Modi, Jyoti Nath; Anshu, -; Chhatwal, Jugesh; Gupta, Piyush; Singh, Tejinder
Good communication skills are essential for an optimal doctor-patient relationship, and also contribute to improved health outcomes. Although the need for training in communication skills is stated as a requirement in the 1997 Graduate Medical Education Regulations of the Medical Council of India, formal training in these skills has been fragmentary and non-uniform in most Indian curricula. The Vision 2015 document of the Medical Council of India reaffirms the need to include training in communication skills in the MBBS curriculum. Training in communication skills needs approaches which are different from that of teaching other clinical subjects. It is also a challenge to ensure that students not only imbibe the nuances of communication and interpersonal skills, but adhere to them throughout their careers. This article addresses the possible ways of standardizing teaching and assessment of communication skills and integrating them into the existing curriculum.
Scheffer, Simone; Muehlinghaus, Isabel; Froehmel, Annette; Ortwein, Heiderose
Communication skills training is an accepted part of undergraduate medical programs nowadays. In addition to learning experiences its importance should be emphasised by performance-based assessment. As detailed checklists have been shown to be not well suited for the assessment of communication skills for different reasons, this study aimed to validate a global rating scale. A Canadian instrument was translated to German and adapted to assess students' communication skills during an end-of-semester-OSCE. Subjects were second and third year medical students at the reformed track of the Charité-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin. Different groups of raters were trained to assess students' communication skills using the global rating scale. Validity testing included concurrent validity and construct validity: Judgements of different groups of raters were compared to expert ratings as a defined gold standard. Furthermore, the amount of agreement between scores obtained with this global rating scale and a different instrument for assessing communication skills was determined. Results show that communication skills can be validly assessed by trained non-expert raters as well as standardised patients using this instrument.
Full Text Available Soft skills, especially communication skills, are important skills which each graduate must possess. Accordingly, several courses and approaches have been carried out in universities to train students in communication skills. The skills are normally evaluated by course lecturers. However, assessments by a third party from outside the university are valuable so that the students’ ahievements may be weighed against external evaluators’ point of views. In the Department of Electrical, Electronic and Systems Engineering (DEESE, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM, communication skills assessment by external lecturers and industry representatives are performed on Hari Poster JKEES, where students present their final year project poster. There are two categories of evaluation, namely project and communication skills. The project evaluation covers content, result and impact, while communication skills evaluation covers poster layout and design, and delivery. This study only analyse the students’ communication skills achievement. The participants of this study consists of 109 final year students from two batches, of which 51 students are from year 2014 and the other 58 students from year 2015. The results show that for the year 2014 students, the mean mark given by external lecturers in layout and design category is 6.7, while the mean mark from industry evaluators is 6.5. For the 2015 batch, the mean mark in the layout and design category is 6.3 from external lecturers and 5.9 from industry evaluators. In the delivery category, the mean marks for the 2014 batch are 7.1 and 6.6 from external lecturers and industry evaluators, espectively. Meanwhile, for the 2015 batch, the mean marks by external lecturers and industry evaluators are 6.3 and 5.8, respectively. The results show that both external lecturers and industry representatives judged DEESE students’ communication skills to be good.
Hulsman, R. L.; Mollema, E. D.; Hoos, A. M.; de Haes, J. C. J. M.; Donnison-Speijer, J. D.
BACKGROUND A computer-assisted assessment (CAA) program for communication skills designated ACT was developed using the objective structured video examination (OSVE) format. This method features assessment of cognitive scripts underlying communication behaviour, a broad range of communication
Artemiou, Elpida; Hecker, Kent G; Adams, Cindy L; Coe, Jason B
There is increasing pressure in veterinary education to teach and assess communication skills, with the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) being the most common assessment method. Previous research reveals that raters are a large source of variance in OSCEs. This study focused on examining the effect of raters' professional background as a source of variance when assessing students' communication skills. Twenty-three raters were categorized according to their professional background: clinical sciences (n=11), basic sciences (n=4), clinical communication (n=5), or hospital administrator/clinical skills technicians (n=3). Raters from each professional background were assigned to the same station and assessed the same students during two four-station OSCEs. Students were in year 2 of their pre-clinical program. Repeated-measures ANOVA results showed that OSCE scores awarded by the rater groups differed significantly: (F(matched_station_1) [2,91]=6.97, p=.002), (F(matched_station_2) [3,90]=13.95, p=.001), (F(matched_station_3) [3,90]=8.76, p=.001), and ((Fmatched_station_4) [2,91]=30.60, p=.001). A significant time effect between the two OSCEs was calculated for matched stations 1, 2, and 4, indicating improved student performances. Raters with a clinical communication skills background assigned scores that were significantly lower compared to the other rater groups. Analysis of written feedback provided by the clinical sciences raters showed that they were influenced by the students' clinical knowledge of the case and that they did not rely solely on the communication checklist items. This study shows that it is important to consider rater background both in recruitment and training programs for communication skills' assessment.
Burke-Smalley, Lisa A.
Business, like many other fields in higher education, continues to rely largely on conventional testing methods for assessing student learning. In the current article, another evaluation approach--the oral exam--is examined as a means for building and evaluating the professional communication and oral dialogue skills needed and utilized by…
Abadel, Fatima T; Hattab, Abdulla S
Professionalism and communication skills constitute important components of the integral formation of physicians which has repercussion on the quality of health care and medical education. The objective of this study was to assess medical graduates' professionalism and communication skills from the patients' perspective and to examine its association with patients' socio-demographic variables. This is a hospital based cross-sectional study. It involved 315 patients and 105 medical graduates selected by convenient sampling method. A modified and validated version of the American Board of Internal Medicine's (ABIM) Patient Assessment survey questionnaire was used for data collection through a face to face interview. Data processing and analysis were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) 16.0. Mean, frequency distribution, and percentage of the variables were calculated. A non-parametric Kruskal Wallis test was applied to verify whether the patients' assessment was influenced by variables such as age, gender, education, at a level of significance, p ≤ 0.05. Female patients constituted 46% of the sample, whereas males constituted 54%. The mean age was 36 ± 16. Patients' scoring of the graduate's skills ranged from 3.29 to 3.83 with a mean of 3.64 on a five-point Likert scale. Items assessing the "patient involvement in decision-making" were assigned the minimum mean values, while items dealing with "establishing adequate communication with patient" assigned the maximum mean values. Patients, who were older than 45 years, gave higher scores than younger ones (p communication skills at a good level. Patients' age and educational level were significantly associated with the rating level.
Langenau, Erik E.; Zhang, Xiuyuan; Roberts, William L.; DeChamplain, Andre F.; Boulet, John R.
Background High stakes medical licensing programs are planning to augment and adapt current examinations to be relevant for a two-decision point model for licensure: entry into supervised practice and entry into unsupervised practice. Therefore, identifying which skills should be assessed at each decision point is critical for informing examination development, and gathering input from residency program directors is important. Methods Using data from previously developed surveys and expert panels, a web-delivered survey was distributed to 3,443 residency program directors. For each of the 28 procedural and 18 advanced communication skills, program directors were asked which clinical skills should be assessed, by whom, when, and how. Descriptive statistics were collected, and Intraclass Correlations (ICC) were conducted to determine consistency across different specialties. Results Among 347 respondents, program directors reported that all advanced communication and some procedural tasks are important to assess. The following procedures were considered ‘important’ or ‘extremely important’ to assess: sterile technique (93.8%), advanced cardiovascular life support (ACLS) (91.1%), basic life support (BLS) (90.0%), interpretation of electrocardiogram (89.4%) and blood gas (88.7%). Program directors reported that most clinical skills should be assessed at the end of the first year of residency (or later) and not before graduation from medical school. A minority were considered important to assess prior to the start of residency training: demonstration of respectfulness (64%), sterile technique (67.2%), BLS (68.9%), ACLS (65.9%) and phlebotomy (63.5%). Discussion Results from this study support that assessing procedural skills such as cardiac resuscitation, sterile technique, and phlebotomy would be amenable to assessment at the end of medical school, but most procedural and advanced communications skills would be amenable to assessment at the end of the first
Chan, Teresa M; Wallner, Clare; Swoboda, Thomas K; Leone, Katrina A; Kessler, Chad
Interpersonal and communication skills (ICS) are a key component of several competency-based schemata and key competency in the set of six Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies. With the shift toward a competency-based educational framework, the importance of robust learner assessment becomes paramount. The journal Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM) hosted a consensus conference to discuss education research in emergency medicine (EM). This article summarizes the initial preparatory research that was conducted to brief consensus conference attendees and reports the results of the consensus conference breakout session as it pertains to ICS assessment of learners. The goals of this consensus conference session were to twofold: 1) to determine the state of assessment of observable learner performance and 2) to determine a research agenda within the ICS field for medical educators. The working group identified six key recommendations for medical educators and researchers. © 2012 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.
Papa, Michael J.; Graham, Elizabeth E.
Evaluates an organizational diagnosis program that assesses managerial communication skills and provides the frame for follow-up training programs. Finds that managers participating in follow-up communication skills training performed significantly higher on interpersonal skills, problem-solving ability, and productivity over three long-term…
Hasan, Sanah; Tarazi, Hamadeh M Khier; Halim Hilal, Dana Abdel
Objective. To assess student communication and patient management skill with introduction of Arabic and use of simulated patient assessments to a communication and counseling course. Design. Five, 3-hour tutorials (clinical skill laboratory) were added to the course covering: listening and empathic responding, non-verbal communications, interviewing skills, assertiveness, counseling in special situations: conflict, anger, worry or rushed situations, and professional decision making. Arabic content was introduced to the course to enhance Arabic communications and competence among students. Simulated patient assessment was used to evaluate student skills. Students' feedback about course changes was evaluated. Assessment. The course now covers a wider content and Arabic language. Students' scores were similar in the assessment and other assessments within the course and between Arabic and English groups. Students favorably rated the changes in the course and provided constructive feedback on content usefulness and adequacy. Conclusion. Expanding the course to include Arabic language and content and simulated patient assessments enhanced student communication skills.
Lundquist, Lisa M; Shogbon, Angela O; Momary, Kathryn M; Rogers, Hannah K
To compare students' self-assessment of their communication skills with faculty members' formal evaluation of their skills in a therapeutics course. Over a 3-year period, faculty members evaluated second-year pharmacy students' communication skills as part of a requirement in a therapeutics course. Immediately following an individual oral assessment and again following a group oral assessment, students self-assessed their communication skills using the same rubric the faculty members had used. Students' self-assessments were then compared with faculty members' evaluation of students' communication skills. Four hundred one (97.3%) students consented to participate in this study. Faculty evaluation scores of students for both the individual and group oral assessments were significantly higher than students' self-assessment scores. Students' self-assessment scores of their communication skills increased from the individual to the group oral assessment. Students' self-assessments of communication skills were consistently lower than faculty members' evaluations. Greater use of oral assessments throughout the pharmacy curriculum may help to improve students' confidence in and self-assessment of their communication skills.
Stausmire, Julie M; Cashen, Constance P; Myerholtz, Linda; Buderer, Nancy
The Communication Assessment Tool (CAT) has been used and validated to assess Family and Emergency Medicine resident communication skills from the patient's perspective. However, it has not been previously reported as an outcome measure for general surgery residents. The purpose of this study is to establish initial benchmarking data for the use of the CAT as an evaluation tool in an osteopathic general surgery residency program. Results are analyzed quarterly and used by the program director to provide meaningful feedback and targeted goal setting for residents to demonstrate progressive achievement of interpersonal and communication skills with patients. The 14-item paper version of the CAT (developed by Makoul et al. for residency programs) asks patients to anonymously rate surgery residents on discrete communication skills using a 5-point rating scale immediately after the clinical encounter. Results are reported as the percentage of items rated as "excellent" (5) by the patient. The setting is a hospital-affiliated ambulatory urban surgery office staffed by the residency program. Participants are representative of adult patients of both sexes across all ages with diverse ethnic backgrounds. They include preoperative and postoperative patients, as well as those needing diagnostic testing and follow-up. Data have been collected on 17 general surgery residents from a single residency program representing 5 postgraduate year levels and 448 patient encounters since March 2012. The reliability (Cronbach α) of the tool for surgery residents was 0.98. The overall mean percentage of items rated as excellent was 70% (standard deviations = 42%), with a median of 100%. The CAT is a useful tool for measuring 1 facet of resident communication skills-the patient's perception of the physician-patient encounter. The tool provides a unique and personalized outcome measure for identifying communication strengths and improvement opportunities, allowing residents to receive
Dielissen, Patrick; Bottema, Ben; Verdonk, Petra; Lagro-Janssen, Toine
Gender is increasingly regarded as an important factor in doctor-patient communication education. This review aims to assess if and how gender is addressed by current assessment instruments for communication skills in medical education. In 2009 at Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, an online search was conducted in the bibliographic databases PubMed, PsycINFO and ERIC for references about communication skills assessment instruments designed to be completed by trained faculty staff and used in medical education. The search strategy used the following search terms: 'consultation skills'; 'doctor-patient communication'; 'physician-patient relations'; 'medical education'; 'instruments'; 'measurement', and 'assessment'. Papers published between January 1999 and June 2009 were included. The assessment instruments identified were analysed for gender-specific content. The search yielded 21 communication skills assessment instruments. Only two of the 17 checklists obtained explicitly considered gender as a communication-related issue. Only six of 21 manuals considered gender in any way and none gave specific details to explain which aspects of communication behaviour should be assessed with regard to gender. Very few communication assessment instruments in medical education focus on gender. Nevertheless, interest exists in using gender in communication skills assessment. The criteria for and purpose of assessing gender in communication skills in medical education are yet to be clarified. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.
Romero-Martín, M. Rosario; Castejón-Oliva, Francisco-Javier; López-Pastor, Víctor-Manuel; Fraile-Aranda, Antonio
The purpose of this study is to analyze the perception of students, graduates, and lecturers in relation to systems of formative and shared assessment and to the acquisition of teaching competences regarding communication and the use of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in initial teacher education (ITE) on degrees in Primary…
Longhurst, Thomas M.
The purpose of the paper was to review the impact of recent developments in research methodology with specific reference to the assessment and habilitation of communication problems in retarded children. (Author)
Tiuraniemi, Juhani; Läärä, Riitta; Kyrö, Tuuli; Lindeman, Sari
The purpose of this study was to describe how psychology and medical students assess their own competency and skills before and after training, in which role-play was used to teach interpersonal and communication skills. Interpersonal and communication skills were assessed with a semi-structured questionnaire before and after the training. The students of both medicine and psychology estimated their skill levels to be higher after the course. The psychology students estimated their skills for communication, motivating interviewing, empathy and reflection, and change orientation to be better at the end of the course. Medical students estimated their communication skills, motivating interviewing skills, and change orientation skills to be better at the end of the course. Even a short period of training in interpersonal and communication skills can positively affect the self-assessed skills of the medical students. In the future, it would be worthwhile to pay attention to reflective teaching practices in the training of both medical and psychology students. The cognitive and emotional components of these practices help students to develop their own communication skills. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gustin, Jillian L; Way, David P; Wells-Di Gregorio, Sharla; McCallister, Jennifer W
Fellows in pulmonary and critical care medicine are required to show competency in facilitating family meetings for critically ill patients. There are many assessment measures available for evaluating physician-patient communication (e.g., the SEGUE Framework [Set the stage, Elicit information, Give information, Understand the patient's perspective, End the encounter]) and some designed for family meetings. However, no validated measure exists that is specifically designed to assess communication skills during family meetings with surrogate decision makers in intensive care settings. We developed the Family Meeting Behavioral Skills Checklist (FMBSC) to measure advanced communication skills of fellows in family meetings of critically ill patients based on a literature review and consensus of an interdisciplinary group of communications experts. We evaluated the psychometric properties of the FMBSC. We digitally recorded 16 pulmonary/critical care fellows performing a simulated family meeting for a critically ill patient at the end of 1 year of fellowship training. Two clinical health psychologists evaluated each recording independently using the FMBSC Rating Scale and the SEGUE Framework. Judges recorded the number of skills performed using the checklist and employed a summary rating scale to judge the level of performance for each of nine subsets of skills. Each instrument was scored and converted to percentage scores. The FMBSC and SEGUE Framework items were summed and converted to percentage scores for each category and as a total for each instrument. The rating scale items on the FMBSC were also summed and converted to a percentage score. Four primary analyses were conducted to evaluate interjudge reliability, internal consistency, and concurrent validity. Interrater reliability was higher for the FMBSC (intraclass correlation [ICC2,2] = 0.57) than for the SEGUE instrument (ICC2,2 = 0.32) or the FMBSC Rating Scale (ICC2,2 = 0.23). The FMBSC
Laidlaw, Anita; Hart, Jo
This AMEE Guide in Medical Education is Part 1 of a two part Guide covering the issues of Communication. This Guide has been written to provide guidance for those involved in planning the assessment of clinical communication and provides guidance and information relating to the assessment of various aspects of clinical communication; its underlying theory; its practical ability to show that an individual is competent and its relationship to students' daily performance. The advantages and disadvantages of assessing specific aspects of communication are also discussed. The Guide draws attention to the complexity of assessing the ability to communicate with patients and healthcare professionals, with issues of reliability and validity being highlighted for each aspect. Current debates within the area of clinical communication teaching are raised: when should the assessment of clinical communication occur in undergraduate medical education?; should clinical communication assessment be integrated with clinical skills assessment, or should the two be separate?; how important should the assessment of clinical communication be, and the question of possible failure of students if they are judged not competent in communication skills? It is the aim of the authors not only to provide a useful reference for those starting to develop their assessment processes, but also provide an opportunity for review and debate amongst those who already assess clinical communication within their curricula, and a resource for those who have a general interest in medical education who wish to learn more about communication skills assessment.
Gelfman, Laura P; Lindenberger, Elizabeth; Fernandez, Helen; Goldberg, Gabrielle R; Lim, Betty B; Litrivis, Evgenia; O'Neill, Lynn; Smith, Cardinale B; Kelley, Amy S
Communication skills are critical in Geriatrics and Palliative Medicine because these patients confront complex clinical scenarios. We evaluated the effectiveness of the Geritalk communication skills course by comparing pre- and post-course real-time assessment of the participants leading family meetings. We also evaluated the participants' sustained skills practice. We compare the participants' skill acquisition before and after Geritalk using a direct observation Family Meeting Communication Assessment Tool and assess their deliberate practice at follow-up. First-year Geriatrics or Palliative Medicine fellows at Mount Sinai Medical Center and the James J. Peters Bronx VA Medical Center participated in Geritalk. Pre- and post-course family meeting assessments were compared. An average net gain of 6.8 skills represented a greater than 20% improvement in use of applicable skills. At two month follow-up, most participants reported deliberate practice of fundamental and advanced skills. This intensive training and family meeting assessment offers evidence-based communication skills training. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Dielissen, P.W.; Bottema, B.J.A.M.; Verdonk, P.; Lagro-Janssen, T.
CONTEXT: Gender is increasingly regarded as an important factor in doctor-patient communication education. This review aims to assess if and how gender is addressed by current assessment instruments for communication skills in medical education. METHODS: In 2009 at Radboud University Nijmegen
Uhm, Seilin; Lee, Gui H; Jin, Jeong K; Bak, Yong I; Jeoung, Yeon O; Kim, Chan W
Finding out the effective ways of teaching and assessing communication skills remain a challenging part of medication education. This study aims at exploring the usefulness and effectiveness of having additional feedback using qualitative analysis in assessment of communication skills in undergraduate medical training. We also determined the possibilities of using qualitative analysis in developing tailored strategies for improvement in communication skills training. This study was carried out on medical students (n=87) undergoing their final year clinical performance examination on communication skills using standardized patient by video-recording and transcribing their performances. Video-recordings of 26 students were randomly selected for qualitative analysis, and additional feedback was provided. We assessed the level of acceptance of communication skills scores between the study and nonstudy group and within the study group, before and after receiving feedback based on qualitative analysis. There was a statistically significant increase in the level of acceptance of feedback after delivering additional feedback using qualitative analysis, where the percentage of agreement with feedback increased from 15.4 to 80.8% (pskills assessment gives essential information for medical students to learn and self-reflect, which could potentially lead to improved communication skills. As evident from our study, feedback becomes more meaningful and effective with additional feedback using qualitative analysis.
McKenzie, Carly T
The aim of this study was to use structured assessments to assess dental students' clinical communication skills exhibited during patient appointments. Fourth-year dental students (n=55) at the University of Alabama at Birmingham evaluated their own interpersonal skills in a clinical setting utilizing the Four Habits Coding Scheme. An instructor also assessed student-patient clinical communication. These assessments were used to identify perceived strengths and weaknesses in students' clinical communication. Both instructor assessments and student self-assessments pinpointed the following clinical communication skills as effective the most often: patient greeting, avoidance of jargon, and non-verbal behavior. There was also relative agreement between instructor assessments and student self-assessments regarding clinical communication skills that were rated as not effective most frequently: ensuring patient comprehension, identification of patient feelings, and exploration of barriers to treatment. These resulted pointed to strengths and weaknesses in the portion of the curriculum designed to prepare students for effective provider-patient communication. These results may suggest a need for the school's current behavioral science curriculum to better address discussion of potential treatment barriers and patient feelings as well as techniques to ensure patient comprehension.
Volino, Lucio R.; Das, Rolee Pathak
The objectives of this study were to develop a student self-assessment activity of a video-recorded counseling session and evaluate its impact on student self-perceptions of specific communication skills. This activity was incorporated into a core-communications course within the third professional year of a Doctor of Pharmacy curriculum. Student…
Kim, Sara; Brock, Douglas M; Hess, Brian J; Holmboe, Eric S; Gallagher, Thomas H; Lipner, Rebecca S; Mazor, Kathleen M
Little is known about the best approaches and format for measuring physicians' communication skills in an online environment. This study examines the reliability and validity of scores from two Web-based communication skill assessment formats. We created two online communication skill assessment formats: (a) MCQ (multiple-choice questions) consisting of video-based multiple-choice questions; (b) multi-format including video-based multiple-choice questions with rationales, Likert-type scales, and free text responses of what physicians would say to a patient. We randomized 100 general internists to each test format. Peer and patient ratings collected via the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) served as validity sources. Seventy-seven internists completed the tests (MCQ: 38; multi-format: 39). The adjusted reliability was 0.74 for both formats. Excellent communicators, as based on their peer and patient ratings, performed slightly better on both tests than adequate communicators, though this difference was not statistically significant. Physicians in both groups rated test format innovative (4.2 out of 5.0). The acceptable reliability and participants' overall positive experiences point to the value of ongoing research into rigorous Web-based communication skills assessment. With efficient and reliable scoring, the Web offers an important way to measure and potentially enhance physicians' communication skills. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Canivet, Delphine; Delvaux, Nicole; Gibon, Anne-Sophie; Brancart, Cyrielle; Slachmuylder, Jean-Louis; Razavi, Darius
Effective communication is needed for optimal cancer pain management. This study assessed the efficacy of a general communication skills training program for oncology nurses on communication about pain management. A total of 115 nurses were randomly assigned to a training group (TG) or control group (CG). The assessment included the recording of interviews with a simulated cancer patient at baseline for both groups and after training (TG) or 3 months after baseline (CG). Two psychologists rated the content of interview transcripts to assess cancer pain management communication. Group-by-time effects were measured using a generalized estimating equation. Trained nurses asked the simulated patient more questions about emotions associated with pain (relative rate [RR] = 4.28, p = 0.049) and cognitions associated with pain treatment (RR = 3.23, p management (RR = 0.40, p = 0.006) compared with untrained nurses. The general communication skills training program improved only a few of the communication strategies needed for optimal cancer pain management in nursing. General communication skills training programs should be consolidated using specific modules focusing on communication skills related to cancer pain management.
Full Text Available As far as new communication channels are concerned, there have been extensive developments in communications and marketing in digital era. Today, therefore, companies try to take advantage of digital marketing channels to provide suitable services to customers to improve their satisfaction level. However, this study aimed to identify and assess factors affecting skill gap in digital marketing. This was descriptive correlation study. The population consisted of experts in communications industry to identify most important skill gaps in digital marketing and factors affecting them; also, managers and specialists of these companies were investigated to determine the role of identified factors in reducing skills gaps. Using localized questionnaire and interviewing with ten experts who were selected by Delphi snowball method, the skill gaps in marketing and factors affecting them were identified. Also, a researcher made questionnaire with 32 questions was distributed among 226 employees to investigate the identified factors role in reducing skills gap in digital marketing. The results showed that from four identified factors, the components including operational strategic factors and environmental factors had direct and positive impact on creating skill gap in digital marketing of studied companies. The environmental factors such as social and cultural conditions, religion, technology, and economy had more proactive impact on skills gap in digital marketing. Also, the results showed that among skills gaps in digital marketing of studied companies, the skills (Principles of Communication and (Predicting Future had the highest and lowest gaps, respectively.
Essers, G.T.J.M.; Kramer, A.; Andriesse, B.; Weel, C. van; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Dulmen, S. van
BACKGROUND: Assessment of medical communication performance usually focuses on rating generically applicable, well-defined communication skills. However, in daily practice, communication is determined by (specific) context factors, such as acquaintance with the patient, or the presented problem.
Essers, G.; Kramer, A.; Andriesse, B.; Weel, C. van; Vleuten, C. van der; Dulmen, S. van
Background: Assessment of medical communication performance usually focuses on rating generically applicable, well-defined communication skills. However, in daily practice, communication is determined by (specific) context factors, such as acquaintance with the patient, or the presented problem.
Ghotbifar, Fereshteh; Marjani, Mohammad Reza; Ramazani, Abbas
As far as new communication channels are concerned, there have been extensive developments in communications and marketing in digital era. Today, therefore, companies try to take advantage of digital marketing channels to provide suitable services to customers to improve their satisfaction level. However, this study aimed to identify and assess factors affecting skill gap in digital marketing. This was descriptive correlation study. The population consisted of experts in communications indust...
Cubaka, Vincent Kalumire; Schriver, Michael; Vedsted, Peter; Makoul, Gregory; Kallestrup, Per
To identify, adapt and validate a measure for providers' communication and interpersonal skills in Rwanda. After selection, translation and piloting of the measure, structural validity, test-retest reliability, and differential item functioning were assessed. Identification and adaptation: The 14-item Communication Assessment Tool (CAT) was selected and adapted. Content validation found all items highly relevant in the local context except two, which were retained upon understanding the reasoning applied by patients. Eleven providers and 291 patients were involved in the field-testing. Confirmatory factor analysis showed a good fit for the original one factor model. Test-retest reliability assessment revealed a mean quadratic weighted Kappa = 0.81 (range: 0.69-0.89, N = 57). The average proportion of excellent scores was 15.7% (SD: 24.7, range: 9.9-21.8%, N = 180). Differential item functioning was not observed except for item 1, which focuses on greetings, for age groups (p = 0.02, N = 180). The Kinyarwanda version of CAT (K-CAT) is a reliable and valid patient-reported measure of providers' communication and interpersonal skills. K-CAT was validated on nurses and its use on other types of providers may require further validation. K-CAT is expected to be a valuable feedback tool for providers in practice and in training. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Duffy, F Daniel; Gordon, Geoffrey H; Whelan, Gerald; Cole-Kelly, Kathy; Frankel, Richard; Buffone, Natalie; Lofton, Stephanie; Wallace, MaryAnne; Goode, Leslie; Langdon, Lynn
Accreditation of residency programs and certification of physicians requires assessment of competence in communication and interpersonal skills. Residency and continuing medical education program directors seek ways to teach and evaluate these competencies. This report summarizes the methods and tools used by educators, evaluators, and researchers in the field of physician-patient communication as determined by the participants in the "Kalamazoo II" conference held in April 2002. Communication and interpersonal skills form an integrated competence with two distinct parts. Communication skills are the performance of specific tasks and behaviors such as obtaining a medical history, explaining a diagnosis and prognosis, giving therapeutic instructions, and counseling. Interpersonal skills are inherently relational and process oriented; they are the effect communication has on another person such as relieving anxiety or establishing a trusting relationship. This report reviews three methods for assessment of communication and interpersonal skills: (1) checklists of observed behaviors during interactions with real or simulated patients; (2) surveys of patients' experience in clinical interactions; and (3) examinations using oral, essay, or multiple-choice response questions. These methods are incorporated into educational programs to assess learning needs, create learning opportunities, or guide feedback for learning. The same assessment tools, when administered in a standardized way, rated by an evaluator other than the teacher, and using a predetermined passing score, become a summative evaluation. The report summarizes the experience of using these methods in a variety of educational and evaluation programs and presents an extensive bibliography of literature on the topic. Professional conversation between patients and doctors shapes diagnosis, initiates therapy, and establishes a caring relationship. The degree to which these activities are successful depends, in
Full Text Available Background & aim:The quality of communication between midwives and parturient women is a determinant of maternal satisfaction with midwifery care. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the communication skills of midwives at maternity wards of Mashhad teaching hospitals in 2014. Methods:In this descriptive study, 49 midwives, working at Mashhad teaching hospitals, were randomly selected. All midwives worked rotating shifts at the wards. The midwives’ communication skills were assessed by the researcher, using the self-structured observation checklist of communicative performance. Results: The mean age of midwives was 39.11±9.66 years and their mean work experience was 15.9±8.77 years. In total, 68.3% of the participants experienced childbirth themselves. 66.7% of midwives were moderately keen on midwifery as a profession. The mean score of the checklist obtained by midwives was 67.9±10.7. There was no relationship between midwives’ communication skills and work experience, childbirth experience, age or interest in midwifery. Conclusion:Considering the inadequacy of midwives’ communication skills, which could be the major cause of maternal dissatisfaction with delivery care, it is recommended that in-service training courses be held by applying new teaching methods. Moreover, the educational needs of midwives, including communication skills, should be considered in these training programs .
Nadolski, Rob; Bahreini, Kiavash; Westera, Wim
This paper presentation describes how our FILTWAM software artifacts for face and voice emotion recognition will be used for assessing learners' progress and providing adequate feedback in an online game-based communication skills training. This constitutes an example of in-game assessment for
Bahreini, Kiavash; Nadolski, Rob; Westera, Wim
This paper describes how our FILTWAM software artifacts for face and voice emotion recognition will be used for assessing learners' progress and providing adequate feedback in an online game-based communication skills training. This constitutes an example of in-game assessment for mainly formative
A.J. Kuntze (Jeroen)
textabstractDuring the last century the attention paid in higher education to the development of professional skills has progressively increased. In the first half of the last century the term ‘skill’ mainly referred to motor or technical actions, for instance driving a car or operating a machine
Dhuper, Sonal; Siva, Chokkalingam; Fresen, John L; Petruc, Marius; Velázquez, Celso R
Physician–patient email communication is gaining popularity. However, a formal assessment of physicians' email communication skills has not been described. We hypothesized that the email communication skills of rheumatology fellows can be measured in an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) setting using a novel email content analysis instrument which has 18 items. During an OSCE, we asked 50 rheumatology fellows to respond to a simulated patient email. The content of the responses was assessed using our instrument. The majority of rheumatology fellows wrote appropriate responses scoring a mean (±SD) of 10.6 (±2.6) points (maximum score 18), with high inter-rater reliability (0.86). Most fellows were concise (74%) and courteous (68%) but not formal (22%). Ninety-two percent of fellows acknowledged that the patient's condition required urgent medical attention, but only 30% took active measures to contact the patient. No one encrypted their messages. The objective assessment of email communication skills is possible using simulated emails in an OSCE setting. The variable email communication scores and incidental patient safety gaps identified, suggest a need for further training and defined proficiency standards for physicians' email communication skills. PMID:20962134
Alberto Zamora Cervantes
Full Text Available Communicating with the patient in clinical practice refers to the way in which the doctor and the patient interact both verbally and nonverbally, in order to achieve a shared understanding of problems and solutions. Traditional learning and assessment systems are overwhelmed when it comes to addressing the complex and multi-dimensional problems of professional practice. Problem Based Learning (PBL has been put forward as an alternative to the mere reproduction of knowledge and pre-established patterns, enabling students to develop their own learning strategies to overcome problems in their future professional practice. The challenge is to determine how to assess the acquisition of clinical communication skills. The authors have recommended a summative assessment of clinical communication skills based on the combination of different methods. It highlights the importance of feedback-based formative assessment. This raises the need to develop and validate assessment scales in clinical communication at an undergraduate level. Based on this work, the authors put forward a "fanned out" assessment in terms of clinical communication skills in Medicine degrees, with the use of different instruments in a "spiraled" manner, where the greater the contact with clinical practice in the various degree and integral courses, the greater difficulty experienced, with the participation of all the stakeholders involved (self, hetero and peer assessment without precluding the involvement of patients (real or simulated in the design of assessment instruments.
Amaral, Anna Beatriz C N; Rider, Elizabeth A; Lajolo, Paula P; Tone, Luiz G; Pinto, Rogerio M C; Lajolo, Marisa P; Calhoun, Aaron W
The goal of this study was to translate, adapt and validate the items of the Gap-Kalamazoo Communication Skills Assessment Form for use in the Brazilian cultural setting. The Gap-Kalamazoo Communication Skills Assessment Form was translated into Portuguese by two independent bilingual Brazilian translators and was reconciled by a third bilingual healthcare professional. The translated text was then assessed for content using a modified Delphi technique and adjusted as needed to assure content validity. A total of nine phrases in the completed tool were adjusted. The final tool was then used to assess videotaped simulations as a means of validation. Response process was assessed using exploratory factor analysis and internal structure was assessed via Cronbach's Alpha (internal consistency) and Intraclass Correlation (test-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability). One hundred and four (104) videotaped communication skills simulations were assessed by 38 subjects (6 staff physicians, 4 faculty physicians, 8 resident physicians, 4 professional actors with experience in simulation, and 16 other allied healthcare professionals). Measures of Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.818) and test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.942) were high. Exploratory factor analysis confirmed the uni-dimensionality of the instrument. Our results support the validity and reliability of the Brazilian Gap-Kalamazoo Communication Skills Assessment Form when used among Brazilian medical residents. The Brazilian version of Gap-Kalamazoo Communication Skills Assessment Form was found to be adequate both in the linguistic and technical aspects. The use of this instrument in Brazilian medical education can enhance the assessment of physician-patient-team relationships on an ongoing basis.
Swain, Nathaniel Robert; Eadie, Patricia Ann; Prior, Margot Ruth; Reilly, Sheena
Background: Early identification of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is currently limited by the absence of reliable biological markers for the disorder, as well as the reliability of screening and assessment tools for children aged between 6 and 18 months. Ongoing research has demonstrated the importance of early social communication skills in…
Aydin, Ali Dursun
This study assessed the communication skills of the students studying in physical education and sports schools in various universities in Turkey. A total of 1,854 Physical Education and Sports students in five Turkish universities participated in the study. The instrument used to gather information for this study comprised the demographic…
Mishra, Anuradha; Browning, David; Haviland, Miriam J; Jackson, Mary Lou; Luff, Donna; Meyer, Elaine C; Talcott, Katherine; Kloek, Carolyn E
To conduct a needs assessment to identify gaps in communication skills training in ophthalmology residency programs and to use these results to pilot a communication workshop that prepares residents for difficult conversations. A mixed-methods design was used to perform the needs assessment. A pre-and postsurvey was administered to workshop participants. Mass Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School (HMS), Department of Ophthalmology. HMS ophthalmology residents from postgraduate years 2-4 participated in the needs assessment and the workshop. Ophthalmology residency program directors in the United States participated in national needs assessment. Ophthalmology program directors across the United States were queried on their perception of resident communication skills training through an online survey. A targeted needs assessment in the form of a narrative exercise captured resident perspectives on communication in ophthalmology from HMS residents. A group of HMS residents participated in the pilot workshop and a pre- and postsurvey was administered to participants to assess its effectiveness. The survey of program directors yielded a response rate of 40%. Ninety percent of respondents agreed that the communication skills training in their programs could be improved. Fifteen of 24 residents (62%) completed the needs assessment. Qualitative analysis of the narrative material revealed four themes; (1) differing expectations, (2) work role and environment, (3) challenges specific to ophthalmology, and (4) successful strategies adopted. Nine residents participated in the workshop. There was a significant improvement post-workshop in resident reported scores on their ability to manage their emotions during difficult conversations (p = 0.03). There is an opportunity to improve communication skills training in ophthalmology residency through formalized curriculum. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
Gillis, Amy E; Morris, Marie C; Ridgway, Paul F
Communication breakdown is a factor in the majority of all instances of medical error. Despite the importance, a relative paucity of time is invested in communication skills in postgraduate curricula. Our objective is to systematically review the literature to identify the current tools used to assess communication skills in postgraduate trainees in the latter 2 years of training and in established practice. Two reviewers independently reviewed the literature identifying communication skill assessment tools, for postgraduate trainees in the latter 2 years of training and in established practice following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses framework, and inclusion/exclusion criteria from January 1990 to 15 August 2014. PubMed/CINAHL/ERIC/EMBASE/PsycInfo/Psyc Articles/Cochrane. 222 articles were identified; after review, 34 articles fulfilled criteria for complete evaluation; the majority (26) had a high level of evidence scoring 3 or greater on the Best Evidence Medical Education guide. 22 articles used objective structured clinical examination/standardised patient (SP)-based formats in an assessment or training capacity. Evaluation tools included author-developed questionnaires and validated tools. Nineteen articles demonstrated an educational initiative. The reviewed literature is heterogeneous for objectives and measurement techniques for communication. Observed interactions, with patients or SPs, is the current favoured method of evaluation using author-developed questionnaires. The role of self-evaluation of skill level is questioned. The need for a validated assessment tool for communication skills is highlighted. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Rijssen, H.J. van; Schellart, A.J.M.; Anema, J.R.; Boer, W.E.L. de; Beek, A.J. van der
Background Physicians require specific communication skills, because the face-to-face contact with their patients is an important source of information. Although physicians who perform work disability assessments attend some communication-related training courses during their professional education,
Full Text Available We proposed that first year medical students who voluntarily participated in the Healthy Sexuality adolescent program would perform better than their peers on an adolescent counseling station at the year-end OSCE (Objective Structured Clinical Examination. In addition we compared medical students communication skills at the time of the program as assessed by self, peers and participating adolescents. Methods: Nineteen first year medical students voluntarily participated in the ongoing Healthy Sexuality program. Adolescent participants, medical student peer participants and medical students assessed communication components on a 7-point Likert scale at the end of the program. At the year-end OSCE, all first year medical students at the University of Western Ontario were assessed at an adolescent counseling station by a standardized patient (SP and a physician examiner. Statistical analysis examined differences between the two groups. Results: Students who participated in the Healthy Sexuality program did not perform better than their colleagues on the year-end OSCE. A statistically significant correlation between physician examiner and SP evaluations was found (r = 0.62. Adolescent participants communication skills assessments in the Healthy Sexuality Program demonstrated no significant correlation with medical student assessments (self or peer. Conclusions:Voluntary intervention with adolescents did not result in improved communication skills at the structured year-end examination. Further investigation will be directed towards delineating differences between SP and physician examiner assessments.
Ponton-Carss, Alicia; Hutchison, Carol; Violato, Claudio
The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of a performance assessment of communication, professionalism, and surgical skills competencies for surgery residents. Fourteen residents from the general surgery program of the University of Calgary were assessed in 7 surgical simulation stations that included communication and professionalism skills. The internal consistency reliability of the checklists and global rating scales combined was adequate for communication (α = .75-.92) and surgical skills (α = .86-.96), but not for professionalism (α = 0). There was evidence of validity as surgical skills performance improved as a function of postgraduate year level but not for the professionalism checklist. Surgical skills and communication correlated in the 2 stations assessed (r = .55 and .57; P communication skills. Further instrument development is required to assess professionalism in a structured examination context. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ditton-Phare, Philippa; Sandhu, Harsimrat; Kelly, Brian; Kissane, David; Loughland, Carmel
Mental health clinicians can experience difficulties communicating diagnostic information to patients and their families/carers, especially about distressing psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. There is evidence for the effectiveness of communication skills training (CST) for improving diagnostic discussions, particularly in specialties such as oncology, but only limited evidence exists about CST for psychiatry. This study evaluated a CST program specifically developed for psychiatry residents called ComPsych that focuses on conveying diagnostic and prognostic information about schizophrenia. The ComPsych program consists of an introductory lecture, module booklets for trainees, and exemplary skills videos, followed by small group role-plays with simulated patients (SPs) led by a trained facilitator. A standardized patient assessment (SPA) was digitally recorded pre- and post-training with a SP using a standardized scenario in a time-limited (15 min) period. Recorded SPAs were independently rated using a validated coding system (ComSkil) to identify frequency of skills used in five skills categories (agenda setting, checking, questioning, information organization, and empathic communication). Thirty trainees (15 males and 15 females; median age = 32) undertaking their vocational specialty training in psychiatry participated in ComPsych training and pre- and post-ComPsych SPAs. Skills increased post-training for agenda setting (d = -0.82), while questioning skills (d = 0.56) decreased. There were no significant differences in any other skills grouping, although checking, information organization, and empathic communication skills tended to increase post-training. A dose effect was observed for agenda setting, with trainees who attended more CST sessions outperforming those attending fewer. Findings support the generalization and translation of ComPsych CST to psychiatry.
Weiss, Marjorie C; Booth, Anneka; Jones, Bethan; Ramjeet, Sarah; Wong, Eva
To investigate the quality and appropriateness of Emergency Hormonal Contraception (EHC) supply from community pharmacies. Community pharmacies in the southwest of England during 2007. Two simulated patient ('mystery shopper') scenarios to each participating pharmacy, one where the supply of EHC would be appropriate (scenario 1) and one where there was a drug interaction between EHC and St John's Wort, and the supply inappropriate (scenario 2). Pharmacy consultations were rated using criteria developed from two focus groups: one with pharmacist academics and one with female university students. Feedback to pharmacists to inform their continuing professional development was provided. Scores on rating scales encompassing the clinical and communication skills of the participating community pharmacists completed immediately after each mystery shopper visit. 40 pharmacist visits were completed: 21 for scenario 1 and 19 for scenario 2. Eighteen pharmacists were visited twice. Five pharmacists visited for scenario 2 supplied EHC against professional guidance, although other reference sources conflicted with this advice. Pharmacies which were part of the local PGD scheme scored higher overall in scenario 1 (P = 0.005) than those not part of the scheme. Overall the communication skills of pharmacists were rated highly although some pharmacists used jargon when explaining the interaction for scenario 2. Formatively assessing communication skills in an integrative manner alongside clinical skills has been identified as an important part of the medical consultation skills training and can be incorporated into the routine assessment and feedback of pharmacy over-the-counter medicines advice.
Gross, Sanford M.; Zoltoski, Rebecca K.; Cornick, Michelle L.; Wong, Kenneth K. W.
A self-evaluation of communication skills was administered to approximately 500 optometry students before, during, and after a curriculum intervention to enhance these skills. Findings indicated that the intervention had a modest impact that was differential over the skill categories (interpersonal skills, patient care, interdisciplinary skills,…
Gibon, Anne-Sophie; Merckaert, Isabelle; Liénard, Aurore; Libert, Yves; Delvaux, Nicole; Marchal, Serge; Etienne, Anne-Marie; Reynaert, Christine; Slachmuylder, Jean-Louis; Scalliet, Pierre; Van Houtte, Paul; Coucke, Philippe; Salamon, Emile
Background and purpose: Optimizing communication between radiotherapy team members and patients and between colleagues requires training. This study applies a randomized controlled design to assess the efficacy of a 38-h communication skills training program. Material and methods: Four radiotherapy teams were randomly assigned either to a training program or to a waiting list. Team members’ communication skills and their self-efficacy to communicate in the context of an encounter with a simulated patient were the primary endpoints. These encounters were scheduled at the baseline and after training for the training group, and at the baseline and four months later for the waiting list group. Encounters were audiotaped and transcribed. Transcripts were analyzed with content analysis software (LaComm) and by an independent rater. Results: Eighty team members were included in the study. Compared to untrained team members, trained team members used more turns of speech with content oriented toward available resources in the team (relative rate [RR] = 1.38; p = 0.023), more assessment utterances (RR = 1.69; p < 0.001), more empathy (RR = 4.05; p = 0.037), more negotiation (RR = 2.34; p = 0.021) and more emotional words (RR = 1.32; p = 0.030), and their self-efficacy to communicate increased (p = 0.024 and p = 0.008, respectively). Conclusions: The training program was effective in improving team members’ communication skills and their self-efficacy to communicate in the context of an encounter with a simulated patient. Future study should assess the effect of this training program on communication with actual patients and their satisfaction. Moreover a cost-benefit analysis is needed, before implementing such an intensive training program on a broader scale
Rüttermann, S; Sobotta, A; Hahn, P; Kiessling, C; Härtl, A
Teaching communication is perceived to be of importance in dental education. Several reports have been published worldwide in the educational literature describing modifications of the dental curriculum by implementing the teaching of communication skills. Surveys which evaluate the current state of training and assessment of communication skills in dental education in different countries exist already in some countries, but little information is available about German-speaking countries. In a cross-sectional study with the aim of a census, all 36 dental schools in Germany (30), Austria (3), and Switzerland (3) were surveyed. The present survey revealed that at 26 of the 34 dental schools (76%), communication skills training has been implemented. Training of communication skills mainly takes place between the 6th and the 9th semester. Ten schools were able to implement a partly longitudinal curriculum, while the other sites only offer stand-alone courses. Of the 34 dental schools, six assess communication skills in a summative way. Three of those schools also use formative assessments for their students. Another seven sites only use formative assessment. From the various formats of assessment, OSCE is mentioned most frequently. The necessity to train and assess communication skills has reached German-speaking dental schools. The present survey allows an overview of the training and assessment of communication skills in undergraduate dental education in German-speaking Europe. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Excellent communication skills are vital in today's workplace. Whether keeping the interest of a large audience, impressing a potential employer or simply winning the argument at an important meeting, sounding the part is key. This fourth edition of Improve Your Communication Skills is full of practical advice on all aspects of verbal and non-verbal communication. It gives vital tips on improving conversations and building rapport with colleagues, learning the skills of persuasion, and writing effective emails, letters and reports. This editionincludes new information focusing on communicating across borders and virtual teams and a new chapter on managing difficult conversations."
Simmenroth-Nayda, Anne; Heinemann, Stephanie; Nolte, Catharina; Fischer, Thomas; Himmel, Wolfgang
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse the psychometric properties of the short version of the Calgary Cambridge Guides and to decide whether it can be recommended for use in the assessment of communications skills in young undergraduate medical students. METHODS: Using a translated version of the Guide, 30 members from the Department of General Practice rated 5 videotaped encounters between students and simulated patients twice. Item analysis should detect possible floor and/or...
Cömert, Musa; Zill, Jördis Maria; Christalle, Eva; Dirmaier, Jörg; Härter, Martin; Scholl, Isabelle
Teaching and assessment of communication skills have become essential in medical education. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) has been found as an appropriate means to assess communication skills within medical education. Studies have demonstrated the importance of a valid assessment of medical students' communication skills. Yet, the validity of the performance scores depends fundamentally on the quality of the rating scales used in an OSCE. Thus, this systematic review aimed at providing an overview of existing rating scales, describing their underlying definition of communication skills, determining the methodological quality of psychometric studies and the quality of psychometric properties of the identified rating scales. We conducted a systematic review to identify psychometrically tested rating scales, which have been applied in OSCE settings to assess communication skills of medical students. Our search strategy comprised three databases (EMBASE, PsycINFO, and PubMed), reference tracking and consultation of experts. We included studies that reported psychometric properties of communication skills assessment rating scales used in OSCEs by examiners only. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the COnsensus based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. The quality of psychometric properties was evaluated using the quality criteria of Terwee and colleagues. Data of twelve studies reporting on eight rating scales on communication skills assessment in OSCEs were included. Five of eight rating scales were explicitly developed based on a specific definition of communication skills. The methodological quality of studies was mainly poor. The psychometric quality of the eight rating scales was mainly intermediate. Our results reveal that future psychometric evaluation studies focusing on improving the methodological quality are needed in order to yield psychometrically
Cömert, Musa; Zill, Jördis Maria; Christalle, Eva; Dirmaier, Jörg; Härter, Martin; Scholl, Isabelle
Background Teaching and assessment of communication skills have become essential in medical education. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) has been found as an appropriate means to assess communication skills within medical education. Studies have demonstrated the importance of a valid assessment of medical students’ communication skills. Yet, the validity of the performance scores depends fundamentally on the quality of the rating scales used in an OSCE. Thus, this systematic review aimed at providing an overview of existing rating scales, describing their underlying definition of communication skills, determining the methodological quality of psychometric studies and the quality of psychometric properties of the identified rating scales. Methods We conducted a systematic review to identify psychometrically tested rating scales, which have been applied in OSCE settings to assess communication skills of medical students. Our search strategy comprised three databases (EMBASE, PsycINFO, and PubMed), reference tracking and consultation of experts. We included studies that reported psychometric properties of communication skills assessment rating scales used in OSCEs by examiners only. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the COnsensus based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. The quality of psychometric properties was evaluated using the quality criteria of Terwee and colleagues. Results Data of twelve studies reporting on eight rating scales on communication skills assessment in OSCEs were included. Five of eight rating scales were explicitly developed based on a specific definition of communication skills. The methodological quality of studies was mainly poor. The psychometric quality of the eight rating scales was mainly intermediate. Discussion Our results reveal that future psychometric evaluation studies focusing on improving the methodological quality are needed
Swain, Nathaniel Robert; Eadie, Patricia Ann; Prior, Margot Ruth; Reilly, Sheena
Early identification of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is currently limited by the absence of reliable biological markers for the disorder, as well as the reliability of screening and assessment tools for children aged between 6 and 18 months. Ongoing research has demonstrated the importance of early social communication skills in differentiating children later diagnosed with ASD from their typically developing (TD) peers, but researchers have not yet investigated whether these differences can be detected using community-ascertained systematic observation data as early as 12 months. To investigate whether differences in early social communication skills can be detected at 12 months of age, comparing children later diagnosed with ASD, and TD peers; and to determine whether differences remain when groupings are based on age of subsequent ASD diagnosis. From a prospective community-ascertained sample, we collected data on children in early life, then conducted retrospective analyses for those children who were later diagnosed with ASD by the age of 7 years, compared with matched TD peers. We analysed standardized observational data of early communication skills, collected using the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales-Developmental Profile (CSBS-DP) Behavior Sample, when participants were 12 months of age. Children in the ASD group exhibited significantly lower social communication skills than the TD group, including on the Total score and Social and Symbolic Composite scores of the CSBS-DP Behavior Sample. Differences on the Total score and Social Composite were also detected for both early and late ASD diagnosis groups when compared with the TD group. These findings give further support for the importance of social communication in assessing children at risk of ASD as early as 12 months of age. Future research could evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of direct observation of these early communication skills as diagnostic indicators for ASD at 12 months
A paper/pencil instrument, adapted from Miller and colleagues' (1991) Helpful Responses Questionnaire (HRQ), was developed to assess clinician skill with core communicative aspects involved in delivering contingency management (CM). The instrument presents a single vignette consisting of six points of client dialogue to which respondents write 'what they would say next.' In the context of an implementation/effectiveness hybrid trial, 19 staff clinicians at an opiate treatment program completed serial training outcome assessments before, following, and three months after CM training. Assessments included this adaptation of the HRQ, a multiple-choice CM knowledge test, and a recorded standardized patient encounter scored for CM skillfulness. Study results reveal promising psychometric properties for the instrument, including strong scoring reliability, internal consistency, concurrent and predictive validity, test-retest reliability and sensitivity to training effects. These preliminary findings suggest the instrument is a viable, practical method to assess clinician skill in communicative aspects of CM delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Simmenroth-Nayda, Anne; Heinemann, Stephanie; Nolte, Catharina; Fischer, Thomas; Himmel, Wolfgang
The aim of this study was to analyse the psychometric properties of the short version of the Calgary Cambridge Guides and to decide whether it can be recommended for use in the assessment of communications skills in young undergraduate medical students. Using a translated version of the Guide, 30 members from the Department of General Practice rated 5 videotaped encounters between students and simulated patients twice. Item analysis should detect possible floor and/or ceiling effects. The construct validity was investigated using exploratory factor analysis. Intra-rater reliability was measured in an interval of 3 months, inter-rater reliability was assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient. The score distribution of the items showed no ceiling or floor effects. Four of the five factors extracted from the factor analysis represented important constructs of doctor-patient communication The ratings for the first and second round of assessing the videos correlated at 0.75 (p<0.0001). Intraclass correlation coefficients for each item ranged were moderate and ranged from 0.05 to 0.57. Reasonable score distributions of most items without ceiling or floor effects as well as a good test-retest reliability and construct validity recommend the C-CG as an instrument for assessing communication skills in undergraduate medical students. Some deficiencies in inter-rater reliability are a clear indication that raters need a thorough instruction before using the C-CG.
