Bergus, George R; Woodhead, Jerold C; Kreiter, Clarence D
Our project investigated whether trained lay observers can reliably assess the communication skills of medical students by observing their patient encounters in an out-patient clinic. During a paediatrics clerkship, trained lay observers (standardised observers [SOs]) assessed the communication skills of Year 3 medical students while the students interviewed patients. These observers accompanied students into examination rooms in an out-patient clinic and completed a 15-item communication skills checklist during the encounter. The reliability of the communication skills scores was calculated using generalisability analysis. Students rated the experience and the validity of the assessment. The communication skills scores recorded by the SOs in the clinic were correlated with communication skills scores on a paediatrics objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Standardised observers accompanied a total of 51 medical students and watched 199 of their encounters with paediatric patients. The reliability of the communication skills scores from nine observed patient encounters was calculated to be 0.80. There was substantial correlation between the communication skills scores awarded by the clinic observers and students' communication skills scores on their OSCE cases (r = 0.53, P students strongly agreed that the observer had not interfered with their interaction with the patient. After 95.8% of the encounters, students agreed or strongly agreed that the observers' scoring of their communication skills was valid. Standardised observers can reliably assess the communication skills of medical students during clinical encounters with patients and are well accepted by students.
Rider, Elizabeth A; Hinrichs, Margaret M; Lown, Beth A
Physicians' interpersonal and communication skills have a significant impact on patient care and correlate with improved healthcare outcomes. Some studies suggest, however, that communication skills decline during the four years of medical school. Regulatory and other medical organizations, recognizing the importance of interpersonal and communication skills in the practice of medicine, now require competence in communication skills. Two challenges exist: to select a framework of interpersonal and communication skills to teach across undergraduate medical education, and to develop and implement a uniform model for the assessment of these skills. The authors describe a process and model for developing and institutionalizing the assessment of communication skills across the undergraduate curriculum. Consensus was built regarding communication skill competencies by working with course leaders and examination directors, a uniform framework of competencies was selected to both teach and assess communication skills, and the framework was implemented across the Harvard Medical School undergraduate curriculum. The authors adapted an assessment framework based on the Bayer-Fetzer Kalamazoo Consensus Statement adapted a patient and added and satisfaction tool to bring patients' perspectives into the assessment of the learners. The core communication competencies and evaluation instruments were implemented in school-wide courses and assessment exercises including the first-year Patient-Doctor I Clinical Assessment, second-year Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE), third-year Patient-Doctor III Clinical Assessment, fourth-year Comprehensive Clinical Practice Examination and the Core Medicine Clerkships. Faculty were offered workshops and interactive web-based teaching to become familiar with the framework, and students used the framework with repeated opportunities for faculty feedback on these skills. A model is offered for educational leaders and others who are involved
Yeap, R; Beevi, Z; Lukman, H
This article describes the development of four assessment tools designed to evaluate the communication skills training (CST) programme at the International Medical University (IMU). The tools measure pre-clinical students' 1) perceived competency in basic interpersonal skills, 2) attitude towards patient-centred communication, 3) conceptual knowledge on doctor-patient communication, and 4) acceptance of the CST programme.
Modi, Jyoti Nath; Anshu, -; Chhatwal, Jugesh; Gupta, Piyush; Singh, Tejinder
Good communication skills are essential for an optimal doctor-patient relationship, and also contribute to improved health outcomes. Although the need for training in communication skills is stated as a requirement in the 1997 Graduate Medical Education Regulations of the Medical Council of India, formal training in these skills has been fragmentary and non-uniform in most Indian curricula. The Vision 2015 document of the Medical Council of India reaffirms the need to include training in communication skills in the MBBS curriculum. Training in communication skills needs approaches which are different from that of teaching other clinical subjects. It is also a challenge to ensure that students not only imbibe the nuances of communication and interpersonal skills, but adhere to them throughout their careers. This article addresses the possible ways of standardizing teaching and assessment of communication skills and integrating them into the existing curriculum.
Scheffer, Simone; Muehlinghaus, Isabel; Froehmel, Annette; Ortwein, Heiderose
Communication skills training is an accepted part of undergraduate medical programs nowadays. In addition to learning experiences its importance should be emphasised by performance-based assessment. As detailed checklists have been shown to be not well suited for the assessment of communication skills for different reasons, this study aimed to…
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Communication skills are the most important characteristics for healthcare providers. The aim of this study was to assess communication skills level and its related factors among healthcare practitioners in Bahar-Hamadan.Materials & Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was carried out on 309 employees in Bahar health care system. Data-gathering tools consisted of a 3-part questionnaire: communication skills level measuring feedback, listening, and verbal communication. Subjects’ demographic variables such as age, gender, education level and job were also recorded. The obtained data was analyzed by means of the statistical software SPSS-13 using coefficient correlation, liner regression, t-test, and One-way Anova.Results: The subjects reported 62.2, 57.1, and 60.2% of receivable scores of verbal, listening, and feedback communication, respectively. Overall communication skills of 27.8% of the participants were evaluated at the desired level. Significant differences were observed in average score of communication skills related to age, gender, education degree, employment status, workhouse, and experience (P<0.05. In liner regression, factors influencing communication skills were age, gender, and education degree (P< 0.05.Conclusion: The results reveal that the communication skills of more than half of the medical practitioners are weak and moderate. It is recommended to design some program to improve medical practitioners' communication skills. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;19(1:62-69
Smit, G.N.; van der Molen, H.T.
Assessment of students' communication skills after a course in problem-clarifying skills requires an assessment method different from the traditional written examination. In this article we describe the construction and evaluation of simulations, video tests and paper-and-pencil tests. The results
Heinerichs, Scott; Cattano, Nicole M.; Morrison, Katherine E.
Context: Nonverbal communication (NVC) skills are a critical component to clinician interactions with patients, and no research exists on the investigation of athletic training students' nonverbal communication skills. Video recording and debriefing have been identified as methods to assess and educate students' NVC skills in other allied health…
Full Text Available Soft skills, especially communication skills, are important skills which each graduate must possess. Accordingly, several courses and approaches have been carried out in universities to train students in communication skills. The skills are normally evaluated by course lecturers. However, assessments by a third party from outside the university are valuable so that the students’ ahievements may be weighed against external evaluators’ point of views. In the Department of Electrical, Electronic and Systems Engineering (DEESE, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM, communication skills assessment by external lecturers and industry representatives are performed on Hari Poster JKEES, where students present their final year project poster. There are two categories of evaluation, namely project and communication skills. The project evaluation covers content, result and impact, while communication skills evaluation covers poster layout and design, and delivery. This study only analyse the students’ communication skills achievement. The participants of this study consists of 109 final year students from two batches, of which 51 students are from year 2014 and the other 58 students from year 2015. The results show that for the year 2014 students, the mean mark given by external lecturers in layout and design category is 6.7, while the mean mark from industry evaluators is 6.5. For the 2015 batch, the mean mark in the layout and design category is 6.3 from external lecturers and 5.9 from industry evaluators. In the delivery category, the mean marks for the 2014 batch are 7.1 and 6.6 from external lecturers and industry evaluators, espectively. Meanwhile, for the 2015 batch, the mean marks by external lecturers and industry evaluators are 6.3 and 5.8, respectively. The results show that both external lecturers and industry representatives judged DEESE students’ communication skills to be good.
MEMARPOUR, MAHTAB; BAZRAFKAN, LEILA; ZAREI, ZAHRA
Introduction Establishment of effective communication between the clinician and patient is essential in order to increase the effectiveness of treatment. These skills have been less investigated among dental students. This study aimed to evaluate communication skills of dental students in Shiraz with patients through direct observation, patients' perspectives and students' self-assessments. Methods This cross-sectional study enrolled the fifth and sixth year dental students and one of each student’s patients who was chosen using simple random sampling method. We used a checklist for data collection. Students’ communication skills were assessed at three steps of the student-patient interview – at the beginning of the interview, during the interview, and at the end of the interview. The checklist was completed by three groups: 1) an observer, 2) the patient and 3) the student, as self-assessment. The validity of the checklist was confirmed by clinical professors and the reliability was determined by Cronbach's alpha test. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Student’s t test. A repeated measure MANOVA was used to compare the mean communication skills in the researcher, patients, and students at each step of the patient interviews. Results There were 110 students (mean age: 22.3±8.4 years) and 110 patients (mean age: 32±8.8 years) who completed the checklists. Overall, the communication skills of dental students were rated as good according to the patients. However, the observer and student participants rated the skills at the moderate level. We observed significant differences between communication skills in all three groups and in the three steps of the patient interviews (ppatients' beliefs and students' self assessments, there were no differences between male and female students in communication skills in the three steps of the patient interviews (all p>0.05). However from the observer’s viewpoint, female students showed better
Memarpour, Mahtab; Bazrafkan, Leila; Zarei, Zahra
Establishment of effective communication between the clinician and patient is essential in order to increase the effectiveness of treatment. These skills have been less investigated among dental students. This study aimed to evaluate communication skills of dental students in Shiraz with patients through direct observation, patients' perspectives and students' self-assessments. This cross-sectional study enrolled the fifth and sixth year dental students and one of each student's patients who was chosen using simple random sampling method. We used a checklist for data collection. Students' communication skills were assessed at three steps of the student-patient interview - at the beginning of the interview, during the interview, and at the end of the interview. The checklist was completed by three groups: 1) an observer, 2) the patient and 3) the student, as self-assessment. The validity of the checklist was confirmed by clinical professors and the reliability was determined by Cronbach's alpha test. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Student's t test. A repeated measure MANOVA was used to compare the mean communication skills in the researcher, patients, and students at each step of the patient interviews. There were 110 students (mean age: 22.3±8.4 years) and 110 patients (mean age: 32±8.8 years) who completed the checklists. Overall, the communication skills of dental students were rated as good according to the patients. However, the observer and student participants rated the skills at the moderate level. We observed significant differences between communication skills in all three groups and in the three steps of the patient interviews (ppatients' beliefs and students' self assessments, there were no differences between male and female students in communication skills in the three steps of the patient interviews (all p>0.05). However from the observer's viewpoint, female students showed better communication skills during the interviews (p=0
Hulsman, R. L.; Mollema, E. D.; Hoos, A. M.; de Haes, J. C. J. M.; Donnison-Speijer, J. D.
BACKGROUND A computer-assisted assessment (CAA) program for communication skills designated ACT was developed using the objective structured video examination (OSVE) format. This method features assessment of cognitive scripts underlying communication behaviour, a broad range of communication
Full Text Available Introduction: Establishment of effective communication between the clinician and patient is essential in order to increase the effectiveness of treatment. These skills have been less investigated among dental students. This study aimed to evaluate communication skills of dental students in Shiraz with patients through direct observation, patients’ perspectives and students’ self-assessments. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled the fifth and sixth year dental students and one of each student’s patients who was chosen using simple random sampling method. We used a checklist for data collection. Students’ communication skills were assessed at three steps of the student-patient interview – at the beginning of the interview, during the interview, and at the end of the interview. The checklist was completed by three groups: 1 an observer, 2 the patient and 3 the student, as self-assessment. The validity of the checklist was confirmed by clinical professors and the reliability was determined by Cronbach’s alpha test. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Student’s t test. A repeated measure MANOVA was used to compare the mean communication skills in the researcher, patients, and students at each step of the patient interviews. Results: There were 110 students (mean age: 22.3±8.4 years and 110 patients (mean age: 32±8.8 years who completed the checklists. Overall, the communication skills of dental students were rated as good according to the patients. However, the observer and student participants rated the skills at the moderate level. We observed significant differences between communication skills in all three groups and in the three steps of the patient interviews (p0.05. However from the observer’s viewpoint, female students showed better communication skills during the interviews (p=0.001. Conclusion: There was a degree of failure in communication skills of dental students with patients in the interview
Artemiou, Elpida; Hecker, Kent G; Adams, Cindy L; Coe, Jason B
There is increasing pressure in veterinary education to teach and assess communication skills, with the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) being the most common assessment method. Previous research reveals that raters are a large source of variance in OSCEs. This study focused on examining the effect of raters' professional background as a source of variance when assessing students' communication skills. Twenty-three raters were categorized according to their professional background: clinical sciences (n=11), basic sciences (n=4), clinical communication (n=5), or hospital administrator/clinical skills technicians (n=3). Raters from each professional background were assigned to the same station and assessed the same students during two four-station OSCEs. Students were in year 2 of their pre-clinical program. Repeated-measures ANOVA results showed that OSCE scores awarded by the rater groups differed significantly: (F(matched_station_1) [2,91]=6.97, p=.002), (F(matched_station_2) [3,90]=13.95, p=.001), (F(matched_station_3) [3,90]=8.76, p=.001), and ((Fmatched_station_4) [2,91]=30.60, p=.001). A significant time effect between the two OSCEs was calculated for matched stations 1, 2, and 4, indicating improved student performances. Raters with a clinical communication skills background assigned scores that were significantly lower compared to the other rater groups. Analysis of written feedback provided by the clinical sciences raters showed that they were influenced by the students' clinical knowledge of the case and that they did not rely solely on the communication checklist items. This study shows that it is important to consider rater background both in recruitment and training programs for communication skills' assessment.
Burke-Smalley, Lisa A.
Business, like many other fields in higher education, continues to rely largely on conventional testing methods for assessing student learning. In the current article, another evaluation approach--the oral exam--is examined as a means for building and evaluating the professional communication and oral dialogue skills needed and utilized by…
Erik E. Langenau
Full Text Available Background: High stakes medical licensing programs are planning to augment and adapt current examinations to be relevant for a two-decision point model for licensure: entry into supervised practice and entry into unsupervised practice. Therefore, identifying which skills should be assessed at each decision point is critical for informing examination development, and gathering input from residency program directors is important. Methods: Using data from previously developed surveys and expert panels, a web-delivered survey was distributed to 3,443 residency program directors. For each of the 28 procedural and 18 advanced communication skills, program directors were asked which clinical skills should be assessed, by whom, when, and how. Descriptive statistics were collected, and Intraclass Correlations (ICC were conducted to determine consistency across different specialties. Results: Among 347 respondents, program directors reported that all advanced communication and some procedural tasks are important to assess. The following procedures were considered ‘important’ or ‘extremely important’ to assess: sterile technique (93.8%, advanced cardiovascular life support (ACLS (91.1%, basic life support (BLS (90.0%, interpretation of electrocardiogram (89.4% and blood gas (88.7%. Program directors reported that most clinical skills should be assessed at the end of the first year of residency (or later and not before graduation from medical school. A minority were considered important to assess prior to the start of residency training: demonstration of respectfulness (64%, sterile technique (67.2%, BLS (68.9%, ACLS (65.9% and phlebotomy (63.5%. Discussion: Results from this study support that assessing procedural skills such as cardiac resuscitation, sterile technique, and phlebotomy would be amenable to assessment at the end of medical school, but most procedural and advanced communications skills would be amenable to assessment at the end of the
Langenau, Erik E.; Zhang, Xiuyuan; Roberts, William L.; DeChamplain, Andre F.; Boulet, John R.
Background High stakes medical licensing programs are planning to augment and adapt current examinations to be relevant for a two-decision point model for licensure: entry into supervised practice and entry into unsupervised practice. Therefore, identifying which skills should be assessed at each decision point is critical for informing examination development, and gathering input from residency program directors is important. Methods Using data from previously developed surveys and expert panels, a web-delivered survey was distributed to 3,443 residency program directors. For each of the 28 procedural and 18 advanced communication skills, program directors were asked which clinical skills should be assessed, by whom, when, and how. Descriptive statistics were collected, and Intraclass Correlations (ICC) were conducted to determine consistency across different specialties. Results Among 347 respondents, program directors reported that all advanced communication and some procedural tasks are important to assess. The following procedures were considered ‘important’ or ‘extremely important’ to assess: sterile technique (93.8%), advanced cardiovascular life support (ACLS) (91.1%), basic life support (BLS) (90.0%), interpretation of electrocardiogram (89.4%) and blood gas (88.7%). Program directors reported that most clinical skills should be assessed at the end of the first year of residency (or later) and not before graduation from medical school. A minority were considered important to assess prior to the start of residency training: demonstration of respectfulness (64%), sterile technique (67.2%), BLS (68.9%), ACLS (65.9%) and phlebotomy (63.5%). Discussion Results from this study support that assessing procedural skills such as cardiac resuscitation, sterile technique, and phlebotomy would be amenable to assessment at the end of medical school, but most procedural and advanced communications skills would be amenable to assessment at the end of the first
Chan, Teresa M; Wallner, Clare; Swoboda, Thomas K; Leone, Katrina A; Kessler, Chad
Interpersonal and communication skills (ICS) are a key component of several competency-based schemata and key competency in the set of six Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies. With the shift toward a competency-based educational framework, the importance of robust learner assessment becomes paramount. The journal Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM) hosted a consensus conference to discuss education research in emergency medicine (EM). This article summarizes the initial preparatory research that was conducted to brief consensus conference attendees and reports the results of the consensus conference breakout session as it pertains to ICS assessment of learners. The goals of this consensus conference session were to twofold: 1) to determine the state of assessment of observable learner performance and 2) to determine a research agenda within the ICS field for medical educators. The working group identified six key recommendations for medical educators and researchers. © 2012 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.
Siamian, Hasan; Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Nia, Roobabe Darvish; Nezhad, Fereshteh Reza; Akbari, Hadise; Balaghafari, Azita; Vahdei, Mohammad
Ability to communicate correctly has been one of the life's basic social skills and its significance in human life is to some extent that some of the experts attribute the human growth foundation owners of the leading personal injuries and progress to human relationship. Purpose of this study was to evaluate the interpersonal communication skills among the health care centers staff. This study was a descriptive-cross sectional study was done among 85 staff in 12 metropolitan and 9 urban health centers in 2013. According to Kerejsi and Morgan's table, 70 employees were determined as samples. Seventy questionnaires were distributed at the mentioned centers and 60 measurable health questionnaires were examined. Demographic data and measure of communication skills: is a 36-items consisting of seven domains: (general Communication, speaking, listening, interpretation and clarification, asking, feedback, and reward and punishment), obtained data were analyzed by inferential statistical tests (Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis and correlation coefficient). Most respondents 38 (63.3%) were women, 57 (95%) married and 17 (28.1 %) age means of 43-47 years. In the study status of the communication skills status of employees employed in health centres, Sari, "Punish and encourage skills" with mean and total standard deviation of 4.11±37.0 assigned the highest score and "feedback" skill with mean and total standard deviation of 3.68±045 assigned the less score. Findings showed that public relation skill, listening, reward and punishment in good scope and other skills were in the average scope. No need for training skills of empowerment of staff and their mental health. These results could be used for developing similar instruments in other health workers.
Siamian, Hasan; Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Nia, Roobabe Darvish; Nezhad, Fereshteh Reza; Akbari, Hadise; Balaghafari, Azita; Vahdei, Mohammad
Background and aim: Ability to communicate correctly has been one of the life's basic social skills and its significance in human life is to some extent that some of the experts attribute the human growth foundation owners of the leading personal injuries and progress to human relationship. Purpose of this study was to evaluate the interpersonal communication skills among the health care centers staff. Methods: This study was a descriptive–cross sectional study was done among 85 staff in 12 metropolitan and 9 urban health centers in 2013. According to Kerejsi and Morgan's table, 70 employees were determined as samples. Seventy questionnaires were distributed at the mentioned centers and 60 measurable health questionnaires were examined. Demographic data and measure of communication skills: is a 36-items consisting of seven domains: (general Communication, speaking, listening, interpretation and clarification, asking, feedback, and reward and punishment), obtained data were analyzed by inferential statistical tests (Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis and correlation coefficient). Results: Most respondents 38 (63.3%) were women, 57 (95%) married and 17 (28.1 %) age means of 43-47 years. In the study status of the communication skills status of employees employed in health centres, Sari, “Punish and encourage skills” with mean and total standard deviation of 4.11±37.0 assigned the highest score and “feedback” skill with mean and total standard deviation of 3.68±045 assigned the less score. Conclusion: Findings showed that public relation skill, listening, reward and punishment in good scope and other skills were in the average scope. No need for training skills of empowerment of staff and their mental health. These results could be used for developing similar instruments in other health workers. PMID:25568632
de Haes, J. C. J. M.; Oort, F. J.; Hulsman, R. L.
To establish medical students' professional competence for the medical profession, we designed a standardized observation procedure and the Amsterdam Attitude and Communication Scale ( AACS) with nine five-point scale items, for summative assessment of their communication skills and professional
Hasan, Sanah; Tarazi, Hamadeh M Khier; Halim Hilal, Dana Abdel
Objective. To assess student communication and patient management skill with introduction of Arabic and use of simulated patient assessments to a communication and counseling course. Design. Five, 3-hour tutorials (clinical skill laboratory) were added to the course covering: listening and empathic responding, non-verbal communications, interviewing skills, assertiveness, counseling in special situations: conflict, anger, worry or rushed situations, and professional decision making. Arabic content was introduced to the course to enhance Arabic communications and competence among students. Simulated patient assessment was used to evaluate student skills. Students' feedback about course changes was evaluated. Assessment. The course now covers a wider content and Arabic language. Students' scores were similar in the assessment and other assessments within the course and between Arabic and English groups. Students favorably rated the changes in the course and provided constructive feedback on content usefulness and adequacy. Conclusion. Expanding the course to include Arabic language and content and simulated patient assessments enhanced student communication skills.
Tarazi, Hamadeh (M. Khier); Halim Hilal, Dana Abdel
Objective. To assess student communication and patient management skill with introduction of Arabic and use of simulated patient assessments to a communication and counseling course. Design. Five, 3-hour tutorials (clinical skill laboratory) were added to the course covering: listening and empathic responding, non-verbal communications, interviewing skills, assertiveness, counseling in special situations: conflict, anger, worry or rushed situations, and professional decision making. Arabic content was introduced to the course to enhance Arabic communications and competence among students. Simulated patient assessment was used to evaluate student skills. Students’ feedback about course changes was evaluated. Assessment. The course now covers a wider content and Arabic language. Students’ scores were similar in the assessment and other assessments within the course and between Arabic and English groups. Students favorably rated the changes in the course and provided constructive feedback on content usefulness and adequacy. Conclusion. Expanding the course to include Arabic language and content and simulated patient assessments enhanced student communication skills. PMID:28630517
Stausmire, Julie M; Cashen, Constance P; Myerholtz, Linda; Buderer, Nancy
The Communication Assessment Tool (CAT) has been used and validated to assess Family and Emergency Medicine resident communication skills from the patient's perspective. However, it has not been previously reported as an outcome measure for general surgery residents. The purpose of this study is to establish initial benchmarking data for the use of the CAT as an evaluation tool in an osteopathic general surgery residency program. Results are analyzed quarterly and used by the program director to provide meaningful feedback and targeted goal setting for residents to demonstrate progressive achievement of interpersonal and communication skills with patients. The 14-item paper version of the CAT (developed by Makoul et al. for residency programs) asks patients to anonymously rate surgery residents on discrete communication skills using a 5-point rating scale immediately after the clinical encounter. Results are reported as the percentage of items rated as "excellent" (5) by the patient. The setting is a hospital-affiliated ambulatory urban surgery office staffed by the residency program. Participants are representative of adult patients of both sexes across all ages with diverse ethnic backgrounds. They include preoperative and postoperative patients, as well as those needing diagnostic testing and follow-up. Data have been collected on 17 general surgery residents from a single residency program representing 5 postgraduate year levels and 448 patient encounters since March 2012. The reliability (Cronbach α) of the tool for surgery residents was 0.98. The overall mean percentage of items rated as excellent was 70% (standard deviations = 42%), with a median of 100%. The CAT is a useful tool for measuring 1 facet of resident communication skills-the patient's perception of the physician-patient encounter. The tool provides a unique and personalized outcome measure for identifying communication strengths and improvement opportunities, allowing residents to receive
Lundquist, Lisa M; Shogbon, Angela O; Momary, Kathryn M; Rogers, Hannah K
To compare students' self-assessment of their communication skills with faculty members' formal evaluation of their skills in a therapeutics course. Over a 3-year period, faculty members evaluated second-year pharmacy students' communication skills as part of a requirement in a therapeutics course. Immediately following an individual oral assessment and again following a group oral assessment, students self-assessed their communication skills using the same rubric the faculty members had used. Students' self-assessments were then compared with faculty members' evaluation of students' communication skills. Four hundred one (97.3%) students consented to participate in this study. Faculty evaluation scores of students for both the individual and group oral assessments were significantly higher than students' self-assessment scores. Students' self-assessment scores of their communication skills increased from the individual to the group oral assessment. Students' self-assessments of communication skills were consistently lower than faculty members' evaluations. Greater use of oral assessments throughout the pharmacy curriculum may help to improve students' confidence in and self-assessment of their communication skills.
Shogbon, Angela O.; Momary, Kathryn M.; Rogers, Hannah K.
Objective. To compare students’ self-assessment of their communication skills with faculty members’ formal evaluation of their skills in a therapeutics course. Methods. Over a 3-year period, faculty members evaluated second-year pharmacy students’ communication skills as part of a requirement in a therapeutics course. Immediately following an individual oral assessment and again following a group oral assessment, students self-assessed their communication skills using the same rubric the faculty members had used. Students’ self-assessments were then compared with faculty members’ evaluation of students’ communication skills. Results. Four hundred one (97.3%) students consented to participate in this study. Faculty evaluation scores of students for both the individual and group oral assessments were significantly higher than students’ self-assessment scores. Students’ self-assessment scores of their communication skills increased from the individual to the group oral assessment. Conclusion. Students’ self-assessments of communication skills were consistently lower than faculty members’ evaluations. Greater use of oral assessments throughout the pharmacy curriculum may help to improve students’ confidence in and self-assessment of their communication skills. PMID:23716740
Tiuraniemi, Juhani; Läärä, Riitta; Kyrö, Tuuli; Lindeman, Sari
The purpose of this study was to describe how psychology and medical students assess their own competency and skills before and after training, in which role-play was used to teach interpersonal and communication skills. Interpersonal and communication skills were assessed with a semi-structured questionnaire before and after the training. The students of both medicine and psychology estimated their skill levels to be higher after the course. The psychology students estimated their skills for communication, motivating interviewing, empathy and reflection, and change orientation to be better at the end of the course. Medical students estimated their communication skills, motivating interviewing skills, and change orientation skills to be better at the end of the course. Even a short period of training in interpersonal and communication skills can positively affect the self-assessed skills of the medical students. In the future, it would be worthwhile to pay attention to reflective teaching practices in the training of both medical and psychology students. The cognitive and emotional components of these practices help students to develop their own communication skills. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gustin, Jillian L; Way, David P; Wells-Di Gregorio, Sharla; McCallister, Jennifer W
Fellows in pulmonary and critical care medicine are required to show competency in facilitating family meetings for critically ill patients. There are many assessment measures available for evaluating physician-patient communication (e.g., the SEGUE Framework [Set the stage, Elicit information, Give information, Understand the patient's perspective, End the encounter]) and some designed for family meetings. However, no validated measure exists that is specifically designed to assess communication skills during family meetings with surrogate decision makers in intensive care settings. We developed the Family Meeting Behavioral Skills Checklist (FMBSC) to measure advanced communication skills of fellows in family meetings of critically ill patients based on a literature review and consensus of an interdisciplinary group of communications experts. We evaluated the psychometric properties of the FMBSC. We digitally recorded 16 pulmonary/critical care fellows performing a simulated family meeting for a critically ill patient at the end of 1 year of fellowship training. Two clinical health psychologists evaluated each recording independently using the FMBSC Rating Scale and the SEGUE Framework. Judges recorded the number of skills performed using the checklist and employed a summary rating scale to judge the level of performance for each of nine subsets of skills. Each instrument was scored and converted to percentage scores. The FMBSC and SEGUE Framework items were summed and converted to percentage scores for each category and as a total for each instrument. The rating scale items on the FMBSC were also summed and converted to a percentage score. Four primary analyses were conducted to evaluate interjudge reliability, internal consistency, and concurrent validity. Interrater reliability was higher for the FMBSC (intraclass correlation [ICC2,2] = 0.57) than for the SEGUE instrument (ICC2,2 = 0.32) or the FMBSC Rating Scale (ICC2,2 = 0.23). The FMBSC
Salmon, Peter; Young, Bridget
Medical Education 2011: 45: 217-226 Objectives The view that training in communication skills produces skilled communication is sometimes criticised by those who argue that communication is individual and intuitive. We therefore examine the validity of the concept of communication as a skill and identify alternative principles to underpin future development of this field. Methods We critically examine research evidence about the nature of clinical communication, and draw from theory and evidence concerning education and evaluation, particularly in creative disciplines. Results Skilled communication cannot be fully described using the concept of communication skills. Attempts to do so risk constraining and distorting pedagogical development in communication. Current education practice often masks the difficulties with the concept by introducing subjectivity into the definition and assessment of skills. As all clinical situations differ to some extent, clinical communication is inherently creative. Because it is rarely possible to attribute specific effects to specific elements of communication, communication needs to be taught and evaluated holistically. Conclusions For communication teaching to be pedagogically and clinically valid in supporting the inherent creativity of clinical communication, it will need to draw from education theory and practice that have been developed in explicitly creative disciplines. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.
Gelfman, Laura P; Lindenberger, Elizabeth; Fernandez, Helen; Goldberg, Gabrielle R; Lim, Betty B; Litrivis, Evgenia; O'Neill, Lynn; Smith, Cardinale B; Kelley, Amy S
Communication skills are critical in Geriatrics and Palliative Medicine because these patients confront complex clinical scenarios. We evaluated the effectiveness of the Geritalk communication skills course by comparing pre- and post-course real-time assessment of the participants leading family meetings. We also evaluated the participants' sustained skills practice. We compare the participants' skill acquisition before and after Geritalk using a direct observation Family Meeting Communication Assessment Tool and assess their deliberate practice at follow-up. First-year Geriatrics or Palliative Medicine fellows at Mount Sinai Medical Center and the James J. Peters Bronx VA Medical Center participated in Geritalk. Pre- and post-course family meeting assessments were compared. An average net gain of 6.8 skills represented a greater than 20% improvement in use of applicable skills. At two month follow-up, most participants reported deliberate practice of fundamental and advanced skills. This intensive training and family meeting assessment offers evidence-based communication skills training. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Hulsman, R L; Mollema, E D; Hoos, A M; de Haes, J C J M; Donnison-Speijer, J D
A computer-assisted assessment (CAA) program for communication skills designated ACT was developed using the objective structured video examination (OSVE) format. This method features assessment of cognitive scripts underlying communication behaviour, a broad range of communication problems covered in 1 assessment, highly standardised assessment and rating procedures, and large group assessments without complex organisation. The Academic Medical Centre (AMC) at the University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Aims To describe the development of the AMC Communication Test (ACT); to describe our experiences with the examination and rating procedures; to present test score descriptives, and to present the students' opinions of ACT. The ACT presents films on history taking, breaking bad news and shared decision making. Each film is accompanied by 3 types of short essay questions derived from our assessment model: "knows", "knows why/when" and "knows how". Evaluation questions about ACT were integrated into the assessment. Participants A total of 210 third year medical undergraduates were assessed. This study reports on the 110 (53%) students who completed all evaluation questions. Marking 210 examinations took about 17 days. The test score matched a normal distribution and showed a good level of discrimination of the students. About 75% passed the examination. Some support for the validity of our assessment model was found in the students' differential performance on the 3 types of questions. The ACT was well received. Student evaluations confirmed our efforts to develop realistic films that related well to the communication training programme. The ACT is a useful assessment method which complements interpersonal assessment methods for the evaluation of the medical communication skills of undergraduates.
Koski, Katja; Launonen, Kaisa
Background: Speech and language therapists (SLTs) working with adults who have multiple learning disabilities and complex communication needs often deliver their care via indirect therapy where SLTs train carers to communicate with their clients. Yet, very little is known about how SLTs assess the carers' communication skills prior to the training…
Dielissen, P.W.; Bottema, B.J.A.M.; Verdonk, P.; Lagro-Janssen, T.
CONTEXT: Gender is increasingly regarded as an important factor in doctor-patient communication education. This review aims to assess if and how gender is addressed by current assessment instruments for communication skills in medical education. METHODS: In 2009 at Radboud University Nijmegen
Uhm, Seilin; Lee, Gui H; Jin, Jeong K; Bak, Yong I; Jeoung, Yeon O; Kim, Chan W
Finding out the effective ways of teaching and assessing communication skills remain a challenging part of medication education. This study aims at exploring the usefulness and effectiveness of having additional feedback using qualitative analysis in assessment of communication skills in undergraduate medical training. We also determined the possibilities of using qualitative analysis in developing tailored strategies for improvement in communication skills training. This study was carried out on medical students (n=87) undergoing their final year clinical performance examination on communication skills using standardized patient by video-recording and transcribing their performances. Video-recordings of 26 students were randomly selected for qualitative analysis, and additional feedback was provided. We assessed the level of acceptance of communication skills scores between the study and nonstudy group and within the study group, before and after receiving feedback based on qualitative analysis. There was a statistically significant increase in the level of acceptance of feedback after delivering additional feedback using qualitative analysis, where the percentage of agreement with feedback increased from 15.4 to 80.8% (pcommunication skills assessment gives essential information for medical students to learn and self-reflect, which could potentially lead to improved communication skills. As evident from our study, feedback becomes more meaningful and effective with additional feedback using qualitative analysis.
Caron, Aleece; Perzynski, Adam; Thomas, Charles; Saade, Jimmy Y; McFarlane, Michael; Becker, Jeffery
Although interpersonal and communication skills are essential to physician practice, there is a dearth of effective tools to meaningfully teach and assess communication skills. The purpose of our study was to create a standardized tool for evaluation of communication skills for residents across specialties. We designed an Objective, Structured Communication Assessment of Residents (OSCAR) tool, consisting of 4 clinical stations, to assess intern communication skills with relationship development, their establishment of case goals, and their organization and time management skills. Interns from 11 training programs completed the stations, with senior residents trained to function as standardized patients. The 4 stations' scenarios were a disruptive patient, handling a phone call for a narcotics refill, disclosing a medical mistake, and delivering bad news. Eighty-three interns completed OSCAR during orientation. The assessment took interns about 40 minutes to complete, and participants were given immediate feedback by the standardized patients. The total possible score for each station was 50. Resident performance was highest for disclosing a medical error (94%, 47 of 50), followed by handling a disruptive patient (90%, 45 of 50), disclosing bad news (86%, 43 of 50), and handling the phone call for the narcotics refill (62%, 31 of 50). Multivariate analysis of variance results indicated differences between residents from US and international medical schools, but there were no significant differences across specialties. Interrater reliability was excellent for each station (> 0.80). OSCAR is a practical tool for assessing interns' communication skills to provide timely results to program directors.
Lewenstein, B. V.; Baram-Tsabari, A.
Although much effort is being invested in science communication training, the efforts are rarely accompanied by systematic evaluation of learning outcomes; existing evaluations are mainly anecdotal, or specific to a particular program. Standardized assessments will allow comparisons across programs and identification of best practices. This presentation describes the development and piloting of a tool for measuring scientists' views about, knowledge of, and skills in science communication. The instrument collects four types of data: (1) background information, (2) communication skills, (3) views about science communication, and (4) knowledge about the context of science communication. In the specific area of communication skills, a rationale is proposed for establishing learning goals in seven areas: content, knowledge organization, clarity and language, style, analogy, narrative, and dialogue. The resulting instrument may be used as a baseline survey or as a tool for pre-post evaluation of the learning outcomes of a wide range of science communication training programs and courses.
McKenzie, Carly T
The aim of this study was to use structured assessments to assess dental students' clinical communication skills exhibited during patient appointments. Fourth-year dental students (n=55) at the University of Alabama at Birmingham evaluated their own interpersonal skills in a clinical setting utilizing the Four Habits Coding Scheme. An instructor also assessed student-patient clinical communication. These assessments were used to identify perceived strengths and weaknesses in students' clinical communication. Both instructor assessments and student self-assessments pinpointed the following clinical communication skills as effective the most often: patient greeting, avoidance of jargon, and non-verbal behavior. There was also relative agreement between instructor assessments and student self-assessments regarding clinical communication skills that were rated as not effective most frequently: ensuring patient comprehension, identification of patient feelings, and exploration of barriers to treatment. These resulted pointed to strengths and weaknesses in the portion of the curriculum designed to prepare students for effective provider-patient communication. These results may suggest a need for the school's current behavioral science curriculum to better address discussion of potential treatment barriers and patient feelings as well as techniques to ensure patient comprehension.
Volino, Lucio R.; Das, Rolee Pathak
The objectives of this study were to develop a student self-assessment activity of a video-recorded counseling session and evaluate its impact on student self-perceptions of specific communication skills. This activity was incorporated into a core-communications course within the third professional year of a Doctor of Pharmacy curriculum. Student…
Canivet, Delphine; Delvaux, Nicole; Gibon, Anne-Sophie; Brancart, Cyrielle; Slachmuylder, Jean-Louis; Razavi, Darius
Effective communication is needed for optimal cancer pain management. This study assessed the efficacy of a general communication skills training program for oncology nurses on communication about pain management. A total of 115 nurses were randomly assigned to a training group (TG) or control group (CG). The assessment included the recording of interviews with a simulated cancer patient at baseline for both groups and after training (TG) or 3 months after baseline (CG). Two psychologists rated the content of interview transcripts to assess cancer pain management communication. Group-by-time effects were measured using a generalized estimating equation. Trained nurses asked the simulated patient more questions about emotions associated with pain (relative rate [RR] = 4.28, p = 0.049) and cognitions associated with pain treatment (RR = 3.23, p management (RR = 0.40, p = 0.006) compared with untrained nurses. The general communication skills training program improved only a few of the communication strategies needed for optimal cancer pain management in nursing. General communication skills training programs should be consolidated using specific modules focusing on communication skills related to cancer pain management.
Essers, G.T.J.M.; Kramer, A.; Andriesse, B.; Weel, C. van; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Dulmen, S. van
BACKGROUND: Assessment of medical communication performance usually focuses on rating generically applicable, well-defined communication skills. However, in daily practice, communication is determined by (specific) context factors, such as acquaintance with the patient, or the presented problem.
Essers, G.; Kramer, A.; Andriesse, B.; Weel, C. van; Vleuten, C. van der; Dulmen, S. van
Background: Assessment of medical communication performance usually focuses on rating generically applicable, well-defined communication skills. However, in daily practice, communication is determined by (specific) context factors, such as acquaintance with the patient, or the presented problem.
Full Text Available As far as new communication channels are concerned, there have been extensive developments in communications and marketing in digital era. Today, therefore, companies try to take advantage of digital marketing channels to provide suitable services to customers to improve their satisfaction level. However, this study aimed to identify and assess factors affecting skill gap in digital marketing. This was descriptive correlation study. The population consisted of experts in communications industry to identify most important skill gaps in digital marketing and factors affecting them; also, managers and specialists of these companies were investigated to determine the role of identified factors in reducing skills gaps. Using localized questionnaire and interviewing with ten experts who were selected by Delphi snowball method, the skill gaps in marketing and factors affecting them were identified. Also, a researcher made questionnaire with 32 questions was distributed among 226 employees to investigate the identified factors role in reducing skills gap in digital marketing. The results showed that from four identified factors, the components including operational strategic factors and environmental factors had direct and positive impact on creating skill gap in digital marketing of studied companies. The environmental factors such as social and cultural conditions, religion, technology, and economy had more proactive impact on skills gap in digital marketing. Also, the results showed that among skills gaps in digital marketing of studied companies, the skills (Principles of Communication and (Predicting Future had the highest and lowest gaps, respectively.
Ali, Abrar Ashraf
To assess the adequacy or deficiency of relevant communication skills needed in clinical practice among students of King Edward Medical University and identify the need of developing curriculum for communication skills. Sequential mixed method design using survey questionnair and in-depth interviews. King Edward Medical University, Lahore, from March - September 2010. Final year students consented to participate in the survey questionnaire regarding communication skills needed in clinical practice selected on the basis of random stratified sampling technique. The questioned aspects include communication skills, supervised training, breaking bad news, counselling and written communication skills. In the second qualitative phase, volunteers who had passed final year were selected on the basis of non-probability purposive sampling technique for recording in-depth interviews. Qualitative data was analyzed with content analysis after identifying themes and trends from the data. Only 20% students had clarity of communication skills training, 28% believed that their learning was supervised, 20% believed training was structured, 28% were confident about handling difficult situations, 15% could effectively break bad news, and 22% were confident in written communication skills. In the interviews 70% felt that their peers had average skills in handling difficult situations like breaking bad news and counselling, 60% believed that communication skills program was non-existent and 100% agreed that patient turnover is a strength for the institute and structured training would improve their communication skills performance. The communication skills of the studied group were inadequate to address special situations. This presses need for developing a communication skills training program.
Ghotbifar, Fereshteh; Marjani, Mohammad Reza; Ramazani, Abbas
As far as new communication channels are concerned, there have been extensive developments in communications and marketing in digital era. Today, therefore, companies try to take advantage of digital marketing channels to provide suitable services to customers to improve their satisfaction level. However, this study aimed to identify and assess factors affecting skill gap in digital marketing. This was descriptive correlation study. The population consisted of experts in communications indust...
Trickey, Amber W; Newcomb, Anna B; Porrey, Melissa; Wright, Jeffrey; Bayless, Jordan; Piscitani, Franco; Graling, Paula; Dort, Jonathan
Although development of trainees' competency in interpersonal communication is essential to high-quality patient-centered surgical care, nontechnical skills present assessment challenges for residency program directors. The Communication Assessment Tool (CAT) demonstrated internal reliability and content validity for general surgery residents, though the tool has not yet been applied in simulation. The study provides validation evidence for using the CAT to assess surgical residents' interpersonal communication skills in simulation scenarios. Simulations of delivering bad news were completed by 21 general surgery residents during a mandatory communication curriculum. Upon completion of the 10-minute scenario, standardized participants (SPs) assessed performance using the 14-item CAT rating scale and individually provided feedback to residents. Discrete communication behaviors were recorded on video review by a trained blinded observer. The traits emotional intelligence questionnaire short form (TEIQue-SF) was completed by the residents 6 months later. SP-CAT ratings are evaluated with respect to learner characteristics, observed behaviors, and TEIQue results. Surgical simulation center in a 900-bed tertiary care hospital. General surgery residents were targeted learners. Trauma survivors network volunteers served as SPs, acting as a family member of a patient who developed an intracerebral hemorrhage following a small bowel procedure. Discrete communication behaviors were reliably assessed by the observer (interrater reliability with trainer: 89% agreement, κ = 0.77). SP-CAT ratings ranged from 34 to 61. Higher SP-CAT ratings were correlated with positive communication behaviors (Spearman ρ = 0.42, p = 0.056). Total TEIQue was positively related to SP-CAT ratings (ρ = 0.42, p = 0.061). The TEIQue emotionality factor was strongly correlated with SP-CAT ratings (ρ = 0.52, p = 0.016). The CAT demonstrates content validity in a simulation environment with former
Duffy, F Daniel; Gordon, Geoffrey H; Whelan, Gerald; Cole-Kelly, Kathy; Frankel, Richard; Buffone, Natalie; Lofton, Stephanie; Wallace, MaryAnne; Goode, Leslie; Langdon, Lynn
Accreditation of residency programs and certification of physicians requires assessment of competence in communication and interpersonal skills. Residency and continuing medical education program directors seek ways to teach and evaluate these competencies. This report summarizes the methods and tools used by educators, evaluators, and researchers in the field of physician-patient communication as determined by the participants in the "Kalamazoo II" conference held in April 2002. Communication and interpersonal skills form an integrated competence with two distinct parts. Communication skills are the performance of specific tasks and behaviors such as obtaining a medical history, explaining a diagnosis and prognosis, giving therapeutic instructions, and counseling. Interpersonal skills are inherently relational and process oriented; they are the effect communication has on another person such as relieving anxiety or establishing a trusting relationship. This report reviews three methods for assessment of communication and interpersonal skills: (1) checklists of observed behaviors during interactions with real or simulated patients; (2) surveys of patients' experience in clinical interactions; and (3) examinations using oral, essay, or multiple-choice response questions. These methods are incorporated into educational programs to assess learning needs, create learning opportunities, or guide feedback for learning. The same assessment tools, when administered in a standardized way, rated by an evaluator other than the teacher, and using a predetermined passing score, become a summative evaluation. The report summarizes the experience of using these methods in a variety of educational and evaluation programs and presents an extensive bibliography of literature on the topic. Professional conversation between patients and doctors shapes diagnosis, initiates therapy, and establishes a caring relationship. The degree to which these activities are successful depends, in
Nadolski, Rob; Bahreini, Kiavash; Westera, Wim
This paper presentation describes how our FILTWAM software artifacts for face and voice emotion recognition will be used for assessing learners' progress and providing adequate feedback in an online game-based communication skills training. This constitutes an example of in-game assessment for
Bahreini, Kiavash; Nadolski, Rob; Westera, Wim
This paper describes how our FILTWAM software artifacts for face and voice emotion recognition will be used for assessing learners' progress and providing adequate feedback in an online game-based communication skills training. This constitutes an example of in-game assessment for mainly formative
A.J. Kuntze (Jeroen)
textabstractDuring the last century the attention paid in higher education to the development of professional skills has progressively increased. In the first half of the last century the term ‘skill’ mainly referred to motor or technical actions, for instance driving a car or operating a machine
Alberto Zamora Cervantes
Full Text Available Communicating with the patient in clinical practice refers to the way in which the doctor and the patient interact both verbally and nonverbally, in order to achieve a shared understanding of problems and solutions. Traditional learning and assessment systems are overwhelmed when it comes to addressing the complex and multi-dimensional problems of professional practice. Problem Based Learning (PBL has been put forward as an alternative to the mere reproduction of knowledge and pre-established patterns, enabling students to develop their own learning strategies to overcome problems in their future professional practice. The challenge is to determine how to assess the acquisition of clinical communication skills. The authors have recommended a summative assessment of clinical communication skills based on the combination of different methods. It highlights the importance of feedback-based formative assessment. This raises the need to develop and validate assessment scales in clinical communication at an undergraduate level. Based on this work, the authors put forward a "fanned out" assessment in terms of clinical communication skills in Medicine degrees, with the use of different instruments in a "spiraled" manner, where the greater the contact with clinical practice in the various degree and integral courses, the greater difficulty experienced, with the participation of all the stakeholders involved (self, hetero and peer assessment without precluding the involvement of patients (real or simulated in the design of assessment instruments.
Amaral, Anna Beatriz C N; Rider, Elizabeth A; Lajolo, Paula P; Tone, Luiz G; Pinto, Rogerio M C; Lajolo, Marisa P; Calhoun, Aaron W
The goal of this study was to translate, adapt and validate the items of the Gap-Kalamazoo Communication Skills Assessment Form for use in the Brazilian cultural setting. The Gap-Kalamazoo Communication Skills Assessment Form was translated into Portuguese by two independent bilingual Brazilian translators and was reconciled by a third bilingual healthcare professional. The translated text was then assessed for content using a modified Delphi technique and adjusted as needed to assure content validity. A total of nine phrases in the completed tool were adjusted. The final tool was then used to assess videotaped simulations as a means of validation. Response process was assessed using exploratory factor analysis and internal structure was assessed via Cronbach's Alpha (internal consistency) and Intraclass Correlation (test-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability). One hundred and four (104) videotaped communication skills simulations were assessed by 38 subjects (6 staff physicians, 4 faculty physicians, 8 resident physicians, 4 professional actors with experience in simulation, and 16 other allied healthcare professionals). Measures of Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.818) and test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.942) were high. Exploratory factor analysis confirmed the uni-dimensionality of the instrument. Our results support the validity and reliability of the Brazilian Gap-Kalamazoo Communication Skills Assessment Form when used among Brazilian medical residents. The Brazilian version of Gap-Kalamazoo Communication Skills Assessment Form was found to be adequate both in the linguistic and technical aspects. The use of this instrument in Brazilian medical education can enhance the assessment of physician-patient-team relationships on an ongoing basis.
Burgoyne Louise; Shanks Andrew; Gaffney Robert; Walshe Nuala; Ryan C Anthony; Wiskin Connie M
Abstract Background A number of recent developments in medical and nursing education have highlighted the importance of communication and consultation skills (CCS). Although such skills are taught in all medical and nursing undergraduate curriculums, there is no comprehensive screening or assessment programme of CCS using professionally trained Standardized Patients Educators (SPE's) in Ireland. This study was designed to test the content, process and acceptability of a screening programme in...
Qu, Bo; Zhao, Yu-hong; Sun, Bao-zhi
To assess the internal validity and reliability of a multisource feedback (MSF) program by China Medical Board for resident physicians in China. Multisource feedback was used to assess professionalism, interpersonal and communication skills. 258 resident physicians were assessed by attending doctors, self-evaluation, resident peers, nurses, office staffs, and patients who completed a sealed questionnaire at 19 hospitals in China. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to assess reliability. Validity was assessed by exploratory factor analyses and by profile ratings. 4128 questionnaires were collected from this study. All responses had high internal consistency and reliability (Cronbach's α > 0.90), which suggests that both questions and form data were internally consistent. The exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation for the evaluators' questionnaires was able to account for 70 to 74% of the total variance. The current MSF assessment tools are internally valid and reliable for assessing resident physician professionalism and interpersonal and communication skills in China.
