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Sample records for assertive community treatment

  1. Cognitive adaptation training combined with assertive community treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Peter; Ostergaard, Birte; Nordentoft, Merete;

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive adaptation training (CAT) targets the adaptive behaviour of patients with schizophrenia and has shown promising results regarding the social aspects of psychosocial treatment. As yet, no reports have appeared on the use of CAT in combination with assertive community treatment (ACT). Our...... purpose was to evaluate the effect of CAT in comparison with ACT, focusing on social functions (primary outcome), symptoms, relapse, re-hospitalisation, and quality of life of outpatients with schizophrenia....

  2. Assertive community treatment (ACT) case managers' professional identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerbaek, Birgitte; Aagaard, Jørgen; Andersen, Mette Braendstrup; Buus, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Assertive community treatment (ACT) case managers provide healthcare services to people with severe and persistent mental illness. These case managers take on generic roles in multidisciplinary teams and provide all-around services in the clients' private homes. This focus group study aimed to gain...... sustain interpersonal relationships with clients were an important part of their service. Basic nursing tasks were described as an important part of their everyday work, and even though such tasks were not distinctive for ACT case managers, the representations of their work seemed to give them a sense of...... worth as professionals and legitimized a unique role in the community mental healthcare services....

  3. Early detection and assertive community treatment of young psychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, P; Nordentoft, M; Abel, M B; Gouliaev, G; Jeppesen, P; Kassow, Pernille Brændstrup

    2000-01-01

    Recent research indicates that early detection of young persons suffering from psychosis and subsequent intensive intervention enhances treatment response and prognosis, but the data are only preliminary and suggestive....

  4. Cognitive adaptation training combined with assertive community treatment:- A randomised longitudinal trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Jens Peter; Østergaard, Birte; Nordentoft, Merete; Hounsgaard, Lise

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive adaptation training (CAT) targets the adaptive behaviour of patients with schizophrenia and has shown promising results regarding the social aspects of psychosocial treatment. As yet, no reports have appeared on the use of CAT in combination with assertive community treatment (ACT). Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of CAT in comparison with ACT, focusing on social functions (primary outcome), symptoms, relapse, re-hospitalisation, and quality of life of outpatients with schizo...

  5. Moral Decision-Making among Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) Case Managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerbæk, Birgitte; Aagaard, Jørgen; Andersen, Mette Braendstrup;

    2015-01-01

    The context of care in assertive community treatment (ACT) can be precarious and generate ethical issues involving the principles of autonomy and paternalism. This focus group study examined case managers' situated accounts of moral reasoning. Our findings show how they expressed strong moral...... obligation towards helping the clients. Their moral reasoning reflected a paternalistic position where, on different occasions, the potential benefits of their interventions would be prioritised at the expense of protecting the clients' personal autonomy. The case managers' reasoning emphasised situational...

  6. Improving Employment Outcomes in Assertive Community Treatment (ACT): The Role of the ACT Nurse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waynor, William R; Dolce, Joni N

    2015-07-01

    Assertive community treatment (ACT) for individuals with serious mental illness is a community-based mental health service model where nurses play a significant leadership role as health and wellness educators and consultants to consumers and fellow staff members. The ACT model was designed to include a vocational focus as an important aspect of community integration. Nevertheless, research suggests that ACT does not assist a significant number of consumers in achieving employment goals. Nurses can play a critical part in the recovery and wellness of individuals receiving ACT services. Individual placement and support principles provide a foundation for implementing employment into current services. PMID:26151149

  7. Perceptions of coercion in the community: a qualitative study of patients in a Danish assertive community treatment team

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Marie Høgh; Morthorst, Britt; Nordentoft, Merete

    2010-01-01

    Assertive community treatment (ACT) has been claimed to be paternalistic and coercive, yet little is known about how patients experience the assertive aspects of ACT. To explore views on--and perceptions of--coercion of patients in Danish assertive community teams. In-depth interviews were...... central to perceptions of coercion. A collaborative and mutually trusting relationship, commitment, persistence and availability of staff, and recognition of the need for social support and help with everyday activities, were most important for counteracting such experiences. Perceptions of coercion were...... induce perceptions of coercion. ACT, with its engaged and committed staff with sufficient time, focusing on social and practical issues, is successful in facilitating such a contact, as experienced by patients....

  8. Perceptions of coercion in the community: a qualitative study of patients in a Danish assertive community treatment team

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Marie Høgh; Morthorst, Britt; Nordentoft, Merete

    2010-01-01

    Assertive community treatment (ACT) has been claimed to be paternalistic and coercive, yet little is known about how patients experience the assertive aspects of ACT. To explore views on--and perceptions of--coercion of patients in Danish assertive community teams. In-depth interviews were conduc...... induce perceptions of coercion. ACT, with its engaged and committed staff with sufficient time, focusing on social and practical issues, is successful in facilitating such a contact, as experienced by patients....... central to perceptions of coercion. A collaborative and mutually trusting relationship, commitment, persistence and availability of staff, and recognition of the need for social support and help with everyday activities, were most important for counteracting such experiences. Perceptions of coercion were...... not emphasised in patients' account of their engagement with ACT, and generally only related to patients' initial contact with ACT staff. The study suggests that developing mental health practices that enhance the formation of a therapeutic relationship with patients will minimize circumstances that...

  9. Cognitive Adaptation Training combined with assertive community treatment: A Randomised Longitudinal Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Hansen, J. P.; Østergaard, B.;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive adaptation training (CAT) targets the adaptive behaviour of patients with schizophrenia and has shown promising results regarding the social aspects of psychosocial treatment. As yet, no reports have appeared on the use of CAT in combination with assertive community treatment...... (ACT). Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of CAT in comparison with ACT, focusing on social functions (primary outcome), symptoms, relapse, re-hospitalisation, and quality of life of outpatients with schizophrenia. METHODS: The trial was a parallel, randomised, multicentre trial conducted in three...... centres treating patients with a first episode of schizophrenia disorder. A total of 62 outpatients diagnosed as having schizophrenia were randomly assigned to CAT+ACT or ACT alone. The CAT was conducted in the patient's home and included instruction in prompting for specific actions. The treatment lasted...

  10. Costs and outcome of assertive community treatment (ACT) in a rural area in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Lene Halling; Aagaard, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Health economic evidence of assertive community treatment (ACT) in Denmark is limited. The aim of the study was to assess the costs and outcome of ACT among 174 patients with severe and persistent mental illness in a rural area of Denmark. Methods: The study was based on a quasi......-experimental design with a control group from the neighbouring region. Costs and retention in mental health services were analysed by using register data 1 year before and 4 years after inclusion in the study. Data on the use of supportive housing were available for the year before baseline and the subsequent 2 years...... only. Results: Seventy eight percent of the patients receiving ACT were in contact with psychiatric services at the 4-year follow-up, while 69% of the patients in the control group had contact with psychiatric services (P < 0.17). Days in supportive housing were lower for the ACT group before baseline...

  11. Patient experiences of autonomy and coercion while receiving legal leverage in forensic assertive community treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, J Steven; Russ, Ann; Cerulli, Catherine; Weisman, Robert L; Jacobowitz, David; Williams, Geoffrey C

    2014-01-01

    Legal leverage is broadly defined as the use of legal authority to promote treatment adherence. It is widely utilized within mental health courts, drug courts, mandated outpatient treatment programs, and other intervention strategies for individuals with mental illness or chemical dependency who have contact with the criminal justice system. Nonetheless, the ethics of using legal authority to promote treatment adherence remains a hotly debated issue within public and professional circles alike. While critics characterize legal leverage as a coercive form of social control that undermines personal autonomy, advocates contend that it supports autonomy because treatment strategies using legal leverage are designed to promote health and independence. Despite the controversy, there is little evidence regarding the impact of legal leverage on patient autonomy as experienced and expressed by patients themselves. This report presents findings from a qualitative study involving six focus groups with severely mentally ill outpatients who received legal leverage through three forensic assertive community treatment (FACT) programs in Northeastern, Midwestern, and West Coast cities. Findings are discussed in the context of the self-determination theory of human motivation, and practical implications for the use of legal leverage are considered. PMID:24914490

  12. Identifying barriers to mental health system improvements: an examination of community participation in assertive community treatment programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakefield Patricia A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrating the best available evidence into program standards is essential if system-wide improvements in the delivery of community-based mental health services are to be achieved. Since the beginning of the Assertive Community Treatment (ACT program movement, program standards have included a role for the community. In particular, ACT program standards have sought to ensure that members of the local community are involved in governance and that former clients participate in service delivery as "Peer Support Specialists". This paper reports on the extent to which ACT program standards related to community participation have been implemented and identifies barriers to full compliance. Methods Qualitative and quantitative data were collected through a telephone survey of ACT Program Coordinators in Ontario, Canada, using a census sample of the existing 66 ACT programs. A thematic approach to content analysis was used to analyze respondents' qualitative comments. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 and included means, frequencies, independent t-tests and Pearson Correlations. Results An 85% response rate was achieved. Of the 33 program standards, the two that received the lowest perceived compliance ratings were the two standards directly concerning community participation. Specifically, the standard to have a functioning Community Advisory Body and the standard requiring the inclusion of a Peer Support Specialist. The three major themes that emerged from the survey data with respect to the barriers to fully implementing the Community Advisory Body were: external issues; standard related issues; and, organizational/structural related issues. The three major themes concerning barriers to implementing the Peer Support Specialist role were: human resource related issues; organizational/structural related issues; and, standard related issues. Conclusions The reasons for low compliance of ACT programs with community

  13. [Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Assertive Community Treatment Reduces Days in Hospital and Delays Hospital Admission in Severe Psychotic Disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, H; Haag, I; Jessen, F; Kim, E H; Klaus, J; Konkol, C; Bechdolf, A

    2016-02-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of integrated home treatment (IV, i. e. intensive cognitive behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy provided within a framework of assertive community treatment) in individuals with severe mental disorders (n = 13) within the German healthcare system. A treatment-as-usual group (TAU, n = 13) was identified by propensity score matching. Symptoms (CGI), functioning (GAF) and service engagement (SES) were assessed. Quality of life (MSLQ-R) was rated by the IV patients. A reduction of days spent in hospital [IV: 2.3 (6.1); TAU: 33.6 (53.6); Z = 45; p = 0.044], time to admission (IV: 384 days 95 % CI 309 - 459.1; TAU: 234.9 days 95 % CI 127.2 - 342.5; log rank: Chi-square = 4.31, p methodological limitation is that symptom ratings were not performed by independent and blinded raters. PMID:26953546

  14. Development of a Medication Monitoring System for an Integrated Multidisciplinary Program of Assertive Community Treatment (IMPACT Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole B. Washington, DO, Assistant Professor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The primary goal was to improve medication management oversight for a severely mentally ill (SMI community-based population by developing a medication monitoring system based on current guidelines to optimize pharmacotherapy and minimize potential medication-related adverse effects. The secondary goal was improvement in coordination of care between healthcare providers. Methods: Guidelines for medication used for psychiatric indications were reviewed. A database of medication for psychiatric indications with monitoring recommendation was developed. Results: Medication regimens for 68 members of the Integrated Multidisciplinary Program of Assertive Community Treatment (IMPACT program qualified for review. Fourteen medications, carbamazepine, chlorpromazine, clozapine, fluphenazine and fluphenazine long-acting injections (LAI, haloperidol and haloperidol LAI, lithium, lurasidone, olanzapine, paliperidone and paliperidone LAI, perphenazine, quetiapine, risperidone and risperidone LAI, valproic acid/divalproex, and ziprasidone, were identified. In total, 111 medications are used on a monthly basis. Each member receives more than one medication qualifying for review. Additional monitoring parameters that were evaluated included changes in laboratory orders for members with insulin-dependent diabetes. Annual lipid panels were changed to every 6 months, if applicable. Conclusions and Future Directions: This medication monitoring program was developed to help ensure IMPACT members receive the most effective care and minimize potential medication-related adverse effects. The secondary goal was to improve coordination of care. Medication monitoring will be added as a continuous quality assurance measure. Lab results will be reviewed at least monthly. The medication monitoring program will be evaluated annually.

  15. [Assertive community treatment: promoting engagement with care of people suffering severe addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Stéphane; Silva, Benedetta; Monnat, Martine; Bonsack, Charles

    2016-06-01

    Despite the increasing number of specialized addiction services and the constant deployment of health care resources, a coordinated needs-based treatment is not always available for people with severe drugs and/or alcohol problems. Too often the involved health care professionals feel helpless and overwhelmed by the complexity of the situation. In order to promote the treatment engagement of the hard-to-reach substance users, a multidisciplinary mobile team project for addiction (SIMA) was developed in Lausanne, Switzerland, in 20174. This paper describes the model of intervention, the profile of the population followed during the first year of intervention and illustrates, through two clinical cases, the advantages of this approach. PMID:27451516

  16. Assertive Community Treatment (ACT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... services—including both ER visits and inpatient hospitalizations—ACT team members are also well-connected with local hospitals and have the ability to work with hospital and emergency room staff. ACT teams ...

  17. The quality of life among persons with severe mental illness enrolled in an assertive community treatment program in Japan: 1-year follow-up and analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuoka Hiroo

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toward effective community care for persons with severe mental illness and deinstitutionalization in Japan, we assessed the impact of the first trial of an assertive community treatment program on the lives and subjective perceptions of persons with mental illness without closing hospitals. Methods Forty-three subjects were enrolled from the newly admitted patients of a hospital, who met our criteria of problematic hospital use, severity of psychiatric disorders, and behavioral problems. The intervention team aimed to intensively support them in various life domains in their communities to decrease clients' admissions. The Quality of Life Interview was administered at baseline and after 12 months. Data were analyzed to assess the pre-post changes in their QOL, and were explained in association with other descriptive variables. Results The objective changes included increase in persons whose longest residence in a year were in communities, increase in income, and decrease in family contacts. Most subjective items were not changed except the decrease in satisfaction with family relationships. Satisfaction with family relationships was negatively correlated with hospital days at 1 year follow-up after controlling for symptoms, but was not so at baseline. Also, correlation between satisfaction with family relationships and global well-being was attenuated. A change in the positioning of family by clients and the autonomy of clients were suggested. However, previous studies showed that dissatisfaction with family relationships predicted rehospitalizations independently from symptoms, and our findings suggest our subjects' characteristics and a possible improvement in community-based care. Conclusion Our program predominantly fulfilled the primary goal, but it must be further refined to reflect the detailed characteristics of the target population and resource distribution. Assessing subjective perceptions, or the QOL of clients is

  18. Development of a Medication Monitoring System for an Integrated Multidisciplinary Program of Assertive Community Treatment (IMPACT) Team

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole B. Washington, DO, Assistant Professor; Nancy C. Brahm, PharmD, MS, BCPP, CGP, Clinical Professor; Bruce R. Winchester, PharmD Candidate; Sarah C. Watkins, PharmD Candidate

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The primary goal was to improve medication management oversight for a severely mentally ill (SMI) community-based population by developing a medication monitoring system based on current guidelines to optimize pharmacotherapy and minimize potential medication-related adverse effects. The secondary goal was improvement in coordination of care between healthcare providers. Methods: Guidelines for medication used for psychiatric indications were reviewed. A database of medication for ps...