Nuovo, Jim; Bertakis, Klea D; Azari, Rahman
This study assesses the relationship between 4 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) outcome project measures for interpersonal and communication skills and medical knowledge; specifically, monthly performance evaluations, objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs), the American Board of Family Practice in-training examination (ABFP-ITE) and the Davis observation code (DOC) practice style profiles. Based on previous work, we have DOC scoring for 29 residents from the University of California, Davis Department of Family and Community Medicine. For all these residents we also had the results of monthly performance evaluations, 2 required OSCE exercises, and the results of 3 American Board of Family Medicine (ABFM) ITEs. Data for each of these measures were abstracted for each resident. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to assess the presence or lack of correlation between each of these evaluation methods. There is little correlation between various evaluation methods used to assess medical knowledge, and there is also little correlation between various evaluation methods used to assess communication skills. The outcome project remains a 'work in progress', with the need for larger studies to assess the value of different assessment measures of resident competence. It is unlikely that DOC will become a useful evaluation tool.
Ryan, C Anthony
Abstract Background A number of recent developments in medical and nursing education have highlighted the importance of communication and consultation skills (CCS). Although such skills are taught in all medical and nursing undergraduate curriculums, there is no comprehensive screening or assessment programme of CCS using professionally trained Standardized Patients Educators (SPE\\'s) in Ireland. This study was designed to test the content, process and acceptability of a screening programme in CCS with Irish medical and nursing students using trained SPE\\'s and a previously validated global rating scale for CCS. Methods Eight tutors from the Schools of Nursing and Medicine at University College Cork were trained in the use of a validated communication skills and attitudes holistic assessment tool. A total of forty six medical students (Year 2 of 5) and sixty four nursing students (Year 2\\/3 of 4) were selected to under go individual CCS assessment by the tutors via an SPE led scenario. Immediate formative feedback was provided by the SPE\\'s for the students. Students who did not pass the assessment were referred for remediation CCS learning. Results Almost three quarters of medical students (33\\/46; 72%) and 81% of nursing students (56\\/64) passed the CCS assessment in both communication and attitudes categories. All nursing students had English as their first language. Nine of thirteen medical students referred for enhanced learning in CCS did not have English as their first language. Conclusions A significant proportion of both medical and nursing students required referral for enhanced training in CCS. Medical students requiring enhanced training were more likely not to have English as a first language.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of recent developments in medical and nursing education have highlighted the importance of communication and consultation skills (CCS. Although such skills are taught in all medical and nursing undergraduate curriculums, there is no comprehensive screening or assessment programme of CCS using professionally trained Standardized Patients Educators (SPE's in Ireland. This study was designed to test the content, process and acceptability of a screening programme in CCS with Irish medical and nursing students using trained SPE's and a previously validated global rating scale for CCS. Methods Eight tutors from the Schools of Nursing and Medicine at University College Cork were trained in the use of a validated communication skills and attitudes holistic assessment tool. A total of forty six medical students (Year 2 of 5 and sixty four nursing students (Year 2/3 of 4 were selected to under go individual CCS assessment by the tutors via an SPE led scenario. Immediate formative feedback was provided by the SPE's for the students. Students who did not pass the assessment were referred for remediation CCS learning. Results Almost three quarters of medical students (33/46; 72% and 81% of nursing students (56/64 passed the CCS assessment in both communication and attitudes categories. All nursing students had English as their first language. Nine of thirteen medical students referred for enhanced learning in CCS did not have English as their first language. Conclusions A significant proportion of both medical and nursing students required referral for enhanced training in CCS. Medical students requiring enhanced training were more likely not to have English as a first language.
Ryan, C Anthony; Walshe, Nuala; Gaffney, Robert; Shanks, Andrew; Burgoyne, Louise; Wiskin, Connie M
A number of recent developments in medical and nursing education have highlighted the importance of communication and consultation skills (CCS). Although such skills are taught in all medical and nursing undergraduate curriculums, there is no comprehensive screening or assessment programme of CCS using professionally trained Standardized Patients Educators (SPE's) in Ireland. This study was designed to test the content, process and acceptability of a screening programme in CCS with Irish medical and nursing students using trained SPE's and a previously validated global rating scale for CCS. Eight tutors from the Schools of Nursing and Medicine at University College Cork were trained in the use of a validated communication skills and attitudes holistic assessment tool. A total of forty six medical students (Year 2 of 5) and sixty four nursing students (Year 2/3 of 4) were selected to under go individual CCS assessment by the tutors via an SPE led scenario. Immediate formative feedback was provided by the SPE's for the students. Students who did not pass the assessment were referred for remediation CCS learning. Almost three quarters of medical students (33/46; 72%) and 81% of nursing students (56/64) passed the CCS assessment in both communication and attitudes categories. All nursing students had English as their first language. Nine of thirteen medical students referred for enhanced learning in CCS did not have English as their first language. A significant proportion of both medical and nursing students required referral for enhanced training in CCS. Medical students requiring enhanced training were more likely not to have English as a first language.
The 2015 Institute of Medicine report on diagnostic error has placed a national spotlight on the importance of improving communication among clinicians and between clinicians and patients . The report emphasizes the critical role that communication plays in patient safety and outlines ways that pathologists can support this process. Despite recognition of communication as an essential element in patient care, pathologists currently undergo limited (if any) formal training in communication skills. To address this gap, we at the University of Washington Medical Center developed communication training with the goal of establishing best practice procedures for effective pathology communication. The course includes lectures, role playing, and simulated clinician-pathologist interactions for training and evaluation of pathology communication performance. Providing communication training can help create reliable communication pathways that anticipate and address potential barriers and errors before they happen. © 2016 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
Cyphert, Dale; Dodge, Elena Nefedova; Duclos (Wilson), Leslie K.
The value of experiential learning is widely acknowledged, especially for the development of communication skills, but students are not always aware of their own learning. While we can observe students practicing targeted skills during the experiential activity, the experience can also color their explicit understanding of those skills. Transfer…
Lifchez, Scott D; Redett, Richard J
Teaching and assessing professionalism and interpersonal communication skills can be more difficult for surgical residency programs than teaching medical knowledge or patient care, for which many structured educational curricula and assessment tools exist. Residents often learn these skills indirectly, by observing the behavior of their attendings when communicating with patients and colleagues. The purpose of this study was to assess the results of an educational curriculum we created to teach and assess our residents in professionalism and communication. We assessed resident and faculty prior education in delivering bad news to patients. Residents then participated in a standardized patient (SP) encounter to deliver bad news to a patient's family regarding a severe burn injury. Residents received feedback from the encounter and participated in an education curriculum on communication skills and professionalism. As a part of this curriculum, residents underwent assessment of communication style using the Myers-Briggs type inventory. The residents then participated in a second SP encounter discussing a severe pulmonary embolus with a patient's family. Resident performance on the SP evaluation correlated with an increased comfort in delivering bad news. Comfort in delivering bad news did not correlate with the amount of prior education on the topic for either residents or attendings. Most of our residents demonstrated an intuitive thinking style (NT) on the Myers-Briggs type inventory, very different from population norms. The lack of correlation between comfort in delivering bad news and prior education on the subject may indicate the difficulty in imparting communication and professionalism skills to residents effectively. Understanding communication style differences between our residents and the general population can help us teach professionalism and communication skills more effectively. With the next accreditation system, residency programs would need to
Hudelson, Patricia; Perron, Noelle Junod; Perneger, Thomas
Physicians working with multicultural populations need to know how to elicit the patient's understanding of the illness; determine the patient's sociocultural context and identify any issues that might affect care; communicate effectively across patient-provider social and cultural differences; and collaborate effectively with an interpreter. Skills self-assessment can contribute to identifying training needs and monitoring skills development in these areas. As part of a larger study exploring the knowledge, attitudes and practices of Geneva physicians and medical students regarding the care of immigrant patients, we asked respondents to self-rate their ability to perform a range of common yet challenging intercultural communication tasks. Overall, respondents rated themselves less competent at intercultural tasks than at basic medical skills and less competent at specific intercultural communication skills than at general intercultural skills. Qualified doctors (as opposed to students), those with greater interest in caring for immigrants, and those who rarely encountered difficulties with immigrants rated themselves significantly more competent for all clinical tasks. Having a higher percentage of immigrant patients and previous cultural competence training predicted greater self-rated intercultural communication skills. Our self-assessment results suggest that students and physicians should be provided with the opportunity to practice intercultural skills with immigrant patients as part of their cultural competence training. To strengthen the validity of self-assessment measures, they should ideally be combined with more objective methods to assess actual skills.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians working with multicultural populations need to know how to elicit the patient's understanding of the illness; determine the patient's sociocultural context and identify any issues that might affect care; communicate effectively across patient-provider social and cultural differences; and collaborate effectively with an interpreter. Skills self-assessment can contribute to identifying training needs and monitoring skills development in these areas. Methods As part of a larger study exploring the knowledge, attitudes and practices of Geneva physicians and medical students regarding the care of immigrant patients, we asked respondents to self-rate their ability to perform a range of common yet challenging intercultural communication tasks. Results Overall, respondents rated themselves less competent at intercultural tasks than at basic medical skills and less competent at specific intercultural communication skills than at general intercultural skills. Qualified doctors (as opposed to students, those with greater interest in caring for immigrants, and those who rarely encountered difficulties with immigrants rated themselves significantly more competent for all clinical tasks. Having a higher percentage of immigrant patients and previous cultural competence training predicted greater self-rated intercultural communication skills. Conclusion Our self-assessment results suggest that students and physicians should be provided with the opportunity to practice intercultural skills with immigrant patients as part of their cultural competence training. To strengthen the validity of self-assessment measures, they should ideally be combined with more objective methods to assess actual skills.
Background Physicians require specific communication skills, because the face-to-face contact with their patients is an important source of information. Although physicians who perform work disability assessments attend some communication-related training courses during their professional education, no specialised and evidence-based communication skills training course is available for them. Therefore, the objectives of this study were: 1) to systematically develop a training course aimed at improving the communication skills of physicians during work disability assessment interviews with disability claimants, and 2) to plan an evaluation of the training course. Methods A physician-tailored communication skills training course was developed, according to the six steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol. Data were collected from questionnaire studies among physicians and claimants, a focus group study among physicians, a systematic review of the literature, and meetings with various experts. Determinants and performance objectives were formulated. A concept version of the training course was discussed with several experts before the final training course programme was established. The evaluation plan was developed by consulting experts, social insurance physicians, researchers, and policy-makers, and discussing with them the options for evaluation. Results A two-day post-graduate communication skills training course was developed, aimed at improving professional communication during work disability assessment interviews. Special focus was on active teaching strategies, such as practising the skills in role-play. An adoption and implementation plan was formulated, in which the infrastructure of the educational department of the institute that employs the physicians was utilised. Improvement in the skills and knowledge of the physicians who will participate in the training course will be evaluated in a randomised controlled trial. Conclusions The feasibility and
van Rijssen, H Jolanda; Schellart, Antonius J M; Anema, Johannes R; de Boer, Wout E L; van der Beek, Allard J
Physicians require specific communication skills, because the face-to-face contact with their patients is an important source of information. Although physicians who perform work disability assessments attend some communication-related training courses during their professional education, no specialised and evidence-based communication skills training course is available for them. Therefore, the objectives of this study were: 1) to systematically develop a training course aimed at improving the communication skills of physicians during work disability assessment interviews with disability claimants, and 2) to plan an evaluation of the training course. A physician-tailored communication skills training course was developed, according to the six steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol. Data were collected from questionnaire studies among physicians and claimants, a focus group study among physicians, a systematic review of the literature, and meetings with various experts. Determinants and performance objectives were formulated. A concept version of the training course was discussed with several experts before the final training course programme was established. The evaluation plan was developed by consulting experts, social insurance physicians, researchers, and policy-makers, and discussing with them the options for evaluation. A two-day post-graduate communication skills training course was developed, aimed at improving professional communication during work disability assessment interviews. Special focus was on active teaching strategies, such as practising the skills in role-play. An adoption and implementation plan was formulated, in which the infrastructure of the educational department of the institute that employs the physicians was utilised. Improvement in the skills and knowledge of the physicians who will participate in the training course will be evaluated in a randomised controlled trial. The feasibility and practical relevance of the communication
Anema Johannes R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians require specific communication skills, because the face-to-face contact with their patients is an important source of information. Although physicians who perform work disability assessments attend some communication-related training courses during their professional education, no specialised and evidence-based communication skills training course is available for them. Therefore, the objectives of this study were: 1 to systematically develop a training course aimed at improving the communication skills of physicians during work disability assessment interviews with disability claimants, and 2 to plan an evaluation of the training course. Methods A physician-tailored communication skills training course was developed, according to the six steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol. Data were collected from questionnaire studies among physicians and claimants, a focus group study among physicians, a systematic review of the literature, and meetings with various experts. Determinants and performance objectives were formulated. A concept version of the training course was discussed with several experts before the final training course programme was established. The evaluation plan was developed by consulting experts, social insurance physicians, researchers, and policy-makers, and discussing with them the options for evaluation. Results A two-day post-graduate communication skills training course was developed, aimed at improving professional communication during work disability assessment interviews. Special focus was on active teaching strategies, such as practising the skills in role-play. An adoption and implementation plan was formulated, in which the infrastructure of the educational department of the institute that employs the physicians was utilised. Improvement in the skills and knowledge of the physicians who will participate in the training course will be evaluated in a randomised controlled trial
Pereira, Thaís Josgrilberg; Puggina, Ana Claudia
to translate, adapt cross-culturally and validate into Brazilian Portuguese the following instrument: "Self-assessment of communication skills and professionalism in residents" for the nursing professional, and to determine if personal characteristics and performance of the nurse interfere in the self-assessment about professionalism and interpersonal communication. quantitative study. the sample consisted of 110 nurses with mean age of 32 years old (± 7.3), most of them were women (n = 80; 72.7%). The internal consistency of the scale "Autoavaliação sobre profissionalismo e comunicação interpessoal entre enfermeiro e paciente" presented moderate and satisfactory reliability (α=0,712). Factorial analysis identified four factors: Interpersonal Skills, Exchange of Information, Honesty in the Relationship and Professionalism. the instrument is valid and reliable in Portuguese and for Brazilian culture. Interpersonal Skills changed with gender and marital status. Ability to exchange information was influenced by gender and working sector. Self-assessment of professionalism changed with marital status. traduzir, adaptar culturalmente e validar para o português o instrumento Self-assessment of communication skills and professionalism in residents para o profissional enfermeiro e avaliar se características pessoais e de atuação do enfermeiro interferem na autoavaliação sobre o profissionalismo e comunicação interpessoal. estudo metodológico quantitativo. A amostra foi de 110 enfermeiros com média de idade de 32 anos (±7,3) e a maioria mulheres (n=80; 72,7%). A consistência interna da escala "Autoavaliação sobre profissionalismo e comunicação interpessoal entre enfermeiro e paciente" apresentou confiabilidade moderada e satisfatória (α=0,712). A análise fatorial identificou quatro fatores: Habilidade Interpessoal, Troca de Informação, Sinceridade na Relação e Profissionalismo. o instrumento é válido e confiável na língua portuguesa e para a
Weyers, Simone; Jemi, Iman; Karger, André; Raski, Bianca; Rotthoff, Thomas; Pentzek, Michael; Mortsiefer, Achim
Background: Imparting communication skills has been given great importance in medical curricula. In addition to standardized assessments, students should communicate with real patients in actual clinical situations during workplace-based assessments and receive structured feedback on their performance. The aim of this project was to pilot a formative testing method for workplace-based assessment. Our investigation centered in particular on whether or not physicians view the method as feasible and how high acceptance is among students. In addition, we assessed the reliability of the method. Method: As part of the project, 16 students held two consultations each with chronically ill patients at the medical practice where they were completing GP training. These consultations were video-recorded. The trained mentoring physician rated the student’s performance and provided feedback immediately following the consultations using the Berlin Global Rating scale (BGR). Two impartial, trained raters also evaluated the videos using BGR. For qualitative and quantitative analysis, information on how physicians and students viewed feasibility and their levels of acceptance was collected in written form in a partially standardized manner. To test for reliability, the test-retest reliability was calculated for both of the overall evaluations given by each rater. The inter-rater reliability was determined for the three evaluations of each individual consultation. Results: The formative assessment method was rated positively by both physicians and students. It is relatively easy to integrate into daily routines. Its significant value lies in the personal, structured and recurring feedback. The two overall scores for each patient consultation given by the two impartial raters correlate moderately. The degree of uniformity among the three raters in respect to the individual consultations is low. Discussion: Within the scope of this pilot project, only a small sample of physicians and
Full Text Available Background: Imparting communication skills has been given great importance in medical curricula. In addition to standardized assessments, students should communicate with real patients in actual clinical situations during workplace-based assessments and receive structured feedback on their performance. The aim of this project was to pilot a formative testing method for workplace-based assessment. Our investigation centered in particular on whether or not physicians view the method as feasible and how high acceptance is among students. In addition, we assessed the reliability of the method.Method: As part of the project, 16 students held two consultations each with chronically ill patients at the medical practice where they were completing GP training. These consultations were video-recorded. The trained mentoring physician rated the student’s performance and provided feedback immediately following the consultations using the Berlin Global Rating scale (BGR. Two impartial, trained raters also evaluated the videos using BGR. For qualitative and quantitative analysis, information on how physicians and students viewed feasibility and their levels of acceptance was collected in written form in a partially standardized manner. To test for reliability, the test-retest reliability was calculated for both of the overall evaluations given by each rater. The inter-rater reliability was determined for the three evaluations of each individual consultation.Results: The formative assessment method was rated positively by both physicians and students. It is relatively easy to integrate into daily routines. Its significant value lies in the personal, structured and recurring feedback. The two overall scores for each patient consultation given by the two impartial raters correlate moderately. The degree of uniformity among the three raters in respect to the individual consultations is low.Discussion: Within the scope of this pilot project, only a small sample
Weyers, Simone; Jemi, Iman; Karger, André; Raski, Bianca; Rotthoff, Thomas; Pentzek, Michael; Mortsiefer, Achim
Background: Imparting communication skills has been given great importance in medical curricula. In addition to standardized assessments, students should communicate with real patients in actual clinical situations during workplace-based assessments and receive structured feedback on their performance. The aim of this project was to pilot a formative testing method for workplace-based assessment. Our investigation centered in particular on whether or not physicians view the method as feasible and how high acceptance is among students. In addition, we assessed the reliability of the method. Method: As part of the project, 16 students held two consultations each with chronically ill patients at the medical practice where they were completing GP training. These consultations were video-recorded. The trained mentoring physician rated the student's performance and provided feedback immediately following the consultations using the Berlin Global Rating scale (BGR). Two impartial, trained raters also evaluated the videos using BGR. For qualitative and quantitative analysis, information on how physicians and students viewed feasibility and their levels of acceptance was collected in written form in a partially standardized manner. To test for reliability, the test-retest reliability was calculated for both of the overall evaluations given by each rater. The inter-rater reliability was determined for the three evaluations of each individual consultation. Results: The formative assessment method was rated positively by both physicians and students. It is relatively easy to integrate into daily routines. Its significant value lies in the personal, structured and recurring feedback. The two overall scores for each patient consultation given by the two impartial raters correlate moderately. The degree of uniformity among the three raters in respect to the individual consultations is low. Discussion: Within the scope of this pilot project, only a small sample of physicians and
Goch, Abraham M; Karia, Raj; Taormina, David; Kalet, Adina; Zuckerman, Joseph; Egol, Kenneth A; Phillips, Donna
Evaluation of resident physicians' communications skills is a challenging task and is increasingly accomplished with standardized examinations. There exists a need to identify the effective, efficient methods for assessment of communications skills. We compared objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) and direct observation as approaches for assessing resident communications skills. We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of orthopaedic surgery resident physicians at a single tertiary care academic institution, using the Institute for Healthcare Communication "4 Es" model for effective communication. Data were collected between 2011 and 2015. A total of 28 residents, each with OSCE and complete direct observation assessment checklists, were included in the analysis. Residents were included if they had 1 OSCE assessment and 2 or more complete direct observation assessments. There were 28 of a possible 59 residents (47%) included. A total of 89% (25 of 28) of residents passed the communications skills OSCE; only 54% (15 of 28) of residents passed the direct observation communications assessment. There was a positive, moderate correlation between OSCE and direct observation scores overall ( r = 0.415, P = .028). There was no agreement between OSCE and direct observation in categorizing residents into passing and failing scores (κ = 0.205, P = .16), after adjusting for chance agreement. Our results suggest that OSCE and direct observation tools provide different insights into resident communications skills (simulation of rare and challenging situations versus real-life daily encounters), and may provide useful perspectives on resident communications skills in different contexts.
Lehr, Hans-Anton; Bosman, Fred T
Communication is an essential element of good medical practice also in pathology. In contrast to technical or diagnostic skills, communication skills are not easy to define, teach, or assess. Rules almost do not exist. In this paper, which has a rather personal character and cannot be taken as a set of guidelines, important aspects of communication in pathology are explored. This includes what should be communicated to the pathologist on the pathology request form, communication between pathologists during internal (interpathologist) consultation, communication around frozen section diagnoses, modalities of communication of a final diagnosis, with whom and how critical and unexpected findings should be communicated, (in-)adequate routes of communication for pathology diagnoses, who will (or might) receive pathology reports, and what should be communicated and how in case of an error or a technical problem. An earlier more formal description of what the responsibilities are of a pathologist as communicator and as collaborator in a medical team is added in separate tables. The intention of the paper is to stimulate reflection and discussion rather than to formulate strict rules.
Hecker, Kent G; Adams, Cindy L; Coe, Jason B
Communication skills are considered to be a core clinical skill in veterinary medicine and essential for practice success, including outcomes of care for patients and clients. While veterinary schools include communication skills training in their programs, there is minimal knowledge on how best to assess communication competence throughout the undergraduate program. The purpose of this study was to further our understanding of the reliability, utility, and suitability of a communication skills Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Specifically we wanted to (1) identify the greatest source of variability (student, rater, station, and track) within a first-year, four station OSCE using exam scores and scores from videotape review by two trained raters, and (2) determine the effect of different stations on students' communication skills performance. Reliability of the scores from both the exam data and the two expert raters was 0.50 and 0.46 respectively, with the greatest amount of variance attributable to student by station. The percentage of variance due to raters in the exam data was 16.35%, whereas the percentage of variance for the two expert raters was 0%. These results have three important implications. First, the results reinforce the need for communication educators to emphasize that use of communication skills is moderated by the context of the clinical interaction. Second, by increasing rater training the amount of error in the scores due to raters can be reduced and inter-rater reliability increases. Third, the communication assessment method (in this case the OSCE checklist) should be built purposefully, taking into consideration the context of the case.
Junod Perron, Noelle; Sommer, Johanna; Louis-Simonet, Martine; Nendaz, Mathieu
Communication skills tend to decline with time unless they are regularly recalled and practiced. However, most medical schools still deliver clinical communication training only during pre-clinical years although the clinical environment is considered to be ideal for acquiring and teaching clinical communication. The aim of this article is to review the barriers that prevent communication skills teaching and training from occurring in clinical practice and describe strategies that may help enhance such activities. Barriers occur at several levels: students, junior doctors and clinical supervisors sometimes have negative attitudes towards communication training; structured training in communication skills is often insufficient; clinical supervisors behave as poor role models and lack effective communication and teaching skills; finally, there are organisational constraints such as lack of time, competing priorities, weak hierarchy support and lack of positive incentives for using, training or teaching good communication skills in clinical practice. Given the difficulty of assessing transfer of communication skills in practice, only few studies describe successful educational interventions. In order to optimise communication skills learning in practice, there is need to: (1.) modify the climate and structure of the working environment so that that use, training and teaching of good communication skills in clinical practice becomes valued, supported and rewarded; (2.) extend communication skills training to any field of medicine; (3.) provide regular structured trainings and tailor them to trainees' needs. Practical implications of such findings are discussed at the end of this review.
Peterson, Eleanor B; Calhoun, Aaron W; Rider, Elizabeth A
With increased recognition of the importance of sound communication skills and communication skills education, reliable assessment tools are essential. This study reports on the psychometric properties of an assessment tool based on the Kalamazoo Consensus Statement Essential Elements Communication Checklist. The Gap-Kalamazoo Communication Skills Assessment Form (GKCSAF), a modified version of an existing communication skills assessment tool, the Kalamazoo Essential Elements Communication Checklist-Adapted, was used to assess learners in a multidisciplinary, simulation-based communication skills educational program using multiple raters. 118 simulated conversations were available for analysis. Internal consistency and inter-rater reliability were determined by calculating a Cronbach's alpha score and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), respectively. The GKCSAF demonstrated high internal consistency with a Cronbach's alpha score of 0.844 (faculty raters) and 0.880 (peer observer raters), and high inter-rater reliability with an ICC of 0.830 (faculty raters) and 0.89 (peer observer raters). The Gap-Kalamazoo Communication Skills Assessment Form is a reliable method of assessing the communication skills of multidisciplinary learners using multi-rater methods within the learning environment. The Gap-Kalamazoo Communication Skills Assessment Form can be used by educational programs that wish to implement a reliable assessment and feedback system for a variety of learners. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cheon, Jongpil; Grant, Michael
The website "Active Listening" was developed within a larger project--"Interactive Web-based training in the subtleties of communication and active listening skill development." The Active Listening site aims to provide beginning counseling psychology students with didactic and experimental learning activities and interactive tests so that…
Uzun, N. Bilge; Aktas, Mehtap; Asiret, Semih; Yormaz, Seha
The goal of this study is to determine the reliability of the performance points of dentistry students regarding communication skills and to examine the scoring reliability by generalizability theory in balanced random and fixed facet (mixed design) data, considering also the interactions of student, rater and duty. The study group of the research…
Rahim, Suzana Ab.; Tazijan, Farina
There is a need to expose the learners in the hospitality industry to real workplace requirement in terms of communication skills. In view of its importance, human resource managers, researchers and educators in the field of hospitality management or the hotel practitioners have to pay more serious attention to it. Thus, it is pertinent that both…
Wiskin, Connie M D; Allan, Teresa F; Skelton, John R
To investigate possible bias due to gender combination of students, role players and examiners in a high-stakes assessment. Valid oral interactive contextualized examinations (VOICEs) is a long-station OSCE-style exam in general practice (GP). At the time of writing it consisted of 65% of the student's final GP mark. In the VOICE, students undertake six tasks--four vivas and two role-plays. "Patient" roles are taken by professional role players who work regularly on the undergraduate curriculum. During the role-play, the student's clinical competence is assessed by an observing GP examiner. The communication skills marks are awarded by the role player and the examiner together, by negotiation. Data have been recorded detailing the role player's initial marks, the examiner's initial marks and their final (awarded) agreed marks for 1024 consultations. 512 final year medical students, 28 role players and 48 examiners. There were no inclusion or exclusion criteria. All those present on exam day became part of the data. There was a significant relationship between gender and performance for some, but not all, stations. Correlations for multiple comparisons removed the significance. Female students perform better across the board than male students. While not always significant, this did affect grading. There was no significant association between the genders of role players and examiners with the question choices. There has been a significant worsening of male results since 1999. Differences exist in the way that pairs of mixed or single genders score students.
Background Assessment of medical communication performance usually focuses on rating generically applicable, well-defined communication skills. However, in daily practice, communication is determined by (specific) context factors, such as acquaintance with the patient, or the presented problem. Merely valuing the presence of generic skills may not do justice to the doctor’s proficiency. Our aim was to perform an exploratory study on how assessment of general practitioner (GP) communication performance changes if context factors are explicitly taken into account. Methods We used a mixed method design to explore how ratings would change. A random sample of 40 everyday GP consultations was used to see if previously identified context factors could be observed again. The sample was rated twice using a widely used assessment instrument (the MAAS-Global), first in the standard way and secondly after context factors were explicitly taken into account, by using a context-specific rating protocol to assess communication performance in the workplace. In between first and second rating, the presence of context factors was established. Item score differences were calculated using paired sample t-tests. Results In 38 out of 40 consultations, context factors prompted application of the context-specific rating protocol. Mean overall score on the 7-point MAAS-Global scale increased from 2.98 in standard to 3.66 in the context-specific rating (p communication was set at 3.17. Conclusions Applying the protocol, the mean overall score rose above the level set in an earlier study for the MAAS-Global scores to represent ‘adequate GP communication behaviour’. Our findings indicate that incorporating context factors in communication assessment thus makes a meaningful difference and shows that context factors should be considered as ‘signal’ instead of ‘noise’ in GP communication assessment. Explicating context factors leads to a more deliberate and transparent rating of
Falcone, John L; Claxton, René N; Marshall, Gary T
The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) can be used to evaluate the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Core Competencies of Professionalism and Interpersonal and Communication Skills. The aim of this study was to describe general surgery resident performance on a "difficult conversation" OSCE. In this prospective study, junior and senior residents participated in a 2-station OSCE. Junior stations involved discussing operative risks and benefits and breaking bad news. Senior stations involved discussing goals of care and discussing transition to comfort measures only status. Residents completed post-OSCE checklist and Likert-based self-evaluations of experience, comfort, and confidence. Trained standardized patients (SPs) evaluated residents using communication skill-based checklists and Likert-based assessments. Pearson correlation coefficients were determined between self-assessment and SP assessment. Mann-Whitney U tests were conducted between junior and senior resident variables, using α = 0.05. There were 27 junior residents (age 28.1 ± 1.9 years [29.6% female]) and 27 senior residents (age 32.1 ± 2.5 years [26.9% female]). The correlation of self-assessment and SP assessment of overall communication skills by junior residents was -0.32 on the risks and benefits case and 0.07 on the breaking bad news case. The correlation of self-assessment and SP assessment of overall communication skills by senior residents was 0.30 on the goals of care case and 0.26 on the comfort measures only case. SP assessments showed that junior residents had higher overall communication skills than senior residents (p = 0.03). Senior residents perceived that having difficult conversations was more level appropriate (p skills are correlated, and that skills-based training is needed across all residency levels. This well-received method may be used to observe, document, and provide resident feedback for these important skills. © 2014 Published by
Hyvarinen, Marja-Leena; Tanskanen, Paavo; Katajavuori, Nina; Isotalus, Pekka
One central task in higher education is to provide students with interpersonal communication competence in their profession. To achieve this, specialised training, based on an understanding of disciplinary communication practices and appropriate assessment methods, is needed. However, there is a lack of reliable assessment instruments which are…
Whitehead, K A; Langley-Evans, S C; Tischler, V A; Swift, J A
There is an increasing emphasis on the development of communication skills for dietitians but few evidence-based assessment tools available. The present study aimed to develop a dietetic-specific, short, reliable and valid assessment tool for measuring communication skills in patient consultations: DIET-COMMS. A literature review and feedback from 15 qualified dietitians were used to establish face and content validity during the development of DIET-COMMS. In total, 113 dietetic students and qualified dietitians were video-recorded undertaking mock consultations, assessed using DIET-COMMS by the lead author, and used to establish intra-rater reliability, as well as construct and predictive validity. Twenty recorded consultations were reassessed by nine qualified dietitians to assess inter-rater reliability: eight of these assessors were interviewed to determine user evaluation. Significant improvements in DIET-COMMS scores were achieved as students and qualified staff progressed through their training and gained experience, demonstrating construct validity, and also by qualified staff attending a training course, indicating predictive validity (P skills in practice was questioned. DIET-COMMS is a short, user-friendly, reliable and valid tool for measuring communication skills in patient consultations with both pre- and post-registration dietitians. Additional work is required to develop a training package for assessors and to identify how DIET-COMMS assessment can acceptably be incorporated into practice. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Ditton-Phare, Philippa; Halpin, Sean; Sandhu, Harsimrat; Kelly, Brian; Vamos, Marina; Outram, Sue; Bylund, Carma L; Levin, Tomer; Kissane, David; Cohen, Martin; Loughland, Carmel
Mental health clinicians can experience problems communicating distressing diagnostic information to patients and their families, especially about severe mental illnesses such as schizophrenia. Evidence suggests that interpersonal communication skills can be effectively taught, as has been demonstrated in the specialty of oncology. However, very little literature exists with respect to interpersonal communication skills training for psychiatry. This paper provides an overview of the communication skills training literature. The report reveals significant gaps exist and highlights the need for advanced communication skills training for mental health clinicians, particularly about communicating a diagnosis and/or prognosis of schizophrenia. A new communication skills training framework for psychiatry is described, based on that used in oncology as a model. This model promotes applied skills and processes that are easily adapted for use in psychiatry, providing an effective platform for the development of similar training programs for psychiatric clinical practice. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Essers, Geurt; Kramer, Anneke; Andriesse, Boukje; van Weel, Chris; van der Vleuten, Cees; van Dulmen, Sandra
Assessment of medical communication performance usually focuses on rating generically applicable, well-defined communication skills. However, in daily practice, communication is determined by (specific) context factors, such as acquaintance with the patient, or the presented problem. Merely valuing the presence of generic skills may not do justice to the doctor's proficiency.Our aim was to perform an exploratory study on how assessment of general practitioner (GP) communication performance changes if context factors are explicitly taken into account. We used a mixed method design to explore how ratings would change. A random sample of 40 everyday GP consultations was used to see if previously identified context factors could be observed again. The sample was rated twice using a widely used assessment instrument (the MAAS-Global), first in the standard way and secondly after context factors were explicitly taken into account, by using a context-specific rating protocol to assess communication performance in the workplace. In between first and second rating, the presence of context factors was established. Item score differences were calculated using paired sample t-tests. In 38 out of 40 consultations, context factors prompted application of the context-specific rating protocol. Mean overall score on the 7-point MAAS-Global scale increased from 2.98 in standard to 3.66 in the context-specific rating (pcommunication was set at 3.17. Applying the protocol, the mean overall score rose above the level set in an earlier study for the MAAS-Global scores to represent 'adequate GP communication behaviour'. Our findings indicate that incorporating context factors in communication assessment thus makes a meaningful difference and shows that context factors should be considered as 'signal' instead of 'noise' in GP communication assessment. Explicating context factors leads to a more deliberate and transparent rating of GP communication performance.
Chandawarkar, Rajiv Y; Ruscher, Kimberly A; Krajewski, Aleksandra; Garg, Manish; Pfeiffer, Carol; Singh, Rekha; Longo, Walter E; Kozol, Robert A; Lesnikoski, Beth; Nadkarni, Prakash
Structured communication curricula will improve surgical residents' ability to communicate effectively with patients. A prospective study approved by the institutional review board involved 44 University of Connecticut general surgery residents. Residents initially completed a written baseline survey to assess general communication skills awareness. In step 1 of the study, residents were randomized to 1 of 2 simulations using standardized patient instructors to mimic patients receiving a diagnosis of either breast or rectal cancer. The standardized patient instructors scored residents' communication skills using a case-specific content checklist and Master Interview Rating Scale. In step 2 of the study, residents attended a 3-part interactive program that comprised (1) principles of patient communication; (2) experiences of a surgeon (role as physician, patient, and patient's spouse); and (3) role-playing (3-resident groups played patient, physician, and observer roles and rated their own performance). In step 3, residents were retested as in step 1, using a crossover case design. Scores were analyzed using Wilcoxon signed rank test with a Bonferroni correction. Case-specific performance improved significantly, from a pretest content checklist median score of 8.5 (65%) to a posttest median of 11.0 (84%) (P = .005 by Wilcoxon signed rank test for paired ordinal data)(n = 44). Median Master Interview Rating Scale scores changed from 58.0 before testing (P = .10) to 61.5 after testing (P = .94). Difference between overall rectal cancer scores and breast cancer scores also were not significant. Patient communication skills need to be taught as part of residency training. With limited training, case-specific skills (herein, involving patients with cancer) are likely to improve more than general communication skills.
Jagdish Prasad Agrawal
Full Text Available Introduction The main objective of this study was to assess the level of interpersonal communication skills of MD/MS resident doctors and to provide recommendations for the future. Methods Descriptive, cross sectional, qualitative and quantitative research design was used. 7- point Likert scale (0 to 6 MAAS-Global scoring instrument was used. The subjects of the research were the MD/MS residents from various departments of Maharajgunj Medical Campus (MMC of Institute of Medicine, Maharajgunj, Kathmandu. Out of 162 MD/MS residents, only 30 (18.5% MD/MS residents were selected for the sample size for the study from 1st, 2nd and 3rd year. One MD/MS resident was required four video recording to conduct four interviews with patients coming to the outpatient department. Results There was high degree of positive correlation between Information sharing and Management (r=0.746 whereas weak negative correlation on clarification and diagnosis (r=-0.011. Inter-rater correlation was established before hand and was satisfactory (p < 0.05. Conclusions This base line study of MD/MS residents shows that over all MD/MS residents are deficient in almost all the components of interpersonal communication skills. A communication skills training course in postgraduate medical education could improve the existing communication skills of the doctors in Nepal.
Ju, Melody; Berman, Abigail T.; Hwang, Wei-Ting; LaMarra, Denise; Baffic, Cordelia; Suneja, Gita; Vapiwala, Neha
Purpose: There is a lack of data for the structured development and evaluation of communication skills in radiation oncology residency training programs. Effective communication skills are increasingly emphasized by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and are critical for a successful clinical practice. We present the design of a novel, pilot standardized patient (SP) program and the evaluation of communication skills among radiation oncology residents. Methods and Materials: Two case scenarios were developed to challenge residents in the delivery of “bad news” to patients: one scenario regarding treatment failure and the other regarding change in treatment plan. Eleven radiation oncology residents paired with 6 faculty participated in this pilot program. Each encounter was scored by the SPs, observing faculty, and residents themselves based on the Kalamazoo guidelines. Results: Overall resident performance ratings were “good” to “excellent,” with faculty assigning statistically significant higher scores and residents assigning lower scores. We found inconsistent inter rater agreement among faculty, residents, and SPs. SP feedback was also valuable in identifying areas of improvement, including more collaborative decision making and less use of medical jargon. Conclusions: The program was well received by residents and faculty and regarded as a valuable educational experience that could be used as an annual feedback tool. Poor inter rater agreement suggests a need for residents and faculty physicians to better calibrate their evaluations to true patient perceptions. High scores from faculty members substantiate the concern that resident evaluations are generally positive and nondiscriminating. Faculty should be encouraged to provide honest and critical feedback to hone residents' interpersonal skills
Objective Communication between the surgeon and the patient is a core clinical skill. The ability to communicate with patients and their family members is very important in the optimum care of the surgical patient. Few studies have assessed communication between surgical trainees and their patients in sub-Saharan Africa.
Murray, Aileen; Hall, Amanda; Williams, Geoffrey C; McDonough, Suzanne M; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Taylor, Ian; Jackson, Ben; Copsey, Bethan; Hurley, Deirdre A; Matthews, James
To assess the inter-rater reliability and concurrent validity of the Communication Evaluation in Rehabilitation Tool, which aims to externally assess physiotherapists competency in using Self-Determination Theory-based communication strategies in practice. Audio recordings of initial consultations between 24 physiotherapists and 24 patients with chronic low back pain in four hospitals in Ireland were obtained as part of a larger randomised controlled trial. Three raters, all of whom had Ph.Ds in psychology and expertise in motivation and physical activity, independently listened to the 24 audio recordings and completed the 18-item Communication Evaluation in Rehabilitation Tool. Inter-rater reliability between all three raters was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients. Concurrent validity was assessed using Pearson's r correlations with a reference standard, the Health Care Climate Questionnaire. The total score for the Communication Evaluation in Rehabilitation Tool is an average of all 18 items. Total scores demonstrated good inter-rater reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) = 0.8) and concurrent validity with the Health Care Climate Questionnaire total score (range: r = 0.7-0.88). Item-level scores of the Communication Evaluation in Rehabilitation Tool identified five items that need improvement. Results provide preliminary evidence to support future use and testing of the Communication Evaluation in Rehabilitation Tool. Implications for Rehabilitation Promoting patient autonomy is a learned skill and while interventions exist to train clinicians in these skills there are no tools to assess how well clinicians use these skills when interacting with a patient. The lack of robust assessment has severe implications regarding both the fidelity of clinician training packages and resulting outcomes for promoting patient autonomy. This study has developed a novel measurement tool Communication Evaluation in Rehabilitation Tool and a
Lundine, Kristopher; Buckley, Richard; Hutchison, Carol; Lockyer, Jocelyn
Communication skills play a key role in many aspects of both medical education and clinical patient care. The objectives of this study were to identify the key components of communication skills from the perspectives of both orthopaedic residents and their program directors and to understand how these skills are currently taught. This study utilized a mixed methods design. Quantitative data were collected with use of a thirty-item questionnaire distributed to all Canadian orthopaedic residents. Qualitative data were collected through focus groups with orthopaedic residents and semistructured interviews with orthopaedic program directors. One hundred and nineteen (37%) of 325 questionnaires were completed, twelve residents participated in two focus groups, and nine of sixteen program directors from across the country were interviewed. Both program directors and residents identified communication skills as being the accurate and appropriate use of language (i.e., content skills), not how the communication was presented (i.e., process skills). Perceived barriers to effective communication included time constraints and the need to adapt to the many personalities and types of people encountered daily in the hospital. Residents rarely have explicit training in communication skills. They rely on communication training implicitly taught through observation of their preceptors and clinical experience interacting with patients, peers, and other health-care professionals. Orthopaedic residents and program directors focus on content and flexibility within communication skills as well as on the importance of being concise. They value the development of communication skills in the clinical environment through experiential learning and role modeling. Education should focus on developing residents' process skills in communication. Care should be taken to avoid large-group didactic teaching sessions, which are perceived as ineffective.
Brown, Stephen D; Rider, Elizabeth A; Jamieson, Katherine; Meyer, Elaine C; Callahan, Michael J; DeBenedectis, Carolynn M; Bixby, Sarah D; Walters, Michele; Forman, Sara F; Varrin, Pamela H; Forbes, Peter; Roussin, Christopher J
The purpose of this study was to develop and test a standardized communication skills assessment instrument for radiology. The Delphi method was used to validate the Kalamazoo Communication Skills Assessment instrument for radiology by revising and achieving consensus on the 43 items of the preexisting instrument among an interdisciplinary team of experts consisting of five radiologists and four nonradiologists (two men, seven women). Reviewers assessed the applicability of the instrument to evaluation of conversations between radiology trainees and trained actors portraying concerned parents in enactments about bad news, radiation risks, and diagnostic errors that were video recorded during a communication workshop. Interrater reliability was assessed by use of the revised instrument to rate a series of enactments between trainees and actors video recorded in a hospital-based simulator center. Eight raters evaluated each of seven different video-recorded interactions between physicians and parent-actors. The final instrument contained 43 items. After three review rounds, 42 of 43 (98%) items had an average rating of relevant or very relevant for bad news conversations. All items were rated as relevant or very relevant for conversations about error disclosure and radiation risk. Reliability and rater agreement measures were moderate. The intraclass correlation coefficient range was 0.07-0.58; mean, 0.30; SD, 0.13; and median, 0.30. The range of weighted kappa values was 0.03-0.47; mean, 0.23; SD, 0.12; and median, 0.22. Ratings varied significantly among conversations (χ 2 6 = 1186; p communication skills assessment instrument is highly relevant for radiology, having moderate interrater reliability. These findings have important implications for assessing the relational competencies of radiology trainees.
Mills, Jonathan K A; Dalleywater, William J; Tischler, Victoria
Peer teaching is now used in medical education with its value increasingly being recognised. It is not yet established whether students differ in their satisfaction with teaching by peer-teachers compared to those taught by academic or clinical staff. This study aimed to establish satisfaction with communication skills teaching between these three teaching groups. Students participated in a role-play practical facilitated either by clinicians, peer-teachers or non-clinical staff. A questionnaire was administered to first-year medical students after participating in a communication skills role-play session asking students to evaluate their satisfaction with the session. Data were analysed in SPSS 20. One hundred and ninety eight students out of 239 (83%) responded. Students were highly satisfied with the teaching session with no difference in satisfaction scores found between those sessions taught by peers, clinical and non-clinical staff members. 158 (80%) considered the session useful and 139 (69%) strongly agreed tutors facilitated their development. There was no significant difference in satisfaction scores based on tutor background. Satisfaction is as high when tutored by peer-teachers compared to clinicians or non-clinical staff. Constructive feedback is welcomed from a range of personnel. Final-year students could play an increasing role in the teaching of pre-clinical medical students.
Sargeant, Joan; MacLeod, Tanya; Murray, Anne
Recent research suggests that effective interprofessional communication and collaboration can positively influence patient satisfaction and outcomes. Health professional communication skills do not necessarily improve over time but can improve with formal communication skills training (CST). This article describes the development, evaluation, and lessons learned for a novel theater-based role-play CST program designed to improve community cancer care for patients and families by enhancing health care professionals' communication skills. Four 2-hour interprofessional communication skills workshops for Nova Scotia health professionals were developed. Topics were (1) Essential Communication Skills, (2) Delivering Difficult News and Providing Support, (3) When Patients and Families Are Angry, and (4) Managing Conflict in the Workplace. Strategies for enhancing communication skills based on the science (evidence-based practice and teaching) and the art (interactive theater) of communication skills were included. Facilitators included professional actors, communication skills facilitators, and trained health professionals. We used a mixed-methods evaluation design assessing 4 levels of educational outcomes at 3 points: pre- and post-workshop and follow-up. Five hundred eighteen professionals representing over 20 health professions attended 17 workshops. Data showed the workshops were well received, despite some discomfort with role-playing. Pre/post paired t-tests of self-reported communication skills showed significant improvement after all workshops (p ≤ 0.05); 92% indicated intended changes to their communication practice immediately following the workshops. Of 68 respondents to the follow-up, 59 (87%) reported positive changes in the responses of their patients. Both positive and negative lessons learned are described. Copyright © 2011 The Alliance for Continuing Medical Education, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on CME
Gettman, Matthew T; Pereira, Claudio W; Lipsky, Katja; Wilson, Torrence; Arnold, Jacqueline J; Leibovich, Bradley C; Karnes, R Jeffrey; Dong, Yue
Structured opportunities for learning communication, teamwork and laparoscopic principles are limited for urology residents. We evaluated and taught teamwork, communication and laparoscopic skills to urology residents in a simulated operating room. Scenarios related to laparoscopy (insufflator failure, carbon dioxide embolism) were developed using mannequins, urology residents and nurses. These scenarios were developed based on Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies and performed in a simulation center. Between the pretest scenario (insufflation failure) and the posttest scenario (carbon dioxide embolism) instruction was given on teamwork, communication and laparoscopic skills. A total of 19 urology residents participated in the training that involved participation in at least 2 scenarios. Performance was evaluated using validated teamwork instruments, questionnaires and videotape analysis. Significant improvement was noted on validated teamwork instruments between scenarios based on resident (pretest 24, posttest 27, p = 0.01) and expert (pretest 16, posttest 25, p = 0.008) evaluation. Increased teamwork and team performance were also noted between scenarios on videotape analysis with significant improvement for adherence to best practice (p = 0.01) and maintenance of positive rapport among team members (p = 0.02). Significant improvement in the setup of the laparoscopic procedure was observed (p = 0.01). Favorable face and content validity was noted for both scenarios. Teamwork, intraoperative communication and laparoscopic skills of urology residents improved during the high fidelity simulation course. Face and content validity of the individual sessions was favorable. In this study high fidelity simulation was effective for assessing and teaching Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies related to intraoperative communication, teamwork and laparoscopic skills.
Students are doing less hand-raising and more clicking as online classes become increasingly popular in K12 instruction, both in combination with brick-and-mortar classrooms and in independent full-time virtual schools. With online instruction comes a change in the nature of teaching, communicating with, and assessing students. As schools move to…
Zaharatul Akmar Ahmad Zainuddin
Full Text Available Every year polytechnics in Malaysia produce thousands of graduates in vocational areas, however, these graduates have to strive in a competitive job market against graduates from other tertiary institutions. This study aims to investigate polytechnic students efficacy on their communication skills. These skills are crucial in determining their chances for employment and would also enable them to perform effectively at workplace. Final semester students from Politeknik Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah (n=120 were asked to assess their own communication skills ability using the Communication Skills self-assessment questionnaire. Findings indicate that polytechnic students are quite confident in their ability to communicate effectively at workplace and job interviews. However, interviews with potential employers indicate differently. Implications of the study include a call for the evaluation of the English proficiency courses currently being implemented in Malaysian polytechnics.
