Food Patterns of Adolescent Girls in Sistan and Baluchistan Province, Iran

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    Farzaneh Montazerifar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The evidence suggests a relationship between lifestyle and diet-related risk factors.Objective: This study assessed the dietary intake and habits of high school girls in Sistan and Bluchistan province, in southeastern Iran.Methods: In a cross-sectional, descriptive study, 753 high school girls aged 14-18 years old wereenrolled by a clustered random sampling method. Dietary intake and food habits were evaluatedby a two-day, 24-hour dietary recall, and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ.Results: The analysis of dietary intakes showed that energy, calcium, zinc, vitamin C and folate intake, compared to the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI, were found to be lower. The, infrequent intake of milk and dairy products, fruits and vegetables, and a high consumption of empty calorie foods e.g. salty snacks, sweets, soft drinks and junk foods were seen among adolescents.Conclusions: The adolescent girls had an improper dietary intake and food habits. Thus, the implementation of nutrition education programs in schools and the designing of proper patternstowards healthier food choices could help improve eating behaviors, the health maintenance of adolescents, and also prevent diet- related diseases in adulthood.

  16. Dietary changes and food intake in the first year after breast cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Vivienne; Campbell, Sharon; McCargar, Linda; Mourtzakis, Marina; Hanning, Rhona

    2014-06-01

    Understanding dietary habits of women after breast cancer is a critical first step in developing nutrition guidelines that will support weight management and optimal health in survivorship; however, limited data are available. The objective of this study was to describe changes in diet among breast cancer survivors in the first year after treatment, and to evaluate these changes in the context of current dietary intake. Changes in diet were assessed in 28 early stage breast cancer survivors, using a self-reported survey in which women identified changes in food intake since their diagnosis. Current dietary intake was estimated from 3-day food records and described relative to current recommendations. The majority of women reported changes in diet after diagnosis, most common being an increase in vegetables/fruit and fish, lower intake of red meat, and reduced alcohol. Many women reported that these changes were initiated during active treatment. Dietary changes were largely consistent with current recommendations for cancer prevention; however, some women were still above the guidelines for total and saturated fat, and many were below recommendations for vegetables/fruit, milk/alternatives, calcium, and vitamin D. Evidence that some women are willing and able to initiate positive changes in diet early in the treatment trajectory suggests that early intervention may be effective in promoting dietary habits that will assist with weight management and overall health. Data on current dietary intake highlights several possible targets for dietary intervention in this population.

  17. Dietary fat intake and functional dyspepsia

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    Mahdieh Khodarahm

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A few studies have assessed the effects of fat intake in the induction of dyspeptic symptoms. So, the aim of this study was to review the articles regarding the dietary fat intake and FD. We used electronic database of PubMed to search. These key words were chosen: FD, dietary fat, dyspeptic symptom, energy intake and nutrients. First, articles that their title and abstract were related to the mentioned subject were gathered. Then, full texts of related articles were selected for reading. Finally, by excluding four articles that was irrelevant to subject, 19 relevant English papers by designing clinical trial, cross-sectional, case–control, prospective cohort, and review that published from 1992 to 2012 were investigated. Anecdotally, specific food items or food groups, particularly fatty foods have been related to dyspepsia. Laboratory studies have shown that the addition of fat to a meal resulted in more symptoms of fullness, bloating, and nausea in dyspeptic patients. Studies have reported that hypersensitivity of the stomach to postprandial distension is an essential factor in the generation of dyspeptic symptoms. Small intestinal infusions of nutrients, particularly fat, exacerbate this hypersensitivity. Moreover, evidence showed that perception of gastric distension increased by lipids but not by glucose. Long chain triglycerides appear to be more potent than medium chain triglycerides in inducing symptoms of fullness, nausea, and suppression of hunger. Thus, Fatty foods may exacerbate dyspeptic symptoms. Therefore, it seems that a reduction in intake of fatty foods may useful, although this requires more evaluations.

  18. Dietary trace element intakes of a selected sample of Canadian elderly women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, R.S.; MacDonald, A.C.; Martinez, O.B.

    1984-01-01

    Energy, and selected trace intakes of a sample of 90 noninstitutionalized Canadian women (mean age 66.2 +/- 6.2 years) living in a University community and consuming self-selected diets were assessed by chemical analysis of one-day duplicate diets and via 1-day dietary records collected by the subjects. Mean gross energy intake (determined via bomb calorimetry was 6.0 +/- 2.4 MJ (1435 +/- 580 kcal) and mean intakes of Cu and Mn (determined via atomic absorption spectrophotometry) were 1.2 +/- 0.6 mg and 3.8 +/- 2.1 mg/day, respectively. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for Cr - median = 77.4 μg/day; Se - median = 69.6 μg/day; Zn - mean + SD = 7.7 +/- 3.6 mg/day; Ag - median = 26.9 μg/day; Cs - median = 4.8 μg/day; Rb - median = 1.6 mg/day; Sb - median = 1.8 μg/day; Sc - median = 0.3 μg/day. Dietary intakes of Cr, Mn and Se for the majority of the subjects fell within the US safe and adequate range. In contrast, a high proportion of subjects had apparently low intakes of dietary Cu and Zn in relation to current US dietary recommendations

  19. [Association between dietary calcium/dairy intakes and overweight/obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanrong; Liu, Yan; Xue, Hongmei; Bao, Yuxin; Luo, Jiao; Tian, Guo; Cheng, Guo

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the intakes of dietary calcium/dairy and the current prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents aged 7-15 in Longquanyi District, Chengdu, and to explore the association of dietary calcium and dairy intake with overweight/obesity. 1738 children and adolescents were recruited in the cross-sectional study using cluster random sampling method. Information on dietary calcium and dairy intakes was collected using 24-hour dietary recall and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Height, weight and waist circumference were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI)/waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and body mass index standard deviation (BMI SDS). Overweight/obesity was defined based on the criteria of Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC). Participants were grouped into 3 categories indicating lower, moderate and higher intakes of dietary calcium and dairy, respectively. The association of dietary calcium and dairy consumption with (BMI SDS) /WHtR and the prevalence of overweight/obesity was analyzed after being stratified by gender and age. The prevalence of overweight/obesity in boys and girls were 11.92%/7.04% and 8.04%/6.30%, respectively. The intake of dietary calcium and dairy in girls were much higher than that in boys (P obesity in boys, however the associations were inconsistent among different age groups. Associations between consumption of calcium, dairy and overweight/obesity were not found among girls.

  20. [Dietary sodium intakes and resources among residents in Shandong province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zilong; Zhang, Xiaofei; Li, Jianhong; Zhang, Jiyu; Zhao, Wenhua; Ma, Jixiang; Guo, Xiaolei; Yan, Liuxia; Chu, Jie; Xu, Aiqiang

    2014-01-01

    To describe dietary sodium intakes and resources among residents in Shandong province. A total of 2184 subjects were selected by multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method from 18-69 years old people in Shandong province in June, 2011. A total of 2140 subjects completed the study, the completion rate was 98.0%. Three-day (24-hour per day) dietary recalls and weighting methods were conducted to collect information about all the foods and condiments consumed by the subjects. Individual dietary sodium intake was calculated, the differences of dietary sodium intake among subjects with different characteristics were analyzed, and the proportions of different dietary sodium resources were also analyzed. The amount of individual dietary sodium intake was 5745.0 (95%CI:5427.6-6062.5) mg/d in Shandong; 6147.4 (95%CI: 5823.8-6471.0) mg/d for male residents, 5339.3 (95%CI:5005.8-5672.8) mg/d for female residents. There was a significant difference between males and females (F = 75.22, P sodium intake was 5910.1 (95%CI:5449.3-6370.8) mg/d, 5341.6 (95%CI:5007.0-5676.1) mg/d for rural residents and urban residents respectively, and there was also a significant difference (F = 5.53, P sodium intake was 4640.3 (95%CI:4360.2-4920.4) mg/d, which was the largest contributor to sodium intake, accounting for 80.8% (95%CI:79.9%-81.6%) of total intake. Sodium intake from cereals was 650.7 (95%CI: 590.5-711.0) mg/d, accounting for 11.3% (95%CI:10.3%-12.3%) of total intake. Sodium intake from eggs was 118.9 (95%CI:95.2-142.6) mg/d, accounting for 2.1% (95%CI:1.6%-2.6%) of total intake. The amount of manufactured food sodium intake was 582.1(95%CI: 497.8-666.4) mg/d, accounting for 10.1% (95%CI:8.9%-11.4%) of total intake. Sodium intakes remain high among residents of Shandong province, and sodium from condiments was the largest source of dietary sodium intake, sodium of manufactured food only accounting for small part.

  1. Dietary intake, physical activity and energy expenditure of Malaysian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalilah, M S; Khor, G L; Mirnalini, K; Norimah, A K; Ang, M

    2006-06-01

    Paediatric obesity is a public health concern worldwide as it can track into adulthood and increase the risk of adult morbidity and mortality. While the aetiology of obesity is multi-factorial, the roles of diet and physical activity are controversial. Thus, the purpose of this study was to report on the differences in energy intake, diet composition, time spent doing physical activity and energy expenditure among underweight (UW), normal weight (NW) and at-risk of overweight (OW) Malaysian adolescents (317 females and 301 males) aged 11-15 years. This was a cross-sectional study with 6,555 adolescents measured for weights and heights for body mass index (BMI) categorisation. A total of 618 subjects were randomly selected from each BMI category according to gender. The subjects' dietary intake and physical activity were assessed using self-reported three-day food and activity records, respectively. Dietary intake components included total energy and macronutrient intakes. Energy expenditure was calculated as a sum of energy expended for basal metabolic rate and physical activity. Time spent (in minutes) in low, medium and high intensity activities was also calculated. The OW adolescents had the highest crude energy intake and energy expenditure. However, after adjusting for body weight, the OW subjects had the lowest energy intake and energy expenditure (p-value is less than 0.001). The study groups did not differ significantly in time spent for low, medium and high intensity activities. Macronutrient intakes differed significantly only among the girls where the OW group had the highest intakes compared to UW and NW groups (p-value is less than 0.05). All study groups had greater than 30 percent and less than 55 percent of energy intake from fat and carbohydrate, respectively. The data suggested that a combination of low energy expenditure adjusted for body weight and high dietary fat intake may be associated with overweight and obesity among adolescents. To

  2. Correlation between Intake of Dietary Fiber and Adherence to the Korean National Dietary Guidelines in Adolescents from Jeonju.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmi; Na, Woori; Kim, Misung; Kim, Eunsoo; Sohn, Cheongmin

    2012-12-01

    This study surveyed dietary intake and adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines in Korean adolescents. To elucidate basic data for use in nutrition education, which aims to improve adolescent compliance with the national dietary guidelines and to increase the intake of dietary fiber, we evaluated the sources of fiber in adolescent diets. This study included 182 male and 212 female students from 2 middle schools in the Jeonju province. From November 15~20, 2011, we surveyed the students for general characteristics, adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines, and dietary intake. Dietary fiber intake was 16.57 ± 6.95 g/day for male students and 16.14 ± 7.11 g/day for female students. The food groups that contributed most to dietary fiber intake were (in descending order) cereals, vegetables, seasoning, and fruits. The fiber-containing food items consumed most were cabbage- kimchi, cooked rice, instant noodles, and cabbage. Based on adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines, the vegetable-based intake of dietary fiber in groups 1 (score 15~45), 2 (score 46~52), and 3 (score 53~75) were 4.41 ± 2.595 g/day, 4.12 ± 2.692 g/day, and 5.49 ± 3.157 g/day, respectively (p<0.001). In addition, the total intake of dietary fiber varied significantly among the three groups (p<0.001) as follows: Group 1, 14.99 ± 6.374 g/day; Group 2, 15.32 ± 6.772 g/day; and Group 3, 18.79 ± 7.361 g/day. In this study, we discovered that adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines correlates with improved intake of dietary fiber. Therefore, marketing and educational development is needed to promote adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines. In addition, nutritional education is needed to improve dietary fiber consumption through the intake of vegetables and fruits other than kimchi.

  3. No association between dietary sodium intake and the risk of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Marianna; Yuan, Changzheng; Chitnis, Tanuja; Ascherio, Alberto; Munger, Kassandra L

    2017-09-26

    To prospectively investigate the association between dietary sodium intake and multiple sclerosis (MS) risk. In this cohort study, we assessed dietary sodium intake by a validated food frequency questionnaire administered every 4 years to 80,920 nurses in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) (1984-2002) and to 94,511 in the Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII) (1991-2007), and calibrated it using data from a validation study. There were 479 new MS cases during follow-up. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the effect of energy-adjusted dietary sodium on MS risk, adjusting also for age, latitude of residence at age 15, ancestry, body mass index at age 18, supplemental vitamin D intake, cigarette smoking, and total energy intake in each cohort. The results in both cohorts were pooled using fixed effects models. Total dietary intake of sodium at baseline was not associated with MS risk (highest [medians: 3.2 g/d NHS; 3.5 g/d NHSII] vs lowest [medians: 2.5 g/d NHS; 2.8 g/d NHSII] quintile: HR pooled 0.98, 95% CI 0.74-1.30, p for trend = 0.75). Cumulative average sodium intake during follow-up was also not associated with MS risk (highest [medians: 3.3 g/d NHS; 3.4 g/d NHSII] vs lowest [medians: 2.7 g/d NHS; 2.8 g/d NHSII] quintile: HR pooled 1.02, 95% CI 0.76-1.37, p for trend = 0.76). Comparing more extreme sodium intake in deciles yielded similar results ( p for trend = 0.95). Our findings suggest that higher dietary sodium intake does not increase the risk of developing MS. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  4. Under-reporting of dietary energy intake in five populations of the African diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcholski, Lindsay; Luke, Amy; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Dugas, Lara R; Kettmann, Elizabeth; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A; Cooper, Richard S; Schoeller, Dale A

    2015-02-14

    Studies on the role of diet in the development of chronic diseases often rely on self-report surveys of dietary intake. Unfortunately, many validity studies have demonstrated that self-reported dietary intake is subject to systematic under-reporting, although the vast majority of such studies have been conducted in industrialised countries. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not systematic reporting error exists among the individuals of African ancestry (n 324) in five countries distributed across the Human Development Index (HDI) scale, a UN statistic devised to rank countries on non-income factors plus economic indicators. Using two 24 h dietary recalls to assess energy intake and the doubly labelled water method to assess total energy expenditure, we calculated the difference between these two values ((self-report - expenditure/expenditure) × 100) to identify under-reporting of habitual energy intake in selected communities in Ghana, South Africa, Seychelles, Jamaica and the USA. Under-reporting of habitual energy intake was observed in all the five countries. The South African cohort exhibited the highest mean under-reporting ( - 52·1% of energy) compared with the cohorts of Ghana ( - 22·5%), Jamaica ( - 17·9%), Seychelles ( - 25·0%) and the USA ( - 18·5%). BMI was the most consistent predictor of under-reporting compared with other predictors. In conclusion, there is substantial under-reporting of dietary energy intake in populations across the whole range of the HDI, and this systematic reporting error increases according to the BMI of an individual.

  5. The association between dietary cholesterol intake and subclinical atherosclerosis in Korean adults: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Eun-Jung; Ryu, Seungho; Lee, Jong-Young; Lee, Sung Ho; Cheong, EunSun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Won, Yu Sam; Kim, Joon Mo; Cho, Dong-Sik; Chung, Hye-Kyung; Sung, Ki Chul

    The Scientific Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (2015) concluded that restriction of dietary cholesterol is unnecessary in most adults for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. We aimed to assess the risk for subclinical atherosclerosis according to coronary artery calcium score (CACS), based on dietary cholesterol intake in apparently healthy Korean adults. This was a cross-sectional study performed in 30,068 participants (mean age 40.8 years; 84.5% men) in a health screening program in Korea. The data were collected from 2001 to 2013 and analyzed in 2015. Total energy intake and dietary cholesterol intake were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. The participants were stratified according to quartile of dietary cholesterol intake. CACS was measured by multi-detector computed tomography. Lipid profiles were measured, and the participants were divided into 6 groups according to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level: 0. Dietary cholesterol intake did not correlate with mean value of serum LDL-C level. For both genders, the odds ratio for coronary artery calcification was not significantly greater with greater amounts of dietary cholesterol (as assessed by quartile). The risk for coronary artery calcification was not higher in subjects with LDL-C 70-129 mg/dL compared with those with LDL-C < 70 mg/dL; however, the risk was significantly greater in subjects with LDL-C ≥ 130 mg/dL compared with those with LDL-C < 70 mg/dL. Dietary cholesterol intake did not have an association with LDL-C level or with risk for coronary artery calcification in apparently healthy Korean adults. The results have to be translated with consideration of limitation of population-based studies. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Micronutrient Intake and the Contribution of Dietary Supplements in Hispanic Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro-Rivera, Kiara; López-Cepero, Andrea; Diaz, Beatriz; Lee, Jae Eun; Palacios, Cristina

    2018-03-04

    To calculate micronutrient adequacy among infants and toddlers and to determine the contribution of dietary supplements to this adequacy, micronutrient intake was assessed using two nonconsecutive 24-hour recalls in a sample of 296 infants aged 0-24 months. Micronutrient intake was calculated from foods and beverages and from supplements and compared between nonusers and users of supplements. Percentages of children below the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) and above the tolerable upper limit intake (UL) were also compared between groups. A total of 241 participants had complete data. The prevalence of dietary supplement use among the sample was 15%. Mean intake of all micronutrients from foods and beverages was similar between nonusers and users of supplements (p > .05) but significantly higher for the following vitamins when supplements were included: D, E, B1, B2, B3, and B6 (p supplements were included, this percentage significantly decreased among users compared to nonusers (p supplements were added. Supplements significantly increased the intake of some vitamins. Vitamins D and E had the highest percentage of children below the DRI, which was partly corrected with the use of supplements. The UL was exceeded for magnesium, zinc, and vitamin B3 in many children. It is important to understand these patterns as they may be indicative of future nutritional deficiencies and excesses.

  7. Dietary benzo(a)pyrene intake during pregnancy and birth weight: associations modified by vitamin C intakes in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte-Salles, Talita; Mendez, Michelle A; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Alexander, Jan; Haugen, Margaretha

    2013-10-01

    Maternal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) during pregnancy has been associated with reduced fetal growth. However, the role of diet, the main source of PAH exposure among non-smokers, remains uncertain. To assess associations between maternal exposure to dietary intake of the genotoxic PAH benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] during pregnancy and birth weight, exploring potential effect modification by dietary intakes of vitamins C, E and A, hypothesized to influence PAH metabolism. This study included 50,651 women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Dietary B(a)P and nutrient intakes were estimated based on total consumption obtained from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and estimated based on food composition data. Data on infant birth weight were obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN). Multivariate regression was used to assess associations between dietary B(a)P and birth weight, evaluating potential interactions with candidate nutrients. The multivariate-adjusted coefficient (95%CI) for birth weight associated with maternal energy-adjusted B(a)P intake was -20.5g (-31.1, -10.0) in women in the third compared with the first tertile of B(a)P intake. Results were similar after excluding smokers. Significant interactions were found between elevated intakes of vitamin C (>85mg/day) and dietary B(a)P during pregnancy for birth weight (P<0.05), but no interactions were found with other vitamins. The multivariate-adjusted coefficients (95%CI) for birth weight in women in the third compared with the first tertile of B(a)P intake were -44.4g (-76.5, -12.3) in the group with low vitamin C intakes vs. -17.6g (-29.0, -6.1) in the high vitamin C intake group. The results suggest that higher prenatal exposure to dietary B(a)P may reduce birth weight. Lowering maternal intake of B(a)P and increasing dietary vitamin C intake during pregnancy may help to reduce any adverse effects of B(a)P on birth weight. © 2013.

  8. Egg Intake and Dietary Quality among Overweight and Obese Mexican-American Postpartum Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Vega-López

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite their low cost and high nutrient density, the contribution of eggs to nutrient intake and dietary quality among Mexican-American postpartum women has not been evaluated. Nutrient intake and dietary quality, as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010, were measured in habitually sedentary overweight/obese (body mass index (BMI = 29.7 ± 3.5 kg/m2 Mexican-American postpartum women (28 ± 6 years and compared between egg consumers (n = 82; any egg intake reported in at least one of three 24-h dietary recalls and non-consumers (n = 57. Egg consumers had greater intake of energy (+808 kJ (193 kcal or 14%; p = 0.033, protein (+9 g or 17%; p = 0.031, total fat (+9 g or 19%; p = 0.039, monounsaturated fat (+4 g or 24%; p = 0.020, and several micronutrients than non-consumers. Regarding HEI-2010 scores, egg consumers had a greater total protein foods score than non-consumers (4.7 ± 0.7 vs. 4.3 ± 1.0; p = 0.004, and trends for greater total fruit (2.4 ± 1.8 vs. 1.9 ± 1.7; p = 0.070 and the total composite HEI-2010 score (56.4 ± 12.6 vs. 52.3 ± 14.4; p = 0.082. Findings suggest that egg intake could contribute to greater nutrient intake and improved dietary quality among postpartum Mexican-American women. Because of greater energy intake among egg consumers, recommendations for overweight/obese individuals should include avoiding excessive energy intake and incorporating eggs to a nutrient-dense, fiber-rich dietary pattern.

  9. Dietary intake, nutritional status and rehabilitation outcomes of stroke patients in hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nip, W F R; Perry, L; McLaren, S; Mackenzie, A

    2011-10-01

    Nutrition affects rehabilitation through its influence on physical and mental functioning, although little attention has been paid to effects on rehabilitation outcomes. The present study aimed to describe nutritional status and food consumption in stroke patients within 2 weeks of hospital admission and before discharge, as well as to investigate the effects of nutritional and dietary factors on rehabilitation outcomes. One hundred patients from a consecutive cohort admitted to a metropolitan hospital with acute stroke were recruited and assessed by a single researcher, with 38 reassessed at discharge. Nutritional status was assessed using Mini-Nutritional Assessment and anthropometric indices and dietary intake was assessed by 1-day weighed dietary records. Rehabilitation outcomes were changes in Barthel index scores and the rehabilitation efficiency index. Few (n = 9; 10%) consumed ≥100% of the estimated average requirement (EAR) for energy within 2 weeks of admission and 13 (33%) had energy intakes stroke patients to improve rehabilitation outcomes. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2011 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  10. Nutrition Education by a Registered Dietitian Improves Dietary Intake and Nutrition Knowledge of a NCAA Female Volleyball Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valliant, Melinda W.; Pittman Emplaincourt, Heather; Wenzel, Rachel Kieckhaefer; Garner, Bethany Hilson

    2012-01-01

    Eleven female participants from a NCAA Division I volleyball team were evaluated for adequate energy and macronutrient intake during two off-seasons. Total energy and macronutrient intake were assessed by food records and results were compared against estimated needs using the Nelson equation. Dietary intervention was employed regarding the individual dietary needs of each athlete as well as a pre- and post-sports nutrition knowledge survey. Post dietary intervention, total energy, and macronutrient intake improved, as well as a significant improvement in sports nutrition knowledge (p < 0.001). Nutrition education is useful in improving dietary intake and nutrition knowledge of female athletes. PMID:22822449

  11. Dietary Vitamin K Intake Is Associated with Cognition and Behaviour among Geriatric Patients: The CLIP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouet, Justine; Ferland, Guylaine; Féart, Catherine; Rolland, Yves; Presse, Nancy; Boucher, Kariane; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Beauchet, Olivier; Annweiler, Cedric

    2015-08-12

    Our objective was to determine whether dietary vitamin K intake was associated with cognition and behavior among older adults. 192 consecutive participants ≥65 years, recruited in the cross-sectional CLIP (Cognition and LIPophilic vitamins) study, were separated into two groups according to the tertiles of dietary phylloquinone intake (i.e., lowest third below 207 µg/day versus the other two thirds combined). Daily dietary phylloquinone intake was estimated from 50-item interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire. Cognition was assessed with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE); behaviour with Frontotemporal Behavioral Rating Scale (FBRS). Age, gender, social problems, education, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities, history of stroke, use vitamin K antagonists, inadequate fatty fish intake, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), vitamin B12, albumin, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were used as confounders. Compared to participants in the lowest third of dietary phylloquinone intake (n = 64), those with higher intake had higher (i.e., better) mean MMSE score (22.0 ± 5.7 versus 19.9 ± 6.2, p = 0.024) and lower (i.e., better) FBRS score (1.5 ± 1.2 versus 1.9 ± 1.3, p = 0.042). In multivariate linear regressions, log dietary phylloquinone intake was positively associated with MMSE score (adjusted β = 1.66, p = 0.013) and inversely associated with FBRS score (adjusted β = -0.33, p = 0.037). Specifically, log dietary phylloquinone intake correlated negatively with FBRS subscore of physical neglect (r = -0.24, p = 0.001). Higher dietary phylloquinone intake was associated with better cognition and behavior among older adults.

  12. Online dietary intake estimation: the Food4Me food frequency questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Hannah; Fallaize, Rosalind; Gallagher, Caroline; O'Donovan, Clare B; Woolhead, Clara; Walsh, Marianne C; Macready, Anna L; Lovegrove, Julie A; Mathers, John C; Gibney, Michael J; Brennan, Lorraine; Gibney, Eileen R

    2014-06-09

    Dietary assessment methods are important tools for nutrition research. Online dietary assessment tools have the potential to become invaluable methods of assessing dietary intake because, compared with traditional methods, they have many advantages including the automatic storage of input data and the immediate generation of nutritional outputs. The aim of this study was to develop an online food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for dietary data collection in the "Food4Me" study and to compare this with the validated European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC) Norfolk printed FFQ. The Food4Me FFQ used in this analysis was developed to consist of 157 food items. Standardized color photographs were incorporated in the development of the Food4Me FFQ to facilitate accurate quantification of the portion size of each food item. Participants were recruited in two centers (Dublin, Ireland and Reading, United Kingdom) and each received the online Food4Me FFQ and the printed EPIC-Norfolk FFQ in random order. Participants completed the Food4Me FFQ online and, for most food items, participants were requested to choose their usual serving size among seven possibilities from a range of portion size pictures. The level of agreement between the two methods was evaluated for both nutrient and food group intakes using the Bland and Altman method and classification into quartiles of daily intake. Correlations were calculated for nutrient and food group intakes. A total of 113 participants were recruited with a mean age of 30 (SD 10) years (40.7% male, 46/113; 59.3%, 67/113 female). Cross-classification into exact plus adjacent quartiles ranged from 77% to 97% at the nutrient level and 77% to 99% at the food group level. Agreement at the nutrient level was highest for alcohol (97%) and lowest for percent energy from polyunsaturated fatty acids (77%). Crude unadjusted correlations for nutrients ranged between .43 and .86. Agreement at the food group level was highest for "other

  13. Effects of Latino children on their mothers' dietary intake and dietary behaviors: The role of children's acculturation and the mother-child acculturation gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Sandra H; Arredondo, Elva M; Marcus, Bess; Shakya, Holly B; Roesch, Scott; Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2017-10-01

    Research shows that acculturation is important to Latinas' dietary intake and related behaviors. Although evidence suggests children may also play a role, it remains unclear whether children's acculturation is related to mothers' dietary intake/behaviors. We examined the relationship between Latino children's acculturation and mothers' dietary intake/behaviors. We also examined the mother-child acculturation gap to identify dyad characteristics associated with mothers' diet. Baseline surveys were collected in 2010 from 314 Latino mother-child (7-13 years old) dyads of Mexican-origin enrolled in a family-based dietary intervention in Southern California, USA. Mother's daily intake of fruits, vegetables, and sugary beverages, percent of calories from fat, weekly away-from-home eating, and percent of weekly grocery dollars spent on fruits and vegetables were assessed via self-report. Mothers' and children's bidimensional acculturation were examined using acculturation groups (e.g., assimilated, bicultural) derived from Hispanic and non-Hispanic dimensions of language. We also assessed the acculturation gap between mothers and children with the a) difference in acculturation between mothers' and children's continuous acculturation scores and b) mother-child acculturation gap typologies (e.g., traditional mothers of assimilated children). Findings show that having an assimilated versus a bicultural child was negatively associated with mothers' vegetable intake and positively associated with mothers' sugary beverage intake, percent of calories from fat, and frequency of away-from-home eating, regardless of mothers' acculturation. Traditional mothers of assimilated children reported more sugary beverage intake, calories from fat, and more frequent away-from-home eating than traditional mothers of bicultural children. Results suggest that children's acculturation is associated with their mothers' dietary intake/behaviors and traditional mothers of assimilated children

  14. Gaussian Quadrature is an efficient method for the back-transformation in estimating the usual intake distribution when assessing dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers, A L M; Slob, W

    2012-10-01

    In dietary exposure assessment, statistical methods exist for estimating the usual intake distribution from daily intake data. These methods transform the dietary intake data to normal observations, eliminate the within-person variance, and then back-transform the data to the original scale. We propose Gaussian Quadrature (GQ), a numerical integration method, as an efficient way of back-transformation. We compare GQ with six published methods. One method uses a log-transformation, while the other methods, including GQ, use a Box-Cox transformation. This study shows that, for various parameter choices, the methods with a Box-Cox transformation estimate the theoretical usual intake distributions quite well, although one method, a Taylor approximation, is less accurate. Two applications--on folate intake and fruit consumption--confirmed these results. In one extreme case, some methods, including GQ, could not be applied for low percentiles. We solved this problem by modifying GQ. One method is based on the assumption that the daily intakes are log-normally distributed. Even if this condition is not fulfilled, the log-transformation performs well as long as the within-individual variance is small compared to the mean. We conclude that the modified GQ is an efficient, fast and accurate method for estimating the usual intake distribution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Daily dietary intake of iron, copper, zinc and manganese in a Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Carmen; Gutiérrez, Angel José; Revert, Consuelo; Reguera, Juan Ignacio; Burgos, Antonio; Hardisson, Arturo

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the daily dietary intake of essential metals in the Canary Islands, the iron, copper, zinc and manganese contents in 420 food and drink samples collected in local markets were analysed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The estimated daily dietary intakes of iron, copper, zinc and manganese are 13.161 mg/day, 2.098 mg/day, 8.954 mg/day and 2.372 mg/day, respectively. The iron dietary intake was found to be below the recommendations fixed for adult women, while the copper and manganese dietary intakes fulfilled the Recommended Dietary Allowances. The mean daily intake of zinc was below the Recommended Dietary Allowance. Cereals were found to be the food group that contributed most to the intake of these metals. While the island of El-Hierro presented iron, copper, zinc and manganese mean intakes over the estimated intakes for the whole archipelago, Fuerteventura island showed the lowest intakes. Tenerife and Fuerteventura showed the lowest iron intakes, being below the recommendations.

  16. Knowledge, attitude and behaviour regarding dietary salt intake among medical students in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Pedro; Sanhangala, Edgar J R; Dombele, Isildro M; Ulundo, Henrique S N; Capingana, Daniel P; Silva, Amílcar B T

    2015-01-01

    Levels of salt consumption and its awareness among medical students in Angola remain insufficiently studied. This study determined salt intake and assessed medical students' knowledge, attitude and behaviour regarding salt consumption. Were collected 24-hour urine samples from a random sample of 123 undergraduate medical students aged 17-43 years who were studying at the University of Agostinho Neto in Luanda. Their knowledge, attitude and behaviour regarding dietary salt were surveyed. Socio-demographic, clinical and anthropometric data were collected. Average salt intake was 14.2 ± 5.1 g/day, without significant difference between genders (p = 0.221). In total, 96.7% consumed over 5 g/day, but only 6.5% of participants were aware of their excessive salt intake. The majority knew about salt-related health consequences and 45.5% reported they controlled their salt intake. This study indicated a high salt intake and inadequate behaviour regarding dietary salt consumption among medical students studying at the University of Agostinho Neto. This highlights the need for nutritional education to improve their dietary habits and future role in counselling.

  17. Nutritional adequacy of dietary intake in women with anorexia nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients is essential for the establishment of dietary treatment. Design: Women, aged 19 to 30 years, with both restricting and binge purge types of AN, participating in an ecological momentary assessment study, completed three nonc...

  18. Evaluation of Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children: comparing reported fruit, juice and vegetable intakes with plasma carotenoid concentration and school lunch observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Bysted, Anette; Trolle, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children (WebDASC) was developed to estimate dietary intake in a school meal intervention study among 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. The present study validates self-reported fruit, juice and vegetable (FJV) intakes in 8- to 11-year-old children...... by comparing intake with plasma carotenoid concentration, and by comparing the reported FJV intake to actually eaten FJV, as observed by a photographic method. A total of eighty-one children, assisted by parents, reported their diet for seven consecutive days. For the same five schooldays as they reported...... their diet, the children's school lunch was photographed and weighed before and after eating. In the week after the diet reporting, fasting blood samples were taken. Self-reported intake of FJV and estimated intake of carotenoids were compared with plasma carotenoid concentration. Accuracy of self...

  19. Differences in Mothers' and Children's Dietary Intake during Physical and Sedentary Activities: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Sydney G; Koprowski, Carol; Dzubur, Eldin; Leventhal, Adam M; Huh, Jimi; Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund

    2017-08-01

    Physical activity and diet are major modifiable health behaviors contributing to obesity risk. Although patterns of these behaviors tend to cluster within individuals and within family units, it is unknown to what extent healthy and unhealthy dietary intake might differentially accompany sedentary and physical activities in mothers compared with their children. Our goal was to examine differences in co-occurrence of activities and dietary intake between mothers and children, as measured in real time using ecological momentary assessment. This study examined cross-sectional data from 175 mothers and their children aged 8 to 12 years. Participants completed 8 days of ecological momentary assessment surveys, reporting on whether the following activities had occurred during the past 2 hours: sedentary screen activity, physical activity, and intake of healthy (ie, fruits and vegetables) and unhealthy (ie, fast food, chips/fries, pastries/sweets, and soda/energy drinks) foods. Multilevel logistic regression models estimated the adjusted odds of consuming healthy and unhealthy dietary intake for mothers and children during time periods reporting physical activity (vs no physical activity) or sedentary screen activity (vs no sedentary screen activity). Post hoc tests compared estimates for mothers vs children. Children were significantly more likely than their mothers to consume unhealthy foods during 2-hour windows that included physical activity (odds ratio [children] 1.85, 95% CI 1.47 to 2.31; odds ratio [mothers] 0.83, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.20; P diff sedentary screen activity (P diff =0.067). In addition, children and their mothers did not differ in their likelihood of consuming healthy foods during 2-hour windows with sedentary screen activity (P diff  =0.497) or physical activity (P diff  =0.170). Results indicate that the consumption of unhealthy foods may be more likely to co-occur within a 2-hour window including physical activity in children as compared to their

  20. Monosodium glutamate intake, dietary patterns and asthma in Chinese adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zumin Shi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Emerging evidence shows that diet is related to asthma. The aim of this analysis was to investigate the association between monosodium glutamate (MSG intake, overall dietary patterns and asthma. METHODS: Data from 1486 Chinese men and women who participated in the Jiangsu Nutrition Study (JIN were analyzed. In this study, MSG intake and dietary patterns were quantitatively assessed in 2002. Information on asthma history was collected during followed-up in 2007. RESULTS: Of the sample, 1.4% reported ever having asthma. MSG intake was not positively associated with asthma. There was a significant positive association between 'traditional' (high loadings on rice, wheat flour, and vegetable food pattern and asthma. No association between 'macho' (rich in meat and alcohol, 'sweet tooth' (high loadings on cake, milk, and yoghurt 'vegetable rich' (high loadings on whole grain, fruit, and vegetable food patterns and asthma was found. Smoking and overweight were not associated with asthma in the sample. CONCLUSION: While a 'Traditional' food pattern was positively associated with asthma among Chinese adults, there was no significant association between MSG intake and asthma.

  1. [Comparison of 24 hour dietary recalls with a food frequency questionnaire in evaluating dietary fat intakes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Juan; Zhuo, Qin; He, Yu-na

    2016-05-01

    To compare the difference and correlation of dietary fat intakes measures from the food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) with measures from 24 hour dietary recalls (24HDRs), and provide evidence for the future research of dietary fat. A total of 511 participants, selected from Zhejiang province, were asked to complete an FFQ and 24HDRs. The consumption of energy, fat, fatty acids, the percentages of energy from fat were calculated with the FFQ and 24HDRs and the results were analyzed. There was no difference between FFQ and 24HDRs in energy, fat, fatty acids and the percentages of energy from fat. Sperman's rank correlation coefficient between the two methods were 0.51 in energy, 0.58 in fat and 0. 57 in the percentages of energy from fat. The proportion of subjects who were assigned to the same or adjacent quintile groups were 80.73% for energy, 84.81% for fat and 83. 38% for the percentages of energy from fat. An effective FFQ can evaluate dietary fat consumption and rank participants well. Selecting the simple and easy FFQ method to assess the dietary fat intake would he a good choice when research the relationship between dietary fat and chronic disease in the future.

  2. Secular trends in dietary intake in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briefel, Ronette R; Johnson, Clifford L

    2004-01-01

    This review focuses on dietary intake and dietary supplement use among the U.S. population age 1-74 based on four National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted in 1971-74, 1976-80, 1988-94, and 1999-2000. Secular trends in intake of energy, macronutrients, cholesterol, sodium, calcium, iron, folate, zinc, vitamins A and C, fruits, vegetables, and grain products are summarized. During the 30-year period, mean energy intake increased among adults, and changed little among children age 1-19, except for an increase among adolescent females. Factors contributing to increases in energy intake include increases in the percentage of the population eating away from home (particularly at fast-food restaurants), larger portion sizes of foods and beverages, increased consumption of sweetened beverages, changes in snacking habits, and improved dietary methodology. Dietary supplement use increased among adult men and women, decreased among children age 1-5, and was stable for children age 6-11 and adolescents.

  3. Dietary Sources of Fiber Intake and Its Association with Socio-Economic Factors among Flemish Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Huybrechts

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives were to assess total dietary fiber intake, identify the major sources of dietary fiber, and examine its association with socio-economic factors among Flemish preschoolers. Three-day estimated dietary records were collected from a representative sample of preschoolers 2.5–6.5 years old (n = 661; 338 boys, 323 girls. The mean dietary fiber intake (13.4 g/d was lower than the intake level recommended by the Belgian Superior Health Council (70% boys and 81% girls below the guidelines. The most important contributor was the group of bread and cereals (29.5%, followed by fruits (17.8%, potatoes and grains (16.0%, energy-dense, low-nutritious foods (12.4%, and vegetables (11.8%. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that total fiber intake was associated with maternal education and parents’ employment. Overall, fiber intakes from high-nutritious foods (vegetables and fruits were higher in preschoolers of higher educated mothers and those with one or both parents being employed. In conclusion, the majority of the preschoolers had dietary fiber intakes below the recommended level. Hence, dietary fiber should be promoted among parents of preschoolers and low socio-economic status families should be addressed in particular.

  4. Dietary Intakes of Minerals, Essential and Toxic Trace Elements for Adults from Eragrostis tef L.: A Nutritional Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Koubová

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the contents of thirty-six mineral and trace elements in teff (Eragrostis tef L. grains. What is more, dietary intakes were calculated. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS was used to assess mineral and trace element contents. Consequently, the appropriate Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA or adequate intake (AI, and provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI or provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI values for adults were determined according to the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO and Institute of Medicine (IOM regulations. Teff is a significant contributor to RDAs and AIs for females in the following order: Mn > Cu > Zn ≥ Mg > Fe ≥ P and Ca. For males, teff contributes in the order, Mn > Cu > Fe > Zn ≥ P ≥ Mg > and Ca. The concentration of arsenic (65.9 µg/kg in brown teff originating in Bolivia exceeded the average acceptable value set by Reg. No. 1881 of 6–50 µg/kg in cereals consumed in the EU. The PTWIs or PTMIs for Al, Cd, Sn and Hg were all under 7%, which is below the limits of toxic element intake related to the body weight of 65 kg for adult females and 80 kg for males, set by the FAO/WHO. Teff grains can be recommended as a valuable and safe source of minerals and trace elements.

  5. Psychological distress is associated with inadequate dietary intake in Vietnamese marriage immigrant women in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ji-Yun; Lee, Sang Eun; Kim, Sun Hye; Chung, Hye Won; Kim, Wha Young

    2010-05-01

    Previous studies have reported that the nutritional status of Vietnamese female marriage immigrants in Korea is inadequate. And the mediation of acculturation stress can contribute to problems in their eating practices and dietary intakes. This study examines an association between psychological distress and inadequate dietary intake in Vietnamese female marriage immigrants living in Korea. A cross-sectional study analyzed baseline data (n=570) from the Cohort of Intermarried Women in Korea. Daily nutrient intakes were compared according to the quartiles of distress scores assessed by the Psychological Well-Being Index-Short Form. One-way analysis of variance and chi(2) tests were used to compare eating practices and nutrient intake across quartiles of psychological distress. Subjects in the highest stress scores were more likely to skip breakfast and to change their dietary habits after living in Korea than those in groups with low stress scores. Analyses of the subjects' Mini Dietary Assessments revealed that those with the highest stress scores were less likely to consume milk or dairy products, eat regular meals, or have balanced diets than those with the lowest stress scores. Nutrient intakes were found to be inadequate in the subjects, and those with the highest stress scores showed lower consumptions of energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat, calcium, zinc, thiamin, riboflavin, and folate compared to those with the lowest scores. The prevalence of underweight (body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)] Korea was negatively associated with dietary intake. These findings can assist dietetics practitioners working with minority immigrants because such information is important in designing appropriate strategies for dietary counseling. A follow-up study should address the underlying mechanisms of the observed diet-distress association in Vietnamese marriage immigrant women in Korea, as well as other various ethnic minority immigrants in Korea. Copyright 2010 American

  6. Nutrition activation and dietary intake disparities among US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langellier, Brent A; Massey, Philip M

    2016-12-01

    To introduce the concept 'nutrition activation' (the use of health and nutrition information when making food and diet decisions) and to assess the extent to which nutrition activation varies across racial/ethnic groups and explains dietary disparities. Cross-sectional sample representative of adults in the USA. Primary outcome measures include daily energy intake and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), fast foods and sit-down restaurant foods as determined by two 24 h dietary recalls. We use bivariate statistics and multiple logistic and linear regression analyses to assess racial/ethnic disparities in nutrition activation and food behaviour outcomes. USA. Adult participants (n 7825) in the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Nutrition activation varies across racial/ethnic groups and is a statistically significant predictor of SSB, fast-food and restaurant-food consumption and daily energy intake. Based on the sample distribution, an increase from the 25th to 75th percentile in nutrition activation is associated with a decline of about 377 kJ (90 kcal)/d. Increased nutrition activation is associated with a larger decline in SSB consumption among whites than among blacks and foreign-born Latinos. Fast-food consumption is associated with a larger 'spike' in daily energy intake among blacks (+1582 kJ (+378 kcal)/d) than among whites (+678 kJ (+162 kcal)/d). Nutrition activation is an important but understudied determinant of energy intake and should be explicitly incorporated into obesity prevention interventions, particularly among racial/ethnic minorities.

  7. Smoking during pregnancy is associated with higher dietary intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and poor diet quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte-Salles, Talita; Mendez, Michelle A; Pessoa, Verónica; Guxens, Mònica; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Kogevinas, Manolis; Sunyer, Jordi

    2010-12-01

    To estimate the dietary intake of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and to characterise factors associated with higher intake during pregnancy. Recent studies suggest that prenatal exposure to PAH is associated with adverse reproductive outcomes. Other than tobacco smoke and occupational exposures, diet is the main source of human PAH exposure. Prospective birth cohort study. Dietary exposure to total PAH and BaP was calculated combining food consumption data and estimated PAH concentrations in foods. One-way ANOVA was used to assess differences in intake among non-smokers, passive or active smokers. Linear regression was used to assess factors related to higher intake, and associations between dietary PAH and birth weight. Sabadell, Spain, 2004-2006. Women (n 657) recruited during the first trimester of pregnancy. The mean dietary intake of BaP and total PAH was significantly higher among active (0·199 and 10·207 μg/d, respectively) and passive smokers (0·196 and 9·458 μg/d) than among non-smokers (0·181 and 8·757 μg/d; P value smoke is an additional route of PAH exposure, the added dietary burden in these women is of concern.

  8.  Effect of Mothers Nutritional Knowledge and Attitudes on Omani Children’s Dietary Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Al-Tobi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available  Objectives: The study investigates the dietary intakes of Omani preschoolers and associations with both socio-demographic characteristics and the mother’s nutritional knowledge and attitudes.Methods: A sample of 154 parents of preschoolers completed a questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics, a food-frequency questionnaire to assess children’s food intake, nutritional knowledge and attitudes towards healthy eating.Results: The results showed a lower dietary adequacy of children’s food intake in mothers with low educational levels, high-ranked occupation, and lower levels of both nutritional knowledge and food related health attitudes. The highest food intake and healthy eating attitude scores were found in children of mothers with high education level and mother without a job. The association of the dietary adequacy with socio-demographic background can help the Omani healthcare decision makers to develop better-tailored nutrition interventions which are more suitable for the Omani community.Conclusion: The results from this study of mothers’ nutritional knowledge and attitudes support the inclusion of knowledge and attitudes in dietary interventions.

  9. Dietary intakes among South Asian adults differ by length of residence in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talegawkar, Sameera A; Kandula, Namratha R; Gadgil, Meghana D; Desai, Dipika; Kanaya, Alka M

    2016-02-01

    To examine whether nutrient and food intakes among South Asian adult immigrants differ by length of residence in the USA. Cross-sectional analysis to examine differences in nutrient and food intakes by length of residence in the USA. Dietary data were collected using an interviewer-administered, culturally appropriate FFQ, while self-reported length of residence was assessed using a questionnaire and modelled as tertiles. The Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) study. Eight hundred and seventy-four South Asians (mean age=55 (sd 9) years; 47 % women; range of length of residence in the USA=2-58 years), part of the baseline examination of the MASALA study. Intakes of fat, including saturated and trans fats, dietary cholesterol and n-6 fatty acids, were directly associated with length of residence, while intakes of energy, carbohydrate, glycaemic index and load, protein, dietary fibre, folate and K were inversely associated with length of residence (P trend USA was also associated with higher intakes of alcoholic beverages, mixed dishes including pizza and pasta, fats and oils, and lower intakes of beans and lentils, breads, grains and flour products, milk and dairy products, rice, starchy vegetables and sugar, candy and jam (P for differences across groups USA influences diet and nutrient intakes among South Asian adult immigrants and should be considered when investigating and planning dietary interventions to mitigate chronic disease risk.

  10. Dietary Vitamin K Intake Is Associated with Cognition and Behaviour among Geriatric Patients: The CLIP Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine Chouet

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to determine whether dietary vitamin K intake was associated with cognition and behavior among older adults. 192 consecutive participants ≥65 years, recruited in the cross-sectional CLIP (Cognition and LIPophilic vitamins study, were separated into two groups according to the tertiles of dietary phylloquinone intake (i.e., lowest third below 207 µg/day versus the other two thirds combined. Daily dietary phylloquinone intake was estimated from 50-item interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire. Cognition was assessed with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE; behaviour with Frontotemporal Behavioral Rating Scale (FBRS. Age, gender, social problems, education, body mass index (BMI, comorbidities, history of stroke, use vitamin K antagonists, inadequate fatty fish intake, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, vitamin B12, albumin, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were used as confounders. Compared to participants in the lowest third of dietary phylloquinone intake (n = 64, those with higher intake had higher (i.e., better mean MMSE score (22.0 ± 5.7 versus 19.9 ± 6.2, p = 0.024 and lower (i.e., better FBRS score (1.5 ± 1.2 versus 1.9 ± 1.3, p = 0.042. In multivariate linear regressions, log dietary phylloquinone intake was positively associated with MMSE score (adjusted β = 1.66, p = 0.013 and inversely associated with FBRS score (adjusted β = −0.33, p = 0.037. Specifically, log dietary phylloquinone intake correlated negatively with FBRS subscore of physical neglect (r = −0.24, p = 0.001. Higher dietary phylloquinone intake was associated with better cognition and behavior among older adults.