  19. Can the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents predict the necessity of inpatient stay during assertive community treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urben, Sébastien; Mantzouranis, Gregory; Baier, Vanessa; Halfon, Olivier; Villard, Eva; Holzer, Laurent

    2016-08-30

    Understanding the trajectories of youths within Child and Adolescents Mental Health Service (CAMHS) is of primary importance. Our objective is to assess the usefulness of the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA) to predict inpatient (IP) stay for youths followed by assertive community treatment (ACT) teams. 82 youths followed exclusively by ACT and 42 who needed IP were assessed with the HoNOSCA at admission to the program. The HoNOSCA allowed the computing of three scores: a total score, an externalizing symptoms (Ext) score and an emotional problems (Emo) score. Logistic regressions revealed that the three HoNOSCA scores at admission of ACT predicted later need for hospitalization. Using ROC curve analyses, we set up cut off scores with appropriate sensitivity and specificity for the HoNOSCA Total and Ext to optimally predict the need for hospitalization. This study revealed that the HoNOSCA may be a useful tool to predict the need for later IP during ACT. Such knowledge is important to set up the best therapeutic strategies. PMID:27341331

  20. Assertive outreach in Slovenia; identification of target group and goals of treatment in a new program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Mirjana

    2009-09-01

    A team from the Rehabilitation unit of Ljubljana psychiatric clinic attended a course on community care in London in October and November 2005. Because we decided that the methods presented to us could be of great use in Slovenia where the Health system is lacking such services we decided to implement them after our return. Immediately after we returned we started to carry out our plan. We designated our target group which were patients who poorly participated in treatment or had multiple and severe difficulties functioning and retaining their progress after discharge. Our goals were to improve patient participation in treatment before and after discharge, less and shorter hospitalizations and better integration of patients into society. Initial results are very positive, which leaves me much hope for further implementation of assertive outreach and community care in Slovenia. PMID:19789482

  1. Assertiveness training: Effects of treatment, maintenance of change and therapists' contribution in therapy outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovilović Snežana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research is shown part of results concerning evaluation study of group assertiveness training. Treatment, which has been organized as structured program of assertiveness training, has been applied on 18 groups of subjects during 9 group sessions. This treatment has been adjusted to non-psychiatric clients from our country. Groups were lead by two therapists. During 20 months of our research 215 voluntary participants of full age have joined training groups. Final sample consisted of 158 subjects who had finished treatment and who had fulfilled criteria for taking repeated measurement. Subjects had taken battery of questionnaires before the treatment and eight weeks after they had completed treatment. Subsample, which included 35 subjects from one therapist’s groups, took retest after twice longer time period. Results of conducted research have confirmed the hypothesis concerning the potentiality of assertiveness training to produce expected and significant improvements of treated subjects. Therapy effect is found on symptomatic level through reduction of symptoms of non-assertive behaviors, which were target of the treatment. Contrary to expectation interactive effect of treatment and therapist to reduction of symptoms of non-assertive behavior has been found, which implies need for further investigation of variables that are related to therapists. Through the medium of treatment therapeutic changes in structural level, in domain of general assertiveness, social anxiety and treated subjects' self-concept are produced. The effect of therapy we might consider stabled and maintained after 16 weeks of finishing the treatment.

  2. Assertiveness training: Effects of treatment, maintenance of change and therapists' contribution in therapy outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Tovilović Snežana

    2005-01-01

    In this research is shown part of results concerning evaluation study of group assertiveness training. Treatment, which has been organized as structured program of assertiveness training, has been applied on 18 groups of subjects during 9 group sessions. This treatment has been adjusted to non-psychiatric clients from our country. Groups were lead by two therapists. During 20 months of our research 215 voluntary participants of full age have joined training groups. Final sample consisted of 1...

  3. Involving clients and their relatives and friends in psychiatric care : Case managers' experiences of training in resource group assertive community training

    OpenAIRE

    Nordén, Tommy; Eriksson, Anders; Kjellgren, Anette; Norlander, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to do a qualitative study of an integrated and flexible ACT model, the Resource Group Assertive Community Treatment (RACT), as seen from the perspective of case managers in training. The resource group normally consists of the client, the case manager and other available personnel in the medical and support areas, as well as family members. Nineteen theses were randomly chosen from a set of 80 theses written by a group of Swedish trainee case managers. The exam...

  4. Astute, Assertive, and Alpha-1: Quantifying Empowerment in a Rare Genetic Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Symma

    2008-01-01

    We investigated empowerment in the Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (Alpha-1) community, a rare, genetic disease network in the United States. The research was motivated by nine years of observations in the community. After observing what seemed to be a heightened amount of activism among Alpha-1 community members, I had hypothesized that this…

  5. ASSERTIVE OUTREACH IN SLOVENIA; IDENTIFICATION OF TARGET GROUP AND GOALS OF TREATMENT IN A NEW PROGRAM

    OpenAIRE

    Furlan, Mirjana

    2009-01-01

    A team from the Rehabilitation unit of Ljubljana psychiatric clinic attended a course on community care in London in October and November 2005. Because we decided that the methods presented to us could be of great use in Slovenia where the Health system is lacking such services we decided to implement them after our return. Immediately after we returned we started to carry out our plan. We designated our target group which were patients who poorly participated in treatment or had multiple ...

  6. Individual Assertiveness and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheinov V. P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical overview of researches carried out abroad, where the relationship between individual’s assertiveness and their psychological health, depression and dangerous addictions were studied, is given in the article. It is stated that assertiveness supports psychological health, psychological maturity, adequate self-esteem; it helps to get rid of low self-reliance; decreases anxiety level and fears; boosts self-esteem and self-respect; protects from emotional problems; helps to overcome stress, to give up smoking and generally to be more successful and less prone to depression. For medical workers, it helps to improve treatment of their patients.

  7. Empathy and Assertive Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Shelley D.

    A review of communication research was conducted to (1) describe and clarify the nature of empathy, (2) investigate the construct of assertiveness, (3) posit a possible relationship between empathy and assertiveness, and (4) provide possible suggestions for future research. The literature indicates that conceptualizations of empathy primarily…

  8. Assertive Discipline and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Elden R.

    Assertive Discipline is an outgrowth of Canter and Associates' professional efforts in both working directly with children with behavior problems and consulting with teachers on how to deal effectively with such children. Assertive Discipline is an in-depth approach to classroom and school discipline. Lee and Marlene Canter first published…

  9. Debating China's assertiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai; Feng, Huiyun

    2012-01-01

    Engaging the recent debate on China's assertive foreign policy, we suggest that it is normal for China – a rising power – to change its policy to a confident or even assertive direction because of its transformed national interests. We argue also that it is better to understand future US...

  10. Assertiveness and Physical Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleim, David M.; And Others

    Earlier research investigating the relationship between physical attractiveness and assertiveness found that physically attractive females were more assertive than other females. To investigate this relationship further and to broaden the scope of the study, 69 students were videotaped in groups of five to ten while responding to open-ended…

  11. Staff's perceptions of voluntary assertiveness skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVanel, Sarah; Morris, Beth

    2010-01-01

    Clinicians' ability to be assertive when unsure or concerned about procedures, treatment modalities, or patients' symptoms is key in reducing risk and preventing sentinel events. In this article, the authors provide a framework for generic, voluntary assertiveness communication skills workshops that any educator can implement. PMID:21119378

  12. Assertiveness Training and the Mentally Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granat, Jay P.

    1978-01-01

    This article reviews some of the basic principles of assertiveness training and explains the application of this treatment to the habilitation of mentally retarded adults. It presents qualitative data regarding the value of assertiveness training in a counseling group of mentally retarded persons and proposes several guidelines for counselors.…

  13. Moral Decision-Making among Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) Case Managers: A Focus Group Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerbæk, Birgitte; Aagaard, Jørgen; Andersen, Mette;

    2015-01-01

    obligation towards helping the clients. Their moral reasoning reflected a paternalistic position where, on different occasions, the potential benefits of their interventions would be prioritised at the expense of protecting the clients’ personal autonomy. The case managers’ reasoning emphasised situational...

  14. Assertiveness Training: A Communication Key.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Maria

    This program offers assistance in developing a workshop on assertiveness training for students. It discusses how assertiveness helps one learn self-control and take responsibility for one's own behavior. Examples of assertive and non-assertive behavior and exercises to increase assertiveness are delineated as they relate to classroom skills,…

  15. Assertiveness levels of nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Birgül Özkan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Assertiveness is defined as the feelings and thoughts of a person being expressed without anxiety and fear. This research is a descriptive study in order to determine the assertiveness levels of nurses and factors , which may influence assertiveness.Material and Methods: The study group of thîs research included 465 nurses working at Erciyes University Gevher Nesibe Medical School Hospital, Dr. Vedat Ali Özkan State Hospital, Kayseri state SSK Hospital and Güneş Private Hospital."Nur...

  16. ASSERT-4 user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ASSERT-4 is an advanced subchannel code being developed primarily to model single- and two-phase flow and heat transfer in horizontal rod bundles. This manual is intended to facilitate the application of this code to the analysis of flow in reactor fuel channels. It contains a brief description of the thermalhydraulic model and ASSERT-4 solution scheme, and other information required by users. This other information includes a detailed discussion of input data requirements, a sample problem and solution, and information describing how to access and run ASSERT-4 on the Chalk River computers

  17. The Reciprocal Relationship Between Sexual Victimization and Sexual Assertiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Livingston, Jennifer A.; Testa, Maria; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol

    2007-01-01

    Low sexual assertiveness has been proposed as a possible mechanism through which sexual revictimization occurs, yet evidence for this has been mixed. In this study, prospective path analysis was used to examine the relationship between sexual refusal assertiveness and sexual victimization over time among a community sample of women. Results provide support for a reciprocal relationship, with historical victimization predicting low sexual assertiveness and low sexual assertiveness predicting s...

  18. Using assertions with trace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazimek, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    Algorithms for dynamic detection of assertions are designed to find different types of dependences in programs based only on information collected during their execution without static analysis. Specificity of those algorithms and limited quantity of data to analyze needs to investigate the usage principle of discovered assertions for software dependability increase. This article introduces techniques for increasing usage efficiency of detected assertions through using program execution trace. Concept of trace and of an assertion with trace were defined. The work describes algorithms for reducing the number of traces, shortening traces lengths and reducing the number of observation points identifiers in traces. For several applications fault injection based experiments were conducted in order to check the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  19. Individual Assertiveness and Health

    OpenAIRE

    Sheinov V. P.

    2014-01-01

    An analytical overview of researches carried out abroad, where the relationship between individual’s assertiveness and their psychological health, depression and dangerous addictions were studied, is given in the article. It is stated that assertiveness supports psychological health, psychological maturity, adequate self-esteem; it helps to get rid of low self-reliance; decreases anxiety level and fears; boosts self-esteem and self-respect; protects from emotional problems; helps to overcome ...

  20. Community treatment orders: Bioethical basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Bertolín Guillén

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Numerous opinions and medico-legal controversies have arisen up to the date from community treatment orders in Western countries, but underlying bioethical questions have not been specifically studied. The aim of this work is to contribute to further clarify the bioethical conflicts arising from community treatment orders. Methods: The bioethical deliberation of the author is principally based on what can be considered the deontologist-principlist dominant paradigm. These principles, as first described by Beauchamp and Childress in 1979, will be applied in this work to the actual situation of involuntary outpatient treatment. Results: The author's deliberation considers that community treatment orders are consistent first with the deontologist-principlist dominant paradigm of practical reason, respecting its four general categories of basic principles. It also respects the principles of the medical ethics of virtue, subsumed in the personalism of ontological matrix, in the same way as its ethos affects the intrinsic purpose which is the dignity of the person; and with the consequentialist utilitarianism because it seeks the proportionality of the common good. A community treatment order prescription must ultimately be based on a bioethical exercise of responsibility by the clinician, judiciously weighing up the classic principal prima facie duties which must necessarily be translated into a real duty referring to a specific patient and context. Conclusions: Community treatment orders are seen as a method of therapeutic intervention with a bioethical basis resistant to criticism.

  1. Effects of Assertive Training on Hospitalized Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Phyllis E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    This study focuses on reducing the hostility of hospitalized adolescent and young adult psychiatric patients through assertive training techniques designed to teach appropriate responses to interpersonal conflict. It was predicted that, after treatment, the assertive group would show greater assertiveness, less hostility, and a more positive…

  2. Assertive Training in Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansbury, David L.

    1974-01-01

    This article describes a group approach to helping the nonassertive client. After describing the group composition and goals, he presents a session by session description for conducting the assertive training group. In addition, he presents suggestions based on experiences in leading the group. (Author)

  3. Deinstitutionalization revisited: a 5-year follow-up of a randomized clinical trial of hospital-based rehabilitation versus specialized assertive intervention (OPUS) versus standard treatment for patients with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Øhlenschlæger, Johan; Thorup, Anne Amalie Elgaard; Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia; Bertelsen, Mette

    BACKGROUND: The effects of hospital-based rehabilitation including weekly supportive psychodynamic therapy compared with specialized assertive intervention and standard treatment has not previously been investigated in first-episode psychosis. The aim of the study was to examine long-term effect on...... special part of the Copenhagen OPUS trial and randomized to either the specialized assertive intervention program (OPUS), standard treatment or hospital-based rehabilitation. RESULTS: It was a stable pattern that patients randomized to hospital-based rehabilitation spent more days in psychiatric wards and...