Gude, T; Grimstad, H; Holen, A; Anvik, T; Baerheim, A; Fasmer, O B; Hjortdahl, P; Vaglum, P
In medical education, teaching methods offering intensive practice without high utilization of faculty resources are needed. We investigated whether simulated patients' (SPs') satisfaction with a consultation could predict professional observers' assessment of young doctors' communication skills. This was a comparative cross-sectional study of 62 videotaped consultations in a general practice setting with young doctors who were finishing their internship. The SPs played a female patient who had observed blood when using the toilet, which had prompted a fear of cancer. Immediately afterwards, the SP rated her level of satisfaction with the consultation, and the scores were dichotomized into satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Professional observers viewed the videotapes and assessed the doctors' communication skills using the Arizona Communication Interview Rating Scale (ACIR). Their ratings of communication skills were dichotomized into acceptable versus unacceptable levels of competence. The SPs' satisfaction showed a predictive power of 0.74 for the observers' assessment of the young doctors and whether they reached an acceptable level of communication skills. The SPs' dissatisfaction had a predictive power of 0.71 for the observers' assessment of an unacceptable communication level. The two assessment methods differed in 26% of the consultations. When SPs felt relief about their cancer concern after the consultation, they assessed the doctors' skills as satisfactory independent of the observers' assessment. Accordance between the dichotomized SPs' satisfaction score and communication skills assessed by observers (using the ACIR) was in the acceptable range. These findings suggest that SPs' satisfaction scores may provide a reliable source for assessing communication skills in educational programs for medical trainees (students and young doctors). Awareness of the patient's concerns seems to be of vital importance to patient satisfaction.
A pilot training program in communication skills, listening, conflict solving, and task orientation, for a small but growing commuter airline is discussed. The interactions between pilots and management, and communication among crew members are examined. Methods for improvement of cockpit behavior management personnel relations are investigated.
As communication is a central part of every interpersonal meeting within healthcare and research reveals several benefits of effective communication, we need to teach students and practitioners how to communicate with patients and with colleagues. This paper reflects on what and how to teach. In the previous century two major changes occurred: clinical relationship between doctor and patient became important and patients became partners in care. Clinicians experienced that outcome and especially compliance was influenced by the relational aspect and in particular by the communicative skills of the physician. This paper reflects on teaching and defines problems. It gives some implications for the future. Although communication skills training is reinforced in most curricula all over the word, huge implementation problems arise; most of the time a coherent framework is lacking, training is limited in time, not integrated in the curriculum and scarcely contextualized, often no formal training nor teaching strategies are defined. Moreover evidence on communication skills training is scarce or contradictory. Knowing when, what, how can be seen as an essential part of skills training. But students need to be taught to reflect on every behavior during every medical consultation. Three major implications can be helpful to overcome the problems in communication training. First research and education on healthcare issues need to go hand in hand. Second, students as well as healthcare professionals need a toolkit of basic skills to give them the opportunity not only to tackle basic and serious problems, but to incorporate these skills and to be able to use them in a personal and creative way. Third, personal reflection on own communicative actions and dealing with interdisciplinary topics is a core business of medical communication and training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
concern for the person we examine the most effective way to help them ... impact of the problem on her client's psychological well-being. The ... Empathic responding circumnavigates all the other skills. ... he is ashamed. ... 'I'm yawning again and I can see it's off-putting to you. .... to reach new perspectives in their own time.
Using standardized patients to assess the communication skills of graduating physicians for the comprehensive osteopathic medical licensing examination (COMLEX) level 2-performance evaluation (level 2-PE).
Weidner, Angela C; Gimpel, John R; Boulet, John R; Solomon, Mia
Standardized patients can be trained to assess the communication and interpersonal skills of medical students and graduates. The purpose of this study is to present data to support the psychometric adequacy of the communication ratings provided by standardized patients. Using the data from testing of 3, 450 examinees over a 1-year period, a number of psychometric analyses were undertaken. These included a variance component analysis, the calculation of various validity coefficients, the comparison of communication ratings for select examinee cohorts and case characteristics, and the investigation of some potential sources of score invalidity. Communication skills scores are moderately correlated to other competencies (knowledge, skills) and may be influenced by candidate characteristics such as gender and English language proficiency. They are not dependant on the age of the examinees, the clinical case content, or the gender of the standardized patients. For a multistation assessment, a reasonably precise and valid estimate of a candidate's communication ability can be obtained from trained standardized patients.
van Dalen, Jan
Doctor-patient communication has been well researched. Less is known about the educational background of communication skills training. Do we aim for optimal performance of skills, or rather attempt to help students become skilled communicators? An overview is given of the current view on optimal doctor-patient communication. Next we focus on recent literature on how people acquire skills. These two topics are integrated in the next chapter, in which we discuss the optimal training conditions. A longitudinal training design has more lasting results than incidental training. Assessment must be in line with the intended learning outcomes. For transfer, doctor-patient communication must be addressed in all stages of health professions training. Elementary insights from medical education are far from realised in many medical schools. Doctor-patient communication would benefit strongly from more continuity in training and imbedding in the daily working contexts of doctors. When an educational continuum is realised and attention for doctor-patient communication is embedded in the working context of doctors in training the benefits will be strong. Training is only a part of the solution. In view of the current dissatisfaction with doctor-patient communication a change in attitude of course directors is strongly called for. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Frost, Katherine A; Metcalf, Elizabeth P; Brooks, Rachel; Kinnersley, Paul; Greenwood, Stephen R; Powell, Colin Ve
Delivering effective clinical pediatric communication skills training to undergraduate medical students is a distinct and important challenge. Pediatric-specific communication skills teaching is complex and under-researched. We report on the development of a scenario-based pediatric clinical communication skills program as well as students' assessment of this module. We designed a pediatric clinical communication skills program and delivered it five times during one academic year via small-group teaching. Students were asked to score the workshop in eight domains (learning objectives, complexity, interest, competencies, confidence, tutors, feedback, and discussion) using 5-point Likert scales, along with free text comments that were grouped and analyzed thematically, identifying both the strengths of the workshop and changes suggested to improve future delivery. Two hundred and twenty-one of 275 (80%) student feedback forms were returned. Ninety-six percent of students' comments were positive or very positive, highlighting themes such as the timing of teaching, relevance, group sizes, and the use of actors, tutors, and clinical scenarios. Scenario-based teaching of clinical communication skills is positively received by students. Studies need to demonstrate an impact on practice, performance, development, and sustainability of communications training.
Raymond, Mark R; Clauser, Brian E; Furman, Gail E
The use of standardized patients to assess communication skills is now an essential part of assessing a physician's readiness for practice. To improve the reliability of communication scores, it has become increasingly common in recent years to use statistical models to adjust ratings provided by standardized patients. This study employed ordinary least squares regression to adjust ratings, and then used generalizability theory to evaluate the impact of these adjustments on score reliability and the overall standard error of measurement. In addition, conditional standard errors of measurement were computed for both observed and adjusted scores to determine whether the improvements in measurement precision were uniform across the score distribution. Results indicated that measurement was generally less precise for communication ratings toward the lower end of the score distribution; and the improvement in measurement precision afforded by statistical modeling varied slightly across the score distribution such that the most improvement occurred in the upper-middle range of the score scale. Possible reasons for these patterns in measurement precision are discussed, as are the limitations of the statistical models used for adjusting performance ratings.
Magogwe, Joel M.; Nkosana, Leonard B. M.; Ntereke, Beauty B.
Employers in today's competitive and challenging global world prefer employees who possess "soft skills" in addition to "hard skills" because they make an impact and create a good impression in the workplace. This study examined employment readiness of the University of Botswana (UB) students who took the Advanced Communication…
Al-Shawaf, Hamza Mohammad Hassan; Almajran, Abdullah Abdulaziz
Background In medical education, information and communication technology (ICT) knowledge and skills have become a necessity and an integral part of preparing tomorrow’s doctors to be sufficiently competent to use informatics resources effectively and efficiently for the best practice of medicine. Objective This research aimed to study the literacy of the preprofessional students in ICT before and after taking the basic informatics course at the Health Sciences Center at Kuwait University, to understand their potential and their attitudes toward using ICT, including e-learning. Methods A validated questionnaire was used to collect data from 200 students in 2 stages: before and after the informatics course on the preprofessional program. In addition, the tutors’ observational assessments of the students’ achievements during the informatics course were obtained. Results The response rate of students before the course was 85.5% (171/200) and after was 77% (154/200). Of 200 students, 85% were female, and 15% were male. This disproportional representation of genders was due to the fact that 85% of registered students were female. Approximately 59% (101/171) of the students assessed themselves before the course as computer literate; afterward, this increased to 70.1% (108/154). Students who were still computer illiterate (29.2%; 45/154) mostly used the excuse of a lack of time (60%; 27/45). In generic ICT skills, the highest levels were for word processing, email, and Web browsing, whereas the lowest levels were for spreadsheets and database. In specific ICT skills, most respondents were reported low levels for statistical package use and Web page design. The results found that there was a significant improvement between students’ general ICT skills before and after the course. The results showed that there were significant improvement between how frequently students were using Medline (Pstudents who completed the course (72.8%; 110/151) chose the learning
Buabbas, Ali Jassem; Al-Shawaf, Hamza Mohammad Hassan; Almajran, Abdullah Abdulaziz
In medical education, information and communication technology (ICT) knowledge and skills have become a necessity and an integral part of preparing tomorrow's doctors to be sufficiently competent to use informatics resources effectively and efficiently for the best practice of medicine. This research aimed to study the literacy of the preprofessional students in ICT before and after taking the basic informatics course at the Health Sciences Center at Kuwait University, to understand their potential and their attitudes toward using ICT, including e-learning. A validated questionnaire was used to collect data from 200 students in 2 stages: before and after the informatics course on the preprofessional program. In addition, the tutors' observational assessments of the students' achievements during the informatics course were obtained. The response rate of students before the course was 85.5% (171/200) and after was 77% (154/200). Of 200 students, 85% were female, and 15% were male. This disproportional representation of genders was due to the fact that 85% of registered students were female. Approximately 59% (101/171) of the students assessed themselves before the course as computer literate; afterward, this increased to 70.1% (108/154). Students who were still computer illiterate (29.2%; 45/154) mostly used the excuse of a lack of time (60%; 27/45). In generic ICT skills, the highest levels were for word processing, email, and Web browsing, whereas the lowest levels were for spreadsheets and database. In specific ICT skills, most respondents were reported low levels for statistical package use and Web page design. The results found that there was a significant improvement between students' general ICT skills before and after the course. The results showed that there were significant improvement between how frequently students were using Medline (PLibrary (Pstudents who completed the course (72.8%; 110/151) chose the learning management system as the most useful e
Demarais, Ann; Baum, Neil
Relating effectively with patients is among the most valued skills of clinical care. Honing your communication skills is an art that every physician needs to learn and understand. In this era of increased volume of patients there is a tendency to lose sight of the importance of having good communication skills. This article will review 11 suggestions for letting your communication skills equal your clinical skills.
Full Text Available When established communication systems cannot be used, people rapidly create novel systems to modify the mental state of another agent according to their intentions. However, there are dramatic inter-individual differences in the implementation of this human competence for communicative innovation. Here we characterize psychological sources of inter-individual variability in the ability to build a shared communication system from scratch. We consider two potential sources of variability in communicative skills. Cognitive traits of two individuals could independently influence their joint ability to establish a communication system. Another possibility is that the overlap between those individual traits influences the communicative performance of a dyad. We assess these possibilities by quantifying the relationship between cognitive traits and behavior of communicating dyads. Cognitive traits were assessed with psychometric scores quantifying cooperative attitudes and fluid intelligence. Competence for implementing successful communicative innovations was assessed by using a non-verbal communicative task. Individual capacities influence communicative success when communicative innovations are generated. Dyadic similarities and individual traits modulate the type of communicative strategy chosen. The ability to establish novel communicative actions was influenced by a combination of the communicator’s ability to understand intentions and the addressee’s ability to recognize patterns. Communicative pairs with comparable systemizing abilities or behavioral inhibition were more likely to explore the search space of possible communicative strategies by systematically adding new communicative behaviors to those already available. No individual psychometric measure seemed predominantly responsible for communicative success. These findings support the notion that the human ability for fast communicative innovations represents a special type of
Discusses the need for effective basic language, literacy, numeracy and other communication skills to support all workforce development programs. The general cultural bias towards these programs has marginalized them and is reflected in policy, curriculum and practice. Adjustments are needed in the approaches to the new climate of workplace…
Communication within oncology is a core clinical skill but one in which few oncologists or specialist cancer nurses have received much formal training. Inadequate communication may cause much distress for patients and their families, who often want considerably more information than is usually provided. Many patients leave consultations unsure about the diagnosis and prognosis, confused about the meaning of--and need for-further diagnostic tests, unclear about the management plan and uncertain about the true therapeutic intent of treatment. Additionally, communication difficulties may impede the recruitment of patients to clinical trials, delaying the introduction of efficacious new treatments into clinics
CHARLOTTE ABYNA INDERMAUR DENNISTON
This PhD explores healthcare communication skills from the perspectives of academics, clinicians and patients. We know that communication is key to effective healthcare and this research has revealed new approaches for teaching and learning these skills. Findings indicate that we need to consider multiple stakeholders in the design of communication education, we need to develop healthcare professionals’ skills at assessing their own communication and asking for feedback, and workplace teachin...
Jørgensen, Merete; Witt, Klaus; Fridorff-Jens, Peter Kindt
,Monika Bullinger,Matthias Rose, Sylke Andreas.Enhancing medical students' communication skills: development and evaluation of an undergraduate training program.Published online 2012 March 24. doi: 10.1186/1472-6920-12-16 2.William T. Branch, Jr, MD; David Kern, MD; Paul Haidet, MD, MPH; Peter Weissmann, MD......19729 Abstract Title: Enhancing undergraduate students communications skills Abstract Authors: •Merete Jorgensen, Copenhagen University , Family Medicine , Copenhagen •Klaus Witt, Research Unit , Family Medicine , Copenhagen •Peter Kindt Fridorff-Jens, Copenhagen University , IT-unit , Copenhagen...... Abstract Presenter(s): •Merete Jorgensen, Copenhagen University , Family Medicine , Øster Farigmagsgade 5 , 1014 , K , Denmark , firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract: Background Being teachers in Clinical Course of Family Medicine since 1995, we have developed two schemes for communication analysing purposes called...
van Rijssen, Jolanda; Schellart, Antonius J M; Anema, Johannes R; van der Beek, Allard J
It was assessed whether a post-graduate communication skills training course would increase physicians' competence and knowledge with regard to communication during work disability assessment interviews, and would change the determinants of their communication behaviour. A randomised controlled trial was performed. At baseline and at follow-up, 42 physicians completed questionnaires. The primary outcome measures were competence and knowledge about communication. The secondary outcome measures were 21 self-reported determinants of communication behaviour. One-way analyses of variance and covariance were performed. There was no significant difference between the intervention and control groups in overall competence, but there was for the introduction phase (intervention: mean = 7.0, SD 2.7; control: mean = 4.8, SD 2.7; p = 0.014). Knowledge about communication was significantly higher (p = 0.001) in the intervention group (mean = 79.6, SD 9.2) than in the control group (mean = 70.9, SD 6.7), especially concerning the information-gathering phase of the interview (intervention: mean = 80.0, SD 10.2; control: mean = 69.4, SD 8.9; p = 0.001). The intervention group scored significantly better on 7 of the 21 self-reported determinants (secondary outcomes), including self-efficacy, intentions, skills and knowledge. The communication skills training course may improve some aspects of physician communication, but not all. Because physicians were unanimously positive about the course, further development is warranted. Implications for Rehabilitation Even though optimal communication is essential in face-to-face assessment interviews for determining entitlement to work disability benefits, and there is a lot at stake for the claimants, this issue has scarcely been addressed in scientific research. A tailor-made two-day communication skills training course, based on scientific research, increases physicians' knowledge about communication
Penrod, Catherine B.; Tucker, Mary; Hartman, Katherine B.
Employers, higher education faculty, and accrediting bodies value communication as an important entry-level job skill. Unfortunately, research indicates that college graduates have inadequate communication skills and, in particular, lack strong business writing acumen. The ways business communication is taught, integrated, and assessed varies by…
Liew, Siaw-Cheok; Dutta, Susmita; Sidhu, Jagmohni Kaur; De-Alwis, Ranjit; Chen, Nicole; Sow, Chew-Fei; Barua, Ankur
The complexity of modern medicine creates more challenges for teaching and assessment of communication skills in undergraduate medical programme. This research was conducted to study the level of communication skills among undergraduate medical students and to determine the difference between simulated patients and clinical instructors' assessment of communication skills. This comparative study was conducted for three months at the Clinical Skills and Simulation Centre of the International Medical University in Malaysia. The modified Calgary-Cambridge checklist was used to assess the communication skills of 50 first year and 50 second year medical students (five-minutes pre-recorded interview videos on the scenario of sore throat). These videos were reviewed and scored by simulated patients (SPs), communication skills instructors (CSIs) and non-communication skills instructors (non-CSIs). Better performance was observed among the undergraduate medical students, who had formal training in communication skills with a significant difference in overall scores detected among the first and second year medical students (p = 0.0008). A non-significant difference existed between the scores of SPs and CSIs for Year 1 (p = 0.151). The SPs could be trained and involved in assessment of communication skills. Formal training in communication skills is necessary in the undergraduate medical programme.
Schönwetter, Dieter J; Emmons Wener, Mickey; Mazurat, Nita; Yakiwchuk, Ben
Research on the development of effective therapeutic communication skills for oral health providers is slowly evolving. One of the initial steps in this research is to identify and address gaps in the work of previous researchers. Ultimately, the educational goal of competence in communications skills development is to provide improved patient care including improved patient satisfaction. This article is the third in a series describing the development of and findings from the new complementary Patient Communication Assessment Instrument (PCAI) and Student Communication Assessment Instrument (SCAI). The aim of the study reported here was to look at the relationship between communication skills and patient and student clinician gender interactions, sociodemographic factors (e.g., age, income), and changes in these interactions with length of treatment. A total of 410 patient assessments (PCAI) and 410 matching student self-assessments (SCAI) were used for further data analysis. Patients of female student clinicians, female patients, patients of a higher and the lowest income range, and older patients reported statistically significant higher student communication scores. The PCAI identified that certain groups of patients consistently report higher scores than other groups, whereas the SCAI identified differences between male and female student clinicians. The results have implications for educational protocols, communication strategies, and the need for continued research regarding sociodemographic factors and their relationship to patient satisfaction.
Rubin, Rebecca B.; Feezel, Jerry D.
In an effort to assess the communication skills of prospective teachers, a study examined the role of three pedagogical domains in speech communication instruction--skill, knowledge, and motivation. Fifty student teachers were tested using the Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PCRA; McCroskey l977), the Communication Competency…
therefore discusses the importance, and the need for librarians to possess ... Keywords: Communication skills, Library Service, Services Delivery, Information .... The use of communication skills to enhance quality service delivery is not.
The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987
Morris, Marie; Donohoe, Gary; Hennessy, Martina; O Ciardha, Caoilte
A doctor performs 160 000-300 000 interviews during a lifetime career, thus making the medical interview the most common procedure in clinical medicine. It is reported that 60-80 per cent of diagnosis is based on history taking, yet there is little published data advising on the best method for medical students to initially attain and further refine these core skills during their medical degree. Medical students interviewed two patients: using an open interview first, based on the Calgary-Cambridge approach, and then using a structured pro forma. The students' medical data were assessed by a senior lecturer, and their communication skills were assessed by a behavioural scientist and by the patients. An exact Wilcoxon paired signed rank test was conducted to determine whether there was a difference between the open interview and pro forma methods for history taking and communication skills. The test yielded p-values of 0.0017 and 0.069, respectively, with the pro forma method providing a statistically significantly higher history-taking score and communication score than the open interview method. Subjectively, patients reported the pro forma method as being preferable. Medical students in the early years of training benefit from a structured history-taking pro forma to assist them gather an accurate data set without compromising their interpersonal and communication skills. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
McDermott, M P; Cobb, M A; Tischler, V A; Robbé, I J; Dean, R S
A survey was conducted among veterinary practitioners in the UK and the USA in 2012/2013. Thematic analysis was used to identify underlying reasons behind answers to questions about the importance of communication skills and the desire to participate in postgraduate communication skills training. Lack of training among more experienced veterinary surgeons, incomplete preparation of younger practitioners and differences in ability to communicate all contribute to gaps in communication competency. Barriers to participating in further communication training include time, cost and doubts in the ability of training to provide value. To help enhance communication ability, communication skills should be assessed in veterinary school applicants, and communication skills training should be more thoroughly integrated into veterinary curricula. Continuing education/professional development in communication should be part of all postgraduate education and should be targeted to learning style preferences and communication needs and challenges through an entire career in practice. British Veterinary Association.
Cingi, Can Cemal; Sakallıoğlu, Öner; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Cingi, Cemal
Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a chronic disorder with a high prevalence in the general population. The symptoms of AR can impair the cognitive capabilities of the affected people. The study of communication skills and AR interaction has not been adequately discussed. We aimed to analyze Social Communication Skills of university students with AR. Fifty patients suffering from AR and 50 healthy subjects were studied. All participants completed two questionnaires [Social Communication Skills Rating Scale (SCSRS) and Communication Questionnaire] for the assessment of social communication skills. Total scores of both SCSRS and Communication Questionnaire were higher in participants with AR than controls. When the questions of SCSRS were compared between the groups one by one, significant difference was observed between the groups for questions numbered 1-9 and 11, 12 (p Communication Questionnaire (p communication skills of the patients with AR. More research is however needed to validate this hypothesis.
Roze des Ordons, Amanda L; Doig, Christopher J; Couillard, Philippe; Lord, Jason
Communication with patients and families in critical care medicine (CCM) can be complex and challenging. A longitudinal curricular model integrating multiple techniques within classroom and clinical milieus may facilitate skillful communication across diverse settings. In 2014-2015, the authors developed and implemented a curriculum for CCM fellows at the Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, to promote the longitudinal development of skillful communication. A departmental needs assessment informed curriculum development. Five 4-hour classroom sessions were developed: basic communication principles, family meetings about goals and transitions of care, discussing patient safety incidents, addressing conflict, and offering organ donation. Teaching methods-including instructor-led presentations incorporating a consistent framework for approaching challenging conversations, simulation and clinical practice, and feedback from peers, trained facilitators, family members, and clinicians-supported integration of skills into the clinical setting and longitudinal development of skillful communication. Seven fellows participated during the first year of the curriculum. CCM fellows engaged enthusiastically in the program, commented that the framework provided was helpful, and highly valued the opportunity to practice challenging communication scenarios, learn from observing their peers, and receive immediate feedback. More detailed accounts of fellows', patients', and family members' experiences will be obtained to guide curricular development. The curriculum will be expanded to involve other members of the multidisciplinary intensive care unit team, and faculty education initiatives will be offered to enhance the quality of the feedback provided. The impact of the curriculum on initial skill development, retention, and progression will be assessed.
Asemanyi, Abena Abokoma
This study was done to find out the factors that account for the poor performances of students and to find out ways of improving the teaching and learning of the Communication Skills course at the University of Education, Winneba. The research also had an aim of bringing to light suggestions and recommendations on how to improve the teaching and…
Barratt, Catherine; Hanlon, Dean; Rankin, Michaela
In this paper we present results of the impact diagnostic testing and associated context-specific workshops have on students' written communication skills in a graduate-level accounting course. We find that students who undertook diagnostic testing performed better in their first semester accounting subject. This improvement is positively…
Butz, Nikolaus T.; Askim-Lovseth, Mary K.
The ability to communicate effectively is an essential skill for graduates of Masters of Business Administration (MBA) programmes; however, as synchronous hybrid learning becomes more common, business schools may find it challenging to assess students' proficiency in this core area. An additional layer of complexity is added by the burgeoning…
Daniels, Vijay John; Harley, Dwight
Although previous research has compared checklists to rating scales for assessing communication, the purpose of this study was to compare the effect on reliability and sensitivity to level of training of an analytic, a holistic, and a combined analytic-holistic rating scale in assessing communication skills. The University of Alberta Internal Medicine Residency runs OSCEs for postgraduate year (PGY) 1 and 2 residents and another for PGY-4 residents. Communication stations were scored with an analytic scale (empathy, non-verbal skills, verbal skills, and coherence subscales) and a holistic scale. Authors analyzed reliability of individual and combined scales using generalizability theory and evaluated each scale's sensitivity to level of training. For analytic, holistic, and combined scales, 12, 12, and 11 stations respectively yielded a Phi of 0.8 for the PGY-1,2 cohort, and 16, 16, and 14 stations yielded a Phi of 0.8 for the PGY-4 cohort. PGY-4 residents scored higher on the combined scale, the analytic rating scale, and the non-verbal and coherence subscales. A combined analytic-holistic rating scale increased score reliability and was sensitive to level of training. Given increased validity evidence, OSCE developers should consider combining analytic and holistic scales when assessing communication skills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kranenburg, Laura J C; Reerds, Sam T H; Cools, Martine
endocrinology. Guidelines are created for the assessment of communication between health professionals and individuals with DSD and their parents. METHODS: Paediatric endocrinology fellows worldwide were invited to study two interactive online cases (www.espe-elearning.org) and to describe a best practice...... as a separate key item to better reflect the qualitative differences in the replies and for simplicity of use by evaluators. CONCLUSIONS: E-learning can play an important role in assessing communication skills. A practical tool is provided to assess how information is shared with patients with DSD...
Kranenburg, Laura J C; Reerds, Sam T H; Cools, Martine; Alderson, Julie; Muscarella, Miriam; Magrite, Ellie; Kuiper, Martijn; Abdelgaffar, Shereen; Balsamo, Antonio; Brauner, Raja; Chanoine, Jean Pierre; Deeb, Asma; Fechner, Patricia; German, Alina; Holterhus, Paul Martin; Juul, Anders; Mendonca, Berenice B; Neville, Kristen; Nordenstrom, Anna; Oostdijk, Wilma; Rey, Rodolfo A; Rutter, Meilan M; Shah, Nalini; Luo, Xiaoping; Grijpink, Kalinka; Drop, Stenvert L S
Information sharing in chronic conditions such as disorders of/differences in sex development (DSD) is essential for a comprehensive understanding by parents and patients. We report on a qualitative analysis of communication skills of fellows undergoing training in paediatric endocrinology. Guidelines are created for the assessment of communication between health professionals and individuals with DSD and their parents. Paediatric endocrinology fellows worldwide were invited to study two interactive online cases (www.espe-elearning.org) and to describe a best practice communication with (i) the parents of a newborn with congenital adrenal hyperplasia and (ii) a young woman with 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis. The replies were analysed regarding completeness, quality, and evidence of empathy. Guidelines for structured assessment of responses were developed by 22 senior paediatric endocrinologists worldwide who assessed 10 selected replies. Consensus of assessors was established and the evaluation guidelines were created. The replies of the fellows showed considerable variation in completeness, quality of wording, and evidence of empathy. Many relevant aspects of competent clinical communication were not mentioned; 15% (case 1) and 17% (case 2) of the replies were considered poor/insufficient. There was also marked variation between 17 senior experts in the application of the guidelines to assess communication skills. The guidelines were then adjusted to a 3-level assessment with empathy as a separate key item to better reflect the qualitative differences in the replies and for simplicity of use by evaluators. E-learning can play an important role in assessing communication skills. A practical tool is provided to assess how information is shared with patients with DSD and their families and should be refined by all stakeholders, notably interdisciplinary health professionals and patient representatives. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Sargeant, Joan; MacLeod, Tanya; Murray, Anne
Introduction: Recent research suggests that effective interprofessional communication and collaboration can positively influence patient satisfaction and outcomes. Health professional communication skills do not necessarily improve over time but can improve with formal communication skills training (CST). This article describes the development,…
Brown, Richard F; Bylund, Carma L
Current research in communication in physician-patient consultations is multidisciplinary and multimethodological. As this research has progressed, a considerable body of evidence on the best practices in physician-patient communication has been amassed. This evidence provides a foundation for communication skills training (CST) at all levels of medical education. Although the CST literature has demonstrated that communication skills can be taught, one critique of this literature is that it is not always clear which skills are being taught and whether those skills are matched with those being assessed. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Comskil Model for CST seeks to answer those critiques by explicitly defining the important components of a consultation, based on Goals, Plans, and Actions theories and sociolinguistic theory. Sequenced guidelines as a mechanism for teaching about particular communication challenges are adapted from these other methods. The authors propose that consultation communication can be guided by an overarching goal, which is achieved through the use of a set of predetermined strategies. Strategies are common in CST; however, strategies often contain embedded communication skills. These skills can exist across strategies, and the Comskil Model seeks to make them explicit in these contexts. Separate from the skills are process tasks and cognitive appraisals that need to be addressed in teaching. The authors also describe how assessment practices foster concordance between skills taught and those assessed through careful coding of trainees' communication encounters and direct feedback.
Kelley, Amy S; Back, Anthony L; Arnold, Robert M; Goldberg, Gabrielle R; Lim, Betty B; Litrivis, Evgenia; Smith, Cardinale B; O'Neill, Lynn B
Expert communication is essential to high-quality care for older patients with serious illness. Although the importance of communication skills is widely recognized, formal curricula for teaching communication skills to geriatric and palliative medicine fellows is often inadequate or unavailable. The current study drew upon the educational principles and format of an evidence-based, interactive teaching method to develop an intensive communication skills training course designed specifically to address the common communication challenges that geriatric and palliative medicine fellows face. The 2-day retreat, held away from the hospital environment, included large-group overview presentations, small-group communication skills practice, and development of future skills practice commitment. Faculty received in-depth training in small-group facilitation techniques before the course. Geriatric and palliative medicine fellows were recruited to participate in the course and 100% (n = 18) enrolled. Overall satisfaction with the course was very high (mean 4.8 on a 5-point scale). After the course, fellows reported an increase in self-assessed preparedness for specific communication challenges (mean increase 1.4 on 5-point scale, P communication skills program, customized for the specific needs of geriatric and palliative medicine fellows, improved fellows' self-assessed preparedness for challenging communication tasks and provided a model for ongoing deliberate practice of communication skills. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.
Er, Nelson L.
Objectives To implement a communication skills development (CSD) system and evaluate its effectiveness in a clinical communications course. Design Students conducted baseline interviews and wrote SOAP notes, and based on faculty, patient, self- and peer assessments, set goals for improvement of their communication skills. Students participated in various activities to scaffold their learning, several of which took place in a web-based environment to enhance access and function for both students and faculty members. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed. Assessment Students' communication skills improved as evidenced by assessment scores. Student and faculty comments offered additional evidence of the effectiveness of standardized patient interviews, learning strategies, and assessment methods. Conclusion The CSD system effectively integrated various types of learning activities and feedback processes. The use of scaffolding strategies appeared to enhance the development of students' communication skills. PMID:18483601
Gude, Tore; Finset, Arnstein; Anvik, Tor; Bærheim, Anders; Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Grimstad, Hilde; Vaglum, Per
This prospective study from end of medical school through internship investigates the course and possible change of self- reported self-efficacy in communication skills compared with observers' ratings of such skills in consultations with simulated patients. Sixty-two medical students (43 females) from four Norwegian universities performed a videotaped consultation with a simulated patient immediately before medical school graduation (T1) and after internship (internal medicine, surgery and family medicine, half a year each - T2). Before each consultation, the participants assessed their general self-efficacy in communication skills. Trained observers scored the videos and applied a well-validated instrument to rate the communication behaviour. Results from the two assessment methods were correlated at both time points and possible differences from T1 to T2 were explored. A close to zero correlation between self-efficacy and observed communication skills were found at T1. At T2, participants' self-efficacy scores were inversely correlated with levels of observed skills, demonstrating a lack of concordance between young physicians' own assessment of self-efficacy and observers' assessment. When dividing the sample in three groups based on the observers' scores (low 2/3), the group of male physicians showed higher levels of self-efficacy than females in all the three performance groups at T1. At T2, those having a high performance score yielded a low self-efficacy, regardless of gender. The lack of positive correlations between self-efficacy assessment and expert ratings points to limitations in the applicability of self-assessment measures of communication skills. Due to gender differences, groups of female and male physicians should be investigated separately. Those obtaining high-performance ratings from observers, through the period of internship, may become more conscious of how demanding clinical communication with patients may be. This insight may represent a
Hulsman, R. L.; Mollema, E. D.; Oort, F. J.; Hoos, A. M.; de Haes, J. C. J. M.
OBJECTIVE: Using standardized video cases in a computerized objective structured video examination (OSVE) aims to measure cognitive scripts underlying overt communication behavior by questions on knowledge, understanding and performance. In this study the reliability of the OSVE assessment is
Derkx, Hay P; Rethans, Jan-Joost E; Knottnerus, J André; Ram, Paul M
Out-of-hours centres provide telephone support to patients with medical problems. In most of these centres specially-trained nurses handle incoming telephone calls. They assess patients' needs, the degree of urgency, and determine the level of care required. Assessment of the medical problem and the quality of 'care-by-phone' depend on the medical and communication skills of the call handlers. To develop a valid, reliable, and practical rating scale to evaluate the communication skills of call handlers working at an out-of-hours centre and to improve quality of communication. Qualitative study with focus groups followed by validation of the rating scale and measurement of reliability (internal consistency). Out-of-hours centres in the Netherlands. A focus group developed the rating scale. Experts with experience in training and evaluating communication skills of medical students and GPs commented on the scale to ensure content validity. The reliability of the rating scale was tested in a pilot in which ten specially-trained assessors scored six telephone calls each. The scale, known as the RICE rating scale, has 17 items divided over four different phases of the telephone consultation: Reason for calling; Information gathering; Conclusion; and Evaluation (RICE). Content validity of the scale was assessed by two experts. Reliability of the scale tested in the pilot was 0.73 (Cronbach's alpha). Establishing a rating scale to assess the communication skills of call handlers which meets common scientific demands, such as content validity and reliability, proved successful. This instrument can be used to give feedback to call handlers.
Kelley, Amy S.; Back, Anthony L.; Arnold, Robert M.; Goldberg, Gabrielle R.; Lim, Betty B.; Litrivis, Evgenia; Smith, Cardinale B.; O’Neill, Lynn B.
Expert communication is essential to high quality care for older patients with serious illness. While the importance of communication skills is widely recognized, formal curricula for teaching communication skills to geriatrics and palliative medicine fellows is often inadequate or unavailable. We drew upon the educational principles and format of an evidence-based, interactive teaching method, to develop an intensive communication skills training course designed specifically to address the common communication challenges faced by geriatrics and palliative medicine fellows. The 2-day retreat, held away from the hospital environment, included large-group overview presentations, small-group communication skills practice, and development of future skills practice commitment. Faculty received in-depth training in small-group facilitation techniques prior to the course. Geriatrics and palliative medicine fellows were recruited to participate in the course and 100% (n=18) enrolled. Overall satisfaction with the course was very high (mean 4.8 on 5-point scale). Compared to before the course, fellows reported an increase in self-assessed preparedness for specific communication challenges (mean increase 1.4 on 5-point scale, pcommunication skills program, tailored to the specific needs of geriatrics and palliative medicine fellows, improved fellows’ self-assessed preparedness for challenging communication tasks and provided a model for ongoing deliberate practice of communication skills. PMID:22211768
This article highlights the importance of effective communication skills for nurses. It focuses on core communication skills, their definitions and the positive outcomes that result when applied to practice. Effective communication is central to the provision of compassionate, high-quality nursing care. The article aims to refresh and develop existing knowledge and understanding of effective communication skills. Nurses reading this article will be encouraged to develop a more conscious style of communicating with patients and carers, with the aim of improving health outcomes and patient satisfaction.
Arnold, Robert M; Back, Anthony L; Barnato, Amber E; Prendergast, Thomas J; Emlet, Lillian L; Karpov, Irina; White, Patrick H; Nelson, Judith E
The aim of this study was to develop an evidence-based communication skills training workshop to improve the communication skills of critical care fellows. Pulmonary and critical care fellows (N = 38) participated in a 3-day communication skills workshop between 2008 and 2010 involving brief didactic talks, faculty demonstration of skills, and faculty-supervised small group skills practice sessions with simulated families. Skills included the following: giving bad news, achieving consensus on goals of therapy, and discussing the limitations of life-sustaining treatment. Participants rated their skill levels in a pre-post survey in 11 core communication tasks using a 5-point Likert scale. Of 38 fellows, 36 (95%) completed all 3 days of the workshop. We compared pre and post scores using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Overall, self-rated skills increased for all 11 tasks. In analyses by participant, 95% reported improvement in at least 1 skill; with improvement in a median of 10 of 11 skills. Ninety-two percent rated the course as either very good/excellent, and 80% recommended that it be mandatory for future fellows. This 3-day communication skills training program increased critical care fellows' self-reported family meeting communication skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Moore, Philippa; Gómez, Gricelda; Kurtz, Suzanne; Vargas, Alex
Effective Communication Skills form part of what is being a good doctor. There is a solid evidence base that defines the components of effective communication. This article offers a practical conceptual framework to improve physician patient communication to a professional level of competence. There are six goals that physicians and patients work to achieve through their communication with each other. These are to construct a relationship, structure an interview, start the interview, gather information, explain, plan and close the interview. The outcomes that can be improved with an effective communication and the "first principles" of communication are described. A brief look at the historical context that has influenced our thinking about communication in health care is carried out. Finally, the Calgary Cambridge Guide, an approach for delineating and organizing the specific skills required of an effective communication with patients is described. It is clear from the literature that better communication skills improve patient satisfaction and clinical outcomes.
McKenzie, Carly T
This study investigated dental students' attitudes towards communication skills instruction and clinical application and explored the impact of a one-semester course and year in school on students' attitudes, measured by the Communication Skills Attitude Scale. Demographic characteristics and self-assessment of communication skills were also analyzed. The study employed a pretest-posttest survey design combined with cross-sectional data. Participants were first- and fourth-year students at a U.S. dental school. Out of a possible 120 students, 106 (fifty-seven D1 and forty-nine D4) participated in the pretest, an 88 percent response rate; out of a possible 121 students, 115 (fifty-seven D1 and fifty-eight D4) participated in the posttest, a 95 percent response rate. In the results, D4 students consistently demonstrated less positive attitudes towards communication skills instruction and more negative attitudes regarding the importance of interpersonal skills in clinical encounters than did their D1 counterparts. A single communications course had no discernible effect on attitudes or self-assessments for either cohort. Females reported more positive attitudes towards clinical application of interpersonal skills than did males. Gender significantly interacted with two demographic variables: primary language and parent as health care professional. Female children of health care professionals reported poorer attitudes towards clinical communication skills training and application than did their male counterparts. Generally, parental occupation in health care moderated the decrease in positive attitudes over time towards clinical usefulness of communication skills. The D4 students rated their communication skills higher than did the D1 students. Students who demonstrated more positive attitudes towards communication skills training and application were more likely to say their own skills needed improvement.
The main finding is that trainees have an opportunity to develop skills for communication with children who are deaf or hard of hearing from practical activities undertaken in the classroom and during teaching practice. However, these provisions are not sufficient to enable trainees develop skills for communication with that ...
Dian Ari Widyastuti
The purpose of this study is to determine the interpersonal communication skill level of the counselor candidate students. This study is a quantitative descriptive study with data collection instrument in the form of Interpersonal Communication Skill (ICS scale. The subjects of the study were 105 students of Guidance and Counseling Study Program in one of the universities in Yogyakarta City which was taken by random sampling technique. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistical analysis, where the criteria were calculated using standard deviation and mean formulas. The results showed that as many as 14.29% of students are in the criteria of interpersonal communication skill is very high, 23.81% of students are in interpersonal communication skill criteria high, 37.14% of students are on interpersonal communication skill criteria are, 20% sinterpersonal communication skills criteria are low, and 4.76% of students are in very low interpersonal communication skill criteria. The results of this study can be used as a reference in an effort to develop interpersonal communication skill prospective student counselor
Maatta, Sira; Laakso, Marja-Leena; Tolvanen, Asko; Ahonen, Timo; Aro, Tuija
Purpose: This study focused on developmental trajectories of prelinguistic communication skills and their connections to later parent-reported language difficulties. Method: The participants represent a subset of a community-based sample of 508 children. Data include parent reports of prelinguistic communication skills at 12, 15, 18, and 21 months…
Alfarah, Yacoub Fareed
The purpose of this study is to investigate the communication skills among gifted students in Jordan and to investigate the effect of gender and the level of students in acquiring these communication skills. A questionnaire was distributed among the sample of the study which comprised of (240) tenth, eleventh, and twelfth grade students from Al…
Kovac, Mirjana M.; Sirkovic, N.
Good communication skills are of utmost importance in the education of engineering students. It is necessary to promote not only their education, but also to prepare them for the demanding and competitive job market. The purpose of this study was to compare the attitudes towards communication skills after formal instruction between the students of…
Miner, Thomas J
Excellence as a surgeon requires not only the technical and intellectual ability to effectively take care of surgical disease but also an ability to respond to the needs and questions of patients. This article provides an overview of the importance of communication skills in optimal surgical palliation and offers suggestions for a multidisciplinary team approach, using the palliative triangle as the ideal model of communication and interpersonal skills. This article also discusses guidelines for advanced surgical decision making and outlines methods to improve communication skills. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hulsman, R L; Harmsen, A B; Fabriek, M
Acquisition of effective, goal-oriented communication skills requires both practicing skills and reflective thinking. Reflection is a cyclic process of perceiving and analysing communication behaviour in terms of goals and effects and designing improved actions. Based on Korthagen's ALACT reflection model, communication training on history taking was designed. Objectives were to develop rating criteria for assessment of the students' level of reflection and to collect student evaluations of the reflective cycle components in the communication training. All second year medical students recorded a consultation with a simulated patient. In DiViDU, a web-based ICT program, students reviewed the video, identified and marked three key events, attached written reflections and provided peer-feedback. Students' written reflections were rated on four reflection categories. A reflection-level score was based on a frequency count of the number of categories used over three reflections. Students filled out an evaluation questionnaire on components of the communication training. Data were analyzed of 304 (90.6%) students. The four reflection categories Observations, Motives, Effects and Goals of behaviour were used in 7-38%. Most students phrased undirected questions for improvement (93%). The average reflection score was 2.1 (S.D. 2.0). All training components were considered instructive. Acting was preferred most. Reviewing video was considered instructive. Self-reflection was considered more difficult than providing written feedback to the reflections of peers. Reflection on communication behaviour can be systematically implemented and measured in a structured way. Reflection levels were low, probably indicating a limited notion of goal-oriented attributes of communication skills. Early introduction of critical self-reflection facilitates acceptance of an important ability for physicians for continued life-long learning and becoming mindful practitioners.
Guidelines of teaching communications to nursing students have been shown. However they are not fully mature to help to recognize each student's communication ability. Communication skills of nursing students in basic nursing education are very important.
Branet Partric; Yasar Albushra Ahmed
Communication is an essential skill in the armory of any worker in the health field. It is an integral part of the skills required, not only in medical doctors, but in all health workers. Communication is more than history taking; it includes all methods of interaction with patients, patient's relatives, members of the health care team, and the public. Many studies stressed that the main complaints of patients are related to communication problems and not to clinical competency. This has cont...
Thonney, Teresa; Montgomery, Joe C.
This article relates the efforts of faculty at one community college to define standards for achievement of two SLOs (critical thinking and effective communication) and to gather and analyze evidence of how well students meet those standards. Faculty from 13 disciplines assessed writing samples from 265 students. We found that, in general,…
Biglu, Mohammad-Hossein; Nateq, Farnaz; Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Asgharzadeh, Ali
Background: The communication skills of physicians is an effective step of making effective relationship between doctor and patient. It plays essential role through diagnosis and treatment processes. This current study was performed to investigate the impact of communication skillfulness of physicians on patients’ satisfaction. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was done to determine the impact of communication capability of practitioners on patients’ satisfaction. The DiMatto’s Patient Satisfaction Scale was administered among patients referring to the all 8 specialized clinics of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. The validity and reliability of Persian translation of questionnaire of DiMatto’s Patient Satisfaction was verified by 10 specialists. The validity of the questionnaire was measured by content and structural analysis, and Cronbach’s alpha coefficients. The data were analyzed by software package of SPSS version 16 using Pearson’s correlation coefficient, U Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-wallis Test, Regression. Results: The study showed that there was a significant correlation between patients’ satisfaction and the communication skills of physicians (devoting the appropriate time for visiting the patients, explaining diagnosis and treatment procedures). In addition, the therapeutic skills of physicians, their friendly manners, respecting the patients’ feelings, and careful examination of patients by physician, revealed a significant correlation with patient satisfaction (P Communication skills of physician play an important role on patients’ satisfaction; therefore, we propose strongly to improve the communication skills of physicians by improving the communication skills through related training courses. PMID:29109665
Biglu, Mohammad-Hossein; Nateq, Farnaz; Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Asgharzadeh, Ali
The communication skills of physicians is an effective step of making effective relationship between doctor and patient. It plays essential role through diagnosis and treatment processes. This current study was performed to investigate the impact of communication skillfulness of physicians on patients' satisfaction. A cross-sectional descriptive study was done to determine the impact of communication capability of practitioners on patients' satisfaction. The DiMatto's Patient Satisfaction Scale was administered among patients referring to the all 8 specialized clinics of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. The validity and reliability of Persian translation of questionnaire of DiMatto's Patient Satisfaction was verified by 10 specialists. The validity of the questionnaire was measured by content and structural analysis, and Cronbach's alpha coefficients. The data were analyzed by software package of SPSS version 16 using Pearson's correlation coefficient, U Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-wallis Test, Regression. The study showed that there was a significant correlation between patients' satisfaction and the communication skills of physicians (devoting the appropriate time for visiting the patients, explaining diagnosis and treatment procedures). In addition, the therapeutic skills of physicians, their friendly manners, respecting the patients' feelings, and careful examination of patients by physician, revealed a significant correlation with patient satisfaction (P Communication skills of physician play an important role on patients' satisfaction; therefore, we propose strongly to improve the communication skills of physicians by improving the communication skills through related training courses.
Full Text Available Communication is an essential skill in the armory of any worker in the health field. It is an integral part of the skills required, not only in medical doctors, but in all health workers. Communication is more than history taking; it includes all methods of interaction with patients, patient's relatives, members of the health care team, and the public. Many studies stressed that the main complaints of patients are related to communication problems and not to clinical competency. This has contributed to an increase in the number of law suits, non-adherence to medical regimens, and the tendency of patients to keep changing physicians and hospitals. Also, it has been shown that health outcome is positively affected by proper communication. This includes patient's satisfaction and cooperation, decrease in treatment duration, decrease in painkillers requirements, and decrease in hospital stay. Also, it has been shown that communication skills can be taught and important changes in physician's behavior and in their communication skills have been demonstrated after courses of communication skills. Thus, many medical colleges in the world are including communication skills courses in their undergraduate and graduate curricula
Marambe, Kosala N; Edussuriya, D H; Dayaratne, K M P L
The General Medical Council of the UK, advocates that by the end of their undergraduate course, medical students should be proficient in communicating with patients. However, the attitude of some medical students toward formal training in communication skills seems lukewarm. Although several studies on assessing attitudes of medical students on learning communication skills have been carried out in Europe and America, Asian studies are very few and literature in the Sri Lankan context is lacking. To explore the attitudes of first to fourth year medical students of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya (FOMUP), Sri Lanka on learning communication skills and to identify possible factors that may influence student attitudes. A total of 675 students from year 1 to 4 of the FOMUP were asked to complete a modified version of the Communication Skills Attitude Scale. Items of its positive attitude scale (PAS) were analyzed together while negative items were considered individually. Response rates ranged from 70% to 98% for the various year groups. There were no significant differences between the PAS for males and females and for those exposed to formal training and those who were not. The junior students scored significantly higher on the PAS than seniors. Most students of all the groups disagreed with the item "I don't see why I should learn communication skills". Approximately one-quarter of the students of each group endorsed the statement "Nobody is going to fail their medical degree for having poor communication skills". Out of the students who have undergone formal communication training, almost one-third agreed that they find it difficult to take communication skills learning seriously. Although medical students seem to have realized the importance of communication skills training for the practice of medicine, a significant minority have reservations on attending such sessions. Sri Lanka faculty will need to make a concerted effort to change this
Kerr, W. J.; Murray, R. E. G.; Moore, B. D.; Nonhebel, D. C.
Positive feedback and evaluations were provided by students, graduates, academic staff in the department, and industrial contacts and employers. The funding council (Scottish Higher Education Funding Council), in the report on the Teaching Quality Assessment visit, identified this communication skills package as one of the Department's strengths in teaching. These positive evaluations suggest that the package is an effective means of developing the communication skills of students in chemistry.
Itri, Jason N; Yacob, Sammy; Mithqal, Ayman
The transition of health care in the United States from volume to value requires a systems-based approach aligning clinical services across the continuum of care. The ability to communicate effectively and resolve conflict is a critical skill within the systems-based model. Recognizing the essential role of communication in medicine, the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education has designated interpersonal and communication skills a core competency for all residents regardless of specialty. Yet, communication skills are often developed through on-the-job training or not at all. Traditional educational curricula use a predominantly didactic approach without opportunities for trainees to observe, actively experiment, or reflect on what is learned as a part of the learning process. In this article, we describe a 1-day experiential communication skills workshop customized for radiology residents that consists of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and conflict management sessions designed to develop interpersonal, communication, and conflict management skills through group discussion, role-play, and simulation. The purpose of this educational initiative was to determine the perceived value of an experiential communication skills workshop designed for radiology trainees. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hulsman, R. L.; Harmsen, A. B.; Fabriek, M.
Acquisition of effective, goal-oriented communication skills requires both practicing skills and reflective thinking. Reflection is a cyclic process of perceiving and analysing communication behaviour in terms of goals and effects and designing improved actions. Based on Korthagen's ALACT reflection
Zainuddin, Zaharatul Akmar Ahmad; Selamat, Suzanah
Every year polytechnics in Malaysia produce thousands of graduates in vocational areas, however, these graduates have to strive in a competitive job market against graduates from other tertiary institutions. This study aims to investigate polytechnic students efficacy on their communication skills. These skills are crucial in determining their…
Kadriye Dilek Akpınar
Full Text Available Higher Education Council of Turkey has added a one term course named as “Effective Communication Skills” to the curriculum since 2006 in Foreign Language Education Departments because of the crucial importance of communication in the information society. In order to test the effectiveness of this course, a research project was developed by looking at the pre-and post course interviews conducted with first year teacher trainees about communication skills compared with the fourth year students’ ideas who did not take the course. This paper describes both the significance of effective communication skills and the benefits of the course for developing teacher trainees’ effective communication skills. The implementations and suggestions for teacher education has also been discussed.