  11. Dietary calcium intake and risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and fracture in a population with low calcium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Sung Hye; Kim, Jung Hee; Hong, A Ram; Cho, Nam H; Shin, Chan Soo

    2017-07-01

    Background: The role of dietary calcium intake in cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke, and fracture is controversial. Most previous reports have evaluated populations with high calcium intake. Objective: We aimed to evaluate whether high dietary calcium intake was associated with the risk of CVD, stroke, and fracture in a population with low calcium intake. Design: In a prospective cohort study beginning in 2001 in Ansung-Ansan, Korea, 2158 men and 2153 women aged >50 y were evaluated for all-cause mortality, CVD, stroke, and fractures over a median 9-y follow-up. Results: During follow-up, 242 and 100 deaths, 149 and 150 CVD events, 58 and 82 stroke events, and 211 and 292 incident fractures occurred in men and women, respectively. The first quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary calcium intake were 249 mg/d (IQR: 169 mg/d) in men and 209 mg/d (IQR: 161 mg/d) in women. Both men and women with higher dietary calcium intake tended to have higher fat, protein, sodium, phosphorus, fruit, and vegetable intakes. In men, outcomes were not significantly associated with dietary calcium intake with or without adjustments, and CVD risk tended to increase with increasing energy-adjusted dietary calcium intake, but this was not statistically significant ( P = 0.078 and P = 0.093 with and without adjustment, respectively). In women, CVD risk and dietary calcium intake showed a U-shaped association; the HRs (95% CIs) without adjustment relative to the first quartile were 0.71 (0.47, 1.07), 0.57 (0.36, 0.88), and 0.52 (0.33, 0.83) for quartiles 2, 3, and 4, respectively, and the values after adjustment were 0.70 (0.45, 1.07), 0.51 (0.31, 0.81), and 0.49 (0.29, 0.83) for quartiles 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Conclusion: In Korean women, increased dietary calcium intake was associated with a decreased CVD risk, but it did not influence the risk of stroke or fracture. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Racial differences in correlations between reported dietary intakes of carotenoids and their concentration biomarkers123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Lenore; Cambou, Mary C; Craft, Neal; Wesseling-Perry, Katherine; Jardack, Patricia; Ang, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    Background: The predictive ability of dietary assessment methods to estimate specific circulating plasma carotenoid concentrations has been compared between African Americans and whites in only one study to date. Objective: The predictive abilities of 24-h dietary recalls and a food-frequency questionnaire in reporting dietary carotenoids when measured against concentration biomarkers were assessed in African Americans and compared with the findings in whites. Design: Data were collected from 250 generally healthy, nonsmoking white and African American participants aged 21–69 y, who completed 8 self-administered online 24-h dietary recalls and one National Cancer Institute diet-history questionnaire in the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) Energetics Study. Mean intakes from 4-d dietary recalls were correlated with plasma xanthophyll concentrations (lutein + zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin) and hydrocarbon carotenoids (lycopene, α-carotene, and β-carotene). Results: Adjusted correlations of plasma carotenoids with reported dietary intakes for African Americans in the 24-h dietary recall ranged from 0.03 for β-carotene to 0.40 for β-cryptoxanthin. For whites, the correlations ranged from 0.13 for lycopene to 0.51 for β-cryptoxanthin. Conclusions: Despite stronger validity in reported energy intakes for African Americans than for whites in the 24-h dietary recall in the Energetics Study, both recalls and food-frequency dietary assessment methods yielded lower correlations in African Americans than in whites. This finding might be attributable to reporting differences in both dietary sources and food preparation or to racially related genetic variants influencing circulating concentrations. The current findings support the need to account for differences in race, age, sex, and body mass index in regression calibrations of dietary reports and measurement error adjustments. PMID:21389177

  13. Dietary Supplement Intake and Associated Factors Among Gym Users in a University Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attlee, Amita; Haider, Amina; Hassan, Asma; Alzamil, Noura; Hashim, Mona; Obaid, Reyad Shaker

    2018-01-02

    Dietary supplement intake and associated factors among gym users in a university community in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates (UAE), were assessed using a structured, self-administered questionnaire in this cross-sectional study. Adults (N = 320) from five gyms in the University City of Sharjah participated in this cross-sectional study. The prevalence of dietary supplement intake was 43.8%. Statistically significant associations were found between the use of dietary supplements and sex (47.7% males, 28.1% females; p = .006), as well as weight lifting (88.6% taking supplements vs. 11.4% not taking supplements; p power and to boost exercise recovery. Females mainly used dietary supplements to increase energy, maintain their health, and prevent nutrition deficiency. Overall, protein supplements (whey proteins [48.6%] and protein powder [45.7%]) were among the most-consumed dietary supplements, followed by multivitamins (38.6%), branched-chain amino acids (36.4%), caffeine (35.0%), and creatine (29.3%). A widespread use of Internet-driven, self-prescribed dietary supplement intake was reported among gym users (60.7%). Only 12.8% of dietary supplement users sought information from dietitians. Practical implications suggest that gym instructors and coaches should be sufficiently trained to be able to provide accurate and scientifically sound information on dietary supplements to the exercisers in gyms in the university environment.

  14. Assessment of dietary food and nutrient intake and bone density in children with eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, T F; Wang, S S; Kwok, F Yy; Leung, L Ws; Chow, C M; Hon, K L

    2017-10-01

    Dietary restrictions are common among patients with eczema, and such practice may lead to diminished bone mineral density. This study investigated dietary intake and bone mineral density in Hong Kong Chinese children with eczema. This cross-sectional and observational study was conducted in a university-affiliated teaching hospital in Hong Kong. Chinese children aged below 18 years with physician-diagnosed eczema were recruited from our paediatric allergy and dermatology clinics over a 6-month period in 2012. Subjects with stable asthma and/or allergic rhinitis who were free of eczema and food allergy as well as non-allergic children were recruited from attendants at our out-patient clinics as a reference group. Intake of various foods and nutrients was recorded using a food frequency questionnaire that was analysed using Foodworks Professional software. Bone mineral density at the radius and the tibia was measured by quantitative ultrasound bone sonometry, and urinary cross-linked telopeptides were quantified by immunoassay and corrected for creatinine level. Overall, 114 children with eczema and 60 other children as reference group were recruited. Eczema severity of the patients was classified according to the objective SCORing Atopic Dermatitis score. Males had a higher daily energy intake than females (median, 7570 vs 6736 kJ; P=0.035), but intake of any single food item or nutrient did not differ between them. Compared with the reference group, children with eczema had a higher intake of soybeans and miscellaneous dairy products and lower intake of eggs, beef, and shellfish. Children with eczema also consumed less vitamin D, calcium, and iron. The mean (standard deviation) bone mineral density Z-score of children with eczema and those in the reference group were 0.52 (0.90) and 0.55 (1.12) over the radius (P=0.889), and 0.02 (1.03) and -0.01 (1.13) over the tibia (P=0.886), respectively. Urine telopeptide levels were similar between the groups. Calcium intake

  15. Dietary Fat Intake and Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Meng, Qingyang; Xi, Qiulei; Zhuang, Qiulin; Han, Yusong; Gao, Ying; Ding, Qiurong; Wu, Guohao

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Consumption of dietary fat has been reported to be associated with gastric cancer risk, but the results of epidemiologic studies remain inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize the evidence regarding the association between dietary fat intake and gastric cancer risk. Methods A comprehensive search of PubMed and EMBASE was performed to identify observational studies providing quantitative estimates between dietary fat and gastric cancer risk. Random effects model was used to calculate the summary relative risk(SRR) in the highest versus lowest analysis. Categorical dose-response analysis was conducted to quantify the association between dietary fat intake and gastric cancer risk. Heterogeneity among studies was evaluated using I2 and tau2(between study variance)statistics. Subgroup analysis and publication bias analysis were also performed. Results Twenty-two articles were included in the meta-analysis. The SRR for gastric cancer was 1.18 for individuals with highest intake versus lowest intake of total fat (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.999–1.39; n = 28; Pgastric cancer risk were observed. Conclusions Our results suggest that intake of total fat is potentially positively associated with gastric cancer risk, and specific subtypes of fats account for different effects. However, these findings should be confirmed by further well-designed cohort studieswith detailed dietary assessments and strict control of confounders. PMID:26402223

  16. A 10-Week Multimodal Nutrition Education Intervention Improves Dietary Intake among University Students: Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Razif Shahril

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing multimodal nutrition education intervention (NEI to improve dietary intake among university students. The design of study used was cluster randomised controlled design at four public universities in East Coast of Malaysia. A total of 417 university students participated in the study. They were randomly selected and assigned into two arms, that is, intervention group (IG or control group (CG according to their cluster. The IG received 10-week multimodal intervention using three modes (conventional lecture, brochures, and text messages while CG did not receive any intervention. Dietary intake was assessed before and after intervention and outcomes reported as nutrient intakes as well as average daily servings of food intake. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA and adjusted effect size were used to determine difference in dietary changes between groups and time. Results showed that, compared to CG, participants in IG significantly improved their dietary intake by increasing their energy intake, carbohydrate, calcium, vitamin C and thiamine, fruits and 100% fruit juice, fish, egg, milk, and dairy products while at the same time significantly decreased their processed food intake. In conclusion, multimodal NEI focusing on healthy eating promotion is an effective approach to improve dietary intakes among university students.

  17. Dietary assessment and self-monitoring with nutrition applications for mobile devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieffers, Jessica R L; Hanning, Rhona M

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition applications for mobile devices (e.g., personal digital assistants, smartphones) are becoming increasingly accessible and can assist with the difficult task of intake recording for dietary assessment and self-monitoring. This review is a compilation and discussion of research on this tool for dietary intake documentation in healthy populations and those trying to lose weight. The purpose is to compare this tool with conventional methods (e.g., 24-hour recall interviews, paper-based food records). Research databases were searched from January 2000 to April 2011, with the following criteria: healthy or weight loss populations, use of a mobile device nutrition application, and inclusion of at least one of three measures, which were the ability to capture dietary intake in comparison with conventional methods, dietary self-monitoring adherence, and changes in anthropometrics and/or dietary intake. Eighteen studies are discussed. Two application categories were identified: those with which users select food and portion size from databases and those with which users photograph their food. Overall, positive feedback was reported with applications. Both application types had moderate to good correlations for assessing energy and nutrient intakes in comparison with conventional methods. For self-monitoring, applications versus conventional techniques (often paper records) frequently resulted in better self-monitoring adherence, and changes in dietary intake and/or anthropometrics. Nutrition applications for mobile devices have an exciting potential for use in dietetic practice.

  18. Using Household Consumption and Expenditures Survey (HCES) data to assess dietary intake in relation to the nutrition transition: a case study from Cape Verde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dop, Marie Claude; Pereira, Clodomir; Mistura, Lorenza; Martinez, Claudio; Cardoso, Edith

    2012-09-01

    Few surveys of food and nutrient intakes are conducted at the individual level in low- and middle-income countries, whereas Household Consumption and Expenditures Surveys (HCES) are regularly carried out to monitor economic conditions. Because of the paucity of individual-level data, there is interest in using HCES to aid in the design of food and nutrition policies. Data from the 2001/02 HCES from Cape Verde were used to assess household dietary intakes in the context of the country's nutrition transition. The survey included weighed measurements of household food intake and measurements of the weight and height of all household members. Households were classified as "underweight" if they had at least one underweight member, "overweight" if they had at least one overweight member, and "dual burden" if they had at least one underweight and one overweight member. The proportion of households classified as underweight, overweight, and dual burden was 18%, 41%, and 14%, respectively. Household food and nutrient intakes were higher in the overweight households (particularly protein, vitamin A, and calcium) and lower in the underweight households, while there was no clear pattern of intakes in the dual burden group. Overweight households consumed more animal food groups than other households. Intakes of fruits and vegetables were low in all groups. The HCES data for Cape Verde were useful for assessing the extent of the nutrition transition and characterizing dietary intakes by anthropometric classification. Analysis of nutrient and food intakes showed that ensuring sufficient energy availability is no longer the most important issue for Cape Verde, but that ensuring dietary quality is equally crucial, in particular increasing access to fruits and vegetables.

  19. Body composition and habitual and match-day dietary intake of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of all the MVC rugby players (N=35), 18 completed the sections on body composition and match-day dietary intake, while 11 completed the habitual dietary intake section. Body composition data were collected by an International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry-accredited biokineticist. Habitual dietary ...

  20. Dietary intakes differ between renal transplant recipients living in patient hotels versus home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahra, Terhi; Jenssen, Trond; Løvik, Astrid

    2004-04-01

    To compare dietary intake and health-related quality of life approximately 6 to 10 weeks after renal transplantation in patients living at home and at a patient hotel, and how the patients were following a heart-healthy diet according to the current American Heart Association guidelines. Cross-sectional observational study. Outpatient clinic at Rikshospitalet University Hospital, Norway. Forty renal transplant patients, 20 patients (14 men and 6 women) in both groups. There were 4 diabetic patients in each group. Dietary intake was assessed by 4-day dietary records. Health-related quality of life was investigated by the SF-36 questionnaire. The main outcome variables were daily energy intake and intakes of protein, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, fiber, and fruit and vegetables. The variables were tested by 2-sample t-tests, and significance was set at.05. There was no statistically significant difference in daily energy intake between the groups (P =.08), but there were significantly higher daily intakes of protein (P =.003), total fat (P =.03), monounsaturated fat (P =.02), cholesterol (P =.04), fiber (P =.02), calcium (P =.03), and fruit and vegetables (P =.03) in the group living at the patient hotel. The mean intake of saturated fat was 14.5% of total energy in the group living at home and 14.6% in the group living at the patient hotel. There were no significant differences in health-related quality of life between the groups. The results suggest that there are differences in dietary intake in renal transplant patients living at home compared with those at a patient hotel. It seems that neither of the groups follows current guidelines for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  1. Maternal first-trimester dietary intake and childhood blood pressure: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hil, Leontine C L; Rob Taal, H; de Jonge, Layla L; Heppe, Denise H M; Steegers, Eric A P; Hofman, Albert; van der Heijden, Albert J; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2013-10-01

    Suboptimal maternal dietary intake during pregnancy might lead to fetal cardiovascular adaptations and higher blood pressure in the offspring. The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations of maternal first-trimester dietary intake with blood pressure in children at the age of 6 years. We assessed first-trimester maternal daily dietary intake by a FFQ and measured folate, homocysteine and vitamin B₁₂ concentrations in the blood, in a population-based prospective cohort study among 2863 mothers and children. Childhood systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured using a validated automatic sphygmomanometer. First-trimester maternal daily intake of energy, fat, protein and carbohydrate was not associated with childhood blood pressure. Furthermore, maternal intake of micronutrients was not associated with childhood blood pressure. Also, higher maternal vitamin B₁₂ concentrations were associated with a higher diastolic blood pressure (0·31 mmHg per standard deviation increase in vitamin B₁₂ (95% CI 0·06, 0·56)). After taking into account multiple testing, none of the associations was statistically significant. Maternal first-trimester folate and homocysteine concentrations were not associated with childhood blood pressure. The results from the present study suggest that maternal Fe intake and vitamin B₁₂ concentrations during the first trimester of pregnancy might affect childhood blood pressure, although the effect estimates were small and were not significant after correction for multiple testing. Further studies are needed to replicate these findings, to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and to assess whether these differences in blood pressure persist in later life.

  2. Dietary intake of carotenoids and risk of type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, I.; Cadier, E.; Beulens, J. W J; van der A, D. L.; Spijkerman, A. M W; van der Schouw, Y. T.

    Background and aims: Carotenoids may reduce diabetes risk, due to their antioxidant properties. However, the association between dietary carotenoids intake and type 2 diabetes risk is still unclear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine whether higher dietary carotenoid intakes

  3. Validation of biomarkers of food intake − critical assessment of candidate biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Lars Ove; Gao, Qian; Scalbert, Augustin

    2018-01-01

    Biomarkers of food intake (BFIs) are a promising tool for limiting misclassification in nutrition research where more subjective dietary assessment instruments are used. They may also be used to assess compliance to dietary guidelines or to a dietary intervention. Biomarkers therefore hold promis...

  4. Examining the relationship between family meal frequency and individual dietary intake: does family cohesion play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Ericka M; French, Simone A; Wall, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    To confirm previously reported associations between family meal frequency and dietary intake, and to examine family cohesion as a potential mediator of this relationship. Cross-sectional observational study. Data collected at baseline via questionnaire. Randomized, controlled household weight gain prevention trial. Participants were 152 adults and 75 adolescents from 90 community households. Family meal frequency assessed with a single question. Perceived family cohesion measured by the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale-III. Usual intake of targeted food items assessed with modified food frequency questionnaire. Hierarchical linear regression with mediation analysis. Statistical significance set at α-level .05. Family meal frequency was associated with intake of fruits and vegetables in adults, and sweets and sugar-sweetened beverages in adolescents. Family meal frequency was positively correlated with perceived family cohesion (r = 0.41, P family cohesion was observed for family meal frequency and sweets intake in adolescents. Results suggest that family cohesion is not a consistent mediator of relationship between family meal frequency and individual dietary intake. Future studies should assess additional plausible mediators of this relationship in order to better understand the effect of family meals on dietary intake. Copyright © 2011 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Is the relationship between sedentary behaviour and cardiometabolic health in adolescents independent of dietary intake? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, E; Leech, R; McNaughton, S A; Dunstan, D W; Lacy, K E; Salmon, J

    2015-09-01

    Screen time, but not overall sedentary behaviour, is consistently related to cardiometabolic health in adolescents. Because of the associations screen time has with dietary intake, diet may be an important factor in the screen time and health relationship; however, evidence has not previously been synthesized. Thus, the aim of this systematic review was to explore whether the associations between various sedentary behaviours and cardiometabolic risk markers are independent of dietary intake in adolescents. Online databases and personal libraries were searched for peer-reviewed original research articles published in English before March 2014. Included studies assessed associations between sedentary behaviour and cardiometabolic markers in 12- to 18-year-olds and adjusted for dietary intake. Twenty-five studies met the inclusion criteria. From the 21 studies examining sedentary behaviour and adiposity, the majority found significant positive associations between television viewing, screen time and self-reported overall sedentary behaviour with markers of adiposity, independent of dietary intake. No significant associations between screen time with blood pressure and cholesterol were reported. Sedentary behaviour appears to be associated with adiposity in adolescents, irrespective of dietary intake. However, the variability of dietary variables between studies suggests further work is needed to understand the role of dietary intake when examining these associations in youth. © 2015 World Obesity.

  6. The Association between Sweet Taste Function, Anthropometry, and Dietary Intake in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Julia Y Q; Lacy, Kathleen E; McBride, Robert; Keast, Russell S J

    2016-04-23

    Variation in ability to detect, recognize, and perceive sweetness may influence food consumption, and eventually chronic nutrition-related conditions such as overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake in adults. Participants' (n = 60; mean age in years = 26, SD = ±7.8) sweet taste function for a range of sweeteners (glucose, fructose, sucrose, sucralose, erythritol, and Rebaudioside A) was assessed by measuring detection and recognition thresholds and sweetness intensity. Height, weight, and waist circumference were also measured, and participants also completed a Food Frequency Questionnaire. There was large inter-individual variation in detection, recognition and sweetness intensity measures. Pearson's correlation coefficient revealed no robust correlations between measures of sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake, with the exception of suprathreshold intensity, which was moderately correlated with total energy intake (r = 0.23-0.40). One-way analysis of variance revealed no significant differences between the most and least sensitive participants in terms of BMI, waist circumference, and dietary intake for all measures of sweet taste function and sweeteners (all p > 0.01). When stratified into BMI categories, there were no significant differences in any measure of sweet taste function between the normal weight and overweight/obese participants (all p > 0.01). Results show that that sweet taste function is not associated with anthropometry and sweetness intensity measures are the most appropriate measure when assessing links between sweet taste and food consumption.

  7. Exposure assessment of adult intake of bisphenol A (BPA) with emphasis on canned food dietary exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, Matthew; Schecter, Arnold; Paepke, Olaf; Shropshire, William; Christensen, Krista; Birnbaum, Linda

    2015-04-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-volume, synthetic compound found in epoxy resins and plastics used in food packaging. Food is believed to be a major source of BPA intake. In this study, we measured the concentration of BPA in convenience samplings of foodstuffs purchased in Dallas, Texas. Sampling entailed collection of 204 samples of fresh, frozen, and canned foods in two rounds in 2010. BPA was positive in 73% of the canned food samples, while it was found in only 7% of non-canned foods at low concentrations. The results of this food sampling program were used to calculate adult dietary intakes of BPA. A pathway approach combined food intakes, a "canned fraction" parameter which described what portion of total intake of that food came from canned products, and measured food concentrations. Dietary intakes were calculated as 12.6 ng/kg-day, of which 12.4 ng/kg-day was from canned foods. Canned vegetable intakes alone were 11.9 ng/kg-day. This dietary intake was compared to total intakes of BPA estimated from urine measurements of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Total adult central tendency intakes ranged from 30 to 70 ng/kg-day for NHANES cycles between 2005 and 2010. Three possibilities were explored to explain the difference between these two approaches for intake estimation. Not all foods which may have been canned, particularly canned beverages such as soft drinks, were sampled in our food sampling program. Second, non-food pathways of exposure may be important for adults, including thermal paper exposures, and dust and air exposures. Finally, our canned food concentrations may not be adequately representative of canned foods in the United States; they were found to be generally lower compared to canned food concentrations measured in six other worldwide food surveys including three in North America. Our finding that canned food concentrations greatly exceeded non-canned concentrations was consistent with other studies, and

  8. Dietary fat intake and nutritional status indicators of primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels, as well as dietary fat intakes usually associated with cardiovascular ... higher than the national prevalence rate of 10%. ... Serum cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels were within the normal ... The total dietary fat intakes showed significant relationships with

  9. Use of a Mobile Application for Self-Monitoring Dietary Intake: Feasibility Test and an Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Eun; Song, Sihan; Ahn, Jeong Sun; Kim, Yoonhee; Lee, Jung Eun

    2017-07-13

    Given the increasing social and economic burden of chronic disease and the need for efficient approaches to prevent and treat chronic disease, emphasis on the use of information and communication technology (ICT)-based health care has emerged. We aimed to test the feasibility of a mobile application, Diet-A, and examine whether Diet-A could be used to monitor dietary intake among adolescents. In a three-month pre-post intervention study, 9 male and 24 female high school students aged 16-18 years consented and participated in this study. Participants were instructed to record all foods and beverages consumed using voice or text mode input. Nutrient intake was measured using 24-h recalls pre- and post-intervention. We compared nutrient intake data assessed by Diet-A application with those assessed by 24-h recalls. Participants tended to underreport intakes of nutrients compared to those assessed by two 24-h recalls. There were significant decreases in sodium ( p = 0.04) and calcium ( p = 0.03) intake between pre- and post-intervention. Of participants who completed questionnaires of feasibility ( n = 24), 61.9% reported that they were satisfied using the application to monitor their food intake, and 47.7% liked getting personal information about their dietary intake from the application. However, more than 70% of participants answered that it was burdensome to use the application or that they had trouble remembering to record their food intake. The mobile application Diet-A offers the opportunity to monitor dietary intake through real-time feedback. However, use of Diet-A may not provide accurate information on the food intake of adolescents, partly because of the recording burden.

  10. Assessment of the Dietary Intake of Schoolchildren in South Africa: 15 Years after the First National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelia Steyn

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available There has not been a national dietary study in children in South Africa since 1999. Fortification of flour and maize meal became mandatory in October 2003 to address micronutrient deficiencies found in the national study in 1999. The purpose of this review was to identify studies done after 1999 in schoolchildren, 6–15 years old, in order to determine whether dietary intakes reflected improvements in micronutrients, namely: iron, zinc, vitamin A, folate, thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and niacin. An electronic and hand search was done to identify all studies complying with relevant inclusion criteria. The search yielded 10 studies. Overall, there is a paucity of dietary studies which have included the fortified nutrients; only four, of which only one, reported on all micronutrients; making it difficult to determine whether fortification has improved the micronutrient intake of schoolchildren. This is further complicated by the fact that different dietary methods were used and that studies were only done in three of the nine provinces and thus are not generalizable. The results of these studies clearly point to the importance of doing a national study on the dietary intake of schoolchildren in order to confirm the outcomes of the fortification process.

  11. Dutch food bank recipients have poorer dietary intakes than the general and low-socioeconomic status Dutch adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neter, J E; Dijkstra, S C; Dekkers, A L M; Ocké, M C; Visser, M; Brouwer, I A

    2017-10-03

    Food-assistance program users are a specific group of nutritional concern, as they are often food insufficient and have poorer diet quality compared to non-food-assistance program users. The aim of our study was to assess dietary intake of Dutch food bank recipients (n = 167) and to compare this with dietary intake of a representative sample of the general population (Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (DNFCS-all): n = 1933), including a low-socioeconomic status (SES) sample (DNFCS-low SES: n = 312), using data from the DNFCS 2007-2010. In this cross-sectional study, 12 food banks throughout The Netherlands participated. Food bank recipients' characteristics were assessed with a self-administered questionnaire. Dietary intake data were collected through three 24-h recalls. Habitual dietary intake (mean, percentiles, and 95% CI) was estimated for all samples. Differences between samples were determined by comparing the 95% CIs. Mean age of the study population (62.9% female) was 48.6 years (SD:10.1). Mean energy intake was 1986 (95% CI 1830-2089) kcal. The majority of the Dutch food bank recipients had lower intakes than dietary reference intakes for dietary fiber, fruit, vegetables, and fish (range 86.6-99.3%), and a higher intake for saturated fat [88.1% (95% CI 84.1-98.9)]. Furthermore, mean intakes of energy, fiber, fruit, and vegetables were significantly lower in Dutch food bank recipients than in the DNFCS-all and the DNFCS-low-SES [e.g., daily mean fruit intake (g) food bank recipients 62.8 (95% CI 45.5-76.5), DNFCS-all 105.8 (95% CI 105.4-117.9), and DNFCS-low-SES 85.1 (95% CI 78.7-100.2)]. Fish intake was significantly lower compared with the DNFCS-all, but not compared with the DNFCS-low-SES. Dutch food bank recipients, who largely rely on the content of food parcels, are not able to meet the nutritional guidelines for a healthy diet, and their dietary intake is poorer than the general as well as the low-SES sample of the Dutch adult population

  12. Population versus hospital controls in the assessment of dietary intake of isoflavone for case-control studies on cancers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Zhang, Min; Holman, C D'Arcy J

    2013-01-01

    To assess dietary isoflavone intake between population and hospital outpatient controls and examine if cancer risks estimated for isoflavone using hospital outpatient controls would be different from those using population controls. Three parallel case-control studies on leukemia, breast, and colorectal cancers in China in 2009-2010 were conducted, using population and hospital outpatient controls to separately match 560 incident cases at a 1:1 ratio. A validated food frequency questionnaire was administered by face-to-face interview. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The 2 control groups had closely similar distributions of dietary isoflavone intake. Risk estimates for breast cancers were adjusted ORs (95% CI) of 0.39 (0.23-0.66) and 0.31 (0.18-0.55) for daidzein, 0.35 (0.20-0.61) and 0.28 (0.16-0.52) for genistein, 0.66 (0.41-1.08) and 0.53 (0.32-0.88) for glycitein, and 0.53 (0.33-0.85) and 0.43 (0.26-0.71) for total isoflavone using hospital outpatient and population controls respectively. The study found that hospital outpatient controls were comparable to population controls in measured dietary intake of isoflavone in the Chinese hospital setting.

  13. Within- and between-individual variation in energy and nutrient intake in Japanese adults: effect of age and sex differences on group size and number of records required for adequate dietary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, Azusa; Asakura, Keiko; Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Okubo, Hitomi; Hirota, Naoko; Notsu, Akiko; Todoriki, Hidemi; Miura, Ayako; Fukui, Mitsuru; Date, Chigusa

    2013-01-01

    Information on within- and between-individual variation in energy and nutrient intake is critical for precisely estimating usual dietary intake; however, data from Japanese populations are limited. We used dietary records to examine within- and between-individual variation by age and sex in the intake of energy and 31 selected nutrients among Japanese adults. We also calculated the group size required to estimate mean intake for a group and number of days required both to rank individuals within a group and to assess an individual's usual intake, all with appropriate arbitrary precision. A group of Japanese women (younger: 30-49 years, n = 58; older: 50-69 years, n = 63) and men (younger: 30-49 years, n = 54; older: 50-76 years, n = 67) completed dietary records for 4 nonconsecutive days in each season (16 days in total). Coefficients of within-individual variation and between-individual variation were generally larger in the younger group than in the older group and in men as compared with women. The group size required to estimate a group's mean intake, and number of days required to assess an individual's usual intake, were generally larger for the younger group and for men. In general, a longer period was required to rank women and older adults. In a group of Japanese adults, coefficients of within-individual variation and between-individual variation, which were used to estimate the group size and number of records required for adequate dietary assessment, differed by age, sex, and nutrient.

  14. Dietary fibre in Europe: current state of knowledge on definitions, sources, recommendations, intakes and relationships to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Alison M; Champ, Martine M-J; Cloran, Susan J; Fleith, Mathilde; van Lieshout, Lilou; Mejborn, Heddie; Burley, Victoria J

    2017-12-01

    Research into the analysis, physical properties and health effects of dietary fibre has continued steadily over the last 40-50 years. From the knowledge gained, countries have developed guidelines for their populations on the optimal amount of fibre to be consumed each day. Food composition tables from many countries now contain values for the dietary fibre content of foods, and, from these, combined with dietary surveys, population intakes have been determined. The present review assessed the uniformity of the analytical methods used, health claims permitted, recommendations and intakes, particularly from national surveys across Europe and around the world. It also assessed current knowledge on health effects of dietary fibre and related the impact of different fibre types on health. The overall intent was to be able to provide more detailed guidance on the types of fibre which should be consumed for good health, rather than simply a total intake figure, the current situation. Analysis of data indicated a fair degree of uniformity in the definition of dietary fibre, the method used for analysis, the recommended amount to be consumed and a growing literature on effects on digestive health and disease risk. However, national dietary survey data showed that intakes do not reach recommendations and very few countries provide guidance on the types of fibre that are preferable to achieve recommended intakes. Research gaps were identified and ideas suggested to provide information for more detailed advice to the public about specific food sources that should be consumed to achieve health benefits.

  15. Dietary Intakes of Urban, High Body Mass Index, African American Children: Family and Child Dietary Attributes Predict Child Intakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Raman, Aarthi; Sharma, Sushma; Fitch, Mark D.; Fleming, Sharon E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify family and child nutrition and dietary attributes related to children's dietary intakes. Design: African American children (ages 8-11 years, n = 156), body mass index greater than 85th percentile, from urban, low-income neighborhoods. Baseline, cross-sectional data collected as part of an ongoing diabetes prevention…

  16. Dietary taurine and nutrients intake and anthropometric and body composition data by abdominal obesity in Korean male college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Min Jung; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between abdominal obesity and dietary taurine intake, nutrient intake, anthropometric data and body composition in Korean male college students. One hundred seventy four subjects were divided into 2 groups based on abdominal obesity as estimated by waist circumference (cm) (Lee et al. 2006): normal group (waist circumference (cm): obese group (waist circumference (cm): > or = 90 cm, n = 33). A three day-recall method was used to assess diet (2 weekdays and 1 weekend). Anthropometric data and body composition were measured with Inbody 3.0 (Bioelectrical Impedance Fatness Analyzer). Average dietary intake of taurine in the normal and obese groups was 123.1 +/- 78.8 mg/day and 128.4 +/- 79.6 mg/day, respectively. There was no significant difference in dietary taurine and nutrient intake between the normal and obese groups. However, data of anthropometric measurements and body composition in the obese group were significantly elevated compared to those of the normal group. In the normal group, dietary taurine intake was positively correlated with nutrient intake (p obese group, dietary taurine intake was positively correlated with the intake of energy foods and of animal lipid (p obese group. Therefore, the data suggest that further study is warranted to examine the relationship between dietary taurine intake and abdominal obesity.

  17. Fatty acid intakes of children and adolescents are not in line with the dietary intake recommendations for future cardiovascular health: a systematic review of dietary intake data from thirty countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harika, Rajwinder K; Cosgrove, Maeve C; Osendarp, Saskia J M; Verhoef, Petra; Zock, Peter L

    2011-08-01

    Fatty acid composition of the diet may influence cardiovascular risk from early childhood onwards. The objective of the present study was to perform a systematic review of dietary fat and fatty acid intakes in children and adolescents from different countries around the world and compare these with the population nutrient intake goals for prevention of chronic diseases as defined by the WHO (2003). Data on fat and fatty acid intake were mainly collected from national dietary surveys and from population studies all published during or after 1995. These were identified by searching PubMed, and through nutritionists at local Unilever offices in different countries. Fatty acid intake data from thirty countries mainly from developed countries were included. In twenty-eight of the thirty countries, mean SFA intakes were higher than the recommended maximum of 10 % energy, whereas in twenty-one out of thirty countries mean PUFA intakes were below recommended (6-10 % energy). More and better intake data are needed, in particular for developing regions of the world, and future research should determine the extent to which improvement of dietary fatty acid intake in childhood translates into lower CHD risk in later life. Despite these limitations, the available data clearly indicate that in the majority of the countries providing data on fatty acid intake, less than half of the children and adolescents meet the SFA and PUFA intake goals that are recommended for the prevention of chronic diseases.

  18. Dietary Iodine Intake of the Australian Population after Introduction of a Mandatory Iodine Fortification Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Charlton

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To address mild iodine deficiency in Australia, a mandatory fortification program of iodised salt in bread was implemented in 2009. This study aimed to determine factors associated with achieving an adequate dietary iodine intake in the Australian population post-fortification, and to assess whether bread consumption patterns affect iodine intake in high-risk groups. Using nationally representative data of repeated 24-h dietary recalls from the 2011–2012 Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, dietary iodine intakes and food group contributions were compared by age, socioeconomic status (SES, and geographical remoteness (N = 7735. The association between fortified bread intake and adequacy of iodine intake (meeting age and sex-specific Estimated Average Requirements was investigated using logistic regression models in women of childbearing age 14–50 years (n = 3496 and children aged 2–18 years (n = 1772. The effect of SES on bread consumption was further investigated in a sub group of children aged 5–9 years (n = 488. Main sources of iodine intake at the time of the survey were cereal and cereal products, followed by milk products and dishes. Differences in iodine intake and dietary iodine habits according to age, SES and location were found (p < 0.001 for women of child-bearing age. Fortified bread consumption at ≥100 g/day was associated with five times greater odds of achieving an adequate iodine intake (OR 5.0, 95% CI 4.96–5.13; p < 0.001 compared to lower bread consumption in women and 12 times in children (OR 12.34, 95% CI 1.71–89.26; p < 0.001. Disparities in dietary iodine intake exist within sectors of the Australian population, even after mandatory fortification of a staple food. On-going monitoring and surveillance of iodine status is required.

  19. Using Two Different Approaches to Assess Dietary Patterns: Hypothesis-Driven and Data-Driven Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágatha Nogueira Previdelli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of dietary patterns to assess dietary intake has become increasingly common in nutritional epidemiology studies due to the complexity and multidimensionality of the diet. Currently, two main approaches have been widely used to assess dietary patterns: data-driven and hypothesis-driven analysis. Since the methods explore different angles of dietary intake, using both approaches simultaneously might yield complementary and useful information; thus, we aimed to use both approaches to gain knowledge of adolescents’ dietary patterns. Food intake from a cross-sectional survey with 295 adolescents was assessed by 24 h dietary recall (24HR. In hypothesis-driven analysis, based on the American National Cancer Institute method, the usual intake of Brazilian Healthy Eating Index Revised components were estimated. In the data-driven approach, the usual intake of foods/food groups was estimated by the Multiple Source Method. In the results, hypothesis-driven analysis showed low scores for Whole grains, Total vegetables, Total fruit and Whole fruits, while, in data-driven analysis, fruits and whole grains were not presented in any pattern. High intakes of sodium, fats and sugars were observed in hypothesis-driven analysis with low total scores for Sodium, Saturated fat and SoFAA (calories from solid fat, alcohol and added sugar components in agreement, while the data-driven approach showed the intake of several foods/food groups rich in these nutrients, such as butter/margarine, cookies, chocolate powder, whole milk, cheese, processed meat/cold cuts and candies. In this study, using both approaches at the same time provided consistent and complementary information with regard to assessing the overall dietary habits that will be important in order to drive public health programs, and improve their efficiency to monitor and evaluate the dietary patterns of populations.

  20. Neighborhood restaurant availability and frequency of eating out in relation to dietary intake in young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to food service establishments is considered to encourage consumption and contribute to poorer diet quality, and hence adverse health profiles. However, empirical verification of these links remains rare, particularly in young adults and non-Western populations. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to test the hypothesis that neighborhood restaurant availability and frequency of eating out are associated with unfavorable patterns of dietary intake and thus possibly higher body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in young Japanese women. The subjects were 989 female Japanese dietetic students 18 to 22 y of age. Dietary intake and frequency of eating out (i.e., consumption of commercially prepared meals) during the preceding month were assessed using a comprehensive, self-administered diet history questionnaire. Neighborhood restaurant availability was defined as the number of restaurants within a 0.5-mile (0.8-km) radius of residence (i.e., full-service restaurants, limited-service restaurants, and cafeterias). Increasing frequency of eating out was associated with higher intake of meat, confectionery and bread, and dietary fat, lower intake of fruit and vegetables, rice, and dietary fiber, and higher dietary energy density. However, neighborhood restaurant availability was not associated with either the frequency of eating out or any of the dietary variables examined. Further, frequency of eating out and neighborhood restaurant availability were not associated with BMI or waist circumference. In conclusion, although frequency of eating out was positively associated with unfavorable dietary intake patterns in a group of young Japanese women, neighborhood restaurant availability was not associated with frequency of eating out or dietary intake.

  1. Maternal dietary fat intake in association with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyall, Kristen; Munger, Kassandra L; O'Reilly, Éilis J; Santangelo, Susan L; Ascherio, Alberto

    2013-07-15

    Our goal in this study was to determine whether maternal fat intake before or during pregnancy was associated with risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the offspring. Our primary analysis included 317 mothers who reported a child with ASD and 17,728 comparison mothers from the Nurses' Health Study II (index births in 1991-2007). Dietary information was collected prospectively through a validated food frequency questionnaire. Binomial regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted risk ratios. Maternal intake of linoleic acid was significantly inversely associated with ASD risk in offspring, corresponding to a 34% reduction in risk in the highest versus lowest quartiles of intake. Mothers in the lowest 5% of ω-3 fatty acid intake had a significant increase in offspring ASD risk as compared with the remaining distribution (risk ratio = 1.53, 95% confidence interval: 1.00, 2.32); this association was also seen in the subgroup of women (86 cases and 5,798 noncases) for whom dietary information during pregnancy was available (risk ratio = 2.42, 95% confidence interval: 1.19, 4.91). Thus, variations in intake of polyunsaturated fats within the range commonly observed among US women could affect fetal brain development and ASD risk. Because the number of women with diet assessed during pregnancy was small, however, these results should be interpreted cautiously.

  2. Caffeine levels in beverages from Argentina's market: application to caffeine dietary intake assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, V; Bardoni, N; Ridolfi, A S; Villaamil Lepori, E C

    2009-03-01

    The caffeine content of different beverages from Argentina's market was measured. Several brands of coffees, teas, mates, chocolate milks, soft and energy drinks were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detection. The highest concentration level was found in short coffee (1.38 mg ml(-1)) and the highest amount per serving was found in instant coffee (95 mg per serving). A consumption study was also carried out among 471 people from 2 to 93 years of age to evaluate caffeine total dietary intake by age and to identify the sources of caffeine intake. The mean caffeine intake among adults was 288 mg day(-1) and mate was the main contributor to that intake. The mean caffeine intake among children of 10 years of age and under was 35 mg day(-1) and soft drinks were the major contributors to that intake. Children between 11 and 15 years old and teenagers (between 16 and 20 years) had caffeine mean intakes of 120 and 240 mg day(-1), respectively, and mate was the major contributor to those intakes. Drinking mate is a deep-rooted habit among Argentine people and it might be the reason for their elevated caffeine mean daily intake.

  3. Higher Dietary Choline and Betaine Intakes Are Associated with Better Body Composition in the Adult Population of Newfoundland, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gao

    Full Text Available Choline is an essential nutrient and betaine is an osmolyte and methyl donor. Both are important to maintain health including adequate lipid metabolism. Supplementation of dietary choline and betaine increase muscle mass and reduce body fat in animals. However, little data is available regarding the role of dietary choline and betaine on body composition in humans.To investigate the association between dietary choline and betaine intakes with body composition in a large population based cross-sectional study.A total of 3214 subjects from the CODING (Complex Disease in Newfoundland population: Environment and Genetics study were assessed. Dietary choline and betaine intakes were computed from the Willett Food Frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry following a 12-hour fast. Major confounding factors including age, sex, total calorie intake and physical activity level were controlled in all analyses.Significantly inverse correlations were found between dietary choline and betaine intakes, with all obesity measurements: total percent body fat (%BF, percent trunk fat (%TF, percent android fat (%AF, percent gynoid fat (%GF and anthropometrics: weight, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio in both women and men (r range from -0.13 to -0.47 for choline and -0.09 to -0.26 for betaine, p<0.001 for all. Dietary choline intake had stronger association than betaine. Moreover, obese subjects had the lowest dietary choline and betaine intakes, with overweight subjects in the middle, and normal weight subjects consumed the highest dietary choline and betaine (p<0.001. Vice versa, when subjects were ranked according to dietary choline and betaine intakes, subjects with the highest intake of both had the lowest %TF, %AF, %GF, %BF and highest %LM among the groups in both sexes.Our findings indicate that high dietary choline and betaine intakes are significantly associated with favorable body

  4. Examination of vitamin intakes among US adults by dietary supplement use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Regan Lucas; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2012-05-01

    More than half of US adults use dietary supplements. Some reports suggest that supplement users have higher vitamin intakes from foods than nonusers, but this observation has not been examined using nationally representative survey data. The purpose of this analysis was to examine vitamin intakes from foods by supplement use and how dietary supplements contribute to meeting or exceeding the Dietary Reference Intakes for selected vitamins using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey among adults (aged ≥19 years) in 2003-2006 (n=8,860). Among male users, mean intakes of folate and vitamins A, E, and K from food sources were significantly higher than among nonusers. Among women, mean intakes of folate and vitamins A, C, D, and E from foods were higher among users than nonusers. Total intakes (food and supplements) were higher for every vitamin we examined among users than the dietary vitamin intakes of nonusers. Supplement use helped lower the prevalence of intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement for every vitamin we examined, but for folic acid and vitamins A, B-6, and C, supplement use increased the likelihood of intakes above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level. Supplement use was associated with higher mean intakes of some vitamins from foods among users than nonusers, but it was not associated with the prevalence of intakes less than the Estimated Average Requirement from foods. Those who do not use vitamin supplements had significantly higher prevalence of inadequate vitamin intakes; however, the use of supplements can contribute to excess intake for some vitamins. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Examination of Vitamin Intakes among US Adults by Dietary Supplement Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Regan Lucas; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Keast, Debra R.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

    2013-01-01

    Background More than half of US adults use dietary supplements. Some reports suggest that supplement users have higher vitamin intakes from foods than nonusers, but this observation has not been examined using nationally representative survey data. Objective The purpose of this analysis was to examine vitamin intakes from foods by supplement use and how dietary supplements contribute to meeting or exceeding the Dietary Reference Intakes for selected vitamins using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey among adults (aged ≥19 years) in 2003–2006 (n=8,860). Results Among male users, mean intakes of folate and vitamins A, E, and K from food sources were significantly higher than among nonusers. Among women, mean intakes of folate and vitamins A, C, D, and E from foods were higher among users than nonusers. Total intakes (food and supplements) were higher for every vitamin we examined among users than the dietary vitamin intakes of nonusers. Supplement use helped lower the prevalence of intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement for every vitamin we examined, but for folic acid and vitamins A, B-6, and C, supplement use increased the likelihood of intakes above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level. Conclusions Supplement use was associated with higher mean intakes of some vitamins from foods among users than nonusers, but it was not associated with the prevalence of intakes less than the Estimated Average Requirement from foods. Those who do not use vitamin supplements had significantly higher prevalence of inadequate vitamin intakes; however, the use of supplements can contribute to excess intake for some vitamins. PMID:22709770

  6. The Association between Sweet Taste Function, Anthropometry, and Dietary Intake in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Y. Q. Low

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Variation in ability to detect, recognize, and perceive sweetness may influence food consumption, and eventually chronic nutrition-related conditions such as overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake in adults. Participants’ (n = 60; mean age in years = 26, SD = ±7.8 sweet taste function for a range of sweeteners (glucose, fructose, sucrose, sucralose, erythritol, and Rebaudioside A was assessed by measuring detection and recognition thresholds and sweetness intensity. Height, weight, and waist circumference were also measured, and participants also completed a Food Frequency Questionnaire. There was large inter-individual variation in detection, recognition and sweetness intensity measures. Pearson’s correlation coefficient revealed no robust correlations between measures of sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake, with the exception of suprathreshold intensity, which was moderately correlated with total energy intake (r = 0.23–0.40. One-way analysis of variance revealed no significant differences between the most and least sensitive participants in terms of BMI, waist circumference, and dietary intake for all measures of sweet taste function and sweeteners (all p > 0.01. When stratified into BMI categories, there were no significant differences in any measure of sweet taste function between the normal weight and overweight/obese participants (all p > 0.01. Results show that that sweet taste function is not associated with anthropometry and sweetness intensity measures are the most appropriate measure when assessing links between sweet taste and food consumption.

  7. Using skin carotenoids to assess potential dietary changes after one academic year in the Shaping Healthy Choices Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reported dietary intake is often used in community interventions to assess intake of fruits and vegetables (F/V); however, dietary assessment methods are inaccurate, and time and labor intensive. Skin carotenoids are a potential biomarker to assess F/V intake given that carotenoids are predominately...

  8. Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis to assess dietary intake of selenium in Korean adults from meat and eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Jong-Hwa; Kim, Sun-Ha; Chung, Yong-Sam; Lee, Ok-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Selenium is a key constituent of enzyme in glutathione peroxidase, which is effective in decreasing various types of oxidative stress, Thus, the adequacy of selenium intake is very important in decreasing the risks of various degenerating diseases such as cardiovascular disease, or certain cancers. Lately, the intake of animal foods is increasing among Koreans owing to a dietary transition toward a western style. This study was conducted to measure the selenium content in meat and eggs, and then assessed the selenium intake from these foods. Forty frequently eaten items among meat and eggs were analyzed using an Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The selenium content in 100g of raw meat and eggs ranged from 8.1ug to 50.9ug. In particular, 100g of beef contained 12.4ug to 50.9ug of selenium; pork, 11.2ug to 22.6ug chicken, 10.2ug to 13.7ug and eggs, 28.6ug to 43.0ug. Thus, beef viscera and chicken eggs contain the highest amounts of selenium among these groups. 100g of Pork belly, the most frequently eaten meat type among Koreans, contains 14.6ug of selenium. An evaluation of dietary selenium intake shows that the total selenium supply from meats and eggs was 28.4ug/day and 27.5 ug/day in adult men and women, respectively. These are over one-half of the Korean RNI (Recommended Daily Intake) of 55ug/day. (author)

  9. A mobile phone food record app to digitally capture dietary intake for adolescents in a free-living environment: Usability study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Mobile technologies are emerging as a valuable tool to collect and assess dietary intake. Adolescents readily accept and adopt new technologies; hence, a food record application (FRapp) may be used as a tool to promote a better understanding of adolescent’s dietary intake and eating patt...

