WorldWideScience

Sample records for assess current standard

  1. Assessing Learning-Centered Leadership: Connections to Research, Professional Standards, and Current Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldring, Ellen; Porter, Andrew; Murphy, Joseph; Elliott, Stephen N.; Cravens, Xiu

    2009-01-01

    Effective school leadership is key to students' academic success. But the development of effective school leadership has been seriously hampered by the lack of technically sound tools to assess and monitor leaders' performance. This article presents the research base and conceptual framework for a leadership assessment instrument under…

  2. Nuclear standards: current issues and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary of the important issues that currently face the nuclear standards field is presented and a discussion of how each of these issues is being resolved is given. The economic benefits that properly developed standards produce are listed

  3. State Standards and State Assessment Systems: A Guide to Alignment. Series on Standards and Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Paul M.; Redfield, Doris; Winter, Phoebe C.

    Alignment of content standards, performance standards, and assessments is crucial. This guide contains information to assist states and districts in aligning their assessment systems to their content and performance standards. It includes a review of current literature, both published and fugitive. The research is woven together with a few basic…

  4. A review of the quantum current standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Nobu-Hisa; Nakamura, Shuji; Okazaki, Yuma

    2016-03-01

    The electric current, voltage, and resistance standards are the most important standards related to electricity and magnetism. Of these three standards, only the ampere, which is the unit of electric current, is an International System of Units (SI) base unit. However, even with modern technology, relatively large uncertainty exists regarding the generation and measurement of current. As a result of various innovative techniques based on nanotechnology and novel materials, new types of junctions for quantum current generation and single-electron current sources have recently been proposed. These newly developed methods are also being used to investigate the consistency of the three quantum electrical effects, i.e. the Josephson, quantum Hall, and single-electron tunneling effects, which are also known as ‘the quantum metrology triangle’. This article describes recent research and related developments regarding current standards and quantum-metrology-triangle experiments.

  5. A review of the quantum current standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electric current, voltage, and resistance standards are the most important standards related to electricity and magnetism. Of these three standards, only the ampere, which is the unit of electric current, is an International System of Units (SI) base unit. However, even with modern technology, relatively large uncertainty exists regarding the generation and measurement of current. As a result of various innovative techniques based on nanotechnology and novel materials, new types of junctions for quantum current generation and single-electron current sources have recently been proposed. These newly developed methods are also being used to investigate the consistency of the three quantum electrical effects, i.e. the Josephson, quantum Hall, and single-electron tunneling effects, which are also known as ‘the quantum metrology triangle’. This article describes recent research and related developments regarding current standards and quantum-metrology-triangle experiments. (topical review)

  6. Current work on dosimetry standards in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic concepts on standardization of radiation dosimetry are reviewed. The present situation regarding primary standards in the Electrotechnical Laboratory, the primary standard dosimetry laboratory in Japan, is presented, considering the following; (i) Established dosimetric standards of exposure for soft and medium-energy X-rays and gamma rays. This section includes methods of their standardization, and discusses accuracies of instruments operating as environmental-level, protection-level, inspection-level, therapy-level, and processing-level measuring systems. The results of international comparisons between ETL and other, foreign primary standard dosimetry laboratories are presented; (ii) Other established radiation standards related to derivation of radiation absorbed dose. These primary standards include those for the neutron emission rates, thermal and fast neutron flux densities, energy fluences for high-energy photons and electrons, and activities of several kinds of radioactive material. The accuracies and results of international comparisons relating to them are also presented; (iii) Research being carried out at ETL. The current status of the dissemination of radiation standards is presented considering in particular: (i) The calibration services available at ETL, the categories of these services, energy and dose rate ranges, methods, accuracies, etc.; (ii) The calibration services available in certain other organizations considered as SSDLs in Japan, the categories of such work, methods, accuracies etc.; (iii) Present endeavours towards establishing a systematic and effective dissemination system (a so-called Traceability System) in Japan

  7. [Standardization of measurement of catalytic activity concentration of enzymes--current situation regarding the external quality assessment program provided by the Japan Medical Association].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Masato

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of the catalytic activity concentration of enzymes has been standardized using a traceability chain, consisting a reference measurement system for enzyme catalytic activity and reference standard-JSCC enzyme. The Japan Medical Association (JMA) has provided an external quality assessment (EQA) survey program for clinical laboratory testing. More than 3,100 clinical laboratories participated in 2008. The EQA program indicated that standardization of the measurement of the catalytic activity concentration of enzymes has been completed for AST, ALT, LD, ALP, gammaGT, and CK in more than 90% laboratories, and for Amy and ChE in nearly 80% of laboratories. Because such a large survey program must use artificial specimens, a matrix effect cannot be avoided, especially in dry chemistry. However, the bias produced by a matrix effect usually has a predictable tendency: it can be corrected. Next, after standardization of the measurement of the catalytic activity concentration of enzymes, we should develop and use common reference intervals. On completing the standardization, we can make standard medical decisions using reference measurement systems and rules.

  8. Mitogenome metadata: current trends and proposed standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohm, Jeff H T; Gwiazdowski, Rodger A; Hanner, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Mitogenome metadata are descriptive terms about the sequence, and its specimen description that allow both to be digitally discoverable and interoperable. Here, we review a sampling of mitogenome metadata published in the journal Mitochondrial DNA between 2005 and 2014. Specifically, we have focused on a subset of metadata fields that are available for GenBank records, and specified by the Genomics Standards Consortium (GSC) and other biodiversity metadata standards; and we assessed their presence across three main categories: collection, biological and taxonomic information. To do this we reviewed 146 mitogenome manuscripts, and their associated GenBank records, and scored them for 13 metadata fields. We also explored the potential for mitogenome misidentification using their sequence diversity, and taxonomic metadata on the Barcode of Life Datasystems (BOLD). For this, we focused on all Lepidoptera and Perciformes mitogenomes included in the review, along with additional mitogenome sequence data mined from Genbank. Overall, we found that none of 146 mitogenome projects provided all the metadata we looked for; and only 17 projects provided at least one category of metadata across the three main categories. Comparisons using mtDNA sequences from BOLD, suggest that some mitogenomes may be misidentified. Lastly, we appreciate the research potential of mitogenomes announced through this journal; and we conclude with a suggestion of 13 metadata fields, available on GenBank, that if provided in a mitogenomes's GenBank record, would increase their research value. PMID:25693692

  9. GAIA Service and Standard Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dormann, Claire; Øst, Alexander Gorm

    A delivery from the ACTS-project GAIA. The report validates the gAIA architecture and standard. It provides results concerning the deployment of distributed brokerage systems over broadband networks....

  10. Standard guidelines for electrosurgery with radiofrequency current

    OpenAIRE

    Mutalik Sharad

    2009-01-01

    Definition: Radiofrequency (RF) induces thermal destruction of the targeted tissue by an electrical current at a frequency of 0.5 MHz (RF). As the electrode tip is not heated, there is minimal thermal damage to the surrounding tissues, producing good esthetic results. Therefore, RF ablation is also known as cold ablation or "coblation." Modality: It has three modes of operation: (a) Cut, (b) cut and coagulate and (c) coagulate. Therefore, it can be used for various purposes like incision, ...

  11. Using the CAS Standards in Assessment Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the use of professional standards of practice in assessment and of the Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education (CAS). It outlines a model for conducting program self-studies and discusses the importance of implementing change based on assessment results.

  12. Modern Biotechnology—Current Standards in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@In the past few years, a new technology, biotechnology, has come into practical use internationally. It is prospective that application of biotechnology in the field of food production may lead to improved food quality and productivity.   Modern biotechnology, through the use of recombinant DNA techniques, has been used for food production for some time now. Therefore, particular attention should be paid to the safety of foods and food additives produced by recombinant DNA techniques. For this reason, Japan set out the “Guideline for Safety Assessment of Foods and Food Additives Produced by Recombinant DNA Techniques” and “Guideline for Manufacturing Foods and Food Additives Produced by Recombinant DNA Techniques,” in 1991.

  13. Measurement of alignment between standards and assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Näsström, Gunilla

    2008-01-01

    Many educational systems of today are standards-based and aim at for alignment, i.e. consistency, among the components of the educational system: standards, teaching and assessment. To conclude whether the alignment is sufficiently high, analyses with a useful model are needed. This thesis investigates the usefulness of models for analyzing alignment between standards and assessments, with emphasis on one method: Bloom’s revised taxonomy. The thesis comprises an introduction and five articles...

  14. [Treatment of chronic back pain: current standards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Märker-Hermann, E; Kiltz, U; Braun, J

    2014-12-01

    Back pain is a significant medical problem and one of the most common causes of medical consultations and missed work. In acute low back pain, patients with "red flags" indicating a serious underlying spinal or extraspinal disease must be identified by medical evaluation. Most cases of acute back pain are non-specific, and education, physical activity and pain medication is recommended. In addition, yellow flags (risks of developing chronic pain) should be recognized. The management of low back pain has been addressed by the German National Disease Management Guideline (NVL) low back pain published in 2010. This guideline evaluates the evidence and effectiveness of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions with a focus on nonspecific back pain. For chronic nonspecific low back pain intervention based on nondrug and drug therapy and a multiprofessional assessment is recommended. In patients with chronic inflammatory low back pain with onset before the age of 45, rheumatic spondyloarthritis should be considered. Recently, a guideline (S3-Leitlinie) for the management of axial spondyloarthritis including ankylosing spondylitis has become available. It provides evidence of physical and drug therapy including nonsteroidal antirheumatic and Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor therapy. PMID:25465277

  15. Standard guidelines for electrosurgery with radiofrequency current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutalik Sharad

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Definition: Radiofrequency (RF induces thermal destruction of the targeted tissue by an electrical current at a frequency of 0.5 MHz (RF. As the electrode tip is not heated, there is minimal thermal damage to the surrounding tissues, producing good esthetic results. Therefore, RF ablation is also known as cold ablation or "coblation." Modality: It has three modes of operation: (a Cut, (b cut and coagulate and (c coagulate. Therefore, it can be used for various purposes like incision, ablation, fulguration, shave excision and coagulation. Because of the coagulation facility, hemostasis can be achieved and operation becomes easier and faster. Indications: It is effective in treating various skin conditions like dermatosis papulosa nigra, warts, molluscum contagiosum, colloid milia, acquired junctional, compound and dermal melanocytic nevi, seborrheic keratosis, skin tags, granuloma pyogenicum, verrucous epidermal nevi, xanthelesma, rhinophyma, superficial basal cell carcinoma and telangiectasia. It can also be used for cosmetic indications such as resurfacing, earlobe repair and blepharoplasty. Anesthesia: The procedure is accomplished either under topical anesthesia eutactic mixture of local anesthetics or local injectable anesthesia, under all aseptic precautions. Procedure: While operating, only the tip of the electrode should come in contact with the tissue. Actual contact of the electrode with the tissue should be very brief in order to prevent excessive damage to the deeper tissues. This can be accomplished by moving the electrode quickly. Complications: Complications are uncommon and mainly occur due to an improper technique. The treating physician should be aware of the contraindications of the procedure as listed in these guidelines. Physician qualification: RF surgery may be performed by a dermatologist who has acquired adequate training during post-graduation or through recognized fellowships and workshops dedicated to RF surgery. He

  16. Current Status and Future Prospects of Hydroelectricity Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Technical standardization is very essential to electricity industry, which plays an active role in many aspects including technology standardization, secure and economic operation of power systems, environment protection, technological progress, and improvement of enterprises' management. This paper introduces the current status of hydroelectricity standardization, summarizes the progress and achievements, and then points out the development direction and working target in the future.

  17. Current Status and Future Prospects of Hydroelectricity Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yongdong

    2010-01-01

    @@ Technical standardization is very essential to electricity industry, which plays an active role in many aspects including technology standardization, secure and economic operation of power systems, environment protection, technological progress, and improvement of enterprises' management. This paper introduces the current status of hydroelectricity standardization, summarizes the progress and achievements, and then points out the development direction and working target in the future.

  18. Current practice in tailings ponds risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Pytel, Witold

    2010-01-01

    Current practice for risk assessment posed by surface tailings/waste storage facilities is presented. This involves current legislation and regulations applied in EU countries and over the world and the basics concerned with tailings impoundments design as well. It was proved that a current activity at the existing tailings impoundment structures is presently confined rather to field measurements, monitoring and surveillance understood as a basic source for a “real time risk assessment”.

  19. Nuclear aspects of neutral current non-standard $\

    CERN Document Server

    Papoulias, D K

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear aspects of flavour changing neutral current (FCNC) processes, predicted by various new-physics models to occur in the presence of nuclei, are examined by computing the relevant nuclear matrix elements within the context of the quasi-particle RPA using realistic strong two-body forces. One of our aims is to explore the role of the non-standard interactions (NSI) in the leptonic sector and specifically: (i) in lepton flavour violating (LFV) processes involving the neutral particles $\

  20. 49 CFR 1572.5 - Standards for security threat assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for security threat assessments. 1572.5... CREDENTIALING AND SECURITY THREAT ASSESSMENTS Procedures and General Standards § 1572.5 Standards for security threat assessments. (a) Standards. TSA determines that an applicant poses a security threat...

  1. MRI assessment of myelination: an age standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    777 cerebral MRI examinations of children aged 3 days to 14 years were staged for myelination to establish an age standardization. Staging was performed using a system proposed in a previous paper, separately ranking 10 different regions of the brain. Interpretation of the results led to the identification of foue clinical diagnoses that are frequently associated with delays in myelination: West syndrome, cerebral palsy, developmental retardation, and congenital anomalies. In addition, it was found that assessment of myelination in children with head injuries was not practical as alterations in MRI signal can simulate earlier stages of myelination. Age limits were therefore calculated from the case material after excluding all children with these conditions. When simplifications of the definition of the stages are applied, these age limits for the various stages of myelination of each of the 10 regions of the brain make the staging system applicable for routine assessment of myelination. (orig.)

  2. MRI assessment of myelination: an age standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staudt, M. (Kinderklinik Dritter Orden, Passau (Germany)); Schropp, C. (Kinderklinik Dritter Orden, Passau (Germany)); Staudt, F. (Kinderklinik Dritter Orden, Passau (Germany)); Obletter, N. (Radiologische Praxis, Klinikum Ingolstadt (Germany)); Bise, K. (Neuropathologisches Inst., Muenchen Univ. (Germany)); Breit, A. (MR Tomographie, Klinikum Passau (Germany)); Weinmann, H.M. (Kinderklinik Schwabing, Muenchen (Germany))

    1994-04-01

    777 cerebral MRI examinations of children aged 3 days to 14 years were staged for myelination to establish an age standardization. Staging was performed using a system proposed in a previous paper, separately ranking 10 different regions of the brain. Interpretation of the results led to the identification of foue clinical diagnoses that are frequently associated with delays in myelination: West syndrome, cerebral palsy, developmental retardation, and congenital anomalies. In addition, it was found that assessment of myelination in children with head injuries was not practical as alterations in MRI signal can simulate earlier stages of myelination. Age limits were therefore calculated from the case material after excluding all children with these conditions. When simplifications of the definition of the stages are applied, these age limits for the various stages of myelination of each of the 10 regions of the brain make the staging system applicable for routine assessment of myelination. (orig.)

  3. UV dose-effect relationships and current protection exposure standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we have attempted to quantify the health effects in man of uv-radiation exposure of wavelengths from 240 nm to 320 nm. Exposure to uv in this region could result in the formation of skin cancer or premature aging in man. The induction of cancer by uv radiation results from changes in genetic material. We have used the DNA action spectrum coupled with the uv skin cancer data available in the literature to derive the dose-effect relationships. The results are compared against the current uv protection standards

  4. Beyond standard model physics at current and future colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a multinational experiment which began running in 2009, is highly expected to discover new physics that will help us understand the nature of the universe and begin to find solutions to many of the unsolved puzzles of particle physics. For over 40 years the Standard Model has been the accepted theory of elementary particle physics, except for one unconfirmed component, the Higgs boson. The experiments at the LHC have recently discovered this Standard-Model-like Higgs boson. This discovery is one of the most exciting achievements in elementary particle physics. Yet, a profound question remains: Is this rather light, weakly-coupled boson nothing but a Standard Model Higgs or a first manifestation of a deeper theory? Also, the recent discoveries of neutrino mass and mixing, experimental evidences of dark matter and dark energy, matter-antimatter asymmetry, indicate that our understanding of fundamental physics is currently incomplete. For the next decade and more, the LHC and future colliders will be at the cutting-edge of particle physics discoveries and will shed light on many of these unanswered questions. There are many promising beyond-Standard-Model theories that may help solve the central puzzles of particle physics. To fill the gaps in our knowledge, we need to know how these theories will manifest themselves in controlled experiments, such as high energy colliders. I discuss how we can probe fundamental physics at current and future colliders directly through searches for new phenomena such as resonances, rare Higgs decays, exotic displaced signatures, and indirectly through precision measurements on Higgs in this work. I explore beyond standard model physics effects from different perspectives, including explicit models such as supersymmetry, generic models in terms of resonances, as well as effective field theory approach in terms of higher dimensional operators. This work provides a generic and broad overview of the physics

  5. Reef Fish Survey Techniques: Assessing the Potential for Standardizing Methodologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary R Caldwell

    Full Text Available Dramatic changes in populations of fishes living on coral reefs have been documented globally and, in response, the research community has initiated efforts to assess and monitor reef fish assemblages. A variety of visual census techniques are employed, however results are often incomparable due to differential methodological performance. Although comparability of data may promote improved assessment of fish populations, and thus management of often critically important nearshore fisheries, to date no standardized and agreed-upon survey method has emerged. This study describes the use of methods across the research community and identifies potential drivers of method selection. An online survey was distributed to researchers from academic, governmental, and non-governmental organizations internationally. Although many methods were identified, 89% of survey-based projects employed one of three methods-belt transect, stationary point count, and some variation of the timed swim method. The selection of survey method was independent of the research design (i.e., assessment goal and region of study, but was related to the researcher's home institution. While some researchers expressed willingness to modify their current survey protocols to more standardized protocols (76%, their willingness decreased when methodologies were tied to long-term datasets spanning five or more years. Willingness to modify current methodologies was also less common among academic researchers than resource managers. By understanding both the current application of methods and the reported motivations for method selection, we hope to focus discussions towards increasing the comparability of quantitative reef fish survey data.

  6. Validation of the ultrastable low-noise current amplifier as travelling standard for small direct currents

    CERN Document Server

    Drung, Dietmar; Giblin, Stephen P; Djordjevic, Sophie; Piquemal, Francois; Séron, Olivier; Rengnez, Florentin; Götz, Martin; Pesel, Eckart; Scherer, Hansjörg

    2015-01-01

    An interlaboratory comparison of small-current generation and measurement capability is presented with the ultrastable low-noise current amplifier (ULCA) acting as travelling standard. Various measurements at direct currents between 0.16 nA and 13 nA were performed to verify the degree of agreement between the three national metrology institutes involved in the study. Consistency well within one part per million (ppm) was found. Due to harsh environmental conditions during shipment, the ULCA's transfer accuracy had been limited to about +/-0.4 ppm. Supplemental measurements performed at PTB indicate that further improvements in accuracy are possible. Relative uncertainties of 0.1 ppm are achieved by applying on-site calibration of the ULCA with a suitable cryogenic current comparator.

  7. Current safety standards in infant nutrition--a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernell, Olle

    2012-01-01

    Foods intended specifically for infants and young children are considered under European community law and are defined in specific commission directives. In principal, these directives conclude that such foods must be safe, have a special composition, be distinguishable from normal foods, be suitable for fulfilling particular nutritional requirements, and should, when marketed, indicate such suitability. Since infant formulas are intended as the sole source of nutrition during the first months of life, their nutritional adequacy and safety are particularly strictly regulated. The Scientific Committee on Food report from 2003, on which the current commission directive is based, makes clear recommendations on how benefits, suitability, and safety of modifications beyond established standards should be documented and evaluated. These principles resulted in part from a workshop on characterization of infant food modifications in the EU and two position papers by the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN). These papers are reviewed below.

  8. 42 CFR 493.1249 - Standard: Preanalytic systems quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Preanalytic systems quality assessment... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing Preanalytic Systems § 493.1249 Standard: Preanalytic systems quality assessment. (a)...

  9. 42 CFR 493.1299 - Standard: Postanalytic systems quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Postanalytic systems quality assessment... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing Postanalytic Systems § 493.1299 Standard: Postanalytic systems quality assessment. (a)...

  10. 42 CFR 493.1289 - Standard: Analytic systems quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Analytic systems quality assessment. 493... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing Analytic Systems § 493.1289 Standard: Analytic systems quality assessment. (a)...

  11. Open Augmented Reality Standards: Current Activities in Standards- Development Organizations%Open Augmented Reality Standards: Current Activities in Standards- Development Organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christine Perey

    2012-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) has emerged from research laboratories and is now being accepted in other domains as an attractive way of visualizing information. Before AR can be used in the mass market, there are a number of obstacles that need to be overcome. Several of these can be overcome by adopting open standards. A global grassroots community seeking open, interoperable AR content and experiences began to take shape in early 2010. This community is working collaboratively to reduce the barriers to the flow of data from content provider to AR end user. Standards development organizations and industry groups that provide open interfaces for AR meet regularly to provide updates, identify complementary work, and seek harmonization. The community also identifies deployer and implementer needs, communicates requirements, and discusses emerging challenges that could be resolved with standards. In this article, we describe current activities in international standards-development organizations. We summarize the AR standards gap analysis and shed light on special considerations for using standards in mobile AR.

  12. Quality Assessment of Family Medicine Teams Based on Accreditation Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Valjevac, Salih; Ridjanovic, Zoran; Masic, Izet

    2009-01-01

    CONFLICT OF INTEREST: NONE DECLARED In order to speed up and simplify the self assessment and external assessment process, provide better overview and access to Accreditation Standards for Family Medicine Teams and better assessment documents archiving, Agency for Healthcare Quality and Accreditation in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (AKAZ) has developed self assessment and externals assessment software for family medicine teams. This article presents the development of standardized sof...

  13. Answers to Essential Questions about Standards, Assessments, Grading, & Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guskey, Thomas R.; Jung, Lee Ann

    2013-01-01

    How do assessments for learning differ from assessments of learning? What is the purpose of grading? After nearly two decades of immersion in standards-based curriculua and instruction, our nation's educators are often still confounded by the (admittedly complex) landscape of standards, assessment, and reporting. In "Answers to Essential…

  14. Applying International Standards for Hydrokinetic Energy Resource Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    The extraction of hydrokinetic energy is the conversion of the kinetic energy of moving water into another more useful form of energy, frequently electricity. This water motion may be in the form of waves, tides, ocean currents or river flows. In addition to the development of the technology, the successful extraction of hydrokinetic energy requires a better understanding of physical, environmental and social aspects of the resource and their interactions with the technology. To assist with the development of the hydrokinetic industry as a whole, much work over the past decade has been completed developing international technical standards which can be used by the full range of stakeholders in the hydrokinetic industry. To support the design of projects for tidal energy extraction, a new International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Specification (TS) has recently been published outlining a standardized methodology for performing resource assessments. In addition, presently work is ongoing on producing another TS for performing resource assessments on in-stream river projects. While the specific technology for extracting the energy from tidal and river flows may be similar, the methodologies for performing the respective resource assessments is quite different due to the differing nature of the physical processes involved. This presentation will discuss both the tidal and in-stream river methodologies, highlighting their respective key aspects. In addition, a case study illustrating the use of the published tidal TS will be presented.

  15. Life cycle assessment part 2: current impact assessment practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, D W; Potting, J; Finnveden, G; Lindeijer, E; Jolliet, O; Rydberg, T; Rebitzer, G

    2004-07-01

    Providing our society with goods and services contributes to a wide range of environmental impacts. Waste generation, emissions and the consumption of resources occur at many stages in a product's life cycle-from raw material extraction, energy acquisition, production and manufacturing, use, reuse, recycling, through to ultimate disposal. These all contribute to impacts such as climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, photooxidant formation (smog), eutrophication, acidification, toxicological stress on human health and ecosystems, the depletion of resources and noise-among others. The need exists to address these product-related contributions more holistically and in an integrated manner, providing complimentary insights to those of regulatory/process-oriented methodologies. A previous article (Part 1, Rebitzer et al., 2004) outlined how to define and model a product's life cycle in current practice, as well as the methods and tools that are available for compiling the associated waste, emissions and resource consumption data into a life cycle inventory. This article highlights how practitioners and researchers from many domains have come together to provide indicators for the different impacts attributable to products in the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase of life cycle assessment (LCA). PMID:15051247

  16. Standard practice for characterization of coatings using conformable Eddy-Current sensors without coating reference standards

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the use of conformable eddy-current sensors for nondestructive characterization of coatings without standardization on coated reference parts. It includes the following: (1) thickness measurement of a conductive coating on a conductive substrate, (2) detection and characterization of local regions of increased porosity of a conductive coating, and (3) measurement of thickness for nonconductive coatings on a conductive substrate or on a conductive coating. This practice includes only nonmagnetic coatings on either magnetic (μ ≠ μ0) or nonmagnetic (μ = μ0) substrates. This practice can also be used to measure the effective thickness of a process-affected zone (for example, shot peened layer for aluminum alloys, alpha case for titanium alloys). For specific types of coated parts, the user may need a more specific procedure tailored to a specific application.

  17. Proposal of standardization in environmental impact assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Maitê de Souza Sandoval; Leandro Eugenio da Silva Cerri

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of the significance of environmental impacts remains an important critical yet poorly understood component of environmental impact assessment (EIA) practice. This work is a study upon the findings of a bibliographic review about the evaluation and communication of environmental impact assessment in Brazil practice. Particular attention is given to the use of significance criteria, thresholds and EIA methodologies intending to incorporate more efficiency of environmental impact ...

  18. Aligning Assessments with State Curriculum Standards and Teaching Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, Jane B.; Rademacher, Joyce A.; Tyler-Wood, Tandra; Perez Cereijo, Maria Victoria

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the steps of moving from state curriculum standards for writing to selecting and teaching a writing strategy to designing curriculum-based assessments in writing. The relationship between assessment and instruction is strengthened as educators monitor student progress in the state curriculum standards, make sound…

  19. Technical standardization of oil well abandonment: a review of current standards and technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzart, J. Walter P.; Pessoa, Laudemar; Paiva, Maria [Halliburton Energy Services (HES), Duncan, OK (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a new methodology for well abandonment. This practice is becoming more and more important because of the increasing number of production fields being abandoned. We strongly recommend a study of cement slurries properties for specific use in temporary and permanent abandonment plugs based on the estimation of the cement slurry hardened when placed in the well. By using specific additives, it is possible to achieve very stable slurries. For example, when permeability is reduced, formation fluid migration can be blocked and chemical reactions between the fluid and the slurry may be inhibited. With this objective, we present a laboratory investigation model and an example of slurry testing recommendation. During the abandonment operation, all records of the well characteristics should be maintained to include the reason for the abandonment, and location of fresh water, brine, and hydrocarbon zones that may exist. This documentation will also allow the analysis of solutions for the problems that originally caused the abandonment of the well. This data could be important for future use by environmental protection commissions to reopen or to drill an adjacent well. Given the high price of oil, it may now be economically feasible to reopen the well, if the reason for abandonment was low productivity. This way, a critical analysis of the current conditions of well and field abandonment in the country is presented. Based on this information, a review of the current standards is suggested. (author)

  20. Physical Activity Stories: Assessing the "Meaning Standard" in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tyler G.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of the "meaning standard" in both national and state content standards suggests that professionals consider it an important outcome of a quality physical education program. However, only 10 percent of states require an assessment to examine whether students achieve this standard. The purpose of this article is to introduce…

  1. Audit Risk Assessment in the Light of Current European Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian-Costel Munteanu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent European reforms on audit regulations have been motivated by efforts to increase audit quality, functioning and performance. We believe the adoption of Directive 2014/56 and Regulation 537/2014 strengthened the role of independent audit and risk committees, which will positively contribute towards audit quality. This paper aims to critically assess the status quo of audit risk assessment in current European standards and regulations, by conducting a theoretical analysis of different aspects of audit risk. Our main objective is to stress the importance of detecting inherent and control risk, which lead to material misstatement at the assertion level. They need to be assessed so as to determine the nature, timing and extent of further audit procedures necessary to obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence. These pieces of evidence enable the auditor to express an opinion on the financial statements at an acceptably low level of audit risk. Therefore, we point to the fact that researchers as well as practitioners and policymakers have to be careful when using audit tools and assessing risk levels, as their conclusions continuously shape the regulations.

  2. Current Assessment of Marihuana: A Rebuttal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Gere B.

    1973-01-01

    A rebuttal of statements made in an article on ...summary of the most current findings related to marihuana'' which was published in the September issue of The Journal of School Health. It is the author's contention that quality of the data and the validity of the approach were too faulty to fortify the statements made. (JC)

  3. High Temperature Gas Reactors: Assessment of Applicable Codes and Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, Bruce K.; Nickolaus, James R.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Swearingen, Gary L.; Pugh, Ray

    2011-10-31

    Current interest expressed by industry in HTGR plants, particularly modular plants with power up to about 600 MW(e) per unit, has prompted NRC to task PNNL with assessing the currently available literature related to codes and standards applicable to HTGR plants, the operating history of past and present HTGR plants, and with evaluating the proposed designs of RPV and associated piping for future plants. Considering these topics in the order they are arranged in the text, first the operational histories of five shut-down and two currently operating HTGR plants are reviewed, leading the authors to conclude that while small, simple prototype HTGR plants operated reliably, some of the larger plants, particularly Fort St. Vrain, had poor availability. Safety and radiological performance of these plants has been considerably better than LWR plants. Petroleum processing plants provide some applicable experience with materials similar to those proposed for HTGR piping and vessels. At least one currently operating plant - HTR-10 - has performed and documented a leak before break analysis that appears to be applicable to proposed future US HTGR designs. Current codes and standards cover some HTGR materials, but not all materials are covered to the high temperatures envisioned for HTGR use. Codes and standards, particularly ASME Codes, are under development for proposed future US HTGR designs. A 'roadmap' document has been prepared for ASME Code development; a new subsection to section III of the ASME Code, ASME BPVC III-5, is scheduled to be published in October 2011. The question of terminology for the cross-duct structure between the RPV and power conversion vessel is discussed, considering the differences in regulatory requirements that apply depending on whether this structure is designated as a 'vessel' or as a 'pipe'. We conclude that designing this component as a 'pipe' is the more appropriate choice, but that the ASME BPVC

  4. Developing Korean Standard for Nanomaterial Exposure Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jun Yeob; Yu, Il Je

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is now applied to many industries, resulting in wide range of nanomaterial-containing products, such as electronic components, cosmetic, medicines, vehicles, and home appliances. Nanoparticles can be released throughout the life cycle of nanoproducts, including the manufacture, consumer use, and disposal, thereby involving workers, consumers, and the environment in potential exposure. However, there is no current consensus on the best sampling method for characterizing manufact...

  5. Performance Standards': Utility for Different Uses of Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Linn

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Performance standards are arguably one of the most controversial topics in educational measurement. There are uses of assessments such as licensure and certification where performance standards are essential. There are many other uses, however, where performance standards have been mandated or become the preferred method of reporting assessment results where the standards are not essential to the use. Distinctions between essential and nonessential uses of performance standards are discussed. It is argued that the insistence on reporting in terms of performance standards in situations where they are not essential has been more harmful than helpful. Variability in the definitions of proficient academic achievement by states for purposes of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 is discussed and it is argued that the variability is so great that characterizing achievement is meaningless. Illustrations of the great uncertainty in standards are provided.

  6. Current issues on a standard for surrogate pregnancy procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jung-Ok

    2012-12-01

    While Korea does not have any legal statement on surrogacy, treatments are carried out in practice. As a result, every Institutional Review Board (IRB) of each fertility clinic faces an ethical predicament in reviewing each case. There is a need to arrange the institutions' own standards of surrogate pregnancy procedures before the establishment of national or professional regulation. This article examines the legal, social, and medical issues of surrogacy to help IRBs to judge their cases. PMID:23346523

  7. [Current state of competence assessment in nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmann-Finck, Ingrid; Reuschenbach, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Competency measurement is central to the optimisation of outcome oriented educational processes in nursing, similar to the concept of evidence based practice. The classification of measurement tools provides the basis for describing the current state of research and development in relation to competence measurement in nursing science, and any gaps are identified. The article concludes with questioning the importance of outcome oriented quality orientation in order to achieve an increase in quality during training. Further methodological developments and qualitative studies are needed to examine the context specific processes of interaction and learning, beyond competence diagnostics. PMID:23415340

  8. [Current state of competence assessment in nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmann-Finck, Ingrid; Reuschenbach, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Competency measurement is central to the optimisation of outcome oriented educational processes in nursing, similar to the concept of evidence based practice. The classification of measurement tools provides the basis for describing the current state of research and development in relation to competence measurement in nursing science, and any gaps are identified. The article concludes with questioning the importance of outcome oriented quality orientation in order to achieve an increase in quality during training. Further methodological developments and qualitative studies are needed to examine the context specific processes of interaction and learning, beyond competence diagnostics.

  9. Current Standards in the Management of Cerebral Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Goetz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The last 30 years have seen major changes in attitude toward patients with cerebral metastases. This paper aims to outline the major landmarks in this transition and the therapeutic strategies currently used. The controversies surrounding control of brain disease are discussed, and two emerging management trends are reviewed: tumor bed radiosurgery and salvage radiation.

  10. Current toxicological information as the basis for sulfur oxide standards.

    OpenAIRE

    Mehlman, M A

    1983-01-01

    The ambient air quality standard established in 1973 is 0.03 ppm annual average for sulfur dioxide and 0.075 mg/m3 for particulates. It is now generally believed that the toxicity of sulfur oxides in ambient air is significantly influenced by the coincident presence of particulates. Inhalation of 1 ppm of sulfur dioxide for 2 hr may produce alterations in pulmonary ventilatory function, both in normal and asthmatic subjects. Effects obtained at 0.5 ppm of sulfur dioxide are controversial and ...

  11. A New International Standard for "Actions from Waves and Currents on Coastal Structures"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørum, Alf; Burcharth, Hans F.; Goda, Yoshimi;

    2007-01-01

    The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is going to issue a new standard concerning "Actions from Waves and Currents on Coastal Structures," which becomes the first international standard in coastal engineering. It is composed of a normative part (29 pages), an informative part (80...... standard on coastal engineering practice....

  12. Assessing the Assessors: JMC Administrators Critique the Nine ACEJMC Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinardy, Scott; Crawford, Jerry, II.

    2013-01-01

    For nearly ninety years, journalism professionals and academics have attempted to develop standards by which to prepare college students for the media industry. For nearly 70 years, the Accrediting Council on Education in Journalism and Mass Communications (ACEJMC) has assessed programs based on its standards. This study surveyed administers of…

  13. Peer Review of Assessment Network: Supporting Comparability of Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Sara; Beckett, Jeff; Saunders, Cassandra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to test the need in the Australian higher education (HE) sector for a national network for the peer review of assessment in response to the proposed HE standards framework and propose a sector-wide framework for calibrating and assuring achievement standards, both within and across disciplines, through the establishment of…

  14. Land Development and Current Use Assessment: A Theoretical Note

    OpenAIRE

    England, Richard W.; Mohr, Robert D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper jointly models a landowner's decision to develop a parcel and the option to enroll that parcel in a current use assessment program. The analytical results highlight different factors that influence the effectiveness of a current use program in delaying development. The results also underscore the difficulty a local government might have in influencing the behavior of the landowner. Except for altering eligibility rules, a local government employing current use assessment has but tw...

  15. Evaluation of Current Assessment Methods in Engineering Entrepreneurship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purzer, Senay; Fila, Nicholas; Nataraja, Kavin

    2016-01-01

    Quality assessment is an essential component of education that allows educators to support student learning and improve educational programs. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the current state of assessment in engineering entrepreneurship education. We identified 52 assessment instruments covered in 29 journal articles and conference…

  16. International Financial Reporting Standard 5 - Non-Current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Luka Crnkovic; Ivo Mijoc; Drazen Cucic

    2007-01-01

    International Financial Reporting Standard 5 has the working title Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operations. This fi nancial reporting standard also represents a new group of standards along with the previous four, including existing International Accounting Standard, regardless if it concerns existing or revised standards, as a wish for further coordination of accounting regulations on world level. This idea is a concretisation of the wishes of International Accounting St...

  17. CCIEA data and model output - California Current Integrated Ecosystem Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The California Current Integrated Ecosystem Assessment (CCIEA) is a joint project between staff at the NWFSC, SWFSC, NMML, ONMS, and WCRO to provide managers and...

  18. Environmental assessment. Energy efficiency standards for consumer products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSwain, Berah

    1980-06-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 requires DOE to prescribe energy efficiency standards for 13 consumer products. The Consumer Products Efficiency Standards (CPES) program covers: refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners (cooling and heat pumps), furnaces, dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiers. This Environmental Assessment evaluates the potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts expected as a result of setting efficiency standards for all of the consumer products covered by the CPES program. DOE has proposed standards for eight of the products covered by the Program in a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NOPR). DOE expects to propose standards for home heating equipment, central air conditioners (heat pumps only), dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiers in 1981. No significant adverse environmental or socioeconomic impacts have been found to result from instituting the CPES.

  19. Research on Standard Flow for materials life cycle assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DI Xiang-hua; NIE Zuo-ren; WANG Zhi-hong; ZUO Tie-yong

    2004-01-01

    For the sake of objectivity of the interpretation in life cycle assessment (LCA), the concept and the design proposal of Standard Flow were put forward. Standard Flow was defined as the collection of related environmental load parameters that represent the specific development degree of certain industrial process(es) by the function unit. A novel methodological approach called the Standard Flow Comparing, was developed for LCA. The indicator for potential of process improvement and its weighting factor were derived. To a certain degree the problem of the identification and selection of process development objects in LCA was solved. The concept of Standard Flow and the method of Standard Flow Comparing are introduced, formulized and analyzed.

  20. Radiotherapy for pediatric brain tumors: Standard of care, current clinical trials, and new directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To review the clinical characteristics of childhood brain tumors, including neurologic signs, neuroimaging and neuropathology. To critically assess indications for therapy relevant to presenting characteristics, age, and disease status. To discuss current management strategies including neurosurgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. To analyze current clinical trials and future directions of clinical research. Brain tumors account for 20% of neoplastic diseases in children. The most common tumors include astrocytoma and malignant gliomas, medulloblastoma and supratentorial PNET's, ependymoma, craniopharyngioma, and intracranial germ cell tumors. Tumor type and clinical course are often correlated with age at presentation and anatomic site. The clinical characteristics and disease extent largely determine the relative merits of available 'standard' and investigational therapeutic approaches. Treatment outcome, including disease control and functional integrity, is dependent upon age at presentation, tumor type, and disease extent. An understanding of the clinical, neuroimaging, and histologic characteristics as they relate to decisions regarding therapy is critical to the radiation oncologist. Appropriate radiation therapy is central to curative therapy for a majority of pediatric brain tumor presentations. Technical advances in neurosurgery provide greater safety for 'gross total resection' in a majority of hemispheric astrocytomas and medulloblastomas. The relative roles of 'standard' radiation therapy and evolving chemotherapy for centrally located astrocytomas (e.g., diencephalic, optic pathway) need to be analyzed in the context of initial and overall disease control, neurotoxicities, and potential modifications in the risk:benefit ratio apparent in the introduction of precision radiation techniques. Modifications in radiation delivery are fundamental to current investigations in medulloblastoma; the rationale for contemporary and projected

  1. Comparison of current practices of cardiopulmonary perfusion technology in Iran with American Society of Extracorporeal Technology’s standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faravan, Amir; Mohammadi, Nooredin; Alizadeh Ghavidel, Alireza; Toutounchi, Mohammad Zia; Ghanbari, Ameneh; Mazloomi, Mehran

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Standards have a significant role in showing the minimum level of optimal optimum and the expected performance. Since the perfusion technology staffs play an the leading role in providing the quality services to the patients undergoing open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass machine, this study aimed to assess the standards on how Iranian perfusion technology staffs evaluate and manage the patients during the cardiopulmonary bypass process and compare their practice with the recommended standards by American Society of Extracorporeal Technology. Methods: In this descriptive study, data was collected from 48 Iranian public hospitals and educational health centers through a researcher-created questionnaire. The data collection questionnaire assessed the standards which are recommended by American Society of Extracorporeal Technology. Results: Findings showed that appropriate measurements were carried out by the perfusion technology staffs to prevent the hemodilution and avoid the blood transfusion and unnecessary blood products, determine the initial dose of heparin based on one of the proposed methods, monitor the anticoagulants based on ACT measurement, and determine the additional doses of heparin during the cardiopulmonary bypass based on ACT or protamine titration. It was done only in 4.2% of hospitals and health centers. Conclusion: Current practices of cardiopulmonary perfusion technology in Iran are inappropriate based on the standards of American Society of Cardiovascular Perfusion. This represents the necessity of authorities’ attention to the validation programs and development of the caring standards on one hand and continuous assessment of using these standards on the other hand. PMID:27489600

  2. The cultural appropriateness and diagnostic usefulness of standardized language assessments for Indigenous Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Wendy M; Williams, Cori

    2013-08-01

    Speech-language pathologists experience uncertainty about how to interpret standardized assessment results for Indigenous Australian children. There are risks for inappropriate diagnosis: both over- and under-diagnosis of language impairment may occur due to a convergence of linguistic features which causes difficulty in distinguishing between impairment and difference. While the literature suggests that standardized assessments are inappropriate for Indigenous Australian children, there is an absence of empirical documentation to show how Indigenous children perform on standardized tests of language ability. This study examined the performance of 19 Indigenous Australian children, aged 8;01-13;08, from one school on the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals, Fourth Edition, Australian Standardized Edition. Standardized scores were compared with teacher ratings of children's oral language skills. Analysis showed poor alignment between teacher ratings and language assessment, and assessment scores were negatively influenced by features of Aboriginal English. Children rated with above average language skills presented with different linguistic profiles from the children rated with average and below average language abilities. The inappropriateness of current standardized language assessments for Indigenous children and the need for further research to guide appropriate assessment are discussed.

  3. Standards of Ombudsman Assessment: A New Normative Concept?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Remac

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, an ombudsman is a traditional component of democratic legal systems. Generally, reports of the ombudsman are not legally binding. Due to this fact, the ombudsman can rely only on his own persuasiveness, on his acceptance by individuals and state institutions, on the understanding of the administration and on the accessibility and transparency of rules that underpin his reports. During investigations, ombudsmen assess whether the administration has acted in accordance with certain legal or extra-legal standards. Depending on the legal system, ombudsmen can investigate whether there is an instance of maladministration in the activities of administrative bodies, whether the administration has acted ‘properly’, whether it has acted in accordance with the law, whether administrative actions have breached the human rights of complainants or whether the actions of the administration were in accordance with anti-corruption rules etc. Regardless of the legislative standard of an ombudsman’s control, the ombudsman should consider and assess the situation described in complaints against certain criteria or against certain normative standards. A distinct set of standards which ombudsmen use during their investigation, or at least a clear statement of their assessment criteria, can increase the transparency of their procedures and the persuasiveness of their reports. Are the normative standards used by different ombudsmen the same? Do they possibly create a new normative concept? And can it possibly lead to a higher acceptance of their reports by the administration?

  4. Definition of standardized nutritional assessment and interventional pathways in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottery, F D

    1996-01-01

    Weight loss and nutritional deterioration are associated with adverse outcomes in terms of cancer prognosis (response rate and survival) as well as increased complications, prolonged hospitalizations, increased risk of unplanned hospitalization, increased disability, and increased overall cost of care. The nutritional oncology service at Fox Chase Cancer Center defined a proactive, standardized assessment and interventional approach from 1987-1994. In 186 consecutive patients referred to the nutrition clinic and managed solely by oral intervention and aggressive symptom management, the team demonstrated a 50%-80% success rate in getting patients to maintain or gain weight during therapy, with a similar success in maintaining or improving visceral protein status as determined by serum transferrin and/or albumin. Evaluation of the home parenteral nutrition program (n = 65, from 1987-1993) demonstrated similar success when appropriate triaging was carried out, with 58% of patients able to be tapered off parenteral nutrition (PN) entirely or with transition to enteral tube feeding. The assessment of success for a nutritional intervention (e.g., a disease-specific nutritional supplement) requires the standardization of definitions, assessment tools, criteria for nutritional intervention, and appropriate end points for the assessment of outcomes. The Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment of nutritional status is used in conjunction with the nutritional risk of planned cancer therapy to define a standardized interventional approach in oncology patients, which can be used in clinical practice, cooperative oncology group protocols, and clinical trials of nutritional intervention regimens. PMID:8850213

  5. The role of Health Impact Assessment in the setting of air quality standards: An Australian perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spickett, Jeffery, E-mail: J.Spickett@curtin.edu.au [WHO Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health Impact Assessment (Australia); Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Katscherian, Dianne [WHO Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health Impact Assessment (Australia); Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Harris, Patrick [CHETRE — UNSW Research Centre for Primary Health Care and Equity, University of New South Wales (Australia)

    2013-11-15

    The approaches used for setting or reviewing air quality standards vary from country to country. The purpose of this research was to consider the potential to improve decision-making through integration of HIA into the processes to review and set air quality standards used in Australia. To assess the value of HIA in this policy process, its strengths and weaknesses were evaluated aligned with review of international processes for setting air quality standards. Air quality standard setting programmes elsewhere have either used HIA or have amalgamated and incorporated factors normally found within HIA frameworks. They clearly demonstrate the value of a formalised HIA process for setting air quality standards in Australia. The following elements should be taken into consideration when using HIA in standard setting. (a) The adequacy of a mainly technical approach in current standard setting procedures to consider social determinants of health. (b) The importance of risk assessment criteria and information within the HIA process. The assessment of risk should consider equity, the distribution of variations in air quality in different locations and the potential impacts on health. (c) The uncertainties in extrapolating evidence from one population to another or to subpopulations, especially the more vulnerable, due to differing environmental factors and population variables. (d) The significance of communication with all potential stakeholders on issues associated with the management of air quality. In Australia there is also an opportunity for HIA to be used in conjunction with the NEPM to develop local air quality standard measures. The outcomes of this research indicated that the use of HIA for air quality standard setting at the national and local levels would prove advantageous. -- Highlights: • Health Impact Assessment framework has been applied to a policy development process. • HIA process was evaluated for application in air quality standard setting.

  6. STANDARD-BASED ASSESSMENT OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES AND WASHBACK EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azucena Gozalo Ausín

    2014-12-01

    The fruitful collaboration between different educational agents and the application of the Standardized Tests of English in each and every educational institution in Cantabria where Primary and Compulsory Secondary Education are taught have brought about a decisive step forward towards the assessment and international recognition of levels of achievement. It is my contention that this proposal has had a definitely positive backwash effect in the process of teaching and learning foreign languages in our school system.

  7. Savannah River Site peer evaluator standards: Operator assessment for restart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savannah River Site has implemented a Peer Evaluator program for the assessment of certified Central Control Room Operators, Central Control Room Supervisors and Shift Technical Engineers prior to restart. This program is modeled after the nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Examiner Standard, ES-601, for the requalification of licensed operators in the commercial utility industry. It has been tailored to reflect the unique differences between Savannah River production reactors and commercial power reactors

  8. The standards for skill assessment of operational marine forecast system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Aijun; FAN Wenjing; JI Fengying

    2007-01-01

    To support navigational and environmental applications in coastal waters, marine operational forecast models must be developed and implemented. A forecast model must guarantee that it is scientifically sound and practically robust for performance and must meet or excel all target frequencies or durations before being released to the public. This paper discusses the standard policies and procedures for evaluation of operational marine forecast models. The primary variables to be evaluated are water levels, currents and water density (water temperature and salinity).

  9. Current Status of International Airborne Platform Data and Instrument Interface Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, Matt; Webster, Chris; Freundinger, Larry

    2016-06-01

    Commission I of the International Society for Photogrammetric and Remote Sensing formed working group I/1 for the purpose of standardizing airborne platform interfaces. The primary mission of this working group is to promote the standardization of instrument interfaces, data formats, and supporting infrastructures; and to facilitate more efficient, flexible, and cost-effective international science flight operations. Within WGI/1 are a number of focused subgroups. This paper addresses the efforts of some of these subgroups having interdependent and overlapping interests; including the development of standard software interfaces for sensors, standardized approaches to management of information over potentially intermittent wireless data links, the development of standardized processing algorithms, and data archival format standards. The data in this report reflect the outcome of work-to-date in the current subgroups.

  10. Current issues and perspectives in food safety and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbrand, G

    2015-12-01

    In this review, current issues and opportunities in food safety assessment are discussed. Food safety is considered an essential element inherent in global food security. Hazard characterization is pivotal within the continuum of risk assessment, but it may be conceived only within a very limited frame as a true alternative to risk assessment. Elucidation of the mode of action underlying a given hazard is vital to create a plausible basis for human toxicology evaluation. Risk assessment, to convey meaningful risk communication, must be based on appropriate and reliable consideration of both exposure and mode of action. New perspectives, provided by monitoring human exogenous and endogenous exposure biomarkers, are considered of great promise to support classical risk extrapolation from animal toxicology. PMID:26614817

  11. Implications of Stein's Paradox for Environmental Standard Compliance Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Song S; Stow, Craig A; Cha, YoonKyung

    2015-05-19

    The implications of Stein's paradox stirred considerable debate in statistical circles when the concept was first introduced in the 1950s. The paradox arises when we are interested in estimating the means of several variables simultaneously. In this situation, the best estimator for an individual mean, the sample average, is no longer the best. Rather, a shrinkage estimator, which shrinks individual sample averages toward the overall average is shown to have improved overall accuracy. Although controversial at the time, the concept of shrinking toward overall average is now widely accepted as a good practice for improving statistical stability and reducing error, not only in simple estimation problems, but also in complicated modeling problems. However, the utility of Stein's insights are not widely recognized in the environmental management community, where mean pollutant concentrations of multiple waters are routinely estimated for management decision-making. In this essay, we introduce Stein's paradox and its modern generalization, the Bayesian hierarchical model, in the context of environmental standard compliance assessment. Using simulated data and nutrient monitoring data from wadeable streams around the Great Lakes, we show that a Bayesian hierarchical model can improve overall estimation accuracy, thereby improving our confidence in the assessment results, especially for standard compliance assessment of waters with small sample sizes. PMID:25867542

  12. Natural and agglomerated stone durability assessment according to technical standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Šimková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of rock behaviour and durability plays an important role in the use of rocks and similar materials for all building purposes. Durability is a complex term, therefore the paper deals with the terminology and aspects related to the evaluation and prediction possibilities of stone durability. Technical standards offer some laboratory procedures suitable for stone durability assessment. The paper presents the results of the application of some standard laboratory methods on select types of natural and agglomerated stones, from the physical properties determination and durability assessment point of view. On the basis of defined criteria of physical properties, such as the value of open porosity, uniaxial compressive strength and water absorption, was predicted the behaviour of selected stones against ageing and weathering. Results of the realised laboratory weathering tests such as the determination of resistance to frost and salt crystallisation, determination of resistance to ageing by SO2 action in the presence of humidity, and determination of resistance to thermal shock, confirmed and verified rock behaviour conditional on stone genesis, mineral composition and structural characteristics.

  13. Behavioural methods used in rodent models of autism spectrum disorders: current standards and new developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöhr, Markus; Scattoni, Maria Luisa

    2013-08-15

    Autism is a behaviourally defined disorder including attenuated or abnormal social interaction and communication, as well as aberrant repetitive behaviour, with symptoms emerging early in childhood. Although the cause of autism has not been discovered, several data strongly support the role of genetic factors in autism aetiology. For this reason, preclinical research is now focusing on generating transgenic and knockout mice, and more recently also rats, with mutations in genes identified in autistic children, with the main aim of understanding the role of those genes in autism aetiology, discovering the biological mechanisms underlying autistic behaviours detected in these mutant lines and evaluating potential treatments. Over the last years, a huge number of behavioural phenotyping assays for rodent models of autism and related disorders have been designed. In the first part of our review, we focus on current standards, i.e. state-of-the-art behavioural phenotyping tasks to assess autism core symptoms in rodent models. The second part is devoted to some few, in our view, very promising examples of new developments, namely an autism severity score, scent marking behaviour as an additional, ethologically valid measure for communication, plus a number of new developments in the behavioural domains of social facilitation, observational learning, and empathy. Finally, we will highlight the huge potential impact of newly generated rat knockout models of autism. PMID:23769995

  14. Strategies of bringing drug product marketing applications to meet current regulatory standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Freed, Anita; Lavrich, David; Raghavachari, Ramesh; Huynh-Ba, Kim; Shah, Ketan; Alasandro, Mark

    2015-08-01

    In the past decade, many guidance documents have been issued through collaboration of global organizations and regulatory authorities. Most of these are applicable to new products, but there is a risk that currently marketed products will not meet the new compliance standards during audits and inspections while companies continue to make changes through the product life cycle for continuous improvement or market demands. This discussion presents different strategies to bringing drug product marketing applications to meet current and emerging standards. It also discusses stability and method designs to meet process validation and global development efforts.