  4. Therapeutic Issues in Assertiveness Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheram, Mary Jane

    1984-01-01

    Examines the application of systems analyses to assertive/unassertive communications. Contends that (1) the definition of assertiveness varies depending on one's frame of reference, (2) interpersonal networks must be considered in designing assertion programs, and (3) the trainee's initial communication style influences the effectiveness of the…

  5. Assertive Training for Professional Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockway, Barbara Stephens

    1976-01-01

    Many women have undergone assertive training to prepare themselves for the demands of a professional career or independent life style. In the case of professional women, this article suggests that assertive training should focus more on altering certain socialization processes than on increasing overt assertiveness skills. (Author)

  6. A Perspective for Assertiveness Training for Blacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Billy Joe

    1978-01-01

    This article discussess assertiveness in the Black-White encounter. The author delineates the assertive options available to Blacks, distortions in interpretation of assertive messages, and strategies for more effective and efficient assertions. (Author)

  7. Deinstitutionalization revisited: a 5-year follow-up of a randomized clinical trial of hospital-based rehabilitation versus specialized assertive intervention (OPUS) versus standard treatment for patients with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Øhlenschlæger, Johan; Thorup, Anne Amalie Elgaard; Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia; Bertelsen, Mette

    BACKGROUND: The effects of hospital-based rehabilitation including weekly supportive psychodynamic therapy compared with specialized assertive intervention and standard treatment has not previously been investigated in first-episode psychosis. The aim of the study was to examine long-term effect on...... special part of the Copenhagen OPUS trial and randomized to either the specialized assertive intervention program (OPUS), standard treatment or hospital-based rehabilitation. RESULTS: It was a stable pattern that patients randomized to hospital-based rehabilitation spent more days in psychiatric wards and...... in supported housing throughout the 5-year follow-up period compared with the two other groups. Patients in OPUS treatment spent significantly fewer days in psychiatric wards and supported housing in the first 3 years compared with patients in hospital-based rehabilitation. Due to attrition and small...

  8. Effect of assertive outreach after suicide attempt in the AID (assertive intervention for deliberate self harm) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthorst, Britt; Krogh, Jesper; Erlangsen, Annette; Alberdi Olano, Francisco Javier Lorenzo; Nordentoft, Merete

    2012-01-01

    To assess whether an assertive outreach intervention after suicide attempt could reduce the frequency of subsequent suicidal acts, compared with standard treatment.......To assess whether an assertive outreach intervention after suicide attempt could reduce the frequency of subsequent suicidal acts, compared with standard treatment....

  9. Assertive behavior: advantages and perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheinov V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this information-analytical paper analyzes and summarizes the results of all available international research and assertiveness assertive behavior relating to the identification of their strengths and the perception of these phenomena in society. Are some suggestions for overcoming the problems detected.

  10. Assertion and Defense Mechanism Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massong, Stefan R.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Investigated whether assertive and nonassertive individuals differ in defense mechanisms they most typically rely on when confronted with interpersonal stress and conflict. Results indicated assertive males and females both endorsed the most adaptive defense mechanism cluster, whereas nonassertive males and females endorsed more primitive defense…

  11. Revisiting Methanotrophic Communities in Sewage Treatment Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Adrian; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E.; Ettwig, Katharina F.; Schneider, Bellinda; Frenzel, Peter; Boon, Nico

    2013-01-01

    The methanotrophic potential in sewage treatment sludge was investigated. We detected a diverse aerobic methanotrophic community that potentially plays a significant role in mitigating methane emission in this environment. The results suggest that community structure was determined by conditions specific to the processes in a sewage treatment plant.

  12. A Historical Approach to Assertiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelina Peneva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A very important personal quality is to be able to advocate for yourself - your own positions, to achieve your objectives, to overcome difficulties,to be determined, but without harming the rights of others and to be able to control the aggressive impulses. The concept, which expressesthese personal characteristics, is called "assertiveness". Assertiveness is a part of the personal potential. It is a prerequisite for self-actualization.The goal we set in this historical-psychological paper is to explore the genesis, development and stabilization of the term "assertiveness". Inthis context, we will examine, compare and analyze the positions of the leading authors on this issue.

  13. A Historical Approach to Assertiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Ivelina Peneva; Stoil Mavrodiev

    2013-01-01

    A very important personal quality is to be able to advocate for yourself - your own positions, to achieve your objectives, to overcome difficulties,to be determined, but without harming the rights of others and to be able to control the aggressive impulses. The concept, which expressesthese personal characteristics, is called "assertiveness". Assertiveness is a part of the personal potential. It is a prerequisite for self-actualization.The goal we set in this historical-psychological paper is...

  14. Middle School PE--Assertiveness Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, William H., Jr.; Smith-Fee, Cindy

    1989-01-01

    This article describes a promising approach to the implementation of psycho-social goals in middle school physical education: assertiveness training. Assertiveness is distinguished from aggressiveness, and several assertiveness activities for the curriculum are suggested. (IAH)

  15. Asertivnost in zdravstvo: Assertiveness and health care:

    OpenAIRE

    Černelič Bizjak, Maša

    2009-01-01

    The paper investigates the construct of assertiveness, the definitions, conceptions, components of assertiveness and measurements of assertive behavior. The results of various studies analyzing the relation between relevant correlates are presented. Special attention is focused on the importance of patient assertiveness and the assertiveness among professional nurses. It has been confirmed that nurses need to develop and use adequate assertiveness skills in order to protect themselves from em...

  16. Re-assessing community-directed treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halwindi, H.; Magnussen, Pascal; Siziya, S.;

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional surveys with carers, health workers, community drug distributors (CDDs) and neighbourhood health committees were conducted to identify factors associated with utilization of community-directed treatment (ComDT) of soil-transmitted helminths in children aged 12-59 months in Mazabuka...

  17. The Chinese business community at a crossroads between crisis response and China’s assertive global strategy : the case of Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Bongardt, Annette; SANTOS NEVES, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the transformation of the Chinese business community in Portugal in result of the interaction between China’s ‘Go Global’ policy and the impact of the 2008/2009 global crisis. It analyses the small-business community’s coping strategies; the impact of recent large-scale Chinese direct investments; and changes to Portuguese immigration laws. It concludes that the small-business community adopted pro-active coping strategies and re-assessed its insertion patterns in the loca...

  18. Effect of assertive outreach after suicide attempt in the AID (assertive intervention for deliberate self harm) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthorst, Britt; Krogh, Jesper; Erlangsen, Annette;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether an assertive outreach intervention after suicide attempt could reduce the frequency of subsequent suicidal acts, compared with standard treatment. DESIGN: Randomised, parallel group, superiority trial with blinded outcome assessment. SETTING: Outpatient intervention a...

  19. Motivation Change in Therapeutic Community Residential Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgen, Keith; Kressel, David

    2010-01-01

    Latent growth curve analysis was used to assess motivation change across 3 time points for 120 therapeutic community residents. Models included the time-invariant predictor of readiness for treatment, which significantly predicted initial treatment motivation but not the rate of motivation change over time. (Contains 1 figure and 2 tables.)

  20. Communication Motives of Assertive and Responsive Communicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carolyn M.; Martin, Matthew M.

    1995-01-01

    Finds that competent communicators (high assertive, high responsive) communicated from needs for affection, pleasure, and inclusion more than noncompetent (low assertive, low responsive), submissive (low assertive, high responsive), and aggressive (high assertive, low responsive) individuals. Shows that aggressive types communicated more from…

  1. Assertive Communication for Foreign Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Joel

    The wide assortment of books and seminars on assertiveness training shows a growing desire among people to learn how to express their feelings. This paper attempts to adapt many of these techniques to the foreign language classroom. Sixteen activities which enable students to practice communication are proposed. They encompass all levels of…

  2. Treatment of hyperthyroidism in community hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preferred treatment of hyperthyroidism remains controversial. Most of this data is derived from large, university-based medical centers. We report here our experience with treatment of hyperthyroidism in a community setting. This involves 144 patients with hyperthyroidism who were seen over a 10 year period at Michigan State University Clinical Center and were treated in the community hospitals and private physicians' offices, and by community surgeons. Follow-up data were available on 119 of these patients; 105 of them were hyperthyroid because of Graves' disease and multinodular goiter. Patients were encouraged to make their own decisions regarding choice of therapy, as independently as possible. Sixty-five percent of these patients were treated by 131I, 18% by antithyroid drugs, and 17% by surgery. The mean follow-up period was 2.5 years (range 2 months to 19 years). Hyperthyroidism was controlled in 84% of the patients treated by 131I and 83% of the patients treated by surgery. Forty percent of the patients treated by 131I and 33% treated by surgery became hypothyroid. Fifty percent of the patients achieved remission when treated by antithyroid drugs alone. Our results indicate that when patients are encouraged to make their own decisions regarding the treatment of hyperthyroidism, their choices are similar to those of the thyroidologists. Secondly, the results obtained with different modalities of treatment for hyperthyroidism in a community setting are similar to those obtained in university medical centers

  3. Responsible Assertive Behavior Promotes Effective Interpersonal Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert, Jack E.

    1983-01-01

    Assertive behavior promotes the development of mutually satisfying relationships, with none of the disadvantages of passive or aggressive behavior. Because of the interpersonal and organizational benefits, managers should encourage assertive behavior throughout their organizations. (SK)

  4. Assertive Management. A Guide for Supervisor Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Terry L.

    1978-01-01

    In-house training programs and workshops of "assertive management" have been conducted by the Assertion Training Institute, whose goal is to help managers overcome their self-imposed hesitations and obstacles while teaching them communication skills. (LBH)

  5. RADICALLY CONTESTED ASSERTIONS IN ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystem management is a magnet for controversy, in part because some of its formulations rest on questionable assertions that are radically contested. These assertions are important to understanding much of the conflict surrounding ecosystem management and, therrefore, deserve...

  6. The Utility of Hedged Assertions in the Emergence of Shared Categorical Labels

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Martha; Lawry, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the emergence of shared concepts in a community of language users using a multi-agent simulation. We extend results showing that negated assertions are of use in developing shared categories, to include assertions modified by linguistic hedges. Results show that using hedged assertions positively affects the emergence of shared categories in two distinct ways. Firstly, using contraction hedges like `very' gives better convergence over time. Secondly, using expansion hedges such...

  7. 42 CFR 412.92 - Special treatment: Sole community hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special treatment: Sole community hospitals. 412.92... SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Special Treatment of... treatment: Sole community hospitals. (a) Criteria for classification as a sole community hospital....

  8. The Pointer Assertion Logic Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2001-01-01

    restricted to simple special cases such as lists or trees. Even so, our current implementation is as fast as the previous specialized tools. Programs are annotated with partial specifications expressed in Pointer Assertion Logic, a new notation for expressing properties of the program store. We work......We present a new framework for verifying partial specifications of programs in order to catch type and memory errors and check data structure invariants. Our technique can verify a large class of data structures, namely all those that can be expressed as graph types. Earlier versions were...... in the logical tradition by encoding the programs and partial specifications as formulas in monadic second-order logic. Validity of these formulas is checked by the MONA tool, which also can provide explicit counterexamples to invalid formulas. To make verification decidable, the technique requires explicit loop...

  9. Assertiveness and problem solving in midwives

    OpenAIRE

    Yurtsal, Zeliha Burcu; Özdemir, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Background: Midwifery profession is required to bring solutions to problems and a midwife is expected to be an assertive person and to develop midwifery care. This study was planned to examine the relationship between assertiveness and problem-solving skills of midwives. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 201 midwives between July 2008 and February 2009 in the city center of Sivas. The Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS) and Problem Solving Inventory (PSI) we...

  10. The structure of assertiveness: a confirmatory approach

    OpenAIRE

    ARRINDELL, WA; Sanderman, R; VANDERMOLEN, H; Vanderende, J.; MERSCH, PP

    1988-01-01

    By using confirmatory factor analysis, distress and performance factors of assertion identified previously in a sample of predomi- nantly agoraphobic club members (N = 703) employing the Scale for Interpersonal Behavior (SlB) - the factors being (I) Display of negative feelings; (II) Expression of and dealing with personal limitations; (III) Initiating assertiveness; and (IV) Praising others and the abili to deal with compliments/praise of others (positive assertion) - were shown to be reprod...

  11. Robust assertions and fail-bounded behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Prata, Paula; Rela, Mario; Madeira, Henrique; Silva, João Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the behavior of assertion-based error detection mechanisms is characterized under faults injected according to a quite general fault model. Assertions based on the knowledge of the application can be very effective at detecting corruption of critical data caused by hardware faults. The main drawbacks of that approach are identified as being the lack of protection of data outside the section covered by assertions, namely during input and output, and the po...

  12. Using Assertive Training to Develop Positive Job Interviewing Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenak, Bonnie McKnight

    1978-01-01

    This article reviews the differences between two types of workshops and a control group on the development of positive interviewing skills. An assertiveness training group, combined with the presentation of interviewing skills and a didactic group, were the two treatments. (Author)

  13. THE ASSERTIVENESS OF PEOPLE WHO PRACTICE KARATE

    OpenAIRE

    Szark-Eckardt Miroslawa.; Golebiewski Piotr; Cieslicka Miroslawa.; Stankiewicz Blazej.

    2012-01-01

    Assertiveness is the ability to express your thoughts, beliefs and opinions without the feeling of internal tension, that is why it is a desired trait of character. One of the examples of sports disciplines in which assertiveness can play a desired role is karate. One of the aims of this paper was to answer the question, whether the act of doing karate influences the level of assertiveness among people who practice it and to compare the results with the level of assertiveness declared by peop...