Rehim, Shady A; DeMoor, Stephanie; Olmsted, Richard; Dent, Daniel L; Parker-Raley, Jessica
Hospital action teams comprise interdisciplinary health care providers working simultaneously to treat critically ill patients. Assessments designed to evaluate communication effectiveness or "nontechnical" performance of these teams are essential to minimize medical errors and improve team productivity. Although multiple communication tools are available, the characteristics and psychometric validity of these instruments have yet to be systematically compared. To identify assessments used to evaluate the communication or "nontechnical" performance of hospital action teams and summarize evidence to develop and validate these instruments. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE/PubMed database to identify original articles related to assessment of communication skills in teams working in acute care medicine not exclusive to emergency room, operating room, prehospital air and ground transport, or code blue/rapid response resuscitations. Ten communication assessment tools were identified. Six tools (60%) were designed to measure communication performance of the whole team, whereas 4 tools (40%) were created to assess individual team member's communication skills. Regardless of the type of analysis, the most commonly assessed behavior domains were Leadership, Teamwork, Communication, and Situation awareness. Only 1 of 16 articles describing a particular communication assessment tool reported all the validation criteria, other authors underreported efforts to validate their instruments. A number of tools designed to measure the communication or "nontechnical" performance of hospital action teams are available. Unfortunately, limited reported validity evidence may hamper the utility of these tools in actual clinical practice until further validation studies are performed. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Aydin, Ali Dursun
This study assessed the communication skills of the students studying in physical education and sports schools in various universities in Turkey. A total of 1,854 Physical Education and Sports students in five Turkish universities participated in the study. The instrument used to gather information for this study comprised the demographic…
Swain, Nathaniel Robert; Eadie, Patricia Ann; Prior, Margot Ruth; Reilly, Sheena
Background: Early identification of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is currently limited by the absence of reliable biological markers for the disorder, as well as the reliability of screening and assessment tools for children aged between 6 and 18 months. Ongoing research has demonstrated the importance of early social communication skills in…
Shirazi, M; Labaf, A; Monjazebi, F; Jalili, M; Mirzazadeh, M; Ponzer, S; Masiello, I
The objective structured examination is one of the most valid, reliable, and effective tools for assessing clinical and communication skills, often by use of standard patients (SPs). SPs can also be assessors of those skills. One of the crucial areas when utilizing SP-based assessment is the quality and consistency assurance of their portrayal of the case and their ability to fill in checklists in an adequate way. The aim of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of SPs' ability to assess students' communication skill via a Calgary-Cambridge checklist. This cross-sectional and correlational study was conducted at the Tehran University of Medical Science. We first analyzed validity; the criterion validity of the SPs' filling in the checklists was assessed through determining the correlation between the SPs' completed checklists and the checklists filled in by three physician raters individually and then reproducibility: it was assessed by a test-retest approach inter-rater reliability. The mean correlation for assessing the validity of SPs' completed checklists by individual SPs was 0.81. The inter-rater reliability was calculated by kappa coefficient, and the total correlation among the three raters was 0.85. The reliability of the test-retest approach showed no significant differences between the test and re-test results. The increased number of medical students and different faculties' responsibilities such as doing educational, research, and health services duties assessing medical student communication skills is a complex issue. The results of our study showed that trained SPs can be used as a valid tool to assess medical students' communication skills, which is also more cost effective and reduces work load of medical faculties.
Mishra, Anuradha; Browning, David; Haviland, Miriam J; Jackson, Mary Lou; Luff, Donna; Meyer, Elaine C; Talcott, Katherine; Kloek, Carolyn E
To conduct a needs assessment to identify gaps in communication skills training in ophthalmology residency programs and to use these results to pilot a communication workshop that prepares residents for difficult conversations. A mixed-methods design was used to perform the needs assessment. A pre-and postsurvey was administered to workshop participants. Mass Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School (HMS), Department of Ophthalmology. HMS ophthalmology residents from postgraduate years 2-4 participated in the needs assessment and the workshop. Ophthalmology residency program directors in the United States participated in national needs assessment. Ophthalmology program directors across the United States were queried on their perception of resident communication skills training through an online survey. A targeted needs assessment in the form of a narrative exercise captured resident perspectives on communication in ophthalmology from HMS residents. A group of HMS residents participated in the pilot workshop and a pre- and postsurvey was administered to participants to assess its effectiveness. The survey of program directors yielded a response rate of 40%. Ninety percent of respondents agreed that the communication skills training in their programs could be improved. Fifteen of 24 residents (62%) completed the needs assessment. Qualitative analysis of the narrative material revealed four themes; (1) differing expectations, (2) work role and environment, (3) challenges specific to ophthalmology, and (4) successful strategies adopted. Nine residents participated in the workshop. There was a significant improvement post-workshop in resident reported scores on their ability to manage their emotions during difficult conversations (p = 0.03). There is an opportunity to improve communication skills training in ophthalmology residency through formalized curriculum. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
Gillis, Amy E; Morris, Marie C; Ridgway, Paul F
Communication breakdown is a factor in the majority of all instances of medical error. Despite the importance, a relative paucity of time is invested in communication skills in postgraduate curricula. Our objective is to systematically review the literature to identify the current tools used to assess communication skills in postgraduate trainees in the latter 2 years of training and in established practice. Two reviewers independently reviewed the literature identifying communication skill assessment tools, for postgraduate trainees in the latter 2 years of training and in established practice following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses framework, and inclusion/exclusion criteria from January 1990 to 15 August 2014. PubMed/CINAHL/ERIC/EMBASE/PsycInfo/Psyc Articles/Cochrane. 222 articles were identified; after review, 34 articles fulfilled criteria for complete evaluation; the majority (26) had a high level of evidence scoring 3 or greater on the Best Evidence Medical Education guide. 22 articles used objective structured clinical examination/standardised patient (SP)-based formats in an assessment or training capacity. Evaluation tools included author-developed questionnaires and validated tools. Nineteen articles demonstrated an educational initiative. The reviewed literature is heterogeneous for objectives and measurement techniques for communication. Observed interactions, with patients or SPs, is the current favoured method of evaluation using author-developed questionnaires. The role of self-evaluation of skill level is questioned. The need for a validated assessment tool for communication skills is highlighted. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Rijssen, H.J. van; Schellart, A.J.M.; Anema, J.R.; Boer, W.E.L. de; Beek, A.J. van der
Background Physicians require specific communication skills, because the face-to-face contact with their patients is an important source of information. Although physicians who perform work disability assessments attend some communication-related training courses during their professional education,
Full Text Available We proposed that first year medical students who voluntarily participated in the Healthy Sexuality adolescent program would perform better than their peers on an adolescent counseling station at the year-end OSCE (Objective Structured Clinical Examination. In addition we compared medical students communication skills at the time of the program as assessed by self, peers and participating adolescents. Methods: Nineteen first year medical students voluntarily participated in the ongoing Healthy Sexuality program. Adolescent participants, medical student peer participants and medical students assessed communication components on a 7-point Likert scale at the end of the program. At the year-end OSCE, all first year medical students at the University of Western Ontario were assessed at an adolescent counseling station by a standardized patient (SP and a physician examiner. Statistical analysis examined differences between the two groups. Results: Students who participated in the Healthy Sexuality program did not perform better than their colleagues on the year-end OSCE. A statistically significant correlation between physician examiner and SP evaluations was found (r = 0.62. Adolescent participants communication skills assessments in the Healthy Sexuality Program demonstrated no significant correlation with medical student assessments (self or peer. Conclusions:Voluntary intervention with adolescents did not result in improved communication skills at the structured year-end examination. Further investigation will be directed towards delineating differences between SP and physician examiner assessments.
Hulsman, Robert L.; Peters, Joline F.; Fabriek, Marcel
Peer-assessment of communication skills may contribute to mastery of assessment criteria. When students develop the capacity to judge their peers' performance, they might improve their capacity to examine their own clinical performance. In this study peer-assessment ratings are compared to
Ditton-Phare, Philippa; Sandhu, Harsimrat; Kelly, Brian; Kissane, David; Loughland, Carmel
Mental health clinicians can experience difficulties communicating diagnostic information to patients and their families/carers, especially about distressing psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. There is evidence for the effectiveness of communication skills training (CST) for improving diagnostic discussions, particularly in specialties such as oncology, but only limited evidence exists about CST for psychiatry. This study evaluated a CST program specifically developed for psychiatry residents called ComPsych that focuses on conveying diagnostic and prognostic information about schizophrenia. The ComPsych program consists of an introductory lecture, module booklets for trainees, and exemplary skills videos, followed by small group role-plays with simulated patients (SPs) led by a trained facilitator. A standardized patient assessment (SPA) was digitally recorded pre- and post-training with a SP using a standardized scenario in a time-limited (15 min) period. Recorded SPAs were independently rated using a validated coding system (ComSkil) to identify frequency of skills used in five skills categories (agenda setting, checking, questioning, information organization, and empathic communication). Thirty trainees (15 males and 15 females; median age = 32) undertaking their vocational specialty training in psychiatry participated in ComPsych training and pre- and post-ComPsych SPAs. Skills increased post-training for agenda setting (d = -0.82), while questioning skills (d = 0.56) decreased. There were no significant differences in any other skills grouping, although checking, information organization, and empathic communication skills tended to increase post-training. A dose effect was observed for agenda setting, with trainees who attended more CST sessions outperforming those attending fewer. Findings support the generalization and translation of ComPsych CST to psychiatry.
Hulsman, Robert L; Peters, Joline F; Fabriek, Marcel
Peer-assessment of communication skills may contribute to mastery of assessment criteria. When students develop the capacity to judge their peers' performance, they might improve their capacity to examine their own clinical performance. In this study peer-assessment ratings are compared to teacher-assessment ratings. The aim of this paper is to explore the impact of personality and social reputation as source of bias in assessment of communication skills. Second year students were trained and assessed history taking communication skills. Peers rated the students' personality and academic and social reputation. Peer-assessment ratings were significantly correlated with teacher-ratings in a summative assessment of medical communication. Peers did not provide negative ratings on final scales but did provide negative ratings on subcategories. Peer- and teacher-assessments were both related to the students' personality and academic reputation. Peer-assessment cannot replace teacher-assessment if the assessment should result in high-stake decisions about students. Our data do not confirm the hypothesis that peers are overly biased by personality and reputation characteristics in peer-assessment of performance. Early introduction of peer-assessment in medical education would facilitate early acceptance of this mode of evaluation and would promote early on the habit of critical evaluation of professional clinical performance and acceptance of being evaluated critically by peers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rüttermann, S; Sobotta, A; Hahn, P; Kiessling, C; Härtl, A
Teaching communication is perceived to be of importance in dental education. Several reports have been published worldwide in the educational literature describing modifications of the dental curriculum by implementing the teaching of communication skills. Surveys which evaluate the current state of training and assessment of communication skills in dental education in different countries exist already in some countries, but little information is available about German-speaking countries. In a cross-sectional study with the aim of a census, all 36 dental schools in Germany (30), Austria (3), and Switzerland (3) were surveyed. The present survey revealed that at 26 of the 34 dental schools (76%), communication skills training has been implemented. Training of communication skills mainly takes place between the 6th and the 9th semester. Ten schools were able to implement a partly longitudinal curriculum, while the other sites only offer stand-alone courses. Of the 34 dental schools, six assess communication skills in a summative way. Three of those schools also use formative assessments for their students. Another seven sites only use formative assessment. From the various formats of assessment, OSCE is mentioned most frequently. The necessity to train and assess communication skills has reached German-speaking dental schools. The present survey allows an overview of the training and assessment of communication skills in undergraduate dental education in German-speaking Europe. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lifchez, Scott D; Cooney, Carisa M; Redett, Richard J
Physician-patient communication is vital to patient care, and physician-nurse interactions are equally critical. Conflict between nurses and physicians can greatly impair communication, increasing the risk of treatment errors, yet physicians receive little education during training on recognizing and resolving professional conflicts. We created and implemented the Standardized Professional (S-Pro) Encounter to improve training and provide opportunities to evaluate resident professionalism and communication with health care team colleagues. The standardized patient model is well established for teaching and assessing clinical and communication skills. Using the standardized patient concept, we created a nurse-resident encounter with 2 professionally trained medical portrayers (1 "nurse," 1 "patient"), in which the nurse disagrees with the resident's treatment plan. Residents were surveyed for prior experience with nurse-physician conflict management, and we assessed postencounter for collaborative skills and conflict resolution. All residents (n=18) observed at least 1 physician-nurse conflict in front of patients. Eleven (61%) reported being involved in at least 1 conflict. Twelve residents (67%) had 2 or fewer prior education experiences in interprofessional conflict management. Faculty assessment and S-Pro scores demonstrated high agreement, while resident self-assessment scores demonstrated low agreement with faculty and S-Pro scores. Participants and evaluators found the encounter to be reasonably authentic. There was strong agreement between the faculty and S-Pro assessment of resident performance when using the Boggs scale. The S-Pro Encounter is easily adapted for other clinical situations or training programs, and facilitates the assessment of professionalism and communication skills between residents and other health care professionals.
Co, John Patrick T; Mohamed, Hodon; Kelleher, Mary Louise; Edgman-Levitan, Susan; Perrin, James M
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education recommends using patient surveys for assessing resident competency in interpersonal and communication skills. Despite the existence of several validated patient surveys for communication assessment, no system has been developed for their sustained use in resident assessment. We developed and pilot tested a system to collect surveys from parents of hospitalized children on the day of discharge. We used a 28-item, tablet computer-based survey that measures individual provider and team communication. The computer displays resident photographs to ensure accurate identification and offers the survey in multiple languages. We assessed parental acceptance of the system by analyzing response rate, as well as reasons for response and nonresponse. Of the 98 eligible parents that were approached, 62 (63%) completed the survey. Only 2 (2%) of the eligible families refused to participate, and only 5 (5%) refused participation because of the survey not being available in a language they were familiar with. Use of a tablet computer parent survey for resident assessment is feasible, with response rates comparable to those of mailed surveys. The low rate of parental refusal indicates our system could be used to attain sufficient numbers of survey responses to help validly measure resident communication skills.
This study explores the communication skills of a group of nursing students who were required to interview a simulated client as part of their studies. In order to assess the students and to improve the process of learning discrete skills, an instrument was developed and tested as part of this process. The subjects were 212 nurses enrolled in a bachelor of nursing programme, in New South Wales, Australia, who were studying a problem-based learning package the focus of which was 'alcohol early intervention'. The sub-groups within the sample included registered nurses, a significant percentage of whom had completed their basic nursing education in overseas countries. The Simulated Client Interview Rating Scale (SCIRS) was developed to assess basic humanistic communication skills as well as beginning motivational interviewing skills. The students were required to interview a simulated client and demonstrate competence in interviewing. This was assessed by the SCIRS which was completed by the students and the simulated clients. The instrument proved to be a reliable and valid means of assessing student interview technique as well as a flexible educational tool, while valuable insights into students' interviewing techniques were gained.
Excellent communication skills are vital in today's workplace. Whether keeping the interest of a large audience, impressing a potential employer or simply winning the argument at an important meeting, sounding the part is key. This fourth edition of Improve Your Communication Skills is full of practical advice on all aspects of verbal and non-verbal communication. It gives vital tips on improving conversations and building rapport with colleagues, learning the skills of persuasion, and writing effective emails, letters and reports. This editionincludes new information focusing on communicating across borders and virtual teams and a new chapter on managing difficult conversations."
Cömert, Musa; Zill, Jördis Maria; Christalle, Eva; Dirmaier, Jörg; Härter, Martin; Scholl, Isabelle
Teaching and assessment of communication skills have become essential in medical education. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) has been found as an appropriate means to assess communication skills within medical education. Studies have demonstrated the importance of a valid assessment of medical students' communication skills. Yet, the validity of the performance scores depends fundamentally on the quality of the rating scales used in an OSCE. Thus, this systematic review aimed at providing an overview of existing rating scales, describing their underlying definition of communication skills, determining the methodological quality of psychometric studies and the quality of psychometric properties of the identified rating scales. We conducted a systematic review to identify psychometrically tested rating scales, which have been applied in OSCE settings to assess communication skills of medical students. Our search strategy comprised three databases (EMBASE, PsycINFO, and PubMed), reference tracking and consultation of experts. We included studies that reported psychometric properties of communication skills assessment rating scales used in OSCEs by examiners only. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the COnsensus based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. The quality of psychometric properties was evaluated using the quality criteria of Terwee and colleagues. Data of twelve studies reporting on eight rating scales on communication skills assessment in OSCEs were included. Five of eight rating scales were explicitly developed based on a specific definition of communication skills. The methodological quality of studies was mainly poor. The psychometric quality of the eight rating scales was mainly intermediate. Our results reveal that future psychometric evaluation studies focusing on improving the methodological quality are needed in order to yield psychometrically
Cömert, Musa; Zill, Jördis Maria; Christalle, Eva; Dirmaier, Jörg; Härter, Martin; Scholl, Isabelle
Background Teaching and assessment of communication skills have become essential in medical education. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) has been found as an appropriate means to assess communication skills within medical education. Studies have demonstrated the importance of a valid assessment of medical students’ communication skills. Yet, the validity of the performance scores depends fundamentally on the quality of the rating scales used in an OSCE. Thus, this systematic review aimed at providing an overview of existing rating scales, describing their underlying definition of communication skills, determining the methodological quality of psychometric studies and the quality of psychometric properties of the identified rating scales. Methods We conducted a systematic review to identify psychometrically tested rating scales, which have been applied in OSCE settings to assess communication skills of medical students. Our search strategy comprised three databases (EMBASE, PsycINFO, and PubMed), reference tracking and consultation of experts. We included studies that reported psychometric properties of communication skills assessment rating scales used in OSCEs by examiners only. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the COnsensus based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. The quality of psychometric properties was evaluated using the quality criteria of Terwee and colleagues. Results Data of twelve studies reporting on eight rating scales on communication skills assessment in OSCEs were included. Five of eight rating scales were explicitly developed based on a specific definition of communication skills. The methodological quality of studies was mainly poor. The psychometric quality of the eight rating scales was mainly intermediate. Discussion Our results reveal that future psychometric evaluation studies focusing on improving the methodological quality are needed
A paper/pencil instrument, adapted from Miller and colleagues' (1991) Helpful Responses Questionnaire (HRQ), was developed to assess clinician skill with core communicative aspects involved in delivering contingency management (CM). The instrument presents a single vignette consisting of six points of client dialogue to which respondents write 'what they would say next.' In the context of an implementation/effectiveness hybrid trial, 19 staff clinicians at an opiate treatment program completed serial training outcome assessments before, following, and three months after CM training. Assessments included this adaptation of the HRQ, a multiple-choice CM knowledge test, and a recorded standardized patient encounter scored for CM skillfulness. Study results reveal promising psychometric properties for the instrument, including strong scoring reliability, internal consistency, concurrent and predictive validity, test-retest reliability and sensitivity to training effects. These preliminary findings suggest the instrument is a viable, practical method to assess clinician skill in communicative aspects of CM delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Turkstra, L S; McDonald, S; Kaufmann, P M
Deficits in pragmatic communication ability have a significant impact on functional outcome from traumatic brain injury (TBI), particularly during adolescence, when sophisticated social communication skills are developing. There are few published tests designed to assess pragmatic skills in this age group. In the present study, four tasks designed to tap various aspects of pragmatic communication ability were administered to three brain-injured adolescents and 36 of their uninjured peers aged 15-18 years. The tasks evaluated the ability to negotiate, hint, describe a simple procedure, and understand sarcasm. The four tasks were found to tap distinct aspects of pragmatic ability in control subjects. Further, within the control group, task performance was related more to non-verbal reasoning ability than vocabulary skills. Scores for two of the three TBI subjects were poorer than those of their peers, while a third mildly injured subject performed within normal limits. Pragmatic task scores were consistent with the results of neuropsychological testing in the three TBI subjects. Implications for clinical management and recommendations for future research are discussed.
Ryan, C Anthony
Abstract Background A number of recent developments in medical and nursing education have highlighted the importance of communication and consultation skills (CCS). Although such skills are taught in all medical and nursing undergraduate curriculums, there is no comprehensive screening or assessment programme of CCS using professionally trained Standardized Patients Educators (SPE\\'s) in Ireland. This study was designed to test the content, process and acceptability of a screening programme in CCS with Irish medical and nursing students using trained SPE\\'s and a previously validated global rating scale for CCS. Methods Eight tutors from the Schools of Nursing and Medicine at University College Cork were trained in the use of a validated communication skills and attitudes holistic assessment tool. A total of forty six medical students (Year 2 of 5) and sixty four nursing students (Year 2\\/3 of 4) were selected to under go individual CCS assessment by the tutors via an SPE led scenario. Immediate formative feedback was provided by the SPE\\'s for the students. Students who did not pass the assessment were referred for remediation CCS learning. Results Almost three quarters of medical students (33\\/46; 72%) and 81% of nursing students (56\\/64) passed the CCS assessment in both communication and attitudes categories. All nursing students had English as their first language. Nine of thirteen medical students referred for enhanced learning in CCS did not have English as their first language. Conclusions A significant proportion of both medical and nursing students required referral for enhanced training in CCS. Medical students requiring enhanced training were more likely not to have English as a first language.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of recent developments in medical and nursing education have highlighted the importance of communication and consultation skills (CCS. Although such skills are taught in all medical and nursing undergraduate curriculums, there is no comprehensive screening or assessment programme of CCS using professionally trained Standardized Patients Educators (SPE's in Ireland. This study was designed to test the content, process and acceptability of a screening programme in CCS with Irish medical and nursing students using trained SPE's and a previously validated global rating scale for CCS. Methods Eight tutors from the Schools of Nursing and Medicine at University College Cork were trained in the use of a validated communication skills and attitudes holistic assessment tool. A total of forty six medical students (Year 2 of 5 and sixty four nursing students (Year 2/3 of 4 were selected to under go individual CCS assessment by the tutors via an SPE led scenario. Immediate formative feedback was provided by the SPE's for the students. Students who did not pass the assessment were referred for remediation CCS learning. Results Almost three quarters of medical students (33/46; 72% and 81% of nursing students (56/64 passed the CCS assessment in both communication and attitudes categories. All nursing students had English as their first language. Nine of thirteen medical students referred for enhanced learning in CCS did not have English as their first language. Conclusions A significant proportion of both medical and nursing students required referral for enhanced training in CCS. Medical students requiring enhanced training were more likely not to have English as a first language.
Lukman, H; Beevi, Z; Mohamadou, G; Yeap, R
This article describes the communication skills programme of the International Medical University, which adopts an integrated medical curriculum. The programme, implemented in February 2005, is based on a systematic framework aimed at teaching students basic interpersonal communication skills progressively and continuously throughout the pre-clinical phase.
Guiton, Gretchen; Hodgson, Carol S.; Delandshere, Ginett; Wilkerson, Luann
The purpose of this study is to investigate the content-specificity of communication skills. It investigates the reliability and dimensionality of standardized patient (SP) ratings of communication skills in an Objective Structured Clinical Examination(OSCE) for final year medical students. An OSCE consisting of seven standardized patient(SP)…
Cyphert, Dale; Dodge, Elena Nefedova; Duclos (Wilson), Leslie K.
The value of experiential learning is widely acknowledged, especially for the development of communication skills, but students are not always aware of their own learning. While we can observe students practicing targeted skills during the experiential activity, the experience can also color their explicit understanding of those skills. Transfer…
Lifchez, Scott D; Redett, Richard J
Teaching and assessing professionalism and interpersonal communication skills can be more difficult for surgical residency programs than teaching medical knowledge or patient care, for which many structured educational curricula and assessment tools exist. Residents often learn these skills indirectly, by observing the behavior of their attendings when communicating with patients and colleagues. The purpose of this study was to assess the results of an educational curriculum we created to teach and assess our residents in professionalism and communication. We assessed resident and faculty prior education in delivering bad news to patients. Residents then participated in a standardized patient (SP) encounter to deliver bad news to a patient's family regarding a severe burn injury. Residents received feedback from the encounter and participated in an education curriculum on communication skills and professionalism. As a part of this curriculum, residents underwent assessment of communication style using the Myers-Briggs type inventory. The residents then participated in a second SP encounter discussing a severe pulmonary embolus with a patient's family. Resident performance on the SP evaluation correlated with an increased comfort in delivering bad news. Comfort in delivering bad news did not correlate with the amount of prior education on the topic for either residents or attendings. Most of our residents demonstrated an intuitive thinking style (NT) on the Myers-Briggs type inventory, very different from population norms. The lack of correlation between comfort in delivering bad news and prior education on the subject may indicate the difficulty in imparting communication and professionalism skills to residents effectively. Understanding communication style differences between our residents and the general population can help us teach professionalism and communication skills more effectively. With the next accreditation system, residency programs would need to
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians working with multicultural populations need to know how to elicit the patient's understanding of the illness; determine the patient's sociocultural context and identify any issues that might affect care; communicate effectively across patient-provider social and cultural differences; and collaborate effectively with an interpreter. Skills self-assessment can contribute to identifying training needs and monitoring skills development in these areas. Methods As part of a larger study exploring the knowledge, attitudes and practices of Geneva physicians and medical students regarding the care of immigrant patients, we asked respondents to self-rate their ability to perform a range of common yet challenging intercultural communication tasks. Results Overall, respondents rated themselves less competent at intercultural tasks than at basic medical skills and less competent at specific intercultural communication skills than at general intercultural skills. Qualified doctors (as opposed to students, those with greater interest in caring for immigrants, and those who rarely encountered difficulties with immigrants rated themselves significantly more competent for all clinical tasks. Having a higher percentage of immigrant patients and previous cultural competence training predicted greater self-rated intercultural communication skills. Conclusion Our self-assessment results suggest that students and physicians should be provided with the opportunity to practice intercultural skills with immigrant patients as part of their cultural competence training. To strengthen the validity of self-assessment measures, they should ideally be combined with more objective methods to assess actual skills.
Hudelson, Patricia; Perron, Noelle Junod; Perneger, Thomas
Physicians working with multicultural populations need to know how to elicit the patient's understanding of the illness; determine the patient's sociocultural context and identify any issues that might affect care; communicate effectively across patient-provider social and cultural differences; and collaborate effectively with an interpreter. Skills self-assessment can contribute to identifying training needs and monitoring skills development in these areas. As part of a larger study exploring the knowledge, attitudes and practices of Geneva physicians and medical students regarding the care of immigrant patients, we asked respondents to self-rate their ability to perform a range of common yet challenging intercultural communication tasks. Overall, respondents rated themselves less competent at intercultural tasks than at basic medical skills and less competent at specific intercultural communication skills than at general intercultural skills. Qualified doctors (as opposed to students), those with greater interest in caring for immigrants, and those who rarely encountered difficulties with immigrants rated themselves significantly more competent for all clinical tasks. Having a higher percentage of immigrant patients and previous cultural competence training predicted greater self-rated intercultural communication skills. Our self-assessment results suggest that students and physicians should be provided with the opportunity to practice intercultural skills with immigrant patients as part of their cultural competence training. To strengthen the validity of self-assessment measures, they should ideally be combined with more objective methods to assess actual skills.
Anema Johannes R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians require specific communication skills, because the face-to-face contact with their patients is an important source of information. Although physicians who perform work disability assessments attend some communication-related training courses during their professional education, no specialised and evidence-based communication skills training course is available for them. Therefore, the objectives of this study were: 1 to systematically develop a training course aimed at improving the communication skills of physicians during work disability assessment interviews with disability claimants, and 2 to plan an evaluation of the training course. Methods A physician-tailored communication skills training course was developed, according to the six steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol. Data were collected from questionnaire studies among physicians and claimants, a focus group study among physicians, a systematic review of the literature, and meetings with various experts. Determinants and performance objectives were formulated. A concept version of the training course was discussed with several experts before the final training course programme was established. The evaluation plan was developed by consulting experts, social insurance physicians, researchers, and policy-makers, and discussing with them the options for evaluation. Results A two-day post-graduate communication skills training course was developed, aimed at improving professional communication during work disability assessment interviews. Special focus was on active teaching strategies, such as practising the skills in role-play. An adoption and implementation plan was formulated, in which the infrastructure of the educational department of the institute that employs the physicians was utilised. Improvement in the skills and knowledge of the physicians who will participate in the training course will be evaluated in a randomised controlled trial
van Rijssen, H Jolanda; Schellart, Antonius J M; Anema, Johannes R; de Boer, Wout E L; van der Beek, Allard J
Physicians require specific communication skills, because the face-to-face contact with their patients is an important source of information. Although physicians who perform work disability assessments attend some communication-related training courses during their professional education, no specialised and evidence-based communication skills training course is available for them. Therefore, the objectives of this study were: 1) to systematically develop a training course aimed at improving the communication skills of physicians during work disability assessment interviews with disability claimants, and 2) to plan an evaluation of the training course. A physician-tailored communication skills training course was developed, according to the six steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol. Data were collected from questionnaire studies among physicians and claimants, a focus group study among physicians, a systematic review of the literature, and meetings with various experts. Determinants and performance objectives were formulated. A concept version of the training course was discussed with several experts before the final training course programme was established. The evaluation plan was developed by consulting experts, social insurance physicians, researchers, and policy-makers, and discussing with them the options for evaluation. A two-day post-graduate communication skills training course was developed, aimed at improving professional communication during work disability assessment interviews. Special focus was on active teaching strategies, such as practising the skills in role-play. An adoption and implementation plan was formulated, in which the infrastructure of the educational department of the institute that employs the physicians was utilised. Improvement in the skills and knowledge of the physicians who will participate in the training course will be evaluated in a randomised controlled trial. The feasibility and practical relevance of the communication
Background Physicians require specific communication skills, because the face-to-face contact with their patients is an important source of information. Although physicians who perform work disability assessments attend some communication-related training courses during their professional education, no specialised and evidence-based communication skills training course is available for them. Therefore, the objectives of this study were: 1) to systematically develop a training course aimed at improving the communication skills of physicians during work disability assessment interviews with disability claimants, and 2) to plan an evaluation of the training course. Methods A physician-tailored communication skills training course was developed, according to the six steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol. Data were collected from questionnaire studies among physicians and claimants, a focus group study among physicians, a systematic review of the literature, and meetings with various experts. Determinants and performance objectives were formulated. A concept version of the training course was discussed with several experts before the final training course programme was established. The evaluation plan was developed by consulting experts, social insurance physicians, researchers, and policy-makers, and discussing with them the options for evaluation. Results A two-day post-graduate communication skills training course was developed, aimed at improving professional communication during work disability assessment interviews. Special focus was on active teaching strategies, such as practising the skills in role-play. An adoption and implementation plan was formulated, in which the infrastructure of the educational department of the institute that employs the physicians was utilised. Improvement in the skills and knowledge of the physicians who will participate in the training course will be evaluated in a randomised controlled trial. Conclusions The feasibility and
Pereira, Thaís Josgrilberg; Puggina, Ana Claudia
to translate, adapt cross-culturally and validate into Brazilian Portuguese the following instrument: "Self-assessment of communication skills and professionalism in residents" for the nursing professional, and to determine if personal characteristics and performance of the nurse interfere in the self-assessment about professionalism and interpersonal communication. quantitative study. the sample consisted of 110 nurses with mean age of 32 years old (± 7.3), most of them were women (n = 80; 72.7%). The internal consistency of the scale "Autoavaliação sobre profissionalismo e comunicação interpessoal entre enfermeiro e paciente" presented moderate and satisfactory reliability (α=0,712). Factorial analysis identified four factors: Interpersonal Skills, Exchange of Information, Honesty in the Relationship and Professionalism. the instrument is valid and reliable in Portuguese and for Brazilian culture. Interpersonal Skills changed with gender and marital status. Ability to exchange information was influenced by gender and working sector. Self-assessment of professionalism changed with marital status. traduzir, adaptar culturalmente e validar para o português o instrumento Self-assessment of communication skills and professionalism in residents para o profissional enfermeiro e avaliar se características pessoais e de atuação do enfermeiro interferem na autoavaliação sobre o profissionalismo e comunicação interpessoal. estudo metodológico quantitativo. A amostra foi de 110 enfermeiros com média de idade de 32 anos (±7,3) e a maioria mulheres (n=80; 72,7%). A consistência interna da escala "Autoavaliação sobre profissionalismo e comunicação interpessoal entre enfermeiro e paciente" apresentou confiabilidade moderada e satisfatória (α=0,712). A análise fatorial identificou quatro fatores: Habilidade Interpessoal, Troca de Informação, Sinceridade na Relação e Profissionalismo. o instrumento é válido e confiável na língua portuguesa e para a
Weyers, Simone; Jemi, Iman; Karger, André; Raski, Bianca; Rotthoff, Thomas; Pentzek, Michael; Mortsiefer, Achim
Background: Imparting communication skills has been given great importance in medical curricula. In addition to standardized assessments, students should communicate with real patients in actual clinical situations during workplace-based assessments and receive structured feedback on their performance. The aim of this project was to pilot a formative testing method for workplace-based assessment. Our investigation centered in particular on whether or not physicians view the method as feasible and how high acceptance is among students. In addition, we assessed the reliability of the method. Method: As part of the project, 16 students held two consultations each with chronically ill patients at the medical practice where they were completing GP training. These consultations were video-recorded. The trained mentoring physician rated the student's performance and provided feedback immediately following the consultations using the Berlin Global Rating scale (BGR). Two impartial, trained raters also evaluated the videos using BGR. For qualitative and quantitative analysis, information on how physicians and students viewed feasibility and their levels of acceptance was collected in written form in a partially standardized manner. To test for reliability, the test-retest reliability was calculated for both of the overall evaluations given by each rater. The inter-rater reliability was determined for the three evaluations of each individual consultation. Results: The formative assessment method was rated positively by both physicians and students. It is relatively easy to integrate into daily routines. Its significant value lies in the personal, structured and recurring feedback. The two overall scores for each patient consultation given by the two impartial raters correlate moderately. The degree of uniformity among the three raters in respect to the individual consultations is low. Discussion: Within the scope of this pilot project, only a small sample of physicians and
Full Text Available Background: Imparting communication skills has been given great importance in medical curricula. In addition to standardized assessments, students should communicate with real patients in actual clinical situations during workplace-based assessments and receive structured feedback on their performance. The aim of this project was to pilot a formative testing method for workplace-based assessment. Our investigation centered in particular on whether or not physicians view the method as feasible and how high acceptance is among students. In addition, we assessed the reliability of the method.Method: As part of the project, 16 students held two consultations each with chronically ill patients at the medical practice where they were completing GP training. These consultations were video-recorded. The trained mentoring physician rated the student’s performance and provided feedback immediately following the consultations using the Berlin Global Rating scale (BGR. Two impartial, trained raters also evaluated the videos using BGR. For qualitative and quantitative analysis, information on how physicians and students viewed feasibility and their levels of acceptance was collected in written form in a partially standardized manner. To test for reliability, the test-retest reliability was calculated for both of the overall evaluations given by each rater. The inter-rater reliability was determined for the three evaluations of each individual consultation.Results: The formative assessment method was rated positively by both physicians and students. It is relatively easy to integrate into daily routines. Its significant value lies in the personal, structured and recurring feedback. The two overall scores for each patient consultation given by the two impartial raters correlate moderately. The degree of uniformity among the three raters in respect to the individual consultations is low.Discussion: Within the scope of this pilot project, only a small sample
Lehr, Hans-Anton; Bosman, Fred T
Communication is an essential element of good medical practice also in pathology. In contrast to technical or diagnostic skills, communication skills are not easy to define, teach, or assess. Rules almost do not exist. In this paper, which has a rather personal character and cannot be taken as a set of guidelines, important aspects of communication in pathology are explored. This includes what should be communicated to the pathologist on the pathology request form, communication between pathologists during internal (interpathologist) consultation, communication around frozen section diagnoses, modalities of communication of a final diagnosis, with whom and how critical and unexpected findings should be communicated, (in-)adequate routes of communication for pathology diagnoses, who will (or might) receive pathology reports, and what should be communicated and how in case of an error or a technical problem. An earlier more formal description of what the responsibilities are of a pathologist as communicator and as collaborator in a medical team is added in separate tables. The intention of the paper is to stimulate reflection and discussion rather than to formulate strict rules.
Huang, Chin-Chou; Huang, Chia-Chang; Yang, Ying-Ying; Lin, Shing-Jong; Chen, Jaw-Wen
Opinions on the interaction between the genders of standardized patients and examinees are controversial. Our study sought to determine the influence of gender on communication skills assessment in Eastern country. We recruited year 5 medical students from a medical college in Taiwan. They were assigned to obtain informed consent from either male or female age-matched standardized patients. Their performance was rated by standardized checklist rating scores and global rating scores. Either male or female examiners rated their performance. A total of 253 medical students (166 male students and 87 female students) were recruited. The checklist rating scores for students interacting with male standardized patients were significantly lower than the scores for interactions with female standardized patients (male examiners, P=0.006; female examiners, P=0.001). For male students, the checklist rating scores were significantly lower for male standardized patients than for female standardized patients (male examiners, P=0.006; female examiners, P=0.008). For male standardized patients, male students had significantly lower checklist rating scores than female students when rated by male examiners (P=0.044). The global rating scores were similar except when female students interacted with male and female SPs and when rated by female examiners (P=0.004). The gender of standardized patients influences communication skills assessment. In terms of checklist rating scores, female standardized patients seem preferable to minimize potential gender effects. In the best interest of students, global rating score may be preferable to checklist rating score, especially for male examinees. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Finn, D. M.; Fewell, R. R.
This study evaluated the relationship between the play behaviors of 18 deaf blind children (aged 3-12) and their communication skills using the Play Assessment Scale and several multidomain developmental checklists. Results revealed that behaviors observed during play assessment were highly related to ratings of receptive, expressive, and…
Hecker, Kent G; Adams, Cindy L; Coe, Jason B
Communication skills are considered to be a core clinical skill in veterinary medicine and essential for practice success, including outcomes of care for patients and clients. While veterinary schools include communication skills training in their programs, there is minimal knowledge on how best to assess communication competence throughout the undergraduate program. The purpose of this study was to further our understanding of the reliability, utility, and suitability of a communication skills Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Specifically we wanted to (1) identify the greatest source of variability (student, rater, station, and track) within a first-year, four station OSCE using exam scores and scores from videotape review by two trained raters, and (2) determine the effect of different stations on students' communication skills performance. Reliability of the scores from both the exam data and the two expert raters was 0.50 and 0.46 respectively, with the greatest amount of variance attributable to student by station. The percentage of variance due to raters in the exam data was 16.35%, whereas the percentage of variance for the two expert raters was 0%. These results have three important implications. First, the results reinforce the need for communication educators to emphasize that use of communication skills is moderated by the context of the clinical interaction. Second, by increasing rater training the amount of error in the scores due to raters can be reduced and inter-rater reliability increases. Third, the communication assessment method (in this case the OSCE checklist) should be built purposefully, taking into consideration the context of the case.
Peterson, Eleanor B; Calhoun, Aaron W; Rider, Elizabeth A
With increased recognition of the importance of sound communication skills and communication skills education, reliable assessment tools are essential. This study reports on the psychometric properties of an assessment tool based on the Kalamazoo Consensus Statement Essential Elements Communication Checklist. The Gap-Kalamazoo Communication Skills Assessment Form (GKCSAF), a modified version of an existing communication skills assessment tool, the Kalamazoo Essential Elements Communication Checklist-Adapted, was used to assess learners in a multidisciplinary, simulation-based communication skills educational program using multiple raters. 118 simulated conversations were available for analysis. Internal consistency and inter-rater reliability were determined by calculating a Cronbach's alpha score and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), respectively. The GKCSAF demonstrated high internal consistency with a Cronbach's alpha score of 0.844 (faculty raters) and 0.880 (peer observer raters), and high inter-rater reliability with an ICC of 0.830 (faculty raters) and 0.89 (peer observer raters). The Gap-Kalamazoo Communication Skills Assessment Form is a reliable method of assessing the communication skills of multidisciplinary learners using multi-rater methods within the learning environment. The Gap-Kalamazoo Communication Skills Assessment Form can be used by educational programs that wish to implement a reliable assessment and feedback system for a variety of learners. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Junod Perron, Noelle; Sommer, Johanna; Louis-Simonet, Martine; Nendaz, Mathieu
Communication skills tend to decline with time unless they are regularly recalled and practiced. However, most medical schools still deliver clinical communication training only during pre-clinical years although the clinical environment is considered to be ideal for acquiring and teaching clinical communication. The aim of this article is to review the barriers that prevent communication skills teaching and training from occurring in clinical practice and describe strategies that may help enhance such activities. Barriers occur at several levels: students, junior doctors and clinical supervisors sometimes have negative attitudes towards communication training; structured training in communication skills is often insufficient; clinical supervisors behave as poor role models and lack effective communication and teaching skills; finally, there are organisational constraints such as lack of time, competing priorities, weak hierarchy support and lack of positive incentives for using, training or teaching good communication skills in clinical practice. Given the difficulty of assessing transfer of communication skills in practice, only few studies describe successful educational interventions. In order to optimise communication skills learning in practice, there is need to: (1.) modify the climate and structure of the working environment so that that use, training and teaching of good communication skills in clinical practice becomes valued, supported and rewarded; (2.) extend communication skills training to any field of medicine; (3.) provide regular structured trainings and tailor them to trainees' needs. Practical implications of such findings are discussed at the end of this review.
Cheon, Jongpil; Grant, Michael
The website "Active Listening" was developed within a larger project--"Interactive Web-based training in the subtleties of communication and active listening skill development." The Active Listening site aims to provide beginning counseling psychology students with didactic and experimental learning activities and interactive tests so that…
Uzun, N. Bilge; Aktas, Mehtap; Asiret, Semih; Yormaz, Seha
The goal of this study is to determine the reliability of the performance points of dentistry students regarding communication skills and to examine the scoring reliability by generalizability theory in balanced random and fixed facet (mixed design) data, considering also the interactions of student, rater and duty. The study group of the research…
Rahim, Suzana Ab.; Tazijan, Farina
There is a need to expose the learners in the hospitality industry to real workplace requirement in terms of communication skills. In view of its importance, human resource managers, researchers and educators in the field of hospitality management or the hotel practitioners have to pay more serious attention to it. Thus, it is pertinent that both…
Background Assessment of medical communication performance usually focuses on rating generically applicable, well-defined communication skills. However, in daily practice, communication is determined by (specific) context factors, such as acquaintance with the patient, or the presented problem. Merely valuing the presence of generic skills may not do justice to the doctor’s proficiency. Our aim was to perform an exploratory study on how assessment of general practitioner (GP) communication performance changes if context factors are explicitly taken into account. Methods We used a mixed method design to explore how ratings would change. A random sample of 40 everyday GP consultations was used to see if previously identified context factors could be observed again. The sample was rated twice using a widely used assessment instrument (the MAAS-Global), first in the standard way and secondly after context factors were explicitly taken into account, by using a context-specific rating protocol to assess communication performance in the workplace. In between first and second rating, the presence of context factors was established. Item score differences were calculated using paired sample t-tests. Results In 38 out of 40 consultations, context factors prompted application of the context-specific rating protocol. Mean overall score on the 7-point MAAS-Global scale increased from 2.98 in standard to 3.66 in the context-specific rating (p communication was set at 3.17. Conclusions Applying the protocol, the mean overall score rose above the level set in an earlier study for the MAAS-Global scores to represent ‘adequate GP communication behaviour’. Our findings indicate that incorporating context factors in communication assessment thus makes a meaningful difference and shows that context factors should be considered as ‘signal’ instead of ‘noise’ in GP communication assessment. Explicating context factors leads to a more deliberate and transparent rating of
Hyvarinen, Marja-Leena; Tanskanen, Paavo; Katajavuori, Nina; Isotalus, Pekka
One central task in higher education is to provide students with interpersonal communication competence in their profession. To achieve this, specialised training, based on an understanding of disciplinary communication practices and appropriate assessment methods, is needed. However, there is a lack of reliable assessment instruments which are…
Falcone, John L; Claxton, René N; Marshall, Gary T
The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) can be used to evaluate the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Core Competencies of Professionalism and Interpersonal and Communication Skills. The aim of this study was to describe general surgery resident performance on a "difficult conversation" OSCE. In this prospective study, junior and senior residents participated in a 2-station OSCE. Junior stations involved discussing operative risks and benefits and breaking bad news. Senior stations involved discussing goals of care and discussing transition to comfort measures only status. Residents completed post-OSCE checklist and Likert-based self-evaluations of experience, comfort, and confidence. Trained standardized patients (SPs) evaluated residents using communication skill-based checklists and Likert-based assessments. Pearson correlation coefficients were determined between self-assessment and SP assessment. Mann-Whitney U tests were conducted between junior and senior resident variables, using α = 0.05. There were 27 junior residents (age 28.1 ± 1.9 years [29.6% female]) and 27 senior residents (age 32.1 ± 2.5 years [26.9% female]). The correlation of self-assessment and SP assessment of overall communication skills by junior residents was -0.32 on the risks and benefits case and 0.07 on the breaking bad news case. The correlation of self-assessment and SP assessment of overall communication skills by senior residents was 0.30 on the goals of care case and 0.26 on the comfort measures only case. SP assessments showed that junior residents had higher overall communication skills than senior residents (p = 0.03). Senior residents perceived that having difficult conversations was more level appropriate (p skills are correlated, and that skills-based training is needed across all residency levels. This well-received method may be used to observe, document, and provide resident feedback for these important skills. © 2014 Published by
Ditton-Phare, Philippa; Halpin, Sean; Sandhu, Harsimrat; Kelly, Brian; Vamos, Marina; Outram, Sue; Bylund, Carma L; Levin, Tomer; Kissane, David; Cohen, Martin; Loughland, Carmel
Mental health clinicians can experience problems communicating distressing diagnostic information to patients and their families, especially about severe mental illnesses such as schizophrenia. Evidence suggests that interpersonal communication skills can be effectively taught, as has been demonstrated in the specialty of oncology. However, very little literature exists with respect to interpersonal communication skills training for psychiatry. This paper provides an overview of the communication skills training literature. The report reveals significant gaps exist and highlights the need for advanced communication skills training for mental health clinicians, particularly about communicating a diagnosis and/or prognosis of schizophrenia. A new communication skills training framework for psychiatry is described, based on that used in oncology as a model. This model promotes applied skills and processes that are easily adapted for use in psychiatry, providing an effective platform for the development of similar training programs for psychiatric clinical practice. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Essers, Geurt; Kramer, Anneke; Andriesse, Boukje; van Weel, Chris; van der Vleuten, Cees; van Dulmen, Sandra
Assessment of medical communication performance usually focuses on rating generically applicable, well-defined communication skills. However, in daily practice, communication is determined by (specific) context factors, such as acquaintance with the patient, or the presented problem. Merely valuing the presence of generic skills may not do justice to the doctor's proficiency.Our aim was to perform an exploratory study on how assessment of general practitioner (GP) communication performance changes if context factors are explicitly taken into account. We used a mixed method design to explore how ratings would change. A random sample of 40 everyday GP consultations was used to see if previously identified context factors could be observed again. The sample was rated twice using a widely used assessment instrument (the MAAS-Global), first in the standard way and secondly after context factors were explicitly taken into account, by using a context-specific rating protocol to assess communication performance in the workplace. In between first and second rating, the presence of context factors was established. Item score differences were calculated using paired sample t-tests. In 38 out of 40 consultations, context factors prompted application of the context-specific rating protocol. Mean overall score on the 7-point MAAS-Global scale increased from 2.98 in standard to 3.66 in the context-specific rating (pcommunication was set at 3.17. Applying the protocol, the mean overall score rose above the level set in an earlier study for the MAAS-Global scores to represent 'adequate GP communication behaviour'. Our findings indicate that incorporating context factors in communication assessment thus makes a meaningful difference and shows that context factors should be considered as 'signal' instead of 'noise' in GP communication assessment. Explicating context factors leads to a more deliberate and transparent rating of GP communication performance.
Chandawarkar, Rajiv Y; Ruscher, Kimberly A; Krajewski, Aleksandra; Garg, Manish; Pfeiffer, Carol; Singh, Rekha; Longo, Walter E; Kozol, Robert A; Lesnikoski, Beth; Nadkarni, Prakash
Structured communication curricula will improve surgical residents' ability to communicate effectively with patients. A prospective study approved by the institutional review board involved 44 University of Connecticut general surgery residents. Residents initially completed a written baseline survey to assess general communication skills awareness. In step 1 of the study, residents were randomized to 1 of 2 simulations using standardized patient instructors to mimic patients receiving a diagnosis of either breast or rectal cancer. The standardized patient instructors scored residents' communication skills using a case-specific content checklist and Master Interview Rating Scale. In step 2 of the study, residents attended a 3-part interactive program that comprised (1) principles of patient communication; (2) experiences of a surgeon (role as physician, patient, and patient's spouse); and (3) role-playing (3-resident groups played patient, physician, and observer roles and rated their own performance). In step 3, residents were retested as in step 1, using a crossover case design. Scores were analyzed using Wilcoxon signed rank test with a Bonferroni correction. Case-specific performance improved significantly, from a pretest content checklist median score of 8.5 (65%) to a posttest median of 11.0 (84%) (P = .005 by Wilcoxon signed rank test for paired ordinal data)(n = 44). Median Master Interview Rating Scale scores changed from 58.0 before testing (P = .10) to 61.5 after testing (P = .94). Difference between overall rectal cancer scores and breast cancer scores also were not significant. Patient communication skills need to be taught as part of residency training. With limited training, case-specific skills (herein, involving patients with cancer) are likely to improve more than general communication skills.
As Van den Branden (2007) has pointed out, since communicative approaches have been setting the agenda in language teaching in Belgium, the assessment of oral language competence has shifted its focus from form (i.e. accuracy of vocabulary, grammar, pragmatics) to communicative language proficiency (successful use of language in meaningful…
Zamora Cervantes, Alberto; Carrión Ribas, Carme; Cordón Granados, Ferran; Galí Pla, Bibiana; Balló Peña, Elisabet; Quesada Sabate, Miquel; Grau Martin, Armand; Castro Guardiola, Antoni; Torrent Goñi, Silvia; Vargas Vila, Susanna; Vilert Garrofa, Esther; Subirats Bayego, Enric; Coll de Tuero, Gabriel; Muñoz Ortiz, Laura; Cerezo Goyeneche, Carlos; Torán Monserrat, Pere
Traditional learning and assessment systems are overwhelmed when it comes to addressing the complex and multi-dimensional problems of clinical communication and professional practice. This paper shows results of a training program in clinical communication under Problem Based Learning (PBL) methodology and correlation between student…
Bebko, James M.; Calderon, Rosemary; Treder, Robert
Data are presented from two studies that investigate the developmental trends and concurrent validity of a measure of language and communication skills for deaf children, the Language Proficiency Profile-2 (LPP-2), developed by Bebko and McKinnon (1993). The LPP-2 was designed to evaluate the overall linguistic/communicative skills of deaf children, independent of any specific language or modality of expression. It focuses on the totality of the children's communication skills. Experiment 1 investigated developmental trends of the LPP-2 for both deaf and hearing children, studying a combined sample of deaf and hearing children from the United States and Canada. Experiment 2 investigated the relationship between the LPP-2 and two commonly used measures to assess deaf children on language development (Preschool Language Scale-3) and early reading skills (Test of Early Reading Ability-Deaf/Hard-of-Hearing). Results from the two studies indicate that the LPP-2 has good utility not only as a measure of overall language development but also as a predictor of achievement for English language and early reading skills.