  15. Strategies of bringing drug product marketing applications to meet current regulatory standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Freed, Anita; Lavrich, David; Raghavachari, Ramesh; Huynh-Ba, Kim; Shah, Ketan; Alasandro, Mark

    2015-08-01

    In the past decade, many guidance documents have been issued through collaboration of global organizations and regulatory authorities. Most of these are applicable to new products, but there is a risk that currently marketed products will not meet the new compliance standards during audits and inspections while companies continue to make changes through the product life cycle for continuous improvement or market demands. This discussion presents different strategies to bringing drug product marketing applications to meet current and emerging standards. It also discusses stability and method designs to meet process validation and global development efforts. PMID:26024722

  16. Assessment of Medical Students’ Shared Decision-Making in Standardized Patient Encounters

    OpenAIRE

    Hauer, Karen E.; Fernandez, Alicia; Teherani, Arianne; Boscardin, Christy K.; Saba, George W.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Shared decision-making, in which physicians and patients openly explore beliefs, exchange information, and reach explicit closure, may represent optimal physician–patient communication. There are currently no universally accepted methods to assess medical students’ competence in shared decision-making. OBJECTIVE To characterize medical students’ shared decision-making with standardized patients (SPs) and determine if students’ use of shared decision-making correlates with SP rating...

  17. Environmental assessment of current and future Swiss electricity supply options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Options for near future electricity supply are currently one of the main topics in the Swiss energy policy debate. Contrary to the total energy demand per capita the trend of rising electricity demand per capita is still visible. This paper presents a comparative environmental assessment of a broad portfolio of current and future electricity generation technologies including nuclear, fossil, and renewable power plants with their associated energy chains. The evaluation, based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), is carried out quantifying ten different environmental indicators, grouped in the categories greenhouse gas emissions, consumption of resources, waste, and impact on ecosystems. Hydropower shows minimal environmental impacts for all indicators; for other systems, the picture is diverse. The comparison of non-aggregated indicators allows preliminary conclusions about the environmental performance of the assessed systems. Establishing ranking of technologies calls for aggregating the indicators, which can be done by weighting of the indicators based on individual or stakeholder group preferences, either within a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) framework or with Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methods. Calculating total costs of electricity by adding external costs due to impacts on human health and ecosystems to the electricity production costs poses another option for ranking of technologies. (authors)

  18. Assessment of the tsunami-induced current hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynett, Patrick J.; Borrero, Jose; Son, Sangyoung; Wilson, Rick; Miller, Kevin

    2014-03-01

    The occurrence of tsunami damage is not limited to events causing coastal inundation. Even without flooding, maritime assets are vulnerable to significant damage from strong currents and associated drag forces. While such impacts have been observed in the past, they have not been well studied in any context. Nearshore tsunami currents are governed by nonlinear and turbulent physics and often have large spatial and temporal variability making high-fidelity modeling particularly challenging. Furthermore, measured data for the validation of numerical simulations is limited, with few quality data sets appearing after recent tsunami events. In this paper, we present a systematic approach for the interpretation of measured tsunami-induced current impacts as well as a validation approach for simulation tools. The methods and results provided here lay the foundation for much needed efforts to assess tsunami hazards in ports and harbors.

  19. Assessment of the Japanese Energy Efficiency Standards Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Arakawa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Japanese energy efficiency standards program for appliances is a unique program which sets and revises mandatory standards based on the products of the highest energy efficiency on the markets. This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of the standard settings for air conditioner as a major residential appliance or typical example in the program. Based on analyses of empirical data, the net costs and effects from 1999 to 2040 were estimated. When applying a discount rate of 3%, the cost of abating CO2 emissions realized through the considered standards was estimated to be -13700 JPY/t-CO2. The sensitivity analysis, however, showed the cost turns into positive at a discount rate of 26% or higher. The authors also revealed that the standards’ “excellent” cost-effectiveness largely depends on that of the 1st standard setting, and the CO2 abatement cost through the 2nd standard was estimated to be as high as 26800 JPY/t-CO2. The results imply that the government is required to be careful about the possible economic burden imposed when considering introducing new, additional standards.

  20. Standardized accuracy assessment of the calypso wireless transponder tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, A. M.; Schmitt, D.; Seitel, A.; Chatrasingh, M.; Echner, G.; Oelfke, U.; Nill, S.; Birkfellner, W.; Maier-Hein, L.

    2014-11-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) tracking allows localization of small EM sensors in a magnetic field of known geometry without line-of-sight. However, this technique requires a cable connection to the tracked object. A wireless alternative based on magnetic fields, referred to as transponder tracking, has been proposed by several authors. Although most of the transponder tracking systems are still in an early stage of development and not ready for clinical use yet, Varian Medical Systems Inc. (Palo Alto, California, USA) presented the Calypso system for tumor tracking in radiation therapy which includes transponder technology. But it has not been used for computer-assisted interventions (CAI) in general or been assessed for accuracy in a standardized manner, so far. In this study, we apply a standardized assessment protocol presented by Hummel et al (2005 Med. Phys. 32 2371-9) to the Calypso system for the first time. The results show that transponder tracking with the Calypso system provides a precision and accuracy below 1 mm in ideal clinical environments, which is comparable with other EM tracking systems. Similar to other systems the tracking accuracy was affected by metallic distortion, which led to errors of up to 3.2 mm. The potential of the wireless transponder tracking technology for use in many future CAI applications can be regarded as extremely high.

  1. Radiation protection standards: A practical exercise in risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within 12 months of the discovery of x-rays in 1895, it was reported that large doses of radiation were harmful to living human tissues. The first radiation protection standards were set to avoid the early effects of acute irradiation. By the 1950s, evidence was mounting for late somatic effects - mainly a small excess of cancers - in irradiated populations. In the late 1980's, sufficient human epidemiological data had been accumulated to allow a comprehensive assessment of carcinogenic radiation risks following the delivery of moderately high doses. Workers and the public are exposed to lower doses and dose-rates than the groups from whom good data are available so that risks have had to be estimated for protection purposes. However, in the 1990s, some confirmation of these risk factors has been derived occupationally exposed populations. If an estimate is made of the risk per unit dose, then in order to set dose limits, an unacceptable level of risk must be established for both workers and the public. There has been and continues to be a debate about the definitions of 'acceptable' and 'tolerable' and the attributing of numerical values to these definitions. This paper discusses the issues involved in the quantification of these terms and their application to setting dose limits on risk grounds. Conclusions are drawn about the present protection standards and the application of the methods to other fields of risk assessment. (author)

  2. Self-assessment: Strategy for higher standards, consistency, and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In late 1994, Palo Verde operations underwent a transformation from a unitized structure to a single functional unit. It was necessary to build consistency in watchstanding practices and create a shared mission. Because there was a lack of focus on actual plant operations and because personnel were deeply involved with administrative tasks, command and control of evolutions were weak. Improvement was needed. Consistent performance standards have been set for all three operating units. These expectation focus on nuclear, radiological, and industrial safety. Straightforward descriptions of watchstanding and monitoring practices have been provided to all department personnel. The desired professional and leadership qualities for employee conduct have been defined and communicated thoroughly. A healthy and competitive atmosphere developed with the successful implementation of these standards. Overall performance improved. The auxiliary operators demonstrated increased pride and ownership in the performance of their work activities. In addition, their morale improved. Crew teamwork improved as well as the quality of shift briefs. There was a decrease in the noise level and the administrative functions in the control room. The use of self-assessment helped to anchor and define higher and more consistent standards. The proof of Palo Verde's success was evident when an Institute of Nuclear Power Operations finding was turned into a strength within 1 yr

  3. Taper Preparation Variability Compared to Current Taper Standards Using Computed Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Gergi; Joe Abou Rjeily; Nada Osta; Joseph Sader; Alfred Naaman

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. The purpose of this study was to compare the taper variation in root canal preparations among Twisted Files and PathFiles-ProTaper .08 tapered rotary files to current standards. Methods. 60 root canals with severe angle of curvature (between 25∘ and 35∘) and short radius (

  4. An Instrument to Assess Beliefs about Standardized Testing: Measuring the Influence of Epistemology on the Endorsement of Standardized Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Robert G.; Jones, Brett D.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the development of an instrument to assess beliefs about standardized testing in schools, a topic of much heated debate. The Beliefs About Standardized Testing scale was developed to measure the extent to which individuals support high-stakes standardized testing. The 9-item scale comprises three subscales which measure…

  5. Assessment of current undergraduate anesthesia course in a Saudi University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Shams

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The assessment of the anesthesia course in our university comprises Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs, in conjunction with portfolio and multiple-choice questions (MCQ. The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcome of different forms of anesthesia course assessment among 5 th year medical students in our university, as well as study the influence of gender on student performance in anesthesia. Methods: We examined the performance of 154, 5 th year medical students through OSCE, portfolios, and MCQ. Results: The score ranges in the portfolio, OSCE, and MCQs were 16-24, 4.2-28.9, and 15.5-44.5, respectively. There was highly significant difference in scores in relation to gender in all assessments other than the written one (P=0.000 for Portfolio, OSCE, and Total exam, whereas P=0.164 for written exam. In the generated linear regression model, OSCE alone could predict 86.4% of the total mark if used alone. In addition, if the score of the written examination is added, OSCE will drop to 57.2% and the written exam will be 56.8% of the total mark. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that different clinical methods used to assess medical students during their anesthesia course were consistent and integrated. The performance of female was superior to male in OSCE and portfolio. This information is the basis for improving educational and assessment standards in anesthesiology and for introducing a platform for developing modern learning media in countries with dearth of anesthesia personnel.

  6. Current techniques for assessing developmental neurotoxicity of pesticides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu GAO; Ying TIAN; Xiaoming SHEN

    2008-01-01

    Organophosphates (OPs) and Pyrethroids (PRY) have been widely used in agriculture and in the home as broad spectrum insecticides, but may produce considerable risk to human health, especially to children. Children are more susceptible to environmental exposure, and concern about the neurotoxic effects of pesticide exposure on children is increasing. There is a need for better understanding of the potential developmental neu-rotoxicity of pesticides. Techniques for assessing devel-opmental neurotoxicity of pesticides will continue to be developed, rendering a need for flexibility of testing para-digms. Current techniques used in evaluating the devel-opmental neurotoxicity of OPs and PRY are presented in this review. These include: (1) In vitro techniques (PC12 cells, C6 cells and other cell models); (2) Non-mammalian models (sea urchins, zebrafish and other non-mammalian models); and (3) In vivo mammalian models (morpho-logical techniques, neurobehavioral assessments and biomarkers).

  7. Alignment between South African mathematics assessment standards and the TIMSS assessment frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mdutshekelwa Ndlovu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available South Africa’s performance in international benchmark tests is a major cause for concern amongst educators and policymakers, raising questions about the effectiveness of the curriculum reform efforts of the democratic era. The purpose of the study reported in this article was to investigate the degree of alignment between the TIMSS 2003 Grade 8 Mathematics assessment frameworks and the Revised National Curriculum Statements (RNCS assessment standards for Grade 8 Mathematics, later revised to become the Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statements (CAPS. Such an investigation could help to partly shed light on why South African learners do not perform well and point out discrepancies that need to be attended to. The methodology of document analysis was adopted for the study, with the RNCS and the TIMSS 2003 Grade 8 Mathematics frameworks forming the principal documents. Porter’s moderately complex index of alignment was adopted for its simplicity. The computed index of 0.751 for the alignment between the RNCS assessment standards and the TIMSS assessment objectives was found to be significantly statistically low, at the alpha level of 0.05, according to Fulmer’s critical values for 20 cells and 90 or 120 standard points. The study suggests that inadequate attention has been paid to the alignment of the South African mathematics curriculum to the successive TIMSS assessment frameworks in terms of the cognitive level descriptions. The study recommends that participation in TIMSS should rigorously and critically inform ongoing curriculum reform efforts.

  8. Current directions in screening-level ecological risk assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsen, T M; Efroymson, R A

    2000-12-11

    Ecological risk assessment (ERA) is a tool used by many regulatory agencies to evaluate the impact to ecological receptors from changes in environmental conditions. Widespread use of ERAs began with the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Superfund program to assess the ecological impact from hazardous chemicals released to the environment. Many state hazardous chemical regulatory agencies have adopted the use of ERAs, and several state regulatory agencies are evaluating the use of ERAs to assess ecological impacts from releases of petroleum and gas-related products. Typical ERAs are toxicologically-based, use conservative assumptions with respect to ecological receptor exposure duration and frequency, often require complex modeling of transport and exposure and are very labor intensive. In an effort to streamline the ERA process, efforts are currently underway to develop default soil screening levels, to identify ecological screening criteria for excluding sites from formal risk assessment, and to create risk-based corrective action worksheets. This should help reduce the time spent on ERAs, at least for some sites. Work is also underway to incorporate bioavailability and spatial considerations into ERAs. By evaluating the spatial nature of contaminant releases with respect to the spatial context of the ecosystem under consideration, more realistic ERAs with respect to the actual impact to ecological receptors at the population, community or ecosystem scale should be possible. In addition, by considering the spatial context, it should be possible to develop mitigation and monitoring efforts to more appropriately address such sites within the context of an ecological framework.

  9. Electric current in flares ribbons: from the standard model in 3D to observations

    CERN Document Server

    Janvier, Miho; Bommier, V; Schmieder, B; Démoulin, P; Pariat, E

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents for the first time a quantification of the photospheric electric current ribbon evolutions during an eruptive flare, accurately predicted by the standard 3D flare model. The standard flare model in 3D has been developed with the MHD code OHM, which models the evolution of an unstable flux rope. Through a series of paper, the model has been successful in explaining observational characteristics of eruptive flares, as well as the intrinsic 3D reconnection mechanism. Such a model also explains the increase of the photospheric currents as a consequence of the evolution of the coronal current layer where reconnection takes place. The photospheric footprints of the 3D current layer reveal a ribbon shape structure. In the present paper, the evolution of the current density is analyzed for the X-class flare that occurred on 15/02/2011 in AR 11158. We first describe the structural evolution of the high vertical current density regions derived with the UNNOFIT inversion code from magnetograms (HMI, e...

  10. Training in clinical forensic medicine in the UK--perceptions of current regulatory standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Margaret M; Norfolk, Guy A

    2011-08-01

    As clinical forensic medicine (CFM) is not currently recognised as a speciality in the UK there are no nationally agreed mandatory standards for training forensic physicians in either general forensic (GFM) or sexual offence medicine (SOM). The General Medical Council (GMC), the medical regulator in the UK, has issued clear standards for training in all specialities recommending that "trainees must be supported to acquire the necessary skills and experience through induction, effective educational supervision, an appropriate workload and time to learn". In order to evaluate the current situation in the field of clinical forensic medicine, doctors who have recently (within the last two years) started working in the field "trainees" (n = 38), and trainers (n = 61) with responsibility for clinical and educational supervision of new trainees, were surveyed by questionnaire to gather their perceptions of how the relevant GMC standards are being met in initial on-the-job training. Telephone interviews were performed with eleven doctors working as clinical or medical directors to determine their views. It is clear that currently the quality of training in CFM is sub-standard and inconsistent and that the published standards, as to the minimum requirement for training that must be met by post-graduate medical and training providers at all levels, are not being met. The Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine (FFLM) needs to set explicit minimum standards which will comply with the regulator and work to pilot credentialing for forensic physicians. A number of recommendations are made for urgent FFLM development. PMID:21771557

  11. Training in clinical forensic medicine in the UK--perceptions of current regulatory standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Margaret M; Norfolk, Guy A

    2011-08-01

    As clinical forensic medicine (CFM) is not currently recognised as a speciality in the UK there are no nationally agreed mandatory standards for training forensic physicians in either general forensic (GFM) or sexual offence medicine (SOM). The General Medical Council (GMC), the medical regulator in the UK, has issued clear standards for training in all specialities recommending that "trainees must be supported to acquire the necessary skills and experience through induction, effective educational supervision, an appropriate workload and time to learn". In order to evaluate the current situation in the field of clinical forensic medicine, doctors who have recently (within the last two years) started working in the field "trainees" (n = 38), and trainers (n = 61) with responsibility for clinical and educational supervision of new trainees, were surveyed by questionnaire to gather their perceptions of how the relevant GMC standards are being met in initial on-the-job training. Telephone interviews were performed with eleven doctors working as clinical or medical directors to determine their views. It is clear that currently the quality of training in CFM is sub-standard and inconsistent and that the published standards, as to the minimum requirement for training that must be met by post-graduate medical and training providers at all levels, are not being met. The Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine (FFLM) needs to set explicit minimum standards which will comply with the regulator and work to pilot credentialing for forensic physicians. A number of recommendations are made for urgent FFLM development.

  12. From the Margins to the Spotlight: Diverse Deaf and Hard of Hearing Student Populations and Standardized Assessment Accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthon, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Designing assessments and tests is one of the more challenging aspects of creating an accessible learning environment for students who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH), particularly for deaf students with a disability (DWD). Standardized assessments are a key mechanism by which the educational system in the United States measures student progress, teacher effectiveness, and the impact of school reform. The diversity of student characteristics within DHH and DWD populations is only now becoming visible in the research literature relating to standardized assessments and their use in large-scale accountability reforms. The purpose of this article is to explore the theoretical frameworks surrounding assessment policy and practice, current research related to standardized assessment and students who are DHH and DWD, and potential implications for practice within both the assessment and instruction contexts. PMID:26497076

  13. Standardization of Administered Activities in Pediatric Nuclear Medicine: A Report of the First Nuclear Medicine Global Initiative Project, Part 2-Current Standards and the Path Toward Global Standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Frederic H; Bom, Henry Hee-Seung; Chiti, Arturo; Choi, Yun Young; Huang, Gang; Lassmann, Michael; Laurin, Norman; Mut, Fernando; Nuñez-Miller, Rodolfo; O'Keeffe, Darin; Pradhan, Prasanta; Scott, Andrew M; Song, Shaoli; Soni, Nischal; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Vargas, Luis

    2016-07-01

    The Nuclear Medicine Global Initiative (NMGI) was formed in 2012 and consists of 13 international organizations with direct involvement in nuclear medicine. The underlying objectives of the NMGI are to promote human health by advancing the field of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, encourage global collaboration in education, and harmonize procedure guidelines and other policies that ultimately lead to improvements in quality and safety in the field throughout the world. For its first project, the NMGI decided to consider the issues involved in the standardization of administered activities in pediatric nuclear medicine. It was decided to divide the final report of this project into 2 parts. Part 1 was published in this journal in the spring of 2015. This article presents part 2 of the final report. It discusses current standards for administered activities in children and adolescents that have been developed by various professional organizations. It also presents an evaluation of the current practice of pediatric nuclear medicine specifically with regard to administered activities as determined by an international survey of 313 nuclear medicine clinics and centers from 29 countries. Lastly, it provides recommendations for a path toward global standardization of the administration of radiopharmaceuticals in children. PMID:27033894

  14. Current nuclear employees with psychological difficulties: prevalence, assessment, and disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although industry standards and federal regulations require employees of nuclear power plants to demonstrate psychological stability and sound judgment before being initially granted unescorted access to the plant, it is obvious that emotional difficulties can develop subsequently. The development of emotional problems in current plant employees raises concerns about the safety of the public and the plant, the effectiveness of the organizations, the loss of important technical skills and experience, and the human cost to the employee and his/her family. This paper reports the experience of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in cases of reconsideration of psychological clearance of unescorted access, i.e., the review of psychological clearances of nuclear plant employees who have developed psychological difficulties

  15. Competitive assessments of pulmonary embolism: Noninvasiveness versus the golden standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuxia; Yan, Shi; Zhou, Lin; Yuan, Dong-Tang

    2016-04-01

    Diagnosis of suspected pulmonary embolism (PE) is crucial as undiagnosed and over-diagnosis can both lead to serious consequences. Contemporary diagnostic approach of PE is a sequential combination assessment beginning with clinical assessment, validated with D-dimer measurement and confirmed with pulmonary angiography or imaging. Since the invasive pulmonary angiography is risky and costly, imaging is a warranted tool in the diagnosis procedure. CT pulmonary angiography is a less-invasive method with general availability, studies provide favorable evidences for CT pulmonary angiography as a stand-alone test for excluding PE, and it has become the first choice of tests in emergency department for suspected PE in most centers. Ventilation/perfusion single-photon emission CT signifies a new era in nuclear medicine. It has excellent sensitivity and specificity, fast procedure, low radiation exposure, few complications and contradictions. Besides, MR angiography is another possible and promising approach for diagnosis of suspected PE with much safer contrast agents than CT and no ionizing radiation. With wide availability and less invasive effects, imaging becomes a firsthand tool to obtain optimal accuracy in the diagnosis work up in clinic nowadays. This review summarizes the current methods in diagnosing PE and the update of imaging assessments of the disease. PMID:26038123

  16. Standardization of tumor markers - priorities identified through external quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, Catharine

    2016-01-01

    Tumor markers are often heterogeneous substances that may be present in elevated concentrations in the serum of cancer patients. Typically measured by immunoassay, they contribute to clinical management, particularly in screening, case-finding, prognostic assessment, and post-treatment monitoring. Data both from external quality assessment (EQA) schemes and clinical studies demonstrate significant variation in tumor marker results obtained for the same specimen using different methods. Between-method between-laboratory coefficients of variation (CV) reported by EQA schemes generally reflect the complexity of the measurand, ranging from 25% for the complex mucinous cancer antigen 19-9 (CA19-9). Improving the standardization of tumor marker measurements is particularly important for three reasons. The primary use of tumor markers is in monitoring cancer patients over long periods of time. Clinical interpretation of trends may consequently be affected if results are obtained in different laboratories using different methods or if a laboratory has to change method. Differences in results may have major implications for adoption of area-wide decision cut-offs and make implementation of these difficult. Method-related differences also make it difficult to compare clinical studies. Improving comparability of tumor marker results requires broad international agreement about which molecular forms of the measurand have clinical utility, identifying and adopting pure molecular forms as calibrants, and defining antibody specificities for their optimal detection. These aims have been achieved to varying extents for the most frequently measured serum tumor markers as described in this paper. PMID:27542005

  17. Analysis of the Current Technical Issues on ASME Code and Standard for Nuclear Mechanical Design(2009)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the analysis on the current revision movement related to the mechanical design issues of the U.S ASME nuclear code and standard. ASME nuclear mechanical design in this report is composed of the nuclear material, primary system, secondary system and high temperature reactor. This report includes the countermeasures based on the ASME Code meeting for current issues of each major field. KAMC(ASME Mirror Committee) of this project is willing to reflect a standpoint of the domestic nuclear industry on ASME nuclear mechanical design and play a technical bridge role for the domestic nuclear industry in ASME Codes application

  18. American Dietetic Association's Standardized Nutrition Language: Project logic model and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Melinda; Myers, Esther; Charney, Pam; Escott-Stump, Sylvia

    2006-01-01

    Standardized terminology and digital sources of evidence are essential for evidence-based practice. Dieticians desire concise and consistent documentation of nutrition diagnoses, interventions and outcomes that will be fit for electronic health records. Building on more than 5 years of work to generate the Nutrition Care Process and Model as a road map to quality nutrition care and outcomes, and recognizing existing standardized languages serving other health professions, a task force of the American Dietetic Association (ADA) has begun to develop and disseminate standardized nutrition language. This paper will describe the group's working logic model, the Nutrition Care Process, and the current status of the nutrition language with comparisons to nursing process and terminology.

  19. Assessment of current criteria for dynamic stability of container vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanca, C.; Ancuta, C.; Acomi, N.; Andrei, C.

    2016-08-01

    Container vessels sailing through heavy weather are exposed to a significant variation of stability due to specific shape of the hull combined with the action of the waves. Even if the weather forecast is transmitted to vessels, the way of acting it is a matter of officers’ experience. The Maritime Safety Committee, under the International Maritime Organization, has approved the Guidance to the master for avoiding dangerous situations in adverse weather and sea conditions. Adverse weather conditions include wind induced waves or heavy swell. The development of dangerous phenomena such as surf-riding and broaching to, syncronious and parametric rollings is a result of a these adverse conditions which has to be encountered by the vessels. Understanding the dynamic stability of the vessel in the waves and ship's behaviour based on mathematical and physical rules is a difficult task, any effort in order to assess these components are salutary. To avoid excessive acceleration and forces which can damage the hull of the vessel, lashing and integrity of containers, course and speed may need to be changed for the vessel's motion in heavy seas. Specific software have been developed as aids for evaluating the response of the vessel in heavy seas according to parameters variations. The paper aims at assessing of current criteria for dynamic stability of a container vessel model ship in order to determine the ways for avoiding dangerous conditions. The results should be regarded as a supporting tool during the decision making process.

  20. Assessment of Nearshore Hazard due to Tsunami-Induced Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynett, P. J.; Ayca, A.; Borrero, J. C.; Eskijian, M.; Miller, K.; Wilson, R. I.

    2014-12-01

    The California Tsunami Program in cooperation with NOAA and FEMA has begun implementing a plan to increase tsunami hazard preparedness and mitigation in maritime communities (both ships and harbor infrastructure) through the development of in-harbor hazard maps, offshore safety zones for boater evacuation, and associated guidance for harbors and marinas before, during and following tsunamis. The hope is that the maritime guidance and associated education program will help save lives and reduce exposure of damage to boats and harbor infrastructure. Findings will be used to develop maps, guidance documents, and consistent policy recommendations for emergency managers and port authorities and provide information critical to real-time decisions required when responding to tsunami alert notifications. The initial goals of the study are to (1) evaluate the effectiveness and sensitivity of existing numerical models for assessing maritime tsunami hazards, (2) find a relationship between current speeds and expected damage levels, (3) evaluate California ports and harbors in terms of tsunami induced hazards by identifying regions that are prone to higher current speeds and damage and to identify regions of relatively lower impact that may be used for evacuation of maritime assets, and (4) determine 'safe depths' for evacuation of vessels from ports and harbors during a tsunami event. We will present details of a new initiative to evaluate the future likelihood of failure for different structural components of a harbor, leading to the identification of high priority areas for mitigation. This presentation will focus on the results from California ports and harbors across the State, and will include feedback we have received from discussions with local harbor masters and port authorities. To help promote accurate and consistent products, the authors are also working through the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program to organize a tsunami current model benchmark workshop.

  1. Current Climate Data Set Documentation Standards: Somewhere between Anagrams and Full Disclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleig, A. J.

    2008-12-01

    techniques are being developed that will simplify the creation of much of the provenance information but there are both cultural and infrastructure problems that discourage provision of complete documentation. It is time to reconsider what the standards for production and documentation of data sets should be. There is only a short window before the loss of knowledge about current data sets associated with human mortality becomes irreversible. .

  2. Assessing the standard Molybdenum projector augmented wave VASP potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, Ann E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Multi-Scale Science

    2014-07-01

    Density Functional Theory (DFT) based Equation of State (EOS) construction is a prominent part of Sandia’s capabilities to support engineering sciences. This capability is based on augmenting experimental data with information gained from computational investigations, especially in those parts of the phase space where experimental data is hard, dangerous, or expensive to obtain. A key part of the success of the Sandia approach is the fundamental science work supporting the computational capability. Not only does this work enhance the capability to perform highly accurate calculations but it also provides crucial insight into the limitations of the computational tools, providing high confidence in the results even where results cannot be, or have not yet been, validated by experimental data. This report concerns the key ingredient of projector augmented-wave (PAW) potentials for use in pseudo-potential computational codes. Using the tools discussed in SAND2012-7389 we assess the standard Vienna Ab-initio Simulation Package (VASP) PAWs for Molybdenum.

  3. Implementing the CAS Standards: The Implementation of the CAS Standards in Student Affairs as a Comprehensive Assessment Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Jesse A.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing use of the CAS standards as a comprehensive assessment approach in divisions of student affairs necessitates a more in-depth understanding of how the CAS standards are being implemented in these settings. In response to increasing calls for improvement, accountability and professionalism in student affairs (Bresciani, 2006; Cooper…

  4. Formative Assessment for the Common Core Literacy Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfee, Robert; Wilson, Kathleen M.; Flannery, Brian; Kapinus, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: As implementation of the Common Core Literacy Standards moves ahead, teachers, students, and schools are discovering that the standards demand a great deal of them in order to achieve the vision of college, career, and citizenship in the global-digital world outlined in the standards. To accomplish the goals and high…

  5. Including Alternative Resources in State Renewable Portfolio Standards: Current Design and Implementation Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Bird, L.

    2012-11-01

    Currently, 29 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have instituted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). An RPS sets a minimum threshold for how much renewable energy must be generated in a given year. Each state policy is unique, varying in percentage targets, timetables, and eligible resources. This paper examines state experience with implementing renewable portfolio standards that include energy efficiency, thermal resources, and non-renewable energy and explores compliance experience, costs, and how states evaluate, measure, and verify energy efficiency and convert thermal energy. It aims to gain insights from the experience of states for possible federal clean energy policy as well as to share experience and lessons for state RPS implementation.

  6. ASME nuclear codes and standards: Scope of coverage and current initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to address the broad scope of coverage of nuclear codes, standards and guides produced and administered by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). Background information is provided regarding the evolution of the present activities. Details are provided on current initiatives intended to permit ASME to meet the needs of a changing nuclear industry on a worldwide scale. During the early years of commercial nuclear power, ASME produced a code for the construction of nuclear vessels used in the reactor coolant pressure boundary, containment and auxiliary systems. In response to industry growth, ASME Code coverage soon broadened to include rules for construction of other nuclear components, and inservice inspection of nuclear reactor coolant systems. In the years following this, the scope of ASME nuclear codes, standards and guides has been broadened significantly to include air cleaning activities for nuclear power reactors, operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants, quality assurance programs, cranes for nuclear facilities, qualification of mechanical equipment, and concrete reactor vessels and containments. ASME focuses on globalization of its codes, standards and guides by encouraging and promoting their use in the international community and by actively seeking participation of international members on its technical and supervisory committees and in accreditation activities. Details are provided on current international representation. Initiatives are underway to separate the technical requirements from administrative and enforcement requirements, to convert to hard metric units, to provide for non-U. S. materials, and to provide for translations into non-English languages. ASME activity as an accredited ISO 9000 registrar for suppliers of mechanical equipment is described. Rules are being developed for construction of containment systems for nuclear spent fuel and high-level waste transport packagings. Intensive

  7. Recommendation for modifying current cytotoxicity testing standards for biodegradable magnesium-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiali; Witte, Frank; Xi, Tingfei; Zheng, Yufeng; Yang, Ke; Yang, Yuansheng; Zhao, Dewei; Meng, Jian; Li, Yangde; Li, Weirong; Chan, Kaiming; Qin, Ling

    2015-07-01

    As one of the most promising medical metal implants, magnesium (Mg) or its alloys have shown significant advantages over other candidates attributed to not only their excellent biodegradability and suitable mechanical properties but also their osteopromotive effects for bone applications. Prior to approval mandated by the governmental regulatory body, the access to the medical market for Mg-based implants requires a series of testing for assurance of their safety and efficacy via preclinical evaluations and clinical tests including phase 1 and 2 evaluations, and phase 3 of multi-center randomized double blind and placebo-controlled clinical trials. However, as the most widely used protocols for biosafety evaluation of medical devices, current ISO 10993 standards should be carefully reevaluated when directly applying them to predict potential health risks of degradable Mg based biomaterials via cytotoxicity tests due to the huge gap between in vitro and in vivo conditions. Therefore, instead of a direct adoption, modification of current ISO standards for in vitro cytotoxicity test is desirable and justified. The differences in sensitivities of cells to in vitro and in vivo Mg ions and the capability of in vivo circulation system to dilute local degradation products were fully considered to propose modification of current ISO standards. This paper recommended a minimal 6 times to a maximal 10 times dilution of extracts for in vitro cytotoxicity test specified in ISO 10993 part 5 for pure Mg developed as potential orthopedic implants based on literature review and our specifically designed in vitro and in vivo tests presented in the study. Our work may contribute to the progress of biodegradable metals involved translational work. PMID:25890098

  8. Implementing Standards-Based Assessment Effectively: Incorporating Discussion of Exemplars into Classroom Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Graham D.; Armstrong, Susan; Bromberger, Nikki

    2012-01-01

    Many universities are moving to greater use of standards-based assessment to support effective student learning. Implementing a standards-based approach includes involving academic staff in writing descriptions of standards for assessment tasks both to guide the marking process and clarify staff expectations for students. However, recent research…

  9. Two Models for Evaluating Alignment of State Standards and Assessments: Competing or Complementary Perspectives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Jill A.; Kasten, Sarah E.

    2013-01-01

    The release of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics and their adoption across the United States calls for careful attention to the alignment between mathematics standards and assessments. This study investigates 2 models that measure alignment between standards and assessments, the Surveys of Enacted Curriculum (SEC) and the Webb…

  10. Transformative Shifts in Art History Teaching: The Impact of Standards-Based Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormond, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This article examines pedagogical shifts in art history teaching that have developed as a response to the implementation of a standards-based assessment regime. The specific characteristics of art history standards-based assessment in the context of New Zealand secondary schools are explained to demonstrate how an exacting form of assessment has…

  11. Assessing the Quality of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Paul; Jackson, Kara

    2011-01-01

    The authors comment on Porter, McMaken, Hwang, and Yang's recent analysis of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics by critiquing their measures of the focus of the standards and the absence of an assessment of coherence. The authors then consider whether the standards are an improvement over most state mathematics standards by discussing…

  12. Impacts of China's Current Appliance Standards and LabelingProgram to 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridley, David; Aden, Nathaniel; Zhou, Nan; Lin, Jiang

    2007-03-03

    The report summarizes the history and nature of China sstandardsand labeling program in the Introduction in Section 1. Trends indomestic production, exports, penetration rates, unit energy consumptionand the history of S&L technical levels by product are discussed ingreat detail in Section 2. The national energy impactsanalysis found inSection 3 concludes that overall China s standards and labeling programsreduce total electricity consumption in 2020 by an annual 106 TWh, or 16percent of what would otherwise been expected in that year in the absenceof standards and labeling programs.In total, the report concludes thatthe S&L programs currently in place in China are expected to save acumulative 1143 TWh by 2020, or 9 percent of the cumulative consumptionof residential electricity to that year. In 2020 alone, annual savingsare expected to be equivalent to 11 percent of residential electricityuse. In average generation terms, this is equivalent to 27 1-GW coalfired plants that would have required around 75 million tonnes of coal tooperate.In comparison, savings from the US appliance standards programalone is expected to save 10 percent of residential electricityconsumption in 2020.

  13. Tying Together the Common Core of Standards, Instruction, and Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Vicki; Wong, Carina

    2010-01-01

    Clear, high standards will enable us to develop an education system that ensures that high school graduates are ready for college. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation has been working with other organizations to develop a Common Core of Standards. The partners working with the foundation are developing tools that will show teachers what is…

  14. On the Assessment Standardization for TCM Clinical Evidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yingying; Yang Jinsheng

    2008-01-01

    @@ Nowadays,the evidence-based medicine has been widely used for assessment of TCM.The assessment based on clinical evidence and the quality is the core of evidence-based medicine.However,the evidencerating methods adopted in the modern medical system are only applicable in a certain degree to the assessment of TCM clinicaI evidence.

  15. Assessing and treating cognitive impairment in schizophrenia: current and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Yuan; Tsai, Guochuan E; Lane, Hsien-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a serious neuropsychiatric disease characterized by positive symptoms, negative symptoms and cognitive impairment. Evidence have shown that cognitive impairment sustains in every clinical stage, may relate with the liability, may predict functional outcome in schizophrenia and could be the core symptom of schizophrenia. The treatment of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia could alleviate the burden of the illness and has become the subject of intensive research. In this review, we synthesize current advances of assessing strategies, pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. According to the registered records of ClinicalTrials.gov, the most widely studied strategies have aimed at modifying neurochemical mechanisms of dopamine metabolism, glutamate metabolism, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism, serotonin metabolism, acetylcholine metabolism, and oxytocin. Despite preclinical data for putative pro-cognitive drugs, their clinical benefits for schizophrenia patients have been limited. The small sample sizes and the short treatment duration could be related with the suboptimal results. Evidence supported the short-term benefits of cognitive remediation therapy on cognitive domains with small to moderate effects; however, the small sample sizes and the characteristics of subjects limited the generalization of the positive results and the long-term functional outcome is not clear. Combination therapy is promising, by integrating pro-cognitive agents and cognitive rehabilitation programs or combining two kinds of pro-cognitive agents via different mechanisms. Future studies should investigate the pro-cognitive drugs' long-term efficacy, rebound deterioration in psychosis/cognition following discontinuation, and related biomarkers of functional outcome.

  16. Variation in Students' Conceptions of Self-Assessment and Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Kiat Kelvin Tan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a phenomenographic study on the different ways that secondary students understood and utilized student self-assessment and how various ego types could affect the accuracy of self-assessment. The study sought to contribute to the growing literature which recognizes the critical role that students play in assessment processes, and in particular the different roles that they assume in student self-assessment. The results of the study provide insights into how different students experience self-assessment by articulating the variation in the perception and purposes of assessing one's own learning. This variation is depicted as a hierarchy of logically related students' conceptions of self-assessment.

  17. Assessing response to treatment of bone metastases from breast cancer: what should be the standard of care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, D K; Padhani, A R; Makris, A

    2015-06-01

    Bone is the most common site for breast cancer metastases, occurring in up to 70% of those with metastatic disease. In order to effectively manage these patients, it is essential to have consistent, reproducible and validated methods of assessing response to therapy. We present current clinical practice of imaging response assessment of bone metastases. We also review the biology of bone metastases and measures of response assessment including clinical assessment, tumour markers and imaging techniques; bone scans (BSs), computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and whole-body diffusion-weighted MRI (WB DW-MRI). The current standard of care of BSs and CT has significant limitations and are not routinely recommended for the purpose of response assessment in the bones. WB DW-MRI has the potential to address this unmet need and should be evaluated in clinical trials.

  18. Developing Performance Standards for Teacher Assessment by Policy Capturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaf, M.F. van der; Stokking, K.M.; Verloop, N.

    2003-01-01

    There is a need for assessment of teachers’ competencies fostered by a growing attention given to accountability and quality improvement. Important questions are how good the demonstrated competencies of teachers should be for a satisfying assessment and how the different competencies should be weig

  19. Clinical compliance of viewing conditions in radiology reporting environments against current guidelines and standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, S.; Rainford, L.; Butler, M. L.

    2014-03-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the importance of environmental conditions in the radiology reporting environment, with many indicating that incorrect parameters could lead to error and misinterpretation. Literature is available with recommendations as to the levels that should be achieved in clinical practice, but evidence of adherence to these guidelines in radiology reporting environments is absent. This study audited the reporting environments of four teleradiologist and eight hospital based radiology reporting areas. This audit aimed to quantify adherence to guidelines and identify differences in the locations with respect to layout and design, monitor distance and angle as well as the ambient factors of the reporting environments. In line with international recommendations, an audit tool was designed to enquire in relation to the layout and design of reporting environments, monitor angle and distances used by radiologists when reporting, as well as the ambient factors such as noise, light and temperature. The review of conditions were carried out by the same independent auditor for consistency. The results obtained were compared against international standards and current research. Each radiology environment was given an overall compliance score to establish whether or not their environments were in line with recommended guidelines. Poor compliance to international recommendations and standards among radiology reporting environments was identified. Teleradiology reporting environments demonstrated greater compliance than hospital environments. The findings of this study identified a need for greater awareness of environmental and perceptual issues in the clinical setting. Further work involving a larger number of clinical centres is recommended.

  20. Current Status and Challenges in Wind Energy Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Badger, Jake; Hahmann, Andrea N.;

    2014-01-01

    Here we discuss the status and challenges in the development of atlases for the assessment of the regional and global wind resources. The text more specifically describes a methodology that is under development at DTU Wind Energy in Denmark. As the wind assessment is based on mesoscale modelling,...

  1. Current Approaches to Assessment in Self-Access Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinders, Hayo; Lázaro, Noemí

    2007-01-01

    Assessment is generally seen as one of the key challenges in the field of self-access learning (Gardner & Miller, 1999; Champagne et al., 2001; Lai, 2001; Kinoshita Thomson, 1996). Many researchers and practitioners point to difficulties with assessing language gains in an environment in which variables cannot comprehensively be controlled…

  2. Assessment and E-Learning: Current Issues and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Neil; Sakui, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes different ways in which digital technology can be used for language learning. It then identifies some key trends connecting assessment and technology in language learning and higher education: the use of automated systems to enhance traditional assessment practices; the use of Web 2.0 tools to facilitate new assessment…

  3. Assessment of technologies to meet a low carbon fuel standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Sonia; Lutsey, Nicholas P; Parker, Nathan C

    2009-09-15

    California's low carbon fuel standard (LCFS) was designed to incentivize a diverse array of available strategies for reducing transportation greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It provides strong incentives for fuels with lower GHG emissions, while explicitly requiring a 10% reduction in California's transportation fuel GHG intensity by 2020. This paper investigates the potential for cost-effective GHG reductions from electrification and expanded use of biofuels. The analysis indicates that fuel providers could meetthe standard using a portfolio approach that employs both biofuels and electricity, which would reduce the risks and uncertainties associated with the progress of cellulosic and battery technologies, feedstock prices, land availability, and the sustainability of the various compliance approaches. Our analysis is based on the details of California's development of an LCFS; however, this research approach could be generalizable to a national U.S. standard and to similar programs in Europe and Canada. PMID:19806719

  4. Assessing children’s competence to consent in research by a standardized tool: a validity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hein Irma M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently over 50% of drugs prescribed to children have not been evaluated properly for use in their age group. One key reason why children have been excluded from clinical trials is that they are not considered able to exercise meaningful autonomy over the decision to participate. Dutch law states that competence to consent can be presumed present at the age of 12 and above; however, in pediatric practice children’s competence is not that clearly presented and the transition from assent to active consent is gradual. A gold standard for competence assessment in children does not exist. In this article we describe a study protocol on the development of a standardized tool for assessing competence to consent in research in children and adolescents. Methods/design In this study we modified the MacCAT-CR, the best evaluated competence assessment tool for adults, for use in children and adolescents. We will administer the tool prospectively to a cohort of pediatric patients from 6 to18 years during the selection stages of ongoing clinical trials. The outcomes of the MacCAT-CR interviews will be compared to a reference standard, established by the judgments of clinical investigators, and an expert panel consisting of child psychiatrists, child psychologists and medical ethicists. The reliability, criterion-related validity and reproducibility of the tool will be determined. As MacCAT-CR is a multi-item scale consisting of 13 items, power was justified at 130–190 subjects, providing a minimum of 10–15 observations per item. MacCAT-CR outcomes will be correlated with age, life experience, IQ, ethnicity, socio-economic status and competence judgment of the parent(s. It is anticipated that 160 participants will be recruited over 2 years to complete enrollment. Discussion A validity study on an assessment tool of competence to consent is strongly needed in research practice, particularly in the child and adolescent population. In

  5. Current concepts in the assessment and treatment of hepatic encephalopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cash, W J

    2012-02-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is defined as a metabolically induced, potentially reversible, functional disturbance of the brain that may occur in acute or chronic liver disease. Standardized nomenclature has been proposed but a standardized approach to the treatment, particularly of persistent, episodic and recurrent encephalopathy associated with liver cirrhosis has not been proposed. This review focuses on the pathogenesis and treatment of HE in patients with cirrhosis. The pathogenesis and treatment of hepatic encephalopathy in fulminant hepatic failure is quite different and is reviewed elsewhere.

  6. Alignment of World Language Standards and Assessments: A Multiple Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Carolyn Shemwell

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has examined world language classroom-based assessment practices as well as the impact of the Standards for Foreign Language Learning in the 21st Century (National Standards in Foreign Language Education Project, 1999) on practice. However, the extent to which K-12 teachers' assessment practices reflect national and state…

  7. Alignment of Standards, Assessment and Instruction: Implications for English Language Learners in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamud, Abdinur; Fleck, Dan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the process and development of English Language Proficiency (ELP) standards and assessment in Ohio and to discuss issues related to alignment. The article addresses the importance of alignment among standards, instruction, and assessment, as well as the effect of alignment on students' academic…

  8. Assessing the Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility Standards in Global Value Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter

    This paper considers the issue of corporate social responsibility (CSR) standard impact assessment in global value chains. CSR standards have proliferated in recent years, and several studies have attempted to assess their effects on local producers, workers, and the environment in developing...

  9. Assessement of Codes and Standards Applicable to a Hydrogen Production Plant Coupled to a Nuclear Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. J. Russell

    2006-06-01

    This is an assessment of codes and standards applicable to a hydrogen production plant to be coupled to a nuclear reactor. The result of the assessment is a list of codes and standards that are expected to be applicable to the plant during its design and construction.

  10. Training School Psychologists in Neuropsychological Assessment: Current Practices and Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynd, George W.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Results of a survey of directors of school psychology programs support the notion that training in neuropsychological screening and assessment techniques is appropriate in the preparation of specialists in the area of school psychology. (Author)

  11. Assessing cultural validity in standardized tests in stem education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassant, Lunes

    This quantitative ex post facto study examined how race and gender, as elements of culture, influence the development of common misconceptions among STEM students. Primary data came from a standardized test: the Digital Logic Concept Inventory (DLCI) developed by Drs. Geoffrey L. Herman, Michael C. Louis, and Craig Zilles from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The sample consisted of a cohort of 82 STEM students recruited from three universities in Northern Louisiana. Microsoft Excel and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) were used for data computation. Two key concepts, several sub concepts, and 19 misconceptions were tested through 11 items in the DLCI. Statistical analyses based on both the Classical Test Theory (Spearman, 1904) and the Item Response Theory (Lord, 1952) yielded similar results: some misconceptions in the DLCI can reliably be predicted by the Race or the Gender of the test taker. The research is significant because it has shown that some misconceptions in a STEM discipline attracted students with similar ethnic backgrounds differently; thus, leading to the existence of some cultural bias in the standardized test. Therefore the study encourages further research in cultural validity in standardized tests. With culturally valid tests, it will be possible to increase the effectiveness of targeted teaching and learning strategies for STEM students from diverse ethnic backgrounds. To some extent, this dissertation has contributed to understanding, better, the gap between high enrollment rates and low graduation rates among African American students and also among other minority students in STEM disciplines.

  12. Assessment of Switch Mode Current Sources for Current Fed LED Drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Tetervenoks, Olegs; Galkin, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    Today solid state lighting is one of the most rapidly growing industries. Unfortunately light-emitting diodes require additional electronics (ballasts, drivers) for proper operation with conventional energy sources. Therefore this paper summarizes the previous studies of LED luminous flux regulation techniques, as well as extends previous studies of current fed (CF) converters. Requirements for the switch mode constant current source are discussed in this paper. Two suitable circuits as well ...

  13. Self-Assessment in Librarianship: Current Practices and Future Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ania Dymarz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The authors of this qualitative study set out to investigate self-assessment practices within the library profession. The researchers conducted semi-structured interviews with a purposeful sample of nine librarians coming from a range of library settings and possessing a diversity of library experience. Interviews were then transcribed and coded in NVIVO to identify emergent themes. This paper details some of the results of that study, highlighting motivations, limitations, and strategies with regard to self-assessment. The findings present a summary of a range of approaches to the practice of assessment as reported by the interviewees. One area of possible growth for our profession, as highlighted by the findings, is in the development of peer networks as a support for the individual practice of self-assessment. While the results of this small case study cannot be generalized, the authors hope these preliminary findings can open up the conversation around self-assessment both for individual librarians and for those librarians and managers working to shape their workplace culture.

  14. Reactive Metabolites: Current and Emerging Risk and Hazard Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard A; Isin, Emre M; Ogese, Monday O; Mettetal, Jerome T; Williams, Dominic P

    2016-04-18

    Although idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions are rare, they are still a major concern to patient safety. Reactive metabolites are widely accepted as playing a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions. While there are today well established strategies for the risk assessment of stable metabolites within the pharmaceutical industry, there is still no consensus on reactive metabolite risk assessment strategies. This is due to the complexity of the mechanisms of these toxicities as well as the difficulty in identifying and quantifying short-lived reactive intermediates such as reactive metabolites. In this review, reactive metabolite risk and hazard assessment approaches are discussed, and their pros and cons highlighted. We also discuss the nature of idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions, using acetaminophen and nefazodone to exemplify the complexity of the underlying mechanisms of reactive metabolite mediated hepatotoxicity. One of the key gaps moving forward is our understanding of and ability to predict the contribution of immune activation in idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions. Sections are included on the clinical phenotypes of immune mediated idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions and on the present understanding of immune activation by reactive metabolites. The advances being made in microphysiological systems have a great potential to transform our ability to risk assess reactive metabolites, and an overview of the key components of these systems is presented. Finally, the potential impact of systems pharmacology approaches in reactive metabolite risk assessments is highlighted. PMID:26735163

  15. Imaging in syndrome complex diabetes mellitus. Current standards and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diabetes mellitus is a highly prevalent multisystemic disorder with numerous potential complications and substantial socioeconomic consequences. In many cases, the patient history, physical examination and laboratory tests are not sufficient for a comprehensive evaluation of complicating disorders. Imaging modalities, such as sonography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are of major significance in the evaluation of complicating disorders of diabetes according to current guidelines. Examples include assessment of coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, stroke and diabetic foot syndrome. Technical developments allow a substantial reduction in radiation dose and scan time in CT and MRI, respectively and could therefore justify a broader application in this patient population. In the future CT and MRI could also be used for the early detection of diabetic complications. Furthermore, they could also be used for risk stratification, e.g. measurement of hepatic fat content and evaluation of atherosclerosis in whole body MRI. Prior to widespread application of advanced imaging techniques in this patient population, improved outcomes with respect to survival, quality of life and cost-effectiveness need to be demonstrated. Diagnostic imaging modalities for the evaluation of the syndrome complex of diabetic disorders should be used according to the current guidelines but the use is predicted to increase given the high potential in this population. (orig.)

  16. Current status of assessment of fractional flow reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Yi-min; Grisana Grootenhuijs-Triyasut; Pieter A. Doevendans; Yolande Appelman

    2009-01-01

    @@ Coronary angiography presently remains the main method for the diagnosis and instruction of epicardial coronary disease. However, precise characterization of the significance for any given stenosis is limited by the inability to identify intermediate coronary lesions responsible for ischemia.1-3 In clinical practice, in addition to the assessment of the anatomical details of vessel narrowing, a more precise assessment of the impediment to coronary blood flow has become extremely important. At present, several physiological parameters have been introduced to improve discrimination in functional coronary lesion severity during cardiac catheterization.

  17. Revision of the Euratom basic safety standards directive-current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Commission is currently developing a revised Euratom Basic Safety Standards (BSS) Directive covering two major objectives: the consolidation of existing Euratom Radiation Protection legislation and the revision of the Euratom BSS. The consolidation will merge the following five Directives into one single Directive: the BSS Directive, the Medical Exposures Directive, the Public Information Directive, the Outside Workers Directive and the Directive on the Control of high-activity sealed radioactive sources and orphan sources. The revision of the Euratom BSS will take account of the latest recommendations by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and shall improve clarity of the requirements where appropriate. It is planned to introduce more binding requirements on natural radiation sources, on criteria for exemption and clearance, and on the cooperation between Member States for emergency planning and response. The provisions for regulatory control of planned exposure situations foresee a graded approach commensurate to the magnitude and likelihood of exposures from a practice. Finally, the new BSS shall take account of recent scientific developments. One additional goal is to achieve greater harmonisation between the Euratom BSS and the international BSS. While the requirements on the protection of workers, apprentices and students remain nearly unchanged, the revised BSS will clarify the roles and responsibilities of services and experts involved in technical and practical aspects of radiation protection, such as the occupational health services, the dosimetry services, the radiation protection expert and the medical physics expert. The requirements in the BSS on individual monitoring of category A workers remain unchanged, but the existing guidance on individual monitoring was revised and updated-the technical recommendations for monitoring individuals occupationally exposed to external radiation are published by the European

  18. The German Adaptation and Standardization of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Julia A; Engel, Rolf R

    2007-02-01

    We developed the German Adaptation of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) under careful consideration of current adaptation literature and guidelines. The adaptation process included the translation of the 344 items into German, a back translation into English as well as the testing of the language equivalence using a bilingual sample. We then standardized the final German version of the PAI for the German population. We compared the American and German norm and reliability data. The observed differences in PAI scale means did not exceed 5 T scores. Internal consistency reliability showed a similar pattern in both language versions, although the German alpha coefficients were on average slightly lower than the American ones. Factor structure was similar in both versions. We discuss expectations about the German PAI and possible problems for its practical usefulness for the German-speaking population.