Björnsdottir, Ingunn; Wallman, Andy; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark
Objective. To assess communication skills training at Nordic pharmacy schools and explore ways for improvement. Methods. E-mail questionnaires were developed and distributed with the aim to explore current practice and course leaders’ opinions regarding teaching of patient communication skills at all the 11 master level Nordic (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) pharmacy schools. The questionnaires contained both closed- and open-ended questions. Results. There was a variation of patient communication skills training among schools. In general, communication skills training was included in one to five courses (mode 1); varied in quantity (6-92 hours); had low use of experiential training methods; and had challenges regarding assessments and acquiring sufficient resources. However, some schools had more focus on such training. Conclusion. The results show room for improvement in patient communication skills training in most Nordic pharmacy schools and give insights into how to enhance communication skill building in pharmacy curricula. Suggestions for improving the training include: early training start, evidence-based frameworks, experiential training, and scaffolding. PMID:29302085
Rasul, Mohamad Sattar; Rauf, Rose Amnah Abd; Mansor, Azlin Norhaini; Puvanasvaran, A. P.
Research nationally and internationally found that technical graduates are lacking in employability skills. As employability skills are crucial in outcome-based education, the main goal of this research is to develop an Employability Skill Assessment Tool to help students and lecturers produce competent graduates in employability skills needed by…
Kuntze, Jeroen; van der Molen, Henk T.; Born, Marise Ph.
Background: Mastering communication skills is often emphasized as an important aspect of job or academic performance. However, research into the relationships between personality factors and these skills is scarce. Purpose: This study investigated whether the big-five personality factors and assertiveness predict mastery of communication skills before and after following communication skills training. Method: The skills level of 143 psychology students was assessed after two communicati...
In Communicative Language Teaching situation, role of material is not only important but also inevitable. In the traditional context of English teaching textbooks are considered the main source of materials. This paper will provide an evaluation of "Effective Communication Skills" ("ECS") coursebook that has been introduced as…
The purpose of this study is to compare the communication skills of individuals with different disabilities with athletes and sedentary people and to examine their learning abilities which influence the development of communication. A total of 159 male subjects 31 sedentary, 30 visually impaired, 27 hearing impaired, 40 physically impaired and 31…
Bahreini, Kiavash; Nadolski, Rob; Westera, Wim
The teaching of communication skills is a labour-intensive task because of the detailed feedback that should be given to learners during their prolonged practice. This study investigates to what extent our FILTWAM facial and vocal emotion recognition software can be used for improving a serious game (the Communication Advisor) that delivers a…
Lee, Young-Mee; Lee, Young Hee
Regardless of the growing importance of communication skills as a core clinical competence, few studies have determined the effects of communication skills courses in undergraduate medical curricula in Asian medical schools. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a communication skills program for preclinical medical students. A communication skills course was provided to 111 second-year medical students in a medical college in Korea. Students' self-assessed competency of communication skills was evaluated by a questionnaire survey. To examine the improvement in observed communication skills, the students' encounters with standardized patients (SPs) were assessed at the first session and at the final course assessment. A structured checklist, consisting of 25 communication skills items, was used for the assessment. Students' self-assessed competency of communication skills increased significantly after completion of the course (pcommunication skills scores also improved significantly at the end of the course; the mean scores of the first SPs encounters was 49.6 (standard deviation [SD], 11.1), and those of cases A and B at the final assessment were 61.5 (SD, 8.4) and 69.6 (SD, 7.8), respectively (F61=269.54, pcommunication skills course was beneficial in developing and improving communication skills competency in preclinical medical students. Further studies should be followed to examine whether the acquisition of communication skills during preclinical studies can be sustained into clerkship and actual practice.
Akpınar, Kadriye Dilek
Higher Education Council of Turkey has added a one term course named as “Effective Communication Skills” to the curriculum since 2006 in Foreign Language Education Departments because of the crucial importance of communication in the information society. In order to test the effectiveness of this course, a research project was developed by looking at the pre-and post course interviews conducted with first year teacher trainees about communication skills compared with the fourth year students’...
This study aims at developing an assessment scale for identifying preschool children's communication skills, at distinguishing children with communication deficiencies and at comparing the communication skills of children with normal development (ND) and those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were 427 children of up to 6 years of…
Porcerelli, John H; Brennan, Simone; Carty, Jennifer; Ziadni, Maisa; Markova, Tsveti
The Kalamazoo Essential Elements Communication Checklist-Adapted (KEECC-A) is a well-regarded instrument for evaluating communication and interpersonal skills. To date, little research has been conducted that assesses the accuracy of resident self-ratings of their communication skills. To assess whether residents can accurately self-rate communication skills, using the KEECC-A, during an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). A group of 104 residents from 8 specialties completed a multistation OSCE as part of an institutional communication skills curriculum conducted at a single institution. Standardized patients (SPs) and observers were trained in rating communication skills using the KEECC-A. Standardized patient ratings and resident self-ratings were completed immediately following each OSCE encounter, and trained observers rated archived videotapes of the encounters. Resident self-ratings and SP ratings using the KEECC-A were significantly correlated (r104 = 0.238, P = .02), as were resident self-ratings and observer ratings (r104 = 0.284, P = .004). The correlation between the SP ratings and observer (r104 = 0.378, P = .001) ratings were larger in magnitude, but not significantly different (P > .05) from resident/SP or resident/observer correlations. The results suggest that residents, with a modicum of training using the KEECC-A, can accurately rate their own communication and interpersonal skills during an OSCE. Using trained observers to rate resident communication skills provides a unique opportunity for evaluating SP and resident self-ratings. Our findings also lend further support for the reliability and validity of the KEECC-A.
Coleman, Jaumeiko J; Frymark, Tobi; Franceschini, Nicole M; Theodoros, Deborah G
This is a systematic review of assessment and treatment of cognitive and communicative abilities of individuals with acquired brain injury via telepractice versus in person. The a priori clinical questions were informed by previous research that highlights the importance of considering any functional implications of outcomes, determining disorder- and setting-specific concerns, and measuring the potential impact of diagnostic accuracy and treatment efficacy data on interpretation of findings. A literature search of multiple databases (e.g., PubMed) was conducted using key words and study inclusion criteria associated with the clinical questions. Ten group studies were accepted that addressed assessment of motor speech, language, and cognitive impairments; assessment of motor speech and language activity limitations/participation restrictions; and treatment of cognitive impairments and activity limitations/participation restrictions. In most cases, equivalence of outcomes was noted across service delivery methods. Limited findings, lack of diagnostic accuracy and treatment efficacy data, and heterogeneity of assessments and interventions precluded robust evaluation of clinical implications for telepractice equivalence and the broader area of telepractice efficacy. Future research is needed that will build upon current knowledge through replication. In addition, further evaluation at the impairment and activity limitation/participation restriction levels is needed.
Karnieli-Miller, Orit; Michael, Keren; Segal, Oz; Steinberger, Aharon
Teaching and applying interpersonal communication skills (ICS) and humor in medicine is challenging. The present study assessed an innovative course focused on enhancing ICS and humor based on the Four Habits Model and theater concepts. Medical students enrolled in the course (the study group) were assessed pre- and post-intervention, as well as compared with their peers (the control group) using quantitative methods to measure attitudes, self-efficacy, and behaviors. Qualitative methods were used to learn about students' change in perceptions related to ICS and humor following the course, as well as their experiences of developing these skills during the course. Post-intervention study group participants scored significantly higher on all ICS measurements and on humor behavior compared with pre-intervention, and significantly higher on all humor measurements compared with control group participants. Interviews indicated students' increased understanding and difficulties in learning these skills. Analyses showed how framing humor as one possible ICS and focusing on specific parts of the medical encounter can promote patient-centered care.
Reiss, M. J.; Abrahams, I.
Major changes are currently afoot as to how practical work will be assessed in high status examinations (GCSEs for 16 year-olds and ‘A’ levels for 18 year-olds) in England. We explore here how practical skills might best be assessed in school science and introduce two terms: direct assessment of practical skills (DAPS) and indirect assessment of practical skills (IAPS). We conclude that both the direct and indirect assessment of practical skills have their place in effective assessment of sch...
Kumar, Mritunjay; Dash, Hari Har; Chawla, Rajiv
Communication failure is a risk factor for mishaps and complaints, which can be reduced by effective communication between operating room team members and patients. To conduct a survey among anesthesiologists regarding communications skills and related issues like stress in case of communication failure, need for training, music in operation theater, and language barrier at their work place. We conducted a survey among anesthesiologists coming for a neuroanesthesia conference in India (n = 110) in February 2011 by questionnaire sent by e-mail to them. The response rate was 61.8% (68/110). Majority (95.5%) of the respondents agreed that good verbal communication leads to better patient outcome, better handling of crisis and is important between surgeons and anesthesiologists (98.5%). A total of 86% of the anesthesiologists felt that failure of communication caused stress to them. The idea of communication by e-mail or phone text messages instead of verbal communications was discouraged by 65.2%. A total of 82% of respondents felt that training of communication skills should be mandatory for all medical personnel and 77.6% were interested in participating in such course. Language barrier at work place was seen as hurdle by 62.7% of the respondents. A total of 80% of respondents felt that playing music in operating theater is appropriate. Results of the survey highlight the need for effective communication in the operating room between team members and need for formal training to improve it.
Ali M. Al-Bahi
Full Text Available Engineering students are required to have, by the time of graduation, a set of professional skills related to teamwork, oral and written communications, impact of engineering solutions, life-long learning, and knowledge of contemporary issues. Teaching and assessment of these skills, as part of ABET accreditation, remains problematic. A systematic methodology to integrate these skills and their assessment in the curriculum is described. The method was recently applied in several engineering programs and proved to be efficient in generating data and evidences for evaluation and continuous improvement of these outcomes.
Boissy, Adrienne; Windover, Amy K; Bokar, Dan; Karafa, Matthew; Neuendorf, Katie; Frankel, Richard M; Merlino, James; Rothberg, Michael B
Skilled physician communication is a key component of patient experience. Large-scale studies of exposure to communication skills training and its impact on patient satisfaction have not been conducted. We aimed to examine the impact of experiential relationship-centered physician communication skills training on patient satisfaction and physician experience. This was an observational study. The study was conducted at a large, multispecialty academic medical center. Participants included 1537 attending physicians who participated in, and 1951 physicians who did not participate in, communication skills training between 1 August 2013 and 30 April 2014. An 8-h block of interactive didactics, live or video skill demonstrations, and small group and large group skills practice sessions using a relationship-centered model. Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS), Clinician and Group Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CGCAHPS), Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE), Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), self-efficacy, and post course satisfaction. Following the course, adjusted overall CGCAHPS scores for physician communication were higher for intervention physicians than for controls (92.09 vs. 91.09, p communication scores (83.95 vs. 82.73, p = 0.22). Physicians reported high course satisfaction and showed significant improvement in empathy (116.4 ± 12.7 vs. 124 ± 11.9, p communication skills training improved patient satisfaction scores, improved physician empathy, self-efficacy, and reduced physician burnout. Further research is necessary to examine longer-term sustainability of such interventions.
Shendurnikar, Niranjan; Thakkar, Pareshkumar A
Every pediatrician would want to satisfy their patients and their parents to sustain good practice, earn name and fame and simultaneously to avoid litigation in this era of consumer protection act. This can be achieved only by use of good communication skills. Today the patients demand time, information and want their questions to be answered. They expect politeness, empathy and human touch from doctors. Time constraints, arrogance, telephone calls, language barriers and cultural insensitivity are the important barriers to good communication. Research has shown that doctor, who undergoes training to acquire good communication skills, can better satisfy his patients. Good communication skill is an art which can be acquired or improved by putting conscious efforts in day to day practice. Such skills should also be incorporated as part of medical teaching curriculum. Asking open ended questions, effective listening, appropriate praise, providing enough information as part of advice and finally checking their understanding, are the key areas of communication during medical interview. During this process pediatrician should ensure to address the parental concerns, should empathize with parents and involve parents in decision making. This will not only ensure satisfaction of parents but also their adherence to the therapy and to the pediatrician.
Full Text Available In Communicative Language Teaching situation, role of material is not only important but also inevitable. In the traditional context of English teaching textbooks are considered the main source of materials. This paper will provide an evaluation of Effective Communication Skills (ECS coursebook that has been introduced as a pilot project implemented in 2011 by the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia. For the current study, data has been collected on the basis of materials study, and questionnaires. The qualitative analysis has been conducted with a total sample of around 214 students, and 3 instructors. The results show that in spite of some shortcomings, there is a general satisfaction about this textbook as it is exclusively produced by the local experts for the tertiary level. The study concludes with suggestions and recommendations for the improvement of the Effective Communication Skills. Keywords: Coursebook evaluation, communicative English, Pilot Project, ECS
In Communicative Language Teaching situation, role of material is not only important but also inevitable. In the traditional context of English teaching textbooks are considered the main source of materials. This paper will provide an evaluation of Effective Communication Skills (ECS) coursebook that has been introduced as a pilot project implemented in 2011 by the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia. For the current study, data has been collected on the basis of materials study, and quest...
Background Although it is taken for granted that history-taking and communication skills are learnable, this learning process should be confirmed by rigorous studies, such as randomized pre- and post-comparisons. The purpose of this paper is to analyse whether a communication course measurably improves the communicative competence of third-year medical students at a German medical school and whether technical or emotional aspects of communication changed differently. Method A sample of 32 randomly selected students performed an interview with a simulated patient before the communication course (pre-intervention) and a second interview after the course (post-intervention), using the Calgary-Cambridge Observation Guide (CCOG) to assess history taking ability. Results On average, the students improved in all of the 28 items of the CCOG. The 6 more technically-orientated communication items improved on average from 3.4 for the first interview to 2.6 in the second interview (p communication skills were not correlated (Pearson’s r = 0.03; n.s.). Conclusions Our communication course measurably improved communication skills, especially for female students. These improvements did not depend predominantly on an extension of the interview time. Obviously, “technical” aspects of communication can be taught better than “emotional” communication skills. PMID:22947372
Ferrone, Jenny Kristina
Current reform in engineering education is part of a national trend emphasizing student learning as well as accountability in instruction. Assessing student performance to demonstrate accountability has become a necessity in academia. In newly adopted criterion proposed by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET), undergraduates are expected to demonstrate proficiency in outcomes considered essential for graduating engineers. The case study was designed as a formative evaluation of freshman engineering students to assess the perceived effectiveness of performance skills in a design laboratory environment. The mixed methodology used both quantitative and qualitative approaches to assess students' performance skills and congruency among the respondents, based on individual, team, and faculty perceptions of team effectiveness in three ABET areas: Communications Skills. Design Skills, and Teamwork. The findings of the research were used to address future use of the assessment tool and process. The results of the study found statistically significant differences in perceptions of Teamwork Skills (p performance skills, such as teamwork, among freshman engineering students; (2) incorporate feedback into the learning process; (3) strengthen the assessment process with a follow-up plan that specifically targets performance skill deficiencies, and (4) integrate the assessment instrument and practice with ongoing curriculum development. The findings generated by this study provides engineering departments engaged in assessment activity, opportunity to reflect, refine, and develop their programs as it continues. It also extends research on ABET competencies of engineering students in an under-investigated topic of factors correlated with team processes, behavior, and student learning.
Choudhary, Anjali; Gupta, Vineeta
Like many other people based professions, communications skills are essential to medical practice also. Traditional medical teaching in India does not address communication skills which are most essential in dealing with patients. Communication skills can be taught to medical students to increase clinical competence. To teach basic communication and counseling skills to fourth-year undergraduate students to increase their clinical competence. A total of 48, fourth-year MBBS students participated in the study. They were given training in basic communication and counseling skills and taught the patient interview technique according to Calgary-Cambridge guide format. Improvement in communication was assessed by change in pre- and post-training multiple choice questions, clinical patient examination, and Standardized Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (SPSQ) scores. About 88% of the students in the sample were convinced of the importance of learning communication skills for effective practice. Almost 90% students were communicating better after training, as tested by improved SPSQ. As judged by Communication Skill Attitude Scale, student's positive attitude toward learning communication skill indicated that there is a necessity of communication skill training during undergraduate years. The ability to communicate effectively is a core competency for medical practitioners. Inculcating habits of good communications skill during formative years will help the medical students and future practitioners. Regular courses on effective communication should be included in the medical school curriculum.
This study sought to find out the influence of language and communication skills on students\\' performance in vocational courses. The study used the cumulative mean scores of two sets of final year students over tine three-year perrod of their N.C.E course in Agricultural Education, Business Education, and Fine and Applied ...
Wilson, Jennifer L; Whyte, Richard I; Gangadharan, Sidhu P; Kent, Michael S
Teamwork and communication skills are essential for the safe practice of cardiothoracic surgery. In this article, we will summarize the literature on teamwork and the culture of safety, and discuss how surgeons may directly improve the outcomes of their patients by addressing these factors. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
White, D.A.; White, R.K.
This paper describes a workshop in communication and public speaking skills recently conducted for a group of public officials whose responsibilities include presenting risk information at public meetings associated with hazardous waste sites. We detail the development and solution of the 2 1/2-day workshop, including the development and integration of a 45-minute video of a simulated public meeting used to illustrate examples of good and bad communication behaviors. The workshop uses a mock public meeting video, participatory video exercises, role-playing, an instructor and a resource text. This interactive approach to teaching communication skills can help sensitize scientists to the public's understanding of risk and improve scientists confidence and effectiveness in communicating scientific information
White, D.A.; White, R.K.
This paper describes a workshop in communication and public speaking skills recently conducted for a group of public officials whose responsibilities include presenting risk information at public meetings associated with hazardous waste sites. We detail the development and execution of the 2 1/2 day workshop, including the development and integration of a 45-minute video of a simulated public meeting used to illustrate examples of good and bad communication behaviors. The workshop uses a mock public meeting video, participatory video exercises, role-playing, and instructor, and a resource text. This interactive approach to teaching communication skills can help sensitize scientists to the public's understanding of risk and improve scientists' confidence and effectiveness in communicating scientific information. 10 refs., 1 fig.
Adamczyk, Przemysław; Daren, Artur; Sułecka, Aleksandra; Błądziński, Piotr; Cichocki, Łukasz; Kalisz, Aneta; Gawęda, Łukasz; Cechnicki, Andrzej
Alongside various psychopathological symptoms and neurocognitive dysfunctions, communication skill impairments may be considered core feature of schizophrenia. Although many studies examined the relation between employment status and neurocognition in schizophrenia, we still know very little about the role of communication skills in vocational status among people with schizophrenia. The purpose of this study is to identify the most characteristic communication, neurocognitive and social cognition differences which separate the employed schizophrenia outpatients from those who do not work. The study included three groups: 33 schizophrenia outpatients employed in social firms, 29 unemployed schizophrenia outpatients participating in occupational therapy and sex & age matched 31 healthy controls. We assessed communication skills, global cognitive functioning, executive functions, memory, social cognition as well as severity of psychopathology. Our results indicate that the most characteristic differences between employed and unemployed schizophrenia outpatients are associated with selective language and communication skills, i.e. paralinguistic aspects of communication, understanding of discrete meaning of linguistic context and figurative meaning of language. We find no significant differences between both clinical groups with regard to neurocognition and social cognition. Moreover, unemployed group had more severe psychopathology than the employed group, so we re-analyzed results controlling for symptom severity. The only differences that endured were related to general communication skills and explanation of pictured metaphors, but only when controlling solely for positive or negative syndrome. In conclusion, the present study indicates that employment in schizophrenia is associated with better symptomatic remission and communication skills, but not with better neurocognition and social cognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
McCallister, Jennifer W; Gustin, Jillian L; Wells-Di Gregorio, Sharla; Way, David P; Mastronarde, John G
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requires physicians training in pulmonary and critical care medicine to demonstrate competency in interpersonal communication. Studies have shown that residency training is often insufficient to prepare physicians to provide end-of-life care and facilitate patient and family decision-making. Poor communication in the intensive care unit (ICU) can adversely affect outcomes for critically ill patients and their family members. Despite this, communication training curricula in pulmonary and critical care medicine are largely absent in the published literature. We evaluated the effectiveness of a communication skills curriculum during the first year of a pulmonary and critical care medicine fellowship using a family meeting checklist to provide formative feedback to fellows during ICU rotations. We hypothesized that fellows would demonstrate increased competence and confidence in the behavioral skills necessary for facilitating family meetings. We evaluated a 12-month communication skills curriculum using a pre-post, quasiexperimental design. Subjects for this study included 11 first-year fellows who participated in the new curriculum (intervention group) and a historical control group of five fellows who had completed no formal communication curriculum. Performance of communication skills and self-confidence in family meetings were assessed for the intervention group before and after the curriculum. The control group was assessed once at the beginning of their second year of fellowship. Fellows in the intervention group demonstrated significantly improved communication skills as evaluated by two psychologists using the Family Meeting Behavioral Skills Checklist, with an increase in total observed skills from 51 to 65% (P ≤ 0.01; Cohen's D effect size [es], 1.13). Their performance was also rated significantly higher when compared with the historical control group, who demonstrated only 49% of observed skills
Maryam Sadat Katebi; Talat Khadivzadeh; Zohre Sepehri Shamloo; Habibolah Esmaily
Background & aim: Communication is a fundamental human need. Medical students and healthcare professionals must be attuned to the needs of patients using effective communication skills. With regards to medical training, currently the focus is on theoretical matters and communication skills are taken for granted. This problem has caused miscommunication with patients referred to teaching hospitals. We conducted this study to assess communication skills of midwives from the perspective of partu...
Simacek, Jessica; Reichle, Joe; Byiers, Breanne J; Parker-McGowan, Quannah; Dimian, Adele F; Elmquist, Marianne
Conditional use of communication skills refers to the ability of a learner to appropriately generalize and discriminate when, where, and how to communicate based on constant variation and shifts in environmental cues. We describe discrimination and generalization challenges encountered by learners with complex communication needs and ways in which these challenges are fostered through traditional communication intervention programming. We address arrangements in instruction that maximize the probability of learners acquiring the conditional use of new vocabulary and the modest instructional technology implemented when planning for generalization. We propose establishing well-discriminated and generalized use of new vocabulary items through the application of a general case instruction framework to communication intervention programming. We provide intervention methodology, including intervention steps for general case instruction, a plethora of functional examples, and graphic displays to assess and intervene to promote conditional use of communication skills for learners with complex communication needs.
Dong, Ting; LaRochelle, Jeffrey S; Durning, Steven J; Saguil, Aaron; Swygert, Kimberly; Artino, Anthony R
The Essential Elements of Communication (EEC) were developed from the Kalamazoo consensus statement on physician-patient communication. The Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USU) has adopted a longitudinal curriculum to use the EEC both as a learning tool during standardized patient encounters and as an evaluation tool culminating with the end of preclerkship objective-structured clinical examinations (OSCE). Medical educators have recently emphasized the importance of teaching communication skills, as evidenced by the United States Medical Licensing Examination testing both the integrated clinical encounter (ICE) and communication and interpersonal skills (CIS) within the Step 2 Clinical Skills exam (CS). To determine the associations between students' EEC OSCE performance at the end of the preclerkship period with later communication skills assessment and evaluation outcomes in the context of a longitudinal curriculum spanning both undergraduate medical education and graduate medical education. Retrospective data from preclerkship (overall OSCE scores and EEC OSCE scores) and clerkship outcomes (internal medicine [IM] clinical points and average clerkship National Board of Medical Examiners [NBME] scores) were collected from 167 USU medical students from the class of 2011 and compared to individual scores on the CIS and ICE components of Step 2 CS, as well as to the communication skills component of the program directors' evaluation of trainees during their postgraduate year 1 (PGY-1) residency. In addition to bivariate Pearson correlation analysis, we conducted multiple linear regression analysis to examine the predictive power of the EEC score beyond the IM clerkship clinical points and the average NBME Subject Exams score on the outcome measures. The EEC score was a significant predictor of the CIS score and the PGY-1 communication skills score. Beyond the average NBME Subject Exams score and the IM clerkship clinical points, the EEC score
This is an encore presentation of what was presented at the 2012 AGU International Conference. It was entitled: 'ASSESSING CORE COMPETENCIES.' The poster presentation, however, has been redesigned and reorganized with new, revised perspectives. The importance of ASSESSMENT principles has been emphasized. Catherine Palomba and Trudy Banta offer the following definition of assessment, adapted from one provided by Marchese in 1987. Assessment is the systematic collection, review, and use of information about educational programs undertaken for the purpose of improving student learning and development. (Palomba and Banta 1999). Educational institutions are committing substantial resources to the establishment of dedicated technology-based laboratories, so that they will be able to accommodate and fulfill students' desire to master certain of these specific skills. This type of technology-based instruction may raise some fundamental questions about the core competencies of the student learner. Some of the most important questions are : 1. Is the utilization of these fast high-powered computers and user-friendly software programs creating a totally non-challenging instructional environment for the student learner ? 2. Can technology itself all too easily overshadow the learning outcomes intended ? 3. Are the educational institutions simply training students how to use technology rather than educating them in the appropriate field ? 4. Are we still teaching content-driven courses and analysis oriented subject matter ? 5. Are these sophisticated modern era technologies contributing to a decline in the Critical Thinking Capabilities of the 21st century technology-savvy students ? The author tries to focus on technology as a tool and not on the technology itself. He further argues that students must demonstrate that they have the have the ability to think critically before they make an attempt to use technology in a chosen application-specific environment. The author further
Merckaert, Isabelle; Delevallez, France; Gibon, Anne-Sophie; Liénard, Aurore; Libert, Yves; Delvaux, Nicole; Marchal, Serge; Etienne, Anne-Marie; Bragard, Isabelle; Reynaert, Christine; Slachmuylder, Jean-Louis; Scalliet, Pierre; Van Houtte, Paul; Coucke, Philippe; Razavi, Darius
This study assessed the efficacy of a 38-hour communication skills training program designed to train a multidisciplinary radiotherapy team. Four radiotherapy teams were randomly assigned to a training program or a waiting list. Assessments were scheduled at baseline and after training for the training group and at baseline and 4 months later for the waiting list group. Assessments included an audio recording of a radiotherapy planning session to assess team members' communication skills and expression of concerns of patients with breast cancer (analyzed with content analysis software) and an adapted European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer satisfaction with care questionnaire completed by patients at the end of radiotherapy. Two hundred thirty-seven radiotherapy planning sessions were recorded. Compared with members of the untrained teams, members of the trained teams acquired, over time, more assessment skills (P = .003) and more supportive skills (P = .050) and provided more setting information (P = .010). Over time, patients interacting with members of the trained teams asked more open questions (P = .022), expressed more emotional words (P = .025), and exhibited a higher satisfaction level regarding nurses' interventions (P = .028). The 38-hour training program facilitated transfer of team member learned communication skills to the clinical practice and improved patients' satisfaction with care. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Hambly, H; Robling, M; Crowne, E; Hood, K; Gregory, J W
To identify training needs in communication skills and to assess training preferences of staff working in paediatric diabetes services, which will inform the development of a learning programme in behaviour change counselling for healthcare professionals. Three hundred and eighty-five staff in 67 UK paediatric diabetes services were sent questionnaires to determine their previous communication skills training, to measure their self-reported view of the importance of and confidence in addressing common clinical problems and to assess the perceived feasibility of training methods to improve skillfulness. Two hundred and sixty-six questionnaires (69%) were returned from 65 services. Sixteen per cent of doctors, nurses and dietitians reported no previous training in communication skills and 47% had received no training since graduating. Respondents rated psychosocial issues as more important to address than medical issues within consultations (t = 8.93, P important component of consultations involving young people with diabetes, but healthcare professionals find it easier to address medical issues. This represents a key training need in communication skills for diabetes professionals. The survey will inform the development of a tailored learning programme for health professionals in UK paediatric diabetes clinics.
Full Text Available Background: Communication failure is a risk factor for mishaps and complaints, which can be reduced by effective communication between operating room team members and patients. Aim: To conduct a survey among anesthesiologists regarding communications skills and related issues like stress in case of communication failure, need for training, music in operation theater, and language barrier at their work place. Materials and Methods: We conducted a survey among anesthesiologists coming for a neuroanesthesia conference in India (n = 110 in February 2011 by questionnaire sent by e-mail to them. Results: The response rate was 61.8% (68/110. Majority (95.5% of the respondents agreed that good verbal communication leads to better patient outcome, better handling of crisis and is important between surgeons and anesthesiologists (98.5%. A total of 86% of the anesthesiologists felt that failure of communication caused stress to them. The idea of communication by e-mail or phone text messages instead of verbal communications was discouraged by 65.2%. A total of 82% of respondents felt that training of communication skills should be mandatory for all medical personnel and 77.6% were interested in participating in such course. Language barrier at work place was seen as hurdle by 62.7% of the respondents. A total of 80% of respondents felt that playing music in operating theater is appropriate. Conclusion: Results of the survey highlight the need for effective communication in the operating room between team members and need for formal training to improve it.
Peterson, Eleanor B; Boland, Kimberly A; Bryant, Kristina A; McKinley, Tara F; Porter, Melissa B; Potter, Katherine E; Calhoun, Aaron W
Effective communication is an essential element of medical care and a priority of medical education. Specific interventions to teach communication skills are at the discretion of individual residency programs. We developed the Resident Communication Skills Curriculum (RCSC), a formal curriculum designed to teach trainees the communication skills essential for high-quality practice. A multidisciplinary working group contributed to the development of the RCSC, guided by an institutional needs assessment, literature review, and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies. The result was a cohesive curriculum that incorporates didactic, role play, and real-life experiences over the course of the entire training period. Methods to assess curricular outcomes included self-reporting, surveys, and periodic faculty evaluations of the residents. Curricular components have been highly rated by residents (3.95-3.97 based on a 4-point Likert scale), and residents' self-reported communication skills demonstrated an improvement over the course of residency in the domains of requesting a consultation, providing effective handoffs, handling conflict, and having difficult conversations (intern median 3.0, graduate median 4.0 based on a 5-point Likert scale, P ≤ .002). Faculty evaluations of residents have also demonstrated improvement over time (intern median 3.0, graduate median 4.5 based on a 5-point Likert scale, P communication skills curriculum for pediatrics residents was implemented, with a multistep evaluative process showing improvement in skills over the course of the residency program. Positive resident evaluations and informal comments from faculty support its general acceptance. The use of existing resources makes this curriculum feasible.
Liu, Chunfeng; Scott, Karen M; Lim, Renee L; Taylor, Silas; Calvo, Rafael A
Doctors' verbal and non-verbal communication skills have an impact on patients' health outcomes, so it is important for medical students to develop these skills. Traditional, non-verbal communication skills training can involve a tutor manually annotating a student's non-verbal behaviour during patient-doctor consultations, but this is very time-consuming. Tele-conference systems have been used in verbal communication skills training. We describe EQClinic, a system that enables verbal and non-verbal communication skills training during tele-consultations with simulated patients (SPs), with evaluation exercises promoting reflection. Students and SPs can have tele-consultations through the tele-consultation component. In this component, SPs can provide feedback to students through a thumbs-up/ thumbs-down tool and a comments box. EQClinic automatically analyses communication features in the recorded consultations, such as facial expressions, and provides graphical representations. Our 2015 pilot study investigated whether EQClinic helped students be aware of their non-verbal behaviour and improve their communication skills, and evaluated the usability of the platform. Students received automated feedback, and SP and tutor evaluations, and then completed self-assessment and reflection questionnaires. Eight medical students and three SPs conducted 13 tele-consultations using EQClinic. More students paid attention to their non-verbal communication and students who were engaged in two consultations felt more confident in their second consultation. Students rated the system positively, felt comfortable using it (5.9/7), and reported that the structure (5.4/7) and information (5.8/7) were clear. This pilot provides evidence that EQClinic helps, and positively influences, medical students practise their communication skills with SPs using a tele-conference platform. It is not easy to improve non-verbal communication skills in a short time period. Further evaluation of
Full Text Available Background: Doctors’ verbal and non-verbal communication skills have an impact on patients’ health outcomes, so it is important for medical students to develop these skills. Traditional, non-verbal communication skills training can involve a tutor manually annotating a student's non-verbal behaviour during patient–doctor consultations, but this is very time-consuming. Tele-conference systems have been used in verbal communication skills training. Methods: We describe EQClinic, a system that enables verbal and non-verbal communication skills training during tele-consultations with simulated patients (SPs, with evaluation exercises promoting reflection. Students and SPs can have tele-consultations through the tele-consultation component. In this component, SPs can provide feedback to students through a thumbs-up/ thumbs-down tool and a comments box. EQClinic automatically analyses communication features in the recorded consultations, such as facial expressions, and provides graphical representations. Our 2015 pilot study investigated whether EQClinic helped students be aware of their non-verbal behaviour and improve their communication skills, and evaluated the usability of the platform. Students received automated feedback, and SP and tutor evaluations, and then completed self-assessment and reflection questionnaires. Results: Eight medical students and three SPs conducted 13 tele-consultations using EQClinic. More students paid attention to their non-verbal communication and students who were engaged in two consultations felt more confident in their second consultation. Students rated the system positively, felt comfortable using it (5.9/7, and reported that the structure (5.4/7 and information (5.8/7 were clear. This pilot provides evidence that EQClinic helps, and positively influences, medical students practise their communication skills with SPs using a tele-conference platform. Discussion: It is not easy to improve non
Perera, Jennifer; Mohamadou, Galy; Kaur, Satpal
Feedback is essential to guide students towards expected performance goals. The usefulness of teacher feedback on improving communication skills (CS) has been well documented. It has been proposed that self-assessment and peer-feedback has an equally important role to play in enhancing learning. This is the focus of this study. Objectively structured self-assessment and peer feedback (OSSP) was incorporated into small group CS teaching sessions of a group of semester one medical students who were learning CS for the first time, to minimise the influence of previous educational interventions. A control group matched for academic performance, gender and age was used to enable parallel evaluation of the innovation. A reflective log containing closed and open ended questions was used for OSSP. Facilitators and simulated patients provided feedback to students in both groups during CS learning as per routine practice. Student perceptions on OSSP and acceptability as a learning method were explored using a questionnaire. CS were assessed in both groups using objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) as per routine practice and assessors were blinded as to which group the student belonged. Mean total score and scores for specific areas of interview skills were significantly higher in the experimental group. Analysis of the questionnaire data showed that students gained fresh insights into specific areas such as empathy, addressing patients' concerns and interview style during OSSP which clearly corroborated the specific differences in scores. The free text comments were highly encouraging as to acceptability of OSSP, in spite of 67% being never exposed to formal self- and peer-assessment during pre-university studies. OSSP promotes effective CS learning and learner acceptability is high.
Paternotte, Emma; Scheele, Fedde; Seeleman, Conny M; Bank, Lindsay; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van Dulmen, Sandra
Intercultural communication (ICC) between doctors and patients is often associated with misunderstandings and dissatisfaction. To develop ICC-specific medical education, it is important to find out which ICC skills medical specialists currently apply in daily clinical consultations. Doctor-patient consultations of Dutch doctors with non-Dutch patients were videotaped in a multi-ethnic hospital in the Netherlands. The consultations were analyzed using the validated MAAS-Global assessment list in combination with factors influencing ICC, as described in the literature. In total, 39 videotaped consultations were analyzed. The doctors proved to be capable of practising many communication skills, such as listening and empathic communication behaviour. Other skills were not practised, such as being culturally aware and checking the patient's language ability. We showed that doctors did practice some but not all the relevant ICC skills and that the ICC style of the doctors was mainly biomedically centred. Furthermore, we discussed the possible overlap between intercultural and patient-centred communication. Implications for practice could be to implement the relevant ICC skills in the existing communication training or develop a communication training with a patient-centred approach including ICC skills.
Brown, Richard F; Owens, Myra; Bradley, Cathy
Cancer patients face difficulties in accessing legally mandated benefits and accommodations when they return to the workplace. Poor employer-employee communication inflates these difficulties. Although proven methods to facilitate physician-patient communication exist, these have not been applied to the workplace. Thus, we aimed to assess the feasibility and utility of applying these methods to educate patients about their workplace rights and provide them with communication skills training to aid their conversations with their employers. A DVD was produced to educate patients and facilitate workplace communication. Participants consisted of 28 solid tumor cancer patients (14 women and 14 men) who completed primary cancer treatment in the past 12 months and were employed at the time of diagnosis. Participants watched a communication skills training DVD and completed a telephone interview. The interview elicited information about workplace experiences and evaluation of the DVD training program. The physician-patient communication skills training model utilized was successfully translated to the employer-employee setting. All but one participant found the DVD useful and easy to understand and indicated a high degree of confidence in using the communication skills to help them ask for workplace accommodations. All participants agreed that it would help newly diagnosed patients in discussions with their employers. Our data provides promising preliminary evidence that patient communication skills training can be applied to the workplace setting and is a welcomed aid to newly diagnosed cancer patients in their discussions with employers regarding the impact of treatment on their work performance and needs for accommodations. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Wardrope, William J.
Determines business department chairs' ratings of topics typically covered in the business communication course. Indicates that department chairs perceive writing skills to be more important to business communication courses than other communication skills, such as speaking, technology-mediated communication, interpersonal communication,…
Burke, Lynsey A.; Williams, Joanne M.
This paper is linked to a previous paper outlining an evaluation of a thinking skills intervention (Burke & Williams, 2008). Following extensive requests for the assessment tools used in the intervention, this short paper presents the development and potential uses of two thinking skills assessment tools. The aim of the paper is simply to make…
Harris, Roma M.; Michell, B. Gillian
Public library users made judgments about the competence of reference librarians whom they observed in videotaped interviews. Two social factors were varied in the interviews: the gender of the librarian, patron, and observers; and the communication behavior exhibited by the reference librarian toward the patron. Nineteen references are cited.…
von Lengerke, Thomas; Kursch, Angelika; Lange, Karin
In the model medical curriculum HannibaL at Hannover Medical School (MHH, Hannover, Germany), communication skills in taking case histories and disclosing diagnoses (breaking bad news) are assessed through an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). This is part of the examinations which at the MHH represent the equivalent to the First Part of the Medical Examinations. The second year doctor-patient communication course preparing for these examinations was evaluated during the 2009/10 academic year.Using questionnaires specific to the learning objectives, learning needs were assessed, pre-post comparisons of self-assessed competencies were performed and key teaching methods were evaluated (5-point Likert scales, "5"=fully agree). At T0 (start of the course) 267 students participated (response rate: 93.7%), of which 180 filled out the T1 questionnaire during the last session of the course (67.4%). Within-subject analyses of variance and paired t-tests were conducted.The highest learning needs were found for the "to show how"-items regarding history taking and disclosing diagnoses (M=4.4). The T1-T0 comparisons showed the greatest improvements for history taking ("to know how": mean difference = +1.7, "to show how": +1.8, pdecision making (+1.2), self-assessing one's own strengths/weaknesses (+1.0) and confidently approaching new patients (+0.7). Students with T0 values of 1 or 2 on the respective scales improved on average by 2.2 points across all items, students with the value of 3 by 1.1, and from 4 or 5 by 0.1. Methodically, the use of simulated patients was rated the most helpful (M=4.8, 87% with the scale value 5). This doctor-patient communication course is associated with substantial improvements regarding all key learning objectives. Regarding methods, the deployed simulated patients (2-4 per 10-student-course group in 3 of the 7 course sessions, respectively) were rated the most helpful. The present evaluation calls for both further development of
L. Celeste Rossetto
Full Text Available Financial planners need to have solid knowledge of a range of financial concepts and be adeptcommunicators. Australian universities comprehensively ground students in the necessary contentknowledge for their future careers, however, scant attention is paid to the indispensable communication skillsthat students will need when they enter the professional arena. Students need to accumulate financialplanning knowledge but they also have to interact with clients and peers in a business where they willnegotiate a professional identity for themselves that will serve their specific expertise. It takes time to developthese skills and to assume a professional identity. The focus of our paper is how to engender this persona atthe same time as the students acquire their knowledge. We focus on strategies and activities that were used toembed professional communication skills within a financial planning subject in a regional university throughexperiential learning and authentic tasks.
Shane A. Gordon
Full Text Available In 1993 the General Medical Council (GMC published Tomorrow's Doctors, a set of recommendations for medical education. Much of this document was concerned with the training of communication skills and how this could be improved. This recommendation follows decades of evidence about the importance of communication from many widely respected medical teachers from every discipline: Doctors can discharge (their important tasks effectively only if they possess the relevant skills. Unfortunately, many do not appear to acquire them during their professional training. (Maguire, 1981 There appears to be a failure sometimes to notice what is really being said… the doctor avoids the acute discomfort of being aware of a problem in which he would rather not get involved. (Norell, 1972.
One of the biggest challenges facing the career and technical education (CTE) community as it works to implement the 2006 Perkins Act is responding to more rigorous requirements for reporting on CTE students' technical skill attainment. The U.S. Department of Education suggested in non-regulatory guidance that states and locals use the number of…
Full Text Available Objective Communication between the surgeon and the patient is a core clinical skill. The ability to communicate with patients and their family members is very important in the optimum care of the surgical patient. Few studies have assessed communication between surgical trainees and their patients in sub-Saharan Africa. In response to this, the communication skills of residents in the department of surgery were evaluated to determine their perception of competency and perceived need for training in communication skills as a basis for developing an effective education programme. Method A survey of patient care - related communication skills among surgery residents and assessment of competence, rating the importance and perceived need for training in communication skills. Results Most residents rated their skills as either fairly or extremely competent in all areas except in providing bereavement counseling. They found all skills important and indicated a need for training in them. Senior registrars rated their competence and the importance higher in skills relating to breaking bad news, educating and preparing patients and families for surgery and encouraging them to express their anxieties. (p 0.05. Conclusion Residents face difficult communication challenges with patients and their families. There is a dire need for improved education in communication skills. Understanding the surgical trainees perceptions of patient care related communication skills is the first step in designing an effective education programme.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although it is taken for granted that history-taking and communication skills are learnable, this learning process should be confirmed by rigorous studies, such as randomized pre- and post-comparisons. The purpose of this paper is to analyse whether a communication course measurably improves the communicative competence of third-year medical students at a German medical school and whether technical or emotional aspects of communication changed differently. Method A sample of 32 randomly selected students performed an interview with a simulated patient before the communication course (pre-intervention and a second interview after the course (post-intervention, using the Calgary-Cambridge Observation Guide (CCOG to assess history taking ability. Results On average, the students improved in all of the 28 items of the CCOG. The 6 more technically-orientated communication items improved on average from 3.4 for the first interview to 2.6 in the second interview (p Conclusions Our communication course measurably improved communication skills, especially for female students. These improvements did not depend predominantly on an extension of the interview time. Obviously, “technical” aspects of communication can be taught better than “emotional” communication skills.
The study enlightens the effectiveness of Multimedia Package in learning communicative skill in English. Objectives of the study: To prepare a Multimedia Package for developing communicative skill in English. To find out the impact of Multimedia Package in improving communicative skill in English. Quasi Experimental method was adopted in the…
Palumbo, Mary Val; Sandoval, Marie; Hart, Vicki; Drill, Clarissa
This pilot study investigated nurse practitioner students' communication skills when utilizing the electronic health record during history taking. The nurse practitioner students (n = 16) were videotaped utilizing the electronic health record while taking health histories with standardized patients. The students were videotaped during two separate sessions during one semester. Two observers recorded the time spent (1) typing and talking, (2) typing only, and (3) looking at the computer without talking. Total history taking time, computer placement, and communication skills were also recorded. During the formative session, mean history taking time was 11.4 minutes, with 3.5 minutes engaged with the computer (30.6% of visit). During the evaluative session, mean history taking time was 12.4 minutes, with 2.95 minutes engaged with the computer (24% of visit). The percentage of time individuals spent changed over the two visits: typing and talking, -3.1% (P = .3); typing only, +12.8% (P = .038); and looking at the computer, -9.6% (P = .039). This study demonstrated that time spent engaged with the computer during a patient encounter does decrease with student practice and education. Therefore, students benefit from instruction on electronic health record-specific communication skills, and use of a simple mnemonic to reinforce this is suggested.
Kranenburg, Laura J C; Reerds, Sam T H; Cools, Martine
BACKGROUND: Information sharing in chronic conditions such as disorders of/differences in sex development (DSD) is essential for a comprehensive understanding by parents and patients. We report on a qualitative analysis of communication skills of fellows undergoing training in paediatric endocrin...
Ford, Sarah; Hall, Angela
The Medical Interaction Process System (MIPS) was originally developed in order to create a reliable observation tool for analysing doctor-patient encounters in the oncology setting. This paper reports a series of analyses carried out to establish whether the behaviour categories of the MIPS can discriminate between skilled and less skilled communicators. This involved the use of MIPS coded cancer consultations to compare the MIPS indices of 10 clinicians evaluated by an independent professional as skilled communicators with 10 who were considered less skilled. Eleven out of the 15 MIPS variables tested were able to distinguish the skilled from the less skilled group. Although limitations to the study are discussed, the results indicate that the MIPS has satisfactory discriminatory power and the results provide validity data that meet key objectives for developing the system. There is an ever-increasing need for reliable methods of assessing doctors' communication skills and evaluating medical interview teaching programmes. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Clokie, Trish L.; Fourie, Elna
This research establishes the role of communication education in employability by determining how employers of graduates view communication, identifying communication skills that employers view as relevant, and establishing whether these skills are included in communication courses. To achieve these aims, local businesses were surveyed, and the…
Harnof, Sagi; Hadani, Moshe; Ziv, Amitai; Berkenstadt, Haim
Communication skills are an important component of the neurosurgery residency training program. We developed a simulation-based training module for neurosurgery residents in which medical, communication and ethical dilemmas are presented by role-playing actors. To assess the first national simulation-based communication skills training for neurosurgical residents. Eight scenarios covering different aspects of neurosurgery were developed by our team: (1) obtaining informed consent for an elective surgery, (2) discharge of a patient following elective surgery, (3) dealing with an unsatisfied patient, (4) delivering news of intraoperative complications, (5) delivering news of a brain tumor to parents of a 5 year old boy, (6) delivering news of brain death to a family member, (7) obtaining informed consent for urgent surgery from the grandfather of a 7 year old boy with an epidural hematoma, and (8) dealing with a case of child abuse. Fifteen neurosurgery residents from all major medical centers in Israel participated in the training. The session was recorded on video and was followed by videotaped debriefing by a senior neurosurgeon and communication expert and by feedback questionnaires. All trainees participated in two scenarios and observed another two. Participants largely agreed that the actors simulating patients represented real patients and family members and that the videotaped debriefing contributed to the teaching of professional skills. Simulation-based communication skill training is effective, and together with thorough debriefing is an excellent learning and practical method for imparting communication skills to neurosurgery residents. Such simulation-based training will ultimately be part of the national residency program.
Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of frequent feedback on residents' communication skills as measured by a standardized checklist. Five medical students were recruited in order to assess twelve emergency medicine residents' communication skills during a one-year period. Students employed a modified checklist based on Calgary-Cambridge observation guide. The checklist was designed by faculty members of Tehran University of Medical Science, used for assessment of students' communication skills. 24 items from 71 items of observational guide were selected, considering study setting and objects. Every two months an expert faculty, based on descriptive results of observation, gave structured feedback to each resident during a 15-minute private session. Total mean score for baseline observation standing at 20.58 was increased significantly to 28.75 after feedbacks. Results markedly improved on "gathering information" (T1=5.5, T6=8.33, P=0.001, "building relationship" (T1=1.5, T6=4.25, P<0.001 and "closing the session" (T1=0.75, T6=2.5, P=0.001 and it mildly dropped on "understanding patients view" (T1=3, T6=2.33, P=0.007 and "providing structure" (T1=4.17, T6=4.00, P=0.034. Changes in result of "initiating the session" and "explanation and planning" dimensions are not statically significant (P=0.159, P=0.415 respectively. Frequent feedback provided by faculty member can improve residents' communication skills. Feedback can affect communication skills educational programs, and it can be more effective if it is combined with other educational methods.
Labaf, Ali; Jamali, Kazem; Jalili, Mohammad; Baradaran, Hamid R; Eizadi, Parisa
To evaluate the effect of frequent feedback on residents' communication skills as measured by a standardized checklist. Five medical students were recruited in order to assess twelve emergency medicine residents' communication skills during a one-year period. Students employed a modified checklist based on Calgary-Cambridge observation guide. The checklist was designed by faculty members of Tehran University of Medical Science, used for assessment of students' communication skills. 24 items from 71 items of observational guide were selected, considering study setting and objects. Every two months an expert faculty, based on descriptive results of observation, gave structured feedback to each resident during a 15-minute private session. Total mean score for baseline observation standing at 20.58 was increased significantly to 28.75 after feedbacks. Results markedly improved on "gathering information" (T1=5.5, T6=8.33, P=0.001), "building relationship" (T1=1.5, T6=4.25, P<0.001) and "closing the session" (T1=0.75, T6=2.5, P=0.001) and it mildly dropped on "understanding patients view" (T1=3, T6=2.33, P=0.007) and "providing structure" (T1=4.17, T6=4.00, P=0.034). Changes in result of "initiating the session" and "explanation and planning" dimensions are not statically significant (P=0.159, P=0.415 respectively). Frequent feedback provided by faculty member can improve residents' communication skills. Feedback can affect communication skills educational programs, and it can be more effective if it is combined with other educational methods.