  14. Assertion Training: A Tool for Teacher Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Darlene Haffner

    Assertion training should be an integral part of preservice teacher training so that, when beginning teachers enter the classroom, they will be confident and able to establish a positive learning climate and minimize discipline problems. A graduate course was developed to assist teachers to develop assertive communication and to use assertive…

  15. A Peer Assertiveness-Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandmeyer, Louise E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    This program extends the availability of assertiveness training to students through the use of paraprofessionals as group leaders. This article describes a format for developing a peer assertiveness-training program and is based on the authors' experience conducting this program during the 1977-78 academic year at Pennsylvania State University.…

  16. Assertiveness Training for Job-Seeking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Patricia G.; McLoughlin, Mary Ellen

    1977-01-01

    Assertiveness Training for Job-Seeking Skills includes skill development in initiating the job search; arranging actual interviews; preparing a resume; articulating strengths, weaknesses, and career objectives; responding assertively in interviews; asking appropriate questions; accepting or rejecting job offers; confronting discrimination;…

  17. [Cognitive and emotional approach to assertiveness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaïs, F; Granger, B; Debray, Q; Ducroix, C

    1999-01-01

    Assertiveness is an individual function which allows adaptation to social interaction. It needs an heterogeneous psychological processus using behavioral, cognitive and emotional components in its expression. Dysfunction in assertiveness contributes to anxious, depressive and personality disorders, representing a frequent impairment for patients. Assertiveness was measured in a population of patients with anxious disorders (n = 33) without concomitant major depression. Rathus Assertiveness Schedule was used for the clinical evaluation, Beck Depression Inventory, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Coopersmith Inventory was also used for clinical measure of depression, anxiety and self-esteem. Global score to Rathus Assertiveness, correlated no specifically with all the others emotional factors. This multidimensional function would benefit to a more discriminant approach, measuring first behavioral and cognitive skills employed in social adaptation and secondly the emotional component of the processus. PMID:10546092

  18. THE ASSERTIVENESS OF PEOPLE WHO PRACTICE KARATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szark-Eckardt Miroslawa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Assertiveness is the ability to express your thoughts, beliefs and opinions without the feeling of internal tension, that is why it is a desired trait of character. One of the examples of sports disciplines in which assertiveness can play a desired role is karate. One of the aims of this paper was to answer the question, whether the act of doing karate influences the level of assertiveness among people who practice it and to compare the results with the level of assertiveness declared by people who do other sports. The method applied in this paper was the diagnostics survey, while the tool was the questionnaire form based on the Rathus Assertiveness Scale. 50 students who practice karate on regular basis and 50 students who do other sports participated in the research. It is undeniable that the level of assertiveness among people who practice karate is higher in comparison to people who do other sports. Karate doers, both men and women obtained better results compared to the second group of sportsmen/women. This regularity can be observed among men, but it is more perceptible among women. As the research presents, people who attend karate trainings at least three times a week are characterized by a higher level of assertiveness in comparison to those who attend the training once a week.

  19. ASSERT development and validation recent progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the time of the conference, the ASSERT code was being developed to address the three-dimensional computation of flow and phase distribution and fuel-element surface temperatures on a local or subchannel basis within CANDU PHWR fuel channels, and to provide a detailed prediction of critical heat flux (CHF) throughout the fuel channel. This paper briefly describes the ASSERT code and its CHF assessment methodology, and several recent validation exercises concerning applications of the code to simulations relevant to CANDU-PHWR fuel channel conditions. Results are presented of a preliminary ASSERT analysis of the Stern Laboratory full-scale water critical heat flux tests. The initial data from the nominal (uncrept) pressure tube tests for steady-state onset-of dryout conditions was applied to ASSERT. An advanced (pre-experiment) prediction of the Stern Laboratory tests in a crept pressure tube was completed using ASSERT. The purpose of the study was to give the relative reduction in initial fuel channel dryout power for a crept pressure tube compared to the nominal pressure tube for the same boundary conditions. This paper discusses recent ASSERT code validation of two CHF experiments with full-scale vertical flow bundles with Freon coolant; these experiments discussed the effect of fuel bundle radial heat flux distribution (RFD) on CHF. The purpose of the study was to confirm the ability of the ASSERT code to predict the correct parametric trends in dryout power for various RFD profiles. Some past ASSERT validation studies relevant to CANDU-PHWR fuel channel modelling are briefly reviewed. The status of, and future directions for, ASSERT code development are summarized. 40 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  20. Developing Processes of Voltan Acar Assertiveness Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Voltan Acar, Nilüfer; ÖĞRETMEN, Tuncay

    2007-01-01

    In order to measure assertiveness the Voltan-Acar Assertiveness Inventory is developed. The scale has 28 items. Test-retest coefficient is 0.89 and Cronbach Alpha is 0.87. According the confirmatory factor analysis of the scale, the internal concistancy coefficent for the passiveness factor is 0.83 (17 items), for the assertiveness factor is 0.78. Reliability coefficient of the whole test is 0.87. Later, second order confirmatory factor model is formulated and the goodness of fit is interpret...

  1. A community-driven hypertension treatment group in rural Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Sheridan Reiger; Harris, Jeffrey R; Kwun Chuen Gary Chan; Hector Lopez Oqueli; Marlana Kohn

    2015-01-01

    Background: We formed a self-funded hypertension treatment group in a resource-poor community in rural Honduras. After training community health workers and creating protocols for standardized treatment, we used group membership fees to maintain the group, purchase generic medications in bulk on the local market, and hire a physician to manage treatment. We then assessed whether participation in the group improved treatment, medication adherence, and hypertension control. Design: This is a pr...

  2. A community-driven hypertension treatment group in rural Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Reiger, Sheridan; Harris, Jeffrey R; Chan, Kwun Cheun Gary; Lopez Oqueli, Hector; Kohn, Marlana

    2015-01-01

    Background: We formed a self-funded hypertension treatment group in a resource-poor community in rural Honduras. After training community health workers and creating protocols for standardized treatment, we used group membership fees to maintain the group, purchase generic medications in bulk on the local market, and hire a physician to manage treatment. We then assessed whether participation in the group improved treatment, medication adherence, and hypertension control.Design: This is a pro...

  3. On an assertion in Riemann's Habilitationvortrag

    OpenAIRE

    Di Scala, Antonio Jose

    2001-01-01

    We study an assertion in Riemann's Habilitation Lecture of 1854. Namely, the determination of the metric given $n\\frac{n-1}{2}$ sectional curvatures. We give several counterexamples to a Riemann's claim

  4. Assertive Skills Training for the Blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhart, Gary; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The article describes how a rehabilitation center for the blind, aware that many clients were inept in dealing with society at large, instituted an assertive skills training program to improve client skills in this area. (Author/SBH)

  5. Assertiveness and Anxiety in Midwifery & Nursing Students

    OpenAIRE

    T Taghavi Larijani; ** ND (MSc.) Sharifi Neiestanak; *** M (MSc.) Aghajani; A Mehran

    2009-01-01

    Background & Objective: High levels of assertiveness and low levels of anxiety are important factors that result in suitable communication. They also increase intellectual abilities, abstract thought, power & autonomy, and personal well-being among nursing and midwifery students. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between assertiveness and anxiety among midwifery and nursing students. Methods & Materials: In this correlational, cross-sectional stud...

  6. Trial and Evaluation of Assertion Training Involving Nursing Students

    OpenAIRE

    Nishina, Yuko; Tanigaki, Shizuko

    2013-01-01

    Background The concept of assertion and conceptual/practical methods of assertion (assertiveness) training were originally developed in the United States and Europe. These principles were embraced and adapted in Japan in 1970’s. However, only a few studies relating to assertion (assertiveness) have been undertaken thus far in Japan, especially so in the domain of nursing students in comparison with other countries. The purpose of this study was to design and implement assertion training with ...

  7. Assertive Training: Teaching Women Not to Discriminate Against Themselves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Pamela E.

    The process of assertive training is described with emphasis placed on its applicability to problems in female assertiveness. Male and female members of four assertive training groups were compared on the Wolpe-Lazarus assertive inventory. Male members obtained a significantly lower score than female members i.e., men reported themselves as…

  8. Assertiveness And Conflictive Thoughts Of Students”

    OpenAIRE

    K. N. Chattopadhyay And Papiya Upadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study is to investigate that level of assertiveness can affect conflictive thoughts of students. For this investigation 160 college going students belonging to the age group of 17 to 23 years, out of which 80 students were higher assertiveness and 80 students were lower assertiveness from Beed District. To assess level of Assertive Inventory: - Assertive inventory developed by Dr. Tasneem Naqvi were used, and to assess the Conflictive Thoughts the Conflictive Thoughts Analysis Inve...

  9. Microbial Communities in Danish Wastewater Treatment Plants with Nutrient Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielczarek, Artur Tomasz

    Activated sludge treatment plants are the most used wastewater treatment systems worldwide for biological nutrient removal from wastewater. Nevertheless, the treatment systems have been for many years operated as so called “black-box”, where specific process parameters were adjusted without the...... devoted into detailed analysis of almost fifty full-scale treatment plants (Microbial Database over Danish Wastewater Treatment Plants.) in order to learn more about the activated sludge communities and the rules that govern their presence and growth. This is one of the first such comprehensive long......-term investigations of the microbial community in full-scale wastewater treatment plants, where conventional identification, molecular identification by quantitative Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization and extensive process information related to treatment plant design and process performance have been compiled. The...

  10. The Development of the Sexual Assertiveness Questionnaire (SAQ): A Comprehensive Measure of Sexual Assertiveness for Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loshek, Eevett; Terrell, Heather K

    2015-01-01

    Sexual assertiveness has been defined in a number of ways by many researchers, with different aspects of sexual assertiveness emphasized in different measures. Most previous measures have included condom insistence as an important aspect of sexual assertiveness, but this may not translate well to women at all life stages or in varied types of relationships. The goal of the current study was to develop a comprehensive measure of sexual assertiveness that encompasses the aspects of sexual assertiveness that have been emphasized by previous researchers, with the exception of condom insistence. Items were generated based on previous measures and definitions, and an exploratory factor analysis was conducted (Study 1) to better understand the dimensions of sexual assertiveness. The proposed scale was revised and further refined using both exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis in Study 2. The final scale consisted of 18 items that seem to capture three dimensions of sexual assertiveness: the ability to initiate and communicate about desired sex, the ability to refuse unwanted sex, and the ability to communicate about sexual history and risk. Model fit indices indicate that this three-factor solution fits the data well. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:25211014

  11. A Proposal for Evaluating Cognition in Assertiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagos, Paula; Pereira, Anabela

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the development process and initial psychometric features of an instrument for evaluating cognition in assertiveness. This is an essential social skill for adolescent development and seems to encompass emotional, behavioral, and cognitive aspects. The instrument was created by combining both empirical and theoretical methods…

  12. 32 CFR 757.14 - Claims asserted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claims asserted. 757.14 Section 757.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS AFFIRMATIVE CLAIMS REGULATIONS..., retiree, or dependent is driving a vehicle and is injured in single-car accident, there is no...

  13. Antibiotic Treatment Strategies for Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Douwe F.; Van Werkhoven, Cornelis H.; Van Elden, Leontine J R; Thijsen, Steven F T; Hoepelman, Andy I M; Kluytmans, Jan A J W; Boersma, Wim G.; Compaijen, Clara J.; Van Der Wall, Eva; Prins, Jan M.; Oosterheert, Jan J.; Bonten, Marc J M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The choice of empirical antibiotic treatment for patients with clinically suspected community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) who are admitted to non-intensive care unit (ICU) hospital wards is complicated by the limited availability of evidence. We compared strategies of empirical treatment (al

  14. Enhancing assertiveness in district nurse specialist practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Julie

    2016-08-01

    District nurse (DN) care delivery has undergone substantial change in recent years due to changing demographics and service delivery demands that have called for a move of care delivery from secondary to primary care. The title District Nurse is recorded with the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) on completion of the Specialist Practice Qualification in District Nursing (SPQ DN), which purports to be a 'transformational' course that prepares future caseload holders to manage their team and prioritise care delivery effectively. This article explores the need for assertiveness skills in this role in response to Australian research, and outlines the pedagogic interventions implemented during the SPQ DN course to enhance this skill. Assertiveness scores were monitored for the duration of the course and demonstrated a significant increase-a topic that is now the subject of a future, funded study. PMID:27479854

  15. Heidegger on Assertion, Method, and Metaphysics

    OpenAIRE

    Golob, Sacha

    2013-01-01

    In Sein und Zeit Heidegger makes several claims about the nature of ‘assertion’ [Aussage]. These claims are of particular philosophical interest: they illustrate, for example, important points of contact and divergence between Heidegger’s work and philosophical movements including Kantianism, the early Analytic tradition, and contemporary pragmatism. This article provides a new assessment of one of these claims: the claim that assertion is connected to a ‘present-at-hand’ ontology. I also ind...

  16. Irish consumer law: asserting a domestic agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Donnelly, Mary; White, Fidelma

    2013-01-01

    This article asserts the importance of developing a distinct Irish consumer law and argues that the matter of consumer protection cannot simply be ceded to Europe. In developing this argument, the article first identifies the hybrid common law and European origins of Irish consumer law. It then traces the development of consumer law in this jurisdiction and focuses on the re-activation of the national consumer protection agenda, both in Ireland and across the European Union, in the last deca...

  17. Approximate Assertional Reasoning Over Expressive Ontologies

    OpenAIRE

    Tserendorj, Tuvshintur

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, approximate reasoning methods for scalable assertional reasoning are provided whose computational properties can be established in a well-understood way, namely in terms of soundness and completeness, and whose quality can be analyzed in terms of statistical measurements, namely recall and precision. The basic idea of these approximate reasoning methods is to speed up reasoning by trading off the quality of reasoning results against increased speed.