  19. Assessment of Usability Benchmarks: Combining Standardized Scales with Specific Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Bettina Linek

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The usability of Web sites and online services is of rising importance. When creating a completely new Web site, qualitative data are adequate for identifying the most usability problems. However, changes of an existing Web site should be evaluated by a quantitative benchmarking process. The proposed paper describes the creation of a questionnaire that allows a quantitative usability benchmarking, i.e. a direct comparison of the different versions of a Web site and an orientation on general standards of usability. The questionnaire is also open for qualitative data. The methodology will be explained by the digital library services of the ZBW.

  20. Assessment of Offshore Wind System Design, Safety, and Operation Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirnivas, S.; Musial, W.; Bailey, B.; Filippelli, M.

    2014-01-01

    This report is a deliverable for a project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) entitled National Offshore Wind Energy Resource and Design Data Campaign -- Analysis and Collaboration (contract number DE-EE0005372; prime contractor -- AWS Truepower). The project objective is to supplement, facilitate, and enhance ongoing multiagency efforts to develop an integrated national offshore wind energy data network. The results of this initiative are intended to 1) produce a comprehensive definition of relevant met-ocean resource assets and needs and design standards, and 2) provide a basis for recommendations for meeting offshore wind energy industry data and design certification requirements.

  1. Current assessment and future potential of the international nuclear market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a study of the current and future situation of the international nuclear market. This paper highlights the projections as seen not only by Bechtel Power Corporation, but also by the international nuclear community. It covers in particular the electric power growth projection; the percentage of probable nuclear power generation; operating services for existing nuclear power plants; and the nuclear fuel cycle. (NEA)

  2. Improving Biomarker Development and Assessment: Standards for Study Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ziding FENG

    2009-01-01

    Background: The Early Detection Research Network (EDRN), NCI funded and investigator driven, has the mission to evaluate biomarkers for their clinical utilities in cancer risk prediction, diagnosis, early detection, and prognosis. Abundant cancer biomarkers reported in literature yet few are used in clinics. Therefore, the emphasis of the EDRN is biomarker validation. Although schema for a phased approach to development exists and guidelines are available for study reporting, a coherent and comprehensive set of guideline for a definitive biomarker validation study design have not been delineated.Methods: We proposed PROBE study design, Prospective specimen collec-tion and Retrospective Blinded Evaluation, for pivotal definitive evaluation of the accuracy of a classification biomarker. A detailed formulation of all aspects of the design is provided. Four tables itemize aspects that relate to (i) the Clinical Context; (ii) Performance Criteria; (iii) the Biomarker test; and (iv) Study power and termination. Alternative designs and strategies were contrasted to illustrate the merit of PROBE design.Results: The ideas are applied to studies of biomarkers the intended use of which is for disease diagnosis, screening, or prognosis. Two EDRN valida-tion studies (breast cancer and prostate cancer) were used as examples to elucidate PROBE design.Conclusion: Common biases that pervade the biomarker research literaturewould be eliminated if these rigorous standards were followed closely. We urge the adoption of the design as standard of practice for pivotal evaluation of the classification accuracy ofbiomarkers.

  3. Taper Preparation Variability Compared to Current Taper Standards Using Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Gergi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this study was to compare the taper variation in root canal preparations among Twisted Files and PathFiles-ProTaper .08 tapered rotary files to current standards. Methods. 60 root canals with severe angle of curvature (between 25∘ and 35∘ and short radius (<10 mm were selected. The canals were divided randomly into two groups of 30 each. After preparation with Twisted Files and PathFiles-ProTaper to size 25 taper .08, the diameter was measured using computed tomography (CT at 1, 3, and 16 mm. Canal taper preparation was calculated at the apical third and at the middle-cervical third. Results. Of the 2 file systems, both fell within the ±.05 taper variability. All preparations demonstrated variability when compared to the nominal taper .08. In the apical third, mean taper was significantly different between TF and PathFiles-ProTaper ( value < 0.0001; independent -test. Mean Taper was significantly higher with PathFile-ProTaper. In the middle-cervical third, mean Taper was significantly higher with TF ( value = 0.015; independent -test. Conclusion. Taper preparations of the investigated size 25 taper .08 were favorable but different from the nominal taper.

  4. The dark matter crisis: falsification of the current standard model of cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Kroupa, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    The current standard model of cosmology (SMoC) requires The Dual Dwarf Galaxy Theorem to be true. According to this theorem two types of dwarf galaxies must exist: primordial dark-matter (DM) dominated (type A) dwarf galaxies, and tidal-dwarf and ram-pressure-dwarf (type B) galaxies void of DM. In the model, type A dwarfs are distributed approximately spherically following the shape of the host galaxy DM halo, while type B dwarfs are typically correlated in phase-space. Type B dwarfs must exist in any cosmological theory in which galaxies interact. Only one type of dwarf galaxy is observed to exist on the baryonic Tully-Fisher plot and in the radius-mass plane. The Milky Way satellite system forms a vast phase-space-correlated structure that includes globular clusters and stellar and gaseous streams. Similar arguments apply to Andromeda. Other galaxies also have phase-space correlated satellite systems. Therefore, The Dual Galaxy Theorem is falsified by observation and dynamically relevant cold or warm DM on ...

  5. Standard guide for three methods of assessing buried steel tanks

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1998-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers procedures to be implemented prior to the application of cathodic protection for evaluating the suitability of a tank for upgrading by cathodic protection alone. 1.2 Three procedures are described and identified as Methods A, B, and C. 1.2.1 Method A—Noninvasive with primary emphasis on statistical and electrochemical analysis of external site environment corrosion data. 1.2.2 Method B—Invasive ultrasonic thickness testing with external corrosion evaluation. 1.2.3 Method C—Invasive permanently recorded visual inspection and evaluation including external corrosion assessment. 1.3 This guide presents the methodology and the procedures utilizing site and tank specific data for determining a tank's condition and the suitability for such tanks to be upgraded with cathodic protection. 1.4 The tank's condition shall be assessed using Method A, B, or C. Prior to assessing the tank, a preliminary site survey shall be performed pursuant to Section 8 and the tank shall be tightness test...

  6. 78 FR 36787 - Rechanneling the Current Cardiac Risk Paradigm: Arrhythmia Risk Assessment During Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Rechanneling the Current Cardiac Risk Paradigm: Arrhythmia... the Current Cardiac Risk Paradigm: Arrhythmia Risk Assessment During Drug Development Without...

  7. XBRL Standard for Financial Reporting in Croatia: Current State and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gostimir Dejan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Harmonization and standardization is becoming important among regulators and business community. XBRL has entered the global stage as a financial reporting standard. Its mission was to standardize the financial reporting, lower the reporting costs and make the reporting as transparent as possible.

  8. Current debates in urban theory: a critical assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Storper, Michael; Scott, Allen J.

    2016-01-01

    Urban studies today is marked by many active debates. In an earlier paper, we addressed some of these debates by proposing a foundational concept of urbanization and urban form as a way of identifying a common language for urban research. In the present paper we provide a brief recapitulation of that framework. We then use this preliminary material as background to a critique of three currently influential versions of urban analysis, namely, postcolonial urban theory, assemblage theoretic a...

  9. A Standardized Tool for Assessing the Quality of Classroom-Based Shared Reading: Systematic Assessment of Book Reading (SABR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentimonti, Jill M.; Zucker, Tricia A.; Justice, Laura M.; Petscher, Yaacov; Piasta, Shayne B.; Kaderavek, Joan N.

    2012-01-01

    Participation in shared-reading experiences is associated with children's language and literacy outcomes, yet few standardized assessments of shared-reading quality exist. The purpose of this study was to describe the psychometric characteristics of the Systematic Assessment of Book Reading (SABR), an observational tool designed to characterize…

  10. Qualitative Rockfall Hazard Assessment: A Comprehensive Review of Current Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, F.; Giacomini, A.; Thoeni, K.

    2016-07-01

    Rockfall phenomena represent a major hazard in mountainous areas because they can cause severe damage to infrastructure and buildings as well as serious injuries and fatalities. Rockfalls do not pose the same level of economic risk as large-scale landslides, yet they are responsible for a similar number of accidents and fatalities. Therefore, appropriate land-use planning is necessary to protect people, buildings and facilities from rockfall hazards. Over the last two decades, several methodologies have been proposed to assess rockfall hazards, identify potentially dangerous areas (i.e., rock cliffs with failure-prone blocks) and provide guidelines for choosing and installing the most appropriate mitigation measures. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the existing rockfall hazard assessment methodologies. In particular, the review focuses on qualitative methods that allow a rapid evaluation of a rockfall hazard without costly and time-consuming numerical simulations. The most commonly adopted methodologies in Europe and North America are described and critically analyzed to highlight their differences and similarities and to identify their primary advantages, limitations and fields of application.

  11. Independent donor ethical assessment: aiming to standardize donor advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Devasmita; Jotterand, Fabrice; Casenave, Gerald; Smith-Morris, Carolyn

    2014-06-01

    Living organ donation has become more common across the world. To ensure an informed consent process, given the complex issues involved with organ donation, independent donor advocacy is required. The choice of how donor advocacy is administered is left up to each transplant center. This article presents the experience and process of donor advocacy at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center administered by a multidisciplinary team consisting of physicians, surgeons, psychologists, medical ethicists and anthropologists, lawyers, a chaplain, a living kidney donor, and a kidney transplant recipient. To ensure that advocacy remains fair and consistent for all donors being considered, the donor advocacy team at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center developed the Independent Donor Ethical Assessment, a tool that may be useful to others in rendering donor advocacy. In addition, the tool may be modified as circumstances arise to improve donor advocacy and maintain uniformity in decision making. PMID:24919733

  12. Standardization and Assessment of Preformulation Parameters of Rasayana Tablet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah V. K.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rasayana tablet is a polyherbal preparation recommended as a tonic. It contains Amla, Gokhru and Galo in equal proportion. This preparation is generally marketed in the form of churna and tablet with several problems in weight hardness, disintegration time and friability. The present work is based on the Standardization of individual ingredients and formulation of Rasayana tablets with improved formulation parameters in order to compare it with the marketed formulation. Pharmacognostical parameters were also checked for individual crude drugs and marketed tablets like ash value, extractive value, loss on drying and powder microscopy. The preformulation parameters like bulk density, tap density, Carr’s index, Hausner’s ratio and angle of repose were also checked for laboratory granules. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique using sucrose (55 % solution and starch (20 % solution as binder. The designed formulations were evaluated for thickness, diameter, hardness, friability and disintegration time. The designed formulation was in conformity to the properties evaluated for the tablets and is discussed in detail.

  13. The renewables portfolio standard in Texas: An early assessment; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Texas has rapidly emerged as one of the leading wind power markets in the United States. This development can be largely traced to a well-designed and carefully implemented renewables portfolio standard (RPS). The RPS is a new policy mechanism that has received increasing attention as an attractive approach to support renewable power generation. Though replacing existing renewable energy policies with an as-of-yet largely untested approach in the RPS is risky, early experience from Texas suggests that an RPS can effectively spur renewables development and encourage competition among renewable energy producers. Initial RPS targets in Texas will be far exceeded by the end of 2001, with as much as 930 MW of wind slated for installation this year. RPS compliance costs appear negligible, with new wind projects reportedly contracted for under 3(US)/242/kWh, in part as a result of a 1.7(US)/242/kWh production tax credit, an outstanding wind resource, and an RPS that is sizable enough to drive project economies of scale. Obliged retail suppliers have been willing to enter into long-term contracts with renewable generators, reducing important risks for both the developer and the retail supplier. Finally, the country's first comprehensive renewable energy certificate program has been put into place to monitor and track RPS compliance

  14. Development of Proliferation Resistance Assessment Methodology based on International Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proliferation resistance is one of the requirement to be met in GEN IV and INPRO for next generation nuclear energy system. Internationally, the evaluation methodology on PR had been already initiated from 1980, but the systematic development was started at 2000s. In Korea, for the export of nuclear energy system and the increase of international credibility and transparence of domestic nuclear system and fuel cycle development, the independent development of PR evaluation methodology was started in 2007 as a nuclear long term R and D project and the development is being performed for the model of PR evaluation methodology. In 1st year, comparative study of GEN-IV/INPRO, PR indicator development, quantification of indicator and evaluation model development, analysis of technology system and international technology development trend had been performed. In 2nd and 3rd year, feasibility study of indicator, allowable limit of indicator, review of technical requirement of indicator, technical standard, design of evaluation model were done. The results of PR evaluation must be applied in the beginning of conceptual design of nuclear system. Through the technology development of PR evaluation methodology, the methodology will be applied in the regulatory requirement for authorization and permission to be developed

  15. Ocular motor assessment in concussion: Current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Rachel E; Balcer, Laura J; Galetta, Steven L; Rucker, Janet C

    2016-02-15

    Mild head injury such as concussions and subconcussive repetitive impact may lead to subtle changes in brain function and it is imperative to find sensitive and reliable tests to detect such changes. Tests involving the visual system, in particular eye movements, can incorporate higher cortical functioning and involve diffuse pathways in the brain, including many areas susceptible to head impact. With concussions, the clinical neuro-ophthalmic exam is important for detecting abnormalities in vergence, saccades, pursuit, and visual fixation. On the sidelines, the King-Devick test has been used as a visual performance measure that incorporates eye movements and increases the sensitivity in detecting possible concussions in conjunction with standard sideline tests of cognition, symptom checklists, and balance. Much promise lies in the eye movement laboratory to quantitate changes in saccades and pursuit with concussions using video-oculography. A combination of eye movement tasks coupled with neuroimaging techniques and other objective biomarkers may lead to a better understanding of the anatomical and physiological consequences of concussion and to better understand the natural history of this condition. PMID:26810521

  16. Comparative life cycle assessment of standard and green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz, Susana; Kennedy, Christopher; Bass, Brad; Pressnail, Kim

    2006-07-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is used to evaluate the benefits, primarily from reduced energy consumption, resulting from the addition of a green roof to an eight story residential building in Madrid. Building energy use is simulated and a bottom-up LCA is conducted assuming a 50 year building life. The key property of a green roof is its low solar absorptance, which causes lower surface temperature, thereby reducing the heat flux through the roof. Savings in annual energy use are just over 1%, but summer cooling load is reduced by over 6% and reductions in peak hour cooling load in the upper floors reach 25%. By replacing the common flat roof with a green roof, environmental impacts are reduced by between 1.0 and 5.3%. Similar reductions might be achieved by using a white roof with additional insulation for winter, but more substantial reductions are achieved if common use of green roofs leads to reductions in the urban heat island.

  17. Environmental assessment in support of proposed voluntary energy conservation standard for new residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, D.L.; Parker, G.B.; Callaway, J.W.; Marsh, S.J.; Roop, J.M.; Taylor, Z.T.

    1989-06-01

    The objective of this environmental assessment (EA) is to identify the potential environmental impacts that could result from the proposed voluntary residential standard (VOLRES) on private sector construction of new residential buildings. 49 refs., 15 tabs.

  18. Standardized Handwriting to Assess Bradykinesia, Micrographia and Tremor in Parkinson's Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Esther J.; Tolonen, Antti J.; Cluitmans, Luc; van Gils, Mark; Conway, Bernard A.; Zietsma, Rutger C.; Leenders, Klaus L.; Maurits, Natasha M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether standardized handwriting can provide quantitative measures to distinguish patients diagnosed with Parkinson's disease from age- and gender-matched healthy control participants. Design: Exploratory study. Pen tip trajectories were recorded during circle, spiral and line d

  19. Predicting the efficacy of trastuzumab-based therapy in breast cancer: current standards and future strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Christian F; Köstler, Wolfgang J; Hudelist, Gernot

    2008-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most common female malignancy in many industrialized countries. Approximately one fourth of all women diagnosed with early breast cancer present with tumors that are characterized by erbB2 amplification. While the associated Her-2/neu receptor overexpression results in a high risk of relapse and poor prognosis, these tumors also represent a target for a selective monoclonal antibody therapy with trastuzumab (Herceptin). The combination of trastuzumab with chemotherapy has led to a considerable reduction of recurrences and to a significant reduction in breast cancer mortality both in the adjuvant and metastatic setting. Unfortunately, despite Her-2/neu overexpression, not all patients equally benefit from trastuzumab treatment, and almost all women with metastatic breast cancer eventually progress during antibody therapy. Moreover, trastuzumab is burdened with cardiotoxicity, thus increasing the risk of symptomatic congestive heart failure. In addition, the marginal costs for a 1 year therapy of trastuzumab-based therapy, which is currently considered to be the most effective treatment regimen in the adjuvant setting, may amount for up to US$ 40.000. Testing for erbB2 oncogene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH), respectively, and staining for Her-2/neu receptor overexpression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) represent the current standard for determining patient eligibility for trastuzumab-based therapy. However, while the negative predictive value of these assays for predicting the absence of benefit from trastuzumab-based therapy is sufficiently high, their positive predictive value remains insufficient, i.e. only a proportion of patients selected by these tests substantially benefit from trastuzumab-containing regimen. Accordingly, over the last years a number of biomarkers have been evaluated in their potential to predict response to trastuzumab-based therapies. These include

  20. Current methodological issues in the economic assessment of personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annemans, Lieven; Redekop, Ken; Payne, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for methodological scrutiny in the economic assessment of personalized medicine. In this article, we present a list of 10 specific issues that we argue pose specific methodological challenges that require careful consideration when designing and conducting robust model-based economic evaluations in the context of personalized medicine. Key issues are related to the correct framing of the research question, interpretation of test results, data collection of medical management options after obtaining test results, and expressing the value of tests. The need to formulate the research question clearly and be explicit and specific about the technology being evaluated is essential because various test kits can have the same purpose and yet differ in predictive value, costs, and relevance to practice and patient populations. The correct reporting of sensitivity/specificity, and especially the false negatives and false positives (which are population dependent), of the investigated tests is also considered as a key element. This requires additional structural complexity to establish the relationship between the test result and the consecutive treatment changes and outcomes. This process involves translating the test characteristics into clinical utility, and therefore outlining the clinical and economic consequences of true and false positives and true and false negatives. Information on treatment patterns and on their costs and outcomes, however, is often lacking, especially for false-positive and false-negative test results. The analysis can even become very complex if different tests are combined or sequentially used. This potential complexity can be handled by explicitly showing how these tests are going to be used in practice and then working with the combined sensitivities and specificities of the tests. Each of these issues leads to a higher degree of uncertainty in economic models designed to assess the added value of personalized medicine compared

  1. Safety and efficacy assessment of standardized herbal formula PM012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohn Sung-Hwa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the herbal formula PM012 on an Alzheimer's disease model, human presenilin 2 mutant transgenic mice (hPS2m, and also to evaluate the toxicity of PM012 in Sprague-Dawely rats after 4 or 26 weeks treatment with repeated oral administration. Methods Spatial learning and memory capacities of hPS2m transgenic mice were evaluated using the Morris Water Maze. Simultaneously, PM012 was repeatedly administered orally to male and female SD rats (15/sex/group at doses of 0 (vehicle control, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg/day for 4 or 26 weeks. To evaluate the recovery potential, 5 animals of each sex were assigned to vehicle control and 2,000 mg/kg/day groups during the 4-week recovery period. Results The results showed that PM012-treated hPS2m transgenic mice showed significantly reduced escape latency when compared with the hPS2m transgenic mice. The repeated oral administration of PM012 over 26 weeks in male and female rats induced an increase and increasing trend in thymus weight in the female treatment groups (main and recovery groups, but the change was judged to be toxicologically insignificant. In addition, the oral administration of the herbal medicine PM012 did not cause adverse effects as assessed by clinical signs, mortality, body weight, food and water consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, blood clotting time, organ weights and histopathology. The No Observed Adverse Effects Levels of PM012 was determined to be 2,000 mg/kg/day for both sexes, and the target organ was not identified. Conclusion These results suggest that PM012 has potential for use in the treatment of the Alzheimer's disease without serious adverse effects.

  2. Research on the Weight of Index for the Assessment Standard for Green Store Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhao; Jian Kang; Hong Jin

    2014-01-01

    Assessment standard for green store building of national standard has been compiled. The index has been given by experts’ subjective assignment based on experience. Analytic hierarchy process has been used, making questionnaires of experts, using pairwise comparison and calculating the weight of each index. The weight of index in assessment would not only make quantitative evaluation on the whole situation of green store buildings, but also provide the foundation for compilation and revision.

  3. Assessment of the current status of basic nuclear data compilations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Panel on Basic Nuclear Data Compilations believes that it is of paramount importance to achieve as short a cycle time as is reasonably possible in the evaluation and publication of the A-chains. The panel, therefore, has concentrated its efforts on identifying those factors that have tended to increase the cycle time and on finding ways to remove the obstacles. An important step was made during the past year to address reduction of the size of the published evaluations - another factor that can reduce cycle time. The Nuclear Structure and Decay Data (NSDD) network adopted new format guidelines, which generated a 30% reduction by eliminating redundancy and/or duplication. A current problem appears to be the rate at which the A-chains are being evaluated, which, on the average, is only about one-half of what it could be. It is hoped that the situation will improve with an increase in the number of foreign centers and an increase in efficiency as more A-chains are recycled by the same evaluator who did the previous evaluation. Progress has been made in the area of on-line access to the nuclear data files in that a subcommittee report describing the requirements of an on-line system has been produced. 2 tabs

  4. Calculation of Initial Short-Circuit Currents in Medium Voltage Networks According to the Standard PN-EN 60909

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Księżyk; Tomasz Zdun

    2013-01-01

    Determining the short-circuit currents is usually conducted by network analyses. An important feature of this calculation is carried out according to the recommendations of the standard PN EN 60909. This paper describes the models of the basic elements of the network with the method of determining the impedance parameters including correction factors introduced by the standard. Thevenin’s method connected with the nodal method are presented and used to determine the initial short-circuit f...

  5. INEE Minimum Standards: A Tool for Education Quality Assessment in Afghan Refugee Schools in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qahir, Katayon

    2007-01-01

    This article details a pilot Minimum Standards assessment in Afghan refugee schools supported by the International Rescue Committee's Female Education Program in the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan. A set of specifically selected, contextualized indicators, based on the global INEE Minimum Standards, served as a tool for teachers and…

  6. Interpretation of Standards with Bloom's Revised Taxonomy: A Comparison of Teachers and Assessment Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasstrom, Gunilla

    2009-01-01

    In education, standards have to be interpreted, for planning of teaching, for development of assessments and for alignment analysis. In most cases, it is important that there is an agreement between individuals and organizations about how to interpret standards. However, there is a lack of studies of how consistent different group of judges are…

  7. NODC Standard Product: Ocean current drifter data (2 disc set) (NODC Accession 0098060)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These CD-ROMs hold over 4 million surface current observations, almost all obtained by the ship drift method. Date, data source, position, and current direction and...

  8. Testing keywords internationally to define and apply undergraduate assessment standards in art and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Harland

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available What language should be featured in assessment standards for international students? Have universities adjusted their assessment methods sufficiently to match the increased demand for studying abroad? How might art and design benefit from a more stable definition of standards? These are some questions this paper seeks to address by reporting the results of recent pedagogic research at the School of the Arts, Loughborough University, in the United Kingdom. Language use is at the heart of this issue, yet it is generally overlooked as an essential tool that links assessment, feedback and action planning for international students. The paper reveals existing and new data that builds on research since 2009, aimed at improving students’ assessment literacy. Recommendations are offered to stimulate local and global discussion about keyword use for defining undergraduate assessment standards in art and design.

  9. Flexibility in formulating and processing SYNROC D: a current assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a recent series of papers, the authors have addressed the formulation, preparation, characterization and performance testing of SYNROC containing SRP defense wastes. They have also recently published a brief description of the SYNROC process flow sheets and a schematic layout of an associate processing facility. In this brief paper they summarize current data and discuss the implications of: (1) the flexibility of the SYNROC formulation to accommodate unanticipated changes in feed composition; and (2) recent reductions in complexity of the SYNROC process. In regard to formulation, it is important to realize that only four additives (TiO2, ZrO2, CaO and SiO2) are used in the preparation of SYNROC containing SRP defense waste. Further, they have found that components in the waste sludge feed can vary by as much as +- 50% in composition without affecting either the quantity of SYNROC additives needed or the quality of the final product. Their experience shows the SYNROC formulation to be very tolerant of wide variations in feed composition and thus very forgiving of feed stream upsets. The SNROC-D process, at the present state (2 years R and D) is less developed than the more mature (greater than 15 years R and D) borosilicate glass process. This is expected. SYNROC is a new waste form and nearly all research has been directed toward lab synthesis and testing of the product. However, over the past year, the authors have undertaken an engineering research effort that has reduced the number of major process unit operations from six to three and increased our production capacity 50 fold. The major advances have been in: (1) simplifying the mixing and blending of additives with waste; and (2) combining and simplifying drying, calcination and redox-control operations. We expect further significant reductions in the number, size and complexity of the SYNROC process steps as engineering R and D continues

  10. Algae biodiesel life cycle assessment using current commercial data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passell, Howard; Dhaliwal, Harnoor; Reno, Marissa; Wu, Ben; Ben Amotz, Ami; Ivry, Etai; Gay, Marcus; Czartoski, Tom; Laurin, Lise; Ayer, Nathan

    2013-11-15

    Autotrophic microalgae represent a potential feedstock for transportation fuels, but life cycle assessment (LCA) studies based on laboratory-scale or theoretical data have shown mixed results. We attempt to bridge the gap between laboratory-scale and larger scale biodiesel production by using cultivation and harvesting data from a commercial algae producer with ∼1000 m(2) production area (the base case), and compare that with a hypothetical scaled up facility of 101,000 m(2) (the future case). Extraction and separation data are from Solution Recovery Services, Inc. Conversion and combustion data are from the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Model (GREET). The LCA boundaries are defined as "pond-to-wheels". Environmental impacts are quantified as NER (energy in/energy out), global warming potential, photochemical oxidation potential, water depletion, particulate matter, and total NOx and SOx. The functional unit is 1 MJ of energy produced in a passenger car. Results for the base case and the future case show an NER of 33.4 and 1.37, respectively and GWP of 2.9 and 0.18 kg CO2-equivalent, respectively. In comparison, petroleum diesel and soy diesel show an NER of 0.18 and 0.80, respectively and GWP of 0.12 and 0.025, respectively. A critical feature in this work is the low algal productivity (3 g/m(2)/day) reported by the commercial producer, relative to the much higher productivities (20-30 g/m(2)/day) reported by other sources. Notable results include a sensitivity analysis showing that algae with an oil yield of 0.75 kg oil/kg dry biomass in the future case can bring the NER down to 0.64, more comparable with petroleum diesel and soy biodiesel. An important assumption in this work is that all processes are fully co-located and that no transport of intermediate or final products from processing stage to stage is required. PMID:23900083

  11. Current Approaches to the Assessment of Graphic Design in a Higher Education Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giloi, Susan; du Toit, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the current trends in assessment practice within the field of graphic design. The demands placed on educators to apply sound assessment practice for Higher Education subjects is as intense in the field of graphic design as in any other. Forcing the assessment of creative visual work into existing assessment…

  12. Comparability of developmental cognitive assessments between standard and computer testing methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Mandell; G.P. Sackett

    2009-01-01

    Substantial questions have been raised about the validity of using computer-based testing to assess cognitive development with young children. However, little work has been done to assess the comparability of performance elicited using computerized methods with performance garnered using standard te

  13. Standardized Testing for Outcome Assessment: Analysis of the Educational Testing Systems MBA Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    The use of standardized tests for outcome assessment has grown dramatically in recent years. Two driving factors have been the No Child Left Behind legislation, and the increase in outcome assessment measures by accrediting agencies such as AACSB, the international accrediting body for business schools. Despite the growth in usage, little effort…

  14. Validity and Fairness of State Standards-Based Assessments for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, John W.; Cho, Yeonsuk; Ling, Guangming; Cline, Fred; Steinberg, Jonathan; Stone, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    English language learners (ELLs) constitute one of the fastest growing subpopulations of students in the United States. It is important to determine whether the assessments used by states in determining students' proficiencies are valid and fair for ELLs. This study focused on several standards-based assessments in mathematics and science…

  15. Insiders and Outsiders: Teaching Standards, National Certification Assessment, and Professional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosky, Anthony

    1998-01-01

    Presents information on the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) and the Early Adolescence/English Language Arts (EA/ELA) assessment. Comments on "insiders and outsiders" as a guiding metaphor and on the differences in positioning of teachers as insiders to assessment development, administration, and evaluation and the…

  16. Unveiling Ceremony on Customer Satisfaction Assessment Center of Chine National Institute of Standardization Was Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ On May 12, the Customer Satisfaction Assessment Center of China National Institute of Standardization (CNIS), jointly set up by CNIS and Tsinghua University and specialized in conducting theoretical research on Customer Satisfaction and the related investigation and assessment work; was formally established in Beijing.

  17. Dietary Intakes and Eating Habits of College Athletes: Are Female College Athletes Following the Current Sports Nutrition Standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, Lenka H.; Betts, Nancy M.; Wollenberg, Gena

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess dietary intakes and eating habits of female college athletes and compared them with the minimum sports nutrition standards. Participants: Data were obtained from 52 female college athletes from a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I university between January 2009 and May…

  18. Historical Development of NATO Stanag 6001 Language Standards and Common European Framework (CEF) and the Comparison of Their Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solak, Ekrem

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the article is to shed light on the historical development of language studies in military and social context and to compare the current status of NATO Stanag (Standard Agreement) 6001 language scale with Common European Framework (CEF). Language studies in military context date back to World War II and the emergence of Army Specialized…

  19. 75 FR 22150 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for Federal Agencies Correction In notice... for ACM Medical Laboratory, Inc. and Advanced Toxicology Network were combined. The listings should...

  20. 我国乳品标准体系现状%Current Status of China s Dairy Product Standards System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    幸汐媛; 李江华

    2011-01-01

    近年来乳品安全事件频繁发生,本文通过介绍我国乳品标准体系的发展和乳品标准体系的特点,对我国现行的在奶畜养殖环节、生产加工环节和流通环节的乳品国家标准、行业标准进行相关阐述,分析我国乳品标准体系的现状。%Dairy safety incidents occur frequently in recent years.This article introduces the development and features of China s dairy product standards system,and summarizes and analyzes the current national and industrial standards for dairy products concerning cow breeding,production,processing,and circulation.Meanwhile,a review of the current status of China s dairy product standards system is provided.

  1. A Comprehensive Evaluation of Standardized Assessment Tools in the Diagnosis of Fibromyalgia and in the Assessment of Fibromyalgia Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad S. Boomershine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Standard assessments for fibromyalgia (FM diagnosis and core FM symptom domains are needed for biomarker development and treatment trials. Diagnostic and symptom assessments are reviewed and recommendations are made for standards. Recommendations for existing assessments include the American College of Rheumatology FM classification criteria using the manual tender point Survey for diagnosis, the brief pain inventory average pain visual analogue scale for pain intensity, the function subscale of the revised fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQR for physical function, the patient global impression of change and FIQR for overall/global improvement, the hospital anxiety and depression scale depression subscale for depression, the multiple ability self-report questionnaire for cognitive dysfunction, the fatigue severity scale for fatigue, the FIQR for multidimensional function/health-related quality of life, the jenkins sleep scale for sleep disturbance, and the fibromyalgia intensity score for tenderness. Forthcoming assessments including the FIQR for diagnosis, NIH PROMIS, and FIBRO Change scales are discussed.

  2. Application of Pulsed Eddy Current for Depth Measurement of Steam Generator's Wear scar tube standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The integrity of stem generator tube in nuclear power plant is the critical problem but the particular area on the stem generator tube could be worn away by inside impurities, fluid flow and vibration from the outside environment. At the present, the inspection of stem generator tube has been performed by using a conventional eddy current testing. Although the conventional eddy current testing is a powerful method to detect flaws of tube in online processing, it is difficult to measure the deep depth differences of the tube. Because eddy current density has changed its magnitude with distance from the surface. Whereas, the pulsed eddy current technique has been widely employed for deep depth inspection of structures such as plate, tubes. For more effective inspection, the pulsed eddy current system is enveloped to control a depth difference and submitted the multi-pointing method to select a criteria which could be obtained depth differences by the period of resistivity on the pulsed eddy current transient signals. In this paper, we used the pulsed eddy current technique to improve the capability of depth difference measurement and studied multi-pointing method to evaluate the thickness with variation of resistivity.

  3. Planning the Unplanned Experiment: Towards Assessing the Efficacy of Standards for Safety-Critical Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graydon, Patrick J.; Holloway, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Safe use of software in safety-critical applications requires well-founded means of determining whether software is fit for such use. While software in industries such as aviation has a good safety record, little is known about whether standards for software in safety-critical applications 'work' (or even what that means). It is often (implicitly) argued that software is fit for safety-critical use because it conforms to an appropriate standard. Without knowing whether a standard works, such reliance is an experiment; without carefully collecting assessment data, that experiment is unplanned. To help plan the experiment, we organized a workshop to develop practical ideas for assessing software safety standards. In this paper, we relate and elaborate on the workshop discussion, which revealed subtle but important study design considerations and practical barriers to collecting appropriate historical data and recruiting appropriate experimental subjects. We discuss assessing standards as written and as applied, several candidate definitions for what it means for a standard to 'work,' and key assessment strategies and study techniques and the pros and cons of each. Finally, we conclude with thoughts about the kinds of research that will be required and how academia, industry, and regulators might collaborate to overcome the noted barriers.

  4. Current practices and challenges in the standardization and harmonization of clinical laboratory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesper, Hubert W; Myers, Gary L; Miller, W Greg

    2016-09-01

    Effective patient care, clinical research, and public health efforts require comparability of laboratory results independent of time, place, and measurement procedure. Comparability is achieved by establishing metrological traceability, which ensures that measurement procedures measure the same quantity and that the calibration of measurement procedures is traceable to a common reference system consisting of reference methods and materials. Whereas standardization ensures traceability to the International System of Units, harmonization ensures traceability to a reference system agreed on by convention. This article provides an overview of standardization and harmonization with an emphasis on commutability as an important variable that affects testing accuracy. Commutability of reference materials is required to ensure that traceability is established appropriately and that laboratory results are comparable. The use of noncommutable reference materials leads to inaccurate results. Whereas procedures and protocols for standardizing measurements are established and have been successfully applied in efforts such as the Hormones Standardization Program of the CDC, harmonization activities require new, more complex procedures and approaches. The American Association for Clinical Chemistry, together with its domestic and international partners, formed the International Consortium for Harmonization of Clinical Laboratory Results to coordinate harmonization efforts. Reference systems, as well as procedures and protocols to establish traceability of clinical laboratory tests, have been established and continue to be developed by national and international groups and organizations. Serum tests of thyroid function, including those for the thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine, are among the clinical procedures for which standardization efforts are well under way. Approaches to the harmonization of measurement procedures for serum concentrations of thyroid

  5. 76 FR 38399 - Assessing the Current Research, Policy, and Practice Environment in Public Health Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... Practice Environment in Public Health Genomics AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC..., and other information helpful to assess the current research, policy, and practice environment in... systematic process for evaluating genetic tests, translating genomics into public health research...

  6. A High-Resolution, Wave and Current Resource Assessment of Japan: The Web GIS Dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Adrean; Waseda, Takuji; Fujimoto, Wataru; Horiuchi, Kazutoshi; Kiyomatsu, Keiji; Matsuda, Kazuhiro; Miyazawa, Yasumasa; Varlamov, Sergey; Yoshikawa, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The University of Tokyo and JAMSTEC have conducted state-of-the-art wave and current resource assessments to assist with generator site identification and construction in Japan. These assessments are publicly-available and accessible via a web GIS service designed by WebBrain that utilizes TDS and GeoServer software with Leaflet libraries. The web GIS dataset contains statistical analyses of wave power, ocean and tidal current power, ocean temperature power, and other basic physical variables...

  7. Current status of nuclear cardiology in Japan: Ongoing efforts to improve clinical standards and to establish evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Tamaki, Nagara

    2015-08-01

    Nuclear cardiology imaging tests are widely performed in Japan as clinical practice. The Japanese nuclear cardiology community has developed new diagnostic imaging tests using (123)I-beta-methyl-p-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid, (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine, and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET for detecting cardiac involvement in sarcoidosis. These tests have become popular worldwide. The Japanese Circulation Society and the Japanese Society of Nuclear Cardiology have published clinical imaging guidelines showing indications and standards for the new imaging tests. JSNC is currently striving to improve the standard of clinical practice and is promoting research activities.

  8. Calculation of Initial Short-Circuit Currents in Medium Voltage Networks According to the Standard PN-EN 60909

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Księżyk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Determining the short-circuit currents is usually conducted by network analyses. An important feature of this calculation is carried out according to the recommendations of the standard PN EN 60909. This paper describes the models of the basic elements of the network with the method of determining the impedance parameters including correction factors introduced by the standard. Thevenin’s method connected with the nodal method are presented and used to determine the initial short-circuit for the example medium voltage network. Results are compared with the ones obtained without taking into account the correction factors.

  9. Current considerations related to physiological differences between the sexes and physical employment standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Delia; Gebhardt, Deborah L; Gaskill, Steven E; Roy, Tanja C; Sharp, Marilyn A

    2016-06-01

    The use of physical employment standards (PES) has helped ensure that workers have the physical attributes necessary to complete their jobs in a safe and efficient manner. However, PES used in the selection processes have not always reflected the critical physical requirements of the job tasks. Women generally have smaller anthropometric stature than men, less muscle mass, and therefore less strength, power, and endurance, particularly in the upper body. Nonetheless, these attributes in themselves are not valid grounds for exclusion from employment in physically demanding occupations. Selection standards based upon size or strength, irrespective of the job requirements, have resulted in the barring of capable women from physically demanding jobs, claims of gender bias, and costly litigations. To ensure all individuals are provided with equal access to employment, accurate characterization of the critical physical requirements of the job is paramount. This paper summarizes the existing research related to disparities between the sexes that contribute to sex differences in job performance in physically demanding occupations including physical and legal factors. Strategies for mitigating these differences in the setting of PES and the meeting of minimum employment standards are discussed. Where available, injury rates for women and men in physically demanding occupations are presented and the etiology considered. Finally, areas for further research are identified. PMID:27277561

  10. DIFFERENCES IN MANAGER ASSESSMENTS OF ISO 14000 STANDARD IMPLEMENTATION IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Sıtkı Gözlü; Bersam Bolat

    2005-01-01

    This study reports the results of a survey about the improvements achieved as result of ISO 14000 Environmental Management System (EMS) standard implementation and the differences of improvements with respect to firm characteristics. A survey has been conducted in order to explain the improvements related to environmental management process and overall firm performance. The survey involved sixty-six enterprises implementing ISO 14000 EMS standard in Turkey. In order to assess improvements obt...

  11. Re-Assessing the Current Assessment Practice of Children with Special Education Needs in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeer, Jo; Birta-Szekely, Noemi; Demeter, Karmen; Bohacs, Krisztina; Candeias, Adelinda Araujo; Sonnesyn, Gunvor; Partanen, Petri; Dawson, Lorna

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the results of the European "DAFFODIL" ("D"ynamic "A"ssessment of "F"unctioning and "O"riented at "D"evelopment and "I"nclusive "L"earning) Project on the question of how functional and learning assessment systems facilitate or inhibit participation of children with developmental difficulties in inclusive education.…

  12. Current issues with standards in the measurement and documentation of human skeletal anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Justin; McClelland, Brian; Winder, John

    2012-09-01

    Digital modeling of human anatomy has become increasingly important and relies on well-documented quantitative anatomy literature. This type of documentation is common for the spine and pelvis; however, significant issues exist due to the lack of standardization in measurement and technique. Existing literature on quantitative anatomy for the spine and pelvis of white adults (aged 18-65 years, separated into decadal categories) was reviewed from the disciplines of anatomy, manipulative therapy, anthropometrics, occupational ergonomics, biomechanics and forensic science. The data were unified into a single normative model of the sub-axial spine. Two-dimensional orthographic drawings were produced from the 590 individual measurements identified, which informed the development of a 3D digital model. A similar review of full range of motion data was conducted as a meta-analysis and the results were applied to the existing model, providing an inter-connected, articulated digital spine. During these data analysis processes several inconsistencies were observed accompanied by an evidential lack of standardization with measurement and recording of data. These have been categorized as: anatomical terminology; scaling of measurements; measurement methodology, dimension and anatomical reference positions; global coordinate systems. There is inconsistency in anatomical terminology where independent researchers use the same terms to describe different aspects of anatomy or different terms for the same anatomy. Published standards exist for measurement methods of the human body regarding spatial interaction, anthropometric databases, automotive applications, clothing industries and for computer manikins, but none exists for skeletal anatomy. Presentation of measurements often lacks formal structure in clinical publications, seldom providing geometric reference points, therefore making digital reconstruction difficult. Published quantitative data does not follow existing

  13. Integrity assessment of research reactor fuel cladding and material testing using eddy current inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology to perform the integrity assessment of research reactors nuclear fuels cladding, such as those installed in IPR-Rl (TRIGA) and IEA-R1 (MTR), using nondestructive electromagnetic inspection (eddy current) is presented. This methodology is constituted by: the development of calibration reference standards, specific for each type of fuel; the development of special test probes; the recommendations for the inspection equipment calibration; the construction of voltage based evaluation curves and the inspection procedures developed for the characterization of detected flaws. The test probes development, specially those designed for the inspection of MTR fuels cladding, which present access difficulties due to the narrow gap between fuel plates (2,89 mm for IEAR-R1), constituted a challenge that demanded the introduction of unusual materials and constructive techniques. The operational performance of the developed resources, as well as the special operative characteristics of the test probes, such as their immunity to adjacent fuel plates interference and electrical resistivity changes of the fuels meat are experimentally demonstrated. The practical applicability of the developed methodology is verified in non radioactive environment, using a dummy MTR fuel element model, similar to an IEA-R1 reactor fuel element, produced and installed in IPEN, Sao Paulo. The efficacy of the proposed methodology was verified by the achieved results. (author)

  14. Assessing Quality of Data Standards: Framework and Illustration Using XBRL GAAP Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongwei; Wu, Harris

    The primary purpose of data standards or metadata schemas is to improve the interoperability of data created by multiple standard users. Given the high cost of developing data standards, it is desirable to assess the quality of data standards. We develop a set of metrics and a framework for assessing data standard quality. The metrics include completeness and relevancy. Standard quality can also be indirectly measured by assessing interoperability of data instances. We evaluate the framework using data from the financial sector: the XBRL (eXtensible Business Reporting Language) GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles) taxonomy and US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) filings produced using the taxonomy by approximately 500 companies. The results show that the framework is useful and effective. Our analysis also reveals quality issues of the GAAP taxonomy and provides useful feedback to taxonomy users. The SEC has mandated that all publicly listed companies must submit their filings using XBRL. Our findings are timely and have practical implications that will ultimately help improve the quality of financial data.

  15. Comparison of advanced optical imaging techniques with current otolaryngology diagnostics for improved middle ear assessment (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Ryan M.; Shelton, Ryan L.; Monroy, Guillermo L.; Spillman, Darold R.; Novak, Michael A.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2016-02-01

    Otolaryngologists utilize a variety of diagnostic techniques to assess middle ear health. Tympanometry, audiometry, and otoacoustic emissions examine the mobility of the tympanic membrane (eardrum) and ossicles using ear canal pressure and auditory tone delivery and detection. Laser Doppler vibrometry provides non-contact vibrational measurement, and acoustic reflectometry is used to assess middle ear effusion using sonar. These technologies and techniques have advanced the field beyond the use of the standard otoscope, a simple tissue magnifier, yet the need for direct visualization of middle ear disease for superior detection, assessment, and management remains. In this study, we evaluated the use of portable optical coherence tomography (OCT) and pneumatic low-coherence interferometry (LCI) systems with handheld probe delivery to standard tympanometry, audiometry, otoacoustic emissions, laser Doppler vibrometry, and acoustic reflectometry. Comparison of these advanced optical imaging techniques and current diagnostics was conducted with a case study subject with a history of unilateral eardrum trauma. OCT and pneumatic LCI provide novel dynamic spatiotemporal structural data of the middle ear, such as the thickness of the eardrum and quantitative detection of underlying disease pathology, which could allow for more accurate diagnosis and more appropriate management than currently possible.

  16. Current approaches for assessing insulin sensitivity and resistance in vivo: advantages, limitations, and appropriate usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniyappa, Ranganath; Lee, Sihoon; Chen, Hui; Quon, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    Insulin resistance contributes to the pathophysiology of diabetes and is a hallmark of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and many cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, quantifying insulin sensitivity/resistance in humans and animal models is of great importance for epidemiological studies, clinical and basic science investigations, and eventual use in clinical practice. Direct and indirect methods of varying complexity are currently employed for these purposes. Some methods rely on steady-state analysis of glucose and insulin, whereas others rely on dynamic testing. Each of these methods has distinct advantages and limitations. Thus, optimal choice and employment of a specific method depends on the nature of the studies being performed. Established direct methods for measuring insulin sensitivity in vivo are relatively complex. The hyperinsulinemic euglycemic glucose clamp and the insulin suppression test directly assess insulin-mediated glucose utilization under steady-state conditions that are both labor and time intensive. A slightly less complex indirect method relies on minimal model analysis of a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. Finally, simple surrogate indexes for insulin sensitivity/resistance are available (e.g., QUICKI, HOMA, 1/insulin, Matusda index) that are derived from blood insulin and glucose concentrations under fasting conditions (steady state) or after an oral glucose load (dynamic). In particular, the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) has been validated extensively against the reference standard glucose clamp method. QUICKI is a simple, robust, accurate, reproducible method that appropriately predicts changes in insulin sensitivity after therapeutic interventions as well as the onset of diabetes. In this Frontiers article, we highlight merits, limitations, and appropriate use of current in vivo measures of insulin sensitivity/resistance. PMID:17957034

  17. Audiovisual quality assessment in communications applications: Current status, trends and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari

    2010-01-01

    Audiovisual quality assessment is one of the major challenges in multimedia communications. Traditionally, algorithm-based (objective) assessment methods have focused primarily on the compression artifacts. However, compression is only one of the numerous factors influencing the perception...... addressed in practical quality metrics is the co-impact of audio and video qualities. This paper provides an overview of the current trends and challenges in objective audiovisual quality assessment, with emphasis on communication applications...

  18. Mannequin or standardized patient: participants' assessment of two training modalities in trauma team simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Wisborg Torben; Brattebø Guttorm; Brinchmann-Hansen Åse; Hansen Kari

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Trauma team training using simulation has become an educational compensation for a low number of severe trauma patients in 49 of Norway's 50 trauma hospitals for the last 12 years. The hospitals' own simple mannequins have been employed, to enable training without being dependent on expensive and advanced simulators. We wanted to assess the participants' assessment of using a standardized patient instead of a mannequin. Methods Trauma teams in five hospitals were randomly ...

  19. Scientific Assessment Activities Conducted by Food Safety Agencies to Support Domestic and International Standards Development

    OpenAIRE

    Saunier, Rozenn

    2014-01-01

    Scientific risk assessment is fundamental to the development of national and international food safety standards which are based upon the outcomes of a formal risk analysis process. In France, for example, scientific risk analysis is achieved through a two-step process. At the outset, the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES) uses its competencies in risk assessment, research, monitoring and reference to provide scientific opi...

  20. Prehospital therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest - from current concepts to a future standard

    OpenAIRE

    Hoppu Sanna; Kämäräinen Antti; Silfvast Tom; Virkkunen Ilkka

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Therapeutic hypothermia has been shown to improve survival and neurological outcome after prehospital cardiac arrest. Existing experimental and clinical evidence supports the notion that delayed cooling results in lesser benefit compared to early induction of mild hypothermia soon after return of spontaneous circulation. Therefore a practical approach would be to initiate cooling already in the prehospital setting. The purpose of this review was to evaluate current clinical studies o...

  1. Assessing current and future impacts of climate-related extreme events. The case of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Hochrainer-Stigler, S.; Mechler, R.; Pflug, G.

    2010-01-01

    Extreme events and options for managing these risks are receiving increasing attention in research and policy. In order to cost these extremes, a standard approach is to use Integrated Assessment Models with global or regional resolution and represent risk using add-on damage functions that are based on observed impacts and contingent on gradual temperature increase. Such assessments generally find that economic development and population growth are likely to be the major drivers of natural d...

  2. Measuring Academic Language Proficiency in School-Age English Language Proficiency Assessments under New College and Career Readiness Standards in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Roger S.; Bailey, Alison L.; Starr, Laura; Perea, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The current focus across the U.S. on student college and career readiness standards makes clear that both instruction and assessment of academic English will continue to be important for school-age English learner (EL) students. This article presents an overview and summary of key literature on academic language (usually academic English);…

  3. Reconsidering the risk assessment concept: Standardizing the impact description as a building block for vulnerability assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hollenstein

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessments for natural hazards are becoming more widely used and accepted. Using an extended definition of risk, it becomes obvious that performant procedures for vulnerability assessments are vital for the success of the risk concept. However, there are large gaps in knowledge about vulnerability. To alleviate the situation, a conceptual extension of the scope of existing and new models is suggested. The basis of the suggested concept is a stadardization of the output of hazard assessments. This is achieved by defining states of the target objects that depend on the impact and at the same time affect the object's performance characteristics. The possible state variables can be related to a limited set of impact descriptors termed generic impact description interface. The concept suggests that both hazard and vulnerability assessment models are developed according to the specification of this interface, thus facilitating modularized risk assessments. Potential problems related to the application of the concept include acceptance issues and the lacking accuracy of transformation of outputs of existing models. Potential applications and simple examples for adapting existing models are briefly discussed.

  4. Effects of ionizing radiation on plants and animals at levels implied by current radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1977 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection stated that the commission believes that if man is adequately protected from radiation, other organisms are also likely to be sufficiently protected. The present report examines this statement by considering the effects of ionizing radiation on animals and plants in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The conclusions are that chronic dose rates of IMGy.d-1 or less are unlikely to cause measurable deleterious effects in terrestrial populations, and that in the aquatic environment limiting chronic dose rates to 10MGy.d-1 to the maximally exposed individuals would provide adequate protection for the population. Thus specific radiation protection standards for non-human organisms are not needed. 193 refs, 2 figs, 7 tabs

  5. Standardization of chemical analytical techniques for pyrolysis bio-oil: history, challenges, and current status of methods: Bio-oil Analytical Standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, Jack R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden CO USA; Olarte, Mariefel V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland WA USA; Christensen, Earl D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden CO USA; Padmaperuma, Asanga B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland WA USA; Connatser, Raynella M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge TN USA; Stankovikj, Filip [Washington State University (WSU), Pullman WA USA; Meier, Dietrich [Thünen Institute of Wood Research (TI), Hamburg Germany; Paasikallio, Ville [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd (VTT), Espoo Finland

    2016-07-05

    In this perspective, we discuss the standardization of analytical techniques for pyrolysis bio-oils, including the current status of methods, and our opinions on future directions. First, the history of past standardization efforts is summarized, and both successful and unsuccessful validation of analytical techniques highlighted. The majority of analytical standardization studies to-date has tested only physical characterization techniques. Here, we present results from an international round robin on the validation of chemical characterization techniques for bio-oils. Techniques tested included acid number, carbonyl titrations using two different methods (one at room temperature and one at 80 degrees C), 31P NMR for determination of hydroxyl groups, and a quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. Both carbonyl titration and acid number methods have yielded acceptable inter-laboratory variabilities. 31P NMR produced acceptable results for aliphatic and phenolic hydroxyl groups, but not for carboxylic hydroxyl groups. As shown in previous round robins, GC-MS results were more variable. Reliable chemical characterization of bio-oils will enable upgrading research and allow for detailed comparisons of bio-oils produced at different facilities. Reliable analytics are also needed to enable an emerging bioenergy industry, as processing facilities often have different analytical needs and capabilities than research facilities. We feel that correlations in reliable characterizations of bio-oils will help strike a balance between research and industry, and will ultimately help to determine metrics for bio-oil quality. Finally, the standardization of additional analytical methods is needed, particularly for upgraded bio-oils.

  6. Prehospital therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest--from current concepts to a future standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämäräinen, Antti; Hoppu, Sanna; Silfvast, Tom; Virkkunen, Ilkka

    2009-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia has been shown to improve survival and neurological outcome after prehospital cardiac arrest. Existing experimental and clinical evidence supports the notion that delayed cooling results in lesser benefit compared to early induction of mild hypothermia soon after return of spontaneous circulation. Therefore a practical approach would be to initiate cooling already in the prehospital setting. The purpose of this review was to evaluate current clinical studies on prehospital induction of mild hypothermia after cardiac arrest. Most reported studies present data on cooling rates, safety and feasibility of different methods, but are inconclusive as regarding to outcome effects. PMID:19821967

  7. Prehospital therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest - from current concepts to a future standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoppu Sanna

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Therapeutic hypothermia has been shown to improve survival and neurological outcome after prehospital cardiac arrest. Existing experimental and clinical evidence supports the notion that delayed cooling results in lesser benefit compared to early induction of mild hypothermia soon after return of spontaneous circulation. Therefore a practical approach would be to initiate cooling already in the prehospital setting. The purpose of this review was to evaluate current clinical studies on prehospital induction of mild hypothermia after cardiac arrest. Most reported studies present data on cooling rates, safety and feasibility of different methods, but are inconclusive as regarding to outcome effects.