  10. Use of food practices by childcare staff and the association with dietary intake of children at childcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbels, Jessica S; Gerards, Sanne M P L; Kremers, Stef P J

    2015-03-27

    The study explored the associations between various childcare staff food practices and children's dietary intake at childcare. A total of 398 one- to four-year-old children and 24 childcare staff members from 24 Dutch childcare centers participated in the study. Children's dietary intake (fruit, vegetable, sweet snack, savory snack, water, and sweet drink intake) at childcare was registered on two weekdays, using observations by dieticians and childcare staff. Thirteen childcare staff practices were assessed using questionnaires administered by dieticians. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression analyses. Children consumed relatively much fruit and many sweet snacks at childcare, and they mainly drank sweet drinks. Various staff practices were associated with children's dietary intake. When staff explained what they were doing to the children during food preparation, children ate significantly more fruit. Children ate less sweet snacks when they were allowed to help prepare the meals. When staff encouraged children to continue eating, they ate more vegetables. In conclusion, the study showed the importance of childcare staff food practices for children's food intake at childcare. More research is needed to examine the specific conditions under which food practices can have a positive impact on children's dietary intake.

  11. High Dietary Protein Intake and Protein-Related Acid Load on Bone Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jay J

    2017-12-01

    Consumption of high-protein diets is increasingly popular due to the benefits of protein on preserving lean mass and controlling appetite and satiety. The paper is to review recent clinical research assessing dietary protein on calcium metabolism and bone health. Epidemiological studies show that long-term, high-protein intake is positively associated with bone mineral density and reduced risk of bone fracture incidence. Short-term interventional studies demonstrate that a high-protein diet does not negatively affect calcium homeostasis. Existing evidence supports that the negative effects of the acid load of protein on urinary calcium excretion are offset by the beneficial skeletal effects of high-protein intake. Future research should focus on the role and the degree of contribution of other dietary and physiological factors, such as intake of fruits and vegetables, in reducing the acid load and further enhancing the anabolic effects of protein on the musculoskeletal system.

  12. Dietary intake of trace elements, minerals, and vitamins of patients on chronic hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossola, Maurizio; Di Stasio, Enrico; Viola, Antonella; Leo, Alessandra; Carlomagno, Giusy; Monteburini, Tania; Cenerelli, Stefano; Santarelli, Stefano; Boggi, Rolando; Miggiano, Giacinto; Vulpio, Carlo; Mele, Cristina; Tazza, Luigi

    2014-04-01

    We aimed to estimate dietary intakes of trace elements, minerals, and vitamins in hemodialysis patients (HDP) of three centers in one metropolitan and two urban areas of Italy. Daily dietary intake was assessed using a 3-day diet diary in 128 HDP. Mean daily intakes of trace elements were as follows: zinc, 7.6 ± 5.4 mg; copper, 14.3 ± 11.8 mg; selenium, 28.3 ± 18.1 μg; and iron, 7.2 ± 4.1 mg (7.8 ± 2.6 mg in women, 6.9 ± 2.4 mg in men). The distribution of patients by daily intakes of trace elements showed most were under the recommended values, with the exception of copper intake, which was much higher. Mean daily intakes of minerals were as follows: magnesium, 174.4 ± 94.3 mg; phosphorus, 842.6 ± 576.8 mg; calcium, 371.8 ± 363.7 mg; potassium, 1,616.2 ± 897.3 mg; and sodium, 1,350 ± 1,281 mg. Mean daily intakes of vitamins were as follows: vitamin A, 486.1 ± 544.6 μg; vitamin B1, 0.86 ± 0.7 mg; vitamin B2, 1.1 ± 0.7 mg; vitamin B3, 13.3 ± 8.1 mg; vitamin C, 47.8 ± 50.3 mg; and vitamin E, 9.5 ± 3.6 mg. The distribution of patients by daily intakes of vitamins showed most were under the recommended values. Daily intakes of trace elements and vitamins were similar among the three centers and did not differ between dialysis and non-dialysis days. Many HDP have daily dietary intakes of trace elements and vitamins below the recommended values, whereas the intake of copper is much higher.

  13. Effects of the Healthy Start randomized intervention on dietary intake among obesity-prone normal-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Jeanett F.; Larsen, Sofus C.; Ängquist, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Start study was conducted during 2009–2011, focusing on changing diet, physical activity, sleep and stress management to prevent excessive weight gain among Danish children. Subjects: From a population of 635 Danish pre-school children, who had a high birth weight (≥4000 g), high maternal pre......Objective: The study aimed to evaluate the impact of a 15-month intervention on dietary intake conducted among obesity-prone normal-weight pre-school children. Design: Information on dietary intake was obtained using a 4 d diet record. A diet quality index was adapted to assess how well children......-pregnancy BMI (≥28·0 kg/m2) or low maternal educational level (schooling), 285 children completed the intervention and had complete information on dietary intake. Results: Children in the intervention group had a lower energy intake after the 15-month intervention (group means: 5·29 v. 5·59 MJ, P...

  14. A low pulse food intake may contribute to the poor nutritional status and low dietary intakes of adolescent girls in rural southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roba, Alemzewed C; Gabriel-Micheal, Kebebush; Zello, Gordon A; Jaffe, Joann; Whiting, Susan J; Henry, Carol J

    2015-01-01

    Poor nutrition in adolescent girls poses critical health risks on future pregnancy and birth outcomes especially in developing countries. Our purpose was to assess nutritional status and dietary intake of rural adolescent girls and determine pulse and food intake patterns associated with poor nutritional status. A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in a traditional pulse growing region of southern Ethiopia on 188 girls between 15 to 19 years of age, with 70% being from food insecure families. Prevalence of stunting (30.9%) and underweight (13.3%) were associated with low food and nutrient intake. Diets were cereal-based, with both animal source foods and pulses rarely consumed. Improving dietary intakes of female adolescents with nutrient dense foods would ensure better health for themselves and for the next generation.

  15. Assessment of a government-subsidized supermarket in a high-need area on household food availability and children's dietary intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbel, Brian; Moran, Alyssa; Dixon, L Beth; Kiszko, Kamila; Cantor, Jonathan; Abrams, Courtney; Mijanovich, Tod

    2015-10-01

    To assess the impact of a new government-subsidized supermarket in a high-need area on household food availability and dietary habits in children. A difference-in-difference study design was utilized. Two neighbourhoods in the Bronx, New York City. Outcomes were collected in Morrisania, the target community where the new supermarket was opened, and Highbridge, the comparison community. Parents/caregivers of a child aged 3-10 years residing in Morrisania or Highbridge. Participants were recruited via street intercept at baseline (pre-supermarket opening) and at two follow-up periods (five weeks and one year post-supermarket opening). Analysis is based on 2172 street-intercept surveys and 363 dietary recalls from a sample of predominantly low-income minorities. While there were small, inconsistent changes over the time periods, there were no appreciable differences in availability of healthful or unhealthful foods at home, or in children's dietary intake as a result of the supermarket. The introduction of a government-subsidized supermarket into an underserved neighbourhood in the Bronx did not result in significant changes in household food availability or children's dietary intake. Given the lack of healthful food options in underserved neighbourhoods and need for programmes that promote access, further research is needed to determine whether healthy food retail expansion, alone or with other strategies, can improve food choices of children and their families.

  16. Dietary iron intake in adolescent women in educational institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Vila, Mabel; Quintana, Margot

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia is a public health problem. The low dietary intake of iron is one of its causes. Objective: To determine the dietary iron intake in adolescent women. Design: Descriptive, cross type study. Setting: Educational Institutions in the district of Ancon, Lima. Participants: Three hundred and fifty-five adolescent high school female students in Ancon chosen at random. Interventions: Previous informed consent, a semi-quantitative food and beverage frequency questi...

  17. Dietary sodium intake is associated with total fluid and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in US children and adolescents aged 2-18 y: NHANES 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley A; Wright, Jacqueline D; Liu, Kiang; Nowson, Caryl A; Loria, Catherine M

    2013-07-01

    Increasing dietary sodium drives the thirst response. Because sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are frequently consumed by children, sodium intake may drive greater consumption of SSBs and contribute to obesity risk. We examined the association between dietary sodium, total fluid, and SSB consumption in a nationally representative sample of US children and adolescents aged 2-18 y. We analyzed cross-sectional data from NHANES 2005-2008. Dietary sodium, fluid, and SSB intakes were assessed with a 24-h dietary recall. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess associations between sodium, fluid, and SSBs adjusted for age, sex, race-ethnic group, body mass index (BMI), socioeconomic status (SES), and energy intake. Of 6400 participants, 51.3% (n = 3230) were males, and the average (±SEM) age was 10.1 ± 0.1 y. The average sodium intake was 3056 ± 48 mg/d (equivalent to 7.8 ± 0.1 g salt/d). Dietary sodium intake was positively associated with fluid consumption (r = 0.42, P sodium is positively associated with fluid consumption and predicted SSB consumption in consumers of SSBs. The high dietary sodium intake of US children and adolescents may contribute to a greater consumption of SSBs, identifying a possible link between dietary sodium intake and excess energy intake.

  18. Dietary Sources of High Sodium Intake in Turkey: SALTURK II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Erdem

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown daily salt intakes in Turkey to be far above the recommended limits. Knowing the sources of dietary salt could form a basis for preventive strategies aimed towards salt reduction. This study aimed to investigate dietary sources of salt in Turkey. A sub-group (n = 657 was selected from the PatenT2 study population, which represented the urban and rural areas of 4 major cities (Ankara, Istanbul, Izmir, and Konya. A questionnaire inquiring about sociodemographic characteristics, medical histories, detailed histories of diet, and salt consumption was completed. Participants were asked to collect a 24-h urine sample and to record their food intake (dietary recall on the same day. Of 925 participants selected, 657 (71% provided accurate 24-h urine collections, based on creatinine excretion data. The mean daily 24-h urinary sodium excretion was 252.0 ± 92.2 mmol/day, equal to daily salt intake of 14.8 ± 5.4 g. Of the 657 participants with accurate 24-h urine collections, 464 (70% provided fully completed dietary recalls. Among these 464 participants, there was a significant difference between the 24-h urinary sodium excretion-based salt intake estimation (14.5 ± 5.1 g/day and the dietary recall-based salt intake estimation (12.0 ± 7.0 g/day (p < 0.001. On the other hand, a positive correlation was obtained between the dietary recall-based daily salt intake and 24-h urinary sodium excretion-based daily salt intake (r = 0.277, p < 0.001. Bread was the main source of salt (34% followed by salt added during cooking and preparing food before serving (30%, salt from various processed foods (21%, and salt added at the table during food consumption (11%. Conclusively, this study confirmed a very high salt intake of the adult population in four major cities in Turkey. The present findings support the emerging salt reduction strategy in Turkey by promoting lower salt content in baked bread, and less salt use in habitual food

  19. Development and validation of a food frequency questionnaire for dietary intake assessment among multi-ethnic primary school-aged children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatihah, Fadil; Ng, Boon Koon; Hazwanie, Husin; Norimah, A Karim; Shanita, Safii Nik; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Poh, Bee Koon

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to develop and validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess habitual diets of multi-ethnic Malaysian children aged 7–12 years. METHODS A total of 236 primary school children participated in the development of the FFQ and 209 subjects participated in the validation study, with a subsample of 30 subjects participating in the reproducibility study. The FFQ, consisting of 94 food items from 12 food groups, was compared with a three-day dietary record (3DR) as the reference method. The reproducibility of the FFQ was assessed through repeat administration (FFQ2), seven days after the first administration (FFQ1). RESULTS The results of the validation study demonstrated good acceptance of the FFQ. Mean intake of macronutrients in FFQ1 and 3DR correlated well, although the FFQ intake data tended to be higher. Cross-classification of nutrient intake between the two methods showed that Malaysia. PMID:26702165

  20. Fast food consumption in Iranian adults; dietary intake and cardiovascular risk factors: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadoran, Zahra; Mirmiran, Parvin; Golzarand, Mahdieh; Hosseini-Esfahani, Firoozeh; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2012-06-01

    Although fast food consumption has drastically increased in Iran in recent years; there is a paucity of data in relation to the association between fast food consumption, dietary intake, and cardiovascular risk factors. This study aims to determine fast food consumption status among young and middle-aged Iranian adults, and to assess its impact on dietary intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. This cross-sectional population-based study was conducted on 1944 young and middle-aged adults (840 men and 1104 women), who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2006-2008). We collected dietary data by using a validated 168 item, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Total fast food consumption was calculated by summing up weekly consumption of the most commonly consumed fast foods in Iran. Mean consumption of fast food was 161g/week (95% CI: 147-175) for young adults and 108 g/week (95% CI: 101-115) for middle-aged adults. Mean dietary intakes of energy, fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, meat, and soft drinks increased significantly (P consumption decreased (P fast food in both age groups. In young adults, dietary energy density and protein intake increased significantly (P fast food tertiles (P fast food consumption and body mass index (BMI; β = 0.104; P consumption of fast foods is associated with poor dietary intake and some of the CVD risk factors in Iranian adults.

  1. The cut-off values of dietary energy intake for determining metabolic syndrome in hemodialysis patients: A clinical cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Tuyen Van; Wong, Te-Chih; Chen, Hsi-Hsien; Chen, Tzen-Wen; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Hsu, Yung-Ho; Peng, Sheng-Jeng; Kuo, Ko-Lin; Wang, Chi-Sin; Tseng, I-Hsin; Feng, Yi-Wei; Chang, Tai-Yue; Su, Chien-Tien

    2018-01-01

    Dietary energy intake strongly linked to dialysis outcomes. We aimed to explore the optimal cut-off point of energy intake (EI) for identification of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in hemodialysis patients. The cross-sectional data of 243 hemodialysis patients from multi-dialysis centers in Taiwan was used. The dietary intake was assessed by using the three-day dietary questionnaire, and a 24-hour dietary recall, clinical and biochemical data were also evaluated. The MetS was diagnosed by the Harmonized Metabolic Syndrome criteria. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was to depict the optimal cut-off value of EI for the diagnosis of MetS. The logistic regression was also used to explore the association between inadequate EI and MetS. The optimal cut-off points of EI for identifying the MetS were 26.7 kcal/kg/day for patients aged less than 60 years, or with non-diabetes, and 26.2 kcal/kg/day for patients aged 60 years and above, or with diabetes, respectively. The likelihood of the MetS increased with lower percentiles of energy intake in hemodialysis patients. In the multivariate analysis, the inadequate dietary energy intake strongly determined 3.24 folds of the MetS. The assessment of dietary EI can help healthcare providers detecting patients who are at risk of metabolic syndrome. PMID:29538427

  2. Dietary fibre intakes and reduction in functional constipation rates among Canadian adults: a cost-of-illness analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M. H. Abdullah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence-based research highlights beneficial impacts of dietary fibre on several aspects of the gut pathophysiology that are accompanied by a considerable financial burden in healthcare services. Recommended intakes of dietary fibre may thus associate with financial benefits at a population level. Objective: We sought to systematically assess the potential annual savings in healthcare costs that would follow the reduction in rates of functional constipation and irregularity with increased dietary fibre intakes among Canadian adults. Design: A cost-of-illness analysis was developed on the basis of current and recommended levels of fibre intake in Canada, constipation reduction per 1 g fibre intake, proportion of adults who are likely to consume fibre-rich diets, and population expected to respond to fibre intake. Sensitivity analyses covering a range of assumptions were further implemented within the economic simulation. Results: Our literature searches assumed a 1.8% reduction in constipation rates with each 1 g/day increase in fibre intake. With intakes corresponding to the Institute of Medicine's adequate levels of 38 g/day for men and 25 g/day for women, among 5 and 100% of the adult populations, anywhere between CAD$1.5 and CAD$31.9 million could be saved on constipation-related healthcare costs annually. Each 1 g/day increase in dietary fibre was estimated to result in total annual healthcare cost savings that ranged between CAD$0.1 and CAD$2.5 million. Conclusions: The present research suggests an economic value of increasing dietary fibre intake beyond its well-known health benefits. Healthy-eating behaviours consistent with the recommended intakes of dietary fibre by the general public should hence be advocated as a practical approach for reducing costs associated with the management of constipation in Canada.

  3. Associations between Dietary Iron and Zinc Intakes, and between Biochemical Iron and Zinc Status in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Lim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron and zinc are found in similar foods and absorption of both may be affected by food compounds, thus biochemical iron and zinc status may be related. This cross-sectional study aimed to: (1 describe dietary intakes and biochemical status of iron and zinc; (2 investigate associations between dietary iron and zinc intakes; and (3 investigate associations between biochemical iron and zinc status in a sample of premenopausal women aged 18–50 years who were recruited in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia. Usual dietary intakes were assessed using a 154-item food frequency questionnaire (n = 379. Iron status was assessed using serum ferritin and hemoglobin, zinc status using serum zinc (standardized to 08:00 collection, and presence of infection/inflammation using C-reactive protein (n = 326. Associations were explored using multiple regression and logistic regression. Mean (SD iron and zinc intakes were 10.5 (3.5 mg/day and 9.3 (3.8 mg/day, respectively. Median (interquartile range serum ferritin was 22 (12–38 μg/L and mean serum zinc concentrations (SD were 12.6 (1.7 μmol/L in fasting samples and 11.8 (2.0 μmol/L in nonfasting samples. For each 1 mg/day increase in dietary iron intake, zinc intake increased by 0.4 mg/day. Each 1 μmol/L increase in serum zinc corresponded to a 6% increase in serum ferritin, however women with low serum zinc concentration (AM fasting < 10.7 μmol/L; AM nonfasting < 10.1 μmol/L were not at increased risk of depleted iron stores (serum ferritin <15 μg/L; p = 0.340. Positive associations were observed between dietary iron and zinc intakes, and between iron and zinc status, however interpreting serum ferritin concentrations was not a useful proxy for estimating the likelihood of low serum zinc concentrations and women with depleted iron stores were not at increased risk of impaired zinc status in this cohort.

  4. Impact of dietary fiber intake on glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors and chronic kidney disease in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Fukuoka Diabetes Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Hiroki; Iwase, Masanori; Ohkuma, Toshiaki; Ogata-Kaizu, Shinako; Ide, Hitoshi; Kikuchi, Yohei; Idewaki, Yasuhiro; Joudai, Tamaki; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Uchida, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Nakamura, Udai; Kitazono, Takanari

    2013-12-11

    Dietary fiber is beneficial for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, although it is consumed differently in ethnic foods around the world. We investigated the association between dietary fiber intake and obesity, glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors and chronic kidney disease in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 4,399 patients were assessed for dietary fiber intake using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. The associations between dietary fiber intake and various cardiovascular risk factors were investigated cross-sectionally. Body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, triglyceride and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein negatively associated with dietary fiber intake after adjusting for age, sex, duration of diabetes, current smoking, current drinking, total energy intake, fat intake, saturated fatty acid intake, leisure-time physical activity and use of oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin. The homeostasis model assessment insulin sensitivity and HDL cholesterol positively associated with dietary fiber intake. Dietary fiber intake was associated with reduced prevalence of abdominal obesity, hypertension and metabolic syndrome after multivariate adjustments including obesity. Furthermore, dietary fiber intake was associated with lower prevalence of albuminuria, low estimated glomerular filtration rate and chronic kidney disease after multivariate adjustments including protein intake. Additional adjustments for obesity, hypertension or metabolic syndrome did not change these associations. We demonstrated that increased dietary fiber intake was associated with better glycemic control and more favorable cardiovascular disease risk factors including chronic kidney disease in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetic patients should be encouraged to consume more dietary fiber in daily life.

  5. Dietary protein intake in community-dwelling, frail, and institutionalized elderly people: scope for improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieland, C.A.B.; Borgonjen-van den Berg, K.J.; Loon, van L.C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    Adequate dietary protein intake is required to postpone and treat sarcopenia in elderly people. Insight into dietary protein intake in this heterogeneous population segment is needed to locate dietary inadequacies and to identify target populations and feeding strategies for dietary interventions.

  6. [Comparison of dietary survey, frequency and 24 hour urinary Na methods in evaluation of salt intake in the population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianhong; Lu, Zilong; Yan, Liuxia; Zhang, Jiyu; Tang, Junli; Cai, Xiaoning; Guo, Xiaolei; Ma, Jixiang; Xu, Aiqiang

    2014-12-01

    To compare the difference and correlation between dietary salt intakes assessed by 24 hours urinary Na method, food weighted record method and food frequency questionnaire method. All 2 184 subjects aged 18 to 69 were selected by multi stage stratified cluster random sampling method in Shandong province in June to September, 2011. Dietary salt intakes were measured by 24 hours urinary Na method, food weighted record method and food frequency questionnaire method. The information on gender, age, dining locations and labour intensity of members dining at home for 3 days were recorded. And the dietary habits were surveyed by questionnaire. Salt intakes were 14.0, 12.0 and 10.5 g/d assessed by 24 hours urinary Na method, food weighted record method and food frequency questionnaire, respectively. Comparing with 24 hours urinary Na method, salt intakes assessed by food weighted record method and food frequency questionnaire method were 2.0 g (14.3% undervalued) and 3.4 g (24.3% undervalued) less, respectively. Comparing with 24 hours urinary Na method, the proportion of individuals with salt intake over-reported and under-reported were 42.4% (856/2 020) and 55.3% (1 117/2 020) by food weighted record method, and were 20.7% (418/2 020) and 16.3% (329/2 020) by food frequency questionnaire method, respectively; the proportion of individuals with salt intakes within ± 25% of 24 hours urinary Na method were 36.9% (745/2 020) and 28.4% (574/2 020), respectively. Salt intakes assessed by 24 hours urinary method correlated significantly with both salt intakes assessed by food weighted record method and food frequency questionnaire method; the correlation coefficients were 0.13 and 0.07, respectively. With the increasing of salt intakes by subjects' self-judgment, salt intakes were all rising significantly using three survey methods. Salt intakes of three group population of light, moderate and partial taste salty were 13.6, 13.6 and 14.7 g/d by 24 hours urinary Na method (F

  7. Total, Dietary, and Supplemental Vitamin C Intake and Risk of Incident Kidney Stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Curhan, Gary C; Gambaro, Giovanni; Taylor, Eric N

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies of vitamin C and kidney stones were conducted mostly in men and either reported disparate results for supplemental and dietary vitamin C or did not examine dietary vitamin C. Prospective cohort analysis. 156,735 women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) I and II and 40,536 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS). Total, dietary, and supplemental vitamin C intake, adjusted for age, body mass index, thiazide use, and dietary factors. Incident kidney stones. During a median follow-up of 11.3 to 11.7 years, 6,245 incident kidney stones were identified. After multivariable adjustment, total vitamin C intake (vitamin C intake for the 500- to 999-mg/d category was ∼700mg/d. Supplemental vitamin C intake (no use [reference], vitamin C intake was not associated with stones among men or women, although few participants had dietary intakes > 700mg/d. Nutrient intakes derived from food-frequency questionnaires, lack of data on stone composition for all cases. Total and supplemental vitamin C intake was significantly associated with higher risk for incident kidney stones in men, but not in women. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dietary Intake and Sources of Potassium and the Relationship to Dietary Sodium in a Sample of Australian Pre-School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan A. O’Halloran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the intake and food sources of potassium and the molar sodium:potassium (Na:K ratio in a sample of Australian pre-school children. Mothers provided dietary recalls of their 3.5 years old children (previous participants of Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial. The average daily potassium intake, the contribution of food groups to daily potassium intake, the Na:K ratio, and daily serves of fruit, dairy, and vegetables, were assessed via three unscheduled 24 h dietary recalls. The sample included 251 Australian children (125 male, mean age 3.5 (0.19 (SD years. Mean potassium intake was 1618 (267 mg/day, the Na:K ratio was 1.47 (0.5 and 54% of children did not meet the Australian recommended adequate intake (AI of 2000 mg/day for potassium. Main food sources of potassium were milk (27%, fruit (19%, and vegetable (14% products/dishes. Food groups with the highest Na:K ratio were processed meats (7.8, white bread/rolls (6.0, and savoury sauces and condiments (5.4. Children had a mean intake of 1.4 (0.75 serves of fruit, 1.4 (0.72 dairy, and 0.52 (0.32 serves of vegetables per day. The majority of children had potassium intakes below the recommended AI. The Na:K ratio exceeded the recommended level of 1 and the average intake of vegetables was 2 serves/day below the recommended 2.5 serves/day and only 20% of recommended intake. An increase in vegetable consumption in pre-school children is recommended to increase dietary potassium and has the potential to decrease the Na:K ratio which is likely to have long-term health benefits.

  9. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin D based on the revised 2010 dietary guidelines are not being met by children in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munasinghe, Lalani L; Willows, Noreen; Yuan, Yan; Veugelers, Paul J

    2015-11-01

    Canadian children have been shown to be not meeting the revised (2010) dietary recommended intake (DRI) for vitamin D through diet alone. However, no study has evaluated whether diet and supplementation together are supporting Canadian children in meeting the DRIs for vitamin D intake. This study assessed the adequacy of vitamin D intake through diet and supplements among Albertan children and the determinants of meeting dietary guidelines. 2686 grade 5 students aged 10 to 11 years in Alberta, Canada were surveyed. We hypothesized that less than 50% of children would meet the DRI. Vitamin D intake from diet and supplements was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. The adequacy of vitamin D intake was estimated using the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) of 400 IU (International Units) and Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of 600 IU. Random effect multiple logistic regression was used to identify correlates of meeting DRIs. Forty five percent of children met the EAR and 22% met the RDA for vitamin D. When vitamin D intake from diet alone was considered, only 16% and 2% met the EAR and RDA, respectively. Parental education, household income and physical activity were positively correlated with meeting DRIs, and students attending metropolitan area schools were more likely to meet the EAR than students attending rural area schools (OR = 1.28; P = .043). The majority of children did not meet the DRI for vitamin D. Health promotion strategies aiming to improve the vitamin D status of Albertan children are necessary given the importance of vitamin D for children's health and development. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of a Dietary Index to Assess Overall Diet Quality for Chinese School-Aged Children: The Chinese Children Dietary Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guo; Duan, Ruonan; Kranz, Sibylle; Libuda, Lars; Zhang, Lishi

    2016-04-01

    A composite measure of diet quality is preferable to an index of nutrients, food groups, or health-promoting behaviors in dietary assessment. However, to date, such a tool for Chinese children is lacking. Based on the current Chinese Dietary Guidelines and Dietary Reference Intakes, a dietary index for Chinese school-aged children, the Chinese Children Dietary Index was developed to assess overall diet quality among children in South China. Dietary data were recorded using 24-hour recalls among 1,719 children aged 7 to 15 years between March and June 2013. Inactivity data and sociodemographic information were also collected. The Chinese Children Dietary Index included 16 components, which incorporated nutrients, foods/food groups, and health-promoting behaviors. The range of possible Chinese Children Dietary Index scores was 0 to 160, with a higher score indicating better diet quality. Pearson/Spearman correlation was used to assess relative validity using correlations between total Chinese Children Dietary Index score and age, body mass index (BMI; calculated as kg/m(2)), inactivity, whole-grain intake, frequency of fried-foods intake, nutrient adequacy ratios for energy intake and 12 nutrients not included in the Chinese Children Dietary Index, and the mean adequacy ratio. Finally, a stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to indicate the factors correlated with Chinese Children Dietary Index. Mean Chinese Children Dietary Index score of this sample was 88.1 points (range=34.2 to 137.8), the Chinese Children Dietary Index score of girls was higher than that of boys and decreased with higher age. Children with higher Chinese Children Dietary Index had lower body mass index and spent less time being inactive. Positive associations were observed between Chinese Children Dietary Index and the majority of nutrient adequacy ratios and the mean adequacy ratio. Age, paternal educational level, and family size were correlated with Chinese Children Dietary

  11. Impact of Second Trimester Maternal Dietary Intake on Gestational Weight Gain and Neonatal Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malshani L. Pathirathna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Poor maternal nutrition is a major contributor to the high incidence of low birth weight deliveries in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the impact of second trimester maternal dietary intake on gestational weight gain and neonatal birth weight. A longitudinal study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka. Participants were 141 pregnant women at 18–24 weeks gestation who were followed up until delivery. Maternal dietary intake was assessed using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire at 21.1 ± 1.8 gestational weeks. Gestational weight gain was examined at the end of 28 weeks gestation and at the end of pregnancy. Energy and nutrient intakes were calculated using NutriSurvey 2007 (EBISpro, Willstaett, Germany nutrient analysis software, modified for Sri Lankan foods. The mean total gestational weight gain of women with low carbohydrate intake (229–429 g/day was 2.2 kg less than that of women with moderate carbohydrate intake (430–629 g/day (95% confidence interval (CI 0.428–4.083 kg; p = 0.016. Similarly, babies of women with low carbohydrate intake were 312 g lighter compared with those of women with a moderate carbohydrate intake (95% CI 91–534 g; p = 0.006. Our results suggest that second trimester maternal carbohydrate intake has significant impacts on total gestational weight gain and neonatal birth weight.

  12. High dietary fiber intake prevents stroke at a population level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiglia, Edoardo; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Caffi, Sandro; Boschetti, Giovanni; Grasselli, Carla; Saugo, Mario; Giordano, Nunzia; Rapisarda, Valentina; Spinella, Paolo; Palatini, Paolo

    2013-10-01

    This research was aimed at clarifying whether high dietary fiber intake has an impact on incidence and risk of stroke at a population level. In 1647 unselected subjects, dietary fiber intake (DFI) was detected in a 12-year population-based study, using other dietary variables, anagraphics, biometrics, blood pressure, heart rate, blood lipids, glucose, insulin, uricaemia, fibrinogenaemia, erytrosedimentation rate, diabetes, insulin resistance, smoking, pulmonary disease and left ventricular hypertrophy as covariables. In adjusted Cox models, high DFI reduced the risk of stroke. In analysis based on quintiles of fiber intake adjusted for confounders, HR for incidence of stroke was lower when the daily intake of soluble fiber was >25 g or that of insoluble fiber was >47 g. In multivariate analyses, using these values as cut-off of DFI, the risk of stroke was lower in those intaking more that the cut-off of soluble (HR 0.31, 0.17-0.55) or insoluble (HR 0.35, 0.19-0.63) fiber. Incidence of stroke was also lower (-50%, p < 0.003 and -46%, p < 0.01, respectively). Higher dietary DFI is inversely and independently associated to incidence and risk of stroke in general population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  13. Poor Appetite and Dietary Intake in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meij, Barbara S; Wijnhoven, Hanneke A H; Lee, Jung S; Houston, Denise K; Hue, Trisha; Harris, Tamara B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Newman, Anne B; Visser, Marjolein

    2017-10-01

    Poor appetite in older adults leads to sub-optimal food intake and increases the risk of undernutrition. The impact of poor appetite on food intake in older adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the differences in food intake among older community-dwelling adults with different reported appetite levels. Cross-sectional analysis of data from a longitudinal prospective study. Health, aging, and body composition study performed in the USA. 2,597 community-dwelling adults aged 70-79. A semi-quantitative, interviewer-administered, 108-item food frequency questionnaire designed to estimate dietary intake. Poor appetite was defined as the report of a moderate, poor, or very poor appetite in the past month and was compared with good or very good appetite. The mean age of the study sample was 74.5 ± 2.8 years; 48.2% were men, 37.7% were black, and 21.8% reported a poor appetite. After adjustment for total energy intake and potential confounders (including biting/chewing problems), participants with a poor appetite had a significantly lower consumption of protein and dietary fiber, solid foods, protein rich foods, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables, but a higher consumption of dairy foods, fats, oils, sweets, and sodas compared to participants with very good appetite. In addition, they were less likely to report consumption of significant larger portion sizes. Older adults reporting a poor appetite showed a different dietary intake pattern compared to those with (very) good appetite. Better understanding of the specific dietary intake pattern related to a poor appetite in older adults can be used for nutrition interventions to enhance food intake, diet variety, and diet quality. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  14. The effect of complex workplace dietary interventions on employees' dietary intakes, nutrition knowledge and health status: a cluster controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geaney, Fiona; Kelly, Clare; Di Marrazzo, Jessica Scotto; Harrington, Janas M; Fitzgerald, Anthony P; Greiner, Birgit A; Perry, Ivan J

    2016-08-01

    Evidence on effective workplace dietary interventions is limited. The comparative effectiveness of a workplace environmental dietary modification and an educational intervention both alone and in combination was assessed versus a control workplace on employees' dietary intakes, nutrition knowledge and health status. In the Food Choice at Work cluster controlled trial, four large, purposively selected manufacturing workplaces in Ireland were allocated to control (N=111), nutrition education (Education) (N=226), environmental dietary modification (Environment) (N=113) and nutrition education and environmental dietary modification (Combined) (N=400) in 2013. Nutrition education included group presentations, individual consultations and detailed nutrition information. Environmental dietary modification included menu modification, fruit price discounts, strategic positioning of healthier alternatives and portion size control. Data on dietary intakes, nutrition knowledge and health status were obtained at baseline and follow-up at 7-9months. Multivariate analysis of covariance compared changes across the four groups with adjustment for age, gender, educational status and other baseline characteristics. Follow-up data at 7-9months were obtained for 541 employees (64% of 850 recruited) aged 18-64years: control: 70 (63%), Education: 113 (50%), 74 (65%) and Combined: 284 (71%). There were significant positive changes in intakes of saturated fat (p=0.013), salt (p=0.010) and nutrition knowledge (p=0.034) between baseline and follow-up in the combined intervention versus the control. Small but significant changes in BMI (-1.2kg/m(2) (95% CI -2.385, -0.018, p=0.047) were observed in the combined intervention. Effects in the education and environment alone workplaces were smaller and generally non-significant. Combining nutrition education and environmental dietary modification may be an effective approach for promoting a healthy diet and weight loss at work. Copyright © 2016

  15. Effects of the Healthy Start randomized intervention on dietary intake among obesity-prone normal-weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Jeanett F; Larsen, Sofus C; Ängquist, Lars; Olsen, Nanna J; Stougaard, Maria; Mortensen, Erik L; Heitmann, Berit L

    2017-11-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the impact of a 15-month intervention on dietary intake conducted among obesity-prone normal-weight pre-school children. Information on dietary intake was obtained using a 4 d diet record. A diet quality index was adapted to assess how well children's diet complied with the Danish national guidelines. Linear regression per protocol and intention-to-treat analyses of differences in intakes of energy, macronutrients, fruit, vegetables, fish, sugar-sweetened beverages and diet quality index between the two groups were conducted. The Healthy Start study was conducted during 2009-2011, focusing on changing diet, physical activity, sleep and stress management to prevent excessive weight gain among Danish children. From a population of 635 Danish pre-school children, who had a high birth weight (≥4000 g), high maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (≥28·0 kg/m2) or low maternal educational level (dietary intake. Children in the intervention group had a lower energy intake after the 15-month intervention (group means: 5·29 v. 5·59 MJ, P=0·02) compared with the control group. We observed lower intakes of carbohydrates and added sugar in the intervention group compared with the control group after the intervention (P=0·002, P=0·01). The intervention resulted in a lower energy intake, particularly from carbohydrates and added sugar after 15 months of intervention, suggesting that dietary intake can be changed in a healthier direction in children predisposed to obesity.

  16. Global deposition of fallout radionuclides and their dietary intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisawa, Shinsuke

    1993-01-01

    Japanese foods depend largely on foreign countries and domestic food supply now is no more than 30 percents if feedstuffs for live-stocks are included. Therefore not only ecological/natural but also social, e.g., human activities related, transportation of fallout radionuclides are to be taken into accounts for estimation of baseline internal irradiation dose and health risks of Japanese peoples through dietary intake of radionuclides. In this study, mathematical model is developed and examined for practical application on estimating Japanese dietary intake level of fallout strontium-90, which is accumulated in various kinds of foodstuffs and is transported to Japan associated with worldwide trades of foods, under appropriate limitations such that direct deposition on plants and seafood intake pathways are not evaluated. Deposition of strontium-90 onto the surface soil was simulated using the model, the compartment model described by a set ordinary differential equations, and the estimates were examined by comparing them with the observed data colleted and complied by the global scale environmental monitoring networks. Sensitivity analysis is also practised to find possible reduction of dietary intake of fallout radionuclides and the related potential health risks. (author)

  17. Dietary calcium intake and the risk of colorectal cancer: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Changwoo; Shin, Aesun; Lee, Jeonghee; Lee, Jeeyoo; Park, Ji Won; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-01-01

    Background High intake of dietary calcium has been thought to be a protective factor against colorectal cancer. To explore the dose-response relationship in the associations between dietary calcium intake and colorectal cancer risk by cancer location, we conducted a case-control study among Korean population, whose dietary calcium intake levels are relatively low. Methods The colorectal cancer cases and controls were recruited from the National Cancer Center in Korea between August 2010 and A...

  18. Relationship of Sodium Intake and Blood Pressure Varies With Energy Intake: Secondary Analysis of the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension)-Sodium Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaugh, Maureen A; Beasley, Jeannette M; Appel, Lawrence J; Guenther, Patricia M; McFadden, Molly; Greene, Tom; Tooze, Janet A

    2018-05-01

    Dietary Na recommendations are expressed as absolute amounts (mg/d) rather than as Na density (mg/kcal). Our objective was to determine whether the strength of the relationship of Na intake with blood pressure (BP) varied with energy intake. The DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension)-Sodium trial was a randomized feeding trial comparing 2 diets (DASH and control) and 3 levels of Na density. Participants with pre- or stage 1 hypertension consumed diets for 30 days in random order; energy intake was controlled to maintain body weight. This secondary analysis of 379 non-Hispanic black and white participants used mixed-effects models to assess the association of Na and energy intakes with BP. The relationships between absolute Na and both systolic and diastolic BP varied with energy intake. BP rose more steeply with increasing Na at lower energy intake than at higher energy intake ( P interaction<0.001). On the control diet with 2300 mg Na, both systolic and diastolic BP were higher (3.0 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 0.2-5.8; and 2.7 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-4.5, respectively) among those with lower energy intake (higher Na density) than among those with higher energy intake (lower Na density). The association of Na with systolic BP was stronger at lower levels of energy intake in both blacks and whites ( P <0.001). The association of Na and diastolic BP varied with energy intake only among blacks ( P =0.001). Sodium density should be considered as a metric for expressing dietary Na recommendations. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Dietary pattern classifications with nutrient intake and health-risk factors in Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Eun; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Son, Say Jin; Ahn, Younjhin; Lee, Juyoung; Park, Chan; Lee, Lilha; Erickson, Kent L; Jung, In-Kyung

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to identify dietary patterns in Korean men and to determine the associations among dietary patterns, nutrient intake, and health-risk factors. Using baseline data from the Korean Health and Genome Study, dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis of data from a validated food-frequency questionnaire, and associations between these dietary patterns and health-risk factors were analyzed. Three dietary patterns were identified: 1) the "animal-food" pattern (greater intake of meats, fish, and dairy products), 2) the "rice-vegetable" pattern (greater intake of rice, tofu, kimchi, soybean paste, vegetables, and seaweed), and 3) the "noodle-bread" pattern (greater intake of instant noodles, Chinese noodles, and bread). The animal-food pattern (preferred by younger people with higher income and education levels) had a positive correlation with obesity and hypercholesterolemia, whereas the rice-vegetable pattern (preferred by older people with lower income and educational levels) was positively associated with hypertension. The noodle-bread pattern (also preferred by younger people with higher income and education levels) had a positive association with abdominal obesity and hypercholesterolemia. This study identifies three unique dietary patterns in Korean men, which are independently associated with certain health-risk factors. The rice-vegetable dietary pattern, modified for a low sodium intake, might be a healthy dietary pattern for Korean men. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Relation between dietary cadmium intake and biomarkers of cadmium exposure in premenopausal women accounting for body iron stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julin Bettina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cadmium is a widespread environmental pollutant with adverse effects on kidneys and bone, but with insufficiently elucidated public health consequences such as risk of end-stage renal diseases, fractures and cancer. Urinary cadmium is considered a valid biomarker of lifetime kidney accumulation from overall cadmium exposure and thus used in the assessment of cadmium-induced health effects. We aimed to assess the relationship between dietary cadmium intake assessed by analyses of duplicate food portions and cadmium concentrations in urine and blood, taking the toxicokinetics of cadmium into consideration. Methods In a sample of 57 non-smoking Swedish women aged 20-50 years, we assessed Pearson's correlation coefficients between: 1 Dietary intake of cadmium assessed by analyses of cadmium in duplicate food portions collected during four consecutive days and cadmium concentrations in urine, 2 Partial correlations between the duplicate food portions and urinary and blood cadmium concentrations, respectively, and 3 Model-predicted urinary cadmium concentration predicted from the dietary intake using a one-compartment toxicokinetic model (with individual data on age, weight and gastrointestinal cadmium absorption and urinary cadmium concentration. Results The mean concentration of cadmium in urine was 0.18 (+/- s.d.0.12 μg/g creatinine and the model-predicted urinary cadmium concentration was 0.19 (+/- s.d.0.15 μg/g creatinine. The partial Pearson correlations between analyzed dietary cadmium intake and urinary cadmium or blood concentrations were r = 0.43 and 0.42, respectively. The correlation between diet and urinary cadmium increased to r = 0.54 when using a one-compartment model with individual gastrointestinal cadmium absorption coefficients based on the women's iron status. Conclusions Our results indicate that measured dietary cadmium intake can reasonably well predict biomarkers of both long-term kidney accumulation

  1. Dietary Intake of Vitamin D in the Moroccan Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Houcine Sebbar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Vitamin D deficiency is common in the elderly. The aim of our work is to evaluate the dietary intake of vitamin D in the Moroccan elderly. Methods: This study included 159 subjects aged over 60 years who performed a vitamin D questionnaire (VDQ, covering the consumption of four foods with high vitamin D content (fish, milk, margarine and yoghurt. Results: The average dietary vitamin D intake was 2.7 μg/day. This observational study in Moroccan elderly indicates a high prevalence of insufficient vitamin D intake, and below the recommended consumption values, particularly in those aged over 70 years. Conclusion: Inadequate vitamin D intake is common among the Moroccan elderly. To fight against this situation, initiatives must be implemented, including improved population education, lifestyle, and vitamin D supplementation, in order to avoid serious adverse health consequences of bone.

  2. Dietary Intake of Vitamin D in the Moroccan Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    El-Houcine Sebbar; Hicham Sam; Ennouamane Saalaoui; Mohammed Choukri

    2018-01-01

    Aim: Vitamin D deficiency is common in the elderly. The aim of our work is to evaluate the dietary intake of vitamin D in the Moroccan elderly. Methods: This study included 159 subjects aged over 60 years who performed a vitamin D questionnaire (VDQ), covering the consumption of four foods with high vitamin D content (fish, milk, margarine and yoghurt). Results: The average dietary vitamin D intake was 2.7 μg/day. This observational study in Moroccan elderly indicates a high prevalence of ins...

  3. Assessment of dietary intake of trace elements through Pakistani integrated diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.; Mannan, A.; Waheed, S.; Rehman, S.; Ahmad, S.

    1994-01-01

    A research study related to the determination and assessment of essential and potentially toxic trace elements in Pakistani integrated diets was undertaken at PINSTECH from 1986-90 under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP). During this period eight different integrated human diets of the residents of the Islamabad and Gujranwala were prepared by taking into consideration their respective food habits in summer and winter seasons. Instrumental as well as radiochemical neutron activation analyses in combination with the atomic absorption spectrometry were utilized for the precise and accurate determination of up to 23 elements in the diet samples. This work has helped us obtain the base line values for studying trace elements nutrition, inadequacy, imbalances and toxicity. Further, this would help, in future, to monitor the degree of contamination from foreign chemicals. The weekly dietary intake values were calculated which showed that our foods contain fairly adequate quantity of essential trace elements. The diet samples analyzed showed no contamination level to an extent to cause an adverse impact on human health. (author). 23 refs, 5 figs, 21 tabs

  4. Influence of unhealthy food and beverage marketing on children's dietary intake and preference: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghirad, B; Duhaney, T; Motaghipisheh, S; Campbell, N R C; Johnston, B C

    2016-10-01

    Marketing of foods and beverages high in fat, sugar and salt are suggested to contribute to poor dietary behaviours in children and diet-related diseases later in life. This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials aimed to assess the effects of unhealthy food and beverage marketing on dietary intake (grams or kilocalories) and dietary preference (preference score or percentage of participants who selected specific foods/beverages) among children 2 to 18 years of age. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO up to January 2015 for terms related to advertising, unhealthy foods or beverages among children. Randomized trials that assessed the effects of unhealthy food and beverage marketing compared with non-dietary advertisement or no advertisement in children were considered eligible. Two authors independently extracted information on study characteristics and outcomes of interest and assessed risk of bias and the overall quality of evidence using grade methodology. Meta-analysis was conducted separately for dietary intake and preference using a random-effects model. We identified 29 eligible studies, of which 17 studies were included for meta-analysis of dietary preference and nine for meta-analysis of dietary intake. Almost half of the studies were at high risk of bias. Our meta-analysis showed that in children exposed to unhealthy dietary marketing, dietary intake significantly increased (mean difference [MD] = 30.4 kcal, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.9 to 57.9, and MD = 4.8 g, 95%CI 0.8 to 8.8) during or shortly after exposure to advertisements. Similarly, children exposed to the unhealthy dietary marketing had a higher risk of selecting the advertised foods or beverages (relative risk = 1.1, 95%CI 1.0 to 1.2; P = 0.052). The evidence indicates that unhealthy food and beverage marketing increases dietary intake (moderate quality evidence) and preference (moderate to low quality evidence) for energy-dense, low-nutrition food

  5. Dietary Calcium Intake and Calcium Supplementation in Hungarian Patients with Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Speer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Adequate calcium intake is the basis of osteoporosis therapy—when this proves insufficient, even specific antiosteoporotic agents cannot exert their actions properly. Methods. Our representative survey analyzed the dietary intake and supplementation of calcium in 8033 Hungarian female and male (mean age: 68 years (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21 patients with osteoporosis. Results. Mean intake from dietary sources was 665±7.9 mg (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21 daily. A significant positive relationship could be detected between total dietary calcium intake and lumbar spine BMD (P=0.045, whereas such correlation could not be demonstrated with femoral T-score. Milk consumption positively correlated with femur (P=0.041, but not with lumbar BMD. The ingestion of one liter of milk daily increased the T-score by 0.133. Average intake from supplementation was 558±6.2 mg (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21 daily. The cumulative dose of calcium—from both dietary intake and supplementation—was significantly associated with lumbar (r=0.024, P=0.049, but not with femur BMD (r=0.021, P=0.107. The currently recommended 1000–1500 mg total daily calcium intake was achieved in 34.5% of patients only. It was lower than recommended in 47.8% of the cases and substantially higher in 17.7% of subjects. Conclusions. We conclude that calcium intake in Hungarian osteoporotic patients is much lower than the current recommendation, while routinely applied calcium supplementation will result in inappropriately high calcium intake in numerous patients.