  18. [Relationship of perception conflict and assertiveness in nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojčić, Živko; Perković, Lada; Stašević, Ina; Stojčić, Nevena; Ropac, Darko

    2014-06-01

    At their workplace, nurses are exposed to a number of conflict situations. On dealing with such situations, a significant role is played by assertiveness skills. Assertiveness is the necessity of efficient communication between nurses and patients. Thus, development of these skills can enhance patient confidence in the nursing profession. The aim of the study was to determine whether there are differences in assertiveness with respect to age and sex, and whether there is and what is the connection between assertiveness, potential sources of conflict at work, conflicts due to the behavior of associates, resolving conflicts and self-assessment in resolving conflicts. The survey included 87 hospital nurses. The questionnaire included assessment of assertiveness. On processing the results, we calculated the indicators of descriptive statistics, carried out the variance analysis and t-test, and calculated Pearson's correlation coefficients. It was found that the majority of subjects expressed a medium level of assertiveness, i.e. they could be considered as relatively assertive persons. There were significant differences in assertiveness according to age of the subjects and length of service, where the oldest age group was significantly less assertive. More assertive subjects frequently observed behaviors that may be a source of conflict and problems in the organization of work. At the same time, they often had conflicts because of such behavior, which indicated that more assertive subjects were bolder and more secure. More assertive subjects believed that they were more successful in resolving conflicts than non-assertive subjects. PMID:26016217

  19. A community-driven hypertension treatment group in rural Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheridan Reiger

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: We formed a self-funded hypertension treatment group in a resource-poor community in rural Honduras. After training community health workers and creating protocols for standardized treatment, we used group membership fees to maintain the group, purchase generic medications in bulk on the local market, and hire a physician to manage treatment. We then assessed whether participation in the group improved treatment, medication adherence, and hypertension control. Design: This is a program evaluation using quasi-experimental design and no control group. Using data from the 86 members of the hypertension treatment group, we analyzed baseline and follow-up surveys of members, along with 30 months of clinical records of treatment, medication adherence, and blood pressure readings. Results: Our initial hypertension needs assessment revealed that at baseline, community hypertensives relied on the local Ministry of Health clinic as their source of anti-hypertensive medications and reported that irregular supply interfered with medication adherence. At baseline, hypertension group members were mainly female, overweight or obese, physically active, non-smoking, and non-drinking. After 30 months of managing the treatment group, we found a significant increase in medication adherence, from 54.8 to 76.2% (p<0.01, and hypertension control (<140/90 mmHg, from 31.4 to 54.7% (p<0.01. We also found a mean monthly decrease of 0.39 mmHg in systolic blood pressure (p<0.01. At the end of the 30-month observation period, the local Ministry of Health system had increased provision of low-cost anti-hypertensive medications and adopted the hypertension treatment group's treatment protocols. Conclusions: Formation of a self-funded, community-based hypertension treatment group in a rural, resource-poor community is feasible, and group participation may improve treatment, medication adherence, and hypertension control and can serve as a political driver for

  20. Culture and community in the therapeutic community: implications for the treatment of recovering substance misusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, S D; DeBerry, S T

    1994-04-01

    This paper critically discusses the conceptualization and structure of the therapeutic community employed for the treatment of substance misuse in America. The predominant American model, the concept-house model, is criticized on the grounds that the therapeutic milieu of these treatment agencies is contaminated by their subordinance to the influences of the larger American society. These influences include: the predominance of the medical model, the agency as an agent of service delivery, capitalism and inequity, implicit views of human nature, and stratification of social structure. The thesis of this paper is that treatment personnel in therapeutic communities must develop increased sensitivity to the larger cultural factors which influence the construction of the therapeutic community. It is argued that problems within the American culture play a significant role in the etiology of substance misuse. Therefore, treatment personnel must be careful to avoid constructing therapeutic communities which too closely mirror the larger culture. This cultural influence in therapeutic communities functions to maintain long-term substance misuse problems within the individual and the nation. PMID:8034387

  1. Stylistic Complexity and Verb Usage in Assertive and Passive Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervasio, Amy Herstein; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Studied conversation in a role play of assertive behavior of 58 college students and compared this with stylistic complexity derived from publications on assertiveness training. Results showed that for both samples assertive speakers used significantly more words, phrases and clauses than passive speakers. (LLL)

  2. Assertive Behavior and Likeability in Elementary School Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnilower, Daniel A.; Gross, Alan M.

    1984-01-01

    The social impact of assertive versus nonassertive behavior in fourth- and fifth-grade boys was investigated. Subjects viewed and evaluated eight videotaped scenes of different ten-year-old male models responding assertively or nonassertively to given situations. Results suggest that assertive behavior is valued by elementary school boys. (RDN)

  3. Assertiveness and Sexual Satisfaction in Employed Professional Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Marilyn Peddicord; Poulsen, Susan B.

    1975-01-01

    Examines the relationship between assertive personality traits and sexual satisfaction in 45 employed professional women. Results show: (1) a positive correlation between assertiveness and reported sexual satisfaction; (2) as age and length of marriage increase so does reported sexual satisfaction; and (3) as assertiveness increases so do reports…

  4. Treatment technology for removing radon from small community water supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon contamination of drinking water primarily affects individual homeowners and small communities using ground-water supplies. Presently, three types of treatment processes have been used to remove radon: granular activated carbon adsorption (GAC), diffused-bubble aeration, and packed-tower aeration. In order to obtain data on these treatment alternatives for small communities water supplies, a field evaluation study was conducted on these three processes as well as on several modifications to aeration of water in storage tanks considered to be low cost/low technology alternatives. The paper presents the results of these field studies conducted at a small mobile home park in rural New Hampshire. The conclusion of the study was that the selection of the appropriate treatment system to remove radon from drinking water depends primarily upon: (1) precent removal of process; (2) capital operating and maintenance costs; (3) safety (radiation); and (4) raw water quality (Fe, Mn, bacteria and organics)

  5. ASSERT and COBRA predictions of flow distribution in vertical bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COBRA and ASSERT are subchannel codes which compute flow and enthalpy distributions in rod bundles. COBRA is a well known code, ASSERT is under development at CRNL. This paper gives a comparison of the two codes with boiling experiments in vertical seven rod bundles. ASSERT predictions of the void distribution are shown to be in good agreement with reported experimental results, while COBRA predictions are unsatisfactory. The mixing models in both COBRA and ASSERT are briefly discussed. The reasons for the failure of COBRA-IV and the success of ASSERT in simulating the experiments are highlighted

  6. Mental health service users' and practitioners' experiences of engagement in assertive outreach: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, N; Callaghan, P; Bartlett, P

    2011-11-01

    Assertive outreach services have been central to community mental health policy within the UK. These multidisciplinary teams were established to engage with service users who have severe and enduring mental health problems and have found traditional community services unable to meet their needs. Mental health nurses have a pivotal role in these multidisciplinary teams, yet the nature of these relationships from the perspective of those who work in and receive care is poorly understood. This study set out to explore the nature and meaning of engagement for practitioners and service users within assertive outreach services. A qualitative approach, informed by philosophical hermeneutics, underpinned the study. Participants were recruited from a single assertive outreach team in the UK. To be eligible for the study, mental health practitioners needed to be employed within the assertive outreach team. All service users residing in the community and receiving care from the team were also eligible for inclusion. In total 14 interviews were conducted with mental health practitioners and 13 with service users. Data analysis was informed by Turner's method. Four themes emerged from the data; contact, dialogue, transformation and shared understanding. Meaningful engagement was found to manifest itself through experiences such as providing and receiving practical assistance, having a genuine two-way conversation and valuing the experiences and personal attributes of the other person. The findings indicate that engagement is an active, dynamic and skilled process, which leads practitioners and service users to transform together to create a new relationship. PMID:21985685

  7. Enjoy! Hedonic Consumption and Compliance with Assertive Messages

    OpenAIRE

    Kronrod, A.; Grinstein, A.; Wathieu, L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the persuasiveness of assertive language (as in Nike's slogan "Just do it") as compared to nonassertive language (as in Microsoft's slogan "Where do you want to go today?"). Previous research implies that assertive language should reduce consumer compliance. Two experiments show that assertiveness is more effective in communications involving hedonic products, as well as hedonically advertised utilitarian products. This prediction builds on sociolinguistic research address...

  8. The Level of Depression and Assertiveness among Nursing Students

    OpenAIRE

    Rezayat, Fatemeh; Dehghan Nayeri, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nursing students are susceptible to a higher risk of depression. Recognition of depression, assertiveness and the relationship between them is important since if a relationship exists, probably enhancing the level of assertiveness can reduce depression in this high risk group. We aimed to investigate depression and assertiveness levels and the relationship between them in nursing students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Methods: The target population of this cross-sectio...

  9. The drift flux model in the ASSERT subchannel code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ASSERT subchannel code has been developed specifically to model flow and phase distributions within CANDU fuel bundles. ASSERT uses a drift-flux model which permits the phases to have unequal velocities, and can thus model phase separation tendencies which may occur in horizontal flow. The basic principles of ASSERT are outlined, and computed results are compared against data from various experiments for validation purposes. The paper concludes with an example of the code to predict critical heat flux in CANDU geometries

  10. Separation-individuation and assertiveness in late adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Aslan, Sevda

    2013-01-01

    An adolescent can experience some problems regarding assertiveness during the course of separation-individuation from their caregivers. The purpose of this study is to describe the relationship between separation-individuation and assertiveness, which was examined in terms of how assertiveness predicts the separation-individuation of Turkish late adolescents. The sampling group consisted of 283 university students. The data gathered were analyzed by involving several simple regression analysi...

  11. Developing Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) for Parents of Treatment-Resistant Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Kimberly C.; Versek, Brian; Kerwin, MaryLouise E.; Meyers, Kathleen; Benishek, Lois A.; Bresani, Elena; Washio, Yukiko; Arria, Amelia; Meyers, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a project focused on training parents to facilitate their treatment-resistant adolescent's treatment entry and to manage their child after entry into community-based treatment. Controlled studies show that Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) is a unilateral treatment that fosters treatment entry of adults; however,…

  12. SVA the power of assertions in SystemVerilog

    CERN Document Server

    Cerny, Eduard; Havlicek, John; Korchemny, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive guide to assertion-based verification of hardware designs using System Verilog Assertions (SVA). It enables readers to minimize the cost of verification by using assertion-based techniques in simulation testing, coverage collection and formal analysis. The book provides detailed descriptions of all the language features of SVA, accompanied by step-by-step examples of how to employ them to construct powerful and reusable sets of properties.?The book also shows how SVA fits into the broader System Verilog language, demonstrating the ways that assertions can interact

  13. Community treatment orders and Nova Scotia--the least restrictive alternative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueman, Shelley

    2003-01-01

    even danger basis rather than fully discharging them. Another major problem is taking away a patient's inherent right, either by denying the patient's own decision-making if competent, or by ignoring prior wishes or substitute decision-making, to accept or refuse treatment. Legislators have succumbed to an artificial concept that mentally ill persons are dangerous or incompetent and do not have the ability to choose treatment when they are decompensating. Thus they have provided for patients' treatment in a confusing array of CTOs/IOC, all dependent on interference or restriction of a person's basic right to decide for himself. Very few studies have been able to isolate the key factors of what makes CTO/IOC work, although recent studies seem to suggest that CTOs/IOC won't work if there isn't the corresponding support/service system. At the same time, there have been studies of voluntary treatment plans that are succeeding, such as assertive community treatment, that do not rely on coerced treatment. Among these are PACT, case management, mobile crisis units and early intervention methods such as the delivery of emergency services (at a facility) when so requested. When considering CTOs as part of recommended amendments to the Hospitals Act, the Law Reform Commission certainly started on the right track by consulting a broad range of stakeholders and advisory groups within the Nova Scotia's mental health system. Unfortunately, the Commission derailed and did not fully develop its inquiry. Ideally, the Departments of Justice (or the Law Reform Commission), Community Services, and Health should have modelled a full-scale investigation after the RAND study developed for the California Senate. Consultation is definitely necessary, but it needs to be followed up with empirical evidence or at the very least other studies. Realistically, this may be beyond the financial means and resources of the Nova Scotia government. However, it is not beyond the reach of the Commission to

  14. Failure of levofloxacin treatment in community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grossi Paolo

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP. High global incidence of macrolide and penicillin resistance has been reported, whereas fluoroquinolone resistance is uncommon. Current guidelines for suspected CAP in patients with co-morbidity factors and recent antibiotic therapy recommend initial empiric therapy using one fluoroquinolone or one macrolide associated to other drugs (amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, broad-spectrum cephalosporins. Resistance to fluoroquinolones is determined by efflux mechanisms and/or mutations in the parC and parE genes coding for topoisomerase IV and/or gyrA and gyrB genes coding for DNA gyrase. No clinical cases due to fluoroquinolone-resistant S. pneumoniae strains have been yet reported from Italy. Case presentation A 72-year-old patient with long history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and multiple fluoroquinolone treatments for recurrent lower respiratory tract infections developed fever, increased sputum production, and dyspnea. He was treated with oral levofloxacin (500 mg bid. Three days later, because of acute respiratory insufficiency, the patient was hospitalized. Levofloxacin treatment was supplemented with piperacillin/tazobactam. Microbiological tests detected a S. pneumoniae strain intermediate to penicillin (MIC, 1 mg/L and resistant to macrolides (MIC >256 mg/L and fluoroquinolones (MIC >32 mg/L. Point mutations were detected in gyrA (Ser81-Phe, parE (Ile460-Val, and parC gene (Ser79-Phe; Lys137-Asn. Complete clinical response followed treatment with piperacillin/tazobactam. Conclusion This is the first Italian case of community-acquired pneumonia due to a fluoroquinolone-resistant S. pneumoniae isolate where treatment failure of levofloxacin was documented. Molecular analysis showed a group of mutations that have not yet been reported from Italy and has been detected only twice in Europe. Treatment with piperacillin

  15. Effectiveness of Assertive Discipline in a Rural Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferre, Victor; Ferre, Louise

    1991-01-01

    Assertive discipline can help teachers develop more consistent and effective communication strategies for influencing student behavior. Over a nine-week period, two teachers using assertive discipline reduced the off-task and disruptive behavior of a male kindergarten student by defining behavioral limits and providing positive and negative…

  16. Enhancement of Self-Regulation, Assertiveness, and Empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz de Acedo Lizarraga, M. Luisa; Ugarte, M. Dolores; Cardelle-Elawar, Maria; Iriarte, M. Dolores; Sanz de Acedo Baquedano, M. Teresa

    2003-01-01

    Examined the effects of teaching self-regulation strategies and social skills to 40 middle school students who presented difficulties in self-reflection, self-inquiry, assertiveness, and empathy. Significant gains were observed in the experimental group in self-regulation of learning, self-control of behavior, assertiveness, empathy, and…

  17. The status of the knowledge account of assertion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindriks, Frank

    2007-01-01

    According to the increasingly popular knowledge account, assertion is governed by the rule that speech acts of that kind require knowledge of their content. Timothy Williamson has argued that this knowledge rule is the constitutive rule of assertion. It is argued here that it is not the constitutive

  18. Separation-individuation and assertiveness in late adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslan, Sevda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An adolescent can experience some problems regarding assertiveness during the course of separation-individuation from their caregivers. The purpose of this study is to describe the relationship between separation-individuation and assertiveness, which was examined in terms of how assertiveness predicts the separation-individuation of Turkish late adolescents. The sampling group consisted of 283 university students. The data gathered were analyzed by involving several simple regression analysis method. The findings revealed that aassertiveness predicts separation anxiety in a meaningful way. Furthermore, the assertiveness predicts engulfment anxiety, peer enmeshment, need denial, practicing-mirroring, rejection expectancy, and healthy separation. These findings suggest that psycho-educational studies improving assertiveness can be carried out for the late adolescents who experience separation-individuation problems.