Clarke, Patricia; Schull, Daniel; Coleman, Glen; Pitt, Rachael; Manathunga, Catherine
Veterinary technology is an emerging profession within the veterinary and allied animal health fields in Australia and affords graduates the opportunity to contribute to the small but growing body of literature within this discipline. This study describes the introduction of a contextualised assessment task to develop students' research…
Carvalho, Irene P; Pais, Vanessa G; Almeida, Susana S; Ribeiro-Silva, Raquel; Figueiredo-Braga, Margarida; Teles, Ana; Castro-Vale, Ivone; Mota-Cardoso, Rui
To assess the effects of a communication skills program on professional practitioners' performance and self-confidence in clinical interviewing. Twenty-five health professionals took 3 months of basic communication skills followed by 3 months of advanced communication skills. An additional quarter dealt with self-awareness and communication in special situations. Participants' performances were evaluated in clinical interviews with standardized patients before, during and after the program by external observers and standardized patients, using standardized instruments. Participants assessed their own confidence in their communication skills before and after the program. Data were analysed using GLM repeated-measures procedures in SPSS. Basic communication skills and self-confidence improved throughout the 6 months; competencies declined but self-confidence continued to increase 4 months later. Compared with taking no course, differences were statistically significant after the 6 months (external observers only) and 4 months later (external observers and participants). The program effectively improved communication skills, although significantly only when assessed by external observers. Four months later, effects were significant in communication skills (external observers), despite the decline and in self-confidence. While periodical enrollment in programs for the practice of communication skills may help maintain performance, more knowledge on communication and self-awareness may enhance self-confidence. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
The purpose of this study was to examine communication skills, interpersonal problem solving skills, and social self-efficacy perception of adolescents and the predictive role of communication skills and interpersonal problem solving skills on social self-efficacy. This study is a quantitative and relational study aimed at examining the…
Crossley, Jim; Eiser, Christine; Davies, Helena A
Only a patient and his or her family can judge many of the most important aspects of the doctor-patient interaction. This study evaluates the feasibility and reliability of children and their families assessing the quality of paediatricians' interactions using a rating instrument developed specifically for this purpose. A reliability analysis using generalisability theory on the ratings from 352 doctor-patient interactions across different speciality clinics. Ratings were normally distributed. They were highest for 'overall' performance, and lowest for giving time to discuss the families' agenda. An appropriate sample of adults' ratings provided a reliable score (G = 0.7 with 15 raters), but children's ratings were too idiosyncratic to be reproducible (G = 0.36 with 15 raters). CONCLUSIONS AND FURTHER WORK: Accompanying adults can provide reliable ratings of doctors' interactions with children. Because an adult is usually present at the consultation their ratings provide a highly feasible and authentic approach. Sampling doctors' interactions from different clinics and with patients of both genders provides a universal picture of performance. The method is ideal to measure performance for in-training assessment or revalidation. Further work is in progress to evaluate the educational impact of feeding ratings back to the doctors being assessed, and their use in a range of clinical contexts.
Simmenroth-Nayda, Anne; Weiss, Cora; Fischer, Thomas; Himmel, Wolfgang
Although it is taken for granted that history-taking and communication skills are learnable, this learning process should be confirmed by rigorous studies, such as randomized pre- and post-comparisons. The purpose of this paper is to analyse whether a communication course measurably improves the communicative competence of third-year medical students at a German medical school and whether technical or emotional aspects of communication changed differently. A sample of 32 randomly selected students performed an interview with a simulated patient before the communication course (pre-intervention) and a second interview after the course (post-intervention), using the Calgary-Cambridge Observation Guide (CCOG) to assess history taking ability. On average, the students improved in all of the 28 items of the CCOG. The 6 more technically-orientated communication items improved on average from 3.4 for the first interview to 2.6 in the second interview (p < 0.0001), the 6 emotional items from 2.7 to 2.3 (p = 0.023). The overall score for women improved from 3.2 to 2.5 (p = 0.0019); male students improved from 3.0 to 2.7 (n.s.). The mean interview time significantly increased from the first to the second interview, but the increase in the interview duration and the change of the overall score for the students' communication skills were not correlated (Pearson's r = 0.03; n.s.). Our communication course measurably improved communication skills, especially for female students. These improvements did not depend predominantly on an extension of the interview time. Obviously, "technical" aspects of communication can be taught better than "emotional" communication skills.
This paper is an analysis of the challenge of assessing student learning and how that is affected by using descriptions of competencies as a core element when describing the aims of the learning process. Assessment is modelled as a three step process; characterising, identifying and judging, to a...
A Ibrahim; Z I Delia; M E Asuku; T Dahiru
Objective Communication between the surgeon and the patient is a core clinical skill. The ability to communicate with patients and their family members is very important in the optimum care of the surgical patient. Few studies have assessed communication between surgical trainees and their patients in sub-Saharan Africa. In response to this, the communication skills of residents in the department of surgery were evaluated to determine their perception of competency and perceived need for ...
Juni Bayu Saputra
This article points out the results of the study attempting to solve the speaking problem faced by students in one of the Higher School of Teacher Training and Education (STKIP in Central Lampung. For the purpose of the topic, 30 fellow students were selected as the subject. Research method was Classroom Action Research with Kemmis and Taggart model. It was conducted for about four cycles. According to the results of speaking test, findings showed that using Communicative Language Teaching (CLT had positive meaningful effect on improving students’ speaking skill. To sum up, CLT is an effective method to teach speaking to the subject.
Spanager, Lene; Konge, Lars; Dieckmann, Peter
BACKGROUND: Trainee surgeons would benefit from regular, formative assessments to ensure they learn the nontechnical aspects of surgical performance. Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons in Denmark (NOTSSdk) is a tool to assess surgeons' nontechnical skills (NTS) during an operation. The aims...... of this study were to explore which parts of NOTSSdk supervisors use to assess trainee surgeons' NTS, to determine the internal consistency reliability of NOTSSdk, and to estimate how many operations were needed to obtain reliable ratings of a trainee surgeon's NTS. METHODS: A total of 12 supervisors from 2...
Smith, Gerald F.
The development of student thinking skills is a major goal of business education. As with other such goals, student outcomes assessment must be undertaken to measure goal achievement. Thinking is difficult to teach; it is also difficult to assess. The purpose of this article is to improve management educators' understanding of student thinking…
van Empel, P.J.; Verdam, M.G.E.; Huirne, J.A.; Bonjer, H.J.; Meijerink, W.J.; Scheele, F.
Aim: Open knot-tying and suturing skills are fundamental surgical skills, founding many alternative knot-tying techniques. It is therefore mandatory for residents to possess adequate basic open knot-tying skills. The aim of this study was to compare an objective assessment of open knot-tying skills
Haldane, Sarah; Hinchcliff, Kenneth; Mansell, Peter; Baik, Chi
Good communication skills are an important entry-level attribute of graduates of professional degrees. The inclusion of communication training within the curriculum can be problematic, particularly in programs with a high content load, such as veterinary science. This study examined the differences between the perceptions of students and qualified veterinarians with regards to the entry-level communication skills required of new graduates in clinical practice. Surveys were distributed to students in each of the four year levels of the veterinary science degree at the University of Melbourne and to recent graduates and experienced veterinarians registered in Victoria, Australia. Respondents were asked to rank the relative importance of six different skill sets: knowledge base; medical and technical skills; surgical skills; verbal communication and interpersonal skills; written communication skills; and critical thinking and problem solving. They were then asked to rate the importance of specific communication skills for new graduate veterinarians. Veterinarians and students ranked verbal communication and interpersonal skills as the most important skill set for an entry-level veterinarian. Veterinarians considered many new graduates to be deficient in these skills. Students often felt they lacked confidence in this area. This has important implications for veterinary educators in terms of managing the expectations of students and improving the delivery of communication skills courses within the veterinary curriculum.
Riley, Tracey J.; Simons, Kathleen A.
Given the importance of effective written communication skills to the discipline of accounting, faculty must emphasize these skills in their classroom in order to adequately prepare students for successful careers in the field. Since 2000, only two studies in the accounting literature have examined which written communication skills are needed by…
Sánchez Expósito, Judit; Leal Costa, César; Díaz Agea, José Luis; Carrillo Izquierdo, María Dolores; Jiménez Rodríguez, Diana
The aim of this study was to analyse the communication skills of students in interactions with simulated critically-ill patients using a new assessment tool to study the relationships between communication skills, teamwork and clinical skills and to analyse the psychometric properties of the tool. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the communications skills of 52 students with critically-ill patients through the use of a new measurement tool to score video recordings of simulated clinical scenarios. The 52 students obtained low scores on their skills in communicating with patients. The reliability of the measuring instrument showed good inter-observer agreement (ICC between 0.71 and 0.90) and the validity yielded a positive correlation (pskills when communicating with critically ill patients in simulated scenarios. The measuring instrument used is therefore deemed valid and reliable for assessing nursing students through a clinical simulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nielsen, Annegrethe; Ringby, Betina
Understanding the ability to communicate with patients as a central clinical skill, the importance of developing communication teaching in healthcare educations is obvious. Following the establishment of a room specially equipped for training communication skills in 2010, implementation of commun......Understanding the ability to communicate with patients as a central clinical skill, the importance of developing communication teaching in healthcare educations is obvious. Following the establishment of a room specially equipped for training communication skills in 2010, implementation....... As a result of the combination of easy access to technical resources in the dedicated room and the opportunity to continuously develop the facilitation skills needed to train students, communication skills training has been integrated in the curriculum of all five healthcare educational programmes....
Isaias, Pedro; Issa, Tomayess
This paper aims to examine the value of communication skills learning process through various assessments in Information Systems (IS) postgraduate units in Australia and Portugal. Currently, communication skills are indispensable to students in expanding their social networks and their knowledge at university and in the future workplace, since…
Dehaghani, Abdollah Rezaei; Akhormeh, Kobra Ahmadi; Mehrabi, Tayyebeh
The worldwide nursing shortage is threatening the quality of healthcare. The two most common causes in maintaining nurses are job satisfaction, a positive working environment, and good relationships among staff. This study aimed to determine the effect of interpersonal communication skills training on job satisfaction among the nurses working in Al-Zahra Hospital affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran, in 2011. This study was a quasi-experimental research with two groups and two phases, and was carried out on 70 nurses from Al-Zahra University Hospital. Only nurses who had been employed for more than one year were accepted into the study. There were 35 nurses in the test group and 35 nurses in the control group. The study questionnaire included personal details and job satisfaction scale by Smith and Kendall. Sampling was done randomly and nurses were divided into test and control groups. In the test group, the communication skills training program was done in 6 sessions, twice a week and each session was held for 2 hours. The questionnaire was completed in two stages; before, and two months after the study. Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics through SPSS Software version 18. Findings showed that pre-intervention mean score of job satisfaction of nurses in both groups had no significant difference (p = 0.92). After the communication skills training program in the experimental group, mean score of job satisfaction increased and it was significant compared to the control group (p interpersonal communication skills training program increased the mean score of job satisfaction in the test group. Therefore, it seems necessary that nursing managers design training programs for them.
Bennett, Kellie; Lyons, Zaza
The importance of teaching communication skills in any undergraduate medical curriculum cannot be overstated. Effective doctor-patient communication is widely recognised as an essential aspect of quality patient care. A communication skills module developed for first year medical students at the University of Western Australia (UWA) is described…
Feraco, Angela M.; Brand, Sarah R.; Mack, Jennifer W.; Kesselheim, Jennifer C.; Block, Susan D.; Wolfe, Joanne
Communication is central to pediatric oncology care. Pediatric oncologists disclose life-threatening diagnoses, explain complicated treatment options, and endeavor to give honest prognoses, to maintain hope, to describe treatment complications, and to support families in difficult circumstances ranging from loss of function and fertility to treatment-related or disease-related death. However, parents, patients, and providers report substantial communication deficits. Poor communication outcomes may stem, in part, from insufficient communication skills training, overreliance on role modeling, and failure to utilize best practices. This review summarizes evidence for existing methods to enhance communication skills and calls for revitalizing communication skills training within pediatric oncology. PMID:26822066
Communication is a fundamental element of care at every level of nursing practice. It is important, therefore, for nurse managers to create environments that promote and encourage good communication, and help nurses to develop their communication skills formally and informally. This article discusses the effects of communication on the quality of care. It examines nurses' professional duty to maintain good communication skills and how managers can help them do this. It also discusses nurse managers' communication skills in the context of leadership style, conflict resolution and self-awareness. Finally, it considers the notion of shared governance as good practice.
Feraco, Angela M; Brand, Sarah R; Mack, Jennifer W; Kesselheim, Jennifer C; Block, Susan D; Wolfe, Joanne
Communication is central to pediatric oncology care. Pediatric oncologists disclose life-threatening diagnoses, explain complicated treatment options, and endeavor to give honest prognoses, to maintain hope, to describe treatment complications, and to support families in difficult circumstances ranging from loss of function and fertility to treatment-related or disease-related death. However, parents, patients, and providers report substantial communication deficits. Poor communication outcomes may stem, in part, from insufficient communication skills training, overreliance on role modeling, and failure to utilize best practices. This review summarizes evidence for existing methods to enhance communication skills and calls for revitalizing communication skills training within pediatric oncology. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
a comprehensive clinical model and a “golden thread” for communication skills in the ... sity, South Africa, based on the primary ..... Planning: shared decision making ... Explanation and planning. Incorporate clinical reasoning skills. Develop.
Managheb, S. E.; Zamani, A.; Shams, B.; Farajzadegan, Z.
Background: Effective communication is essential to the practice of high-quality medicine. There are methodological challenges in communication skills training. This study was performed in order to assess the educational benefits of communication skills training by video feedback method versus traditional formats such as lectures on clinical…
Ani Yuningsih; Dadan Mulyana
Communication strategies and skills supported by mutually supportive management tools are one of the managerial skills that must be mastered by private university (PTS) leaders. Leadership communication skills and style will form organizational communication patterns that will become the foundation for a healthy and effective organizational climate to develop its vision and mission. This research is done by using case study method at some PTS which is representation of PTS profile in West Jav...
The Wisconsin Technical College System (WTCS) is working to comply with the Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Improvement Act of 2006 (Perkins) to ensure that its graduates have mastered the technical skills needed by business and industry. The legislation requires that each state identify and approve program assessment strategies…
Sharma, Bharat; Mishra, Amit; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Grantcharov, Teodor P
Adverse events in surgery have highlighted the importance of non-technical skills, such as communication, decision-making, teamwork, situational awareness and leadership, to effective organizational performance. These skills carry particular importance to surgical oncology, as members of a multidisciplinary team must work cohesively to formulate effective patient care plans. Several non-technical skills evaluation tools have been developed for use in surgery, without adequate comparison and consensus on which should be standard for training. Eleven articles describing the use of three non-technical evaluation tools related to surgery: NOTSS (Non Technical Skills for Surgeons), NOTECHS (Non Technical Skills) and OTAS (Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery) were analyzed with respect to scale formulation, validity, reliability and feasibility. Furthermore, their use in training thus far and the future of non-technical rating scales in surgical curricula was discussed. Future work should focus on incorporating these assessment tools into training and into a real operating room setting to provide formative evaluations for surgical residents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Both the information technology (IT) industry and the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) demand soft-skill training in higher education and require IT graduates to demonstrate competence in interpersonal communication, teamwork, and conflict management. Group projects provide teamwork environment for soft-skill training, but…
Inaba, Michiko; Bell, Christina; Tamura, Bruce; Kasuya, Richard; Masaki, Kamal
Good clinician-family communication is essential for the provision of high-quality patient care. Families rate the communication skills of clinicians as critical clinical skills. However, there has been no structured training of fellow communication skills while leading family meetings in the University of Hawai'i Geriatric Medicine Fellowship Program. Effective training to develop communication skills with families will better prepare Geriatric Medicine fellows for this important task, and ultimately improve the quality of care they provide to these patients and patients' families.
Van Nuland, Marc; Thijs, Gabie; Van Royen, Paul; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Goedhuys, Jo
To explore the views and experiences of general practice (GP) vocational trainees regarding communication skills (CS) and the teaching and learning of these skills. A purposive sample of second and third (final) year GP trainees took part in six focus group (FG) discussions. Transcripts were coded and analysed in accordance with a grounded theory approach by two investigators using Alas-ti software. Finally results were triangulated by means of semi-structured telephone interviews. The analysis led to three thematic clusters: (1) trainees acknowledge the essential importance of communication skills and identified contextual factors influencing the learning and application of these skills; (2) trainees identified preferences for learning and receiving feedback on their communication skills; and (3) trainees perceived that the assessment of communication skills is subjective. These themes are organised into a framework for a better understanding of trainees' communication skills as part of their vocational training. The framework helps in leading to a better understanding of the way in which trainees learn and apply communication skills. The unique context of vocational training should be taken into account when trainees' communication skills are assessed. The teaching and learning should be guided by a learner-centred approach. The framework is valuable for informing curricular reform and future research.
Banerjee, Smita C; Manna, Ruth; Coyle, Nessa; Penn, Stacey; Gallegos, Tess E; Zaider, Talia; Krueger, Carol A; Bialer, Philip A; Bylund, Carma L; Parker, Patricia A
Many nurses express difficulty in communicating with their patients, especially in oncology settings where there are numerous challenges and high-stake decisions during the course of diagnosis and treatment. Providing specific training in communication skills is one way to enhance the communication between nurses and their patients. We developed and implemented a communication skills training program for nurses, consisting of three teaching modules: responding empathically to patients; discussing death, dying, and end-of-life goals of care; and responding to challenging interactions with families. Training included didactic and experiential small group role plays. This paper presents results on program evaluation, self-efficacy, and behavioral demonstration of learned communication skills. Three hundred forty-two inpatient oncology nurses participated in a 1-day communication skills training program and completed course evaluations, self-reports, and pre- and post-standardized patient assessments. Participants rated the training favorably, and they reported significant gains in self-efficacy in their ability to communicate with patients in various contexts. Participants also demonstrated significant improvement in several empathic skills, as well as in clarifying skill. Our work demonstrates that implementation of a nurse communication skills training program at a major cancer center is feasible and acceptable and has a significant impact on participants' self-efficacy and uptake of communication skills.
Loureiro, Elizabete M; Severo, Milton; Bettencourt, Paulo; Ferreira, Maria A
Results of third year medical students' attitudes and stress levels towards the acquisition of communication skills before and after a Communication and Clinical Skills Course (CCSC) at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Porto (FMUP), Portugal, are presented. 115 students attending third-year CCSC completed a demographic questionnaire, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Communication Skills Attitudes Scale and Interpersonal Behavior Survey. Significant negative correlation was found between anxiety levels and attitudes towards learning communication skills in general as well as the teaching and learning process. At the end of the Course students reported that when compared to the start, their communication skills are less sufficient. At the end of this CCSC at FMUP, students recognized its major importance and how they need to invest and improve communication skills. However, it seems important to monitor the attitudes and anxiety levels of students towards patient care and communication during the medical course and to identify ways of overcoming barriers towards learning communication skills. It is recommended that there should be a complete (transversal and vertical) integration of communication skills, including effective teaching methods, assessments, and examinations in order to be valued by the students. This would necessitate curricular changes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Samant, Rajiv; Aivas, Inge; Bourque, Jean-Marc; Tucker, Tara
Shared decision making (SDM) and effective communication are essential components of cancer care. Residents in oncology-related specialties were surveyed about communication skills and SDM. The response rate was 77% (17/22), and 93% stated that communication skills were very important for their specialty. Most (76%) thought their communication skills were adequate, but areas of difficulty included discussing end-of-life issues, giving hope when the prognosis was bleak and dealing with hostile patients. Only 58% of respondents had heard the term SDM, and 29% were aware of its meaning. More SDM and communication training are required for future oncology physicians.
McDermott, M.P.; Cobb, M.A.; Tischler, Victoria; Robbé, I.J.; Dean, R.S.
A survey was conducted among veterinary practitioners in the UK and the USA in 2012/2013. Thematic analysis was used to identify underlying reasons behind answers to questions about the importance of communication skills and the desire to participate in postgraduate communication skills training. Lack of training among more experienced veterinary surgeons, incomplete preparation of younger practitioners and differences in ability to communicate all contribute to gaps in communication competen...
In this work communication skills of students of a bachelor program of nursing of the second and the third year at Faculty of Health and Social Studies, University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice were assessed. Communication skills are important both for successful study at university and for successful work in healthcare services. They especially important for nurses who build very close relationships with patients. There are four parts of the bachelor thesis: 1. theory of communication...
Ayuob, Nasra Naeim; Qadi, Mahdi Ali; El Deek, Basem Salama; Boker, Abdulaziz Mohamed
To evaluate the effect of using peer role-playing in learning the communication skills as a step in the development of the communication skills training course delivered to pre-clinical medical students. This study was conducted at the King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, between September 2014 and February 2015 and comprised medical students. Mixed methods design was used to evaluate the developed communication skills training course. Tests were conducted before and after the communication skills training course to assess the students' self-reported communication. After the course, the students completed a satisfaction survey. Focus groups were conducted to assess the behavioural and organisational changes induced by the course. SPSS 16 was used for data analysis.. Of the293 respondents, 246(84%) were satisfied with the course. Overall, 169(58%) subjects chose the lectures as the most helpful methods for learning the communication skills while 124(42%) considered practical sessions as the most helpful method. Besides, 237(81%) respondents reported that the role-play was beneficial for their learning, while 219(75%) perceived the video-taped role-play as an appropriate method for assessing the communication skills. Peer role-play was found to be a feasible and well-perceived alternative method in facilitating the acquisition of communication skills..
Luc Behaghel; Eve Caroli; Emmanuelle Walkowiak
Following the adoption of information and communication technologies (ICT), firms are likely to face increasing skill requirements. They may react either by training or hiring the new skills, or by a combination of both. We first show that ICT are indeed skill biased and we then assess the relative importance of external and internal labour market strategies. We show that skill upgrading following ICT adoption takes place mostly through internal labour markets adjustments. The introduction of...
Malary, Mina; Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Pourasghar, Mehdi; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab
physical problems during pregnancy including Anxiety disorders form a large share of health problems. On the other hand, healthy relationship and communication skills are vital to raise a family. For couples who enjoy communication skills, parenthood will be the best and most pleasant experiences in their lives. High levels of positive communication will lead to couples and their children's mental health and couples' good relationship can have a protective effect against stressors including anxiety of pregnancy. The current study reviewed the studies on the relationship between communication skills and the anxiety of pregnancy. The current study is a review where the researcher browsed the available databases like Google Scholar, Pubmed, Magiran, SID, and Science Direct and using key words of Communication skills, marital satisfaction, and the anxiety of pregnancy, & the researcher has searched the articles of 2000-2014 & read 150 abstracts & 93 full papers and ultimately, chose 50 to write this study. By reviewing the findings literature in three general categories as Communication Skills as the Significant Component to Get Marital Satisfaction, Improving Marital Satisfaction as Pregnancy Anxiety Reducing Factor, and Communication Skills Quality as Component Influencing Pregnancy Anxiety. Having communication skills will lead to promotion of marital satisfaction and increased mental health in life. It is, therefore, recommended that communication skills be trained in routine programs for pre-marriage counseling, pre-pregnancy cares and pregnancy so that the mental health of community can be improved.
Problem Statement: Located in each discipline, communication also bears a huge importance in the health sector. Communication with patients and relatives require more moderate and friendly because of their sensitive situation. Developing communication skills of students in health sciences will be able to communicate effectively with patients. In…
McDermott, Michael P; Tischler, Victoria A; Cobb, Malcolm A; Robbé, Iain J; Dean, Rachel S
Communication is increasingly recognized as a core skill for veterinary practitioners, and in recent years, attention to communication competency and skills training has increased. To gain an up-to-date assessment of the current state of veterinary communication skills and training, we conducted a survey among veterinary practitioners in the United Kingdom and United States in 2012/2013. The questionnaire was used to assess the current state, relevance, and adequacy of veterinary communication skills among veterinary practitioners, to assess interest in further training, and to understand perceived challenges in communicating with clients. There was an overall response rate of 29.6% (1,774 of 6,000 recipients), with a higher response rate for UK-based practitioners (39.7%) than practitioners in the US (19.5%). Ninety-eight percent of respondents agreed that communication skills were as important as or more important than clinical knowledge. Forty-one percent of respondents had received formal veterinary communication skills training during veterinary school, and 47% had received training post-graduation. Thirty-five percent said their veterinary communication skills training during veterinary school prepared them well or very well for communicating with clients about the health of their pets, compared to 61% of those receiving post-graduate training. Forty percent said they would be interested in further veterinary communication skills training, with the preferred methods being simulated consultations and online training. While there has been increased emphasis on communication skills training during and after veterinary school, there is a need for more relevant and accessible training.
There is an increasing need in the medical school curriculum to adequately prepare students for professionalism in the workplace. This senior seminar is a four-week course designed to develop fluency in handling conflict and negotiation as well as understanding the elements of persuasive communication. Students used the Meyers-Brigg Personality Inventory as a paradigm for understanding different communication styles. The class was piloted in October and November 2001 and consisted of four modules. In module one, each student was given the Meyers-Brigg Personality Inventory to take. Discussions and exercises provided insight into the student's own communication style as well as styles the individual student might find more problematic. The second module consisted of four sessions focusing on conflict management and negotiating skills. Students were given strategies for dealing with conflict as well as specific approaches for communicating with "difficult" patients. In the subsequent sessions, students had a chance to further incorporate these strategies by (1) discussing in a small-group setting a conflict situation that they had either witnessed or experienced in order to systematically evaluate how to incorporate conflict-management approaches into their particular communication style. (2) Role-playing four conflict situations students' were likely to encounter in their professional lives. Role-plays were videotaped and individual feedback was given immediately after the role-play by the observing students, the patient-actor, and the evaluator, who had been trained to give specific feedback on the conflict strategies. (3) Watching specific videotaped role-plays as a class allowed students to see and give feedback on particularly effective strategies that their colleagues used. The third module was devoted to giving bad news and ways that different people prefer to receive bad news, using the MBTI personality types as examples. The final module outlined the
Gray, F. Elizabeth
International research findings and anecdotal evidence alike suggest that new accountancy graduates often begin their careers with inadequate oral communication skills. However, there is a lack of well-grounded empirical data concerning precisely what accountancy employers mean by "oral communication" and what specific skills they value…
ter Horst, G.; Leeds, J.G.; Hoogstraten, J.
27 1st-yr dental students participated in a 3-day communication-skills training, and 39 nonparticipating 1st-yr dental students served as controls, to investigate the short-term effects of the training on participating Ss' communication skills. The general objective of the training was to advance
Objective of this study is to examine the correlation the quality of paternity, gender roles and communication skills of fathers. The scores in the scale of supporting developmental tasks were used in order to determine the quality of paternity. The other data collection tools were the BEM sex role inventory and the communication skills inventory.…
Sabanci, Ali; Sahin, Ahmet; Sönmez, Melek Alev; Yilmaz, Ozan
The purpose of this study was to explore the correlation between school administrators' communication skills and school culture. This research was conducted as a survey using a descriptive method in order to ascertain the views of school managers and teachers about the correlation between school managers' communication skills and school culture in…
In a study designed to document empirically perceptions about women managers' communication skills and training needs, 101 managers (53 females and 48 males) responded to two open-ended questions: (1) From your observation and experience, what specific communication skills do women possess that might help promote their managerial effectiveness?…
Dewi, Ratna Sari; Kultsum, Ummi; Armadi, Ari
The aims of the study are to know whether communicative games have an impact on teaching speaking skill and describe how communicative games give an influence on speaking skills of students at junior high schools in Jakarta, Indonesia. Classroom Action Research (CAR) was implemented based on Kurt. L model. The procedures used were planning,…
Calsyn, Robert J.; And Others
Results suggest that children's communication skills can be increased with a relatiionship enhancement curriculum of relatively short duration. But self-esteem and communication skills are relatively independent phenomena. Teachers interested in increasing self-esteem need to include exercises specifically aimed at self-enhancement. (Author)
Konopasek, Lyuba; Kelly, Kevin V; Bylund, Carma L; Wenderoth, Suzanne; Storey-Johnson, Carol
Students are rarely taught communication skills in the context of clinical reasoning training. The purpose of this project was to combine the teaching of communication skills using SPs with clinical reasoning exercises in a Group Objective Structured Clinical Experience (GOSCE) to study feasibility of the approach, the effect on learners' self-efficacy and attitude toward learning communication skills, and the effect of providing multiple sources of immediate, collaborative feedback. GOSCE sessions were piloted in Pediatrics and Medicine clerkships with students assessing their own performance and receiving formative feedback on communication skills from peers, standardized patients (SPs), and faculty. The sessions were evaluated using a retrospective pre/post-training questionnaire rating changes in self-efficacy and attitudes, and the value of the feedback. Results indicate a positive impact on attitudes toward learning communication skills and self-efficacy regarding communication in the clinical setting. Also, learners considered feedback by peers, SPs, and faculty valuable in each GOSCE. The GOSCE is an efficient and learner-centered method to attend to multiple goals of teaching communication skills, clinical reasoning, self-assessment, and giving feedback in a formative setting. The GOSCE is a low-resource, feasible strategy for experiential learning in communication skills and clinical reasoning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mascle, Deanna DeBrine
Writing is an essential professional skill. The goal of writing instruction in business communication classes is to develop the skills and knowledge necessary to successfully meet future writing challenges. However, many writers struggle to transfer skills and knowledge from one context to another. The primary reason for this struggle is that…
Employers are increasingly concerned that university graduates possess the transferable skills – sometimes termed ‘graduate attributes’ (Barrie, 2006) – necessary to succeed in the workplace. Prominent among these skills are those which relate to communication; however, not all higher education courses are designed explicitly to teach or develop such skills. Many commercial video games, on the other hand, require players to communicate in order to succeed, particularly in an era of increasing...
Power, B T; Lennie, S C
Communication is a core skill and a prerequisite for dietitians' clinical competence. It is generally acknowledged that communication skills can be taught and learned. There is a paucity of published work identifying dietetic students' attitudes towards learning communication skills, and understanding this is important. The present cross-sectional study aimed to address this issue using an adapted version of the Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS), which was designed to capture information concerning positive and negative attitudes to learning communication skills. An online questionnaire was sent to all undergraduate and post-graduate dietetic programmes in the UK. Of the students' solicited for enrolment in the study, 33.4% (n = 300) completed the questionnaire. A one-way analysis of variance showed attitudes to learning communication skills differed significantly between years of study on both subscales of the CSAS. Subsequent analyses indicated that first-year students' attitudes to learning communication skills were significantly more positive than those of fourth-year students (P = 0.042). Third-year students had significantly more positive attitudes to learning communication skills than fourth-year students (P = 0.028). Negative attitudes were also linked to the year of study with fourth-year students having significantly more negative attitudes than third-year students (P = 0.046). Sex, practice placement experience and parental occupation did not significantly influence attitudes to learning communication skills. These findings indicate that efforts are required to maintain positive attitudes to learning communication skills. Further longitudinal studies are recommended in this respect. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Hopkins, Thomas; Clegg, Judy; Stackhouse, Joy
Research has revealed that the youth offending population has low language ability when assessed on standardized language measures. However, little is known about the perceptions young offenders (YOs) have of their own literacy ability and their communicative interactions with others. Such knowledge might further our understanding of the possible association between language, literacy and offending behaviour. This study investigates the perceptions and experiences YOs have of using literacy and communicating with others. It addresses the following questions. How satisfied are YOs with their own literacy and communication skills and how important do YOs perceive these to be? How much do YOs believe they understand others in their communicative interactions? How satisfied are YOs with their communicative interactions with others and how does this influence conflict at home, school, and in the youth justice system? An opportunity sample of 31 YOs on court orders were recruited from a local youth offending service, excluding any who did not have English as a first language or were in receipt of current speech and language therapy provision. Twenty-six qualitative individual semi-structured interviews and two focus group interviews were carried out and analysed using a framework analysis method. Themes revealed participants were dissatisfied with their communication and literacy ability. Other themes identified were difficulty in understanding others, a perceived lack of support and respect gained from others, and a negative impact of communication on self-esteem. The findings suggest that YOs often found themselves in disputes with authority figures, but that they avoided using positive communication to solve such conflicts and also avoided confiding in others. The findings support the results found from quantitative research on the language abilities of YOs. This emphasizes the value in adopting qualitative methodology to understand the relationship between literacy
Donovan, Anna K; Wood, Gordon J; Rubio, Doris M; Day, Hollis D; Spagnoletti, Carla L
Many physicians struggle to communicate with patients with chronic, non-malignant pain (CNMP). Through the use of a Web module, the authors aimed to improve faculty participants' communication skills knowledge and confidence, use of skills in clinical practice, and actual communication skills. The module was implemented for faculty development among clinician-educators with university faculty appointments, outpatient clinical practices, and teaching roles. Participants completed the Collaborative Opioid Prescribing Education Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (COPE-REMS®) module, a free Web module designed to improve provider communication around opioid prescribing. Main study outcomes were improvements in CNMP communication knowledge, attitudes, and skills. Skills were assessed by comparing a subset of participants' Observed Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE) performance before and after the curriculum. Sixty-two percent of eligible participants completed the curriculum in 2013. Knowledge-based test scores improved with curriculum completion (75% vs. 90%; P communication skills on the OSCE improved after the curriculum (mean 67% vs. 79%, P = 0.03). Experienced clinician-educators improved their communication knowledge, attitudes, and skills in managing patients with CNMP after implementation of this curriculum. The improvements in attitudes were sustained at six months. A Web-based curriculum such as COPE-REMS® may be useful for other programs seeking improvement in faculty communication with patients who have CNMP. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Parry, Jon; Ojo, Adegbola
The aim of this report is to provide authoritative labour market intelligence (LMI) for the Government Services sector to inform the strategic decision making of national governments in the development of employment and skills policy. It is one of 15 UK Sector Skills Assessment (SSA) reports produced by Sector Skills Councils and the UK Commission for Employment and Skills.
Luiz Adrian, Julie Ann; Zeszotarski, Paula; Ma, Carolyn
To evaluate the impact on pharmacy students of a communication course, which used role-playing to develop active-learning skills. Students role-playing pharmacists in patient care scenarios were critiqued by students and pharmacist faculty members. Grading was performed using the rubric inspired by Bruce Berger's Communication Skills for Pharmacists. Written skills were evaluated using student written critique questionnaires. Students completed precourse and postcourse self-assessment surveys. Preceptor evaluations were analyzed for course impact. Students demonstrated improvement in oral skills based on role-play scores (45.87/50) after practice sessions. The average score based on the student questionnaire was 9.31/10. Gain was demonstrated in all defined course objectives. Impact on introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) communication objectives was insignificant. Student evaluations for course and teaching strategy reflected a high average. Study results demonstrated improvement in oral and written communication skills that may help improve interprofessional teamwork between pharmacists and other health care providers.
Full Text Available Metaphor helps humans understand complex concepts by “mapping” them onto accessible concepts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using jazz as a metaphor to teach senior medical students improvisational communication skills, and to understand student learning experiences. The authors designed a month-long course that used jazz to teach improvisational communication. A sample of fourth-year medical students (N = 30 completed the course between 2011 and 2014. Evaluation consisted of quantitative and qualitative data collected pre- and post-course, with comparison to a concurrent control group on some measures. Measures included: (a Student self-reports of knowledge and ability performing communicative tasks; (b blinded standardized patient assessment of students’ adaptability and quality of listening; and (c qualitative course evaluation data and open-ended interviews with course students. Compared to control students, course students demonstrated statistically significant and educationally meaningful gains in adaptability and listening behaviors. Students’ course experiences suggested that the jazz components led to high engagement and creativity, and provided a model to guide application of improvisational concepts to their own communication behaviors. Metaphor proved to be a powerful tool in this study, partly through enabling increased reflection and decreased resistance to behaviors that, on the surface, tended to run counter to generally accepted norms. The use of jazz as a metaphor to teach improvisational communication warrants further refinement and investigation.
Haidet, Paul; Jarecke, Jodi; Yang, Chengwu; Teal, Cayla R; Street, Richard L; Stuckey, Heather
Metaphor helps humans understand complex concepts by "mapping" them onto accessible concepts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using jazz as a metaphor to teach senior medical students improvisational communication skills, and to understand student learning experiences. The authors designed a month-long course that used jazz to teach improvisational communication. A sample of fourth-year medical students ( N = 30) completed the course between 2011 and 2014. Evaluation consisted of quantitative and qualitative data collected pre- and post-course, with comparison to a concurrent control group on some measures. Measures included: (a) Student self-reports of knowledge and ability performing communicative tasks; (b) blinded standardized patient assessment of students' adaptability and quality of listening; and (c) qualitative course evaluation data and open-ended interviews with course students. Compared to control students, course students demonstrated statistically significant and educationally meaningful gains in adaptability and listening behaviors. Students' course experiences suggested that the jazz components led to high engagement and creativity, and provided a model to guide application of improvisational concepts to their own communication behaviors. Metaphor proved to be a powerful tool in this study, partly through enabling increased reflection and decreased resistance to behaviors that, on the surface, tended to run counter to generally accepted norms. The use of jazz as a metaphor to teach improvisational communication warrants further refinement and investigation.
McArthur, M L; Fitzgerald, J R
To describe the communication techniques used by clients and veterinarians during companion animal visits in Australia. A cross-sectional descriptive study. A total of 64 veterinary consultations were audiotaped and analysed with the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS); clients completed appointment level measures, including their satisfaction and perceptions of relational communication. Participants were 24 veterinarians and 64 clients. Statements intended to reassure clients were expressed frequently in the consultations, but in 59% of appointments empathy statements were not expressed towards either the client or the patient. In 10% of appointments, veterinarians did not used any open-ended questions. Overall client satisfaction was high and veterinarians' expressions of empathy directed to the client resulted in higher levels of client satisfaction. Clients' perceptions of relational communication were related to several veterinarian and client nonverbal scales. A focus on developing evidence-based clinical communication skills is expected to further enhance the veterinarian-client-patient relationship and associated clinical outcomes. Particular recommendations include the development of a broader emotion-handling repertoire, increased emphasis on the use of open-ended enquiry, including assessment of the client's perspective, as well as attention to aspects of nonverbal communication. The study provides preliminary evidence for the importance of verbal expressions of empathy during the companion animal consultation. © 2013 Australian Veterinary Association.
Huang, Ya-Hsuan; Hsieh, Suh-Ing; Hsu, Li-Ling
Limited disease knowledge is frequently the cause of disease-related anxiety in myocardial infarction patients. The ability to communicate effectively serves multiple purposes in the professional nursing practice. By communicating effectively with myocardial infarction patients, nurses may help reduce their anxiety by keeping them well informed about their disease and teaching them self-care strategies. This research evaluates the communication skills of nurses following scenario-based simulation education in the context of communication with myocardial infarction patients. This study used an experimental design and an educational intervention. The target population comprised nurses of medicine (clinical qualified level N to N2 for nursing) working at a municipal hospital in Taipei City, Taiwan. A total 122 participants were enrolled. Stratified block randomization divided participants into an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group received clinical scenario-based simulation education for communication. The control group received traditional class-based education for communication. Both groups received a pre-test and a Communication Skills Checklist post-test assessment. Results were analyzed using SPSS 17.0 for Windows software. A t-test showed significant increases in communication skills (p skills following the education intervention. The results indicate that clinical scenario-based simulation education for communication is significantly more effective than traditional class-based education in enhancing the ability of nurses to communicate effectively with myocardial infarction patients.
Wahyuni, L. M.; Masih, I. K.; Rejeki, I. N. Mei
Communication skills are generic skills which need to be developed for success in the vocational education entering the workforce. This study aimed to discover the attributes of communication skill considered important in entering the workforce as perceived by vocational education students. The research was conducted by survey method using questionnaire as data collecting tool. The research population is final year student of D3 Vocational education Program and D4 Managerial Vocational education in academic year 2016/2017 who have completed field work practice in industry. The sampling technique was proportional random sampling. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and independent sampel t-test. Have ten communication skills attributes with the highest important level required to enter the workplace as perceived by the vocational education diploma. These results indicate that there was the same need related communication skills to enter the workforce
Tóth, Ildikó; Bán, Ildikó; Füzesi, Zsuzsanna; Kesztyüs, Márk; Nagy, Lajos
In their institute authors teach medical communication skills in three languages (Hungarian, English and German) for medical students in the first year of their studies. In order to improve teaching methods, authors wanted to explore the attitudes of students towards the communication skills learning. For this purpose authors applied the Communication Skills Attitudes Scale created by Rees et al., which is an internationally accepted and well adaptable instrument. In this survey authors wanted to validate the Hungarian and German version of the Communication Skills Attitudes Scale. In addition, their aim was to analyze possible differences between the attitudes of each of the three medical teaching programs. Questionnaires were filled anonymously at the beginning of the practices. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation was performed to evaluate the attitudes using the SPSS 10.5 version for analysis. Authors created a model consisting of 7 factors. Factors were the following: 1: respect and interpersonal skills; 2: learning; 3: importance of communication within medical profession; 4: excuse; 5: counter; 6: exam; 7: overconfidence. It was found that students had mainly positive attitudes. Except the learning factor, all other factors showed significant differences between the three medical teaching programs. although students had mainly positive attitudes toward learning communication skills, there were negative attitudes which can be partly modified by improving the teaching methods. However, results may create a proper base for further research to help improving communication skills teaching methods of the authors.
Hamidi, Yadollah; Barati, Majid
Managers' communication skills are one of the most important topics in educational sector of universities of medical sciences and may have considerable effect on faculty members and employees. This study was per-formed to determine the level of communication skills (verbal, listening, feed-back) of the heads of department of faculties and its relation with some demo-graphic variables. This cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2009 to January 2010. We enrolled all of the heads of departments (N=60) in Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, western Iran. The participants received a self-administered 24-item questionnaire in Likert format (six general items and 18 items related to communication skills). Data were analyzed with SPSS software using Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. The average scores of verbal, listening and feedback communication were 22.5, 16.1 and 21.1, respectively. Accordingly, 78.3% of participants in verbal communication, 16.7% in listening communication and 73.3% in feedback communication had high status. There were significant differences between the average score of listening skills and age (P=0.013) as well as gender (P=0.042). In addition, there was a significant statistical difference between verbal skills and gender (P=0.021). The overall communication skills of more than half of the heads of departments were moderate. This needs designing some programs for improving department managers' communication skills.
Kern Koegel, Lynn; Ashbaugh, Kristen; Navab, Anahita; Koegel, Robert L
The literature suggests that many individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) experience challenges with recognizing and describing emotions in others, which may result in difficulties with the verbal expression of empathy during communication. Thus, there is a need for intervention techniques targeting this area. Using a multiple baseline across participants design, this study examined the effectiveness of a video-feedback intervention with a visual framework component to improve verbal empathetic statements and questions during conversation for adults with ASD. Following intervention, all participants improved in verbal expression of empathetic statements and empathetic questions during conversation with generalization and maintenance of gains. Furthermore, supplemental assessments indicated that each participant improved in their general level of empathy and confidence in communication skills.
Yoo, Moon Sook; Chae, Sun-Mi
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of video-based peer review on communication skills and learning motivation among nursing students. A non-equivalent control with pretest-posttest design was used. The participants were 47 sophomore nursing students taking a fundamentals of nursing course at a nursing college in Korea. Communication with a standardized patient was videotaped for evaluation. The intervention group used peer reviews to evaluate the videotaped performance; a small group of four students watched the videotape of each student and then provided feedback. The control group assessed themselves alone after watching their own videos. Communication skills and learning motivation were measured. The intervention group showed significantly higher communication skills and learning motivation after the intervention than did the control group. The findings suggest that peer review is an effective learning method for nursing students to improve their communication skills and increase their motivation to learn. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.
Bittner, Anja; Bittner, Johannes; Jonietz, Ansgar; Dybowski, Christoph; Harendza, Sigrid
Patient-physician communication should be based on plain and simple language. Despite communication skill trainings in undergraduate medical curricula medical students and physicians are often still not aware of using medical jargon when communicating with patients. The aim of this study was to compare linguistic communication skills of undergraduate medical students who voluntarily translate medical documents into plain language with students who do not participate in this voluntary task. Fifty-nine undergraduate medical students participated in this study. Twenty-nine participants were actively involved in voluntarily translating medical documents for real patients into plain language on the online-platform https://washabich.de (WHI group) and 30 participants were not (non-WHI group). The assessment resembled a virtual consultation hour, where participants were connected via skype to six simulated patients (SPs). The SPs assessed participants' communication skills. All conversations were transcribed and assessed for communication skills and medical correctness by a blinded expert. All participants completed a self-assessment questionnaire on their communication skills. Across all raters, the WHI group was assessed significantly (p = .007) better than the non-WHI group regarding the use of plain language. The blinded expert assessed the WHI group significantly (p = .018) better regarding the use of stylistic devices of communication. The SPs would choose participants from the WHI group significantly (p = .041) more frequently as their personal physician. No significant differences between the two groups were observed with respect to the medical correctness of the consultations. Written translation of medical documents is associated with significantly more frequent use of plain language in simulated physician-patient encounters. Similar extracurricular exercises might be a useful tool for medical students to enhance their communication skills with
Spektor-Levy, Ornit; Eylon, Bat-Sheva; Scherz, Zahava
This study explores the impact of "Scientific Communication" (SC) skills instruction on students' performances in scientific literacy assessment tasks. We present a general model for skills instruction, characterized by explicit and spiral instruction, integration into content learning, practice in several scientific topics, and application of…
Junod Perron, N.; Cullati, S.; Hudelson, P.; Nendaz, M.; Dolmans, D.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: A 6-month faculty development programme was designed to improve supervisors' feedback to junior doctors on their clinical communication skills (CS) and included both CS and teaching skills training. The aim of this study was to assess supervisors' views on the impact of the
Background There is a relative lack of current research on the effects of specific communication training offered at the beginning of the medical degree program. The newly developed communication training "Basics and Practice in Communication Skills" was pilot tested in 2008 and expanded in the following year at the University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf in Germany. The goal was to promote and improve the communicative skills of participants and show the usefulness of an early offered intervention on patient-physician communication within the medical curriculum. Methods The students participating in the project and a comparison group of students from the standard degree program were surveyed at the beginning and end of the courses. The survey consisted of a self-assessment of their skills as well as a standardised expert rating and an evaluation of the modules by means of a questionnaire. Results Students who attended the communication skills course exhibited a considerable increase of communication skills in this newly developed training. It was also observed that students in the intervention group had a greater degree of self-assessed competence following training than the medical students in the comparison group. This finding is also reflected in the results from a standardised objective measure. Conclusions The empirical results of the study showed that the training enabled students to acquire specialised competence in communication through the course of a newly developed training program. These findings will be used to establish new communication training at the University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf. PMID:22443807
Olda Xhepa BALLIU
Full Text Available This paper tries to analyze the importance and the relationship between communication and pragmatic skills in foreign language classes. Philosophers and linguists have dealt with language, analyzing it from the psychological viewpoint. Communication in L1 or L2 is related and it depends on the science of pragmatics. While communicating, interlocutors interact impacted by the context, the situation, the receiver, the sender, by using the formal or the informal language according to the circumstances. For this reason, we try, in this paper, to make a thorough description of the relationship between communication and pragmatics. Students need to master pragmatic skills in order to communicate. If Italian students or foreign language students have developed pragmatic skills in the native language, this will help them learning a foreign language. The goal of the foreign language teacher is to help students achieve communication skills. The pragmatic and communication skills can be practiced through communication activities like in L1 for speech acts are practiced in communication.
Henry, Stephen G; Holmboe, Eric S; Frankel, Richard M
Communicating with patients is arguably the most common and important activity in medical practice, but this activity receives relatively little emphasis in graduate medical education. We propose 12 evidence-based communication competencies that program directors can adopt as a framework for teaching and evaluating residents' communication skills. We review supporting evidence for these competencies and argue that communication should be treated like a procedural skill that must be taught and evaluated by observing real resident-patient interactions. We make practical suggestions for implementing these competencies by addressing three critical components of a competency-based approach to communication skills: patient safety, faculty development, and direct observation of residents. This approach to teaching and assessing communication skills provides a rationale for incorporating routine direct observation into graduate medical education programs and also for designing communication skills training that ensures graduating residents develop the skills needed to provide safe, effective patient care.
van den Eertwegh, Valerie; van Dalen, Jan; van Dulmen, Sandra; van der Vleuten, Cees; Scherpbier, Albert
Contextual factors are known to influence the acquisition and application of communication skills in clinical settings. Little is known about residents' perceptions of these factors. This article aims to explore residents' perceptions of contextual factors affecting the acquisition and application of communication skills in the medical workplace. We conducted an exploratory study comprising seven focus groups with residents in two different specialities: general practice (n=23) and surgery (n=18). Residents perceive the use of summative assessment checklists that reduce communication skills to behavioural components as impeding the learning of their communication skills. Residents perceive encouragement to deliberately practise in an environment in which the value of communication skills is recognised and support is institutionalised with appropriate feedback from role models as the most important enhancing factors in communication skills learning. To gradually realise a clinical working environment in which the above results are incorporated, we propose to use transformative learning theory to guide further studies. Provided it is used continuously, an approach that combines self-directed learning with observation and discussion of resident-patient consultations seems an effective method for transformative learning of communication skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Anggraini, Agita Dzulhajh; Fadiawati, Noor; Diawati, Chansyanah
Accuracy educators in selecting and implementing learning models influence students' science process skills. Models of learning that can be applied to improve science process skills and tend constructivist among athers learning model of problem solving. This research was conducted to describe the effectiveness of the learning model of problem solving in improving communication skills and prediction skills. Subjects in this research were students of high school YP Unila Bandar Lampung Even ...
Full Text Available The present paper examines the main principles governing the development of speaking skills in learners of English at all levels, through the optic of the Communicative Approach. Dwelling on the importance of teacher and student attitudes towards classroom communication, of ensuring an adequate class atmosphere and context for mea ningful communication, the present author goes on to discuss the most relevant and productive fluency-building activities and techniques meant to train students for meaningful self-expression and communication.
Carma L Bylund
CONCLUSION: Physicians in Qatar positively evaluated a 2-day communication skills course, though the majority of participants did not have any previous exposure to experiential communication skills training.
In many middle schools and high schools, students are presenting projects orally. However, most lack appropriate speaking skills. More importantly, they lack teacher and peer support. Most experts agree that speaking skills are essential for success. However, much anxiety surrounds public speaking and it is often cited as one of the top 10 fears.…
Communication skills: A tool for interpersonal relationship in nursing care. ... Journal Home > Vol 1, No 2 (2007) >. Log in or Register to ... Background: The interpersonal relationship between the nurse and other health care providers is poor.