  6. Comparison of INTAKE24 (an Online 24-h Dietary Recall Tool) with Interviewer-Led 24-h Recall in 11-24 Year-Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Jennifer; Simpson, Emma; Poliakov, Ivan; Matthews, John N S; Olivier, Patrick; Adamson, Ashley J; Foster, Emma

    2016-06-09

    Online dietary assessment tools offer a convenient, low cost alternative to traditional dietary assessment methods such as weighed records and face-to-face interviewer-led 24-h recalls. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24-h recall tool developed for use with 11-24 year-old. The aim of the study was to undertake a comparison of INTAKE24 (the test method) with interviewer-led multiple pass 24-h recalls (the comparison method) in 180 people aged 11-24 years. Each participant completed both an INTAKE24 24-h recall and an interviewer-led 24-h recall on the same day on four occasions over a one-month period. The daily energy and nutrient intakes reported in INTAKE24 were compared to those reported in the interviewer-led recall. Mean intakes reported using INTAKE24 were similar to the intakes reported in the interviewer-led recall for energy and macronutrients. INTAKE24 was found to underestimate energy intake by 1% on average compared to the interviewer-led recall with the limits of agreement ranging from minus 49% to plus 93%. Mean intakes of all macronutrients and micronutrients (except non-milk extrinsic sugars) were within 4% of the interviewer-led recall. Dietary assessment that utilises technology may offer a viable alternative and be more engaging than paper based methods, particularly for children and young adults.

  7. High Dietary Magnesium Intake Is Associated with Low Insulin Resistance in the Newfoundland Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Jennifer; Wadden, Danny; Gulliver, Wayne; Randell, Edward; Vasdev, Sudesh; Sun, Guang

    2013-01-01

    Background Magnesium plays a role in glucose and insulin homeostasis and evidence suggests that magnesium intake is associated with insulin resistance (IR). However, data is inconsistent and most studies have not adequately controlled for critical confounding factors. Objective The study investigated the association between magnesium intake and IR in normal-weight (NW), overweight (OW) and obese (OB) along with pre- and post- menopausal women. Design A total of 2295 subjects (590 men and 1705 women) were recruited from the CODING study. Dietary magnesium intake was computed from the Willett Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Adiposity (NW, OW and OB) was classified by body fat percentage (%BF) measured by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry according to the Bray criteria. Multiple regression analyses were used to test adiposity-specific associations of dietary magnesium intake on insulin resistance adjusting for caloric intake, physical activity, medication use and menopausal status. Results Subjects with the highest intakes of dietary magnesium had the lowest levels of circulating insulin, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-ß and subjects with the lowest intake of dietary magnesium had the highest levels of these measures, suggesting a dose effect. Multiple regression analysis revealed a strong inverse association between dietary magnesium with IR. In addition, adiposity and menopausal status were found to be critical factors revealing that the association between dietary magnesium and IR was stronger in OW and OB along with Pre-menopausal women. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that higher dietary magnesium intake is strongly associated with the attenuation of insulin resistance and is more beneficial for overweight and obese individuals in the general population and pre-menopausal women. Moreover, the inverse correlation between insulin resistance and dietary magnesium intake is stronger when adjusting for %BF than BMI. PMID:23472169

  8. Sodium intake in US ethnic subgroups and potential impact of a new sodium reduction technology: NHANES Dietary Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgoni, Victor L; Agarwal, Sanjiv; Spence, Lisa; Samuel, Priscilla

    2014-12-18

    Because excessive dietary sodium intake is a major contributor to hypertension, a reduction in dietary sodium has been recommended for the US population. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010 data, we estimated current sodium intake in US population ethnic subgroups and modeled the potential impact of a new sodium reduction technology on sodium intake. NHANES 2007-2010 data were analyzed using The National Cancer Institute method to estimate usual intake in population subgroups. Potential impact of SODA-LO® Salt Microspheres sodium reduction technology on sodium intake was modeled using suggested sodium reductions of 20-30% in 953 foods and assuming various market penetrations. SAS 9.2, SUDAAN 11, and NHANES survey weights were used in all calculations with assessment across age, gender and ethnic groups. Current sodium intake across all population subgroups exceeds the Dietary Guidelines 2010 recommendations and has not changed during the last decade. However, sodium intake measured as a function of food intake has decreased significantly during the last decade for all ethnicities. "Grain Products" and "Meat, Poultry, Fish, & Mixtures" contribute about 2/3rd of total sodium intake. Sodium reduction, using SODA-LO® Salt Microspheres sodium reduction technology (with 100% market penetration) was estimated to be 185-323 mg/day or 6.3-8.4% of intake depending upon age, gender and ethnic group. Current sodium intake in US ethnic subgroups exceeds the recommendations and sodium reduction technologies could potentially help reduce dietary sodium intake among those groups.

  9. Evaluation of Simulation Models that Estimate the Effect of Dietary Strategies on Nutritional Intake: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieger, Jessica A; Johnson, Brittany J; Wycherley, Thomas P; Golley, Rebecca K

    2017-05-01

    Background: Dietary simulation modeling can predict dietary strategies that may improve nutritional or health outcomes. Objectives: The study aims were to undertake a systematic review of simulation studies that model dietary strategies aiming to improve nutritional intake, body weight, and related chronic disease, and to assess the methodologic and reporting quality of these models. Methods: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guided the search strategy with studies located through electronic searches [Cochrane Library, Ovid (MEDLINE and Embase), EBSCOhost (CINAHL), and Scopus]. Study findings were described and dietary modeling methodology and reporting quality were critiqued by using a set of quality criteria adapted for dietary modeling from general modeling guidelines. Results: Forty-five studies were included and categorized as modeling moderation, substitution, reformulation, or promotion dietary strategies. Moderation and reformulation strategies targeted individual nutrients or foods to theoretically improve one particular nutrient or health outcome, estimating small to modest improvements. Substituting unhealthy foods with healthier choices was estimated to be effective across a range of nutrients, including an estimated reduction in intake of saturated fatty acids, sodium, and added sugar. Promotion of fruits and vegetables predicted marginal changes in intake. Overall, the quality of the studies was moderate to high, with certain features of the quality criteria consistently reported. Conclusions: Based on the results of reviewed simulation dietary modeling studies, targeting a variety of foods rather than individual foods or nutrients theoretically appears most effective in estimating improvements in nutritional intake, particularly reducing intake of nutrients commonly consumed in excess. A combination of strategies could theoretically be used to deliver the best improvement in outcomes. Study quality was moderate to

  10. Development and Validation of a Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess Dietary Intake of Turkish School-Aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güneş Fatma Esra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop and validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ on the dietary intake of Turkish school-aged children. Fifty randomly selected students aged 7–12 from urban areas of Istanbul were included in this study. An FFQ, containing a list of 138 frequently consumed foods was developed. Dietary records (DRs including three days, and FFQs were collected during autumn and spring. Daily consumption of each food group was assessed and the nutrient compositions of diet were calculated. The Pearson correlation coefficient, weighted kappa, the Bland-Altman scatter plots between averages of the reported (FFQ and the references method (DR were used as validity coefficient.

  11. Dietary Sodium/Potassium Intake Does Not Affect Cognitive Function or Brain Imaging Indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Kristen L; Fried, Linda; Jovanovich, Anna; Ix, Joachim; Yaffe, Kristine; You, Zhiying; Chonchol, Michel

    2018-01-01

    Dietary sodium may influence cognitive function through its effects on cerebrovascular function and cerebral blood flow. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of dietary sodium intake with cognitive decline in community-dwelling older adults. We also evaluated the associations of dietary potassium and sodium:potassium intake with cognitive decline, and associations of these nutrients with micro- and macro-structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indices. In all, 1,194 participants in the Health Aging and Body Composition study with measurements of dietary sodium intake (food frequency questionnaire [FFQ]) and change in the modified Mini Mental State Exam (3MS) were included. The age of participants was 74 ± 3 years with a mean dietary sodium intake of 2,677 ± 1,060 mg/day. During follow-up (6.9 ± 0.1 years), 340 (28%) had a clinically significant decline in 3MS score (≥1.5 SD of mean decline). After adjustment, dietary sodium intake was not associated with odds of cognitive decline (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.50-1.84 per doubling of sodium). Similarly, potassium was not associated with cognitive decline; however, higher sodium:potassium intake was associated with increased odds of cognitive decline (OR 2.02 [95% CI 1.01-4.03] per unit increase). Neither sodium or potassium alone nor sodium:potassium were associated with micro- or macro-structural brain MRI indices. These results are limited by the use of FFQ. In community-dwelling older adults, higher sodium:potassium, but not sodium or potassium intake alone, was associated with decline in cognitive function, with no associations observed with micro- and macro-structural brain MRI indices. These findings do not support reduction dietary sodium/increased potassium intake to prevent cognitive decline with aging. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Nutritional biomarkers for objective dietary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnle, Gunter G C

    2012-04-01

    The accurate assessment of dietary exposure is important in investigating associations between diet and disease. Research in nutritional epidemiology, which has resulted in a large amount of information on associations between diet and chronic diseases in the last decade, relies on accurate assessment methods to identify these associations. However, most dietary assessment instruments rely to some extent on self-reporting, which is prone to systematic bias affected by factors such as age, gender, social desirability and approval. Nutritional biomarkers are not affected by these and therefore provide an additional, alternative method to estimate intake. However, there are also some limitations in their application: they are affected by inter-individual variations in metabolism and other physiological factors, and they are often limited to estimating intake of specific compounds and not entire foods. It is therefore important to validate nutritional biomarkers to determine specific strengths and limitations. In this perspective paper, criteria for the validation of nutritional markers and future developments are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Salt intake and dietary sources of salt on weekdays and weekend days in Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowson, Caryl; Lim, Karen; Land, Mary-Ann; Webster, Jacqui; Shaw, Jonathan E; Chalmers, John; Flood, Victoria; Woodward, Mark; Grimes, Carley

    2018-02-01

    To assess if there is a difference in salt intake (24 h urine collection and dietary recall) and dietary sources of salt (Na) on weekdays and weekend days. A cross-sectional study of adults who provided one 24 h urine collection and one telephone-administered 24 h dietary recall. Community-dwelling adults living in the State of Victoria, Australia. Adults (n 598) who participated in a health survey (53·5 % women; mean age 57·1 (95 % CI 56·2, 58·1) years). Mean (95 % CI) salt intake (dietary recall) was 6·8 (6·6, 7·1) g/d and 24 h urinary salt excretion was 8·1 (7·8, 8·3) g/d. Mean dietary and 24 h urinary salt (age-adjusted) were 0·9 (0·1, 1·6) g/d (P=0·024) and 0·8 (0·3, 1·6) g/d (P=0·0017), respectively, higher at weekends compared with weekdays. There was an indication of a greater energy intake at weekends (+0·6 (0·02, 1·2) MJ/d, P=0·06), but no difference in Na density (weekday: 291 (279, 304) mg/MJ; weekend: 304 (281, 327) mg/MJ; P=0·360). Cereals/cereal products and dishes, meat, poultry, milk products and gravy/sauces accounted for 71 % of dietary Na. Mean salt intake (24 h urine collection) was more than 60 % above the recommended level of 5 g salt/d and 8-14 % more salt was consumed at weekends than on weekdays. Substantial reductions in the Na content of staple foods, processed meat, sauces, mixed dishes (e.g. pasta), convenience and takeaway foods are required to achieve a significant consistent reduction in population salt intake throughout the week.

  14. Dietary sodium intake and incidence of diabetes complications in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes: analysis of the Japan Diabetes Complications Study (JDCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Chika; Yoshimura, Yukio; Kamada, Chiemi; Tanaka, Shiro; Tanaka, Sachiko; Hanyu, Osamu; Araki, Atsushi; Ito, Hideki; Tanaka, Akira; Ohashi, Yasuo; Akanuma, Yasuo; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Sone, Hirohito

    2014-10-01

    Many guidelines recommend that patients with type 2 diabetes should reduce their dietary sodium intake. However, the relationship between dietary sodium intake and incidence of diabetic complications in patients with type 2 diabetes has not been explored. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between dietary sodium intake and incidence of diabetes complications. The study was of a nationwide cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes aged 40 to 70 years with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥6.5%. After excluding nonresponders to a dietary survey, 1588 patients were analyzed. Baseline dietary intake was assessed by the Food Frequency Questionnaire based on food groups. Primary outcomes were times to cardiovascular disease (CVD), overt nephropathy, diabetic retinopathy, and all-cause mortality. Mean daily dietary sodium intake in quartiles ranged from 2.8 to 5.9 g. After adjustment for confounders, hazard ratios for CVD in patients in the second, third, and fourth quartiles of sodium intake compared with the first quartile were 1.70 (95% confidence interval, 0.98-2.94), 1.47 (0.82-2.62), and 2.07 (1.21-3.90), respectively (trend P sodium intake was dramatically elevated compared with patients with HbA1c sodium intake. Findings suggested that high dietary sodium intake is associated with elevated incidence of CVD in patients with type 2 diabetes and that there is a synergistic effect between HbA1c values and dietary sodium intake for the development of CVD.

  15. Dietary intake in population-based adolescents: support for a relationship between eating disorder symptoms, low fatty acid intake and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, K L; Mori, T A; Beilin, L; Byrne, S M; Hickling, S; Oddy, W H

    2013-10-01

    Relatively little is known about the dietary intake and nutritional status of community-based individuals with eating disorders. This research aimed to: (i) describe the dietary intake of population-based adolescents with an eating disorder and (ii) examine associations between eating disorder symptoms, fatty acid intake and depressive symptoms in adolescents with and without an eating disorder. Data were drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, a population-based cohort study that has followed participants from birth to young adulthood. This research utilised self-report data from the 17-year Raine Study assessment. Participants comprised 429 female adolescents who completed comprehensive questionnaire measures on dietary intake, eating disorder symptoms and depressive symptoms. Adolescents with an eating disorder (n = 66) reported a significantly lower intake of total fat, saturated fat, omega-6 fatty acid, starch, vitamin A and vitamin E compared to adolescents without an eating disorder (n = 363). Adolescents with an eating disorder and pronounced depressive symptoms (n = 23) also reported a significantly lower intake of polyunsaturated fat and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid than adolescents with an eating disorder but no marked depression (n = 43). In the eating disorder sample but not the control sample, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid correlated significantly and negatively with eating disorder symptoms and with depressive symptoms. Support is provided for a relationship between low omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid intake and depressive symptoms in adolescents with eating disorders. Research is needed to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of fatty acid supplementation in this high-risk group. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  16. Short sleep duration and dietary intake: epidemiologic evidence, mechanisms, and health implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links between short sleep duration and obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease may be mediated through changes in dietary intake. This review provides an overview of recent epidemiologic studies on the relations between habitual short sleep duration and dietary intake in a...

  17. Dietary Protein Intake and Distribution Patterns of Well-Trained Dutch Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Jenna B; Trommelen, Jorn; Wardenaar, Floris C; Brinkmans, Naomi Y J; Versteegen, Joline J; Jonvik, Kristin L; Kapp, Christoph; de Vries, Jeanne; van den Borne, Joost J G C; Gibala, Martin J; van Loon, Luc J C

    2017-04-01

    Dietary protein intake should be optimized in all athletes to ensure proper recovery and enhance the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise training. In addition to total protein intake, the use of specific proteincontaining food sources and the distribution of protein throughout the day are relevant for optimizing protein intake in athletes. In the present study, we examined the daily intake and distribution of various proteincontaining food sources in a large cohort of strength, endurance and team-sport athletes. Well-trained male (n=327) and female (n=226) athletes completed multiple web-based 24-hr dietary recalls over a 2-4 wk period. Total energy intake, the contribution of animal- and plant-based proteins to daily protein intake, and protein intake at six eating moments were determined. Daily protein intake averaged 108±33 and 90±24 g in men and women, respectively, which corresponded to relative intakes of 1.5±0.4 and 1.4±0.4 g/kg. Dietary protein intake was correlated with total energy intake in strength (r=0.71, p sport (r=0.77, p protein intake was 57% and 43%, respectively. The distribution of protein intake was 19% (19±8 g) at breakfast, 24% (25±13 g) at lunch and 38% (38±15 g) at dinner. Protein intake was below the recommended 20 g for 58% of athletes at breakfast, 36% at lunch and 8% at dinner. In summary, this survey of athletes revealed they habitually consume > 1.2 g protein/kg/d, but the distribution throughout the day may be suboptimal to maximize the skeletal muscle adaptive response to training.

  18. Validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire as a measure of recent dietary intake in young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Hebden

    Full Text Available This research assessed the relative validity and reproducibility of the Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies (DQESV2 over one month in young adults, given the lack of concise and convenient instruments for assessing recent dietary intake in this population. Participants were recruited from a large Australian university (N = 102; 35% male; age 18-34 years; body mass index 16-37 kg/m(2. Five one-day weighed food records (WFR were administered over one month followed by the DQESV2. Estimates for nutrients (energy, protein, total fat, saturated fat, carbohydrate, sugars, dietary fibre, and alcohol and fruit and vegetable servings were compared between methods using correlation coefficients, 95% limits of agreement, and quintile classifications. One week later, a second DQESV2 was completed by n = 77 of the participants to assess reproducibility using intra-class correlations (ICC and weighted kappa. Comparing methods, all nutrients and fruit and vegetable servings showed significant positive correlations (P<0.05 except protein intake in males; over 60% of participants were within one quintile classification except total fat and dietary fibre intakes in males (55% and 56%, respectively; and differences in nutrient and food intakes between methods were all within +/-20% of the mean WFR values except alcohol intake in females. Between first and second administrations of the DQESV2 all ICC coefficients were positive (P<0.01 and weighted kappa coefficients ranged from 0.54 for fruit servings (including fruit juice in males to 0.91 for protein intake in females. Over a one month period, the DQESV2 demonstrated good reproducibility for the studied nutrients and for fruit and vegetable servings and provided a valid measure of the studied nutrients, except alcohol in females, and of fruit servings (including fruit juice in both genders, at the group level in this young adult population.

  19. Inadequate dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes in renal-transplant recipients in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, Irene T

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the dietary calcium and vitamin D intake in adult renal-transplant recipients attending at a large teaching hospital in Ireland for follow-up. SETTING: Outpatient renal-transplant follow-up clinic. SUBJECTS: Fifty-nine adult renal transplant recipients (58% male) with a mean age of 46 years, a median transplant duration of 6 years, and a mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 50 mL\\/min per 1.73 m2. Fifty-three percent were at National Kidney Foundation stage 3 chronic kidney disease, and 14% had stage 4 chronic kidney disease. INTERVENTION: This cross-sectional, observational study used a tailored food frequency questionnaire specific for calcium and vitamin D intake in Irish adults, which was completed during a face-to-face interview with each subject. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The main outcome measure was the average daily dietary and supplemented calcium and vitamin D intake. RESULTS: The median interquartile range (IQR) dietary calcium intake was 820 mg\\/day (range, 576-1,177 mg\\/day), and was similar in men and women (recommended intake > or = 1,000 mg\\/day in adult men and nonmenopausal adult women, > or = 1,500 mg\\/day in menopausal women). Five participants received calcium supplementation. Overall, 59% of men and 64% of women had total calcium intakes below the recommended amounts. The median IQR estimated dietary vitamin D intake was 5.2 microg\\/day (range, 2.4-6.4 microg\\/day) in women, and 4.6 microg\\/day (range, 2.2-6.6 microg\\/day) in men (recommended intake, > or = 10 microg\\/day). Six subjects received vitamin D supplementation. Total vitamin D intakes were suboptimal in 91% of men and 87% of women. Dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes significantly correlated with each other, but neither was significantly related to eGFR category, and was similarly low in both presumed menopausal women and in the initial year posttransplantation. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that dietary and total calcium and

  20. Critical evaluation of lowering the recommended dietary intake of folate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Rima; Koletzko, Berthold; Pietrzik, Klaus

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated the recommendation of the Austrian, German, and Swiss Societies for Nutrition of lowering dietary folate intake from 400 to 300 μg dietary folate equivalents/d. A dose-response relation exists between folate intake or plasma level and disease risk within the normal range. Improving folate status can prevent between 30% and 75% of neural tube defects. A prepregnancy plasma folate of >18.0 nmol/L (mean 26.1 nmol/L) is associated with low total homocysteine (tHcy) (folate intake cannot achieve maximal risk reduction. The Austrian, German, and Swiss Societies for Nutrition recommend that young women should additionally supplement with 400 μg folic acid at least 4 weeks before conception. This short time window is not sufficient to achieve optimal plasma folate and tHcy levels in the majority of women. Factors affecting the relation between folate intake and blood biomarkers are total folate intake, baseline plasma folate, time available for supplement use, dose and form (folic acid or methyl folate), genetic polymorphisms, physiological and lifestyle factors. Lowering the recommended dietary folate intake may have important public health consequences. Elderly people and young women are at risk for diseases related to folate shortage. Reducing birth defects through supplementation of folic acid remains a poor option, as folate intake is crucial for reaching the target protective plasma folate levels in the population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of dietary counselling on food habits and dietary intake of Finnish pregnant women at increased risk for gestational diabetes - a secondary analysis of a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Tarja I; Puhkala, Jatta; Raitanen, Jani; Ahonen, Suvi; Aittasalo, Minna; Virtanen, Suvi M; Luoto, Riitta

    2014-04-01

    The incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing and GDM might be prevented by improving diet. Few interventions have assessed the effects of dietary counselling on dietary intake of pregnant women. This study examined the effects of dietary counselling on food habits and dietary intake of Finnish pregnant women as secondary outcomes of a trial primarily aiming at preventing GDM. A cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted in 14 municipalities in Finland, including 399 pregnant women at increased risk for developing GDM. The intervention consisted of dietary counselling focusing on dietary fat, fibre and saccharose intake at four routine maternity clinic visits. Usual counselling practices were continued in the usual care municipalities. A validated 181-item food frequency questionnaire was used to assess changes in diet from baseline to 26-28 and 36-37 weeks gestation. The data were analysed using multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models. By 36-37 weeks gestation, the intervention had beneficial effects on total intake of vegetables, fruits and berries (coefficient for between-group difference in change 61.6 g day(-1), 95% confidence interval 25.7-97.6), the proportions of high-fibre bread of all bread (7.2% units, 2.5-11.9), low-fat cheeses of all cheeses (10.7% units, 2.6-18.9) and vegetable fats of all dietary fats (6.1% -units, 2.0-10.3), and the intake of saturated fatty acids (-0.67 energy-%-units, -1.16 to -0.19), polyunsaturated fatty acids (0.38 energy-%-units, 0.18-0.58), linoleic acid (764 mg day(-1), 173-1354) and fibre (2.07 g day(-1) , 0.39-3.75). The intervention improved diet towards the recommendations in pregnant women at increased risk for GDM suggesting the counselling methods could be implemented in maternity care. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Micronutrient Dietary Intake in Latina Pregnant Adolescents and Its Association with Level of Depression, Stress, and Social Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelie Singh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent pregnant women are at greater risk for nutritional deficits, stress, and depression than their adult counterparts, and these risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes are likely interrelated. This study evaluated the prevalence of nutritional deficits in pregnant teenagers and assessed the associations among micronutrient dietary intake, stress, and depression. One hundred and eight pregnant Latina adolescents completed an Automated Self-Administered 24-hour dietary recall (ASA24 in the 2nd trimester. Stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Scale and the Prenatal Distress Questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were evaluated with the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale. Social support satisfaction was measured using the Social Support Questionnaire. More than 50% of pregnant teenagers had an inadequate intake (excluding dietary supplement of folate, vitamin A, vitamin E, iron, zinc, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorous. Additionally, >20% of participants had an inadequate intake of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C, copper, and selenium. Prenatal supplement inclusion improved dietary intake for most micronutrients except for calcium, magnesium, and phosphorous, (>50% below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR and for copper and selenium (>20% below the EAR. Higher depressive symptoms were associated with higher energy, carbohydrates, and fats, and lower magnesium intake. Higher social support satisfaction was positively associated with dietary intake of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin E, iron, and zinc. The findings suggest that mood and dietary factors are associated and should be considered together for health interventions during adolescent pregnancy for the young woman and her future child.

  3. FTO genetic variants, dietary intake and body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qi, Qibin; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Downer, Mary K

    2014-01-01

    FTO is the strongest known genetic susceptibility locus for obesity. Experimental studies in animals suggest the potential roles of FTO in regulating food intake. The interactive relation among FTO variants, dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) is complex and results from previous often small...

  4. Dietary Cholesterol Intake and Risk of Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Lin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple epidemiologic studies have evaluated the relationship between dietary cholesterol and lung cancer risk, but the association is controversial and inconclusive. A meta-analysis of case-control studies and cohort studies was conducted to evaluate the relationship between dietary cholesterol intake and lung cancer risk in this study. A relevant literature search up to October 2017 was performed in Web of Science, PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Sinomed, and VIP Journal Integration Platform. Ten case-control studies and six cohort studies were included in the meta-analysis, and the risk estimates were pooled using either fixed or random effects models. The case-control studies with a total of 6894 lung cancer cases and 29,736 controls showed that dietary cholesterol intake was positively associated with lung cancer risk (Odds Ratio = 1.70, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.43–2.03. However, there was no evidence of an association between dietary cholesterol intake and risk of lung cancer among the 241,920 participants and 1769 lung cancer cases in the cohort studies (Relative Risk = 1.08, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.94–1.25. Due to inconsistent results from case-control and cohort studies, it is difficult to draw any conclusion regarding the effects of dietary cholesterol intake on lung cancer risk. Carefully designed and well-conducted cohort studies are needed to identify the association between dietary cholesterol and lung cancer risk.

  5. Maternal and child dietary intake: The role of maternal healthy-eater self-schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueppers, Julie; Stein, Karen Farchaus; Groth, Susan; Fernandez, I Diana

    2018-06-01

    Mothers play a key role in shaping the dietary intake of their young children through their own dietary intake and the foods they make available at home. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying maternal food choices is crucial. Cognitions about the self as a healthy eater, referred to as healthy-eater self-schema (HESS), predict dietary intake in diverse samples, but the linkage has not been investigated in mothers and their feeding behaviors. This study examined the relationship between a maternal HESS, maternal and child intake of fruits, vegetables, saturated fat, and added sugar, and home food availability. A cross-sectional, descriptive design was used with mothers and their 2-5 year old children (N = 124 dyads). Kendzierski's Healthy-Eater Self-Schema questionnaire was used to measure HESS. Block Food Frequency Screeners were used to measure diets (mother and child) and the Home Environment Survey was used to measure home availability of fruits/vegetables and fats/sweets. Multiple regression and multiple mediation analyses were performed. Maternal HESS was positively associated with maternal intake of fruits and vegetables, and negatively associated with intake of added sugar. Maternal HESS was not directly associated with child dietary intake, but was indirectly associated with child intake of fruits, vegetables, and added sugar through maternal intake of the same foods. Home food availability was not significantly associated with HESS. This study found that a mother's HESS was positively associated with her diet, which was subsequently associated with aspects of her child's diet. Interventions to foster development of HESS in mothers may be an effective means to promote healthy dietary intake in mothers and their young children. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dietary sodium: where science and policy conflict: impact of the 2013 IOM Report on Sodium Intake in Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-02-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population-based health outcome evidence was not sufficient to define a safe upper intake level for sodium. Recent studies have extended this conclusion to show that a sodium intake below 2,300 mg/day is associated with increased mortality. In spite of this increasing body of evidence, the AHA, Centers for Disease Control (CDC), other public health advisory bodies, and major medical journals have continued to support the current policy of reducing dietary sodium.

  7. High dietary protein intake, reducing or eliciting insulin resistance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, A.; Schwarz, J.; Tome, D.; Kok, F.J.; Mensink, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary proteins have an insulinotropic effect and thus promote insulin secretion, which indeed leads to enhanced glucose clearance from the blood. In the long term, however, a high dietary protein intake is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Moreover, branched-chain amino acids

  8. Dietary intake and body content of natural uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The members of the uranium series found in the body that arise primarily from dietary intake are 238 U, 234 U, 226 Ra and 210 Pb. Lead 210, the predominant series radionuclide in the body, decays to the alpha emitter 210 Po, while the others are alpha emitters themselves. While 210 Pb primarily enters the body through diet, inhalation must also be considered, especially in smokers. The primary site of deposition for these nuclides is the skeleton and the dose to bone is the critical factor. In this section, the average background, elevated natural and enhanced dietary intakes of the uranium series radionuclides are discussed. Human skeletal levels and consequent alpha doses are summarized

  9. Comparison of INTAKE24 (an Online 24-h Dietary Recall Tool with Interviewer-Led 24-h Recall in 11–24 Year-Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Bradley

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Online dietary assessment tools offer a convenient, low cost alternative to traditional dietary assessment methods such as weighed records and face-to-face interviewer-led 24-h recalls. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24-h recall tool developed for use with 11–24 year-old. The aim of the study was to undertake a comparison of INTAKE24 (the test method with interviewer-led multiple pass 24-h recalls (the comparison method in 180 people aged 11–24 years. Each participant completed both an INTAKE24 24-h recall and an interviewer-led 24-h recall on the same day on four occasions over a one-month period. The daily energy and nutrient intakes reported in INTAKE24 were compared to those reported in the interviewer-led recall. Mean intakes reported using INTAKE24 were similar to the intakes reported in the interviewer-led recall for energy and macronutrients. INTAKE24 was found to underestimate energy intake by 1% on average compared to the interviewer-led recall with the limits of agreement ranging from minus 49% to plus 93%. Mean intakes of all macronutrients and micronutrients (except non-milk extrinsic sugars were within 4% of the interviewer-led recall. Dietary assessment that utilises technology may offer a viable alternative and be more engaging than paper based methods, particularly for children and young adults.

  10. Validation of a dietary intake tool for african-american dialysis patients with low literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffrin, Christopher; Carraway-Stage, Virginia G; Briley, Alexis; Christiano, Cynthia

    2015-06-01

    This study analysed the validity and reliability of a food frequency questionnaire designed for African-American patients with low literacy. This instrument was designed specifically to meet the need for a tool that was short, easy to understand, and met clinical reliability and validity standards. Assessing patient nutritional status and dietary intake is crucial to the care of patients in end stage kidney disease. The development of a quick and reliable nutritional assessment tool for patients with low literacy could increase nutritional counselling effectiveness and improve patient outcomes. The renal food frequency questionnaire (RFF) and a standard 24-hour recall were administered to a general population of African-American patients undergoing dialysis. Registered Dieticians and statistical analyses were used to validate the content and structural validity and reliability of the RFF to adequately measure dietary intake. The study sample consisted of 30 African-American patients who received dialysis treatment at a regional teaching hospital facility. The RFF was found to be a simple, easy to understand instrument with low reading complexity (grade level 4.4). Inter-rater reliability was found to be high (.81-1.00), and statistical analysis determined a high level of clinical validity. The RFF was found to be a valid dietary recall tool that is appropriate for patients with limited literacy. It was found to have acceptable reliability and validity when compared with a standard 24-hour recall and has potential for use as a dietary intake and monitoring tool in patients undergoing dialysis. © 2014 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  11. Dietary monounsaturated fatty acids intake and risk of skin photoaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Latreille

    Full Text Available Intake of monounsaturated fatty acids has been reported to reduce oxidative stress, insulin resistance and related inflammatory processes and may thus protect from skin photoaging. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the risk of photoaging, monounsaturated fatty acids intake and the sources of monounsaturated fatty acids.A cross sectional study was conducted within the framework of the SUVIMAX cohort. The survey included 1264 women and 1655 men aged between 45 and 60 years old. Dietary monounsaturated fatty acids intakes were estimated by dietary source through at least ten 24-h diet records completed during the first 2.5 years of the follow-up period. Severity of facial skin photoaging was graded by trained investigators at baseline during a clinical examination using a 6-grade scale illustrated by photographs. A lower risk of severe photoaging was associated with higher intakes of monounsaturated fatty acids from olive oil in both sexes. Strikingly, no association was found with intake of monounsaturated fatty acids from animal sources whether from dairy products, meat or processed meat.These findings support the beneficial effect of dietary olive oil or healthy diet habits associated with olive oil consumption on the severity of facial photoaging.

  12. Associations of Built Food Environment with Dietary Intake among Youth with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Archana P.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Puett, Robin; Bottai, Matteo; Porter, Dwayne E.; Liese, Angela D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the associations of supermarket and fast-food outlet accessibility and availability with dietary intake among youth with diabetes. Design: Subjects' residential location and dietary intake was obtained from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Food outlet data obtained from the South Carolina Department of Health and…

  13. Influence of dietary isoflavone intake on gastrointestinal symptoms in ulcerative colitis individuals in remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głąbska, Dominika; Guzek, Dominika; Grudzińska, Dominika; Lech, Gustaw

    2017-08-07

    To analyse the association between isoflavone intake and ulcerative colitis motility symptoms in individuals in remission. Cross-sectional study was conducted in a group of ulcerative colitis remission individuals, in sub-groups characterised by various intestinal motility and functioning characteristics (abdominal pain, flatulence, constipations, tenesmus). Total of 56 individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission (19 males and 37 females) were recruited for the study. Assessment of diet was based on self-reported data from each patient's dietary records taken over a period of three typical, random days (2 weekdays and 1 d of the weekend). The daily isoflavone intake (daidzein, genistein, glycitein and total isoflavones) and daily isoflavone intake per 1000 kcal of diet were assessed. No correlations between isoflavone intake levels and number of bowel movements per day were observed both in the case of intake and intake per 1000 kcal of diet. In the group of individuals declaring lack of abdominal pain, the higher intakes of daidzein ( P = 0.0075), daidzein per 1000 kcal of diet ( P = 0.0358) and total isoflavone ( P = 0.0358) were stated, than in the group of individuals declaring abdominal pain. In the group of individuals declaring lack of constipations, the lower intakes of glycitein ( P = 0.0213) and glycitein per 1000 kcal of diet ( P = 0.0213) were stated, than in the group of individuals declaring presence of constipations. No differences were observed in isoflavone intake between groups of ulcerative colitis individuals declaring lack of flatulence and declaring presence of flatulence, as well as between groups declaring lack of tenesmus and declaring presence of tenesmus. The moderate dietary isoflavone intake may be beneficial for individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission, however, before including it into recommendations, further prospective studies are needed.

  14. Dietary sodium intake is associated with total fluid and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in US children and adolescents aged 2–18 y: NHANES 2005–2008123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley A; Wright, Jacqueline D; Liu, Kiang; Nowson, Caryl A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Increasing dietary sodium drives the thirst response. Because sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are frequently consumed by children, sodium intake may drive greater consumption of SSBs and contribute to obesity risk. Objective: We examined the association between dietary sodium, total fluid, and SSB consumption in a nationally representative sample of US children and adolescents aged 2–18 y. Design: We analyzed cross-sectional data from NHANES 2005–2008. Dietary sodium, fluid, and SSB intakes were assessed with a 24-h dietary recall. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess associations between sodium, fluid, and SSBs adjusted for age, sex, race-ethnic group, body mass index (BMI), socioeconomic status (SES), and energy intake. Results: Of 6400 participants, 51.3% (n = 3230) were males, and the average (±SEM) age was 10.1 ± 0.1 y. The average sodium intake was 3056 ± 48 mg/d (equivalent to 7.8 ± 0.1 g salt/d). Dietary sodium intake was positively associated with fluid consumption (r = 0.42, P sodium is positively associated with fluid consumption and predicted SSB consumption in consumers of SSBs. The high dietary sodium intake of US children and adolescents may contribute to a greater consumption of SSBs, identifying a possible link between dietary sodium intake and excess energy intake. PMID:23676421

  15. Normal range of human dietary sodium intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarron, David A; Kazaks, Alexandra G; Geerling, Joel C

    2013-01-01

    The recommendation to restrict dietary sodium for management of hypertensive cardiovascular disease assumes that sodium intake exceeds physiologic need, that it can be significantly reduced, and that the reduction can be maintained over time. In contrast, neuroscientists have identified neural...... circuits in vertebrate animals that regulate sodium appetite within a narrow physiologic range. This study further validates our previous report that sodium intake, consistent with the neuroscience, tracks within a narrow range, consistent over time and across cultures....

  16. Association of food security status with overweight and dietary intake: exploration of White British and Pakistani-origin families in the Born in Bradford cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T C; Sahota, P; Pickett, K E; Bryant, M

    2018-04-24

    Food insecurity has been associated with dietary intake and weight status in UK adults and children although results have been mixed and ethnicity has not been explored. We aimed to compare prevalence and trajectories of weight and dietary intakes among food secure and insecure White British and Pakistani-origin families. At 12 months postpartum, mothers in the Born in Bradford cohort completed a questionnaire on food security status and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) assessing their child's intake in the previous month; at 18 months postpartum, mothers completed a short-form FFQ assessing dietary intake in the previous 12 months. Weights and heights of mothers and infants were assessed at 12-, 24-, and 36-months postpartum, with an additional measurement of children taken at 4-5 years. Associations between food security status and dietary intakes were assessed using Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney for continuous variables and χ 2 or Fisher's exact tests for categorical variables. Quantile and logistic regression were used to determine dietary intakes adjusting for mother's age. Linear mixed effects models were used to assess longitudinal changes in body mass index (BMI) in mothers and BMI z-scores in children. At 12 months postpartum, White British mothers reported more food insecurity than Pakistani-origin mothers (11% vs 7%; p secure (β = 0.44 units, 95% CI: 0.33, 0.55). This was also found in Pakistani-origin children (BMI z-score: food insecure β = 0.40 units, 95% CI: 0.22, 0.59; food secure β = 0.25 units, 95% CI: 0.20, 0.29). No significant increases in BMI were observed for food secure or insecure White British mothers while BMI z-score increased by 0.17 (95% CI: 0.13, 0.21) for food secure White British children. Food insecure mothers and children had dietary intakes of poorer quality, with fewer vegetables and higher consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks. Food security status is associated with body weight and dietary intakes

  17. Development and validation of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary intake in Turkish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunes, Fatma Esra; Imeryuz, Nese; Akalin, Arzu; Bekiroglu, Nural; Alphan, Emel; Oguz, Aytekin; Dehghan, Mahshid

    2015-07-01

    To validate the original food frequency questionnaire in Turkish adult population. The cross-sectional study was conducted in June and December 2008 and 2009, and comprised adults of either gender aged 30-70 years. All subjects were Caucasians and were native Turkish speakers. The food frequency questionnaire containing 229 most frequently consumed foods under 7 topics was used for data collection. It was completed twice and the 24-hour dietary recall four times in a year. In order to assess the validity of the questionnaire, Pearson correlation, attenuation coefficient, measures of agreement between the two methods, weighted kappa statistics and Bland-Altman plots were employed. SPSS 16 was used for statistical analysis. Of the 120 subjects in the study, 71(59%) were males and 49(41%) were females with an overall mean age of 50.16±9.76 years. The correlation of estimated nutrient intake between the food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour dietary recall varied between 0.200 and 0.468, energy-adjusted regression was between 0.044 and 0.611 and attenuation coefficients of regression were between 0.339 and 0.658 for the selected macro and micro nutrients. Bland-Altman plots showed an acceptable agreement between the two methods. When nutrient intake was categorised in quartiles, proportions of the same or adjacent quartiles were 98.3%, 98.4%, 98.3%, 96.7% and 95% for energy, fat, protein, carbohydrates and fibre, respectively. The first food frequency questionnaire developed in Turkish language was an adequate and valid tool to assess the nutritional habits of the local population.

  18. Estimating Pesticide Exposure from Dietary Intake and Organic Food Choices: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, Shirley A.A.; Fenske, Richard A.; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Lu, Chensheng; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Kaufman, Joel D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Organophosphate pesticide (OP) exposure to the U.S. population is dominated by dietary intake. The magnitude of exposure from diet depends partly on personal decisions such as which foods to eat and whether to choose organic food. Most studies of OP exposure rely on urinary biomarkers, which are limited by short half-lives and often lack specificity to parent compounds. A reliable means of estimating long-term dietary exposure to individual OPs is needed to assess the potential relationship with adverse health effects. Objectives We assessed long-term dietary exposure to 14 OPs among 4,466 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, and examined the influence of organic produce consumption on this exposure. Methods Individual-level exposure was estimated by combining information on typical intake of specific food items with average OP residue levels on those items. In an analysis restricted to a subset of participants who reported rarely or never eating organic produce (“conventional consumers”), we assessed urinary dialkylphosphate (DAP) levels across tertiles of estimated exposure (n = 480). In a second analysis, we compared DAP levels across subgroups with differing self-reported organic produce consumption habits (n = 240). Results Among conventional consumers, increasing tertile of estimated dietary OP exposure was associated with higher DAP concentrations (p Fenske RA, Fitzpatrick AL, Lu C, Nettleton JA, Kaufman JD. 2015. Estimating pesticide exposure from dietary intake and organic food choices: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Environ Health Perspect 123:475–483; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408197 PMID:25650532

  19. Self-reported dietary energy intake of normal weight, overweight and obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Vivienne A; Woodruff, Sarah J; McCargar, Linda J; Husted, Janice; Hanning, Rhona M

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of the present paper was to assess dietary energy reporting as a function of sex and weight status among Ontario and Alberta adolescents, using the ratio of energy intake (EI) to estimated BMR (BMRest). Data were collected using the FBQ, a validated web-based dietary assessment tool (including a 24 h dietary recall, FFQ, and food and physical activity behavioural questions). BMI was calculated from self-reported height and weight and participants were classified as normal weight, overweight or obese. BMR was calculated using the WHO equations (based on weight). Reporting status was identified using the ratio EI:BMRest. Data were collected in public, Catholic and private schools in Ontario and Alberta, Canada. A total of 1917 (n 876 male and n 1041 female) students (n 934 grade 9 and n 984 grade 10) participated. The mean EI:BMRest ratio across all participants was 1.4 (sd 0.6), providing evidence of under-reporting for the total sample. Females under-reported more than males (t = 6.27, P < 0.001), and under-reporting increased with increasing weight status for both males (F = 33.21, P < 0.001) and females (F = 14.28, P < 0.001). After removing those who reported eating less to lose weight, the EI:BMRest was 1.56 (sd 0.6) for males and 1.4 (sd 0.6) for females. The present study highlights methodological challenges associated with self-reported dietary data. Systematic differences in under-reporting of dietary intake by gender and weight status were observed using a web-based survey, similar to observations made using paper-based 24 h recalls and dietitian interviews.

  20. Assessing the effect of dietary calcium intake and 25 OHD status on bone turnover in women in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aysha Habib; Naureen, Ghazala; Iqbal, Romaina; Dar, Farhan Javed

    2013-01-01

    Bone health assessed in three towns of Karachi, Pakistan in females showed poor calcium intake, vitamin D deficiency, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and high bone turnover. Correlates of high bone turnover included females residing in Saddar Town, underweight females less than 30 years of age from low socio-economic status, and secondary hyperparathyroidism. To assess bone health and association of dietary calcium and 25 hydroxy vitamin D with bone turnover in the community-dwelling females of Karachi. Bone health was assessed in three randomly selected towns of Karachi, Pakistan. One premenopausal female fulfilling the inclusion criteria from each household was included in the study. Dietary calcium was assessed through a food frequency questionnaire and biochemical markers including calcium, phosphates, albumin, magnesium, creatinine, and SGPT, intact parathyroid hormone, 25 hydroxy vitamin D, and N-telopeptide of type I collagen were measured to assess the bone health. Three hundred and five females were included from three towns. Overall, 90.5% of females had vitamin D deficiency with 42.6 and 23.3% having secondary hyperparathyroidism and high bone turn over respectively. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and high bone turnover was significantly different among towns. Mean vitamin D levels were significantly low and iPTH levels significantly high in females with high bone turnover. Calcium intake was not significantly different among females with normal, high, and low bone turnover. Correlates of high bone turnover included females residing in Saddar Town, underweight females less than 30 years of age belonging to low socio-economic status, and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Compromised bone health is seen in community-dwelling females of Karachi. There is a need to perform large-scale community-based studies in all age groups to understand the interplay of markers in our population to understand the impact of these variables

  1. No association between dietary vitamin K intake and fracture risk in chinese community-dwelling older men and women: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, R; Leung, J; Woo, J

    2012-05-01

    Data on the association between dietary vitamin K intake and fracture risk are limited among Chinese. This study examined such an association in community-dwelling elderly in Hong Kong. We present data from 2,944 subjects (1,605 men, 1,339 women) who participated in a prospective cohort study. Baseline dietary intakes of energy, protein, calcium, vitamin D, and vitamin K were assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire. Data on incident hip fracture and nonvertebral fracture during a median of 6.9 follow-up years were collected from a hospital database. Cox regression analyses were performed with adjustments for age, education attainment, smoking status, alcohol use, body mass index, hip bone mineral density, physical activity, use of calcium supplement, and energy-adjusted nutrient intakes. There were 29 (1.8 %) men and 19 (1.4 %) women with incident hip fractures and 97 (6.0 %) men and 88 (6.6 %) women with nonvertebral fractures. The median (interquartile range) of dietary vitamin K intake was 241.8 (157.5-360.8) and 238.9 (162.4-343.6) μg/day in men and women, respectively. Similar dietary vitamin K intakes were observed between subjects with hip or nonvertebral fractures and subjects without hip or nonvertebral fractures. In both men and women, dietary vitamin K intake was not associated with fracture risks at all measured sites in either crude or adjusted models. In Chinese community-dwelling elderly, hip or nonvertebral fracture risk was not associated with dietary vitamin K intake. The high dietary vitamin K intake of the studied group may have limited the ability to detect the association between vitamin K intake and fracture risk.

  2. Association of habitual dietary intake with morningness-eveningness and rotating shift work in Japanese female nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizaki, Takahiro; Komatsu, Taiki; Tada, Yuki; Hida, Azumi; Kawano, Yukari; Togo, Fumiharu

    2018-03-01

    Rotating shift workers are associated with imbalanced dietary intakes. Rotating shift workers and dietary intakes in adults who do not engage in night work have also been shown to be associated with chronotype. However, no studies have examined associations between morningness-eveningness (i.e., the degree to which people prefer to be active in the morning or the evening), rotating shift work and dietary intakes. Therefore, our first purpose was to elucidate the association between morningness-eveningness and habitual food group intakes in rotating shift workers. The second purpose was to elucidate the association of morningness-eveningness and rotating shift work with food group intakes, considering habitual sleep durations. Japanese nurses (1095 day workers and 1464 rotating shift workers) were studied using a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire covered habitual dietary intakes, morningness-eveningness and demographic characteristics of the participants. A Japanese version of the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) was used to measure self-rated morningness-eveningness. Dietary intakes over the previous 1 month were evaluated using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Intakes of pulses, green/yellow vegetables, white vegetables, fruits, algae, eggs, confectioneries/savory snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages were significantly (p food groups, intakes of green/yellow vegetables, white vegetables, fruits and algae were significantly (p food groups were also significantly (p food groups, while rotating shift work was associated only with confectioneries/savory snacks. These results suggest that morningness-eveningness is associated with unbalanced dietary intakes in rotating shift workers as well as day workers, which may partially explain associations between rotating shift work and unfavorable dietary intakes. These findings have important implications for the development of novel strategies for preventing poor health caused

  3. Selection of methodology to assess food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biró, G.; Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Ovesen, L.; Amorim Cruz, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the EFCOSUM project was to develop a method to estimate both acute and usual consumption levels in European countries and for the sake of comparison, a common basic method for dietary assessment was needed. The method should allow a reliable comparison of the intake of relevant

  4. Association between Habitual Dietary Salt Intake and Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Ge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Systematic reviews of case-control and prospective studies showed a positive association between habitual salt intake and gastric cancer. Given new studies published thereafter, we carried out a meta-analysis to assess the association between dietary salt intake and gastric cancer. Methods. Case-control studies and cohort studies published between January 1992 and January 2012 on PubMed and Embase were searched. We quantified associations between salt intake and gastric cancer with meta-analysis. Results. Eleven studies (7 case controls and 4 cohorts finally were included in the meta-analysis (total population: n=2076498; events: n=12039. The combined odds ratio showed significantly positive association between high salt intake and gastric cancer compared with low salt intake (OR = 2.05, 95% CI [1.60, 2.62]; P<0.00001. In subgroup meta-analysis, findings were slightly different when analyses were restricted to salty food intake (OR = 2.41, 95% CI [2.08, 2.78]; P<0.00001 as well as in Asia (OR = 1.27 95% CI [1.22, 1.32]; P<0.00001. There was no evidence that sample size, exposure assessment substantially influenced the estimate of effects. Conclusions. The systemic review supports the hypothesis that dietary salt intake is positively associated with the risk of gastric cancer.