  19. Effect of the Creative Drama-Based Assertiveness Program on the Assertiveness Skill of Psychological Counsellor Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Rezzan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental research is to study the effects of the creative drama-based assertiveness program (CDBAP) on the assertiveness skill of Psychological Counselling and Guidance (PCG) department students. The opinions of experimental group students on the program were obtained through the CDBAP evaluation form. The sample of…

  20. Levels of Assertiveness and Peer Pressure of Nursing Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esin Arslan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The research was conducted in order to determine levels of assertiveness and peer pressure of the nursing students.Methodology: This descriptive research has been performed with 154 nursing students in Bozok University, The data were collected with Questionnaire Form, Rathus Assertiveness Inventory and Peer Pressure Scale. We used the data one way Anova, two samples t test, the relationship between several independent variables and scales were evaluated by Pearson correlation technique in order to evaluate the data with normal distribution.Results: It was seen that 69.5% of the students was assertive and mean scores for assertiveness of the male students (19.4±17.9 were higher than that of the female students (29.0±14.1. However, mean scores for peer pressure of the male students (56.6±12.4 were higher than that of the female students (44.0±8.8. It was found out that there was a positive direction middle level significant correlation between mean assertiveness scores and mean peer pressure scores of the studentsConclusion: Although we did not find any significant correlation between mean assertiveness scores and mean peer pressure scores, it was seen that male students were more assertive than female students and male students experienced peer pressure more than female students.

  1. To assert or not to assert: conflict management and occupational therapy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa-Gonzalez, Belkis

    2008-01-01

    As occupational therapists prepare to fulfill the vision of the profession and face the challenges of this century, asserting themselves professionally and effectively collaborating with others is of critical importance. The conflict resolution behaviors used to manage current and future practice environments have significant implications for job retention, work climate, patient care and the development of professional relationships. The literature suggests that occupational therapy students tend to use unassertive forms of conflict management. In an effort to identify potential inconsistencies between students' tendencies and professional demands, this study examined the conflict resolution behaviors that graduate, traditional, and nontraditional occupational therapy students, are likely to use (n = 145). The design of the study was descriptive and correlational. The Thomas Kilmann's MODE instrument and a Conflict Case questionnaire were used as measures of the conflict resolution styles. Results indicated that traditional students favored collaborating while nontraditional students preferred competing and avoiding. The management strategies used by the two groups differed based on the outcome focus and the power relationship between disputants. Findings are relevant for occupational therapy education and continuing professional development. Training in conflict management strategies that would strengthen students' assertiveness and interpersonal skills would be helpful in fostering the leadership needed for fulfilling the profession's vision. PMID:23930758

  2. The drift flux model in the ASSERT subchannel code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ASSERT subchannel code has been developed specifically to model flow and phase distributions within CANDU fuel bundles. ASSERT uses a drift-flux model that permits the phases to have unequal velocities, and can thus model phase separation tendencies that may occur in horizontal flow. The basic principles of ASSERT are outlined, and computed results are compared against data from various experiments for validation purposes. The paper concludes with an example of the use of the code to predict critical heat flux in CANDU geometries

  3. Recent developments in ASSERT-PV code for subchannel thermalhydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarises recent development of ASSERT-PV, and provides examples of applications to CANDU fuel bundles in predicting flow, heat transfer and sheath temperatures. The development work is intended to improve computational and phenomenological modelling capabilities of ASSERT-PV in simulating various flow scenarios in CANDU fuel bundles. The latest version of ASSERT-PV can be used for simulations of steady state or transient, subchannel thermalhydraulics in CANDU bundles under conditions up to and including post-dryout heat transfer. (author)

  4. Automation of assertion testing - Grid and adaptive techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    Assertions can be used to automate the process of testing software. Two methods for automating the generation of input test data are described in this paper. One method selects the input values of variables at regular intervals in a 'grid'. The other, adaptive testing, uses assertion violations as a measure of errors detected and generates new test cases based on test results. The important features of assertion testing are that: it can be used throughout the entire testing cycle; it provides automatic notification of error conditions; and it can be used with automatic input generation techniques which eliminate the subjectivity in choosing test data.

  5. On the Comparison of Interpersonal Sensitivity and Assertiveness between Drug-Dependent Persons and Ordinary People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Vojudi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was aimed at comparing interpersonal sensitivity and assertiveness between drug-dependent persons and ordinary people. Method: The research method was causal-comparative. The statistical population of the study consisted of all narcotic addicts of Tabriz City who referred to Addiction Treatment Centers while the research was being conducted. The number of 30 addicted persons was selected through cluster sampling and 30 ordinary persons as control group through convenience sampling method. Gmbryl & Ritchie’s assertiveness questionnaire (1975 and Boyce & Parker’s Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM 1989 were used for data collection purposes. Results: The results showed that there was a statistically significant difference between two groups in terms of interpersonal sensitivity and assertiveness. The addicts showed less assertiveness and more interpersonal sensitivity in comparison with their healthy counterparts. Conclusion: The findings show that people who are unable to express themselves and exert sensitivity in interpersonal relationships are more likely at high risk of substance dependence. However, it is possible to prevent these persons from turning to addiction by teaching them these skills.

  6. Comparing Locus of Control, Assertiveness and General Health among Young Drug Addicts in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar Shahidi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available "n "nObjective:The aim of this research was to compare the characteristics of assertiveness, locus of control and general health among young drug dependent patients in Iran. "n "nMethods: Three groups of Iranians: were choosed. The first group included drug dependent patients who had volunteered for treatment and had registered in the local Welfare Organization; the second group included dependent patients who were in the prison; and the third group held nondependent patients. All the participants were male and were matched for age and educational level . The following instruments were used in the present study: locus of control  uestionnaire , Assertiveness Scale and the General Health Questionnaire, GHQ. "n "nResults: The results of the present research showed that there were significant differences among the three groups in ssertiveness, locus of control and GHQ scores. It was found that participants in the non addictive group were more assertive and more internal in their locus of control and had higher GHQ scores than the other two groups. The participants in the prison group reported less assertiveness and lower GHQ scores than the non addictive group ; and their locus of control was more external. Conclusion: "n The results this study may be useful in terms of possible strategies for changing an attributive style in young adults in the framework of psychotherapy

  7. Developing Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) for Parents of Treatment-Resistant Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, Kimberly C.; Versek, Brian; Kerwin, MaryLouise E.; Meyers, Kathleen; Benishek, Lois A.; Bresani, Elena; Washio, Yukiko; Arria, Amelia; Meyers, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a project focused on training parents to facilitate their treatment-resistant adolescent’s treatment entry and to manage their child after entry into community-based treatment. Controlled studies show that Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) is a unilateral treatment that fosters treatment entry of adults; however, there are no controlled trials for parents with a substance-abusing child. We examined the behavioral parent training literature to guide us in tailorin...

  8. Experiences from a Community Based Substance Use Treatment Centre in an Urban Resettlement Colony in India

    OpenAIRE

    Yatan Pal Singh Balhara; Rajeev Ranjan; Anju Dhawan; Deepak Yadav

    2014-01-01

    Background. There are limited community based treatment services for drug dependence in India. Rural areas and urban resettlement colonies are in particular deficient in such services. Aims. The current study aimed at preliminary assessment of substance use disorder management services at a community based substance use treatment clinic in an urban resettlement colony. Methods. The study was carried out at community based substance use treatment centre in a resettlement colony in India. The r...

  9. MOTIVATIONAL AND VALUE-SEMANTIC DETERMINANTS OF INDIVIDUAL ASSERTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebedeva Inga Viktorovna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to reveal the concept of "determinants of assertiveness" of a personality, which are determined by motivational characteristics and life value and meaning orientations of the individual. The immediate driving force of human action is the motive or the system of motives. The system of motives of human behavior in different situations of activities, communication and cognition is determined by the personal world view (set of ideas, interests, and beliefs. The value orientation, influencing the direction of human activity, determines a person's behavior and is a personality determinant in the manifestations of assertive behavior and assertiveness. Therefore, the significant psychological factors that contribute to the development of assertiveness are high motivation to success, positive attitudes, and such values as compassion, tolerance, mutual understanding, sympathy, concern that oppose to violence, domination, suppression and submission. The article also presents the results of an empirical study of motivational and value-semantic characteristics of the individual.

  10. Assertion: A Technique for Handling Troublesome Library Patrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groark, James J.

    1979-01-01

    Encourages the use of assertion training for librarians to aid them in providing reference service, interviewing for employment, and handling difficult patrons. A list of references and a selection of readers' comments on the article is included. (FM)

  11. THE EFFECT OF ASSERTIVENESS ON CONFLICT HANDLING STYLES

    OpenAIRE

    ERGENELİ, Azize; KARAPINAR, Pınar BAYHAN; CAMGÖZ, Selin METİN

    2011-01-01

     The purpose of this study was determine the effect of assertiveness in predicting the preference of conflict handling style in the light of the authority position of the other party. We first explored assertiveness as determinant of preferred conflict handling styles and second; examined whether the status of the other party as a situational factor alters this relationship. Data were gathered using self-administered survey to 206 employees working at a textile manufacturing company.  In conf...

  12. Levels of Assertiveness and Peer Pressure of Nursing Students

    OpenAIRE

    Esin Arslan; Nazan Kiliç Akça; Mürüvvet Baser

    2013-01-01

    Background: The research was conducted in order to determine levels of assertiveness and peer pressure of the nursing students.Methodology: This descriptive research has been performed with 154 nursing students in Bozok University, The data were collected with Questionnaire Form, Rathus Assertiveness Inventory and Peer Pressure Scale. We used the data one way Anova, two samples t test, the relationship between several independent variables and scales were evaluated by Pearson correlation tech...

  13. On the Comparison of Interpersonal Sensitivity and Assertiveness between Drug-Dependent Persons and Ordinary People

    OpenAIRE

    Babak Vojudi; Nastaran Otared; Hamid poursharifi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study was aimed at comparing interpersonal sensitivity and assertiveness between drug-dependent persons and ordinary people. Method: The research method was causal-comparative. The statistical population of the study consisted of all narcotic addicts of Tabriz City who referred to Addiction Treatment Centers while the research was being conducted. The number of 30 addicted persons was selected through cluster sampling and 30 ordinary persons as control group through con...

  14. Attachment, Sexual Assertiveness, and Sexual Outcomes in Women with Provoked Vestibulodynia and Their Partners: A Mediation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Bianca; Bergeron, Sophie; Brassard, Audrey; Bélanger, Claude; Steben, Marc; Lambert, Bernard

    2015-08-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a prevalent women's sexual pain disorder, which is associated with sexual function difficulties. Attachment theory has been used to understand adult sexual outcomes, providing a useful framework for examining sexual adaptation in couples confronted with PVD. Research to date indicates that anxious and avoidant attachment dimensions correlate with worse sexual outcomes in community and clinical samples. The present study examined the association between attachment, pain, sexual function, and sexual satisfaction in a sample of 101 couples in which the women presented with PVD. The actor-partner interdependence model was used in order to investigate both actor and partner effects. This study also examined the role of sexual assertiveness as a mediator of these associations via structural equation modeling. Women completed measures of pain intensity and both members of the couple completed measures of romantic attachment, sexual assertiveness, sexual function, and satisfaction. Results indicated that attachment dimensions did not predict pain intensity. Both anxious and avoidant attachment were associated with lower sexual satisfaction. Only attachment avoidance predicted lower sexual function in women. Partner effects indicated that higher sexual assertiveness in women predicted higher sexual satisfaction in men. Finally, women's sexual assertiveness was found to be a significant mediator of the relationship between their attachment dimensions, sexual function, and satisfaction. Findings highlight the importance of examining how anxious and avoidant attachment may lead to difficulties in sexual assertiveness and to less satisfying sexual interactions in couples where women suffer from PVD. PMID:24777439

  15. 28 CFR 550.56 - Community Transitional Drug Abuse Treatment Program (TDAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Community Transitional Drug Abuse... JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.56 Community Transitional Drug Abuse Treatment Program (TDAT). (a) For inmates to successfully complete all components...

  16. TAX TREATMENT SPECIFIC TO INTRA COMMUNITY COMMERCIAL BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS - ACQUISITION AND INTRA-COMMUNITY SUPPLY OF GOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paliu -Popa Lucia

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Romania's accession to the European Union has imposed harmonize national legislation with Community law, registering significant changes in the tax area, particularly on value added tax. In order to determine the person liable to pay value added tax, related to intra-community commercial transactions, must to clarify tax matters for those operations. Given the complexity of intra-community commercial transactions and their taxation, in the following issues we will address the intra-community trade in goods, with reference to specific tax treatment of supplies and intra-community acquisitions of goods. To do this we will consider more specific situations that arise in trade relationship between EU Member States, examples that will allow us to draw some conclusions on tax matters arising in intracommunity commercial relationship

  17. Optimal Decomposition of Service Level Objectives into Policy Assertions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegari, Yousef; Shams, Fereidoon

    2015-01-01

    WS-agreement specifies quality objectives that each partner is obligated to provide. To meet quality objectives, the corresponding partner should apply appropriate policy assertions to its web services and adjust their parameters accordingly. Transformation of WS-CDL to WSBPEL is addressed in some related works, but neither of them considers quality aspects of transformation nor run-time adaptation. Here, in conformance with web services standards, we propose an optimal decomposition method to make a set of WS-policy assertions. Assertions can be applied to WSBPEL elements and affect their run-time behaviors. The decomposition method achieves the best outcome for a performance indicator. It also guarantees the lowest adaptation overhead by reducing the number of service reselections. We considered securities settlement case study to prototype and evaluate the decomposition method. The results show an acceptable threshold between customer satisfaction-the targeted performance indicator in our case study-and adaptation overhead. PMID:26962544

  18. Automated Synthesis of Assertion Monitors using Visual Specifications

    CERN Document Server

    Gadkari, Ambar A

    2011-01-01

    Automated synthesis of monitors from high-level properties plays a significant role in assertion-based verification. We present here a methodology to synthesize assertion monitors from visual specifications given in CESC (Clocked Event Sequence Chart). CESC is a visual language designed for specifying system level interactions involving single and multiple clock domains. It has well-defined graphical and textual syntax and formal semantics based on synchronous language paradigm enabling formal analysis of specifications. In this paper we provide an overview of CESC language with few illustrative examples. The algorithm for automated synthesis of assertion monitors from CESC specifications is described. A few examples from standard bus protocols (OCP-IP and AMBA) are presented to demonstrate the application of monitor synthesis algorithm.

  19. Impact of Community Mass Treatment with Azithromycin for Trachoma Elimination on the Prevalence of Yaws

    OpenAIRE

    Marks, M; Vahi, V.; Sokana, O; Chi, KH; Puiahi, E; Kilua, G; Pillay, A; T. Dalipanda; Bottomley, C.; Solomon, AW; Mabey, DC

    2015-01-01

    Background Community mass treatment with 30mg/kg azithromycin is central to the new WHO strategy for eradicating yaws. Both yaws and trachoma— which is earmarked for elimination by 2020 using a strategy that includes mass treatment with 20mg/kg azithromycin—are endemic in the Pacific, raising the possibility of an integrated approach to disease control. Community mass treatment with azithromycin for trachoma elimination was conducted in the Solomon Islands in 2014. Methods We conducted a stud...