Liénard, Aurore; Merckaert, Isabelle; Libert, Yves; Bragard, Isabelle; Delvaux, Nicole; Etienne, Anne-Marie; Marchal, Serge; Meunier, Julie; Reynaert, Christine; Slachmuylder, Jean-Louis; Razavi, Darius
Communication with patients is a core clinical skill in medicine that can be acquired through communication skills training. Meanwhile, the importance of transfer of communication skills to the workplace has not been sufficiently studied. This study aims to assess the efficacy of a 40-hour training program designed to improve patients' satisfaction and residents' communication skills during their daily clinical rounds. Residents were randomly assigned to the training program or to a waiting list. Patients' satisfaction was assessed with a visual analog scale after each visit. Transfer of residents' communication skills was assessed in audiotaped actual inpatient visits during a half-day clinical round. Transcripted audiotapes were analyzed using content analysis software (LaComm). Training effects were tested with Mann-Whitney tests and generalized linear Poisson regression models. Eighty-eight residents were included. First, patients interacting with trained residents reported a higher satisfaction with residents' communication (Median=92) compared to patients interacting with untrained residents (Median=88) (p=.046). Second, trained residents used more assessment utterances (Relative Risk (RR)=1.17; 95% Confidence intervals (95%CI)=1.02-1.34; p=.023). Third, transfer was also observed when residents' training attendance was considered: residents' use of assessment utterances (RR=1.01; 95%CI=1.01-1.02; p=.018) and supportive utterances (RR=0.99; 95%CI=0.98-1.00; p=.042) (respectively 1.15 (RR), 1.08-1.23 (95%CI), ptransfer of residents' communication skills learning to the workplace. Transfer was directly related to training attendance but remained limited. Future studies should therefore focus on the improvement of the efficacy of communication skills training in order to ensure a more important training effect size on transfer.
Mahnaz Jalalvandi; Akhtar Jamali; Ali Taghipoor-Zahir; Mohammad-Reza Sohrabi
Background: Well-designed interventions can improve the communication skills of physicians. Since the understanding of the current situation is essential for designing effective interventions, this study was performed to determine medical interns’ confidence and use of communication skills.Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was performed in spring 2013 within 3 branches of Islamic Azad University (Tehran, Mashhad, and Yazd), on 327 randomly selected interns. Data gatheri...
Using two groups of undergraduate students (N = 71) the present paper argues about the importance of sex role identity (Bem, 1981) as a potential predictor of group popularity. The results show that participants with psychological androgine identity tend to use better their communication skills and become popular among their peers. Contray to previous studies (e.g. Hall, 1984; Saarni, 1999) focused on gender gap in communication skills, the current study emphasis on the importance of the sex ...
Claramita, Mora; Susilo, Astrid Pratidina
The aim of these two PhD thesis are to develop a guideline on doctor-patient communication skills based on cultural characteristics of Southeast Asian context and to develop communication skills training for nurses to enhance their contribution to the informed consent and shared decision making process, in the same context. These studies started with qualitative methods; including grounded theory methodology, by exploring doctors’, patients’, medical students’ and nurses’ perceptions on the c...
Kilic, Gulsen Bagci; Cakan, Mehtap
In this study, peer assessment was applied in assessing elementary science teaching skills. Preservice teachers taught a science topic as a team to their peers in an elementary science methods course. The peers participating in the science lesson assessed teacher-groups' elementary science teaching skills on an assessment form provided by the…
Full Text Available Introduction: Good communication skills can increase the health-care providers' diagnostic efficiency and decision-making ability, as well as lead to improved patient satisfaction. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the attitude and factors associated with learning communication skills among dental students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 400 students, studying in various dental colleges in Bengaluru, using a standardized pro forma which consisted of questions on general information, self-assessment of communication using validated Dental Communication Skills Attitude Scale. For statistical analysis, descriptive analysis, ANOVA, post hoc, and Spearman's correlation were applied. Results: Mean positive and negative attitude scores (PAS and NAS were 50.44 ± 5.83 and 29.72 ± 4.32, respectively. There was a significant correlation of NAS with participant's poor performance in the past examination (r = 0.144, P = 0.004 and self-rating as poor communicators (r = 0.164, P = 0.001. Their consideration regarding teaching communication in dental education was significantly correlated with PAS (r = 0.257, P = 0.00 and NAS (r = −0.308, P = 0.00. Conclusion: Participant's poor performance in the past examination and self-rating as poor communicator had the negative attitude toward learning communication skills. There is a need for integrating communication skills course in the dental curriculum.
Worden, John K.; And Others
Conducted communication skills workshops to prevent cigarette smoking among adolescents by teaching adults how to help young people make responsible decisions and resist peer influences. One year later, 66% reported use of skills five or more times in the previous month, and significantly fewer adolescents in the high workshop intensity area…
Critical thinking and communication competence are recognized by educators as vital skills required for mastery of school subjects. However, it is observed that these two skills are underdeveloped in students. In order, to fill this void, this paper aims at constructing a framework that would be employed by teachers in ...
Geissler, Gary L.; Edison, Steve W.; Wayland, Jane P.
Business professors continue to face the challenge of truly preparing their students for the workplace. College students often lack skills that are valued by employers, such as critical thinking, creativity, communication, conflict resolution, and teamwork skills. Traditional classroom methods, such as lectures, may fail to produce adequate…
Olszewski, Abbie; Panorska, Anna; Gillam, Sandra Laing
Adolescents' verbal and nonverbal communication skills were compared before and after training in a workforce readiness training program, Language for Scholars (LFS), and a study skills program, Ideal Student Workshop (ISW). A cross-over design was used, ensuring that 44 adolescents received both programs and acted as their own control. The LFS…
Lee, Young Hee; Lee, Young-Mee
Communication is a core clinical skill that can be taught and learned. The authors intended to develop a patient-doctor communication model for teaching and assessing undergraduate medical students in Korea. To develop a model, literature reviews and an iterative process of discussion between faculty members of a communication skills course for second year medical students were conducted. The authors extracted common communication skill competencies by comparing the Kalamazoo Consensus Statement, SEGUE framework communication skills, the Calgary Cambridge Observation Guides, and previous communication skills lists that have been used by the authors. The content validity, with regard to clinical importance and feasibility, was surveyed by both faculty physicians and students. The first version of the model consisted of 36 items under 7 categories: initiating the session (8 items), building a relationship (6), gathering information (8), understanding a patient's perspectives (4), sharing information (4), reaching an agreement (3), and closing the session (3). It was used as a guide for both students and teachers in an actual communication skills course. At the end of the course, student performance was assessed using two 7-minute standardized patient interviews with a 34-item checklist. This assessment tool was modified from the first version of the model to reflect the case specificity of the scenarios. A patient-doctor communication model, which can be taught to those with limited patient care experience, was finally developed. We recommended a patient-doctor communication skills model that can be used for teaching and evaluating preclinical and clinical students. Further studies are needed to verify its validity and reliability.
Baer, Linda; Weinstein, Elizabeth
When oncology nurses have strong communication skills, they play a pivotal role in influencing patient satisfaction, adherence to plans of care, and overall clinical outcomes. However, research studies indicate that nurses tend to keep communication with patients and families at a superficial, nontherapeutic level. Processes for teaching goals-of-care communication skills and for implementing skills into clinical practice are not clearly defined. Nurses at a large comprehensive cancer center recognized the need for help with this skill set and sought out communication experts to assist in providing the needed education. An educational project was developed to improve therapeutic communication skills in oncology nurses during goals-of-care discussions and giving bad news. The program was tailored to nurses and social workers providing care to patients in a busy, urban, academic, outpatient oncology setting. Program topics included exploring the patient's world, eliciting hopes and concerns, and dealing with conflict about goals. Sharing and discussing specific difficult questions and scenarios were encouraged throughout the program. The program was well attended and well received by oncology nurses and social workers. Participants expressed interest in the continuation of communication programs to further enhance skills.
Mirza, D M; Hashim, M J
Communications skills curricula and pedagogy for medical students are often exported to non-English speaking settings. It is assumed that after learning communication skills in English, doctors will be able to communicate effectively with patients in their own language. We distributed a questionnaire to third year Emirati students at a medical school within the United Arab Emirates. We assessed their confidence in interviewing patients in Arabic after communication skills training in English. Of the 49 students in the sample, 36 subjects (73.5%) completed and returned the questionnaire. Nearly three-quarters (72.2%) of students said they felt confident in taking a history in English, while 27.8% of students expressed confidence in taking a history in Arabic. Half of students anticipated that after their training they would be communicating with their patients primarily in Arabic, and only 8.3% anticipated they would be communicating in English. Communication skills training purely in English can leave Arab medical students ill equipped to communicate with patients in their own communities and tongue.
Loureiro, Elizabete; Severo, Milton; Bettencourt, Paulo; Ferreira, Maria Amélia
To analyze students' perceptions towards learning communication skills pre-and-post training in a Communication and Clinical Skills Course (CCSC) at a Portuguese Medical School. Content analysis was used to describe and systematically analyze the content written by students (n=215 from a total of 229) in an open-ended survey. In addition, content analysis association rules were used to identify meaning units. Students' pre-training definitions of communication skills were not specific; their post-training definitions were more precise and elaborated. Students perceived communications skills in Medicine as important (61%), but recommended that teaching methodologies (52%) be restructured. There appeared to be no connection between criticism of teaching skills performance and perceptions of the other aspects of the course. Students' experiences at CCSC are associated with their perceptions of communications skills learning. Content analysis associations indicated that these perceptions are influenced by context. Improvement of curricula, teaching and assessment methods, and investment in faculty development are likely to foster positive perceptions towards learning communication skills in these students. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Whitehead, K; Langley-Evans, S C; Tischler, V; Swift, J A
Both the UK's National Health Service (NHS) and the National Institute of health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) have recommended increased training for health professionals in communication skills. There is evidence to suggest that communication skills are important in helping people to change health-related behaviour, which is a key role for dietitians. This study investigated the views of UK dietitians about their training needs and experience in relation to communication skills in dietetic practice. In October 2007, a cross-sectional survey was mailed to all British Dietetic Association members (n = 6013). The survey gathered quantitative data and free-text comments to ascertain the level, type and effect of communication skills training received by dietitians at both the pre- and post-registration level. There were 1158 respondents; a response rate of 19.3%. Ninety-eight percent (n = 1117) rated communication skills as either very or extremely important in client consultations. Post-registration training had been undertaken by 73% (n = 904). Of these, over 90% of respondents perceived that post-registration training had led to improvements in their relationships with patients, their confidence in client interviews and their ability to cope with challenging clients. However, 248 (21.4%) felt time keeping in interviews had worsened. Lack of time for client interviews was also the most commonly identified barrier (19%, n = 216) to implementing the skills. This study has explored an important and under-researched area. Respondents strongly endorsed the importance of good communication skills and the benefits of post-registration training in this area. Some felt that good communication was time consuming but others felt that time management had improved. Further research and training is required to support the implementation of these skills into dietetic practice.
Liberman, Zoe; Woodward, Amanda L.; Keysar, Boaz; Kinzler, Katherine D.
Early exposure to multiple languages can enhance children's communication skills, even when children are effectively monolingual (Fan, Liberman, Keysar & Kinzler, 2015). Here we report evidence that the social benefits of multilingual exposure emerge in infancy. Sixteen-month-old infants participated in a communication task that required…
Research suggests a negative relationship between frequent use of communication technologies, such as text messaging and social network sites, and academic performance, but the nature of the relationship needs to be explored in greater detail. This study explored the relationship between use of communication technologies and self-reported study…
Volman, Inge; Noordzij, Matthijs Leendert; Toni, Ivan
When established communication systems cannot be used, people rapidly create novel systems to modify the mental state of another agent according to their intentions. However, there are dramatic inter-individual differences in the implementation of this human competence for communicative innovation.
Collins, Lauren G; Schrimmer, Anne; Diamond, James; Burke, Janice
Communication during medical interviews plays a large role in patient adherence, satisfaction with care, and health outcomes. Both verbal and non-verbal communication (NVC) skills are central to the development of rapport between patients and healthcare professionals. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of non-verbal and verbal communication skills on evaluations by standardized patients during an ethnogeriatric Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Interviews from 19 medical students, residents, and fellows in an ethnogeriatric OSCE were analyzed. Each interview was videotaped and evaluated on a 14 item verbal and an 8 item non-verbal communication checklist. The relationship between verbal and non-verbal communication skills on interview evaluations by standardized patients were examined using correlational analyses. Maintaining adequate facial expression (FE), using affirmative gestures (AG), and limiting both unpurposive movements (UM) and hand gestures (HG) had a significant positive effect on perception of interview quality during this OSCE. Non-verbal communication skills played a role in perception of overall interview quality as well as perception of culturally competent communication. Incorporating formative and summative evaluation of both verbal and non-verbal communication skills may be a critical component of curricular innovations in ethnogeriatrics, such as the OSCE. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Abe, Camila Mayumi; Bretanha, Andreza Carolina; Bozza, Amanda; Ferraro, Gyovanna Junya Klinke; Lopes-Herrera, Simone Aparecida
The aim of the current study was to investigate verbal communication skills in children with typical language development and ages between 6 and 8 years. Participants were 10 children of both genders in this age range without language alterations. A 30-minute video of each child's interaction with an adult (father and/or mother) was recorded, fully transcribed, and analyzed by two trained researchers in order to determine reliability. The recordings were analyzed according to a protocol that categorizes verbal communicative abilities, including dialogic, regulatory, narrative-discursive, and non-interactive skills. The frequency of use of each category of verbal communicative ability was analyzed (in percentage) for each subject. All subjects used more dialogical and regulatory skills, followed by narrative-discursive and non-interactive skills. This suggests that children in this age range are committed to continue dialog, which shows that children with typical language development have more dialogic interactions during spontaneous interactions with a familiar adult.
Liverman, D. G. E.
Communication is important in all aspects of the geosciences but is more prominent in the area of geological hazards, as the main audience for scientific information often lacks a geoscience background; and because the implications of not communicating results effectively can be very serious. Geoscientists working in the hazards area face particular challenges in communicating the concepts of risk, probability and uncertainty. Barriers to effective communication of geoscience include the complex language used by geoscientists, restriction of dissemination of results to traditional scientific media, identification of the target audience, inability to tailor products to a variety of audiences, and lack of institutional support for communication efforts. Geoscientists who work in the area of natural hazards need training in risk communication, media relations, and communicating to non-technical audiences. Institutions need to support the efforts of geoscientists in communicating their results through providing communications training; ensuring access to communications professionals; rewarding efforts to engage the public; and devoting sufficient staff and budget to the effort of disseminating results. Geoscientists themselves have to make efforts to change attitudes towards social science, and to become involved in decision making at a community level. The International Union of Geological Sciences Commission for "Geoscience for Environmental Management" established a working group to deal with these issues. This group is holding workshops, publishing collections of papers, and is looking at other means to aid geoscientists in addressing these problems.
Physics students graduate with a huge array of transferrable skills, which are extremely useful to employers (particularly in the private sector, which is the largest employment base of physicists at all degree levels). However, the key to successfully connecting with these opportunities lies in how well graduates are able to communicate their skills and abilities to potential employers. The ability to communicate effectively is a key professional skill that serves scientists in many contexts, including interviewing for jobs, applying for grants, or speaking with law and policy makers. In this interactive workshop, Crystal Bailey (Careers Program Manager at APS) and Gregory Mack (Government Relations Specialist at APS) will lead activities to help attendees achieve their goals through better communication. Topics will include writing an effective resume, interviewing for jobs, and communicating to different audiences including Congress, among others. Light refreshments will be served.
Kron, Frederick W; Fetters, Michael D; Scerbo, Mark W; White, Casey B; Lypson, Monica L; Padilla, Miguel A; Gliva-McConvey, Gayle A; Belfore, Lee A; West, Temple; Wallace, Amelia M; Guetterman, Timothy C; Schleicher, Lauren S; Kennedy, Rebecca A; Mangrulkar, Rajesh S; Cleary, James F; Marsella, Stacy C; Becker, Daniel M
To assess advanced communication skills among second-year medical students exposed either to a computer simulation (MPathic-VR) featuring virtual humans, or to a multimedia computer-based learning module, and to understand each group's experiences and learning preferences. A single-blinded, mixed methods, randomized, multisite trial compared MPathic-VR (N=210) to computer-based learning (N=211). Primary outcomes: communication scores during repeat interactions with MPathic-VR's intercultural and interprofessional communication scenarios and scores on a subsequent advanced communication skills objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Multivariate analysis of variance was used to compare outcomes. student attitude surveys and qualitative assessments of their experiences with MPathic-VR or computer-based learning. MPathic-VR-trained students improved their intercultural and interprofessional communication performance between their first and second interactions with each scenario. They also achieved significantly higher composite scores on the OSCE than computer-based learning-trained students. Attitudes and experiences were more positive among students trained with MPathic-VR, who valued its providing immediate feedback, teaching nonverbal communication skills, and preparing them for emotion-charged patient encounters. MPathic-VR was effective in training advanced communication skills and in enabling knowledge transfer into a more realistic clinical situation. MPathic-VR's virtual human simulation offers an effective and engaging means of advanced communication training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kron, Frederick W.; Fetters, Michael D.; Scerbo, Mark W.; White, Casey B.; Lypson, Monica L.; Padilla, Miguel A.; Gliva-McConvey, Gayle A.; Belfore, Lee A.; West, Temple; Wallace, Amelia M.; Guetterman, Timothy C.; Schleicher, Lauren S.; Kennedy, Rebecca A.; Mangrulkar, Rajesh S.; Cleary, James F.; Marsella, Stacy C.; Becker, Daniel M.
Objectives To assess advanced communication skills among second-year medical students exposed either to a computer simulation (MPathic-VR) featuring virtual humans, or to a multimedia computer-based learning module, and to understand each group’s experiences and learning preferences. Methods A single-blinded, mixed methods, randomized, multisite trial compared MPathic-VR (N=210) to computer-based learning (N=211). Primary outcomes: communication scores during repeat interactions with MPathic-VR’s intercultural and interprofessional communication scenarios and scores on a subsequent advanced communication skills objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Multivariate analysis of variance was used to compare outcomes. Secondary outcomes: student attitude surveys and qualitative assessments of their experiences with MPathic-VR or computer-based learning. Results MPathic-VR-trained students improved their intercultural and interprofessional communication performance between their first and second interactions with each scenario. They also achieved significantly higher composite scores on the OSCE than computer-based learning-trained students. Attitudes and experiences were more positive among students trained with MPathic-VR, who valued its providing immediate feedback, teaching nonverbal communication skills, and preparing them for emotion-charged patient encounters. Conclusions MPathic-VR was effective in training advanced communication skills and in enabling knowledge transfer into a more realistic clinical situation. Practice Implications MPathic-VR’s virtual human simulation offers an effective and engaging means of advanced communication training. PMID:27939846
Darina M. Slattery; Yvonne Cleary
peer-reviewed In this article, we introduce two programmes in technical communication (one distance, and one on-campus) offered by the University of Limerick. Both programmes have been running for several years, but are regularly reviewed to ensure that they remain relevant. We describe how these programmes correspond to industry needs, and how they develop core competencies of technical communicators. We outline two key types of assignment (writing and development), and explain their rele...
The dynamics of the communicative discourse is a natural process that requires an application of a wide range of skills and strategies. In particular, linguistic discourse and the interaction process have a huge impact on promoting literacy and academic skills in all students especially English language learners (ELLs). Using interactive…
Wood, R.; Ferguson, Carolyn M.
Discusses a two-year assessment undertaken to evaluate the Nuffield A-Level chemistry course. Secondary teachers selected chemistry experiments for assessment purposes and assessed their students in manipulative skills, observational skills, interpretation skills, creative skills, and attitudes. (MLH)
Berkhof, Marianne; van Rijssen, H Jolanda; Schellart, Antonius J M; Anema, Johannes R; van der Beek, Allard J
Physicians need good communication skills to communicate effectively with patients. The objective of this review was to identify effective training strategies for teaching communication skills to qualified physicians. PubMED, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and COCHRANE were searched in October 2008 and in March 2009. Two authors independently selected relevant reviews and assessed their methodological quality with AMSTAR. Summary tables were constructed for data-synthesis, and results were linked to outcome measures. As a result, conclusions about the effectiveness of communication skills training strategies for physicians could be drawn. Twelve systematic reviews on communication skills training programmes for physicians were identified. Some focused on specific training strategies, whereas others emphasized a more general approach with mixed strategies. Training programmes were effective if they lasted for at least one day, were learner-centred, and focused on practising skills. The best training strategies within the programmes included role-play, feedback, and small group discussions. Training programmes should include active, practice-oriented strategies. Oral presentations on communication skills, modelling, and written information should only be used as supportive strategies. To be able to compare the effectiveness of training programmes more easily in the future, general agreement on outcome measures has to be established. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ditton-Phare, Philippa; Loughland, Carmel; Duvivier, Robbert; Kelly, Brian
A range of communication skills training programmes have been developed targeting trainees in various medical specialties, predominantly in oncology but to a lesser extent in psychiatry. Effective communication is fundamental to the assessment and treatment of psychiatric conditions, but there has been less attention to this in clinical practice for psychiatrists in training. This review examines the outcomes of communication skills training interventions in psychiatric specialty training. The published English-language literature was examined using multiple online databases, grey literature and hand searches. The review was conducted and reported using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. Studies examining the efficacy of communication skills training were included. Randomised controlled trials, pseudo-randomised studies and quasi-experimental studies, as well as observational analytical studies and qualitative studies that met criteria, were selected and critically appraised. No limits were applied for date of publication up until 16 July 2016. Total search results yielded 2574 records. Of these, 12 studies were identified and reviewed. Two were randomised controlled trials and the remaining 10 were one-group pretest/posttest designs or posttest-only designs, including self-report evaluations of communication skills training and objective evaluations of trainee skills. There were no studies with outcomes related to behaviour change or patient outcomes. Two randomised controlled trials reported an improvement in clinician empathy and psychotherapeutic interviewing skills due to specific training protocols focused on those areas. Non-randomised studies showed varying levels of skills gains and self-reported trainee satisfaction ratings with programmes, with the intervention being some form of communication skills training. The heterogeneity of communication skills training is a barrier to evaluating the efficacy of
Weintraub, Lauren; Figueiredo, Lisa; Roth, Michael; Levy, Adam
Communication skills are a competency highlighted by the Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education; yet, little is known about the frequency with which trainees receive formal training or what programs are willing to invest. We sought to answer this question and designed a program to address identified barriers. We surveyed pediatric fellowship program directors from all disciplines and, separately, pediatric hematology/oncology fellowship program directors to determine current use of formal communication skills training. At our institution, we piloted a standardized patient (SP)-based communication skills training program for pediatric hematology/oncology fellows. Twenty-seven pediatric hematology/oncology program directors and 44 pediatric program directors participated in the survey, of which 56% and 48%, respectively, reported having an established, formal communication skills training course. Multiple barriers to implementation of a communication skills course were identified, most notably time and cost. In the pilot program, 13 pediatric hematology/oncology fellows have participated, and 9 have completed all 3 years of training. Precourse assessment demonstrated fellows had limited comfort in various areas of communication. Following course completion, there was a significant increase in self-reported comfort and/or skill level in such areas of communication, including discussing a new diagnosis (p =.0004), telling a patient they are going to die (p =.005), discussing recurrent disease (p communicating a poor prognosis (p =.002), or responding to anger (p ≤.001). We have designed a concise communication skills training program, which addresses identified barriers and can feasibly be implemented in pediatric hematology/oncology fellowship.
Beuker, Karin T; Rommelse, Nanda N J; Donders, Rogier; Buitelaar, Jan K
The first two years of life is a crucially important period for the development of communication skills. In this study joint attention and language development were monthly assessed between 8 and 24 months of age in a sample of 23 typically developing children to establish the developmental trajectory of specific joint attention skills, to investigate the developmental interrelations of these different joint attention skills with vocabulary size, and to examine whether the order of development of following and directing attention influences the development of other early communication skills such as language. All joint attention skills emerged between 8 and 15 months of age and responsive joint attention skills tend to emerge before initiative joint attention. Early joint attention skills influenced later language development, but not the other way around. Children in whom directing attention with gaze alternation developed early (in age or order) showed a relatively larger early vocabulary growth. A fine grained mapping of the normal development of early communication skills can be helpful in the early detection of abnormalities in these skills. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kim-Romo, Dawn N; Barner, Jamie C; Brown, Carolyn M; Rivera, José O; Garza, Aida A; Klein-Bradham, Kristina; Jokerst, Jason R; Janiga, Xan; Brown, Bob
OBJECTIVE To assess Spanish-speaking patients' satisfaction with their clinical pharmacists' communication skills and demonstration of cultural sensitivity, while controlling for patients' sociodemographic, clinical, and communication factors, as well as pharmacist factors, and to identify clinical pharmacists' cultural factors that are important to Spanish-speaking patients. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Central Texas during August 2011 to May 2012. PARTICIPANTS Spanish-speaking patients of federally qualified health centers (FQHCs). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S) A Spanish-translated survey assessed Spanish-speaking patients' satisfaction with their clinical pharmacists' communication skills and demonstration of cultural sensitivity. RESULTS Spanish-speaking patients (N = 101) reported overall satisfaction with their clinical pharmacists' communication skills and cultural sensitivity. Patients also indicated that pharmacists' cultural rapport (e.g., ability to speak Spanish, respectfulness) was generally important to Spanish speakers. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that cultural rapport was significantly related to satisfaction with pharmacists' communication skills and demonstration of cultural sensitivity. CONCLUSION Overall, patients were satisfied with pharmacists' communication skills and cultural sensitivity. Patient satisfaction initiatives that include cultural rapport should be developed for pharmacists who provide care to Spanish-speaking patients with limited English proficiency.
O'Brien, Rebecca; Goldberg, Sarah E; Pilnick, Alison; Beeke, Suzanne; Schneider, Justine; Sartain, Kate; Thomson, Louise; Murray, Megan; Baxendale, Bryn; Harwood, Rowan H
A quarter of acute hospital beds are occupied by persons living with dementia, many of whom have communication problems. Healthcare professionals lack confidence in dementia communication skills, but there are no evidence-based communication skills training approaches appropriate for professionals working in this context. We aimed to develop and pilot a dementia communication skills training course that was acceptable and useful to healthcare professionals, hospital patients and their relatives. The course was developed using conversation analytic findings from video recordings of healthcare professionals talking to patients living with dementia in the acute hospital, together with systematic review evidence of dementia communication skills training and taking account of expert and service-user opinion. The two-day course was based on experiential learning theory, and included simulation and video workshops, reflective diaries and didactic teaching. Actors were trained to portray patients living with dementia for the simulation exercises. Six courses were run between January and May 2017. 44/45 healthcare professionals attended both days of the course. Evaluation entailed: questionnaires on confidence in dementia communication; a dementia communication knowledge test; and participants' satisfaction. Video-recorded, simulated assessments were used to measure changes in communication behaviour. Healthcare professionals increased their knowledge of dementia communication (mean improvement 1.5/10; 95% confidence interval 1.0-2.0; pskills learned in clinical practice. Blind-ratings of simulated patient encounters demonstrated behaviour change in taught communication behaviours to close an encounter, consistent with the training, but not in requesting behaviours. We have developed an innovative, evidence-based dementia communication skills training course which healthcare professionals found useful and after which they demonstrated improved dementia communication
Moorthy, Krishna; Munz, Yaron; Sarker, Sudip K; Darzi, Ara
In the past few years, considerable developments have been made in the objective assessment of technical proficiency of surgeons. Technical skills should be assessed during training, and various methods have been developed for this purpose
Maryam Sadat Katebi
Full Text Available Background & aim: Communication is a fundamental human need. Medical students and healthcare professionals must be attuned to the needs of patients using effective communication skills. With regards to medical training, currently the focus is on theoretical matters and communication skills are taken for granted. This problem has caused miscommunication with patients referred to teaching hospitals. We conducted this study to assess communication skills of midwives from the perspective of parturient women. Methods: In this descriptive study, we evaluated 50 midwives working in maternity wards of Ghaem, Imam Reza, Omolbanin, and Hasheminejad hospitals in Mashhad, Iran. Three parturient women were selected per one midwife in a maternity ward. The parturient women participating in this study were in labor, delivery, admission or postpartum stages and completed the Interpersonal Communication Skills inventory by interview. To analyze the data, descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson product-moment correlation were performed, using SPSS 16. Results: The mean scores of communication behaviors of midwives with parturient in delivery, admission, and postpartum stages were 92.61±10.81, 93.31±10.59, and 94.19±8.26, respectively. Between the previous delivery of parturient, with communication behavior of midwives in the stage of admission or post-partum (P=0.015 and satisfaction of pregnancy with communication behavior of midwife in labor stage (P
Cavanaugh, James T; Konrad, Shelley Cohen
To describe the implementation of an interprofessional shared learning model designed to promote the development of person-centered healthcare communication skills. Master of social work (MSW) and doctor of physical therapy (DPT) degree students. The model used evidence-based principles of effective healthcare communication and shared learning methods; it was aligned with student learning outcomes contained in MSW and DPT curricula. Students engaged in 3 learning sessions over 2 days. Sessions involved interactive reflective learning, simulated role-modeling with peer assessment, and context-specific practice of communication skills. The perspective of patients/clients was included in each learning activity. Activities were evaluated through narrative feedback. Students valued opportunities to learn directly from each other and from healthcare consumers. Important insights and directions for future interprofessional learning experiences were gleaned from model implementation. The interprofessional shared learning model shows promise as an effective method for developing person-centered communication skills.
This workshop is designed to provide women physics students and postdocs with the professional skills they need to effectively perform research, including: negotiating a position in academia, industry or at a national lab, interacting positively on teams and with a mentor or advisor, thinking tactically, articulating goals, enhancing their personal presence, and developing alliances. We will discuss negotiation strategies and tactics that are useful for achieving professional goals. This is a highly interactive workshop where participants are invited to bring examples of difficult professional situations to discuss.
This workshop is designed to provide women physics students and postdocs with the professional skills they need to effectively perform research, including: negotiating a position in academia, industry or at a national lab, interacting positively on teams and with a mentor or advisor, thinking tactically, articulating goals, enhancing their personal presence, and developing alliances. We will discuss negotiation strategies and tactics that are useful for achieving professional goals. This is a highly interactive workshop where participants are invited to bring examples of difficult professional situations to discuss.
Ayuso-Murillo, D; Colomer-Sánchez, A; Herrera-Peco, I
In this study researchers are trying to analyse the personality factors related to social skills in nurses who work in: Intensive Care Units, ICU, and Hospitalisation units. Both groups are from the Madrid Health Service (SERMAS). The present investigation has been developed as a descriptive transversal study, where personality factors in ICU nurses (n=29) and those from Hospitalisation units (n=40) were compared. The 16PF-5 questionnaire was employed to measure the personality factors associated with communication skills. The comparison of the personality factors associated to social skills, communication, in both groups, show us that nurses from ICU obtain in social receptivity: 5,6 (A+), 5,2 (C-), 6,2 (O+), 5,1 (H-), 5,3 (Q1-), and emotional control: 6,1 (B+), 5,9 (N+). Meanwhile the data doesn't adjust to the expected to emotional and social expressiveness, emotional receptivity and social control, there are not evidence. The personality factors associated to communication skills in ICU nurses are below those of hospitalisation unit nurses. The present results suggest the necessity to develop training actions, focusing on nurses from intensive care units to improve their communication social skills. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias (SEEIUC). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Dinerstein, H. L.
The ability to communicate effectively, both in oral and written form, is crucial for success in almost any career path. Furthermore, being able to effectively communicate information requires a high level of conceptual mastery of the material. For these reasons, I have incorporated practice in communication into courses at a variety of levels, ranging from non-science-major undergraduate courses to graduate courses. I briefly describe the content of these courses, particularly the communication-related component. The first, Ast 309N, ``Astronomy Bizarre: Stars and Stellar Evolution," is an elective which follows one semester of general introductory astronomy for non-majors. Instead of homework problems, the students complete a sequence of writing assignments of graduated complexity, beginning with simple tasks such as writing abstracts and critiques of assigned readings, and moving on to writing term papers which require literature research and a short science fiction story incorporating accurate depictions of relativistic effects. In Ast 175/275, a ``Journal Club" course for upper-division astronomy majors, students read articles in the professional literature and give short oral presentations to the rest of the class. To build up their understanding of a topic, we work through the ``paper trail" of key papers on topics with exciting recent developments, such as extrasolar planets, gravitational lenses, or gamma-ray bursts. Finally, in a seminar course for first-semester astronomy graduate students (Ast 185C) that broadly addresses professional development issues, I include a practice AAS oral session, with the students giving 5-minute presentations on a journal paper of their choice. This seminar course also examines career paths and employment trends, the peer review process for papers and proposals, professional norms and ethics, and other topics. Syllabi for these and other courses I teach regularly can be found from my home page (http://www.as.utexas.edu/astronomy/people/dinerstein).
Good communication and influencing skills are key competency areas for dental nurses and are highly relevant when working with children and their families/carers in Childsmile, a national oral health improvement programme for children in Scotland. The General Dental Council (GDC) identifies communication skills as one of the nine principles for registrants; a large number of complaints seen by the GDC relate to allegations around communication and patient expectations not being fully met. Much time and investment has been spent in researching the role of the Extended Duties Dental Nurse (EDDN) and ensuring appropriate training is provided. While there is specific training for EDDNs delivering the Childsmile programme, the programme appreciates that good communication skills are a core component of all training programmes for dental nurses. This paper sets out to explore the role of EDDNs in Childsmile and specifically looks at the importance of good communication skills and how it facilitates and impacts on the delivery of the Childsmile programme in a variety of settings.
Kieran, Kathleen; Jensen, Norman M; Rosenbaum, Marcy
To assess the current state of published literature on communication skills teaching in urology to inform future directions for research and teaching. Excellent patient-physician communication skills increase understanding of medical conditions, facilitate shared decision-making regarding treatment planning, improve clinical outcomes, and decrease lawsuits. Surgical and procedure-based subspecialties, including urology, have generally been slow to incorporate formal communication skills teaching into curricula for postgraduate trainees. We performed a PubMed literature search using multiple keywords, selecting and reviewing articles published in English, and addressing 1 of 3 domains (curriculum development, teaching methods, and assessment methods) of communication skills teaching. The distribution of articles within the urology-specific literature was compared with that of procedure-based specialties as a whole. Eight articles were found in the urology literature, and 24 articles were found in other procedure-based specialties. Within the urology-specific literature, all 8 articles (100%) acknowledged the need for communication curriculum development, 1 article (12.5%) described how communication skills were taught, and 1 article (12.5%) discussed how communication skills were assessed. Fewer articles in other procedure-based specialties acknowledged the need to develop curricula (29.2%, P = .0007) but were equally likely to discuss communication skills teaching (37.5%, P = .63) and assessment (33.3%, P = .73). Orthopedic surgery is the only surgical subspecialty with ongoing, adaptable, formal training for physicians. Most current publications addressing communication skills in procedure-based specialties are specialty specific and focus on only 1 of the 3 communication domains. Opportunities exist to share information and to create more integrated models to teach communication skills in urology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kinnick, Katherine N.; Parton, Sabrena R.
This article reports the results of a content analysis of the debut season of the reality television show, "The Apprentice." All 15 episodes were examined to determine the role that communication competencies played in competitors' success or elimination. Results indicate that the ability to persuade effectively was most critical to winning tasks,…
Bachmann, Cadja; Roschlaub, Silke; Harendza, Sigrid; Keim, Rebecca; Scherer, Martin
To assess students' communication skills during clinical medical education and at graduation. We conducted an observational cohort study from 2007 to 2011 with 26 voluntary undergraduate medical students at Hamburg University based on video-taped consultations in year four and at graduation. 176 consultations were analyzed quantitatively with validated and non-validated context-independent communication observation instruments (interrater reliability ≥0.8). Based on observational protocols each consultation was also documented in free-text comments, salient topics were extracted afterwards. 26 students, seven males, were enrolled in the survey. On average, graduates scored higher in differential-diagnostic questioning and time management but showed deficiencies in taking systematic and complete symptom-oriented histories, in communication techniques, in structuring consultations and in gathering the patients' perspectives. Patient-centeredness and empathy were rather low at graduation. Individual deficiencies could barely be eliminated. Medical students were able to enhance their clinical reasoning skills and their time management. Still, various communication deficiencies in final year students became evident regarding appropriate history taking, communication skills, empathy and patient-centeredness. The necessity of developing a longitudinal communication curriculum with enhanced communication trainings and assessments became evident. A curriculum should ensure that students' communication competencies are firmly achieved at graduation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Paternotte, E.; Scheele, F.; Seeleman, C.M.; Bank, L.; Scherpbier, A.J.; Dulmen, S. van
INTRODUCTION: Intercultural communication (ICC) between doctors and patients is often associated with misunderstandings and dissatisfaction. To develop ICC-specific medical education, it is important to find out which ICC skills medical specialists currently apply in daily clinical consultations.
Full Text Available Effective communication between the doctor and patient is crucial for good quality health care. Yet, this form of communication is often problematic, which may lead to several negative consequences for both patients and doctors. Clinical communication skills have become important components of medical training programmes. The traditional approach is to teach students particular communication skills, such as listening to patients and asking open-ended questions. Despite their importance, such training approaches do not seem to be enough to deliver medical practitioners who are able and committed to communicate effectively with patients. This might be due to the pervasive negative influence of the medical profession’s (mistaken understanding of itself as a natural science on doctor–patient communication. Doctors who have been trained according to a positivist framework may consider their only responsibility to be the physical treatment of physical disorders. They may thus have little regard for the patient’s psychological and social world and by extension for communication with the patient and/or their caregivers. To address this problem, I propose a curriculum, based on the academic field of philosophy, for teaching clinical communication.
Effective communication between the doctor and patient is crucial for good quality health care. Yet, this form of communication is often problematic, which may lead to several negative consequences for both patients and doctors. Clinical communication skills have become important components of medical training programmes. The traditional approach is to teach students particular communication skills, such as listening to patients and asking open-ended questions. Despite their importance, such training approaches do not seem to be enough to deliver medical practitioners who are able and committed to communicate effectively with patients. This might be due to the pervasive negative influence of the medical profession's (mistaken) understanding of itself as a natural science on doctor-patient communication. Doctors who have been trained according to a positivist framework may consider their only responsibility to be the physical treatment of physical disorders. They may thus have little regard for the patient's psychological and social world and by extension for communication with the patient and/or their caregivers. To address this problem, I propose a curriculum, based on the academic field of philosophy, for teaching clinical communication.
Effective communication between the doctor and patient is crucial for good quality health care. Yet, this form of communication is often problematic, which may lead to several negative consequences for both patients and doctors. Clinical communication skills have become important components of medical training programmes. The traditional approach is to teach students particular communication skills, such as listening to patients and asking open-ended questions. Despite their importance, such training approaches do not seem to be enough to deliver medical practitioners who are able and committed to communicate effectively with patients. This might be due to the pervasive negative influence of the medical profession’s (mistaken) understanding of itself as a natural science on doctor–patient communication. Doctors who have been trained according to a positivist framework may consider their only responsibility to be the physical treatment of physical disorders. They may thus have little regard for the patient’s psychological and social world and by extension for communication with the patient and/or their caregivers. To address this problem, I propose a curriculum, based on the academic field of philosophy, for teaching clinical communication. PMID:28155325
Raper, Steven E; Gupta, Meera; Okusanya, Olugbenga; Morris, Jon B
To improve physician/patient communication and familiarize surgeons with contemporary skills for and metrics assessing communication, courses were developed to provide academic general surgery residents and faculty with a toolkit of information, behaviors, and specific techniques. If academic faculty are expected to mentor residents in communication and residents are expected to learn good communication skills, then both should have the necessary education to accomplish such a goal. Didactic lectures introduced current concepts of physician-patient communication including information on better patient care, fewer malpractice suits, and the move toward transparency of communication metrics. Next, course participants viewed and critiqued "Surgi-Drama" videos, with actors simulating "before" and "after" physician-patient communication scenarios. Finally, participants were provided with a "toolkit" of techniques for improving physician-patient communication including "2-3-4"-a semiscripted short communication tool residents and other physicians can use in patient encounters-and a number of other acronymic approaches. Each participant was asked to complete an anonymous evaluation to assess course content satisfaction. Overall, 86% of residents participated (68/79), with a 52% response rate (35/68) for the evaluation tool. Overall, 88% of faculty participated (84/96), with an 84% response rate (71/84). Residents voiced satisfaction with all domains. For faculty, satisfaction was quantitatively confirmed (Likert score 4 or 5) in 4 of 7 domains, with the highest satisfaction in "communication of goals" and "understanding of the HCAHPS metric." The percentage of "top box" Doctor Communication Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) scores and national percentile ranking showed a sustained increase more than 1 and 2 years from the dates of the courses. The assessment of communication skills is increasing in importance in the practice of
Ostojić, Sanja; Djoković, Sanja; Radić-šestić, Marina; Nikolić, Mina; Mikić, Branka; Mirić, Danica
Over the last 10 years more than 300 persons received cochlear implant in Serbia and more than 90% of the recipients were children under 10 years of age. The program of cochlear implantation includes postoperative rehabilitation in which cognitive, integrative and developmental methods are used. The study was conducted to reveal factors affecting communication performance (CP) of cochlear implanted (Cl) children. Special attention was focused on the influence of the duration and intensity of rehabilitation and hearing age on further development of communication skills. A group of 30 CI children (13 boys and 17 girls) aged 2 to 5 years was enrolled in the study. All of the children had average intelligence and no other developmental disorder. They lived in families and attended rehabilitative seances 3 to 5 times a week. Their parents/caregivers answered structured questionnaire about functioning after pediatric cochlear implantation (FAPCI) and the results were the subject of detailed statistical analysis. Analysis of variance did not show any difference between the boys and the girls regarding FAPCI achievements (F(1, 28) = 2.909; p = 0.099) and age aberration in CP score (F(1,28) = 0.114, p = 0.738). Correlation analysis showed a statistically significant difference in FAPCI scores related to hearing age and duration of rehabilitation. Regression analysis (enter method) showed that model consisting of indipendent variables significantly contributed to prediction of overall FAPCI scores and Adjusted R2 value could explain 32% difference in communication skills of participants in this study. Communication skills of CI children evaluated by FAPCI are falling behind normatives for normal hearing children 18.6 months on the average. Hearing age, duration and intensity of rehabilitation have positive predictive value for communication skills development. Later identification of hearing loss and later cochlear implantation lead to delayed development of communication
Bhatti, Nasir I
Evaluation of surgical skills and competency are important aspects of the medical education process. Measurable and reproducible methods of assessment with objective feedback are essential components of surgical training. Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) is widely used across the medical specialties and otolaryngology-specific tools have been developed and validated for sinus and mastoid surgery. Although assessment of surgical skills can be time-consuming and requires human and financial resources, new evaluation methods and emerging technology may alleviate these barriers while also improving data collection practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Broder, Hillary L; Janal, Malvin; Mitnick, Danielle M; Rodriguez, Jasmine Y; Sischo, Lacey
Previous studies have shown that a communications program using patient instructors (PIs) facilitates data-gathering and interpersonal skills of third-year dental students. The aim of this study was to address the question of whether those skills are retained into the students' fourth year and generalized from the classroom to the clinic. In the formative training phase, three cohorts of D3 students (N=1,038) at one dental school received instruction regarding effective patient-doctor communication; interviewed three PIs and received PI feedback; and participated in a reflective seminar with a behavioral science instructor. In the follow-up competency phase, fourth-year students performed two new patient interviews in the clinic that were observed and evaluated by clinical dental faculty members trained in communications. Mean scores on a standardized communications rating scale and data-gathering assessment were compared over training and follow-up sessions and between cohorts with a linear mixed model. The analysis showed that the third-year students' mean communication and data-gathering scores increased with each additional encounter with a PI (pcommunication scores were not only maintained but increased during the fourth-year follow-up competency evaluations (pcommunications curriculum, prior instruction facilitated the students' clinical communication performance at baseline (pCommunications program improved students' data-gathering and interpersonal skills. Those skills were maintained and generalized through completion of the D4 students' summative competency performance in a clinical setting.
Je, Min Ji; Lee, Su Hyun; Lee, Chang Hyung; Kim, Sung Soo
The purpose of this study was to examine the concordance between self and standardized patient (SP) ratings of medical students' communication skills. Forty-three students interviewed SPs. The students were asked to complete a communication skills questionnaire that comprised 2 measures (empathy and interpersonal communication) before the interview. After each student's interview with the SP, the latter completed the same questionnaire as the students. Based on Lin's concordance coefficient, there was strong disconcordance between students' self-ratings and the SPs' ratings. With regard to empathic communication, more than 50% of students who considered themselves higher than middle level were regarded by SP as low level. On interpersonal communication, 39% of students who assessed themselves as higher than middle level were scored low level by SPs. There was strong disconcordance between students' self-ratings and the SPs' ratings-students tended to overevaluate themselves regarding their communication skills. These differences might result in patient dissatisfaction and noncompliance. Further, it could become a serious hindrance to the development of a good doctor-patient relationship. Medical educators should make sincere efforts to reduce this gap by teaching medical students the importance of the patients' perception of his doctors' communication skills.
Strom, Paris S.; Strom, Robert D.
Teamwork skills are required at work, but teacher efforts in many countries to track achievement within this context have been hindered by lack of assessment tools and input from students. The Teamwork Skills Inventory relies on peer and self-evaluation to establish accountability, identify competencies, and detect learning needs. Twenty-five…
ComOn Coaching: Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial to assess the effect of a varied number of coaching sessions on transfer into clinical practice following communication skills training.
Niglio de Figueiredo, Marcelo; Rudolph, Bärbel; Rodolph, Bärbel; Bylund, Carma L; Goelz, Tanja; Heußner, Pia; Sattel, Heribert; Fritzsche, Kurt; Wuensch, Alexander
Communication skills training has proven to be an effective means to enhance communication of health care professionals in oncology. These effects are well studied in standardized settings. The question of transferring these skills into clinical consultations remains open. We build up on a previous developed training concept consisting of a workshop and coaching. This training achieved a medium effect size in two studies with standardized patients. In the current study, we expanded and manualized the coaching concept, and we will evaluate effects of a varied number of coaching sessions on real clinical consultations. Our aim is to determine how much coaching oncologists need to transfer communication skills into clinical practice. Physicians of two German medical centers will participate in a workshop for communication skills and will be randomized to either a group with one coaching session or a group with four coaching sessions following the workshop. The participation is voluntary and the physicians will receive medical education points. Consultations held by the participating physicians with actual patients who gave their informed consent will be filmed at three time points. These consultations will be evaluated by blinded raters using a checklist based on the training content (primary outcome). Secondary outcomes will be the self-evaluated communication competence by physicians and an evaluation of the consultations by both physicians and patients. We will evaluate our communication training concept on three levels - rater, physician and patient - and concentrate on the transfer of communication skills into real life situations. As we emphasize the external validity in this study design, limitations will be expected due to heterogeneity of data. With this study we aim to gain data on how to improve communication skills training that will result in better patient outcomes. German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00004385 .
Loureiro, Elizabete; Severo, Milton; Ferreira, Maria Amélia
To explore the attitudes and perceptions of Portuguese residents towards Clinical Communication Skills (CCS) and the need for complementary training. 78 medical residents responded to an on-line questionnaire which comprised demographic data, open-ended questions and a Portuguese version of the Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS). Residents gave significantly higher scores (Pcommunication skills in general, compared to CSAS2 (attitudes towards the teaching/learning process of CCS). Residents doing their residency training in other parts of the country, other than the north, reveal a higher perception of insufficient training (72.7% vs. 38.7%, P=0.036). Residents showed more positive attitudes towards communication skills than towards the teaching/learning process. They admit to need more training in CCS in their residency year and highlight that the clinical cycle of undergraduate education should integrate these topics. Content analysis indicates that residents' perceptions are context-influenced. Integration of CCS in the undergraduate education, enhanced during post-graduate training. Training of clinical faculty and supervisors/tutors and the role that stakeholders have to play in order to promote continuous training in CCS; encourage patient-centeredness and reflective practice, as to facilitate transfer of acquired skills to clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alhaddad, Idrus; Kusumah, Yaya S.; Sabandar, Jozua; Dahlan, Jarnawi A.
This research aims to investigate, compare, and describe the achievement and enhancement of students' mathematical communication skills (MCS). It based on the prior mathematical knowledge (PMK) category (high, medium and low) by using Treffinger models (TM) and conventional learning (CL). This research is an experimental study with the population…
Jan 24, 2012 ... educators as vital skills required for mastery of school subjects. However, it is observed ... thinking, communication competence and its importance for effective teaching and learning; teachers must learn to think critically and must ..... students should engage in a formal/informal discussion/debate activity on ...
Academic communication skills or academic literacies have been, since their inception after the advent of democracy in South Africa in 1994, been aimed at assisting to achieve the broader goals of a restorative democracy that seeks make felt change in a new society. One is these is ensuring that higher education is ...
Information and communication technology has become an indispensable tool for effective information processing, storage and retrieval. Staff of academic institutions of all types are saddled with the responsibility of providing services to an elite clientele and require serious deployment of ICTs and enormous skills to ...
The purpose of this study is analyzing the effectiveness of communication skills and effective dialogue on marital satisfaction and commitment of young couples. The research plan was the trueexperiment pre-test, post-test experimental and control groups. The statistical population was consisted of all couples (married less ...
Sugito; E. S., Sri Mulyani; Hartono; Supartono
This study was to explore how enhance communication skill through problem posing and presentation method. The subjects of this research were the seven grade students Junior High School, including 20 male and 14 female. This research was conducted in two cycles and each cycle consisted of four steps, they were: planning, action, observation, and…
The purpose of this study is to determine the levels of Turkish language pre-service teachers' communication skills. Descriptive survey model was used in this study. 218 pre-service Turkish language teachers, who are studying at Department of Turkish Language Teaching at a university in the west of Turkey, participated in the study. Criterion…
Ashokan, Varun; Venugopal, Kalpana
The study investigated the effects of thematic approach on communication skills for preschool children. The study was a quasi experimental non-equivalent pretest-post-test control group design whereby 5-6 year old preschool children (n = 49) were randomly assigned to an experimental and a control group. The experimental group students were exposed…
Weiss, Amy L.; Theadore, Geraldine
This article focuses on why and how speech-language pathologists and other professionals can encourage the involvement of parents in teaching social communication skills to their young children. Four main topics are explored: (1) the evidence that many of the children with special needs served by speech-language pathologists and other…
Lane, H. Chad; Hays, Matthew Jensen; Core, Mark G.; Auerbach, Daniel
In the context of practicing intercultural communication skills, we investigated the role of fidelity in a game-based, virtual learning environment as well as the role of feedback delivered by an intelligent tutoring system. In 2 experiments, we compared variations on the game interface, use of the tutoring system, and the form of the feedback.…
Background. Thousands of South Africans are diagnosed with life-threatening illness every year. Research shows that, globally, of the 20 million people who need palliative care at the end of life every year, <10% receive it. Objectives. To explore communication skills and practices of medical practitioners when conveying a ...
M van Es, Judith; Wieringa-de Waard, Margreet; Visser, Mechteld R. M.