Ju, Melody [Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Berman, Abigail T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Hwang, Wei-Ting [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); LaMarra, Denise [Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Baffic, Cordelia; Suneja, Gita [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Vapiwala, Neha, E-mail: Neha.Vapiwala@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)
Purpose: There is a lack of data for the structured development and evaluation of communication skills in radiation oncology residency training programs. Effective communication skills are increasingly emphasized by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and are critical for a successful clinical practice. We present the design of a novel, pilot standardized patient (SP) program and the evaluation of communication skills among radiation oncology residents. Methods and Materials: Two case scenarios were developed to challenge residents in the delivery of “bad news” to patients: one scenario regarding treatment failure and the other regarding change in treatment plan. Eleven radiation oncology residents paired with 6 faculty participated in this pilot program. Each encounter was scored by the SPs, observing faculty, and residents themselves based on the Kalamazoo guidelines. Results: Overall resident performance ratings were “good” to “excellent,” with faculty assigning statistically significant higher scores and residents assigning lower scores. We found inconsistent inter rater agreement among faculty, residents, and SPs. SP feedback was also valuable in identifying areas of improvement, including more collaborative decision making and less use of medical jargon. Conclusions: The program was well received by residents and faculty and regarded as a valuable educational experience that could be used as an annual feedback tool. Poor inter rater agreement suggests a need for residents and faculty physicians to better calibrate their evaluations to true patient perceptions. High scores from faculty members substantiate the concern that resident evaluations are generally positive and nondiscriminating. Faculty should be encouraged to provide honest and critical feedback to hone residents' interpersonal skills.
Ju, Melody; Berman, Abigail T; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Lamarra, Denise; Baffic, Cordelia; Suneja, Gita; Vapiwala, Neha
There is a lack of data for the structured development and evaluation of communication skills in radiation oncology residency training programs. Effective communication skills are increasingly emphasized by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and are critical for a successful clinical practice. We present the design of a novel, pilot standardized patient (SP) program and the evaluation of communication skills among radiation oncology residents. Two case scenarios were developed to challenge residents in the delivery of "bad news" to patients: one scenario regarding treatment failure and the other regarding change in treatment plan. Eleven radiation oncology residents paired with 6 faculty participated in this pilot program. Each encounter was scored by the SPs, observing faculty, and residents themselves based on the Kalamazoo guidelines. Overall resident performance ratings were "good" to "excellent," with faculty assigning statistically significant higher scores and residents assigning lower scores. We found inconsistent inter rater agreement among faculty, residents, and SPs. SP feedback was also valuable in identifying areas of improvement, including more collaborative decision making and less use of medical jargon. The program was well received by residents and faculty and regarded as a valuable educational experience that could be used as an annual feedback tool. Poor inter rater agreement suggests a need for residents and faculty physicians to better calibrate their evaluations to true patient perceptions. High scores from faculty members substantiate the concern that resident evaluations are generally positive and nondiscriminating. Faculty should be encouraged to provide honest and critical feedback to hone residents' interpersonal skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Objective Communication between the surgeon and the patient is a core clinical skill. The ability to communicate with patients and their family members is very important in the optimum care of the surgical patient. Few studies have assessed communication between surgical trainees and their patients in sub-Saharan Africa.
Fernandez, Alicia; Wang, Frances; Braveman, Melissa; Finkas, Lindsay K; Hauer, Karen E
Clinical performance examinations (CPX) with standardized patients (SPs) have become a preferred method to assess communication skills in US medical schools. Little is known about how trainees' backgrounds impact CPX performance. The objective of this paper is to examine the impact of student ethnicity, primary childhood language, and experience of diversity on the communication scores of a high-stakes CPX using SPs. This research was designed as an observational study. The participants of this study were third-year medical students at one US medical school. The measurements used in this study were CPX scores from mandatory exam, student demographics and experience with diversity measured by self-report on a survey, and Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) and United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) scores. A total of 135 students participated. Asian and black students scored lower than white students on the communication portion of the CPX by approximately half a standard deviation (Asian, 67.4%; black, 64.4%; white, 69.4%, p language (difference = 0.57, p = 0.6). Even after controlling for English language knowledge as measured in MCAT verbal scores, speaking a primary childhood language other than English is associated with lower CPX communication scores for Asian students. While poorer communication skills cannot be ruled out, SP exams may contain measurement bias associated with differences in childhood language or culture. Caution is indicated when interpreting CPX communication scores among diverse examinees.
Brown, Stephen D; Rider, Elizabeth A; Jamieson, Katherine; Meyer, Elaine C; Callahan, Michael J; DeBenedectis, Carolynn M; Bixby, Sarah D; Walters, Michele; Forman, Sara F; Varrin, Pamela H; Forbes, Peter; Roussin, Christopher J
The purpose of this study was to develop and test a standardized communication skills assessment instrument for radiology. The Delphi method was used to validate the Kalamazoo Communication Skills Assessment instrument for radiology by revising and achieving consensus on the 43 items of the preexisting instrument among an interdisciplinary team of experts consisting of five radiologists and four nonradiologists (two men, seven women). Reviewers assessed the applicability of the instrument to evaluation of conversations between radiology trainees and trained actors portraying concerned parents in enactments about bad news, radiation risks, and diagnostic errors that were video recorded during a communication workshop. Interrater reliability was assessed by use of the revised instrument to rate a series of enactments between trainees and actors video recorded in a hospital-based simulator center. Eight raters evaluated each of seven different video-recorded interactions between physicians and parent-actors. The final instrument contained 43 items. After three review rounds, 42 of 43 (98%) items had an average rating of relevant or very relevant for bad news conversations. All items were rated as relevant or very relevant for conversations about error disclosure and radiation risk. Reliability and rater agreement measures were moderate. The intraclass correlation coefficient range was 0.07-0.58; mean, 0.30; SD, 0.13; and median, 0.30. The range of weighted kappa values was 0.03-0.47; mean, 0.23; SD, 0.12; and median, 0.22. Ratings varied significantly among conversations (χ 2 6 = 1186; p communication skills assessment instrument is highly relevant for radiology, having moderate interrater reliability. These findings have important implications for assessing the relational competencies of radiology trainees.
Shaw, Jane R; Barley, Gwyn E; Broadfoot, Kirsti; Hill, Ashley E; Roter, Debra L
OBJECTIVE To evaluate veterinarian-client communication and veterinarian and client satisfaction with veterinary visits before and after veterinarians underwent a 6-month communication skills training program in a practice setting. DESIGN Case-based pretest-posttest intervention study. SAMPLE 1 purposely selected companion-animal practice. PROCEDURES The practice team (3 veterinarians, 5 veterinary technicians, 1 receptionist, and 1 office manager) participated in a 6-month educational program (intervention) that included interactive communication modules, individual coaching, and a communication laboratory. For each of the veterinarians, 6 appointments were video recorded and 30 additional clients completed a visit satisfaction survey both before and after the intervention. The Roter interaction analysis system was used to analyze the video-recorded appointments. RESULTS After the intervention, appointments were 5.4 minutes longer and veterinarians asked 60% fewer closed-ended lifestyle-social questions, provided 1.4 times as much biomedically related client education, and used 1.5 and 1.25 times as much facilitative and emotional rapport communication, respectively, compared with before the intervention. Clients provided veterinarians with 1.3 times as much biomedically related information and engaged in twice as much social conversation. After the intervention, veterinarians perceived their clients as complaining less and being more personable and trusting, and clients felt more involved in the appointment and reported that the veterinarian expressed greater interest in their opinion. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that the intervention resulted in veterinarians who spent more time educating and building rapport with their clients and facilitating client input in an unhurried environment, which enhanced overall veterinarian visit satisfaction and various aspects of client visit satisfaction.
Cinar, Orhan; Ak, Mehmet; Sutcigil, Levent; Congologlu, Emel Dovyap; Canbaz, Hayri; Kilic, Erden; Ozmenler, Kamil Nahit
To determine the effects of a communication skills training program on emergency medicine residents and patient satisfaction. Twenty emergency medicine residents attended a 6-week psychoeducation program that was intended to improve their communication skills. The first three sessions of the psychoeducation program consisted of theoretical education on empathy and communication. Other sessions covered awareness, active communication, and empathic skills on a cognitive behavioral basis using discussion, role play, and homework within an interactive group. The effects of the program were assessed using a communication skills scale, empathy scale, and patient satisfaction survey and were reflected by the reduction in the number of undesirable events between doctors and patients in the emergency department. The mean communication skills score increased from 178.7±19 to 189.2±16 after training (Pkindness, and thoughtfulness (90.3±10.8-94.1±16.5; P<0.01); individualized attention (86.7±9.4-93.9±11.1; P<0.01); devotion of adequate time to listening (88.6±12.3-90.8±14.1; P=0.04); and counseling and information delivery (90.1±11.3-92.2±11.7; P=0.02). The number of undesirable events between doctors and patients decreased 75% from 12 to three. Participation in a communication skills training program was associated with improved communication skills of emergency medicine residents, increased patient satisfaction, and decreased complaints.
Christner, Jennifer G; Stansfield, R Brent; Schiller, Jocelyn H; Madenci, Arin; Keefer, Patricia M; Pituch, Ken
Physicians communicate with patients using electronic mail (e-mail) with increasing frequency. Communication skills specific to e-mail do not appear to be taught explicitly in medical school. Therefore, the effect of an instructive session on effective e-mail communication was examined. Four simulated e-mails from a parent were developed. Students responded to an initial e-mail and then participated in a session on effective e-mail communication. Responses to a final e-mail were assessed using a rubric with subscores for medical knowledge, communication, and professionalism. Performance improved from the first to final e-mail response in the overall score and in each subscore. Improvement was sustained over the course of the academic year. Interrater reliability revealed good agreement. Communicating effectively with patients via e-mail is not intuitive but can be taught. It is feasible to introduce responses to a simulated e-mail case in a clinical clerkship as an assessment tool.
Zamora Cervantes, Alberto; Carrión Ribas, Carme; Cordón Granados, Ferran; Galí Pla, Bibiana; Balló Peña, Elisabet; Quesada Sabate, Miquel; Grau Martin, Armand; Castro Guardiola, Antoni; Torrent Goñi, Silvia; Vargas Vila, Susanna; Vilert Garrofa, Esther; Subirats Bayego, Enric; Coll de Tuero, Gabriel; Muñoz Ortiz, Laura; Cerezo Goyeneche, Carlos
Communicating with the patient in clinical practice refers to the way in which the doctor and the patient interact both verbally and nonverbally, in order to achieve a shared understanding of problems and solutions. Traditional learning and assessment systems are overwhelmed when it comes to addressing the complex and multi-dimensional problems of professional practice. Problem Based Learning (PBL) has been put forward as an alternative to the mere reproduction of knowledge and pre-establishe...
Sisk, Dorothy A.
A teacher training coordinator stresses the importance of developing gifted children's communication abilities and briefly describes two group dynamics activities ("Circle Partners" and "Think Pink") for building listening, interpretation and discussion skills. (LH)
Gude, T; Grimstad, H; Holen, A; Anvik, T; Baerheim, A; Fasmer, O B; Hjortdahl, P; Vaglum, P
In medical education, teaching methods offering intensive practice without high utilization of faculty resources are needed. We investigated whether simulated patients' (SPs') satisfaction with a consultation could predict professional observers' assessment of young doctors' communication skills. This was a comparative cross-sectional study of 62 videotaped consultations in a general practice setting with young doctors who were finishing their internship. The SPs played a female patient who had observed blood when using the toilet, which had prompted a fear of cancer. Immediately afterwards, the SP rated her level of satisfaction with the consultation, and the scores were dichotomized into satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Professional observers viewed the videotapes and assessed the doctors' communication skills using the Arizona Communication Interview Rating Scale (ACIR). Their ratings of communication skills were dichotomized into acceptable versus unacceptable levels of competence. The SPs' satisfaction showed a predictive power of 0.74 for the observers' assessment of the young doctors and whether they reached an acceptable level of communication skills. The SPs' dissatisfaction had a predictive power of 0.71 for the observers' assessment of an unacceptable communication level. The two assessment methods differed in 26% of the consultations. When SPs felt relief about their cancer concern after the consultation, they assessed the doctors' skills as satisfactory independent of the observers' assessment. Accordance between the dichotomized SPs' satisfaction score and communication skills assessed by observers (using the ACIR) was in the acceptable range. These findings suggest that SPs' satisfaction scores may provide a reliable source for assessing communication skills in educational programs for medical trainees (students and young doctors). Awareness of the patient's concerns seems to be of vital importance to patient satisfaction.
A pilot training program in communication skills, listening, conflict solving, and task orientation, for a small but growing commuter airline is discussed. The interactions between pilots and management, and communication among crew members are examined. Methods for improvement of cockpit behavior management personnel relations are investigated.
As communication is a central part of every interpersonal meeting within healthcare and research reveals several benefits of effective communication, we need to teach students and practitioners how to communicate with patients and with colleagues. This paper reflects on what and how to teach. In the previous century two major changes occurred: clinical relationship between doctor and patient became important and patients became partners in care. Clinicians experienced that outcome and especially compliance was influenced by the relational aspect and in particular by the communicative skills of the physician. This paper reflects on teaching and defines problems. It gives some implications for the future. Although communication skills training is reinforced in most curricula all over the word, huge implementation problems arise; most of the time a coherent framework is lacking, training is limited in time, not integrated in the curriculum and scarcely contextualized, often no formal training nor teaching strategies are defined. Moreover evidence on communication skills training is scarce or contradictory. Knowing when, what, how can be seen as an essential part of skills training. But students need to be taught to reflect on every behavior during every medical consultation. Three major implications can be helpful to overcome the problems in communication training. First research and education on healthcare issues need to go hand in hand. Second, students as well as healthcare professionals need a toolkit of basic skills to give them the opportunity not only to tackle basic and serious problems, but to incorporate these skills and to be able to use them in a personal and creative way. Third, personal reflection on own communicative actions and dealing with interdisciplinary topics is a core business of medical communication and training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
(observing, attending and responding). Active listening requires full attention; alertness to every nuance, to what is both implicitly and openly said, thereby helping the client to clarify confused feelings and thoughts. The ground skills which help counsellors in active listening include: Empathy, awareness of body language, ...
van Dalen, Jan
Doctor-patient communication has been well researched. Less is known about the educational background of communication skills training. Do we aim for optimal performance of skills, or rather attempt to help students become skilled communicators? An overview is given of the current view on optimal doctor-patient communication. Next we focus on recent literature on how people acquire skills. These two topics are integrated in the next chapter, in which we discuss the optimal training conditions. A longitudinal training design has more lasting results than incidental training. Assessment must be in line with the intended learning outcomes. For transfer, doctor-patient communication must be addressed in all stages of health professions training. Elementary insights from medical education are far from realised in many medical schools. Doctor-patient communication would benefit strongly from more continuity in training and imbedding in the daily working contexts of doctors. When an educational continuum is realised and attention for doctor-patient communication is embedded in the working context of doctors in training the benefits will be strong. Training is only a part of the solution. In view of the current dissatisfaction with doctor-patient communication a change in attitude of course directors is strongly called for. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ak, Mehmet; Cinar, Orhan; Sutcigil, Levent; Congologlu, Emel Dovyap; Haciomeroglu, Bikem; Canbaz, Hayri; Yaprak, Hulya; Jay, Loni; Ozmenler, Kamil Nahit
To determine the effects of a communication skills training program on emergency nurses and patient satisfaction. Sixteen emergency nurses attended a 6-week psychoeducation program that was intended to improve their communication skills. The first 3 sessions of the psychoeducation program consisted of theoretical education on empathy and communication. Other sessions covered awareness, active communication, and empathic skills on a cognitive behavioral basis using discussion, role play, and homework within an interactive group. The effects of the program were assessed using a communication skills scale, empathy scale, and patient satisfaction survey and were reflected by the reduction in the number of undesirable events between nurses and patients in the emergency department. The mean communication skill score (177.8±20) increased to 198.8±15 after training (p=0.001). Empathy score also increased from 25.7±7 to 32.6±6 (p=0.001). The patient satisfaction survey of 429 patients demonstrated increased scores on confidence in the nurses (76.4±11.2 to 84.6±8.3; p=0.01); the nurse's respect, kindness, and thoughtfulness (72.2± 8.1 to 82.1 ± 6,5; p=0.01); individualized attention (71.3± 6.2 to 73.2 ± 9.8; p=0.2); devotion of adequate time to listening (84.6± 9.3 to 89.8 ± 7.6; p=0.03); and counseling and information delivery (71.1± 10.2 to 80.2 ± 9.7; p=0.01). The number of undesirable events and complaints during nurse-patient interactions decreased 66 % from 6 to 2. "Communication Skills Training" can improve emergency nurses' communication and empathy skills with a corresponding increase in patient satisfaction and reduction of the undesirable events and complaints during nurse-patient interactions.
Jørgensen, Merete; Witt, Klaus; Fridorff-Jens, Peter Kindt
19729 Abstract Title: Enhancing undergraduate students communications skills Abstract Authors: •Merete Jorgensen, Copenhagen University , Family Medicine , Copenhagen •Klaus Witt, Research Unit , Family Medicine , Copenhagen •Peter Kindt Fridorff-Jens, Copenhagen University , IT-unit , Copenhagen......,Monika Bullinger,Matthias Rose, Sylke Andreas.Enhancing medical students' communication skills: development and evaluation of an undergraduate training program.Published online 2012 March 24. doi: 10.1186/1472-6920-12-16 2.William T. Branch, Jr, MD; David Kern, MD; Paul Haidet, MD, MPH; Peter Weissmann, MD...
Frost, Katherine A; Metcalf, Elizabeth P; Brooks, Rachel; Kinnersley, Paul; Greenwood, Stephen R; Powell, Colin Ve
Delivering effective clinical pediatric communication skills training to undergraduate medical students is a distinct and important challenge. Pediatric-specific communication skills teaching is complex and under-researched. We report on the development of a scenario-based pediatric clinical communication skills program as well as students' assessment of this module. We designed a pediatric clinical communication skills program and delivered it five times during one academic year via small-group teaching. Students were asked to score the workshop in eight domains (learning objectives, complexity, interest, competencies, confidence, tutors, feedback, and discussion) using 5-point Likert scales, along with free text comments that were grouped and analyzed thematically, identifying both the strengths of the workshop and changes suggested to improve future delivery. Two hundred and twenty-one of 275 (80%) student feedback forms were returned. Ninety-six percent of students' comments were positive or very positive, highlighting themes such as the timing of teaching, relevance, group sizes, and the use of actors, tutors, and clinical scenarios. Scenario-based teaching of clinical communication skills is positively received by students. Studies need to demonstrate an impact on practice, performance, development, and sustainability of communications training.
Volman, Inge; Noordzij, Matthijs L; Toni, Ivan
When established communication systems cannot be used, people rapidly create novel systems to modify the mental state of another agent according to their intentions. However, there are dramatic inter-individual differences in the implementation of this human competence for communicative innovation. Here we characterize psychological sources of inter-individual variability in the ability to build a shared communication system from scratch. We consider two potential sources of variability in communicative skills. Cognitive traits of two individuals could independently influence their joint ability to establish a communication system. Another possibility is that the overlap between those individual traits influences the communicative performance of a dyad. We assess these possibilities by quantifying the relationship between cognitive traits and behavior of communicating dyads. Cognitive traits were assessed with psychometric scores quantifying cooperative attitudes and fluid intelligence. Competence for implementing successful communicative innovations was assessed by using a non-verbal communicative task. Individual capacities influence communicative success when communicative innovations are generated. Dyadic similarities and individual traits modulate the type of communicative strategy chosen. The ability to establish novel communicative actions was influenced by a combination of the communicator's ability to understand intentions and the addressee's ability to recognize patterns. Communicative pairs with comparable systemizing abilities or behavioral inhibition were more likely to explore the search space of possible communicative strategies by systematically adding new communicative behaviors to those already available. No individual psychometric measure seemed predominantly responsible for communicative success. These findings support the notion that the human ability for fast communicative innovations represents a special type of complex collaborative activity.
Magogwe, Joel M.; Nkosana, Leonard B. M.; Ntereke, Beauty B.
Employers in today's competitive and challenging global world prefer employees who possess "soft skills" in addition to "hard skills" because they make an impact and create a good impression in the workplace. This study examined employment readiness of the University of Botswana (UB) students who took the Advanced Communication…
Al-Shawaf, Hamza Mohammad Hassan; Almajran, Abdullah Abdulaziz
Background In medical education, information and communication technology (ICT) knowledge and skills have become a necessity and an integral part of preparing tomorrow’s doctors to be sufficiently competent to use informatics resources effectively and efficiently for the best practice of medicine. Objective This research aimed to study the literacy of the preprofessional students in ICT before and after taking the basic informatics course at the Health Sciences Center at Kuwait University, to understand their potential and their attitudes toward using ICT, including e-learning. Methods A validated questionnaire was used to collect data from 200 students in 2 stages: before and after the informatics course on the preprofessional program. In addition, the tutors’ observational assessments of the students’ achievements during the informatics course were obtained. Results The response rate of students before the course was 85.5% (171/200) and after was 77% (154/200). Of 200 students, 85% were female, and 15% were male. This disproportional representation of genders was due to the fact that 85% of registered students were female. Approximately 59% (101/171) of the students assessed themselves before the course as computer literate; afterward, this increased to 70.1% (108/154). Students who were still computer illiterate (29.2%; 45/154) mostly used the excuse of a lack of time (60%; 27/45). In generic ICT skills, the highest levels were for word processing, email, and Web browsing, whereas the lowest levels were for spreadsheets and database. In specific ICT skills, most respondents were reported low levels for statistical package use and Web page design. The results found that there was a significant improvement between students’ general ICT skills before and after the course. The results showed that there were significant improvement between how frequently students were using Medline (Pstudents who completed the course (72.8%; 110/151) chose the learning
van Rijssen, Jolanda; Schellart, Antonius J M; Anema, Johannes R; van der Beek, Allard J
It was assessed whether a post-graduate communication skills training course would increase physicians' competence and knowledge with regard to communication during work disability assessment interviews, and would change the determinants of their communication behaviour. A randomised controlled trial was performed. At baseline and at follow-up, 42 physicians completed questionnaires. The primary outcome measures were competence and knowledge about communication. The secondary outcome measures were 21 self-reported determinants of communication behaviour. One-way analyses of variance and covariance were performed. There was no significant difference between the intervention and control groups in overall competence, but there was for the introduction phase (intervention: mean = 7.0, SD 2.7; control: mean = 4.8, SD 2.7; p = 0.014). Knowledge about communication was significantly higher (p = 0.001) in the intervention group (mean = 79.6, SD 9.2) than in the control group (mean = 70.9, SD 6.7), especially concerning the information-gathering phase of the interview (intervention: mean = 80.0, SD 10.2; control: mean = 69.4, SD 8.9; p = 0.001). The intervention group scored significantly better on 7 of the 21 self-reported determinants (secondary outcomes), including self-efficacy, intentions, skills and knowledge. The communication skills training course may improve some aspects of physician communication, but not all. Because physicians were unanimously positive about the course, further development is warranted. Implications for Rehabilitation Even though optimal communication is essential in face-to-face assessment interviews for determining entitlement to work disability benefits, and there is a lot at stake for the claimants, this issue has scarcely been addressed in scientific research. A tailor-made two-day communication skills training course, based on scientific research, increases physicians' knowledge about communication
Fogelberg, Katherine; Farnsworth, Charles C
Client communication skills and professional ethics are areas that have received much attention in veterinary education in recent years. The objectives of this study were to: i) establish the confidence level of faculty teaching in three veterinary schools with regard to their client communication skills, ii) establish a baseline of professional ethics indicators in the same faculty, and iii) compare veterinary students of all levels to faculty in both areas. Students and faculty received identical questionnaires, including statements addressing client communication skills and professional ethics. The results indicate that students are generally comfortable with their communication skills, except in the areas of visual and/or audio aid use, handling emotional clients, and discussing costs of care and payment. Faculty were more comfortable than students in all areas of client communication, although they also had low confidence when dealing with costs of care and payment. Ethically, students and faculty answered similarly. Faculty showed a stronger belief that people are basically honest and ethical, but both cohorts responded similarly when asked about reporting an ethical violation admitted to them by their best friend. Further research is needed to determine whether students are communicating as effectively as they believe they are, with particular attention paid to improving communications with emotional clients and the business aspects of veterinary medicine. Additional work is needed to ensure that veterinary students are learning how to cope with ethical issues objectively. This may begin by ensuring that faculty are teaching and, more importantly, modeling these behaviors during the clinical year(s).
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide a review of the literature regarding the treatment of specific language impairment (SLI in the long-term perspective. We develop the paper along the three issues we consider to be of the most importance in relation to counseling practice with SLI children and young people: the importance of assessment procedures of SLI, the importance of reading skills in the lives of SLI children and adults, and the importance of the quality of communication competence of SLI people for their social life. The review draws on international research mainly; however, the paper also aims to show how the three target issues are represented in the Czech research related literature.
Lamônica, Dionísia Aparecida Cusin; Paiva, Cora Sofia Takaya; Abramides, Dagma Venturini Marques; Biazon, Jamile Lozano
To assess communication skills in children with spastic diplegia. The study included 20 subjects, 10 preschool children with spastic diplegia and 10 typical matched according to gender, mental age, and socioeconomic status. Assessment procedures were the following: interviews with parents, Stanford - Binet method, Gross Motor Function Classification System, Observing the Communicative Behavior, Vocabulary Test by Peabody Picture, Denver Developmental Screening Test II, MacArthur Development Inventory on Communicative Skills. Statistical analysis was performed using the values of mean, median, minimum and maximum value, and using Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney test, and Paired t-test. Individuals with spastic diplegia, when compared to their peers of the same mental age, presented no significant difference in relation to receptive and expressive vocabulary, fine motor skills, adaptive, personal-social, and language. The most affected area was the gross motor skills in individuals with spastic cerebral palsy. The participation in intervention procedures and the pairing of participants according to mental age may have approximated the performance between groups. There was no statistically significant difference in the comparison between groups, showing appropriate communication skills, although the experimental group has not behaved homogeneously.
Penrod, Catherine B.; Tucker, Mary; Hartman, Katherine B.
Employers, higher education faculty, and accrediting bodies value communication as an important entry-level job skill. Unfortunately, research indicates that college graduates have inadequate communication skills and, in particular, lack strong business writing acumen. The ways business communication is taught, integrated, and assessed varies by…
Buabbas, Ali Jassem; Al-Shawaf, Hamza Mohammad Hassan; Almajran, Abdullah Abdulaziz
In medical education, information and communication technology (ICT) knowledge and skills have become a necessity and an integral part of preparing tomorrow's doctors to be sufficiently competent to use informatics resources effectively and efficiently for the best practice of medicine. This research aimed to study the literacy of the preprofessional students in ICT before and after taking the basic informatics course at the Health Sciences Center at Kuwait University, to understand their potential and their attitudes toward using ICT, including e-learning. A validated questionnaire was used to collect data from 200 students in 2 stages: before and after the informatics course on the preprofessional program. In addition, the tutors' observational assessments of the students' achievements during the informatics course were obtained. The response rate of students before the course was 85.5% (171/200) and after was 77% (154/200). Of 200 students, 85% were female, and 15% were male. This disproportional representation of genders was due to the fact that 85% of registered students were female. Approximately 59% (101/171) of the students assessed themselves before the course as computer literate; afterward, this increased to 70.1% (108/154). Students who were still computer illiterate (29.2%; 45/154) mostly used the excuse of a lack of time (60%; 27/45). In generic ICT skills, the highest levels were for word processing, email, and Web browsing, whereas the lowest levels were for spreadsheets and database. In specific ICT skills, most respondents were reported low levels for statistical package use and Web page design. The results found that there was a significant improvement between students' general ICT skills before and after the course. The results showed that there were significant improvement between how frequently students were using Medline (Pskills in using ICT. The ICT knowledge and skills of the students before the course seemed insufficient, and the
Schönwetter, Dieter J; Emmons Wener, Mickey; Mazurat, Nita; Yakiwchuk, Ben
Research on the development of effective therapeutic communication skills for oral health providers is slowly evolving. One of the initial steps in this research is to identify and address gaps in the work of previous researchers. Ultimately, the educational goal of competence in communications skills development is to provide improved patient care including improved patient satisfaction. This article is the third in a series describing the development of and findings from the new complementary Patient Communication Assessment Instrument (PCAI) and Student Communication Assessment Instrument (SCAI). The aim of the study reported here was to look at the relationship between communication skills and patient and student clinician gender interactions, sociodemographic factors (e.g., age, income), and changes in these interactions with length of treatment. A total of 410 patient assessments (PCAI) and 410 matching student self-assessments (SCAI) were used for further data analysis. Patients of female student clinicians, female patients, patients of a higher and the lowest income range, and older patients reported statistically significant higher student communication scores. The PCAI identified that certain groups of patients consistently report higher scores than other groups, whereas the SCAI identified differences between male and female student clinicians. The results have implications for educational protocols, communication strategies, and the need for continued research regarding sociodemographic factors and their relationship to patient satisfaction.
Liew, Siaw-Cheok; Dutta, Susmita; Sidhu, Jagmohni Kaur; De-Alwis, Ranjit; Chen, Nicole; Sow, Chew-Fei; Barua, Ankur
The complexity of modern medicine creates more challenges for teaching and assessment of communication skills in undergraduate medical programme. This research was conducted to study the level of communication skills among undergraduate medical students and to determine the difference between simulated patients and clinical instructors' assessment of communication skills. This comparative study was conducted for three months at the Clinical Skills and Simulation Centre of the International Medical University in Malaysia. The modified Calgary-Cambridge checklist was used to assess the communication skills of 50 first year and 50 second year medical students (five-minutes pre-recorded interview videos on the scenario of sore throat). These videos were reviewed and scored by simulated patients (SPs), communication skills instructors (CSIs) and non-communication skills instructors (non-CSIs). Better performance was observed among the undergraduate medical students, who had formal training in communication skills with a significant difference in overall scores detected among the first and second year medical students (p = 0.0008). A non-significant difference existed between the scores of SPs and CSIs for Year 1 (p = 0.151). The SPs could be trained and involved in assessment of communication skills. Formal training in communication skills is necessary in the undergraduate medical programme.
Kranenburg, Laura J C; Reerds, Sam T H; Cools, Martine
communication with (i) the parents of a newborn with congenital adrenal hyperplasia and (ii) a young woman with 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis. The replies were analysed regarding completeness, quality, and evidence of empathy. Guidelines for structured assessment of responses were developed by 22 senior paediatric...... communication were not mentioned; 15% (case 1) and 17% (case 2) of the replies were considered poor/insufficient. There was also marked variation between 17 senior experts in the application of the guidelines to assess communication skills. The guidelines were then adjusted to a 3-level assessment with empathy...
The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987
Full Text Available Katherine A Frost,1,2 Elizabeth P Metcalf,3 Rachel Brooks,2,3 Paul Kinnersley,3 Stephen R Greenwood,3 Colin VE Powell1,2,4 1Noah’s Ark Children’s Hospital for Wales, 2Department of Pediatrics, 3Institute of Medical Education, 4Molecular and Experimental Medicine, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales Background: Delivering effective clinical pediatric communication skills training to undergraduate medical students is a distinct and important challenge. Pediatric-specific communication skills teaching is complex and under-researched. We report on the development of a scenario-based pediatric clinical communication skills program as well as students’ assessment of this module. Methods: We designed a pediatric clinical communication skills program and delivered it five times during one academic year via small-group teaching. Students were asked to score the workshop in eight domains (learning objectives, complexity, interest, competencies, confidence, tutors, feedback, and discussion using 5-point Likert scales, along with free text comments that were grouped and analyzed thematically, identifying both the strengths of the workshop and changes suggested to improve future delivery. Results: Two hundred and twenty-one of 275 (80% student feedback forms were returned. Ninety-six percent of students' comments were positive or very positive, highlighting themes such as the timing of teaching, relevance, group sizes, and the use of actors, tutors, and clinical scenarios. Conclusion: Scenario-based teaching of clinical communication skills is positively received by students. Studies need to demonstrate an impact on practice, performance, development, and sustainability of communications training. Keywords: communication training, undergraduates, pediatrics, actors
McDermott, M P; Cobb, M A; Tischler, V A; Robbé, I J; Dean, R S
A survey was conducted among veterinary practitioners in the UK and the USA in 2012/2013. Thematic analysis was used to identify underlying reasons behind answers to questions about the importance of communication skills and the desire to participate in postgraduate communication skills training. Lack of training among more experienced veterinary surgeons, incomplete preparation of younger practitioners and differences in ability to communicate all contribute to gaps in communication competency. Barriers to participating in further communication training include time, cost and doubts in the ability of training to provide value. To help enhance communication ability, communication skills should be assessed in veterinary school applicants, and communication skills training should be more thoroughly integrated into veterinary curricula. Continuing education/professional development in communication should be part of all postgraduate education and should be targeted to learning style preferences and communication needs and challenges through an entire career in practice. British Veterinary Association.
Cingi, Can Cemal; Sakallıoğlu, Öner; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Cingi, Cemal
Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a chronic disorder with a high prevalence in the general population. The symptoms of AR can impair the cognitive capabilities of the affected people. The study of communication skills and AR interaction has not been adequately discussed. We aimed to analyze Social Communication Skills of university students with AR. Fifty patients suffering from AR and 50 healthy subjects were studied. All participants completed two questionnaires [Social Communication Skills Rating Scale (SCSRS) and Communication Questionnaire] for the assessment of social communication skills. Total scores of both SCSRS and Communication Questionnaire were higher in participants with AR than controls. When the questions of SCSRS were compared between the groups one by one, significant difference was observed between the groups for questions numbered 1-9 and 11, 12 (p Communication Questionnaire (p communication skills of the patients with AR. More research is however needed to validate this hypothesis.
Asemanyi, Abena Abokoma
This study was done to find out the factors that account for the poor performances of students and to find out ways of improving the teaching and learning of the Communication Skills course at the University of Education, Winneba. The research also had an aim of bringing to light suggestions and recommendations on how to improve the teaching and…
Roze des Ordons, Amanda L; Doig, Christopher J; Couillard, Philippe; Lord, Jason
Communication with patients and families in critical care medicine (CCM) can be complex and challenging. A longitudinal curricular model integrating multiple techniques within classroom and clinical milieus may facilitate skillful communication across diverse settings. In 2014-2015, the authors developed and implemented a curriculum for CCM fellows at the Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, to promote the longitudinal development of skillful communication. A departmental needs assessment informed curriculum development. Five 4-hour classroom sessions were developed: basic communication principles, family meetings about goals and transitions of care, discussing patient safety incidents, addressing conflict, and offering organ donation. Teaching methods-including instructor-led presentations incorporating a consistent framework for approaching challenging conversations, simulation and clinical practice, and feedback from peers, trained facilitators, family members, and clinicians-supported integration of skills into the clinical setting and longitudinal development of skillful communication. Seven fellows participated during the first year of the curriculum. CCM fellows engaged enthusiastically in the program, commented that the framework provided was helpful, and highly valued the opportunity to practice challenging communication scenarios, learn from observing their peers, and receive immediate feedback. More detailed accounts of fellows', patients', and family members' experiences will be obtained to guide curricular development. The curriculum will be expanded to involve other members of the multidisciplinary intensive care unit team, and faculty education initiatives will be offered to enhance the quality of the feedback provided. The impact of the curriculum on initial skill development, retention, and progression will be assessed.
Butz, Nikolaus T.; Askim-Lovseth, Mary K.
The ability to communicate effectively is an essential skill for graduates of Masters of Business Administration (MBA) programmes; however, as synchronous hybrid learning becomes more common, business schools may find it challenging to assess students' proficiency in this core area. An additional layer of complexity is added by the burgeoning…
Tulloch, Heather E.; McCaul, Kevin D.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Smyth, Joshua M.
The authors examined the effects of (1) communication-skills training, (2) relationship-specific education, or (3) risk information on the condom use of 106 heterosexual college students who were in sexually active relationships. Post intervention assessments of in vivo communication-skills demonstrated that participants in the…
Kranenburg, Laura J C; Reerds, Sam T H; Cools, Martine; Alderson, Julie; Muscarella, Miriam; Magrite, Ellie; Kuiper, Martijn; Abdelgaffar, Shereen; Balsamo, Antonio; Brauner, Raja; Chanoine, Jean Pierre; Deeb, Asma; Fechner, Patricia; German, Alina; Holterhus, Paul Martin; Juul, Anders; Mendonca, Berenice B; Neville, Kristen; Nordenstrom, Anna; Oostdijk, Wilma; Rey, Rodolfo A; Rutter, Meilan M; Shah, Nalini; Luo, Xiaoping; Grijpink, Kalinka; Drop, Stenvert L S
Information sharing in chronic conditions such as disorders of/differences in sex development (DSD) is essential for a comprehensive understanding by parents and patients. We report on a qualitative analysis of communication skills of fellows undergoing training in paediatric endocrinology. Guidelines are created for the assessment of communication between health professionals and individuals with DSD and their parents. Paediatric endocrinology fellows worldwide were invited to study two interactive online cases (www.espe-elearning.org) and to describe a best practice communication with (i) the parents of a newborn with congenital adrenal hyperplasia and (ii) a young woman with 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis. The replies were analysed regarding completeness, quality, and evidence of empathy. Guidelines for structured assessment of responses were developed by 22 senior paediatric endocrinologists worldwide who assessed 10 selected replies. Consensus of assessors was established and the evaluation guidelines were created. The replies of the fellows showed considerable variation in completeness, quality of wording, and evidence of empathy. Many relevant aspects of competent clinical communication were not mentioned; 15% (case 1) and 17% (case 2) of the replies were considered poor/insufficient. There was also marked variation between 17 senior experts in the application of the guidelines to assess communication skills. The guidelines were then adjusted to a 3-level assessment with empathy as a separate key item to better reflect the qualitative differences in the replies and for simplicity of use by evaluators. E-learning can play an important role in assessing communication skills. A practical tool is provided to assess how information is shared with patients with DSD and their families and should be refined by all stakeholders, notably interdisciplinary health professionals and patient representatives. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Quick globalization increases the necessity of higher communication skill for everybody. However, in reality, modern tools such as mobile and internet spoil the face-to-face communication ability among young people. In this paper, reviewing related books of communication skill in conjunction with speaking, hearing, reading and writing is first done on English as well as on Japanese. Parallel to this, self experience-based method for intensifying communication skill is described. Emphasizing points for improving each communication skill are concretely proposed in the body.
Sargeant, Joan; MacLeod, Tanya; Murray, Anne
Introduction: Recent research suggests that effective interprofessional communication and collaboration can positively influence patient satisfaction and outcomes. Health professional communication skills do not necessarily improve over time but can improve with formal communication skills training (CST). This article describes the development,…
Gude, Tore; Finset, Arnstein; Anvik, Tor; Bærheim, Anders; Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Grimstad, Hilde; Vaglum, Per
This prospective study from end of medical school through internship investigates the course and possible change of self- reported self-efficacy in communication skills compared with observers' ratings of such skills in consultations with simulated patients. Sixty-two medical students (43 females) from four Norwegian universities performed a videotaped consultation with a simulated patient immediately before medical school graduation (T1) and after internship (internal medicine, surgery and family medicine, half a year each - T2). Before each consultation, the participants assessed their general self-efficacy in communication skills. Trained observers scored the videos and applied a well-validated instrument to rate the communication behaviour. Results from the two assessment methods were correlated at both time points and possible differences from T1 to T2 were explored. A close to zero correlation between self-efficacy and observed communication skills were found at T1. At T2, participants' self-efficacy scores were inversely correlated with levels of observed skills, demonstrating a lack of concordance between young physicians' own assessment of self-efficacy and observers' assessment. When dividing the sample in three groups based on the observers' scores (low 2/3), the group of male physicians showed higher levels of self-efficacy than females in all the three performance groups at T1. At T2, those having a high performance score yielded a low self-efficacy, regardless of gender. The lack of positive correlations between self-efficacy assessment and expert ratings points to limitations in the applicability of self-assessment measures of communication skills. Due to gender differences, groups of female and male physicians should be investigated separately. Those obtaining high-performance ratings from observers, through the period of internship, may become more conscious of how demanding clinical communication with patients may be. This insight may represent a
Kelley, Amy S.; Back, Anthony L.; Arnold, Robert M.; Goldberg, Gabrielle R.; Lim, Betty B.; Litrivis, Evgenia; Smith, Cardinale B.; O’Neill, Lynn B.
Expert communication is essential to high quality care for older patients with serious illness. While the importance of communication skills is widely recognized, formal curricula for teaching communication skills to geriatrics and palliative medicine fellows is often inadequate or unavailable. We drew upon the educational principles and format of an evidence-based, interactive teaching method, to develop an intensive communication skills training course designed specifically to address the common communication challenges faced by geriatrics and palliative medicine fellows. The 2-day retreat, held away from the hospital environment, included large-group overview presentations, small-group communication skills practice, and development of future skills practice commitment. Faculty received in-depth training in small-group facilitation techniques prior to the course. Geriatrics and palliative medicine fellows were recruited to participate in the course and 100% (n=18) enrolled. Overall satisfaction with the course was very high (mean 4.8 on 5-point scale). Compared to before the course, fellows reported an increase in self-assessed preparedness for specific communication challenges (mean increase 1.4 on 5-point scale, pskills practice (mean 4.3 on 5-point scale). In sum, the intensive communication skills program, tailored to the specific needs of geriatrics and palliative medicine fellows, improved fellows’ self-assessed preparedness for challenging communication tasks and provided a model for ongoing deliberate practice of communication skills. PMID:22211768
Jeuring, J.T.; Grosfeld, F.; Heeren, B.J.; Hulsbergen, M.; Ijntema, R.C.; Jonker, Vincent; Mastenbroek, N.J.J.M.; van der Smagt, M.J.; Wijmans, F.; Wolters, Majanne; van Zeijts, H.
Communicate! is a serious game for practicing communication skills. It supports practicing interpersonal communication skills between a health care professional such as a doctor or a pharmacist, or a (business) psychologist, and a patient or client. A player selects a scenario, and holds a
This article highlights the importance of effective communication skills for nurses. It focuses on core communication skills, their definitions and the positive outcomes that result when applied to practice. Effective communication is central to the provision of compassionate, high-quality nursing care. The article aims to refresh and develop existing knowledge and understanding of effective communication skills. Nurses reading this article will be encouraged to develop a more conscious style of communicating with patients and carers, with the aim of improving health outcomes and patient satisfaction.
Arnold, Robert M; Back, Anthony L; Barnato, Amber E; Prendergast, Thomas J; Emlet, Lillian L; Karpov, Irina; White, Patrick H; Nelson, Judith E
The aim of this study was to develop an evidence-based communication skills training workshop to improve the communication skills of critical care fellows. Pulmonary and critical care fellows (N = 38) participated in a 3-day communication skills workshop between 2008 and 2010 involving brief didactic talks, faculty demonstration of skills, and faculty-supervised small group skills practice sessions with simulated families. Skills included the following: giving bad news, achieving consensus on goals of therapy, and discussing the limitations of life-sustaining treatment. Participants rated their skill levels in a pre-post survey in 11 core communication tasks using a 5-point Likert scale. Of 38 fellows, 36 (95%) completed all 3 days of the workshop. We compared pre and post scores using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Overall, self-rated skills increased for all 11 tasks. In analyses by participant, 95% reported improvement in at least 1 skill; with improvement in a median of 10 of 11 skills. Ninety-two percent rated the course as either very good/excellent, and 80% recommended that it be mandatory for future fellows. This 3-day communication skills training program increased critical care fellows' self-reported family meeting communication skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Moore, Philippa; Gómez, Gricelda; Kurtz, Suzanne; Vargas, Alex
Effective Communication Skills form part of what is being a good doctor. There is a solid evidence base that defines the components of effective communication. This article offers a practical conceptual framework to improve physician patient communication to a professional level of competence. There are six goals that physicians and patients work to achieve through their communication with each other. These are to construct a relationship, structure an interview, start the interview, gather information, explain, plan and close the interview. The outcomes that can be improved with an effective communication and the "first principles" of communication are described. A brief look at the historical context that has influenced our thinking about communication in health care is carried out. Finally, the Calgary Cambridge Guide, an approach for delineating and organizing the specific skills required of an effective communication with patients is described. It is clear from the literature that better communication skills improve patient satisfaction and clinical outcomes.
McKenzie, Carly T
This study investigated dental students' attitudes towards communication skills instruction and clinical application and explored the impact of a one-semester course and year in school on students' attitudes, measured by the Communication Skills Attitude Scale. Demographic characteristics and self-assessment of communication skills were also analyzed. The study employed a pretest-posttest survey design combined with cross-sectional data. Participants were first- and fourth-year students at a U.S. dental school. Out of a possible 120 students, 106 (fifty-seven D1 and forty-nine D4) participated in the pretest, an 88 percent response rate; out of a possible 121 students, 115 (fifty-seven D1 and fifty-eight D4) participated in the posttest, a 95 percent response rate. In the results, D4 students consistently demonstrated less positive attitudes towards communication skills instruction and more negative attitudes regarding the importance of interpersonal skills in clinical encounters than did their D1 counterparts. A single communications course had no discernible effect on attitudes or self-assessments for either cohort. Females reported more positive attitudes towards clinical application of interpersonal skills than did males. Gender significantly interacted with two demographic variables: primary language and parent as health care professional. Female children of health care professionals reported poorer attitudes towards clinical communication skills training and application than did their male counterparts. Generally, parental occupation in health care moderated the decrease in positive attitudes over time towards clinical usefulness of communication skills. The D4 students rated their communication skills higher than did the D1 students. Students who demonstrated more positive attitudes towards communication skills training and application were more likely to say their own skills needed improvement.
Maatta, Sira; Laakso, Marja-Leena; Tolvanen, Asko; Ahonen, Timo; Aro, Tuija
Purpose: This study focused on developmental trajectories of prelinguistic communication skills and their connections to later parent-reported language difficulties. Method: The participants represent a subset of a community-based sample of 508 children. Data include parent reports of prelinguistic communication skills at 12, 15, 18, and 21 months…
Alfarah, Yacoub Fareed
The purpose of this study is to investigate the communication skills among gifted students in Jordan and to investigate the effect of gender and the level of students in acquiring these communication skills. A questionnaire was distributed among the sample of the study which comprised of (240) tenth, eleventh, and twelfth grade students from Al…
Bunce, Betty H.
This article outlines some critical skills needed in referential communication (the ability to provide and understand specific information) and reviews some of the deficits found in referential communication skills of learning disabled and/or language impaired children. Suggested therapy procedures based on training studies are also provided.…
However, these provisions are not sufficient to enable trainees develop skills for communication with that category of children. The findings imply that education authorities should enhance practical activities in the curriculum in a way that might enable teacher trainees to develop skills for communication with children who ...
Kovac, Mirjana M.; Sirkovic, N.
Good communication skills are of utmost importance in the education of engineering students. It is necessary to promote not only their education, but also to prepare them for the demanding and competitive job market. The purpose of this study was to compare the attitudes towards communication skills after formal instruction between the students of…
Hulsman, R L; Harmsen, A B; Fabriek, M
Acquisition of effective, goal-oriented communication skills requires both practicing skills and reflective thinking. Reflection is a cyclic process of perceiving and analysing communication behaviour in terms of goals and effects and designing improved actions. Based on Korthagen's ALACT reflection model, communication training on history taking was designed. Objectives were to develop rating criteria for assessment of the students' level of reflection and to collect student evaluations of the reflective cycle components in the communication training. All second year medical students recorded a consultation with a simulated patient. In DiViDU, a web-based ICT program, students reviewed the video, identified and marked three key events, attached written reflections and provided peer-feedback. Students' written reflections were rated on four reflection categories. A reflection-level score was based on a frequency count of the number of categories used over three reflections. Students filled out an evaluation questionnaire on components of the communication training. Data were analyzed of 304 (90.6%) students. The four reflection categories Observations, Motives, Effects and Goals of behaviour were used in 7-38%. Most students phrased undirected questions for improvement (93%). The average reflection score was 2.1 (S.D. 2.0). All training components were considered instructive. Acting was preferred most. Reviewing video was considered instructive. Self-reflection was considered more difficult than providing written feedback to the reflections of peers. Reflection on communication behaviour can be systematically implemented and measured in a structured way. Reflection levels were low, probably indicating a limited notion of goal-oriented attributes of communication skills. Early introduction of critical self-reflection facilitates acceptance of an important ability for physicians for continued life-long learning and becoming mindful practitioners.
Miner, Thomas J
Excellence as a surgeon requires not only the technical and intellectual ability to effectively take care of surgical disease but also an ability to respond to the needs and questions of patients. This article provides an overview of the importance of communication skills in optimal surgical palliation and offers suggestions for a multidisciplinary team approach, using the palliative triangle as the ideal model of communication and interpersonal skills. This article also discusses guidelines for advanced surgical decision making and outlines methods to improve communication skills. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Guidelines of teaching communications to nursing students have been shown. However they are not fully mature to help to recognize each student's communication ability. Communication skills of nursing students in basic nursing education are very important.
Janik, Vincent M
Bottlenose dolphins display a behavioural skill set that makes them an interesting model system for the study of complexity in communication and cognition. They are capable of vocal learning, referential labelling, syntax comprehension, and joint attention. In their own communication system, these skills are used in individual recognition, group cohesion, and coordination, which suggests that social challenges are a universal selection pressure for complexity in communication and cognition independent of the physical environment. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Hartel, R. W.; Adem, M.