  5. Validation of a Smartphone Image-Based Dietary Assessment Method for Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M. Ashman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Image-based dietary records could lower participant burden associated with traditional prospective methods of dietary assessment. They have been used in children, adolescents and adults, but have not been evaluated in pregnant women. The current study evaluated relative validity of the DietBytes image-based dietary assessment method for assessing energy and nutrient intakes. Pregnant women collected image-based dietary records (via a smartphone application of all food, drinks and supplements consumed over three non-consecutive days. Intakes from the image-based method were compared to intakes collected from three 24-h recalls, taken on random days; once per week, in the weeks following the image-based record. Data were analyzed using nutrient analysis software. Agreement between methods was ascertained using Pearson correlations and Bland-Altman plots. Twenty-five women (27 recruited, one withdrew, one incomplete, median age 29 years, 15 primiparas, eight Aboriginal Australians, completed image-based records for analysis. Significant correlations between the two methods were observed for energy, macronutrients and fiber (r = 0.58–0.84, all p < 0.05, and for micronutrients both including (r = 0.47–0.94, all p < 0.05 and excluding (r = 0.40–0.85, all p < 0.05 supplements in the analysis. Bland-Altman plots confirmed acceptable agreement with no systematic bias. The DietBytes method demonstrated acceptable relative validity for assessment of nutrient intakes of pregnant women.

  6. Evaluation of Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Paralympic Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn F. Madden

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intakes and supplement use in Paralympic athletes remains largely unexplored, and specialized recommendations are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutrient intakes and supplement use in high-performance athletes with physical disabilities using three-day food records and a validated dietary supplement use questionnaire. A secondary aim examined gender differences in nutrient and supplement intakes. Male (n = 18 and female (n = 22 athletes were recruited from nine Paralympic sports through sporting organizations, coaches, and social media. Athletes generally met able-bodied recommendations for macronutrients. Male and female athletes often failed to meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA or Adequate Intake (AI for vitamin D, vitamin E, pantothenic acid, magnesium, and potassium. On average, females did not meet the RDA for iron and calcium, whereas males did not meet the RDA for vitamin A and folate. Commonly consumed supplements were vitamin D, protein powder, sport bars, and sport drinks. Analysis of diet and supplement use within this population shows several micronutrient deficiencies and irregular use of specific supplements. Athlete support and education is required to optimize nutrition in Paralympic athletes.

  7. Age dependent values of dietary intake for assessing human exposures to environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupp, E.M.

    1980-01-01

    Detailed information concerning human food consumption patterns necessary for relating pollutant body burdens to environmental contamination levels was compiled to be used in lieu of site-specific data for calculating health impacts arising from the ingestion of food containing various levels of such pollutants as radionuclides, toxic heavy metals, insecticides and many others. This paper examines available data on human food consumption rates and estimates dietary intake rates by individuals of various ages. Ingestion parameters include intake rates of water and other beverages, milk, vegetables, fruits, meat, poultry, grain and fish. Information was analyzed from documented surveys of individuals within households and from interviews and personal communications. Although average intake rates are often the only data reported in the literature, ranges as well as averages are included in this paper whenever possible. Various results are tabulated including per capita food consumption in 1955 and 1965 and changes in per capita consumption as well as changes by urbanization. Details of milk consumption are presented by selected sex-age groups. Solid food intake is given by age group. Market basket quantities of foods consumed daily are also tabulated. (author)

  8. Association between dietary vitamin C intake and risk of esophageal cancer: A dose-response meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Yacong; Lu, Yan; Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Erjiang; Yuan, Ling; Lu, Weiquan; Cui, Lingling; Lu, Quanjun

    2016-04-15

    While several epidemiological studies have investigated the association between vitamin C and risk of esophageal cancer, the results remain inconsistent. In the present study, a meta-analysis was conducted to assess the impact of dietary vitamin C intake on esophageal cancer risk. Online databases were searched up to March 29, 2015, for studies on the association between dietary vitamin C intake and esophageal cancer risk. Pooled risk ratios (RRs) or odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model. Dose-response analyses were performed using the method of restricted cubic splines with four knots at percentiles of 5, 35, 65 and 95% of the distribution. Publication bias was estimated using Egger's tests and funnel plots. In all, 15 articles were included in this meta-analysis, including 20 studies, containing 7063 controls and 3955 cases of esophageal cancer. By comparing the highest vs. the lowest categories of vitamin C intake, we found that vitamin C was inversely associated with the risk of esophageal cancer [overall OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.49-0.68, I(2) = 56%]. A linear dose-response relationship was found. With an increase in dietary vitamin C intake of 50 mg/day, the risk of esophageal cancer statistically decreased by 13% (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.80-0.93, p(linearity) = 0.0002). In conclusion, our analysis suggested that the higher intake of dietary vitamin C might have a protective effect against esophageal cancer. © 2015 UICC.

  9. Dietary intake and rural-urban migration in India: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza Bowen

    Full Text Available Migration from rural areas of India contributes to urbanisation and lifestyle change, and dietary changes may increase the risk of obesity and chronic diseases. We tested the hypothesis that rural-to-urban migrants have different macronutrient and food group intake to rural non-migrants, and that migrants have a diet more similar to urban non-migrants.The diets of migrants of rural origin, their rural dwelling sibs, and those of urban origin together with their urban dwelling sibs were assessed by an interviewer-administered semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. A total of 6,509 participants were included. Median energy intake in the rural, migrant and urban groups was 2731, 3078, and 3224 kcal respectively for men, and 2153, 2504, and 2644 kcal for women (p<0.001. A similar trend was seen for overall intake of fat, protein and carbohydrates (p<0.001, though differences in the proportion of energy from these nutrients were <2%. Migrant and urban participants reported up to 80% higher fruit and vegetable intake than rural participants (p<0.001, and up to 35% higher sugar intake (p<0.001. Meat and dairy intake were higher in migrant and urban participants than rural participants (p<0.001, but varied by region. Sibling-pair analyses confirmed these results. There was no evidence of associations with time in urban area.Rural to urban migration appears to be associated with both positive (higher fruit and vegetables intake and negative (higher energy and fat intake dietary changes. These changes may be of relevance to cardiovascular health and warrant public health interventions.

  10. The association between dietary zinc intake and risk of pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Gai, Xuesong

    2017-06-30

    Previous reports have suggested a potential association on dietary zinc intake with the risk of pancreatic cancer. Since the associations between different studies were controversial, we therefore conducted a meta-analysis to reassess the relationship between dietary zinc intake and pancreatic cancer risk. A comprehensive search from the databases of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Medline was performed until January 31, 2017. Relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) derived by using random effect model was used. Sensitivity analysis and publication bias were conducted. Our meta-analysis was based on seven studies involving 1659 cases, including two prospective cohort studies and five case-control studies. The total RR of pancreatic cancer risk for the highest versus the lowest categories of dietary zinc intake was 0.798 (0.621-0.984), with its significant heterogeneity among studies ( I 2 =58.2%, P =0.026). The average Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS) score was 7.29, suggesting a high quality. There was no publication bias in the meta-analysis about dietary zinc intake on the risk of pancreatic cancer. Subgroup analyses showed that dietary zinc intake could reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer in case-control studies and among American populations. In conclusion, we found that highest category of dietary zinc intake can significantly reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer, especially among American populations. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Pregnant immigrant Nigerian women: an exploration of dietary intakes

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lindsay, K.L

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the study is to explore the dietary intakes of a prominent ethnic minority group of women from Sub-Saharan Africa during pregnancy, in order to identify nutritional issues of concern which may impact on pregnancy outcomes and whether different food based dietary guidelines may be required to meet their needs.

  12. Pregnant immigrant Nigerian women: an exploration of dietary intakes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lindsay, K L

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the study is to explore the dietary intakes of a prominent ethnic minority group of women from Sub-Saharan Africa during pregnancy, in order to identify nutritional issues of concern which may impact on pregnancy outcomes and whether different food based dietary guidelines may be required to meet their needs.

  13. Dietary intake of energy, nutrients and water in elderly people living at home or in nursing home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelheart, S; Akner, G

    2015-03-01

    There is a lack of detailed information on dietary intake in elderly people at an individual level, which is crucial for improvement of nutritional support. The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary intake in elderly people in two types of living situations. Observational study, analysing prospective data. The dietary intake was studied in elderly people living at home or in nursing home, in different cities of Sweden. A total of 264 elderly people (mean age 84) participated in the observational study. Dietary intake was measured using weighed food records and food diaries, comparing females and males. The observed dietary intake was related to Recommended intake and Lower intake level. All dietary intake and patient characteristic variables showed large individual differences (ranges). We found no significant differences (p>0.05) between those living at home and nursing home residents regarding the average intake of energy, protein and water when expressed as total intake per kg of body weight. A very low daily intake of energy (<20 kcal/kg body weight/day) was observed in 16% of the participants. For vitamin D and iron, 19% and 15%, respectively, had intakes below the Lower intake level. There was no correlation between intake of energy, protein or water and resident characteristics such as age, autonomy, morbidity, nutritional state or cognition. The large individual differences (ranges) in energy, nutrients and water show that the use of mean values when analysing dietary intake data from elderly people is misleading. From a clinical perspective it is more important to consider the individual intake of energy, nutrients and water. Ageism is intrinsic in the realm of 'averageology'.

  14. Associations of Dietary Protein and Energy Intakes With Protein-Energy Wasting Syndrome in Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddhu, Srinivasan; Wei, Guo; Chen, Xiaorui; Boucher, Robert; Kiani, Rabia; Raj, Dominic; Chonchol, Michel; Greene, Tom; Murtaugh, Maureen A

    2017-09-01

    The associations of dietary protein and/or energy intakes with protein or energy wasting in patients on maintenance hemodialysis are controversial. We examined these in the Hemodialysis (HEMO) Study. In 1487 participants in the HEMO Study, baseline dietary protein intake (grams per kilogram per day) and dietary energy intake (kilocalories per kilograms per day) were related to the presence of the protein-energy wasting (PEW) syndrome at month 12 (defined as the presence of at least 1 criteria in 2 of the 3 categories of low serum chemistry, low body mass, and low muscle mass) in logistic regression models. In additional separate models, protein intake estimated from equilibrated normalized protein catabolic rate (enPCR) was also related to the PEW syndrome. Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of baseline dietary protein intake was paradoxically associated with increased risk of the PEW syndrome at month 12 (odds ratio [OR]: 4.11; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.79-6.05). This relationship was completely attenuated (OR: 1.35; 95% CI: 0.88-2.06) with adjustment for baseline body weight, which suggested mathematical coupling. Results were similar for dietary energy intake. Compared with the lowest quartile of baseline enPCR, the highest quartile was not associated with the PEW syndrome at 12 months (OR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.54-1.12). These data do not support the use of dietary protein intake or dietary energy intake criteria in the definition of the PEW syndrome in patients on maintenance hemodialysis.

  15. Dietary intake of trace elements and magnesium by local population around tailings pond at Jaduguda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, V.N.; Sethy, N.K.; Sahoo, S.K.; Shukla, A.K.; Tripathi, R.M.; Puranik, V.D.

    2007-01-01

    Dietary intake of trace elements by local population residing within 0.5 Kms from tailings pond was assessed. Intake of Zn, Cu and Fe through processed whole meal vegetarian was estimated to be 28%, 45% and 18% of the Indian national average intake. Intake of manganese is more than the national average. This can be attributed to its elevated concentration in abiotic components of the ecosystem and easy bioavailability in the concerned environment. Intake of trace elements through non-veg meal is Zn: 0.94%, Cu: 0.75%, Mn: 1.83%, Fe: 0.72% whereas, intake through total vegetable is Zn: 1.85%, Cu: 1.8%, Mn: 4.5%, Fe 1% of the national average. (author)

  16. Dietary Assessment Methodology for Adolescents: A Review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The aim of this review is to explore the validity and/or reproducibility of dietary assessment methods used to assess food and nutrient intakes of adolescents. Method: A detailed literature search was undertaken to trace articles reporting on the validity and/or reproducibility of food records, food frequency questionnaires ...

  17. Dietary patterns of obese high school girls: snack consumption and energy intake

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Jin-Sook; Lee, Nan-Jo

    2010-01-01

    In order to develop an obesity management program for teenagers, we compared obese and non-obese girls attending high schools in terms of their dietary practices related to snack consumption. Dietary records were collected for 7 days. No significant differences were found for the average daily energy intake between obese and non-obese girls. However, the highest energy intake was greater for obese girls while not much difference was found for the lowest amount of energy intake. Obese girls ha...

  18. Prevalence of Malnutrition in Orally and Tube-Fed Elderly Nursing Home Residents in Germany and Its Relation to Health Complaints and Dietary Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkert, Dorothee; Pauly, Lioba; Stehle, Peter; Sieber, Cornel C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the prevalence of malnutrition in orally and tube-fed nursing home (NH) residents in Germany and its relation to common health complaints and dietary intake. Methods. In 350 NH residents, subjects' characteristics, Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), and several health problems were inquired with the nursing staff using standardised interviews. In a subset of 122 residents, dietary intake was assessed by 3-day weighing records. Results. 7.7% of the participants were tube fed. 24.1% of orally nourished and 57.7% of tube-fed residents were malnourished (MNA Malnutrition was significantly related to nausea/vomiting, constipation, pressure ulcers, dehydration, infections, antibiotic use, and hospitalisation. Mean daily energy intake was 1535 ± 413 kcal and mean protein intake was 54.2 ± 0.9 g/d irrespective of the nutritional state. Conclusion. In Germany, malnutrition is widespread among NH residents and is related to common health problems. The MNA rather reflects health condition than currently reduced dietary intake. PMID:21687611

  19. Metabolic Phenotyping of Diet and Dietary Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignardello, J; Holmes, E; Garcia-Perez, I

    Nutrition provides the building blocks for growth, repair, and maintenance of the body and is key to maintaining health. Exposure to fast foods, mass production of dietary components, and wider importation of goods have challenged the balance between diet and health in recent decades, and both scientists and clinicians struggle to characterize the relationship between this changing dietary landscape and human metabolism with its consequent impact on health. Metabolic phenotyping of foods, using high-density data-generating technologies to profile the biochemical composition of foods, meals, and human samples (pre- and postfood intake), can be used to map the complex interaction between the diet and human metabolism and also to assess food quality and safety. Here, we outline some of the techniques currently used for metabolic phenotyping and describe key applications in the food sciences, ending with a broad outlook at some of the newer technologies in the field with a view to exploring their potential to address some of the critical challenges in nutritional science. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of intake inadequacy and food sources of zinc of people in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma Guansheng,; Li Yanping,; Kok, F.J.; Xiaoguang, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the intake inadequacy and food sources of zinc of people in China. Design and subjects: Diets of 68 962 subjects aged 2-101 years (urban 21103, rural 47859) in the 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey were analysed. Dietary intake was assessed using 24-hour recall

  1. Dutch food bank recipients have poorer dietary intakes than the general and low-socioeconomic status Dutch adult population.

    OpenAIRE

    Neter, J E; Dijkstra, S C; Dekkers, A L M; Ocké, M C; Visser, M; Brouwer, I A

    2017-01-01

    Food-assistance program users are a specific group of nutritional concern, as they are often food insufficient and have poorer diet quality compared to non-food-assistance program users. The aim of our study was to assess dietary intake of Dutch food bank recipients (n = 167) and to compare this with dietary intake of a representative sample of the general population (Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (DNFCS-all): n = 1933), including a low-socioeconomic status (SES) sample (DNFCS-low SE...

  2. Dietary intakes of essential nutrients among Arab and Berber ethnic groups on rural Tunisian island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroudi, Thouraya; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Abid, Hafaoua Kammoun; Benammar-Elgaaied, Amel; Alouane, Leila Trabelsi

    2010-01-01

    The dietary intake was investigated and food sources were identified among Tunisian ethnic groups from Jerba Island in the south of Tunisia. Ninety-four subjects of moderate socioeconomic status (47 Berbers and 47 Arabs) aged 32 to 64 y completed a 1-mo qualitative food-frequency questionnaire and a single 24-h dietary recall, and dietary intakes and demographic status were observed from 2006 to 2007. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was not significantly associated with Arab men compared with Berber men. Therefore, obesity was significantly associated with Berber women (PBerber women (PBerber group were significantly different from the Arab group. Intakes of calcium, zinc, iron, and folate were below recommended nutrient intakes in men and women in the two ethnic groups. Vitamin E intake was greater in Berbers than in Arabs (P<0.01). Ethnicity was significantly associated with dietary intakes in the two ethnic groups of Jerba Island.

  3. Dietary habits and selenium intake of residents in mountain and coastal communities in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yukiko; Koyama, Hiroshi; Sasada, Yoko; Satoh, Hiroshi; Nojiri, Masami; Suzuki, Shosuke

    2004-10-01

    We used a Simple Food Frequency Questionnaire (SFFQ) in combination with other dietary approaches to estimate the selenium intake from different food groups based on the average long-term diet, in two rural communities in Japan, one in a mountain area and the other in a coastal area. The intake frequencies of rice and wheat products were significantly different in the two districts. The intake frequencies of fish, meat, and eggs, which are rich in selenium, were not significantly different. The mean dietary selenium intake, estimated from the SFFQ and the 24-h recall method, was 82.7 microg/d (n=234) (range 19.2-180.1 microg/d) in the mountain community. The mean dietary selenium intake estimated from the SFFQ and average value of the normal portion size was 118.0 microg/d (n=123) (range 22.6-255.3 microg/d) in the coastal community. These estimated mean values exceeded the Japanese RDA, although the range of daily selenium intake was large. In the mountain community, fish made the largest contribution to dietary selenium intake (48.2% of daily total), followed by eggs (24.3%), and meat (17.0%). In the coastal community, fish accounted for 57.7% of daily total selenium intake, followed by meat (17.5%), and eggs (16.1%). In both districts, the total contribution of rice and wheat products was around 10%. It was found that the contribution of fish to dietary selenium intake was high and the contribution of cereals was low among Japanese.

  4. Food concentrations and dietary intakes of elements for Chinese man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Hongda; Wang Jixian; Chen Rusong

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To obtain concentrations of elements in Chinese current foods and their dietary intakes by adult man in order to provide a basis on intake parameters of Chinese Reference Man and make related hygienic evaluation. Methods: With mixed food sample method of total diet study, determination of element concentrations in constituent foods of diets for 4 areas with different diet types was carried out by using NAA, ICP-MS, ICP-AES, AAS and necessary QA measures, and estimation of their daily intakes and hygienic evaluation were also made. Results: The concentrations of 42 elements in 12 categories of foods, their intakes and hygienic evaluation for adult man were obtained. Conclusion: The data on element concentrations in Chinese foods and their dietary intakes were updated and widened. These data provided a new basis for developing the parameters of Chinese Reference Man and revealed some current hygienic problems. For example, from viewpoint of nutrition hygiene the Ca, Zn, and Cu intakes for Chinese Reference Man are insufficient, and from consideration of food hygiene the intakes of Pb,Cd and Na are excessive.. Especially, and Cd average daily intakes of Pb, Cd and Hg have been increased during recent years, those of Pb exceed their ADIs, which should be paid attention to

  5. Dietary patterns, food and macronutrient intakes among adults in three ethnic groups in rural Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Andreas Wolff; Christensen, Dirk; Larsson, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To compare dietary patterns and food and macronutrient intakes among adults in three ethnic groups in rural Kenya. Design. In the present cross-sectional study, dietary intake was estimated in adult volunteers using two non-consecutive interactive 24 h recalls. Dietary patterns were...

  6. Intervention effects on dietary intake among children by maternal education level: results of the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Britt W; von Kappelgaard, Lene M; Nielsen, Birgit M; Husby, Ida; Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca; Andersen, Lars B; Trolle, Ellen; Heitmann, Berit L

    2015-03-28

    Dietary intake among Danish children, in general, does not comply with the official recommendations. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the 3-year effect of a multi-component school-based intervention on nutrient intake in children, and to examine whether an intervention effect depended on maternal education level. A total of 307 children (intervention group: n 184; comparison group: n 123) were included in the present study. All had information on dietary intake pre- and post-intervention (mean age 6·8 and 9·5 years for intervention and comparison groups, respectively) assessed by a 7-d food record. Analyses were conducted based on the daily intake of macronutrients (energy percentage (E%)), fatty acids (E%), added sugar (E%) and dietary fibre (g/d and g/MJ). Analyses were stratified by maternal education level into three categories. Changes in nutrient intake were observed in the intervention group, mainly among children of mothers with a short education ( education (β = -0·8, 95 % CI -1·5, -0·03, P= 0·04). This multi-component school-based intervention resulted in changes in the dietary intake, particularly among children of mothers with a short education. As the dietary intake of this subgroup generally differs most from the recommendations, the results of the present study are particularly encouraging.

  7. Validation of Dietary Vitamin D Intake from Two Food Frequency Questionnaires, Using Food Records and the Biomarker 25-Hydroxyvitamin D among Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärebring, Linnea; Amberntsson, Anna; Winkvist, Anna; Augustin, Hanna

    2018-06-08

    Our objective was to validate vitamin D intake from a short vitamin D questionnaire (VDQ) and a longer online food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) against a food record and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) as a biomarker of vitamin D status, among pregnant women in Sweden. The number of women included was 1125 with VDQ, FFQ and 25OHD, and of those, 64 also completed the food record. Median vitamin D intakes were 3.9 µg by VDQ ( p D intake from food record and VDQ (rho = 0.51, p D intake. However, only vitamin D intake from the VDQ was significantly associated with vitamin D status as assessed by 25OHD. The validation coefficient for the VDQ was 0.68 and 0.75 for the FFQ. In conclusion, assessing dietary vitamin D intake is challenging, regardless of the dietary assessment method. The VDQ, that includes only four food items, is a valid, simple and useful tool in assessing vitamin D intake of pregnant women in Sweden, while imposing a minimal burden on women and researchers.

  8. Differences in dietary intake during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients compared to women without cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, Y.C. de; Berg, M.M.; Vries, J.H.M. de; Boesveldt, S.; Kruif, J.; Buist, N.; Haringhuizen, A.; Los, M.; Sommeijer, D.W.; Timmer-Bonte, J.H.N.; Laarhoven, H.W. van; Visser, M.; Kampman, E.; Winkels, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy often experience symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and loss of appetite that potentially affect dietary habits. This study assessed the intake of energy, macronutrients and food groups before and during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients

  9. Differences in dietary intake during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients compared to women without cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Y.C.; Berg, van den M.M.G.A.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Boesveldt, S.; Kruif, de J.Th.C.M.; Buist, N.; Haringhuizen, A.; Los, M.; Sommeijer, D.W.; Timmer-Bonte, J.H.N.; Laarhoven, van H.W.M.; Visser, M.; Kampman, E.; Winkels, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy often experience symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and loss of appetite that potentially affect dietary habits. This study assessed the intake of energy, macronutrients and food groups before and during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients

  10. Differences in dietary intake during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients compared to women without cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Y. C.; van den Berg, M. M. G. A.; de Vries, J. H. M.; Boesveldt, S.; de Kruif, J. Th C. M.; Buist, N.; Haringhuizen, A.; Los, M.; Sommeijer, D. W.; Timmer-Bonte, J. H. N.; van Laarhoven, H. W. M.; Visser, M.; Kampman, E.; Winkels, R. M.

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy often experience symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and loss of appetite that potentially affect dietary habits. This study assessed the intake of energy, macronutrients and food groups before and during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients compared

  11. Differences in dietary intake during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients compared to women without cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Y. C.; van den Berg, M. M.G.A.; de Vries, J. H.M.; Boesveldt, S.; de Kruif, J. Th C.M.; Buist, N.; Haringhuizen, A.; Los, M.; Sommeijer, D. W.; Timmer-Bonte, J. H.N.; van Laarhoven, H. W.M.; Visser, M.; Kampman, E.; Winkels, R. M.

    PURPOSE: Breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy often experience symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and loss of appetite that potentially affect dietary habits. This study assessed the intake of energy, macronutrients and food groups before and during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients

  12. Dietary patterns of obese high school girls: snack consumption and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin-Sook; Lee, Nan-Jo

    2010-10-01

    In order to develop an obesity management program for teenagers, we compared obese and non-obese girls attending high schools in terms of their dietary practices related to snack consumption. Dietary records were collected for 7 days. No significant differences were found for the average daily energy intake between obese and non-obese girls. However, the highest energy intake was greater for obese girls while not much difference was found for the lowest amount of energy intake. Obese girls had significantly lower intakes in calcium (P snack (594.1 ± 312.1kcal) was significantly higher for obese girls than for non-obese girls (360.1 ± 173.1kcal) (P snack and total daily energy intake (r = 0.34 P obese girls. In case of dietary behaviors, obese adolescent girls consumed significantly greater number of items for snacks and fewer foods for regular meals compared to non-obese girls (P obesity management programs for adolescents should focus on providing strategies to reduce snack through enhancing balanced regular meals.

  13. Prevalence of Malnutrition in Orally and Tube-Fed Elderly Nursing Home Residents in Germany and Its Relation to Health Complaints and Dietary Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Volkert, Dorothee; Pauly, Lioba; Stehle, Peter; Sieber, Cornel C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the prevalence of malnutrition in orally and tube-fed nursing home (NH) residents in Germany and its relation to common health complaints and dietary intake. Methods. In 350 NH residents, subjects' characteristics, Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), and several health problems were inquired with the nursing staff using standardised interviews. In a subset of 122 residents, dietary intake was assessed by 3-day weighing records. Results. 7.7% of the participants were t...

  14. Dietary fibre intake and risk of breast cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sumei; Chen, Yuanyuan; Ma, Shenglin; Zheng, Ruzhen; Zhao, Pengjun; Zhang, Lidan; Liu, Yuehua; Yu, Qingqing; Deng, Qinghua; Zhang, Ke

    2016-12-06

    Current evidence from randomised controlled trials on the effects of dietary fibre intake on breast cancer risk is inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the effectiveness of dietary fibre intake in reducing breast cancer risk. We searched for prospective and case-control studies on dietary fibre intake and breast cancer risk in the English language through March 2016. Twenty-four epidemiologic studies obtained through the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases were systematically reviewed. A random-effects model was used to compute the pooled risk estimates by extracting the risk estimate of the highest and lowest reported categories of intake from each study. The meta-analyses showed a 12% decrease in breast cancer risk with dietary fibre intake. The association between dietary fibre intake and breast cancer risk was significant when stratified according to Jadad scores, study types, and menopause status. Dose-response analysis showed that every 10 g/d increment in dietary fibre intake was associated with a 4% reduction in breast cancer risk, and little evidence of publication bias was found. Thus, dietary fibre consumption is significantly associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer, particularly in postmenopausal women.

  15. Predictors of dietary heterocyclic amine intake in three prospective cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, C; Sinha, R; Platz, E A; Giovannucci, E; Colditz, G A; Hunter, D J; Speizer, F E; Willett, W C

    1998-06-01

    Cooking meat creates heterocyclic amines (HCAs) through pyrolysis of amino acids and creatinine. Although recognized as mutagenic, the etiological role of HCA in human cancer is unclear, due to the lack of information on the effect of typical food cooking methods on HCA concentrations and on variation in HCA exposure in populations. We estimated overall daily dietary HCA intake and variation in intake between individuals, using recent data on HCA concentrations in various meats prepared by cooking methods, temperatures, and times common in United States in the 1990s. Random samples of 250 participants from each of three large prospective cohorts were mailed a questionnaire to assess frequency of consumption, cooking method, and typical outside appearance of pan-fried, broiled, and grilled or barbecued chicken, fish, hamburger, and steak; fried, microwaved, and broiled bacon; fried sausage; roast beef; and homemade gravy. The 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5,f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) concentrations, measured in composite samples by solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography, were assigned to each food, cooking method, and doneness level. The dietary reports showed approximately 30-fold relative variation in 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline intake, 20-fold for 2-amino- -methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine, and over 110-fold for 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5,f]quinoxaline, when the 10th and 90th percentiles of HCA intake were compared (90th/10th percentile value). These reported variations in HCA exposure among participants in these three large cohorts indicates that estimation of HCA intake and determination of association with disease risk are feasible, if additional information on meat cooking methods is obtained.

  16. Dietary fat intake and red blood cell fatty acid composition of children and women from three different geographical areas in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Rosalyn; Faber, Mieke; Kunneke, Ernesta; Smuts, Cornelius M

    2016-06-01

    Dietary fat intake, particularly the type of fat, is reflected in the red blood cell (RBC) fatty acid (FA) profile and is vital in growth, development and health maintenance. The FA profile (%wt/wt) of RBC membrane phospholipids (as determined by gas chromatography) and dietary intake (as determined by 24h recall) was assessed in 2-6y old South African children and their caregivers randomly selected from three communities, i.e. an urban Northern Cape community (urban-NC; n=104), an urban coastal Western Cape community (urban-WC; n=93) and a rural Limpopo Province community (rural-LP; n=102). Mean RBC FA values across groups were compared using ANOVA and Bonferroni post-hoc test while controlling for age and gender (children); median dietary intake values were compared using a Kruskal-Wallis test. Dietary intakes for total fat, saturated FAs and polyunsaturated FAs were higher in the two urban areas compared to the rural area. Total fat intake in rural-LP, and omega-3 FA dietary intake in all three areas were lower than the South African adopted guidelines. Dietary SFA intake in both urban areas was higher than recommended by South African guidelines; this was reflected in the RBC membrane FA profile. Rural-LP children had the lowest intake of omega-3 and omega-6 FAs yet presented with the highest RBC docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) profile and highest arachidonic acid percentage. Although differences observed in dietary fat intake between the two urban and the rural area were reflected in the RBC membrane total phospholipid FA profile, the lowest total fat and α-linolenic acid (ALA) intake by rural children that presented with the highest RBC DHA profile warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dietary Intake of the Urban Black Population of Cape Town: The Cardiovascular Risk in Black South Africans (CRIBSA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelia P. Steyn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To determine dietary intake of 19 to 64 years old urban Africans in Cape Town in 2009 and examine the changes between 1990 and 2009. Methods: A representative cross-sectional sample (n = 544, stratified by gender and age was randomly selected in 2009 from the same areas sampled in 1990. Socio-demographic data and a 24-h dietary recall were obtained by trained field workers. The associations of dietary data with an asset index and degree of urbanization were assessed. Results: Fat intakes were higher in 19–44-year-old men (32% energy (E and women (33.4%E in 2009 compared with 1990 (men: 25.9%E, women: 27.0%E while carbohydrate intakes were lower in 2009 (men 53.2%E, women: 55.5%E than in 1990 (men: 61.3%E; women: 62%E while sugar intake increased significantly (p < 0.01 in women. There were significant positive correlations between urbanization and total fat (p = 0.016, saturated fat (p = 0.001, monounsaturated fat (p = 0.002 and fat as a %E intake (p = 0.046. Urbanization was inversely associated with intake of carbohydrate %E (p < 0.001. Overall micronutrient intakes improved significantly compared with 1990. It should also be noted that energy and macronutrient intakes were all significant in a linear regression model using mean adequacy ratio (MAR as a measure of dietary quality in 2009, as was duration of urbanization. Discussion: The higher fat and lower carbohydrate %E intakes in this population demonstrate a transition to a more urbanized diet over last two decades. These dietary changes reflect the nutrition transitions that typically occur as a longer time is spent in urban centers.

  18. Dietary sodium intake and overweight and obesity in children and adults: a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley A; Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P; He, Feng J; Nowson, Caryl A

    2016-01-18

    Overweight and obesity in children and adults is a major public health concern. Emerging evidence suggests dietary sodium intake may be associated with obesity. This systematic review and meta-analysis will aim to (i) assess the relation between dietary sodium intake and measures of adiposity in children and adults and (ii) examine the relation between sodium intake and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption, which is a known risk factor for obesity. An electronic search will be conducted using Medline Complete, CINAHL, Scopus, Embase and Cochrane central register of controlled trials (CENTRAL). The search strategy will identify published peer-reviewed articles that report on dietary sodium and either a marker of adiposity or SSB consumption. Only human studies (ages >1 year) in English will be included, and no limits will be placed on publication date. No restrictions will be placed on the method of sodium intake assessment. Cross-sectional, prospective studies, and randomised controlled trials with a duration of ≥ 3 months will be included. Studies with participants with renal disease, cancer, type 1 diabetes or heart failure or who are pregnant will be excluded. To assess the quality of studies, the Cochrane's Collaboration tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials will be used for randomised controlled trials (RCTs), and the modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale will be used for cross-sectional and prospective studies. Meta-analysis will be used to assess the relation of sodium intake with two primary outcomes: (i) BMI and body weight in adults and BMI z-score in children and (ii) weight category (i.e. healthy weight vs. overweight/obese). For any outcomes in which meta-analysis is not possible, we will present data as a systematic review. Findings will be grouped and reported separately for children and adolescents (ages 1-17 years) and adults (ages >18 years). This review and meta-analysis will provide insight into the relation between dietary

  19. Dietary protein intake and chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Gang Jee; Obi, Yoshitsugu; Tortorici, Amanda R; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2017-01-01

    High-protein intake may lead to increased intraglomerular pressure and glomerular hyperfiltration. This can cause damage to glomerular structure leading to or aggravating chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hence, a low-protein diet (LPD) of 0.6-0.8 g/kg/day is often recommended for the management of CKD. We reviewed the effect of protein intake on incidence and progression of CKD and the role of LPD in the CKD management. Actual dietary protein consumption in CKD patients remains substantially higher than the recommendations for LPD. Notwithstanding the inconclusive results of the 'Modification of Diet in Renal Disease' (MDRD) study, the largest randomized controlled trial to examine protein restriction in CKD, several prior and subsequent studies and meta-analyses appear to support the role of LPD on retarding progression of CKD and delaying initiation of maintenance dialysis therapy. LPD can also be used to control metabolic derangements in CKD. Supplemented LPD with essential amino acids or their ketoanalogs may be used for incremental transition to dialysis especially on nondialysis days. The LPD management in lieu of dialysis therapy can reduce costs, enhance psychological adaptation, and preserve residual renal function upon transition to dialysis. Adherence and adequate protein and energy intake should be ensured to avoid protein-energy wasting. A balanced and individualized dietary approach based on LPD should be elaborated with periodic dietitian counseling and surveillance to optimize management of CKD, to assure adequate protein and energy intake, and to avoid or correct protein-energy wasting.

  20. Dietary assessment among women with overweight and obesity in early postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huseinovic, E; Winkvist, A; Bertz, F; Hellebö Johansson, E; Brekke, H K

    2016-08-01

    The present study aimed to assess dietary intake and evaluate the degree of agreement of group-level dietary intake as measured by 24-h recall against a 4-day diet record among postpartum women with overweight and obesity. A cross-sectional study was conducted of 110 Swedish women with a body mass index of ≥27 kg m(-2) at 6-15 weeks postpartum who were recruited to a weight loss trial and randomised to diet intervention or control. One 24-h recall was conducted among all women prior to randomisation. In addition, women subsequently randomised to diet intervention also conducted a 4-day diet record before receiving dietary treatment (n = 54). Paired tests were used to evaluate agreement of group-level dietary intake as measured by 24-h recall against 4-day diet record among women randomised to diet intervention. Women reported a median (25th and 75th percentiles) energy intake of 9.1 (6.9, 11.7) MJ day(-1) and an intake of fibre, vitamin D, folate and iron below the recommended intake as assessed by 24-h recall prior to randomisation (n = 110). Group-level median intakes of energy (9.9 versus 10.0 MJ day(-1) ), fibre (21.9 versus 21.3 g day(-1) ), vitamin D (4.8 versus 6.5 μg day(-1) ), folate (296 versus 287 μg day(-1) ), iron (11.0 versus 11.3 mg day(-1) ) and calcium (915 versus 968 mg day(-1) ) did not differ significantly between the methods; however, the record captured a higher energy-adjusted intake of fat, saturated fat and alcohol, as well as a lower intake of carbohydrates, compared to the recall (n = 54). We found no difference in group-level estimates of energy or micronutrients between the recall and the record; however, there were some differences for macronutrients. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  1. Dietary patterns and trace elements intake evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.; Waheed, S.; Zaidi, J.H.; Ahmad, S.

    1998-01-01

    The dietary patterns and trace element contents of the integrated diets of middle income population in Gujranwala and of Islamabad have been studied and dietary intake of winter and summer are given. An overview of the elemental concentration in the two sets of integrated diets reveals similar zinc and manganese concentrations; comparatively higher nickel, selenium and potassium concentrations in Gujranwala and higher chromium, cesium, scandium, sodium and chlorine concentrations in Islamabad. These results undoubtedly reflect the difference in food selection and habits of the two populations, the influence of soil content and industrial pollution

  2. Dietary Supplements Contribute Substantially to the Total Nutrient Intake in Pregnant Norwegian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Margaretha; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Alexander, Jan; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2008-01-01

    Background Use of dietary supplements during pregnancy may give an important contribution to nutrient intake, and for nutrients like folate and vitamin D supplements are recommended. Our objective was to study use and contribution of dietary supplement to nutrient intake among women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Methods This study is based on 40,108 women participating in MoBa which is conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. The women had filled inversion 2 of the food frequency questionnaire in MoBa between February 2002 and February 2005. Results 81% reported use of one or more dietary supplements. The most commonly used category was cod liver oil/fish oil supplements (59%) followed by singular folic acid supplements (36%) and multivitamin/multimineral supplements (31%). The nutrient contribution of the dietary supplements varied from 65% for folate and vitamin D to 1% for potassium among supplement users. The dietary intake of vitamin D, folate, iodine and iron did not reach the Nordic Recommendations for pregnant women. Conclusions Use of supplements improved the intake of folate, iron and vitamin D, but not sufficiently to reach the recommended amounts. PMID:18645244

  3. Dietary Silicon Intake of Korean Young Adult Males and Its Relation to their Bone Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Accumulated data suggests a positive effect of silicon on bone health; however, limited research exists on the silicon content of foods. To further the understanding of the relationship between dietary silicon intake and bone health, a food composition database of commonly consumed foods in Korea is required. For quantitative data on the intake levels of silicon, we analyzed the silicon content of 365 food items commonly consumed in Korea using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry following microwave-assisted digestion. To investigate the dietary silicon intake status and to examine the potential role of dietary silicon intake in the bone status of men, a total of 400 healthy Korean adult males aged 19-25 were observed for their diet intake and calcaneus bone density using the 24-h recall method and quantitative ultrasound, respectively. Clinical markers reflecting bone metabolism such as serum total alkaline phosphatase, N-mid osteocalcin, and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide concentrations were also analyzed. Silicon intake of the subjects was estimated as 37.5 ± 22.2 mg/day. Major food sources of dietary silicon in the Korean male were cereal and cereal products (25.6 % of total silicon intake), vegetables (22.7 %), beverages and liquors (21.2 %), and milk and milk products (7.0 %). Silicon intake correlated positively with age, weight, energy intake, protein intake, calcium intake, and alcohol intake. After adjusted for age, weight, energy intake, protein intake, calcium intake, alcohol intake, smoking cigarettes, and regular exercise status, daily total silicon intake had no correlation with calcaneus bone density and the bone metabolism markers, but silicon intake from vegetables had a positive correlation with serum total alkaline phosphatase activity, a bone formation maker. These findings show the possible positive relationship between dietary silicon intake from vegetables and the bone formation of young adult males. Further

  4. Thyroid cancer risk and dietary nitrate and nitrite intake in the Shanghai women's health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Gao, Yu-Tang; Ji, Bu-Tian; Yang, Gong; Li, Hong Lan; Rothman, Nathaniel; Chow, Wong-Ho; Zheng, Wei; Ward, Mary H

    2013-02-15

    Nitrate and nitrite are precursors in the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds and nitrate can disrupt thyroid homeostasis by inhibiting iodide uptake. We evaluated nitrate and nitrite intake and risk of thyroid cancer in the Shanghai Women's Health Study that included 73,317 women, aged 40-70 years enrolled in 1996-2000. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline using a food frequency questionnaire. During approximately 11 years of follow-up, 164 incident thyroid cancer cases with complete dietary information were identified. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate relative risks (RRs). We determined the nitrate and nitrite contents of foods using values from the published literature and focusing on regional values for Chinese foods. Nitrate intake was not associated with thyroid cancer risk [RR(Q4) = 0.93; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42-2.07; p for trend = 0.40]. Compared to the lowest quartile, women with the highest dietary nitrite intake had about a twofold risk of thyroid cancer (RR(Q4) = 2.05; 95%CI: 1.20-3.51), but there was not a monotonic trend with increasing intake (p for trend = 0.36). The trend with increasing nitrite intake from animal sources was significant (p for trend = 0.02) and was stronger for nitrite from processed meats (RR(Q4) = 1.96; 95%CI: 1.28-2.99; p for trend nitrate as hypothesized, our results suggest that women consuming higher levels of nitrite from animal sources, particularly from processed meat, may have an increased risk of thyroid cancer. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  5. Association between Dietary Sodium Intake and Cognitive Function in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, T M; Kritz-Silverstein, D; Laughlin, G A; Fung, T T; Barrett-Connor, E; McEvoy, L K

    2017-01-01

    To examine the association of dietary sodium intake with cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults. Cross-sectional study. Southern California community. White men (n=373) and women (n=552), aged 50-96 years from the Rancho Bernardo Study, a longitudinal study of cardiovascular disease risk factors and healthy aging. During the 1992-1996 research clinic visit, a food frequency questionnaire was used to determine daily sodium intake; cognitive function was assessed with Trails Making Test, part B (Trails B), Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), and Verbal Fluency Test (VFT); and medical, clinical and demographic information was obtained. Linear regression was used to assess the association between calorie-adjusted sodium intake and cognitive test scores with adjustment for demographic, behavioral and health measures. Logistic regression examined the odds of having cognitive impairment by sodium intake. Lower sodium intake was associated with poorer performance on Trails B (p=0.008) and MMSE (p=0.003) after controlling for age, sex, and education. Associations did not differ by sex, but there was a significant interaction by age for the Trails B: older (≥80 years), but not younger, adults showed worse performance with lower sodium intake (p=0.03). Associations remained significant after additional adjustment for smoking, alcohol intake, exercise, body weight, cardiovascular risk factors, kidney function, diuretic medication use, and diet quality. Lower daily sodium intake was associated with increased odds of cognitive impairment on the MMSE (score cognitive function in older community-dwelling adults. For the maintenance of cognitive health, older adults may be advised to avoid very low sodium diets.