Although doctor-patient communication is considered a core competency for medical doctors, the effect of training has not been unequivocally established. Moreover, knowledge about the variance in the growth of different skills and whether certain patterns in growth can be detected could help us to
Full Text Available Based on a case study conducted by the researcher on a sample of 618 UG students, this paper focuses on identifying certain flaws in the present educational communication. The researcher after presenting the data analysis of the survey, attempts to highlight the present ELT scenario and its relevance to the present day needs of the society. It also emphasizes on the need to focus on practical dimensions of learning. It substantiates that inadequate language proficiency, lack of presentation skills knowledge and unawareness about life skills are the main reasons for the educated unemployment. Finally, the researcher concludes this paper with some suggestions and recommendations which will help the learners to enhance their communication skills.
Bonar, Scott A.
What skills and knowledge will a new graduate seeking employment need to work with introduced fishes? Clearly, success in introduced species management—similar to other disciplines in fisheries—requires a mixture of scientific and communication skills. However, specific abilities especially important to a biologist who manages introduced fishes should be highlighted. Unlike most other management strategies, stocking an introduced species can result in unintended and irreversible impacts, so particular care must be employed when stocking is considered. Furthermore, fish populations in areas outside of the introduced species management area might also be affected, usually negatively, if the introduced fish escapes. Therefore, rock-solid knowledge of basic aquatic ecology, including risk management; fish taxonomy (so the wrong fish species is not mistakenly stocked!); familiarity with human values of both the time and the place (which requires communication skills); and a strong understanding of human history are all important.
Griffiths, Jane; Wilson, Charlotte; Ewing, Gail; Connolly, Michael; Grande, Gunn
To pilot an evidence-based communication skills model (SAGE & THYME) with UK District Nurses (DNs) who visit patients with advanced cancer early in the dying trajectory. Evidence suggests that DNs lack confidence in communication skills and in assessing cancer patients' psycho-social needs; also that they lack time. SAGE & THYME is a highly structured model for teaching patient centred interactions. It addresses concerns about confidence and time. Mixed methods. 33 DNs were trained in SAGE & THYME in a three hour workshop and interviewed in focus groups on three occasions: pre-training, immediately post-training and two months post-training. Questionnaires measuring perceived outcomes of communication, confidence in communication and motivation to use SAGE & THYME were administered at the focus groups. SAGE & THYME provided a structure for conversations and facilitated opening and closing of interactions. The main principle of patient centeredness was reportedly used by all. Knowledge about communication behaviours helpful to patients improved and was sustained two months after training. Increased confidence in communication skills was also sustained. Motivation to use SAGE & THYME was high and remained so at two months, and some said the model saved them time. Challenges with using the model included controlling the home environment and a change in style of communication which was so marked some DNs preferred to use it with new patients. Training DNs in SAGE & THYME in a three hour workshop appears to be a promising model for improving communication skills when working with cancer patients. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dithole, K S; Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, Gloria; Akpor, Oluwaseyi A; Moleki, Mary M
Patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) often experience communication difficulties - usually associated with mechanical ventilation - resulting in psychological problems such as anxiety, fear, and depression. Good communication between nurses and patients is critical for success from personalised nursing care of each patient. The purpose of this study is to describe nurses' experience of a communication skills training intervention. A convenience sample of twenty intensive care nurses participated in the study. Data was collected by means of interviews with nurses. Data from the interviews were analysed using qualitative thematic content analysis. Six themes emerged: (1) acceptance of knowledge and skills developed during workshops; (2) management support; (3) appreciation of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices; (4) change in attitudes; and (5) the need to share knowledge with others and (6) inclusion of communication skills workshop training as an integral part of an orientation programme for all nurses. The findings of this study indicated that the application of augmentative and alternative communication devices and strategies can improve nurse-patient communication in intensive care units. Therefore, the implementation of communication skills training for intensive care nurses should constantly be encouraged and, indeed, introduced as a key element of ICU care training.
Norma Esmeralda RODRÍGUEZ RAMÍREZ
Full Text Available This article presents the results and reflections obtained across a research aimed to analyze the quality criteria of an opened learning object oriented to develop communication skills in order to be able to report and validate it according to its content, pedagogic structure, technological structure, graphical and textual language and usability to teacher training, in order to base it theoretically, pedagogically and technologically. The research question was: Which are the quality criteria that a learning object aimed to develop communication skills must cover? Under a quantitative approach, there were electronic questionnaires applied to: 34 Technological University teachers, eight experts about of communicative competence, teaching, technology and graphic design. The results indicated that some of the quality criteria of learning object are: the effective managing of the learning content, the balanced composition of his pedagogic structure, the technological structure efficiency and the proper managing of graphical and textual language.
Full Text Available Background and purpose: Available data indicate the quality of doctor-patient communication has a significant impact on patient satisfaction, medical outcomes, medical costs, and the likelihood of a physician experiencing a malpractice claim. Assessment of communication skills is a very important issue. Since a good assessment can show strengths and weaknesses of this process and feedback can improve the behavior, this study was designed to measure communication skill of last year medicalstudents (interns in Jahrom medical school by an observational checklist.Methods: This study is a cross sectional study to access communication skills of interns of Jahrom medical school in southeast Iran, a checklist was designed for this purpose. Checklist completed with direct observation by an educated general practitioner. The researcher observed the interns inMotahari and Peymanie,(2 teaching hospitals of Jahrom medical school.The interns ignored about checklist material to prevent observational bias. Findings were analyzed using SPSS software.Results: 32(55%of medical interns were female and 26(45% were male. under category of interview conduction the best results was due to acceptable appearance of interns that 48 interns(82.8%hadacceptable appearance. nearly half of the interns didn’t say hello to patients and great them. none of the interns introduce themselves to patients. . Under category of interview conduction the bestresults was due to responding properly to patient questions. Under category of interview completion the results showed that the behavior of interns in this part was not acceptable and this part of communication was the worst part.Conclusion: The results of our study reflect that it is necessary to introduce a sustained, coherent and integrated communication skill training program into the medical curriculum.Key words: COMMUNICATION SKILLS, INTERNS, ASSESSMENT
Crossman, Joanne Marciano
The Oral Communication Competencies Assessment Project was designed to determine student communication competency across the curriculum, transferring skills taught in the communication skills class to authentic classroom performances. The 505 students who were required to make oral presentations across the curriculum during the first term of the…
Zeszotarski, Paula; Ma, Carolyn
Objective. To evaluate the impact on pharmacy students of a communication course, which used role-playing to develop active-learning skills. Design. Students role-playing pharmacists in patient care scenarios were critiqued by students and pharmacist faculty members. Grading was performed using the rubric inspired by Bruce Berger’s Communication Skills for Pharmacists. Written skills were evaluated using student written critique questionnaires. Students completed precourse and postcourse self-assessment surveys. Preceptor evaluations were analyzed for course impact. Assessment. Students demonstrated improvement in oral skills based on role-play scores (45.87/50) after practice sessions. The average score based on the student questionnaire was 9.31/10. Gain was demonstrated in all defined course objectives. Impact on introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) communication objectives was insignificant. Student evaluations for course and teaching strategy reflected a high average. Conclusion. Study results demonstrated improvement in oral and written communication skills that may help improve interprofessional teamwork between pharmacists and other health care providers. PMID:25995519
Khan, Alamgir; Khan, Salahuddin; Zia-Ul-Islam, Syed; Khan, Manzoor
Basically the current study sought to assess the perception of students regarding the role of teacher communication skills in their academics success. Comprehensive questionnaire carrying information including social economic and demographic aspects of the study was designed by the researcher to achieve the set objectives. All those universities…
Beuker, K.T.; Lambregts-Rommelse, N.N.J.; Donders, R.; Buitelaar, J.K.
The first two years of life is a crucially important period for the development of communication skills. In this study joint attention and language development were monthly assessed between 8 and 24 months of age in a sample of 23 typically developing children to establish the developmental
Cipolla, M; Zecconi, A
Effective communication in dairy farms improves management and herd health, and it is also pivotal for public health in a "from farm to fork" perspective. This paper reports the results of a descriptive study on dairy farmers' perception of veterinarian and other consultants' communication skills. Perceived communication skills showed to be significantly lower than desired ones for all the professional figures considered. Despite these unsatisfactory results, veterinarian were the most appreciated and skilled consultants. The observed farmers' dissatisfaction increases farmers' difficulties in identifying proper targets and proper consultant. An increase in the skill of veterinarian to deliver effective and tailored messages could help to overcome the problem. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Comings, John P.; Strucker, John; Bell, Brenda
This article describes two assessment tools that have been used to assess the reading skills of youth participating in alternative basic skills and livelihood skills training programs. The Rapid Assessment of Reading Skills (RARS) was developed to identify potential participants who needed to improve their reading skills before beginning training…
Riga, Vassiliki; Kossioni, Anastassia
In the health professions, competency in communication skills is necessary for the development of a satisfactory physician-patient interaction. Body expression is an important domain of the communication process, often not adequately addressed. The aim of this study was to describe the methodology and content of a pilot introductory training session in body expression for dental students before the beginning of their clinical training. The educational methods were based on experiential learning and embodied training, where the session's content focused on five themes representing different phases of the dental treatment session. A questionnaire was distributed before and after the session to assess any changes in students' self-perceptions in communication skills. There were statistically significant improvements in the total values of the students self-perceptions of their communication skills obtained before and after the training and in specific elements such as small group situations, performing an interview, understanding the feelings of others and expressing one's own feelings. The dental students in the present study felt that this preclinical experiential learning session improved their communication skills. The feedback from this training experience will enable further development of an effective communication course for clinical dentistry.
Full Text Available Communication with patients is a core clinical skill in medicine that can be acquired through communication skills training. Meanwhile, the importance of transfer of communication skills to the workplace has not been sufficiently studied. This study aims to assess the efficacy of a 40-hour training program designed to improve patients' satisfaction and residents' communication skills during their daily clinical rounds.Residents were randomly assigned to the training program or to a waiting list. Patients' satisfaction was assessed with a visual analog scale after each visit. Transfer of residents' communication skills was assessed in audiotaped actual inpatient visits during a half-day clinical round. Transcripted audiotapes were analyzed using content analysis software (LaComm. Training effects were tested with Mann-Whitney tests and generalized linear Poisson regression models.Eighty-eight residents were included. First, patients interacting with trained residents reported a higher satisfaction with residents' communication (Median=92 compared to patients interacting with untrained residents (Median=88 (p=.046. Second, trained residents used more assessment utterances (Relative Risk (RR=1.17; 95% Confidence intervals (95%CI=1.02-1.34; p=.023. Third, transfer was also observed when residents' training attendance was considered: residents' use of assessment utterances (RR=1.01; 95%CI=1.01-1.02; p=.018 and supportive utterances (RR=0.99; 95%CI=0.98-1.00; p=.042 (respectively 1.15 (RR, 1.08-1.23 (95%CI, p<.001 for empathy and 0.95 (RR, 0.92-0.99 (95%CI, p=.012 for reassurance was proportional to the number of hours of training attendance.The training program improved patients' satisfaction and allowed the transfer of residents' communication skills learning to the workplace. Transfer was directly related to training attendance but remained limited. Future studies should therefore focus on the improvement of the efficacy of communication skills
Clayton, Josephine M; Butow, Phyllis N; Waters, Amy; Laidsaar-Powell, Rebekah C; O'Brien, Angela; Boyle, Frances; Back, Anthony L; Arnold, Robert M; Tulsky, James A; Tattersall, Martin H N
We developed a novel individualised training program regarding end-of-life communication, designed to be time effective for busy junior-doctors working in hospital settings. We aimed to pilot this brief individualised training program with junior-doctors to explore its acceptability, feasibility and effect on the doctors' confidence, communication skills, attitudes towards psychosocial care and burnout. The content of the training intervention was informed by a systematic literature review and evidence-based clinical practice guidelines regarding end-of-life communication. The intervention was based on sound educational principles and involved three one-hour teaching sessions over a three-week period, including two individual sessions with an expert facilitator and simulated patient/caregiver. In addition, participants received written and audiovisual take-home learning materials. PARTICIPANTS were videotaped consulting with a simulated patient/caregiver pre/post training to assess the impact of the course on their communication behaviours. PARTICIPANTS completed de-identified questionnaires pre/post training, including self-assessed confidence, attitudes to psychosocial care, and the Maslach Burnout inventory. PARTICIPANTS included 22 junior-doctors from a large teaching hospital in Sydney, Australia. All participants reported that the training was useful, had been helpful for their communication with patients and that they would recommend the training to others. Significant improvements were found in participants' communication skills (in seven out of 21 specific and all three global communication behaviours assessed, range P=0.02 to confidence in communicating about relevant topics (P<0.001), attitudes towards psychosocial care (P=0.03) and sense of personal accomplishment (P=0.043). There were no overall differences in participants' burnout levels. This intervention shows promise and warrants further formal evaluation.
Goske, Marilyn J.; Reid, Janet R.; Yaldoo-Poltorak, Dunya; Hewson, Mariana
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education mandates that radiology residency programs teach communication skills to residents. The purpose of this paper is to present a mnemonic, RADPED, that can be used to enhance communication in the radiology setting. It reminds the resident of the salient points to address during an imaging encounter with pediatric patients and their families for the purpose of enhancing communication. Recent history and research in medical communication are reviewed. Various communication guides used by primary care physicians, such as SEGUE, and the Kalamazoo consensus statement are discussed. This methodology was adapted into a format that could be used to teach communication skills to radiology residents in the context of an imaging encounter. RADPED reminds the resident to establish rapportwith the patient, ask questionsas to why the patient and family are presenting for the study, discuss the exam, perform the procedure, use exam distractions, and discussthe results with the referring physician and family when appropriate. This guide is available with movie clips as part of an on-line pediatric radiology curriculum. This simple memory aid promotes the key points necessary to optimize the radiology resident's encounter with pediatric patients and their families. (orig.)
Gasiorek, Jessica; van de Poel, Kris
Interactions between people from different cultures are becoming increasingly commonplace in contemporary healthcare settings. To date, most research evaluating cross-cultural preparedness has assumed that medical professionals are speaking their first language (L1). However, as healthcare workers are increasingly mobile and patient populations are increasingly diverse, more and more interactions are likely to occur in a professional's non-native language (L2). This study assessed and compared nurses' perceived cross-cultural preparedness and skillfulness in their interactions with patients from other cultures when speaking both their L1 and L2. The goal of this project was to inform the creation of a communication skills training program. Nurses reported their perceived cross-cultural preparedness and skillfulness (scales adapted from Park et al., 2009) in their L1 and L2 via an online questionnaire. This questionnaire was distributed among nurses working in Vienna, Austria, through the Vienna Hospital Association (VHA). Nurses and nurses-in-training working in VHA hospitals participated. Most participants who provided demographic information were currently nurses (n=179) with an average of 16.88years (SD=11.50) of professional experience (range: 0-40); n=40 were nurses-in-training with an average of 2.13years (SD=0.88) of experience (range: 1-5). Descriptive statistics for each cross-cultural preparedness and skillfulness (in each language) are reported; comparisons between L1 and L2 responses were also conducted. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify predictors of preparedness and L1/L2 skillfulness. Nurses reported feeling significantly less confident in their skills when working in an L2, across a range of culture-related issues. Having had previous communication skills training predicted (better) self-reported L2 skillfulness, although it did not predict L1 skillfulness. These results indicate that there is a language-specific component to cross
Brouwers, M.H.; Rasenberg, E.M.C.; Weel, C. van; Laan, R.F.; Weel-Baumgarten, E.M. van
CONTEXT: Patient-centred communication is a key component of patient centredness in medical care. Therefore, adequate education in and assessment of patient-centred communication skills are necessary. In general, feedback on communication skills is most effective when it is provided directly and is
Full Text Available Objective: The main objective at study was to assess the communication and interaction of psychotic patient above age of 18 in 2000. Materials & Methods: The study sample consist of 80 psychotic patients (38 female and 42 male from Razi and Imam Hossein Hospital and Raad and Sina outpatient clinic, selected based on occupational therapist using the Assessment of Communication and Interaction Skills Questionnaire (ACIS. Statistical analyses of information have done by spearman coefficient correlation, Mann Whitney and Wilcoxon tests. Results: Spearman of correlation, mann-and wilcoxon Findings indicate: 1-The average grade of ACIS test in the group of schizophrenic patients were significantly lower than the group schizoaffective patients (P<0.00l. 2-The average of ACIS test in the group of inpatient was lower than the group of outpatient (p<0.00l. 3-No significant difference was found for the average grade of ACIS test in the group of male & female. Conclusion: The obtained results show the weakness of communication and interaction skills in schizophrenic patient and also inpatients. The obtained results of this investigation give useful information about the communication and interaction skill of patient to the occupational therapists but application of this instrument needs more studies.
Full Text Available This study analyzes whether or not communication skills and self-esteem of vocational school students can predict their psychological resilience. The data of the study were collected from a total of 295 vocational school students including 147 female and 148 male in Burdur and Isparta. The study benefited from the Ego Resiliency Scale developed by Block and Kremen (1996 and adapted by Karaırmak (2007, the Communication Skills Evaluation Scale developed by Korkut (1996, and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale developed by Morris Rosenberg (1965. The study made use of the standard multiple regression analysis in order to prove the power of the assessment of communication skills and self-esteem to predict psychological levels of resilience of vocational school students. The data were tested on a 0.05 level of significance. This study shows that the assessment of communication skills and self-esteem positively co- relates with the personal strengths of pulling oneself together. The positive self-assessment predicts self- esteem positively and significantly as well. A positive sense of an individual’s about oneself positively co- relates with high self-esteem.
Melvin, L; Connolly, K; Pitre, L; Dore, K L; Wasi, P
Written and verbal communication skills are important skills for all physicians. While verbal skills are taught and assessed in medical school, medical students report limited instruction in written communication skills. This study examined the impact of a curriculum delivered during a 6-week clinical rotation in Internal Medicine on the objective assessment of medical students' written communication skills. The curriculum consisted of two educational programmes: a medical student communication tutorial and a resident feedback workshop. The study was conducted from March 2012 to January 2013 at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The study featured three arms: (1) control, (2) medical student communication tutorial alone and (3) student tutorial and resident feedback workshop. Data were collected on 126 students during 6-week Internal Medicine clerkship rotations. Students' written consultation notes were collected prior to the educational programmes and at 6 weeks. Blinded faculty assessors used an independently validated Assessment Checklist to evaluate consultation notes. Consultation note scores improved from week 1 to week 6 across all study arms. However, the change was statistically significant only in arm 3, featuring both the medical student tutorial and the resident feedback workshop, with mean scores improving from 4.75 (SD=1.496) to 5.56 (SD=0.984) out of 7. The mean difference between week 1 and week 6 was significantly different (0.806, p=0.002, 95% CI 0.306 to 1.058). The combination of a resident feedback workshop with medical student written communication tutorial improves objective evaluations of consultation note scores over student tutorial alone. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Full Text Available Background: Communication is a process that allows us to interact with other people. Medical professionals need to possess good communication skills for history taking, diagnosis, and treatment. Communicative skills are hardly taught in medical schools of India. The students are expected to learn them on their own. To address this issue, we introduced communicative skills training (CST for medical interns. Objective: Primary – To determine the effectiveness of CST in improving history taking on sensitive issues by medical interns. Secondary – To improve patients' satisfaction through improved communicative skills. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized control study carried out on medical interns at Jamnagar. The interns were randomized to either Group A or Group B. Intervention in the form of CST was given to Group A while Group B was control. The topic of CST was “eliciting sexual history.” Assessment of participants was done by pre- and post-intervention objective structured clinical examination. For ethical reasons, Group B was also given CST by experts after completion of our study but their results were not included for analysis. Results: Although mean scores increased in both the groups, (from 6.4 to 13.4 in the intervention group and from 6.5 to 7.5 in controls, the percent increase was much larger in the intervention group than controls (109% vs. 15%. Students gave a positive feedback to CST. Opinion of teachers was favoring CST. Among the patients allotted to intervention group, 83% were satisfied. Conclusion: CST imparted to medical interns helps in improving doctor–patient relationship.
Gibson, S J; Davidson, Z E
Simulated patients (SPs) are often used in dietetics for the teaching and assessment of communication skills. The present study aimed to determine the impact of a SP encounter on communication skills in undergraduate preclinical dietetic students in the context of the resources required for delivering this educational strategy. This observational study collected assessment data from four cohorts of third-year dietetic students to examine the effect of participation in SP-embedded Objective Structured Clinical Exams. Students completed two SP interviews, 2 weeks apart, and communication skills were measured on both occasions. A subgroup of students received a video of their SP encounter. Differences between the two SP interview scores were compared to assess the impact of the SP encounter on communication skills. The required staff and resources were described. Data were collected involving 215 students. Out of 30 marks, there was a modest mean (SD) improvement in communication skills from the first to the second SP interview of 2.5 (4.2) (P skills, with failing students demonstrating the greatest improvement between SP encounters. There were no observed benefits for the subset of students who received videos. Providing repeat SP interview opportunities results in only modest improvement in communication skills for most students. The use of SPs needs to be considered in context of the substantial costs and resources involved and tailored to student ability. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Busch, Anne-Kathrin; Rockenbauch, Katrin; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Brähler, Elmar
Objectives: Attitudes towards communication skills of medical undergraduates can be gathered using the Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS). We aimed to develop a German version of the CSAS (CSAS-G) in order to explore attitudes towards communication skills in a German cohort. Additionally the potential influence of demographic factors was examined. Methods: We realized the CSAS-G and conducted a survey with 529 participants from 3 different years of study. We then carried out an explorative as well as confirmatory factor analysis and compared the attitudinal scores. Multiple regression analysis was performed. Results: The confirmatory analysis confirmed the two-subscale system revealed by the explorative factor analysis. Students indicate low levels of negative attitudes and moderate levels of positive attitudes. Attitudinal scores differ significantly in relation to gender. Conclusion: The CSAS-G can be used in German cohorts to evaluate attitudes towards communication skills. Medical students in our study show basically a positive approach. Further investigation is necessary to explore and understand attitudes towards communication skills of German medical students. PMID:25699103
Busch, Anne-Kathrin; Rockenbauch, Katrin; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Brähler, Elmar
Attitudes towards communication skills of medical undergraduates can be gathered using the Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS). We aimed to develop a German version of the CSAS (CSAS-G) in order to explore attitudes towards communication skills in a German cohort. Additionally the potential influence of demographic factors was examined. We realized the CSAS-G and conducted a survey with 529 participants from 3 different years of study. We then carried out an explorative as well as confirmatory factor analysis and compared the attitudinal scores. Multiple regression analysis was performed. The confirmatory analysis confirmed the two-subscale system revealed by the explorative factor analysis. Students indicate low levels of negative attitudes and moderate levels of positive attitudes. Attitudinal scores differ significantly in relation to gender. The CSAS-G can be used in German cohorts to evaluate attitudes towards communication skills. Medical students in our study show basically a positive approach. Further investigation is necessary to explore and understand attitudes towards communication skills of German medical students.
Mohan, Veena; Kunnath, Suja Kurian; Philip, Vineetha Sara; Mohan, Lakshmi Santha; Thampi, Neethu
In this case study, we discuss the application of a patient-centred clinical approach that led to the use of an assisted communication platform to combat severe communicative deficit in a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Initial assessment at four years of age revealed that the patient had rudimentary communication skills, with significant sensory integration dysfunction manifested as oral, olfactory, and tactile seeking behaviours; self-stimulatory behaviour; and complete dependence on caregiver for activities of daily living. Intensive, multi-disciplinary intervention resulted in minimal improvement in communicative skills and sensory seeking over six months. Subsequently, a tailor-made picture-assisted communication training with the mother as the communication facilitator was adopted. This approach was abandoned due to the patient's poor response and mother's low acceptance of picture-based interaction. A preference for printed material was observed in the patient. Accordingly, further management was focused on employing a computer-based interactive platform that the patient was taught to use over the course of a few months as a part of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) intervention program. This resulted in a remarkable improvement in the child's skills that now allowed for a better intentional communication of his thoughts and needs. This study highlights the importance of revisiting conventional rehabilitation strategies for communicative deficits and tailoring them according to the patient's needs and preferences. It also emphasises that besides excellent observation skills, clinicians must be willing to consider technology based approaches in patients responding poorly to traditional approaches in order to develop effective interventional programmes. Implication for Rehabilitation The current study highlights the importance of exploring the application of technology based intervention for building communication skills in the early
Dadgar, Hooshang; Alaghband Rad, Javad; Soleymani, Zahra; Khorammi, Anahita; McCleery, Joe; Maroufizadeh, Saman
Objective: Development of early social skills in children is a complex process. To understand this process, it is important to assess how strengths or weaknesses in other developmental domains may be affected by these skills. The present study aimed at investigating the association of motor skills and imitation ability with early social communication skills in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method: In this study, 20 children with ASD aged 3 to 5 years (M = 4.05, SD = 0.55) participated. All children were diagnosed as ASD based on the DSM-V criteria by an independent child psychiatrist. Additionally, Autism Diagnostic interview-Revised was used for subsequent diagnostic confirmation. Children were tested with Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2), the Motor Imitation Scale (MIS), and the Early Social Communication Scales (ESCS). All examinations were videotaped for subsequent scoring. The relationship between these skills was estimated by Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: A significant and strong correlation was obtained between TGMD total score and imitation total score (r =.776; p 0.05). A significant correlation was found between MIS and TGMD total scores with Initiating Joint Attention and Responding to Joint Attention (p≤0/025) as ESCS subscales. But MIS and TGMD total scores were not correlated with social interaction and responding to behavioral requests subscales. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that indicated both imitation ability and motor function have an association with each other and with early social communication skills.
Background Communication is important for the quality of clinical practice, and programs have been implemented to improve healthcare providers’ communication skills. However, the consistency of programs teaching communication skills has received little attention, and debate exists about the application of acquired skills to real patients. This study inspects whether (1) results from a communication program are replicated with different samples, and (2) results with standardized patients apply to interviews with real patients. Methods A structured, nine-month communication program was applied in two consecutive years to two different samples of healthcare professionals (25 in the first year, 20 in the second year). Results were assessed at four different points in time, each year, regarding participants’ confidence levels (self-rated), basic communication skills in interviews with standardized patients, and basic communication skills in interviews with real patients. Data were analyzed using GLM Repeated-Measures procedures. Results Improvements were statistically significant in both years in all measures except in simulated patients’ assessment of the 2008 group. Differences between the two samples were non-significant. Differences between interviews with standardized and with real patients were also non-significant. Conclusions The program’s positive outcomes were replicated in different samples, and acquired skills were successfully applied to real-patient interviews. This reinforces this type of program structure as a valuable training tool, with results translating into real situations. It also adds to the reliability of the assessment instruments employed, though these may need adaptation in the case of real patients. PMID:24886341
Carvalho, Irene P; Pais, Vanessa G; Silva, Filipa R; Martins, Raquel; Figueiredo-Braga, Margarida; Pedrosa, Raquel; Almeida, Susana S; Correia, Luís; Ribeiro-Silva, Raquel; Castro-Vale, Ivone; Teles, Ana; Mota-Cardoso, Rui
Communication is important for the quality of clinical practice, and programs have been implemented to improve healthcare providers' communication skills. However, the consistency of programs teaching communication skills has received little attention, and debate exists about the application of acquired skills to real patients. This study inspects whether (1) results from a communication program are replicated with different samples, and (2) results with standardized patients apply to interviews with real patients. A structured, nine-month communication program was applied in two consecutive years to two different samples of healthcare professionals (25 in the first year, 20 in the second year). Results were assessed at four different points in time, each year, regarding participants' confidence levels (self-rated), basic communication skills in interviews with standardized patients, and basic communication skills in interviews with real patients. Data were analyzed using GLM Repeated-Measures procedures. Improvements were statistically significant in both years in all measures except in simulated patients' assessment of the 2008 group. Differences between the two samples were non-significant. Differences between interviews with standardized and with real patients were also non-significant. The program's positive outcomes were replicated in different samples, and acquired skills were successfully applied to real-patient interviews. This reinforces this type of program structure as a valuable training tool, with results translating into real situations. It also adds to the reliability of the assessment instruments employed, though these may need adaptation in the case of real patients.
Bittner, Anja; Jonietz, Ansgar; Bittner, Johannes; Beickert, Luise; Harendza, Sigrid
To train and assess undergraduate medical students' written communication skills by exercises in translating medical reports into plain language for real patients. 27 medical students participated in a newly developed communication course. They attended a 3-h seminar including a briefing on patient-centered communication and an introduction to working with the internet platform http://washabich.de. In the following ten weeks, participants "translated" one medical report every fortnight on this platform receiving feedback by a near-peer supervisor. A pre- and post-course assignment consisted of a self-assessment questionnaire on communication skills, analysis of a medical text with respect to medical jargon, and the translation of a medical report into plain language. In the self-assessment, students rated themselves in most aspects of patient-centered communication significantly higher after attending the course. After the course they marked significantly more medical jargon terms correctly than before (pcommunicative aspects (pcommunication skills and medical knowledge in undergraduate medical students. To include translation exercises in the undergraduate medical curriculum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Junod Perron, N.; Nendaz, M.; Louis-Simonet, M.; Sommer, J.; Gut, A.; Cerutti, B.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Dolmans, D.
BACKGROUND: Observation of performance followed by feedback is the key to good teaching of communication skills in clinical practice. The fact that it occurs rarely is probably due to clinical supervisors' perceived lack of competence to identify communication skills and give effective feedback. We evaluated the impact of a faculty development programme on communication skills teaching on clinical supervisors' ability to identify residents' good and poor communication skills and to discuss th...
Full Text Available In the contemporary process of teaching fine arts, children’s own creative expression and art appreciation are used to encourage learners towards both perception and reception; consequently, the evaluation and internalization of works of art play an equally important role. In a qualitative empirical research study that takes the form of a case study, we studied the response of children to works of art and their demonstrated communication skills in this. The results have shown that children respond to works of art on multiple levels. With non-standardized narrative group interviews, we observed children’s associations. Children perceived and internalized the given artworks and also put their emotions into words. The study has shown that systematic development of art appreciation among pre-school children can have a positive impact on their communication skills.
Brookhart, Susan M.
The 1990 Standards for Teacher Competence in Educational Assessment of Students (AFT, NCME, & NEA, 1990) made a documentable contribution to the field. However, the Standards have become a bit dated, most notably in two ways: (1) the Standards do not consider current conceptions of formative assessment knowledge and skills, and (2) the Standards…
منصورهالسادات صادقی; محمدعلی مظاهری; فرشته موتابی
The aim of this research was to predict the role of couples’ interactions in application of communication skills based on observing their positive and negative interactions. A sample of 31 couples [adapted (15) and maladapted (16)] who were living in Tehran, were selected via accessible sampling. The couples’ interactions were videotaped through a designed scenario including problem solving, decision making, and reviewing conversation about a shared pleasure event. Participants also completed...
In June 2011, the University of Lancaster delivered a substantially-enhanced course in Communication and Presentation Skills to 108 second-year undergraduate mathematicians. The course was delivered jointly by staff in the Department of Mathematics and Statistics and CETAD, the Centre for Training and Development at Lancaster. Funding for the course and its increased staffing requirement came from an MSOR HE Curriculum Innovation Fund grant of £5,000. CETAD is a specialist unit which focuses ...
Olsen, Erik; Fay, Gavin; Gaichas, Sarah; Gamble, Robert; Lucey, Sean; Link, Jason S
Accelerated changes to global ecosystems call for holistic and integrated analyses of past, present and future states under various pressures to adequately understand current and projected future system states. Ecosystem models can inform management of human activities in a complex and changing environment, but are these models reliable? Ensuring that models are reliable for addressing management questions requires evaluating their skill in representing real-world processes and dynamics. Skill has been evaluated for just a limited set of some biophysical models. A range of skill assessment methods have been reviewed but skill assessment of full marine ecosystem models has not yet been attempted. We assessed the skill of the Northeast U.S. (NEUS) Atlantis marine ecosystem model by comparing 10-year model forecasts with observed data. Model forecast performance was compared to that obtained from a 40-year hindcast. Multiple metrics (average absolute error, root mean squared error, modeling efficiency, and Spearman rank correlation), and a suite of time-series (species biomass, fisheries landings, and ecosystem indicators) were used to adequately measure model skill. Overall, the NEUS model performed above average and thus better than expected for the key species that had been the focus of the model tuning. Model forecast skill was comparable to the hindcast skill, showing that model performance does not degenerate in a 10-year forecast mode, an important characteristic for an end-to-end ecosystem model to be useful for strategic management purposes. We identify best-practice approaches for end-to-end ecosystem model skill assessment that would improve both operational use of other ecosystem models and future model development. We show that it is possible to not only assess the skill of a complicated marine ecosystem model, but that it is necessary do so to instill confidence in model results and encourage their use for strategic management. Our methods are applicable
Jones, Christopher G.
Communication skills are a fundamental personal competency for a successful career in accounting. What is not so obvious is the specific written communication skill set employers look for and the extent those skills are computer mediated. Using survey research, this article explores the particular skills employers desire and their satisfaction…
Full Text Available Abstract Background One estimate suggests that by 2010 more than 30% of a physician's time will be spent using information technology tools. The aim of this study is to assess the information and communication technologies (ICT skills of medical students in Tanzania. We also report a pilot intervention of peer mentoring training in ICT by medical students from the UK tutoring students in Tanzania. Methods Design: Cross sectional study and pilot intervention study. Participants: Fourth year medical students (n = 92 attending Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Main outcome measures: Self-reported assessment of competence on ICT-related topics and ability to perform specific ICT tasks. Further information related to frequency of computer use (hours per week, years of computer use, reasons for use and access to computers. Skills at specific tasks were reassessed for 12 students following 4 to 6 hours of peer mentoring training. Results The highest levels of competence in generic ICT areas were for email, Internet and file management. For other skills such as word processing most respondents reported low levels of competence. The abilities to perform specific ICT skills were low – less than 60% of the participants were able to perform the core specific skills assessed. A period of approximately 5 hours of peer mentoring training produced an approximate doubling of competence scores for these skills. Conclusion Our study has found a low level of ability to use ICT facilities among medical students in a leading university in sub-Saharan Africa. A pilot scheme utilising UK elective students to tutor basic skills showed potential. Attention is required to develop interventions that can improve ICT skills, as well as computer access, in order to bridge the digital divide.
Lown, Beth A; Sasson, J Pierre; Hinrichs, Peg
Effective communication is essential for high quality care, yet little is known about radiologists' communication with patients, what constitutes "best communication practices," and how best to teach and evaluate it. We piloted educational strategies and an assessment instrument to teach and evaluate radiologists' communication skills. We focused on communication in the diagnostic mammography suite, where patient-radiologist interactions are often intense and stressful. We adapted existing instruments to create a Radiology Communication Skills Assessment Tool (RCSAT). We piloted an educational program that included patients as teachers and raters of interpersonal and communication skills, and implemented a radiology objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). We measured radiology residents' self-assessed skills, confidence and stress, as well as patient-rated communication skills using the RCSAT. Residents' baseline self-assessed communication skills regarding abnormal mammograms were fair, confidence in their communication was minimal, and they found this communication stressful. Overall baseline communication skills, rated by patient-teachers using the RCSAT, were 3.62 on a 5-point scale (1 = poor to 5 = excellent). Analysis of post-OSCE debriefing comments yielded nine themes regarding effective radiology communication, as well as residents' reflections on the communication challenges they experience. The themes were integrated into subsequent RCSAT revisions. Residents' reflections were used to inform teaching workshops. Educational curricula on communication about difficult information can be implemented in radiology training programs. Radiology residents' performance can be assessed using a communication skills assessment tool during standardized patient-teacher encounters. Further research is necessary in this important domain.
Kelly, Martina; Nixon, Lara; Broadfoot, Kirsten; Hofmeister, Marianna; Dornan, Tim
Non-verbal communication skills (NVCS) help physicians to deliver relationship-centred care, and the effective use of NVCS is associated with improved patient satisfaction, better use of health services and high-quality clinical care. In contrast to verbal communication skills, NVCS training is under developed in communication curricula for the health care professions. One of the challenges teaching NVCS is their tacit nature. In this study, we evaluated drama exercises to raise awareness of NVCS by making familiar activities 'strange'. Workshops based on drama exercises were designed to heighten an awareness of sight, hearing, touch and proxemics in non-verbal communication. These were conducted at eight medical education conferences, held between 2014 and 2016, and were open to all conference participants. Workshops were evaluated by recording narrative data generated during the workshops and an open-ended questionnaire following the workshop. Data were analysed qualitatively, using thematic analysis. Non-verbal communication skills help doctors to deliver relationship-centred care RESULTS: One hundred and twelve participants attended workshops, 73 (65%) of whom completed an evaluation form: 56 physicians, nine medical students and eight non-physician faculty staff. Two themes were described: an increased awareness of NVCS and the importance of NVCS in relationship building. Drama exercises enabled participants to experience NVCS, such as sight, sound, proxemics and touch, in novel ways. Participants reflected on how NCVS contribute to developing trust and building relationships in clinical practice. Drama-based exercises elucidate the tacit nature of NVCS and require further evaluation in formal educational settings. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.
Hirokawa, Kumi; Yagi, Akihiro; Miyata, Yo
The present study was conducted to examine the effects of communication skills on stress responses, such as physiological (blink and heart rate), emotional (state of anxiety and mood), and behavioral responses (smiling and expressing an opinion) in stressful communication situations, specifically answering questions and giving a speech in Japanese and English. Participants were 32 students (16 men and 16 women; Mage = 19.5 yr., SD = 1.3) attending a Japanese university. A high communication skills group was selected from the upper tertile scores of the Social Skills Inventory, and a low communication skills group was selected from the lower tertile scores. Analysis indicated that individuals who had high communication skills performed without heart-rate increase and with more positive attitude during stressful communication tasks. Individuals who had low communication skills displayed higher anxiety prior to the experiment than those who had high communication skills.
Full Text Available According to the latest approaches in the field, the integrated marketing communication requires a planned organizational approach, creating and maintaining in time good relations with the customers of its products or services, but also with its other stakeholders. According to the data provided by the National Statistics Institute (INS, the year 2014 is the first year in history when the Romanian exports exceeded the amount of EUR 50 billion. However, within the context of the economic crisis, numerous Romanian brands have disappeared from the market and Romania risks becoming a simple outlet market if the local companies do not improve their communication processes and skills, as sources of competitive advantage by which the Romanian products and services may differ in relation to those of the E.U. member countries. Within the context of business globalization and of the knowledge society, the present paper is trying to identify ways of developing the communication skills, which can be integrated in a formal risk management system, allowing the decrease of the risks triggered by the cultural differences specific of communication in international business.
Epner, Daniel E; Baile, Walter F
John Wooden, the legendary college basketball coach, created the "Pyramid of Success", which he constructed from 14 timeless character traits and interpersonal skills that are critical to competitive greatness. Wooden's pyramid is a powerful symbol that he and others have used for several decades as an educational tool to promote leadership and teamwork. This article proposes the "Pyramid of Relational Excellence (PRE)", patterned after Wooden's pyramid, as a mnemonic-based educational symbol for communication skills training. Literature review, personal reflection. The PRE is constructed of four tiers with a total of 12 building blocks, with each successive tier built upon the one beneath it. The building blocks represent fundamental elements that are known to be critical to successful communication. The PRE is process oriented rather than task oriented and focuses exclusively on the face-to-face encounter. It therefore complements established communications curricula, such as the UK communication wheel and others, which are more comprehensive and task oriented. The PRE is constructed of timeless, fundamental principles. It is therefore particularly well suited for training medical students and residents.
Zalihić, Amra; Černi Obrdalj, Edita
Poor and inadequate communication affects the therapeutic relationship between doctors and patients. Guided by this idea, we organized a minor elective course entitled "communication skills". We wanted to bring closer to the students the holistic approach of the family physician to the patient, the importance of the family, its impact on the patient and vice versa, and the significance of the local community and its influence on an individual's health. The aim of this article is to explain how we organized this elective course. The course was organized in the form of 12 hours of theory (3 lectures and 9 seminars) and 24 hours of practical training. There were 26 students from all years. Through theory, and even more through the practical part the students met with different types of patients. At the end of the course, students in lower years were evaluated by means of an interview, and graduate students through a practical test - a conversation with a patient. The initial results, including the students' grading of this course, were highly encouraging. Both teachers and students were highly satisfied on completion of the course. Content on communication training is rare in teaching. Practicing communication skills will empower the doctor - patient therapeutic relationship. Copyright © 2014 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Stevens, Brenda J; Kedrowicz, April A
Effective client communication is important for success in veterinary practice. The purpose of this project was to describe one approach to communication training and explore fourth-year veterinary students' communication skills through an evaluation of their interactions with clients during a general practice rotation. Two raters coded 20 random videotaped interactions simultaneously to assess students' communication, including their ability to initiate the session, incorporate open-ended questions, listen reflectively, express empathy, incorporate appropriate nonverbal communication, and attend to organization and sequencing. We provide baseline data that will guide future instruction in client communication. Results showed that students' communication skills require development. Half of the students sampled excelled at open-ended inquiry (n=10), and 40% (n=8) excelled at nonverbal communication. Students needed improvement on greeting clients by name and introducing themselves and their role (n=15), reflective listening (n=18), empathy (n=17), and organization and sequencing (n=18). These findings suggest that more focused instruction and practice is necessary in maintaining an organized structure, reflective listening, and empathy to create a relationship-centered approach to care.
Gregg, Watson W.; Friedrichs, Marjorie A. M.; Robinson, Allan R.; Rose, Kenneth A.; Schlitzer, Reiner; Thompson, Keith R.; Doney, Scott C.
There is growing recognition that rigorous skill assessment is required to understand the ability of ocean biological models to represent ocean processes and distributions. Statistical analysis of model results with observations represents the most quantitative form of skill assessment, and this principle serves as well for data assimilation models. However, skill assessment for data assimilation requires special consideration. This is because there are three sets of information in the free-run model, data, and the assimilation model, which uses Data assimilation information from both the flee-run model and the data. Intercom parison of results among the three sets of information is important and useful for assessment, but is not conclusive since the three information sets are intertwined. An independent data set is necessary for an objective determination. Other useful measures of ocean biological data assimilation assessment include responses of unassimilated variables to the data assimilation, performance outside the prescribed region/time of interest, forecasting, and trend analysis. Examples of each approach from the literature are provided. A comprehensive list of ocean biological data assimilation and their applications of skill assessment, in both ecosystem/biogeochemical and fisheries efforts, is summarized.
Liu, Min; Liu, Keh-Min
In a clinical skills assessment, the decision to pass or fail an examinee should be based on the test content or on the examinees' performance. The process of deciding a pass score is known as setting a standard of the examination. This requires a properly selected panel of expert judges and a suitable standard setting method, which best fits the purpose of the examination. Six standard setting methods that are often used in clinical skills assessment are described to provide an overview of the standard setting process.
Full Text Available In a clinical skills assessment, the decision to pass or fail an examinee should be based on the test content or on the examinees' performance. The process of deciding a pass score is known as setting a standard of the examination. This requires a properly selected panel of expert judges and a suitable standard setting method, which best fits the purpose of the examination. Six standard setting methods that are often used in clinical skills assessment are described to provide an overview of the standard setting process.
Zia, Aneeq; Essa, Irfan
Manual feedback in basic robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery (RMIS) training can consume a significant amount of time from expert surgeons' schedule and is prone to subjectivity. In this paper, we explore the usage of different holistic features for automated skill assessment using only robot kinematic data and propose a weighted feature fusion technique for improving score prediction performance. Moreover, we also propose a method for generating 'task highlights' which can give surgeons a more directed feedback regarding which segments had the most effect on the final skill score. We perform our experiments on the publicly available JHU-ISI Gesture and Skill Assessment Working Set (JIGSAWS) and evaluate four different types of holistic features from robot kinematic data-sequential motion texture (SMT), discrete Fourier transform (DFT), discrete cosine transform (DCT) and approximate entropy (ApEn). The features are then used for skill classification and exact skill score prediction. Along with using these features individually, we also evaluate the performance using our proposed weighted combination technique. The task highlights are produced using DCT features. Our results demonstrate that these holistic features outperform all previous Hidden Markov Model (HMM)-based state-of-the-art methods for skill classification on the JIGSAWS dataset. Also, our proposed feature fusion strategy significantly improves performance for skill score predictions achieving up to 0.61 average spearman correlation coefficient. Moreover, we provide an analysis on how the proposed task highlights can relate to different surgical gestures within a task. Holistic features capturing global information from robot kinematic data can successfully be used for evaluating surgeon skill in basic surgical tasks on the da Vinci robot. Using the framework presented can potentially allow for real-time score feedback in RMIS training and help surgical trainees have more focused training.
Full Text Available Intelligent Tutoring Systems have been successfully used to simulate human tutoring in various fields such as mathematics, physics or computer programming. The current paper discusses some of the particularities of designing such systems for the education of communication skills, specifically in a business setting (customer relations, employee communications etc. Since communication is an ill-defined domain (i.e. does not provide a systematic method to obtain a solution, various challenges arise. One of these challenges is the design of educational objectives – the module built on top of the system that would check the users' actions against predefined patterns and would provide the users with feed-back accordingly.
Messineo, A; Sanna, S; Dimitri, L; Di Geronimo, M
Communication is a process which enables groups and individuals to increase their control over determining health factors acting on people's lifestyles to promote health. Good communication is fundamental to the health sector in a globalized world, since it may influence national and local policies, health promotion campaigns and correct operational practices. Our study analyses four significant incidents related to instances of bad communication and covers questions which have produced rather incoherent results provoking unjustified alarm. It is therefore necessary to prescribe a way of approaching these issues which will firstly lead to a more careful analysis of the risk involved and therefore to make known correct public information. It is necessary to improve the skills of experts in prevention, to promote educational initiatives at school, universities and in workplaces always focussing more on interdisciplinarity and developing new ways of approaching problems concerning health and safety.
Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to improve communication skills and knowledge of bioethics of last year medical students doing clerkship and to evaluate the effectiveness of using workshops for this purpose from students’ point of view, in order to continue such programs in future. Methods: After Ethical approval for the study a two-day workshop on teaching effective communication skills and principles of medical ethics was planned and conducted by the department of Medical Education through multidisciplinary faculty of Foundation University Medical College, Pakistan. A total of 102 last year medical students participated in this workshop. The students were divided into 8 groups each containing 12 students. A team of pre trained facilitators for each group conducted the group activities. Teaching strategies including interactive discussions on basic principles of doctor-patient relationship, power point presentations, day to day case scenarios, video clips and presentations involving students in role plays were used. Pre and post workshop self evaluation proformas about knowledge and skills of communication and medical ethics were rated (0=none, 1=below average, 2=average, 3=above average, 4=very good, 5=excellent by the students. Results: 89 out of 102 participants returned the proformas. A significant percentage of students (%82 showed improvement in their knowledge and skills of appreciating bioethical issues like valid informed consent, patient confidentiality, end of life issues and breaking bad news by rating as “very good” after participation in the workshop. More than %70 students recommended this activity for other students. Conclusion: Teaching through interactive workshops was found to be an effective method as reflected by students’ feedback. Therefore, the program will be continued in future.
Wang, Jack T H; Power, Cheryl J; Kahler, Charlene M; Lyras, Dena; Young, Paul R; Iredell, Jonathan; Robins-Browne, Roy
Science communication is a skill set to be developed through ongoing interactions with different stakeholders across a variety of platforms. Opportunities to engage the general public are typically reserved for senior scientists, but the use of social media in science communication allows all scientists to instantaneously disseminate their findings and interact with online users. The Communication Ambassador program is a social media initiative launched by the Australian Society for Microbiology to expand the online presence and science communication portfolios of early-career scientists. Through their participation in the program, a rotating roster of Australian microbiologists have broadened the online reach of the Society's social media channels as well as their own professional networks by attending and live-tweeting microbiology events throughout the year. We present the Communication Ambassador program as a case study of coordinated social media activity in science communication to the general public, and describe the potential for its applications in science education and training.
Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Bo
Statistical methods for category (yes/no) forecasts, such as the Threat Score, are typically used in the verification of precipitation forecasts. However, these standard methods are affected by the so-called "double-penalty" problem caused by slight displacements in either space or time with respect to the observations. Spatial techniques have recently been developed to help solve this problem. The fractions skill score (FSS), a neighborhood spatial verification method, directly compares the fractional coverage of events in windows surrounding the observations and forecasts. We applied the FSS to hourly precipitation verification by taking hourly forecast products from the GRAPES (Global/Regional Assimilation Prediction System) regional model and quantitative precipitation estimation products from the National Meteorological Information Center of China during July and August 2016, and investigated the difference between these results and those obtained with the traditional category score. We found that the model spin-up period affected the assessment of stability. Systematic errors had an insignificant role in the fraction Brier score and could be ignored. The dispersion of observations followed a diurnal cycle and the standard deviation of the forecast had a similar pattern to the reference maximum of the fraction Brier score. The coefficient of the forecasts and the observations is similar to the FSS; that is, the FSS may be a useful index that can be used to indicate correlation. Compared with the traditional skill score, the FSS has obvious advantages in distinguishing differences in precipitation time series, especially in the assessment of heavy rainfall.
Alzrayer, Nouf M.; Banda, Devender R.
Students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have difficulties in communication that limit their opportunities to participate in daily living and educational activities. Augmentative alternative communication is one of the strategies used to strengthen the communication skills of students with limited communication skills. Students with ASD…
Rindlisbacher, F; Davis, J M; Ramseier, C A
The aim of this study was to evaluate dental students' self-perceived communication skills for patient motivation over the course of their training. Pre-clinical and clinical dental students at the University of Bern School of Dental Medicine were surveyed annually from 2008 to 2011 utilising a written questionnaire. Self-reported data were pooled from all classes per time-point in the curriculum. A total of 157 students were surveyed from five classes with an overall response rate of 94.8%. A total of 393 questionnaires were available for analysis. The self-perceived skill-sets for general patient care and patient communication were rated at the end of the first clinical year with mean Visual Analog Scale values of 75.0 ± 1.6 and 75.1 ± 1.5, respectively. During the second clinical year, the self-perceived skills increased in both patient care (82.5 ± 1.2, P = 0.0004) and patient communication (81.4 ± 1.4, P = 0.0034). The students rated their competence higher when providing oral hygiene instructions as opposed to motivating patients to quit tobacco use, modify their diet or employ stress-reduction strategies (P motivating patients to utilise oral hygiene instructions, they also expressed the desire for more motivational training early in their curriculum. Therefore, these results may indicate the need to enhance communications training in patient motivation on all behavioural aspects early in the dental curriculum. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lexén, Annika; Bejerholm, Ulrika
Not all people with severe mental illness who attend Individual Placement and Support (IPS) gain and keep their jobs or work full time. Research has indicated a relationship between social disabilities and work performance in this group, and that support provided is often directed towards the social work environment. However, relationships between social skills performed in an authentic work setting and vocational outcomes have not been explored. To explore relationships between social communication and interaction skills and vocational outcomes among IPS service users in a Swedish context. Twenty-nine participants were appraised with the Assessment of Communication and Interaction Skills (ACIS-S) instrument, and their vocational data were registered. Correlations were estimated using Spearman's rho test with Bonferroni corrections at item level. Better communication and interaction skills were significantly correlated with increased working hours (rs = 0.64) and higher income (rs = 0.45). Increased working hours were related to assuming postures, asking questions, sharing information, and sustaining conversation in an appropriate manner. The results indicate that occupational therapists need to focus on social skills and accommodation of the social work environment in order to promote sustainable working careers among people with severe mental illness.