A math review exam, written and administered in conjunction with the Quantitative Assessment Program at the Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, is used at the beginning of the 1st food engineering course to evaluate math skills needed for successful completion of the course. Students who do not score well on the math exam are targeted for individual…
Smart, Karl L.; Featheringham, Richard
Regardless of the content specialty--from accounting to information systems to finance--employers view effective communication as critical to an individual's success in today's competitive workplace. Most business degree programs require a business communication course to help students develop communication skills needed both in getting a job and…
Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Communication skills play an important role in diagnosis, effective treatment, and patient satisfaction. We aimed to determine the attitudes of medical students towards learning communication skills in order to design related educational programs for them.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 200 medical students of Yazd that were selected using classified simple random sampling. The data was collected using the Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS with approved reliability (α=0.74. Data were analyzed using SPSS software.Results: The mean±SD positive, negative, and overall attitude scores of the participants were 51.17±5.65, 34.12±4.89 and 85.27 ± 6.39, respectively. Age had no influence on their attitude towards learning communication skills.Conclusions: The finding of positive attitudes toward learning communication skills suggests that students would agree with the assertion that communication skills should be an integral part of curricula.Keywords: ATTITUDE, MEDICAL STUDENTS, COMMUNICATION SKILLS
Full Text Available Communication is an essential skill in the armory of any worker in the health field. It is an integral part of the skills required, not only in medical doctors, but in all health workers. Communication is more than history taking; it includes all methods of interaction with patients, patient's relatives, members of the health care team, and the public. Many studies stressed that the main complaints of patients are related to communication problems and not to clinical competency. This has contributed to an increase in the number of law suits, non-adherence to medical regimens, and the tendency of patients to keep changing physicians and hospitals. Also, it has been shown that health outcome is positively affected by proper communication. This includes patient's satisfaction and cooperation, decrease in treatment duration, decrease in painkillers requirements, and decrease in hospital stay. Also, it has been shown that communication skills can be taught and important changes in physician's behavior and in their communication skills have been demonstrated after courses of communication skills. Thus, many medical colleges in the world are including communication skills courses in their undergraduate and graduate curricula
Engler, Carol M.; And Others
Medical students' interpersonal and communication skills were assessed over the course of their first two years of medical training at Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine. Results of first and second video analyses indicated a significant decline in student process-oriented skills. (Author/MLW)
Marambe, Kosala N; Edussuriya, D H; Dayaratne, K M P L
The General Medical Council of the UK, advocates that by the end of their undergraduate course, medical students should be proficient in communicating with patients. However, the attitude of some medical students toward formal training in communication skills seems lukewarm. Although several studies on assessing attitudes of medical students on learning communication skills have been carried out in Europe and America, Asian studies are very few and literature in the Sri Lankan context is lacking. To explore the attitudes of first to fourth year medical students of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya (FOMUP), Sri Lanka on learning communication skills and to identify possible factors that may influence student attitudes. A total of 675 students from year 1 to 4 of the FOMUP were asked to complete a modified version of the Communication Skills Attitude Scale. Items of its positive attitude scale (PAS) were analyzed together while negative items were considered individually. Response rates ranged from 70% to 98% for the various year groups. There were no significant differences between the PAS for males and females and for those exposed to formal training and those who were not. The junior students scored significantly higher on the PAS than seniors. Most students of all the groups disagreed with the item "I don't see why I should learn communication skills". Approximately one-quarter of the students of each group endorsed the statement "Nobody is going to fail their medical degree for having poor communication skills". Out of the students who have undergone formal communication training, almost one-third agreed that they find it difficult to take communication skills learning seriously. Although medical students seem to have realized the importance of communication skills training for the practice of medicine, a significant minority have reservations on attending such sessions. Sri Lanka faculty will need to make a concerted effort to change this
T. Osman MUTLU
Full Text Available Communication and emphaty are an important dimension of tennis player and these skills should be developed in students and young tennis player. In this study, we aimed to determi ne the communication skills and emphatic tendency of student tennis players. Data were collected with 115 student tennis players who participated in university sport games championships. In this study, three instruments were used: Personal Knowledge Form, Communication Skills Assessing Scale (Korkut, 1996, and Emphatic Tendency Scale (Dökmen, 1988. In order to demonstrate the reliability of the scales to test the reliability of communication skills as a result of the scale, Cronbach's alpha value of 0.784 , the Cronbach alpha coefficient of empathic tendency scale was found to be 0.816. Accordingly, it can be said that the high reliability of the scales. The data sets analysed by independent samples t - test, one way ANOVA and correlation analyses. The result s showed that communication skills of the student tennis players were higher and the emphaty tendencies of the student tennis players were lower according to relevant literature. Communication skills and emphaty tendencies of the student tennis players wer e not statically significant according to ages, genders and departments of them. The correlation between The communication skills and emphaty tendencies of the student tennis players were positive and statically significant.
Kiessling, Claudia; Bauer, Johannes; Gartmeier, Martin; Iblher, Peter; Karsten, Gudrun; Kiesewetter, Jan; Moeller, Grit E; Wiesbeck, Anne; Zupanic, Michaela; Fischer, Martin R
To develop a computer-based test (CBT) measuring medical students' communication skills in the field of shared decision making (SDM) and to evaluate its construct validity. The CBT was developed in the context of an experimental study comparing three different trainings for SDM (including e-learning and/or role-play) and a control group. Assessment included a CBT (Part A: seven context-poor questions, Part B: 15 context-rich questions) and interviews with two simulated patients (SP-assessment). Cronbach's α was used to test the internal consistency. Correlations between CBT and SP-assessment were used to further evaluate construct validity of the CBT. Seventy-two students took part in the study. Mean value for the CBT score was 72% of the total score. Cronbach's α was 0.582. After eliminating three items, Cronbach's α increased to 0.625. Correlations between the CBT and SP-assessment were low to moderate. The control group scored significantly lower than the training settings (pstudent numbers to consider CBT as a feasible assessment method for cognitive aspects of communication skills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Biglu, Mohammad-Hossein; Nateq, Farnaz; Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Asgharzadeh, Ali
The communication skills of physicians is an effective step of making effective relationship between doctor and patient. It plays essential role through diagnosis and treatment processes. This current study was performed to investigate the impact of communication skillfulness of physicians on patients' satisfaction. A cross-sectional descriptive study was done to determine the impact of communication capability of practitioners on patients' satisfaction. The DiMatto's Patient Satisfaction Scale was administered among patients referring to the all 8 specialized clinics of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. The validity and reliability of Persian translation of questionnaire of DiMatto's Patient Satisfaction was verified by 10 specialists. The validity of the questionnaire was measured by content and structural analysis, and Cronbach's alpha coefficients. The data were analyzed by software package of SPSS version 16 using Pearson's correlation coefficient, U Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-wallis Test, Regression. The study showed that there was a significant correlation between patients' satisfaction and the communication skills of physicians (devoting the appropriate time for visiting the patients, explaining diagnosis and treatment procedures). In addition, the therapeutic skills of physicians, their friendly manners, respecting the patients' feelings, and careful examination of patients by physician, revealed a significant correlation with patient satisfaction (P skills of physician play an important role on patients' satisfaction; therefore, we propose strongly to improve the communication skills of physicians by improving the communication skills through related training courses.
Biglu, Mohammad-Hossein; Nateq, Farnaz; Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Asgharzadeh, Ali
Background: The communication skills of physicians is an effective step of making effective relationship between doctor and patient. It plays essential role through diagnosis and treatment processes. This current study was performed to investigate the impact of communication skillfulness of physicians on patients’ satisfaction. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was done to determine the impact of communication capability of practitioners on patients’ satisfaction. The DiMatto’s Patient Satisfaction Scale was administered among patients referring to the all 8 specialized clinics of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. The validity and reliability of Persian translation of questionnaire of DiMatto’s Patient Satisfaction was verified by 10 specialists. The validity of the questionnaire was measured by content and structural analysis, and Cronbach’s alpha coefficients. The data were analyzed by software package of SPSS version 16 using Pearson’s correlation coefficient, U Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-wallis Test, Regression. Results: The study showed that there was a significant correlation between patients’ satisfaction and the communication skills of physicians (devoting the appropriate time for visiting the patients, explaining diagnosis and treatment procedures). In addition, the therapeutic skills of physicians, their friendly manners, respecting the patients’ feelings, and careful examination of patients by physician, revealed a significant correlation with patient satisfaction (P skills of physician play an important role on patients’ satisfaction; therefore, we propose strongly to improve the communication skills of physicians by improving the communication skills through related training courses. PMID:29109665
Itri, Jason N; Yacob, Sammy; Mithqal, Ayman
The transition of health care in the United States from volume to value requires a systems-based approach aligning clinical services across the continuum of care. The ability to communicate effectively and resolve conflict is a critical skill within the systems-based model. Recognizing the essential role of communication in medicine, the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education has designated interpersonal and communication skills a core competency for all residents regardless of specialty. Yet, communication skills are often developed through on-the-job training or not at all. Traditional educational curricula use a predominantly didactic approach without opportunities for trainees to observe, actively experiment, or reflect on what is learned as a part of the learning process. In this article, we describe a 1-day experiential communication skills workshop customized for radiology residents that consists of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and conflict management sessions designed to develop interpersonal, communication, and conflict management skills through group discussion, role-play, and simulation. The purpose of this educational initiative was to determine the perceived value of an experiential communication skills workshop designed for radiology trainees. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hulsman, R. L.; Harmsen, A. B.; Fabriek, M.
Acquisition of effective, goal-oriented communication skills requires both practicing skills and reflective thinking. Reflection is a cyclic process of perceiving and analysing communication behaviour in terms of goals and effects and designing improved actions. Based on Korthagen's ALACT reflection
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Skills for Bachelor of Education Degree Students at the University of Zimbabwe: Implications for University Policy on a Computer Course for Undergraduate Student Teachers.
... are which accounts for the need for permanent teachers training in communicative skills. A successful teachers training model has to offer models and approaches aiming at the integration of scientific and practical theories...
Kadriye Dilek Akpınar
Full Text Available Higher Education Council of Turkey has added a one term course named as “Effective Communication Skills” to the curriculum since 2006 in Foreign Language Education Departments because of the crucial importance of communication in the information society. In order to test the effectiveness of this course, a research project was developed by looking at the pre-and post course interviews conducted with first year teacher trainees about communication skills compared with the fourth year students’ ideas who did not take the course. This paper describes both the significance of effective communication skills and the benefits of the course for developing teacher trainees’ effective communication skills. The implementations and suggestions for teacher education has also been discussed.
therefore discusses the importance, and the need for librarians to possess adequate skills for the achievement of the overall goal of the library which is efficient and effective service delivery-in this case service delivery which is hinged on effective communication skills. To discharge that onerous duty to member of any given ...
Zainuddin, Zaharatul Akmar Ahmad; Selamat, Suzanah
Every year polytechnics in Malaysia produce thousands of graduates in vocational areas, however, these graduates have to strive in a competitive job market against graduates from other tertiary institutions. This study aims to investigate polytechnic students efficacy on their communication skills. These skills are crucial in determining their…
Björnsdottir, Ingunn; Wallman, Andy; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark
Objective. To assess communication skills training at Nordic pharmacy schools and explore ways for improvement. Methods. E-mail questionnaires were developed and distributed with the aim to explore current practice and course leaders’ opinions regarding teaching of patient communication skills at all the 11 master level Nordic (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) pharmacy schools. The questionnaires contained both closed- and open-ended questions. Results. There was a variation of patient communication skills training among schools. In general, communication skills training was included in one to five courses (mode 1); varied in quantity (6-92 hours); had low use of experiential training methods; and had challenges regarding assessments and acquiring sufficient resources. However, some schools had more focus on such training. Conclusion. The results show room for improvement in patient communication skills training in most Nordic pharmacy schools and give insights into how to enhance communication skill building in pharmacy curricula. Suggestions for improving the training include: early training start, evidence-based frameworks, experiential training, and scaffolding. PMID:29302085
In Communicative Language Teaching situation, role of material is not only important but also inevitable. In the traditional context of English teaching textbooks are considered the main source of materials. This paper will provide an evaluation of "Effective Communication Skills" ("ECS") coursebook that has been introduced as…
Bahreini, Kiavash; Nadolski, Rob; Westera, Wim
The teaching of communication skills is a labour-intensive task because of the detailed feedback that should be given to learners during their prolonged practice. This study investigates to what extent our FILTWAM facial and vocal emotion recognition software can be used for improving a serious game (the Communication Advisor) that delivers a…
The purpose of this study is to compare the communication skills of individuals with different disabilities with athletes and sedentary people and to examine their learning abilities which influence the development of communication. A total of 159 male subjects 31 sedentary, 30 visually impaired, 27 hearing impaired, 40 physically impaired and 31…
Zavertnik, Jean Ellen; Huff, Tanya A; Munro, Cindy L
This study assessed the effectiveness of a learner-centered simulation intervention designed to improve the communication skills of preprofessional sophomore nursing students. An innovative teaching strategy in which communication skills are taught to nursing students by using trained actors who served as standardized family members in a clinical learning laboratory setting was evaluated using a two-group posttest design. In addition to current standard education, the intervention group received a formal training session presenting a framework for communication and a 60-minute practice session with the standardized family members. Four domains of communication-introduction, gathering of information, imparting information, and clarifying goals and expectations-were evaluated in the control and intervention groups in individual testing sessions with a standardized family member. The intervention group performed better than the control group in all four tested domains related to communication skills, and the difference was statistically significant in the domain of gathering information (p = 0.0257). Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.
Lee, Young-Mee; Lee, Young Hee
Regardless of the growing importance of communication skills as a core clinical competence, few studies have determined the effects of communication skills courses in undergraduate medical curricula in Asian medical schools. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a communication skills program for preclinical medical students. A communication skills course was provided to 111 second-year medical students in a medical college in Korea. Students' self-assessed competency of communication skills was evaluated by a questionnaire survey. To examine the improvement in observed communication skills, the students' encounters with standardized patients (SPs) were assessed at the first session and at the final course assessment. A structured checklist, consisting of 25 communication skills items, was used for the assessment. Students' self-assessed competency of communication skills increased significantly after completion of the course (pcommunication skills scores also improved significantly at the end of the course; the mean scores of the first SPs encounters was 49.6 (standard deviation [SD], 11.1), and those of cases A and B at the final assessment were 61.5 (SD, 8.4) and 69.6 (SD, 7.8), respectively (F61=269.54, pcommunication skills course was beneficial in developing and improving communication skills competency in preclinical medical students. Further studies should be followed to examine whether the acquisition of communication skills during preclinical studies can be sustained into clerkship and actual practice.
Rasul, Mohamad Sattar; Rauf, Rose Amnah Abd; Mansor, Azlin Norhaini; Puvanasvaran, A. P.
Research nationally and internationally found that technical graduates are lacking in employability skills. As employability skills are crucial in outcome-based education, the main goal of this research is to develop an Employability Skill Assessment Tool to help students and lecturers produce competent graduates in employability skills needed by…
Zhao, Yuhong; Zhang, Xiangsu; Chang, Qing; Sun, Baozhi
The aim of the study was to test the psychometric characteristics of the 360° evaluation instrument for assessing residents' competency in professionalism, interpersonal and communication skills, and develop a feasible, valid, and reliable multisource feedback (MSF) program for surgery residents to address this gap. We carried out an MSF assessment of 149 surgery residents at 19 hospitals all over China. MSF assessment includes 6 surveys with 21, 21, 21, 26, 14, and 15 items and these surveys were developed to assess surgery residents by attending doctor, resident self, peer, nurse, patient, and office staff, respectively, using a 5-point agreement scale with an "unable-to-evaluate" category. Reliability was assessed by Cronbach alpha. Exploratory factor analysis was used to assess validity and determine which items grouped together into scales. A total of 2384 questionnaires were analyzed in this study. The internal consistency reliability of the instruments was a Cronbach alpha of 0.932, 0.936, 0.914, 0.916, 0.939, and 0.903 for attending doctor, resident self, nurse, patient, resident peer, and office staff surveys, respectively. On the attending, resident self, resident peer, nurse, office staff, and patient surveys, the factor analysis identified 2 factors of professionalism and interpersonal and communication skills accounting for 75.62%, 74.81%, 72.65%, 73.38%, 76.11%, and 63.89% of the variance, respectively. Some items, such as Demonstrates respect for my "Sexual Orientation," "Religion," and "Disability," in different surveys had high unable-to-evaluate rates (more than 10%). The data suggest that these instruments developed to assess surgery residents are feasible to administer and provide valid and reliable evidence. Some items in survey need to be adjusted keeping in mind the Chinese culture. Copyright © 2013 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. All rights reserved.
This study aims at developing an assessment scale for identifying preschool children's communication skills, at distinguishing children with communication deficiencies and at comparing the communication skills of children with normal development (ND) and those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were 427 children of up to 6 years of…
Simmons, Elizabeth H.
This talk will discuss how faculty can help graduate students (and even postdocs) improve non-technical professional skills required for success in scientific careers. Examples to be covered will include a) planning and delivering high-quality presentations b) listening critically to others' presentations c) writing grant proposals, cover letters, and CV's d) reviewing manuscripts and responding to referee reports. The faculty member(s) involved must be prepared to project a welcoming attitude, to convey the importance of these skills, and to make a consistent investment of time.
Bitzer, J; Tschudin, S; Holzgreve, W; Tercanli, S
Prenatal counselling is characterized by specific characteristics: A):The communication is about the values of the pregnant woman and her relationship with the child to be. B) The communication deals with patient's images and emotions. C) It is a communication about risks, numbers and statistics. D) Physician and patient deal with important ethical issues. In this specific setting of prenatal diagnosis and care physicians should therefore learn to apply basic principles of patient-centred communication with elements of non directive counselling, patient education and shared decision making. These elements are integrated into a process which comprises the following "steps": 1. Clarification of the patient's objectives and the obstetrician's mandate. 2. The providing of individualized information and education about prenatal tests and investigations. 3. Shared decision making regarding tests and investigations 4. Eventually Breaking (bad, ambivalent) news. 5. Caring for patients with an affected child.
Coleman, Jaumeiko J; Frymark, Tobi; Franceschini, Nicole M; Theodoros, Deborah G
This is a systematic review of assessment and treatment of cognitive and communicative abilities of individuals with acquired brain injury via telepractice versus in person. The a priori clinical questions were informed by previous research that highlights the importance of considering any functional implications of outcomes, determining disorder- and setting-specific concerns, and measuring the potential impact of diagnostic accuracy and treatment efficacy data on interpretation of findings. A literature search of multiple databases (e.g., PubMed) was conducted using key words and study inclusion criteria associated with the clinical questions. Ten group studies were accepted that addressed assessment of motor speech, language, and cognitive impairments; assessment of motor speech and language activity limitations/participation restrictions; and treatment of cognitive impairments and activity limitations/participation restrictions. In most cases, equivalence of outcomes was noted across service delivery methods. Limited findings, lack of diagnostic accuracy and treatment efficacy data, and heterogeneity of assessments and interventions precluded robust evaluation of clinical implications for telepractice equivalence and the broader area of telepractice efficacy. Future research is needed that will build upon current knowledge through replication. In addition, further evaluation at the impairment and activity limitation/participation restriction levels is needed.
Karnieli-Miller, Orit; Michael, Keren; Segal, Oz; Steinberger, Aharon
Teaching and applying interpersonal communication skills (ICS) and humor in medicine is challenging. The present study assessed an innovative course focused on enhancing ICS and humor based on the Four Habits Model and theater concepts. Medical students enrolled in the course (the study group) were assessed pre- and post-intervention, as well as compared with their peers (the control group) using quantitative methods to measure attitudes, self-efficacy, and behaviors. Qualitative methods were used to learn about students' change in perceptions related to ICS and humor following the course, as well as their experiences of developing these skills during the course. Post-intervention study group participants scored significantly higher on all ICS measurements and on humor behavior compared with pre-intervention, and significantly higher on all humor measurements compared with control group participants. Interviews indicated students' increased understanding and difficulties in learning these skills. Analyses showed how framing humor as one possible ICS and focusing on specific parts of the medical encounter can promote patient-centered care.
Porcerelli, John H; Brennan, Simone; Carty, Jennifer; Ziadni, Maisa; Markova, Tsveti
The Kalamazoo Essential Elements Communication Checklist-Adapted (KEECC-A) is a well-regarded instrument for evaluating communication and interpersonal skills. To date, little research has been conducted that assesses the accuracy of resident self-ratings of their communication skills. To assess whether residents can accurately self-rate communication skills, using the KEECC-A, during an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). A group of 104 residents from 8 specialties completed a multistation OSCE as part of an institutional communication skills curriculum conducted at a single institution. Standardized patients (SPs) and observers were trained in rating communication skills using the KEECC-A. Standardized patient ratings and resident self-ratings were completed immediately following each OSCE encounter, and trained observers rated archived videotapes of the encounters. Resident self-ratings and SP ratings using the KEECC-A were significantly correlated (r104 = 0.238, P = .02), as were resident self-ratings and observer ratings (r104 = 0.284, P = .004). The correlation between the SP ratings and observer (r104 = 0.378, P = .001) ratings were larger in magnitude, but not significantly different (P > .05) from resident/SP or resident/observer correlations. The results suggest that residents, with a modicum of training using the KEECC-A, can accurately rate their own communication and interpersonal skills during an OSCE. Using trained observers to rate resident communication skills provides a unique opportunity for evaluating SP and resident self-ratings. Our findings also lend further support for the reliability and validity of the KEECC-A.
Kumar, Mritunjay; Dash, Hari Har; Chawla, Rajiv
Communication failure is a risk factor for mishaps and complaints, which can be reduced by effective communication between operating room team members and patients. To conduct a survey among anesthesiologists regarding communications skills and related issues like stress in case of communication failure, need for training, music in operation theater, and language barrier at their work place. We conducted a survey among anesthesiologists coming for a neuroanesthesia conference in India (n = 110) in February 2011 by questionnaire sent by e-mail to them. The response rate was 61.8% (68/110). Majority (95.5%) of the respondents agreed that good verbal communication leads to better patient outcome, better handling of crisis and is important between surgeons and anesthesiologists (98.5%). A total of 86% of the anesthesiologists felt that failure of communication caused stress to them. The idea of communication by e-mail or phone text messages instead of verbal communications was discouraged by 65.2%. A total of 82% of respondents felt that training of communication skills should be mandatory for all medical personnel and 77.6% were interested in participating in such course. Language barrier at work place was seen as hurdle by 62.7% of the respondents. A total of 80% of respondents felt that playing music in operating theater is appropriate. Results of the survey highlight the need for effective communication in the operating room between team members and need for formal training to improve it.
MacRae, Helen M
Objective assessment of technical skill is an important component of skills training: trainees require that deficiencies are clearly and objectively identified if a model of deliberate practice with feedback on skill acquisition is to be employed. There are several types of reliable and valid assessments for technical skill currently available. Copyright © 2010 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lasa, G; Tazon, P; Aseguinolaza, L; Garcia-Campayo, J J
The main objective of this study is to review the teaching of communication skills in Spain as part of the nursing curriculum. A survey was carried out to identify the practical and theoretical issues pertinent to this question. Forty Spanish Nursing Schools took part. Our survey discovered that communication skills are not generally considered in the selection process of the students because personal interviews are rarely used. Communication skills are taught in the first and second years, mainly in Fundamentals of Nursing and subjects related to Psychology and Mental Health. Nursing and psychology were the predominant professional background of the teachers. Lectures, discussion groups and workshops were the main teaching methods. The assessment, when it existed, was often theoretical and, occasionally, using a real patient or a written case report. The authors propose that the knowledge of the teaching situation in Spain is the starting point for any future projects on communication.
Boissy, Adrienne; Windover, Amy K; Bokar, Dan; Karafa, Matthew; Neuendorf, Katie; Frankel, Richard M; Merlino, James; Rothberg, Michael B
Skilled physician communication is a key component of patient experience. Large-scale studies of exposure to communication skills training and its impact on patient satisfaction have not been conducted. We aimed to examine the impact of experiential relationship-centered physician communication skills training on patient satisfaction and physician experience. This was an observational study. The study was conducted at a large, multispecialty academic medical center. Participants included 1537 attending physicians who participated in, and 1951 physicians who did not participate in, communication skills training between 1 August 2013 and 30 April 2014. An 8-h block of interactive didactics, live or video skill demonstrations, and small group and large group skills practice sessions using a relationship-centered model. Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS), Clinician and Group Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CGCAHPS), Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE), Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), self-efficacy, and post course satisfaction. Following the course, adjusted overall CGCAHPS scores for physician communication were higher for intervention physicians than for controls (92.09 vs. 91.09, p communication scores (83.95 vs. 82.73, p = 0.22). Physicians reported high course satisfaction and showed significant improvement in empathy (116.4 ± 12.7 vs. 124 ± 11.9, p communication skills training improved patient satisfaction scores, improved physician empathy, self-efficacy, and reduced physician burnout. Further research is necessary to examine longer-term sustainability of such interventions.
Ali M. Al-Bahi
Full Text Available Engineering students are required to have, by the time of graduation, a set of professional skills related to teamwork, oral and written communications, impact of engineering solutions, life-long learning, and knowledge of contemporary issues. Teaching and assessment of these skills, as part of ABET accreditation, remains problematic. A systematic methodology to integrate these skills and their assessment in the curriculum is described. The method was recently applied in several engineering programs and proved to be efficient in generating data and evidences for evaluation and continuous improvement of these outcomes.
Background Although it is taken for granted that history-taking and communication skills are learnable, this learning process should be confirmed by rigorous studies, such as randomized pre- and post-comparisons. The purpose of this paper is to analyse whether a communication course measurably improves the communicative competence of third-year medical students at a German medical school and whether technical or emotional aspects of communication changed differently. Method A sample of 32 randomly selected students performed an interview with a simulated patient before the communication course (pre-intervention) and a second interview after the course (post-intervention), using the Calgary-Cambridge Observation Guide (CCOG) to assess history taking ability. Results On average, the students improved in all of the 28 items of the CCOG. The 6 more technically-orientated communication items improved on average from 3.4 for the first interview to 2.6 in the second interview (p communication skills were not correlated (Pearson’s r = 0.03; n.s.). Conclusions Our communication course measurably improved communication skills, especially for female students. These improvements did not depend predominantly on an extension of the interview time. Obviously, “technical” aspects of communication can be taught better than “emotional” communication skills. PMID:22947372
Simmenroth-Nayda, Anne; Weiss, Cora; Fischer, Thomas; Himmel, Wolfgang
Although it is taken for granted that history-taking and communication skills are learnable, this learning process should be confirmed by rigorous studies, such as randomized pre- and post-comparisons. The purpose of this paper is to analyse whether a communication course measurably improves the communicative competence of third-year medical students at a German medical school and whether technical or emotional aspects of communication changed differently. A sample of 32 randomly selected students performed an interview with a simulated patient before the communication course (pre-intervention) and a second interview after the course (post-intervention), using the Calgary-Cambridge Observation Guide (CCOG) to assess history taking ability. On average, the students improved in all of the 28 items of the CCOG. The 6 more technically-orientated communication items improved on average from 3.4 for the first interview to 2.6 in the second interview (p students improved from 3.0 to 2.7 (n.s.). The mean interview time significantly increased from the first to the second interview, but the increase in the interview duration and the change of the overall score for the students' communication skills were not correlated (Pearson's r = 0.03; n.s.). Our communication course measurably improved communication skills, especially for female students. These improvements did not depend predominantly on an extension of the interview time. Obviously, "technical" aspects of communication can be taught better than "emotional" communication skills.
Delaherche, Emilie; Chetouani, Mohamed; Bigouret, Fabienne; Xavier, Jean; Plaza, Monique; Cohen, David
To cooperate with a partner, it is essential to communicate by sharing information through all available avenues, including hand gestures, gazes, head gestures and naturally, speech. In this paper, we compare the communicative and coordination skills of children with typical development to those of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) in…
White, D.A.; White, R.K.
This paper describes a workshop in communication and public speaking skills recently conducted for a group of public officials whose responsibilities include presenting risk information at public meetings associated with hazardous waste sites. We detail the development and execution of the 2 1/2 day workshop, including the development and integration of a 45-minute video of a simulated public meeting used to illustrate examples of good and bad communication behaviors. The workshop uses a mock public meeting video, participatory video exercises, role-playing, and instructor, and a resource text. This interactive approach to teaching communication skills can help sensitize scientists to the public's understanding of risk and improve scientists' confidence and effectiveness in communicating scientific information. 10 refs., 1 fig.
White, D. A.; White, R. K.
This paper describes a workshop in communication and public speaking skills recently conducted for a group of public officials whose responsibilities include presenting risk information at public meetings associated with hazardous waste sites. We detail the development and execution of the 2(1/2)-day workshop, including the development and integration of a 45-min video of a simulated public meeting used to illustrate examples of good and bad communication behaviors. The workshop uses a mock public meeting video, participatory video exercises, role-playing, an instructor, and a resource text. This interactive approach to teaching communication skills can help sensitize scientists to the public's understanding of risk and improve scientists' confidence and effectiveness in communicating scientific information.
Choudhary, Anjali; Gupta, Vineeta
Like many other people based professions, communications skills are essential to medical practice also. Traditional medical teaching in India does not address communication skills which are most essential in dealing with patients. Communication skills can be taught to medical students to increase clinical competence. To teach basic communication and counseling skills to fourth-year undergraduate students to increase their clinical competence. A total of 48, fourth-year MBBS students participated in the study. They were given training in basic communication and counseling skills and taught the patient interview technique according to Calgary-Cambridge guide format. Improvement in communication was assessed by change in pre- and post-training multiple choice questions, clinical patient examination, and Standardized Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (SPSQ) scores. About 88% of the students in the sample were convinced of the importance of learning communication skills for effective practice. Almost 90% students were communicating better after training, as tested by improved SPSQ. As judged by Communication Skill Attitude Scale, student's positive attitude toward learning communication skill indicated that there is a necessity of communication skill training during undergraduate years. The ability to communicate effectively is a core competency for medical practitioners. Inculcating habits of good communications skill during formative years will help the medical students and future practitioners. Regular courses on effective communication should be included in the medical school curriculum.
Adamczyk, Przemysław; Daren, Artur; Sułecka, Aleksandra; Błądziński, Piotr; Cichocki, Łukasz; Kalisz, Aneta; Gawęda, Łukasz; Cechnicki, Andrzej
Alongside various psychopathological symptoms and neurocognitive dysfunctions, communication skill impairments may be considered core feature of schizophrenia. Although many studies examined the relation between employment status and neurocognition in schizophrenia, we still know very little about the role of communication skills in vocational status among people with schizophrenia. The purpose of this study is to identify the most characteristic communication, neurocognitive and social cognition differences which separate the employed schizophrenia outpatients from those who do not work. The study included three groups: 33 schizophrenia outpatients employed in social firms, 29 unemployed schizophrenia outpatients participating in occupational therapy and sex & age matched 31 healthy controls. We assessed communication skills, global cognitive functioning, executive functions, memory, social cognition as well as severity of psychopathology. Our results indicate that the most characteristic differences between employed and unemployed schizophrenia outpatients are associated with selective language and communication skills, i.e. paralinguistic aspects of communication, understanding of discrete meaning of linguistic context and figurative meaning of language. We find no significant differences between both clinical groups with regard to neurocognition and social cognition. Moreover, unemployed group had more severe psychopathology than the employed group, so we re-analyzed results controlling for symptom severity. The only differences that endured were related to general communication skills and explanation of pictured metaphors, but only when controlling solely for positive or negative syndrome. In conclusion, the present study indicates that employment in schizophrenia is associated with better symptomatic remission and communication skills, but not with better neurocognition and social cognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
McCallister, Jennifer W; Gustin, Jillian L; Wells-Di Gregorio, Sharla; Way, David P; Mastronarde, John G
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requires physicians training in pulmonary and critical care medicine to demonstrate competency in interpersonal communication. Studies have shown that residency training is often insufficient to prepare physicians to provide end-of-life care and facilitate patient and family decision-making. Poor communication in the intensive care unit (ICU) can adversely affect outcomes for critically ill patients and their family members. Despite this, communication training curricula in pulmonary and critical care medicine are largely absent in the published literature. We evaluated the effectiveness of a communication skills curriculum during the first year of a pulmonary and critical care medicine fellowship using a family meeting checklist to provide formative feedback to fellows during ICU rotations. We hypothesized that fellows would demonstrate increased competence and confidence in the behavioral skills necessary for facilitating family meetings. We evaluated a 12-month communication skills curriculum using a pre-post, quasiexperimental design. Subjects for this study included 11 first-year fellows who participated in the new curriculum (intervention group) and a historical control group of five fellows who had completed no formal communication curriculum. Performance of communication skills and self-confidence in family meetings were assessed for the intervention group before and after the curriculum. The control group was assessed once at the beginning of their second year of fellowship. Fellows in the intervention group demonstrated significantly improved communication skills as evaluated by two psychologists using the Family Meeting Behavioral Skills Checklist, with an increase in total observed skills from 51 to 65% (P ≤ 0.01; Cohen's D effect size [es], 1.13). Their performance was also rated significantly higher when compared with the historical control group, who demonstrated only 49% of observed skills
This study sought to find out the influence of language and communication skills on students\\' performance in vocational courses. The study used the cumulative mean scores of two sets of final year students over tine three-year perrod of their N.C.E course in Agricultural Education, Business Education, and Fine and Applied ...
Maryam Sadat Katebi; Talat Khadivzadeh; Zohre Sepehri Shamloo; Habibolah Esmaily
Background & aim: Communication is a fundamental human need. Medical students and healthcare professionals must be attuned to the needs of patients using effective communication skills. With regards to medical training, currently the focus is on theoretical matters and communication skills are taken for granted. This problem has caused miscommunication with patients referred to teaching hospitals. We conducted this study to assess communication skills of midwives from the perspective of partu...
Dong, Ting; LaRochelle, Jeffrey S; Durning, Steven J; Saguil, Aaron; Swygert, Kimberly; Artino, Anthony R
The Essential Elements of Communication (EEC) were developed from the Kalamazoo consensus statement on physician-patient communication. The Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USU) has adopted a longitudinal curriculum to use the EEC both as a learning tool during standardized patient encounters and as an evaluation tool culminating with the end of preclerkship objective-structured clinical examinations (OSCE). Medical educators have recently emphasized the importance of teaching communication skills, as evidenced by the United States Medical Licensing Examination testing both the integrated clinical encounter (ICE) and communication and interpersonal skills (CIS) within the Step 2 Clinical Skills exam (CS). To determine the associations between students' EEC OSCE performance at the end of the preclerkship period with later communication skills assessment and evaluation outcomes in the context of a longitudinal curriculum spanning both undergraduate medical education and graduate medical education. Retrospective data from preclerkship (overall OSCE scores and EEC OSCE scores) and clerkship outcomes (internal medicine [IM] clinical points and average clerkship National Board of Medical Examiners [NBME] scores) were collected from 167 USU medical students from the class of 2011 and compared to individual scores on the CIS and ICE components of Step 2 CS, as well as to the communication skills component of the program directors' evaluation of trainees during their postgraduate year 1 (PGY-1) residency. In addition to bivariate Pearson correlation analysis, we conducted multiple linear regression analysis to examine the predictive power of the EEC score beyond the IM clerkship clinical points and the average NBME Subject Exams score on the outcome measures. The EEC score was a significant predictor of the CIS score and the PGY-1 communication skills score. Beyond the average NBME Subject Exams score and the IM clerkship clinical points, the EEC score
Leung, Kai-Kuen; Wang, Wei-Dan; Chen, Yen-Yuan
There is a lack of information on the use of multi-source evaluation to assess trainees' interpersonal and communication skills in Oriental settings. This study is conducted to assess the reliability and applicability of assessing the interpersonal and communication skills of family medicine residents by patients, peer residents, nurses, and…
Merckaert, Isabelle; Delevallez, France; Gibon, Anne-Sophie; Liénard, Aurore; Libert, Yves; Delvaux, Nicole; Marchal, Serge; Etienne, Anne-Marie; Bragard, Isabelle; Reynaert, Christine; Slachmuylder, Jean-Louis; Scalliet, Pierre; Van Houtte, Paul; Coucke, Philippe; Razavi, Darius
This study assessed the efficacy of a 38-hour communication skills training program designed to train a multidisciplinary radiotherapy team. Four radiotherapy teams were randomly assigned to a training program or a waiting list. Assessments were scheduled at baseline and after training for the training group and at baseline and 4 months later for the waiting list group. Assessments included an audio recording of a radiotherapy planning session to assess team members' communication skills and expression of concerns of patients with breast cancer (analyzed with content analysis software) and an adapted European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer satisfaction with care questionnaire completed by patients at the end of radiotherapy. Two hundred thirty-seven radiotherapy planning sessions were recorded. Compared with members of the untrained teams, members of the trained teams acquired, over time, more assessment skills (P = .003) and more supportive skills (P = .050) and provided more setting information (P = .010). Over time, patients interacting with members of the trained teams asked more open questions (P = .022), expressed more emotional words (P = .025), and exhibited a higher satisfaction level regarding nurses' interventions (P = .028). The 38-hour training program facilitated transfer of team member learned communication skills to the clinical practice and improved patients' satisfaction with care. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Baird, John W.; Stull, James B.
This paper discusses the growing trend toward businesses in United States becoming multinational corporations, particularly in the Latin American countries. Specific attention is given to the skills needed by the organizational communicator in order to function in those settings. The paper presents a cross-cultural business simulation designed to…
Peterson, Eleanor B; Boland, Kimberly A; Bryant, Kristina A; McKinley, Tara F; Porter, Melissa B; Potter, Katherine E; Calhoun, Aaron W
Effective communication is an essential element of medical care and a priority of medical education. Specific interventions to teach communication skills are at the discretion of individual residency programs. We developed the Resident Communication Skills Curriculum (RCSC), a formal curriculum designed to teach trainees the communication skills essential for high-quality practice. A multidisciplinary working group contributed to the development of the RCSC, guided by an institutional needs assessment, literature review, and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies. The result was a cohesive curriculum that incorporates didactic, role play, and real-life experiences over the course of the entire training period. Methods to assess curricular outcomes included self-reporting, surveys, and periodic faculty evaluations of the residents. Curricular components have been highly rated by residents (3.95-3.97 based on a 4-point Likert scale), and residents' self-reported communication skills demonstrated an improvement over the course of residency in the domains of requesting a consultation, providing effective handoffs, handling conflict, and having difficult conversations (intern median 3.0, graduate median 4.0 based on a 5-point Likert scale, P ≤ .002). Faculty evaluations of residents have also demonstrated improvement over time (intern median 3.0, graduate median 4.5 based on a 5-point Likert scale, P communication skills curriculum for pediatrics residents was implemented, with a multistep evaluative process showing improvement in skills over the course of the residency program. Positive resident evaluations and informal comments from faculty support its general acceptance. The use of existing resources makes this curriculum feasible.
Full Text Available Background: Doctors’ verbal and non-verbal communication skills have an impact on patients’ health outcomes, so it is important for medical students to develop these skills. Traditional, non-verbal communication skills training can involve a tutor manually annotating a student's non-verbal behaviour during patient–doctor consultations, but this is very time-consuming. Tele-conference systems have been used in verbal communication skills training. Methods: We describe EQClinic, a system that enables verbal and non-verbal communication skills training during tele-consultations with simulated patients (SPs, with evaluation exercises promoting reflection. Students and SPs can have tele-consultations through the tele-consultation component. In this component, SPs can provide feedback to students through a thumbs-up/ thumbs-down tool and a comments box. EQClinic automatically analyses communication features in the recorded consultations, such as facial expressions, and provides graphical representations. Our 2015 pilot study investigated whether EQClinic helped students be aware of their non-verbal behaviour and improve their communication skills, and evaluated the usability of the platform. Students received automated feedback, and SP and tutor evaluations, and then completed self-assessment and reflection questionnaires. Results: Eight medical students and three SPs conducted 13 tele-consultations using EQClinic. More students paid attention to their non-verbal communication and students who were engaged in two consultations felt more confident in their second consultation. Students rated the system positively, felt comfortable using it (5.9/7, and reported that the structure (5.4/7 and information (5.8/7 were clear. This pilot provides evidence that EQClinic helps, and positively influences, medical students practise their communication skills with SPs using a tele-conference platform. Discussion: It is not easy to improve non
Liu, Chunfeng; Scott, Karen M; Lim, Renee L; Taylor, Silas; Calvo, Rafael A
Doctors' verbal and non-verbal communication skills have an impact on patients' health outcomes, so it is important for medical students to develop these skills. Traditional, non-verbal communication skills training can involve a tutor manually annotating a student's non-verbal behaviour during patient-doctor consultations, but this is very time-consuming. Tele-conference systems have been used in verbal communication skills training. We describe EQClinic, a system that enables verbal and non-verbal communication skills training during tele-consultations with simulated patients (SPs), with evaluation exercises promoting reflection. Students and SPs can have tele-consultations through the tele-consultation component. In this component, SPs can provide feedback to students through a thumbs-up/ thumbs-down tool and a comments box. EQClinic automatically analyses communication features in the recorded consultations, such as facial expressions, and provides graphical representations. Our 2015 pilot study investigated whether EQClinic helped students be aware of their non-verbal behaviour and improve their communication skills, and evaluated the usability of the platform. Students received automated feedback, and SP and tutor evaluations, and then completed self-assessment and reflection questionnaires. Eight medical students and three SPs conducted 13 tele-consultations using EQClinic. More students paid attention to their non-verbal communication and students who were engaged in two consultations felt more confident in their second consultation. Students rated the system positively, felt comfortable using it (5.9/7), and reported that the structure (5.4/7) and information (5.8/7) were clear. This pilot provides evidence that EQClinic helps, and positively influences, medical students practise their communication skills with SPs using a tele-conference platform. It is not easy to improve non-verbal communication skills in a short time period. Further evaluation of
This is an encore presentation of what was presented at the 2012 AGU International Conference. It was entitled: 'ASSESSING CORE COMPETENCIES.' The poster presentation, however, has been redesigned and reorganized with new, revised perspectives. The importance of ASSESSMENT principles has been emphasized. Catherine Palomba and Trudy Banta offer the following definition of assessment, adapted from one provided by Marchese in 1987. Assessment is the systematic collection, review, and use of information about educational programs undertaken for the purpose of improving student learning and development. (Palomba and Banta 1999). Educational institutions are committing substantial resources to the establishment of dedicated technology-based laboratories, so that they will be able to accommodate and fulfill students' desire to master certain of these specific skills. This type of technology-based instruction may raise some fundamental questions about the core competencies of the student learner. Some of the most important questions are : 1. Is the utilization of these fast high-powered computers and user-friendly software programs creating a totally non-challenging instructional environment for the student learner ? 2. Can technology itself all too easily overshadow the learning outcomes intended ? 3. Are the educational institutions simply training students how to use technology rather than educating them in the appropriate field ? 4. Are we still teaching content-driven courses and analysis oriented subject matter ? 5. Are these sophisticated modern era technologies contributing to a decline in the Critical Thinking Capabilities of the 21st century technology-savvy students ? The author tries to focus on technology as a tool and not on the technology itself. He further argues that students must demonstrate that they have the have the ability to think critically before they make an attempt to use technology in a chosen application-specific environment. The author further
Perera, Jennifer; Mohamadou, Galy; Kaur, Satpal
Feedback is essential to guide students towards expected performance goals. The usefulness of teacher feedback on improving communication skills (CS) has been well documented. It has been proposed that self-assessment and peer-feedback has an equally important role to play in enhancing learning. This is the focus of this study. Objectively structured self-assessment and peer feedback (OSSP) was incorporated into small group CS teaching sessions of a group of semester one medical students who were learning CS for the first time, to minimise the influence of previous educational interventions. A control group matched for academic performance, gender and age was used to enable parallel evaluation of the innovation. A reflective log containing closed and open ended questions was used for OSSP. Facilitators and simulated patients provided feedback to students in both groups during CS learning as per routine practice. Student perceptions on OSSP and acceptability as a learning method were explored using a questionnaire. CS were assessed in both groups using objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) as per routine practice and assessors were blinded as to which group the student belonged. Mean total score and scores for specific areas of interview skills were significantly higher in the experimental group. Analysis of the questionnaire data showed that students gained fresh insights into specific areas such as empathy, addressing patients' concerns and interview style during OSSP which clearly corroborated the specific differences in scores. The free text comments were highly encouraging as to acceptability of OSSP, in spite of 67% being never exposed to formal self- and peer-assessment during pre-university studies. OSSP promotes effective CS learning and learner acceptability is high.
Paternotte, Emma; Scheele, Fedde; Seeleman, Conny M; Bank, Lindsay; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van Dulmen, Sandra
Intercultural communication (ICC) between doctors and patients is often associated with misunderstandings and dissatisfaction. To develop ICC-specific medical education, it is important to find out which ICC skills medical specialists currently apply in daily clinical consultations. Doctor-patient consultations of Dutch doctors with non-Dutch patients were videotaped in a multi-ethnic hospital in the Netherlands. The consultations were analyzed using the validated MAAS-Global assessment list in combination with factors influencing ICC, as described in the literature. In total, 39 videotaped consultations were analyzed. The doctors proved to be capable of practising many communication skills, such as listening and empathic communication behaviour. Other skills were not practised, such as being culturally aware and checking the patient's language ability. We showed that doctors did practice some but not all the relevant ICC skills and that the ICC style of the doctors was mainly biomedically centred. Furthermore, we discussed the possible overlap between intercultural and patient-centred communication. Implications for practice could be to implement the relevant ICC skills in the existing communication training or develop a communication training with a patient-centred approach including ICC skills.
Brown, Richard F; Owens, Myra; Bradley, Cathy
Cancer patients face difficulties in accessing legally mandated benefits and accommodations when they return to the workplace. Poor employer-employee communication inflates these difficulties. Although proven methods to facilitate physician-patient communication exist, these have not been applied to the workplace. Thus, we aimed to assess the feasibility and utility of applying these methods to educate patients about their workplace rights and provide them with communication skills training to aid their conversations with their employers. A DVD was produced to educate patients and facilitate workplace communication. Participants consisted of 28 solid tumor cancer patients (14 women and 14 men) who completed primary cancer treatment in the past 12 months and were employed at the time of diagnosis. Participants watched a communication skills training DVD and completed a telephone interview. The interview elicited information about workplace experiences and evaluation of the DVD training program. The physician-patient communication skills training model utilized was successfully translated to the employer-employee setting. All but one participant found the DVD useful and easy to understand and indicated a high degree of confidence in using the communication skills to help them ask for workplace accommodations. All participants agreed that it would help newly diagnosed patients in discussions with their employers. Our data provides promising preliminary evidence that patient communication skills training can be applied to the workplace setting and is a welcomed aid to newly diagnosed cancer patients in their discussions with employers regarding the impact of treatment on their work performance and needs for accommodations. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Kissane, David W; Bylund, Carma L; Banerjee, Smita C; Bialer, Philip A; Levin, Tomer T; Maloney, Erin K; D'Agostino, Thomas A
To provide a state-of-the-art review of communication skills training (CST) that will guide the establishment of a universal curriculum for fellows of all cancer specialties undertaking training as oncology professionals today. Extensive literature review including meta-analyses of trials, conceptual models, techniques, and potential curricula provides evidence for the development of an appropriate curriculum and CST approach. Examples from the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center CST program are incorporated. A core curriculum embraces CST modules in breaking bad news and discussing unanticipated adverse events, discussing prognosis, reaching a shared treatment decision, responding to difficult emotions, coping with survivorship, running a family meeting, and transitioning to palliative care and end of life. Achievable outcomes are growth in clinician's self-efficacy, uptake of new communication strategies and skills, and transfer of these strategies and skills into the clinic. Outcomes impacting patient satisfaction, improved adaptation, and enhanced quality of life are still lacking. Future communication challenges include genetic risk communication, concepts like watchful waiting, cumulative radiation risk, late effects of treatment, discussing Internet information and unproven therapies, phase I trial enrollment, and working as a multidisciplinary team. Patient benefits, such as increased treatment adherence and enhanced adaptation, need to be demonstrated from CST.
Burke, Lynsey A.; Williams, Joanne M.
This paper is linked to a previous paper outlining an evaluation of a thinking skills intervention (Burke & Williams, 2008). Following extensive requests for the assessment tools used in the intervention, this short paper presents the development and potential uses of two thinking skills assessment tools. The aim of the paper is simply to make…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although it is taken for granted that history-taking and communication skills are learnable, this learning process should be confirmed by rigorous studies, such as randomized pre- and post-comparisons. The purpose of this paper is to analyse whether a communication course measurably improves the communicative competence of third-year medical students at a German medical school and whether technical or emotional aspects of communication changed differently. Method A sample of 32 randomly selected students performed an interview with a simulated patient before the communication course (pre-intervention and a second interview after the course (post-intervention, using the Calgary-Cambridge Observation Guide (CCOG to assess history taking ability. Results On average, the students improved in all of the 28 items of the CCOG. The 6 more technically-orientated communication items improved on average from 3.4 for the first interview to 2.6 in the second interview (p Conclusions Our communication course measurably improved communication skills, especially for female students. These improvements did not depend predominantly on an extension of the interview time. Obviously, “technical” aspects of communication can be taught better than “emotional” communication skills.
L. Celeste Rossetto
Full Text Available Financial planners need to have solid knowledge of a range of financial concepts and be adeptcommunicators. Australian universities comprehensively ground students in the necessary contentknowledge for their future careers, however, scant attention is paid to the indispensable communication skillsthat students will need when they enter the professional arena. Students need to accumulate financialplanning knowledge but they also have to interact with clients and peers in a business where they willnegotiate a professional identity for themselves that will serve their specific expertise. It takes time to developthese skills and to assume a professional identity. The focus of our paper is how to engender this persona atthe same time as the students acquire their knowledge. We focus on strategies and activities that were used toembed professional communication skills within a financial planning subject in a regional university throughexperiential learning and authentic tasks.
Hambly, H; Robling, M; Crowne, E; Hood, K; Gregory, J W
To identify training needs in communication skills and to assess training preferences of staff working in paediatric diabetes services, which will inform the development of a learning programme in behaviour change counselling for healthcare professionals. Three hundred and eighty-five staff in 67 UK paediatric diabetes services were sent questionnaires to determine their previous communication skills training, to measure their self-reported view of the importance of and confidence in addressing common clinical problems and to assess the perceived feasibility of training methods to improve skillfulness. Two hundred and sixty-six questionnaires (69%) were returned from 65 services. Sixteen per cent of doctors, nurses and dietitians reported no previous training in communication skills and 47% had received no training since graduating. Respondents rated psychosocial issues as more important to address than medical issues within consultations (t = 8.93, P skills for diabetes professionals. The survey will inform the development of a tailored learning programme for health professionals in UK paediatric diabetes clinics.
A teacher's professional success in working with students, his or her physical health and personal fulfilment depend on how successful his or her interpersonal relationsbips with the students are which accounts for the need for permanent teachers training in communicative skills. A successful teachers training model has to offer models and approaches aiming at the integration of scientific and practical theories. Theoretical basis should stimulate reflection on important problems. There is a ...