  8. Prehospital therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest - from current concepts to a future standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämäräinen, Antti; Hoppu, Sanna; Silfvast, Tom; Virkkunen, Ilkka

    2009-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia has been shown to improve survival and neurological outcome after prehospital cardiac arrest. Existing experimental and clinical evidence supports the notion that delayed cooling results in lesser benefit compared to early induction of mild hypothermia soon after return of spontaneous circulation. Therefore a practical approach would be to initiate cooling already in the prehospital setting. The purpose of this review was to evaluate current clinical studies on prehospital induction of mild hypothermia after cardiac arrest. Most reported studies present data on cooling rates, safety and feasibility of different methods, but are inconclusive as regarding to outcome effects. PMID:19821967

  9. Study on Design and Implementation of JAVA Programming Procedural Assessment Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingting, Xu; Hua, Ma; Xiujuan, Wang; Jing, Wang

    2015-01-01

    The traditional JAVA course examination is just a list of questions from which we cannot know students' skills of programming. According to the eight abilities in curriculum objectives, we designed an assessment standard of JAVA programming course that is based on employment orientation and apply it to practical teaching to check the teaching…

  10. Local versus Standardized Content Assessment: Some Management Implications, or Why Bother?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lois J.; Clements, Christine; Olson, Janet E.

    2010-01-01

    In a quest to improve student learning and simultaneously to satisfy accrediting agencies, colleges make decisions about how to assess knowledge or content as students graduate. The authors address the strengths and weaknesses of locally developed exams as contrasted to national, standardized tools, and describe a process for developing local…

  11. Stress and Anxiety Surrounding Forthcoming Standard Assessment Tests in English Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, Dave W.; Connors, Liz; Woods, Kevin; Nicholson, Laura J.

    2012-01-01

    The Standard Assessment Tests (SATs) taken by pupils in their final year of primary schooling in England have been widely criticised for placing children under too pressure and contributing to an increase in test-related stress and anxiety. In this exploratory study we set out to explore the experiences of forthcoming SATs in a small sample of…

  12. THE ISSUES OF STANDARDIZATION OF TEACHERS’ INFORMATION-COMMUNICATION COMPETENCY ASSESSMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Degtyaryova, Galina

    2014-01-01

    In the article the approaches to standardization of teachers’ ICT-competence assessment in Ukraine and abroad are singled out. The attention to the necessity of standards’ working out in Ukraine for teachers’ ICT-competence in the system of postgraduate education is made.

  13. Is standardized cardiac assessment of asymptomatic high-risk renal transplant candidates beneficial?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalten, J.; Peeters, S.A.; Vlugt, M.J. van der; Hoitsma, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perioperative cardiovascular events in renal transplantation are common and non-invasive cardiac stress tests are recommended in high-risk renal transplant candidates. In 2004, we introduced a standardized preoperative cardiac risk assessment programme with the aim of reducing perioperat

  14. Constructing Assessment Model of Primary and Secondary Educational Quality with Talent Quality as the Core Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Benyou

    2014-01-01

    Quality is the core of education and it is important to standardization construction of primary and secondary education in urban (U) and rural (R) areas. The ultimate goal of the integration of urban and rural education is to pursuit quality urban and rural education. Based on analysing the related policy basis and the existing assessment models…

  15. DIFFERENCES IN MANAGER ASSESSMENTS OF ISO 14000 STANDARD IMPLEMENTATION IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sıtkı Gözlü

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the results of a survey about the improvements achieved as result of ISO 14000 Environmental Management System (EMS standard implementation and the differences of improvements with respect to firm characteristics. A survey has been conducted in order to explain the improvements related to environmental management process and overall firm performance. The survey involved sixty-six enterprises implementing ISO 14000 EMS standard in Turkey. In order to assess improvements obtained from ISO 14000 EMS implementation, statements related to environmental management process and overall firm performance indicators have been prepared. The statements in this study are relevant to previous research. A factor analysis was employed to determine the factors of the variables explaining improvements. Nine factors have been identified related to achieved improvements, such as establishment of pro-active environmental management system, effectiveness in resource utilization, effectiveness of process control, relationships with industry and government, meeting expectations of stakeholders, demonstration of social responsibility, profitability, productivity, and competitiveness. Then, a T- test was conducted to determine the differences of managers’ assessments with respect to certain firm characteristics. The findings have shown that there are differences in the assessments of improvements achieved as a result of ISO 14000 EMS standard implementation with respect to sales volume, foreign-capital possession, and ISO 14000 EMS standard implementation. On the other hand, industrial sector, age of establishment, and export orientation are not statistically significant for the differences in the assessments of improvements.

  16. The Collegiate Learning Assessment: Setting Standards for Performance at a College or University. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardison, Chaitra M.; Vilamovska, Anna-Marie

    2009-01-01

    The Collegiate Learning Assessment (CLA) is a measure of how much students' critical thinking improves after attending college or university. This report illustrates how institutions can set their own standards on the CLA using a method that is appropriate for the CLA's unique characteristics. The authors examined evidence of reliability and…

  17. Improving the Memory Sections of the Standardized Assessment of Concussion Using Item Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhiney, Danielle; Kang, Minsoo; Starkey, Chad; Ragan, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to improve the immediate and delayed memory sections of the Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC) by identifying a list of more psychometrically sound items (words). A total of 200 participants with no history of concussion in the previous six months (aged 19.60 ± 2.20 years; N?=?93 men, N?=?107 women)…

  18. Tests of Alignment among Assessment, Standards, and Instruction Using Generalized Linear Model Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, Gavin W.; Polikoff, Morgan S.

    2014-01-01

    An essential component in school accountability efforts is for assessments to be well-aligned with the standards or curriculum they are intended to measure. However, relatively little prior research has explored methods to determine statistical significance of alignment or misalignment. This study explores analyses of alignment as a special case…

  19. Toolkit for Evaluating Alignment of Instructional and Assessment Materials to the Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achieve, Inc., 2014

    2014-01-01

    In joint partnership, Achieve, The Council of Chief State School Officers, and Student Achievement Partners have developed a Toolkit for Evaluating the Alignment of Instructional and Assessment Materials to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). The Toolkit is a set of interrelated, freely available instruments for evaluating alignment to the…

  20. The Relationship between Students' Performance on Conventional Standardized Mathematics Assessments and Complex Mathematical Modeling Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, Ozgul; Dunya, Beyza Aksu; Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.; Zawojewski, Judith S.

    2016-01-01

    Critical to many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) career paths is mathematical modeling--specifically, the creation and adaptation of mathematical models to solve problems in complex settings. Conventional standardized measures of mathematics achievement are not structured to directly assess this type of mathematical…

  1. Analysis of Students' Assessments in Middle School Curriculum Materials: Aiming Precisely at Benchmarks and Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Luli; Ahlgren, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Project 2061 of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) developed and field-tested a procedure for analyzing curriculum materials, including assessments, in terms of contribution to the attainment of benchmarks and standards. Using this procedure, Project 2061 produced a database of reports on nine science middle school…

  2. Environmental assessment for the electric and hybrid vehicle demonstration project, performance standards and financial incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBelle, S. J.

    1978-10-01

    The assessment is concerned with the impacts of the demonstration of electric and hybrid vehicles acquired to fulfill certain requirements of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act, PL 94-413 as amended. The financial incentives programs and vehicle performance standards associated with the demonstration are also covered. Not included is an assessment of the long term effects of EHV commercialization and of the research and development program being carried out simultaneously with the demonstration, also in response to PL 94-413. These federal actions will be included in a programmatic environmental assessment scheduled for completion in FY 79.

  3. Evaluating and Training Substance Abuse Counselors: A Pilot Study Assessing Standardized Patients as Authentic Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussell, Holly E.; Lewy, Colleen S.; McFarland, Bentson H.

    2009-01-01

    Clinician training and supervision are needed to transfer evidence-based practices to community-based treatment organizations. Standardized patients (SPs) are used for clinician training and evaluating. However, to be effective for substance abuse counselors, SPs must realistically portray substance abuse treatment clients. The current study…

  4. Environmental toxicology and risk assessment: Standardization of biomarkers for endocrine disruption and environmental assessment: Eighth volume. Special technical publication 1364

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henshel, D.S.; Black, M.C.; Harrass, M.C. [eds.

    1999-07-01

    This conference was held April 20--22, 1998 in Atlanta, Georgia. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on biological markers in toxicology and risk assessment, including endocrine disrupter screening assays. Attention is focused on the following: aquatic toxicology; behavioral toxicology; biochemical indicators; developmental indicators; endocrine indicators; biodegradation and fate of chemicals; quality assurance and quality control within laboratory and field studies; risk assessment and communication, and harmonization of standards development. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  5. Towards continuous improvement of endoscopy standards: Validation of a colonoscopy assessment form.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Aim: Assessment of procedural colonoscopy skills is an important and topical. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a competency-based colonoscopy assessment form that would be easy to use, suitable for the assessment of junior and senior endoscopists and potentially be a useful instrument to detect differences in performance standards following different training interventions. Method: A standardised assessment form was developed incorporating a checklist with dichotomous yes\\/no responses and a global assessment section incorporating several different elements. This form was used prospectively to evaluate colonoscopy cases during the period of the study in several university teaching hospitals. Results were analysed using ANOVA with Bonferroni corrections for post-hoc analysis. Results: 81 procedures were assessed, performed by eight consultant and 19 trainee endoscopists. There were no serious errors. When divided into three groups based on previous experience (novice, intermediate and expert) the assessment form demonstrated statistically significant differences between all three groups (p<0.05). When separate elements were taken into account, the global assessment section was a better discriminator of skill level than the checklist. Conclusion: This form is a valid, easy to use assessment method. We intend to use it to assess the value of simulator training in trainee endoscopists. It also has the potential to be a useful training tool when feedback is given to the trainee.

  6. Edible safety requirements and assessment standards for agricultural genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Pingjian; Zhou, Xiangyang; Zhou, Peng; Du, Zhong; Hou, Hongli; Yang, Dongyan; Tan, Jianjun; Wu, Xiaojin; Zhang, Jinzhou; Yang, Yongcun; Liu, Jin; Liu, Guihua; Li, Yonghong; Liu, Jianjun; Yu, Lei; Fang, Shisong; Yang, Xiaoke

    2008-05-01

    This paper describes the background, principles, concepts and methods of framing the technical regulation for edible safety requirement and assessment of agricultural genetically modified organisms (agri-GMOs) for Shenzhen Special Economic Zone in the People's Republic of China. It provides a set of systematic criteria for edible safety requirements and the assessment process for agri-GMOs. First, focusing on the degree of risk and impact of different agri-GMOs, we developed hazard grades for toxicity, allergenicity, anti-nutrition effects, and unintended effects and standards for the impact type of genetic manipulation. Second, for assessing edible safety, we developed indexes and standards for different hazard grades of recipient organisms, for the influence of types of genetic manipulation and hazard grades of agri-GMOs. To evaluate the applicability of these criteria and their congruency with other safety assessment systems for GMOs applied by related organizations all over the world, we selected some agri-GMOs (soybean, maize, potato, capsicum and yeast) as cases to put through our new assessment system, and compared our results with the previous assessments. It turned out that the result of each of the cases was congruent with the original assessment.

  7. Current Situation and Development Trend of Standards of Lithium Batteries for Electric Vehides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Xiangfeng; Wen Baozhong

    2012-01-01

    Traction battery is one of the most significant systems in electric vehicles.Its general performance,cycle characteristics and safety performance have crucial influence on the economical efficiency,dynamic property and safety of the vehicle.Therefore traction battery has always been the key area in researches of electric vehicles and its standardization. 1.Main performance indicators of traction batteries As the energy storage device of electric vehicles,the performance of traction battery is very important for the complete vehicle.Requirements of traction battery for electric vehicles should have the following characteristics as high power,high energy,high energy density/specific energy,high power density/specific power,low cost,long life length,abuse resistance,high reliability,good temperature property,short charging time,nice interchangeability etc.Traction batteries used at present are mainly lead-acid cells,nickel-hydride cells and lithium-ion cells.Although none of them can meet all requirements,lithium battery is widely regarded the most promising one with optimal comprehensive performance in recent time.

  8. Limiting the costs of renewable portfolio standards: A review and critique of current methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over half of U.S. states have renewable portfolio standards (RPSs) mandating that a minimum percentage of electricity sold derives from renewable sources. State RPSs vary widely in how they attempt to control or limit the costs of these RPSs. Approaches utilized include alternative compliance payments, direct rate caps, and cost caps on resource acquisitions, while some states employ no specific limitation at all. This paper describes how states attempt to control RPS costs and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of these various cost controls. There is no one best method; however the experience to date suggests that the most important factors in implementing an effective mechanism to curtail costs are clarity of the rule, consistency in application, and transparency for customers. - Highlights: ▶ We review states' RPS statutes and regulations for mechanisms that attempt to control overall compliance costs. ▶ We categorize the major cost curtailment mechanisms. ▶ For each mechanism, we describe policy designs that are or could be implemented by states. ▶ We identify strengths and weaknesses of the various designs for consideration by policymakers.

  9. OSHA's approach to risk assessment for setting a revised occupational exposure standard for 1,3-butadiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, E A; Martonik, J

    1990-06-01

    In its 1980 benzene decision [Industrial Union Department, ALF-CIO v. American Petroleum Institute, 448 U.S. 607 (1980)], the Supreme Court ruled that "before he can promulgate any permanent health or safety standard, the Secretary [of Labor] is required to make a threshold finding that a place of employment is unsafe--in the sense that significant risks are present and can be lessened by a change in practices" (448 U.S. at 642). The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has interpreted this to mean that whenever possible, it must quantify the risk associated with occupational exposure to a toxic substance at the current permissible exposure limit (PEL). If OSHA determines that there is significant risk to workers' health at its current standard, then it must quantify the risk associated with a variety of alternative standards to determine at what level, if any, occupational exposure to a substance no longer poses a significant risk. For rulemaking on occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene, there are two studies that are suitable for quantitative risk assessment. One is a mouse inhalation bioassay conducted by the National Toxicology Program (NTP), and the other is a rat inhalation bioassay conducted by Hazelton Laboratories Europe. Of the four risk assessments that have been submitted to OSHA, all four have used the mouse and/or rat data with a variety of models to quantify the risk associated with occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene. In addition, OSHA has performed its own risk assessment using the female mouse and female rat data and the one-hit and multistage models.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2401254

  10. Radiotherapy in the management of non-metastatic prostate cancer: Current standards and future opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: The intent of this course is to review issues involved in the management of non-metastatic prostate cancer and to clarify the role of external beam radiotherapy, the use of neo-adjuvant and adjuvant hormonal therapy in conjunction with the radiation, the management of patients with regional metastases and recurrent disease following surgery and radiation. At the end of this course, participants should be able to fluently discuss management issues and strategies across the entire spectrum of non-metastatic prostate cancer. - Pre-treatment prognostic factors including clinical stage, grade, and pre-treatment PSA, will be presented and their relative value in determining therapeutic strategies will be discussed. Strategies to be discussed include standard dose radiation, escalated dose radiation, particle radiation and the use of adjuvant and neo-adjuvant hormonal therapy. - The process of simulation and field design will be presented, the value of CT-based treatment planning, beams-eye view design and the relative value of three-dimensional treatment planning will be discussed. - The significance of prostate and patient movement and strategies for dealing with this will also be presented so that what constitutes an adequate simulation and margin of treatment can be clarified. - The management of newly diagnosed patients, covering the range of low stage/low grade to locally advanced prostate cancer will be discussed. - The relative value of increasing dose, the relative value of using neo-adjuvant and/or adjuvant hormone therapy and the indications for escalated dose will be presented. - Strategies for managing post-prostatectomy patients will be reviewed. Data on adjuvant and therapeutic irradiation for biochemical failure will be presented and a strategy for management will be discussed. - How to deal with patients with residual disease post radiation will be discussed and the relative value of cryotherapy, salvage prostatectomy or hormonal therapy will

  11. A Summary of Proposed Changes to the Current ICARTT Format Standards and their Implications to Future Airborne Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northup, E. A.; Kusterer, J.; Quam, B.; Chen, G.; Early, A. B.; Beach, A. L., III

    2015-12-01

    The current ICARTT file format standards were developed for the purpose of fulfilling the data management needs for the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT) campaign in 2004. The goal of the ICARTT file format was to establish a common and simple to use data file format to promote data exchange and collaboration among science teams with similar science objectives. ICARTT has been the NASA standard since 2010, and is widely used by NOAA, NSF, and international partners (DLR, FAAM). Despite its level of acceptance, there are a number of issues with the current ICARTT format, especially concerning the machine readability. To enhance usability, the ICARTT Refresh Earth Science Data Systems Working Group (ESDSWG) was established to enable a platform for atmospheric science data producers, users (e.g. modelers) and data managers to collaborate on developing criteria for this file format. Ultimately, this is a cross agency effort to improve and aggregate the metadata records being produced. After conducting a survey to identify deficiencies in the current format, we determined which are considered most important to the various communities. Numerous recommendations were made to improve upon the file format while maintaining backward compatibility. The recommendations made to date and their advantages and limitations will be discussed.

  12. The Role of Self- and Peer Assessment in Dental Students' Reflective Practice Using Standardized Patient Encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Karin K

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into the nature of the role played by self- and peer assessment in the development of dental students' reflective practice skills and the value gained through structured encounters with standardized patients. Four standardized patient encounters in an objective structured clinical exam (OSCE) format served as a learning experience for students to demonstrate decision making and communication skills in complex scenarios regarding issues of ethics. Self- and peer assessment and peer-to-peer discourse were used to enhance student reflection. A sample of 16 peer pairs was randomly selected from the population of 108 fourth-year students who participated in the 2014 Clinical Dental Ethics OSCE. Data were collected from self- and peer assessment forms. Five overall performance themes (personal affect, verbal communication, professional demeanor, relationship-building, and patient management) and three student learning themes (application and knowledge, ways to change, and impressed with peer/increased confidence in self) were identified. The results showed that peer assessment ratings were consistently higher than those in the self-assessments, but overall the students deemed both their peers' and their own decision making and communication skills to be quite good. These students rated their experience with the OSCE and self- and peer assessments as positive, appreciating the importance of reflection and learning from their peers. These results provide support for the continued formative use of standardized patient OSCEs and self- and peer assessment to help students develop skills in decision making, communication, professionalism, and reflection. PMID:27480703

  13. Assessing competency in Evidence Based Practice: strengths and limitations of current tools in practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilic Dragan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence Based Practice (EBP involves making clinical decisions informed by the most relevant and valid evidence available. Competence can broadly be defined as a concept that incorporates a variety of domains including knowledge, skills and attitudes. Adopting an evidence-based approach to practice requires differing competencies across various domains including literature searching, critical appraisal and communication. This paper examines the current tools available to assess EBP competence and compares their applicability to existing assessment techniques used in medicine, nursing and health sciences. Discussion Only two validated assessment tools have been developed to specifically assess all aspects of EBP competence. Of the two tools (Berlin and Fresno tools, only the Fresno tool comprehensively assesses EBP competency across all relevant domains. However, both tools focus on assessing EBP competency in medical students; therefore neither can be used for assessing EBP competency across different health disciplines. The Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE has been demonstrated as a reliable and versatile tool to assess clinical competencies, practical and communication skills. The OSCE has scope as an alternate method for assessing EBP competency, since it combines assessment of cognitive skills including knowledge, reasoning and communication. However, further research is needed to develop the OSCE as a viable method for assessing EBP competency. Summary Demonstrating EBP competence is a complex task – therefore no single assessment method can adequately provide all of the necessary data to assess complete EBP competence. There is a need for further research to explore how EBP competence is best assessed; be it in written formats, such as the Fresno tool, or another format, such as the OSCE. Future tools must also incorporate measures of assessing how EBP competence affects clinician behaviour and attitudes as

  14. Oximetry system performance assessment with POM (acetal) phantoms incorporating hemoglobin calibration standards and customized saturation levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyounguk; Singh, Karam; Wang, Hsing-Wen; Pfefer, T. J.; Chen, Yu

    2015-03-01

    Standardized approaches for performance assessment of biophotonic devices have the potential to facilitate system development and intercomparison, clinical trial standardization, recalibration, manufacturing quality control and quality assurance during clinical use. Evaluation of devices based on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for detection of hemoglobin (Hb) content and oxygenation have often involved tissue-simulating phantoms incorporating artificial dyes or flow systems. Towards the development of simple, effective techniques for objective, quantitative evaluation of basic NIRS system performance, we have developed and evaluated two test methods. These methods are based on cuvette inserts in solid turbid phantoms for measuring commercially-available Hb oximetry standards and custom-formulated oxy/deoxy-Hb solutions. Both approaches incorporate solid acetal, or polyoxymethylene (POM), as a tissue-simulating matrix material. First, inverse-adding-doubling (IAD) based on measurements with a spectrophotometer and an integrating sphere was used to measure POM optical properties and their stability over time. Second, two fiberopticprobe- based NIRS systems were used to measure concentration change of oxy- and deoxy-Hb in standard Hb solutions and customized Hb solutions by adding yeast. Differences in system performance were likely due to differences in light source outputs and fiberoptic probe design. Our preliminary results indicate that simple phantom-based approaches based on commercially available polymers and inclusions containing Hb standards, or controlled oxygenation levels may be useful for benchtop assessment of NIRS device quality for a variety of biophotonic devices.

  15. Improving pest risk assessment and management through the aid of geospatial information technology standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trond Rafoss

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Delivery of geospatial information over the Internet for the management of risks from invasive alien species is an increasingly important service. The evolution of information technology standards for geospatial data is a key factor to simplify network publishing and exchange of maps and data. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C-geolocation specification is a recent addition that may prove useful for pest risk management. In this article we implement the W3C-geolocation specification and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC mapping standards in a Web browser application for smartphones and tablet computers to improve field surveys for alien invasive species. We report our first season field experiences using this tool for online mapping of plant disease outbreaks and host plant occurrence. It is expected that the improved field data collection tools will result in increased data availability and thereby new opportunities for risk assessment, because data-needs and availability are crucial for species distribution modelling and model-based forecasts of pest establishment potential. Finally, we close with a comment on the future potential of geospatial information standards to enhance the translation from data to decisions regarding pest risks, which should enable earlier detection of emerging risks as well as more robust projections of pest risks in novel areas. The forthcoming standard for processing of geospatial information, the Web Processing Standard (WPS, should open new technological capabilities both for automatic initiation and updating of risk assessment models based on new incoming data, and subsequent early warning.

  16. A High-Resolution, Wave and Current Resource Assessment of Japan: The Web GIS Dataset

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Adrean; Fujimoto, Wataru; Horiuchi, Kazutoshi; Kiyomatsu, Keiji; Matsuda, Kazuhiro; Miyazawa, Yasumasa; Varlamov, Sergey; Yoshikawa, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The University of Tokyo and JAMSTEC have conducted state-of-the-art wave and current resource assessments to assist with generator site identification and construction in Japan. These assessments are publicly-available and accessible via a web GIS service designed by WebBrain that utilizes TDS and GeoServer software with Leaflet libraries. The web GIS dataset contains statistical analyses of wave power, ocean and tidal current power, ocean temperature power, and other basic physical variables. The data (2D maps, time charts, depth profiles, etc.) is accessed through interactive browser sessions and downloadable files.

  17. Assessing The Current Status Of Solid Waste Management Of Gondar Town Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Gedefaw

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ethiopia is facing rapid urbanization leading to overcrowding and the development of slums and informal settlements with poor waste management practices. Urban dwellers generally consume more resources than rural dwellers and so generate huge quantities of solid wastes. This study is focused on the overall assessment of the existing MSWM service of Gondar town. The overall objective of this study was assessing the current solid waste management service of Gondar town. Both primary an...

  18. Assessing Medication Adherence as a Standard of Care in Pediatric Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Ahna L H; McGrady, Meghan E

    2015-12-01

    Poor adherence to pediatric cancer treatment protocols may prevent children and adolescents from realizing the potential benefits of therapy. This paper presents the evidence for a standard of care for supporting medication adherence. Databases were reviewed for articles examining adherence and including children and/or adolescents with cancer. Fourteen articles (i.e., qualitative, quantitative, review, and randomized clinical trials) were evaluated for rigor. There is moderate-quality evidence to support a strong recommendation for adherence to be assessed routinely and monitored throughout the treatment. Integrating the proposed clinical procedures into standard clinical care may improve outcomes for children and adolescents with cancer.

  19. Life Cycle Assessment of a Single-Family Residence built to Passive House Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlstrøm, Oddbjørn

    2011-01-01

    Two complete cradle to grave life cycle assessments are conducted for the comparison of a house built after today’s building standard, TEK07, and a passive house built after the Norwegian Standard NS 3700:2010. Both houses are projected by the building company Nordbohus AS, and are to be constructed in Stord, on the west coast of Norway. The usable floor area, BRA, is 187 m2 for both houses, and a lifetime of 50 years is assumed. The houses are constructed with a wooden framework, insula...

  20. Incidence of unanticipated difficult airway using an objective airway score versus a standard clinical airway assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Anders Kehlet; Rosenstock, Charlotte Valentin; Wetterslev, Jørn;

    2013-01-01

    the examination and registration of predictors for difficult mask ventilation with a non-specified clinical airway assessment on prediction of difficult mask ventilation.Method/Design: We cluster-randomized 28 Danish departments of anaesthesia to airway assessment either by the SARI or by usual non......-specific assessment. Data from patients' pre-operative airway assessment are registered in the Danish Anaesthesia Database. Objective scores for intubation and mask ventilation grade the severity of airway managements. The accuracy of predicting difficult intubation and mask ventilation is measured for each group...... reduction equalling a number needed to treat of 180. Sample size estimation is adjusted for the study design and based on standards for randomization on cluster-level. With an average cluster size of 2,500 patients, 70,000 patients will be enrolled over a 1-year trial period. The database is programmed so...

  1. Subjective Video Quality Assessment in H.264/AVC Video Coding Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Miličević

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to provide an approach for subjective video quality assessment in the H.264/AVC standard. For this purpose a special software program for the subjective assessment of quality of all the tested video sequences is developed. It was developed in accordance with recommendation ITU-T P.910, since it is suitable for the testing of multimedia applications. The obtained results show that in the proposed selective intra prediction and optimized inter prediction algorithm there is a small difference in picture quality (signal-to-noise ratio between decoded original and modified video sequences.

  2. Health risk assessment standards of cyanobacteria bloom occurrence in bathing sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Stankiewicz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Threat for human health appears during a massive cyanobacteria bloom in potable water used for human consumption or in basins used for recreational purposes. General health risk assessment standards and preventive measures to be taken by sanitation service were presented in scope of: – evaluation of cyanobacteria bloom occurrence in bathing sites / water bodies, – procedures in case of cyanobacteria bloom, including health risk assessment and decision making process to protect users’ health at bathing sites, – preventive measures, to be taken in case of cyanobacteria bloom occurrence in bathing sites and basins, where bathing sites are located.

  3. Biodiversity in environmental assessment-current practice and tools for prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habitat loss and fragmentation are major threats to biodiversity. Environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment are essential instruments used in physical planning to address such problems. Yet there are no well-developed methods for quantifying and predicting impacts of fragmentation on biodiversity. In this study, a literature review was conducted on GIS-based ecological models that have potential as prediction tools for biodiversity assessment. Further, a review of environmental impact statements for road and railway projects from four European countries was performed, to study how impact prediction concerning biodiversity issues was addressed. The results of the study showed the existing gap between research in GIS-based ecological modelling and current practice in biodiversity assessment within environmental assessment

  4. Assessment of hydrogen combustion effects in the BWR/6 - Mark III Standard Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses General Electric's study of potential hydrogen combustion effects on the Standard Mark III containment during postulated severe accidents. This study was performed as part of the Probabilistic Risk Assessment of the BWR/6 - Mark III Standard Plant. The methodology of determining the accident event sequence and modeling of the Boiling Water Reactor core response, including hydrogen generation by metal-water reaction, is described. Combustion of hydrogen released to the containment is analyzed and effects on the Mark III containment system are assessed. It is concluded that even for those cases where containment integrity may be lost, the containment function (i.e., limiting offsite doses) is maintained by the drywell and suppression pool

  5. Standardized Methods of Assessment of Individual’s Social Network in Social Work and Psychological Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Lifintsev D.V.; Lifintseva A.A.; Serykh A.B.

    2015-01-01

    This article is a theoretical overview of the main standardized techniques for assessment of the social relations of the individual. The study of these techniques allows professionals to get the basic information about the microsocial environment of people. Theoretical analysis shows that the study of the social network of an individual involves the analysis of its structure, composition and function of its components. Described and analyzed the most common techniques for asses...

  6. Assessing the Nature of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) System in Public Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Orajaka Ugochukwu; Ezeliora Mmaduabuchi Martin

    2015-01-01

    The study assessing the Nature of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) system in Public organizations in Anambra state, Nigeria. The data was collected through questionnaires and secondary sources of data. It was analyzed using correlations and goodness of fit tests. The results show that it has high significance value thereby accepting the testing hypotheses. However, the results were recommended for wider use and applicability in public organizations, specifically in anambra s...

  7. Assessment of BSBA Students' Conversancy in Current Business Issues: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Eileen A.; Maskulka, Therese A.; Kaminski, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, the faculty of the College of Business at Kutztown University developed a set of five learning goals for its BSBA program. In fall, 2011, the college's Assurance of Learning Committee began to pursue the assessment of the last of these goals: "BSBA graduates will be conversant in current business issues, including ethics, social…

  8. Assessment of Current Practice for Tank Testing of Small Marine Energy Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter

    Discussion Report. Equitable Testing and Evaluation of Marine Energy Extraction Devices in terms of Performance, Cost and Environmental Impact. The report is a contribution by Aalborg University (AAU) to the deliverable on Assessment of current practice for tank testing of small marine energy...

  9. Evaluation of online carbon isotope dilution mass spectrometry for the purity assessment of synthetic peptide standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz, Sergio Cueto; Ruiz Encinar, Jorge, E-mail: ruizjorge@uniovi.es; García Alonso, J. Ignacio, E-mail: jiga@uniovi.es

    2014-09-24

    Highlights: • Purity assessment of peptide standards applicable to any water soluble peptide. • Online {sup 13}C isotope dilution mass spectrometry. • Mass flow chromatogram from measured 44/45 isotope ratios. • Validation by the analysis of NIST 8327. - Abstract: We present a novel method for the purity assessment of peptide standards which is applicable to any water soluble peptide. The method is based on the online {sup 13}C isotope dilution approach in which the peptide is separated from its related impurities by liquid chromatography (LC) and the eluent is mixed post-column with a continuous flow of {sup 13}C-enriched sodium bicarbonate. An online oxidation step using sodium persulfate in acidic media at 99 °C provides quantitative oxidation to {sup 12}CO{sub 2} and {sup 13}CO{sub 2} respectively which is extracted to a gaseous phase with the help of a gas permeable membrane. The measurement of the isotope ratio 44/45 in the mass spectrometer allows the construction of the mass flow chromatogram. As the only species that is finally measured in the mass spectrometer is CO{sub 2}, the peptide content in the standard can be quantified, on the base of its carbon content, using a generic primary standard such as potassium hydrogen phthalate. The approach was validated by the analysis of a reference material (NIST 8327), and applied to the quantification of two commercial synthetic peptide standards. In that case, the results obtained were compared with those obtained using alternative methods, such as amino acid analysis and ICP-MS. The results obtained proved the value of the method for the fast, accurate and precise mass purity assignment of synthetic peptide standards.

  10. Evaluation of online carbon isotope dilution mass spectrometry for the purity assessment of synthetic peptide standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Purity assessment of peptide standards applicable to any water soluble peptide. • Online 13C isotope dilution mass spectrometry. • Mass flow chromatogram from measured 44/45 isotope ratios. • Validation by the analysis of NIST 8327. - Abstract: We present a novel method for the purity assessment of peptide standards which is applicable to any water soluble peptide. The method is based on the online 13C isotope dilution approach in which the peptide is separated from its related impurities by liquid chromatography (LC) and the eluent is mixed post-column with a continuous flow of 13C-enriched sodium bicarbonate. An online oxidation step using sodium persulfate in acidic media at 99 °C provides quantitative oxidation to 12CO2 and 13CO2 respectively which is extracted to a gaseous phase with the help of a gas permeable membrane. The measurement of the isotope ratio 44/45 in the mass spectrometer allows the construction of the mass flow chromatogram. As the only species that is finally measured in the mass spectrometer is CO2, the peptide content in the standard can be quantified, on the base of its carbon content, using a generic primary standard such as potassium hydrogen phthalate. The approach was validated by the analysis of a reference material (NIST 8327), and applied to the quantification of two commercial synthetic peptide standards. In that case, the results obtained were compared with those obtained using alternative methods, such as amino acid analysis and ICP-MS. The results obtained proved the value of the method for the fast, accurate and precise mass purity assignment of synthetic peptide standards

  11. Accounting for the NCEA : Has the Transition to Standards-based Assessment Achieved its Objectives?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Agnew

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies trends in secondary school accounting participation and achievement during the firstfive years of the full implementation of the National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA in NewZealand schools. NCEA marks a shift from a norm-referenced assessment regime to standards-basedassessment. Literature suggests that standards-based assessment increases the academic performance ofminority ethnic groups (such as Maori and Pacific Island students, and low socio-economic status (SESstudents. The author pays particular attention to these groups and his analysis reveals some interestingresults: in accounting, the NCEA has not met expectations for these students. From 2004 to 2008, thenumber of low SES accounting students has dropped, as has the number of accounting standards entered andthe rates of achievement. Likewise, there has been no significant improvement in the academic performanceof Maori students taking accounting standards, while Pacific Island students have experienced a significantdecrease in achievement. The author also discusses how studying high school accounting impacts on tertiarylevel study and offers some future implications of this research.

  12. Current Conditions Risk Assessment for the 300-FF-5 Groundwater Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miley, Terri B.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Napier, Bruce A.; Peterson, Robert E.; Becker, James M.

    2007-11-01

    This report updates a baseline risk assessment for the 300 Area prepared in 1994. The update includes consideration of changes in contaminants of interest and in the environment that have occurred during the period of interim remedial action, i.e., 1996 to the present, as well as the sub-regions, for which no initial risk assessments have been conducted. In 1996, a record of decision (ROD) stipulated interim remedial action for groundwater affected by releases from 300 Area sources, as follows: (a) continued monitoring of groundwater that is contaminated above health-based levels to ensure that concentrations continue to decrease, and (b) institutional controls to ensure that groundwater use is restricted to prevent unacceptable exposure to groundwater contamination. In 2000, the groundwater beneath the two outlying sub-regions was added to the operable unit. In 2001, the first 5-year review of the ROD found that the interim remedy and remedial action objectives were still appropriate, although the review called for additional characterization activities. This report includes a current conditions baseline ecological and human health risk assessment using maximum concentrations in the environmental media of the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit and downstream conditions at the City of Richland, Washington. The scope for this assessment includes only current measured environmental concentrations and current use scenarios. Future environmental concentrations and future land uses are not considered in this assessment.

  13. Upgrade of the ESA DRAMA OSCAR Tool: Analysis of Disposal Strategies Considering Current Standards for Future Solar and Geomagnetic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, V.; Sanchez-Ortiz, N.; Gelhaus, J.; Kebschull, C.; Flegel, S.; Mockel, M.; Wiedemann, C.; Krag, H.; Vorsmann, P.

    2013-08-01

    In 2008 the UN General Assembly adopted resolution 62/217, endorsing the space debris mitigation guidelines (SDMG) of the UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNCOPUOS). These guidelines contain recommendations for satellite operators to implement measures for various mission phases in order to reduce the further accumulation of space debris in space and especially within the protected regions. These are defined within the SDMG as being the LEO region (up to 2,000 km altitude) and the GEO region (∼200 km in altitude around the GEO altitude and ∼15 degrees latitude). In the first version of ESA's DRAMA tool suite, OSCAR (Orbital SpaceCraft Active Removal) was designed as a tool to allow users the analysis of different disposal stragies for spacecraft in the LEO and GEO region. The upgrade of the ESA DRAMA tool suite by TUBS and DEIMOS under ESA/ESOC contract included the development of a renewed version of the existing OSCAR tool, allowing in its current version the consideration of different future solar and geomagnetic activity scenarios and besides the already known disposal systems (chemical and electric propulsion, as well as electrodynamic tether) the analysis of the orbital evolution using drag augmentation devices. One of the primary goals was to implement techniques recommended by current standards. The recommendations from the SDMG were used for the definition of the critical regions as well as compliance criteria, the user may check his disposal strategy against. For satellites operating in GEO, the ISO 26872:2010 (Space Systems - Disposal of satellites operating at geosynchronous altitude) standard was accounted for. For the generation of future solar and geomagnetic activity, the standards ISO 27852:2011 (Space Systems -Estimation of orbit lifetime) and the ECSS-E-ST-10-04C (Space engineering - Space environment) have been considered and recommended modeling approaches were implemented. In this paper, the OSCAR tool is presented, giving

  14. State Standards: Authenticity vs. Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Marcia R.; Howell, Kenneth W.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews problems with the current movement to use national standards and performance assessment to reform education and the impact of the standards on students with disabilities. The characteristics of standards, as they are currently being employed, are discussed, along with issues related to measurement, reliability, and validity. (Author/CR)

  15. European Standards for Quality Assurance and Institutional Practices of Student Assessment in the UK, the Netherlands and the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohoutek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the student assessment procedures of 12 universities in the UK, the Netherlands and the Czech Republic with respect to their alignment with the European standards and guidelines on the quality of assessing higher education students (European Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance [ESG] 1.3). Based on qualitative…

  16. Towards a Standardized e-Assessment System: Motivations, Challenges and First Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Helic

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available “Global Learning” with shared learning contents, resources, activities and goals is one of the contributions of Globalization. With the capability to use new Information and Communication Technologies (ICT it is a bit easier to have a technology based learning systems that enable learners to share the learning resources and possibilities. As a result many Learning Management Systems (LMS were developed with divers of platforms and approaches. Consequently, sharing learning resources and components has become a major challenge. E-assessment as a primary activity of any LMS is facing the same challenges and problems. In order to stand on this challenge people in the field of technology enhanced learning have recommended that LMS should conform to specific standards. This paper discuses this challenge, the consequences and limitations of standards in the modern learning settings. Moreover, it shows a service oriented framework for assessment which aims to make the e-assessment systems flexible and also to initiate the term of “Global Learning Assessment” with the possibility of sharing the e-assessment system components.

  17. Critical Assessment of the Foundations of Power Transmission and Distribution Reliability Metrics and Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nateghi, Roshanak; Guikema, Seth D; Wu, Yue Grace; Bruss, C Bayan

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. federal government regulates the reliability of bulk power systems, while the reliability of power distribution systems is regulated at a state level. In this article, we review the history of regulating electric service reliability and study the existing reliability metrics, indices, and standards for power transmission and distribution networks. We assess the foundations of the reliability standards and metrics, discuss how they are applied to outages caused by large exogenous disturbances such as natural disasters, and investigate whether the standards adequately internalize the impacts of these events. Our reflections shed light on how existing standards conceptualize reliability, question the basis for treating large-scale hazard-induced outages differently from normal daily outages, and discuss whether this conceptualization maps well onto customer expectations. We show that the risk indices for transmission systems used in regulating power system reliability do not adequately capture the risks that transmission systems are prone to, particularly when it comes to low-probability high-impact events. We also point out several shortcomings associated with the way in which regulators require utilities to calculate and report distribution system reliability indices. We offer several recommendations for improving the conceptualization of reliability metrics and standards. We conclude that while the approaches taken in reliability standards have made considerable advances in enhancing the reliability of power systems and may be logical from a utility perspective during normal operation, existing standards do not provide a sufficient incentive structure for the utilities to adequately ensure high levels of reliability for end-users, particularly during large-scale events.

  18. Equivalency assessment for an eddy current system used for steam generator tubing inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chan Hee; Lee, Tae Hun; Yoo, Hyun Ju; Moon, Gyoon Young [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company Ltd., Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Eddy current testing is widely used for inspecting steam generator tubing in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The inspection technique for steam generator tubing in NPPs should be qualified in accordance with examination guidelines. When the components of a qualified system such as eddy current tester, probe, and data analysis program, are changed, the equivalency of the modified system to the originally qualified system must be verified. The eddy current tester is the most important part of an eddy current testing system because it excites and transmits alternating currents to the probe, receives coil impedance of the probe and generates signals for anomalies. The Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) developed an eddy current testing system with an eddy current tester and data acquisition-analysis program for inspecting the steam generator tubing in NPPs; this system can be used for an array probe and as a bobbin and rotating probes. The equivalency assessment for the currently developed system was carried out, and we describe the results in this paper.

  19. Standard Guide for Acousto-Ultrasonic Assessment of Composites, Laminates, and Bonded Joints

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This guide explains the rationale and basic technology for the acousto-ultrasonic (AU) method. Guidelines are given for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of flaws and physical characteristics that influence the mechanical properties and relative strength of composite structures (for example, filament-wound pressure vessels), adhesive bonds (for example, joints between metal plates), and interlaminar and fiber/matrix bonds in man-made composites and natural composites (for example, wood products). 1.2 This guide covers technical details and rules that must be observed to ensure reliable and reproducible quantitative AU assessments of laminates, composites, and bonded structures. The underlying principles, prototype apparatus, instrumentation, standardization, examination methods, and data analysis for such assessments are covered. Limitations of the AU method and guidelines for taking advantage of its capabilities are cited. 1.3 The objective of AU is to assess subtle flaws and associated strength variations...

  20. The Use of Standard Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Ultrasound to Assess Cardiac Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentissi, Kinza; Sawhney, Mandeep S; Pleskow, Douglas; Sepe, Paul; Mella, Jose M; Kwittken, Benjamin; Ketwaroo, Gyanprakash; Subramaniam, Balachundhar

    2016-09-01

    In this prospective observational study, conducted at an academic medical center, we evaluated the feasibility of performing a basic transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) examination using endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) technology to determine what cardiac structures could be assessed. This may be potentially beneficial during hemodynamic emergencies in the endoscopy suite resulting from hypovolemia, depressed ventricular function, aortic dissection, pericardial effusions, or aortic stenosis. Of the 20 patients enrolled, 18 underwent EUS with a linear echoendoscope for standard clinical indications followed by a cardiac assessment performed under the guidance of a TEE-certified cardiac anesthesiologist. Eight of the 20 standard views of cardiovascular structures per the 1999 American Society of Echocardiography/Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists guidelines for TEE could be obtained using the linear echoendoscope. The following cardiac valvular structures were visualized: aortic valve (100%), mitral valve (100%), tricuspid valve (33%), and pulmonic valve (11%). Left ventricular and right ventricular systolic function could be assessed in 89% and 67% of patients, respectively. Other structures such as the ascending and descending aorta, pericardium, left atrial appendage, and interatrial septum were identified in 100% of patients. Doppler-dependent functions could not be assessed. Given that the EUS images were not directly compared with TEE in these patients, we cannot comment definitively on the quality of these assessments and further studies would need to be performed to make a formal comparison. Based on this study, EUS technology can consistently assess the mitral valve, aortic valve, aorta, pericardium, and left ventricular function. Given its limitations, EUS technology, although not a substitute for formal echocardiography, could be a helpful early diagnostic tool in an emergency setting. PMID:27541718

  1. Assessment of standard compliance of Central European plastics-based wall cladding using multi-criteria decision making (MCDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Friedrich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plastics are increasingly combined with renewable fibers to form materials such as wood-plastic composites (WPCs. These bio-based materials have gained the interest of the resource-intensive building industry and are currently used mainly for decking and cladding. Despite their environmental friendliness, WPC façades are still underrepresented in the market. This fact raises the question of whether WPC cladding is currently well positioned in the market and whether its attributes are advertised in a way that makes it stand out in a material selection process. A review of standards and codes relevant to façade design was carried out in this study, which allowed the identification of 21 product attributes as potential deciding factors in cladding product selection. Subsequently, the most promising attributes were used to assess commercially available plastics-based cladding products. By using multi-criteria decision making (MCDM it was found that WPC cladding is still far behind other cladding products with respect to standard compliance but has specific properties which support product optimization. MCDM can be used by WPC cladding manufacturers for strategic product development and by façade designers for material selection processes.

  2. Assessment of current cybersecurity practices in the public domain : cyber indications and warnings domain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Keliiaa, Curtis M.

    2010-09-01

    This report assesses current public domain cyber security practices with respect to cyber indications and warnings. It describes cybersecurity industry and government activities, including cybersecurity tools, methods, practices, and international and government-wide initiatives known to be impacting current practice. Of particular note are the U.S. Government's Trusted Internet Connection (TIC) and 'Einstein' programs, which are serving to consolidate the Government's internet access points and to provide some capability to monitor and mitigate cyber attacks. Next, this report catalogs activities undertaken by various industry and government entities. In addition, it assesses the benchmarks of HPC capability and other HPC attributes that may lend themselves to assist in the solution of this problem. This report draws few conclusions, as it is intended to assess current practice in preparation for future work, however, no explicit references to HPC usage for the purpose of analyzing cyber infrastructure in near-real-time were found in the current practice. This report and a related SAND2010-4766 National Cyber Defense High Performance Computing and Analysis: Concepts, Planning and Roadmap report are intended to provoke discussion throughout a broad audience about developing a cohesive HPC centric solution to wide-area cybersecurity problems.

  3. The U.S. Forest Service's analysis of cumulative effects to wildlife: A study of legal standards, current practice, and ongoing challenges on a National Forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumulative effects analysis (CEA) allows natural resource managers to understand the status of resources in historical context, learn from past management actions, and adapt future activities accordingly. U.S. federal agencies are required to complete CEA as part of environmental impact assessment under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Past research on CEA as part of NEPA has identified significant deficiencies in CEA practice, suggested methodologies for handling difficult aspects of CEA, and analyzed the rise in litigation over CEA in U.S. courts. This article provides a review of the literature and legal standards related to CEA as it is done under NEPA and then examines current practice on a U.S. National Forest, utilizing qualitative methods in order to provide a detailed understanding of current approaches to CEA. Research objectives were to understand current practice, investigate ongoing challenges, and identify impediments to improvement. Methods included a systematic review of a set of NEPA documents and semi-structured interviews with practitioners, scientists, and members of the public. Findings indicate that the primary challenges associated with CEA include: issues of both geographic and temporal scale of analysis, confusion over the purpose of the requirement, the lack of monitoring data, and problems coordinating and disseminating data. Improved monitoring strategies and programmatic analyses could support improved CEA practice.

  4. Waste management in the Irkutsk Region, Siberia, Russia: Environmental assessment of current practice focusing on landfilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starostina, Vlada; Damgaard, Anders; Rechberger, Helmut;

    2014-01-01

    waste (23%) and office & institutional waste (44%). Other waste of unknown composition constitutes 6%. Only 3% of the waste is recycled; 97% of the municipal waste is disposed of at the old Alexandrovsky landfill. The environmental impact from the current system is dominated by the landfill, which has......The municipal waste management system of the region of Irkutsk is described and a life cycle assessment (LCA) performed to assess the environmental performance of the system. Annually about 500 000 tons of waste are managed. The waste originates from three sources: household waste (27%), commercial...

  5. Assessment of the Impacts of Standards and Labeling Programs inMexico (four products).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Itha; Pulido, Henry; McNeil, Michael A.; Turiel, Isaac; della Cava, Mirka

    2007-06-12

    This study analyzes impacts from energy efficiency standards and labeling in Mexico from 1994 through 2005 for four major products: household refrigerators, room air conditioners, three-phase (squirrel cage) induction motors, and clothes washers. It is a retrospective analysis, seeking to assess verified impacts on product efficiency in the Mexican market in the first ten years after standards were implemented. Such an analysis allows the Mexican government to compare actual to originally forecast program benefits. In addition, it provides an extremely valuable benchmark for other countries considering standards, and to the energy policy community as a whole. The methodology for evaluation begins with historical test data taken for a large number of models of each product type between 1994 and 2005. The pre-standard efficiency of models in 1994 is taken as a baseline throughout the analysis. Model efficiency data were provided by an independent certification laboratory (ANCE), which tested products as part of the certification and enforcement mechanism defined by the standards program. Using this data, together with economic and market data provided by both government and private sector sources, the analysis considers several types of national level program impacts. These include: Energy savings; Environmental (emissions) impacts, and Net financial impacts to consumers, manufacturers and utilities. Energy savings impacts are calculated using the same methodology as the original projections, allowing a comparison. Other impacts are calculated using a robust and sophisticated methodology developed by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in a collaboration supported by the Collaborative Labeling and Standards Program (CLASP).

  6. Standardization and integration of ecological and human risk assessments at Department of Energy national laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1990, the directors of twelve national laboratories operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) chartered a steering group to address DOE's concerns about the effectiveness of any regulations driving the cost of environmental restoration and waste management. The goal of this presentation is to inform and to seek collaboration on the challenge of standardizing ecological and human health risk assessment approaches and development of an approach to address the differences between environmental remediation and restoration activities at DOE's waste management sites across the country. Recent changes in risk related regulations and budget cuts have prompted significant changes in DOE's approach to conducting and standardizing risk-based approaches for waste management. The steering group was established in 1990 to organize a broad, long-term educational outreach and research program focused on better science and public understanding of the risks associated with hazardous agents (chemical, biological, radiological, and physical) in the environment and the workplace. This presentation discusses the group's goal to (1) act as one resource for providing the technical basis for health and environmental standards; (2) catalyze a national effort to improve public understanding of risk and the importance of cost benefit analysis in evaluating mitigation of risk; (3) catalyze improvements in understanding of health and environmental effects of hazardous agents; and (4) analyze with regulatory agencies, industry, and the public the potential for evolution of risk-based consensus standard into federal and state environmental and occupational/public health regulations. Major accomplishments will be presented along with the group's agenda for standardizing risk, environmental, and occupational/public health standards

  7. Assessment of mycotoxin risk on corn in the Philippines under current and future climate change conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvacion, Arnold R; Pangga, Ireneo B; Cumagun, Christian Joseph R

    2015-01-01

    This study attempts to assess the risk of mycotoxins (aflatoxins and fumonisins) contamination on corn in the Philippines under current and projected climate change conditions using fuzzy logic methodology based on the published range of temperature and rainfall conditions that favor mycotoxin development. Based on the analysis, projected climatic change will reduce the risk of aflatoxin contamination in the country due to increased rainfall. In the case of fumonisin contamination, most parts of the country are at a very high risk both under current conditions and the projected climate change conditions.

  8. Measurement of mental attention: Assessing a cognitive component underlying performance on standardized intelligence tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Howard

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the widespread use of standardized IQ tests to measure human intelligence, problems with such measures have led some to suggest that better indices may derive from measurement of cognitive processes underlying performance on IQ tests (e.g., working memory capacity. However, measures from both approaches may exhibit performance biases in favour of majority groups, due to the influence of prior learning and experience. Mental attentional (M- capacity is proposed to be a causal factor underlying developmental growth in working memory. Measures of M-capacity index important cognitive variance underlying performance on standardized intelligence tests. These measures appear to be reasonably culture-fair and invariant across content domains. The current study tested theoretical predictions regarding the content-invariance of M-measures and the development of M-capacity for groups of children differing in performance on standardized IQ tests. Ninety-one participants differentiated on the basis of academic stream (intellectually gifted vs. mainstream and age (grade 4 vs. grade 8 received measures of M-capacity in the verbal and visuo-spatial domains. Children identified as gifted scored about one stage higher on both measures. Results suggest that measures of M-capacity may be useful adjuncts to standardized intelligence measures.

  9. Global risk assessment of aflatoxins in maize and peanuts: are regulatory standards adequately protective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Felicia; Stacy, Shaina L; Kensler, Thomas W

    2013-09-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America.

  10. Newly graduated doctors' competence in managing cardiopulmonary arrests assessed using a standardized Advanced Life Support (ALS) assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marianne Lidang; Hesselfeldt, R.; Rasmussen, M.B.;

    2007-01-01

    teaching issued by the university. RESULTS: Participation was accepted by 154/240 (64%) graduates. Only 23% of the participants met the ALS pass criteria. They primarily lacked skills in managing cardiopulmonary arrest. There were significant differences in ALS-competence between teaching sites. CONCLUSION......: Newly graduated doctors do not have sufficient competence in managing cardiopulmonary arrests according to the current guidelines published by ERC. There were significant differences in ALS-competence between sites. Change in teaching and assessment practice in undergraduate emergency medicine courses...