  20. Secure bindings of SAML assertions to TLS sessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlar, Florian; Schwenk, Jörg; Jensen, Meiko;

    2010-01-01

    strengthen the Same Origin Policy of the browser by taking into account the security guarantees TLS gives. In this paper, we present a third approach which is of further interest beyond IDM protocols: we bind the SAML assertion to the TLS session that has been agreed upon between client and the service......In recent research work, two approaches to protect SAML based Federated Identity Management (FIM) against man-in-the-middle attacks have been proposed. One approach is to bind the SAML assertion and the SAML artifact to the public key contained in a TLS client certificate. Another approach is to...

  1. Social competence: evaluation of assertiveness in Spanish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castedo, Antonio López; Juste, Margarita Pino; Alonso, José Domínguez

    2015-02-01

    Relations between assertiveness in adolescents' social behavior and demographic variables were assessed in 4,943 Spanish adolescents, ages 12 to 17 years, enrolled in 32 schools for Compulsory Secondary Education. Province of residence, school size, age, grade, and academic focus were statistically significant sources of variance in assertiveness scores. All effects were small. Patterns in responses indicate the items should be reviewed to improve the measure for adolescents, and as a tool for addressing teens' social competence in real life situations. PMID:25621673

  2. Alcohol, aggression and assertiveness in men: dosage and expectancy effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, J S; Schneider, H G; Myatt, C R

    1984-05-01

    The effect of alcohol on aggression and assertiveness was examined in 54 men college students. A 2 (high vs low dosage expectancy) x 3 (0.0, 0.5 and 1.0 ml of 95% alcohol per kg of body weight) design was used. There was an increase in self-reported aggression at the moderate dosage but an increase only in profanity at the high dosage. The expectancy manipulation also produced an increase in self-reported aggression. Actual dosage and dosage expectancy did not influence assertiveness. PMID:6748671

  3. Assertiveness predicts threat and challenge reactions to potential stress among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaka, J; Palacios, R; Schneider, K T; Colotla, M; Concha, J B; Herrald, M M

    1999-06-01

    In this study assertiveness as a moderator of stress reactions among women was examined. Specifically, the experimenters examined how high and low assertive women cognitively appraised, affectively and physiologically responded to, and behaviorally coped with the stress of giving an impromptu speech. High assertive women appraised the speech stressor as challenging, whereas low assertive women appraised the stressor as threatening. High assertive women also had a challenge pattern of autonomic response during the task, compared with the threat response of low assertive women. Afterward, the high assertive women reported experiencing less stress and negative emotion and greater positive emotion than did the low assertive women. Overall, the high assertive women's stress-related reactions indicated challenge, whereas the low assertive women's reactions indicated threat (see J. Tomaka, J. Blascovich, R. M. Kelsey, & C. L. Leitten, 1993). PMID:10402683

  4. Alexithymia, emotion perception, and social assertiveness in adult women with Noonan and Turner syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Renée L; Wingbermühle, Ellen; Freriks, Kim; Verhaak, Chris M; Kessels, Roy P C; Egger, Jos I M

    2015-04-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) and Turner syndrome (TS) are associated with cognitive problems and difficulties in affective information processing. While both phenotypes include short stature, facial dysmorphisms, and a webbed neck, genetic etiology and neuropsychological phenotype differ significantly. The present study examines putative differences in affective information processing and social assertiveness between adult women with NS and TS. Twenty-six women with NS, 40 women with TS, and 40 female controls were matched on age and intelligence, and subsequently compared on (1) alexithymia, measured by the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire, (2) emotion perception, evaluated by the Emotion Recognition Task, and (3) social assertiveness and social discomfort, assessed by the Scale for Interpersonal Behavior. Women with TS showed higher levels of alexithymia than women with NS and controls (P-values recognizing angry facial expressions in comparison with controls (P = 0.01). No significant group differences were found for the frequency of social assertiveness and the level of social discomfort. Women with NS and TS demonstrated different patterns of impairment in affective information processing, in terms of alexithymia and emotion perception. The present findings suggest neuropsychological phenotyping to be helpful for the diagnosis of specific cognitive-affective deficits in genetic syndromes, for the enhancement of genetic counseling, and for the development of personalized treatment plans. PMID:25711203

  5. Judgmental Force and Assertion in Brentano and Early Husserl

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janoušek, Hynek

    -, č. 15 (2015), s. 107-128. ISSN 1582-5647 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-18149S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Brentano * Husserl * judgment * assertion * judgmental force * phenomenology Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  6. MOTIVATIONAL AND VALUE-SEMANTIC DETERMINANTS OF INDIVIDUAL ASSERTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Инга Викторовна Лебедева

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to reveal the concept of "determinants of assertiveness" of a personality, which are determined by motivational characteristics and life value and meaning orientations of the individual. The immediate driving force of human action is the motive or the system of motives. The system of motives of human behavior in different situations of activities, communication and cognition is determined by the personal world view (set of ideas, interests, and beliefs. The value orientation, influencing the direction of human activity, determines a person's behavior and is a personality determinant in the manifestations of assertive behavior and assertiveness. Therefore, the significant psychological factors that contribute to the development of assertiveness are high motivation to success, positive attitudes, and such values as compassion, tolerance, mutual understanding, sympathy, concern that oppose to violence, domination, suppression and submission.The article also presents the results of an empirical study of motivational and value-semantic characteristics of the individual.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-15

  7. Competency-Based Approach to Discipline--It's Assertive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canter, Lee

    1979-01-01

    Assertive Discipline (AD) advocates a systematic approach which enables teachers to set firm, consistent limits for students while remaining cognizant of students' need for warmth and positive support. This article describes effective and ineffective teacher disciplinary behaviors, AD competencies, and the implementation of AD at Rice Elementary…

  8. Assertion checking environment (ACE) for formal verification of C programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we describe an Assertion Checking Environment (ACE) for compositional verification of programs, which are written in an industrially sponsored safe subset of C programming language called MISRA C [Guidelines for the Use of the C Language in Vehicle Based Software, 1998]. The theory is based on Hoare logic [Commun. ACM 12 (1969) 576] and the C programs are verified using static assertion checking technique. First the functional specifications of the program, captured in the form of pre- and post-conditions for each C function, are derived from the specifications. These pre- and post-conditions are then introduced as assertions (also called annotations or formal comments) in the program code. The assertions are then proved formally using ACE and theorem proving tool called Stanford Temporal Prover [The Stanford Temporal Prover User's Manual, 1998]. ACE has been developed by us and consists mainly of a translator c2spl, a GUI and some utility programs. The technique and tools developed are targeted towards verification of real-time embedded software

  9. Peer Teaching Assertive Communication Strategies for the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangelosi, Barbara R.; Peterson, M. Larry

    A unit in assertive communication strategies for the workplace was developed and tested with approximately 45 juniors and seniors at a Utah high school. For 4 weeks of a 6-week grading period, the students were exposed to basic information on verbal and nonverbal communication and administered a survey designed to tap their individual value system…

  10. Teaching Social Skills and Assertiveness to Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffett, Aaron; Alexander, Melissa G. F.; Dummer, Gail M.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses teaching social skills and assertiveness to students with disabilities. The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) content standards for physical education emphasize teaching responsible personal and social behaviors to students of all abilities, to help them develop an understanding of and respect for…

  11. Assertiveness by Older Adults with Visual Impairment: Context Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Ellen Bouchard; Anas, Ann P.; Mays, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Within a communication predicament of aging and disability framework, this study examined the impact of two types of contextual variation on perceptions of older adult assertiveness within problematic service encounters. Young (N = 66) and older (N = 66) participants evaluated conversational scenarios in which a visually-impaired older woman…

  12. Assertiveness Among Young Rural Adolescents: Relationship to Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg-Lillehoj, Catherine J.; Spoth, Richard; Trudeau, Linda

    2005-01-01

    There is evidence of higher prevalence rates for alcohol use among rural adolescents relative to urban adolescents. Strategies aimed at preventing adolescent alcohol use typically include the development of social skills to resist peer pressure; among the social skills frequently targeted is assertiveness. Self-report data were collected from a…

  13. Effect of integrated treatment on the use of coercive measures in first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorder. A randomized clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlenschlæger, Johan; Nordentoft, Merete; Thorup, Anne;

    2008-01-01

    assertive community treatment, psycho-educational multi-family groups, and social skills training. Data on coercion were extracted from the register from the National Board of Health, and data on continuity from medical records. Even though the level of continuity seemed higher in integrated treatment, this...

  14. The Community Abundance and Diversity of Arable Soil Insect Community Following Different Fertilizer Treatments in Xinjiang,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Ying-hua; LIU Hua; ZHANG Shu-qing; ZHANG Fu-dao

    2008-01-01

    The soil insect community was studied in grey desert soil district in September 2004.90 soil samples and 100 pitfalls were collected from 10 treatments,i.e.,abandonment(Aband.),CK,N,NP,NK,PK,NPK,MNPK(fertilizer N:organic N=3:7),1.5MNPK,and SNPK.4 915 soil insects(128 unknown),as individuals belonging to 9 orders and 33 families,were obtained by pitfall traps and modified Tullgren methods.The results showed that,based on the number of individuals and groups,the macro fauna in total reached their peaks in abandonment,whereas meso and micro fauna in N and PK,respectively.Of the 10 treatments,the most dominant of soil insect composition was in MNPK and most evenness was N.The result by Kruskal-Wallis test indicated that the distribution of the arable soil insect was significantly impacted by different fertilizer treatments(X0.05(9)= 23.38,P <0.005),and soil insect group of the abandonment was significantly different from that of other fertilizer treatments.The soil insect community was divided into five groups by non-metricMDS analysis:(1)NPK,MNPK,1.5MNPK,CK,(2)NP and PK,(3)NK and N,(4)SNPK,and(5)abandonment,which indicated that distribution of soil insect was related to the character of the fertilizer.In the principal component analysis,two factors explained 98.51% of the total variation among the 10 treatments,and the factor one explained that N and SNPK positively affected soil insect community,whereas factor two explained that 1.5MNPK positively affected soil insect community,which showed that the diversified fertilizer did not evenly affect the soil insect community.

  15. Integrated omics for the identification of key functionalities in biological wastewater treatment microbial communities

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanasamy, Shaman; Muller, Emilie; Sheik, Abdul; Wilmes, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Biological wastewater treatment plants harbour diverse and complex microbial communities which prominently serve as models for microbial ecology and mixed culture biotechnological processes. Integrated omic analyses (combined metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, metaproteomics and metabolomics) are currently gaining momentum towards providing enhanced understanding of community structure, function and dynamics in situ as well as offering the potential to discover novel biological functionalitie...

  16. Correlates of substance abuse treatment completion among disadvantaged communities in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasche Sonja

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Completion of substance abuse treatment is a proximal indicator of positive treatment outcomes. To design interventions to improve outcomes, it is therefore important to unpack the factors contributing to treatment completion. To date, substance abuse research has not examined the factors associated with treatment completion among poor, disadvantaged communities in developing countries. This study aimed to address this gap by exploring client-level factors associated with treatment completion among poor communities in South Africa. Methods Secondary data analysis was conducted on cross-sectional survey data collected from 434 persons residing in poor communities in Cape Town, South Africa who had accessed substance abuse treatment in 2006. Results Multiple regression analyses revealed that therapeutic alliance, treatment perceptions, abstinence-specific social support, and depression were significant partial predictors of treatment completion. Conclusions Findings suggest that treatment completion rates of individuals from poor South African communities can be enhanced by i improving perceptions of substance abuse treatment through introducing quality improvement initiatives into substance abuse services, ii strengthening clients' abstinence-oriented social networks and, iii strengthening the counselor-client therapeutic alliance.

  17. Correlates of substance abuse treatment completion among disadvantaged communities in Cape Town, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Pasche Sonja; Myers Bronwyn J; Adam Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Completion of substance abuse treatment is a proximal indicator of positive treatment outcomes. To design interventions to improve outcomes, it is therefore important to unpack the factors contributing to treatment completion. To date, substance abuse research has not examined the factors associated with treatment completion among poor, disadvantaged communities in developing countries. This study aimed to address this gap by exploring client-level factors associated with ...

  18. Bacterial communities in full-scale wastewater treatment systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Zielińska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial metabolism determines the effectiveness of biological treatment of wastewater. Therefore, it is important to define the relations between the species structure and the performance of full-scale installations. Although there is much laboratory data on microbial consortia, our understanding of dependencies between the microbial structure and operational parameters of full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is limited. This mini-review presents the types of microbial consortia in...

  19. Environmental marketing - element for asserting the management of sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Funaru, M.; Baranov, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical approach where the concept of sustainable development is integrated in terms of environmental marketing and sustainable development management. All these concepts are defined by showing the links between them, how they relate, finally leading to the objectives of firms in terms of sustainable development. The paper also presents the role of environmental marketing, asserting its importance as a tool for sustainable development management. Given the developmen...

  20. Relationship between Problem Solving and Assertiveness Skills among Nursing Students

    OpenAIRE

    Naiemeh Seyedfatemi; Zeinab Moshirabadi; Leili Borimnejad; Hamid Haghani

    2014-01-01

      Background & Aim: The nature of clinical practice has altered in recent years. It has been affected by different kinds of problem-solving models' so, the problem-solving skill is necessary in practice for nurse practitioners. Besides assertiveness is a critical element which persuades nurses and nursing students to establish good relationships and use their knowledge and professional skills effectively. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between problem solving and asserti...

  1. Between compassionateness and assertiveness: a trust matrix for leaders

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Manuel Monteiro Seco; Miguel Pereira Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Construct the structure of trust-building perceived by principals in Portuguese public schools.Design/methodology/approach: A grounded theory approach applied to a survey of open questions answered by school’s principals.Findings: (1) self-trust is the single trait common to all respondents; (2) compassion is a striking antecedent in the process of other-trust; compassionateness and assertiveness must combine with one another to achieve leadership based on smart trust, what is outlin...

  2. Assertiveness in boys : evaluating the construct using template matching procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Weist, Mark D.

    1988-01-01

    The present investigation expanded on the template matching approach (Cone, 1980) to empirically evaluate whether assertiveness is associated with interpersonal success among a group of fourth grade boys. Using popular sociometric status as an index of success in interaction, the performances of 15 popular boys were compared with those of 15 rejected boys in a role-play measure of social behavior. An observation code containing behaviors traditionally associated with a...