Cziraki, Karen; Lucas, Janie; Rogers, Toni; Page, Laura; Zimmerman, Rosanne; Hauer, Lois Ann; Daniels, Charlotte; Gregoroff, Susan
Rapid response teams (RRT) are an important safety strategy in the prevention of deaths in patients who are progressively failing outside of the intensive care unit. The goal is to intervene before a critical event occurs. Effective teamwork and communication skills are frequently cited as critical success factors in the implementation of these teams. However, there is very little literature that clearly provides an education strategy for the development of these skills. Training in simulation labs offers an opportunity to assess and build on current team skills; however, this approach does not address how to meet the gaps in team communication and relationship skill management. At Hamilton Health Sciences (HHS) a two-day program was developed in collaboration with the RRT Team Leads, Organizational Effectiveness and Patient Safety Leaders. Participants reflected on their conflict management styles and considered how their personality traits may contribute to team function. Communication and relationship theories were reviewed and applied in simulated sessions in the relative safety of off-site team sessions. The overwhelming positive response to this training has been demonstrated in the incredible success of these teams from the perspective of the satisfaction surveys of the care units that call the team, and in the multi-phased team evaluation of their application to practice. These sessions offer a useful approach to the development of the soft skills required for successful RRT implementation.
MacDonald, Megan; Lord, Catherine; Ulrich, Dale A
Motor skill deficits are present and persist in school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; Staples & Reid, 2010). Yet the focus of intervention is on core impairments, which are part of the diagnostic criteria for ASD, deficits in social communication skills. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the functional motor skills, of 6- to 15-year-old children with high-functioning ASD, predict success in standardized social communicative skills. It is hypothesized that children with better motor skills will have better social communicative skills. A total of 35 children with ASD between the ages of 6-15 years participated in this study. The univariate GLM (general linear model) tested the relationship of motor skills on social communicative skills holding constant age, IQ, ethnicity, gender, and clinical ASD diagnosis. Object-control motor skills significantly predicted calibrated ASD severity (p skills have greater social communicative skill deficits. How this relationship exists behaviorally, needs to be explored further.
Benassi, Erika; Savini, Silvia; Iverson, Jana M; Guarini, Annalisa; Caselli, Maria Cristina; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo; Sansavini, Alessandra
Despite the predictive value of early spontaneous communication for identifying risk for later language concerns, very little research has focused on these behaviors in extremely low-gestational-age infants (ELGAmotor development. In this study, communicative behaviors (gestures, vocal utterances and their coordination) were evaluated during mother-infant play interactions in 20 ELGA infants and 20 full-term infants (FT) at 12 months (corrected age for ELGA infants). Relationships between gestures and motor skills, evaluated using the Bayley-III Scales were also examined. ELGA infants, compared with FT infants, showed less advanced communicative, motor, and cognitive skills. Giving and representational gestures were produced at a lower rate by ELGA infants. In addition, pointing gestures and words were produced by a lower percentage of ELGA infants. Significant positive correlations between gestures (pointing and representational gestures) and fine motor skills were found in the ELGA group. We discuss the relevance of examining spontaneous communicative behaviors and motor skills as potential indices of early development that may be useful for clinical assessment and intervention with ELGA infants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Son, Daisuke; Shimizu, Ikuo; Ishikawa, Hirono; Aomatsu, Muneyoshi; Leppink, Jimmie
Medical and healthcare professionals' empathy for patients is crucially important for patient care. Some studies have suggested that a significant decline in empathy occurs during clinical training years in medical school as documented by self-assessed empathy scales. Moreover, a recent study provided qualitative evidence that communication skills training in an examination context, such as in an objective structured clinical examination, might stimulate perspective taking but inhibit the development of compassionate care. Therefore, the current study examined how perspective taking and compassionate care relate to medical students' willingness to show empathic behaviour and how these relations may change with communication skills training. A total of 295 fourth-year Japanese medical students from three universities completed the Jefferson Empathy Scale and a newly developed set of items on willingness to show empathic behaviour twice after communication skills training, pertaining to post-training and retrospectively for pre-training. The findings indicate that students' willingness to show empathic behaviour is much more correlated with perspective taking than with compassionate care. Qualitative descriptive analysis of open-ended question responses revealed a difficulty of feeling compassion despite showing empathic behaviour. These findings shed light on the conceptual structure of empathy among medical students and generate a number of hypotheses for future intervention and longitudinal studies on the relation between communication skills training and empathy.
Laurence, Brian; Bertera, Elizabeth M; Feimster, Tawana; Hollander, Roberta; Stroman, Carolyn
The purpose of this study was to adapt the twenty-six-item Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS) developed for medical students for use among dental students and to test the psychometric properties of the modified instrument. The sample consisted of 250 students (an 80.1 percent response rate) in years D1 to D4 at a dental school in Washington, DC. The mean age of participants was 26.6 years with a range from twenty-one to forty-two years. Slightly more than half of the participants were female (52.4 percent) and were African American or of African descent (51.7 percent). Principal components analysis was used to test the psychometric properties of the instrument. The index that resulted measured both positive and negative attitudes toward learning communications skills. The final twenty-four-item scale had good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.87), and the study obtained four important factors-Learning, Importance, Quality, and Success-that explained a significant portion of the variance (49.1 percent). Stratified analysis by demographic variables suggested that there may be gender and ethnic differences in the students' attitudes towards learning communication skills. The authors conclude that the CSAS modified for dental students, or DCSAS, is a useful tool to assess attitudes towards learning communication skills among dental students.
Street, Richard L.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.
Because quality health care delivery requires effective clinician-patient communication, successful training of health professionals requires communication skill curricula of the highest quality. Two approaches for developing medical communication curricula are a consensus approach and a theory
Background Observation of performance followed by feedback is the key to good teaching of communication skills in clinical practice. The fact that it occurs rarely is probably due to clinical supervisors’ perceived lack of competence to identify communication skills and give effective feedback. We evaluated the impact of a faculty development programme on communication skills teaching on clinical supervisors’ ability to identify residents’ good and poor communication skills and to discuss them interactively during feedback. Methods We conducted a pre-post controlled study in which clinical supervisors took part to a faculty development program on teaching communication skills in clinical practice. Outcome measures were the number and type of residents’ communication skills identified by supervisors in three videotaped simulated resident-patient encounters and the number and type of communication skills discussed interactively with residents during three feedback sessions. Results 48 clinical supervisors (28 intervention group; 20 control group) participated. After the intervention, the number and type of communication skills identified did not differ between both groups. There was substantial heterogeneity in the number and type of communication skills identified. However, trained participants engaged in interactive discussions with residents on a significantly higher number of communication items (effect sizes 0.53 to 1.77); communication skills items discussed interactively included both structural and patient-centered elements that were considered important to be observed by expert teachers. Conclusions The faculty development programme did not increase the number of communication skills recognised by supervisors but was effective in increasing the number of communication issues discussed interactively in feedback sessions. Further research should explore the respective impact of accurate identification of communication skills and effective teaching
Junod Perron, Noelle; Nendaz, Mathieu; Louis-Simonet, Martine; Sommer, Johanna; Gut, Anne; Cerutti, Bernard; van der Vleuten, Cees P; Dolmans, Diana
Observation of performance followed by feedback is the key to good teaching of communication skills in clinical practice. The fact that it occurs rarely is probably due to clinical supervisors' perceived lack of competence to identify communication skills and give effective feedback. We evaluated the impact of a faculty development programme on communication skills teaching on clinical supervisors' ability to identify residents' good and poor communication skills and to discuss them interactively during feedback. We conducted a pre-post controlled study in which clinical supervisors took part to a faculty development program on teaching communication skills in clinical practice. Outcome measures were the number and type of residents' communication skills identified by supervisors in three videotaped simulated resident-patient encounters and the number and type of communication skills discussed interactively with residents during three feedback sessions. 48 clinical supervisors (28 intervention group; 20 control group) participated. After the intervention, the number and type of communication skills identified did not differ between both groups. There was substantial heterogeneity in the number and type of communication skills identified. However, trained participants engaged in interactive discussions with residents on a significantly higher number of communication items (effect sizes 0.53 to 1.77); communication skills items discussed interactively included both structural and patient-centered elements that were considered important to be observed by expert teachers. The faculty development programme did not increase the number of communication skills recognised by supervisors but was effective in increasing the number of communication issues discussed interactively in feedback sessions. Further research should explore the respective impact of accurate identification of communication skills and effective teaching skills on achieving more effective communication
van Hove, P. D.; Tuijthof, G. J. M.; Verdaasdonk, E. G. G.; Stassen, L. P. S.; Dankelman, J.
Surgeons are increasingly being scrutinized for their performance and there is growing interest in objective assessment of technical skills. The purpose of this study was to review all evidence for these methods, in order to provide a guideline for use in clinical practice. A systematic search was
Paternotte, E.; Scheele, F.; Seeleman, C.M.; Bank, L.; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Dulmen, A.M. van
Introduction Intercultural communication (ICC) between doctors and patients is often associated with misunderstandings and dissatisfaction. To develop ICC-specific medical education, it is important to find out which ICC skills medical specialists currently apply in daily clinical
Di Salvo, Vincent S.; And Others
In order to identify the demands, the skills, and the various contexts that students can expect to face in their chosen professions, organizational communication researchers need to conduct studies that will lead educators to make intelligent decisions regarding what should and should not be taught in business and professional communication…
Amaddii, Luisa; Centorrino, Santi; Cambi, Jacopo; Passali, Desiderio
To describe the speech rehabilitation history of patients with thalamic lesions. Thalamic lesions can affect speech and language according to diverse thalamic nuclei involved. Because of the strategic functional position of the thalamus within the cognitive networks, its lesion can also interfere with other cognitive processes, such as attention, memory and executive functions. Alterations of these cognitive domains contribute significantly to language deficits, leading to communicative inefficacy. This fact must be considered in the rehabilitation efforts. Whereas evaluation of cognitive functions and communicative efficiency is different from that of aphasic disorder, treatment should also be different. The treatment must be focused on specific cognitive deficits with belief in the regaining of communicative ability, as well as it occurs in therapy of pragmatic disorder in traumatic brain injury: attention process training, mnemotechnics and prospective memory training. According to our experience: (a) there is a close correlation between cognitive processes and communication skills; (b) alterations of attention, memory and executive functions cause a loss of efficiency in the language use; and (c) appropriate cognitive treatment improves pragmatic competence and therefore the linguistic disorder. For planning a speech-therapy it is important to consider the relationship between cognitive functions and communication. The cognitive/behavioral treatment confirms its therapeutic efficiency for thalamic lesions. Copyright © 2014 Polish Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z.o.o. All rights reserved.
Heaven, Cathy; Clegg, Jenny; Maguire, Peter
Recent studies have recognised that the communication skills learned in the training environment are not always transferred back into the clinical setting. This paper reports a study which investigated the potential of clinical supervision in enhancing the transfer process. A randomised controlled trial was conducted involving 61 clinical nurse specialists. All attended a 3-day communication skills training workshop. Twenty-nine were then randomised to 4 weeks of clinical supervision, aimed at facilitating transfer of newly acquired skills into practice. Assessments, using real and simulated patients, were carried out before the course, immediately after the supervision period and 3 months later. Interviews were rated objectively using the Medical Interview Aural Rating Scale (MIARS) to assess nurses' ability to use key skills, respond to patient cues and identify patient concerns. Assessments with simulated patients showed that the training programme was extremely effective in changing competence in all three key areas. However, only those who experienced supervision showed any evidence of transfer. Improvements were found in the supervised groups' use of open questions, negotiation and psychological exploration. Whilst neither group facilitated more disclosure of cues or concerns, those in the experimental group responded more effectively to the cues disclosed, reduced their distancing behaviour and increasing their exploration of cues. The study has shown that whilst training enhances skills, without intervention, it may have little effect on clinical practice. The potential role of clinical supervision as one way of enhancing the clinical effectiveness of communication skills training programmes has been demonstrated. PRACTISE IMPLICATIONS: This study raises questions about the effectiveness of training programmes which do not incorporate a transfer element, and provides evidence to support the need for clinical supervision for clinical nurse specialist.
Mahdi Hazavehei, Seyyed M.; Moonaghi, Hossein Karimi; Moeini, Babak; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Emadzadeh, Ali
Introduction Medical students have a serious need to acquire communication skills with others. In many medical schools, special curriculums are developed to improve such skills. Effective training of communication skills requires expert curriculum design. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and views of experts and stakeholders in order to design a suitable training program in communication skills for medical students. Methods The content analysis approach was used in this qu...
Shiva Karimzadeh; Rita Rezaee; Peivand Bastani
Introduction: Communication skills are one of the most important skills for health care managers and play an important role in their personal life and future occupation. The present study aimed to evaluate the students’ communication skills as well as its relationship with the students’ demographic characteristics. Method: This descriptive-analytical study was performed on 153 university students majoring in healthcare management in 2014. A self-administered communication skills questionna...
Iizuka, Hideki; Lefor, Alan K
To determine if the Consecutive Interpreting Approach enhances medical English communication skills of students in a Japanese medical university and to assess this method based on performance and student evaluations. This is a three-phase study using a mixed-methods design, which starts with four language reproduction activities for 30 medical and 95 nursing students, followed by a quantitative analysis of perfect-match reproduction rates to assess changes over the duration of the study and qualitative error analysis of participants' language reproduction. The final stage included a scored course evaluation and free-form comments to evaluate this approach and to identify effective educational strategies to enhance medical English communication skills. Mean perfect-match reproduction rates of all participants over four reproduction activities differed statistically significantly (repeated measures ANOVA, pEnglish communication skills are enhanced using this approach. Participants expressed positive feedback regarding this instruction method. This approach may be effective to enhance the language skills of non-native English-speaking students seeking to practice medicine in English speaking countries.
Nikendei, Christoph; Bosse, Hans Martin; Hoffmann, Katja; Möltner, Andreas; Hancke, Rabea; Conrad, Corinna; Huwendiek, Soeren; Hoffmann, Georg F; Herzog, Wolfgang; Jünger, Jana; Schultz, Jobst-Hendrik
communication skills represent an essential component of clinical competence. In the field of pediatrics, communication between physicians and patients' parents is characterized by particular difficulties. To investigate the effects of a parent-physician communication skills training program on OSCE performance and self-efficacy in a group control design. parallel to their daily work in the outpatient department, intervention-group experienced clinicians in practice (n=14) participated in a communication training with standardized parents. Control-group physicians (n=14) did not receive any training beyond their daily work. Performance was assessed by independent video ratings of an OSCE. Both groups rated their self-efficacy prior to and following training. regarding OSCE performance, the intervention group demonstrated superior skills in building relationships with parents (pperform better in exploring parents' problems (pcommunication training program led to significant improvement in self-efficacy with respect to the specific training objectives in the intervention group (pcommunication training with standardized parents leads to significant improvement in OSCE performance and self-efficacy. PRACTISE IMPLICATIONS: briefness and tight structure make the presented communication training program applicable even for experienced physicians in daily clinical practice. 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to assess levels of health literacy and computer skills in Chinese patients with cataract, and their impact on the doctor-patient relationship. METHODS: We undertook a cross-sectional study of cataract patients scheduled for cataract extraction procedures in Guangdong Province, China. Generic health literacy was assessed using 3 established screening questions. Adequate computer skills was determined if patients had used a computer and routinely used search engines on the Internet. Socio-demographic measures (e.g., age, sex, education were obtained from a standardized interview. Participants who indicated that they could not understand what their doctors mean were considered to have had poor patient-physician communications. RESULTS: Of the 211 participants, 92 (43.6% had inadequate health literacy and 204 (96.7% inadequate computer skills. In multivariate analysis, females were more likely to have inadequate health literacy (odds ratio = 2.5, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.3 to 4.7. People with inadequately health literacy were more likely to have a poor patient-physician communication (odds ratio = 3.5, 95% CIs: 1.3 to 9.0. Similar associations were found for inadequate computer skills. CONCLUSION: Chinese elderly patients with cataract have inadequate health literacy and very limited computer skills, which place them at high risk of misunderstanding and mismanaging their ocular conditions. Patient education information other than online materials may improve the eye care and outcomes of these patients.
Hodgson, Yvonne; Varsavsky, Cristina; Matthews, Kelly E.
This study reports on science student perceptions of their skills (scientific knowledge, oral communication, scientific writing, quantitative skills, teamwork and ethical thinking) as they approach graduation. The focus is on which teaching activities and assessment tasks over the whole programme of study students thought utilised each of the six…
Mahdi Hazavehei, Seyyed M.; Moonaghi, Hossein Karimi; Moeini, Babak; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Emadzadeh, Ali
Introduction Medical students have a serious need to acquire communication skills with others. In many medical schools, special curriculums are developed to improve such skills. Effective training of communication skills requires expert curriculum design. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and views of experts and stakeholders in order to design a suitable training program in communication skills for medical students. Methods The content analysis approach was used in this qualitative study. Forty-three participants were selected from the faculty, nurses, physicians, residents, and medical students at Mashhad University of Medical Sciences using purposive sampling. The data were collected through focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews. To ensure the accuracy of the data, the criteria of credibility, transferability, dependability, and conformability were met. The data were analyzed by MAXQDA software using the Graneheim & Lundman model. Results The findings of this study consisted of two main themes, i.e., “The vast nature of the present communication skills training” and “administrative requirements of the training program regarding communication skills.” The first theme included the educational needs of students, the problems associated with training people to have good communication skills, the importance of good communication skills in performing professional duties, communication skills and job requirements, the learning environment of communication skills, and the status of existing training programs for communication skills. Strategies and suitable methods for teaching communication skills and methods of evaluating the students in this regard also were obtained. Conclusion The findings of this study were the elements required to design a proper and local model to teach communication skills to medical students through analyzing the concepts of effective communication. The results of this study can be useful for medical
Mahdi Hazavehei, Seyyed M; Karimi Moonaghi, Hossein; Moeini, Babak; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Emadzadeh, Ali
Medical students have a serious need to acquire communication skills with others. In many medical schools, special curriculums are developed to improve such skills. Effective training of communication skills requires expert curriculum design. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and views of experts and stakeholders in order to design a suitable training program in communication skills for medical students. The content analysis approach was used in this qualitative study. Forty-three participants were selected from the faculty, nurses, physicians, residents, and medical students at Mashhad University of Medical Sciences using purposive sampling. The data were collected through focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews. To ensure the accuracy of the data, the criteria of credibility, transferability, dependability, and conformability were met. The data were analyzed by MAXQDA software using the Graneheim & Lundman model. The findings of this study consisted of two main themes, i.e., "The vast nature of the present communication skills training" and "administrative requirements of the training program regarding communication skills." The first theme included the educational needs of students, the problems associated with training people to have good communication skills, the importance of good communication skills in performing professional duties, communication skills and job requirements, the learning environment of communication skills, and the status of existing training programs for communication skills. Strategies and suitable methods for teaching communication skills and methods of evaluating the students in this regard also were obtained. The findings of this study were the elements required to design a proper and local model to teach communication skills to medical students through analyzing the concepts of effective communication. The results of this study can be useful for medical faculties in designing a proper program for
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to predict the role of couples’ interactions in application of communication skills based on observing their positive and negative interactions. A sample of 31 couples [adapted (15 and maladapted (16] who were living in Tehran, were selected via accessible sampling. The couples’ interactions were videotaped through a designed scenario including problem solving, decision making, and reviewing conversation about a shared pleasure event. Participants also completed the Marital Adjustment Test (MAT. The couple’s interactions were coded using the Iranian Couples Interaction Coding System (ICICS. Results revealed that the more increase in positive interactions between couples, the more use of “problem solving” and “negotiation” skills observed, whereas increase in the couples’ negative interactions was associated with less application of this skills. It was also revealed that while the couples’ negative interactions were significantly predictive of using the “decision making” skill, couples with more positive interactions were located in the group who was able to have a review conversation about a shared positive event. In addition, results indicated that couples who were more able to apply problem solving, negotiation, decision making and review conversation about a shared event skills, had also higher scores on marital adjustment. Destructive role of the couples’ negative interactions and intensifying the negative emotions between them has been discussed, as if it seems that couples are not willing to help each other for resolving conflicts. As interactions getting more negative, by creating a negative filtering, memory becomes biased towards negative events at the expense of shared positive events.
Alotaibi, Fawaz S; Alsaeedi, Abdullah
To explore medical students' attitudes towards communication skills learning in Western Saudi Arabia and to examine impact of socio-demographic variables on the attitudes towards learning these skills. In this cross-sectional study, sample of medical students were recruited from Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the second semester (January-May 2014). Participants were all year 2 (197 students) and year 5 (151 students). The study utilize the Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS) to measure students' attitudes toward communication skills learning. The response rate was 93.9%. The study showed that Taif medical students hold highly positive attitudes towards learning communication skills. Positive attitude score (PAS) was significantly higher in level 5 students, older age group. Significant positive attitude toward learning communication skills clearly observed in target group. Students with more positive attitudes towards communication skills learning tended to be higher level and older age.
O'Sullivan, Patricia; Chao, Serena; Russell, Matthew; Levine, Sharon; Fabiny, Anne
Teaching and assessment of communication and interpersonal skills, one of the American Council for Graduate Medical Education-designated core competencies, is an important but difficult task in the training of physicians. Assessment of trainees offers an opportunity to provide explicit feedback on their skills and encourages learning. This article describes a pilot study in which clinician-educators affiliated with the geriatrics training programs at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Boston University Medical Center designed and piloted a novel Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) to assess the communication and interpersonal skills of medical, dental, and geriatric psychiatry fellows. The OSCE consisted of three stations where geriatricians and standardized patients evaluated candidates using specifically designed checklists and an abbreviated version of the Master Interview Rating Scale. Communication skills were assessed through performance of specific "real life" clinical tasks, such as obtaining a medical history, explaining a diagnosis and prognosis, giving therapeutic instructions, and counseling. Interpersonal skills were assessed through the effect of the communication between doctor and standardized patient on fostering trust, relieving anxiety, and establishing a therapeutic relationship. This pilot study demonstrated that the OSCE format of assessment provides a valid means of evaluating the communication and interpersonal skills of interdisciplinary geriatric trainees and provides a valuable forum for formative assessment and feedback. Given that geriatricians and non geriatricians involved in elder care both need communication and interpersonal skills, this novel OSCE can be used for assessment of these skills in trainees in diverse healthcare subspecialties.
Siriwardane, Harshini P.; Durden, Chris H.
This paper critically reviews 19 studies published between 1972 and 2012 that investigated the written and/or oral communication skills of practicing accountants. The core aim of the review was to identify skills considered important and highlight gaps regarding what is known about existing and desired communication skills in the accounting…
Alshare, Khaled A.; Lane, Peggy L.; Miller, Donald
As the importance of communication skills for students, regardless of their disciplines, becomes evident, it is important to determine whether colleges provide students with adequate opportunities to acquire such skills. The authors compared information systems (IS) educator and student perceptions of communication skills in IS curricula. Gender,…
Mercer-Mapstone, Lucy D.; Matthews, Kelly E.
Higher education institutions globally are acknowledging the need to teach communication skills. This study used the Science Student Skills Inventory to gain insight into how science students perceive the development of communication skills across the degree programme. Responses were obtained from 635 undergraduate students enrolled in a Bachelor…
Hulsman, R.L.; Ros, W.J.G.; Winnubst, J.A.M.; Bensing, J.M.
Interest in the teaching of communication skills in medical schools has increased since the early seventies but, despite this growing interest, relatively limited curricular time is spent on the teaching of communication skills. The limited attention to the teaching of these skills applies even more
Full Text Available Background: Partnership with parents is a vital part of pediatric medical education, yet few studies have examined parent attitudes towards learners in pediatric settings. Methods: Questionnaires were used to determine parent and student assessment of professional and clinical skills (primary outcome and parent attitudes towards 3rd year medical students (secondary outcome at the University of Alberta. Chi Square, Kendall’s Tau and Kappa coefficients were calculated to compare parent and student responses in 8 areas: communication, respect, knowledge, listening, history taking, physical examination, supervision, and overall satisfaction. Results: Overall satisfaction with medical student involvement by parents was high: 56.7% of all parents ranked the encounter as ‘excellent’. Areas of lesser satisfaction included physician supervision of students. Compared to the parent assessment, students tended to underrate many of their skills, including communication, history taking and physical exam. There was no relationship between parent demographics and their attitude to rating any of the students’ skills. Conclusions: Parents were satisfied with medical student involvement in the care of their children. Areas identified for improvement included increased supervision of students in both history taking and physical examination. This is one of the largest studies examining parent attitudes towards pediatric students. The results may enhance undergraduate curriculum development and teaching in pediatric ambulatory clinics and strengthen the ongoing partnership between the community and teaching clinics.
Full Text Available Introduction: Communication skills are one of the most important skills for health care managers and play an important role in their personal life and future occupation. The present study aimed to evaluate the students’ communication skills as well as its relationship with the students’ demographic characteristics. Method: This descriptive-analytical study was performed on 153 university students majoring in healthcare management in 2014. A self-administered communication skills questionnaire and demographic information form were used to collect the data. Then, the data were analyzed by using SPSS software and appropriate statistical tests including T-Test and ANOVA. Results: The results showed that the students on average got 77.60 out of possible 100 in communication skills. The relationship between communication skills and demographic characteristics, except age, was not statistically significant (p<0.001. The total Cronbach’s alpha was estimated 0.7. There was a statistically significant difference between the communication skills scores of participants in terms of different age groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: The present findings showed a moderate score in communicative skills in students of health care management. Although the communication skill levels in these students were not low, due to the importance of these skills in their future occupation, serious attention is needed to improve their communication skills.
Cerit, Birgül; Çıtak Bilgin, Nevin; Ak, Bedriye
The use of technological devices today is widespread. One of these devices is the smartphone. It can be argued that when smartphones are thought of as a means of communication, they can influence communication skills. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of nursing students' smartphone addiction on their communication skills. A relational screening model was used for the study. The study's data were obtained from 214 students studying in the nursing department. Smartphone addiction levels of students are below average (86.43 ± 29.66). Students think that their communication skills are at a good level (98.81 ± 10.88). Correlation analysis results show that students have a negative, significant and very weak relationship between the smartphone addiction of students and communication skills (r = -.149). Smartphone addiction explains 2.2% of the variance in communication skills. Communication skills of nursing students is affected negatively by smartphone addiction..
Cohen, Robert A; Jackson, Vicki A; Norwich, Diana; Schell, Jane O; Schaefer, Kristen; Ship, Amy N; Sullivan, Amy M
Nephrology fellows need expertise navigating challenging conversations with patients throughout the course of advanced kidney disease. However, evidence shows that nephrologists receive inadequate training in this area. This study assessed the effectiveness of an educational quality improvement intervention designed to enhance fellows' communication with patients who have advanced kidney disease. Quality improvement project. Full-day annual workshops (2013-2014) using didactics, discussion, and practice with simulated patients. Content focused on delivering bad news, acknowledging emotion, discussing care goals in dialysis decision making when prognosis is uncertain, and addressing dialysis therapy withdrawal and end of life. Participants were first-year nephrology fellows from 2 Harvard-affiliated training programs (N=26). Study assessed the effectiveness of an intervention designed to enhance fellows' communication skills. Primary outcomes were changes in self-reported patient communication skills, attitudes, and behaviors related to discussing disease progression, prognostic uncertainty, dialysis therapy withdrawal, treatments not indicated, and end of life; responding to emotion; eliciting patient goals and values; and incorporating patient goals into recommendations. Surveys measured prior training, pre- and postcourse perceived changes in skills and values, and reported longer term (3-month) changes in communication behaviors, using both closed- and open-ended items. Response rates were 100% (pre- and postsurveys) and 68% (follow-up). Participants reported improvement in all domains, with an overall mean increase of 1.1 (summed average scores: precourse, 2.8; postcourse, 3.9 [1-5 scale; 5 = "extremely well prepared"]; Pskills taught, such as "Ask-Tell-Ask" and using open-ended questions. Self-reported data may overestimate actual changes; small sample size and the programs' affiliation with a single medical school may limit generalizability. A day
Schildmann, Jan; Kampmann, Margareta; Schwantes, Ulrich
Good communication between patients and doctors has positive effects on health and the patients' quality of life. Communication skills can be trained. In many countries communication skills training is an important part of medical education and continuing medical education. In this study German medical students were questioned about current communication training. Questionnaires were sent to 28 Medical Schools in Germany and distributed in General Practice courses. Using Likert scales students were asked to rate both existing teaching courses on communication skills and their ability to communicate. 377 students of 12 Medical Schools participated in this study. Two Medical Schools offer teaching courses on communication skills as part of their regular curriculum. On a scale ranging from 1 (no such courses available) to 7 (courses fully available) students assessed the practical teaching of communication skills to be 3 (median). In addition, on a scale ranging from 1 to 7 students rated their general communication skills as 3 (median) and their ability of taking a sexual history and breaking bad news as 4 (median). Although these results are not representative, they give a general idea of communication skills teaching in Germany. During their clinical education students should be especially trained for difficult situations in the patient-doctor encounter. The international experience of other Medical Schools should be taken into account when implementing communication skills training as part of medical education.
Liu, Xinchun; Rohrer, Wesley; Luo, Aijing; Fang, Zhou; He, TianHua; Xie, Wenzhao
To conduct a systematic review of studies on doctor-patient communication skills training (CST) for medical students and physicians in mainland China. We retrieved articles from six electronic databases, and searched additional eligible papers by checking reference lists. Chinese or English-language studies focused on CST and implemented in mainland China were applied to the pre-determined criteria. Articles included were further reviewed under the following categories: participant; training strategy; assessment; and outcome. 20 studies met the inclusion criteria. 90% of the CST improved trainees' communication skills using a strategy which included a didactic component combined with practical rehearsal and feedback. The duration of training varied substantially. A lack of enhancement in empathy, and the use of open-ended questions were reported. 83% of the assessment instruments were self-designed and most lacked reliability and validity testing. Only two of the included studies evaluated patient satisfaction. The majority of included studies attained statistically significant improvements. Chinese doctors and medical students' communication skills can be enhanced through CST. Future studies in China should place stronger emphasis on the development of training strategies, validation of the assessment instruments, and evaluation of patient satisfaction affected by CST. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rezaei, Rita; Mehrabani, G
To compare the scorings of real and standardized patients on physician communication skills. Patient scoring (n=183) on physicians' communication skills was determined by 93 real and 90 standardized patients. Eighty physicians (42 specialists and 38 general physicians) in private practice were enrolled. Data were analyzed using self administered questionnaires and checklists including 16 close ended questions. Twelve percent of patients were not satisfied with the physician communication skills. Poor communication skills were more reported by male patients and those with a higher educational level. The physician communication skill received a higher score with increase of age of patients. A good physician's communication skill was reported more by married patients. A good physician's communication skill was significantly more in female doctors, in general physicians and in doctors wearing a White Coat. Real patients scored physician's communication skills higher than standardized patients. It is important that physicians try to learn the principles of a good physician-patient communication skill. Therefore, providing medical educational programs on the role of a good doctor and patient relationship at all levels for the doctors and applying them in their clinical practice seem necessary to improve the physician communication skills.
Shah, Sameena; Andrades, Marie; Basir, Fasia; Jaleel, Anila; Azam, Iqbal; Islam, Muhammad; Ahmed, Rashida
Evidence highlights a lack of communication skills in doctors leading to dysfunctional consultations. To address this deficit, a private medical college instituted curricular reforms with inclusion of a longitudinal communication skills program. A pilot study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of this program by comparing the consultation skills of medical students of this college with a medical college without a communication skills program. A 4-station Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) was conducted in the third and final year. Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare the difference in the distribution between OSCE stations total and construct scores. At the end of the third year, 21 (31.34%), students of the study site (medical college 1 [college with integrated longitudinal communication skills program]) and 31 (46.26%) students from the comparison site (medical college 2 [comparable college without communication skills program]) consented. Medical college 1 achieved a significantly higher overall mean total station score of 68.0% (standard deviation [SD] =13.5) versus 57.2% (SD = 15.4) (P skills in an undergraduate curriculum positively impacted consultation skills. Community-based training and faculty development are required to develop effective patient-centered consultation skills.
Junod Perron, Noelle; Sommer, Johanna; Hudelson, Patricia; Demaurex, Florence; Luthy, Christophe; Louis-Simonet, Martine; Nendaz, Mathieu; De Grave, Willem; Dolmans, Diana; Van der Vleuten, Cees
Residents' perceived needs in communication skills training are important to identify before designing context-specific training programmes, since learrners' perceived needs can influence the effectiveness of training. To explore residents' perceptions of their training needs and training experiences around communication skills, and whether these differ between residents training in inpatient and outpatient clinical settings. Four focus groups (FG) and a self-administered questionnaire were conducted with residents working in in- and outpatient medical service settings at a Swiss University Hospital. Focus groups explored residents' perceptions of their communication needs, their past training experiences and suggestions for future training programmes in communication skills. Transcripts were analysed in a thematic way using qualitative analytic approaches. All residents from both settings were asked to complete a questionnaire that queried their sociodemographics and amount of prior training in communication skills. In focus groups, outpatient residents felt that communication skills were especially useful in addressing chronic diseases and social issues. In contrast, inpatient residents emphasized the importance of good communication skills for dealing with family conflicts and end-of-life issues. Felt needs reflected residents' differing service priorities: outpatient residents saw the need for skills to structure the consultation and explore patients' perspectives in order to build therapeutic alliances, whereas inpatient residents wanted techniques to help them break bad news, provide information and increase their own well-being. The survey's overall response rate was 56%. Its data showed that outpatient residents received more training in communication skills and more of them than inpatient residents considered communication skills training to be useful (100% vs 74%). Outpatient residents' perceived needs in communication skills were more patient
NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 51: Workplace communications skills and the value of communications and information-use skills instruction: Engineering students' perspectives
Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.
Studies indicate that communications and information-related activities take up a substantial portion of an engineer's work week; therefore, effective communications and information use skills are one of the key engineering competencies that recent graduates of engineering programs are expected to possess. Feedback from industry rates communications and information use skills of entry-level engineers low. Missing from current discussions of communications and information use skills and competencies for engineering students is a clear explanation from the professional engineering community about what constitutes 'acceptable and desirable communications and information norms' within that community. To gather adequate and generalizable data about communications and information skills instruction and to provide a student perspective on the communications skills of engineers, we undertook a national study of aerospace engineering students in March 1993. The study included questions about the importance of certain communications and information skills to professional success, the instruction students had received in these skills, and perceived helpfulness of the instruction. Selected results from the study study are reported in this paper.
Full Text Available This research aims to investigate, compare, and describe the achievement and enhancement of students’ mathematical communication skills (MCS. It based on the prior mathematical knowledge (PMK category (high, medium and low by using Treffinger models (TM and conventional learning (CL. This research is an experimental study with the population of all students of Mathematics Education Department who took Discrete Mathematics subject matter of one university in the city of Ternate. The results show that (1 the achievement and enhancement of MCS students that used TM are higher than the students learning using CL; (2 Based on the categories of PMK, the achievement and enhancement of MCS of students using TM are also higher than those learning with CL; and (3 There was no interaction effect between learning (TM and CL and PMK to the achievement and enhancement of MCS of the students.Keyword: Communication Skills, Prior Mathematical Knowledge, Treffinger Model DOI: dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.61.31
Yutani, Motoki; Takahashi, Megumi; Miyaoka, Hitoshi
The objective of this study was to clarify whether the communication skills (CS) of clinical residents change before and after psychiatric training and, if so, what factors are related to the change. The 44 clinical residents who agreed to participate in this study were provided with an originally developed self-accomplished questionnaire survey on CS (communication skills questionnaire [CSQ]) and a generally used questionnaire on self-esteem, anxiety, and depressive mood considered to be related to CS at the start and end of a 2-month psychiatric training session. Statistical analysis was conducted for the 34 residents who completed both questionnaires. The CSQ score (t: -2.17, P self-esteem and negatively with anxiety and depressive tendency. The amount of change in assertive CS score showed a weakly positive correlation with self-esteem. The results suggested that CS, including assertive CS and cooperative CS, were improved by the psychiatric training. Increasing self-esteem and reducing the tendency toward depression and anxiety are considered to be useful for further improving CS. © 2011 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2011 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
Popescu Manoela; Crenicean Luminiţa Cecilia
The approach of organizational issues as communication problems are at least one trend in era of the knowledge economy. The globalization process greatly contributes to consider the communication both as a source and as a solution to the problems faced by legal entities. The conducted study reveals, however, that interpersonal communication skills make the difference between success and failure of organizational communication. Premises of interpersonal communication skills analysis reveals co...
Mercer-Mapstone, Lucy; Kuchel, Louise
Communication skills are one of five nationally recognised learning outcomes for an Australian Bachelor of Science (BSc) degree. Previous evidence indicates that communication skills taught in Australian undergraduate science degrees are not developed sufficiently to meet the requirements of the modern-day workplace-a problem faced in the UK and USA also. Curriculum development in this area, however, hinges on first evaluating how communication skills are taught currently as a base from which to make effective changes. This study aimed to quantify the current standard of communication education within BSc degrees at Australian research-intensive universities. A detailed evidential baseline for not only what but also how communication skills are being taught was established. We quantified which communication skills were taught and assessed explicitly, implicitly, or were absent in a range of undergraduate science assessment tasks (n = 35) from four research-intensive Australian universities. Results indicate that 10 of the 12 core science communication skills used for evaluation were absent from more than 50% of assessment tasks and 77.14% of all assessment tasks taught less than 5 core communication skills explicitly. The design of assessment tasks significantly affected whether communication skills were taught explicitly. Prominent trends were that communication skills in tasks aimed at non-scientific audiences were taught more explicitly than in tasks aimed at scientific audiences, and the majority of group and multimedia tasks taught communication elements more explicitly than individual, or written and oral tasks. Implications for science communication in the BSc and further research are discussed.
Weinert, M; Mayer, H; Zojer, E
Specific communication training is currently not integrated into anesthesiology curricula. At the same time communication is an important key factor when working with colleagues, in the physician-patient relationship, during management of emergencies and in avoiding or reducing the legal consequences of adverse medical events. Therefore, focused attention should be brought to this area. In other high risk industries, specific communication training has been standard for a long time and in medicine there is an approach to teach and train these soft skills by simulation. Systematic communication training, however, is rarely an established component of specialist training. It is impossible not to communicate whereby nonverbal indications, such as gestures, mimic expression, posture and tone play an important part. Miscommunication, however, is common and leads to unproductive behavior. The cause of this is not always obvious. This article provides an overview of the communication models of Shannon, Watzlawick et al. and Schulz von Thun et al. and describes their limitations. The "Process Communication Model®" (PCM) is also introduced. An overview is provided with examples of how this tool can be used to look at the communication process from a systematic point of view. People have different psychological needs. Not taking care of these needs will result in individual stress behavior, which can be graded into first, second and third degrees of severity (driver behavior, mask behavior and desperation). These behavior patterns become exposed in predictable sequences. Furthermore, on the basis of this model, successful communication can be established while unproductive behavior that occurs during stress can be dealt with appropriately. Because of the importance of communication in all areas of medical care, opportunities exist to focus research on the influence of targeted communication on patient outcome, complications and management of emergencies.
The F-Area Tank Farms (FTF) and H-Area Tank Farm (HTF) are owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and operated by Savannah River Remediation LLC (SRR), Liquid Waste Operations contractor at DOE's Savannah River Site (SRS). The FTF and HTF are active radioactive waste storage and treatment facilities consisting of 51 carbon steel waste tanks and ancillary equipment such as transfer lines, evaporators and pump tanks. Performance Assessments (PAs) for each Tank Farm have been prepared to support the eventual closure of the underground radioactive waste tanks and ancillary equipment. PAs provide the technical bases and results to be used in subsequent documents to demonstrate compliance with the pertinent requirements for final closure of the Tank Farms. The Tank Farms are subject to a number of regulatory requirements. The State regulates Tank Farm operations through an industrial waste water permit and through a Federal Facility Agreement approved by the State, DOE and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Closure documentation will include State-approved Tank Farm Closure Plans and tank-specific closure modules utilizing information from the PAs. For this reason, the State of South Carolina and the EPA must be involved in the performance assessment review process. The residual material remaining after tank cleaning is also subject to reclassification prior to closure via a waste determination pursuant to Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act of Fiscal Year 2005. PAs are performance-based, risk-informed analyses of the fate and transport of FTF and HTF residual wastes following final closure of the Tank Farms. Since the PAs serve as the primary risk assessment tools in evaluating readiness for closure, it is vital that PA conclusions be communicated effectively. In the course of developing the FTF and HTF PAs, several lessons learned have emerged regarding communicating PA results. When communicating PA results it is
Junod Perron, Noelle; Cullati, Stephane; Hudelson, Patricia; Nendaz, Mathieu; Dolmans, Diana; van der Vleuten, Cees
A 6-month faculty development programme was designed to improve supervisors' feedback to junior doctors on their clinical communication skills (CS) and included both CS and teaching skills training. The aim of this study was to assess supervisors' views on the impact of the programme on their subsequent teaching and communication practice. 28 clinical supervisors at the Geneva University Hospitals, from either inpatient or outpatient settings (general internists or primary care specialists), undertook a six-session faculty development programme, between 2009 and 2011, and each completed a short questionnaire before and 1 month after the course. Between 3 and 6 months after the course, the participants were interviewed about their views on the impact of the course on their practice using a semistructured interview. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. The percentage of participants who reported teaching CS at least once a week had increased from 5/26 (19%) to 8/26 (30%), p=0.07. Participants reported using teaching skills, especially giving structured feedback. Use of newly acquired teaching skills was more likely when participants had protected time for teaching or were involved in formal teaching activities. Even participants who reported minimal teaching activity found the newly acquired CS to be useful, both with their own patients and in other professional situations. The few participants who explicitly reported teaching regularly CS in practice had generally become formal teachers in CS training. A faculty development programme on how to teach CS is perceived to be useful by clinical supervisors to acquire new skills, but using them in the workplace appears to depend on creation of a supportive environment with protected time for teaching. Involving supervisors in formal communication teaching may be one way to ensure continued use of newly learned teaching skills.
Hopkins, Thomas; Clegg, Judy; Stackhouse, Joy
Background: Research has revealed that the youth offending population has low language ability when assessed on standardized language measures. However, little is known about the perceptions young offenders (YOs) have of their own literacy ability and their communicative interactions with others. Such knowledge might further our understanding of…
Driscoll, Roberta M.
Discusses the importance of incorporating technical and human relation skills to be a successful and productive media specialist, and offers guidelines for developing communication skills and self-esteem. (CLB)
Khodadadi, Esmail; Ebrahimi, Hossein; Moghaddasian, Sima; Babapour, Jalil
Having an effective relationship with the patient in the process of treatment is essential. Nurses must have communication skills in order to establish effective relationships with the patients. This study evaluated the impact of communication skills training on quality of care, self-efficacy, job satisfaction and communication skills of nurses. This is an experimental study with a control group that has been done in 2012. The study sample consisted of 73 nurses who work in hospitals of Tabriz; they were selected by proportional randomizing method. The intervention was only conducted on the experimental group. In order to measure the quality of care 160 patients, who had received care by nurses, participated in this study. The Data were analyzed by SPSS (ver.13). Comparing the mean scores of communication skills showed a statistically significant difference between control and experimental groups after intervention. The paired t-test showed a statistically significant difference in the experimental group before and after the intervention. Independent t-test showed a statistically significant difference between the rate of quality of care in patients of control and experimental groups after the intervention. The results showed that the training of communication skills can increase the nurse's rate of communication skills and cause elevation in quality of nursing care. Therefore, in order to improve the quality of nursing care it is recommended that communication skills be established and taught as a separate course in nursing education.
Al-Farisi, B. L.; Tjandrakirana; Agustini, R.
Student’s communication skill paid less attention in learning activity at school, even though communication skill is needed by students in the 21st century based on the demands of new curriculum in Indonesia (K13). This study focuses on drilling students’ communication skill through science, environment, technology, and society (SETS)-based learning. The research is a pre-experimental design with a one-shot case study model involving 10 students of ninth-grader of SMPN 2 Manyar, Gresik. The research data were collected through observation method using communication observation sheet. The data were analyzed using the descriptive qualitative method. The result showed that students’ communication skill reached the completeness of skills decided both individually and classically in the curriculum. The fundamental result of this research that SETS-based learning can be used to drill students’ communication skill in K13 context.
OECD Publishing, 2016
Digitalisation, globalisation, demographic shifts and other changes in work organisation are constantly reshaping skill needs. This can lead to persistent skill shortages and mismatch which are costly for individuals, firms and society in terms of lost wages and lower productivity and growth. These costs can be reduced through better assessment…
Newcomb, Anna; Trickey, Amber W; Lita, Elena; Dort, Jonathan
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires residency programs to assess communication skills and provide feedback to residents. We aimed to develop a feasible data collection process that generates objective clinical performance information to guide training activities, inform ACGME milestone evaluations, and validate assessment instruments. Residents care for patients in the surgical clinic and in the hospital, and participate in a communication curriculum providing practice with standardized patients (SPs). We measured perception of resident communication using the 14-item Communication Assessment Tool (CAT), collecting data from patients at the surgery clinic and surgical wards in the hospital, and from SP encounters during simulated training scenarios. We developed a handout of CAT example behaviors to guide patients completing the communication assessment. Independent academic medical center. General surgery residents. The primary outcome is the percentage of total items patients rated "excellent;" we collected data on 24 of 25 residents. Outpatient evaluations resulted in significantly higher scores (mean 84.5% vs. 68.6%, p communication assessments in their concurrent patient population (p = 0.017), and (2) receiving CAT example instructions was associated with a lower percentage of excellent ratings by 9.3% (p = 0.047). Our data collection process provides a model for obtaining meaningful information about resident communication proficiency. CAT evaluations of surgical residents by the inpatient population had not previously been described in the literature; our results provide important insight into relationships between the evaluations provided by inpatients, clinic patients, and SPs in simulation. Our example behaviors guide shows promise for addressing a common concern, minimizing ceiling effects when measuring physician-patient communication. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by
Full Text Available The importance of movement is often overlooked because it is such a natural part of human life. It is, however, crucial for a child's physical, cognitive and social development. In addition, experiences support learning and development of fundamental movement skills. The foundations of those skills are laid in early childhood and essential to encourage a physically active lifestyle. Fundamental movement skill performance can be examined with several assessment tools. The choice of a test will depend on the context in which the assessment is planned. This article compares seven assessment tools which are often referred to in European or international context. It discusses the tools' usefulness for the assessment of movement skill development in general population samples. After a brief description of each assessment tool the article focuses on contents, reliability, validity and normative data. A conclusion outline of strengths and weaknesses of all reviewed assessment tools focusing on their use in educational research settings is provided and stresses the importance of regular data collection of fundamental movement skill development among preschool children.
On 9-10 July, 2001 the Metrics for Objective Assessment of Surgical Skills Workshop convened an international assemblage of subject matter experts in objective assessment of surgical technical skills...
Skillful collaboration and communication among healthcare team members are associated with favorable patient outcomes. Student nurses need opportunities for supervised development of these crucial and intertwined skills. The author describes the implementation of a practice-change project for simultaneously developing collaboration and communication skills by pairing prelicensure student nurses in clinical assignments. This easily adapted strategy increases options for faculty looking to stimulate student acquisition of these professional skills.
Andersson, Niclas; Andersson, Pernille Hammar
, professional engineering skills need to be included in the syllabus of engineering courses and study programs, which in turn call for the implementation of learning objectives, teaching activities as well as methods for assessing the professional performance of the engineering students. The implicit...... life experience from industry and consequently, they might have limited knowledge about professional skills which of course delimits their ability to evaluate the students’ professional performance. The objective of this study is to design and test a method to assess professional skills...... in an engineering teaching context. A suggested approach, based on the three consecutive steps of Define – Monitor – Assess, was applied and tested in an engineering course in which the students and professional engineers from industry interacted in an extensive role play simulation. The students’ were actively...
D-Ai87 489 US ARMY MAR COLLEGE LIBRARY COMMUNICATIVE SKILLS: A i/l SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY(U) ARMY WAR COIL CARLISLE BARRACKS PA OCT 87 UNCLASSIFIED F...PERIOD COVERED U.S. Army War College Library Bibliography Communicative Skills A Seecte Bibiogrphy6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(&) S...BIBLIOGRAPHY as an invitation for you to enjoy the wealth of materials readily available in our library that will help you improve your communicative skills. It
It is known that socialization plays a basic role in personal development, this being essential in childhood. Lack of communication skills and self-knowledge and cause difficulties in social integration of children of any age, so now is the growing emphasis in schools on activities aimed at developing these skills. Training of communication skills is important for teachers in their pedagogical counseling and for those who benefit from education. Education is the most communicative sphere of a...
Spanager, Lene; Lyk-Jensen, Helle Teglgaard; Dieckmann, Peter
Errors in surgery often stem from failure related to non-technical skills such as communication and teamwork. Tools for training and assessment of non-technical skills are needed to ensure safe surgery. The aim of this study was to customize the Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons (NOTSS) rating...
Ayn, Caitlyn; Robinson, Lynne; Nason, April; Lovas, John
Professional communication skills have a significant impact on dental patient satisfaction and health outcomes. Communication skills training has been shown to improve the communication skills of dental students. Therefore, strengthening communication skills training in dental education shows promise for improving dental patient satisfaction and outcomes. The aim of this study was to facilitate the development of dental communication skills training through a scoping review with compilation