  11. Ethical and professional conduct of medical students: review of current assessment measures and controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, K; Turner, J

    2004-01-01

    As medical education increasingly acknowledges the importance of the ethical and professional conduct of practitioners, and moves towards more formal assessment of these issues, it is important to consider the evidence base which exists in this area. This article discusses literature about the health needs and problems experienced by medical practitioners as a background to a review of the current efforts in medical education to promote ethical conduct and develop mechanisms for the detection and remediation of problems. PMID:15082823

  12. Diagnostic accuracy of the vegetative and minimally conscious state: Clinical consensus versus standardized neurobehavioral assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majerus Steve

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously published studies have reported that up to 43% of patients with disorders of consciousness are erroneously assigned a diagnosis of vegetative state (VS. However, no recent studies have investigated the accuracy of this grave clinical diagnosis. In this study, we compared consensus-based diagnoses of VS and MCS to those based on a well-established standardized neurobehavioral rating scale, the JFK Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R. Methods We prospectively followed 103 patients (55 ± 19 years with mixed etiologies and compared the clinical consensus diagnosis provided by the physician on the basis of the medical staff's daily observations to diagnoses derived from CRS-R assessments performed by research staff. All patients were assigned a diagnosis of 'VS', 'MCS' or 'uncertain diagnosis.' Results Of the 44 patients diagnosed with VS based on the clinical consensus of the medical team, 18 (41% were found to be in MCS following standardized assessment with the CRS-R. In the 41 patients with a consensus diagnosis of MCS, 4 (10% had emerged from MCS, according to the CRS-R. We also found that the majority of patients assigned an uncertain diagnosis by clinical consensus (89% were in MCS based on CRS-R findings. Conclusion Despite the importance of diagnostic accuracy, the rate of misdiagnosis of VS has not substantially changed in the past 15 years. Standardized neurobehavioral assessment is a more sensitive means of establishing differential diagnosis in patients with disorders of consciousness when compared to diagnoses determined by clinical consensus.

  13. What are we assessing when we measure food security? A compendium and review of current metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew D; Ngure, Francis M; Pelto, Gretel; Young, Sera L

    2013-09-01

    The appropriate measurement of food security is critical for targeting food and economic aid; supporting early famine warning and global monitoring systems; evaluating nutrition, health, and development programs; and informing government policy across many sectors. This important work is complicated by the multiple approaches and tools for assessing food security. In response, we have prepared a compendium and review of food security assessment tools in which we review issues of terminology, measurement, and validation. We begin by describing the evolving definition of food security and use this discussion to frame a review of the current landscape of measurement tools available for assessing food security. We critically assess the purpose/s of these tools, the domains of food security assessed by each, the conceptualizations of food security that underpin each metric, as well as the approaches that have been used to validate these metrics. Specifically, we describe measurement tools that 1) provide national-level estimates of food security, 2) inform global monitoring and early warning systems, 3) assess household food access and acquisition, and 4) measure food consumption and utilization. After describing a number of outstanding measurement challenges that might be addressed in future research, we conclude by offering suggestions to guide the selection of appropriate food security metrics.

  14. Assessment of Financial Burden as a Standard of Care in Pediatric Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Wendy; Bona, Kira

    2015-12-01

    Family financial hardship has emerged as a burden of pediatric cancer treatment with negative implications for family well-being. As part of an extensive project to create evidence-based standards for the psychosocial care of children with cancer, we performed a literature review of pediatric cancer-associated financial hardship utilizing six databases, and identified 24 publications for incorporation into this review. Financial hardship during childhood cancer was found to affect a significant proportion of the population and to negatively impact family well-being. Existing literature supports a strong recommendation for assessment of financial hardship as a component of comprehensive psychosocial care in pediatric oncology.

  15. A Qualitative Assessment of Current CCF Guidance Based on a Review of Safety System Digital Implementation Changes with Evolving Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsah, Kofi [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Muhlheim, Michael David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wood, Richard [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is initiating a new rulemaking project to develop a digital system common-cause failure (CCF) rule. This rulemaking will review and modify or affirm the NRC's current digital system CCF policy as discussed in the Staff Requirements Memorandum to the Secretary of the Commission, Office of the NRC (SECY) 93-087, Policy, Technical, and Licensing Issues Pertaining to Evolutionary and Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) Designs, and Branch Technical Position (BTP) 7-19, Guidance on Evaluation of Defense-in-Depth and Diversity in Digital Computer-Based Instrumentation and Control Systems, as well as Chapter 7, Instrumentation and Controls, in NRC Regulatory Guide (NUREG)-0800, Standard Review Plan for Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants (ML033580677). The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is providing technical support to the NRC staff on the CCF rulemaking, and this report is one of several providing the technical basis to inform NRC staff members. For the task described in this report, ORNL examined instrumentation and controls (I&C) technology implementations in nuclear power plants in the light of current CCF guidance. The intent was to assess whether the current position on CCF is adequate given the evolutions in digital safety system implementations and, if gaps in the guidance were found, to provide recommendations as to how these gaps could be closed.

  16. A Qualitative Assessment of Current CCF Guidance Based on a Review of Safety System Digital Implementation Changes with Evolving Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsah, Kofi [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Muhlheim, Michael David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wood, Richard [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is initiating a new rulemaking project to develop a digital system common-cause failure (CCF) rule. This rulemaking will review and modify or affirm the NRC s current digital system CCF policy as discussed in the Staff Requirements Memorandum to the Secretary of the Commission, Office of the NRC (SECY) 93-087, Policy, Technical, and Licensing Issues Pertaining to Evolutionary and Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) Designs, and Branch Technical Position (BTP) 7-19, Guidance on Evaluation of Defense-in-Depth and Diversity in Digital Computer-Based Instrumentation and Control Systems, as well as Chapter 7, Instrumentation and Controls, in NRC Regulatory Guide (NUREG)-0800, Standard Review Plan for Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants (ML033580677). The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is providing technical support to the NRC staff on the CCF rulemaking, and this report is one of several providing the technical basis to inform NRC staff members. For the task described in this report, ORNL examined instrumentation and controls (I&C) technology implementations in nuclear power plants in the light of current CCF guidance. The intent was to assess whether the current position on CCF is adequate given the evolutions in digital safety system implementations and, if gaps in the guidance were found, to provide recommendations as to how these gaps could be closed.

  17. Assessment of Current State of Mooring Design in the Danish Wave Energy Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jonas Bjerg; Ferri, Francesco; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2015-01-01

    The mooring system is a vital part of any floating wave energy converter, both in terms of ensuring station keeping but also as it constitutes a significant share of the total cost. Motivatedby the considerable amount of failures due to insufficient mooring and the cost of mooring today......, the present study outlines the design procedure recommended by design standards and provides considerations on choice of tools for analysis. This is compared to the procedure used by four wave energy converter developers, to illustrate the state of their current mooring design. The study shows a clear...

  18. Introduction of a new standardized assessment score of spine morphology in osteogenesis imperfecta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerber, F.; Schulze Uphoff, U.; Koerber, S.; Maintz, D. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Schoenau, E.; Semler, O. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Children' s Hospital

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare hereditary disease leading to multiple bone deformities and fractures. In the absence of causal therapy, a symptomatic approach is based on treatment with bisphosphonates and physiotherapy. The clinical and radiological manifestations vary. Therefore, standardization and quantification for an objective comparison, especially during therapy, are required. In this paper, radiological changes of the spine are quantified according to their clinical relevance to define a scoring system that transfers the morphological changes into a single value representing the severity of the disease. Materials and Methods: 268 lateral spine X-rays of 95 patients with OI (median age 5.6 years) were assessed. The findings were classified based on their clinical relevance. Results: The three criteria, vertebral compression, thoracolumbar kyphosis and deformity type, were quantified in a new grading system. Based on this, a 'severity classification' (1 to 5) was defined with implications for diagnostics and treatment. A mathematical formula that takes into account the three criteria and their correlations to clinical relevance, resulting in a 'severity score', was developed. Conclusion: 'Severity classification' and 'severity score' introduce a new concept for a standardized evaluation of spine X-rays in patients with OI. For both scientific and routine purposes, it provides the user with a simple and easy-to-handle tool for assessing and comparing different stages of severity prior to and during therapy with detailed accuracy. (orig.)

  19. Assessing the sound quality of a grand piano for different tuning standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastl, Hugo

    2003-10-01

    Grand pianos are tuned to a standard frequency of 440 Hz for a4. Eighty years ago, the tuning standard was lower, around 432 Hz. In Germany, a group of music lovers insists that the sound quality of a grand piano when tuned to 432 Hz is much superior to that of the same instrument when tuned to 440 Hz. Therefore, well-controlled psychoacoustic experiments were performed to check the validity of that argument. Using a Welte-Steinway reproduction grand piano of the Deutsches Museum Muenchen, with the exception of the tuning, all other features of the pieces of music used as stimuli could be kept the same. The advantage of using the Welte-Steinway lies in the fact that reproductions of the music of famous (deceased) artists are available, who at their time performed at a lower tuning standard. Recordings of the music played at 432 vs 440 Hz were made on DAT and presented to the subjects via headphones for sound quality evaluation. Psychophysical procedures like semantic differential or preference scaling by ``random access'' that have proven successful for the assessment of sound quality in the context of car interior sounds were used in the experiments.

  20. LORETA current source density for duration mismatch negativity and neuropsychological assessment in early schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Miyanishi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Patients with schizophrenia elicit cognitive decline from the early phase of the illness. Mismatch negativity (MMN has been shown to be associated with cognitive function. We investigated the current source density of duration mismatch negativity (dMMN, by using low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA, and neuropsychological performance in subjects with early schizophrenia. METHODS: Data were obtained from 20 patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder, and 20 healthy control (HC subjects. An auditory odd-ball paradigm was used to measure dMMN. Neuropsychological performance was evaluated by the brief assessment of cognition in schizophrenia Japanese version (BACS-J. RESULTS: Patients showed smaller dMMN amplitudes than those in the HC subjects. LORETA current density for dMMN was significantly lower in patients compared to HC subjects, especially in the temporal lobes. dMMN current density in the frontal lobe was positively correlated with working memory performance in patients. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to identify brain regions showing smaller dMMN current density in early schizophrenia. Further, poor working memory was associated with decreased dMMN current density in patients. These results are likely to help understand the neural basis for cognitive impairment of schizophrenia.

  1. Cost-effectiveness analysis of sofosbuvir compared to current standard treatment in Swiss patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena M Pfeil

    Full Text Available In clinical trials, sofosbuvir showed high antiviral activity in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV across all genotypes. We aimed to determine the cost-effectiveness of sofosbuvir-based treatment compared to current standard treatment in mono-infected patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC genotypes 1-4 in Switzerland. Cost-effectiveness was modelled from the perspective of the Swiss health care system using a lifetime Markov model. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs used an endpoint of cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY gained. Treatment characteristics, quality of life, and transition probabilities were obtained from published literature. Country-specific model inputs such as patient characteristics, mortality and costs were obtained from Swiss sources. We performed extensive sensitivity analyses. Costs and effects were discounted at 3% (range: 0-5% per year. Sofosbuvir-containing treatment in mixed cohorts of cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients with CHC genotypes 1-4 showed ICERs between CHF 10,337 and CHF 91,570 per QALY gained. In subgroup analyses, sofosbuvir dominated telaprevir- and boceprevir-containing treatment in treatment-naïve genotype 1 cirrhotic patients. ICERs of sofosbuvir were above CHF 100,000 per QALY in treatment-naïve, interferon eligible, non-cirrhotic patients infected with genotypes 2 or 3. In deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses, results were generally robust. From a Swiss health care system perspective, treatment of mixed cohorts of cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients with CHC genotypes 1-4 with sofosbuvir-containing treatment versus standard treatment would be cost-effective if a threshold of CHF 100,000 per QALY was assumed.

  2. Cost-effectiveness analysis of sofosbuvir compared to current standard treatment in Swiss patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeil, Alena M; Reich, Oliver; Guerra, Ines M; Cure, Sandrine; Negro, Francesco; Müllhaupt, Beat; Lavanchy, Daniel; Schwenkglenks, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    In clinical trials, sofosbuvir showed high antiviral activity in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) across all genotypes. We aimed to determine the cost-effectiveness of sofosbuvir-based treatment compared to current standard treatment in mono-infected patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) genotypes 1-4 in Switzerland. Cost-effectiveness was modelled from the perspective of the Swiss health care system using a lifetime Markov model. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) used an endpoint of cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Treatment characteristics, quality of life, and transition probabilities were obtained from published literature. Country-specific model inputs such as patient characteristics, mortality and costs were obtained from Swiss sources. We performed extensive sensitivity analyses. Costs and effects were discounted at 3% (range: 0-5%) per year. Sofosbuvir-containing treatment in mixed cohorts of cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients with CHC genotypes 1-4 showed ICERs between CHF 10,337 and CHF 91,570 per QALY gained. In subgroup analyses, sofosbuvir dominated telaprevir- and boceprevir-containing treatment in treatment-naïve genotype 1 cirrhotic patients. ICERs of sofosbuvir were above CHF 100,000 per QALY in treatment-naïve, interferon eligible, non-cirrhotic patients infected with genotypes 2 or 3. In deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses, results were generally robust. From a Swiss health care system perspective, treatment of mixed cohorts of cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients with CHC genotypes 1-4 with sofosbuvir-containing treatment versus standard treatment would be cost-effective if a threshold of CHF 100,000 per QALY was assumed.

  3. Risk assessment of GM trees in the EU: current regulatory framework and guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilera J

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of genetically modified organisms - their release into the environment, import, and utilisation as food/feed or food/feed ingredients - is regulated in the European Union (EU. For placing onto the market, current legislations require a comprehensive and science-based risk assessment. This risk assessment (RA is performed by applicants and then evaluated by national authorities in close cooperation with the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA. The EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO has published a comprehensive set of guidance documents for applicants and risk assessors for the RA of GM plants (GMP, their products for food and/or feed use, and their cultivation. In those documents, the strategy and the criteria to conduct the assessment are explained, as well as the scientific data to be provided by the applicant. The assessment starts with the molecular characterisation of the GMP. If the GMP or products derived from it are to be consumed, the evaluation of its composition, potential toxicity and/or allergenicity, and nutritional value constitute further cornerstones of the process. The environmental risk assessment (ERA considers biotic and abiotic interactions and the impacts of the management of the GM plant when it is intended for cultivation. In the case of GM trees special emphasis would be placed on assessing their characteristic features such as their longevity, ability to disperse and their ecological significance in a range of environments. The outcome of the assessment is reflected in a published opinion from the EFSA GMO panel that indicates whether the GMP and its products raise any safety issues. This scientific opinion constitutes one of the elements taken into account by the different European regulatory authorities prior to a decision regarding authorisation to commercialise the product.

  4. Standardized MRD quantification in European ALL trials: proceedings of the Second International Symposium on MRD assessment in Kiel, Germany, 18-20 September 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, M; Schrauder, A; Raff, T;

    2010-01-01

    assessment was built in the context of the Second International Symposium on MRD assessment in Kiel, Germany, 18-20 September 2008. The panel summarized the current state of MRD diagnostics in ALL and developed recommendations on the minimal technical requirements that should be fulfilled before...... treatment stratification. Therefore, there is an increasing need for standardization of methodologies and harmonization of terminology. For this purpose, a panel of representatives of all major European study groups on childhood and adult ALL and of international experts on PCR- and flow cytometry-based MRD...

  5. Standardized Assessment of Biodiversity Trends in Tropical Forest Protected Areas: The End Is Not in Sight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudrot, Lydia; Ahumada, Jorge A; O'Brien, Timothy; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Boekee, Kelly; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa; Eichberg, David; Espinosa, Santiago; Fegraus, Eric; Fletcher, Christine; Gajapersad, Krisna; Hallam, Chris; Hurtado, Johanna; Jansen, Patrick A; Kumar, Amit; Larney, Eileen; Lima, Marcela Guimarães Moreira; Mahony, Colin; Martin, Emanuel H; McWilliam, Alex; Mugerwa, Badru; Ndoundou-Hockemba, Mireille; Razafimahaimodison, Jean Claude; Romero-Saltos, Hugo; Rovero, Francesco; Salvador, Julia; Santos, Fernanda; Sheil, Douglas; Spironello, Wilson R; Willig, Michael R; Winarni, Nurul L; Zvoleff, Alex; Andelman, Sandy J

    2016-01-01

    Extinction rates in the Anthropocene are three orders of magnitude higher than background and disproportionately occur in the tropics, home of half the world's species. Despite global efforts to combat tropical species extinctions, lack of high-quality, objective information on tropical biodiversity has hampered quantitative evaluation of conservation strategies. In particular, the scarcity of population-level monitoring in tropical forests has stymied assessment of biodiversity outcomes, such as the status and trends of animal populations in protected areas. Here, we evaluate occupancy trends for 511 populations of terrestrial mammals and birds, representing 244 species from 15 tropical forest protected areas on three continents. For the first time to our knowledge, we use annual surveys from tropical forests worldwide that employ a standardized camera trapping protocol, and we compute data analytics that correct for imperfect detection. We found that occupancy declined in 22%, increased in 17%, and exhibited no change in 22% of populations during the last 3-8 years, while 39% of populations were detected too infrequently to assess occupancy changes. Despite extensive variability in occupancy trends, these 15 tropical protected areas have not exhibited systematic declines in biodiversity (i.e., occupancy, richness, or evenness) at the community level. Our results differ from reports of widespread biodiversity declines based on aggregated secondary data and expert opinion and suggest less extreme deterioration in tropical forest protected areas. We simultaneously fill an important conservation data gap and demonstrate the value of large-scale monitoring infrastructure and powerful analytics, which can be scaled to incorporate additional sites, ecosystems, and monitoring methods. In an era of catastrophic biodiversity loss, robust indicators produced from standardized monitoring infrastructure are critical to accurately assess population outcomes and identify

  6. Standardized Assessment of Biodiversity Trends in Tropical Forest Protected Areas: The End Is Not in Sight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Beaudrot

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extinction rates in the Anthropocene are three orders of magnitude higher than background and disproportionately occur in the tropics, home of half the world's species. Despite global efforts to combat tropical species extinctions, lack of high-quality, objective information on tropical biodiversity has hampered quantitative evaluation of conservation strategies. In particular, the scarcity of population-level monitoring in tropical forests has stymied assessment of biodiversity outcomes, such as the status and trends of animal populations in protected areas. Here, we evaluate occupancy trends for 511 populations of terrestrial mammals and birds, representing 244 species from 15 tropical forest protected areas on three continents. For the first time to our knowledge, we use annual surveys from tropical forests worldwide that employ a standardized camera trapping protocol, and we compute data analytics that correct for imperfect detection. We found that occupancy declined in 22%, increased in 17%, and exhibited no change in 22% of populations during the last 3-8 years, while 39% of populations were detected too infrequently to assess occupancy changes. Despite extensive variability in occupancy trends, these 15 tropical protected areas have not exhibited systematic declines in biodiversity (i.e., occupancy, richness, or evenness at the community level. Our results differ from reports of widespread biodiversity declines based on aggregated secondary data and expert opinion and suggest less extreme deterioration in tropical forest protected areas. We simultaneously fill an important conservation data gap and demonstrate the value of large-scale monitoring infrastructure and powerful analytics, which can be scaled to incorporate additional sites, ecosystems, and monitoring methods. In an era of catastrophic biodiversity loss, robust indicators produced from standardized monitoring infrastructure are critical to accurately assess population outcomes

  7. Standardized Assessment of Biodiversity Trends in Tropical Forest Protected Areas: The End Is Not in Sight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudrot, Lydia; Ahumada, Jorge A; O'Brien, Timothy; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Boekee, Kelly; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa; Eichberg, David; Espinosa, Santiago; Fegraus, Eric; Fletcher, Christine; Gajapersad, Krisna; Hallam, Chris; Hurtado, Johanna; Jansen, Patrick A; Kumar, Amit; Larney, Eileen; Lima, Marcela Guimarães Moreira; Mahony, Colin; Martin, Emanuel H; McWilliam, Alex; Mugerwa, Badru; Ndoundou-Hockemba, Mireille; Razafimahaimodison, Jean Claude; Romero-Saltos, Hugo; Rovero, Francesco; Salvador, Julia; Santos, Fernanda; Sheil, Douglas; Spironello, Wilson R; Willig, Michael R; Winarni, Nurul L; Zvoleff, Alex; Andelman, Sandy J

    2016-01-01

    Extinction rates in the Anthropocene are three orders of magnitude higher than background and disproportionately occur in the tropics, home of half the world's species. Despite global efforts to combat tropical species extinctions, lack of high-quality, objective information on tropical biodiversity has hampered quantitative evaluation of conservation strategies. In particular, the scarcity of population-level monitoring in tropical forests has stymied assessment of biodiversity outcomes, such as the status and trends of animal populations in protected areas. Here, we evaluate occupancy trends for 511 populations of terrestrial mammals and birds, representing 244 species from 15 tropical forest protected areas on three continents. For the first time to our knowledge, we use annual surveys from tropical forests worldwide that employ a standardized camera trapping protocol, and we compute data analytics that correct for imperfect detection. We found that occupancy declined in 22%, increased in 17%, and exhibited no change in 22% of populations during the last 3-8 years, while 39% of populations were detected too infrequently to assess occupancy changes. Despite extensive variability in occupancy trends, these 15 tropical protected areas have not exhibited systematic declines in biodiversity (i.e., occupancy, richness, or evenness) at the community level. Our results differ from reports of widespread biodiversity declines based on aggregated secondary data and expert opinion and suggest less extreme deterioration in tropical forest protected areas. We simultaneously fill an important conservation data gap and demonstrate the value of large-scale monitoring infrastructure and powerful analytics, which can be scaled to incorporate additional sites, ecosystems, and monitoring methods. In an era of catastrophic biodiversity loss, robust indicators produced from standardized monitoring infrastructure are critical to accurately assess population outcomes and identify

  8. An empirical standardized soil moisture index for agricultural drought assessment from remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrão, Hugo; Russo, Simone; Sepulcre-Canto, Guadalupe; Barbosa, Paulo

    2016-06-01

    We propose a simple, spatially invariant and probabilistic year-round Empirical Standardized Soil Moisture Index (ESSMI) that is designed to classify soil moisture anomalies from harmonized multi-satellite surface data into categories of agricultural drought intensity. The ESSMI is computed by fitting a nonparametric empirical probability density function (ePDF) to historical time-series of soil moisture observations and then transforming it into a normal distribution with a mean of zero and standard deviation of one. Negative standard normal values indicate dry soil conditions, whereas positive values indicate wet soil conditions. Drought intensity is defined as the number of negative standard deviations between the observed soil moisture value and the respective normal climatological conditions. To evaluate the performance of the ESSMI, we fitted the ePDF to the Essential Climate Variable Soil Moisture (ECV SM) v02.0 data values collected in the period between January 1981 and December 2010 at South-Central America, and compared the root-mean-square-errors (RMSE) of residuals with those of beta and normal probability density functions (bPDF and nPDF, respectively). Goodness-of-fit results attained with time-series of ECV SM values averaged at monthly, seasonal, half-yearly and yearly timescales suggest that the ePDF provides triggers of agricultural drought onset and intensity that are more accurate and precise than the bPDF and nPDF. Furthermore, by accurately mapping the occurrence of major drought events over the last three decades, the ESSMI proved to be spatio-temporal consistent and the ECV SM data to provide a well calibrated and homogenized soil moisture climatology for the region. Maize, soybean and wheat crop yields in the region are highly correlated (r > 0.82) with cumulative ESSMI values computed during the months of critical crop growing, indicating that the nonparametric index of soil moisture anomalies can be used for agricultural drought

  9. Using standardized patients to assess communication skills in medical and nursing students

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, C Anthony

    2010-03-17

    Abstract Background A number of recent developments in medical and nursing education have highlighted the importance of communication and consultation skills (CCS). Although such skills are taught in all medical and nursing undergraduate curriculums, there is no comprehensive screening or assessment programme of CCS using professionally trained Standardized Patients Educators (SPE\\'s) in Ireland. This study was designed to test the content, process and acceptability of a screening programme in CCS with Irish medical and nursing students using trained SPE\\'s and a previously validated global rating scale for CCS. Methods Eight tutors from the Schools of Nursing and Medicine at University College Cork were trained in the use of a validated communication skills and attitudes holistic assessment tool. A total of forty six medical students (Year 2 of 5) and sixty four nursing students (Year 2\\/3 of 4) were selected to under go individual CCS assessment by the tutors via an SPE led scenario. Immediate formative feedback was provided by the SPE\\'s for the students. Students who did not pass the assessment were referred for remediation CCS learning. Results Almost three quarters of medical students (33\\/46; 72%) and 81% of nursing students (56\\/64) passed the CCS assessment in both communication and attitudes categories. All nursing students had English as their first language. Nine of thirteen medical students referred for enhanced learning in CCS did not have English as their first language. Conclusions A significant proportion of both medical and nursing students required referral for enhanced training in CCS. Medical students requiring enhanced training were more likely not to have English as a first language.

  10. Using standardized patients to assess communication skills in medical and nursing Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgoyne Louise

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of recent developments in medical and nursing education have highlighted the importance of communication and consultation skills (CCS. Although such skills are taught in all medical and nursing undergraduate curriculums, there is no comprehensive screening or assessment programme of CCS using professionally trained Standardized Patients Educators (SPE's in Ireland. This study was designed to test the content, process and acceptability of a screening programme in CCS with Irish medical and nursing students using trained SPE's and a previously validated global rating scale for CCS. Methods Eight tutors from the Schools of Nursing and Medicine at University College Cork were trained in the use of a validated communication skills and attitudes holistic assessment tool. A total of forty six medical students (Year 2 of 5 and sixty four nursing students (Year 2/3 of 4 were selected to under go individual CCS assessment by the tutors via an SPE led scenario. Immediate formative feedback was provided by the SPE's for the students. Students who did not pass the assessment were referred for remediation CCS learning. Results Almost three quarters of medical students (33/46; 72% and 81% of nursing students (56/64 passed the CCS assessment in both communication and attitudes categories. All nursing students had English as their first language. Nine of thirteen medical students referred for enhanced learning in CCS did not have English as their first language. Conclusions A significant proportion of both medical and nursing students required referral for enhanced training in CCS. Medical students requiring enhanced training were more likely not to have English as a first language.

  11. Assessing the quality of decision support technologies using the International Patient Decision Aid Standards instrument (IPDASi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glyn Elwyn

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To describe the development, validation and inter-rater reliability of an instrument to measure the quality of patient decision support technologies (decision aids. DESIGN: Scale development study, involving construct, item and scale development, validation and reliability testing. SETTING: There has been increasing use of decision support technologies--adjuncts to the discussions clinicians have with patients about difficult decisions. A global interest in developing these interventions exists among both for-profit and not-for-profit organisations. It is therefore essential to have internationally accepted standards to assess the quality of their development, process, content, potential bias and method of field testing and evaluation. METHODS: Scale development study, involving construct, item and scale development, validation and reliability testing. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-five researcher-members of the International Patient Decision Aid Standards Collaboration worked together to develop the instrument (IPDASi. In the fourth Stage (reliability study, eight raters assessed thirty randomly selected decision support technologies. RESULTS: IPDASi measures quality in 10 dimensions, using 47 items, and provides an overall quality score (scaled from 0 to 100 for each intervention. Overall IPDASi scores ranged from 33 to 82 across the decision support technologies sampled (n = 30, enabling discrimination. The inter-rater intraclass correlation for the overall quality score was 0.80. Correlations of dimension scores with the overall score were all positive (0.31 to 0.68. Cronbach's alpha values for the 8 raters ranged from 0.72 to 0.93. Cronbach's alphas based on the dimension means ranged from 0.50 to 0.81, indicating that the dimensions, although well correlated, measure different aspects of decision support technology quality. A short version (19 items was also developed that had very similar mean scores to IPDASi and high correlation

  12. Objective Image Quality of CRT Displays under Ambient Glare: Assessing the ISO 9241-7 Ergonomic Technical Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Kempic, Joy III

    1998-01-01

    Objective Image Quality of CRT Displays under Ambient Glare: Assessing the ISO 9241-7 Ergonomic Technical Standard Joy Kempic (Abstract) This thesis assessed the readability of CRT displays viewed under ambient lighting conditions and then evaluated the findings with respect to the ISO 9241-7 standard. More specifically, two phases of work were conducted in this thesis. In Phase 1, seven monitors were evaluated photometrically according to the ISO 9241-...

  13. Assessment of pharmacognostic and phytochemical standards of Thespesia populnea (L.) root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patil PS; Venkatanarayanan R; Argade PD; Shinde PR

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To Assessment of pharmacognostic and phytochemical parameters of root of Thespesiapopulnea (L.) soland. Methods: Macroscopical, miscroscopical, physico-chemical evaluation, florescence analysis, behavior of root powder and preliminary phytochemical analysis, quantitative estimation of phytoconstituents were determined of various extracts of T. populnea.Results: microscopic study shows the general characteristic of root with presence of periderm, cortex, xylem and phloem region, abundant starch grains. Physico-chemical investigation shows the total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash and sulphated ash values were 10.59依0.02 % w/w, 1.02依0.03 % w/w, 2.72依0.03 % w/w and 8.56依0.02 % w/w respectively. However, the aqueous soluble, alcohol soluble extractives and moisture content were found to be 14.23依0.46 % w/w, 10.54依0.23% w/w and 4.60依0.01% w/w respectively. The preliminary phytochemical assessment revealed the presence of glycosides, steroid/triterpenoids, flavonoids, tannins, phenolic compounds saponins, carbohydrates and proteins. Total phenolic and flavonoids content of root was 0.271%and 0.344% respectively. Behavior of root powder with various chemicals confirmed the presence of phytoconstituents. Conclusions: The pharmacognostic and phytochemical assessment of T. populnea may helpful towards founding for quality, purity and sample identification and standardization.

  14. CRM Assessment: Determining the Generalization of Rater Calibration Training. Summary of Research Report: Gold Standards Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David P.

    2002-01-01

    The extent to which pilot instructors are trained to assess crew resource management (CRM) skills accurately during Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) and Line Operational Evaluation (LOE) scenarios is critical. Pilot instructors must make accurate performance ratings to ensure that proper feedback is provided to flight crews and appropriate decisions are made regarding certification to fly the line. Furthermore, the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) requires that instructors be trained explicitly to evaluate both technical and CRM performance (i.e., rater training) and also requires that proficiency and standardization of instructors be verified periodically. To address the critical need for effective pilot instructor training, the American Institutes for Research (AIR) reviewed the relevant research on rater training and, based on "best practices" from this research, developed a new strategy for training pilot instructors to assess crew performance. In addition, we explored new statistical techniques for assessing the effectiveness of pilot instructor training. The results of our research are briefly summarized below. This summary is followed by abstracts of articles and book chapters published under this grant.

  15. Establishing standards and assessment criteria for ecological instream flow needs in agricultural regions of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Daniel L; Baird, Donald J; Monk, Wendy A; Armanini, David G

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural land use can place heavy demands on regional water resources, strongly influencing the quantity and timing of water flows needed to sustain natural ecosystems. The effects of agricultural practices on streamflow conditions are multifaceted, as they also contribute to the severity of impacts arising from other stressors within the river ecosystem. Thus, river scientists need to determine the quantity of water required to sustain important aquatic ecosystem components and ecological services, to support wise apportionment of water for agricultural use. It is now apparent that arbitrarily defined minimum flows are inadequate for this task because the complex habitat requirements of the biota, which underpin the structure and function of a river ecosystem, are strongly influenced by predictable temporal variations in flow. We present an alternative framework for establishing a first-level, regional ecological instream flow needs standard based on adoption of the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration/Range of Variability Approach as a broadly applicable hydrological assessment tool, coupling this to the Canadian Ecological Flow Index which assesses ecological responses to hydrological alteration. By explicitly incorporating a new field-based ecological assessment tool for small agricultural streams, we provide a necessary verification of altered hydrology that is broadly applicable within Canada and essential to ensure the continuous feedback between the application of flow management criteria and ecological condition. PMID:22218172

  16. A probabilistic safety assessment of the standard French 900MWe pressurized water reactor. Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To situate the probabilistic safety assessment of standardized 900 MWe units made by the Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection (IPSN), it is necessary to consider the importance and possible utilization of a study of this type. At the present time, the safety of nuclear installations essentially depends on the application of the defence in-depth approach. The design arrangements adopted are justified by the operating organization on the basis of deterministic studies of a limited number of conventional situations with corresponding safety margins. These conventional situations are grouped in categories by frequency, it being accepted that the greater the consequences the lesser the frequency must be. However in the framework of the analysis performed under the control of the French safety authority, the importance was rapidly recognized of setting an overall reference objective. By 1977, on the occasion of appraisal of the fundamental safety options of the standardized 1300 MWe units, the Central Service for the Safety of Nuclear Installations (SCSIN) set the following global probabilistic objective: 'Generally speaking, the design of installations including a pressurized water nuclear reactor must be such that the global probability of the nuclear unit being the origin of unacceptable consequences does not exceed 10-6 per year...' Probabilistic analyses making reference to this global objective gradually began to supplement the deterministic approach, both for examining external hazards to be considered in the design basis and for examining the possible need for additional means of countering the failure of doubled systems in application of the deterministic single-failure criterion. A new step has been taken in France by carrying out two level 1 probabilistic safety assessments (calculation of the annual probability of core meltdown), one for the 900 MWe series by the IPSN and the other for the 1300 MWe series by Electricite de France. The objective of

  17. 48 CFR 52.223-16 - IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false IEEE 1680 Standard for the... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.223-16 IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products. As prescribed in 23.706(b)(1), insert the following clause:...

  18. Radiologic features in juvenile idiopathic arthritis - A first step in the development of a standardized assessment method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, MAJ; Zwinderman, AH; Dijkmans, BAC; van Soesbergen, RM; Fiselier, TJW; Franssen, MJAM; ten Cate, R; van Suijlekom-Smit, LWA; Wulffraat, NM; Kuis, W; van Luijk, WHJ; Oostveen, JCM; Dijkstra, PF

    2003-01-01

    Objective. To describe radiologic features of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) in a standardized manner, to test the reliability and feasibility of this description, and to correlate these features with clinical signs as a first step in the development of a standardized assessment m

  19. How fuel performance is currently assessed for Ontario Power Generation reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to provide an understanding of how current fuel performance is assessed and the results brought into service by the utility. Historically, the main emphasis of fuel assessments was to assess in-bay inspection data and hot-cell examination data to investigate the cause of defect fuel. In recent years, the need to demonstrate that the fuel is operating within its design envelope has necessitated the development of more rigorous inspection plans, techniques, data collection methodologies and analysis tools. Each year an annual fuel performance report is prepared for the CNSC to satisfy a licensing requirement. The main objective of this report is to show that adequate monitoring of the fuel condition is taking place to check that the fuel condition meets the fuel design basis limits. These objectives also serve to give the utility confidence that the fuel condition is monitored and that trends are not leading to adverse operating states that might have large safety / economic impacts. In the late 1990's, the amount of fuel inspection data was becoming large and difficult to manage. It was exceedingly difficult to identify the current fuel condition in the reactors. Information that might be relevant to current on-going problems was difficult to find, and often relied on personal memory. As a result, Ontario Hydro developed a plan to rationalize past data and incorporate the information into a database. Regular collection of fuel inspection data into a database structure, in conjunction with complementary PIE data, allows ongoing mapping and trending of fuel condition in each core. This is used to monitor for precursors of concerns related to operating or manufacturing variance as well as core aging. This is also used to investigate bundle defects cause or operating/handling events. (author)

  20. How current assessments of Sustainability Performance by Best Practice in the UN Global Compact challenge legitimacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Thomas

    Performance? And how the current assessment of Sustainability Performance by Best Practice in the UN Global Compact challenge the legitimacy of both the corporation, the UNGC and governments attempting to facilitate sustainability and CSR engagement? Best Practice is a concept frequently used by authorities...... sources like governments, multi-national institutions etc. to showcase corporate sustainability practices in an attempt to inspire motivate or convince for corporate engagement. UNGC applies this discourse to a great extend and even goes as far as to integrate Best Practices as the core and decisive...... Best Practices. These issues were identified by assessing the Sustainability Performance and analyzing the sustainability reports of 67 Nordic corporations, whom are signatories to the UN Global Compact. This study applies a theoretical perspective to the empirical findings by Kjaergard (submitted...

  1. THE CURRENT ASSESSMENT OF TEACHERS IN HIGHER EDUCATION AT THE INSTITUTO POLITÉCNICO NACIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Arenas-Romero

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the current form of teacher assessment at a higher level and criteria used, based on surveys of student opinion is analyzed. Such surveys do not reflect the real capacity of teachers and only serves as a form of administrative control. This paper establishes the utility of these assessments as a tool for improvement and as part of an early detection of needs, be altered by the biased way he handles himself. In addition, a criticism of this type of evaluation is done; the results are disclosed extemporaneously, which also restricts the development of teachers through the bureaucratic control of that information not timely feedback to teachers in order to improve their performance.

  2. Nondestructive inspection assessment of eddy current and electrochemical analysis to separate inconel and stainless steel alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, D.G.; Sorensen, N.R.

    1998-02-01

    This report presents a nondestructive inspection assessment of eddy current and electrochemical analysis to separate inconel alloys from stainless steel alloys as well as an evaluation of cleaning techniques to remove a thermal oxide layer on aircraft exhaust components. The results of this assessment are presented in terms of how effective each technique classifies a known exhaust material. Results indicate that either inspection technique can separate inconel and stainless steel alloys. Based on the experiments conducted, the electrochemical spot test is the optimum for use by airframe and powerplant mechanics. A spot test procedure is proposed for incorporation into the Federal Aviation Administration Advisory Circular 65-9A Airframe & Powerplant Mechanic - General Handbook. 3 refs., 70 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Current Status of Development of Methods to Assess Effects of Cumulative or Aggregated Underwater Sounds on Marine Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleishman, Erica; Streever, Bill; Angliss, Robyn; Clark, Christopher W; Ellison, William T; Frankel, Adam; Gedamke, Jason; Leu, Matthias; McKenna, Megan; Racca, Roberto; Simmons, Samantha; Suydam, Robert

    2016-01-01

    There are no standards for assessment of the cumulative effects of underwater sound. Quantitative assessments typically consider a single source, whereas qualitative assessments may include multiple sources but rarely identify response variables. As a step toward understanding the cumulative effects of underwater sound, we assessed the aggregated sounds of multiple sources received by migrating bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus). The quantitative method models the sound field from multiple sources and simulates movement of a population through it. The qualitative method uses experts to assess the responses of individuals and populations to sound sources and identify the potential mechanisms. These methods increase the transparency of assessments. PMID:26610973

  4. T2* mapping for articular cartilage assessment: principles, current applications, and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesper, Tobias; Bittersohl, Daniela; Krauspe, Ruediger; Zilkens, Christoph [University Duesseldorf, Department of Orthopaedics Medical Faculty, Duesseldorf (Germany); Hosalkar, Harish S. [Center of Hip Preservation and Children' s Orthopaedics, San Diego, CA (United States); Welsch, Goetz H. [Medical University of Vienna, MR Center, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Bittersohl, Bernd [University Duesseldorf, Department of Orthopaedics Medical Faculty, Duesseldorf (Germany); Heinrich-Heine University, Medical School, Department of Orthopaedics, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    With advances in joint preservation surgery that are intended to alter the course of osteoarthritis by early intervention, accurate and reliable assessment of the cartilage status is critical. Biochemically sensitive MRI techniques can add robust biomarkers for disease onset and progression, and therefore, could be meaningful assessment tools for the diagnosis and follow-up of cartilage abnormalities. T2* mapping could be a good alternative because it would combine the benefits of biochemical cartilage evaluation with remarkable features including short imaging time and the ability of high-resolution three-dimensional cartilage evaluation - without the need for contrast media administration or special hardware. Several in vitro and in vivo studies, which have elaborated on the potential of cartilage T2* assessment in various cartilage disease patterns and grades of degeneration, have been reported. However, much remains to be understood and certain unresolved questions have become apparent with these studies that are crucial to the further application of this technique. This review summarizes the principles of the technique and current applications of T2* mapping for articular cartilage assessment. Limitations of recent studies are discussed and the potential implications for patient care are presented. (orig.)

  5. T2* mapping for articular cartilage assessment: principles, current applications, and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With advances in joint preservation surgery that are intended to alter the course of osteoarthritis by early intervention, accurate and reliable assessment of the cartilage status is critical. Biochemically sensitive MRI techniques can add robust biomarkers for disease onset and progression, and therefore, could be meaningful assessment tools for the diagnosis and follow-up of cartilage abnormalities. T2* mapping could be a good alternative because it would combine the benefits of biochemical cartilage evaluation with remarkable features including short imaging time and the ability of high-resolution three-dimensional cartilage evaluation - without the need for contrast media administration or special hardware. Several in vitro and in vivo studies, which have elaborated on the potential of cartilage T2* assessment in various cartilage disease patterns and grades of degeneration, have been reported. However, much remains to be understood and certain unresolved questions have become apparent with these studies that are crucial to the further application of this technique. This review summarizes the principles of the technique and current applications of T2* mapping for articular cartilage assessment. Limitations of recent studies are discussed and the potential implications for patient care are presented. (orig.)

  6. Cross-State Findings. Benchmarking State Implementation of College- and Career-Readiness Standards, Aligned Assessments and Related Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kimberly; Mira, Mary Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Implementation of college- and career-readiness standards is some of the most important work currently underway in states to improve student achievement and public education overall. SREB examined the efforts of 14 states--including 11 SREB states--to support implementation of new college- and career-readiness standards. The goal of the research…

  7. The current assessment of foreign direct investment in the Middle East and North African region

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Khouri, Ritab

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to assess the growth and the current status of foreign direct investment (FDI) in a sample of 16 Middle East and North African (MENA) countries over the period 1984-2011. Our goal is to give some insight on the importance of the different factors affecting foreign direct investment (FDI). To reach our goals, we will examine the growth of FDI over time in the MENA region as compared to that of other regions. Second, we will determine the most important factors that promote F...

  8. Assessment of current practices in creating and using passwords as a control mechanism for information access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Wessels

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the critical issues in managing information within an organization is to ensure that proper controls exist and are applied in allowing people access to information. Passwords are used extensively as the main control mechanism to identify users wanting access to systems, applications, data files, network servers or personal information. In this article, the issues involved in selecting and using passwords are discussed and the current practices employed by users in creating and storing passwords to gain access to sensitive information are assessed. The results of this survey conclude that information managers cannot rely only on users to employ proper password control in order to protect sensitive information.

  9. Assessment of the current computer literacy and future computer needs of emergency medicine residents and faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debehnke, D J; Valley, V T

    1993-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the current computer literacy and future computer needs of emergency medicine residents and faculty to aid in developing a computer literacy curriculum. All emergency medicine residents and full-time faculty from a random sample of emergency medicine residencies were mailed questionnaires assessing current computer familiarity and future computer needs. Twenty-one residencies were surveyed; 15 resident and 17 faculty questionnaires were returned. Thirty-seven percent (116 of 314) faculty and 29% (135 of 470) resident questionnaires were completed and returned. Eighty percent (12 of 15) of residencies had a designated computer for resident use; 93% (14 of 15) had a computer for use in the emergency department. Forty-seven percent of residents owned their own computer; 68% of faculty had a computer in their home, and 52% had computers in their office. Less than 30% of residents and faculty had formal computer training. Residents and faculty rated the current familiarity and future needs for various software applications on a five-point scale. Data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon-Rank Sum Test. Residents and faculty had the most anticipated need for word processing, graphics, literature searching, data base, and patient management programs. Future computer need was rated significantly higher than current computer familiarity in all computer application areas (P < or = .0002). It seems that emergency medicine residents and faculty have adequate access to computers, but minimal computer training. Residents and faculty have a high anticipated need for various basic computer applications.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8216519

  10. 75 FR 45128 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... Guidelines dated April 13, 2004 (69 FR 19644), the following laboratories meet the minimum standards to... Engaged in Urine Drug Testing for Federal Agencies,'' sets strict standards that laboratories must meet in.... Meade, MD 20755-5235, 301-677-7085 *The Standards Council of Canada (SCC) voted to end its...

  11. 75 FR 39023 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... Guidelines dated April 13, 2004 (69 FR 19644), the following laboratories meet the minimum standards to... in Urine Drug Testing for Federal Agencies,'' sets strict standards that laboratories must meet in... 20755-5235, 301-677-7085. * The Standards Council of Canada (SCC) voted to end its...

  12. 75 FR 9229 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... Guidelines dated April 13, 2004 (69 FR 19644), the following laboratories meet the minimum standards to... in Urine Drug Testing for Federal Agencies,'' sets strict standards that laboratories must meet in... Standards Council of Canada (SCC) voted to end its Laboratory Accreditation Program for Substance...

  13. 75 FR 5088 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... Guidelines dated April 13, 2004 (69 FR 19644), the following laboratories meet the minimum standards to... in Urine Drug Testing for Federal Agencies,'' sets strict standards that laboratories must meet in... Standards Council of Canada (SCC) voted to end its Laboratory Accreditation Program for Substance...

  14. 75 FR 27348 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Guidelines dated April 13, 2004 (69 FR 19644), the following laboratories meet the minimum standards to... Urine Drug Testing for Federal Agencies,'' sets strict standards that laboratories must meet in order to... 20755-5235, 301-677-7085. *The Standards Council of Canada (SCC) voted to end its...

  15. 75 FR 32950 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... Guidelines dated April 13, 2004 (69 FR 19644), the following laboratories meet the minimum standards to... in Urine Drug Testing for Federal Agencies,'' sets strict standards that laboratories must meet in... 20755-5235. 301-677-7085. * The Standards Council of Canada (SCC) voted to end its...

  16. 75 FR 154 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... Guidelines dated April 13, 2004 (69 FR 19644), the following laboratories meet the minimum standards to... in Urine Drug Testing for Federal Agencies,'' sets strict standards that laboratories must meet in... Standards Council of Canada (SCC) voted to end its Laboratory Accreditation Program for Substance...

  17. Numerical assessments of ocean energy extraction from western boundary currents using a quasi-geostrophic ocean circulation model

    CERN Document Server

    San, Omer

    2016-01-01

    A single-layer, quasi-geostrophic (QG), large-scale ocean circulation model is developed in this paper to study available ocean current energy potentials harnessed by using the ocean current turbines. Power extraction is modeled by adding a parameterized Rayleigh friction term in the barotropic vorticity equation. Numerical assessments are performed by simulating a set of mid-latitude ocean basins in the beta plane, which are standard prototypes of more realistic ocean dynamics considering inter-decadal variability in turbulent equilibrium. A sensitivity analysis with respect to the turbine parameters is performed for various physical conditions. Results show that the proposed model captures the quasi-stationary ocean dynamics and provides the four-gyre circulation patterns in time mean. After an initial spin-up process, the proposed model reaches a statistically steady state at an average maximum speed between 1.5 m/s and 2.5 m/s, which is close to the observed maximum zonal velocities in the western boundar...

  18. Spanish and Chilean Standardizations of the Personality Assessment Inventory: the Influence of Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Tallo, Margarita; Cardenal, Violeta; Ferragut, Marta; Santamaría, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in the adaptation of psychological questionnaires in different countries, due to the need for cross-cultural research using the same tests adapted to diverse populations. This paper presents the standardization of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991, 2007) in Spain and Chile (both Spanish-speaking countries). The Spanish sample was made up of 940 people (461 men and 479 women), and the Chilean sample of 569 people (231 men and 338 women). Results revealed that the Chilean means were higher than those of the Spanish sample at confidence level 99.9%, although the associated effect sizes were generally small to moderate (partial eta-square between 0.008 and 0.187). Sex differences in the variables evaluated were commented on, and the importance of cross-cultural research and the influence of sex on personality and psychopathology variables were discussed.

  19. The Wada Test: contributions to standardization of the stimulus for language and memory assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäder Maria Joana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Wada Test (WT is part of the presurgical evaluation for refractory epilepsy. The WT is not standardized and the protocols differ in important ways, including stimulus type of material presented for memory testing, timing of presentations and methods of assessment. The aim of this study was to contribute to establish parameters for a WT to Brazilian population investigating the performance of 100 normal subjects, without medication. Two parallel models were used based on Montreal Procedure adapted from Gail Risse's (MEG-MN,EUA protocol. The proportions of correct responses of normal subjects submitted to two parallel WT models were investigated and the two models were compared. The results showed that the two models are similar but significant differences among the stimulus type were observed. The results suggest that the stimulus type may influence the results of the WT and should be considered when constructing models and comparing different protocols.

  20. Ecological assessment of divided attention: What about the current tools and the relevancy of virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Maïté, C; Gaétane, D; Axel, C

    2016-01-01

    The ability to perform two tasks simultaneously has become increasingly important as attention-demanding technologies have become more common in daily life. This type of attentional resources allocation is commonly called "divided attention". Because of the importance of divided attention in natural world settings, substantial efforts have been made recently so as to promote an integrated, realistic assessment of functional abilities in dual-task paradigms. In this context, virtual reality methods appear to be a good solution. However to date, there has been little discussion on validity of such methods. Here, we offer a comparative review of conventional tools used to assess divided attention and of the first virtual reality studies (mostly from the field of road and pedestrian safety). The ecological character of virtual environments leads to a better understanding of the influence of dual-task settings and also makes it possible to clarify issues such as the utility of hands-free phones. After discussing the theoretical and clinical contributions of these studies, we discuss the limits of virtual reality assessment, focusing in particular: (i) on the challenges associated with lack of familiarity with new technological devices; (ii) on the validity of the ecological character of virtual environments; and (iii) on the question of whether the results obtained in a specific context can be generalized to all dual-task situations typical of daily life. To overcome the limitations associated with virtual reality, we propose: (i) to include a standardized familiarization phase in assessment protocols so as to limit the interference caused by the use of new technologies; (ii) to systematically compare virtual reality performance with conventional tests or real-life tests; and (iii) to design dual-task scenarios that are independent from the patient's expertise on one of the two tasks. We conclude that virtual reality appears to constitute a useful tool when used in

  1. Ecological assessment of divided attention: What about the current tools and the relevancy of virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Maïté, C; Gaétane, D; Axel, C

    2016-01-01

    The ability to perform two tasks simultaneously has become increasingly important as attention-demanding technologies have become more common in daily life. This type of attentional resources allocation is commonly called "divided attention". Because of the importance of divided attention in natural world settings, substantial efforts have been made recently so as to promote an integrated, realistic assessment of functional abilities in dual-task paradigms. In this context, virtual reality methods appear to be a good solution. However to date, there has been little discussion on validity of such methods. Here, we offer a comparative review of conventional tools used to assess divided attention and of the first virtual reality studies (mostly from the field of road and pedestrian safety). The ecological character of virtual environments leads to a better understanding of the influence of dual-task settings and also makes it possible to clarify issues such as the utility of hands-free phones. After discussing the theoretical and clinical contributions of these studies, we discuss the limits of virtual reality assessment, focusing in particular: (i) on the challenges associated with lack of familiarity with new technological devices; (ii) on the validity of the ecological character of virtual environments; and (iii) on the question of whether the results obtained in a specific context can be generalized to all dual-task situations typical of daily life. To overcome the limitations associated with virtual reality, we propose: (i) to include a standardized familiarization phase in assessment protocols so as to limit the interference caused by the use of new technologies; (ii) to systematically compare virtual reality performance with conventional tests or real-life tests; and (iii) to design dual-task scenarios that are independent from the patient's expertise on one of the two tasks. We conclude that virtual reality appears to constitute a useful tool when used in

  2. The Bonar score revisited: Region of evaluation significantly influences the standardized assessment of tendon degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, Angela; Dahlstrom, Jane E.; Twin, Jane; Cook, Jill; Scott, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Tendinopathy is a common, costly condition affecting both sporting and sedentary populations. Research into tendinopathy frequently involves the evaluation of tendinosis, a pathology characterized by a lack of inflammatory cells, collagen disruption, neovascularisation, altered cell numbers and morphology and increased glycosaminoglycans. Evaluation of these characteristics can be undertaken using the Bonar histopathology score, but the characteristics are heterogeneous throughout tendon specimens with no standardized method of determining the area to be evaluated. The objective of this study was to assess whether the Bonar score varies depending on the criteria used to define the area of evaluation. Design Case series. Methods Two independent assessors, with a third to resolve disputes, evaluated 103 areas from 35 tendon specimens using the Bonar score. Specimens were scored once each in the area of worst collagen disruption, degree of vascularization, and cell morphological changes. The inter-tester reliability of the updated Bonar scale was good (r2 = 0.71) Results The Bonar score was highest in the areas of worst cell morphological (CM) changes, followed by collagen disruption (CD) and lowest for the area of most extensive vascular proliferation (VS) (regression: CD vs. CM, p = 0.008, CM vs. VS, p < 0.001, CD vs. VS, p = 0.013). Suggested modifications to the Bonar score include the addition of a cellularity domain, specific definitions of hypo- and hypercellularity, and changes to the vascularity score to include pathological avascularity. Conclusions The updated Bonar score includes a standardized method of selecting the area of evaluation, which should provide increased reliability when assessing the extent of tendon degeneration. PMID:23932935

  3. The development and standardization of Self-assessment for Hearing Screening of the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gibbeum; Na, Wondo; Kim, Gungu; Han, Woojae; Kim, Jinsook

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The present study aimed to develop and standardize a screening tool for elderly people who wish to check for themselves their level of hearing loss. Methods The Self-assessment for Hearing Screening of the Elderly (SHSE) consisted of 20 questions based on the characteristics of presbycusis using a five-point scale: seven questions covered general issues related to sensorineural hearing loss, seven covered hearing difficulty under distracting listening conditions, two covered hearing difficulty with fast-rated speech, and four covered the working memory function during communication. To standardize SHSE, 83 elderly participants took part in the study: 25 with normal hearing, and 22, 23, and 13 with mild, moderate, and moderate-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss, respectively, according to their hearing sensitivity. All were retested 3 weeks later using the same questionnaire to confirm its reliability. In addition, validity was assessed using various hearing tests such as a sentence test with background noise, a time-compressed speech test, and a digit span test. Results SHSE and its subcategories showed good internal consistency. SHSE and its subcategories demonstrated high test–retest reliability. A high correlation was observed between the total scores and pure-tone thresholds, which indicated gradually increased SHSE scores of 42.24%, 55.27%, 66.61%, and 78.15% for normal hearing, mild, moderate, and moderate-to-severe groups, respectively. With regard to construct validity, SHSE showed a high negative correlation with speech perception scores in noise and a moderate negative correlation with scores of time-compressed speech perception. However, there was no statistical correlation between digit span results and either the SHSE total or its subcategories. A confirmatory factor analysis supported three factors in SHSE. Conclusion We found that the developed SHSE had valuable internal consistency, test–retest reliability, and convergent and construct

  4. Standardized handwriting to assess bradykinesia, micrographia and tremor in Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther J Smits

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess whether standardized handwriting can provide quantitative measures to distinguish patients diagnosed with Parkinson's disease from age- and gender-matched healthy control participants. DESIGN: Exploratory study. Pen tip trajectories were recorded during circle, spiral and line drawing and repeated character 'elelelel' and sentence writing, performed by Parkinson patients and healthy control participants. Parkinson patients were tested after overnight withdrawal of anti-Parkinsonian medication. SETTING: University Medical Center Groningen, tertiary care, the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with Parkinson's disease (n = 10; mean age 69.0 years; 6 male and healthy controls (n = 10; mean age 68.1 years; 6 male. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Movement time and velocity to detect bradykinesia and the size of writing to detect micrographia. A rest recording to investigate the presence of a rest-tremor, by frequency analysis. RESULTS: Mean disease duration in the Parkinson group was 4.4 years and the patients were in modified Hoehn-Yahr stages 1-2.5. In general, Parkinson patients were slower than healthy control participants. Median time per repetition, median velocity and median acceleration of the sentence task and median velocity of the elel task differed significantly between Parkinson patients and healthy control participants (all p<0.0014. Parkinson patients also wrote smaller than healthy control participants and the width of the 'e' in the elel task was significantly smaller in Parkinson patients compared to healthy control participants (p<0.0014. A rest-tremor was detected in the three patients who were clinically assessed as having rest-tremor. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that standardized handwriting can provide objective measures for bradykinesia, tremor and micrographia to distinguish Parkinson patients from healthy control participants.