The study enlightens the effectiveness of Multimedia Package in learning communicative skill in English. Objectives of the study: To prepare a Multimedia Package for developing communicative skill in English. To find out the impact of Multimedia Package in improving communicative skill in English. Quasi Experimental method was adopted in the…
In the last few decades the medical community has increasingly underlined the necessity for medical students and healthcare professionals to acquire adequate and patient-friendly medical language and communication skills. Although teachers of foreign languages for medical purposes are usually not medically trained, their learners present them with…
One of the biggest challenges facing the career and technical education (CTE) community as it works to implement the 2006 Perkins Act is responding to more rigorous requirements for reporting on CTE students' technical skill attainment. The U.S. Department of Education suggested in non-regulatory guidance that states and locals use the number of…
Zytowski, Donald G.; Luzzo, Darrell Anthony
Outlines issues surrounding construction of self-reported ability-skill-efficacy measures, including validity, response format, and norms. Illustrates how they were addressed in the development of the Kuder Skills Assessment, which consists of six self-efficacy subscales congruent with the Kuder Career Search. (Contains 46 references.) (SK)
Sánchez Expósito, Judit; Leal Costa, César; Díaz Agea, José Luis; Carrillo Izquierdo, María Dolores; Jiménez Rodríguez, Diana
The aim of this study was to analyse the communication skills of students in interactions with simulated critically-ill patients using a new assessment tool to study the relationships between communication skills, teamwork and clinical skills and to analyse the psychometric properties of the tool. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the communications skills of 52 students with critically-ill patients through the use of a new measurement tool to score video recordings of simulated clinical scenarios. The 52 students obtained low scores on their skills in communicating with patients. The reliability of the measuring instrument showed good inter-observer agreement (ICC between 0.71 and 0.90) and the validity yielded a positive correlation (pnursing students lack skills when communicating with critically ill patients in simulated scenarios. The measuring instrument used is therefore deemed valid and reliable for assessing nursing students through a clinical simulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Casabianca, Andrew B; Berger, Jeffrey S; Papadimos, Thomas J; Capwell-Burns, Amy
Evaluating resident interpersonal and communication skills (ICS) presents a significant challenge. Unlike the In-Training-Exam, an objective measure of knowledge, the evaluation of ICS is subjective. Previous interactions could influence how teaching faculty evaluate this competency leading to inaccurate assessment of resident ICS. Faculty groups from other residencies and non-physicians were enlisted to compare assessments with those by teaching faculty. A cross-sectional study was conducted comparing how different evaluator groups assessed the ICS of anesthesiology residents. Nine residents participated each in two Standardized Patient (SP) encounters that were video-recorded. The recordings were viewed by eleven evaluators representing four different evaluator groups, one non-blinded teaching faculty group, two blinded anesthesiology faculty groups from separate programs and one blinded non-physician group. They scored each encounter using a modified SEGUE framework evaluation form graded on a Likert scale. The mean score for each resident ICS encounter by evaluator group were as follows: non-blinded teaching faculty (57.89), non-physician group (57.42), and the blinded anesthesiology faculties (53.00) and (53.83) respectively. There was significant difference in how the evaluator groups scored the resident performances (p<0.001). Analysis of ranks showed excellent correlation comparing teaching faculty with the other anesthesiology faculty groups (r=0.764, p=0.017 and r=0.765, p=0.016, respectively). The highest ranked resident overall ranked high across all evaluator groups and the lowest ranked resident was ranked lowest across most evaluator groups. Though potential for biases from previous interactions exist, teaching faculty assessments of resident ICS are similar to the assessments of other anesthesiology faculty evaluator groups.
Clokie, Trish L.; Fourie, Elna
This research establishes the role of communication education in employability by determining how employers of graduates view communication, identifying communication skills that employers view as relevant, and establishing whether these skills are included in communication courses. To achieve these aims, local businesses were surveyed, and the…
In this article the concept of nonverbal communication skill is discovered on the basis of the analysis of the concept ‘skill’ and peculiarities of nonverbal communication. The ‘nonverbal communication skill’ phenomenon is defined as psychological and pedagogical problem. Features and factors that contribute to the development of nonverbal communication skill of future teachers (students of Pedagogical University) are determined.
Harnof, Sagi; Hadani, Moshe; Ziv, Amitai; Berkenstadt, Haim
Communication skills are an important component of the neurosurgery residency training program. We developed a simulation-based training module for neurosurgery residents in which medical, communication and ethical dilemmas are presented by role-playing actors. To assess the first national simulation-based communication skills training for neurosurgical residents. Eight scenarios covering different aspects of neurosurgery were developed by our team: (1) obtaining informed consent for an elective surgery, (2) discharge of a patient following elective surgery, (3) dealing with an unsatisfied patient, (4) delivering news of intraoperative complications, (5) delivering news of a brain tumor to parents of a 5 year old boy, (6) delivering news of brain death to a family member, (7) obtaining informed consent for urgent surgery from the grandfather of a 7 year old boy with an epidural hematoma, and (8) dealing with a case of child abuse. Fifteen neurosurgery residents from all major medical centers in Israel participated in the training. The session was recorded on video and was followed by videotaped debriefing by a senior neurosurgeon and communication expert and by feedback questionnaires. All trainees participated in two scenarios and observed another two. Participants largely agreed that the actors simulating patients represented real patients and family members and that the videotaped debriefing contributed to the teaching of professional skills. Simulation-based communication skill training is effective, and together with thorough debriefing is an excellent learning and practical method for imparting communication skills to neurosurgery residents. Such simulation-based training will ultimately be part of the national residency program.
Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of frequent feedback on residents' communication skills as measured by a standardized checklist. Five medical students were recruited in order to assess twelve emergency medicine residents' communication skills during a one-year period. Students employed a modified checklist based on Calgary-Cambridge observation guide. The checklist was designed by faculty members of Tehran University of Medical Science, used for assessment of students' communication skills. 24 items from 71 items of observational guide were selected, considering study setting and objects. Every two months an expert faculty, based on descriptive results of observation, gave structured feedback to each resident during a 15-minute private session. Total mean score for baseline observation standing at 20.58 was increased significantly to 28.75 after feedbacks. Results markedly improved on "gathering information" (T1=5.5, T6=8.33, P=0.001, "building relationship" (T1=1.5, T6=4.25, P<0.001 and "closing the session" (T1=0.75, T6=2.5, P=0.001 and it mildly dropped on "understanding patients view" (T1=3, T6=2.33, P=0.007 and "providing structure" (T1=4.17, T6=4.00, P=0.034. Changes in result of "initiating the session" and "explanation and planning" dimensions are not statically significant (P=0.159, P=0.415 respectively. Frequent feedback provided by faculty member can improve residents' communication skills. Feedback can affect communication skills educational programs, and it can be more effective if it is combined with other educational methods.
Clarke, Patricia; Schull, Daniel; Coleman, Glen; Pitt, Rachael; Manathunga, Catherine
Veterinary technology is an emerging profession within the veterinary and allied animal health fields in Australia and affords graduates the opportunity to contribute to the small but growing body of literature within this discipline. This study describes the introduction of a contextualised assessment task to develop students' research…
Carvalho, Irene P; Pais, Vanessa G; Almeida, Susana S; Ribeiro-Silva, Raquel; Figueiredo-Braga, Margarida; Teles, Ana; Castro-Vale, Ivone; Mota-Cardoso, Rui
To assess the effects of a communication skills program on professional practitioners' performance and self-confidence in clinical interviewing. Twenty-five health professionals took 3 months of basic communication skills followed by 3 months of advanced communication skills. An additional quarter dealt with self-awareness and communication in special situations. Participants' performances were evaluated in clinical interviews with standardized patients before, during and after the program by external observers and standardized patients, using standardized instruments. Participants assessed their own confidence in their communication skills before and after the program. Data were analysed using GLM repeated-measures procedures in SPSS. Basic communication skills and self-confidence improved throughout the 6 months; competencies declined but self-confidence continued to increase 4 months later. Compared with taking no course, differences were statistically significant after the 6 months (external observers only) and 4 months later (external observers and participants). The program effectively improved communication skills, although significantly only when assessed by external observers. Four months later, effects were significant in communication skills (external observers), despite the decline and in self-confidence. While periodical enrollment in programs for the practice of communication skills may help maintain performance, more knowledge on communication and self-awareness may enhance self-confidence. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Die Checkliste PK "Professionelles ärztliches Kommunikationsverhalten" in Unterricht und Evaluation kommunikativer Fertigkeiten im Medizinstudium [Checklist "Professional Communication in Medicine" in teaching and assessing of anamnesis and communication skills in medical education
Full Text Available [english] Objectives: The checklist „Professional Communication in Medicine“ serves as a tool for teaching and training medical students in communication skills, it has also been developed in order to evaluate the students’ performance at the end of their second year at the Medical University of Vienna. The checklist consists of three parts: 26 items referring to the contents of the interview according to George Engel’s ten step model of anamnesis, 10 items referring to the style of communication and 12 items deal with the relationship established. Methods: Teachers of communication skills in medicine were asked to check the list for objectivity (interrater- reliability. In a first step (learning, after they got to know how to handle the list, they were trained in applying this checklist with the help of videos – each presenting a complete anamnesis. The testing that followed looked at the items in terms of their level of consensus. Results: On the whole it can be said that a good level of consensus – in around 75 percent of all items - was reached in assessing all three parts, i.e. style of communication, contents and relationship. The highest levels of consensus were observed in part B: style of communication, the lowest in section C: relationship. Conclusion: Results have turned out satisfactorily as far as they provide consistent forms of assessment for the major part of items. However, improvements need to be made in areas dealing with question-building, psychosocial aspects but also personal development. All in all, the checklist can be seen as an essential contribution to quality assurance in medical communication, involving both, students and teachers. [german] Zielsetzungen: Die Checkliste PK „Professionelles ärztliches Kommunikationsverhalten“ ist als Unterrichtsmittel, für gezieltes Training und die Evaluation kommunikativer Fertigkeiten, im medizinischen Unterricht an der Medizinischen Universität Wien (MUW
Lord Chancellor, Francis Bacon of England said: Reading maketh a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man. Even after his death, Francis Bacon remained extremely influential through his works, especially as philosophical advocate and practitioner of the scientific method during the scientific revolution. Written communication skills are extremely important for scientists and engineers because it helps them to achieve their goals effectively and meet stipulated deadlines according to a pre-established schedule. Richard Arum and Josipa Roksa claim that American students are learning very little during their first two years of college (Arum and Roksa, 2011). Written communication involves expressing yourself clearly, using language with precision; constructing a logical argument; taking notes; editing and summarizing; and writing reports. There are three main elements to written communication. First and foremost is the structure because this in principle outlines clearly the way the entire content is laid out. Second, the style which primarily indicates the way it is written and how communication is made effective and vibrant. Third, the content which should document in complete detail, what you are writing about. Some researchers indicate that colleges and universities are failing to prepare the students to meet the demanding challenges of the present day workforce and are struggling to maintain an international status (Johnson, K. 2013). In this presentation, the author provides some guidelines to help students improve their written communication skills. References: Johnson, Kristine (2013) "Why Students Don't Write: Educating in the Era of Credentialing: Academically Adrift: Limited Learning on College Campuses," Conversations on Jesuit Higher Education: Vol. 43, Article 9. Available at: http://epublications.marquette.edu/conversations/vol43/iss1/9 Arum, Richard and Roksa, Josipa (2011) Academically Adrift: Limited Learning on College Campuses
The purpose of this study was to examine communication skills, interpersonal problem solving skills, and social self-efficacy perception of adolescents and the predictive role of communication skills and interpersonal problem solving skills on social self-efficacy. This study is a quantitative and relational study aimed at examining the…
Jameel, Abid; Noor, Sahibzada Mahmood; Ayub, Shahid; Ali, Sobia Sabir; Park, Yoon Soo; Tekian, Ara
To examine the feasibility and effectiveness of teaching and assessing professionalism in a developing country. The pre-intervention and post-intervention study was conducted from January to August 2012 and comprised 7 workshops of three days each that were held at four teaching hospitals of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province in Pakistan. Overall, there were 10 Objective Structured Clinical Examination stations and 10 written scenarios. After the pre-test, workshop was held on various aspects of professionalism which was considered 'intervention', and it was followed by a post-test similar to the pre-test at the end of day 3. Stata 12 was used for all statistical analyses. There were 136 postgraduate residents in the study. The correlation between Objective Structured Clinical Examination stations and written exam for pre-test was 0.42 (p0.05).The standardised effect size for the adjusted regression was 0.37 for both comparisons (pprofessionalism was found relevant, effective and feasible in resource-constrained countries. Teaching and assessment of professionalism has become globally relevant and is recommended to be included in the curricula of medical institutions.
Juni Bayu Saputra
This article points out the results of the study attempting to solve the speaking problem faced by students in one of the Higher School of Teacher Training and Education (STKIP in Central Lampung. For the purpose of the topic, 30 fellow students were selected as the subject. Research method was Classroom Action Research with Kemmis and Taggart model. It was conducted for about four cycles. According to the results of speaking test, findings showed that using Communicative Language Teaching (CLT had positive meaningful effect on improving students’ speaking skill. To sum up, CLT is an effective method to teach speaking to the subject.
Isaias, Pedro; Issa, Tomayess
This paper aims to examine the value of communication skills learning process through various assessments in Information Systems (IS) postgraduate units in Australia and Portugal. Currently, communication skills are indispensable to students in expanding their social networks and their knowledge at university and in the future workplace, since…
This paper is an analysis of the challenge of assessing student learning and how that is affected by using descriptions of competencies as a core element when describing the aims of the learning process. Assessment is modelled as a three step process; characterising, identifying and judging, to a...... the characterisation part of an assessment process. From a teaching and teachers' perspective, the latter is far more important than the former.......This paper is an analysis of the challenge of assessing student learning and how that is affected by using descriptions of competencies as a core element when describing the aims of the learning process. Assessment is modelled as a three step process; characterising, identifying and judging......, to allow for the following argument: Working with competency descriptions is rightly said to make judging more difficult. This potentially lowers the reliability of the assessment. But competency descriptions also carry a great potential of raising the validity of the assessment by focusing...
Riley, Tracey J.; Simons, Kathleen A.
Given the importance of effective written communication skills to the discipline of accounting, faculty must emphasize these skills in their classroom in order to adequately prepare students for successful careers in the field. Since 2000, only two studies in the accounting literature have examined which written communication skills are needed by…
Haldane, Sarah; Hinchcliff, Kenneth; Mansell, Peter; Baik, Chi
Good communication skills are an important entry-level attribute of graduates of professional degrees. The inclusion of communication training within the curriculum can be problematic, particularly in programs with a high content load, such as veterinary science. This study examined the differences between the perceptions of students and qualified veterinarians with regards to the entry-level communication skills required of new graduates in clinical practice. Surveys were distributed to students in each of the four year levels of the veterinary science degree at the University of Melbourne and to recent graduates and experienced veterinarians registered in Victoria, Australia. Respondents were asked to rank the relative importance of six different skill sets: knowledge base; medical and technical skills; surgical skills; verbal communication and interpersonal skills; written communication skills; and critical thinking and problem solving. They were then asked to rate the importance of specific communication skills for new graduate veterinarians. Veterinarians and students ranked verbal communication and interpersonal skills as the most important skill set for an entry-level veterinarian. Veterinarians considered many new graduates to be deficient in these skills. Students often felt they lacked confidence in this area. This has important implications for veterinary educators in terms of managing the expectations of students and improving the delivery of communication skills courses within the veterinary curriculum.
Spanager, Lene; Konge, Lars; Dieckmann, Peter
BACKGROUND: Trainee surgeons would benefit from regular, formative assessments to ensure they learn the nontechnical aspects of surgical performance. Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons in Denmark (NOTSSdk) is a tool to assess surgeons' nontechnical skills (NTS) during an operation. The aims......, although 2 elements of leadership ("supporting others" and "coping with pressure") were considered irrelevant in 27% to 31% of the cases. Assessments of 5 procedures were sufficient to gain reliable ratings (Generalizability coefficient > 0.80) of a trainee surgeon's NTS. CONCLUSION: As supervisors used...
Smith, Gerald F.
The development of student thinking skills is a major goal of business education. As with other such goals, student outcomes assessment must be undertaken to measure goal achievement. Thinking is difficult to teach; it is also difficult to assess. The purpose of this article is to improve management educators' understanding of student thinking…
Rosen, Joel; Spatz, Erica S; Gaaserud, Annelise M J; Abramovitch, Henry; Weinreb, Baruch; Wenger, Neil S; Margolis, Carmi Z
The need for cross-cultural training (CCT) increases as physicians encounter more culturally diverse patients. However, most medical schools relegate this topic to non-clinical years, hindering skills development. Some residency programs have successfully addressed this deficit by teaching cross-cultural communication skills in a teaching objective structured clinical examination (tOSCE) context. The authors developed and evaluated a CCT workshop designed to teach cross-cultural communication skills to third-year medical students using a tOSCE approach. A 1 and 1/2-day workshop incorporating didactic, group discussion and tOSCE components taught medical students cross-cultural awareness, interviewing skills, working with an interpreter, attention to complementary treatments, and consideration of culture in treatment and prevention. Six standardized patient cases introduced various clinical scenarios and the practical and ethical aspects of cross-cultural care. Student evaluation of the workshop was positive concerning educational value, skills advancement and pertinence to their clinical activities. Survey of students before and after the workshop demonstrated improvement in students' abilities to assess the culture and health beliefs of patients and negotiate issues regarding treatment. CCT in the context of medical student clinical training can be carried out effectively and efficiently using a dedicated multi-modal workshop including standardized patients.
Bennett, Kellie; Lyons, Zaza
The importance of teaching communication skills in any undergraduate medical curriculum cannot be overstated. Effective doctor-patient communication is widely recognised as an essential aspect of quality patient care. A communication skills module developed for first year medical students at the University of Western Australia (UWA) is described…
Early acquisition of language and communication skills enhances and promotes effective communication and interactive processes among children who are visually impaired. These children require communication power for them to function effectively in spoken words among sighted persons. Acquisition of listening skills ...
van Empel, P.J.; Verdam, M.G.E.; Huirne, J.A.; Bonjer, H.J.; Meijerink, W.J.; Scheele, F.
Aim: Open knot-tying and suturing skills are fundamental surgical skills, founding many alternative knot-tying techniques. It is therefore mandatory for residents to possess adequate basic open knot-tying skills. The aim of this study was to compare an objective assessment of open knot-tying skills
Communication is a fundamental element of care at every level of nursing practice. It is important, therefore, for nurse managers to create environments that promote and encourage good communication, and help nurses to develop their communication skills formally and informally. This article discusses the effects of communication on the quality of care. It examines nurses' professional duty to maintain good communication skills and how managers can help them do this. It also discusses nurse managers' communication skills in the context of leadership style, conflict resolution and self-awareness. Finally, it considers the notion of shared governance as good practice.
Feraco, Angela M; Brand, Sarah R; Mack, Jennifer W; Kesselheim, Jennifer C; Block, Susan D; Wolfe, Joanne
Communication is central to pediatric oncology care. Pediatric oncologists disclose life-threatening diagnoses, explain complicated treatment options, and endeavor to give honest prognoses, to maintain hope, to describe treatment complications, and to support families in difficult circumstances ranging from loss of function and fertility to treatment-related or disease-related death. However, parents, patients, and providers report substantial communication deficits. Poor communication outcomes may stem, in part, from insufficient communication skills training, overreliance on role modeling, and failure to utilize best practices. This review summarizes evidence for existing methods to enhance communication skills and calls for revitalizing communication skills training within pediatric oncology. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Managheb, S. E.; Zamani, A.; Shams, B.; Farajzadegan, Z.
Background: Effective communication is essential to the practice of high-quality medicine. There are methodological challenges in communication skills training. This study was performed in order to assess the educational benefits of communication skills training by video feedback method versus traditional formats such as lectures on clinical…
Srinivasan, Malathi; Hwang, Judith C; West, Daniel; Yellowlees, Peter M
Simulation technologies are used to assess and teach competencies through the provision of reproducible stimuli. They have exceptional utility in assessing responses to clinical stimuli that occur sporadically or infrequently. In this article, the authors describe the utility of emerging simulation technologies, and discuss critical issues in simulator-based skills assessment and appropriate results analysis. Based on literature search and expert consensus, the authors discuss three simulation technologies: standardized patients and the objective structured clinical examination; the integrated high fidelity mannequin; virtual clinical stations and the objective structured virtual examination. The authors explore the current state of these technologies: uses, cost, limitations, and likely future applications. For instance, tele-standardized patients may test learners' communication/management approach to challenges during tele-consultation, such as a suicidal patient several hundred miles away. Integrated mannequins may test leadership skills during psychiatric emergencies. Case-based interactive virtual clinical assessment tools may test learners' decision-making skills or self-reflection. However, these exciting tools must be implemented systematically. Specifically, educators must define the competencies of interest precisely. Appropriate data analysis will generate dependable results, ascribing the correct proportion of outcome variability to individual learner behavior. Careful analysis and utilization of results will allow justification of the costs to major stakeholders. Simulation technologies offer exciting possibilities for skills evaluation and clinical practice improvement. When used creatively and appropriately, they form a useful adjunct in the armament of educators addressing the question, "Is this physician competent?"
Sharma, Bharat; Mishra, Amit; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Grantcharov, Teodor P
Adverse events in surgery have highlighted the importance of non-technical skills, such as communication, decision-making, teamwork, situational awareness and leadership, to effective organizational performance. These skills carry particular importance to surgical oncology, as members of a multidisciplinary team must work cohesively to formulate effective patient care plans. Several non-technical skills evaluation tools have been developed for use in surgery, without adequate comparison and consensus on which should be standard for training. Eleven articles describing the use of three non-technical evaluation tools related to surgery: NOTSS (Non Technical Skills for Surgeons), NOTECHS (Non Technical Skills) and OTAS (Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery) were analyzed with respect to scale formulation, validity, reliability and feasibility. Furthermore, their use in training thus far and the future of non-technical rating scales in surgical curricula was discussed. Future work should focus on incorporating these assessment tools into training and into a real operating room setting to provide formative evaluations for surgical residents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Wisconsin Technical College System (WTCS) is working to comply with the Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Improvement Act of 2006 (Perkins) to ensure that its graduates have mastered the technical skills needed by business and industry. The legislation requires that each state identify and approve program assessment strategies…
Марина Олександрівна Васильєва-Халатникова
.... Communicative, organizational and suggestive skills of high school teacher are revealed and analyzed.Communicative ability of teacher - ability setting and forming a pedagogical and reasonable position about the students...
Dulmen, A.M. van; Holl, R.A.
Paediatric care places great demands on interpersonal communication skills, especially as regards the handling of psychosocial issues. Recent shifts in paediatric morbidity and increases in patient empowerment furthermore emphasize the need for continuing paediatric education in communication
Full Text Available A teacher's professional success in working with students, his or her physical health and personal fulfilment depend on how successful his or her interpersonal relationsbips with the students are which accounts for the need for permanent teachers training in communicative skills. A successful teachers training model has to offer models and approaches aiming at the integration of scientific and practical theories. Theoretical basis should stimulate reflection on important problems. There is a need, however, for planning activities based on solving true, everyday problems. This should help teachers linking the newly acquired knowledge to what they already know and to their life experience. It should further help them introduce the new knowledge into solving their teaching problems. In this way teachers could be trained to monitor the process of their continuing education, to delineate their problems, find solutions, evaluate the results of the their solving problems. Such a concept of permanent education considerably enhances the professionalism of the teaching job.
Loureiro, Elizabete M; Severo, Milton; Bettencourt, Paulo; Ferreira, Maria A
Results of third year medical students' attitudes and stress levels towards the acquisition of communication skills before and after a Communication and Clinical Skills Course (CCSC) at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Porto (FMUP), Portugal, are presented. 115 students attending third-year CCSC completed a demographic questionnaire, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Communication Skills Attitudes Scale and Interpersonal Behavior Survey. Significant negative correlation was found between anxiety levels and attitudes towards learning communication skills in general as well as the teaching and learning process. At the end of the Course students reported that when compared to the start, their communication skills are less sufficient. At the end of this CCSC at FMUP, students recognized its major importance and how they need to invest and improve communication skills. However, it seems important to monitor the attitudes and anxiety levels of students towards patient care and communication during the medical course and to identify ways of overcoming barriers towards learning communication skills. It is recommended that there should be a complete (transversal and vertical) integration of communication skills, including effective teaching methods, assessments, and examinations in order to be valued by the students. This would necessitate curricular changes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Banerjee, Smita C; Manna, Ruth; Coyle, Nessa; Penn, Stacey; Gallegos, Tess E; Zaider, Talia; Krueger, Carol A; Bialer, Philip A; Bylund, Carma L; Parker, Patricia A
Many nurses express difficulty in communicating with their patients, especially in oncology settings where there are numerous challenges and high-stake decisions during the course of diagnosis and treatment. Providing specific training in communication skills is one way to enhance the communication between nurses and their patients. We developed and implemented a communication skills training program for nurses, consisting of three teaching modules: responding empathically to patients; discussing death, dying, and end-of-life goals of care; and responding to challenging interactions with families. Training included didactic and experiential small group role plays. This paper presents results on program evaluation, self-efficacy, and behavioral demonstration of learned communication skills. Three hundred forty-two inpatient oncology nurses participated in a 1-day communication skills training program and completed course evaluations, self-reports, and pre- and post-standardized patient assessments. Participants rated the training favorably, and they reported significant gains in self-efficacy in their ability to communicate with patients in various contexts. Participants also demonstrated significant improvement in several empathic skills, as well as in clarifying skill. Our work demonstrates that implementation of a nurse communication skills training program at a major cancer center is feasible and acceptable and has a significant impact on participants' self-efficacy and uptake of communication skills.
In this work communication skills of students of a bachelor program of nursing of the second and the third year at Faculty of Health and Social Studies, University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice were assessed. Communication skills are important both for successful study at university and for successful work in healthcare services. They especially important for nurses who build very close relationships with patients. There are four parts of the bachelor thesis: 1. theory of communication...
So, Wing-Chee; Wong, Miranda Kit-Yi; Lam, Ka-Yee
This study examined whether social and communicative skills would predict the ability to imitate conventional-interactive gestures (e.g., HAND WAVING for saying goodbye) in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Twenty 6- to 11-year-old Chinese-speaking children with ASD were participated. Their social and communicative skills were assessed based on their caregivers’ ratings on their social and communication impairments and the observation of their gesture production in spontaneous in...
Harvey, Pat; Ahmann, Elizabeth
Family-centered care can seem challenging when family member behavior, choices, attitudes, or emotions are "difficult" or "challenging" to deal with. Yet nurses can develop skills to effectively interact with families in a wide variety of circumstances and then become able to practice family-centered care in any situation that might arise. One particularly useful skill is "validation," which means accepting what the family member says or does as a valid expression of thoughts and feelings in that particular circumstance at that particular time. Validation does not mean there is agreement or acceptance of unsafe behaviors, only that the nurse acknowledges that the family member's concerns and feelings are important and should be listened to and taken seriously, even in the presence of disagreement. Validation, which should be individualized, can take many forms, ranging from providing complete attention to reflection of statements, identification of possible unexpressed emotions, normalization, and finally, a full and genuine sense of connection. Understanding and practicing validation can empower nurses and family members, as well as support effectivefamily-centered communication and problem solving even in challenging circumstances.
Both the information technology (IT) industry and the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) demand soft-skill training in higher education and require IT graduates to demonstrate competence in interpersonal communication, teamwork, and conflict management. Group projects provide teamwork environment for soft-skill training, but…
Dehaghani, Abdollah Rezaei; Akhormeh, Kobra Ahmadi; Mehrabi, Tayyebeh
The worldwide nursing shortage is threatening the quality of healthcare. The two most common causes in maintaining nurses are job satisfaction, a positive working environment, and good relationships among staff. This study aimed to determine the effect of interpersonal communication skills training on job satisfaction among the nurses working in Al-Zahra Hospital affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran, in 2011. This study was a quasi-experimental research with two groups and two phases, and was carried out on 70 nurses from Al-Zahra University Hospital. Only nurses who had been employed for more than one year were accepted into the study. There were 35 nurses in the test group and 35 nurses in the control group. The study questionnaire included personal details and job satisfaction scale by Smith and Kendall. Sampling was done randomly and nurses were divided into test and control groups. In the test group, the communication skills training program was done in 6 sessions, twice a week and each session was held for 2 hours. The questionnaire was completed in two stages; before, and two months after the study. Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics through SPSS Software version 18. Findings showed that pre-intervention mean score of job satisfaction of nurses in both groups had no significant difference (p = 0.92). After the communication skills training program in the experimental group, mean score of job satisfaction increased and it was significant compared to the control group (p training program increased the mean score of job satisfaction in the test group. Therefore, it seems necessary that nursing managers design training programs for them.
Ayuob, Nasra Naeim; Qadi, Mahdi Ali; El Deek, Basem Salama; Boker, Abdulaziz Mohamed
To evaluate the effect of using peer role-playing in learning the communication skills as a step in the development of the communication skills training course delivered to pre-clinical medical students. This study was conducted at the King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, between September 2014 and February 2015 and comprised medical students. Mixed methods design was used to evaluate the developed communication skills training course. Tests were conducted before and after the communication skills training course to assess the students' self-reported communication. After the course, the students completed a satisfaction survey. Focus groups were conducted to assess the behavioural and organisational changes induced by the course. SPSS 16 was used for data analysis.. Of the293 respondents, 246(84%) were satisfied with the course. Overall, 169(58%) subjects chose the lectures as the most helpful methods for learning the communication skills while 124(42%) considered practical sessions as the most helpful method. Besides, 237(81%) respondents reported that the role-play was beneficial for their learning, while 219(75%) perceived the video-taped role-play as an appropriate method for assessing the communication skills. Peer role-play was found to be a feasible and well-perceived alternative method in facilitating the acquisition of communication skills..
Nielsen, Annegrethe; Ringby, Betina
Understanding the ability to communicate with patients as a central clinical skill, the importance of developing communication teaching in healthcare educations is obvious. Following the establishment of a room specially equipped for training communication skills in 2010, implementation...... of communication skills training in 5 healthcare educations at University College North Denmark has been a focus for a committed group of teachers. In order to encourage the implementation process, courses in facilitation has been offered to teachers from all five healthcare education programmes: nursing......, occupational therapy, radiography, midwifery and physiotherapy. The courses focused on the skills needed to facilitate training of communication skills. Participants trained the use of descriptive feedback, role playing, video recording, actors and re-rehearsal in small groups for communication teaching...
Problem Statement: Located in each discipline, communication also bears a huge importance in the health sector. Communication with patients and relatives require more moderate and friendly because of their sensitive situation. Developing communication skills of students in health sciences will be able to communicate effectively with patients. In…
McDermott, Michael P; Tischler, Victoria A; Cobb, Malcolm A; Robbé, Iain J; Dean, Rachel S
Communication is increasingly recognized as a core skill for veterinary practitioners, and in recent years, attention to communication competency and skills training has increased. To gain an up-to-date assessment of the current state of veterinary communication skills and training, we conducted a survey among veterinary practitioners in the United Kingdom and United States in 2012/2013. The questionnaire was used to assess the current state, relevance, and adequacy of veterinary communication skills among veterinary practitioners, to assess interest in further training, and to understand perceived challenges in communicating with clients. There was an overall response rate of 29.6% (1,774 of 6,000 recipients), with a higher response rate for UK-based practitioners (39.7%) than practitioners in the US (19.5%). Ninety-eight percent of respondents agreed that communication skills were as important as or more important than clinical knowledge. Forty-one percent of respondents had received formal veterinary communication skills training during veterinary school, and 47% had received training post-graduation. Thirty-five percent said their veterinary communication skills training during veterinary school prepared them well or very well for communicating with clients about the health of their pets, compared to 61% of those receiving post-graduate training. Forty percent said they would be interested in further veterinary communication skills training, with the preferred methods being simulated consultations and online training. While there has been increased emphasis on communication skills training during and after veterinary school, there is a need for more relevant and accessible training.
Lau, F. L.
Objective—To assess whether the attending of the communication skills workshops by the emergency department doctors improves patient satisfaction and reduces the number of complaints on doctors' attitude.
Konopasek, Lyuba; Kelly, Kevin V; Bylund, Carma L; Wenderoth, Suzanne; Storey-Johnson, Carol
Students are rarely taught communication skills in the context of clinical reasoning training. The purpose of this project was to combine the teaching of communication skills using SPs with clinical reasoning exercises in a Group Objective Structured Clinical Experience (GOSCE) to study feasibility of the approach, the effect on learners' self-efficacy and attitude toward learning communication skills, and the effect of providing multiple sources of immediate, collaborative feedback. GOSCE sessions were piloted in Pediatrics and Medicine clerkships with students assessing their own performance and receiving formative feedback on communication skills from peers, standardized patients (SPs), and faculty. The sessions were evaluated using a retrospective pre/post-training questionnaire rating changes in self-efficacy and attitudes, and the value of the feedback. Results indicate a positive impact on attitudes toward learning communication skills and self-efficacy regarding communication in the clinical setting. Also, learners considered feedback by peers, SPs, and faculty valuable in each GOSCE. The GOSCE is an efficient and learner-centered method to attend to multiple goals of teaching communication skills, clinical reasoning, self-assessment, and giving feedback in a formative setting. The GOSCE is a low-resource, feasible strategy for experiential learning in communication skills and clinical reasoning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gray, F. Elizabeth
International research findings and anecdotal evidence alike suggest that new accountancy graduates often begin their careers with inadequate oral communication skills. However, there is a lack of well-grounded empirical data concerning precisely what accountancy employers mean by "oral communication" and what specific skills they value…
Sabanci, Ali; Sahin, Ahmet; Sönmez, Melek Alev; Yilmaz, Ozan
The purpose of this study was to explore the correlation between school administrators' communication skills and school culture. This research was conducted as a survey using a descriptive method in order to ascertain the views of school managers and teachers about the correlation between school managers' communication skills and school culture in…
Objective of this study is to examine the correlation the quality of paternity, gender roles and communication skills of fathers. The scores in the scale of supporting developmental tasks were used in order to determine the quality of paternity. The other data collection tools were the BEM sex role inventory and the communication skills inventory.…
McFadden, Anna T.
The purpose of this paper is to present an audio-enhanced delivery model for enhancing communication skills in online educational leadership courses. As professors make the transition from face-to-face to online delivery, the issue of the need for educational leaders to practice effective communication skills can present a barrier to online…
ter Horst, G.; Leeds, J.G.; Hoogstraten, J.
27 1st-yr dental students participated in a 3-day communication-skills training, and 39 nonparticipating 1st-yr dental students served as controls, to investigate the short-term effects of the training on participating Ss' communication skills. The general objective of the training was to advance
Dewi, Ratna Sari; Kultsum, Ummi; Armadi, Ari
The aims of the study are to know whether communicative games have an impact on teaching speaking skill and describe how communicative games give an influence on speaking skills of students at junior high schools in Jakarta, Indonesia. Classroom Action Research (CAR) was implemented based on Kurt. L model. The procedures used were planning,…
Nielsen, Annegrethe; Ringby, Betina
Understanding the ability to communicate with patients as a central clinical skill, the importance of developing communication teaching in healthcare educations is obvious. Following the establishment of a room specially equipped for training communication skills in 2010, implementation of commun......Understanding the ability to communicate with patients as a central clinical skill, the importance of developing communication teaching in healthcare educations is obvious. Following the establishment of a room specially equipped for training communication skills in 2010, implementation...... of communication skills training in 5 healthcare educations at University College North Denmark has been a focus for a committed group of teachers. In order to encourage the implementation process, courses in facilitation has been offered to teachers from all five healthcare education programmes: nursing......, occupational therapy, radiography, midwifery and physiotherapy. The courses focused on the skills needed to facilitate training of communication skills. Participants trained the use of descriptive feedback, role playing, video recording, actors and re-rehearsal in small groups for communication teaching...
Huang, Ya-Hsuan; Hsieh, Suh-Ing; Hsu, Li-Ling
Limited disease knowledge is frequently the cause of disease-related anxiety in myocardial infarction patients. The ability to communicate effectively serves multiple purposes in the professional nursing practice. By communicating effectively with myocardial infarction patients, nurses may help reduce their anxiety by keeping them well informed about their disease and teaching them self-care strategies. This research evaluates the communication skills of nurses following scenario-based simulation education in the context of communication with myocardial infarction patients. This study used an experimental design and an educational intervention. The target population comprised nurses of medicine (clinical qualified level N to N2 for nursing) working at a municipal hospital in Taipei City, Taiwan. A total 122 participants were enrolled. Stratified block randomization divided participants into an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group received clinical scenario-based simulation education for communication. The control group received traditional class-based education for communication. Both groups received a pre-test and a Communication Skills Checklist post-test assessment. Results were analyzed using SPSS 17.0 for Windows software. A t-test showed significant increases in communication skills (p communication skills following the education intervention. The results indicate that clinical scenario-based simulation education for communication is significantly more effective than traditional class-based education in enhancing the ability of nurses to communicate effectively with myocardial infarction patients.
National Center for Alcohol Education, Arlington, VA.
This training program handbook focuses on the presentation and practice of eight basic communication skills: attending, paraphrasing, reflection of feeling, summarizing, probing, counselor self-disclosure, interpreting, and confrontation. The skills are presented in 10 sessions, one for each of the eight skills and two integrating sessions. The…
Mascle, Deanna DeBrine
Writing is an essential professional skill. The goal of writing instruction in business communication classes is to develop the skills and knowledge necessary to successfully meet future writing challenges. However, many writers struggle to transfer skills and knowledge from one context to another. The primary reason for this struggle is that…
Hill, Doris Adams; Flores, Margaret M.; Kearley, Regina F.
The authors supervised and trained pre-service teachers while conducting extended school year (ESY) services for pre-kindergarten and elementary students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other developmental disabilities (DD). Each classroom was responsible for conducting communication assessments and developing interventions focused on…
Calhoun, Aaron W; Sutton, Erica R H; Barbee, Anita P; McClure, Beth; Bohnert, Carrie; Forest, Richard; Taillac, Peter; Fallat, Mary E
Each year, 16,000 children suffer cardiopulmonary arrest, and in one urban study, 2% of pediatric EMS calls were attributed to pediatric arrests. This indicates a need for enhanced educational options for prehospital providers that address how to communicate to families in these difficult situations. In response, our team developed a cellular phone digital application (app) designed to assist EMS providers in self-debriefing these events, thereby improving their communication skills. The goal of this study was to pilot the app using a simulation-based investigative methodology. Video and didactic app content was generated using themes developed from a series of EMS focus groups and evaluated using volunteer EMS providers assessed during two identical nonaccidental trauma simulations. Intervention groups interacted with the app as a team between assessments, and control groups debriefed during that period as they normally would. Communication performance and gap analyses were measured using the Gap-Kalamazoo Consensus Statement Assessment Form. A total of 148 subjects divided into 38 subject groups (18 intervention groups and 20 control groups) were assessed. Comparison of initial intervention group and control group scores showed no statistically significant difference in performance (2.9/5 vs. 3.0/5; p = 0.33). Comparisons made during the second assessment revealed a statistically significant improvement in the intervention group scores, with a moderate to large effect size (3.1/5 control vs. 4.0/5 intervention; p communication abilities) present in both control and intervention groups (p = 0.515) at the initial assessment. This gap persisted in the control group at the time of the second assessment (-0.8), but was significantly reduced (0.04) in the intervention group (p = 0.013, r = 0.41, absolute value). These results suggest that an EMS-centric app containing guiding information regarding compassionate communication skills can be effectively used by EMS
Power, B T; Lennie, S C
Communication is a core skill and a prerequisite for dietitians' clinical competence. It is generally acknowledged that communication skills can be taught and learned. There is a paucity of published work identifying dietetic students' attitudes towards learning communication skills, and understanding this is important. The present cross-sectional study aimed to address this issue using an adapted version of the Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS), which was designed to capture information concerning positive and negative attitudes to learning communication skills. An online questionnaire was sent to all undergraduate and post-graduate dietetic programmes in the UK. Of the students' solicited for enrolment in the study, 33.4% (n = 300) completed the questionnaire. A one-way analysis of variance showed attitudes to learning communication skills differed significantly between years of study on both subscales of the CSAS. Subsequent analyses indicated that first-year students' attitudes to learning communication skills were significantly more positive than those of fourth-year students (P = 0.042). Third-year students had significantly more positive attitudes to learning communication skills than fourth-year students (P = 0.028). Negative attitudes were also linked to the year of study with fourth-year students having significantly more negative attitudes than third-year students (P = 0.046). Sex, practice placement experience and parental occupation did not significantly influence attitudes to learning communication skills. These findings indicate that efforts are required to maintain positive attitudes to learning communication skills. Further longitudinal studies are recommended in this respect. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Hopkins, Thomas; Clegg, Judy; Stackhouse, Joy
Research has revealed that the youth offending population has low language ability when assessed on standardized language measures. However, little is known about the perceptions young offenders (YOs) have of their own literacy ability and their communicative interactions with others. Such knowledge might further our understanding of the possible association between language, literacy and offending behaviour. This study investigates the perceptions and experiences YOs have of using literacy and communicating with others. It addresses the following questions. How satisfied are YOs with their own literacy and communication skills and how important do YOs perceive these to be? How much do YOs believe they understand others in their communicative interactions? How satisfied are YOs with their communicative interactions with others and how does this influence conflict at home, school, and in the youth justice system? An opportunity sample of 31 YOs on court orders were recruited from a local youth offending service, excluding any who did not have English as a first language or were in receipt of current speech and language therapy provision. Twenty-six qualitative individual semi-structured interviews and two focus group interviews were carried out and analysed using a framework analysis method. Themes revealed participants were dissatisfied with their communication and literacy ability. Other themes identified were difficulty in understanding others, a perceived lack of support and respect gained from others, and a negative impact of communication on self-esteem. The findings suggest that YOs often found themselves in disputes with authority figures, but that they avoided using positive communication to solve such conflicts and also avoided confiding in others. The findings support the results found from quantitative research on the language abilities of YOs. This emphasizes the value in adopting qualitative methodology to understand the relationship between literacy
How to maintain equity and objectivity in assessing the communication skills in a large group of student nurses during a long examination session, using the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE).
Bagnasco, Annamaria; Tolotti, Angela; Pagnucci, Nicola; Torre, Giancarlo; Timmins, Fiona; Aleo, Giuseppe; Sasso, Loredana
While development, testing, and innovation of the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) are common in the international literature, studies from the United States of America (USA), Australia, and the United Kingdom (UK) predominate. There is little known about OSCE use in European countries, such as Italy, where other than cost analysis, there is little reporting of OSCE use or validation. This paper reports on one Italian initiative, which evaluated the equity and objectivity of the OSCE method of assessing communication skills. An OSCE method was used to assess the communication skills of first-year students of the Degree Course in Nursing. A method of simulation was implemented through role-playing with standardized patients. An observational method was used to collect data. Four hundred and twenty-one first-year undergraduate nursing students at one university site in Italy took part. Ten examination sessions were carried out. The students' performances were assessed by two examiners who used a structured observation grid and conducted their assessment separately. A situation simulated by four nurses with experience as actors was used as the topic for the students' examination. Calculation of the daily rate of students who passed the examination revealed a random distribution over time. The nonparametric correlation indexes referring to the assessments and to the scores assigned by the two examiners proved statistically significant (P≤0.001). The study confirmed the validity of the OSCE method in ensuring equity and objectivity of communication skills assessment in a large population of nursing students for the purpose of certification throughout the duration of the examination. This has important implications for nurse education and practice as the extent to which OSCE approaches, while deemed objective, are culturally sensitive or valid and reliable across cultures is not clear. This is something that requires further research and examination in
Abdenova Zhuldyz Amirzayevna
Most English teachers in Kazakhstan have been familiar with the notion of oral communication skills, receptive skills (readingand listening) and productive skills (speaking and writing). This paper, therefore, would like to address how to implement teaching stages covering the skills for the integration purpose. The teaching stages include eliciting ideas, highlighting lexis and their meanings, predicting text, ordering jumbled paragraphs, listening, reading comprehension, and acting out the ...
Pazar, Berrin; Demiralp, Meral; Erer, İmren
The most basic component of communication skills is the complex and multidimensional skill of empathy. This study was conducted to assess the communication skills and empathic tendency levels of female nursing students Turkish university. This cross-sectional study sample consisted of 342 nurse student. There was a significant difference between the classes in terms of communication skills (0.021, p .05). The mean communication skills score increased in the final year but empathic tendency levels did not increase with increasing school years. This result suggests that the empathic tendency level could not be increased with the courses in the curriculum in our study. The results suggest that empathic tendency levels were not increased with subsequent nursing coursework. Determining empathic predisposition levels prior to entry into nursing programs should therefore be considered.
Luiz Adrian, Julie Ann; Zeszotarski, Paula; Ma, Carolyn
To evaluate the impact on pharmacy students of a communication course, which used role-playing to develop active-learning skills. Students role-playing pharmacists in patient care scenarios were critiqued by students and pharmacist faculty members. Grading was performed using the rubric inspired by Bruce Berger's Communication Skills for Pharmacists. Written skills were evaluated using student written critique questionnaires. Students completed precourse and postcourse self-assessment surveys. Preceptor evaluations were analyzed for course impact. Students demonstrated improvement in oral skills based on role-play scores (45.87/50) after practice sessions. The average score based on the student questionnaire was 9.31/10. Gain was demonstrated in all defined course objectives. Impact on introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) communication objectives was insignificant. Student evaluations for course and teaching strategy reflected a high average. Study results demonstrated improvement in oral and written communication skills that may help improve interprofessional teamwork between pharmacists and other health care providers.
Jarecke, Jodi; Yang, Chengwu; Teal, Cayla R.; Street, Richard L.; Stuckey, Heather
Metaphor helps humans understand complex concepts by “mapping” them onto accessible concepts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using jazz as a metaphor to teach senior medical students improvisational communication skills, and to understand student learning experiences. The authors designed a month-long course that used jazz to teach improvisational communication. A sample of fourth-year medical students (N = 30) completed the course between 2011 and 2014. Evaluation consisted of quantitative and qualitative data collected pre- and post-course, with comparison to a concurrent control group on some measures. Measures included: (a) Student self-reports of knowledge and ability performing communicative tasks; (b) blinded standardized patient assessment of students’ adaptability and quality of listening; and (c) qualitative course evaluation data and open-ended interviews with course students. Compared to control students, course students demonstrated statistically significant and educationally meaningful gains in adaptability and listening behaviors. Students’ course experiences suggested that the jazz components led to high engagement and creativity, and provided a model to guide application of improvisational concepts to their own communication behaviors. Metaphor proved to be a powerful tool in this study, partly through enabling increased reflection and decreased resistance to behaviors that, on the surface, tended to run counter to generally accepted norms. The use of jazz as a metaphor to teach improvisational communication warrants further refinement and investigation. PMID:28777345
Full Text Available Metaphor helps humans understand complex concepts by “mapping” them onto accessible concepts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using jazz as a metaphor to teach senior medical students improvisational communication skills, and to understand student learning experiences. The authors designed a month-long course that used jazz to teach improvisational communication. A sample of fourth-year medical students (N = 30 completed the course between 2011 and 2014. Evaluation consisted of quantitative and qualitative data collected pre- and post-course, with comparison to a concurrent control group on some measures. Measures included: (a Student self-reports of knowledge and ability performing communicative tasks; (b blinded standardized patient assessment of students’ adaptability and quality of listening; and (c qualitative course evaluation data and open-ended interviews with course students. Compared to control students, course students demonstrated statistically significant and educationally meaningful gains in adaptability and listening behaviors. Students’ course experiences suggested that the jazz components led to high engagement and creativity, and provided a model to guide application of improvisational concepts to their own communication behaviors. Metaphor proved to be a powerful tool in this study, partly through enabling increased reflection and decreased resistance to behaviors that, on the surface, tended to run counter to generally accepted norms. The use of jazz as a metaphor to teach improvisational communication warrants further refinement and investigation.
Haidet, Paul; Jarecke, Jodi; Yang, Chengwu; Teal, Cayla R; Street, Richard L; Stuckey, Heather
Metaphor helps humans understand complex concepts by "mapping" them onto accessible concepts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using jazz as a metaphor to teach senior medical students improvisational communication skills, and to understand student learning experiences. The authors designed a month-long course that used jazz to teach improvisational communication. A sample of fourth-year medical students (N = 30) completed the course between 2011 and 2014. Evaluation consisted of quantitative and qualitative data collected pre- and post-course, with comparison to a concurrent control group on some measures. Measures included: (a) Student self-reports of knowledge and ability performing communicative tasks; (b) blinded standardized patient assessment of students' adaptability and quality of listening; and (c) qualitative course evaluation data and open-ended interviews with course students. Compared to control students, course students demonstrated statistically significant and educationally meaningful gains in adaptability and listening behaviors. Students' course experiences suggested that the jazz components led to high engagement and creativity, and provided a model to guide application of improvisational concepts to their own communication behaviors. Metaphor proved to be a powerful tool in this study, partly through enabling increased reflection and decreased resistance to behaviors that, on the surface, tended to run counter to generally accepted norms. The use of jazz as a metaphor to teach improvisational communication warrants further refinement and investigation.
McArthur, M L; Fitzgerald, J R
To describe the communication techniques used by clients and veterinarians during companion animal visits in Australia. A cross-sectional descriptive study. A total of 64 veterinary consultations were audiotaped and analysed with the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS); clients completed appointment level measures, including their satisfaction and perceptions of relational communication. Participants were 24 veterinarians and 64 clients. Statements intended to reassure clients were expressed frequently in the consultations, but in 59% of appointments empathy statements were not expressed towards either the client or the patient. In 10% of appointments, veterinarians did not used any open-ended questions. Overall client satisfaction was high and veterinarians' expressions of empathy directed to the client resulted in higher levels of client satisfaction. Clients' perceptions of relational communication were related to several veterinarian and client nonverbal scales. A focus on developing evidence-based clinical communication skills is expected to further enhance the veterinarian-client-patient relationship and associated clinical outcomes. Particular recommendations include the development of a broader emotion-handling repertoire, increased emphasis on the use of open-ended enquiry, including assessment of the client's perspective, as well as attention to aspects of nonverbal communication. The study provides preliminary evidence for the importance of verbal expressions of empathy during the companion animal consultation. © 2013 Australian Veterinary Association.
Chen, Jennifer J.; Shire, Suzanne H.
Effective communication is essential for young children's academic and social competence. During the preschool years, children acquire the language and communication skills necessary to express their needs, thoughts, and feelings in social interactions, and they learn to respond appropriately to others. Through effective communication, they also…
Medical educators have promoted skillful communication as a means for doctors to develop positive relationships with their patients. In practice, communication tends to be defined primarily as what doctors say, with less attention to how, when, and to whom they say it. These latter elements of communication, which often carry the emotional content of the discourse, are usually referred to as interpersonal skills. Although recognized as important by some educators, interpersonal skills have received much less attention than task-oriented, verbal aspects. Moreover, the field lacks a common language and conceptualization for discussing them. This paper offers a framework for describing interpersonal skills and understanding their relationship to verbal communication and describes an interpersonal skill-set comprised of Understanding, Empathy, and Relational Versatility. PMID:17437144
Medical educators have promoted skillful communication as a means for doctors to develop positive relationships with their patients. In practice, communication tends to be defined primarily as what doctors say, with less attention to how, when, and to whom they say it. These latter elements of communication, which often carry the emotional content of the discourse, are usually referred to as interpersonal skills. Although recognized as important by some educators, interpersonal skills have received much less attention than task-oriented, verbal aspects. Moreover, the field lacks a common language and conceptualization for discussing them. This paper offers a framework for describing interpersonal skills and understanding their relationship to verbal communication and describes an interpersonal skill-set comprised of Understanding, Empathy, and Relational Versatility.