  6. Level of acculturation, food intake, dietary changes, and health status of first-generation Filipino Americans in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Cruz, Felicitas A; Lao, Brigette T; Heinlein, Catherine

    2013-11-01

    This exploratory descriptive study investigates the acculturation level, food intake, dietary changes and practices, health status perceptions, and diet-related health indicators-body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumferences, and waist-to-hip ratio-of first-generation Filipino Americans (FAs) in Southern California. Healthy FA adults-20 women and 10 men-were interviewed. Acculturation level was obtained using A Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans. A 24-h dietary recall elicited their food intake. Survey questions revealed dietary changes and practices, health status perceptions, and sociodemographic characteristics. Height, weight, waist and hip circumferences were measured. FAs consider themselves more Filipino than American, but their acculturation level reflects transitioning into biculturalism. FAs relinquish, maintain, and adapt elements of both Philippine and U.S. cultures in food intake, dietary changes, and practices. Although FAs perceive their health status as very good to excellent, many exceed the cut-off points for BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio. This study underscores the importance of nurse practitioners and other healthcare givers conducting cultural dietary assessment as a basis for culturally appropriate dietary counseling. The inclusion of waist measurement to regularly monitor abdominal obesity-a predictor of cardiovascular disease and diabetes-is highly recommended. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  7. High dietary protein intake is associated with an increased body weight and total death risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Alonso, Pablo; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramón; Fitó, Montserrat; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Basora, Josep; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Muñoz, Miguel Ángel; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Saiz, Carmen; Bulló, Mònica

    2016-04-01

    High dietary protein diets are widely used to manage overweight and obesity. However, there is a lack of consensus about their long-term efficacy and safety. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of long-term high-protein consumption on body weight changes and death outcomes in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. A secondary analysis of the PREDIMED trial was conducted. Dietary protein was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire during the follow-up. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for protein intake in relation to the risk of body weight and waist circumference changes, cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular death, cancer death and total death. Higher total protein intake, expressed as percentage of energy, was significantly associated with a greater risk of weight gain when protein replaced carbohydrates (HR: 1.90; 95%CI: 1.05, 3.46) but not when replaced fat (HR: 1.69; 95%CI: 0.94, 3.03). However, no association was found between protein intake and waist circumference. Contrary, higher total protein intake was associated with a greater risk of all-cause death in both carbohydrate and fat substitution models (HR: 1.59; 95%CI: 1.08, 2.35; and HR: 1.66; 95%CI: 1.13, 2.43, respectively). A higher consumption of animal protein was associated with an increased risk of fatal and non-fatal outcomes when protein substituted carbohydrates or fat. Higher dietary protein intake is associated with long-term increased risk of body weight gain and overall death in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing validity of a short food frequency questionnaire on present dietary intake of elderly Icelanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eysteinsdottir Tinna

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies exist on the validity of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs administered to elderly people. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of a short FFQ on present dietary intake, developed specially for the AGES-Reykjavik Study, which includes 5,764 elderly individuals. Assessing the validity of FFQs is essential before they are used in studies on diet-related disease risk and health outcomes. Method 128 healthy elderly participants (74 y ± 5.7; 58.6% female answered the AGES-FFQ, and subsequently filled out a 3-day weighed food record. Validity of the AGES-FFQ was assessed by comparing its answers to the dietary data obtained from the weighed food records, using Spearman's rank correlation, Chi-Square/Kendall's tau, and a Jonckheere-Terpstra test for trend. Result For men a correlation ≥ 0.4 was found for potatoes, fresh fruits, oatmeal/muesli, cakes/cookies, candy, dairy products, milk, pure fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee, tea and sugar in coffee/tea (r = 0.40-0.71. A lower, but acceptable, correlation was also found for raw vegetables (r = 0.33. The highest correlation for women was found for consumption of rye bread, oatmeal/muesli, raw vegetables, candy, dairy products, milk, pure fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee and tea (r = 0.40-0.61. An acceptable correlation was also found for fish topping/salad, fresh fruit, blood/liver sausage, whole-wheat bread, and sugar in coffee/tea (r = 0.28-0.37. Questions on meat/fish meals, cooked vegetables and soft drinks did not show a significant correlation to the reference method. Pearson Chi-Square and Kendall's tau showed similar results, as did the Jonckheere-Terpstra trend test. Conclusion A majority of the questions in the AGES-FFQ had an acceptable correlation and may be used to rank individuals according to their level of intake of several important foods/food groups. The AGES-FFQ on present diet may therefore be used to study the relationship between

  9. Assessing validity of a short food frequency questionnaire on present dietary intake of elderly Icelanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies exist on the validity of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) administered to elderly people. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of a short FFQ on present dietary intake, developed specially for the AGES-Reykjavik Study, which includes 5,764 elderly individuals. Assessing the validity of FFQs is essential before they are used in studies on diet-related disease risk and health outcomes. Method 128 healthy elderly participants (74 y ± 5.7; 58.6% female) answered the AGES-FFQ, and subsequently filled out a 3-day weighed food record. Validity of the AGES-FFQ was assessed by comparing its answers to the dietary data obtained from the weighed food records, using Spearman's rank correlation, Chi-Square/Kendall's tau, and a Jonckheere-Terpstra test for trend. Result For men a correlation ≥ 0.4 was found for potatoes, fresh fruits, oatmeal/muesli, cakes/cookies, candy, dairy products, milk, pure fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee, tea and sugar in coffee/tea (r = 0.40-0.71). A lower, but acceptable, correlation was also found for raw vegetables (r = 0.33). The highest correlation for women was found for consumption of rye bread, oatmeal/muesli, raw vegetables, candy, dairy products, milk, pure fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee and tea (r = 0.40-0.61). An acceptable correlation was also found for fish topping/salad, fresh fruit, blood/liver sausage, whole-wheat bread, and sugar in coffee/tea (r = 0.28-0.37). Questions on meat/fish meals, cooked vegetables and soft drinks did not show a significant correlation to the reference method. Pearson Chi-Square and Kendall's tau showed similar results, as did the Jonckheere-Terpstra trend test. Conclusion A majority of the questions in the AGES-FFQ had an acceptable correlation and may be used to rank individuals according to their level of intake of several important foods/food groups. The AGES-FFQ on present diet may therefore be used to study the relationship between consumption of several

  10. Maternal folic acid supplementation and dietary folate intake and congenital heart defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baohong Mao

    Full Text Available It has been reported that folic acid supplementation before and/or during pregnancy could reduce the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs. However, the results from limited epidemiologic studies have been inconclusive. We investigated the associations between maternal folic acid supplementation, dietary folate intake, and the risk of CHDs.A birth cohort study was conducted in 2010-2012 at the Gansu Provincial Maternity & Child Care Hospital in Lanzhou, China. After exclusion of stillbirths and multiple births, a total of 94 births were identified with congenital heart defects, and 9,993 births without any birth defects. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate the associations.Compared to non-users, folic acid supplement users before pregnancy had a reduced risk of overall CHDs (OR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.21-0.86, Ptrend = 0.025 after adjusted for potential confounders. A protective effect was observed for certain subtypes of CHDs (OR: 0.37, 95% CI: 0.16-0.85 for malformation of great arteries; 0.26, 0.10-0.68 for malformation of cardiac septa; 0.34, 0.13-0.93 for Atrial septal defect. A similar protective effect was also seen for multiple CHDs (OR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.26-0.93, Ptrend = 0.004. Compared with the middle quartiles of dietary folate intake, lower dietary folate intake (<149.88 μg/day during pregnancy were associated with increased risk of overall CHDs (OR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.01-2.62 and patent ductus arteriosus (OR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.03-3.32. Women who were non-user folic acid supplement and lower dietary folate intake have almost 2-fold increased CHDs risk in their offspring.Our study suggested that folic acid supplementation before pregnancy was associated with a reduced risk of CHDs, lower dietary folate intake during pregnancy was associated with increased risk. The observed associations varied by CHD subtypes. A synergistic effect of dietary folate intake and folic acid supplementation was also observed.

  11. Agreement between Dietary Intake of Older Adults and Proxy Respondents Assessed by a Food Frequency Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias Medici Saldiva, S R; Bassani, L; da Silva Castro, A L; Gonçalves, I B; de Oliveira Sales, C R; Lobo Marchioni, D M

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the degree of agreement of dietary intake reported by the patient subject with the dietary intake reported by a respondent (a next-of-kin or a caregiver), collected by a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). 126 adults, both sexes, the average age was 65.9 years for patients and 54.4 years for respondents. They were recruited from the General Practice Clinic at the Clinical Hospital of São Paulo (AGD-FMUSP). The agreement between the responses given by patients and respondents was assessed using Spearman, weighted Kappa and Bland Altman tests. The analysis for accuracy between responses (Spearman test) showed a moderate degree of agreement (0.31-0.39) for Energy, Total fat, Total Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA), Total Monounsaturated Fatty Acids (MUFA). Regarding food groups a moderate agreement was found for the majority of the foods (fruits (0.30), dairy products (0.50), natural juices (0.45), beans (0.48), butter/margarine (0.55), coffee (0.41) and soda (0.45), with the exception of vegetables (0.12) and rice (0.63). The ingestion differences did not exceeded the limit of the two standard deviations for the majority of the pairs (Bland Altman). A respondent subsample composed only of husband/wives (N = 36) revealed a moderate agreement concordance for most macronutrients studied (0.30 - 0.58), except polyunsaturated fats (0.25). The results of this study show that, the FFQ may be used in cases where is impossible to get the answers directly from the patients.

  12. Impacts of maternal dietary protein intake on fetal survival, growth, and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Cassandra M; Bazer, Fuller W; Johnson, Gregory A; Wu, Guoyao

    2018-03-01

    Maternal nutrition during gestation, especially dietary protein intake, is a key determinant in embryonic survival, growth, and development. Low maternal dietary protein intake can cause embryonic losses, intra-uterine growth restriction, and reduced postnatal growth due to a deficiency in specific amino acids that are important for cell metabolism and function. Of note, high maternal dietary protein intake can also result in intra-uterine growth restriction and embryonic death, due to amino acid excesses, as well as the toxicity of ammonia, homocysteine, and H 2 S that are generated from amino acid catabolism. Maternal protein nutrition has a pronounced impact on fetal programming and alters the expression of genes in the fetal genome. As a precursor to the synthesis of molecules (e.g. nitric oxide, polyamines, and creatine) with cell signaling and metabolic functions, L-arginine (Arg) is essential during pregnancy for growth and development of the conceptus. With inadequate maternal dietary protein intake, Arg and other important amino acids are deficient in mother and fetus. Dietary supplementation of Arg during gestation has been effective in improving embryonic survival and development of the conceptus in many species, including humans, pigs, sheep, mice, and rats. Both the balance among amino acids and their quantity are critical for healthy pregnancies and offspring. Impact statement This review aims at: highlighting adverse effects of elevated levels of ammonia in mother or fetus on embryonic/fetal survival, growth, and development; helping nutritionists and practitioners to understand the mechanisms whereby elevated levels of ammonia in mother or fetus results in embryonic/fetal death, growth restriction, and developmental abnormalities; and bringing, into the attention of nutritionists and practitioners, the problems of excess or inadequate dietary intake of protein or amino acids on pregnancy outcomes in animals and humans. The article provides new

  13. Dietary sodium intake in young Korean adults and its relationship with eating frequency and taste preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Eugene; Ryu, Ha-Jung; Hwang, Jinah; Kim, Soo Yeon; Chung, Eun-Jung

    2013-06-01

    Dietary sodium intake is considered one of the major causal factors for hypertension. Thus, to control the increase of blood pressure and reduce the risk of hypertension-related clinical complications, a reduction in sodium intake is recommended. The present study aimed at determining the association of dietary sodium intake with meal and snack frequency, snacking time, and taste preference in Korean young adults aged 20-26 years, using a 125-item dish-frequency questionnaire. The mean dietary sodium intakes of men and women were 270.6 mmol/day and 213.1 mmol/day, which were approximately 310% and 245% of the daily sodium intake goal for Korean men and women, respectively. Dietary sodium intake was positively correlated with systolic blood pressure in the total group, and BMI in the total and men-only groups. In the total and men-only groups, those who consumed meals more times per day consumed more dietary sodium, but the number of times they consumed snacks was negatively correlated with dietary sodium intake in the total, men-only, and women-only groups. In addition, those who consumed snacks in the evening consumed more sodium than those who did so in the morning in the men-only group. The sodium intake was also positively associated with preference for salty and sweet taste in the total and women-only groups. Such a high intake of sodium in these young subjects shows that a reduction in sodium intake is important for the prevention of hypertension and related diseases in the future.

  14. Dietary sugar/starches intake and Barrett's esophagus: a pooled analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Petrick, Jessica Leigh; Steck, Susan Elizabeth; Bradshaw, Patrick Terrence; McClain, Kathleen Michele; Niehoff, Nicole Michelle; Engel, Lawrence Stuart; Shaheen, Nicholas James; Corley, Douglas Allen; Vaughan, Thomas Leonard; Gammon, Marilie Denise

    2017-11-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the key precursor lesion of esophageal adenocarcinoma, a lethal cancer that has increased rapidly in westernized countries over the past four decades. Dietary sugar intake has also been increasing over time, and may be associated with these tumors by promoting hyperinsulinemia. The study goal was to examine multiple measures of sugar/starches intake in association with BE. This pooled analysis included 472 BE cases and 492 controls from two similarly conducted case-control studies in the United States. Dietary intake data, collected by study-specific food frequency questionnaires, were harmonized across studies by linking with the University of Minnesota Nutrient Database, and pooled based on study-specific quartiles. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for age, sex, race, total energy intake, study indicator, body mass index, frequency of gastro-esophageal reflux, and fruit/vegetable intake. In both studies, intake of sucrose (cases vs. controls, g/day: 36.07 vs. 33.51; 36.80 vs. 35.06, respectively) and added sugar (46.15 vs. 41.01; 44.18 vs. 40.68, respectively) were higher in cases than controls. BE risk was increased 79% and 71%, respectively, for associations comparing the fourth to the first quartile of intake of sucrose (OR Q4vs.Q1  = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.07-3.02, P trend  = 0.01) and added sugar (OR Q4vs.Q1  = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.05-2.80, P trend  = 0.15). Intake of sweetened desserts/beverages was associated with 71% increase in BE risk (OR Q4vs.Q1  = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.07-2.73, P trend  = 0.04). Limiting dietary intake of foods and beverages that are high in added sugar, especially refined table sugar, may reduce the risk of developing BE.

  15. Repeated 24-hour recalls versus dietary records for estimating nutrient intakes in a national food consumption survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem De Keyzer

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The methodology used in the first Belgian food consumption survey followed to a large extent the instructions of the European Food Consumption (EFCOSUM reports, where repeated 24-hour recalls (24HR using EPIC-SOFT were recommended.To evaluate the relative validity of two non-consecutive 24HR using EPIC-SOFT by comparison with 5-day estimated dietary records (EDR. To assess misreporting in energy for both methods by comparing energy intake with energy expenditure from accelerometery in a subsample.A total of 175 subjects (aged 15 and over were recruited to participate in the study. Repeated 24HR were performed with an interval of 2–8 weeks. After completion of the second interview, subjects were instructed to keep an EDR. Dietary intakes were adjusted for within-person variability to reflect usual intakes. A Student's t-test was calculated to assess differences between both methods. Spearman and Kappa correlation coefficients were used to investigate agreement.In total, 127 subjects completed the required repeated 24HR, as well as the five record days. From 76 participants, accelerometer data were available. In both methods, about 35% of participants had ratios of Energy Intake/Total Energy Expenditure (EI/TEE above or below 95% confidence intervals for EI/TEE, suggesting misreporting of energy. Significant differences between the two dietary intake methods were found for total energy, total fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, alcohol, vitamin C, thiamine, riboflavin and iron. In general, intakes from 24HR were higher compared to EDR. Correlation coefficients for all nutrients ranged from 0.16 for thiamine to 0.70 for water.The results from this study show that in the context of nutritional surveillance, duplicate 24HR can be used to asses intakes of protein, carbohydrates, starch, sugar, water, potassium and calcium.

  16. Dietary intake and overweight and obesity among persons living with HIV in Atlanta Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Dominica; Kalichman, Seth; Cherry, Chauncey; Kalichman, Moira; Washington, Christopher; Grebler, Tamar

    2017-06-01

    In the U.S., there has been a rise in overweight and obesity among persons living with HIV (PLWH). The aim of this study was to examine dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) in PLWH in Atlanta Georgia relative to the U.S. Dietary intake among PLWH was compared with recommended standards as well as estimated dietary intake for adults in the U.S. Over 31% of the study participants were overweight [BMI = 25-29.9 kg/m 2 ], and 33.1% obese [BMI ≥ 30 kg/m 2 ]. Results indicated significant dietary differences between participants in our sample and U.S. daily recommendations for adults as well as estimated intakes of the U.S. Both males and females consumed more percentage of energy from fat and less fiber as well as fruit and vegetables servings than what is recommended. Results suggest that overweight and obesity are an additional health burden to PLWH in our sample and that their daily dietary practices are not meeting the U.S. government-recommended nutritional standards.

  17. Development and validation of a food frequency questionnaire for dietary intake assessment among multi-ethnic primary school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatihah, Fadil; Ng, Boon Koon; Hazwanie, Husin; Norimah, A Karim; Shanita, Safii Nik; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Poh, Bee Koon

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to develop and validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess habitual diets of multi-ethnic Malaysian children aged 7-12 years. A total of 236 primary school children participated in the development of the FFQ and 209 subjects participated in the validation study, with a subsample of 30 subjects participating in the reproducibility study. The FFQ, consisting of 94 food items from 12 food groups, was compared with a three-day dietary record (3DR) as the reference method. The reproducibility of the FFQ was assessed through repeat administration (FFQ2), seven days after the first administration (FFQ1). The results of the validation study demonstrated good acceptance of the FFQ. Mean intake of macronutrients in FFQ1 and 3DR correlated well, although the FFQ intake data tended to be higher. Cross-classification of nutrient intake between the two methods showed that < 7% of subjects were grossly misclassified. Moderate correlations noted between the two methods ranged from r = 0.310 (p < 0.001) for fat to r = 0.497 (p < 0.001) for energy. The reproducibility of the FFQ, as assessed by Cronbach's alpha, ranged from 0.61 (protein) to 0.70 (energy, carbohydrates and fat). Spearman's correlations between FFQ1 and FFQ2 ranged from rho = 0.333 (p = 0.072) for protein to rho = 0.479 (p < 0.01) for fat. These findings indicate that the FFQ is valid and reliable for measuring the average intake of energy and macronutrients in a population of multi-ethnic children aged 7-12 years in Malaysia.

  18. Socioeconomic status is significantly associated with dietary salt intakes and blood pressure in Japanese workers (J-HOPE Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaki, Koichi; Song, Yixuan; Taneichi, Setsuko; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kawakami, Norito; Takahashi, Masaya; Shimazu, Akihito; Inoue, Akiomi; Kurioka, Sumiko; Shimbo, Takuro

    2013-03-11

    The association of socioeconomic status (SES) with nutrients intakes attracts public attention worldwide. In the current study, we examined the associations of SES with dietary salt intake and health outcomes in general Japanese workers (2,266) who participated in this Japanese occupational cohort. SES was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Dietary intakes were assessed with a validated, brief, self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). Multiple linear regression and stratified analysis were used to evaluate the associations of salt intake with the confounding factors. Education levels and household incomes were significantly associated with salt intake, as well as blood pressures (P < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex and total energy intake, both years of education and household income significantly affect the salt intake (for education, β = -0.031, P = 0.040; for household income, β = -0.046, P = 0.003). SES factors also affect the risk of hypertension, those subjects with higher levels of education or income had lower risk to become hypertensive (ORs for education was 0.904, P < 0.001; ORs for income was 0.956, P = 0.032). Our results show that SES is an independent determinant of salt intake and blood pressure, in order to lower the risk of hypertension, the efforts to narrow the social status gaps should be considered by the health policy-makers.

  19. Trends in food intake in French children from 1999 to 2007: results from the INCA (étude Individuelle Nationale des Consommations Alimentaires) dietary surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioret, Sandrine; Dubuisson, Carine; Dufour, Ariane; Touvier, Mathilde; Calamassi-Tran, Gloria; Maire, Bernard; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Lafay, Lionel

    2010-02-01

    The objectives of the present study were to assess the intake of different food groups in French children aged 3-17 years (n 1455), and to analyse trends since a dietary survey undertaken 8 years ago. Dietary intake was evaluated using data from the 2006-7 cross-sectional INCA2 national dietary survey (étude Individuelle Nationale sur les Consommations Alimentaires), based on a 7 d food record. Dietary intake (percentage of subjects consuming the food group and amount eaten) was assessed for thirty-nine food categories. We observed variations in food consumption by age, sex, North-South regional gradient, seasonal period and educational level of the responding parent. Trends in dietary intake between 1999 and 2007 were determined by comparing the INCA1 (n 1126) and the INCA2 surveys. Both surveys had been carried out using the same methodology. The findings showed a decrease in energy intake in children aged 3-14 years, due to a reduction in the consumption of foods of animal origin and sweetened products. In adolescents aged 15-17 years, energy intake remained rather stable; during this 8-year period, the consumption of meat decreased, whereas the consumption of savoury snacks such as sandwiches and hamburgers significantly increased. These trends occurred during a time of growing concern about overweight and the associated co-morbidities in France. A number of public health measures were implemented over this period to improve dietary habits and physical activity patterns in children and adults. The periodic monitoring of dietary patterns through the INCA surveys is an essential part of the surveillance network in France.

  20. Pregnant & Lactating Populations Research - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identifying and studying additional biomarkers of energy and nutrient intake will advance validation efforts and lead to a better understanding of the biases and sources of measurement error in dietary assessment instruments in pregnant or lactating populations.

  1. Prevalence of Malnutrition in Orally and Tube-Fed Elderly Nursing Home Residents in Germany and Its Relation to Health Complaints and Dietary Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee Volkert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the prevalence of malnutrition in orally and tube-fed nursing home (NH residents in Germany and its relation to common health complaints and dietary intake. Methods. In 350 NH residents, subjects' characteristics, Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA, and several health problems were inquired with the nursing staff using standardised interviews. In a subset of 122 residents, dietary intake was assessed by 3-day weighing records. Results. 7.7% of the participants were tube fed. 24.1% of orally nourished and 57.7% of tube-fed residents were malnourished (MNA < 17 p.. Malnutrition was significantly related to nausea/vomiting, constipation, pressure ulcers, dehydration, infections, antibiotic use, and hospitalisation. Mean daily energy intake was 1535 ± 413 kcal and mean protein intake was 54.2 ± 0.9 g/d irrespective of the nutritional state. Conclusion. In Germany, malnutrition is widespread among NH residents and is related to common health problems. The MNA rather reflects health condition than currently reduced dietary intake.

  2. The intake of saturated fat and dietary fibre: a possible indicator of diet quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Fagt, Sisse; Groth, Margit Velsing

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess if a simple dietary quality index (SDQI) is a useful indicator for nutritional quality in the Danish diet. Data from the Danish National Dietary Survey 2000-2 for adults (n 3151; age 18-75 years) were used to construct an SDQI based on the intake of diet......-dense foods, for example, salty snacks, confectionery, and beverages, for example, soft drinks and alcohol. The SDQI is a simple and useful tool to characterise the diet quality of Danish adults....

  3. The association of sleep quality and insomnia with dietary intake of tryptophan and niacin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, J.; Fernstrand, A.; Bury, D.; Roth, T.; Garssen, J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Dietary intake of tryptophan and niacin have been related to sleep. However, the sleep-promoting effects of these nutrients are still under investigation. The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between daily dietary intake of tryptophan and niacin and sleep.

  4. Sedentary behavior and dietary intake in children, adolescents, and adults. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Natalie; Biddle, Stuart J H

    2011-08-01

    Sedentary behavior is implicated in youth and adult overweight and obesity. However, the relationship between sedentary behavior and weight status is often small or inconsistent, with few studies controlling for confounding factors such as diet and physical activity. Diet has been hypothesized to covary with some sedentary behaviors. It is opportune, therefore, to review whether dietary intake is associated with sedentary behavior in young people and adults. This may allow for better interpretation of the diversity of findings concerning sedentary behavior and weight status. Published English-language studies were located from computerized and manual searches in early 2010. Included studies were observational studies assessing an association between at least one sedentary behavior and at least one aspect of dietary intake in children (aged 18 years). Fifty-three studies, totaling 111 independent samples, were eligible for this review. Sedentary behavior in children (n=19, independent samples=24), adolescents (n=26, independent samples=72), and adults (n=11, independent samples=14) appears to be clearly associated with elements of a less healthy diet including lower fruit and vegetable consumption; higher consumption of energy-dense snacks, drinks, and fast foods; and higher total energy intake. Strengths of association were mainly in the small-to-moderate range. The association drawn mainly from cross-sectional studies is that sedentary behavior, usually assessed as screen time and predominantly TV viewing, is associated with unhealthy dietary behaviors in children, adolescents, and adults. Interventions need to be developed that target reductions in sedentary time to test whether diet also changes. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Household food insufficiency is associated with dietary intake in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Eun; Song, Yoon Ju; Kim, Young; Choe, Jeongsook; Paik, Hee-Young

    2016-04-01

    To examine the association of food insufficiency with dietary intake and eating and health behaviours. A cross-sectional study. Data were obtained from a secondary source, the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012). The sample size consisted of 15 603 adults over 19 years of age (8898 households). Significant differences in socio-economic factors were observed according to food insufficiency level (Pfood-insufficient group, but we found no association with fat intake. Regarding micronutrients, Ca, Fe, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin niacin and vitamin C intakes were negatively associated with food insufficiency level (P trendfood groups, such as meat, fish, eggs and beans, vegetables and fruits, was significantly lower as food insufficiency level decreased after controlling for all possible variables; food group consumption also differed by sex. Overall eating and health behaviours were poorer in the mildly and severely food-insufficient groups, who received more food assistance but less nutritional education. Our results showed that dietary intake as well as eating and health behaviours are adversely associated with food insufficiency. These findings suggest that specific strategies to help food-insufficient individuals should be developed in order to improve their dietary quality and health status.

  6. Dietary fat intake and quality of life: the SUN project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, Cristina; Henriquez, Patricia; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; del Burgo, Cristina López; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena

    2011-11-02

    Few studies have related nutritional factors with quality of life in healthy populations. The purpose of the study was to assess whether dietary fat intake is associated to mental and physical quality of life. This analysis included 8,430 participants from the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) Project. The intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), trans unsaturated fatty acids (TFA), and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) was assessed through a 136-item food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Quality of life was measured with the SF-36 Health Survey after 4 years of follow-up. Generalized Linear Models were fitted to assess the regression coefficients (b) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the 8 domains of the SF-36 according to successive quintiles of each kind of fatty acids intake. The multivariate-adjusted models revealed a significant inverse association for SFA intake (in quintiles) and two of the physical domains (physical functioning and general health). E.g. for general health domain: (highest quintile of intake (Q5) vs. lowest quintile (Q1), b = -1.6; 95% CI = -3.1, -0.1. General health also showed a dose-response relationship (p for trend < 0.05). For TFA intake (in quintiles), a significant inverse association was found for most of the mental domains (vitality, social functioning and role emotional). E.g. for vitality domain (Q5) vs. (Q1), b = -2.0, 95% CI = -3.4 to -0.6. We also found an inverse association between TFA intake and the bodily pain domain: (Q5 vs. Q1), b = -2.6; 95% CI = -4.4 to -0.8, with a statistically significant dose-response relationship (p for trend < 0.05). Except for TFA intake and the mental domains, the rest of the associations were attenuated when we repeated the analysis adjusting for adherence to the Mediterranean diet. A detrimental relationship between TFA intake at baseline and most of the SF-36 mental domains measured 4 years later were found, whereas weak inverse

  7. [The nutritional and dietary intake among community-dwelling elderly female users of mobile vendor vehicles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Yukio; Ito, Hideki; Yoshimura, Hidenori; Kamada, Chiemi; Okumura, Ryota; Shinno, Yuki; Suzuki, Taro; Horie, Kazumi; Takaya, Koji; Omi, Hideaki

    2018-01-01

    We compared the nutritional and dietary intakes of users of mobile vendor vehicles and users of stores to clarify the problems in the nutritional intake of users of mobile vendor vehicles. We conducted a questionnaire about the food accessibility among 257 elderly women (age: ≥65 years) who used mobile vendor vehicles and/or stores to shop. The nutritional intake was assessed using the 24-hour recall method. We used an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to calculate the age-adjusted mean values for the total nutritional intake. The nutritional intake among users of mobile vendor vehicles included significantly lower intakes of energy (168 kcal), green vegetables, other vegetables, and meats. Furthermore, those who only shopped at mobile vendor vehicles consumed less energy and fewer nutrients than those who shopped at places other than mobile vendor vehicles. The comparison of the shopping frequency and nutritional intake of the subjects who used mobile vendor vehicles alone revealed that the energy and protein intakes of those who shopped once per week was significantly lower in comparison to those who shopped twice per week. Users of mobile vendor vehicles had lower intakes of macronutrients and various minerals and vitamins. Among the food groups, intakes of vegetables, meat, and dairy products were low. These findings suggest that the lack of means of shopping other than mobile vendor vehicles and shopping once per week may be associated with an inadequate dietary intake among users of mobile vendor vehicles. It would be desirable to develop the shopping environment is desirable.

  8. Increasing Dietary Phosphorus Intake from Food Additives: Potential for Negative Impact on Bone Health123

    OpenAIRE

    Takeda, Eiji; Yamamoto, Hironori; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Taketani, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    It is important to consider whether habitual high phosphorus intake adversely affects bone health, because phosphorus intake has been increasing, whereas calcium intake has been decreasing in dietary patterns. A higher total habitual dietary phosphorus intake has been associated with higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and lower serum calcium concentrations in healthy individuals. Higher serum PTH concentrations have been shown in those who consume foods with phosphorus additives. These fi...

  9. A Correlation Study of DHA Dietary Intake and Plasma, Erythrocyte and Breast Milk DHA Concentrations in Lactating Women from Coastland, Lakeland, and Inland Areas of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng-Jiao; Li, Hong-Tian; Yu, Li-Xia; Xu, Gao-Sheng; Ge, Hua; Wang, Lin-Lin; Zhang, Ya-Li; Zhou, Yu-Bo; Li, You; Bai, Man-Xi; Liu, Jian-Meng

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess the correlation between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dietary intake and the plasma, erythrocyte and breast milk DHA concentrations in lactating women residing in the coastland, lakeland and inland areas of China. A total of 408 healthy lactating women (42 ± 7 days postpartum) were recruited from four hospitals located in Weihai (coastland), Yueyang (lakeland) and Baotou (inland) city. The categories of food containing DHA, the average amount consumed per time and the frequency of consumption in the past month were assessed by a tailored DHA food frequency questionnaire, the DHA Intake Evaluation Tool (DIET). DHA dietary intake (mg/day) was calculated according to the Chinese Food Composition Table (Version 2009). In addition, fasting venous blood (5 mL) and breast milk (10 mL) were collected from lactating women. DHA concentrations in plasma, erythrocyte and breast milk were measured using capillary gas chromatography, and were reported as absolute concentration (μg/mL) and relative concentration (weight percent of total fatty acids, wt. %). Spearman correlation coefficients were used to assess the correlation between intakes of DHA and its concentrations in biological specimens. The study showed that the breast milk, plasma and erythrocyte DHA concentrations were positively correlated with DHA dietary intake; corresponding correlation coefficients were 0.36, 0.36 and 0.24 for relative concentration and 0.33, 0.32, and 0.18 for absolute concentration (p DHA dietary intake varied significantly across areas (p DHA concentrations in breast milk were 0.36% ± 0.23% and 141.49 ± 107.41 μg/mL; the concentrations were significantly lower in inland women than those from coastland and lakeland. We conclude that DHA dietary intake is positively correlated with DHA concentrations in blood and breast milk in Chinese lactating women, suggesting that the tailored DHA food frequency questionnaire, DIET, is a valid tool for the assessment of DHA dietary intake

  10. Evaluation of Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children: comparing reported fruit, juice and vegetable intakes with plasma carotenoid concentration and school lunch observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Bysted, Anette; Trolle, Ellen; Christensen, Tue; Knuthsen, Pia; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Andersen, Lene F; Brockhoff, Per; Tetens, Inge

    2013-07-14

    Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children (WebDASC) was developed to estimate dietary intake in a school meal intervention study among 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. The present study validates self-reported fruit, juice and vegetable (FJV) intakes in 8- to 11-year-old children by comparing intake with plasma carotenoid concentration, and by comparing the reported FJV intake to actually eaten FJV, as observed by a photographic method. A total of eighty-one children, assisted by parents, reported their diet for seven consecutive days. For the same five schooldays as they reported their diet, the children's school lunch was photographed and weighed before and after eating. In the week after the diet reporting, fasting blood samples were taken. Self-reported intake of FJV and estimated intake of carotenoids were compared with plasma carotenoid concentration. Accuracy of self-reported food and FJV consumption at school lunch was measured in terms of matches, intrusion, omission and faults, when compared with images and weights of lunch intake. Self-reported intake of FJV was significantly correlated with the total carotenoid concentration (0·58) (Pjuice consumption showed higher correlations than vegetables with plasma carotenoid concentration (0·38 and 0·42 v. 0·33) (P< 0·01). A total of 82 % of the participants fell into the same or adjacent quartiles when cross-classified by FJV intake and carotenoids biomarkers. WebDASC attained 82 % reporting matches overall and a higher percentage match for reporting fruits compared with beverages. The present study indicated that WebDASC can be used to rank 8- to 11-year-old Danish children according to their intake of FJV overall and at school meals.

  11. Relationship between Self-Reported Dietary Nutrient Intake and Self-Reported Sleep Duration among Japanese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Komada

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported that short sleep duration is a risk factor for obesity and metabolic disease. Moreover, both sleep duration and sleep timing might independently be associated with dietary nutrient intake. In this study, we investigated the associations between self-reported sleep duration and dietary nutrient intake, with and without adjustments for variations in sleep timing (i.e., the midpoint of sleep. We conducted a questionnaire survey, comprising a validated brief self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ and the Japanese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI among 1902 healthy Japanese adults and found that the dietary intakes of several nutrients correlated with sleep duration among men regardless of adjustment for the midpoint of sleep. Particularly, (1 small but significant correlations were observed between sleep duration and the percentage of energy from protein, regardless of adjustment for the midpoint of sleep; (2 energy-adjusted intakes of sodium, vitamin D, and vitamin B12 also significantly correlated with sleep duration; and (3 intakes of bread, pulses, and fish and shellfish correlated with sleep duration. In contrast, no significant correlations were observed between sleep duration and dietary intakes among women. This study revealed that after controlling for the midpoint of sleep, sleep duration correlated significantly with the dietary intake of specific nutrients and foods in a population of Japanese men.

  12. Dietary Protein Intake and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Gang Jee; Obi, Yoshitsugu; Tortoricci, Amanda R.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2018-01-01

    Purpose of review High protein intake may lead to increased intraglomerular pressure and glomerular hyperfiltration. This can cause damage to glomerular structure leading to or aggravating chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hence, a low protein diet (LPD) of 0.6–0.8 g/kg/day is often recommended for the management of CKD. We reviewed the effect of protein intake on incidence and progression of CKD and the role of LPD the CKD management. Recent findings Actual dietary protein consumption in CKD patients remain substantially higher than the recommendations for LPD. Notwithstanding the inconclusive results of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study, the largest randomized controlled trial to examine protein restriction in CKD, several prior and subsequent studies and meta-analyses including secondary analyses of the MDRD data appear to support the role of LPD on retarding progression of CKD and delaying initiation of maintenance dialysis therapy. LPD can also be used to control metabolic derangements in CKD. Supplemented LPD with essential amino acids or their keto-analogs may be used for incremental transition to dialysis especially in non-dialysis days. An LPD management in lieu of dialysis therapy can reduce costs, enhance psychological adaptation, and preserve residual renal function upon transition to dialysis. Adherence and adequate protein and energy intake should be ensured to avoid protein-energy wasting. Summary A balanced and individualized dietary approach based on LPD should be elaborated with periodic dietitian counselling and surveillance to optimize management of CKD, to assure adequate protein and energy intake and to avoid or correct protein-energy wasting. PMID:27801685

  13. Age and disability affect dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartali, Benedetta; Salvini, Simonetta; Turrini, Aida; Lauretani, Fulvio; Russo, Cosimo R; Corsi, Anna M; Bandinelli, Stefania; D'Amicis, Amleto; Palli, Domenico; Guralnik, Jack M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide information on dietary intake in the InCHIANTI study population, a representative sample (n = 1453) of persons living in two towns of Tuscany (Italy), including a large number of old and very old individuals (79.5% >65 y old). We also investigated whether difficulties in nutrition-related activities were associated with inadequate intake of selected nutrients. The percentage of persons with an inadequate intake of nutrients according to Italian Recommended Nutrients Levels (LARN) was higher in the older age groups. Older persons tended to adapt their diets in response to individual functional difficulties, often leading to monotonous food consumption and, as a consequence, to inadequate nutrient intakes. Multiple logistic models were used to evaluate whether inadequate intake of selected nutrients could be predicted by nutrition-related difficulties. Reporting difficulties in three or more nutrition-related activities (chewing, self-feeding, shopping for basic necessities, carrying a shopping bag, cooking a warm meal, using fingers to grasp or handle) significantly increased the risk of inadequate intake of energy [odds ratio (OR) = 3.8, 95% CI = 1.9-7.8) and vitamin C (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.2-4.2, after adjustment for energy intake). More attention to functional problems in the elderly population and the provision of formal or informal help to those who have difficulty in purchasing, processing and eating food may reduce, at least in part, the percentage of older persons with poor nutrition.

  14. Added sugar and dietary sodium intake from purchased fast food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, males and females consumed on average three times the recommended daily intake of added sugar, and more than half of the recommended daily salt intake from these purchased foods alone. These dietary patterns during adolescence may exacerbate the risk of obesity and hypertension in later adult life.

  15. Estimate of dietary intake of chloropropanols (3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP and health risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pavesi Arisseto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chloropropanols, including 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD and 1,3-dichloropropan-2-ol (1,3-DCP, comprise a group of chemical contaminants with carcinogenic and genotoxic properties. They have been found in a variety of processed foods and food ingredients, such as hydrolyzed vegetable protein, soy sauce, cereal-based products, malt-derived ingredients, and smoked foods. This study aimed to assess the dietary exposure to 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP in Brazil and verify whether the presence of these substances in foods could represent health risks. The intake was calculated by combining data on food consumption, provided by the Consumer Expenditure Survey 2008-2009, with the levels of contaminant occurrence determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The exposure to 3-MCPD ranged from 0.06 to 0.51 µg.kg bw-1.day-1 considering average and high consumers, while the intake of 1,3-DCP was estimated to be 0.0036 µg.kg bw-1.day-1 in the worst case scenario evaluated. Based on these results, it was verified that the Brazilians' exposure to chloropropanols does not present a significant health risk. However, the consumption of specific foods containing high levels of 3-MCPD could exceed the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake of 2 µg.kg bw-1 established for this compound and, therefore, represent a potential concern.

  16. Dietary Zinc Intake and Plasma Zinc Concentrations in Children with Short Stature and Failure to Thrive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazbeck, Nadine; Hanna-Wakim, Rima; El Rafei, Rym; Barhoumi, Abir; Farra, Chantal; Daher, Rose T; Majdalani, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    The burden of zinc deficiency on children includes an increased incidence of diarrhea, failure to thrive (FTT) and short stature. The aim of this study was to assess whether children with FTT and/or short stature have lower dietary zinc intake and plasma zinc concentrations compared to controls. A case-control study conducted at the American University of Beirut Medical Center included 161 subjects from 1 to 10 years of age. Cases had a statistically significant lower energy intake (960.9 vs. 1,135.2 kcal for controls, p = 0.010), lower level of fat (30.3 vs. 36.5 g/day, p = 0.0043) and iron intake (7.4 vs. 9.1 mg/day, p = 0.034). There was no difference in zinc, copper, carbohydrate and protein intake between the 2 groups. The plasma zinc concentration did not differ between the cases and controls (97.4 vs. 98.2 μg/dl, p = 0.882). More cases had mild-to-moderate zinc deficiency when compared to controls with 10.3 vs. 3.6%, p = 0.095. Our study did not show statistically significant difference in dietary zinc intake and plasma zinc concentrations between children with FTT and/or short stature compared to healthy controls. A prospective study is planned to assess the effect of zinc supplementation on growth parameters in FTT children. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Assessment of dietary calcium intake of university students: a pilot study in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navruz-Varlı, Semra; Köse, Süleyman; Tatar, Tuğba; Arslan, Sabriye; Köksal, Eda

    2018-03-30

    The aim of this study was to adapt the rapid assessment method (RAM) and International Osteoporosis Foundation Food Frequency Questionnaire (IOF FFQ) tools, used for the assessment of daily calcium intake in university students, and to compare the data obtained using 24-h recall (24-HR) data. There was a moderate positive correlation between the RAM and IOF. Calcium is an essential mineral that plays vital roles in metabolism and it is very important to accurately assess the amount of calcium intake on the diet. It was aimed to assess the daily calcium intake of university students by two different food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) developed specifically for evaluating calcium intake, and 24-h recall method. The study was conducted with a total of 183 female university students aged 18-31. In the study, a questionnaire including sociodemographic information, a calcium calculator, IOF FFQ, prepared in seven different languages, and RAM was applied. In addition, 1-day food consumption records were obtained using 24-HR method. The daily average calcium intakes of individuals according to two different food frequency questionnaires (RAM FFQ and IOF FFQ) and 24-h food consumption records are respectively 1594.2 ± 810.9, 897.9 ± 368.4, and 605.6 ± 278.3 mg. When the daily average calcium intake was compared with the other two methods, RAM was found to be statistically higher (p fast and short tools to ensure adequate calcium intake from young age. It is thought that FFQs are the most appropriate methods in assessing daily calcium intake for this study group because it is observed that the list of foods and the amount of portions in FFQs reduce the problem of remembering at 24-h method to a great extent.

  18. Gender differences in dietary intake among adults of Hindu communities in lowland Nepal: assessment of portion sizes and food consumption frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, N; Sekiyama, M; Maharjan, M; Ohtsuka, R

    2006-04-01

    To elucidate gender differences in dietary intake among adults in lowland Nepalese communities. For 122 male and 195 female subjects aged 20 years and over from 94 randomly selected households, interviews using a 19-item food frequency questionnaire were conducted. To determine the portion sizes of these foods, the samples consumed by 56 subjects in a full 1-day period were weighed. Energy expenditure was estimated by time spent on daily activities. Gender differences in per-day energy and protein intakes were related to sex differences in body size and energy expenditure. Apparent gender differences in the crude intakes disappeared when they were expressed by nutrient density (mg or microg/MJ) since micronutrient intakes were significantly correlated with energy intake. However, males' iron intake was larger even after adjustment for energy intake, attributing to their larger portion sizes of commonly consumed staple foods and higher frequencies of consuming luxury foods (fish and tea). The intrahousehold unequal distribution of food incurs risk of iron deficiency among female subjects. This study was financially supported by the Ajinomoto Foundation for Dietary Culture and the Alliance for Global Sustainability Program.

  19. Atherosclerosis and liver inflammation induced by increased dietary cholesterol intake: A combined transcriptomics and metabolomics analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleemann, R.; Verschuren, L.; Erk, M.J. van; Nikolsky, Y.; Cnubben, N.H.P.; Verheij, E.R.; Smilde, A.K.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Zadelaar, A.S.M.; Smith, G.J.; Kaznacheev, V.; Nikolskaya, T.; Melnikov, A.; Hurt-Camejo, E.; Greef, J. van der; Ommen, B. van; Kooistra, T.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Increased dietary cholesterol intake is associated with atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis development requires a lipid and an inflammatory component. It is unclear where and how the inflammatory component develops. To assess the role of the liver in the evolution of inflammation, we

  20. Validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for dietary assessment in Malay adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurul-Fadhilah, Abdullah; Teo, Pey Sze; Foo, Leng Huat

    2012-01-01

    Food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) must be tailored to the target populations because dietary habits vary within the populations due to differences in cultural and lifestyles practices. Limited information is available to assess the validity of FFQ used among Malaysian adolescents. To construct the validity and reproducibility of a newly developed FFQ in assessing habitual nutrients intake over the past year of 170 Malay adolescent boys and girls in Kelantan, Malaysia. The FFQ that consisted of 124 food items was assessed, whereas three days of 24-hours dietary recalls (DR) was administered as the standard criteria method. Estimated mean intake for most nutrients assessed by the FFQ were higher as compared to the three DRs (pcross classification of quartile analysis showed that most nutrients were classified into the same or adjacent quartiles (median=52.7%). For the reproducibility of FFQ, the correlation of nutrients ranged from 0.43 for carotene to 0.86 for total fat intake (median=0.67), after adjusting for total energy intake. The newly developed dietary FFQ is a relatively good and valid tool in assessing habitual nutrients intake for the past year among Malay adolescents in Malaysia.

  1. Quantitative estimates of dietary intake with special emphasis on snacking pattern and nutritional status of free living adults in urban slums of Delhi: impact of nutrition transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Archna; Gupta, Vidhu; Ghosh, Arpita; Lock, Karen; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna

    2015-10-14

    The nutritional landscape of India is experiencing the fallout of urbanization and globalization. The changes are manifest in dietary patterns as well as health outcomes. The study aimed at assessing household dietary intake pattern with special emphasis on snacking pattern, anthropometric and lipid profiles in low socio-economic status households in an urban slum of Delhi. Community based cross-sectional study in 260 households of a purposively selected urban slum in North-East district of Delhi, India. Family dietary surveys including consumption pattern of commercial food products rich in Partially Hydrogenated Vegetable Oils (PHVOs), 24 h dietary recall and assessment of dietary diversity using Household Diet Diversity Scores (HDDS) were done. Assessment of nutritional status using anthropometric and lipid profile on a subsample ( n =130) were also conducted. Median energy and fat intake were adequate. Micronutrient intake was found to be inadequate for vitamin A, riboflavin, calcium and folate. PHVO usage was low (healthy diet and lifestyle practices with emphasis on quantity and quality of nutrient intake. This must be considered as an integral part of chronic disease prevention strategy for underprivileged communities in urban India.

  2. Pre-hospital dietary intake correlates with muscle mass at the time of fracture in older hip fractured patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo eCalvani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Failure to meet an adequate dietary intake is involved in the pathogenesis of sarcopenia and osteoporosis, which in turn increase the risk for falls and fractures, respectively. Older people with hip fracture are often protein-malnourished at hospitalization. Whether low protein-energy intake is associated with muscle atrophy in hip fractured patients is presently unknown. This information is necessary for the development of novel strategies to manage this especially vulnerable patient population. The aim of this study was therefore to explore the relationship between dietary intake and muscle mass in older hip fractured patients.Methods. Analyses were conducted in hip fractured elderly admitted to an orthopedic and trauma surgery ward (University Hospital. Muscle mass was estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis within 24 h from admission. Dietary information was collected via 24-h dietary recall and nutrient intakes calculated by a nutrition software.Results. Among 62 hip fractured patients (mean age 84.6±7.6 years, 84% women, the average energy intake was 929.2±170.3 Kcal/day, with higher values reported by men (1.046.8±231.4 Kcal/day relative to women (906.5±148.3 Kcal/day; p=0.01. Absolute and normalized protein intake was 50.0±13.5 g/day and 0.88±0.27 g/kg (body weight/day, respectively, with no gender differences. A positive correlation was determined between total energy intake and muscle mass (r=0.384; p=0.003. Similarly, protein and leucine consumption was positively correlated with muscle mass (r=0.367 and 0.311, respectively; p=0.005 for both.Conclusions. A low intake of calories, protein and leucine is associated with reduced muscle mass in hip fractured elderly. Given the relevance of sarcopenia as a risk factor for adverse outcomes in this patient population, our findings highlight the importance of a comprehensive dietary assessment for the detection of nutritional deficits predisposing to or aggravating

  3. High dietary intake of saturated fat is associated with reduced semen quality among 701 young Danish men from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Heitmann, Berit L; Jensen, Martin Blomberg

    2013-01-01

    , and answered a questionnaire comprising a quantitative food-frequency questionnaire to assess food and nutrient intakes. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed with semen variables as outcomes and dietary fat intakes as exposure variables, adjusted for confounders. RESULTS: A lower sperm...

  4. Relationship between self-reported dietary intake and physical activity levels among adolescents: The HELENA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Donne Cinzia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests possible synergetic effects of multiple lifestyle behaviors on health risks like obesity and other health outcomes. Therefore it is important to investigate associations between dietary and physical activity behavior, the two most important lifestyle behaviors influencing our energy balance and body composition. The objective of the present study is to describe the relationship between energy, nutrient and food intake and the physical activity level among a large group of European adolescents. Methods The study comprised a total of 2176 adolescents (46.2% male from ten European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study. Dietary intake and physical activity were assessed using validated 24-h dietary recalls and self-reported questionnaires respectively. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA were used to compare the energy and nutrient intake and the food consumption between groups of adolescents with different physical activity levels (1st to 3rd tertile. Results In both sexes no differences were found in energy intake between the levels of physical activity. The most active males showed a higher intake of polysaccharides, protein, water and vitamin C and a lower intake of saccharides compared to less active males. Females with the highest physical activity level consumed more polysaccharides compared to their least active peers. Male and female adolescents with the highest physical activity levels, consumed more fruit and milk products and less cheese compared to the least active adolescents. The most active males showed higher intakes of vegetables and meat, fish, eggs, meat substitutes and vegetarian products compared to the least active ones. The least active males reported the highest consumption of grain products and potatoes. Within the female group, significantly lower intakes of bread and cereal products and spreads were found for those reporting to

  5. Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Canadian Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill A. Parnell

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Young athletes experience numerous dietary challenges including growth, training/competition, unhealthy food environments, and travel. The objective was to determine nutrient intakes and supplement use in pre-adolescent and adolescent Canadian athletes. Athletes (n = 187 aged 11–18 years completed an on-line 24-h food recall and dietary supplement questionnaire. Median energy intake (interquartile range varied from 2159 kcal/day (1717–2437 in 11–13 years old females to 2905 kcal/day (2291–3483 in 14–18 years old males. Carbohydrate and protein intakes were 8.1 (6.1–10.5; 2.4 (1.6–3.4 in males 11–13 years, 5.7 (4.5–7.9; 2.0 (1.4–2.6 in females 11–13 years, 5.3 (4.3–7.4; 2.0 (1.5–2.4 in males 14–18 y and 4.9 (4.4–6.2; 1.7 (1.3–2.0 in females 14–18 years g/kg of body weight respectively. Median vitamin D intakes were below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA and potassium was below the adequate intake (AI for all athlete groups. Females 14–18 years had intakes below the RDA for iron 91% (72–112, folate 89% (61–114 and calcium 84% (48–106. Multivitamin-multiminerals, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin-enriched water, protein powder, sport foods, fatty acids, probiotics, and plant extracts were popular supplements. Canadian pre-adolescent and adolescent athletes could improve their dietary intakes by focusing on food sources of calcium, vitamin D, potassium, iron, and folate. With the exceptions of vitamin D and carbohydrates during long exercise sessions, supplementation is generally unnecessary.