  5. Standardized Clinical Assessment And Management Plans (SCAMPs) Provide A Better Alternative To Clinical Practice Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Michael; Jenkins, Kathy; Lock, James; Rathod, Rahul; Newburger, Jane; Bates, David W.; Safran, Dana G.; Friedman, Kevin; Greenberg, Josh

    2014-01-01

    Variability in medical practice in the United States leads to higher costs without achieving better patient outcomes. Clinical practice guidelines, which are intended to reduce variation and improve care, have several drawbacks that limit the extent of buy-in by clinicians. In contrast, standardized clinical assessment and management plans (SCAMPs) offer a clinician-designed approach to promoting care standardization that accommodates patients’ individual differences, respects providers’ clinical acumen, and keeps pace with the rapid growth of medical knowledge. Since early 2009 more than 12,000 patients have been enrolled in forty-nine SCAMPs in nine states and Washington, D.C. In one example, a SCAMP was credited with increasing clinicians’ rate of compliance with a recommended specialist referral for children from 19.6 percent to 75 percent. In another example, SCAMPs were associated with an 11–51 percent decrease in total medical expenses for six conditions when compared with a historical cohort. Innovative tools such as SCAMPs should be carefully examined by policy makers searching for methods to promote the delivery of high-quality, cost-effective care. PMID:23650325

  6. Assessment of Acetylcholinesterase Activity Using Indoxylacetate and Comparison with the Standard Ellman’s Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Kuca

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Assay of acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity plays an important role in diagnostic, detection of pesticides and nerve agents, in vitro characterization of toxins and drugs including potential treatments for Alzheimer’s disease. These experiments were done in order to determine whether indoxylacetate could be an adequate chromogenic reactant for AChE assay evaluation. Moreover, the results were compared to the standard Ellman’s method. We calculated Michaelis constant Km (2.06 × 10−4 mol/L for acetylthiocholine and 3.21 × 10−3 mol/L for indoxylacetate maximum reaction velocity Vmax (4.97 × 10−7 kat for acetylcholine and 7.71 × 10−8 kat for indoxylacetate for electric eel AChE. In a second part, inhibition values were plotted for paraoxon, and reactivation efficacy was measured for some standard oxime reactivators: obidoxime, pralidoxime (2-PAM and HI-6. Though indoxylacetate is split with lower turnover rate, this compound appears as a very attractive reactant since it does not show any chemical reactivity with oxime antidots and thiol used for the Ellman’s method. Thus it can be advantageously used for accurate measurement of AChE activity. Suitability of assay for butyrylcholinesterase activity assessment is also discussed.

  7. Mission-Driven Expected Impact: Assessing Scholarly Output for 2013 Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet, Laurel R.; Lopes, Kevin J.; White, John Bryan

    2016-01-01

    As of the 2016-2017 academic year, all schools undergoing Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business accreditation will be assessed on the new standards that were ratified in 2013, which include the assessment of the impact of portfolios of intellectual contributions. The authors discuss key ideas underlying a business school's research…

  8. The Assessment of a Tutoring Program to Meet CAS Standards Using a SWOT Analysis and Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullmer, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes the use of SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis and subsequent action planning as a tool of self-assessment to meet CAS (Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education) requirements for systematic assessment. The use of the evaluation results to devise improvements to increase the…

  9. Assessing chronic wound perfusion in the lower extremity: current and emerging approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo KY

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Kevin Y Woo,1 Timothy M Brandys,2 Joseph A Marin1 1School of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Queen's University, Kingston, 2Department of Surgery, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, ON, Canada Abstract: Current evidence suggests that vascular and wound bed perfusion assessment should be integral to the care of people with chronic wounds in the lower extremities. Peripheral artery diseases can be insidious, with many affected individuals unaware of circulation issues and failing to seek medical help until they develop foot ulcers, gangrene, and other related complications. Measuring tissue perfusion is a useful diagnostic marker for chronic wounds and may help determine a wound's potential for healing. A complete patient history and physical examination is imperative to help determine the correct diagnosis of lower extremity ulcers. This article aims to discuss current and emerging wound perfusion assessment techniques, including ankle–brachial index, toe–brachial index, transcutaneous oxygen pressure, near-infrared spectroscopy, digital subtraction angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, computed tomographic angiography, and indocyanine green angiography. Keywords: tissue perfusion, peripheral arterial disease, oxygen, wound healing

  10. Neuroimaging assessment of cerebrovascular reactivity in concussion: current concepts, methodological considerations and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael John Ellis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Concussion is a form of traumatic brain injury (TBI that presents with a wide spectrum of subjective symptoms and few objective clinical findings. Emerging research suggests that one of the processes that may contribute to concussion pathophysiology is dysregulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF leading to a mismatch between CBF delivery and the metabolic needs of the injured brain. Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR is defined as the change in CBF in response to a measured vasoactive stimulus. Several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques can be used as a surrogate measure of CBF in clinical and laboratory studies. In order to provide an accurate assessment of CVR, these sequences must be combined with a reliable, reproducible vasoactive stimulus that can manipulate CBF. Although CVR imaging currently plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and management of many cerebrovascular diseases, only recently have studies begun to apply this assessment tool in patients with concussion. In order to evaluate the quality, reliability and relevance of CVR studies in concussion, it is important that clinicians and researchers have a strong foundational understanding of the role of cerebral blood flow regulation in health, concussion and more severe forms of TBI, and an awareness of the advantages and limitations of currently available CVR measurement techniques. Accordingly, in this review we 1 discuss the role of CVR in TBI and concussion; 2 examine methodological considerations for MRI-based measurement of CVR; and 3 provide an overview of published CVR studies in concussion patients.

  11. Cathode Assessment for Maximizing Current Generation in Microbial Fuel Cells Utilizing Bioethanol Effluent as Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guotao Sun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of microbial fuel cells (MFCs for electricity production requires effective current generation from waste products via robust cathode reduction. Three cathode types using dissolved oxygen cathodes (DOCs, ferricyanide cathodes (FeCs and air cathodes (AiCs were therefore assessed using bioethanol effluent, containing 20.5 g/L xylose, 1.8 g/L arabinose and 2.5 g/L propionic acid. In each set-up the anode and cathode had an electrode surface area of 88 cm2, which was used for calculation of the current density. Electricity generation was evaluated by quantifying current responses to substrate loading rates and external resistance. At the lowest external resistance of 27 Ω and highest substrate loading rate of 2 g chemical oxygen demand (COD per L·day, FeC-MFC generated highest average current density (1630 mA/m2 followed by AiC-MFC (802 mA/m2 and DOC-MFC (184 mA/m2. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS was used to determine the impedance of the cathodes. It was thereby confirmed that the FeC-MFC produced the highest current density with the lowest internal resistance for the cathode. However, in a setup using bioethanol effluent, the AiC-MFC was concluded to be the most sustainable option since it does not require ferricyanide. The data offer a new add-on option to the straw biorefinery by using bioethanol effluent for microbial electricity production.

  12. TRIGA R a widely used fuel - Assessments, validation and application of criticality standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TRIGA R (Training, Research, Isotope production, General Atomics), reactor is the most widely used non-power nuclear reactor in the world. Sixty six TRIGA R reactors are running or under construction in 24 countries. These reactors are used in many diverse applications, including production of radioisotopes for medicine and industry, treatment of tumors, non destructive testing, basic research on the properties of matter, and for education and training. TRIGA R International, a joint venture company between General Atomics and CERCA, a wholly-owned subsidiary of AREVA NP, manufactures and sells TRIGA R fuel to research reactor. The CERCA Factory is currently the only Company in the world to manufacture this type of fuel. Criticality safety evaluations implement requirements to justify sufficient sub critical margins for fuel fabrication plants. Basic criticality data (i. e., criticality standards) are used to determine the sub critical margins for all processes involving enriched uranium. Safety analysis help to identify and update those standards to bound normal, abnormal and accidental conditions. The French criticality code package CRISTAL V1 was used to perform the calculations. After a brief description of the fuel design and the calculation scheme, this paper presents the results for the different types and media of TRIGA R fuel (powder, elements). Experimental benchmarks data were used for validation as well as comparative calculations with Monte-Carlo codes MORET 4 and MCNP. The criticality section of the safety analysis report supporting the actual TRIGA workshops was reviewed to ensure the update of the criticality standards does not harm the safety of the installations. (authors)

  13. Current status and prospects of the toxicological assessment of engineered nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nano toxicology is a branch of experimental toxicology dealing with identification and characterization of the harmful biological effects of engineered nanomaterials. The physico-chemical properties of these materials affect their biological level interactions. From the first generation of experimental studies it showed the need for adaptation to nanomaterials methodologies and toxicological evaluation of current strategies. Special challenges are presented by the variety of materials to be tested, from the definition of relevant dose quantities, by the standardization of the preparation and characterization of the nanomaterial in the biological sample matrices, by techniques for the determination of the biodistribution in the body. 'Omics' technologies are now an innovative tool for toxicological approach based on understanding the mechanisms of action, which will allow the most advanced laboratories to implement high-performance screening test.

  14. Appraising fertilisers: origins of current regulations and standards for contaminants in fertilisers : background of quality standards in the Netherlands, Denmark, Germany, United Kingdom and Flanders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehlert, P.A.I.; Posthuma, L.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Rietra, R.P.J.J.; Wintersen, A.M.; Wijnen, van H.; Dijk, van T.A.; Schöll, van L.; Groenenberg, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    The standards for contaminants in fertilisers in Denmark, Germany, Flanders, the Netherlands and United Kingdom, are given in the context of the proposals for new European fertiliser legislation. This EU legislation might result in generic limit values for contaminants and input lists of materials,

  15. Ecological relevance of current water quality assessment unit designations in impaired rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layhee, Megan J.; Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Mladenka, Greg; Van Every, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Managers often nest sections of water bodies together into assessment units (AUs) to monitor and assess water quality criteria. Ideally, AUs represent an extent of waters with similar ecological, watershed, habitat and land-use conditions and no overlapping characteristics with other waters. In the United States, AUs are typically based on political or hydrologic boundaries rather than on ecologically relevant features, so it can be difficult to detect changes in impairment status. Our goals were to evaluate if current AU designation criteria of an impaired water body in southeastern Idaho, USA that, like many U.S. waters, has three-quarters of its mainstem length divided into two AUs. We focused our evaluation in southeastern Idaho's Portneuf River, an impaired river and three-quarters of the river is divided into two AUs. We described biological and environmental conditions at multiple reaches within each AU. We used these data to (1) test if variability at the reach-scale is greater within or among AUs and, (2) to evaluate alternate AU boundaries based on multivariate analyses of reach-scale data. We found that some biological conditions had greater variability within an AU than between AUs. Multivariate analyses identified alternative, 2- and 3-group, AUs that reduced this variability. Our results suggest that the current AU designations in the mainstem Portneuf River contain ecologically distinct sections of river and that the existing AU boundaries should be reconsidered in light of the ecological conditions measured at the reach scale. Variation in biological integrity within designated AUs may complicate water quality and biological assessments, influence management decisions or affect where monitoring or mitigation resources are directed.

  16. A quantitative assessment of standard vs. customized midline shield construction for invasive cervical carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: An individualized midline shield (MLS) has been advocated for delivering homogeneous radiotherapy for patients with invasive cervical carcinoma. Yet, many radiation oncologists continue to employ a standard block. In the latter instance, any deviation of the cranial-caudal central axis of the tandem from the patient's midline could result in dose inhomogeneity to tumor. A retrospective review of a single university medical center's experience with constructing the MLS was initiated to determine the outcome of using a standard block vs. a customized block that conforms to the 'Point A' isodose line. In addition, participating radiation oncologists associated with the Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) were polled to assess if there exists a consensus regarding midline block utilization in the management of cervical cancer patients which could be compared to the institutional study. Methods and Materials: From January 1, 1990 through December 31, 1992, 32 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma who underwent low dose rate brachytherapy at a single institution were identified. Patients were grouped as having a standard block (18 cases), customized block (5 cases), or no block (9 cases). The 'Point A' isodose distribution from the implant was superimposed onto the whole pelvic simulation film and quantitatively compared to the actual or a hypothetical standard block outlined on the same radiograph. In September of 1995, 56 member and affiliated institutions in the GOG were surveyed concerning their use of a MLS, and the results were tabulated in December of 1995. Results: Approximately 72% of all cases 923 out of 32) at the single institution had tandem deviation ranging from 0-230 with a median of 50. This translated into a median percent overdosage to 'Point A' Right of 15% and 'Point A' Left of 12.5%. Although overall survival and incidence of chronic complications have not been affected by type of shielding, patient follow-up is limited with a median of 17

  17. Construction and assessment of hierarchical edge elements for three-dimensional computations of eddy currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midtgaard, Ole-Morten

    1997-12-31

    This thesis considers the feasibility of doing calculations to optimize electrical machines without the need to build expensive prototypes. It deals with the construction and assessment of new, hierarchical, hexahedral edge elements for three-dimensional computations of eddy currents with the electric vector potential formulation. The new elements, five in all, gave up to second-order approximations for both the magnetic field and the current density. Theoretical arguments showed these elements to be more economical for a given polynomial order of the approximated fields than the serendipity family of nodal elements. Further it was pointed out how the support of a source field computed by using edge elements could be made very small provided that a proper spanning tree was used in the edge element mesh. This was exploited for the voltage forcing technique, where source fields were used as basis functions, with unknown total currents in voltage forced conductors as degrees of freedom. The practical assessment of the edge elements proved the accuracy to improve with increasing polynomial order, both for local and global quantities. The most economical element was, however, one giving only complete first-order approximations for both fields. Further, the edge elements turned out to be better than the nodal elements also in practice. For the voltage forcing technique, source field basis functions which had small support, resulted in large reduction of the CPU-time for solving the main equation system, compared to source fields which had large support. The new elements can be used in a p-type adaptive scheme, and they should also be applicable for other tangentially continuous field problems. 67 refs., 34 figs., 10 tabs.

  18. Costa Rica; Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes: Data Module, Response by the Authorities, and Detailed Assessment Using the Data Quality Assessment Framework (DQAF)

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses observance of standards and codes—data Module in Costa Rica, response by the authorities, and detailed assessment using the Data Quality Assessment Framework. The assessment reveals that all statistical agencies get high marks in assurances of integrity. Macroeconomic statistics are compiled in accordance with strict technical considerations and are disseminated without political interference. There are clear ethical guidelines for public servants. The accuracy and reli...

  19. [Nutritional status of adults with cystic fibrosis - current methods of assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabla, Anna; Skorupa, Wojciech; Milewska, Magdalena; Weker, Halina

    2015-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most frequent monogenic disease in the Caucasian population, inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. This is a multiple organ disease and its main manifestations include pulmonary and gastrointestinal dysfunction. The exocrine pancreatic deficiency results in impaired digestion and absorption what may lead to malnutrition and vitamins and minerals deficiencies. The life expectancy of cystic fibrosis patients has been increasing over the past years, so there is a need to verify usefulness of existing or create new methods of nutritional status assessment. The aim of this paper was presentation current data on the methods of assessment and monitoring of nutritional status. Particular attention has been paid to appropriate nutritional support in prevention and treatment of malnutrition patients with cystic fibrosis. On the basis of recent literature we can conclude that the advanced nutritional status assessment is recommended in patient with CF by using anthropometrical methods, body composition analysis and biochemical data. Good nutritional status is connected with pulmonary functions, quality and life length.

  20. The Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI compared to ergonomics standards for assessing the thermal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröde, Peter; Błazejczyk, Krzysztof; Fiala, Dusan; Havenith, George; Holmér, Ingvar; Jendritzky, Gerd; Kuklane, Kalev; Kampmann, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    The growing need for valid assessment procedures of the outdoor thermal environment in the fields of public weather services, public health systems, urban planning, tourism & recreation and climate impact research raised the idea to develop the Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI based on the most recent scientific progress both in thermo-physiology and in heat exchange theory. Following extensive validation of accessible models of human thermoregulation, the advanced multi-node 'Fiala' model was selected to form the basis of UTCI. This model was coupled with an adaptive clothing model which considers clothing habits by the general urban population and behavioral changes in clothing insulation related to actual environmental temperature. UTCI was developed conceptually as an equivalent temperature. Thus, for any combination of air temperature, wind, radiation, and humidity, UTCI is defined as the air temperature in the reference condition which would elicit the same dynamic response of the physiological model. This review analyses the sensitivity of UTCI to humidity and radiation in the heat and to wind in the cold and compares the results with observational studies and internationally standardized assessment procedures. The capabilities, restrictions and potential future extensions of UTCI are discussed.

  1. Developing a data repository of standard concussion assessment clinical data for research involving college athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maerlender, Arthur; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Honaker, Julie A

    2016-11-01

    In sports concussion research, obtaining quality data from a sufficient number of participants to reach statistical power has been a particular problem. In addition, the necessary requirements of accessibility, informed consent, and confidentiality must be met. There is need to develop more efficient and controlled methods for collecting data to answer research questions in this realm, but the ability to collect and store these data in an efficient manner at the local level is limited. By virtue of their training, neuropsychologists can play a key role in improving data collection quality. The purpose of this paper is to describe a data repository that has been developed in the context of a university sports medicine concussion management program that includes baseline and postinjury data from student athletes. Diagnostic information, basic health information, current symptoms, neuropsychological test data, balance and vestibular data, and visual processing data are currently included in the standard of care for athletes; however, the process described need not be limited to these types of data. While a national traumatic brain injury (TBI) data repository has been developed by the National Institute of Health (NIH), local repositories have not yet become common. Thus, the description of this project is of value at the local level in the United States and internationally. PMID:27396292

  2. The development and standardization of Self-assessment for Hearing Screening of the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim G

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gibbeum Kim,1 Wondo Na,1 Gungu Kim,1 Woojae Han,2 Jinsook Kim2 1Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology, Hallym University Graduate School, Chuncheon, Republic of Korea; 2Division of Speech Pathology and Audiology, Research Institute of Audiology and Speech Pathology, College of Natural Sciences, Hallym Universtiy, Chuncheon, Republic of Korea Purpose: The present study aimed to develop and standardize a screening tool for elderly people who wish to check for themselves their level of hearing loss. Methods: The Self-assessment for Hearing Screening of the Elderly (SHSE consisted of 20 questions based on the characteristics of presbycusis using a five-point scale: seven questions covered general issues related to sensorineural hearing loss, seven covered hearing difficulty under distracting listening conditions, two covered hearing difficulty with fast-rated speech, and four covered the working memory function during communication. To standardize SHSE, 83 elderly participants took part in the study: 25 with normal hearing, and 22, 23, and 13 with mild, moderate, and moderate-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss, respectively, according to their hearing sensitivity. All were retested 3 weeks later using the same questionnaire to confirm its reliability. In addition, validity was assessed using various hearing tests such as a sentence test with background noise, a time-compressed speech test, and a digit span test. Results: SHSE and its subcategories showed good internal consistency. SHSE and its subcategories demonstrated high test–retest reliability. A high correlation was observed between the total scores and pure-tone thresholds, which indicated gradually increased SHSE scores of 42.24%, 55.27%, 66.61%, and 78.15% for normal hearing, mild, moderate, and moderate-to-severe groups, respectively. With regard to construct validity, SHSE showed a high negative correlation with speech perception scores in noise and a moderate negative

  3. In vivo validation of cardiac output assessment in non-standard 3D echocardiographic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nillesen, M. M.; Lopata, R. G. P.; de Boode, W. P.; Gerrits, I. H.; Huisman, H. J.; Thijssen, J. M.; Kapusta, L.; de Korte, C. L.

    2009-04-01

    Automatic segmentation of the endocardial surface in three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic images is an important tool to assess left ventricular (LV) geometry and cardiac output (CO). The presence of speckle noise as well as the nonisotropic characteristics of the myocardium impose strong demands on the segmentation algorithm. In the analysis of normal heart geometries of standardized (apical) views, it is advantageous to incorporate a priori knowledge about the shape and appearance of the heart. In contrast, when analyzing abnormal heart geometries, for example in children with congenital malformations, this a priori knowledge about the shape and anatomy of the LV might induce erroneous segmentation results. This study describes a fully automated segmentation method for the analysis of non-standard echocardiographic images, without making strong assumptions on the shape and appearance of the heart. The method was validated in vivo in a piglet model. Real-time 3D echocardiographic image sequences of five piglets were acquired in radiofrequency (rf) format. These ECG-gated full volume images were acquired intra-operatively in a non-standard view. Cardiac blood flow was measured simultaneously by an ultrasound transit time flow probe positioned around the common pulmonary artery. Three-dimensional adaptive filtering using the characteristics of speckle was performed on the demodulated rf data to reduce the influence of speckle noise and to optimize the distinction between blood and myocardium. A gradient-based 3D deformable simplex mesh was then used to segment the endocardial surface. A gradient and a speed force were included as external forces of the model. To balance data fitting and mesh regularity, one fixed set of weighting parameters of internal, gradient and speed forces was used for all data sets. End-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were computed from the segmented endocardial surface. The cardiac output derived from this automatic segmentation was

  4. In vivo validation of cardiac output assessment in non-standard 3D echocardiographic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nillesen, M M; Lopata, R G P; Gerrits, I H; Thijssen, J M; De Korte, C L [Clinical Physics Laboratory-833, Department of Pediatrics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); De Boode, W P [Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Huisman, H J [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kapusta, L [Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.m.nillesen@cukz.umcn.nl

    2009-04-07

    Automatic segmentation of the endocardial surface in three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic images is an important tool to assess left ventricular (LV) geometry and cardiac output (CO). The presence of speckle noise as well as the nonisotropic characteristics of the myocardium impose strong demands on the segmentation algorithm. In the analysis of normal heart geometries of standardized (apical) views, it is advantageous to incorporate a priori knowledge about the shape and appearance of the heart. In contrast, when analyzing abnormal heart geometries, for example in children with congenital malformations, this a priori knowledge about the shape and anatomy of the LV might induce erroneous segmentation results. This study describes a fully automated segmentation method for the analysis of non-standard echocardiographic images, without making strong assumptions on the shape and appearance of the heart. The method was validated in vivo in a piglet model. Real-time 3D echocardiographic image sequences of five piglets were acquired in radiofrequency (rf) format. These ECG-gated full volume images were acquired intra-operatively in a non-standard view. Cardiac blood flow was measured simultaneously by an ultrasound transit time flow probe positioned around the common pulmonary artery. Three-dimensional adaptive filtering using the characteristics of speckle was performed on the demodulated rf data to reduce the influence of speckle noise and to optimize the distinction between blood and myocardium. A gradient-based 3D deformable simplex mesh was then used to segment the endocardial surface. A gradient and a speed force were included as external forces of the model. To balance data fitting and mesh regularity, one fixed set of weighting parameters of internal, gradient and speed forces was used for all data sets. End-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were computed from the segmented endocardial surface. The cardiac output derived from this automatic segmentation was

  5. Standardizing the protocol for hemispherical photographs: accuracy assessment of binarization algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatthorn, Jonas; Beckschäfer, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Hemispherical photography is a well-established method to optically assess ecological parameters related to plant canopies; e.g. ground-level light regimes and the distribution of foliage within the crown space. Interpreting hemispherical photographs involves classifying pixels as either sky or vegetation. A wide range of automatic thresholding or binarization algorithms exists to classify the photographs. The variety in methodology hampers ability to compare results across studies. To identify an optimal threshold selection method, this study assessed the accuracy of seven binarization methods implemented in software currently available for the processing of hemispherical photographs. Therefore, binarizations obtained by the algorithms were compared to reference data generated through a manual binarization of a stratified random selection of pixels. This approach was adopted from the accuracy assessment of map classifications known from remote sensing studies. Percentage correct (Pc) and kappa-statistics (K) were calculated. The accuracy of the algorithms was assessed for photographs taken with automatic exposure settings (auto-exposure) and photographs taken with settings which avoid overexposure (histogram-exposure). In addition, gap fraction values derived from hemispherical photographs were compared with estimates derived from the manually classified reference pixels. All tested algorithms were shown to be sensitive to overexposure. Three of the algorithms showed an accuracy which was high enough to be recommended for the processing of histogram-exposed hemispherical photographs: "Minimum" (Pc 98.8%; K 0.952), "Edge Detection" (Pc 98.1%; K 0.950), and "Minimum Histogram" (Pc 98.1%; K 0.947). The Minimum algorithm overestimated gap fraction least of all (11%). The overestimation by the algorithms Edge Detection (63%) and Minimum Histogram (67%) were considerably larger. For the remaining four evaluated algorithms (IsoData, Maximum Entropy, MinError, and Otsu

  6. Modeling assessment of tidal current energy in the Qiongzhou Strait, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU He; YU Huaming; DING Jie; YUAN Dekui

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, an existing three-dimensional finite volume computational ocean model (FVCOM) was refined and configured including an algorithm for computing the power density and mean power density at Qiongzhou Strait of China. The refined model was validated with the measured tidal levels and tidal currents at different gauging stations. The model results are in reasonable agreement with the measured data. Based on the modeling results, we assess the resource of the tidal stream energy in the Qiongzhou Strait and discuss the temporal and the spatial distribution of the tidal current energy there. The conclusion is extracted: the higher power density occurs in the middle area of the strait, and lower at both sides. Characteristics of power density such as the maximum possibility speed, maximum power density during the spring tide period and the neap tide period, have the similar distribution. The southeast part and central area of the strait are of rich tidal current energy, where the maximum possibility speed can reach to 4.6 m/s, and the maximum power density of the spring tide period and the neap tide period can reach 5 996 and 467 W/m2 separately in the surface layer The annual mean power density can reach 819 W/m2. Statistical length of accumulative time of the velocity exceeding 0.7 m/s is about 4 717 h at local point during a year. The total theoretical tidal current energy resource is approximately 189.55 MW and the available exploited energy on present technology condition is 249, 20.2 and 263 GW/a separately by using the methods FLUX, FARM and GC in the Qiongzhou Strait.

  7. Imaging in syndrome complex diabetes mellitus. Current standards and future perspectives; Bildgebung im Syndromkomplex Diabetes mellitus. Stellenwert und Chancen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetterich, H.; Schafnitzel, A. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Campus Grosshadern, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany); Bamberg, F. [Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet, Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a highly prevalent multisystemic disorder with numerous potential complications and substantial socioeconomic consequences. In many cases, the patient history, physical examination and laboratory tests are not sufficient for a comprehensive evaluation of complicating disorders. Imaging modalities, such as sonography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are of major significance in the evaluation of complicating disorders of diabetes according to current guidelines. Examples include assessment of coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, stroke and diabetic foot syndrome. Technical developments allow a substantial reduction in radiation dose and scan time in CT and MRI, respectively and could therefore justify a broader application in this patient population. In the future CT and MRI could also be used for the early detection of diabetic complications. Furthermore, they could also be used for risk stratification, e.g. measurement of hepatic fat content and evaluation of atherosclerosis in whole body MRI. Prior to widespread application of advanced imaging techniques in this patient population, improved outcomes with respect to survival, quality of life and cost-effectiveness need to be demonstrated. Diagnostic imaging modalities for the evaluation of the syndrome complex of diabetic disorders should be used according to the current guidelines but the use is predicted to increase given the high potential in this population. (orig.) [German] Diabetes mellitus ist eine hochpraevalente Multisystemerkrankung mit zahlreichen Komplikationen und bedeutenden soziooekonomischen Konsequenzen. Die Folgeerkrankungen koennen oft nicht abschliessend mittels Anamnese, koerperlicher Untersuchung und laborchemischen Verfahren evaluiert werden. Radiologische Verfahren wie die Sonographie, Computertomographie (CT) und Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) haben gemaess verschiedener Leitlinien einen festen Stellenwert bei der

  8. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Kevin

    2013-09-15

    Increasing energy consumption and depleting reserves of fossil fuels have resulted in growing interest in alternative renewable energy from the ocean. Ocean currents are an alternative source of clean energy due to their inherent reliability, persistence and sustainability. General ocean circulations exist in the form of large rotating ocean gyres, and feature extremely rapid current flow in the western boundaries due to the Coriolis Effect. The Gulf Stream system is formed by the western boundary current of the North Atlantic Ocean that flows along the east coastline of the United States, and therefore is of particular interest as a potential energy resource for the United States. This project created a national database of ocean current energy resources to help advance awareness and market penetration in ocean current energy resource assessment. The database, consisting of joint velocity magnitude and direction probability histograms, was created from data created by seven years of numerical model simulations. The accuracy of the database was evaluated by ORNL?s independent validation effort documented in a separate report. Estimates of the total theoretical power resource contained in the ocean currents were calculated utilizing two separate approaches. Firstly, the theoretical energy balance in the Gulf Stream system was examined using the two-dimensional ocean circulation equations based on the assumptions of the Stommel model for subtropical gyres with the quasi-geostrophic balance between pressure gradient, Coriolis force, wind stress and friction driving the circulation. Parameters including water depth, natural dissipation rate and wind stress are calibrated in the model so that the model can reproduce reasonable flow properties including volume flux and energy flux. To represent flow dissipation due to turbines additional turbine drag coefficient is formulated and included in the model. Secondly, to determine the reasonableness of the total power

  9. 75 FR 75485 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ...'', as amended in the revisions listed above, requires {or set{time} strict standards that Laboratories... Guidelines dated November 25, 2008 (73 FR 71858), the following Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing... 20755-5235. 301-677-7085. * The Standards Council of Canada (SCC) voted to end its...

  10. 75 FR 16813 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... Guidelines dated April 13, 2004 (69 FR 19644), the following laboratories meet the minimum standards to... Engaged in Urine Drug Testing for Federal Agencies,'' sets strict standards that laboratories must meet in... April 13, 2004 (69 FR 19644). After receiving DOT certification, the laboratory will be included in...

  11. 75 FR 55795 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... Guidelines dated April 13, 2004 (69 FR 19644), the following laboratories meet the minimum standards to... in Urine Drug Testing for Federal Agencies,'' sets strict standards that laboratories must meet in... April 13, 2004 (69 FR 19644). After receiving DOT certification, the laboratory will be included in...

  12. Key tasks in healthcare marketing: assessing importance and current level of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennett, Pamela A; Henson, Steve W; Crow, Stephen M; Hartman, Sandra J

    2005-01-01

    When examining the healthcare industry, the need for continuing education in internal functions (i.e., HR management) has been documented. However, equally important to success in the healthcare industry are external functions such as marketing. In an expansion of research on internally focused functions, we report findings from an exploratory study designed to examine the perceptions of executives about managerial skill needs in the externally focused area of marketing. Specifically, we examine eight key tasks in marketing and ask executives to rate the level of knowledge required for each and then to assess current, or actual, levels of knowledge in the field. Findings suggest that pricing strategy, product strategy, and segmentation and targeting were the tasks that require the most knowledge for healthcare marketers, and that they do, in fact, perceive various gaps in all of the areas examined. Implications and suggestions for future research are provided.

  13. Key tasks in healthcare marketing: assessing importance and current level of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennett, Pamela A; Henson, Steve W; Crow, Stephen M; Hartman, Sandra J

    2005-01-01

    When examining the healthcare industry, the need for continuing education in internal functions (i.e., HR management) has been documented. However, equally important to success in the healthcare industry are external functions such as marketing. In an expansion of research on internally focused functions, we report findings from an exploratory study designed to examine the perceptions of executives about managerial skill needs in the externally focused area of marketing. Specifically, we examine eight key tasks in marketing and ask executives to rate the level of knowledge required for each and then to assess current, or actual, levels of knowledge in the field. Findings suggest that pricing strategy, product strategy, and segmentation and targeting were the tasks that require the most knowledge for healthcare marketers, and that they do, in fact, perceive various gaps in all of the areas examined. Implications and suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:16318012

  14. 物流标准化发展现状研究综述%The Research Review of the Current Situation of the Development of Logistics Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳飞; 武赟; 戴铭卿

    2015-01-01

    The thesis reviews current situation of the development of logistics standardization systematically. It summarizes the general research contents from the four aspects: logistics standardization and management system, establishment of the standardization of logistics, implementation of the standardization of logistics and performance evaluation of the standardization.Moreover, the authors put forward with their own view.%本文系统回顾了有关物流标准化发展现状.分别从物流标准化和管理体制、物流标准化的建立、物流标准化的贯彻实施以及物流标准化的绩效评价四个方面进行综述,提出本文观点.

  15. Impact of a standardized training program on midwives’ ability to assess fetal heart anatomy by ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of prenatal detection of congenital heart disease (CHD) in the UK, Italy, and Norway indicate that it should be possible to improve the prenatal detection rate of CHD in Sweden. These studies have shown that training programs, visualization of the outflow tracts and color-Doppler all can help to speed up and improve the detection rate and accuracy. We aimed to introduce a more accurate standardized fetal cardiac ultrasound screening protocol in Sweden. A novel pedagogical model for training midwives in standardized cardiac imaging was developed, a model using a think-aloud analysis during a pre- and post-course test and a subsequent group reflection. The self-estimated difficulties and knowledge gaps of two experienced and two beginner midwives were identified. A two-day course with mixed lectures, demonstrations and hands-on sessions was followed by a feedback session three months later consisting of an interview and check-up. The long-term effects were tested two years later. At the post-course test the self-assessed uncertainty was lower than at the pre-course test. The qualitative evaluation showed that the color Doppler images were difficult to interpret, but the training seems to have improved their ability to use the new technique. The ability to perform the method remained at the new level at follow-up both three months and two years later. Our results indicate that by implementing new imaging modalities and providing hands-on training, uncertainty can be reduced and examination time decreased, but they also show that continuous on-site training with clinical and technical back-up is important

  16. Radiotherapy of high-grade gliomas: current standards and new concepts, innovations in imaging and radiotherapy, and new therapeutic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhermain, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    The current standards in radiotherapy of high-grade gliomas (HGG) are based on anatomic imaging techniques, usually computed tomography (CT) scanning and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The guidelines vary depending on whether the HGG is a histological grade 3 anaplastic glioma (AG) or a grade 4 glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). For AG, T2-weighted MRI sequences plus the region of contrast enhancement in T1 are considered for the delineation of the gross tumor volume (GTV), and an isotropic expansion of 15 to 20 mm is recommended for the clinical target volume (CTV). For GBM, the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group favors a two-step technique, with an initial phase (CTV1) including any T2 hyperintensity area (edema) plus a 20 mm margin treated with up to 46 Gy in 23 fractions, followed by a reduction in CTV2 to the contrast enhancement region in T1 with an additional 25 mm margin. The European Organisation of Research and Treatment of Cancer recommends a single-phase technique with a unique GTV, which comprises the T1 contrast enhancement region plus a margin of 20 to 30 mm. A total dose of 60 Gy in 30 fractions is usually delivered for GBM, and a dose of 59.4 Gy in 33 fractions is typically given for AG. As more than 85% of HGGs recur in field, dose-escalation studies have shown that 70 to 75 Gy can be delivered in 6 weeks with relevant toxicities developing in 60 Gy. Trials delivering a SIB into a biological GTV showed the feasibility of this treatment, but the final results, in terms of clinical benefits for HGG patients, are still pending. Many issues have been identified: the variety of MRI and PET machines (and amino-acid tracers), the heterogeneity of the protocols used for image acquisition and post-treatment, the geometric distortion and the unreliable algorithms for co-registration of brain anatomy with functional maps, and the semi-quiescent but highly invasive HGG cells. These issues could be solved by the homogenization of the protocols and software

  17. Study on the standard establishment for the integrity assessment of nuclear fuel cladding Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, S. S.; Kim, S. H.; Jung, Y. K.; Yang, C. Y.; Kim, I. G.; Choi, Y. H.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, M. W.; Rho, B. H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    Fuel cladding material plays important role as a primary structure under the high temperature, high pressure and neutron environment of nuclear power plant. According to this environment, cladding material can be experienced several type aging phenomena including the neutron irradiation embrittlement. On the other hand, although the early nuclear power plant was designed to fitting into the 40MWd/KgU burn-up, the currently power plant intends to go to the high burn-up range. In this case, the safety criteria which was established at low burn-up needs to conform the applicability at the high burn-up. In this study, the safety criteria of fuel cladding material was reviewed to assess the cladding material integrity, and the material characteristics of cladding were reviewed. The current LOCA criterial was also reviewed, and the basic study for re-establishment of LOCA criteria was performed. The time concept safety criteria was also discussed to prevent the breakaway oxidation. Through the this study, safety issues will be produced and be helpful for integrity insurance of nuclear fuel cladding material. This report is 2nd term report.

  18. Study on the Standard Establishment for the Integrity Assessment of Nuclear Fuel Cladding Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, S-S; Kim, S-H; Jung, Y-K; Yang, C-Y; Kim, I-G; Choi, Y-H; Kim, H-J; Kim, M-W; Rho, B-H [KINS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    Fuel cladding material plays important role as a primary structure under the high temperature, high pressure and neutron environment of nuclear power plant. According to this environment, cladding material can be experienced several type aging phenomena including the neutron irradiation embrittlement. On the other hand, although the early nuclear power plant was designed to fitting into the 40MWd/KgU burn-up, the currently power plant intends to go to the high burn-up range. In this case, the safety criteria which was established at low burn-up needs to conform the applicability at the high burn-up. In this study, the safety criteria of fuel cladding material was reviewed to assess the cladding material integrity, and the material characteristics of cladding were reviewed. The current LOCA criterial was also reviewed, and the basic study for re-establishment of LOCA criteria was performed. The time concept safety criteria was also discussed to prevent the breakaway oxidation. Through the this study, safety issues will be produced and be helpful for integrity insurance of nuclear fuel cladding material. This report is the final report.

  19. Study on the standard establishment for the integrity assessment of nuclear fuel cladding materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, S. S.; Kim, S. H.; Jung, Y. K.; Yang, C. Y.; Kim, I. G.; Choi, Y. H.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, M. W.; Rho, B. H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    Fuel cladding material plays important role as a primary structure under the high temperature, high pressure and neutron environment of nuclear power plant. According to this environment, cladding material can be experienced several type aging phenomena including the neutron irradiation embrittlement. On the other hand, although the early nuclear power plant was designed to fitting into the 40MWd/KgU burn-up, the currently power plant intends to go to the high burn-up range. In this case, the safety criteria which was established at low burn-up needs to conform the applicability at the high burn-up. In this study, the safety criteria of fuel cladding material was reviewed to assess the cladding material integrity, and the material characteristics of cladding were reviewed. The current LOCA criterial was also reviewed, and the basic study for re-establishment of LOCA criteria was performed. The time concept safety criteria was also discussed to prevent the breakaway oxidation. Through the this study, safety issues will be produced and be helpful for integrity insurance of nuclear fuel cladding material.

  20. An assessment of standards-based reform in Florida's middle school science programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart Hammer, Kathryn Elizabeth

    The era of school accountability and standards based reform (SBR) has brought many challenges and changes to Florida's public schools. It is important to understand any shifts in teachers' attitudes and to identify the changes teachers are making as they implement SBR. The study was designed to assess teachers' attitudes and perceptions of changes related to SBR and the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) in middle school science programs in Florida. Survey questions sought to identify teacher perceptions of changes in curriculum, instruction and daily practice as schools documented and incorporated the Sunshine State Standards (SSS) for science and began focusing on preparing students for the science FCAT. The survey was distributed to 265 randomly selected middle school science teachers throughout the State of Florida. Seventy-six and ninety-two percent of teachers reported increased levels of stress as a result of SBR and the science FCAT, respectively. Eighty-six percent of teachers reported loss of autonomy and control over what goes on in their classrooms, and fifty-four percent of teachers reported loss of freedom and creativity regarding curriculum and lessons. Eighty-three percent of teachers believe that increased time spent on test preparation has come at the expense of other important curricular items. By contrast, only nineteen percent of teachers believe that the science FCAT has brought about improvement in curriculum, instruction and student learning in science. Yet, twenty-five percent of teachers believe that reform efforts will improve their school. An important finding is that teachers' attitudes toward reform efforts are strongly influenced by their attitudes toward the administration at their school. Teachers who receive more support from administrators have more positive attitudes toward all aspects of SBR and the science FCAT measured in this study. Although the majority of teachers reported negative attitudes toward the reform

  1. System Energy Assessment (SEA, Defining a Standard Measure of EROI for Energy Businesses as Whole Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Zarnikau

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A more objective method for measuring the energy needs of businesses, System Energy Assessment (SEA, measures the combined impacts of material supply chains and service supply chains, to assess businesses as whole self-managing net-energy systems. The method is demonstrated using a model Wind Farm, and defines a physical measure of their energy productivity for society (EROI-S, a ratio of total energy delivered to total energy expended. Energy use records for technology and proxy measures for clearly understood but not individually recorded energy uses for services are combined for a whole system estimate of consumption required for production. Current methods count only energy needs for technology. Business services outsource their own energy needs to operate, leaving no traceable record. That uncounted business energy demand is often 80% of the total, an amount of “dark energy” hidden from view, discovered by finding the average energy estimated needs for businesses far below the world average energy consumed per dollar of GDP. Presently for lack of information the energy needs of business services are counted to be “0”. Our default assumption is to treat them as “average”. The result is a hard measure of total business demand for energy services, a “Scope 4” energy use or GHG impact assessment. Counting recorded energy uses and discounting unrecorded ones misrepresents labor intensive work as highly energy efficient. The result confirms a similar finding by Hall et al. in 1981 [1]. We use exhaustive search for what a business needs to operate as a whole, tracing internal business relationships rather than energy data, to locate its natural physical boundary as a working unit, and so define a business as a physical rather than statistical subject of scientific study. See also online resource materials and notes [2].

  2. 78 FR 67331 - Notice of Request for Extension of a Currently Approved Assessment Exemption for Organic Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Notice of Request for Extension of a Currently Approved Assessment Exemption for Organic Commodities AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION....C. 3501), this notice announces the Agricultural Marketing Service's (``AMS'') intention to...

  3. Using a clinical protocol for orthognathic surgery and assessing a 3-dimensional virtual approach: current therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, Luis A; Ruiz, Jessica V; Quevedo, Cristobal A

    2011-03-01

    Oral and maxillofacial surgeons who perform orthognathic surgery face major changes in their practices, and these challenges will increase in the near future, because the extraordinary advances in technology applied to our profession are not only amazing but are becoming the standard of care as they promote improved outcomes for our patients. Orthognathic surgery is one of the favorite areas of practicing within the scope of practice of an oral and maxillofacial surgeon. Our own practice in orthognathic surgery has completed over 1,000 surgeries of this type. Success is directly related to the consistency and capability of the surgical-orthodontic team to achieve predictable, stable results, and our hypothesis is that a successful result is directly related to the way we take our records and perform diagnosis and treatment planning following basic general principles. Now that we have the opportunity to plan and treat 3-dimensional (3D) problems with 3D technology, we should enter into this new era with appropriate standards to ensure better results, instead of simply enjoying these new tools, which will clearly show not only us but everyone what we do when we perform orthognathic surgery. Appropriate principles need to be taken into account when implementing this new technology. In other words, new technology is welcome, but we do not have to reinvent the wheel. The purpose of this article is to review the current protocol that we use for orthognathic surgery and compare it with published protocols that incorporate new 3D and virtual technology. This report also describes our approach to this new technology.

  4. THE ASSESSMENT OF ENTREPRENEURIAL PERSONALITY: THE CURRENT SITUATION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Suárez-Álvarez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is fundamental in modern society because it represents an important source of innovation, employment, productivity, and growth. While the first theoretical models arose from economic and sociological approaches, psychology provides models that integrate different aspects such as cognitions, attitudes and personality, which allow a more detailed study. The purpose of this paper is to show the main contributions of psychology to the assessment of the enterprising personality. For this purpose, the main models and instruments developed to date were reviewed. The results confirm that the enterprising personality has a multidimensional structure and eight personality traits can be highlighted: achievement motivation, risk-taking, autonomy, self-efficacy, stress tolerance, innovativeness, internal locus of control, and optimism. From a methodological point of view, Item Response Theory and Computerised Adaptive Tests represent the most advanced and modern methods for assessing enterprising personality. There are currently several measurement instruments available. Future areas of research should be directed at the construction of multidimensional models as well as providing alternatives that facilitate a reduction in social desirability and other biases inherent in self-reports.

  5. An Assessment of Counter-current Flow Limitation Phenomena Using MARS Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallis and Kutateladze who studied counter current of liquid-gas flow in vertically channel found the inversely proportional relationship of the liquid and gas velocity. There are a number of experimental models conducted over the years for flooding, or CCFL, that base on the different viewpoints on the initiation and the basic mechanism of flooding. However, according to development of computational technology, analysis is more convenient by using computational analysis, such as TRACE code. MARS code was developed by KAERI based on RELAP5/MOD3 and RELAP5 code adopted the simple CCFL model. Some studies had been performed to assess CCFL phenomenon using MARS. However, the CCFL assessments have not been extensively performed. In this paper, simple CCFL phenomena occurrences were investigated and further studies were suggested. The results of this paper show that MARS code can predict well the onset of CCFL: small pipe for Wallis correlation; large pipe for Kutateladze correlation at low pressure environment. However, to analysis CCFL phenomenon in real reactor geometry, further researches need be conducted at varied pressures to ensure that the MARS code predicts well the onset of CCFL in the high pressure - the actual condition of the reactor

  6. Macro-economic assessment of flood risk in Italy under current and future climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Lorenzo; Koks, Elco; Mysiak, Jaroslav; Aerts, Jeroen; Standardi, Gabriele

    2014-05-01

    This paper explores an integrated methodology for assessing direct and indirect costs of fluvial flooding to estimate current and future fluvial flood risk in Italy. Our methodology combines a Geographic Information System spatial approach, with a general economic equilibrium approach using a downscaled modified version of a Computable General Equilibrium model at NUTS2 scale. Given the level of uncertainty in the behavior of disaster-affected economies, the simulation considers a wide range of business recovery periods. We calculate expected annual losses for each NUTS2 region, and exceedence probability curves to determine probable maximum losses. Given a certain acceptable level of risk, we describe the conditions of flood protection and business recovery periods under which losses are contained within this limit. Because of the difference between direct costs, which are an overestimation of stock losses, and indirect costs, which represent the macro-economic effects, our results have different policy meanings. While the former is relevant for post-disaster recovery, the latter is more relevant for public policy issues, particularly for cost-benefit analysis and resilience assessment.

  7. Current status of the assessment of the ESA Cosmic Vision mission candidate PLATO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, R.; Stankov, A.; Fridlund, M.; Rando, N.

    2009-08-01

    PLATO is a candidate of the European Space Agency's Science programme Cosmic Vision 2015-2025. "PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of stars" aims to characterise exoplanetary systems by detecting planetary transits and conducting asteroseismology of their parent stars. This is achieved through high-precision photometry (visible waveband). PLATO is currently in assessment phase, which was started with an internal study in ESA's Concurrent Design Facility (CDF). Two phase-A, parallel industrial studies with 12-months durations are being conducted until July 2009. The objectives of these studies are to understand the critical areas inherent to this mission and assess the trade-offs in order to define a baseline concept that optimises scientific return while minimising complexity and risk and meeting the applicable programmatic constraints. PLATO will operate in a large-amplitude orbit around Sun-Earth L2 where it will observe targets for several years in order to characterise the exoplanetary transits. To observe enough stars (with focus on Sun-like cool dwarfs) to maximize the number of transit detections, a large field-of-view (FoV) is required as well as a sufficiently high collecting area. PLATO will achieve this objective by utilizing several smaller telescopes instead of one large telescope. Several different optical designs, both reflective and refractive, are being studied. Due to the large number of simultaneously observed stars the spacecraft will require a high degree of autonomy and adequate on-board processing capability. Moreover, the stars must be monitored with high accuracy, which means that the spacecraft must provide a stable environment in terms of pointing stability and thermal environment. This paper summarises the results of the assessment studies.

  8. Adaptive capacity indicators to assess sustainability of urban water systems - Current application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Marc

    2016-11-01

    Sustainability is commonly assessed along environmental, societal, economic and technological dimensions. A crucial aspect of sustainability is that inter-generational equality must be ensured. This requires that sustainability is attained in the here and now as well as into the future. Therefore, what is perceived as 'sustainable' changes as a function of societal opinion and technological and scientific progress. A concept that describes the ability of systems to change is adaptive capacity. Literature suggests that the ability of systems to adapt is an integral part of sustainable development. This paper demonstrates that indicators measuring adaptive capacity are underrepresented in current urban water sustainability studies. Furthermore, it is discussed under which sustainability dimensions adaptive capacity indicators are lacking and why. Of the >90 indicators analysed, only nine are adaptive capacity indicators, of which six are socio-cultural, two technological, one economical and none environmental. This infrequent use of adaptive capacity indicators in sustainability assessments led to the conclusion that the challenge of dynamic and uncertain urban water systems is, with the exception of the socio-cultural dimension, not yet sufficiently reflected in the application of urban water sustainability indicators. This raises concerns about the progress towards urban water systems that can transform as a response variation and change. Therefore, research should focus on developing methods and indicators that can define, evaluate and quantify adaptive capacity under the economic, environmental and technical dimension of sustainability. Furthermore, it should be evaluated whether sustainability frameworks that focus on the control processes of urban water systems are more suitable for measuring adaptive capacity, than the assessments along environmental, economic, socio-cultural and technological dimensions. PMID:27390059

  9. Adaptive capacity indicators to assess sustainability of urban water systems - Current application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Marc

    2016-11-01

    Sustainability is commonly assessed along environmental, societal, economic and technological dimensions. A crucial aspect of sustainability is that inter-generational equality must be ensured. This requires that sustainability is attained in the here and now as well as into the future. Therefore, what is perceived as 'sustainable' changes as a function of societal opinion and technological and scientific progress. A concept that describes the ability of systems to change is adaptive capacity. Literature suggests that the ability of systems to adapt is an integral part of sustainable development. This paper demonstrates that indicators measuring adaptive capacity are underrepresented in current urban water sustainability studies. Furthermore, it is discussed under which sustainability dimensions adaptive capacity indicators are lacking and why. Of the >90 indicators analysed, only nine are adaptive capacity indicators, of which six are socio-cultural, two technological, one economical and none environmental. This infrequent use of adaptive capacity indicators in sustainability assessments led to the conclusion that the challenge of dynamic and uncertain urban water systems is, with the exception of the socio-cultural dimension, not yet sufficiently reflected in the application of urban water sustainability indicators. This raises concerns about the progress towards urban water systems that can transform as a response variation and change. Therefore, research should focus on developing methods and indicators that can define, evaluate and quantify adaptive capacity under the economic, environmental and technical dimension of sustainability. Furthermore, it should be evaluated whether sustainability frameworks that focus on the control processes of urban water systems are more suitable for measuring adaptive capacity, than the assessments along environmental, economic, socio-cultural and technological dimensions.