Tóth, Ildikó; Bán, Ildikó; Füzesi, Zsuzsanna; Kesztyüs, Márk; Nagy, Lajos
In their institute authors teach medical communication skills in three languages (Hungarian, English and German) for medical students in the first year of their studies. In order to improve teaching methods, authors wanted to explore the attitudes of students towards the communication skills learning. For this purpose authors applied the Communication Skills Attitudes Scale created by Rees et al., which is an internationally accepted and well adaptable instrument. In this survey authors wanted to validate the Hungarian and German version of the Communication Skills Attitudes Scale. In addition, their aim was to analyze possible differences between the attitudes of each of the three medical teaching programs. Questionnaires were filled anonymously at the beginning of the practices. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation was performed to evaluate the attitudes using the SPSS 10.5 version for analysis. Authors created a model consisting of 7 factors. Factors were the following: 1: respect and interpersonal skills; 2: learning; 3: importance of communication within medical profession; 4: excuse; 5: counter; 6: exam; 7: overconfidence. It was found that students had mainly positive attitudes. Except the learning factor, all other factors showed significant differences between the three medical teaching programs. although students had mainly positive attitudes toward learning communication skills, there were negative attitudes which can be partly modified by improving the teaching methods. However, results may create a proper base for further research to help improving communication skills teaching methods of the authors.
Yoo, Moon Sook; Chae, Sun-Mi
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of video-based peer review on communication skills and learning motivation among nursing students. A non-equivalent control with pretest-posttest design was used. The participants were 47 sophomore nursing students taking a fundamentals of nursing course at a nursing college in Korea. Communication with a standardized patient was videotaped for evaluation. The intervention group used peer reviews to evaluate the videotaped performance; a small group of four students watched the videotape of each student and then provided feedback. The control group assessed themselves alone after watching their own videos. Communication skills and learning motivation were measured. The intervention group showed significantly higher communication skills and learning motivation after the intervention than did the control group. The findings suggest that peer review is an effective learning method for nursing students to improve their communication skills and increase their motivation to learn. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.
Bittner, Anja; Bittner, Johannes; Jonietz, Ansgar; Dybowski, Christoph; Harendza, Sigrid
Patient-physician communication should be based on plain and simple language. Despite communication skill trainings in undergraduate medical curricula medical students and physicians are often still not aware of using medical jargon when communicating with patients. The aim of this study was to compare linguistic communication skills of undergraduate medical students who voluntarily translate medical documents into plain language with students who do not participate in this voluntary task. Fifty-nine undergraduate medical students participated in this study. Twenty-nine participants were actively involved in voluntarily translating medical documents for real patients into plain language on the online-platform https://washabich.de (WHI group) and 30 participants were not (non-WHI group). The assessment resembled a virtual consultation hour, where participants were connected via skype to six simulated patients (SPs). The SPs assessed participants' communication skills. All conversations were transcribed and assessed for communication skills and medical correctness by a blinded expert. All participants completed a self-assessment questionnaire on their communication skills. Across all raters, the WHI group was assessed significantly (p = .007) better than the non-WHI group regarding the use of plain language. The blinded expert assessed the WHI group significantly (p = .018) better regarding the use of stylistic devices of communication. The SPs would choose participants from the WHI group significantly (p = .041) more frequently as their personal physician. No significant differences between the two groups were observed with respect to the medical correctness of the consultations. Written translation of medical documents is associated with significantly more frequent use of plain language in simulated physician-patient encounters. Similar extracurricular exercises might be a useful tool for medical students to enhance their communication skills with
Hamidi, Yadollah; Barati, Majid
Managers' communication skills are one of the most important topics in educational sector of universities of medical sciences and may have considerable effect on faculty members and employees. This study was per-formed to determine the level of communication skills (verbal, listening, feed-back) of the heads of department of faculties and its relation with some demo-graphic variables. This cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2009 to January 2010. We enrolled all of the heads of departments (N=60) in Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, western Iran. The participants received a self-administered 24-item questionnaire in Likert format (six general items and 18 items related to communication skills). Data were analyzed with SPSS software using Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. The average scores of verbal, listening and feedback communication were 22.5, 16.1 and 21.1, respectively. Accordingly, 78.3% of participants in verbal communication, 16.7% in listening communication and 73.3% in feedback communication had high status. There were significant differences between the average score of listening skills and age (P=0.013) as well as gender (P=0.042). In addition, there was a significant statistical difference between verbal skills and gender (P=0.021). The overall communication skills of more than half of the heads of departments were moderate. This needs designing some programs for improving department managers' communication skills.
Background There is a relative lack of current research on the effects of specific communication training offered at the beginning of the medical degree program. The newly developed communication training "Basics and Practice in Communication Skills" was pilot tested in 2008 and expanded in the following year at the University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf in Germany. The goal was to promote and improve the communicative skills of participants and show the usefulness of an early offered intervention on patient-physician communication within the medical curriculum. Methods The students participating in the project and a comparison group of students from the standard degree program were surveyed at the beginning and end of the courses. The survey consisted of a self-assessment of their skills as well as a standardised expert rating and an evaluation of the modules by means of a questionnaire. Results Students who attended the communication skills course exhibited a considerable increase of communication skills in this newly developed training. It was also observed that students in the intervention group had a greater degree of self-assessed competence following training than the medical students in the comparison group. This finding is also reflected in the results from a standardised objective measure. Conclusions The empirical results of the study showed that the training enabled students to acquire specialised competence in communication through the course of a newly developed training program. These findings will be used to establish new communication training at the University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf. PMID:22443807
Hausberg, Maria C; Hergert, Anika; Kröger, Corinna; Bullinger, Monika; Rose, Matthias; Andreas, Sylke
There is a relative lack of current research on the effects of specific communication training offered at the beginning of the medical degree program. The newly developed communication training "Basics and Practice in Communication Skills" was pilot tested in 2008 and expanded in the following year at the University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf in Germany. The goal was to promote and improve the communicative skills of participants and show the usefulness of an early offered intervention on patient-physician communication within the medical curriculum. The students participating in the project and a comparison group of students from the standard degree program were surveyed at the beginning and end of the courses. The survey consisted of a self-assessment of their skills as well as a standardised expert rating and an evaluation of the modules by means of a questionnaire. Students who attended the communication skills course exhibited a considerable increase of communication skills in this newly developed training. It was also observed that students in the intervention group had a greater degree of self-assessed competence following training than the medical students in the comparison group. This finding is also reflected in the results from a standardised objective measure. The empirical results of the study showed that the training enabled students to acquire specialised competence in communication through the course of a newly developed training program. These findings will be used to establish new communication training at the University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf.
Junod Perron, N.; Cullati, S.; Hudelson, P.; Nendaz, M.; Dolmans, D.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: A 6-month faculty development programme was designed to improve supervisors' feedback to junior doctors on their clinical communication skills (CS) and included both CS and teaching skills training. The aim of this study was to assess supervisors' views on the impact of the
Puri, Sidharth; Sikder, Shameema
After publication of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's required competencies for residency training programs, ophthalmology training programs began developing objective assessments to measure resident surgical skill. The application of these evaluation tools represents a move toward standardization in the resident educational process. This review of the assessment tools found that the evaluation rubrics for cataract surgery vary in their level of reliability and validity. Currently, variations in reliability and validity are the only measure of true differences in the evaluation rubrics. Future studies will determine which of the assessment tools is the most practical and efficient for resident training. Neither author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Noble, Lorraine M; Kubacki, Angela; Martin, Jonathan; Lloyd, Margaret
The effect of introducing professional skills training on students' patient-centred attitudes and perceptions of ability to communicate was examined. The professional skills training included weekly training in communication skills, ethics and law, and clinical skills. Consecutive cohorts of medical students receiving a traditional pre-clinical curriculum (n = 199) and a new curriculum including professional skills training (n = 255) were compared. Students completed the Doctor-Patient Scale to assess patient-centred attitudes and an 11-item scale to assess confidence in their ability to communicate with patients. Students completed the measures at the start of Year 1 and the end of Year 2. Students receiving the professional skills training showed increased confidence in communicating with patients and increases in 2 dimensions of patient-centredness ('holistic care' and 'patient decision making'). Students receiving the traditional curriculum showed increased nervousness in talking to patients. Gender and ethnic differences were found in patient-centredness and confidence in communicating, which were maintained over time. The introduction of professional skills training was successful in improving students' confidence in their ability to perform specific communicative behaviours and increasing patient-centredness relative to a traditional curriculum.
van den Eertwegh, Valerie; van Dalen, Jan; van Dulmen, Sandra; van der Vleuten, Cees; Scherpbier, Albert
Contextual factors are known to influence the acquisition and application of communication skills in clinical settings. Little is known about residents' perceptions of these factors. This article aims to explore residents' perceptions of contextual factors affecting the acquisition and application of communication skills in the medical workplace. We conducted an exploratory study comprising seven focus groups with residents in two different specialities: general practice (n=23) and surgery (n=18). Residents perceive the use of summative assessment checklists that reduce communication skills to behavioural components as impeding the learning of their communication skills. Residents perceive encouragement to deliberately practise in an environment in which the value of communication skills is recognised and support is institutionalised with appropriate feedback from role models as the most important enhancing factors in communication skills learning. To gradually realise a clinical working environment in which the above results are incorporated, we propose to use transformative learning theory to guide further studies. Provided it is used continuously, an approach that combines self-directed learning with observation and discussion of resident-patient consultations seems an effective method for transformative learning of communication skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
López Álvarez, David; Cruz Díaz, Josep Llorenç; Sánchez Carracedo, Fermín; Fernández Jiménez, Agustín
Professional Skills, such as the ability to communicate effectively or the ability to gather and integrate information, are not easy to teach or to assess. A traditional exam is not the best way of assessing these skills because it is limited both by time and by the resources students are able to consult. Moreover, in a traditional exam it is difficult to assess if professional skills have been acquired in depth. In this paper we propose to substitute the traditional exam by a take-home exam ...
Novaes, Beatriz C Albuquerque Caiuby; Versolatto-Cavanaugh, Maria Carolina; Figueiredo, Renata de Souza Lima; Mendes, Beatriz de Castro Andrade
To establish relationships between age at onset of individual hearing aid use, functional hearing, communication skills, family involvement and family expectations regarding language development of children diagnosed with hearing loss during the first three years of life. Thirty-five babies diagnosed with moderate to severe hearing loss who were receiving treatment at the Children's Hearing Center/Derdic (CeAC) were evaluated during a period of 24 months. Assessments were carried out every six months and included: VRA--Visual reinforcement audiometry (with and without amplification); IT-MAIS; MUSS; and satisfaction of family regarding child development. Cluster analysis was performed among the subjects. Consistent use of hearing aids was the only variable that exhibited a strong relationship with hearing and language skills. Children whose parents were not satisfied exhibited severe hearing loss and limited auditory capacity even with the use of hearing aid, and, consequently, poor auditory skills and speech production. Datalogging monitoring can guide the knowledge of speech-language pathologists and audiologists and it can also be used on strategic planning. Family involvement, quality of parental participation in the intervention program as well as expectations about the future are also important aspects to consider as these can aid therapists and researchers on the assessment of deaf babies intervention effectiveness.
Full Text Available The present paper examines the main principles governing the development of speaking skills in learners of English at all levels, through the optic of the Communicative Approach. Dwelling on the importance of teacher and student attitudes towards classroom communication, of ensuring an adequate class atmosphere and context for mea ningful communication, the present author goes on to discuss the most relevant and productive fluency-building activities and techniques meant to train students for meaningful self-expression and communication.
Communication skills are frequently regarded as innate and intuitive. Many studies, however, now show that most components of communication techniques can be taught and that these learned skills have an impact on the physician's ability to communicate. This article sets out two fundamental protocols that act as templates or strategies for communication. One, (the C-L-A-S-S strategy) highlights the five central factors in all clinician-patient interviews. The second (the S-P-I-K-E-S protocol) is a variant for the specific task of breaking bad news.
Strand, Elizabeth B; Johnson, Beth; Thompson, James
Mounting research supports the use of peer-assisted learning (PAL) as a teaching method in human and veterinary medicine. PAL can be a cost-efficient educational tool, saving both financial resources and faculty time. This article reviews a PAL model for teaching communication skills to veterinary medical students. In this model, junior veterinary students served as simulated clients for sophomore veterinary students. Details regarding methods of program delivery as well as evaluation data are presented. Differences between two student cohorts who participated in the PAL educational model and their subsequent evaluation results are discussed. Overall, veterinary medical students reported that this approach was beneficial and that the topic was critical to their success as veterinarians. Students also showed improvement in communication knowledge and reported that peer feedback was a strength of the program. Finally, future directions to assess and strengthen the use of PAL for communication training in veterinary medical education are proposed.
Using communication skills for difficult conversations in palliative care: 'Suffering is not a question which demands an answer, It is not a problem which demands a solution, It is a mystery which demands a “Presence”.' (Anonymous)
In many middle schools and high schools, students are presenting projects orally. However, most lack appropriate speaking skills. More importantly, they lack teacher and peer support. Most experts agree that speaking skills are essential for success. However, much anxiety surrounds public speaking and it is often cited as one of the top 10 fears.…
Karakoyun, Ferit; Yurdakul, Işıl Kabakçı
The purpose of the present study was to determine the communication skills of preservice information technology (IT) teachers attending Computer Education and Instructional Technologies (CEIT) at Anadolu University and to examine their levels of communication skills with respect to various variables. In the study, the singular and correlational survey models were applied. The research sample included a total of 183 preservice IT teachers in the 2009-2010 academic year. As the data collection ...
Object of the paper - explore the possibilities of musical lesson for the child for communication skills. The paper was used for theoretical metod - analysis of scientific literature and empirical research method – pedagogical observations of individual and group lessons. Theoretically and practically explored and described possibilities of music lessons for communication skills. The author main conclusions of the study: 1. By participating in the musical play, children are encouraged musical...
Trickey, Amber W; Newcomb, Anna B; Porrey, Melissa; Piscitani, Franco; Wright, Jeffrey; Graling, Paula; Dort, Jonathan
Surgery milestones from The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education have encouraged a focus on training and assessment of residents' nontechnical skills, including communication. We describe our 2-year experience implementing a simulation-based curriculum, results of annual communication performance assessments, and resident evaluations. Eight quarterly modules were conducted on various communication topics. Former patient volunteers served as simulation participants (SP) who completed annual assessments using the Communication Assessment Tool (CAT). During these 2 modules, communication skills were assessed in the following standardized scenarios: (1) delivering bad news to a caregiver of a patient with postoperative intracerebral hemorrhage and (2) primary care gallstone referral with contraindications for cholecystectomy. SP-CAT ratings were evaluated for correlations by individual and associations with trainee and SP characteristics. Surgical patient experience surveys are evaluated during the curriculum. Independent academic medical center surgical simulation center. Twenty-five surgery residents per year in 2015 to 2017. Residents have practiced skills in a variety of scenarios including bad news delivery, medical error disclosure, empathic communication, and end-of-life conversations. Residents report positive learning experiences from the curriculum (90% graded all modules A/A+). Confidence ratings rose following each module (p skills level, and relationships to resident confidence levels and traits. Communication scores were not associated with resident gender or postgraduate year. Over the course of the curriculum implementation, surgical patients have reported that doctors provided explanations with improved clarity (p = 0.042). The simulation-based SP-CAT has shown initial evidence of usability, content validity, relationships to observed communication behaviors and residents' skills confidence. Evaluations of different scenarios may not be
Atkinson, Rhonda; And Others
Developed as part of the ABCs of Construction National Workplace Literacy Project, these modules contain materials for improving listening skills that are designed to be used in conjunction with a commercial training video in a required 8-hour Occupational Safety and Health Administration safety course. The first module, which is designed to…
Bharathi, A. V.
This study focuses on the writing skills of third-year Bachelor of Commerce students of the colleges affiliated to Krantiguru Shyamji Krishna Verma Kachchh University, Bhuj, India. The objectives of this study were to (a) study the syllabus relevance of the concerned subject at the final-year graduation level in the commerce discipline, (b)…
Claramita, Mora; Susilo, Astrid Pratidina
The aim of these two PhD thesis are to develop a guideline on doctor-patient communication skills based on cultural characteristics of Southeast Asian context and to develop communication skills training for nurses to enhance their contribution to the informed consent and shared decision making process, in the same context. These studies started with qualitative methods; including grounded theory methodology, by exploring doctors', patients', medical students' and nurses' perceptions on the current and desired communication skills in which influenced by culture. Based on the results, we design communication skills training and evaluate the training with quantitative methods, using pre and post test studies. Southeast Asian desired ideal partnership style in communicating with their doctors. More emphasize on basic skills such as listening to subtle non-verbal cues are needed for doctors and nurses. A guideline on doctor-patient communication tailored to local culture was developed as well as training for nurses using 4CID design to enhance their contribution to the shared decision making process. To promote two-way interaction between doctors and patients and between health professionals require mastering basic skills in communicating with people, such as explorations on the unspoken concern. In a culturally hierarchical context of Indonesia, this two-way interaction is quite a challenge. To generalize our studies to other culture, more studies with rigorous methods should follow. To promote the use of basic skills in communicating with patients to approach the desired partnership communication style in Southeast Asian context, we need to use local evidences.
Olszewski, Abbie; Panorska, Anna; Gillam, Sandra Laing
Adolescents' verbal and nonverbal communication skills were compared before and after training in a workforce readiness training program, Language for Scholars (LFS), and a study skills program, Ideal Student Workshop (ISW). A cross-over design was used, ensuring that 44 adolescents received both programs and acted as their own control. The LFS…
This paper explores the pedagogical and conceptual issues that accompany the integration of intercultural communication skills into the secondary curriculum by analyzing the interactions of 102 adolescents in Spain and the USA during a 15-week, classroom-based, international online exchange. Focusing on the skills of discovery and interaction…
Background. Training in communication skills is prominent in many undergraduate medical programmes. In South Africa, training in this highly complex skill is developing rapidly, especially against the backdrop of a multilingual and multicultural society. Little work has been done locally to evaluate which training works best ...
Critical thinking and communication competence are recognized by educators as vital skills required for mastery of school subjects. However, it is observed that these two skills are underdeveloped in students. In order, to fill this void, this paper aims at constructing a framework that would be employed by teachers in ...
Geissler, Gary L.; Edison, Steve W.; Wayland, Jane P.
Business professors continue to face the challenge of truly preparing their students for the workplace. College students often lack skills that are valued by employers, such as critical thinking, creativity, communication, conflict resolution, and teamwork skills. Traditional classroom methods, such as lectures, may fail to produce adequate…
Loureiro, Elizabete; Severo, Milton; Bettencourt, Paulo; Ferreira, Maria Amélia
To analyze students' perceptions towards learning communication skills pre-and-post training in a Communication and Clinical Skills Course (CCSC) at a Portuguese Medical School. Content analysis was used to describe and systematically analyze the content written by students (n=215 from a total of 229) in an open-ended survey. In addition, content analysis association rules were used to identify meaning units. Students' pre-training definitions of communication skills were not specific; their post-training definitions were more precise and elaborated. Students perceived communications skills in Medicine as important (61%), but recommended that teaching methodologies (52%) be restructured. There appeared to be no connection between criticism of teaching skills performance and perceptions of the other aspects of the course. Students' experiences at CCSC are associated with their perceptions of communications skills learning. Content analysis associations indicated that these perceptions are influenced by context. Improvement of curricula, teaching and assessment methods, and investment in faculty development are likely to foster positive perceptions towards learning communication skills in these students. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Samp, Jennifer A.
The intercultural reality of the global marketplace necessitates effective intercultural communication and diplomatic skills training. An effective educational strategy must emphasize a balanced enhancement of learners' conceptual understanding of intercultural communication, their attitudes toward cultural differences, and the skills required for…
Hull, Louise; Sevdalis, Nick
The importance of surgeons' nontechnical skills is gaining widespread recognition as a critical element of high-quality and safe surgical care. This article reviews the knowledge base on training and assessing surgeons, and operating room (OR) teams, in nontechnical aspects of their performance. Nontechnical skills are defined in the context of the OR and key assessment instruments that have been developed to capture these skills are reviewed. Key developments that have taken place in the past decade on formal skills training are discussed, and recommendations to further advance nontechnical skills and team-based training and assessment in surgery are presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Whitehead, K; Langley-Evans, S C; Tischler, V; Swift, J A
Both the UK's National Health Service (NHS) and the National Institute of health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) have recommended increased training for health professionals in communication skills. There is evidence to suggest that communication skills are important in helping people to change health-related behaviour, which is a key role for dietitians. This study investigated the views of UK dietitians about their training needs and experience in relation to communication skills in dietetic practice. In October 2007, a cross-sectional survey was mailed to all British Dietetic Association members (n = 6013). The survey gathered quantitative data and free-text comments to ascertain the level, type and effect of communication skills training received by dietitians at both the pre- and post-registration level. There were 1158 respondents; a response rate of 19.3%. Ninety-eight percent (n = 1117) rated communication skills as either very or extremely important in client consultations. Post-registration training had been undertaken by 73% (n = 904). Of these, over 90% of respondents perceived that post-registration training had led to improvements in their relationships with patients, their confidence in client interviews and their ability to cope with challenging clients. However, 248 (21.4%) felt time keeping in interviews had worsened. Lack of time for client interviews was also the most commonly identified barrier (19%, n = 216) to implementing the skills. This study has explored an important and under-researched area. Respondents strongly endorsed the importance of good communication skills and the benefits of post-registration training in this area. Some felt that good communication was time consuming but others felt that time management had improved. Further research and training is required to support the implementation of these skills into dietetic practice.
Liénard, Aurore; Merckaert, Isabelle; Libert, Yves; Bragard, Isabelle; Delvaux, Nicole; Etienne, Anne-Marie; Marchal, Serge; Meunier, Julie; Reynaert, Christine; Slachmuylder, Jean-Louis; Razavi, Darius
Communication with patients is a core clinical skill in medicine that can be acquired through communication skills training. Meanwhile, the importance of transfer of communication skills to the workplace has not been sufficiently studied. This study aims to assess the efficacy of a 40-hour training program designed to improve patients' satisfaction and residents' communication skills during their daily clinical rounds. Residents were randomly assigned to the training program or to a waiting list. Patients' satisfaction was assessed with a visual analog scale after each visit. Transfer of residents' communication skills was assessed in audiotaped actual inpatient visits during a half-day clinical round. Transcripted audiotapes were analyzed using content analysis software (LaComm). Training effects were tested with Mann-Whitney tests and generalized linear Poisson regression models. Eighty-eight residents were included. First, patients interacting with trained residents reported a higher satisfaction with residents' communication (Median=92) compared to patients interacting with untrained residents (Median=88) (p=.046). Second, trained residents used more assessment utterances (Relative Risk (RR)=1.17; 95% Confidence intervals (95%CI)=1.02-1.34; p=.023). Third, transfer was also observed when residents' training attendance was considered: residents' use of assessment utterances (RR=1.01; 95%CI=1.01-1.02; p=.018) and supportive utterances (RR=0.99; 95%CI=0.98-1.00; p=.042) (respectively 1.15 (RR), 1.08-1.23 (95%CI), pcommunication skills learning to the workplace. Transfer was directly related to training attendance but remained limited. Future studies should therefore focus on the improvement of the efficacy of communication skills training in order to ensure a more important training effect size on transfer.
Liénard, Aurore; Merckaert, Isabelle; Libert, Yves; Bragard, Isabelle; Delvaux, Nicole; Etienne, Anne-Marie; Marchal, Serge; Meunier, Julie; Reynaert, Christine; Slachmuylder, Jean-Louis; Razavi, Darius
Background and Purpose Communication with patients is a core clinical skill in medicine that can be acquired through communication skills training. Meanwhile, the importance of transfer of communication skills to the workplace has not been sufficiently studied. This study aims to assess the efficacy of a 40-hour training program designed to improve patients' satisfaction and residents' communication skills during their daily clinical rounds. Methods Residents were randomly assigned to the training program or to a waiting list. Patients' satisfaction was assessed with a visual analog scale after each visit. Transfer of residents' communication skills was assessed in audiotaped actual inpatient visits during a half-day clinical round. Transcripted audiotapes were analyzed using content analysis software (LaComm). Training effects were tested with Mann-Whitney tests and generalized linear Poisson regression models. Results Eighty-eight residents were included. First, patients interacting with trained residents reported a higher satisfaction with residents' communication (Median = 92) compared to patients interacting with untrained residents (Median = 88) (p = .046). Second, trained residents used more assessment utterances (Relative Risk (RR) = 1.17; 95% Confidence intervals (95%CI) = 1.02–1.34; p = .023). Third, transfer was also observed when residents' training attendance was considered: residents' use of assessment utterances (RR = 1.01; 95%CI = 1.01–1.02; p = .018) and supportive utterances (RR = 0.99; 95%CI = 0.98–1.00; p = .042) (respectively 1.15 (RR), 1.08–1.23 (95%CI), pcommunication skills learning to the workplace. Transfer was directly related to training attendance but remained limited. Future studies should therefore focus on the improvement of the efficacy of communication skills training in order to ensure a more important training effect size on transfer. PMID:20865055
Jan 24, 2012 ... with students in the classroom. Communication is seen by Hybels and ... activity from problem solving, creativity, or collaborative learning, because the students will use communication skills .... activities such as classroom discussion and debates to carry out the various learning activities. Bernstern (1985) ...
Jan 24, 2012 ... with students in the classroom. Communication is seen by Hybels and. Weaver ... activity from problem solving, creativity, or collaborative learning, because the students will use communication skills for ... students should exhibit when they exist in the class. To make critical thinking happen these learning ...
Jul 2, 2011 ... compassion and empathy, all of which assist health care professionals to support patients, families and each other. Some of these communication skills are the following: Listening. Communication will be suboptimal without hearing and understanding the patient. Listening allows the patient to feel that he/.
Hawkins, Katherine; Fillion, Bryant
A study examined communication skills essential for small work groups and whether the quality of small group teaching and research is in decline. The study reviewed small group research done previously by others and the problem of existing pedagogy and research in small group communication which does not provide practical solutions to real life…
Liberman, Zoe; Woodward, Amanda L.; Keysar, Boaz; Kinzler, Katherine D.
Early exposure to multiple languages can enhance children's communication skills, even when children are effectively monolingual (Fan, Liberman, Keysar & Kinzler, 2015). Here we report evidence that the social benefits of multilingual exposure emerge in infancy. Sixteen-month-old infants participated in a communication task that required…
Background: The interpersonal relationship between the nurse and other health care providers is poor. Moreover, the ineffective therapeutic communication skills within the health team are the bane to effective and efficient health care delivery system. Nurses, as members of the health team are supposed to communicate ...
Donahue, Mavis; Bryan, Tanis
Research is reviewed on the communicative ability of learning disabled (LD) adolescents and its effects on acceptance by peers. Difficulties are noted in social perception, oral language, and social experience. Suggestions for enhancing communication and social skills include using group-contingent reinforcements and exposing LD students to normal…
Research suggests a negative relationship between frequent use of communication technologies, such as text messaging and social network sites, and academic performance, but the nature of the relationship needs to be explored in greater detail. This study explored the relationship between use of communication technologies and self-reported study…
Volman, Inge; Noordzij, Matthijs Leendert; Toni, Ivan
When established communication systems cannot be used, people rapidly create novel systems to modify the mental state of another agent according to their intentions. However, there are dramatic inter-individual differences in the implementation of this human competence for communicative innovation.
Statkiewicz, M A
Total patient care during radiologic procedures necessitates treating the whole person rather than just the area of concern. A holistic approach begins with effective communication between the patient and the technologist. This article clarifies the impact of different types of conscious and unconscious communication. Holistic patient care is facilitated by examining congruent verbal and nonverbal messages.
Liverman, D. G. E.
Communication is important in all aspects of the geosciences but is more prominent in the area of geological hazards, as the main audience for scientific information often lacks a geoscience background; and because the implications of not communicating results effectively can be very serious. Geoscientists working in the hazards area face particular challenges in communicating the concepts of risk, probability and uncertainty. Barriers to effective communication of geoscience include the complex language used by geoscientists, restriction of dissemination of results to traditional scientific media, identification of the target audience, inability to tailor products to a variety of audiences, and lack of institutional support for communication efforts. Geoscientists who work in the area of natural hazards need training in risk communication, media relations, and communicating to non-technical audiences. Institutions need to support the efforts of geoscientists in communicating their results through providing communications training; ensuring access to communications professionals; rewarding efforts to engage the public; and devoting sufficient staff and budget to the effort of disseminating results. Geoscientists themselves have to make efforts to change attitudes towards social science, and to become involved in decision making at a community level. The International Union of Geological Sciences Commission for "Geoscience for Environmental Management" established a working group to deal with these issues. This group is holding workshops, publishing collections of papers, and is looking at other means to aid geoscientists in addressing these problems.
Collins, Lauren G; Schrimmer, Anne; Diamond, James; Burke, Janice
Communication during medical interviews plays a large role in patient adherence, satisfaction with care, and health outcomes. Both verbal and non-verbal communication (NVC) skills are central to the development of rapport between patients and healthcare professionals. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of non-verbal and verbal communication skills on evaluations by standardized patients during an ethnogeriatric Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Interviews from 19 medical students, residents, and fellows in an ethnogeriatric OSCE were analyzed. Each interview was videotaped and evaluated on a 14 item verbal and an 8 item non-verbal communication checklist. The relationship between verbal and non-verbal communication skills on interview evaluations by standardized patients were examined using correlational analyses. Maintaining adequate facial expression (FE), using affirmative gestures (AG), and limiting both unpurposive movements (UM) and hand gestures (HG) had a significant positive effect on perception of interview quality during this OSCE. Non-verbal communication skills played a role in perception of overall interview quality as well as perception of culturally competent communication. Incorporating formative and summative evaluation of both verbal and non-verbal communication skills may be a critical component of curricular innovations in ethnogeriatrics, such as the OSCE. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shaw, Darcy H; Ihle, Sherri L
Communication skills are considered a core clinical skill in human medicine. Recognizing the importance of communication skills and addressing them in veterinary curricula, however, is just beginning. In the fall of 2003, the Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, markedly changed the way in which it approaches communication teaching. An intensive one-week elective rotation on client communication was offered in the senior year. This rotation made extensive use of experiential techniques through the use of role plays and videotaped real client interactions. A group of faculty and hospital staff members were trained as coaches to support students as they practiced their communication in various client scenarios. The skills taught were based on the Calgary-Cambridge Observation Guide, which outlines observable behaviors that contribute to effective medical communication. Student response to and feedback on the rotation have been very positive. As a result, the number of rotations given per year has been increased. Long-term plans include expanding communication skills teaching into other years of the DVM program and incorporating simulated clients into the teaching program. Challenges that lie ahead include the development of a fully integrated communication teaching program that spans the whole curriculum, addressing the ongoing need for the professional development of coaches, improving methods of student assessment, and recruiting/training a sufficient number of coaches.
Abe, Camila Mayumi; Bretanha, Andreza Carolina; Bozza, Amanda; Ferraro, Gyovanna Junya Klinke; Lopes-Herrera, Simone Aparecida
The aim of the current study was to investigate verbal communication skills in children with typical language development and ages between 6 and 8 years. Participants were 10 children of both genders in this age range without language alterations. A 30-minute video of each child's interaction with an adult (father and/or mother) was recorded, fully transcribed, and analyzed by two trained researchers in order to determine reliability. The recordings were analyzed according to a protocol that categorizes verbal communicative abilities, including dialogic, regulatory, narrative-discursive, and non-interactive skills. The frequency of use of each category of verbal communicative ability was analyzed (in percentage) for each subject. All subjects used more dialogical and regulatory skills, followed by narrative-discursive and non-interactive skills. This suggests that children in this age range are committed to continue dialog, which shows that children with typical language development have more dialogic interactions during spontaneous interactions with a familiar adult.
Lie, D A; Bereknyei, S; Vega, C P
Describe longitudinal skill development of medical students for the interpreted encounter. Two successive classes of students (n=92 and 100) participated in standardized clinical stations testing general communication skills and skills for working with interpreters at the end of their second year and after completing clinical clerkships during their third year. Performance was rated by standardized patients, interpreters and students using validated scales. Analysis of individual matched paired data was performed for each scale item using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Pairwise correlation was used to compare global scores of the standardized patient and standardized interpreter with student self-ratings. Over one year students' (n=124-168) performance worsened in behaviors for 'managing the encounter' (per interpreters' ratings) or remained unchanged (per patients' ratings). By patients' ratings, performance scores in general communication remained high. Students rated themselves as significantly improved in five of eight skills for working with interpreters despite a lack of external evidence of improvement from patient or interpreter. Students showed a trend toward underestimating their own global skills at baseline and overestimating them in comparison with the interpreters' global ratings. Students' general communication skills remained excellent over one year of training but some skills for working with interpreters worsened. Over time students showed a pattern of overrating their own skills compared with trained observers. Faculty who teach students should focus on specific behaviors that are most likely to decay without reinforcement and practice.
Physics students graduate with a huge array of transferrable skills, which are extremely useful to employers (particularly in the private sector, which is the largest employment base of physicists at all degree levels). However, the key to successfully connecting with these opportunities lies in how well graduates are able to communicate their skills and abilities to potential employers. The ability to communicate effectively is a key professional skill that serves scientists in many contexts, including interviewing for jobs, applying for grants, or speaking with law and policy makers. In this interactive workshop, Crystal Bailey (Careers Program Manager at APS) and Gregory Mack (Government Relations Specialist at APS) will lead activities to help attendees achieve their goals through better communication. Topics will include writing an effective resume, interviewing for jobs, and communicating to different audiences including Congress, among others. Light refreshments will be served.
Kron, Frederick W; Fetters, Michael D; Scerbo, Mark W; White, Casey B; Lypson, Monica L; Padilla, Miguel A; Gliva-McConvey, Gayle A; Belfore, Lee A; West, Temple; Wallace, Amelia M; Guetterman, Timothy C; Schleicher, Lauren S; Kennedy, Rebecca A; Mangrulkar, Rajesh S; Cleary, James F; Marsella, Stacy C; Becker, Daniel M
To assess advanced communication skills among second-year medical students exposed either to a computer simulation (MPathic-VR) featuring virtual humans, or to a multimedia computer-based learning module, and to understand each group's experiences and learning preferences. A single-blinded, mixed methods, randomized, multisite trial compared MPathic-VR (N=210) to computer-based learning (N=211). Primary outcomes: communication scores during repeat interactions with MPathic-VR's intercultural and interprofessional communication scenarios and scores on a subsequent advanced communication skills objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Multivariate analysis of variance was used to compare outcomes. student attitude surveys and qualitative assessments of their experiences with MPathic-VR or computer-based learning. MPathic-VR-trained students improved their intercultural and interprofessional communication performance between their first and second interactions with each scenario. They also achieved significantly higher composite scores on the OSCE than computer-based learning-trained students. Attitudes and experiences were more positive among students trained with MPathic-VR, who valued its providing immediate feedback, teaching nonverbal communication skills, and preparing them for emotion-charged patient encounters. MPathic-VR was effective in training advanced communication skills and in enabling knowledge transfer into a more realistic clinical situation. MPathic-VR's virtual human simulation offers an effective and engaging means of advanced communication training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Slattery, Darina M; Yvonne Cleary
peer-reviewed In this article, we introduce two programmes in technical communication (one distance, and one on-campus) offered by the University of Limerick. Both programmes have been running for several years, but are regularly reviewed to ensure that they remain relevant. We describe how these programmes correspond to industry needs, and how they develop core competencies of technical communicators. We outline two key types of assignment (writing and development), and explain their rele...
Bylund, Carma L; Alyafei, Khalid; Afana, Abdelhamid; Al-Romaihi, Sheyma; Yassin, Mohammed; Elnashar, Maha; Al-Arab, Banan; Al-Khal, Abdullatif
Health-care communication skills training may be particularly needed in the Arabian Gulf countries because of the variety of cultures within the physician and patient populations. This study describes the implementation and results of a communication skills training program for physicians in Qatar that assessed previous training, and effect of previous training on participants' course evaluations. We conducted a 2-day communication skills training course covering seven culturally adapted modules. Educational strategies included large and small group work with the standardized patient, demonstration videos, and lectures. At the end, participants completed a course evaluation survey. Data analysis performed with SPSS; frequencies and percentages were calculated, and Chi-square test applied to evaluate statistical significance. A total of 410 physicians in Qatar have participated in the course over a period of 2 years. Evaluation ratings of the course were high. Participants rated the module on Breaking Bad News as the most useful, and the small group role-play as the most helpful course component. One-third of participants had previously participated in experiential communication skills training. There was no association between previous experience and evaluation of the course. Physicians in Qatar positively evaluated a 2-day communication skills course, though the majority of participants did not have any previous exposure to experiential communication skills training.
Berkhof, Marianne; van Rijssen, H Jolanda; Schellart, Antonius J M; Anema, Johannes R; van der Beek, Allard J
Physicians need good communication skills to communicate effectively with patients. The objective of this review was to identify effective training strategies for teaching communication skills to qualified physicians. PubMED, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and COCHRANE were searched in October 2008 and in March 2009. Two authors independently selected relevant reviews and assessed their methodological quality with AMSTAR. Summary tables were constructed for data-synthesis, and results were linked to outcome measures. As a result, conclusions about the effectiveness of communication skills training strategies for physicians could be drawn. Twelve systematic reviews on communication skills training programmes for physicians were identified. Some focused on specific training strategies, whereas others emphasized a more general approach with mixed strategies. Training programmes were effective if they lasted for at least one day, were learner-centred, and focused on practising skills. The best training strategies within the programmes included role-play, feedback, and small group discussions. Training programmes should include active, practice-oriented strategies. Oral presentations on communication skills, modelling, and written information should only be used as supportive strategies. To be able to compare the effectiveness of training programmes more easily in the future, general agreement on outcome measures has to be established. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ditton-Phare, Philippa; Loughland, Carmel; Duvivier, Robbert; Kelly, Brian
A range of communication skills training programmes have been developed targeting trainees in various medical specialties, predominantly in oncology but to a lesser extent in psychiatry. Effective communication is fundamental to the assessment and treatment of psychiatric conditions, but there has been less attention to this in clinical practice for psychiatrists in training. This review examines the outcomes of communication skills training interventions in psychiatric specialty training. The published English-language literature was examined using multiple online databases, grey literature and hand searches. The review was conducted and reported using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. Studies examining the efficacy of communication skills training were included. Randomised controlled trials, pseudo-randomised studies and quasi-experimental studies, as well as observational analytical studies and qualitative studies that met criteria, were selected and critically appraised. No limits were applied for date of publication up until 16 July 2016. Total search results yielded 2574 records. Of these, 12 studies were identified and reviewed. Two were randomised controlled trials and the remaining 10 were one-group pretest/posttest designs or posttest-only designs, including self-report evaluations of communication skills training and objective evaluations of trainee skills. There were no studies with outcomes related to behaviour change or patient outcomes. Two randomised controlled trials reported an improvement in clinician empathy and psychotherapeutic interviewing skills due to specific training protocols focused on those areas. Non-randomised studies showed varying levels of skills gains and self-reported trainee satisfaction ratings with programmes, with the intervention being some form of communication skills training. The heterogeneity of communication skills training is a barrier to evaluating the efficacy of
According to Ur (1996, 120), "of all the four skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing), speaking seems intuitively the most important." Indeed, whether for business or pleasure, a primary motivation to learn a second language is to be able to converse with speakers of that language. However, in addition to being an important…
Lincolnshire-Prairie View Elementary School District, Deerfield, IL.
This handbook, which complements another handbook designed for reading instruction, focuses on the behavioral objectives in the four language arts skills of spelling, writing, listening, and speaking. The first section of the handbook contains an introductory statement, a diagram of the program design, and a list of the affective objectives. The…
The dynamics of the communicative discourse is a natural process that requires an application of a wide range of skills and strategies. In particular, linguistic discourse and the interaction process have a huge impact on promoting literacy and academic skills in all students especially English language learners (ELLs). Using interactive…
Weintraub, Lauren; Figueiredo, Lisa; Roth, Michael; Levy, Adam
Communication skills are a competency highlighted by the Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education; yet, little is known about the frequency with which trainees receive formal training or what programs are willing to invest. We sought to answer this question and designed a program to address identified barriers. We surveyed pediatric fellowship program directors from all disciplines and, separately, pediatric hematology/oncology fellowship program directors to determine current use of formal communication skills training. At our institution, we piloted a standardized patient (SP)-based communication skills training program for pediatric hematology/oncology fellows. Twenty-seven pediatric hematology/oncology program directors and 44 pediatric program directors participated in the survey, of which 56% and 48%, respectively, reported having an established, formal communication skills training course. Multiple barriers to implementation of a communication skills course were identified, most notably time and cost. In the pilot program, 13 pediatric hematology/oncology fellows have participated, and 9 have completed all 3 years of training. Precourse assessment demonstrated fellows had limited comfort in various areas of communication. Following course completion, there was a significant increase in self-reported comfort and/or skill level in such areas of communication, including discussing a new diagnosis (p =.0004), telling a patient they are going to die (p =.005), discussing recurrent disease (p communicating a poor prognosis (p =.002), or responding to anger (p ≤.001). We have designed a concise communication skills training program, which addresses identified barriers and can feasibly be implemented in pediatric hematology/oncology fellowship.
Kim-Romo, Dawn N; Barner, Jamie C; Brown, Carolyn M; Rivera, José O; Garza, Aida A; Klein-Bradham, Kristina; Jokerst, Jason R; Janiga, Xan; Brown, Bob
OBJECTIVE To assess Spanish-speaking patients' satisfaction with their clinical pharmacists' communication skills and demonstration of cultural sensitivity, while controlling for patients' sociodemographic, clinical, and communication factors, as well as pharmacist factors, and to identify clinical pharmacists' cultural factors that are important to Spanish-speaking patients. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Central Texas during August 2011 to May 2012. PARTICIPANTS Spanish-speaking patients of federally qualified health centers (FQHCs). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S) A Spanish-translated survey assessed Spanish-speaking patients' satisfaction with their clinical pharmacists' communication skills and demonstration of cultural sensitivity. RESULTS Spanish-speaking patients (N = 101) reported overall satisfaction with their clinical pharmacists' communication skills and cultural sensitivity. Patients also indicated that pharmacists' cultural rapport (e.g., ability to speak Spanish, respectfulness) was generally important to Spanish speakers. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that cultural rapport was significantly related to satisfaction with pharmacists' communication skills and demonstration of cultural sensitivity. CONCLUSION Overall, patients were satisfied with pharmacists' communication skills and cultural sensitivity. Patient satisfaction initiatives that include cultural rapport should be developed for pharmacists who provide care to Spanish-speaking patients with limited English proficiency.
Sangappa, Sunila B; Tekian, Ara
This study assessed the impact of a course on communication skills for third-year undergraduate dental students at a dental institute in India. A randomized pretest, posttest controlled trial was conducted with all the students from four cohorts of third-year dental undergraduate students, divided into an intervention group (n=30) and a control group (n=30). The course was developed using Kern's six-step approach to curriculum development. Needs assessment was ascertained, and readings, lectures, and role-plays with real and simulated patients were implemented. Encounters of students during two patient interviews (simulated and real) were rated by two raters using a twenty-seven-item dental consultation communication checklist with a rating scale 0 to 3. Students completed a questionnaire regarding their acceptance of the course. A 2×2 (group × time) ANOVA with group as a between-subjects factor (control vs. experimental) and time as a within-subjects factor (pre vs. post) was performed. The two groups did not differ at pretest but differed significantly at posttest. This study showed that simply attending to patients during a clinical course did not improve professional communication skills. In contrast, the implementation of a course on communication skills did improve the students' dentist-patient interactions. Integrating the teaching and development of a relevant, outcome-based course on communication skills provided clear evidence of communication skills acquisition among these dental students. The course could be introduced in other Indian dental schools.
Beuker, Karin T; Rommelse, Nanda N J; Donders, Rogier; Buitelaar, Jan K
The first two years of life is a crucially important period for the development of communication skills. In this study joint attention and language development were monthly assessed between 8 and 24 months of age in a sample of 23 typically developing children to establish the developmental trajectory of specific joint attention skills, to investigate the developmental interrelations of these different joint attention skills with vocabulary size, and to examine whether the order of development of following and directing attention influences the development of other early communication skills such as language. All joint attention skills emerged between 8 and 15 months of age and responsive joint attention skills tend to emerge before initiative joint attention. Early joint attention skills influenced later language development, but not the other way around. Children in whom directing attention with gaze alternation developed early (in age or order) showed a relatively larger early vocabulary growth. A fine grained mapping of the normal development of early communication skills can be helpful in the early detection of abnormalities in these skills. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Skelton, John R
‘Communication skills’ is now very well established in medical education as an area that needs to be taught at both undergraduate and postgraduate level. But it is a discipline with a low level of challenge — it allows itself constantly to take seriously questions about its fundamentals (such as whether it works at all) although common sense and everyday experience tell us that skills are indeed improved through training and practice. This slows progress. Much research has also concentrated on listing and defining a set of skills, yet although all doctors must understand and utilise a range of skills as a precondition for good communication, the findings themselves are often equally common-sensical, and are not, in any case, restricted to medicine. They often tend to form part of a general consensus in favour of lay-centredness, which has been studied in other types of professional encounter, particularly the language of teachers and pupils. Moreover, insofar as teachers of medical communication limit their aims and their own classroom language to terms associated with skills, they offer little scope for more important questions about how these skills should be deployed, and about the attitudes to medicine and professional life that underpin them. A central educational question is: should we concentrate on teaching skills in the belief that attitudes will follow, or attitudes in the belief that they will generate appropriate skills? PMID:15667765
Zohn, Harry K; Dashkow, Sheila; Aschheim, Kenneth W; Dobrin, Lawrence A; Glazer, Howard S; Kirschbaum, Mitchell; Levitt, Daniel; Feldman, Cecile A
Mass fatality identification efforts involving forensic odontology can involve hundreds of dental volunteers. A literature review was conducted and forensic odontologists and dental educators consulted to identify lessons learned from past mass fatality identification efforts. As a result, the authors propose a skill assessment system, the Odontology Victim Identification Skill Assessment System (OVID-SAS), which details qualifications required to participate on the Antemortem, Postmortem, Ante/Postmortem Comparison, Field, and Shift Leader/Initial Response Teams. For each qualification, specific skills have been identified along with suggested educational pedagogy and skill assessment methods. Courses and assessments can be developed by dental schools, professional associations, or forensic organizations to teach and test for the skills required for dental volunteers to participate on each team. By implementing a system, such as OVID-SAS, forensic odontologists responsible for organizing and managing a forensic odontology mass fatality identification effort will be able to optimally utilize individuals presenting with proven skills.
Nwokorie, Ndidi; Svoboda, Deborah; Rovito, Debra K; Krugman, Scott D
Community hospitals often lack tertiary care support such as pediatric intensivists and anesthesiologists. Resuscitation of critically ill and injured children in community hospitals requires a well-coordinated team effort, because good team performance improves quality of care. The lack of subspecialty support makes team coordination and communication more imperative yet much more challenging. This study sought to determine if the addition of a defined focused post-mock code debriefing session improved communication skills among team members in a community pediatric emergency department. Twenty-two volunteer members of the pediatric emergency and respiratory therapy departments at Medstar Franklin Square Medical Center took part in monthly simulated resuscitations for 3 consecutive months. After each simulation, participants answered an 18-item survey on observed communication among their team members. Members then participated in a 30-minute debriefing session in which they reflected on their own communication skills. A video taping of the resuscitation was later scored by one of the investigators by using a rubric designed by the investigators. Descriptive statistics were calculated for both the participant survey and the team communication indicator scores. Paired-sample Wilcoxon signed rank test examined the difference in the scores between each of 3 sessions. The mean scores by investigator-scored video recordings of the teams' mock resuscitation by session showed overall team communication improved between sessions 1 and 3 for all communication areas (P = .03), with significant improvement in 4 of 9 communication areas by the third session. All team members improved communication skills as well, with the greatest improvement by the clinical multifunctional technicians. Communication skills improve with the addition of focused debriefing sessions after mock codes as perceived by participants during debriefing sessions and evidenced by investigator
This teaching guide contains materials for 24 2-hour lessons for people with limited English proficiency who are seeking a job in the cosmetology industry or seeking enrollment in cosmetology courses. The course is intended to improve students' abilities to communicate orally with customers in a cosmetology setting and to improve job seeking and…
Bartolotta, Theresa E.; Zipp, Genevieve P.; Simpkins, Susan D.; Glazewski, Barbara
Rett Syndrome (RS) is an X-linked, neurodevelopmental disorder that occurs primarily in females and causes significant impairment in cognition, motor control, and communication. Teachers and speech-language pathologists (SLPs) encounter girls with RS with increasing frequency as awareness of the disorder increases, yet the literature on clinical…
Focuses on speech act theory and the demands of the multilevel language classroom, noting that special attention should be paid in language classes to what is meant, as distinct from what is said. Using the communicative approach to language teaching and crossing cultural boundaries, cross-cultural conversations are being developed that are…
Maryam Sadat Katebi
Full Text Available Background & aim: Communication is a fundamental human need. Medical students and healthcare professionals must be attuned to the needs of patients using effective communication skills. With regards to medical training, currently the focus is on theoretical matters and communication skills are taken for granted. This problem has caused miscommunication with patients referred to teaching hospitals. We conducted this study to assess communication skills of midwives from the perspective of parturient women. Methods: In this descriptive study, we evaluated 50 midwives working in maternity wards of Ghaem, Imam Reza, Omolbanin, and Hasheminejad hospitals in Mashhad, Iran. Three parturient women were selected per one midwife in a maternity ward. The parturient women participating in this study were in labor, delivery, admission or postpartum stages and completed the Interpersonal Communication Skills inventory by interview. To analyze the data, descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson product-moment correlation were performed, using SPSS 16. Results: The mean scores of communication behaviors of midwives with parturient in delivery, admission, and postpartum stages were 92.61±10.81, 93.31±10.59, and 94.19±8.26, respectively. Between the previous delivery of parturient, with communication behavior of midwives in the stage of admission or post-partum (P=0.015 and satisfaction of pregnancy with communication behavior of midwife in labor stage (P
Stokking, K.M.; Schaaf, M.F. van der; Jaspers, Jos; Erkens, Gijsbert
Today, teachers are expected to develop complex skills, such as research skills, in their students while implementing new views on learning and teaching and using authentic assessment strategies. About these new assessment strategies there is much debate and teachers are vulnerable in using them.