  6. Dietary assessment in Africa: Integration with innovative technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adequate dietary intake is the basis of good health. ... clinics and hospitals, measuring dietary intake and nutritional status is one of the most efficient ... on respondents to recall types and amounts of foods consumed by populations of interest.

  7. Predicting Dietary Intake among Children Classified as Overweight or at Risk for Overweight: Independent and Interactive Effects of Parenting Practices and Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Shelby L.; Seburg, Elisabeth; JaKa, Meghan M.; Sherwood, Nancy E.; Levy, Rona L.

    2017-01-01

    Using baseline data from a randomized controlled pediatric obesity prevention trial, this study sought to examine general parenting style as a potential moderator of the association between feeding-specific parenting practices and child dietary intake. Four hundred and twenty-one parent-child dyads served as participants (49% girls and 93% mothers). Children were, on average, 6.6 years old and either overweight or at-risk for overweight (mean BMI percentile = 84.9). Data were collected in participants’ homes. Study staff measured children’s height and weight. Parents completed questionnaires designed to assess general parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian and permissive) and child feeding practices (restriction and monitoring). Child dietary intake was assessed using a 24-hour recall system. Outcomes were daily servings of fruits and vegetables, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), and unhealthy snacks. Results were as follows: Permissive parenting was inversely associated with fruit and vegetable consumption, and parental monitoring was inversely associated with SSB consumption. There were no other main effects of parenting style or feeding practice on child dietary consumption. Authoritarian parenting moderated the association between restriction and SSB intake (a marginally significant effect after correcting for multiple comparisons). Restriction was inversely associated with SSB consumption when authoritarianism was high but unassociated with SSB consumption when authoritarianism was low. Findings indicate that the parenting practice of monitoring child dietary intake was associated with more healthful consumption regardless of parenting style; interventions may thus benefit from encouraging parental monitoring. The parenting strategy of restricting child dietary intake, in contrast, was associated with lower SSB intake in the context of higher parental authoritarianism but inconsequential in the context of lower parental authoritarianism. This

  8. Dietary intake and the dynamics of stress, hypertension and obesity in a peri-urban community in Accra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Husein; Ghosh, Shibani; Vuvor, Fred; Mensah-Armah, Seth; Steiner-Asiedu, Matilda

    2016-03-01

    This study intends to investigate the association between dietary intake, stress and prevalence of chronic diseases. The study was a cross-sectional design conducted in two poor peri-urban communities in Accra. A total of 90 households each with a male and female between the ages of 18 and 45 years were sampled, and their socio-demographic status, anthropometric measurement and fasting blood sugar were assessed. Blood pressure was measured and chronic stress/anxiety was determined using the trait and state inventory (T-stai) questionnaire. Three days repeated 24-hour dietary recall was also done. Analysis of variance and linear regression analysis were used in data analysis. About 28% of the subjects were hypertensive and 55.5% had high chronic stress. Hypertension was higher in males (32.2%) than females (24.4%) (p=.023) whiles stress was higher in females (60.9%) than males (50.0%) (p=.017). Hypertensive subjects recorded higher stress (51.02%) and hypertension was more prevalent in subjects with high stress (32.89%) especially in females (57.14%, p=.036). Hypertension increased with mean age whiles stress decreased with mean age. Hypertensive subjects recorded a significantly higher BMI and sodium intake whiles high stress individuals recorded a lower animal protein but a higher cereal protein intake (pstress was associated with intake of low animal protein and high cereal protein. Increased dietary diversity score was associated with decreased obesity prevalence (pstress, and obesity were linked, and affected by dietary sodium, animal protein, and dietary diversity of subjects respectively.

  9. Validation of a food frequency questionnaire to assess food group intake by pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, P; Crivellenti, L C; Nishimura, R Y; Sartorelli, D S

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies conducted among pregnant women to test the accuracy of food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) for estimating food group intake were restricted to one specific trimester of pregnancy. The present study aimed to validate a FFQ for assessing the intake of food groups throughout pregnancy. In total, 75 adult pregnant Brazilian women were evaluated. Dietary intake was assessed by the FFQ (completed at the third trimester of pregnancy) and by three 24-h dietary recalls; one in each trimester of pregnancy. The food items were classified into 20 groups. Adequate deatenuatted Pearson correlation coefficients (>0.4) were observed for the intake of bread/cake, butter/margarine; milk/dairy products; soft drinks/artificial juices; coffee/tea; and pastries/sandwiches. The FFQ served poorly for estimating fruit and vegetable intake. A high percentage (>70%) of women were classified into the same or adjacent quartiles for estimates of cookies/crackers, butter/margarine, milk/dairy products, fruit juices, soft drinks/artificial juices, coffee/tea, roots, rice, beans, meat/chicken/sausages, fried foods, fish, eggs, sweets/sugars, and pastries/sandwiches. Nevertheless, the agreement of joint classification between the dietary methods was mostly into adjacent quartiles, rather than in the same quartile, and low values of kappa were found. The data reported in the present study suggest that the FFQ might not be an appropriate dietary method for evaluating food group intake throughout pregnancy. The joint classification between methods by categories of intake of food groups was mostly into adjacent quartiles, which could lead to attenuated associations when investigating diet-disease relationships during pregnancy. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  10. Baseline dietary glutamic acid intake and the risk of colorectal cancer: The Rotterdam study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana Veloso, Gilson G; Franco, Oscar H; Ruiter, Rikje; de Keyser, Catherina E; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno C; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C

    2016-03-15

    Animal studies have shown that glutamine supplementation may decrease colon carcinogenesis, but any relation with glutamine or its precursors has not been studied in humans. The primary aim of this study was to assess whether dietary glutamic acid intake was associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in community-dwelling adults. A secondary aim was to evaluate whether the association could be modified by the body mass index (BMI). This study was embedded in the Rotterdam study, which included a prospective cohort from 1990 onward that consisted of 5362 subjects who were 55 years old or older and were free of CRC at the baseline. Glutamic acid was calculated as a percentage of the total protein intake with a validated food frequency questionnaire at the baseline. Incident cases of CRC were pathology-based. During follow-up, 242 subjects developed CRC. Baseline dietary glutamic acid intake was significantly associated with a lower risk of developing CRC (hazard ratio [HR] per percent increase in glutamic acid of protein, 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62-0.99). After stratification for BMI, the risk reduction for CRC by dietary glutamic acid was 42% for participants with a BMI ≤ 25 kg/m(2) (HR per percent increase in glutamic acid of protein, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.40-0.85), whereas no association was found in participants with a BMI > 25 kg/m(2) (HR per percent increase in glutamic acid of protein, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.73-1.31). Our data suggest that baseline dietary glutamic acid intake is associated with a lower risk of developing CRC, but this association may be mainly present in nonoverweight subjects. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  11. Nutritional Status and Habitual Dietary Intake Are Associated with Frail Skin Conditions in Community-Dwelling Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizaka, S; Nagata, S; Sanada, H

    2017-01-01

    Prevention of frail skin is important in older people because frail skin is associated with a risk of injury in this population. In this study, we investigated the association of nutritional status and habitual dietary intake with skin conditions in community-dwelling older people. Cross-sectional study. Three community settings in Japan from autumn to winter. Older people aged ≥65 years without care-need certification (n=118). Malnutrition and obesity were evaluated to assess the nutritional status. Nutrient and food group intakes per 1000 kcal were evaluated using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. Dietary patterns based on food groups were evaluated by principal component analysis. Skin condition parameters, including stratum corneum hydration, appearance of xerosis (specific symptom sum score [SRRC score]), and dermal intensity by high-frequency ultrasonography, were measured on a lower leg. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed with adjustment for confounders. The mean (standard deviation) age was 74.1 (4.8) years, and 83.1% of participants were female. A higher intake of plant fat (p=0.018) was associated with a lower SRRC score. Higher intakes of α-tocopherol (p=0.050) and vitamin C (p=0.017) were associated with increased dermal intensity. A body mass index ≥25 (p=0.016) was associated with decreased dermal intensity. A dietary pattern characterized by higher vegetable and fruit intake was associated with a better skin condition. Plant fat, antioxidant vitamins, and a dietary pattern characterized by vegetables and fruits showed positive and obesity showed negative associations for frail skin in community-dwelling older people.

  12. The assessment of daily dietary intake reveals the existence of a different pattern of bioaccumulation of chlorinated pollutants between domestic dogs and cats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Camacho, María; Boada, Luis D.; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Rial, Cristian; Valerón, Pilar F.; Zumbado, Manuel; González, Maira Almeida; Luzardo, Octavio P., E-mail: octavio.perez@ulpgc.es

    2015-10-15

    Pet dogs and cats have been proposed as sentinel species to assess environmental contamination and human exposure to a variety of pollutants, including POPs. However, some authors have reported that dogs but not cats exhibit intriguingly low levels of some of the most commonly detected POPs, such as DDT and its metabolites. This research was designed to explore these differences between dogs and cats. Thus, we first determined the concentrations of 53 persistent and semi-persistent pollutants (16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)) in samples of the most consumed brands of commercial feed for dogs and cats, and we calculated the daily dietary intake of these pollutants in both species. Higher levels of pollutants were found in dog food and our results showed that the median values of intake were about twice higher in dogs than in cats for all the three groups of pollutants (ΣPAHs: 274.8 vs. 141.8; ΣOCPs: 233.1 vs. 83; ΣPCBs: 101.8 vs. 43.8 (ng/kg bw/day); respectively). Additionally, we determined the plasma levels of the same pollutants in 42 and 35 pet dogs and cats, respectively. All these animals lived indoors and were fed on the commercial brands of feed analyzed. As expected (considering the intake), the plasma levels of PAHs were higher in dogs than in cats. However, for organochlorines (OCPs and PCBs) the plasma levels were much higher in cats than in dogs (as much as 23 times higher for DDTs), in spite of the higher intake in dogs. This reveals a lower capacity of bioaccumulation of some pollutants in dogs, which is probably related with higher metabolizing capabilities in this species. - Highlights: • First assessment of the dietary intake of POPs in pet animals. • Intake levels of pollutants are more than double in dogs than in cats. • Proportionality between intake of PAHs and their plasma levels in both species. • Lower levels of organochlorines in dog plasma

  13. The assessment of daily dietary intake reveals the existence of a different pattern of bioaccumulation of chlorinated pollutants between domestic dogs and cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Camacho, María; Boada, Luis D.; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Rial, Cristian; Valerón, Pilar F.; Zumbado, Manuel; González, Maira Almeida; Luzardo, Octavio P.

    2015-01-01

    Pet dogs and cats have been proposed as sentinel species to assess environmental contamination and human exposure to a variety of pollutants, including POPs. However, some authors have reported that dogs but not cats exhibit intriguingly low levels of some of the most commonly detected POPs, such as DDT and its metabolites. This research was designed to explore these differences between dogs and cats. Thus, we first determined the concentrations of 53 persistent and semi-persistent pollutants (16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)) in samples of the most consumed brands of commercial feed for dogs and cats, and we calculated the daily dietary intake of these pollutants in both species. Higher levels of pollutants were found in dog food and our results showed that the median values of intake were about twice higher in dogs than in cats for all the three groups of pollutants (ΣPAHs: 274.8 vs. 141.8; ΣOCPs: 233.1 vs. 83; ΣPCBs: 101.8 vs. 43.8 (ng/kg bw/day); respectively). Additionally, we determined the plasma levels of the same pollutants in 42 and 35 pet dogs and cats, respectively. All these animals lived indoors and were fed on the commercial brands of feed analyzed. As expected (considering the intake), the plasma levels of PAHs were higher in dogs than in cats. However, for organochlorines (OCPs and PCBs) the plasma levels were much higher in cats than in dogs (as much as 23 times higher for DDTs), in spite of the higher intake in dogs. This reveals a lower capacity of bioaccumulation of some pollutants in dogs, which is probably related with higher metabolizing capabilities in this species. - Highlights: • First assessment of the dietary intake of POPs in pet animals. • Intake levels of pollutants are more than double in dogs than in cats. • Proportionality between intake of PAHs and their plasma levels in both species. • Lower levels of organochlorines in dog plasma

  14. Dietary Acrylamide Intake during Pregnancy and Fetal Growth—Results from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte-Salles, Talita; von Stedingk, Hans; Granum, Berit; Gützkow, Kristine B.; Rydberg, Per; Törnqvist, Margareta; Mendez, Michelle A.; Brunborg, Gunnar; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Alexander, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Acrylamide has shown developmental and reproductive toxicity in animals, as well as neurotoxic effects in humans with occupational exposures. Because it is widespread in food and can pass through the human placenta, concerns have been raised about potential developmental effects of dietary exposures in humans. Objectives: We assessed associations of prenatal exposure to dietary acrylamide with small for gestational age (SGA) and birth weight. Methods: This study included 50,651 women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Acrylamide exposure assessment was based on intake estimates obtained from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), which were compared with hemoglobin (Hb) adduct measurements reflecting acrylamide exposure in a subset of samples (n = 79). Data on infant birth weight and gestational age were obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Multivariable regression was used to estimate associations between prenatal acrylamide and birth outcomes. Results: Acrylamide intake during pregnancy was negatively associated with fetal growth. When women in the highest quartile of acrylamide intake were compared with women in the lowest quartile, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for SGA was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.21) and the coefficient for birth weight was –25.7 g (95% CI: –35.9, –15.4). Results were similar after excluding mothers who smoked during pregnancy. Maternal acrylamide– and glycidamide–Hb adduct levels were correlated with estimated dietary acrylamide intakes (Spearman correlations = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.44; and 0.48; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.63, respectively). Conclusions: Lowering dietary acrylamide intake during pregnancy may improve fetal growth. PMID:23204292

  15. Childhood maltreatment and high dietary fat intake behaviors in adulthood: A birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Kisely, Steve; Williams, Gail; Strathearn, Lane; Najman, Jake Moses

    2017-10-01

    Childhood maltreatment has been associated with a wide range of chronic medical conditions including obesity, other metabolic events and eating disorders. However, little is known about the association between childhood maltreatment and high dietary fat intake. This study addresses the extent to which co-occurring and specific forms of substantiated childhood maltreatment are associated with self-reported high dietary fat intake in adulthood and whether there is a gender-childhood maltreatment interaction in predicting this association. The study also examines the association between age at substantiation of maltreatment, number of childhood maltreatment substantiations and high dietary fat intake-related behaviors. The data were from a prospective Australian pre-birth mother-child dyads study, the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy. The study followed 7223 mother-child dyads following the birth of a live, singleton baby at the Mater hospital. Recruitment was early in pregnancy, and then follow-ups at 3-5days postpartum and again when the child was 6 months, 5, 14 and 21 years of age. The data were linked to agency-substantiated cases of childhood maltreatment 0-14 years. This study extended the data linkage to 3766 (47.4% female) participants who had complete data on dietary fat intake behaviors at the 21-year follow-up. Consecutive logistic regressions were used to estimate odds ratios with respective 95% confidence intervals for high dietary fat intake for multiple and specific forms of childhood maltreatment, as well as age at and number of childhood maltreatment substantiations. Finally, a gender-childhood maltreatment interaction term was used to predict the outcome. In both unadjusted and adjusted analyses, substantiated childhood maltreatment including physical abuse were associated with high dietary fat intake-related behaviors. Similarly, substantiation of childhood maltreatment between the ages of 5 and 14 years was significantly

  16. Fruit, Vegetable and Dietary Carotenoid Intakes Explain Variation in Skin-Color in Young Caucasian Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Pezdirc

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fruit and vegetables contain carotenoid pigments, which accumulate in human skin, contributing to its yellowness. This effect has a beneficial impact on appearance. The aim was to evaluate associations between diet (fruit, vegetable and dietary carotenoid intakes and skin color in young women. Ninety-one Caucasian women (Median and Interquartile Range (IQR age 22.1 (18.1–29.1 years, BMI 22.9 (18.5–31.9 kg/m2 were recruited from the Hunter region (Australia. Fruit, vegetable and dietary carotenoid intakes were estimated by a validated food frequency questionnaire. Skin color was measured at nine body locations (sun exposed and unexposed sites using spectrophotometry. Multiple linear regression was used to assess the relationship between fruit and vegetable intakes and skin yellowness adjusting for known confounders. Higher combined fruit and vegetable intakes (β = 0.8, p = 0.017 were associated with higher overall skin yellowness values. Higher fruit combined fruit and vegetable intakes (β = 1.0, p = 0.004 were associated with increased unexposed skin yellowness. Combined fruit and vegetables plus dietary carotenoid intakes contribute to skin yellowness in young Caucasian women. Evaluation of interventions using improvements in appearance as an incentive for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in young women is warranted.

  17. Trans Fat Intake and Its Dietary Sources in General Populations Worldwide: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanders, Anne J.; Zock, Peter L.; Brouwer, Ingeborg A.

    2017-01-01

    After the discovery that trans fat increases the risk of coronary heart disease, trans fat content of foods have considerably changed. The aim of this study was to systematically review available data on intakes of trans fat and its dietary sources in general populations worldwide. Data from national dietary surveys and population studies published from 1995 onward were searched via Scopus and websites of national public health institutes. Relevant data from 29 countries were identified. The most up to date estimates of total trans fat intake ranged from 0.3 to 4.2 percent of total energy intake (En%) across countries. Seven countries had trans fat intakes higher than the World Health Organization recommendation of 1 En%. In 16 out of 21 countries with data on dietary sources, intakes of trans fat from animal sources were higher than that from industrial sources. Time trend data from 20 countries showed substantial declines in industrial trans fat intake since 1995. In conclusion, nowadays, in the majority of countries for which data are available, average trans fat intake is lower than the recommended maximum intake of 1 En%, with intakes from animal sources being higher than from industrial sources. In the past 20 years, substantial reductions in industrial trans fat have been achieved in many countries. PMID:28783062

  18. Development and validation of a self-administered food frequency questionnaire to assess habitual dietary intake and quality of diet in healthy adults in the Republic of Croatia. .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabić, Dora; Sindik, Joško; Missoni, Saša

    2014-09-01

    Food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) are designed to assess habitual diet by asking about the frequency with which food items or specific food groups are consumed over a reference period. In this study, we have developed a FFQ to assess habitual dietary intake of healthy adults to estimate the quality of their nutrition and conducted a study to validate the developed FFQ against a three-day 24-hour recall. Second aim of the study is to establish the correlation between the FFQ to assess habitual dietary intake and a three-day 24-hour recall, in relation with participants' age and education level. FFQ used in our study was adapted from the Harvard Semiquantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire, consisted of 101 food items, divided into 9 groups. The 24-hour recalls were collected during one week (the same week when the FFQ was completed) and on each different day of the week (two weekdays and one weekend day). Both the FFQ and three day 24-hour recall were distributed to 100 healthy, employed subjects, 32 males (aged 39.73 +/- 14.02) and 36 females (aged 34.20 +/- 10.63). The results indicated that the developed FFQ is valid instrument to assess the habitual intake of energy and most of the nutrients in healthy adults in the Republic of Croatia, while men tended to have higher correlation coefficients than women and therefore a higher correlation of the FFQ with the three 24-hour recalls. Statistically significant correlations are not found between energy and nutrient intake based on the education level of the participants.

  19. Usual Dietary Intakes: SAS Macros for Estimating Ratios of Two Dietary Components that are Consumed Nearly Every Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following SAS macros can be used to create a bivariate distribution of usual intake of two dietary components that are consumed nearly every day and to calculate percentiles of the population distribution of the ratio of usual intakes.

  20. Dietary protein intake and distribution patterns of well-trained Dutch athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillen, Jenna B.; Trommelen, Jorn; Wardenaar, Floris C.; Brinkmans, Naomi Y.J.; Versteegen, Joline J.; Jonvik, Kristin L.; Kapp, Christoph; Vries, de Jeanne; Borne, van den Joost J.G.C.; Gibala, Martin J.; Loon, van Luc J.C.

    2017-01-01

    Dietary protein intake should be optimized in all athletes to ensure proper recovery and enhance the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise training. In addition to total protein intake, the use of specific proteincontaining food sources and the distribution of protein throughout the day

  1. [Dietary approach to improving the nutritional status in institutionalized elderly hemodialysis patients with a poor dietary intake: a single-arm pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Makiko; Komatsu, Rieko; Maruyama, Yuko; Takaki, Tomoyuki; Ichinose, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Osamu; Sawase, Kenji; Harada, Takashi; Funakoshi, Satoshi

    2018-01-01

    The hemodialysis (HD) diet, which is a high-calorie and high-fat regimen, may inadvertently lead to an inadequate dietary intake, resulting in undernutrition among elderly HD patients. Therefore, an attempt was made to improve the dietary intake by implementing a modified diet regimen in eligible elderly HD patients. Elderly HD patients who had ingested nutritional index [GNRI], 83.5±8.3; normalized protein catabolic ratio [nPCR], 0.78±0.14). The modified diet regimen, which involved reducing food portion sizes and incorporating a liquid diet, led to a significant increase in their dietary intake from 48.1% at baseline to 97.1% of the meals provided 3 months after the start of the modified HD diet regimen. Their GNRI also significantly increased from 83.5±8.3 to 86.1±10.2, and their serum albumin levels significantly increased from 3.2±0.2 g/dL to 3.4±0.4 g/dL, suggesting improvements in their nutritional status. The attempted dietary approach for elderly HD patients was shown to potentially increase their dietary intake and improve their nutritional status without affecting the efficiency of HD being implemented.

  2. Free fruit at workplace intervention increases total fruit intake: a validation study using 24 h dietary recall and urinary flavonoid excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz; Bredsdorff, Lea; Alinia, Sevil

    2010-01-01

    , isorhamnetin, tamarixetin, kaempferol, hesperetin, naringenin, eriodictyol, daidzein, genistein, and phloretin, were measured using HPLC-electrospray ionization-MS. Results: The 24 h urinary excretion of total flavonoids and the estimated intake of fruits were significantly correlated (r(s) = 0.31, P......Background/Objectives: To validate 24 h dietary recall of fruit intake by measuring the total 24 h excretion of 10 different flavonoids in 24 h urine during an intervention with free fruit at workplaces. Subjects/Methods: Employees at workplaces offering a free-fruit program, consisting of daily...... free and easy access to fresh fruit, and controls employees at workplaces with no free-fruit program were enrolled in this validation study (n = 103). Dietary intake was assessed by using a 24 h dietary recall questionnaire at baseline and approximately 5 months later. Ten flavonoids, quercetin...

  3. Frequency of consumption at fast-food restaurants is associated with dietary intake in overweight and obese women recruited from financially disadvantaged neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Granner, Michelle; Baruth, Meghan

    2013-08-01

    Fast-food restaurants are more prevalent in lower-income and predominately African American neighborhoods, where consumption of fast food is also higher. In general populations, fast-food consumption is related to less healthy dietary intake. This cross-sectional study examined the hypotheses that greater fast-food consumption is associated with less healthy dietary intake and poorer diet quality in overweight and obese women (n = 196, 25-51 years, 87% African American) recruited from financially disadvantaged Census tracts. Dietary intake and diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index) were assessed via three 24-hour dietary recalls. Linear regression models tested the association between fast-food consumption and each outcome (model 1). Model 2 added sociodemographics and physical activity. Model 3 added total caloric intake. Fast-food consumption was significantly associated with total caloric intake; total intake of meat, grains, sweetened beverages, dairy, fiber, cholesterol, sodium, and added sugar; and percent of calories from total fat, saturated fat, and trans-fatty acids. Statistically significant associations remained in model 2, but most were not significant in model 3. Fast-food consumption was not associated with diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index) in any model. In this at-risk sample, fast-food consumption was associated with more negative dietary practices. Significant associations generally disappeared when controlling for total caloric intake, suggesting that women who eat more fast food have higher total caloric intakes as a result of increased consumption of unhealthy rather than healthy foods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Lean body mass change over 6 years is associated with dietary leucine intake in an older Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDonald, Cameron Keith; Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z.; Capra, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Higher protein intake, and particularly higher leucine intake, is associated with attenuated loss of lean body mass (LBM) over time in older individuals. Dietary leucine is thought to be a key mediator of anabolism. This study aimed to assess this relationship over 6 years among younger and older...... corroborates findings from laboratory investigations in relation to protein and leucine intakes and LBM change. A more diverse and larger sample is needed for confirmation of these results....

  5. Dietary intake patterns of children aged 6 years and their association with socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, early feeding practices and body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Pozza Santos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary intake patterns of children from the 2004 Pelotas birth cohort study have been described at 12, 24 and 48 months of age, but there is no information about dietary patterns of these children at 6 years. Then, we aimed to identify and describe dietary intake patterns of children aged 6 years as well as to assess their association with socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, early feeding practices and BMI z-score at 6 years. Methods We used principal components analysis to identify dietary intake patterns of 3,427 children from the 2004 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study. We used multiple linear regression models to evaluate whether socioeconomic and demographic characteristics (socioeconomic position, mother’s age at birth, and child’s sex and skin colour, early feeding practices (exclusive breastfeeding duration and age of introduction of complementary foods, and BMI z-score at 6 years were associated with dietary intake patterns. Results We identified seven dietary components of children’s dietary intake patterns, namely: fruits and vegetables, snacks and treats, coffee and bread, milk, cheese and processed meats, rice and beans and carbohydrates. Dietary patterns were socially patterned, since six dietary components were associated with socioeconomic position. Moreover, high intake of snacks and treats and less fruits and vegetables were associated with children born to teenage mothers, with those exclusively breastfed for less than one month, and with those who started on complementary feeding before 4 months. Finally, overweight and obese children at 6 years presented lower intake of four out of seven dietary components, but we need to be cautious in interpretation due to limitations on food consumption reporting and due to possible reverse causality. Conclusion Dietary intake patterns in children are strongly influenced by socioeconomic characteristics. Other factors such as younger maternal

  6. Frequency of soup intake and amount of dietary fiber intake are inversely associated with plasma leptin concentrations in Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Motonaka; Ohta, Masanori; Okufuji, Tatsuya; Takigami, Chieko; Eguchi, Masafumi; Hayabuchi, Hitomi; Ikeda, Masaharu

    2010-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that the intake of soup negatively correlates with the body mass index (BMI), suggesting that soup intake reduces the risk of obesity. In this study, to clarify the association of the intake of soup and various nutrients with plasma leptin concentration, a cross-sectional study on 504 Japanese adults aged 20-76 years (103 men and 401 women) was performed. The intake of soup and various nutrients was investigated by food frequency questionnaires. Plasma leptin concentration was measured in fasting blood by radioimmunoassay. The correlation was analyzed by multiple regression analysis. The average frequency of soup intake was 7.6 times/week. The average plasma leptin concentration was 7.76 ng/ml. After adjusting the confounding factors, the frequency of soup intake has a significant inverse association with plasma leptin concentration. Among the macronutrients, only dietary fiber intake negatively correlated with plasma leptin concentration after the adjustment for potential confounding factors. These results suggest that the intakes of soup and dietary fiber were negatively correlated with plasma leptin concentration in Japanese adults. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Estimating pesticide exposure from dietary intake and organic food choices: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curl, Cynthia L; Beresford, Shirley A A; Fenske, Richard A; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Lu, Chensheng; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Kaufman, Joel D

    2015-05-01

    Organophosphate pesticide (OP) exposure to the U.S. population is dominated by dietary intake. The magnitude of exposure from diet depends partly on personal decisions such as which foods to eat and whether to choose organic food. Most studies of OP exposure rely on urinary biomarkers, which are limited by short half-lives and often lack specificity to parent compounds. A reliable means of estimating long-term dietary exposure to individual OPs is needed to assess the potential relationship with adverse health effects. We assessed long-term dietary exposure to 14 OPs among 4,466 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, and examined the influence of organic produce consumption on this exposure. Individual-level exposure was estimated by combining information on typical intake of specific food items with average OP residue levels on those items. In an analysis restricted to a subset of participants who reported rarely or never eating organic produce ("conventional consumers"), we assessed urinary dialkylphosphate (DAP) levels across tertiles of estimated exposure (n = 480). In a second analysis, we compared DAP levels across subgroups with differing self-reported organic produce consumption habits (n = 240). Among conventional consumers, increasing tertile of estimated dietary OP exposure was associated with higher DAP concentrations (p organic produce (p organic produce was associated with lower DAPs.

  8. Dietary fat intake, circulating and membrane fatty acid composition of healthy Norwegian men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Y; Blois, A; Geppert, J; Khalil, F; Ghebremeskel, K; Holmsen, H

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed to assess the dietary fat intake and blood fatty acid status of healthy Norwegian men and women living in Bergen whose habitual diet is known to be high in long-chain omega-3 fat. Healthy men (n = 41) and women (n = 40) aged 20-50 years who were regular blood donors completed 7-day food diaries and their nutrient intake was analysed by Norwegian food database software, kbs, version 4.9 (kostberegningssystem; University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway). Blood samples were obtained before blood donation and assessed for the fatty acid composition of plasma triglycerides and cholesterol esters, phosphatidylcholine, and red cell phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. There was no difference in dietary fat intake between men and women. Total and saturated fat intakes exceeded the upper limits of the recommendations of the National Nutrition Council of Norway. Although polyunsaturated fat intake was close to the lower limit of the recommended level, the intake varied greatly among individuals, partly as a result of the use of supplementary fish oil. Moreover, the proportional fatty acid composition of plasma and red cell lipids was similar between men and women. Enrichment of docosahexaenoic acid in red cell phosphatidylethanolamine was found in fish oil users. The results of the present study provide a snapshot of the current nutritional status of healthy Norwegian adults. Moreover, the detailed blood fatty acid composition of men and women whose habitual diet constitutes high long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fat as well as saturated fat could be used as reference value for population studies. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  9. Iterative Development of an Online Dietary Recall Tool: INTAKE24

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Simpson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Collecting large-scale population data on dietary intake is challenging, particularly when resources and funding are constrained. Technology offers the potential to develop novel ways of collecting large amounts of dietary information while making it easier, more convenient, intuitive, and engaging for users. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24 h dietary recall tool developed for use in national food and nutrition surveys. The development of INTAKE24 was a four-stage iterative process of user interaction and evaluation with the intended end users, 11–24 years old. A total of 80 11–24 years old took part in the evaluation, 20 at each stage. Several methods were used to elicit feedback from the users including, ‘think aloud’, ‘eye tracking’, semi-structured interviews, and a system usability scale. Each participant completed an interviewer led recall post system completion. Key system developments generated from the user feedback included a ‘flat’ interface, which uses only a single interface screen shared between all of the various activities (e.g., free text entry, looking up foods in the database, portion size estimation. Improvements to the text entry, search functionality, and navigation around the system were also influenced through feedback from users at each stage. The time to complete a recall using INTAKE24 almost halved from the initial prototype to the end system, while the agreement with an interviewer led recall improved. Further developments include testing the use of INTAKE24 with older adults and translation into other languages for international use. Our future aim is to validate the system with recovery biomarkers.

  10. Development and Pilot Testing of 24-Hour Multiple-Pass Recall to Assess Dietary Intake of Toddlers of Somali- and Iraqi-Born Mothers Living in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navnit Kaur Grewal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop, test, and evaluate a 24-h recall procedure to assess the dietary intake of toddlers of Somali- and Iraqi-born mothers living in Norway. A protocol for a 24-h multiple-pass recall procedure, registration forms, and visual tools (a picture library for food identification and portion size estimation was developed and tested in 12 mothers from Somalia and Iraq with children aged 10–21 months. Five female field workers were recruited and trained to conduct the interviews. Evaluation data for the 24-h recall procedure were collected from both the mothers and the field workers. Nutrient intake was calculated using a Norwegian dietary calculation system. Each child’s estimated energy intake was compared with its estimated energy requirement. Both the mothers and the field workers found the method feasible and the visual tools useful. The estimated energy intake corresponded well with the estimated energy requirement for most of the children (within mean ± 2 SD, except for three. The pilot study identified the need for additional foods in the picture library and some crucial aspects in training and supervising the field workers to reduce sources of error in the data collection.

  11. Dietary Intake and Associated Body Weight in Canadian Undergraduate Students Enrolled in Nutrition Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frehlich, Levi C; Eller, Lindsay K; Parnell, Jill A; Fung, Tak S; Reimer, Raylene A

    2017-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to describe dietary intakes among Canadian undergraduate students enrolled in an Introductory Nutrition course. A secondary objective was to determine food group servings associated with meeting more Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) of select nutrients and with a lower body mass index (BMI). Participants (n = 124, 20.7±3.2yrs) provided output from a 3-day dietary record and completed a physical activity/demographics questionnaire. Linear regression showed that the dietary intake associated with meeting the most DRIs included vegetables, fruits, protein foods, and dairy (p = 0.001). Protein foods were a positive predictor and fruit a negative predictor of BMI (p = 0.001 and p = 0.023 respectively). Males consumed more grains (p = 0.001), dairy (p = 0.04), protein foods (p empty calories (p = 0.007) and total calories than females (p < 0.001). A diet characterized by greater intake of vegetables, fruits, protein foods, and dairy was associated with a Canadian undergraduate population meeting the greatest number of nutrient requirements.

  12. Reproducibility and validity of the food frequency questionnaire for estimating habitual dietary intake in children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background A previous study reported the development a 75-item food frequency questionnaire for Japanese children (CFFQ). The first aim was to examine the reproducibility and validity of the CFFQ in order to assess dietary intake among two groups; 3-11 year old children (YC group) and 12-16 year old children (AD group). The second aim was to use the CFFQ and the FFQ for adults (AFFQ), and to determine which was better suited for assessing the intake of children in each group. Methods A total of the 103 children participated in this study. The interval between the first CFFQ and AFFQ and the second CFFQ and AFFQ was one month. Four weighted dietary records (WDRs) were conducted once a week. Pearson's correlation coefficients between the first and second FFQs were calculated to test the reproducibility of each FFQ. Pearson's correlation coefficients between WDRs and the second FFQ were calculated for the unadjusted value and sex-, age-, and energy-adjusted values to determine the validity of each FFQ. Results The final number of subjects participating in the analysis was 89. The median correlation coefficients between the first and second CFFQs and AFFQs were 0.76 and 0.73, respectively. There was some over/underestimation of nutrients in the CFFQ of the YC group and in the AFFQ of the AD group. The medians of the sex-, age-, and energy-adjusted correlation coefficients were not different between the YC and AD groups for each FFQ. The correlation coefficient in sex-, age-, and energy-adjusted value revealed that the largest number of subject with high (0.50 or more) value was obtained by the CFFQ in the YC group. Conclusions This study indicated that the CFFQ might be a useful tool for assessing habitual dietary intake of children in the YC group. Although the CFFQ agreed moderately with habitual intake, it was found to underestimate intake in theAD group. However, for the AFFQ, the ability to rank habitual intake was low. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a new

  13. Relative Validity of a 24-h Recall in Assessing Intake of Key Nutrients in a Cohort of Australian Toddlers

    OpenAIRE

    Beaton, Elizabeth; Wright, Janine; Devenish, Gemma; Do, Loc; Scott, Jane

    2018-01-01

    There is limited information concerning the dietary intake of toddlers in Australia. Consequently, there is a need for studies investigating toddler intake that use dietary assessment measures that are valid and place a low participant burden on caregivers. The aim of this study was to determine the relative validity of a single 24-h dietary recall (24HR) in measuring the intake of five nutrients in a cohort of Australian toddlers compared to a combined 24HR and 2-day estimated food record (2...

  14. Increasing dietary phosphorus intake from food additives: potential for negative impact on bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Eiji; Yamamoto, Hironori; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Taketani, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    It is important to consider whether habitual high phosphorus intake adversely affects bone health, because phosphorus intake has been increasing, whereas calcium intake has been decreasing in dietary patterns. A higher total habitual dietary phosphorus intake has been associated with higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and lower serum calcium concentrations in healthy individuals. Higher serum PTH concentrations have been shown in those who consume foods with phosphorus additives. These findings suggest that long-term dietary phosphorus loads and long-term hyperphosphatemia may have important negative effects on bone health. In contrast, PTH concentrations did not increase as a result of high dietary phosphorus intake when phosphorus was provided with adequate amounts of calcium. Intake of foods with a ratio of calcium to phosphorus close to that found in dairy products led to positive effects on bone health. Several randomized controlled trials have shown positive relations between dairy intake and bone mineral density. In our loading test with a low-calcium, high-phosphorus lunch provided to healthy young men, serum PTH concentrations showed peaks at 1 and 6 h, and serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) concentrations increased significantly at 8 h after the meal. In contrast, the high-calcium, high-phosphorus meal suppressed the second PTH and FGF23 elevations until 8 h after the meal. This implies that adequate dietary calcium intake is needed to overcome the interfering effects of high phosphorus intake on PTH and FGF23 secretion. FGF23 acts on the parathyroid gland to decrease PTH mRNA and PTH secretion in rats with normal kidney function. However, increased serum FGF23 is an early alteration of mineral metabolism in chronic kidney disease, causing secondary hyperthyroidism, and implying resistance of the parathyroid gland to the action of FGF23 in chronic kidney disease. These findings suggest that long-term high-phosphorus diets may impair bone health

  15. Dietary intake and nutritional status of children and adolescents in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambert, J.; Agostoni, C.; Elmadfa, I.; Hulshof, K.; Krause, E.; Livingstone, B.; Socha, P.; Pannemans, D.; Samartín, S.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this project was to collect and evaluate data on nutrient intake and status across Europe and to ascertain whether any trends could be identified. Surveys of dietary intake and status were collected from across Europe by literature search and personal contact with country experts.

  16. [Comparison of the dietary phytosterols intake and serum lipids content in elderly women from three cities of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jun-hua; Li, Yan-ping; Men, Jian-hua; Yu, Wen-tao; Yang, Yue-xin

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the dietary phytosterol intake of elderly women in three different cities of China, and to compare the main dietary sources, so that to discuss the relationship of dietary phytosterol intake and serum lipids. Based on the dietary pattern, women more than 50 years old from Beijing, Hefei and Urumchi were chosen as testers, 80 - 100 people for each city respectively. The dietary survey was done by continues 24 hours review of two days, the plant food were collected and the phytosterol content (include beta-sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, sitostanol) were analyzed by GC methods, the total phytosterols content were calculated. The dietary phytosterol intake were calculated and serum lipids were also analyzed in all the testers. Testers from Beijing, Hefei and Urumchi were 100, 101 and 84 respectively. The average dietary phytosterol intake of people in Beijing and Hefei were 340.3 mg/d and 313.5 mg/d, the main sources were plant oil and cereals, while the average dietary phytosterol intake of people in Urumchi were 550.4 mg/d, higher than the other two cities (t values were 9.369, 10.420, respectively, both P values phytosterol intake). The laboratory results showed, testers in Urumchi had significantly lower serum TC content ((4.04 +/- 0.78) mmol/L) than that in Beijing ((4.89 +/- 0.91) mmol/L) and Hefei ((4.71 +/- 0.83) mmol/L) (t value were 6.766 and 5.401 respectively, both P values phytosterol intake in elder women in three cities, higher, phytosterol intake seemed to contribute to lower serum lipids.

  17. Dietary Intake, Body Composition, and Nutrition Knowledge of Australian Football and Soccer Players: Implications for Sports Nutrition Professionals in Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Brooke L; Leveritt, Michael D; Kingsley, Michael; Belski, Regina

    2017-04-01

    Sports nutrition professionals aim to influence nutrition knowledge, dietary intake and body composition to improve athletic performance. Understanding the interrelationships between these factors and how they vary across sports has the potential to facilitate better-informed and targeted sports nutrition practice. This observational study assessed body composition (DXA), dietary intake (multiple-pass 24-hr recall) and nutrition knowledge (two previously validated tools) of elite and subelite male players involved in two team-based sports; Australian football (AF) and soccer. Differences in, and relationships between, nutrition knowledge, dietary intake and body composition between elite AF, subelite AF and elite soccer players were assessed. A total of 66 (23 ± 4 years, 82.0 ± 9.2 kg, 184.7 ± 7.7 cm) players participated. Areas of weaknesses in nutrition knowledge are evident (57% mean score obtained) yet nutrition knowledge was not different between elite and subelite AF and soccer players (58%, 57% and 56%, respectively, p > .05). Dietary intake was not consistent with recommendations in some areas; carbohydrate intake was lower (4.6 ± 1.5 g/kg/day, 4.5 ± 1.2 g/kg/day and 2.9 ± 1.1 g/kg/day for elite and subelite AF and elite soccer players, respectively) and protein intake was higher (3.4 ± 1.1 g/kg/day, 2.1 ± 0.7 g/kg/day and 1.9 ± 0.5 g/kg/day for elite and subelite AF and elite soccer players, respectively) than recommendations. Nutrition knowledge was positively correlated with fat-free soft tissue mass (n = 66; r 2 = .051, p = .039). This insight into known modifiable factors may assist sports nutrition professionals to be more specific and targeted in their approach to supporting players to achieve enhanced performance.

  18. Association between dietary phylloquinone intake and peripheral metabolic risk markers related to insulin resistance and diabetes in elderly subjects at high cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanola-Falgarona Martí

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin K has been related to glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and diabetes. Because inflammation underlies all these metabolic conditions, it is plausible that the potential role of vitamin K in glucose metabolism occurs through the modulation of cytokines and related molecules. The purpose of the study was to assess the associations between dietary intake of vitamin K and peripheral adipokines and other metabolic risk markers related to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods Cross-sectional and longitudinal assessments of these associations in 510 elderly participants recruited in the PREDIMED centers of Reus and Barcelona (Spain. We determined 1-year changes in dietary phylloquinone intake estimated by food frequency questionnaires, serum inflammatory cytokines and other metabolic risk markers. Results In the cross-sectional analysis at baseline no significant associations were found between dietary phylloquinone intake and the rest of metabolic risk markers evaluated, with exception of a negative association with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. After 1-year of follow-up, subjects in the upper tertile of changes in dietary phylloquinone intake showed a greater reduction in ghrelin (−15.0%, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (−12.9%, glucagon-like peptide-1 (−17.6%, IL-6 (−27.9%, leptin (−10.3%, TNF (−26.9% and visfatin (−24.9% plasma concentrations than those in the lowest tertile (all p Conclusion These results show that dietary phylloquinone intake is associated with an improvement of cytokines and other markers related to insulin resistance and diabetes, thus extending the potential protection by dietary phylloquinone on chronic inflammatory diseases. Trial registration http://www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN35739639

  19. Social desirability bias in dietary self-report may compromise the validity of dietary intake measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, J R; Clemow, L; Pbert, L; Ockene, I S; Ockene, J K

    1995-04-01

    Self-report of dietary intake could be biased by social desirability or social approval thus affecting risk estimates in epidemiological studies. These constructs produce response set biases, which are evident when testing in domains characterized by easily recognizable correct or desirable responses. Given the social and psychological value ascribed to diet, assessment methodologies used most commonly in epidemiological studies are particularly vulnerable to these biases. Social desirability and social approval biases were tested by comparing nutrient scores derived from multiple 24-hour diet recalls (24HR) on seven randomly assigned days with those from two 7-day diet recalls (7DDR) (similar in some respects to commonly used food frequency questionnaires), one administered at the beginning of the test period (pre) and one at the end (post). Statistical analysis included correlation and multiple linear regression. Cross-sectionally, no relationships between social approval score and the nutritional variables existed. Social desirability score was negatively correlated with most nutritional variables. In linear regression analysis, social desirability score produced a large downward bias in nutrient estimation in the 7DDR relative to the 24HR. For total energy, this bias equalled about 50 kcal/point on the social desirability scale or about 450 kcal over its interquartile range. The bias was approximately twice as large for women as for men and only about half as large in the post measures. Individuals having the highest 24HR-derived fat and total energy intake scores had the largest downward bias due to social desirability. We observed a large downward bias in reporting food intake related to social desirability score. These results are consistent with the theoretical constructs on which the hypothesis is based. The effect of social desirability bias is discussed in terms of its influence on epidemiological estimates of effect. Suggestions are made for future work

  20. Differential regulation of renal cyclooxygenase mRNA by dietary salt intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B L; Kurtz, A

    1997-01-01

    RNA correlated directly with salt intake. We conclude that dietary salt intake influences renal cyclooxygenase mRNAs zone-specifically with opposite responses between cortex and medulla. Cortical COX II-mediated prostaglandin formation is probably important in low salt states whereas medullary COX I......Experiments were done to investigate the influence of dietary salt intake on renal cyclooxygenase (COX) I and II mRNA levels. To this end rats were fed either a low NaCl diet (LS; 0.02% NaCl wt/wt) or a high NaCl diet (HS diet; 4% NaCl wt/wt) for 5, 10 and 20 days. After 10 days Na excretion...... differed 760-fold, plasma renin activity and renin mRNA were increased eight- and threefold in LS compared to HS animals. Total renal COX I mRNA decreased 50% following the LS diet and did not change after the HS diet. Conversely, COX II mRNA declined after HS intake and transiently increased after salt...

  1. Dietary intake and blood lipid profile in overweight and obese schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaldi Ana Elisa Madalena

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high blood lipid levels and obesity are one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, and the atherosclerotic process begins in childhood. Some environmental factors are supposed to be involved in this relationship, such as dietary factors. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between dietary intake and blood lipids levels in overweight and obese schoolchildren. Methods This is a cross-sectional study with 147 overweight and obese schoolchildren in Botucatu city, Brazil. The anthropometric measurements (body weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference and skinfolds, pubertal staging evaluation and biochemical tests were taken in all children. Three 24h-recall were applied in order to estimate the dietary intake and its relationship with blood lipid levels. The Student t test and multiple linear regression analysis were used for statistical analysis. Statistical significance was assessed at the level of 0.05. The data were processed in SAS software (version 9.1.3; SAS Institute. Results At this study, 63% of children were obese (body mass index higher than 95th percentile and 80% showed high body fat percentage. The percentage of children with abnormal total cholesterol and triglycerides was 12% and 10%, respectively, and 28% presented at least one abnormal lipid levels. The average values of anthropometric measurements were higher in children with elevated lipid levels. Total cholesterol levels were positively related to full-fat dairy products and triglycerides levels to saturated fat percentage. Conclusions Saturated fat was positively associated with elevated lipid levels in overweight and obese schoolchildren. These results reinforce the importance of healthy dietary habits since childhood in order to reduce the risks of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood.