  10. An exploratory study of the influence of national and state standards on middle school science teachers' classroom assessment practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWaters, Kathy Jean

    2001-07-01

    Classroom assessment practices of middle school science teachers were identified and the influence of national and state science standards on these practices was examined. In Phase I of this study a mail questionnaire was sent to 450 middle school (grades 5,6,7 and 8) science teachers in 17 parishes in Louisiana to obtain information about their classroom assessment practices. In Phase II, nine middle school teachers in eight departmentalized classrooms, two classes at each grade, participated in a qualitative study. Data were collected through questionnaires, classroom observations, interviews and document analysis. Data analysis revealed three major categories of classroom assessment targets: (a) student achievement, (b) student attitudes and, (c) student products. Results indicated that most teachers are using different assessment methods when assessing different achievement targets, as recommended by science reform documents. It was also determined that many teachers are using appropriate methods to assess student learning. While teachers reported that students spend an inordinate amount of time engaged in assessment activities, classroom observations suggested that the activities were not always written tests or graded activities. Another key finding is that there is a disconnect between the quality of teaching and the quality of assessment. Teachers who teach the material recommended by science reform documents and use recommended instructional strategies were observed to stop teaching and engage students in a "test rehearsal" geared towards rote memorization of factual information. Data suggest that the national and state science content standards are influencing the content and the format of teacher-made tests. Teachers' reported using the standards during assessment construction or selection in a wide variety of ways. The most direct use of the standards reported was to select content, format and cognitive level for test items. A more circumspect approach

  11. Assessment of a single monomorphic ventricular ectopy from the right ventricular outflow tract in standard and high resolution electrocardiogram

    OpenAIRE

    Kozłowski, Dariusz; Kosiński, Adam; Dąbrowska-Kugacka, Alicja; Lewicka-Nowak, Ewa; Dudziak, Maria; Grzybiak, Marek; Raczak, Grzegorz

    2010-01-01

    Introduction High-resolution electrocardiography (ECG-CREM) is a method based on digital electrocardiography. In order to facilitate the interpretation of the Crem records the technique of vectorcardiography was used. In comparison the origin of the ventricular premature complexes (VPCs) could be estimated based on a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram. The aim of the study was to assess the point of origin of the VPCs in ECG-CREM and correlate it with standard electrocardiography (ECG-Stand)....

  12. Assessment of Challenges facing Small and Medium Enterprises towards International Marketing Standards: a Case Study of Arusha Region Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Paluku Kazimoto

    2014-01-01

    Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) new or existing, often face challenges when approach products providers for both enterprise fixed capital investment and market standards. The insufficient supply of microloans is a major issue, particularly where business creators are unemployed persons. This study aims to assess challenges facing Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) towards international marketing standards. Study findings show that SME’s face challenges to access international marketing unawa...

  13. Current and emerging strategies in the management of venous thromboembolism: benefit–risk assessment of dabigatran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanola CL

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Christina L Fanola Department of Cardiovascular and Vascular Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Venous thromboembolism (VTE is a disease state that carries significant morbidity and mortality, and is a known cause of preventable death in hospitalized and orthopedic surgical patients. There are many identifiable risk factors for VTE, yet up to half of VTE incident cases have no identifiable risk factor and carry a high likelihood of recurrence, which may warrant extended therapy. For many years, parenteral unfractionated heparin, low-molecular weight heparin, fondaparinux, and oral vitamin K antagonists (VKAs have been the standard of care in VTE management. However, limitations in current drug therapy options have led to suboptimal treatment, so there has been a need for rapid-onset, fixed-dosing novel oral anticoagulants in both VTE treatment and prophylaxis. Oral VKAs have historically been challenging to use in clinical practice, with their narrow therapeutic range, unpredictable dose responsiveness, and many drug–drug and drug–food interactions. As such, there has also been a need for novel anticoagulant therapies with fewer limitations, which has recently been met. Dabigatran etexilate is a fixed-dose oral direct thrombin inhibitor available for use in acute and extended treatment of VTE, as well as prophylaxis in high-risk orthopedic surgical patients. In this review, the risks and overall benefits of dabigatran in VTE management are addressed, with special emphasis on clinical trial data and their application to general clinical practice and special patient populations. Current and emerging therapies in the management of VTE and monitoring of dabigatran anticoagulant-effect reversal are also discussed. Keywords: novel oral anticoagulants, dabigatran, venous thromboembolism, deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, oral anticoagulation

  14. Assessment of current techniques for reduction of indoor radon concentration in existing and new houses in European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon control technologies aim at the reduction of indoor radon concentrations in existing buildings and in new construction through remedial and preventive measures. In recent years, rising ecological awareness and rising energy costs have stimulated the development of low energy and passive houses to save energy. This report contains the analysis and assessment of current techniques and technologies used to achieve the reduction of indoor radon concentrations in existing and new houses with regard to the reduction efficiency and potential impact on energy consumption (qualitative analysis). A questionnaire was prepared and sent to all RADPAR partners in 14 different countries in order to gather national information about the current remediation and prevention techniques. Responses with variable amounts of information were obtained. Based on the questionnaire responses, the status of radon remediation and prevention in each country was assessed, in addition to the reduction efficiency and potential impact on energy consumption of the current remediation and prevention techniques. The number of dwellings with an elevated indoor radon concentration typically ranges from tens of thousands to a million. The percentage of these houses already remediated varies from zero to 15%. Preventive measures in new construction have been taken from a small number of houses to over half a million houses. The research data on the current situation, the number of houses with preventive measures and the efficiency of these measures is currently still quite inadequate. Assessment of the techniques and also the surveys aiming at exploring the impact of remedial and preventive measures is greatly needed in order to promote the work at the national level. The most efficient remediation method is the active sub-slab depressurization (SSD) and the radon well, for which the reduction in the radon concentration is typically 70 - 95%. Other methods, such as sealing entry routes and improving

  15. Assessing the cleanliness of surfaces: Innovative molecular approaches vs. standard spore assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, M.; Duc, M.T. La; Probst, A.; Vaishampayan, P.; Stam, C.; Benardini, J.N.; Piceno, Y.M.; Andersen, G.L.; Venkateswaran, K.

    2011-04-01

    A bacterial spore assay and a molecular DNA microarray method were compared for their ability to assess relative cleanliness in the context of bacterial abundance and diversity on spacecraft surfaces. Colony counts derived from the NASA standard spore assay were extremely low for spacecraft surfaces. However, the PhyloChip generation 3 (G3) DNA microarray resolved the genetic signatures of a highly diverse suite of microorganisms in the very same sample set. Samples completely devoid of cultivable spores were shown to harbor the DNA of more than 100 distinct microbial phylotypes. Furthermore, samples with higher numbers of cultivable spores did not necessarily give rise to a greater microbial diversity upon analysis with the DNA microarray. The findings of this study clearly demonstrated that there is not a statistically significant correlation between the cultivable spore counts obtained from a sample and the degree of bacterial diversity present. Based on these results, it can be stated that validated state-of-the-art molecular techniques, such as DNA microarrays, can be utilized in parallel with classical culture-based methods to further describe the cleanliness of spacecraft surfaces.

  16. Assessment of Inrush Current for Power Transformers by Three-Dimensional Representation

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Yazdani-Asrami; Arjang Yousefi-Talouki; Mohammad Mirzaie

    2012-01-01

    For power transformers, the magnitude of the first peak of inrush current is ten times more than the rated load current. The main feature of this current is its high amplitude and second harmonic content. An uncontrolled inrush current may lead to the inadvertent operation of the circuit over-current protection systems. Furthermore, the magnetic stress produced by the inrush current may destroy mechanical structure and windings of transformers. In addition, this current has undesirable effect...

  17. The impact of national standards assessment in New Zealand, and national testing protocols in Norway on indigenous schooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil ÖZERK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper first provides a critic of the implementation of compulsory national assessment protocols internationally, and then nationally through a review of the implementation process used for the introduction of National Standards in New Zealand, and National Testing in Norwegian mainstream schools. It then reviews the impact of these two assessment regimes on indigenous Mãori and Sámi -medium schools in the context of historic policies of marginalisation and assimilation. Finally, it notes the crucial role of each national government in securing funding for the production of culturally responsive National Standards and National Testing in the effort of both indigenous groups to protect their languages and cultures.

  18. Assessment of knowledge and awareness among radiology personnel regarding current computed tomography technology and radiation dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, M. K. A.; Hashim, S.; Bradley, D. A.; Bahruddin, N. A.; Ang, W. C.; Salehhon, N.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the level of knowledge and awareness among 120 radiology personnel working in 7 public hospitals in Johor, Malaysia, concerning Computed Tomography (CT) technology and radiation doses based on a set of questionnaires. Subjects were divided into two groups (Medical profession (Med, n=32) and Allied health profession (AH, n=88). The questionnaires are addressed: (1) demographic data (2) relative radiation dose and (3) knowledge of current CT technology. One-third of respondents from both groups were able to estimate relative radiation dose for routine CT examinations. 68% of the allied health profession personnel knew of the Malaysia regulations entitled ‘Basic Safety Standard (BSS) 2010’, although notably 80% of them had previously attended a radiation protection course. No significant difference (p < 0.05) in mean scores of CT technology knowledge detected between the two groups, with the medical professions producing a mean score of (26.7 ± 2.7) and the allied health professions a mean score of (25.2 ± 4.3). This study points to considerable variation among the respondents concerning their understanding of knowledge and awareness of risks of radiation and CT optimization techniques.

  19. Assessment of knowledge and awareness among radiology personnel regarding current computed tomography technology and radiation dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, M. K. A.; Hashim, S.; Bradley, D. A.; Bahruddin, N. A.; Ang, W. C.; Salehhon, N.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the level of knowledge and awareness among 120 radiology personnel working in 7 public hospitals in Johor, Malaysia, concerning Computed Tomography (CT) technology and radiation doses based on a set of questionnaires. Subjects were divided into two groups (Medical profession (Med, n=32) and Allied health profession (AH, n=88). The questionnaires are addressed: (1) demographic data (2) relative radiation dose and (3) knowledge of current CT technology. One-third of respondents from both groups were able to estimate relative radiation dose for routine CT examinations. 68% of the allied health profession personnel knew of the Malaysia regulations entitled ‘Basic Safety Standard (BSS) 2010’, although notably 80% of them had previously attended a radiation protection course. No significant difference (p technology knowledge detected between the two groups, with the medical professions producing a mean score of (26.7 ± 2.7) and the allied health professions a mean score of (25.2 ± 4.3). This study points to considerable variation among the respondents concerning their understanding of knowledge and awareness of risks of radiation and CT optimization techniques.

  20. Modelling NO2 concentrations at the street level in the GAINS integrated assessment model: projections under current legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kiesewetter

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available NO2 concentrations at the street level are a major concern for urban air quality in Europe and have been regulated under the EU Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution. Despite the legal requirements, limit values are exceeded at many monitoring stations with little or no improvement during recent years. In order to assess the effects of future emission control regulations on roadside NO2 concentrations, a downscaling module has been implemented in the GAINS integrated assessment model. The module follows a hybrid approach based on atmospheric dispersion calculations and observations from the AirBase European air quality data base that are used to estimate site-specific parameters. Pollutant concentrations at every monitoring site with sufficient data coverage are disaggregated into contributions from regional background, urban increment, and local roadside increment. The future evolution of each contribution is assessed with a model of the appropriate scale – 28 × 28 km grid based on the EMEP Model for the regional background, 7 × 7 km urban increment based on the CHIMERE Chemistry Transport Model, and a chemical box model for the roadside increment. Thus, different emission scenarios and control options for long-range transport, regional and local emissions can be analysed. Observed concentrations and historical trends are well captured, in particular the differing NO2 and total NOx = NO + NO2 trends. Altogether, more than 1950 air quality monitoring stations in the EU are covered by the model, including more than 400 traffic stations and 70% of the critical stations. Together with its well-established bottom-up emission and dispersion calculation scheme, GAINS is thus able to bridge the scales from European-wide policies to impacts in street canyons. As an application of the model, we assess the evolution of attainment of NO2 limit values under current legislation until 2030. Strong improvements are expected with the introduction of the Euro 6

  1. Modelling NO2 concentrations at the street level in the GAINS integrated assessment model: projections under current legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesewetter, G.; Borken-Kleefeld, J.; Schöpp, W.; Heyes, C.; Thunis, P.; Bessagnet, B.; Terrenoire, E.; Gsella, A.; Amann, M.

    2014-01-01

    NO2 concentrations at the street level are a major concern for urban air quality in Europe and have been regulated under the EU Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution. Despite the legal requirements, limit values are exceeded at many monitoring stations with little or no improvement in recent years. In order to assess the effects of future emission control regulations on roadside NO2 concentrations, a downscaling module has been implemented in the GAINS integrated assessment model. The module follows a hybrid approach based on atmospheric dispersion calculations and observations from the AirBase European air quality database that are used to estimate site-specific parameters. Pollutant concentrations at every monitoring site with sufficient data coverage are disaggregated into contributions from regional background, urban increment, and local roadside increment. The future evolution of each contribution is assessed with a model of the appropriate scale: 28 × 28 km grid based on the EMEP Model for the regional background, 7 × 7 km urban increment based on the CHIMERE Chemistry Transport Model, and a chemical box model for the roadside increment. Thus, different emission scenarios and control options for long-range transport as well as regional and local emissions can be analysed. Observed concentrations and historical trends are well captured, in particular the differing NO2 and total NOx = NO + NO2 trends. Altogether, more than 1950 air quality monitoring stations in the EU are covered by the model, including more than 400 traffic stations and 70% of the critical stations. Together with its well-established bottom-up emission and dispersion calculation scheme, GAINS is thus able to bridge the scales from European-wide policies to impacts in street canyons. As an application of the model, we assess the evolution of attainment of NO2 limit values under current legislation until 2030. Strong improvements are expected with the introduction of the Euro 6 emission standard

  2. New Science Standards: A Readiness Assessment for State Boards of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Great Teachers and Leaders, 2015

    2015-01-01

    State implementation of new standards (revising, adapting, and adopting new standards) is a significant undertaking. Such an effort at the state level requires extensive support, planning, and resources. Implementing new state standards also requires the support of multiple education leaders--governors, legislators, state departments of education,…

  3. 42 CFR 493.1239 - Standard: General laboratory systems quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: General laboratory systems quality... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1239 Standard: General laboratory...

  4. Assessing use of a standardized dental diagnostic terminology in an electronic health record

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Tokede; J. White; P.C. Stark; R. Vaderhobli; M.F. Walji; R. Ramoni; M. Schoonheim-Klein; N. Kimmes; A. Tavares; E. Kalenderian

    2013-01-01

    Although standardized terminologies such as the International Classification of Diseases have been in use in medicine for over a century, efforts in the dental profession to standardize dental diagnostic terms have not achieved widespread acceptance. To address this gap, a standardized dental diagno

  5. Projection of bootstrap current in the ITER with standard type I ELMy H-mode and steady state scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thawatchai Onjun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of bootstrap current formation in ITER is carried out using BALDUR integrated predictive modelingcode. The combination of Mixed B/gB anomalous transport model and NLCASS module together with the pedestal model isused in BALDUR code to simulate the time evolution of temperature, density, and plasma current profiles. It was found inthe simulations that without the presence of ITB, a minimal fraction of bootstrap current (as well as low fusion performancewas achieved. The enhancement due to ITB depends sensitively on the strength of toroidal velocity. A sensitivity study wasalso carried out to optimize the bootstrap current fraction and plasma performance. It was found that the bootstrap currentfraction slightly improved; while the plasma performance greatly improved with increasing of NBI power or pedestal temperature.On the other hand, higher impurity concentration resulted in a significant degradation of fusion performance, buta smaller degradation in bootstrap current.

  6. The impact of national standards assessment in New Zealand, and national testing protocols in Norway on indigenous schooling

    OpenAIRE

    Kamil ÖZERK; Whitehead, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper first provides a critic of the implementation of compulsory national assessment protocols internationally, and then nationally through a review of the implementation process used for the introduction of National Standards in New Zealand, and National Testing in Norwegian mainstream schools. It then reviews the impact of these two assessment regimes on indigenous Mãori and Sámi -medium schools in the context of historic policies of marginalisation and assimilation. Finally, it notes...

  7. Malignant gliomas: current perspectives in diagnosis, treatment, and early response assessment using advanced quantitative imaging methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed R

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rafay Ahmed,1 Matthew J Oborski,2 Misun Hwang,1 Frank S Lieberman,3 James M Mountz11Department of Radiology, 2Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 3Department of Neurology and Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: Malignant gliomas consist of glioblastomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, anaplastic oligodendrogliomas and anaplastic oligoastrocytomas, and some less common tumors such as anaplastic ependymomas and anaplastic gangliogliomas. Malignant gliomas have high morbidity and mortality. Even with optimal treatment, median survival is only 12–15 months for glioblastomas and 2–5 years for anaplastic gliomas. However, recent advances in imaging and quantitative analysis of image data have led to earlier diagnosis of tumors and tumor response to therapy, providing oncologists with a greater time window for therapy management. In addition, improved understanding of tumor biology, genetics, and resistance mechanisms has enhanced surgical techniques, chemotherapy methods, and radiotherapy administration. After proper diagnosis and institution of appropriate therapy, there is now a vital need for quantitative methods that can sensitively detect malignant glioma response to therapy at early follow-up times, when changes in management of nonresponders can have its greatest effect. Currently, response is largely evaluated by measuring magnetic resonance contrast and size change, but this approach does not take into account the key biologic steps that precede tumor size reduction. Molecular imaging is ideally suited to measuring early response by quantifying cellular metabolism, proliferation, and apoptosis, activities altered early in treatment. We expect that successful integration of quantitative imaging biomarker assessment into the early phase of clinical trials could provide a novel approach for testing new therapies

  8. Assessing The Current Status Of Solid Waste Management Of Gondar Town Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Gedefaw

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ethiopia is facing rapid urbanization leading to overcrowding and the development of slums and informal settlements with poor waste management practices. Urban dwellers generally consume more resources than rural dwellers and so generate huge quantities of solid wastes. This study is focused on the overall assessment of the existing MSWM service of Gondar town. The overall objective of this study was assessing the current solid waste management service of Gondar town. Both primary and secondary sources were used to achieve the objectives. The analysis of this study was carried out using both qualitative and quantitative techniques. The findings of this study revealed that the present system of MSWM in Gondar town entirely relied on the municipality which provided the full range of waste collection transportation and disposal service. But the provision of this service is not kept in pace with the town solid waste generation. Based on the findings of this study the town households dominantly produced biodegradable solid wastes with generation rate of 0.21kgpersonday. This made the daily total solid waste generation of households to be 8140Kg. Together with other four solid waste sources the total daily solid waste generation of the town is about 11660 kg. So that MSWM of the town is found in very low status and spatial coverage. This poor status of MSWM is also intensified by three critical factors i.e poor institutional structure and capacity of Sanitation and beautification limited participation and contribution of stakeholders and poor households solid waste management practices. This study concluded that there should be sustainable solid waste management systems reuse recycle composting and incineration through awareness creation and training improvement of SB institutional structure and capacity and implementation of integrated MSWM approach which recognizes and comprises all stakeholders in the town.

  9. Big Feet: Assessing the Current and Future Impact of Population Size on a Country's Ecological Footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, R. S.; Takaro, T.; Miller, C.; Hogg, E.; Anema, A.; Gislason, M.; Parkes, M.

    2015-12-01

    Background: Ecological footprints assess the land and water a population needs to procure its resources and handle its waste. Measures derived from these footprints look at a population's ecological overshoot rather than weighting the population to its footprint. The aim of this study was to examine the latter approach by determining what the current and future weighted world population, by income gradient, would be if everyone lived within the boundary of 1.8 hectares per person. Methods: Country-specific ecological footprints and populations for 2007 were obtained from the Global Footprint Network (www.footprintnetwork.org); and projected populations were collected from US Census Bureau (www.census.gov). Footprint growth to 2050 was based on a business as usual approach developed by Kitzes et al. in Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B (2008). Weighted population estimates were derived by multiplying actual population by the ratio of the country's footprint to overall boundary of 1.8 hectares per person. Results: The weighted global population increased by 2.4 billion people (37%) in 2007 based on our adjustment. High and middle-income country populations increased, by 242% and 10%, respectively, while low-income country populations decreased by 33%. The weighed global population in 2050 increased by 10.1 billion with the majority of this growth occurring in high-income countries -- 437% versus 67% and 9% respectively for medium and low-income countries. Conclusions: Our study showed that current and future global weighted demographic and ecological impact would be felt mainly in high-income countries even though actual population growth would occur mainly in low and middle-income countries.

  10. Environmental & economic life cycle assessment of current & future sewage sludge to energy technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, N; Pearce, P; Farrow, J; Thorpe, R B; Kirkby, N F

    2014-01-01

    The UK Water Industry currently generates approximately 800GWh pa of electrical energy from sewage sludge. Traditionally energy recovery from sewage sludge features Anaerobic Digestion (AD) with biogas utilisation in combined heat and power (CHP) systems. However, the industry is evolving and a number of developments that extract more energy from sludge are either being implemented or are nearing full scale demonstration. This study compared five technology configurations: 1 - conventional AD with CHP, 2 - Thermal Hydrolysis Process (THP) AD with CHP, 3 - THP AD with bio-methane grid injection, 4 - THP AD with CHP followed by drying of digested sludge for solid fuel production, 5 - THP AD followed by drying, pyrolysis of the digested sludge and use of the both the biogas and the pyrolysis gas in a CHP. The economic and environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) found that both the post AD drying options performed well but the option used to create a solid fuel to displace coal (configuration 4) was the most sustainable solution economically and environmentally, closely followed by the pyrolysis configuration (5). Application of THP improves the financial and environmental performance compared with conventional AD. Producing bio-methane for grid injection (configuration 3) is attractive financially but has the worst environmental impact of all the scenarios, suggesting that the current UK financial incentive policy for bio-methane is not driving best environmental practice. It is clear that new and improving processes and technologies are enabling significant opportunities for further energy recovery from sludge; LCA provides tools for determining the best overall options for particular situations and allows innovation resources and investment to be focused accordingly. PMID:24060290

  11. Direct-reading inhalable dust monitoring--an assessment of current measurement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Andrew; Walsh, Peter T

    2013-08-01

    Direct-reading dust monitors designed specifically to measure the inhalable fraction of airborne dust are not widely available. Current practice therefore often involves comparing the response of photometer-type dust monitors with the concentration measured with a reference gravimetric inhalable sampler, which is used to adjust the dust monitor measurement. However, changes in airborne particle size can result in significant errors in the estimation of inhalable concentration by this method. The main aim of this study was to assess how these dust monitors behave when challenged with airborne dust containing particles in the inhalable size range and also to investigate alternative dust monitors whose response might not be as prone to variations in particle size or that could be adapted to measure inhalable dust concentration. Several photometer-type dust monitors and a Respicon TM, tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) personal dust monitor (PDM) 3600, TEOM 1400, and Dustrak DRX were assessed for the measurement of airborne inhalable dust during laboratory and field trials. The PDM was modified to allow it to sample and measure larger particles in the inhalable size range. During the laboratory tests, the dust monitors and reference gravimetric samplers were challenged inside a large dust tunnel with aerosols of industrial dusts known to present an inhalable hazard and aluminium oxide powders with a range of discrete particle sizes. A constant concentration of each dust type was generated and peak concentrations of larger particles were periodically introduced to investigate the effects of sudden changes in particle size on monitor calibration. The PDM, Respicon, and DataRam photometer were also assessed during field trials at a bakery, joinery, and a grain mill. Laboratory results showed that the Respicon, modified PDM, and TEOM 1400 observed good linearity for all types of dust when compared with measurements made with a reference IOM sampler; the

  12. System Energy Assessment (SEA), Defining a Standard Measure of EROI for Energy Businesses as Whole Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Henshaw, Philip F; Zarnikau, Jay

    2011-01-01

    A more objective method for measuring the energy needs of businesses, System Energy Assessment (SEA), identifies the natural boundaries of businesses as self-managing net-energy systems, of controlled and self-managing parts. The method is demonstrated using a model Wind Farm case study, and applied to defining a true physical measure of its energy productivity for society (EROI-S), the global ratio of energy produced to energy cost. The traceable needs of business technology are combined with assignable energy needs for all other operating services. That serves to correct a large natural gap in energy use information. Current methods count traceable energy receipts for technology use. Self-managing services employed by businesses outsource their own energy needs to operate, and leave no records to trace. Those uncounted energy demands are often 80% of the total embodied energy of business end products. The scale of this "dark energy" was discovered from differing global accounts, and corrected so the average...

  13. Assessment of a Standardized ROS Production Profile in Humans by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Mrakic-Sposta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growing interest in the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS in health and disease, reliable quantitative noninvasive methods for the assessment of oxidative stress in humans are still lacking. EPR technique, coupled to a specific spin probe (CMH: 1-hydroxy-3-methoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine is here presented as the method of choice to gain a direct measurement of ROS in biological fluids and tissues. The study aimed at demonstrating that, differently from currently available “a posteriori” assays of ROS-induced damage by means of biomolecules (e.g., proteins and lipids spin-trapping EPR provides direct evidence of the “instantaneous” presence of radical species in the sample and, as signal areas are proportional to the number of excited electron spins, lead to absolute concentration levels. Using a recently developed bench top continuous wave system (e-scan EPR scanner, Bruker dealing with very low ROS concentration levels in small (50 μL samples, we successfully monitored rapid ROS production changes in peripheral blood of athletes after controlled exercise and sedentary subjects after antioxidant supplementation. The correlation between EPR results and data obtained by various enzymatic assays (e.g., protein carbonyls and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was determined too. Synthetically, our method allows reliable, quick, noninvasive quantitative determination of ROS in human peripheral blood.

  14. Statistical Association: Alignment of Current U.S. High School Textbooks with the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dung

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the alignment of three selected U.S. high school textbooks series with the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) regarding the treatment of statistical association. A framework grounded in the literature for inclusion and exclusion of reasoning about association topics was developed, and textbook entries were…

  15. 75 FR 62842 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ...,'' as amended in the revisions listed above, requires strict standards that Laboratories and... with the Mandatory Guidelines dated April 30, 2010 (75 FR 22809), the following Laboratories and... April 30, 2010 (75 FR 22809). After receiving DOT certification, the laboratory will be included in...

  16. Distance Education Policy Standards: A Review of Current Regional and National Accrediting Organizations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Suzanne; Brown, Abbie

    2014-01-01

    A review of distance education accreditation policies and standards written by the six United States regional accrediting commissions and two national accrediting organizations: the Middle States Commission on Higher Education; the New England Association of Schools and Colleges - Commission on Institutions of Higher Education; the North Central…

  17. Supporting Implementation of the Next Generation Science Standards: A Needs Assessment Outline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, S. M.; Robeck, E.; Awad, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) explicitly treat Earth and Space Science (ESS) content with the same level of priority as Physical Science, Life Science, and Engineering & Technology. Therefore, the geoscience community has a vested interest in the use of NGSS as it is being implemented in K-12 classrooms. Individuals and groups from all facets of the geosciences can take action to support the implementation of the NGSS. That action will be most effective if it is guided by a thorough understanding of the needs of teachers and other stakeholders who have a role to play in NGSS implementation. This session will describe qualitative and quantitative needs assessment data that was gathered in advance of the Summit Meeting on the Implementation of the NGSS at the State Level, which was jointly organized in April 2015 by the American Geosciences Institute (AGI) and the National Association of Geoscience Teachers (NAGT). The data to be discussed are from interviews and quantitative survey data, as well as data based on responses by the 50+ Summit attendees who represented a variety of perspectives in geoscience education. Particular attention will be given to areas where responses suggested points of tension, such as the fact that many survey respondents feel that they understand dimensions of the NGSS that their colleagues do not understand as well, making for a potentially difficult context in which to work to implement the NGSS. Actions suggested by the Summit attendees that are related to the different need areas will also be described, with the intent being to open discussion among session participants about additional actions that they can take individually and/or collectively. The overarching goal of this presentation will be to work in coordination with the other presentations in the session to expand the network of member of the geoscience community who are informed and committed to supporting NGSS implementation.

  18. Current challenges facing the assessment of the allergenic capacity of food allergens in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; van Bilsen, Jolanda; Głogowski, Robert; López-Expósito, Iván; Bouchaud, Grégory; Blanchard, Carine; Bodinier, Marie; Smit, Joost; Pieters, Raymond; Bastiaan-Net, Shanna; de Wit, Nicole; Untersmayr, Eva; Adel-Patient, Karine; Knippels, Leon; Epstein, Michelle M; Noti, Mario; Nygaard, Unni Cecilie; Kimber, Ian; Verhoeckx, Kitty; O'Mahony, Liam

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is a major health problem of increasing concern. The insufficiency of protein sources for human nutrition in a world with a growing population is also a significant problem. The introduction of new protein sources into the diet, such as newly developed innovative foods or foods produced using new technologies and production processes, insects, algae, duckweed, or agricultural products from third countries, creates the opportunity for development of new food allergies, and this in turn has driven the need to develop test methods capable of characterizing the allergenic potential of novel food proteins. There is no doubt that robust and reliable animal models for the identification and characterization of food allergens would be valuable tools for safety assessment. However, although various animal models have been proposed for this purpose, to date, none have been formally validated as predictive and none are currently suitable to test the allergenic potential of new foods. Here, the design of various animal models are reviewed, including among others considerations of species and strain, diet, route of administration, dose and formulation of the test protein, relevant controls and endpoints measured. PMID:27313841

  19. Assessment of Current Status of Women Farmers in Japan Using Empowerment Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijani, Sarafat A.; Yano, Izumi

    This research assessed the current status of Japanese women farmers using universal measurement of women empowerment. Two prefectures, Hiroshima and Shimane were selected. Stratified sampling technique was used to select respondents from each village while structured questionnaire was employed to collect data on economic, social, familial, legal, mobility and political status of the respondents. The result shows that status of women farmers was improved in the recent time compared to years back. This was revealed in the favourable responses to some statement questions such as; freedom and participation in voting, relationship with husband, participation in outside work and freedom of movement. However, their status as unpaid workers on family farms, lack of freedom to borrow and lend, inability to express their mind over the children to mother-in-law were the prevailing items of their disempowerment. Classifying respondents on the overall empowerment shows that majority of them were highly empowered. Inferential analysis using t-test to compare women farmers past and present status shows a significant difference, t = 4.827, p = 0.000. Relationship between personal characteristics of women farmers and their present empowerment status using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) coefficient r shows negative correlation between age and all empowerment indicators. Also marital status has negative correlation with familial and legal empowerment while mother-in-law and familial empowerment were positively correlated. It therefore suggests that status of women farmer in Japan has improved, compare to their situation years back.

  20. Assessing the current state of dental informatics in saudi arabia: the new frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nasser, Lubna; Al-Ehaideb, Ali; Househ, Mowafa

    2014-01-01

    Dental informatics is an emerging field that has the potential to transform the dental profession. This study aims to summarize the current applications of dental informatics in Saudi Arabia and to identify the challenges facing expansion of dental informatics in the Saudi context. Search for published articles and specialized forum entries was conducted, as well as interviews with dental professionals familiar with the topic. Results indicated that digital radiography/analysis and administrative management of dental practice are the commonest applications used. Applications in Saudi dental education included: web-based learning systems, computer-based assessments and virtual technology for clinical skills' teaching. Patients' education software, electronic dental/oral health records and the potential of dental research output from electronic databases are yet to be achieved in Saudi Arabia. Challenges facing Saudi dental informatics include: lack of IT infrastructure/support, social acceptability and financial cost. Several initiatives are taken towards the research in dental informatics. Still, more investments are needed to fully achieve the potential of various application of informatics in dental education, practice and research.

  1. Assessment of current mass spectrometric workflows for the quantification of low abundant proteins and phosphorylation sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Bauer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The data described here provide a systematic performance evaluation of popular data-dependent (DDA and independent (DIA mass spectrometric (MS workflows currently used in quantitative proteomics. We assessed the limits of identification, quantification and detection for each method by analyzing a dilution series of 20 unmodified and 10 phosphorylated synthetic heavy labeled reference peptides, respectively, covering six orders of magnitude in peptide concentration with and without a complex human cell digest background. We found that all methods performed very similarly in the absence of background proteins, however, when analyzing whole cell lysates, targeted methods were at least 5–10 times more sensitive than directed or DDA methods. In particular, higher stage fragmentation (MS3 of the neutral loss peak using a linear ion trap increased dynamic quantification range of some phosphopeptides up to 100-fold. We illustrate the power of this targeted MS3 approach for phosphopeptide monitoring by successfully quantifying 9 phosphorylation sites of the kinetochore and spindle assembly checkpoint component Mad1 over different cell cycle states from non-enriched pull-down samples. The data are associated to the research article ‘Evaluation of data-dependent and data-independent mass spectrometric workflows for sensitive quantification of proteins and phosphorylation sites׳ (Bauer et al., 2014 [1]. The mass spectrometry and the analysis dataset have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD000964.

  2. Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome: Current challenges in assessment, management and prognostic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Charlotte Fm; Newland, Kate; McCormack, Christopher; Lade, Stephen; Prince, H Miles

    2016-08-01

    Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome are the most common variants of the cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. Assessment of a patient with a suspected diagnosis requires thorough history taking and physical examination, in combination with skin biopsy. In some cases flow cytometry, molecular studies and imaging are also required in order to diagnose and stage the disease. Staging is derived from the tumour-node-metastasis-blood classification and is currently our best attempt to stratify prognosis and hence guide management in this complex disease. Many other clinical, biological and pathological factors may help to distinguish groups at risk and predict prognosis more accurately. Management remains heavily guided by staging, such that patients with early-stage disease generally begin treatment with skin-directed or local therapies and those with advanced-stage disease have many treatment options, including chemotherapy, the use of biological agents, local and total body radiotherapy, as well as haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Besides staging, many other patient-related factors influence the treatment strategy, particularly where symptom relief is paramount. There are many challenges remaining in the study of Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome and, given the rarity of the disease, concerted worldwide efforts are required to conduct efficient and effective research.

  3. Writing to the Common Core: Teachers' Responses to Changes in Standards and Assessments for Writing in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Kristen Campbell; Jeffery, Jill V.; Gardner-Bixler, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This multiple case study investigated how the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for writing and teacher evaluation system based in part on CCSS assessments might be influencing writing instruction in elementary schools. The sample included nine schools: Six achieved above-predicted performance on English Language Arts (ELA) as well as prior ELA…

  4. Calculation of fault current-division factors and assessment of earth-grid safety at an independent power producer station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chien-Hsing [Department of Systems and Naval Mechatronic Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701 (China); Chang, Cheng-Nan; Wang, Yaw-Juen [Graduate School of Engineering Science and Technology, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Touliu, Yunlin 640 (China)

    2009-11-15

    This paper calculates fault current-division factors and assesses earth-grid safety at 17.1/161-kV Chiahui independent power producer (IPP). A method based on the grid current is proposed to calculate fault current-division factors and the results are compared with the Endrenyi method as well as the current-distribution electromagnetic-grounding and soil-structure analysis (CDEGS) program. Since the coupling effect of overhead earth wires to phase conductors was not taken into account by the Endrenyi method, the computed fault current-division factor will be greater than those obtained by the proposed method and CDEGS program. Moreover, mesh and step voltages are computed to compare with minimum touch and step voltages for assessing earth-grid safety, respectively. As a result, the design of earthing systems at 17.1/161-kV IPP station is safe for humans with 50 kg and 70 kg body weight. (author)

  5. QUEST-RA: quantitative clinical assessment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis seen in standard rheumatology care in 15 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokka, Tuulikki; Kautiainen, Hannu; Toloza, Sergio;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To conduct a cross-sectional review of non-selected consecutive outpatients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as part of standard clinical care in 15 countries for an overview of the characteristics of patients with RA. METHODS: The review included current disease activity using data from...

  6. Aligning Science Assessment Standards: New Mexico and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Issues & Answers. REL 2007-No. 021

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timms, Michael; Schneider, Steven; Lee, Cindy; Rolfhus, Eric

    2007-01-01

    This policy research document is intended for New Mexico policymakers to use when examining possible changes to the state assessment's alignment with the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The 2009 NAEP test is not yet in existence, so the purpose of this report is to give policymakers a head start in determining where they might,…

  7. Assessment of the relationship between standard probe and implantable fiber measurements of cortical bone blood flow: a canine study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, R; Podworny, N; Anderson, G I; Schemitsch, E H

    1996-07-01

    Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) has been used to assess cortical bone blood flow in various clinical situations, such as osteomyelitis and osteonecrosis. Standard metal-sheathed probes containing optical fibers, applied to cortical bone for perfusion measurements, require direct exposure of the bone surface for each measurement, making nonanesthetized assessments over time impractical. Implantable optical fibers offer a noninvasive method for evaluating cortical bone perfusion without repeated surgical exposure of the bone after initial surgical implantation of the fibers. In vitro studies have shown the reliability of laser Doppler (LD) fibers compared with those of the standard probe. This investigation studied the relationship between measurements of cortical bone perfusion obtained by implanted optical (LD) fibers and standard (LDF) probes in vivo. Midshaft tibial fractures were created in the right hindlimb of 11 adult, large (>25 kg) dogs and stabilized by low contact-dynamic compression plate fixation. Cortical bone blood flow was measured by LDF using standard probes and implantable fibers at five sites along the tibia prefracture, postfracture, immediately postplate application, and at 10 weeks postplating, immediately prior to euthanasia. The implantable fibers were secured onto the cortical bone via the plate and led through a percutaneous exit site. Histological examination of the inguinal and popliteal lymph nodes and soft tissue surrounding the fibers revealed mild inflammation. No significant correlation of blood flow assessed by the implantable fibers and standard probe occurred immediately postfracture (r 0.62). However, a statistically significant correlation was seen postplate application at one of the measurement sites in the distal fracture fragment (r = 0.78, P fibers remained intact and functional until an average of 3 weeks at which time they either fractured or were removed by the animals. This is the first in vivo study assessing the

  8. Teaching Writing in the Shadow of Standardized Writing Assessment: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimi, Hunter

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study results from interviews with five high school English teachers regarding their writing instruction. The researcher sought to answer these questions: (1) How had the Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program's (TCAP) Writing Assessment affected their teaching as gauged by the teachers' statements regarding the assessment,…

  9. Assessment of autonomic dysfunction following spinal cord injury: rationale for additions to International Standards for Neurological Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krassioukov, Andrei V; Karlsson, Ann-Katrin; Wecht, Jill M; Wuermser, Lisa-Ann; Mathias, Christopher J; Marino, Ralph J

    2007-01-01

    We present a preliminary report of the discussion of the joint committee of the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) and the International Spinal Cord Society concerning the development of assessment criteria for general autonomic function testing following spinal cord injury (SCI). Elements of this report were presented at the 2005 annual meeting of the ASIA. To improve the evaluation of neurological function in individuals with SCI and therefore better assess the effects of therapeutic interventions in the future, we are proposing a comprehensive set of definitions of general autonomic nervous system dysfunction following SCI that should be assessed by clinicians. Presently the committee recommends the recognition and assessment of the following conditions: neurogenic shock, cardiac dysrhythmias, orthostatic hypotension, autonomic dysreflexia, temperature dysregulation, and hyperhidrosis. PMID:17551864

  10. Standardizing data exchange for clinical research protocols and case report forms: An assessment of the suitability of the Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC) Operational Data Model (ODM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huser, Vojtech; Sastry, Chandan; Breymaier, Matthew; Idriss, Asma; Cimino, James J

    2015-10-01

    Efficient communication of a clinical study protocol and case report forms during all stages of a human clinical study is important for many stakeholders. An electronic and structured study representation format that can be used throughout the whole study life-span can improve such communication and potentially lower total study costs. The most relevant standard for representing clinical study data, applicable to unregulated as well as regulated studies, is the Operational Data Model (ODM) in development since 1999 by the Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC). ODM's initial objective was exchange of case report forms data but it is increasingly utilized in other contexts. An ODM extension called Study Design Model, introduced in 2011, provides additional protocol representation elements. Using a case study approach, we evaluated ODM's ability to capture all necessary protocol elements during a complete clinical study lifecycle in the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health. ODM offers the advantage of a single format for institutions that deal with hundreds or thousands of concurrent clinical studies and maintain a data warehouse for these studies. For each study stage, we present a list of gaps in the ODM standard and identify necessary vendor or institutional extensions that can compensate for such gaps. The current version of ODM (1.3.2) has only partial support for study protocol and study registration data mainly because it is outside the original development goal. ODM provides comprehensive support for representation of case report forms (in both the design stage and with patient level data). Inclusion of requirements of observational, non-regulated or investigator-initiated studies (outside Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation) can further improve future revisions of the standard.

  11. A Biogeographic Assessment of the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary - Surface Current Model Outputs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface and sub-surface current model outputs were obtained from researchers at the University of Massachusetts-Boston to examine spatial and temporal current...

  12. A Biogeographic Assessment of the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary - Subsurface Current Model Outputs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface and sub-surface current model outputs were obtained from researchers at the University of Massachusetts-Boston to examine spatial and temporal current...

  13. Amendment of standard for procedures of level 1 probabilistic risk assessment of nuclear power plants during power operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A standard which is intended to provide requirements and methodologies for conducting level 1 probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) was amended. In this standard, PRA is carried out to evaluate the risk of nuclear power plants by evaluating the core damage frequencies due to internal initiating events during power operation. This standard was approved and published by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) on the deliberations at the Subcommittee on Level 1 PRA under the Risk Technical Committee of the AESJ Standards Committee. AESJ formulated and issued this document after deliberation by the Risk Technical Committee and the Standards Committee. PRA of a nuclear power plant is a probabilistic approach for comprehensively and quantitatively assessing plant risk. This involves quantitative analysis of accident scenarios up to core damage and of the further evolution of events after core damage, with careful attention to events that are related to core or fuel damage, finally to arrive at an estimation of event frequencies and consequences. In Japan, PRA has been implemented to evaluate the validity of Accident Management Strategies and the quantitative safety of nuclear power plants in the Periodic Safety Review. Furthermore, in the regulatory area, the Nuclear Regulation Authority, which is the new regulatory authority founded in 2012, intends to utilize PRA in their new safety regulation positively. As the validity of PRA has come to be accepted, preservation of the quality and transparency of PRA has become important issues. Recognizing that preparation of a standard for PRA procedure is effective in addressing these issues, the AESJ standards committee is preparing a procedures guide for nuclear facilities. As described above, this standard replaces the 2008 issue - A Standard for Procedures of Probabilistic Safety Assessment of Nuclear Power Plants during Power Operation (Level 1 PSA):2008 - of the same standard. We decided to make this amendment because five

  14. Assessment and management of respiratory function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: current and emerging options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LoMauro A

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Antonella LoMauro,1 Maria Grazia D’Angelo,2 Andrea Aliverti1 1Department of Electronics, Information and Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano, Milan, 2IRCCS Eugenio Medea, Bosisio Parini, Italy Abstract: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is an X-linked myopathy resulting in progressive weakness and wasting of all the striated muscles including the respiratory muscles. The consequences are loss of ambulation before teen ages, cardiac involvement and breathing difficulties, the main cause of death. A cure for DMD is not currently available. In the last decades the survival of patients with DMD has improved because the natural history of the disease can be changed thanks to a more comprehensive therapeutic approach. This comprises interventions targeted to the manifestations and complications of the disease, particularly in the respiratory care. These include: 1 pharmacological intervention, namely corticosteroids and idebenone that significantly reduce the decline of spirometric parameters; 2 rehabilitative intervention, namely lung volume recruitment techniques that help prevent atelectasis and slows the rate of decline of pulmonary function; 3 scoliosis treatment, namely steroid therapy that is used to reduce muscle inflammation/degeneration and prolong ambulation in order to delay the onset of scoliosis, being an additional contribution to the restrictive lung pattern; 4 cough assisted devices that improve airway clearance thus reducing the risk of pulmonary infections; and 5 non-invasive mechanical ventilation that is essential to treat nocturnal hypoventilation, sleep disordered breathing, and ultimately respiratory failure. Without any intervention death occurs within the first 2 decades, however, thanks to this multidisciplinary therapeutic approach life expectancy of a newborn with DMD nowadays can be significantly prolonged up to his fourth decade. This review is aimed at providing state-of-the-art methods and techniques for the

  15. Assessment and management of respiratory function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: current and emerging options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoMauro, Antonella; D'Angelo, Maria Grazia; Aliverti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked myopathy resulting in progressive weakness and wasting of all the striated muscles including the respiratory muscles. The consequences are loss of ambulation before teen ages, cardiac involvement and breathing difficulties, the main cause of death. A cure for DMD is not currently available. In the last decades the survival of patients with DMD has improved because the natural history of the disease can be changed thanks to a more comprehensive therapeutic approach. This comprises interventions targeted to the manifestations and complications of the disease, particularly in the respiratory care. These include: 1) pharmacological intervention, namely corticosteroids and idebenone that significantly reduce the decline of spirometric parameters; 2) rehabilitative intervention, namely lung volume recruitment techniques that help prevent atelectasis and slows the rate of decline of pulmonary function; 3) scoliosis treatment, namely steroid therapy that is used to reduce muscle inflammation/degeneration and prolong ambulation in order to delay the onset of scoliosis, being an additional contribution to the restrictive lung pattern; 4) cough assisted devices that improve airway clearance thus reducing the risk of pulmonary infections; and 5) non-invasive mechanical ventilation that is essential to treat nocturnal hypoventilation, sleep disordered breathing, and ultimately respiratory failure. Without any intervention death occurs within the first 2 decades, however, thanks to this multidisciplinary therapeutic approach life expectancy of a newborn with DMD nowadays can be significantly prolonged up to his fourth decade. This review is aimed at providing state-of-the-art methods and techniques for the assessment and management of respiratory function in DMD patients. PMID:26451113

  16. [The Current State of Intercultural Opening in Psychosocial Services--The Results of an Assessment in an Inner-City District of Berlin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penka, Simone; Faißt, Hanna; Vardar, Azra; Borde, Theda; Mösko, Mike Oliver; Dingoyan, Demet; Schulz, Holger; Koch, Uwe; Kluge, Ulrike; Heinz, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    The need for intercultural opening of supply facilities for improving access and treatment of people with migration background is acknowledged in Germany. The purpose of the survey was to determine the current state of intercultural opening of psychosocial services in one Berlin district. 127 representatives of institutions were interviewed using a semi-structured assessment tool. The response rate was very high. The cross-cultural opening was implemented on a small scale. Staff as well as users with migration background were underrepresented. Varying and missing standardized documentation as well as problems in assessing users with migration background might be responsible for their low utilization rates. The use of professional interpreters was often not implemented. To judge the low level of implementation of cross-cultural opening in the psychosocial supply system in general, a review of responsible causes is required. PMID:26039370

  17. Standardization and validation of a novel and simple method to assess lumbar dural sac size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To develop and validate a simple, reproducible method to assess dural sac size using standard imaging technology. Materials and methods: This study was institutional review board-approved. Two readers, blinded to the diagnoses, measured anterior–posterior (AP) and transverse (TR) dural sac diameter (DSD), and AP vertebral body diameter (VBD) of the lumbar vertebrae using MRI images from 53 control patients with pre-existing MRI examinations, 19 prospectively MRI-imaged healthy controls, and 24 patients with Marfan syndrome with prior MRI or CT lumbar spine imaging. Statistical analysis utilized linear and logistic regression, Pearson correlation, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results: AP-DSD and TR-DSD measurements were reproducible between two readers (r = 0.91 and 0.87, respectively). DSD (L1–L5) was not different between male and female controls in the AP or TR plane (p = 0.43; p = 0.40, respectively), and did not vary by age (p = 0.62; p = 0.25) or height (p = 0.64; p = 0.32). AP-VBD was greater in males versus females (p = 1.5 × 10−8), resulting in a smaller dural sac ratio (DSR) (DSD/VBD) in males (p = 5.8 × 10−6). Marfan patients had larger AP-DSDs and TR-DSDs than controls (p = 5.9 × 10−9; p = 6.5 × 10−9, respectively). Compared to DSR, AP-DSD and TR-DSD better discriminate Marfan from control subjects based on area under the curve (AUC) values from unadjusted ROCs (AP-DSD p < 0.01; TR-DSD p = 0.04). Conclusion: Individual vertebrae and L1–L5 (average) AP-DSD and TR-DSD measurements are simple, reliable, and reproducible for quantitating dural sac size without needing to control for gender, age, or height. - Highlights: • DSD (L1-L5) does not differ in the AP or TR plane by gender, height, or age. • AP- and TR-DSD measures correlate well between readers with different experience. • Height is positively correlated to AP-VBD in both males and females. • Varying vertebral

  18. Technical quality assessment of breast ultrasound according to American College of Radiology (ACR) Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kyung Hee; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Young Ah; Son, Eun Ju; Oh, Ki Keun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Sun Yang [Pochon CHA University, Pochon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-15

    To evaluate the technical quality of breast ultrasound based on American College of Radiology(ACR) standards. Between March 2002 and July 2002, ninety three breast sonograms obtained from 73 institutions were evaluated based on ACR standards for the hardware, technical settings, labeling of the images and identification. Of 93 breast sonograms, a satisfactory compliance with all ACR standards in the performance of breast US examinations was documented in 31% while the remaining 69% did not fully meet all ACR standards. 4.3% of breast US examinations were performed with a convex transducers, and the focal zone was inappropriately positioned in 14.2%. Gray-scale gain was subjectively characterized as inappropriate in 26.9%, and the size of lesion was not measured in 7.5%. Anatomic location of lesions was inappropriately described in 9.3%. The orientation of an US transducer was not properly labeled on any images in 33.3%. Inadequate recording of patient's information was noted in 43.3%. 50% of sonograms at University medical centers and larger general hospitals fully met all ACR standards while 36.8% at radiologic clinics and 12.1% at other private clinics met all ACR standards. Overall, 69% of breast sonograms failed to meet the quality criteria of the ACR standards. Therefore, it is essential to educate the basic technical details in performing breast US for the quality control.

  19. Are the current attempts at standardization of antiphospholipid antibodies still useful? Emerging technologies signal a shift in direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, Laura; Rizzini, Silvia; Allegri, Flavio; Meroni, Pierluigi; Tincani, Angela

    2008-06-01

    The pathogenic role of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) has been widely established over past years in several experimental models and clinical studies. Accordingly, the detection of aPL by immunoassays (anticardiolipin antibodies; anti-beta2 glycoprotein I antibodies) has become a routine practice in the clinical workup of patients with systemic autoimmune diseases. aPL are mostly assayed using commercial ELISA kits, whose performance has not been found to be sufficiently concordant among the different manufacturers. In the past years, collaborative groups have spent considerable effort to reach some form of standardization but this process is still ongoing. Such lack of standardization has recently become even more crucial, as manufacturers have had to face an increasing demand for fully automated tests for aPL, like those test systems that have been developed for other autoantibodies (e.g., antinuclear antibodies, anti-ENA antibodies). We therefore report our recent experience with two newly developed automated methods for anticardiolipin antibodies testing. In particular, we discuss the results obtained using routine samples, as we believe that these better reflect the "real-life" situation in which those automated methods will operate. We also mention other emerging technologies in the field of aPL detection.

  20. Development of standardized bioassay protocols for the toxicity assessment of waste, manufactured products, and effluents in Latin America: Venezuela, a Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present status of the toxicity assessment of industrial products in Latin America is well below North America/EC standards. As an example, most of Latin America regulatory laws regarding effluent discharge are still based upon concentration limits of certain major pollutants, and BOD/COD measurements; no reference is made to the necessity of aquatic bioassay toxicity data. Aware of this imperative need, the Venezuelan Petroleum Industry (PDVSA), through its R ampersand D Corporative branch (INTEVEP) gave priority to the development of standardized acute/sublethal toxicity test protocols as sound means of evaluating their products and wastes. Throughout this presentation, the Venezuelan case will be studied, showing strategies undertaken to accelerate protocol development. Results will show the assessment of 14 different protocols encompassing a variety of species of aquatic/terrestrial organisms, and a series of toxicity test endpoints including mortality, reproductive, biological and immunological measurements, most of which are currently in use or being developed. These protocols have already yielded useful results in numerous cases where toxicity assessment was required, including evaluations of effluent, oil dispersants, drilling fluids, toxic wastes, fossil fuels and newly developed products. The Venezuelan case demonstrates that the integration of Industry, Academia and Government, which is an essential part of SETAC's philosophy, is absolutely necessary for the successful advancement of environmental scientific/regulatory issues

  1. PECULIARITIES OF CURRENT DOSE ASSESSMENT FOR CHILDREN LIVING IN THE TERRITORIES RADIOACTIVELY CONTAMINATED DUE TO THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Gromov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines peculiarities of current dose assessment for the children living in the territories radioactively contaminated due to the Chernobyl accident. The results of annual exposure dose assessment for the children of various age groups and adult population of three subject territories of the Russian Federation referred to the zones of radioactive contamination are presented. A comparison of obtained estimations is done.