Nestel, Debra; Sains, Parvinder; Wetzel, Cordula M; Nolan, Carmel; Tay, Ann; Kneebone, Roger L; Darzi, Ara W
The use of mobile robotic units for teleconsultation means that the clinician's cognitive and attention skills are divided between tele-operation of the robotic unit and the consultation with the patient. We developed a communication guide based on evidence-based patient-centred interviewing and telephone conferencing skills. The communication guide was tested by five trainee surgeons in a pre- and post-test design. Each surgeon completed three simulated patient consultations. After reading the communication guide, trainees completed three further consultations. The trainees rated authenticity, degree of difficulty, familiarity of clinical presentation and confidence in using telepresence to manage the consultations. Their mean scores were 3.0-4.6, 2.2-4.0, 4.4-4.8 and 3.2-4.2 respectively (maximum possible score 5). The simulated patients rated their satisfaction with communication. Their ratings suggested that there were areas for communication skills development with mean scores ranging from 8.2 to 11.4 (maximum possible score = 15). Although we do not yet know enough about communicating with real patients using mobile robotic units, the communication guide appeared to be useful in our simulated interactions.
Rees, Charlotte; Sheard, Charlotte; Davies, Susie
There is little research identifying medical students' attitudes towards communication skills learning. This pilot study outlines the development of a new scale to measure attitudes towards communication skills learning. First- and second-year medical students (n = 490) completed the 26-item Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS) and 39 students completed the CSAS on a second occasion. Factor analysis was conducted to determine the factors underpinning the scale. The internal consistency of the subscales was determined using alpha coefficients. The test-retest reliability of the individual scale items were determined using weighted kappa coefficients and the test-retest reliability of the subscales were established using intraclass correlation coefficients. Maximum likelihood extraction with direct oblimin rotation resulted in a 2-factor scale with 13 items on each subscale. Factor I represented positive attitudes towards communication skills learning and factor II represented negative attitudes. Subscale I had an internal consistency of alpha=0.873 and an intraclass correlation of 0.646 (P attitude subscales (n=8, 61.5%) possessed moderate test-retest reliability. The development of a new and reliable scale to identify medical students' attitudes towards communication skills learning will enable researchers to explore the relationships between medical students' attitudes and their demographic and education-related characteristics. Further work is needed to validate this scale among a broader population of medical students.
Moorthy, Krishna; Munz, Yaron; Sarker, Sudip K.; Darzi, Ara
In the past few years, considerable developments have been made in the objective assessment of technical proficiency of surgeons. Technical skills should be assessed during training, and various methods have been developed for this purpose
This workshop is designed to provide women physics students and postdocs with the professional skills they need to effectively perform research, including: negotiating a position in academia, industry or at a national lab, interacting positively on teams and with a mentor or advisor, thinking tactically, articulating goals, enhancing their personal presence, and developing alliances. We will discuss negotiation strategies and tactics that are useful for achieving professional goals. This is a highly interactive workshop where participants are invited to bring examples of difficult professional situations to discuss.
This workshop is designed to provide women physics students and postdocs with the professional skills they need to effectively perform research, including: negotiating a position in academia, industry or at a national lab, interacting positively on teams and with a mentor or advisor, thinking tactically, articulating goals, enhancing their personal presence, and developing alliances. We will discuss negotiation strategies and tactics that are useful for achieving professional goals. This is a highly interactive workshop where participants are invited to bring examples of difficult professional situations to discuss.
Ayuso-Murillo, D; Colomer-Sánchez, A; Herrera-Peco, I
In this study researchers are trying to analyse the personality factors related to social skills in nurses who work in: Intensive Care Units, ICU, and Hospitalisation units. Both groups are from the Madrid Health Service (SERMAS). The present investigation has been developed as a descriptive transversal study, where personality factors in ICU nurses (n=29) and those from Hospitalisation units (n=40) were compared. The 16PF-5 questionnaire was employed to measure the personality factors associated with communication skills. The comparison of the personality factors associated to social skills, communication, in both groups, show us that nurses from ICU obtain in social receptivity: 5,6 (A+), 5,2 (C-), 6,2 (O+), 5,1 (H-), 5,3 (Q1-), and emotional control: 6,1 (B+), 5,9 (N+). Meanwhile the data doesn't adjust to the expected to emotional and social expressiveness, emotional receptivity and social control, there are not evidence. The personality factors associated to communication skills in ICU nurses are below those of hospitalisation unit nurses. The present results suggest the necessity to develop training actions, focusing on nurses from intensive care units to improve their communication social skills. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias (SEEIUC). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
NAGENDRA, Dr. KOTTACHERUVU
Abstract Todays world considers English as a global language because there has never been a language so widely spread or spoken by so many people as English. It is most surprising that English has become the top language. It has emerged as an important component in industries and in all the spheres of a societys life the press, advertising, broadcasting, motion pictures, transport and communications. It has also become a leading language of political, academic and community meetings. As t...
Dinerstein, H. L.
The ability to communicate effectively, both in oral and written form, is crucial for success in almost any career path. Furthermore, being able to effectively communicate information requires a high level of conceptual mastery of the material. For these reasons, I have incorporated practice in communication into courses at a variety of levels, ranging from non-science-major undergraduate courses to graduate courses. I briefly describe the content of these courses, particularly the communication-related component. The first, Ast 309N, ``Astronomy Bizarre: Stars and Stellar Evolution," is an elective which follows one semester of general introductory astronomy for non-majors. Instead of homework problems, the students complete a sequence of writing assignments of graduated complexity, beginning with simple tasks such as writing abstracts and critiques of assigned readings, and moving on to writing term papers which require literature research and a short science fiction story incorporating accurate depictions of relativistic effects. In Ast 175/275, a ``Journal Club" course for upper-division astronomy majors, students read articles in the professional literature and give short oral presentations to the rest of the class. To build up their understanding of a topic, we work through the ``paper trail" of key papers on topics with exciting recent developments, such as extrasolar planets, gravitational lenses, or gamma-ray bursts. Finally, in a seminar course for first-semester astronomy graduate students (Ast 185C) that broadly addresses professional development issues, I include a practice AAS oral session, with the students giving 5-minute presentations on a journal paper of their choice. This seminar course also examines career paths and employment trends, the peer review process for papers and proposals, professional norms and ethics, and other topics. Syllabi for these and other courses I teach regularly can be found from my home page (http://www.as.utexas.edu/astronomy/people/dinerstein).
AKDAGCIK, I. Umran; MAMAK, Hudaverdi
The purpose of this study isto determine the effect of communication skills on team and individual sports.A total of 251 students/athletes studying in the School of Physical Educationand Sports of Niğde University during the academic year of 2015-2016 and areinvolved in any team or individual sports have participated in thisstudy.“Communication Skills Evaluation Scale” (CSES), developed by Korkut, wascarried out to the subjects in the study. A significant difference was detectedbetween the st...
Kieran, Kathleen; Jensen, Norman M; Rosenbaum, Marcy
To assess the current state of published literature on communication skills teaching in urology to inform future directions for research and teaching. Excellent patient-physician communication skills increase understanding of medical conditions, facilitate shared decision-making regarding treatment planning, improve clinical outcomes, and decrease lawsuits. Surgical and procedure-based subspecialties, including urology, have generally been slow to incorporate formal communication skills teaching into curricula for postgraduate trainees. We performed a PubMed literature search using multiple keywords, selecting and reviewing articles published in English, and addressing 1 of 3 domains (curriculum development, teaching methods, and assessment methods) of communication skills teaching. The distribution of articles within the urology-specific literature was compared with that of procedure-based specialties as a whole. Eight articles were found in the urology literature, and 24 articles were found in other procedure-based specialties. Within the urology-specific literature, all 8 articles (100%) acknowledged the need for communication curriculum development, 1 article (12.5%) described how communication skills were taught, and 1 article (12.5%) discussed how communication skills were assessed. Fewer articles in other procedure-based specialties acknowledged the need to develop curricula (29.2%, P = .0007) but were equally likely to discuss communication skills teaching (37.5%, P = .63) and assessment (33.3%, P = .73). Orthopedic surgery is the only surgical subspecialty with ongoing, adaptable, formal training for physicians. Most current publications addressing communication skills in procedure-based specialties are specialty specific and focus on only 1 of the 3 communication domains. Opportunities exist to share information and to create more integrated models to teach communication skills in urology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Good communication and influencing skills are key competency areas for dental nurses and are highly relevant when working with children and their families/carers in Childsmile, a national oral health improvement programme for children in Scotland. The General Dental Council (GDC) identifies communication skills as one of the nine principles for registrants; a large number of complaints seen by the GDC relate to allegations around communication and patient expectations not being fully met. Much time and investment has been spent in researching the role of the Extended Duties Dental Nurse (EDDN) and ensuring appropriate training is provided. While there is specific training for EDDNs delivering the Childsmile programme, the programme appreciates that good communication skills are a core component of all training programmes for dental nurses. This paper sets out to explore the role of EDDNs in Childsmile and specifically looks at the importance of good communication skills and how it facilitates and impacts on the delivery of the Childsmile programme in a variety of settings.
van Os, Titus W D P; van den Brink, Rob H S; Tiemens, Bea G; Jenner, Jack A; van der Meer, Klaas; Ormel, Johan
Although good physician communication is associated with positive patient outcomes, it does not figure in current depression treatment guidelines. We examined the effect of depression treatment, communicative skills and their interaction on patient outcomes for depression in primary care. In a cohort of 348 patients with ICD-10 depression in primary care, patient outcomes were studied over 3- and 12-month follow-ups. The association of these outcomes with both depression-specific process of care variables and a nonspecific variable-communicative skillfulness of GP-was examined. Patient outcomes consisted of change from baseline in symptomatology, disability, activity limitation days, and duration of the depressive episode. In accordance with treatment guidelines, some main effects of depression treatment were found, in particular on symptomatology, but these remained small (effect sizeskills. In contrast to the main effects, these interactions were seen on disability and activity limitation days, not on symptomatology. The study is observational and does not permit firm conclusions about causal relationships. Communicative skillfulness of the GP was assessed by patient report only. Neither depression-specific interventions nor good GP communication skills seem to be sufficient for optimal patient improvement. Only the combination of treatments according to guidelines and good communication skills results in an effective antidepressive treatment.
Donovan, Anna K; Wood, Gordon J; Rubio, Doris M; Day, Hollis D; Spagnoletti, Carla L
Many physicians struggle to communicate with patients with chronic, non-malignant pain (CNMP). Through the use of a Web module, the authors aimed to improve faculty participants' communication skills knowledge and confidence, use of skills in clinical practice, and actual communication skills. The module was implemented for faculty development among clinician-educators with university faculty appointments, outpatient clinical practices, and teaching roles. Participants completed the Collaborative Opioid Prescribing Education Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (COPE-REMS®) module, a free Web module designed to improve provider communication around opioid prescribing. Main study outcomes were improvements in CNMP communication knowledge, attitudes, and skills. Skills were assessed by comparing a subset of participants' Observed Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE) performance before and after the curriculum. Sixty-two percent of eligible participants completed the curriculum in 2013. Knowledge-based test scores improved with curriculum completion (75% vs. 90%; P 4.0 post vs. 4.1 at 6 months; P = 0.02), as well as improvements in prescribing opioids (3.3 vs. 3.8 vs. 3.9, P = 0.01) and conducting conversations about discontinuing opioids (2.8 vs. 3.5 vs. 3.9, P Web-based curriculum such as COPE-REMS® may be useful for other programs seeking improvement in faculty communication with patients who have CNMP. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Chen, Ruth P
Clinical simulation is used in nursing education and in other health professional programs to prepare students for future clinical practice. Simulation can be used to teach students communication skills and how to deliver bad news to patients and families. However, skilled communication in clinical practice requires students to move beyond simply learning superficial communication techniques and behaviors. This article presents an unexplored concept in the simulation literature: the exercise of moral imagination by the health professional student. Drawing from the works of Hume, Aristotle and Gadamer, a conceptualization of moral imagination is first provided. Next, this article argues that students must exercise moral imagination on two levels: towards the direct communication exchange before them; and to the representative nature of simulation encounters. Last, the limits of moral imagination in simulation-based education are discussed.
Kinnick, Katherine N.; Parton, Sabrena R.
This article reports the results of a content analysis of the debut season of the reality television show, "The Apprentice." All 15 episodes were examined to determine the role that communication competencies played in competitors' success or elimination. Results indicate that the ability to persuade effectively was most critical to winning tasks,…
Paternotte, E.; Scheele, F.; Seeleman, C.M.; Bank, L.; Scherpbier, A.J.; Dulmen, S. van
INTRODUCTION: Intercultural communication (ICC) between doctors and patients is often associated with misunderstandings and dissatisfaction. To develop ICC-specific medical education, it is important to find out which ICC skills medical specialists currently apply in daily clinical consultations.
Bachmann, Cadja; Roschlaub, Silke; Harendza, Sigrid; Keim, Rebecca; Scherer, Martin
To assess students' communication skills during clinical medical education and at graduation. We conducted an observational cohort study from 2007 to 2011 with 26 voluntary undergraduate medical students at Hamburg University based on video-taped consultations in year four and at graduation. 176 consultations were analyzed quantitatively with validated and non-validated context-independent communication observation instruments (interrater reliability ≥0.8). Based on observational protocols each consultation was also documented in free-text comments, salient topics were extracted afterwards. 26 students, seven males, were enrolled in the survey. On average, graduates scored higher in differential-diagnostic questioning and time management but showed deficiencies in taking systematic and complete symptom-oriented histories, in communication techniques, in structuring consultations and in gathering the patients' perspectives. Patient-centeredness and empathy were rather low at graduation. Individual deficiencies could barely be eliminated. Medical students were able to enhance their clinical reasoning skills and their time management. Still, various communication deficiencies in final year students became evident regarding appropriate history taking, communication skills, empathy and patient-centeredness. The necessity of developing a longitudinal communication curriculum with enhanced communication trainings and assessments became evident. A curriculum should ensure that students' communication competencies are firmly achieved at graduation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Bittner, Anja; Jonietz, Ansgar; Bittner, Johannes; Beickert, Luise; Harendza, Sigrid
To train and assess undergraduate medical students' written communication skills by exercises in translating medical reports into plain language for real patients. 27 medical students participated in a newly developed communication course. They attended a 3-h seminar including a briefing on patient-centered communication and an introduction to working with the internet platform http://washabich.de. In the following ten weeks, participants "translated" one medical report every fortnight on this platform receiving feedback by a near-peer supervisor. A pre- and post-course assignment consisted of a self-assessment questionnaire on communication skills, analysis of a medical text with respect to medical jargon, and the translation of a medical report into plain language. In the self-assessment, students rated themselves in most aspects of patient-centered communication significantly higher after attending the course. After the course they marked significantly more medical jargon terms correctly than before (planguage translation of a medical report they scored significantly higher with respect to communicative aspects (planguage under near-peer supervision is associated with improved communication skills and medical knowledge in undergraduate medical students. To include translation exercises in the undergraduate medical curriculum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Raper, Steven E; Gupta, Meera; Okusanya, Olugbenga; Morris, Jon B
To improve physician/patient communication and familiarize surgeons with contemporary skills for and metrics assessing communication, courses were developed to provide academic general surgery residents and faculty with a toolkit of information, behaviors, and specific techniques. If academic faculty are expected to mentor residents in communication and residents are expected to learn good communication skills, then both should have the necessary education to accomplish such a goal. Didactic lectures introduced current concepts of physician-patient communication including information on better patient care, fewer malpractice suits, and the move toward transparency of communication metrics. Next, course participants viewed and critiqued "Surgi-Drama" videos, with actors simulating "before" and "after" physician-patient communication scenarios. Finally, participants were provided with a "toolkit" of techniques for improving physician-patient communication including "2-3-4"-a semiscripted short communication tool residents and other physicians can use in patient encounters-and a number of other acronymic approaches. Each participant was asked to complete an anonymous evaluation to assess course content satisfaction. Overall, 86% of residents participated (68/79), with a 52% response rate (35/68) for the evaluation tool. Overall, 88% of faculty participated (84/96), with an 84% response rate (71/84). Residents voiced satisfaction with all domains. For faculty, satisfaction was quantitatively confirmed (Likert score 4 or 5) in 4 of 7 domains, with the highest satisfaction in "communication of goals" and "understanding of the HCAHPS metric." The percentage of "top box" Doctor Communication Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) scores and national percentile ranking showed a sustained increase more than 1 and 2 years from the dates of the courses. The assessment of communication skills is increasing in importance in the practice of
Full Text Available Effective communication between the doctor and patient is crucial for good quality health care. Yet, this form of communication is often problematic, which may lead to several negative consequences for both patients and doctors. Clinical communication skills have become important components of medical training programmes. The traditional approach is to teach students particular communication skills, such as listening to patients and asking open-ended questions. Despite their importance, such training approaches do not seem to be enough to deliver medical practitioners who are able and committed to communicate effectively with patients. This might be due to the pervasive negative influence of the medical profession’s (mistaken understanding of itself as a natural science on doctor–patient communication. Doctors who have been trained according to a positivist framework may consider their only responsibility to be the physical treatment of physical disorders. They may thus have little regard for the patient’s psychological and social world and by extension for communication with the patient and/or their caregivers. To address this problem, I propose a curriculum, based on the academic field of philosophy, for teaching clinical communication.
Effective communication between the doctor and patient is crucial for good quality health care. Yet, this form of communication is often problematic, which may lead to several negative consequences for both patients and doctors. Clinical communication skills have become important components of medical training programmes. The traditional approach is to teach students particular communication skills, such as listening to patients and asking open-ended questions. Despite their importance, such training approaches do not seem to be enough to deliver medical practitioners who are able and committed to communicate effectively with patients. This might be due to the pervasive negative influence of the medical profession's (mistaken) understanding of itself as a natural science on doctor-patient communication. Doctors who have been trained according to a positivist framework may consider their only responsibility to be the physical treatment of physical disorders. They may thus have little regard for the patient's psychological and social world and by extension for communication with the patient and/or their caregivers. To address this problem, I propose a curriculum, based on the academic field of philosophy, for teaching clinical communication.
Laughlin, Tom; Wetmore, Stephen; Allen, Tim; Brailovsky, Carlos; Crichton, Tom; Bethune, Cheri; Donoff, Michel; Lawrence, Kathrine
To provide a pragmatic approach to the evaluation of communication skills using observable behaviours, as part of a multiyear project to develop competency-based evaluation objectives for Certification in family medicine. A nominal group technique was used to develop themes and subthemes and to identify positive and negative observable behaviours that demonstrate competence in communication in family medicine. The College of Family Physicians of Canada in Mississauga, Ont. An expert group of 7 family physicians and 1 educational consultant, all of whom had experience in assessing competence in family medicine. Group members represented the Canadian context with respect to region, sex, language, community type, and experience. The group used the nominal group technique to derive a list of observable behaviours that would constitute a detailed operational definition of competence in communication skills; multiple iterations were used until saturation was achieved. The group met several times a year, and membership remained unchanged during the 4 years in which the work was conducted. The iterative process was undertaken twice--once for communication with patients and once for communication with colleagues. Five themes, 5 subthemes, and 106 positive and negative observable behaviours were generated. The subtheme of charting skills was defined using a key-features analysis. Communication skills were defined in terms of themes and observable behaviours. These definitions were intended to help assess family physicians' competence at the start of independent practice.
ComOn Coaching: Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial to assess the effect of a varied number of coaching sessions on transfer into clinical practice following communication skills training.
Niglio de Figueiredo, Marcelo; Rudolph, Bärbel; Rodolph, Bärbel; Bylund, Carma L; Goelz, Tanja; Heußner, Pia; Sattel, Heribert; Fritzsche, Kurt; Wuensch, Alexander
Communication skills training has proven to be an effective means to enhance communication of health care professionals in oncology. These effects are well studied in standardized settings. The question of transferring these skills into clinical consultations remains open. We build up on a previous developed training concept consisting of a workshop and coaching. This training achieved a medium effect size in two studies with standardized patients. In the current study, we expanded and manualized the coaching concept, and we will evaluate effects of a varied number of coaching sessions on real clinical consultations. Our aim is to determine how much coaching oncologists need to transfer communication skills into clinical practice. Physicians of two German medical centers will participate in a workshop for communication skills and will be randomized to either a group with one coaching session or a group with four coaching sessions following the workshop. The participation is voluntary and the physicians will receive medical education points. Consultations held by the participating physicians with actual patients who gave their informed consent will be filmed at three time points. These consultations will be evaluated by blinded raters using a checklist based on the training content (primary outcome). Secondary outcomes will be the self-evaluated communication competence by physicians and an evaluation of the consultations by both physicians and patients. We will evaluate our communication training concept on three levels - rater, physician and patient - and concentrate on the transfer of communication skills into real life situations. As we emphasize the external validity in this study design, limitations will be expected due to heterogeneity of data. With this study we aim to gain data on how to improve communication skills training that will result in better patient outcomes. German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00004385 .
Broder, Hillary L; Janal, Malvin; Mitnick, Danielle M; Rodriguez, Jasmine Y; Sischo, Lacey
Previous studies have shown that a communications program using patient instructors (PIs) facilitates data-gathering and interpersonal skills of third-year dental students. The aim of this study was to address the question of whether those skills are retained into the students' fourth year and generalized from the classroom to the clinic. In the formative training phase, three cohorts of D3 students (N=1,038) at one dental school received instruction regarding effective patient-doctor communication; interviewed three PIs and received PI feedback; and participated in a reflective seminar with a behavioral science instructor. In the follow-up competency phase, fourth-year students performed two new patient interviews in the clinic that were observed and evaluated by clinical dental faculty members trained in communications. Mean scores on a standardized communications rating scale and data-gathering assessment were compared over training and follow-up sessions and between cohorts with a linear mixed model. The analysis showed that the third-year students' mean communication and data-gathering scores increased with each additional encounter with a PI (pcommunication scores were not only maintained but increased during the fourth-year follow-up competency evaluations (pcommunications curriculum, prior instruction facilitated the students' clinical communication performance at baseline (pCommunications program improved students' data-gathering and interpersonal skills. Those skills were maintained and generalized through completion of the D4 students' summative competency performance in a clinical setting.
Buyck, David; Lang, Forrest
Evidence suggests that strategies used in teaching communication skills vary widely among, and within, medical education programs. Such variance also exists in the amount of emphasis placed on specific communication skills. This study examines the degree of variability among medical faculty in identifying opportunities for teaching communication skills. Sixty-seven medical faculty (physicians and behavioral scientists) reviewed a videotaped interview of a clinician with a standardized patient. Using a transcript of the interview, participants identified moments in the tape they believed warranted an instructional intervention to reinforce or modify the clinician's communication skills. Items identified by the participants were compared to items identified by a panel of experts. Frequencies and ANOVAs were used to report on consistency and on consistency as a function of faculty experience and educational background. Faculty demonstrated marked differences in identifying teachable moments across all six communication categories: (1) rapport building, (2) agenda setting, (3) information management, (4) active listening for the patient's perspective, (5) responding to emotion, and(6) skills in reaching common ground. Of 67 respondents, 29.6% identified none of the opportunities to teach rapport building, while only 31% identified all opportunities; 32.8% identified none of the information management opportunities, 26.9% identified all; 77.6% failed to identify the agenda-setting opportunity, 22% did identify the opportunity; 25.4% identified none of the active listening opportunities, 9% identified all; 57.6% identified none of the responding to emotion opportunities, 18% identified all; 35.8% did not identify the opportunity for reaching common ground, 64% did identify the opportunity. Our findings demonstrate that faculty who teach communications vary widely in the issues that they identify and about which they chose to teach. Recommendations are made for further
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Over the last 10 years more than 300 persons received cochlear implant in Serbia and more than 90% of the recipients were children under 10 years of age. The program of cochlear implantation includes postoperative rehabilitation in which cognitive, integrative and developmental methods are used. The study was conducted to reveal factors affecting communication performance (CP of cochlear implanted (CI children. Special attention was focused on the influence of the duration and intensity of rehabilitation and hearing age on further development of communication skills. Methods. A group of 30 CI children (13 boys and 17 girls aged 2 to 5 years was enrolled in the study. All of the children had average intelligence and no other developmental disorder. They lived in families and attended rehabilitative seances 3 to 5 times a week. Their parents/ caregivers answered structured questionnaire about functioning after pediatric cochlear implantation (FAPCI and the results were the subject of detailed statistical analysis. Results. Analysis of variance did not show any difference between the boys and the girls regarding FAPCI achievements (F (1, 28 = 2.909; p = 0.099 and age aberration in CP score (F (1, 28 = 0.114, p = 0.738. Correlation analysis showed a statistically significant difference in FAPCI scores related to hearing age and duration of rehabilitation. Regression analysis (enter method showed that model consisting of indipendent variables significantly contributed to prediction of overall FAPCI scores and Adjusted R2 value could explain 32% difference in communication skills of participants in this study. Conclusion. Communication skills of CI children evaluated by FAPCI are falling behind normatives for normal hearing children 18.6 months on the average. Hearing age, duration and intensity of rehabilitation have positive predictive value for communication skills development. Later identification of hearing loss and later cochlear
Ostojić, Sanja; Djoković, Sanja; Radić-šestić, Marina; Nikolić, Mina; Mikić, Branka; Mirić, Danica
Over the last 10 years more than 300 persons received cochlear implant in Serbia and more than 90% of the recipients were children under 10 years of age. The program of cochlear implantation includes postoperative rehabilitation in which cognitive, integrative and developmental methods are used. The study was conducted to reveal factors affecting communication performance (CP) of cochlear implanted (Cl) children. Special attention was focused on the influence of the duration and intensity of rehabilitation and hearing age on further development of communication skills. A group of 30 CI children (13 boys and 17 girls) aged 2 to 5 years was enrolled in the study. All of the children had average intelligence and no other developmental disorder. They lived in families and attended rehabilitative seances 3 to 5 times a week. Their parents/caregivers answered structured questionnaire about functioning after pediatric cochlear implantation (FAPCI) and the results were the subject of detailed statistical analysis. Analysis of variance did not show any difference between the boys and the girls regarding FAPCI achievements (F(1, 28) = 2.909; p = 0.099) and age aberration in CP score (F(1,28) = 0.114, p = 0.738). Correlation analysis showed a statistically significant difference in FAPCI scores related to hearing age and duration of rehabilitation. Regression analysis (enter method) showed that model consisting of indipendent variables significantly contributed to prediction of overall FAPCI scores and Adjusted R2 value could explain 32% difference in communication skills of participants in this study. Communication skills of CI children evaluated by FAPCI are falling behind normatives for normal hearing children 18.6 months on the average. Hearing age, duration and intensity of rehabilitation have positive predictive value for communication skills development. Later identification of hearing loss and later cochlear implantation lead to delayed development of communication
Crossman, Joanne Marciano
The Oral Communication Competencies Assessment Project was designed to determine student communication competency across the curriculum, transferring skills taught in the communication skills class to authentic classroom performances. The 505 students who were required to make oral presentations across the curriculum during the first term of the…
Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Pain-related misbeliefs among health care professionals (HCPs are common and contribute to ineffective postoperative pain assessment. While standardized patients (SPs have been effectively used to improve HCPs’ assessment skills, not all centres have SP programs. The present equivalence randomized controlled pilot trial examined the efficacy of an alternative simulation method – deteriorating patient-based simulation (DPS – versus SPs for improving HCPs’ pain knowledge and assessment skills.
Lane, H. Chad; Hays, Matthew Jensen; Core, Mark G.; Auerbach, Daniel
In the context of practicing intercultural communication skills, we investigated the role of fidelity in a game-based, virtual learning environment as well as the role of feedback delivered by an intelligent tutoring system. In 2 experiments, we compared variations on the game interface, use of the tutoring system, and the form of the feedback.…
This paper discusses the community college English curriculum as a model for teaching communication skills in four year colleges and universities. The first part of the paper examines and discusses the decline of English majors, the changing nature of college students, open-admissions, part-time students, adult enrollment, and the difficulty…
Many attempts are currently being made to develop Aural-Oral Communicative skills in English at school level, but it remains a difficult task for the teachers of English. There are a lot of readymade cassettes available in the market but they have hardly served the purpose. Admittedly, cassettes help and yield better results for learners, subject…
Sugito; E. S., Sri Mulyani; Hartono; Supartono
This study was to explore how enhance communication skill through problem posing and presentation method. The subjects of this research were the seven grade students Junior High School, including 20 male and 14 female. This research was conducted in two cycles and each cycle consisted of four steps, they were: planning, action, observation, and…
The purpose of this study is to determine the levels of Turkish language pre-service teachers' communication skills. Descriptive survey model was used in this study. 218 pre-service Turkish language teachers, who are studying at Department of Turkish Language Teaching at a university in the west of Turkey, participated in the study. Criterion…
Alhaddad, Idrus; Kusumah, Yaya S.; Sabandar, Jozua; Dahlan, Jarnawi A.
This research aims to investigate, compare, and describe the achievement and enhancement of students' mathematical communication skills (MCS). It based on the prior mathematical knowledge (PMK) category (high, medium and low) by using Treffinger models (TM) and conventional learning (CL). This research is an experimental study with the population…
M van Es, Judith; Wieringa-de Waard, Margreet; Visser, Mechteld R. M.
Although doctor-patient communication is considered a core competency for medical doctors, the effect of training has not been unequivocally established. Moreover, knowledge about the variance in the growth of different skills and whether certain patterns in growth can be detected could help us to
The purpose of this study is analyzing the effectiveness of communication skills and effective dialogue on marital satisfaction and commitment of young couples. The research plan was the trueexperiment pre-test, post-test experimental and control groups. The statistical population was consisted of all couples (married less ...
Strom, Paris S.; Strom, Robert D.
Teamwork skills are required at work, but teacher efforts in many countries to track achievement within this context have been hindered by lack of assessment tools and input from students. The Teamwork Skills Inventory relies on peer and self-evaluation to establish accountability, identify competencies, and detect learning needs. Twenty-five…
Full Text Available Based on a case study conducted by the researcher on a sample of 618 UG students, this paper focuses on identifying certain flaws in the present educational communication. The researcher after presenting the data analysis of the survey, attempts to highlight the present ELT scenario and its relevance to the present day needs of the society. It also emphasizes on the need to focus on practical dimensions of learning. It substantiates that inadequate language proficiency, lack of presentation skills knowledge and unawareness about life skills are the main reasons for the educated unemployment. Finally, the researcher concludes this paper with some suggestions and recommendations which will help the learners to enhance their communication skills.
Bonar, Scott A.
What skills and knowledge will a new graduate seeking employment need to work with introduced fishes? Clearly, success in introduced species management—similar to other disciplines in fisheries—requires a mixture of scientific and communication skills. However, specific abilities especially important to a biologist who manages introduced fishes should be highlighted. Unlike most other management strategies, stocking an introduced species can result in unintended and irreversible impacts, so particular care must be employed when stocking is considered. Furthermore, fish populations in areas outside of the introduced species management area might also be affected, usually negatively, if the introduced fish escapes. Therefore, rock-solid knowledge of basic aquatic ecology, including risk management; fish taxonomy (so the wrong fish species is not mistakenly stocked!); familiarity with human values of both the time and the place (which requires communication skills); and a strong understanding of human history are all important.
Full Text Available Based on a case study conducted by the researcher on a sample of 618 UG students, this paper focuses on identifying certain flaws in the present educational communication. The researcher after presenting the data analysis of the survey, attempts to highlight the present ELT scenario and its relevance to the present day needs of the society. It also emphasizes on the need to focus on practical dimensions of learning. It substantiates that inadequate language proficiency, lack of presentation skills knowledge and unawareness about life skills are the main reasons for the educated unemployment. Finally, the researcher concludes this paper with some suggestions and recommendations which will help the learners to enhance their communication skills.
Griffiths, Jane; Wilson, Charlotte; Ewing, Gail; Connolly, Michael; Grande, Gunn
To pilot an evidence-based communication skills model (SAGE & THYME) with UK District Nurses (DNs) who visit patients with advanced cancer early in the dying trajectory. Evidence suggests that DNs lack confidence in communication skills and in assessing cancer patients' psycho-social needs; also that they lack time. SAGE & THYME is a highly structured model for teaching patient centred interactions. It addresses concerns about confidence and time. Mixed methods. 33 DNs were trained in SAGE & THYME in a three hour workshop and interviewed in focus groups on three occasions: pre-training, immediately post-training and two months post-training. Questionnaires measuring perceived outcomes of communication, confidence in communication and motivation to use SAGE & THYME were administered at the focus groups. SAGE & THYME provided a structure for conversations and facilitated opening and closing of interactions. The main principle of patient centeredness was reportedly used by all. Knowledge about communication behaviours helpful to patients improved and was sustained two months after training. Increased confidence in communication skills was also sustained. Motivation to use SAGE & THYME was high and remained so at two months, and some said the model saved them time. Challenges with using the model included controlling the home environment and a change in style of communication which was so marked some DNs preferred to use it with new patients. Training DNs in SAGE & THYME in a three hour workshop appears to be a promising model for improving communication skills when working with cancer patients. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to justify the need of teaching students how to use communicative skills in foreign language during the job interview; to demonstrate how to form the corresponding verbal competences based on the analysis of the certain communicative situation.Methods. The complex of complementary research methods are used in order to achieve the set goal: theoretical methods – analysis, synthesis, generalization of research papers; empirical methods – discourse-analysis of institutional communication; methods of data collection and storage; experimental methods – experimental learning, implementation.Results and scientific novelty. It is shown how to build up pupils’ competence of speech behavior during business dialogue, proceeding from a communicative situation. For the first time the job interview was described from the communicative point of view (strategic goals and verbal behavior of both communicators based on the recordings of real job interviews.Practical significance. The study results presented in the paper may be used in direct teaching communicative skills at the job interview, in theoretical courses (delivering lectures on cross-cultural education, teaching foreign languages, the language of the specialty, etc..
Dithole, K S; Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, Gloria; Akpor, Oluwaseyi A; Moleki, Mary M
Patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) often experience communication difficulties - usually associated with mechanical ventilation - resulting in psychological problems such as anxiety, fear, and depression. Good communication between nurses and patients is critical for success from personalised nursing care of each patient. The purpose of this study is to describe nurses' experience of a communication skills training intervention. A convenience sample of twenty intensive care nurses participated in the study. Data was collected by means of interviews with nurses. Data from the interviews were analysed using qualitative thematic content analysis. Six themes emerged: (1) acceptance of knowledge and skills developed during workshops; (2) management support; (3) appreciation of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices; (4) change in attitudes; and (5) the need to share knowledge with others and (6) inclusion of communication skills workshop training as an integral part of an orientation programme for all nurses. The findings of this study indicated that the application of augmentative and alternative communication devices and strategies can improve nurse-patient communication in intensive care units. Therefore, the implementation of communication skills training for intensive care nurses should constantly be encouraged and, indeed, introduced as a key element of ICU care training.
Gejão, Mariana Germano; Lamônica, Dionísia Aparecida Cusin
congenital hypothyroidism may cause alterations in the child's global development. to outline the development profile in children with congenital hypothyroidism, focusing on communication, and to verify the influence of clinical history on the outlined profile. 35 children, with ages between 2 to 36 months, with congenital hypothyroidism detected by neonatal screening, and who were in treatment for at least one month using hormonal replacement were assessed using the Early Language Milestone Scale (ELM) and the Portage Operation Inventory (POI). The clinical history was obtained in an interview with the family and from the analysis of medical records. in the ELM, eleven children presented a poor performance in the expressive auditory function, two in the visual function and one in the receptive auditory function. In the POI, seven children presented a poor performance in the language section, five in cognitive section, four in the motor and social sections and three in the self-care section. There was no correlation between the results obtained in the assessments and the clinical history. most of the children presented adequate performances in the evaluated skills. For the children with altered performance, larger deficits were observed in the language section, for the expressive aspects, and in the cognitive section. The influence of clinical history on the development profile was not confirmed. However, a tendency for an adequate performance was observed in those children who underwent neonatal screening, received an early diagnosis and treatment for the congenital hypothyroidism and who received higher doses of thyroxine at the beginning of treatment. The importance of a speech-language follow-up for communication development in this population is highlighted.
Full Text Available Background and purpose: Available data indicate the quality of doctor-patient communication has a significant impact on patient satisfaction, medical outcomes, medical costs, and the likelihood of a physician experiencing a malpractice claim. Assessment of communication skills is a very important issue. Since a good assessment can show strengths and weaknesses of this process and feedback can improve the behavior, this study was designed to measure communication skill of last year medicalstudents (interns in Jahrom medical school by an observational checklist.Methods: This study is a cross sectional study to access communication skills of interns of Jahrom medical school in southeast Iran, a checklist was designed for this purpose. Checklist completed with direct observation by an educated general practitioner. The researcher observed the interns inMotahari and Peymanie,(2 teaching hospitals of Jahrom medical school.The interns ignored about checklist material to prevent observational bias. Findings were analyzed using SPSS software.Results: 32(55%of medical interns were female and 26(45% were male. under category of interview conduction the best results was due to acceptable appearance of interns that 48 interns(82.8%hadacceptable appearance. nearly half of the interns didn’t say hello to patients and great them. none of the interns introduce themselves to patients. . Under category of interview conduction the bestresults was due to responding properly to patient questions. Under category of interview completion the results showed that the behavior of interns in this part was not acceptable and this part of communication was the worst part.Conclusion: The results of our study reflect that it is necessary to introduce a sustained, coherent and integrated communication skill training program into the medical curriculum.Key words: COMMUNICATION SKILLS, INTERNS, ASSESSMENT
Gibson, S J; Davidson, Z E
Simulated patients (SPs) are often used in dietetics for the teaching and assessment of communication skills. The present study aimed to determine the impact of a SP encounter on communication skills in undergraduate preclinical dietetic students in the context of the resources required for delivering this educational strategy. This observational study collected assessment data from four cohorts of third-year dietetic students to examine the effect of participation in SP-embedded Objective Structured Clinical Exams. Students completed two SP interviews, 2 weeks apart, and communication skills were measured on both occasions. A subgroup of students received a video of their SP encounter. Differences between the two SP interview scores were compared to assess the impact of the SP encounter on communication skills. The required staff and resources were described. Data were collected involving 215 students. Out of 30 marks, there was a modest mean (SD) improvement in communication skills from the first to the second SP interview of 2.5 (4.2) (P communication skills, with failing students demonstrating the greatest improvement between SP encounters. There were no observed benefits for the subset of students who received videos. Providing repeat SP interview opportunities results in only modest improvement in communication skills for most students. The use of SPs needs to be considered in context of the substantial costs and resources involved and tailored to student ability. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Norma Esmeralda RODRÍGUEZ RAMÍREZ
Full Text Available This article presents the results and reflections obtained across a research aimed to analyze the quality criteria of an opened learning object oriented to develop communication skills in order to be able to report and validate it according to its content, pedagogic structure, technological structure, graphical and textual language and usability to teacher training, in order to base it theoretically, pedagogically and technologically. The research question was: Which are the quality criteria that a learning object aimed to develop communication skills must cover? Under a quantitative approach, there were electronic questionnaires applied to: 34 Technological University teachers, eight experts about of communicative competence, teaching, technology and graphic design. The results indicated that some of the quality criteria of learning object are: the effective managing of the learning content, the balanced composition of his pedagogic structure, the technological structure efficiency and the proper managing of graphical and textual language.
Haidet, Paul; Picchioni, Michael
Jazz cats use the term 'woodshedding' to denote a period of intense practice during which they aim to take their playing up a few notches. Developing expertise, whether we are speaking musically or talking about communicating with patients, requires a lifelong commitment to such practice. For physicians, the woodshed is not a practice room or an isolated space. No: clinical environments are the woodsheds; they are the only places in which one can hone communication skills. The idea of 'shedding' in the setting of routine practice challenges prevailing notions about communication skills training and has implications for how such skills should be learned, nurtured and assessed. In this essay, we use stories of woodshedding from jazz music history to discuss concepts related to deliberative practice, formal education and learning communities. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.
Khan, Alamgir; Khan, Salahuddin; Zia-Ul-Islam, Syed; Khan, Manzoor
Basically the current study sought to assess the perception of students regarding the role of teacher communication skills in their academics success. Comprehensive questionnaire carrying information including social economic and demographic aspects of the study was designed by the researcher to achieve the set objectives. All those universities…
Beuker, K.T.; Lambregts-Rommelse, N.N.J.; Donders, R.; Buitelaar, J.K.
The first two years of life is a crucially important period for the development of communication skills. In this study joint attention and language development were monthly assessed between 8 and 24 months of age in a sample of 23 typically developing children to establish the developmental
Razack, Saleem; Meterissian, Sarkis; Morin, Lucie; Snell, Linda; Steinert, Yvonne; Tabatabai, Diana; Maclellan, Anne-Marie
To determine thematic similarities and differences in the implementation of common-content communications skills training (CST) in medicine, surgery, paediatrics, and obstetrics and gynaecology residency programmes. Communications skills training based upon the Kalamazoo consensus statement of communication skills in the clinical encounter was implemented in 4 residency programmes. Field notes of the CST sessions in each programme were analysed and coded for themes, considering the domains of Context, Input, Process and Product ('CIPP' methodology). Immediate learning outcomes were quantitatively assessed using retrospective pre/post methodology. Important differences were noted in the implementation of CST in the 4 disciplines. The 2 surgical disciplines showed relatively less reflective language and greater concentration on straight skill acquisition, whereas the 2 medical disciplines concentrated on the residents' role as teachers of communication skills for buy-in. Thematic similarities between disciplines included similar challenges to being good communicators in practice, as identified by residents (e.g. inadequate time and space), as well as lack of formal training. Quantitative learning outcome data from the educational intervention were significant in all groups (P < 0.05). Common material in CST can be adapted to different disciplines. By analysing for thematic similarities and differences in implementation in the 4 disciplines, a picture of different pedagogic 'subcultures' emerged, with different behavioural norms and values related to the doctor's role as communicator. In shared core competency training, it may be useful to consider these differences in planning, so that the training may be both sensitive to the behavioural norms of different disciplines, and effective.
Joosten-ten Brinke, Desirée; Sluijsmans, Dominique; Florack, Anneriet
Joosten-ten Brinke, D., Sluijsmans, D. M. A., & Florack, A. (2011, 25 November). How to improve teacher trainers’ assessment knowledge and skills? Workshop presented at the Eapril conference, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Communication with patients is a core clinical skill in medicine that can be acquired through communication skills training. Meanwhile, the importance of transfer of communication skills to the workplace has not been sufficiently studied. This study aims to assess the efficacy of a 40-hour training program designed to improve patients' satisfaction and residents' communication skills during their daily clinical rounds. METHODS: Residents were randomly assigned to the training program or to a waiting list. Patients' satisfaction was assessed with a visual analog scale after each visit. Transfer of residents' communication skills was assessed in audiotaped actual inpatient visits during a half-day clinical round. Transcripted audiotapes were analyzed using content analysis software (LaComm. Training effects were tested with Mann-Whitney tests and generalized linear Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Eighty-eight residents were included. First, patients interacting with trained residents reported a higher satisfaction with residents' communication (Median=92 compared to patients interacting with untrained residents (Median=88 (p=.046. Second, trained residents used more assessment utterances (Relative Risk (RR=1.17; 95% Confidence intervals (95%CI=1.02-1.34; p=.023. Third, transfer was also observed when residents' training attendance was considered: residents' use of assessment utterances (RR=1.01; 95%CI=1.01-1.02; p=.018 and supportive utterances (RR=0.99; 95%CI=0.98-1.00; p=.042 (respectively 1.15 (RR, 1.08-1.23 (95%CI, p<.001 for empathy and 0.95 (RR, 0.92-0.99 (95%CI, p=.012 for reassurance was proportional to the number of hours of training attendance. CONCLUSION: The training program improved patients' satisfaction and allowed the transfer of residents' communication skills learning to the workplace. Transfer was directly related to training attendance but remained limited. Future studies should therefore focus on
Meulenbroek, Peter; Turkstra, Lyn S.
Purpose Communication deficits may play a critical role in maintaining employment after traumatic brain injury (TBI), but links between specific communication deficits and employment outcomes have not been determined. This study identified communication measures that distinguished stably employed versus unstably employed adults with TBI. Methods Participants were 31 adults with moderate-severe TBI who were employed full-time for at least 12 consecutive months before injury in skilled jobs and had attempted return to skilled jobs after injury. Sixteen had achieved stable employment (SE) post-injury, defined as full-time employment for ≥12 consecutive months; and 15 had unstable (UE) employment. Participants completed a battery of communication tests identified in a prior qualitative study of communication skills required for skilled work. Results Measures of spoken language comprehension, verbal reasoning, social inference, reading, and politeness in spoken discourse significantly discriminated between SE and UE groups. Two nested models were completed and compared. The first model excluded discourse data because of missing data for two UE and one SE participant. This model revealed that measures of verbal reasoning speed (β = −0.18, p = 0.05) and social inference (β = 0.19, p = 0.05) were predictive independent of the overall model. The second model included discourse data and was a better overall predictor of group membership (Likelihood ratio test, Model 1: 3.824, Model 2: 2.865). Conclusion Communication measures were positively associated with stable employment in skilled jobs after TBI. Clinicians should include assessment of communication for adults attempting return to work after TBI, paying specific attention to social inference and speed of verbal reasoning skills. PMID:25958999
Loureiro, Elizabete; Severo, Milton; Ferreira, Maria Amélia
To explore the attitudes and perceptions of Portuguese residents towards Clinical Communication Skills (CCS) and the need for complementary training. 78 medical residents responded to an on-line questionnaire which comprised demographic data, open-ended questions and a Portuguese version of the Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS). Residents gave significantly higher scores (Plearning process of CCS). Residents doing their residency training in other parts of the country, other than the north, reveal a higher perception of insufficient training (72.7% vs. 38.7%, P=0.036). Residents showed more positive attitudes towards communication skills than towards the teaching/learning process. They admit to need more training in CCS in their residency year and highlight that the clinical cycle of undergraduate education should integrate these topics. Content analysis indicates that residents' perceptions are context-influenced. Integration of CCS in the undergraduate education, enhanced during post-graduate training. Training of clinical faculty and supervisors/tutors and the role that stakeholders have to play in order to promote continuous training in CCS; encourage patient-centeredness and reflective practice, as to facilitate transfer of acquired skills to clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
van Empel, P.J.; van Rijssen, L.B.; Commandeur, J.P.; Verdam, M.G.E.; Huirne, J.A.; Scheele, F.; Bonjer, H.J.; Meijerink, W.J.
Background: The equality of subjective- and objective-assessment methods in laparoscopic surgery are unknown. The aim of this study was to compare a subjective assessment method to an objective assessment method to evaluate laparoscopic skill. Methods: A prospective observational cohort study was
Gasiorek, Jessica; van de Poel, Kris
Interactions between people from different cultures are becoming increasingly commonplace in contemporary healthcare settings. To date, most research evaluating cross-cultural preparedness has assumed that medical professionals are speaking their first language (L1). However, as healthcare workers are increasingly mobile and patient populations are increasingly diverse, more and more interactions are likely to occur in a professional's non-native language (L2). This study assessed and compared nurses' perceived cross-cultural preparedness and skillfulness in their interactions with patients from other cultures when speaking both their L1 and L2. The goal of this project was to inform the creation of a communication skills training program. Nurses reported their perceived cross-cultural preparedness and skillfulness (scales adapted from Park et al., 2009) in their L1 and L2 via an online questionnaire. This questionnaire was distributed among nurses working in Vienna, Austria, through the Vienna Hospital Association (VHA). Nurses and nurses-in-training working in VHA hospitals participated. Most participants who provided demographic information were currently nurses (n=179) with an average of 16.88years (SD=11.50) of professional experience (range: 0-40); n=40 were nurses-in-training with an average of 2.13years (SD=0.88) of experience (range: 1-5). Descriptive statistics for each cross-cultural preparedness and skillfulness (in each language) are reported; comparisons between L1 and L2 responses were also conducted. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify predictors of preparedness and L1/L2 skillfulness. Nurses reported feeling significantly less confident in their skills when working in an L2, across a range of culture-related issues. Having had previous communication skills training predicted (better) self-reported L2 skillfulness, although it did not predict L1 skillfulness. These results indicate that there is a language-specific component to cross
Full Text Available This study analyzes whether or not communication skills and self-esteem of vocational school students can predict their psychological resilience. The data of the study were collected from a total of 295 vocational school students including 147 female and 148 male in Burdur and Isparta. The study benefited from the Ego Resiliency Scale developed by Block and Kremen (1996 and adapted by Karaırmak (2007, the Communication Skills Evaluation Scale developed by Korkut (1996, and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale developed by Morris Rosenberg (1965. The study made use of the standard multiple regression analysis in order to prove the power of the assessment of communication skills and self-esteem to predict psychological levels of resilience of vocational school students. The data were tested on a 0.05 level of significance. This study shows that the assessment of communication skills and self-esteem positively co- relates with the personal strengths of pulling oneself together. The positive self-assessment predicts self- esteem positively and significantly as well. A positive sense of an individual’s about oneself positively co- relates with high self-esteem.
Melvin, L; Connolly, K; Pitre, L; Dore, K L; Wasi, P
Written and verbal communication skills are important skills for all physicians. While verbal skills are taught and assessed in medical school, medical students report limited instruction in written communication skills. This study examined the impact of a curriculum delivered during a 6-week clinical rotation in Internal Medicine on the objective assessment of medical students' written communication skills. The curriculum consisted of two educational programmes: a medical student communication tutorial and a resident feedback workshop. The study was conducted from March 2012 to January 2013 at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The study featured three arms: (1) control, (2) medical student communication tutorial alone and (3) student tutorial and resident feedback workshop. Data were collected on 126 students during 6-week Internal Medicine clerkship rotations. Students' written consultation notes were collected prior to the educational programmes and at 6 weeks. Blinded faculty assessors used an independently validated Assessment Checklist to evaluate consultation notes. Consultation note scores improved from week 1 to week 6 across all study arms. However, the change was statistically significant only in arm 3, featuring both the medical student tutorial and the resident feedback workshop, with mean scores improving from 4.75 (SD=1.496) to 5.56 (SD=0.984) out of 7. The mean difference between week 1 and week 6 was significantly different (0.806, p=0.002, 95% CI 0.306 to 1.058). The combination of a resident feedback workshop with medical student written communication tutorial improves objective evaluations of consultation note scores over student tutorial alone. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Busch, Anne-Kathrin; Rockenbauch, Katrin; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Brähler, Elmar
Attitudes towards communication skills of medical undergraduates can be gathered using the Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS). We aimed to develop a German version of the CSAS (CSAS-G) in order to explore attitudes towards communication skills in a German cohort. Additionally the potential influence of demographic factors was examined. We realized the CSAS-G and conducted a survey with 529 participants from 3 different years of study. We then carried out an explorative as well as confirmatory factor analysis and compared the attitudinal scores. Multiple regression analysis was performed. The confirmatory analysis confirmed the two-subscale system revealed by the explorative factor analysis. Students indicate low levels of negative attitudes and moderate levels of positive attitudes. Attitudinal scores differ significantly in relation to gender. The CSAS-G can be used in German cohorts to evaluate attitudes towards communication skills. Medical students in our study show basically a positive approach. Further investigation is necessary to explore and understand attitudes towards communication skills of German medical students.