  2. Nutritional status and dietary intake among pregnant women in relation to pre-pregnancy body mass index in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Kaoru; Takemi, Yukari; Hayashi, Fumi; Hosokawa, Momo

    2016-01-01

    Objective The present study examined nutritional status and dietary intake of pregnant women in Japan in relation to pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI).Methods Participants included 141 Japanese women with singleton pregnancies, from the outpatient department of the S hospital, Gunma prefecture, Japan. Two-day food records, dietary assessment questionnaires, and clinical records were obtained at 20 weeks gestation. Nine patients were excluded from the study due to morning sickness. The remaining 132 participants were divided into 3 groups according to pre-pregnancy BMI: underweight, normal weight, and overweight. Nutritional status and dietary intake were analyzed in relation to BMI using the chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, Kruskal-Wallis test, one-way analysis of variance, and analysis of covariance with adjustment for age, employment status, and total energy intake.Results Women who were underweight before pregnancy were more frequently working full-time than normal weight and overweight women. Underweight women were also more frequently anemic (P=0.038, underweight 39.3%, normal weight 24.7%, overweight 0%) and had lower mean hemoglobin (Hb) (P=0.021, underweight 11.3 g/dL, normal weight 11.6 g/dL, overweight 12.1 g/dL) and hematocrit (Hct) levels (P=0.025, underweight 33.7%, normal weight 34.3%, overweight 36.0%). Their dietary intake of protein, iron, magnesium, and folic acid was lower than that of normal weight and overweight women. Their meals tended to include fewer meat, fish, egg, and soybean dishes (underweight, mean of 4.7 servings per day; normal weight, 6.1 servings; overweight, 6.1 servings).Conclusion Pregnant women who were underweight before pregnancy had increased risk of anemia as well as reduced Hb and Hct levels. They had lower dietary intake of protein, iron and folic acid compared to women in the other BMI categories. Anemia and these nutrient deficiencies are known risk factors for low birth weight. Our findings suggest

  3. Analysis of Dietary Intake during Consecutive-Day Chemotherapy for Bone and Soft-Tissue Sarcomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Hori

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBone and soft tissue sarcomas are commonly treated with consecutive-day chemotherapy regimens consisting of multiple anticancer agents. Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV is a serious adverse effect of these regimens and may result in decreased energy intake during chemotherapy. Decreased energy intake may lead to undernutrition and may cause adverse effects on patient quality of life and survival.MethodsPatients with bone and soft tissue sarcomas who received consecutive-day chemotherapy were retrospectively evaluated. CINV and dietary energy intake were assessed, as well as the occurrences of hiccups and constipation during chemotherapy.ResultsA total of 13 patients, 10 males and 3 females, with a total 16 chemotherapy courses were included in the study. All patients received antiemetic prophylaxis. The CINV control rate, defined as no emesis and no rescue therapy, gradually decreased from chemotherapy day 1 (94% to day 5 (75%. Four patients experienced emesis, two of whom had been treated with a cisplatin-containing regimen. Decreased dietary energy intake was possibly associated with CINV during chemotherapy. Anorexia was grade 2 except for one case of grade 3. The incidences of hiccups and constipation were high on days 3–5.ConclusionAntiemetic prophylaxis treatment did not prevent emesis due to consecutive-day chemotherapy, especially with cisplatin-containing regimens, in patients with bone and soft-tissue tumors. Dietary energy intake decreased during chemotherapy, and this appeared to be associated with CINV. In addition, the incidence of hiccups and constipation increased during the course of consecutive-day chemotherapy regimens. Although these results are based on a small number of patients, it may be important to observe nutritional status during chemotherapy, as this may reflect a patient’s general condition. Nutritional counseling might be useful in supporting nutritional status in patients undergoing

  4. Predicting dietary intake among children classified as overweight or at risk for overweight: Independent and interactive effects of parenting practices and styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Shelby L; Seburg, Elisabeth; JaKa, Meghan M; Sherwood, Nancy E; Levy, Rona L

    2017-03-01

    Using baseline data from a randomized controlled pediatric obesity prevention trial, this study sought to examine general parenting style as a potential moderator of the association between feeding-specific parenting practices and child dietary intake. Four hundred and twenty-one parent-child dyads served as participants (49% girls and 93% mothers). Children were, on average, 6.6 years old and either overweight or at-risk for overweight (mean BMI percentile = 84.9). Data were collected in participants' homes. Study staff measured children's height and weight. Parents completed questionnaires designed to assess general parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian and permissive) and child feeding practices (restriction and monitoring). Child dietary intake was assessed using a 24-h recall system. Outcomes were daily servings of fruits and vegetables, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), and unhealthy snacks. Results were as follows: Permissive parenting was inversely associated with fruit and vegetable consumption, and parental monitoring was inversely associated with SSB consumption. There were no other main effects of parenting style or feeding practice on child dietary consumption. Authoritarian parenting moderated the association between restriction and SSB intake (a marginally significant effect after correcting for multiple comparisons). Restriction was inversely associated with SSB consumption when authoritarianism was high but unassociated with SSB consumption when authoritarianism was low. Findings indicate that the parenting practice of monitoring child dietary intake was associated with more healthful consumption regardless of parenting style; interventions may thus benefit from encouraging parental monitoring. The parenting strategy of restricting child dietary intake, in contrast, was associated with lower SSB intake in the context of higher parental authoritarianism but inconsequential in the context of lower parental authoritarianism. This exploratory

  5. Risk assessment of dietary exposure to aluminium in the Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Liu, Zhao-Ping; Yang, Da-Jin; Liang, Jiang; Zhu, Jiang-Hui; Xu, Hai-Bin; Li, Feng-Qin; Li, Ning

    2016-10-01

    In order to address the issue of excessive intake of aluminium (Al) from Al-containing food additives in the Chinese diet, this study conducted a dietary exposure assessment of Al in the general population based on the national surveillance data of Al content in foods and national food consumption data. It was found that the mean dietary exposure of the whole Chinese population to Al from Al-containing food additives was 1.795 mg kg ‒1 bw week ‒1 , not exceeding the PTWI, while high dietary exposures (e.g., 97.5 th percentile) to Al were 7.660 and 2.103-2.903 mg kg ‒1 bw week ‒1 for children, respectively, both exceeding the PTWI. It was found that the dietary exposure to Al for 32.5% of the total Chinese population and 42.6% of children aged 4-6 years exceeded the PTWI. Wheat flour and wheat-based products are the main source of dietary A l exposure (85% of the total intake); and puffed foods are the major source of Al intake for children. These findings suggested that consumption of Al-containing food additives could be a health concern for consumers with high food consumption (97.5 th percentile) and children under the age of 14 years.

  6. Dietary Polyphenol Intake, but Not the Dietary Total Antioxidant Capacity, Is Inversely Related to Cardiovascular Disease in Postmenopausal Polish Women: Results of WOBASZ and WOBASZ II Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Witkowska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between the dietary polyphenol intake (DPI and the dietary total antioxidant capacity (DTAC and the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD in postmenopausal women. Participants were 916 postmenopausal women diagnosed with CVD and 1683 postmenopausal women without history of CVD, who took part in the population-based studies carried out in Poland: WOBASZ (2003–2005 and WOBASZ II (2013-2014. Nutritional data were collected using a single 24-hour dietary recall. DPI and DTAC in the CVD women were significantly lower and accounted for 1766.39 mg/d and 10.84 mmol/d, respectively, versus 1920.57 mg/d and 11.85 mmol/d in the women without CVD, but these differences disappeared after the standardization for energy input. Also, in the multiple-adjustment model, higher DPI, but not DTAC, was associated with the reduced odds ratio for the prevalence of CVD. Beverages, mainly coffee and tea, contributed in more than 40% to DPI and in more than a half to DTAC. In this study, higher dietary polyphenol intake, but not the dietary total antioxidant capacity, was inversely associated with CVD in postmenopausal women, which points to the health benefits of increased polyphenol intake from food sources for these women.

  7. Lutein concentration in human milk during early lactation and its relationship with dietary lutein intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cena, Hellas; Castellazzi, Anna Maria; Pietri, Amedeo; Roggi, Carla; Turconi, Giovanna

    2009-10-01

    The present study aimed to estimate the lutein concentration in human milk during early lactation and its relationship with dietary lutein intake measured through the administration of a short FFQ. A cross-sectional study in which an FFQ was administered twice: on day 3 (T0) and day 30 (T1) postpartum; meanwhile two breast milk samples were collected. Maternal plasma samples were obtained at T0. The comparison of dietary lutein intakes and likewise lutein concentrations in breast milk at T0 and T1 were analysed with Student's t test. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to determine the association between dietary lutein intake and lutein concentration in milk and plasma, respectively, as well as the correlation between breast milk and plasma lutein concentrations at T0. Pavia, northern Italy. Twenty-one pregnant women, age range 24-42 years, were recruited during their last trimester on a voluntary basis. Both breast milk and plasma lutein concentrations were significantly correlated with dietary lutein intake (r = 0.86, P = 0.0001 and r = 0.94, P = 0.0001, respectively). There was a clear significant correlation between milk and plasma lutein concentrations (r = 0.87, P = 0.0001). Mature milk lutein concentration, although significantly reduced at T1 (P lutein intake (r = 0.82, P = 0.0001). Even though milk lutein concentration decreased during early lactation, it remained significantly correlated with daily lutein intake. Therefore, while awaiting further research, dietary recommendations advising intake of fresh fruit and vegetables rich in lutein, throughout the whole duration of pregnancy and lactation, are extremely useful.

  8. Trans Fat Intake and Its Dietary Sources in General Populations Worldwide: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne J. Wanders

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available After the discovery that trans fat increases the risk of coronary heart disease, trans fat content of foods have considerably changed. The aim of this study was to systematically review available data on intakes of trans fat and its dietary sources in general populations worldwide. Data from national dietary surveys and population studies published from 1995 onward were searched via Scopus and websites of national public health institutes. Relevant data from 29 countries were identified. The most up to date estimates of total trans fat intake ranged from 0.3 to 4.2 percent of total energy intake (En% across countries. Seven countries had trans fat intakes higher than the World Health Organization recommendation of 1 En%. In 16 out of 21 countries with data on dietary sources, intakes of trans fat from animal sources were higher than that from industrial sources. Time trend data from 20 countries showed substantial declines in industrial trans fat intake since 1995. In conclusion, nowadays, in the majority of countries for which data are available, average trans fat intake is lower than the recommended maximum intake of 1 En%, with intakes from animal sources being higher than from industrial sources. In the past 20 years, substantial reductions in industrial trans fat have been achieved in many countries.

  9. Dietary intake habits and controlled training on body composition and strength in elite female volleyball players during the season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Zourdos, Michael C; Calleja-González, Julio; Urdampilleta, Aritz; Ostojic, Sergej M

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake of elite female volleyball players (EFVPs, n = 22) during the first 11 weeks of the competitive season. Further, we compared findings for total energy intake and specific macronutrient distribution with the established recommendations for high-intensity athletes. Subjects also engaged in periodized training and we assessed changes in body composition (BC) and strength. Twenty-two EFVPs had dietary intake (7-day dietary recall and food-frequency questionnaire), BC (body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, fat mass, muscle mass), and 1-repetition maximum (1RM) strength (bench press, military press, back squat, power clean, clean and jerk, pull-over) assessed at baseline (T0, before preseason) and 11 weeks later (T11). Athletes consumed less total kilocalories and carbohydrates (CHO) compared with established recommendations (total kilocalories: 40.7 ± 5.2 kcal/(kg · day)(-1) vs. 50-80 kcal/(kg · day)(-1); CHO: 4.3 ± 0.6 g/(kg · day)(-1) vs. 5-8 g/(kg · day)(-1)). Further, subjects consumed greater protein (2.1 ± 0.4 g/(kg · day)(-1)) compared with recommendations (1.6-1.8 g/(kg · day)(-1)) and greater fat (36.1 ± 4.6% of total kilocalories) than recommendations (20%-35% of total kilocalories). There were improvements (p 0.05) in BMI or military press and pull-over. Back squat (p = 0.054; +33.0% ± 83.7%) and power clean (p = 0.056; +26.2% ± 49.0%) increases approached significance. Our findings indicate that EFVPs improved BC and strength despite a dietary intake different from recommendations. This is possibly due to different substrate utilization during exercise in females versus males, thus new recommendations should be considered for high-intensity athletes, which are sex-specific.

  10. Dietary calcium intake and higher body mass index in Mexican adults aged 20 to 59 years old: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Efraín Flores-Aldana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although energy balance is the main factor that regulates body weight, recent studies suggest that calcium metabolism can modify the energy balance and help regulate body weight. Objective. To evaluate the association between the calcium intake in the diet and high body mass index in Mexican adults in the 20-59 age group. Material and methods. A cross-sectional secondary analytical study was conducted based on the 2006 Mexican National Health and Nutritional Survey (ENSANUT 2006. Food intake questionnaires applied to 16,494 adults were analyzed. After removing biologically implausible values or incomplete information, we arrived at a final sample of 15,662 adults grouped according to their body mass index. Linear regression was used to assess association between daily dietary calcium intake and body mass index. Results. There was an inverse association between dietary calcium consumption and a high body mass index. The mean calcium intake in subjects with normal body mass index was 903.9 mg/day versus 832.0 mg/day in obese subjects (p < 0.0001. Conclusion. The study corroborates existing evidence of an inverse association between the dietary calcium intake and a high body mass index.

  11. Alcohol and dietary fibre intakes affect circulating sex hormones among premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Morimoto, Yukiko; Takata, Yumie; Murphy, Suzanne P; Stanczyk, Frank Z

    2006-10-01

    The association of alcohol and fibre intake with breast cancer may be mediated by circulating sex hormone levels, which are predictors of breast cancer risk. To evaluate the relationship of alcohol and dietary fibre intake with circulating sex hormone levels among premenopausal women. A total of 205 premenopausal women completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire at baseline and after 2 years; blood samples taken at the same time were analysed for circulating sex hormone concentrations, including oestrone (E1), oestradiol (E2), free E2, progesterone, androstenedione and sex hormone-binding globulin, by radioimmunoassay. We used mixed models to estimate least-square means of sex hormone concentrations for alcohol intake categories and quartiles of dietary intake. After adjustment for covariates, alcohol consumption was moderately associated with higher circulating oestrogen levels; those who consumed more than one drink per day had 20% higher E2 (Ptrend=0.07) levels than non-drinkers. In contrast, higher dietary fibre intake was associated with lower serum levels of androstenedione (-8% between the lowest and highest quartiles of intake, Ptrend=0.06), but not oestrogens. Similarly, consumption of fruits (-12%, Ptrend=0.03), vegetables (-9%, Ptrend=0.15) and whole grains (-7%, Ptrend=0.07) showed inverse associations with androstenedione levels. The consistency of the observed differences in sex hormone levels associated with alcohol and fibre-rich foods indicates that these nutritional factors may affect sex hormone concentrations and play a role in breast cancer aetiology and prevention.

  12. Dietary carbohydrate intake, insulin resistance and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: a pilot study in European- and African-American obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointer, S D; Rickstrew, J; Slaughter, J C; Vaezi, M F; Silver, H J

    2016-11-01

    Although obesity rates are higher in African-American than European-American women, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and its comorbidities are more prevalent in European-American women. A common denominator for increased adiposity, and consequent insulin resistance, is excess dietary macronutrient intake - which may promote greater prevalence and severity of GERD in women. To investigate whether GERD is more robustly associated with dietary carbohydrate intake, particularly dietary simple carbohydrate intake, and insulin resistance in European-American women. About 144 obese women were assessed at baseline and 16 weeks after consuming a high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet. GERD diagnosis and medication usage was confirmed in medical records with symptoms and medications assessed weekly. About 33.3% (N = 33) of European-American and 20.0% (N = 9) of African-American women had GERD at baseline. Total carbohydrate (r = 0.34, P < 0.001), sugars (r = 0.30, P = 0.005), glycaemic load (r = 0.34, P = 0.001) and HOMA IR (r = 0.30, P = 0.004) were associated with GERD, but only in European-American women. In response to high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet, reduced intake of sugars was associated with reduced insulin resistance. By the end of diet week 10, all GERD symptoms and medication usage had resolved in all women. GERD symptoms and medication usage was more prevalent in European-American women, for whom the relationships between dietary carbohydrate intake, insulin resistance and GERD were most significant. Nevertheless, high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet benefited all women with regard to reducing GERD symptoms and frequency of medication use. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The Association Between Parental Behavior Patterns and the Dietary Intake of Preschool Children in Tehran Kindergartens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Pazuki

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: Any effort to promote children’s dietary intake needs considering the role of parents in the development of feeding patterns, and interest in children to consume healthy foods. Keywords: Children, Dietary intake, Parental behavior patterns, Kindergarten

  14. Dietary intake of patients with chronic kidney disease entering the LORD trial: adjusting for underreporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, Robert G; Robertson, Iain K; Geraghty, Dominic P; Ball, Madeleine J; Coombes, Jeff S

    2007-07-01

    The study objective was to determine the dietary intake of patients with chronic kidney disease before and after filtering for suspected underreporters and to investigate the impact of underreporting on the interpretation of diet data. This was a cross-sectional study. The study included outpatients from hospitals and clinics in Northern Tasmania, Australia. Data from 113 patients enrolled in the Lipid Lowering and Onset of Renal Disease trial were used in this study. Patients with serum creatinine greater than 120 mmol/L were included, and those taking lipid-lowering medication were excluded. Patients completed a 4-day self-report diet diary, and FoodWorks software was used to determine their daily intake of energy, macronutrients, and specific micronutrients. Diet diaries were assessed for likely underreporting using the Goldberg cutoff approach with a ratio of energy intake to estimated resting energy expenditure of 1.27. Nutrient intakes were compared with current National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines, World Health Organization recommendations, recommended daily allowances, and daily values adjusted for energy intake. Demographics of the patients were as follows: male/female, 71/42; age (mean +/- standard deviation), 60 +/- 15 years; body mass index, 28.6 +/- 6.0 kg/m(2), and serum creatinine, 223.4 +/- 110.0 mmol/L. According to the criteria, 80 patients (70.8%) were underreporting their energy intake. Underreporters were more likely to be female and younger, and have a higher body mass index and elevated serum creatinine. In all patients, daily energy intake (89.6 +/- 32.4 kJ/kg) was lower than recommended (125-145 kJ/kg); however, this was not the case for valid reporters (128.3 +/- 23.7 kJ/kg). Protein intake was higher (0.9 +/- 0.3 g/kg) than recommended (0.75 g/kg) in all patients and even higher (1.2 +/- 0.3 g/kg) in valid reporters. Mean calcium, zinc, and dietary fiber intakes were all below recommendations

  15. Dietary patterns and nutrient intakes of a South African population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary patterns and nutrient intakes of a South African population and asymptomatic people infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus: The transition health and urbanisation in South Africa (Thusa) study.

  16. Dietary fiber intake and risk of breast cancer defined by estrogen and progesterone receptor status: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Saki; Inoue, Manami; Saito, Eiko; Abe, Sarah K; Sawada, Norie; Ishihara, Junko; Iwasaki, Motoki; Yamaji, Taiki; Shimazu, Taichi; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Shibuya, Kenji; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested a protective effect of dietary fiber intake on breast cancer risk while the results have been inconsistent. Our study aimed to investigate the association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk and to explore whether this association is modified by reproductive factors and hormone receptor status of the tumor. A total of 44,444 women aged 45 to 74 years from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study were included in analyses. Dietary intake assessment was performed using a validated 138-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for breast cancer incidence were calculated by multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models. During 624,423 person-years of follow-up period, 681 breast cancer cases were identified. After adjusting for major confounders for breast cancer risk, inverse trends were observed but statistically non-significant. Extremely high intake of fiber was associated with decreased risk of breast cancer but this should be interpreted with caution due to limited statistical power. In stratified analyses by menopausal and hormone receptor status, null associations were observed except for ER-PR- status. Our findings suggest that extreme high fiber intake may be associated with decreased risk of breast cancer but the level of dietary fiber intake among Japanese population might not be sufficient to examine the association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk.

  17. Plasma total antioxidant capacity is associated with dietary intake and plasma level of antioxidants in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Meng; Lee, Sang-Gil; Davis, Catherine G; Kenny, Anne; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2012-12-01

    Increased plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) has been associated with a high consumption of fruits and vegetables. However, limited information is available on whether plasma TAC reflects the dietary intake of antioxidants and the levels of individual antioxidants in plasma. By using three different assays, the study aimed to determine if plasma TAC can effectively predict dietary intake of antioxidants and plasma antioxidant status. Forty overweight and apparently healthy postmenopausal women were recruited. Seven-day food records and 12-h fasting blood samples were collected for dietary and plasma antioxidant assessments. Plasma TAC was determined by vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC), ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. TAC values determined by VCEAC were highly correlated with FRAP (r=0.79, Pantioxidants and represents more closely the plasma antioxidant levels than ORAC and FRAP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dietary Antioxidant and Flavonoid Intakes Are Reduced in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Elżbieta Zujko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine sources and patterns of antioxidant and flavonoid intakes in the elderly (61–74 yrs in comparison with young (20–40 yrs and middle age (41–60 yrs groups in a cross-sectional study. More than 6000 subjects of both genders, aged 20–74 years, participants of the National Multicenter Health Survey (WOBASZ took part in this study. Daily food consumption was estimated by the single 24-hour dietary recall. Dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC and flavonoid content (FC were calculated according to the amount of food consumed by the participants combined with antioxidant capacity and flavonoid contents in foods. Food consumption, dietary TAC, and FC were significantly lower in the elderly, especially elderly women in comparison to the young and middle age groups. The consumption of tea, coffee, and apples was associated with the largest contribution to dietary TAC and FC in all participants. Despite high nutrient density of the energy-adjusted diet of ageing people, the elderly consumed the lowest amounts of antioxidants and flavonoids due to the lowest food intake.

  19. Comparison of Dietary Intake and Physical Activity between Women with and without Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Review12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Annie W.; Lujan, Marla E.

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age worldwide. In addition to deleterious effects on fertility imparted by PCOS, women with PCOS are at increased risk of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, depression, and certain cancers. Hormonal and metabolic aberrations in PCOS have the potential to influence dietary intake and physical activity levels. There are emerging global data that women with PCOS have different baseline dietary energy intakes compared with women without PCOS. These alterations in diet may exacerbate clinical symptoms and compound risk of chronic disease in patients. Few studies have compared baseline physical activity levels between women with and without PCOS. Although comparisons between studies are confounded by several factors, the data point to no differences in activity levels among PCOS and non-PCOS groups. This review provides an assessment of the current literature on baseline dietary intake and physical activity levels in women with PCOS. Future recommendations to strengthen research in this area are provided, given the implications to aid in the development of effective nutrition-focused interventions for PCOS. PMID:25469380

  20. Dietary intake and metabolic control of children aged six to ten with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    intake of children with type 1 diabetes and about how this compares to the dietary ... achieving a balance between food intake, insulin levels and energy ..... South African Health Review: Chronic conditions in children. In: Ijumba P, Padarath A, ...

  1. Lean body mass change over 6 years is associated with dietary leucine intake in an older Danish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Cameron Keith; Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Capra, Sandra; Bauer, Judy; Raymond, Kyle; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2016-05-01

    Higher protein intake, and particularly higher leucine intake, is associated with attenuated loss of lean body mass (LBM) over time in older individuals. Dietary leucine is thought to be a key mediator of anabolism. This study aimed to assess this relationship over 6 years among younger and older adult Danes. Dietary leucine intake was assessed at baseline and after 6 years in men and women, aged 35-65 years, participating in the Danish cohort of the WHO-MONICA (Multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease) study (n 368). Changes in LBM over the 6 years were measured by bioelectrical impedance using equations developed for this Danish population. The association between leucine and LBM changes was examined using multivariate linear regression and ANCOVA analyses adjusted for potential confounders. After adjustment for baseline LBM, sex, age, energy intake and physical activity, leucine intake was associated with LBM change in those older than 65 years (n 79), with no effect seen in those younger than 65 years. Older participants in the highest quartile of leucine intake (7·1 g/d) experienced LBM maintenance, whereas lower intakes were associated with LBM loss over 6 years (for trend: β=0·434, P=0·03). Sensitivity analysis indicated no effect modification of sex or the presence of CVD. Greater leucine intake in conjunction with adequate total protein intake was associated with long-term LBM retention in a healthy older Danish population. This study corroborates findings from laboratory investigations in relation to protein and leucine intakes and LBM change. A more diverse and larger sample is needed for confirmation of these results.

  2. Dietary Intake of Vitamins in Different Options of Treatment in Chronic Kidney Disease: Is There a Deficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, M; Szupryczyńska, N; Dębska-Ślizień, A; Borek, P; Kaczkan, M; Rutkowski, B; Małgorzewicz, S

    2016-06-01

    The importance of diet in the management of kidney transplantation (KT), as well as other treatment options of chronic kidney disease (CKD), is generally acknowledged. However, data regarding vitamin intake are very limited. Vitamins are essential in maintaining good nutritional status and preventing many chronic complications. It is still not clear which treatment modality imposes the highest risk of dietary vitamin deficiency and whether successful KT reverses such a threat. We performed this observational study to assess dietary intake of vitamins in CKD patients: after successful KT, not yet dialyzed (ND), treated with hemodialysis (HD), and with peritoneal dialysis (PD). A total of 202 patients were recruited (45 KT, 50 ND, 45 HD, and 62 PD). Vitamin intakes were evaluated through the use of a 24-hour dietary recall and processed with the use of a computerized database. Each record was evaluated by a skilled dietitian. In general, vitamin intakes in all study groups were comparable, with KT and ND groups manifesting lower risk of deficiency than HD and PD groups. The content of fat-soluble vitamins in diet was insufficient, with remarkably high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency. Mean intakes of water-soluble vitamins were close to recommended, with the exception of folic acid, which was profoundly deficient in all groups. CKD patients are at risk of inadequate vitamin intake. Vitamin D and folic acid are universally deficient in diet. KT patients have the most satisfactory content of vitamins in their diet, whereas HD individuals are at highest risk of deficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Relationship of dietary intake of fish and non-fish selenium to serum lipids in Japanese rural coastal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yukiko; Koyama, Hiroshi; Nojiri, Masami; Suzuki, Shosuke

    2002-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that dietary selenium deficiency may be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). In the present study, 55 men and 71 women were selected from participants in a health examination in a rural coastal community in Japan. The mean dietary selenium intake calculated from the simple food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) was 127.5 micrograms/day. Fish was the major source of dietary selenium and it contributed to 68.7% of the daily total. HDL cholesterol was higher in the middle selenium intake group and in the high selenium intake group than in the low selenium intake group in all subjects and for males, and a significant difference was found between the middle selenium intake group and the low selenium intake group. The atherogenic index was significantly higher in the low selenium intake group than in the middle selenium intake group and in the high selenium intake group in males. GPx activity, total cholesterol and triacylglycerols did not show any significant differences among the three different selenium intake groups. Dietary intake of non-fish Se had a positive correlation with HDL cholesterol, and an inverse correlation with the atherogenic index in all subjects and for females. On the other hand, dietary intake of fish-Se had no relationship with any serum lipids. Non-fish Se is an important factor in selenium status for the prevention of CHD.

  4. Dietary reference intakes for water, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Panel on Dietary Reference Intakes for Electrolytes and Water

    2005-01-01

    .... This new report, the sixth in a series of reports presenting dietary reference values for the intakes of nutrients by Americans and Canadians, establishes nutrient recommendations on water, potassium...

  5. Maternal dietary intake of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls and birth size in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Eleni; Caspersen, Ida H; Kvalem, Helen E; Knutsen, Helle K; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Alexander, Jan; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Kogevinas, Manolis; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha

    2013-10-01

    Maternal diet not only provides essential nutrients to the developing fetus but is also a source of prenatal exposure to environmental contaminants. We investigated the association between dietary intake of dioxins and PCBs during pregnancy and birth size. The study included 50,651 women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Dietary information was collected by FFQs and intake estimates were calculated by combining food consumption and food concentration of dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and non-dioxin-like PCBs. We used multivariable regression models to estimate the association between dietary intake of dioxins and PCBs and fetal growth. The contribution of fish and seafood intake during pregnancy was 41% for dietary dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs and 49% for dietary non-dioxin-like PCBs. Further stratified analysis by quartiles of seafood intake during pregnancy was conducted. We found an inverse dose-response association between dietary intake of dioxins and PCBs and fetal growth after adjustment for confounders. Newborns of mothers in the upper quartile of dioxin and dioxin-like PCBs intake had 62g lower birth weight (95% CI: -73, -50), 0.26cm shorter birth length (95% CI: -0.31, -0.20) and 0.10cm shorter head circumference (95% CI: -0.14, -0.06) than newborns of mothers in the lowest quartile of intake. Similar negative associations for intake of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs were found after excluding women with intakes above the tolerable weekly intake (TWI=14pg TEQ/kg bw/week). The negative association of dietary dioxins and PCBs with fetal growth was weaker as seafood intake was increasing. No association was found between dietary dioxin and PCB intake and the risk for small-for-gestational age neonate. In conclusion, dietary intakes of dioxins and PCBs during pregnancy were negatively associated with fetal growth, even at intakes below the TWI. © 2013.

  6. Is dietary intake able to explain differences in body fatness in children and adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Gerardo; Moreno, Luis A

    2006-05-01

    Obesity is the result of an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Controversial information exists about what are the strongest energy balance aspects influencing body fatness. This article is focused on food consumption facts that could be related to the risk of being obese in children and adolescents. It reviews whether energy intake, macronutrient composition of diet, eating patterns or other dietary intake factors are able to explain differences in body composition when obesity has been already developed or even in subjects at risk to become obese. There is not enough evidence to clarify the importance of diet on overweight children and adolescents, and conclusions derived are somewhat controversial. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies do not show clear relationships between energy intake or food composition and body fatness. To find relations between dietary factors and childhood obesity perhaps eating patterns or different types of foods must be considered: meal patterns and meal frequency, snacking and beverage consumption, fast food intake, portion sizes, etc. There is no clear association between different aspects of dietary intake and the development of obesity in children and adolescents. Longitudinal and experimental studies are needed in the future.

  7. Dietary Calcium Intake and Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet in Spanish Children: The ANIVA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Rubio-López

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of dietary calcium intake with anthropometric measures, physical activity and adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet in 1176 Spanish children aged 6–9 years. Data were obtained from “Antropometría y Nutrición Infantil de Valencia” (ANIVA, a cross-sectional study of a representative sample. Dietary calcium intake assessed from three-day food records was compared to recommended daily intakes in Spain. Anthropometric measures (weight and height were measured according to international standards and adherence to the MedDiet was evaluated using the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (KIDMED test. For the total sample of children, 25.8% had inadequate calcium intake, a significantly higher prevalence in girls (p = 0.006 and inadequate calcium intake was associated with lower height z-score (p = 0.001 for both sexes. In girls, there was an inverse relationship between calcium intake and body mass index (p = 0.001 and waist/hip ratio (p = 0.018. Boys presented a polarization in physical activity, reporting a greater level of both physical and sedentary activity in comparison with girls (p = 0.001. Children with poor adherence to MedDiet, even if they consume two yogurts or cheese (40 g daily, adjusted by gender, age, total energy intake, physical activity and father’s level of education, are at risk of inadequate total calcium intake (odds ratio adjusted [ORa]: 3.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13–9.94, p = 0.001. The intake of these dairy products was insufficient to cover calcium intake recommendations in this age group (6–9 years. It is important to prioritize health strategies that promote the MedDiet and to increase calcium intake in this age group.

  8. Relationships between Dietary Intake and Cognitive Function in Healthy Korean Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jin Young; Kang, Seung Wan

    2017-01-01

    Background It has long been theorized that a relatively robust dietary intake impacts cognitive function. The aim of the study was to explore dietary intake and cognitive function in healthy Korean children and adolescents. Methods Three hundred and seventeen healthy children with no previous diagnosis of neurologic or psychiatric disorders were evaluated (167 girls and 150 boys with a mean age of 11.8 ? 3.3 years). Analysis indicators including food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) consisting...

  9. Maternal dietary intake during pregnancy and offspring body composition: The Healthy Start Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crume, Tessa L; Brinton, John T; Shapiro, Allison; Kaar, Jill; Glueck, Deborah H; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Dabelea, Dana

    2016-11-01

    Consistent evidence of an influence of maternal dietary intake during pregnancy on infant body size and composition in human populations is lacking, despite robust evidence in animal models. We sought to evaluate the influence of maternal macronutrient intake and balance during pregnancy on neonatal body size and composition, including fat mass and fat-free mass. The analysis was conducted among 1040 mother-offspring pairs enrolled in the prospective prebirth observational cohort: the Healthy Start Study. Diet during pregnancy was collected using repeated 24-hour dietary recalls (up to 8). Direct measures of body composition were obtained using air displacement plethysmography. The National Cancer Institute measurement error model was used to estimate usual dietary intake during pregnancy. Multivariable partition (nonisocaloric) and nutrient density (isocaloric) linear regression models were used to test the associations between maternal dietary intake and neonatal body composition. The median macronutrient composition during pregnancy was 32.2% from fat, 15.0% from protein, and 47.8% from carbohydrates. In the partition multivariate regression model, individual macronutrient intake values were not associated with birthweight or fat-free mass, but were associated with fat mass. Respectively, 418 kJ increases in total fat, saturated fat, unsaturated fat, and total carbohydrates were associated with 4.2-g (P = .03), 11.1-g (P = .003), 5.9-g (P = .04), and 2.9-g (P = .02) increases in neonatal fat mass, independent of prepregnancy body mass index. In the nutrient density multivariate regression model, macronutrient balance was not associated with fat mass, fat-free mass, or birthweight after adjustment for prepregnancy body mass index. Neonatal adiposity, but not birthweight, is independently associated with increased maternal intake of total fat, saturated fat, unsaturated fat, and total carbohydrates, but not protein, suggesting that most forms of increased

  10. Specialized food composition dataset for vitamin D content in foods based on European standards: Application to dietary intake assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milešević, Jelena; Samaniego, Lourdes; Kiely, Mairead; Glibetić, Maria; Roe, Mark; Finglas, Paul

    2018-02-01

    A review of national nutrition surveys from 2000 to date, demonstrated high prevalence of vitamin D intakes below the EFSA Adequate Intake (AI) (d vitamin D) in adults across Europe. Dietary assessment and modelling are required to monitor efficacy and safety of ongoing strategic vitamin D fortification. To support these studies, a specialized vitamin D food composition dataset, based on EuroFIR standards, was compiled. The FoodEXplorer™ tool was used to retrieve well documented analytical data for vitamin D and arrange the data into two datasets - European (8 European countries, 981 data values) and US (1836 data values). Data were classified, using the LanguaL™, FoodEX2 and ODIN classification systems and ranked according to quality criteria. Significant differences in the content, quality of data values, missing data on vitamin D 2 and 25(OH)D 3 and documentation of analytical methods were observed. The dataset is available through the EuroFIR platform. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Relative Validity of a 24-h Recall in Assessing Intake of Key Nutrients in a Cohort of Australian Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Elizabeth; Wright, Janine; Devenish, Gemma; Do, Loc; Scott, Jane

    2018-01-12

    There is limited information concerning the dietary intake of toddlers in Australia. Consequently, there is a need for studies investigating toddler intake that use dietary assessment measures that are valid and place a low participant burden on caregivers. The aim of this study was to determine the relative validity of a single 24-h dietary recall (24HR) in measuring the intake of five nutrients in a cohort of Australian toddlers compared to a combined 24HR and 2-day estimated food record (2DFR). A single 24HR and a 2DFR were collected from a cohort of Australian toddlers ( n = 699) at approximately 12 months of age as part of the Study of Mothers' and Infants' Life Events affecting oral health (SMILE) project. Relative validity of one day of dietary data (24HR) in assessing intake of energy, protein, calcium, iron, and added sugars was tested against three days of dietary data (24HR + 2DFR) using paired t -tests, Bland-Altman analysis, cross-classification, and weighted Kappa statistic. Classification analysis found good agreement between the 24HR and 24HR + 2DFR for all nutrients with the percentage classified in the same tertile at 57.9% and above. The weighted Kappa statistic found acceptable agreement for all nutrients. This study suggests that a 24HR is a valid assessment tool for estimating the relative intake of energy, protein, calcium, iron, and added sugars among Australian toddlers at the individual level.

  12. Relative Validity of a 24-h Recall in Assessing Intake of Key Nutrients in a Cohort of Australian Toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Beaton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is limited information concerning the dietary intake of toddlers in Australia. Consequently, there is a need for studies investigating toddler intake that use dietary assessment measures that are valid and place a low participant burden on caregivers. The aim of this study was to determine the relative validity of a single 24-h dietary recall (24HR in measuring the intake of five nutrients in a cohort of Australian toddlers compared to a combined 24HR and 2-day estimated food record (2DFR. A single 24HR and a 2DFR were collected from a cohort of Australian toddlers (n = 699 at approximately 12 months of age as part of the Study of Mothers’ and Infants’ Life Events affecting oral health (SMILE project. Relative validity of one day of dietary data (24HR in assessing intake of energy, protein, calcium, iron, and added sugars was tested against three days of dietary data (24HR + 2DFR using paired t-tests, Bland–Altman analysis, cross-classification, and weighted Kappa statistic. Classification analysis found good agreement between the 24HR and 24HR + 2DFR for all nutrients with the percentage classified in the same tertile at 57.9% and above. The weighted Kappa statistic found acceptable agreement for all nutrients. This study suggests that a 24HR is a valid assessment tool for estimating the relative intake of energy, protein, calcium, iron, and added sugars among Australian toddlers at the individual level.

  13. Estimates of fruit and vegetable intake in childhood and adult dietary behaviors of African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haire-Joshu, Debra; Kreuter, Matthew K; Holt, Cheryl; Steger-May, Karen

    2004-01-01

    This exploratory study examined how estimates of one's fruit and vegetable intake in childhood are related to 3 current dietary behaviors among African American women: intake of fruits and vegetables, exposure to and preference for fruits and vegetables, and preference for trying new foods. Baseline data from a randomized dietary intervention trial. Ten urban public health centers in St. Louis, Missouri. 1227 African American women. A 33-item fruit and vegetable food frequency questionnaire, items measuring estimates of childhood fruit and vegetable intake, adult fruit and vegetable intake, exposure to and preference for fruit and vegetable, and preference for trying new foods. Linear regression evaluated the association between predictors and continuous measures; logistic regression determined the association between predictors and categorical measures. Estimates of one's vegetable intake as a child were significantly related to exposure and preference for both fruits and vegetables, trying of new foods, and intake of both fruits and vegetables in adulthood. Estimates of eating fruit as a child were not significantly associated with these adult dietary behaviors. Developmental influences on adult dietary patterns may be stronger for vegetables than fruits among African American women. Additional emphasis is needed regarding exposure to and preference for vegetable intake in childhood.

  14. Effect of past and current dietary Zn intake on Zn absorption and endogenous excretion in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Hunt, J.R.; Ralston, N.V.

    1988-01-01

    Effects of previous dietary Zn (or body Zn stores) and current dietary Zn intake on absorption and endogenous excretion of Zn were studied by using radioisotope dilution. Rats were fed diets containing 1.5, 12.6 or 50.3 mg Zn/kg for 19 d (dietary period I). Total body Zn in the three groups was 1870 +/- 340, 3953 +/- 698 and 4126 +/- 844 micrograms Zn/rat. Each group was divided into four subgroups fed 3.6, 12.6, 20.5 or 50.3 mg Zn/kg diet for 3 wk (dietary period II). Rats were injected intramuscularly with 65Zn after 7 d of dietary period II. True absorption and endogenous excretion were calculated by isotope dilution. Zinc intake, urinary and fecal excretion, balance and percent Zn absorption were significantly affected only by dietary Zn in dietary period II (P less than 0.01). Endogenous excretion was affected by both past dietary Zn deficiency (body Zn stores) and by dietary Zn in dietary period II (P = 0.0001). Total body Zn at the end of the experiment was significantly affected by both periods of dietary treatment (P less than 0.001), but total body Zn concentration was affected only by the final dietary treatment (P less than 0.05). These results show that Zn absorption is affected by the current diet, but that turnover of Zn (endogenous excretion) is regulated by both current Zn intake and past Zn intake, probably through an effect on body Zn stores

  15. Impact of dietary fiber intake on glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors and chronic kidney disease in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Fukuoka Diabetes Registry

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Hiroki; Iwase, Masanori; Ohkuma, Toshiaki; Ogata-Kaizu, Shinako; Ide, Hitoshi; Kikuchi, Yohei; Idewaki, Yasuhiro; Joudai, Tamaki; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Uchida, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Nakamura, Udai; Kitazono, Takanari

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary fiber is beneficial for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, although it is consumed differently in ethnic foods around the world. We investigated the association between dietary fiber intake and obesity, glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors and chronic kidney disease in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Methods A total of 4,399 patients were assessed for dietary fiber intake using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. The associations betwee...

  16. A 24-hour dietary recall for assessing the intake pattern of choline among Bangladeshi pregnant women at their third trimester of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatabdi Goon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Maternal choline intake during the third trimester of human pregnancy can modify systemic and local epigenetic marks in fetal-derived tissues, promoting better pregnancy outcomes, increased immunity, as well as improved mental and physical work capacity with proper memory and cognitive development. 103 pregnant women presenting to the antenatal care of Azimpur Maternity Hospital of Dhaka, Bangladesh in their third trimester of pregnancy were randomly selected for this cross sectional study exploring dietary intake patterns of choline. A dietary recall form was administered to estimate frequency and amount of food consumption of foods for the previous 24 hours. Most women reported diets that delivered less than the recommended choline intake (mean ± SD; 189.5 ± 98.2 providing only 42.72% of total RDA value. The results of this study may indicate that dietary choline among pregnant, Bangladeshi women may not be adequate to meet the needs of both, the mother and fetus. Further studies are warranted to determine clinical implications. Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  17. Development of a Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess the Dietary Intake of a Multi-Ethnic Urban Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelakantan, Nithya; Whitton, Clare; Seah, Sharna; Koh, Hiromi; Rebello, Salome A; Lim, Jia Yi; Chen, Shiqi; Chan, Mei Fen; Chew, Ling; van Dam, Rob M

    2016-08-27

    Assessing habitual food consumption is challenging in multi-ethnic cosmopolitan settings. We systematically developed a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in a multi-ethnic population in Singapore, using data from two 24-h dietary recalls from a nationally representative sample of 805 Singapore residents of Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicity aged 18-79 years. Key steps included combining reported items on 24-h recalls into standardized food groups, developing a food list for the FFQ, pilot testing of different question formats, and cognitive interviews. Percentage contribution analysis and stepwise regression analysis were used to identify foods contributing cumulatively ≥90% to intakes and individually ≥1% to intake variance of key nutrients, for the total study population and for each ethnic group separately. Differences between ethnic groups were observed in proportions of consumers of certain foods (e.g., lentil stews, 1%-47%; and pork dishes, 0%-50%). The number of foods needed to explain variability in nutrient intakes differed substantially by ethnic groups and was substantially larger for the total population than for separate ethnic groups. A 163-item FFQ covered >95% of total population intake for all key nutrients. The methodological insights provided in this paper may be useful in developing similar FFQs in other multi-ethnic settings.

  18. Adult Nutrient Intakes from Current National Dietary Surveys of European Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly L. Rippin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO encourages countries to undertake national dietary survey (NDS but implementation and reporting is inconsistent. This paper provides an up-to-date review of adult macro and micronutrient intakes in European populations as reported by NDS. It uses WHO Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs to assess intake adequacy and highlight areas of concern. NDS information was gathered primarily by internet searches and contacting survey authors and nutrition experts. Survey characteristics and adult intakes by gender/age group were extracted for selected nutrients and weighted means calculated by region. Of the 53 WHO Europe countries, over a third (n = 19, mainly Central & Eastern European countries (CEEC, had no identifiable NDS. Energy and nutrient intakes were extracted for 21 (40% countries but differences in age group, methodology, under-reporting and nutrient composition databases hindered inter-country comparisons. No country met more than 39% WHO RNIs in all age/gender groups; macronutrient RNI achievement was poorer than micronutrient. Overall RNI attainment was slightly worse in CEEC and lower in women and female elderly. Only 40% countries provided adult energy and nutrient intakes. The main gaps lie in CEEC, where unknown nutrient deficiencies may occur. WHO RNI attainment was universally poor for macronutrients, especially for women, the female elderly and CEEC. All countries could be encouraged to report a uniform nutrient set and sub-analyses of nationally representative nutrient intakes.

  19. Association between dietary nitrate and nitrite intake and sitespecific cancer risk: evidence from observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Li; Mo, Miao; Jia, Hui-Xun; Liang, Fei; Yuan, Jing; Zhu, Ji

    2016-08-30

    Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent findings on the association between dietary nitrate and nitrite intake and cancer risk. We performed a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies to summarize available evidence on the association between dietary nitrate and nitrite intake and cancer risk from published prospective and case-control studies. PubMed database was searched to identify eligible publications through April 30th, 2016. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) from individual studies were pooled by using random- or fixed- model, and heterogeneity and publication bias analyses were conducted. Data from 62 observational studies, 49 studies for nitrates and 51 studies for nitrites, including a total of 60,627 cancer cases were analyzed. Comparing the highest vs. lowest levels, dietary nitrate intake was inversely associated with gastric cancer risk (RR = 0.78; 95%CI = 0.67-0.91) with moderate heterogeneity (I2 = 42.3%). In contrast, dietary nitrite intake was positively associated with adult glioma and thyroid cancer risk with pooled RR of 1.21 (95%CI = 1.03-1.42) and 1.52 (95%CI = 1.12-2.05), respectively. No significant associations were found between dietary nitrate/nitrite and cancers of the breast, bladder, colorectal, esophagus, renal cell, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, ovarian, and pancreas. The present meta-analysis provided modest evidence that positive associations of dietary nitrate and negative associations of dietary nitrite with certain cancers.

  20. Emerging Disparities in Dietary Sodium Intake from Snacking in the US Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Elizabeth K; Poti, Jennifer M; Popkin, Barry M

    2017-06-17

    The US population consumes dietary sodium well in excess of recommended levels. It is unknown how the contribution of snack foods to sodium intake has changed over time, and whether disparities exist within specific subgroups of the US population. To examine short and long term trends in the contribution of snack food sources to dietary sodium intake for US adults and children over a 37-year period from 1977 to 2014. We used data collected from eight nationally representative surveys of food intake in 50,052 US children aged 2-18 years, and 73,179 adults aged 19+ years between 1977 and 2014. Overall, patterns of snack food consumption, trends in sodium intake from snack food sources and trends in food and beverage sources of sodium from snack foods across race-ethnic, age, gender, body mass index, household education and income groups were examined. In all socio-demographic subgroups there was a significant increase in both per capita sodium intake, and the proportion of sodium intake derived from snacks from 1977-1978 to 2011-2014 ( p sodium intake from snacks. While in 1977-1978 Non-Hispanic Blacks had a lower sodium intake from snacks compared to Non-Hispanic Whites ( p sodium intake from snack sources in Non-Hispanic Blacks. Our findings have implications for future policy interventions targeting specific US population subgroups.

  1. Patterns of food and nutrient intakes of Dutch adults according to intakes of total fat, saturated fatty acids, dietary fibre, and of fruit and vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löwik, M.R.H.; Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Brussaard, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Dietary intake characteristics were studied among 3833 adults of the second Dutch National Food Consumption Survey held in 1992. The subjects were classified into three groups based on their intake of total fat (% energy), saturated fatty acids (% energy), dietary fibre (g/MJ), and fruit and

  2. Validation of Dietary Vitamin D Intake from Two Food Frequency Questionnaires, Using Food Records and the Biomarker 25-Hydroxyvitamin D among Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linnea Bärebring

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to validate vitamin D intake from a short vitamin D questionnaire (VDQ and a longer online food frequency questionnaire (FFQ against a food record and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD as a biomarker of vitamin D status, among pregnant women in Sweden. The number of women included was 1125 with VDQ, FFQ and 25OHD, and of those, 64 also completed the food record. Median vitamin D intakes were 3.9 µg by VDQ (p < 0.001, and 5.3 µg by FFQ (p = 0.89, compared to 5.0 µg by food record. Correlations between vitamin D intake from food record and VDQ (rho = 0.51, p < 0.001 or FFQ (rho = 0.49, p < 0.001 were similar. The VDQ and FFQ also had a similar ability to rank the individuals according to vitamin D intake. However, only vitamin D intake from the VDQ was significantly associated with vitamin D status as assessed by 25OHD. The validation coefficient for the VDQ was 0.68 and 0.75 for the FFQ. In conclusion, assessing dietary