  2. Standardization of domestic human reliability analysis and experience of human reliability analysis in probabilistic safety assessment for NPPs under design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces the background and development activities of domestic standardization of procedure and method for Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) to avoid the intervention of subjectivity by HRA analyst in Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) as possible, and the review of the HRA results for domestic nuclear power plants under design studied by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. We identify the HRA methods used for PSA for domestic NPPs and discuss the subjectivity of HRA analyst shown in performing a HRA. Also, we introduce the PSA guidelines published in USA and review the HRA results based on them. We propose the system of a standard procedure and method for HRA to be developed

  3. ['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2005-01-01

    In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same w

  4. 25 CFR 36.50 - Standard XVII-School program evaluation and needs assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... assessment. Each school shall complete a formal, formative evaluation at least once every seven (7) years... planning and implementation. (4) Curriculum development and instruction. (5) Primary education. (6)...

  5. Instrumentation Amplifier using Differential voltage second generation current conveyor (DVCCII) in standard 0.18 μm CMOS technology

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Panchal; Pramod Kumar Jain; D.S. Ajnar

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a new CMOS high performance, high frequency current mode signal DVCC-II is presented. Output stage AB amplifier provides high driving capability ±0.9mA. It provides rail to rail inputoutputoperation. The proposed DVCC-II has been designed in 0.18μm CMOS technology with 1.8V supply voltage. SPECTRA RF simulator is used for circuit simulation. In low voltage sub-micrometer analog circuitaccuracy and precision can be limited by the finite gain as well as by input offset voltage. Pr...

  6. New Concept for Assessment of Tidal Current Energy in Jiangsu Coast, China

    OpenAIRE

    Ji-Sheng Zhang; Jun Wang,; Ai-Feng Tao; Jin-Hai Zheng; Hui Li

    2013-01-01

    Tidal current energy has attracted more and more attentions of coastal engineers in recent years, mainly due to its advantages of low environmental impact, long-term predictability, and large energy potential. In this study, a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model is applied to predict the distribution of mean density of tidal current energy and to determine a suitable site for energy exploitation in Jiangsu Coast. The simulation results including water elevation and tidal current (speed and dir...

  7. Assessing the ability of current climate information to facilitate local climate services for the water sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutroulis, Aristeidis; Tsanis, Ioannis; Grillakis, Manolis; Jacob, Daniela

    2014-05-01

    In the frame of ECLISE EU FP6 project researchers, in close cooperation with local users of the water sector from the area of Crete, Greece, explored the ability of current climate information to develop and support local climate services water resources management and climate adaption policies. A wealth of climate modeling output ranging from event scale to decadal and centennial experiments, at temporal scales ranging from hourly to monthly, and at spatial scales from very high resolution regional climate models (2 km) to typical GCMs, were used in order to practically assess climate change impacts on water resources. Water resources availability issues analysed and facilitated within the project, focusing on estimates of the future water demands of the island, and comparing with seven "state of the art" CMIP5 simulations within COMBINE framework (under RCPs 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5) to estimate water resources availability, during 21st century. The ability of decadal GCM prediction experiments to reproduce basic hydrometeorological variables like precipitation and temperature for local impact studies, was also examined. Water availability for the whole island at basin scale until 2100 is estimated using the SAC-SMA rainfall-runoff model for a range of different scenarios of projected hydro-climatological regime, demand and supply potential. A robust signal of temperature increase and precipitation decrease is projected for all the pathways. Several messages could be extracted from this provider - user interaction such as the communication of basic concepts and uncertainties, user skepticism and feedback. The main user concern was the coarse spatial scale of climate information and in order to cope with this feedback a special case was framed in collaboration with the project modeling groups for demonstrating a high resolution climate modeling application of an extreme precipitation-flood event over the study area. This effort provided a realistic reproduction of the

  8. Common Core Standards: The New U.S. Intended Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Andrew; McMaken, Jennifer; Hwang, Jun; Yang, Rui

    2011-01-01

    The Common Core standards released in 2010 for English language arts and mathematics have already been adopted by dozens of states. Just how much change do these new standards represent, and what is the nature of that change? In this article, the Common Core standards are compared with current state standards and assessments and with standards in…

  9. The Infant Motor Profile : a standardized and qualitative method to assess motor behaviour in infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heineman, Kirsten R.; Bos, Arend F.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2008-01-01

    A reliable and valid instrument to assess neuromotor condition in infancy is a prerequisite for early detection of developmental motor disorders. We developed a video-based assessment of motor behaviour, the Infant Motor Profile (IMP), to evaluate motor abilities, movement variability, ability to se

  10. An Analysis of Accommodations Issues from the Standards and Assessments Peer Review. Technical Report 51

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurlow, Martha; Christensen, Laurene; Lail, Kathryn E.

    2008-01-01

    To meet the assessment requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), states must ensure the inclusion of students with disabilities, as well as provide for the appropriate use of assessment accommodations. Accommodations have been defined in a number of ways. In the Council of Chief…

  11. Aligning CASAS Competencies and Assessments to Basic Skills Content Standards. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    CASAS - Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    Since its inception, the Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System (CASAS) has focused on teaching and assessing basic skills in contexts that are relevant and important to adult learners. CASAS has developed and continues to refine a highly formalized hierarchy of competencies, the application of basic skills that adults need to be fully…

  12. Quality standards implementation in maritime education and training institutions: fuzzy assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela TULJAK-SUBAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient organization of maritime industry is based on adequate human resources. Knowledge and skills are the results of a well organized study process and training. Since education is part of the public administration, the European Quality Management tool for the Public Sector - Common Assessment Framework (CAF could be used, in accordance with the STCW convention requirements as a starting point to develop a model that allows quantitative assessment of the Maritime Education and Training (MET institutions. Evaluation results and procedures are usually described qualitatively as verbal assessments that are part of a report or are summarized in statistical reports. Fuzzy reasoning permits a transition from qualitative to quantitative decision making. For this purpose, we suggest fuzzy modelling, which gives a quantitative assessment of education effectiveness. Evaluators’ verbal assessments could be linguistic input variables of a fuzzy decision model, based on CAF recommendations and STCW convention that produces a quantitative mark of the Maritime Education and Training Institution quality.

  13. The role of food standards on international trade: assessing the Brazilian beef chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Marques Vieira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify how Brazilian beef managers have responded to a rapid expansion and intensification of standards for beef exports. This issue relates to how some Brazilian beef exporters are strategically repositioning themselves in the supply chains. The literature of this study reviews global chain governance and international standards. The method uses case studies consisting of six medium and large scale beef exporters who export fresh beef to the European Union. The main findings describe the kinds of governance that stimulate upgrading and transferral of the best practices and, consequently, full compliance with mandatory standards. This study suggests that standards do matter for companies trying to increase international competitiveness. These results contribute an understanding of the Brazilian beef chain, and also of other supply chains coping with demanding and changing international markets. Managerial implications show the challengesfacing Brazilian beef exporters in their efforts to sustain exports to the European Union and how they are using chain governance to improve their compliance with international standards and increase competitiveness.

  14. Monitoring design for assessing compliance with numeric nutrient standards for rivers and streams using geospatial variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rachel E; Arabi, Mazdak; Loftis, Jim; Elmund, G Keith

    2014-09-01

    Implementation of numeric nutrient standards in Colorado has prompted a need for greater understanding of human impacts on ambient nutrient levels. This study explored the variability of annual nutrient concentrations due to upstream anthropogenic influences and developed a mathematical expression for the number of samples required to estimate median concentrations for standard compliance. A procedure grounded in statistical hypothesis testing was developed to estimate the number of annual samples required at monitoring locations while taking into account the difference between the median concentrations and the water quality standard for a lognormal population. For the Cache La Poudre River in northern Colorado, the relationship between the median and standard deviation of total N (TN) and total P (TP) concentrations and the upstream point and nonpoint concentrations and general hydrologic descriptors was explored using multiple linear regression models. Very strong relationships were evident between the upstream anthropogenic influences and annual medians for TN and TP ( > 0.85, 0.7, 20%, few samples are needed to reach a 95% confidence level. When the median is within 20% of the corresponding water quality standard, however, the required sample size increases rapidly, and hundreds of samples may be required.

  15. Psychosocial risk assessment in organizations: Concurrent validity of the brief version of the Management Standards Indicator Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Houdmont, Jonathan; Randall, Raymond; Kerr, Robert; Addley, Ken

    2013-01-01

    The Management Standards Indicator Tool (MSIT) is a 35-item self-report measure of the psychosocial work environment designed to assist organizations with psychosocial risk assessment. It is also used in work environment research. Edwards and Webster presented a 25-item version of the MSIT based on the deletion of items having a factor loading of < .65. Stress theory and research suggest that psychosocial hazard exposures may result in harm to the health of workers. Thus, using data collected...

  16. Assessment and Management of Banking Risks in the Global Community: Benefits and Challenges of Implementation of Basel Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Kristina A. Kazakova; Alexander G. Knyazev; Oleg A. Lepekhin; Ella I. Skobleva

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of banking risks by the state is due to the specifics of banking, associated with the transformation of deposits into loans and multiform negative effects that banking risks bear to the national economy. Since the late 1980s, the international practice of assessment and management of banking risks began to be reflected in the documents of the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision. In this paper we consider the evolution of Basel standards from Basel I to Basel III, and discuss sub...

  17. An Assessment of Current and Potential Capacity of Schools of Education with Recommendations for Federal Support Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotto, Linda S.; Clark, David L.

    An extension and re-analysis of data obtained in a national study of knowledge production and utilization in schools, colleges, and departments of education (SCDEs) brings together a picture of the current effort being made by SCDEs in dissemination and utilization (D&U). Ninety-two masters level and doctoral SCDEs were assessed with regard to the…

  18. Self-reported attitude scales: current practice in adequate assessment of reliability, validity, and dimensionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrick, T.A.M.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Tobi, H.; Frewer, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    The development of methods to create self-reported attitude scales has lost momentum, in part because of increased research focused on implicit measures. This paper reviews 162 papers on methodological approaches applied to the validation and assessment of attitude scales. Assessment of methodologic

  19. National Institute of Standards and Technology measurement service of the optical properties of biomedical phantoms: current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaillet, Paul; Cooksey, Catherine C.; Levine, Zachary H.; Pintar, Adam L.; Hwang, Jeeseong; Allen, David W.

    2016-03-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has maintained scales for reflectance and transmittance over several decades. The scales are primarily intended for regular transmittance, mirrors, and solid surface scattering diffusers. The rapidly growing area of optical medical imaging needs a scale for volume scattering of diffuse materials that are used to mimic the optical properties of tissue. Such materials are used as phantoms to evaluate and validate instruments under development intended for clinical use. To address this need, a double-integrating sphere based instrument has been installed to measure the optical properties of tissue-mimicking phantoms. The basic system and methods have been described in previous papers. An important attribute in establishing a viable calibration service is the estimation of measurement uncertainties. The use of custom models and comparisons with other established scales enabled uncertainty measurements. Here, we describe the continuation of those efforts to advance the understanding of the uncertainties through two independent measurements: the bidirectional reflectance distribution function and the bidirectional transmittance distribution function of a commercially available solid biomedical phantom. A Monte Carlo-based model is used and the resulting optical properties are compared to the values provided by the phantom manufacturer.

  20. Instrumentation Amplifier using Differential voltage second generation current conveyor (DVCCII in standard 0.18 μm CMOS technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Panchal

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new CMOS high performance, high frequency current mode signal DVCC-II is presented. Output stage AB amplifier provides high driving capability ±0.9mA. It provides rail to rail inputoutputoperation. The proposed DVCC-II has been designed in 0.18μm CMOS technology with 1.8V supply voltage. SPECTRA RF simulator is used for circuit simulation. In low voltage sub-micrometer analog circuitaccuracy and precision can be limited by the finite gain as well as by input offset voltage. Proposed circuit features have high CMRR, high gain and bandwidth that can be achieved simultaneously without requiring well matched register.

  1. Assessment of Inrush Current for Power Transformers by Three-Dimensional Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Yazdani-Asrami

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available For power transformers, the magnitude of the first peak of inrush current is ten times more than the rated load current. The main feature of this current is its high amplitude and second harmonic content. An uncontrolled inrush current may lead to the inadvertent operation of the circuit over-current protection systems. Furthermore, the magnetic stress produced by the inrush current may destroy mechanical structure and windings of transformers. In addition, this current has undesirable effects on electricity quality, extra loss, and reduction of useful life of transformer. In this paper, the peak value of inrush current in three-phase power transformer with Y-Y connection has been calculated and shown with a three-dimensional representation and its harmonic spectrum has been evaluated. It should be mentioned that, this phenomenon occurs because in four-wire Y-Y connection three-phase power transformers, the probability of saturation in phases is lower in contrast with other possible connection of three-phase transformers.

  2. Psychology's Role in the Assessment of Erectile Dysfunction: Historical Precedents, Current Knowledge, and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Mark D.; Carey, Michael P.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the role of the psychologist in the evaluation of erectile dysfunction. Reviews current diagnostic criteria and provides a historical overview of the topic. Summarizes current epidemiologic knowledge, including data on prevalence and research on cognitive, affective, dydactic, and lifestyle etiologic risk factors. Discusses assessment…

  3. Establishing the Appropriate Attributes in Current Human Reliability Assessment Techniques for Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a joint task of the Working Groups on Risk Assessment (WGRISK) and on Human and Organisational Factors (WGHOF) of the OECD/NEA CSNI, to identify desirable attributes of Human Reliability Assessment (HRA) methods, and to evaluate a range of HRA methods used in OECD member countries against those attributes. The purpose of this project is to provide information that will support regulators and operators of nuclear facilities when making judgements about the appropriateness of HRA methods for conducting assessments in support of Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSA). The task was performed by an international team of Human Factors, HRA and PSA experts from a broad range of OECD member countries. As in other reviews of HRA methods, the study did not set out to recommend or promote the use of any particular HRA method. Rather the study aims to identify the strengths and limitations of commonly used and developing methods to aid those responsible for production of HRAs in selecting appropriate tools for specific HRA applications. The study also aims to assist regulators when making judgements on the appropriateness of the application of an HRA technique within nuclear-related probabilistic safety assessments. The report is aimed at practitioners in the field of human reliability assessment, human factors, and risk assessment more generally

  4. Refinement of current monitoring methodology for electroosmotic flow assessment under low ionic strength conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo-Espinosa, Mario A; Lapizco-Encinas, Blanca H

    2016-05-01

    Current monitoring is a well-established technique for the characterization of electroosmotic (EO) flow in microfluidic devices. This method relies on monitoring the time response of the electric current when a test buffer solution is displaced by an auxiliary solution using EO flow. In this scheme, each solution has a different ionic concentration (and electric conductivity). The difference in the ionic concentration of the two solutions defines the dynamic time response of the electric current and, hence, the current signal to be measured: larger concentration differences result in larger measurable signals. A small concentration difference is needed, however, to avoid dispersion at the interface between the two solutions, which can result in undesired pressure-driven flow that conflicts with the EO flow. Additional challenges arise as the conductivity of the test solution decreases, leading to a reduced electric current signal that may be masked by noise during the measuring process, making for a difficult estimation of an accurate EO mobility. This contribution presents a new scheme for current monitoring that employs multiple channels arranged in parallel, producing an increase in the signal-to-noise ratio of the electric current to be measured and increasing the estimation accuracy. The use of this parallel approach is particularly useful in the estimation of the EO mobility in systems where low conductivity mediums are required, such as insulator based dielectrophoresis devices. PMID:27375813

  5. High performance predictive current control of a three phase VSI: An experimental assessment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vikas Kumar; Prerna Gaur; A P Mittal

    2014-12-01

    Delay has a significant role to play in the implementation of the predictive current control scheme as large amount of calculations are involved. Compensating delay in the predictive current controller design can lead to an improved load current total harmonic distortion (THD) and also an increased switching frequency. Minimization of switching frequency while maintaining the lower value of load current THD requires multiple objective optimization which is achieved by optimizing a single objective function, constructed using weighting factors as a linear combination of individual objective function. The effect of weighting factor on the switching frequency minimization and the current tracking error with delay compensation for the two level voltage source inverter (VSI) are investigated in this paper. The outcomes of the predictive current control using an optimized weighting factor which is calculated using branch and bound algorithm with the delay compensation are compared with the PWM based current control scheme. The experimental tests are conducted on a 2.2 kW VSI to verify the simulation observations.

  6. A standardized conjugation protocol to assess antibiotic resistance transfer between lactococcal species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lampkowska, J.; Feld, L.; Monaghan, A.; Toomey, N.; Schjørring, S.; Jacobsen, B.; Voet, van der H.; Andersen, S.R.; Bolton, D.; Aarts, H.J.M.; Krogfelt, K.A.; Wilcks, A.; Bardowski, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    Optimal conditions and a standardized method for conjugation between two model lactococcal strains, Lactococcus lactis SH4174 (pAMbeta1-containing, erythromycin resistant donor) and L. lactis Bu2-60 (plasmid-free, erythromycin sensitive recipient), were developed and tested in a inter-laboratory exp

  7. Development of a Standard Test to Assess the Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Cells to Disinfectants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luppens, S.B.I.; Reij, M.W.; Heijden, van der R.W.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abee, T.

    2002-01-01

    A standardized disinfectant test for Staphylococcus aureus cells in biofilms was developed. Two disinfectants, the membrane-active compound benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and the oxidizing agent sodium hypochlorite, were used to evaluate the biofilm test. S. aureus formed biofilms on glass, stainless s

  8. 25 CFR 36.12 - Standard III-Program needs assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION MINIMUM ACADEMIC STANDARDS FOR THE BASIC EDUCATION OF INDIAN CHILDREN AND NATIONAL CRITERIA FOR DORMITORY SITUATIONS Educational... importance of the goals. (2) The extent to which educational goals and objectives have been achieved. (3)...

  9. Assessing the Common Core Standards: Opportunities for Improving Measures of Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Andrew; McMaken, Jennifer; Hwang, Jun; Yang, Rui

    2011-01-01

    This article responds to comments on the authors' "Educational Researcher" article "Common Core Standards: The New U.S. Intended Curriculum" (April 2011). The authors note points of agreement and difference with the commentators. They observe that Cobb and Jackson, in their response, and Beach, in his, appear to accept the authors' methods and…

  10. The Standardized 2-Dimensional PMP: A New Assessment Technique in Optometric Credentialing and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Leon J.

    1983-01-01

    A written clinical simulation exercise known as patient management problems (PMP) developed by the National Board of Examiners in Optometry is discussed. The new PMP format is considered standardized in the sense that the "visible" portion of the problem will be identical. (MLW)

  11. Informal Assessment of Competences in the Context of Science Standards in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffl, Iris

    2016-01-01

    Science standards have been a topic in educational research in Austria for about ten years now. Starting in 2005, competency structure models have been developed for junior and senior classes of different school types. After evaluating these models, prototypic tasks were created to point out the meaning of the models to teachers. At the moment,…

  12. Assessing the Added Value of Dynamical Downscaling Using the Standardized Precipitation Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) is used to ascertain the added value of dynamical downscaling over the contiguous United States. WRF is used as a regional climate model (RCM) to dynamically downscale reanalysis fields to compare values of SPI over drough...

  13. Alignment of Mathematics State-Level Standards and Assessments: The Role of Reviewer Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Noreen M.; Herman, Joan L.; Webb, Norman L.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the role of reviewer agreement in judgments about alignment between tests and standards. We used case data from three state alignment studies to explore how different approaches to incorporating reviewer agreement changes alignment conclusions. The three case studies showed varying degrees of reviewer agreement about…

  14. Cultivating Assessment Literacy: Standards Evaluation through Language-Test Specification Reverse Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, F. Scott

    2010-01-01

    The promulgation of ESL learning standards by government agencies and professional organizations is intended to improve second-language (L2) proficiency and academic achievement. However, mandates have been criticized on various grounds, including difficulty of defining domains to be tested as well as vagueness of articulation. Arising from the…

  15. Assessment of NER solutions against the first and second CALBC Silver Standard Corpus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Rebholz-Schuhmann (Dietrich); A. Jimeno-Yepes (Antonio); C. Li (Chen); S. Kafkas (Senay); I. Lewin (Ian); N. Kang (Ning); M.A. Corbett (Mark); D. Milward (David); E. Buyko (Ekaterina); E. Beisswanger (Elena); K. Hornbostel (Kerstin); A. Kouznetsov (Alexandre); R. Witte (René); J.B. Laurila (Jonas B); C.J.O. Baker (Christopher JO); C.-J. Kuo (Cheng-Ju); S. Clematide (Simone); F. Rinaldi (Fabio); R. Farkas (Richárd); G. Móra (György); K. Hara (Kazuo); L.I. Furlong (Laura); M. Rautschka (Michael); M.L. Neves (Mariana Lara); A. Pascual-Montano (Alberto); Q. Wei (Qi); N. Collier (Nigel); M.F.M. Chowdhury (Md Faisal Mahbub); A. Lavelli (Alberto); R. Berlanga (Rafael); R. Morante (Roser); V. Van Asch (Vincent); W. Daelemans (Walter); J.L. Marina (José Luís); E.M. Van Mulligen (Erik M.); J.A. Kors (Jan); U. Hahn (Udo)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Competitions in text mining have been used to measure the performance of automatic text processing solutions against a manually annotated gold standard corpus (GSC). The preparation of the GSC is time-consuming and costly and the final corpus consists at the most of a few tho

  16. Design, development and assessment of control schemes for IDMS in a standardized RTCP-based solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montagud, M.; Boronat, F.; Stokking, H.M.; Cesar, P.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, several media sharing applications that allow social interactions between distributed users are gaining momentum. In these networked scenarios, synchronized playout between the involved participants must be provided to enable truly interactive and coherent shared media experiences. This r

  17. Early Childhood Educator and Administrator Surveys on the Use of Assessments and Standards in Early Childhood Settings. REL 2014-019

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Clare W.; O'Dwyer, Laura; Cook, Kyle DeMeo

    2014-01-01

    The Early Childhood Educator Survey and the Early Childhood Administrator Survey allow users to collect consistent data on the use of child assessments and learning standards in early childhood learning settings. Each survey includes modules on educator/administrator background information, assessment use, and learning standards implementation.…

  18. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Kevin A. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2013-10-03

    Increasing energy consumption and depleting reserves of fossil fuels have resulted in growing interest in alternative renewable energy from the ocean. Ocean currents are an alternative source of clean energy due to their inherent reliability, persistence and sustainability. General ocean circulations exist in the form of large rotating ocean gyres, and feature extremely rapid current flow in the western boundaries due to the Coriolis Effect. The Gulf Stream system is formed by the western boundary current of the North Atlantic Ocean that flows along the east coastline of the United States, and therefore is of particular interest as a potential energy resource for the United States.

  19. Current Understanding on the Role of Standard and Immunoproteasomes in Inflammatory/Immunological Pathways of Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bellavista

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitin-proteasome system is the major intracellular molecular machinery for protein degradation and maintenance of protein homeostasis in most human cells. As ubiquitin-proteasome system plays a critical role in the regulation of the immune system, it might also influence the development and progression of multiple sclerosis (MS. Both ex vivo analyses and animal models suggest that activity and composition of ubiquitin-proteasome system are altered in MS. Proteasome isoforms endowed of immunosubunits may affect the functionality of different cell types such as CD8+ and CD4+ T cells and B cells as well as neurons during MS development. Furthermore, the study of proteasome-related biomarkers, such as proteasome antibodies and circulating proteasomes, may represent a field of interest in MS. Proteasome inhibitors are already used as treatment for cancer and the recent development of inhibitors selective for immunoproteasome subunits may soon represent novel therapeutic approaches to the different forms of MS. In this review we describe the current knowledge on the potential role of proteasomes in MS and discuss the pro et contra of possible therapies for MS targeting proteasome isoforms.

  20. Indian public health standards for Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy facilities: An assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janmejaya Samal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indian Public Health Standards (IPHS are the prescribed quality norms for health care services in India. For the first time this set of standards was introduced with the initiation of National Rural Health Mission in India. The first set of standards was released in 2007 and the second revised set was released in 2012. Among various services Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy (AYUSH is one of the components and certain standards have also been prescribed for AYUSH facilities in concerned health institutions. Materials and Methods: A review was made based on the prescribed IPHS documents obtained from the web portal of Directorate of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi. Results and Discussion: Human resources and drugs have been dealt in detail in all the health institutions. Treatment of common ailments with AYUSH drugs as per the local need, training of health worker in AYUSH drugs and promotion of medicinal plants are some of the services prescribed at sub center level. Description regarding the drugs is only found in primary and Community Health Centers. Manpower under AYUSH has been categorized under essential services in all the institutions except Primary Health Center in which the same has been categorized in desirable services. Conclusion: Mainstreaming of AYUSH and prescribing IPHS standards are some of the important initiatives under NRHM as a substantial portion of rural India is still dependent upon the AYUSH systems of medicine as a way of availing health care services. However, a more detailed prescription for this sector would always be of significance for the society and the sector itself.

  1. Recommendations for Standardizing Validation Procedures Assessing Physical Activity of Older Persons by Monitoring Body Postures and Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Lindemann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is an important determinant of health and well-being in older persons and contributes to their social participation and quality of life. Hence, assessment tools are needed to study this physical activity in free-living conditions. Wearable motion sensing technology is used to assess physical activity. However, there is a lack of harmonisation of validation protocols and applied statistics, which make it hard to compare available and future studies. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to formulate recommendations for assessing the validity of sensor-based activity monitoring in older persons with focus on the measurement of body postures and movements. Validation studies of body-worn devices providing parameters on body postures and movements were identified and summarized and an extensive inter-active process between authors resulted in recommendations about: information on the assessed persons, the technical system, and the analysis of relevant parameters of physical activity, based on a standardized and semi-structured protocol. The recommended protocols can be regarded as a first attempt to standardize validity studies in the area of monitoring physical activity.

  2. Overview of the Carbon Footprint and Its Assessment Standards%碳足迹及其评价准则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裘晓东

    2011-01-01

    当前,为推动温室气体排放的透明化,开展积极有效的碳管理,碳足迹评价成为各国关注的一大重点,各国纷纷出台了一系列评价准则.文章从组织和产品两个层面对国际上较通用的碳足迹评价准则予以介绍,为相关企业及机构了解碳足迹评价知识、开展相关评价工作提供参考.%In order to promote the transparency of the greenhouse gas emission situation, and to carry out the effective carbon management, the carbon footprint assessment has become one of the major focus concerned by countries. Many countries have introduced a series of assessment standards. This paper introduces the general carbon footprint assessment standards in two levels of organization and product. It provides reference to understand the carbon footprint assessment and carry out the relevant evaluation for the relevant enterprises and organizations.

  3. Critique of current practice for the use of expert opinions in probabilistic risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosleh, A.; Bier, V.M.; Apostolakis, G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper critically reviews and evaluates the elicitation and use of expert opinion in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of nuclear power plants in light of the available empirical and theoretical results on expert opinion use. PRA practice is represented by four case studies selected to represent a variety of aspects of the problem. These are assessments of component failure rates and maintenance data, an assessment of seismic hazard rates, assessments of containment phenomenology, and accident precursor studies. The review has yielded mixed results. On the negative side, there appears to be little reliance on normative expertise in structuring the process of expert opinion elicitation and use; most applications instead rely primarily on the common sense of the experts involved in the analysis, which is not always an adequate guide. On the positive side, however, there is evidence that expert opinions can, in fact, be used well in practical settings.

  4. Risk assessment of mixtures of pesticides. Current approaches and future strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reffstrup, Trine Klein; Larsen, John Christian; Meyer, Otto A.

    2010-01-01

    The risk assessment of pesticide residues in food is based on toxicological evaluation of the single compounds and no internationally accepted procedure exists for evaluation of cumulative exposure to multiple residues of pesticides in crops, except for a few groups of pesticides sharing a group...... several approaches are available for the risk assessment of mixtures of pesticides. However, no single simple approach is available to judge upon potential interactions at the low doses that humans are exposed to from pesticide residues in food. In these cases, PBTK models could be useful as tools to...... assess combined tissue doses and to help predict potential interactions including thresholds for such effects. This would improve the quality of the risk assessment....

  5. ASSESSING AND MANAGING MERCURY FROM HISTORIC AND CURRENT MINING ACTIVITIES (PROGRAM FLYER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The conference is designed to achieve three primary goals:Convey public, non-profit and priva sector perspectives on the assessment and management of mercury associated with mining processes, residuals and environmental impactersIdentify data gaps and information ...

  6. The legacy of pesticide pollution: An overlooked factor in current risk assessments of freshwater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jes Jessen; Wiberg-Larsen, Peter; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette;

    2015-01-01

    macroinvertebrate communities, and that those communities were primarily exposed to legacy pesticides via the sediment. Additionally, our results suggest that neglecting legacy pesticides in the risk assessment of pesticides in streams may severely underestimate the risk of ecological effects....

  7. Assessment of Electron-Cyclotron-Current-Drive-Assisted Operation in DEMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marushchenko N.B.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The achievable efficiency for external current drive through electron-cyclotron (EC waves in a demonstration tokamak reactor is discussed. Two possible reactor designs, one for steady state and one for pulsed operation, are considered. It is found that for midplane injection the achievable current drive efficiency is limited by secondharmonic absorption at levels consistent with previous studies. Propagation through the second-harmonic region can be reduced by moving the launch position to the high-field side (this can be obtained by injecting the beam from an upper port in the vacuum vessel. In this case, beam tracing calculations deliver values for the EC current drive efficiency approaching those usually reported for neutral beam current drive.

  8. Current Challenges in Bioequivalence, Quality, and Novel Assessment Technologies for Topical Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yacobi, Avraham; Shah, Vinod P; Bashaw, Edward D;

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarises the proceedings of a recent workshop which brought together pharmaceutical scientists and dermatologists from academia, industry and regulatory agencies to discuss current regulatory issues and industry practices for establishing therapeutic bioequivalence (BE) of dermatologic...

  9. Current Situation and Research of Intelligent Luminaire and Standard%智能灯具及其标准的现状和研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施晓红; 庄晓波; 虞再道; 陈超中

    2016-01-01

    Intelligence is the development trend of lighting system and luminaire .From the point of the definition of lighting system and based on the characteristics of intelligent lighting luminaire , this article discussed current situation of intelligent lighting system standards , and presented the basic ideas of developing intelligent standards of luminaire .%智能化是照明系统及其灯具的发展趋势. 本文以照明系统的相关定义为切入点, 在给出智能照明灯具构成特点的基础上, 讨论了智能照明系统标准现状, 表述了开发智能灯具标准的基本思路.

  10. Impact of evidence-based standardized assessment on the disability clinical interview for diagnosis of service-connected PTSD: a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speroff, Theodore; Sinnott, Patricia L; Marx, Brian; Owen, Richard R; Jackson, James C; Greevy, Robert; Sayer, Nina; Murdoch, Maureen; Shane, Andrea C; Smith, Jeffrey; Alvarez, JoAnn; Nwosu, Samuel K; Keane, Terence; Weathers, Frank; Schnurr, Paula P; Friedman, Matthew J

    2012-12-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the fastest growing compensated medical conditions. The present study compared usual disability examiner practices for PTSD with a standardized assessment that incorporates evidence-based assessments. The design was a multicenter, cluster randomized, parallel-group study involving 33 clinical examiners and 384 veterans at 6 Veterans Affairs medical centers. The standardized group incorporated the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule-II into their assessment interview. The main outcome measures were completeness and accuracy of PTSD diagnosis and completeness of functional assessment. The standardized assessments were 85% complete for diagnosis compared to 30% for nonstandardized assessments (p < .001), and, for functional impairment, 76% versus 3% (p < .001). The findings demonstrate that the quality of PTSD disability examination would be improved by using evidence-based assessment.

  11. Heteromer score – using internal standards to assess the quality of proteomic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; Fey, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    In the cell, the majority of proteins exist in complexes. Most of these complexes have a constant stoichiometry and thus can be used as internal standards. In this rapid communication we show that it is possible to calculate a correlation coefficient which reflects the reproducibility of the anal......In the cell, the majority of proteins exist in complexes. Most of these complexes have a constant stoichiometry and thus can be used as internal standards. In this rapid communication we show that it is possible to calculate a correlation coefficient which reflects the reproducibility...... of the method used to collect the data, requires no special sample preparation and can be used retrospectively on old datasets. It can be used for quality control, to indicate when a change becomes significant or identify complexes whose stoichiometry has been perturbed during the experiment....

  12. Calculating Impacts of Energy Standards on Energy Demand in U.S. Buildings under Uncertainty with an Integrated Assessment Model: Technical Background Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Daly, Don S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hathaway, John E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lansing, Carina S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Ying [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McJeon, Haewon C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moss, Richard H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Patel, Pralit L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Peterson, Marty J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rice, Jennie S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhou, Yuyu [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-06

    This report presents data and assumptions employed in an application of PNNL’s Global Change Assessment Model with a newly-developed Monte Carlo analysis capability. The model is used to analyze the impacts of more aggressive U.S. residential and commercial building-energy codes and equipment standards on energy consumption and energy service costs at the state level, explicitly recognizing uncertainty in technology effectiveness and cost, socioeconomics, presence or absence of carbon prices, and climate impacts on energy demand. The report provides a summary of how residential and commercial buildings are modeled, together with assumptions made for the distributions of state–level population, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per worker, efficiency and cost of residential and commercial energy equipment by end use, and efficiency and cost of residential and commercial building shells. The cost and performance of equipment and of building shells are reported separately for current building and equipment efficiency standards and for more aggressive standards. The report also details assumptions concerning future improvements brought about by projected trends in technology.

  13. Electrocardiography interpretation training in emergency medicine: methods, resources, competency assessment, and national standardization

    OpenAIRE

    Özel, Betül Akbuğa; Demircan, Ahmet; Keleş, Ayfer; Bildik, Fikret; Özel, Deniz; Ergin, Mehmet; Günaydin, Gül Pamukçu

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s). The aim of this study was to evaluate the status of electrocardiography (ECG) training in emergency medicine residency programs in Turkey, and the attitude of the program representatives towards standardization of such training. Methods. This investigation was planned as a cross-sectional study. An 18-item questionnaire was distributed to directors of residency programs. Responses were evaluated using SPSS (v.16.0), and analyzed using the chi-square test. Results. Thirty...

  14. The development and standardization of Self-assessment for Hearing Screening of the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Woojae

    2016-01-01

    Gibbeum Kim,1 Wondo Na,1 Gungu Kim,1 Woojae Han,2 Jinsook Kim2 1Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology, Hallym University Graduate School, Chuncheon, Republic of Korea; 2Division of Speech Pathology and Audiology, Research Institute of Audiology and Speech Pathology, College of Natural Sciences, Hallym Universtiy, Chuncheon, Republic of Korea Purpose: The present study aimed to develop and standardize a screening tool for elderly people who wish to check for themselves their level of ...

  15. Phd study of reliability and validity: One step closer to a standardized music therapy assessment model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine Lindahl

    The paper will present a phd study concerning reliability and validity of music therapy assessment model “Assessment of Parenting Competences” (APC) in the area of families with emotionally neglected children. This study had a multiple strategy design with a philosophical base of critical realism...... and pragmatism. The fixed design for this study was a between and within groups design in testing the APCs reliability and validity. The two different groups were parents with neglected children and parents with non-neglected children. The flexible design had a multiple case study strategy specifically...... of the theoretical understanding of the clientgroup. Furthermore, a short describtion of the specific assessment protocol and analysis procedures of APC will be a part of the presentation. The phd study sought to explore how to develop measures of parenting competences in looking at autonomy relationship...

  16. Dose assessment in contrast enhanced digital mammography using simple phantoms simulating standard model breasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, R. W.; van Engen, R. E.; Young, K. C.; Veldkamp, W. J. H.; Dance, D. R.

    2015-01-01

    Slabs of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) or a combination of PMMA and polyethylene (PE) slabs are used to simulate standard model breasts for the evaluation of the average glandular dose (AGD) in digital mammography (DM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). These phantoms are optimized for the energy spectra used in DM and DBT, which normally have a lower average energy than used in contrast enhanced digital mammography (CEDM). In this study we have investigated whether these phantoms can be used for the evaluation of AGD with the high energy x-ray spectra used in CEDM. For this purpose the calculated values of the incident air kerma for dosimetry phantoms and standard model breasts were compared in a zero degree projection with the use of an anti scatter grid. It was found that the difference in incident air kerma compared to standard model breasts ranges between -10% to +4% for PMMA slabs and between 6% and 15% for PMMA-PE slabs. The estimated systematic error in the measured AGD for both sets of phantoms were considered to be sufficiently small for the evaluation of AGD in quality control procedures for CEDM. However, the systematic error can be substantial if AGD values from different phantoms are compared.

  17. A standardized reporting system for assessment of diverse public health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Douglas; Harris, Abigail; Deaton, Elizabeth Ann; Weister, Vicki; Pray, Shannon; Baumann, Carsten; Levinson, Arnold

    2012-01-01

    State public health agencies face challenges when monitoring the efforts and effects of public health programs that use disparate strategies and address various diseases, locations, and populations. The external evaluators of a complex portfolio of grant funding sought a standardized reporting framework and tool that could be used for all grants in the portfolio, without having to redesign it for each disease or intervention approach. Evaluators iteratively reviewed grant-funded projects to identify common project delivery strategies, then developed and implemented a common reporting framework and spreadsheet-based data capture tool. Evaluators provided training, technical assistance, and ongoing data reviews. During 2 fiscal years, 103 public health programs throughout Colorado submitted quarterly reports; agencies funded to implement these programs ranged from small community-based organizations to university- and hospital-affiliated groups in urban and rural settings. Aggregated reports supported estimates of program reach by strategy and by disease area, and the system supported production of summary descriptions of program implementation. Standardized language and expectations for reporting helped to align grant applications and work plans with reporting tools. A common language and standardized reporting tool can be used for diverse projects in a comprehensive evaluation framework. Decentralized data collection using common spreadsheet software enabled the aggregation of common data elements across multiple programs and projects. Further refinements could enable wider dissemination of common reporting criteria and expectations. PMID:22974755

  18. Development of a standardized battery of performance tests for the assessment of noise stress effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theologus, G. C.; Wheaton, G. R.; Mirabella, A.; Brahlek, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    A set of 36 relatively independent categories of human performance were identified. These categories encompass human performance in the cognitive, perceptual, and psychomotor areas, and include diagnostic measures and sensitive performance metrics. Then a prototype standardized test battery was constructed, and research was conducted to obtain information on the sensitivity of the tests to stress, the sensitivity of selected categories of performance degradation, the time course of stress effects on each of the selected tests, and the learning curves associated with each test. A research project utilizing a three factor partially repeated analysis of covariance design was conducted in which 60 male subjects were exposed to variations in noise level and quality during performance testing. Effects of randomly intermittent noise on performance of the reaction time tests were observed, but most of the other performance tests showed consistent stability. The results of 14 analyses of covariance of the data taken from the performance of the 60 subjects on the prototype standardized test battery provided information which will enable the final development and test of a standardized test battery and the associated development of differential sensitivity metrics and diagnostic classificatory system.

  19. Complete Assessment of Disaster Reduction and Relief Standards in China%中国自然灾害减灾救灾标准完备性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周扬; 李宁; 吴吉东; 吉中会; 范碧航; 金宝森

    2012-01-01

    disaster mitigation and relief standards. Improving and perfecting related fire standards should also be done. The current lack of natural disaster standards across China should be improved and will involve aspect of the management of the emergency plan, community disaster reduction, disaster information, disaster prevention and mitigation capability assessment, prevention and disposal of secondary disasters, ecosystem production order and the social restoration, monitoring and the prevention of animal disease, emergency broadcast and natural disaster risk zoning technology, disaster monitoring networks, and disaster insurance.%探讨中国减灾救灾标准的现状及其完备性对健全和完善减灾救灾标准体系意义重大。基于中关两国现有的自然灾害减灾救灾相关标准,分析了两国现有减灾救灾标准数量上的差异;同时采用故障树分析方法,从综合、灾害监测预警、救灾准备、灾害应急响应、灾后恢复重建和减灾6个方面构建了自然灾害减灾救灾标准的故障树。评价了中国自然灾害减灾救灾标准的完备性。结果表明:中关两国已颁布的自然灾害减灾救灾相关标准在数量上存在较大的差异,其中中国共有减灾救灾相关标准779条,美国共有263条;中国现有标准中国标、行标、地标和企标分别有180条、358条、233条和8条;中国现行自然灾害相关标准有664条,其中强制性标准150条、推荐性标准493条和指导性文件1条;中国自然灾害减灾救灾相关标准的完备度为77.9%;地震和生物灾害减灾救灾标准的完备度较高,分别为89.1%和88.2%,海洋灾害减灾救灾标准的完备性相对较低,完备度为51.0%。目前中国在自然灾害减灾救灾领域缺失需要完善的标准内容涉及应急预案的管理、社区综合减灾、灾情信息共享、防灾减灾能力评估、次生灾害防范和处置、生态系统恢复、

  20. Assessment of the importance of the current-wave coupling in the shelf ocean forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Jordà

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of wave-current interactions on shelf ocean forecasts is investigated in the framework of the MFSTEP (Mediterranean Forecasting System Project Towards Enviromental Predictions project. A one way sequential coupling approach is adopted to link the wave model (WAM to the circulation model (SYMPHONIE. The coupling of waves and currents has been done considering four main processes: wave refraction due to currents, surface wind drag and bo€ttom drag modifications due to waves, and the wave induced mass flux. The coupled modelling system is implemented in the southern Catalan shelf (NW Mediterranean, a region with characteristics similar to most of the Mediterranean shelves. The sensitivity experiments are run in a typical operational configuration. The wave refraction by currents seems to be not very relevant in a microtidal context such as the western Mediterranean. The main effect of waves on current forecasts is through the modification of the wind drag. The Stokes drift also plays a significant role due to its spatial and temporal characteristics. Finally, the enhanced bottom friction is just noticeable in the inner shelf.

  1. Assessment of the importance of the current-wave coupling in the shelf ocean forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Jordà

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of wave-current interactions on shelf ocean forecasts is investigated in the framework of the MFSTEP (Mediterranean Forecasting System Project Towards Enviromental Predictions project. A one way sequential coupling approach is adopted to link the wave model (WAM to the circulation model (SYMPHONIE. The coupling of waves and currents has been done considering four main processes: wave refraction due to currents, surface wind drag and bottom drag modifications due to waves, and the wave induced mass flux. The coupled modelling system is implemented in the southern Catalan shelf (NW Mediterranean, a region with characteristics similar to most of the Mediterranean shelves. The sensitivity experiments are run in a typical operational configuration. The wave refraction by currents seems to be not very relevant in a microtidal context such as the western Mediterranean. The main effect of waves on current forecasts is through the modification of the wind drag. The Stokes drift also plays a significant role due to its spatial and temporal characteristics. Finally, the enhanced bottom friction is just noticeable in the inner shelf.

  2. A horizon scanning assessment of current and potential future threats to migratory shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, William J.; Alves, Jose A.; Amano, Tatsuya; Chang, Charlotte H.; Davidson, Nicholas C.; Finlayson, C. Max; Gill, Jennifer A.; Gill, Robert E.; González, Patricia M.; Gunnarsson, Tómas Grétar; Kleijn, David; Spray, Chris J.; Székely, Tamás; Thompson, Des B.A.

    2012-01-01

    We review the conservation issues facing migratory shorebird populations that breed in temperate regions and use wetlands in the non-breeding season. Shorebirds are excellent model organisms for understanding ecological, behavioural and evolutionary processes and are often used as indicators of wetland health. A global team of experienced shorebird researchers identified 45 issues facing these shorebird populations, and divided them into three categories (natural, current anthropogenic and future issues). The natural issues included megatsunamis, volcanoes and regional climate changes, while current anthropogenic threats encompassed agricultural intensification, conversion of tidal flats and coastal wetlands by human infrastructure developments and eutrophication of coastal systems. Possible future threats to shorebirds include microplastics, new means of recreation and infectious diseases. We suggest that this review process be broadened to other taxa to aid the identification and ranking of current and future conservation actions.

  3. Ghana : Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC), Corporate Governance Country Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    This report assesses Ghana's corporate governance policy framework, enforcement and compliance practices. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Ghana. Ghana is a promising capital market with remarkable recent performance, significant momentum and will for improvement. Continuing challenges are presented however, by its weak institutional base ...

  4. Implementing Common Core State Standards and Assessments: A Workbook for State and District Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alex; Rodriguez, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Achieve and the U.S. Education Delivery Institute have developed a practical Common Core Implementation Workbook for all states in the Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers (PARCC). This workbook uses a proven performance management methodology known as "delivery" to lay out clear action steps for states and districts. It…

  5. Implementing Common Core State Standards and Assessments: A Workbook for State and District Leaders. Updated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alex; Rodriguez, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Achieve and the U.S. Education Delivery Institute have developed a practical Common Core Implementation Workbook for all states in the Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers (PARCC). This workbook uses a proven performance management methodology known as "delivery" to lay out clear action steps for states and districts. It…

  6. Assessing the standards of online oral hygiene instructions for patients with fixed orthodontic appliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Willem A.; Livas, Christos; Delli, Konstantina; Ren, Yijin

    2015-01-01

    Background. The authors conducted this study to assess the quality of the information available on the Web about oral hygiene for patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. Methods. The authors entered the search terms "cleaning braces," " brushing braces," and "oral hygiene and braces" into Google

  7. User needs for a standardized CO2 emission assessment methodology for intelligent transport systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mans, D.; Rekiel, J.; Wolfermann, A.; Klunder, G.

    2012-01-01

    The Amitran FP7 project will define a reference methodology to assess the impact of intelligent transport systems on CO2 emissions. The methodology is intended to be used as a reference by future projects and covers both passenger and freight transport. The project will lead to a validated methodolo

  8. What PISA Measures: Some Remarks on Standardized Assessment and Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehl, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on a sociocultural perspective on educational assessment the empirical examples of Margareta Serder and Anders Jakobsson serve as a starting point for a critical analysis of PISA and the image of science education it perpetuates. While PISA claims to neutrally measure competencies relevant to science education, I argue that the test…

  9. Alignment of Standards and Assessments as an Accountability Criterion. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Paul M.

    This digest provides an overview of the concept of alignment and the role it plays in assessment and accountability systems. It also discusses methodological issues affecting the study of alignment and explores the relationship between alignment and test score interpretation. Alignment refers to the degree of match between test content and subject…

  10. Effects of direct current on motoneuron reflex excitability (Assessed by H-reflex amplitude) in healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Olyaei G; Akbari M; Esfandiarpoor F

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the this study was to investigate the effect of direct current on montoneuron reflex exitability. Thirty six subjects (18 males, 18 females) 19.36 years of age ( x= 24.06, SD= 3.63) participated in this study. The reflex excitability of soleus motoneruons was assessed by measuring the amount of change in the peak to peak ampitude of the H-reflex before and after direct current was applied to the skin over the sural nerve. Reflex recordings were taken before and after direct cur...

  11. Developing and Refining Lessons: Planning Learning and Formative Assessment for Math College and Career Ready Standards. From the College and Career Ready Standards to Teaching and Learning in the Classroom: A Series of Resources for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiason, Glory; Heritage, Margaret; Chang, Sandy; Jones, Barbara; Herman, Joan

    2014-01-01

    This resource is part of a series produced by the Center for Standards and Assessment Implementation (CSAI) to assist teachers and those who support teachers to plan teaching and learning from College and Career Ready Standards (CCRS) for all students, including students with disabilities, English learners, academically at-risk students, students…

  12. ASSESSMENT OF THE ABILITY OF STANDARD SLURRY PUMPS TO MIX MISCIBLE AND IMMISCIBLE LIQUIDS IN TANK 50H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.

    2011-06-15

    Tank 50H is the feed tank for the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). At present, Tank 50H contains two standard slurry pumps and two Quad Volute slurry pumps. Current requirements and mixing operation is to run three pumps for one hour prior to initiating a feed transfer to SPF. Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste would like to move one or both of the Quad Volute pumps from Tank 50H to Tank 51H to replace pumps in Tank 51H that are failing. In addition, one of the standard pumps in Tank 50H exhibits high seal leakage and vibration. SRS Liquid Waste requested Savannah River National (SRNL) to conduct a study to evaluate the feasibility of mixing the contents of Tank 50H with one to three standard slurry pumps. To determine the pump requirements to blend miscible and immiscible liquids in Tank 50H, the author reviewed the pilot-scale blending work performed for the Salt Disposition Integration Project (SDIP) and the technical literature, and applied the results to Tank 50H to determine the number, size, and operating parameters needed to blend the tank contents. The conclusions from this analysis are: (1) A single rotating standard slurry pump (with a 13.6 ft{sup 2}/s U{sub 0}D) will be able to blend miscible liquids (i.e., salt solution) in Tank 50H within 4.4 hours. (2) Two rotating standard slurry pumps will be able to blend miscible liquids in Tank 50H within 3.1 hours. (3) Three rotating standard slurry pumps will be able to blend miscible liquids in Tank 50H within 2.5 hours. (4) A single rotating standard slurry pump (with a 13.6 ft{sup 2}/s U{sub 0}D) will disperse Isopar L{reg_sign} droplets that are less than or equal to 15 micron in diameter. If the droplets are less than 15 micron, they will be dispersed within 4.4 hours. Isopar L{reg_sign} provides a lower bound on the maximum size of droplets that will be dispersed by the slurry pumps in Tank 50H. (5) Two rotating standard slurry pumps will disperse Isopar L{reg_sign} droplets less than 15 micron

  13. The history and current state of critical loads and dynamic modelling assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Hettelingh, J.P.; Posch, M.

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on knowledge and methods for the assessment of indirect, soil mediated effects of the deposition of sulphur dioxide, oxidized nitrogen and reduced nitrogen on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The emphasis is on the science behind no-effect deposition thresholds (critical loads)

  14. Sulfide intrusion in seagrasses assessed by stable sulfur isotopes—a synthesis of current results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmer, Marianne; Hasler-Sheetal, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Sulfide intrusion in seagrasses, as assessed by stable sulfur isotope signals, is widespread in all climate zones, where seagrasses are growing. Seagrasses can incorporate substantial amounts of 34S-depleted sulfide into their tissues with up to 87% of the total sulfur in leaves derived from sedi...

  15. An Assessment of Research Supervision: A Leadership Model Enhancing Current Practices in Business and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, James L.; Oladunjoye, Ganiyu T.; Onyefulu, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    Students enrolled in business and management assessed the research supervisory process less favorably when compared with their counterparts. In this article, the authors found that there was considerable dissatisfaction with the interaction and relationships that students had with their supervisors, especially within the business program. As a…

  16. Assessement of rheumatic diseases with computational radiology: current status and future potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peloschek, Philipp; Boesen, Mikael; Donner, Rene;

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, several computational image analysis methods to assess disease progression in rheumatic diseases were presented. This review article explains the basics of these methods as well as their potential application in rheumatic disease monitoring, it covers radiography, sonography as w...

  17. Maximising Confidence in Assessment Decision-Making: Current Approaches and Future Strategies for Quality Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Berwyn; Roy, Sue; Booth, Robin; House, Robyn

    2004-01-01

    This report provides a literature review and history of approaches to quality assurance of assessment in the vocational education and training (VET) sector in Australia and overseas. It also examines eight potential models that can be used by individual or groups of assessors within a training organisation. The models include a diagnostic…

  18. Assessement of rheumatic diseases with computational radiology: Current status and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, several computational image analysis methods to assess disease progression in rheumatic diseases were presented. This review article explains the basics of these methods as well as their potential application in rheumatic disease monitoring, it covers radiography, sonography as well as magnetic resonance imaging in quantitative analysis frameworks.

  19. Using Personal Cell Phones for Ecological Momentary Assessment An Overview of Current Developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntsche, E.N.; Labhart, F.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) is a way of collecting data in people's natural environments in real time and has become very popular in social and health sciences. The emergence of personal digital assistants has led to more complex and sophisticated EMA protocols but has also highlighted som

  20. Assessment of Higher Order Thinking Skills. Current Perspectives on Cognition, Learning and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraw, Gregory, Ed.; Robinson, Daniel H., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This volume examines the assessment of higher order thinking skills from the perspectives of applied cognitive psychology and measurement theory. The volume considers a variety of higher order thinking skills, including problem solving, critical thinking, argumentation, decision making, creativity, metacognition, and self-regulation. Fourteen…