Full Text Available Background: Communication is a process that allows us to interact with other people. Medical professionals need to possess good communication skills for history taking, diagnosis, and treatment. Communicative skills are hardly taught in medical schools of India. The students are expected to learn them on their own. To address this issue, we introduced communicative skills training (CST for medical interns. Objective: Primary – To determine the effectiveness of CST in improving history taking on sensitive issues by medical interns. Secondary – To improve patients' satisfaction through improved communicative skills. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized control study carried out on medical interns at Jamnagar. The interns were randomized to either Group A or Group B. Intervention in the form of CST was given to Group A while Group B was control. The topic of CST was “eliciting sexual history.” Assessment of participants was done by pre- and post-intervention objective structured clinical examination. For ethical reasons, Group B was also given CST by experts after completion of our study but their results were not included for analysis. Results: Although mean scores increased in both the groups, (from 6.4 to 13.4 in the intervention group and from 6.5 to 7.5 in controls, the percent increase was much larger in the intervention group than controls (109% vs. 15%. Students gave a positive feedback to CST. Opinion of teachers was favoring CST. Among the patients allotted to intervention group, 83% were satisfied. Conclusion: CST imparted to medical interns helps in improving doctor–patient relationship.
Mohan, Veena; Kunnath, Suja Kurian; Philip, Vineetha Sara; Mohan, Lakshmi Santha; Thampi, Neethu
In this case study, we discuss the application of a patient-centred clinical approach that led to the use of an assisted communication platform to combat severe communicative deficit in a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Initial assessment at four years of age revealed that the patient had rudimentary communication skills, with significant sensory integration dysfunction manifested as oral, olfactory, and tactile seeking behaviours; self-stimulatory behaviour; and complete dependence on caregiver for activities of daily living. Intensive, multi-disciplinary intervention resulted in minimal improvement in communicative skills and sensory seeking over six months. Subsequently, a tailor-made picture-assisted communication training with the mother as the communication facilitator was adopted. This approach was abandoned due to the patient's poor response and mother's low acceptance of picture-based interaction. A preference for printed material was observed in the patient. Accordingly, further management was focused on employing a computer-based interactive platform that the patient was taught to use over the course of a few months as a part of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) intervention program. This resulted in a remarkable improvement in the child's skills that now allowed for a better intentional communication of his thoughts and needs. This study highlights the importance of revisiting conventional rehabilitation strategies for communicative deficits and tailoring them according to the patient's needs and preferences. It also emphasises that besides excellent observation skills, clinicians must be willing to consider technology based approaches in patients responding poorly to traditional approaches in order to develop effective interventional programmes. Implication for Rehabilitation The current study highlights the importance of exploring the application of technology based intervention for building communication skills in the early
Carvalho, Irene P; Pais, Vanessa G; Silva, Filipa R; Martins, Raquel; Figueiredo-Braga, Margarida; Pedrosa, Raquel; Almeida, Susana S; Correia, Luís; Ribeiro-Silva, Raquel; Castro-Vale, Ivone; Teles, Ana; Mota-Cardoso, Rui
Communication is important for the quality of clinical practice, and programs have been implemented to improve healthcare providers' communication skills. However, the consistency of programs teaching communication skills has received little attention, and debate exists about the application of acquired skills to real patients. This study inspects whether (1) results from a communication program are replicated with different samples, and (2) results with standardized patients apply to interviews with real patients. A structured, nine-month communication program was applied in two consecutive years to two different samples of healthcare professionals (25 in the first year, 20 in the second year). Results were assessed at four different points in time, each year, regarding participants' confidence levels (self-rated), basic communication skills in interviews with standardized patients, and basic communication skills in interviews with real patients. Data were analyzed using GLM Repeated-Measures procedures. Improvements were statistically significant in both years in all measures except in simulated patients' assessment of the 2008 group. Differences between the two samples were non-significant. Differences between interviews with standardized and with real patients were also non-significant. The program's positive outcomes were replicated in different samples, and acquired skills were successfully applied to real-patient interviews. This reinforces this type of program structure as a valuable training tool, with results translating into real situations. It also adds to the reliability of the assessment instruments employed, though these may need adaptation in the case of real patients.
Background Communication is important for the quality of clinical practice, and programs have been implemented to improve healthcare providers’ communication skills. However, the consistency of programs teaching communication skills has received little attention, and debate exists about the application of acquired skills to real patients. This study inspects whether (1) results from a communication program are replicated with different samples, and (2) results with standardized patients apply to interviews with real patients. Methods A structured, nine-month communication program was applied in two consecutive years to two different samples of healthcare professionals (25 in the first year, 20 in the second year). Results were assessed at four different points in time, each year, regarding participants’ confidence levels (self-rated), basic communication skills in interviews with standardized patients, and basic communication skills in interviews with real patients. Data were analyzed using GLM Repeated-Measures procedures. Results Improvements were statistically significant in both years in all measures except in simulated patients’ assessment of the 2008 group. Differences between the two samples were non-significant. Differences between interviews with standardized and with real patients were also non-significant. Conclusions The program’s positive outcomes were replicated in different samples, and acquired skills were successfully applied to real-patient interviews. This reinforces this type of program structure as a valuable training tool, with results translating into real situations. It also adds to the reliability of the assessment instruments employed, though these may need adaptation in the case of real patients. PMID:24886341
Fazel, Ismaeil; Aghamolaei, Teamur
Communication skills play a paramount role in clinical practice. In every clinical setting, medical doctors need to interview their patients efficiently and be persuasive toward their health issues. This study aimed at assessing the attitudes of medical students toward learning communication skills at Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences in Iran. In this cross-sectional study, the questionnaires were distributed to 210 medical students. Twenty eight students were excluded since they either did not return the questionnaires or filled them out incompletely. So, totally 182 questionnaires were analyzed (response rate=%86.6). Data was collected using communication skills attitude scale (CSAS) which consists of 26 items, 13 indicative of positive attitude and 13 indicative of negative attitude toward learning communication skills. Data were analyzed using SPSS16 software. The mean age of the participants was 21.7 (SD=2.7). Male and female students accounted for 38.5% and 61.5% of the participants respectively. The mean scores for positive attitude was 54.8 (SD=7.3) out of 65, and the mean scores for negative attitude was 35.3 (SD=5.9) out of 65. There were statistically significant differences between male and female students and between basic sciences and pathophysiology students on the one hand and clinical course students on the other as regards their attitudes toward learning communication skills (Pstudents had strongly positive attitudes toward learning communication skills, curriculum planners should not lose sight of negative attitudes and measures need to be taken to minimize or if possible eliminate them.
Юлія Богданівна МОЛОЧНИК
Full Text Available We consider the efficient use of all intellectual abilities of communication system workers, prompting them to effective implementation of their activities. The necessity of introducing the company's management of adequate methods of activation is proven. The system of balanced scorecard assessment of overt and covert skills is created. Choosing of parameters which determine the effectiveness of activation communication system staff, which depends mainly on the level of the successful operation of its basic elements - leadership, employees, agents, ensuring the communication process is grounded.
Full Text Available In the contemporary process of teaching fine arts, children’s own creative expression and art appreciation are used to encourage learners towards both perception and reception; consequently, the evaluation and internalization of works of art play an equally important role. In a qualitative empirical research study that takes the form of a case study, we studied the response of children to works of art and their demonstrated communication skills in this. The results have shown that children respond to works of art on multiple levels. With non-standardized narrative group interviews, we observed children’s associations. Children perceived and internalized the given artworks and also put their emotions into words. The study has shown that systematic development of art appreciation among pre-school children can have a positive impact on their communication skills.
George W. Saba
Full Text Available Background: To encourage medical students’ use of patient-centered skills in core clerkships, we implemented and evaluated a Telephone Follow-up Curriculum focusing on three communication behaviors: tailoring education to patients’ level of understanding, promoting adherence by anticipating obstacles, and ensuring comprehension by having patients repeat the plans. Methods: The intervention group consisted of two different cohorts of third-year medical students in longitudinal clerkships (n=41; traditional clerkship students comprised the comparison group (n =185. Intervention students telephoned one to four patients 1 week after seeing them in outpatient clinics or inpatient care to follow up on recommendations. We used surveys, focus groups, and clinical performance examinations to assess student perception, knowledge and skills, and behavior change. Results: Students found that the curriculum had a positive impact on patient care, although some found the number of calls excessive. Students and faculty reported improvement in students’ understanding of patients’ health behaviors, knowledge of patient education, and attitudes toward telephone follow-up. Few students changed patient education behaviors or called additional patients. Intervention students scored higher in some communication skills on objective assessments. Conclusion: A patient-centered communication curriculum can improve student knowledge and skills. While some intervention students perceived that they made too many calls, our data suggest that more calls, an increased sense of patient ownership, and role modeling by clerkship faculty may ensure incorporation and application of skills.
Saba, George W; Chou, Calvin L; Satterfield, Jason; Teherani, Arianne; Hauer, Karen; Poncelet, Ann; Chen, Huiju Carrie
To encourage medical students' use of patient-centered skills in core clerkships, we implemented and evaluated a Telephone Follow-up Curriculum focusing on three communication behaviors: tailoring education to patients' level of understanding, promoting adherence by anticipating obstacles, and ensuring comprehension by having patients repeat the plans. The intervention group consisted of two different cohorts of third-year medical students in longitudinal clerkships (n=41); traditional clerkship students comprised the comparison group (n = 185). Intervention students telephoned one to four patients 1 week after seeing them in outpatient clinics or inpatient care to follow up on recommendations. We used surveys, focus groups, and clinical performance examinations to assess student perception, knowledge and skills, and behavior change. Students found that the curriculum had a positive impact on patient care, although some found the number of calls excessive. Students and faculty reported improvement in students' understanding of patients' health behaviors, knowledge of patient education, and attitudes toward telephone follow-up. Few students changed patient education behaviors or called additional patients. Intervention students scored higher in some communication skills on objective assessments. A patient-centered communication curriculum can improve student knowledge and skills. While some intervention students perceived that they made too many calls, our data suggest that more calls, an increased sense of patient ownership, and role modeling by clerkship faculty may ensure incorporation and application of skills.
Mărginean, Cristina Oana; Meliţ, Lorena Elena; Chinceşan, Mihaela; Mureşan, Simona; Georgescu, Anca Meda; Suciu, Nicoleta; Pop, Anisoara; Azamfirei, Leonard
Interpersonal and communication skills are 2 essential qualities of every physician. These are separate and distinct parts of the professional character of every physician. In pediatrics these abilities present even a higher impact.We performed a survey-type prospective study based on questionnaires on 100 subjects, equally divided into 4 groups: 25 children, 25 pediatricians, 25 care-givers (parents, tutors, and relatives), and 25 health care staff, in a Tertiary Pediatric Clinic from Romania, between January 2017 and April 2017.We included 100 participants in our study, equally divided into 4 groups: pediatric patients, pediatricians, care-givers, and health care staff. The 1st group comprised 25 children diagnosed with different chronic conditions, presenting the age between 5 and 14 years. The male gender predominated among the children (57%). The lowest general average score for "Communication" section was encountered among pediatricians group, 3.8, while the other 3 groups presented the same average score for this section, that is, 4.6. The children and the health care staff offered the same average score for "Transparency," that is, 4.6, while the pediatricians offered a score of 4.5, and the care-givers of 4.7. The lowest average score for the item "Hospital environment" was given by the doctors, that is, 3.3, followed by care-givers with a score of 3.6, health care staff 3.7, and children with an average score of 3.8. All the 4 groups included in the study offered a general average of 4.9 out of 5 for the "Intercultural issues" section. The lowest average score for "Time management" section was offered by both children and pediatricians, that is, 4.1, while care-givers and health care staff had a slightly better perception regarding this item, offering 4.2 and 4.3, respectively.The opinion among the 4 groups included in the study was generally similar regarding the 5 items assessed by our questionnaires. Therefore, the main aspects that need to be improved
Jones, Christopher G.
Communication skills are a fundamental personal competency for a successful career in accounting. What is not so obvious is the specific written communication skill set employers look for and the extent those skills are computer mediated. Using survey research, this article explores the particular skills employers desire and their satisfaction…
Warren, S F; Yoder, P J; Gazdag, G E; Kim, K; Jones, H A
Very little research has focused on the development and evaluation of intervention strategies designed to facilitate the acquisition of prelinguistic communication skills. We conducted two experiments to determine the effects of a milieu teaching approach on the acquisition and generalization of specific prelinguistic communication skills. In the first experiment, we utilized this intervention approach within a multiple baseline design to teach prelinguistic requesting, commenting, and vocal imitation to a single subject with Down syndrome and language delay. The results indicated that the intervention approach was effective at facilitating the child's use of these skills within the treatment setting. Therefore, in the second experiment we conducted a more comprehensive analysis of this approach with 4 subjects with mental retardation. Three of these subjects were taught to request, and 1 subject was taught both to request and to comment. The effects were experimentally evaluated with multiple baseline across subjects design. The results indicated that the intervention was effective in eliciting the intervention targets within the training setting for all 4 subjects. All 4 subjects showed evidence of generalization across stimulus materials, setting, teachers, and interaction style. There was also evidence of reciprocal effects on how classroom teachers in the generalization setting interacted with the subjects as a result of changes in the child's communication behavior.
Olsen, Erik; Fay, Gavin; Gaichas, Sarah; Gamble, Robert; Lucey, Sean; Link, Jason S
Accelerated changes to global ecosystems call for holistic and integrated analyses of past, present and future states under various pressures to adequately understand current and projected future system states. Ecosystem models can inform management of human activities in a complex and changing environment, but are these models reliable? Ensuring that models are reliable for addressing management questions requires evaluating their skill in representing real-world processes and dynamics. Skill has been evaluated for just a limited set of some biophysical models. A range of skill assessment methods have been reviewed but skill assessment of full marine ecosystem models has not yet been attempted. We assessed the skill of the Northeast U.S. (NEUS) Atlantis marine ecosystem model by comparing 10-year model forecasts with observed data. Model forecast performance was compared to that obtained from a 40-year hindcast. Multiple metrics (average absolute error, root mean squared error, modeling efficiency, and Spearman rank correlation), and a suite of time-series (species biomass, fisheries landings, and ecosystem indicators) were used to adequately measure model skill. Overall, the NEUS model performed above average and thus better than expected for the key species that had been the focus of the model tuning. Model forecast skill was comparable to the hindcast skill, showing that model performance does not degenerate in a 10-year forecast mode, an important characteristic for an end-to-end ecosystem model to be useful for strategic management purposes. We identify best-practice approaches for end-to-end ecosystem model skill assessment that would improve both operational use of other ecosystem models and future model development. We show that it is possible to not only assess the skill of a complicated marine ecosystem model, but that it is necessary do so to instill confidence in model results and encourage their use for strategic management. Our methods are applicable
Full Text Available Abstract Background One estimate suggests that by 2010 more than 30% of a physician's time will be spent using information technology tools. The aim of this study is to assess the information and communication technologies (ICT skills of medical students in Tanzania. We also report a pilot intervention of peer mentoring training in ICT by medical students from the UK tutoring students in Tanzania. Methods Design: Cross sectional study and pilot intervention study. Participants: Fourth year medical students (n = 92 attending Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Main outcome measures: Self-reported assessment of competence on ICT-related topics and ability to perform specific ICT tasks. Further information related to frequency of computer use (hours per week, years of computer use, reasons for use and access to computers. Skills at specific tasks were reassessed for 12 students following 4 to 6 hours of peer mentoring training. Results The highest levels of competence in generic ICT areas were for email, Internet and file management. For other skills such as word processing most respondents reported low levels of competence. The abilities to perform specific ICT skills were low – less than 60% of the participants were able to perform the core specific skills assessed. A period of approximately 5 hours of peer mentoring training produced an approximate doubling of competence scores for these skills. Conclusion Our study has found a low level of ability to use ICT facilities among medical students in a leading university in sub-Saharan Africa. A pilot scheme utilising UK elective students to tutor basic skills showed potential. Attention is required to develop interventions that can improve ICT skills, as well as computer access, in order to bridge the digital divide.
Hirokawa, Kumi; Yagi, Akihiro; Miyata, Yo
The present study was conducted to examine the effects of communication skills on stress responses, such as physiological (blink and heart rate), emotional (state of anxiety and mood), and behavioral responses (smiling and expressing an opinion) in stressful communication situations, specifically answering questions and giving a speech in Japanese and English. Participants were 32 students (16 men and 16 women; Mage = 19.5 yr., SD = 1.3) attending a Japanese university. A high communication skills group was selected from the upper tertile scores of the Social Skills Inventory, and a low communication skills group was selected from the lower tertile scores. Analysis indicated that individuals who had high communication skills performed without heart-rate increase and with more positive attitude during stressful communication tasks. Individuals who had low communication skills displayed higher anxiety prior to the experiment than those who had high communication skills.
Cegala, Donald J; Chisolm, Deena J; Nwomeh, Benedict C
It was hypothesized that parents exposed to a communication skills intervention would participate (e.g., ask questions, express concerns) in a pre-surgical consultation more than parents in the control group. Sixty-five parents of prospective pediatric surgery patients were randomly assigned to either a communication skills intervention (booklet mailed prior to the consultation) or control group. Only initial consultation parents were included, no follow-ups. Audio-recordings of the medical consultations were obtained and the transcripts analyzed utilizing a content-coding system to determine patient participation. Also, parents were given a health literacy test (s-TOFHLA) and a post-interview questionnaire to gather demographic data. Intervention parents participated overall significantly more than control parents. Follow-up analyses revealed that intervention parents asked significantly more questions, and engaged in significantly more information verifying and expressing of concerns. There were no significant differences for parents' assertive statements or information provision. Other significant predictors of parents' participation were consultation length and parents' income. The intervention tested in this study promoted parents' participation in a pre-surgical consultation. As such, it has the potential to improve information exchange between parents and physicians with positive implications for informed consent. Providing parents with communication guidelines prior to a surgical consultation may improve physician-patient communication. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available According to the latest approaches in the field, the integrated marketing communication requires a planned organizational approach, creating and maintaining in time good relations with the customers of its products or services, but also with its other stakeholders. According to the data provided by the National Statistics Institute (INS, the year 2014 is the first year in history when the Romanian exports exceeded the amount of EUR 50 billion. However, within the context of the economic crisis, numerous Romanian brands have disappeared from the market and Romania risks becoming a simple outlet market if the local companies do not improve their communication processes and skills, as sources of competitive advantage by which the Romanian products and services may differ in relation to those of the E.U. member countries. Within the context of business globalization and of the knowledge society, the present paper is trying to identify ways of developing the communication skills, which can be integrated in a formal risk management system, allowing the decrease of the risks triggered by the cultural differences specific of communication in international business.
Myers, Diane; Sugai, George; Simonsen, Brandi; Freeman, Jennifer
In this article, the authors provide an overview of empirically supported practices and techniques for monitoring and assessing teachers' use of effective behavior support practices. They focus on how teacher preparation programs, administrators, and supervising teachers provide pre-service teachers with helpful feedback on their teaching…
Messineo, A; Sanna, S; Dimitri, L; Di Geronimo, M
Communication is a process which enables groups and individuals to increase their control over determining health factors acting on people's lifestyles to promote health. Good communication is fundamental to the health sector in a globalized world, since it may influence national and local policies, health promotion campaigns and correct operational practices. Our study analyses four significant incidents related to instances of bad communication and covers questions which have produced rather incoherent results provoking unjustified alarm. It is therefore necessary to prescribe a way of approaching these issues which will firstly lead to a more careful analysis of the risk involved and therefore to make known correct public information. It is necessary to improve the skills of experts in prevention, to promote educational initiatives at school, universities and in workplaces always focussing more on interdisciplinarity and developing new ways of approaching problems concerning health and safety.
Andersson, Niclas; Andersson, Pernille Hammar
The comprehensive pedagogical approach of CDIO is designed to meet the current and future requirements for engineering education. CDIO integrates the disciplinary technical knowledge and the professional engineering skills required in order to operate as an engineer in industry. Accordingly, prof...... life experience from industry and consequently, they might have limited knowledge about professional skills which of course delimits their ability to evaluate the students’ professional performance. The objective of this study is to design and test a method to assess professional skills...
Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to improve communication skills and knowledge of bioethics of last year medical students doing clerkship and to evaluate the effectiveness of using workshops for this purpose from students’ point of view, in order to continue such programs in future. Methods: After Ethical approval for the study a two-day workshop on teaching effective communication skills and principles of medical ethics was planned and conducted by the department of Medical Education through multidisciplinary faculty of Foundation University Medical College, Pakistan. A total of 102 last year medical students participated in this workshop. The students were divided into 8 groups each containing 12 students. A team of pre trained facilitators for each group conducted the group activities. Teaching strategies including interactive discussions on basic principles of doctor-patient relationship, power point presentations, day to day case scenarios, video clips and presentations involving students in role plays were used. Pre and post workshop self evaluation proformas about knowledge and skills of communication and medical ethics were rated (0=none, 1=below average, 2=average, 3=above average, 4=very good, 5=excellent by the students. Results: 89 out of 102 participants returned the proformas. A significant percentage of students (%82 showed improvement in their knowledge and skills of appreciating bioethical issues like valid informed consent, patient confidentiality, end of life issues and breaking bad news by rating as “very good” after participation in the workshop. More than %70 students recommended this activity for other students. Conclusion: Teaching through interactive workshops was found to be an effective method as reflected by students’ feedback. Therefore, the program will be continued in future.
Alzrayer, Nouf M.; Banda, Devender R.
Students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have difficulties in communication that limit their opportunities to participate in daily living and educational activities. Augmentative alternative communication is one of the strategies used to strengthen the communication skills of students with limited communication skills. Students with ASD…
Axboe, Mette K; Christensen, Kaj S; Kofoed, Poul-Erik
. We consider the questionnaire useful for self-evaluation of clinical communication skills; the SE-12 is user-friendly and can be administered as an electronic questionnaire. However, future research should explore potential needs for adjustments to reduce the identified ceiling effect. Keyword...... Communication skills training Self-efficacy Self-assessment Calgary-Cambridge Guide Questionnaire Validity Reliability......Background The outcome of communication training is widely measured by self-efficacy ratings, and different questionnaires have been used. Nevertheless, none of these questionnaires have been formally validated through systematic measurement of assessment properties. Consequently, we decided...
de Haes, J. C.; Oort, F.; Oosterveld, P.; ten Cate, O.
It is widely accepted that adequate attitudes and communicative skills are among the essential objectives in medical education. The Amsterdam attitude and communication scale (AACS) was developed to assess communicative skills and professional attitudes of medical students. More specifically, it was
Lexén, Annika; Bejerholm, Ulrika
Not all people with severe mental illness who attend Individual Placement and Support (IPS) gain and keep their jobs or work full time. Research has indicated a relationship between social disabilities and work performance in this group, and that support provided is often directed towards the social work environment. However, relationships between social skills performed in an authentic work setting and vocational outcomes have not been explored. To explore relationships between social communication and interaction skills and vocational outcomes among IPS service users in a Swedish context. Twenty-nine participants were appraised with the Assessment of Communication and Interaction Skills (ACIS-S) instrument, and their vocational data were registered. Correlations were estimated using Spearman's rho test with Bonferroni corrections at item level. Better communication and interaction skills were significantly correlated with increased working hours (rs = 0.64) and higher income (rs = 0.45). Increased working hours were related to assuming postures, asking questions, sharing information, and sustaining conversation in an appropriate manner. The results indicate that occupational therapists need to focus on social skills and accommodation of the social work environment in order to promote sustainable working careers among people with severe mental illness.
Laurence, Brian; Bertera, Elizabeth M; Feimster, Tawana; Hollander, Roberta; Stroman, Carolyn
The purpose of this study was to adapt the twenty-six-item Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS) developed for medical students for use among dental students and to test the psychometric properties of the modified instrument. The sample consisted of 250 students (an 80.1 percent response rate) in years D1 to D4 at a dental school in Washington, DC. The mean age of participants was 26.6 years with a range from twenty-one to forty-two years. Slightly more than half of the participants were female (52.4 percent) and were African American or of African descent (51.7 percent). Principal components analysis was used to test the psychometric properties of the instrument. The index that resulted measured both positive and negative attitudes toward learning communications skills. The final twenty-four-item scale had good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.87), and the study obtained four important factors-Learning, Importance, Quality, and Success-that explained a significant portion of the variance (49.1 percent). Stratified analysis by demographic variables suggested that there may be gender and ethnic differences in the students' attitudes towards learning communication skills. The authors conclude that the CSAS modified for dental students, or DCSAS, is a useful tool to assess attitudes towards learning communication skills among dental students.
Junod Perron, Noelle; Nendaz, Mathieu; Louis-Simonet, Martine; Sommer, Johanna; Gut, Anne; Cerutti, Bernard; van der Vleuten, Cees P; Dolmans, Diana
Observation of performance followed by feedback is the key to good teaching of communication skills in clinical practice. The fact that it occurs rarely is probably due to clinical supervisors' perceived lack of competence to identify communication skills and give effective feedback. We evaluated the impact of a faculty development programme on communication skills teaching on clinical supervisors' ability to identify residents' good and poor communication skills and to discuss them interactively during feedback. We conducted a pre-post controlled study in which clinical supervisors took part to a faculty development program on teaching communication skills in clinical practice. Outcome measures were the number and type of residents' communication skills identified by supervisors in three videotaped simulated resident-patient encounters and the number and type of communication skills discussed interactively with residents during three feedback sessions. 48 clinical supervisors (28 intervention group; 20 control group) participated. After the intervention, the number and type of communication skills identified did not differ between both groups. There was substantial heterogeneity in the number and type of communication skills identified. However, trained participants engaged in interactive discussions with residents on a significantly higher number of communication items (effect sizes 0.53 to 1.77); communication skills items discussed interactively included both structural and patient-centered elements that were considered important to be observed by expert teachers. The faculty development programme did not increase the number of communication skills recognised by supervisors but was effective in increasing the number of communication issues discussed interactively in feedback sessions. Further research should explore the respective impact of accurate identification of communication skills and effective teaching skills on achieving more effective communication
Collins, Terri Lane Sutherland
The prevalence rates of children being diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) continue to rise at alarming rates. Recent figures suggest that approximately 1 in 90 children have an ASD. Children with ASD have significant deficits that affect communication skills and social interaction. Children with ASD may also engage in high levels of…
Paternotte, E.; Scheele, F.; Seeleman, C.M.; Bank, L.; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Dulmen, A.M. van
Introduction Intercultural communication (ICC) between doctors and patients is often associated with misunderstandings and dissatisfaction. To develop ICC-specific medical education, it is important to find out which ICC skills medical specialists currently apply in daily clinical
Liu, Jun-E; Mok, Esther; Wong, Thomas; Xue, Lan; Xu, Bo
Nurses have considerable needs for communication skills training in cancer care because of the general lack of education and training on oncology-specific communication skills in Mainland China. To evaluate the effectiveness of an integrated communication skills training program, in which an intensive learning session was combined with practice in the clinical unit to create a supportive ward atmosphere where nurses could practice skills in the workplace and obtain support of head nurses. To implement the communication skills training for 129 nurses, a quasi-experimental research design with a nonequivalent control group was used. Measures, including basic communication skills, self-efficacy in oncology-specific communication skills, communication outcome expectancies, and self-perceived support for communication, were administered at pretraining evaluation, formative evaluation (1 month after training), and summative evaluation (6 months after training) in the training group. Formative evaluation was not administered in the control group. There was continued significant improvement in the overall basic communication skills, self-efficacy, outcome expectancy beliefs, and perceived support in the training group. No significant improvement was found in the control group over the same period. Nurses' communication skills could be developed and consolidated under the integrated communication skills training model. Development of effective interventions to change nurses' negative outcome expectancies in communication with cancer patients is needed in further study.
Amaddii, Luisa; Centorrino, Santi; Cambi, Jacopo; Passali, Desiderio
To describe the speech rehabilitation history of patients with thalamic lesions. Thalamic lesions can affect speech and language according to diverse thalamic nuclei involved. Because of the strategic functional position of the thalamus within the cognitive networks, its lesion can also interfere with other cognitive processes, such as attention, memory and executive functions. Alterations of these cognitive domains contribute significantly to language deficits, leading to communicative inefficacy. This fact must be considered in the rehabilitation efforts. Whereas evaluation of cognitive functions and communicative efficiency is different from that of aphasic disorder, treatment should also be different. The treatment must be focused on specific cognitive deficits with belief in the regaining of communicative ability, as well as it occurs in therapy of pragmatic disorder in traumatic brain injury: attention process training, mnemotechnics and prospective memory training. According to our experience: (a) there is a close correlation between cognitive processes and communication skills; (b) alterations of attention, memory and executive functions cause a loss of efficiency in the language use; and (c) appropriate cognitive treatment improves pragmatic competence and therefore the linguistic disorder. For planning a speech-therapy it is important to consider the relationship between cognitive functions and communication. The cognitive/behavioral treatment confirms its therapeutic efficiency for thalamic lesions. Copyright © 2014 Polish Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z.o.o. All rights reserved.
Wilkerson, Jerod W.
This paper presents the results of a job skill survey of Management Information Systems (MIS) alumni from a Northeastern U.S. university. The study assesses job skill importance and skill gaps associated with 104 technical and non-technical skill items. Survey items were grouped into 6 categories based on prior research. Skill importance and skill…
Lin, Xianchai; Wang, Mei; Zuo, Yajing; Li, Mingge; Lin, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Siping; Zheng, Yongxin; Yu, Minbin; Lamoureux, Ecosse L
The aim of the study was to assess levels of health literacy and computer skills in Chinese patients with cataract, and their impact on the doctor-patient relationship. We undertook a cross-sectional study of cataract patients scheduled for cataract extraction procedures in Guangdong Province, China. Generic health literacy was assessed using 3 established screening questions. Adequate computer skills was determined if patients had used a computer and routinely used search engines on the Internet. Socio-demographic measures (e.g., age, sex, education) were obtained from a standardized interview. Participants who indicated that they could not understand what their doctors mean were considered to have had poor patient-physician communications. Of the 211 participants, 92 (43.6%) had inadequate health literacy and 204 (96.7%) inadequate computer skills. In multivariate analysis, females were more likely to have inadequate health literacy (odds ratio = 2.5, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.3 to 4.7). People with inadequately health literacy were more likely to have a poor patient-physician communication (odds ratio = 3.5, 95% CIs: 1.3 to 9.0). Similar associations were found for inadequate computer skills. Chinese elderly patients with cataract have inadequate health literacy and very limited computer skills, which place them at high risk of misunderstanding and mismanaging their ocular conditions. Patient education information other than online materials may improve the eye care and outcomes of these patients.
Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to assess levels of health literacy and computer skills in Chinese patients with cataract, and their impact on the doctor-patient relationship. METHODS: We undertook a cross-sectional study of cataract patients scheduled for cataract extraction procedures in Guangdong Province, China. Generic health literacy was assessed using 3 established screening questions. Adequate computer skills was determined if patients had used a computer and routinely used search engines on the Internet. Socio-demographic measures (e.g., age, sex, education were obtained from a standardized interview. Participants who indicated that they could not understand what their doctors mean were considered to have had poor patient-physician communications. RESULTS: Of the 211 participants, 92 (43.6% had inadequate health literacy and 204 (96.7% inadequate computer skills. In multivariate analysis, females were more likely to have inadequate health literacy (odds ratio = 2.5, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.3 to 4.7. People with inadequately health literacy were more likely to have a poor patient-physician communication (odds ratio = 3.5, 95% CIs: 1.3 to 9.0. Similar associations were found for inadequate computer skills. CONCLUSION: Chinese elderly patients with cataract have inadequate health literacy and very limited computer skills, which place them at high risk of misunderstanding and mismanaging their ocular conditions. Patient education information other than online materials may improve the eye care and outcomes of these patients.
Hess, Rick; Hagen, Kyle S; Sorah, Emily L
Objective. To describe an interprofessional communication course in an academic health sciences center and to evaluate and compare interpersonal and interprofessional communication self-efficacy beliefs of medical, nursing, and pharmacy students before and after course participation, using Bandura’s self-efficacy theory as a guiding framework. Design. First-year nursing (n=36), first-year medical (n=73), and second-year pharmacy students (n=83) enrolled in an interprofessional communication skills development course voluntarily completed a 33-item survey instrument based on Interprofessional Education Collaborative (IPEC) core competencies prior to and upon completion of the course during the fall semester of 2012. Assessment. Nursing students entered the course with higher interpersonal and interprofessional communication self-efficacy beliefs compared to medical and pharmacy students. Pharmacy students, in particular, noted significant improvements in communication self-efficacy beliefs across multiple domains postcourse. Conclusion. Completion of an interprofessional communications course was associated with a positive impact on health professions students’ interpersonal and interprofessional communication self-efficacy beliefs. PMID:25657373
Mahdi Hazavehei, Seyyed M.; Moonaghi, Hossein Karimi; Moeini, Babak; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Emadzadeh, Ali
Introduction Medical students have a serious need to acquire communication skills with others. In many medical schools, special curriculums are developed to improve such skills. Effective training of communication skills requires expert curriculum design. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and views of experts and stakeholders in order to design a suitable training program in communication skills for medical students. Methods The content analysis approach was used in this qualitative study. Forty-three participants were selected from the faculty, nurses, physicians, residents, and medical students at Mashhad University of Medical Sciences using purposive sampling. The data were collected through focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews. To ensure the accuracy of the data, the criteria of credibility, transferability, dependability, and conformability were met. The data were analyzed by MAXQDA software using the Graneheim & Lundman model. Results The findings of this study consisted of two main themes, i.e., “The vast nature of the present communication skills training” and “administrative requirements of the training program regarding communication skills.” The first theme included the educational needs of students, the problems associated with training people to have good communication skills, the importance of good communication skills in performing professional duties, communication skills and job requirements, the learning environment of communication skills, and the status of existing training programs for communication skills. Strategies and suitable methods for teaching communication skills and methods of evaluating the students in this regard also were obtained. Conclusion The findings of this study were the elements required to design a proper and local model to teach communication skills to medical students through analyzing the concepts of effective communication. The results of this study can be useful for medical
Mahdi Hazavehei, Seyyed M; Karimi Moonaghi, Hossein; Moeini, Babak; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Emadzadeh, Ali
Medical students have a serious need to acquire communication skills with others. In many medical schools, special curriculums are developed to improve such skills. Effective training of communication skills requires expert curriculum design. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and views of experts and stakeholders in order to design a suitable training program in communication skills for medical students. The content analysis approach was used in this qualitative study. Forty-three participants were selected from the faculty, nurses, physicians, residents, and medical students at Mashhad University of Medical Sciences using purposive sampling. The data were collected through focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews. To ensure the accuracy of the data, the criteria of credibility, transferability, dependability, and conformability were met. The data were analyzed by MAXQDA software using the Graneheim & Lundman model. The findings of this study consisted of two main themes, i.e., "The vast nature of the present communication skills training" and "administrative requirements of the training program regarding communication skills." The first theme included the educational needs of students, the problems associated with training people to have good communication skills, the importance of good communication skills in performing professional duties, communication skills and job requirements, the learning environment of communication skills, and the status of existing training programs for communication skills. Strategies and suitable methods for teaching communication skills and methods of evaluating the students in this regard also were obtained. The findings of this study were the elements required to design a proper and local model to teach communication skills to medical students through analyzing the concepts of effective communication. The results of this study can be useful for medical faculties in designing a proper program for
Alotaibi, Fawaz S; Alsaeedi, Abdullah
To explore medical students' attitudes towards communication skills learning in Western Saudi Arabia and to examine impact of socio-demographic variables on the attitudes towards learning these skills. In this cross-sectional study, sample of medical students were recruited from Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the second semester (January-May 2014). Participants were all year 2 (197 students) and year 5 (151 students). The study utilize the Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS) to measure students' attitudes toward communication skills learning. The response rate was 93.9%. The study showed that Taif medical students hold highly positive attitudes towards learning communication skills. Positive attitude score (PAS) was significantly higher in level 5 students, older age group. Significant positive attitude toward learning communication skills clearly observed in target group. Students with more positive attitudes towards communication skills learning tended to be higher level and older age.
Molinuevo, Beatriz; Aradilla-Herrero, Amor; Nolla, Maria; Clèries, Xavier
The consensus about the importance of communication skills in patient-care does not guarantee that students and faculty perceive the usefulness of these skills. This study evaluated and compared medical students', residents' and tutors' attitudes towards learning communication skills, and examined the association with gender and year of residency. We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 492 participants (282 second-year students, 131 residents and 79 tutors). They completed the Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS) and demographic/educational information. In general, participants showed positive attitudes towards learning communication skills. Medical students, residents and tutors did not differ on the Positive Attitudes Scale (CSAS-PAS). Residents scored higher than medical students on the Negative Attitudes Scale (CSAS-NAS) (P learn these communication skills. Attention should be paid to measuring attitudes at all three levels of medical education in the design of communication skills courses.
Hodgson, Yvonne; Varsavsky, Cristina; Matthews, Kelly E.
This study reports on science student perceptions of their skills (scientific knowledge, oral communication, scientific writing, quantitative skills, teamwork and ethical thinking) as they approach graduation. The focus is on which teaching activities and assessment tasks over the whole programme of study students thought utilised each of the six…
O'Sullivan, Patricia; Chao, Serena; Russell, Matthew; Levine, Sharon; Fabiny, Anne
Teaching and assessment of communication and interpersonal skills, one of the American Council for Graduate Medical Education-designated core competencies, is an important but difficult task in the training of physicians. Assessment of trainees offers an opportunity to provide explicit feedback on their skills and encourages learning. This article describes a pilot study in which clinician-educators affiliated with the geriatrics training programs at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Boston University Medical Center designed and piloted a novel Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) to assess the communication and interpersonal skills of medical, dental, and geriatric psychiatry fellows. The OSCE consisted of three stations where geriatricians and standardized patients evaluated candidates using specifically designed checklists and an abbreviated version of the Master Interview Rating Scale. Communication skills were assessed through performance of specific "real life" clinical tasks, such as obtaining a medical history, explaining a diagnosis and prognosis, giving therapeutic instructions, and counseling. Interpersonal skills were assessed through the effect of the communication between doctor and standardized patient on fostering trust, relieving anxiety, and establishing a therapeutic relationship. This pilot study demonstrated that the OSCE format of assessment provides a valid means of evaluating the communication and interpersonal skills of interdisciplinary geriatric trainees and provides a valuable forum for formative assessment and feedback. Given that geriatricians and non geriatricians involved in elder care both need communication and interpersonal skills, this novel OSCE can be used for assessment of these skills in trainees in diverse healthcare subspecialties.
McCann, D C; Worsfold, S; Law, C M; Mullee, M; Petrou, S; Stevenson, J; Yuen, H M; Kennedy, C R
Birth in periods with universal newborn screening (UNS) for permanent childhood hearing impairment (PCHI) and early confirmation of PCHI have been associated with superior subsequent language ability in children with PCHI. However their effects on reading and communication skills have not been addressed in a population-based study. In a follow-up study of a large birth cohort in southern England, we measured reading by direct assessment and communication skills by parent report in 120 children with bilateral moderate, severe or profound PCHI aged 5.4-11.7 years, of whom 61 had been born in periods with UNS, and in a comparison group of 63 children with normal hearing. Compared with birth during periods without UNS, birth during periods with UNS was associated with better reading scores (inter-group difference 0.39 SDs, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.76, p = 0.042) and communication skills scores (difference 0.51 SDs, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.95, p = 0.026). Compared with later confirmation, confirmation of PCHI by age 9 months was also associated with better reading (difference 0.51 SDs, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.87, p = 0.006) and communication skills (difference 0.56 SDs, 95% CI 0.12 to 1.00, p = 0.013). In the children with PCHI, reading, communication and language ability were highly correlated (r = 0.62-0.84, preading and communication abilities at primary school age. These benefits represent functional gains of sufficient magnitude to be important in children with PCHI.
Cohen, Robert A; Jackson, Vicki A; Norwich, Diana; Schell, Jane O; Schaefer, Kristen; Ship, Amy N; Sullivan, Amy M
Nephrology fellows need expertise navigating challenging conversations with patients throughout the course of advanced kidney disease. However, evidence shows that nephrologists receive inadequate training in this area. This study assessed the effectiveness of an educational quality improvement intervention designed to enhance fellows' communication with patients who have advanced kidney disease. Quality improvement project. Full-day annual workshops (2013-2014) using didactics, discussion, and practice with simulated patients. Content focused on delivering bad news, acknowledging emotion, discussing care goals in dialysis decision making when prognosis is uncertain, and addressing dialysis therapy withdrawal and end of life. Participants were first-year nephrology fellows from 2 Harvard-affiliated training programs (N=26). Study assessed the effectiveness of an intervention designed to enhance fellows' communication skills. Primary outcomes were changes in self-reported patient communication skills, attitudes, and behaviors related to discussing disease progression, prognostic uncertainty, dialysis therapy withdrawal, treatments not indicated, and end of life; responding to emotion; eliciting patient goals and values; and incorporating patient goals into recommendations. Surveys measured prior training, pre- and postcourse perceived changes in skills and values, and reported longer term (3-month) changes in communication behaviors, using both closed- and open-ended items. Response rates were 100% (pre- and postsurveys) and 68% (follow-up). Participants reported improvement in all domains, with an overall mean increase of 1.1 (summed average scores: precourse, 2.8; postcourse, 3.9 [1-5 scale; 5 = "extremely well prepared"]; Pnephrology fellows' communication competencies across the full course of patients' illness experience can enhance fellows' self-reported skills and practices. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All
Siriwardane, Harshini P.; Durden, Chris H.
This paper critically reviews 19 studies published between 1972 and 2012 that investigated the written and/or oral communication skills of practicing accountants. The core aim of the review was to identify skills considered important and highlight gaps regarding what is known about existing and desired communication skills in the accounting…
Mercer-Mapstone, Lucy D.; Matthews, Kelly E.
Higher education institutions globally are acknowledging the need to teach communication skills. This study used the Science Student Skills Inventory to gain insight into how science students perceive the development of communication skills across the degree programme. Responses were obtained from 635 undergraduate students enrolled in a Bachelor…
North, Alexa Bryans; Worth, William E.
A longitudinal study was conducted to identify trends in entry-level technology, and interpersonal and basic skills related to communication. Two competencies and one foundation skill are discussed. Results indicate a decline in the number of classified advertisements including technology and basic skills related to communication. Ads including…
Alshare, Khaled A.; Lane, Peggy L.; Miller, Donald
As the importance of communication skills for students, regardless of their disciplines, becomes evident, it is important to determine whether colleges provide students with adequate opportunities to acquire such skills. The authors compared information systems (IS) educator and student perceptions of communication skills in IS curricula. Gender,…
Hulsman, R. L.; Ros, W. J.; Winnubst, J. A.; Bensing, J. M.
CONTEXT: Interest in the teaching of communication skills in medical schools has increased since the early seventies but, despite this growing interest, relatively limited curricular time is spent on the teaching of communication skills. The limited attention to the teaching of these skills applies
Hulsman, R.L.; Ros, W.J.G.; Winnubst, J.A.M.; Bensing, J.M.
Interest in the teaching of communication skills in medical schools has increased since the early seventies but, despite this growing interest, relatively limited curricular time is spent on the teaching of communication skills. The limited attention to the teaching of these skills applies even more
NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 51: Workplace communications skills and the value of communications and information-use skills instruction: Engineering students' perspectives
Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.
Studies indicate that communications and information-related activities take up a substantial portion of an engineer's work week; therefore, effective communications and information use skills are one of the key engineering competencies that recent graduates of engineering programs are expected to possess. Feedback from industry rates communications and information use skills of entry-level engineers low. Missing from current discussions of communications and information use skills and competencies for engineering students is a clear explanation from the professional engineering community about what constitutes 'acceptable and desirable communications and information norms' within that community. To gather adequate and generalizable data about communications and information skills instruction and to provide a student perspective on the communications skills of engineers, we undertook a national study of aerospace engineering students in March 1993. The study included questions about the importance of certain communications and information skills to professional success, the instruction students had received in these skills, and perceived helpfulness of the instruction. Selected results from the study study are reported in this paper.
Full Text Available Background: Partnership with parents is a vital part of pediatric medical education, yet few studies have examined parent attitudes towards learners in pediatric settings. Methods: Questionnaires were used to determine parent and student assessment of professional and clinical skills (primary outcome and parent attitudes towards 3rd year medical students (secondary outcome at the University of Alberta. Chi Square, Kendall’s Tau and Kappa coefficients were calculated to compare parent and student responses in 8 areas: communication, respect, knowledge, listening, history taking, physical examination, supervision, and overall satisfaction. Results: Overall satisfaction with medical student involvement by parents was high: 56.7% of all parents ranked the encounter as ‘excellent’. Areas of lesser satisfaction included physician supervision of students. Compared to the parent assessment, students tended to underrate many of their skills, including communication, history taking and physical exam. There was no relationship between parent demographics and their attitude to rating any of the students’ skills. Conclusions: Parents were satisfied with medical student involvement in the care of their children. Areas identified for improvement included increased supervision of students in both history taking and physical examination. This is one of the largest studies examining parent attitudes towards pediatric students. The results may enhance undergraduate curriculum development and teaching in pediatric ambulatory clinics and strengthen the ongoing partnership between the community and teaching clinics.
Most of the great innovations in communication skills education, from Balint's concept of the 'doctor as drug' to the Calgary Cambridge conceptualisation of the consultation, were founded in general practice. It can be argued however, that there has been a hiatus in the development of new approaches to analysing the consultation since the mid-1990s. It is most welcome therefore that in this issue of the journal two papers are presented that describe and evaluate a novel approach to consultation analysis entitled 'the windows method'. Building on the more structured approaches that preceded it, the windows method offers some genuine innovations in terms of its emphasis on emotional knowledge and the manner in which it addresses many of the potential deficiencies in feedback practice associated with older methods. The new approach is very much in step with current thinking about emotional development and the establishment of appropriate environments for feedback. The windows method has the potential to breathe fresh life into old and well-established communication skills education practices.
Hester, Eva Jackson
The purpose of this study was to examine connections between health literacy and social communication skills in older adults, a population that experiences chronic health conditions but is reported to have low health literacy and declines in communication skills. Sixty-three older adults were administered the "Social Communication"…
Communication skills are an essential element of professionalism. The goal of the problem-based learning (PBL) model is to provide nursing students with the communication skills needed in the helping process. This article addresses the structure of communication skills training at the Dokuz Eylül University School of Nursing. There, students work within a module, first determining the part of the scenario related to communication, adapting this as a learning topic, and then learning the communication skills related to that topic on a cognitive level. A communication laboratory has been set up to permit implementation of the communication skills related to the topic within each learning module. This is necessary because communication requires both knowledge and skill development. Another important facet of communication skills training in this PBL model is that this training occurs during a 4-year learning period. In keeping with the structure of the PBL curriculum, the aim of this study was to provide students first with the skills for self-communication, then for communication with other healthy individuals and groups, and finally, for communication with individuals and groups with specific problems.
Weinert, M; Mayer, H; Zojer, E
Specific communication training is currently not integrated into anesthesiology curricula. At the same time communication is an important key factor when working with colleagues, in the physician-patient relationship, during management of emergencies and in avoiding or reducing the legal consequences of adverse medical events. Therefore, focused attention should be brought to this area. In other high risk industries, specific communication training has been standard for a long time and in medicine there is an approach to teach and train these soft skills by simulation. Systematic communication training, however, is rarely an established component of specialist training. It is impossible not to communicate whereby nonverbal indications, such as gestures, mimic expression, posture and tone play an important part. Miscommunication, however, is common and leads to unproductive behavior. The cause of this is not always obvious. This article provides an overview of the communication models of Shannon, Watzlawick et al. and Schulz von Thun et al. and describes their limitations. The "Process Communication Model®" (PCM) is also introduced. An overview is provided with examples of how this tool can be used to look at the communication process from a systematic point of view. People have different psychological needs. Not taking care of these needs will result in individual stress behavior, which can be graded into first, second and third degrees of severity (driver behavior, mask behavior and desperation). These behavior patterns become exposed in predictable sequences. Furthermore, on the basis of this model, successful communication can be established while unproductive behavior that occurs during stress can be dealt with appropriately. Because of the importance of communication in all areas of medical care, opportunities exist to focus research on the influence of targeted communication on patient outcome, complications and management of emergencies.
Tanwani, Rahul; Chandki, Rita; Joshi, Ajay; Arora, Vinod Kumar; Nyati, Prem; Sutay, Seema
The knowledge of proper communication skills with the patients plays a pivotal role in success of medical professionals. A practical approach would be to initiate its training at an early stage of education period of undergraduate medical students. To assess perception and attitude of medical students towards Communication Skills Lab (CSL) and teaching module in Central India. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Department of General Surgery at Index Medical College, Indore, India. Undergraduate medical students were trained as per a systematic teaching module in a well equipped 'CSL'. Feedback was obtained via Likert scale and analysed after completion of the training course of eight days. A majority of the students (96.43%) opined that the training had improved their communication with the patients. They also felt that such training should be integrated in regular teaching curriculum of our country. The training of basic communication skills can be introduced at an early stage of undergraduate medical curriculum in form of an effective, interesting and acceptable teaching module.
Boyatzis, Richard E.; Kolb, David A.
Develops a typology of learning skills congruent with the learning style descriptions of experiential learning theory. Describes the Learning Skills Profile (LSP), an assessment instrument designed to assess learning skills. Suggests the LSP for providing personal and organizational feedback on skills. Suggests that the typology allows both…
Roby, Douglas E.
This study involved 107 teachers assessing their apprehension in communicating within group settings, one-to-one, in meetings, and in large public speaking circumstances. Those involved in the study were teachers pursuing graduate degrees in teacher leadership. School administrator's acknowledging the talents and gifts of teaching faculty, and…
Hopkins, Thomas; Clegg, Judy; Stackhouse, Joy
Background: Research has revealed that the youth offending population has low language ability when assessed on standardized language measures. However, little is known about the perceptions young offenders (YOs) have of their own literacy ability and their communicative interactions with others. Such knowledge might further our understanding of…
Junod Perron, Noelle; Cullati, Stephane; Hudelson, Patricia; Nendaz, Mathieu; Dolmans, Diana; van der Vleuten, Cees
A 6-month faculty development programme was designed to improve supervisors' feedback to junior doctors on their clinical communication skills (CS)