  3. MOTIVATIONAL AND VALUE-SEMANTIC DETERMINANTS OF INDIVIDUAL ASSERTIVENESS

    OpenAIRE

    Инга Викторовна Лебедева

    2013-01-01

    The paper attempts to reveal the concept of "determinants of assertiveness" of a personality, which are determined by motivational characteristics and life value and meaning orientations of the individual. The immediate driving force of human action is the motive or the system of motives. The system of motives of human behavior in different situations of activities, communication and cognition is determined by the personal world view (set of ideas, interests, and beliefs). The value orientati...

  4. Assertiveness and anxiety effects in traditional and online Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Amy E.; Jeske, Debora

    2015-01-01

    The present study explored the extent to which self-esteem is a significant predictor of social network use and the level of anxiety and assertiveness participants feel during traditional and online interactions. Using a survey design (N=184), it was found that lower self esteem was not associated with more intensive social network use, in contrast to the social compensationn theory. Self-esteem was a significant negative predictor of social anxiety as well as a positive predictor of assertiv...

  5. The Relevance of Wrestlers’ Assertiveness with Their Individual Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdoğan Yılmaz

    Full Text Available Subjects has been chosen from wrestlers, have the right to take part in Turkey Wrestling Championship in 2006-2007 season, deal with the wrestling sport in various cities and clubs in Turkey. Subjects consist of total 213 wrestlers whose age range from 17 to 40 and participated in Turkey Wrestling championship, and these wrestlers include 169 free-styles and Greco-Roman style male wrestlers and 44 free-style female wrestlers. It has been aimed in this study to analyze assertiveness level of elite male and female wrestlers’ effect on their individual success. Firstly, information related to the aim of the survey has been given systematically by scanning literature. Thus, a theoretical framework about the topic has been established. Secondly, personal identification form created by the researcher, results ruler of athlete and assertiveness inventory developed by Rathus, adapted into Turkish by Voltan, applied on the male and female wrestlers randomly in order to achieve the object of this study. In the statistical analysis of data obtained from the research was used descriptive statistics One Way ANOVA and test t, besides Tukey test was used to determine the differences between the groups. As a result of statistical analyzes, Level of Assertiveness has been observed at a higher level in those wrestlers, who wrestles in greko-romen style, who are female, and have liberal families, than those wrestlers who wrestles in free-style, who are male, and have protective parents. As a result, it has been determined that high levels of assertiveness sports have been more successful than the others.

  6. Avoiding Treatment Interruptions: What Role Do Australian Community Pharmacists Play?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Hasn Abukres

    Full Text Available To explore the reported practice of Australian community pharmacists when dealing with medication supply requests in absence of a valid prescription.Self-administered questionnaire was posted to 1490 randomly selected community pharmacies across all Australian states and territories. This sample was estimated to be a 20% of all Australian community pharmacies.Three hundred eighty five pharmacists participated in the study (response rate achieved was 27.9% (there were 111 undelivered questionnaires. Respondents indicated that they were more likely to provide medications to regular customers without a valid prescription compared to non-regular customers (p<0.0001. However, supply was also influenced by the type of prescription and the medication requested. In the case of type of prescription (Standard, Authority or Private this relates to the complexity/probability of obtaining a valid prescription from the prescriber at a later date (i.e. supply with an anticipated prescription. Decisions to supply and/or not supply related to medication type were more complex. For some cases, including medication with potential for abuse, the practice and/or the method of supply varied significantly according to age and gender of the pharmacist, and pharmacy location (p<0.05.Although being a regular customer does not guarantee a supply, results of this study reinforce the importance for patients having a regular pharmacy, where pharmacists were more likely to continue medication supply in cases of patients presenting without a valid prescription. We would suggest, more flexible legislation should be implemented to allow pharmacists to continue supplying of medication when obtaining a prescription is not practical.

  7. Smart Dialogue for Smart Citizens: Assertive Approaches for Strategic Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidoro Fasolino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available It is very important to know how to communicate, but even more important is knowing how to listen. There is no dialogue without listening. Listening and speaking can generate a virtuous cycle that, enriching the field of information, allows the introduction of essential elements of innovation. It is relevant in this context the assertive ability of who manages and coordinates the decision-making processes. The potential of new approaches based on assertiveness are the new frontier of research discipline that is able to meet future challenges aiming to contribute to the construction of places and forms of living together in the growing interest of fairness and justice. Assertive facilitator knows how to guide difficult people and handle very hard situations without adopting manipulative behaviors. He is able to detect the potential conflict and to bring to light the reasons for disagreement , softening the tone and avoiding any possible uncontrolled escalation. He encourages debates and open discussions; he has to build links too, fueling reports profits, collaborating with others toward common goals; speaking and discussing in groups and among groups; seeking solutions in which, both parties, come out winning. So the view expressed is argument of discussion in the development of the tools of urban structure, with the aim of implementing a participatory methodology in the development of planning tools. We propose an application in the series of meetings of initial preparatory participation to the formation of a Preliminary Plan for a medium size town.

  8. How Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment Unit Director Activities May Affect Provision of Community Outreach Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Emmeline; Wells, Rebecca; Alexander, Jeffrey; Green, Sherri

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Community outreach services play an important role in infectious disease prevention and engaging drug users not currently in treatment. However, fewer than half of US substance abuse treatment units provide these services and many have little financial incentive to do so. Unit directors generally have latitude about scope of services,…

  9. Changes in Personality Disorder Traits Following 2 Years of Treatment in a Secure Therapeutic Community Milieu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Catrin; Taylor, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic community treatment models have not previously been applied to forensic patients with mild intellectual disabilities (IDs) with a comorbid diagnosis of personality disorder. Thirteen patients with mild IDs were allocated to a unit within a high secure psychiatric service operating a model of treatment based on the principles and…

  10. Research Challenges: Implementing Standardized Outcome Measures in a Decentralized, Community-Based Residential Treatment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Linda S.; Little, Liza; Grimard, Andre R.

    2009-01-01

    With residential treatment services under pressure to produce outcome data, the process of executing research in such settings presents considerable challenges. This paper describes how a large, decentralized, community-based residential treatment program in southern and central Maine designed and implemented a research outcome process study using…

  11. A village treatment center for malaria: community response in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, F; Amerasinghe, P H; Perera, D;

    2000-01-01

    communities, it is important to know the rationale for people's malaria treatment-seeking behavior. The present study provides insights into the reasons for people's preferences for different types of healthcare facilities and describes variation of these preferences within a rural community in Sri Lanka. The...... government facilities. The treatment center did not improve the response time in seeking treatment for young children, but the delay for adults was reduced by 1-2 days. Mothers with small children often preferred the government facilities since they wanted a more qualified opinion than available from the...

  12. Predictors, Moderators, and Treatment Parameters of Community and Clinic-Based Treatment for Child Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Shelleby, Elizabeth C.; Kolko, David J.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines predictors, moderators, and treatment parameters associated with two key child outcomes in a recent clinical trial comparing the effects of a modular treatment that was applied by study clinicians in the community (COMM) or a clinic (CLINIC) for children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD). Based on a literature review, moderator and predictor variables across child, parent, and family domains were examined in relation to changes in parental r...

  13. Biomass, Leaf Area, and Resource Availability of Kudzu Dominated Plant Communities Following Herbicide Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.T. Rader

    2001-10-01

    Kudzu is an exotic vine that threatens the forests of the southern U.S. Five herbicides were tested with regard to their efficacy in controlling kudzu, community recover was monitored, and interactions with planted pines were studied. The sites selected were old farm sites dominated by kudzu.These were burned following herbicide treatment. The herbicides included triclopyr, clopyralid, metsulfuron, tebuthiuron, and picloram plus 2,4-D. Pine seedlings were planted the following year. Regression equations were developed for predicting biomass and leaf area. Four distinct plant communities resulted from the treatments. The untreated check continued to be kudzu dominated. Blackberry dominated the clopyradid treatment. Metsulfron, trychlopyr and picloram treated sites resulted in herbaceous dominated communities. The tebuthiuron treatment maintained all vegetation low.

  14. Approaches to Increasing Assertive Behavior and Communication Skills in Blind and Visually Impaired Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Rona L.; Strauss, Felice A.

    1986-01-01

    Components of assertive behavior are described with suggestions for enabling the visually impaired person to develop these skills. The underlying concepts of assertion training are explained along with specific techniques for use in schools or rehabilitative settings. (Author/CL)

  15. Process Design Manual: Wastewater Treatment Facilities for Sewered Small Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffel, R. E.; And Others

    This manual attempts to describe new treatment methods, and discuss the application of new techniques for more effectively removing a broad spectrum of contaminants from wastewater. Topics covered include: fundamental design considerations, flow equalization, headworks components, clarification of raw wastewater, activated sludge, package plants,…

  16. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Public Mental Health: Comparison to Treatment as Usual for Treatment -Resistant Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Molly A.; Basco, Monica A.

    2015-01-01

    State mental health systems have been leaders in the implementation of evidence-based approaches to care for individuals with severe mental illness. Numerous case studies of the wide-scale implementation of research-supported models such as Integrated Dual Diagnosis Treatment and Assertive Community Treatment are documented. However, relatively few dissemination efforts have focused on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for individuals with major depression despite evidence indicating its eff...

  17. Comparative efficacy of amoxicillin, cefuroxime and clarithromycin in the treatment of community acquired pneumonia in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the clinical response to amoxicillin, cefuroxime and clarithromycin in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in children and to see the cost effectiveness of each treatment. Subjects and Methods: Patients between 3 to 72 months of age, admitted in the hospital with community acquired pneumonia, were randomly divided into three groups 1,2,3. They were started on amoxicillin, cefuroxime and clarithromycin respectively. The patients were assessed daily. If there was no clinical improvements at 48 hours the antibiotic was changed. ANOVA statistical test was applied to see the clinical response to the treatment in the three groups. Cost effectiveness of the treatment was compared. Results: There was no statistical difference in the clinical response at 48 hours of initiating treatment and discharge (p>0.01 each). The mean hospital stay in group 1 and 2 was 3.3 days and group 3 was 3.2 days respectively (p>0.01). Ninety-seven percent patients in group 1 and 3, and 95% patients in group 2 showed clinical improvement. The cost of treatment of community acquired pneumonia for 8 days was Rs. 496/-, 730/-, 1018/- for amoxicillin, clarithromycin and cefuroxime respectively. Conclusion: Amoxicillin was found in the most cost effective followed by clarithromycin and cefuroxime respectively in the treatment of non-severe and severe community-acquired pneumonia. (author)

  18. The effect of five years versus two years of specialised assertive intervention for first episode psychosis - OPUS II: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Gluud Christian; Petersen Lone; Bertelsen Mette; Thorup Anne; Jeppesen Pia; Melau Marianne; Krarup Gertrud; Nordentoft Merete

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The Danish OPUS I trial randomized 547 patients with first-episode psychosis to a two-year early-specialised assertive treatment programme (OPUS) versus standard treatment. The two years OPUS treatment had significant positive effects on psychotic and negative symptoms, secondary substance abuse, treatment adherence, lower dosage of antipsychotic medication, and a higher treatment satisfaction. However, three years after end of the OPUS treatment, the positive clinical eff...

  19. Bringing Buprenorphine-Naloxone Detoxification to Community Treatment Providers: The NIDA Clinical Trials Network Field Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Amass, Leslie; Ling, Walter; Freese, Thomas E.; Reiber, Chris; Annon, Jeffrey J.; Cohen, Allan J.; M.F.T.; McCarty, Dennis; Reid, Malcolm S.; Brown, Lawrence S.; Clark, Cynthia; Ziedonis, Douglas M.; Krejci, Jonathan; Stine, Susan; Winhusen, Theresa

    2004-01-01

    In October 2002, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved buprenorphine-naloxone (Suboxone®) sublingual tablets as an opioid dependence treatment available for use outside traditionally licensed opioid treatment programs. The NIDA Center for Clinical Trials Network (CTN) sponsored two clinical trials assessing buprenorphine-naloxone for short-term opioid detoxification. These trials provided an unprecedented field test of its use in twelve diverse community-based treatment programs. Opi...

  20. The ARC organizational and community intervention strategy for implementing evidence-based children's mental health treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisson, Charles; Schoenwald, Sonja K

    2005-12-01

    This paper reviews the implications of organizational and community intervention research for the implementation of effective mental health treatments in usual community practice settings. The paper describes an organizational and community intervention model named ARC for Availability, Responsiveness and Continuity, that was designed to support the improvement of social and mental health services for children. The ARC model incorporates intervention components from organizational development, interorganizational domain development, the diffusion of innovation, and technology transfer that target social, strategic, and technological factors in effective children's services. This paper also describes a current NIMH-funded study that is using the ARC intervention model to support the implementation of an evidence-based treatment, Multisystemic Therapy (MST), for delinquent youth in extremely rural, impoverished communities in the Appalachian Mountains of East Tennessee. PMID:16320107

  1. Bacterial communities in full-scale wastewater treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Zielińska, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial metabolism determines the effectiveness of biological treatment of wastewater. Therefore, it is important to define the relations between the species structure and the performance of full-scale installations. Although there is much laboratory data on microbial consortia, our understanding of dependencies between the microbial structure and operational parameters of full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is limited. This mini-review presents the types of microbial consortia in WWTP. Information is given on extracellular polymeric substances production as factor that is key for formation of spatial structures of microorganisms. Additionally, we discuss data on microbial groups including nitrifiers, denitrifiers, Anammox bacteria, and phosphate- and glycogen-accumulating bacteria in full-scale aerobic systems that was obtained with the use of molecular techniques, including high-throughput sequencing, to shed light on dependencies between the microbial ecology of biomass and the overall efficiency and functional stability of wastewater treatment systems. Sludge bulking in WWTPs is addressed, as well as the microbial composition of consortia involved in antibiotic and micropollutant removal. PMID:26931606

  2. "I'll Repeat Myself, "Again?!"" Empowering Students through Assertive Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Sharon M.; Griffith, Amy C. Stevens

    2009-01-01

    One goal parents and educators should have is to help children become assertive and emotionally intelligent individuals. In furthering this goal, it helps to have an understanding of the three basic communication styles: (1) passive; (2) aggressive; and (3) assertive. Because communication is most effective when a message is delivered assertively,…

  3. The Effects of Assertiveness Training on Enhancing the Social Skills of Adolescents with Visual Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-il

    2003-01-01

    A study of the effects of assertiveness training to enhance the social/assertiveness skills of 36 adolescents with visual impairments found that parents, the students, teachers, and observers judged the adolescents' social skills differently. However, the training did have some specific effect on increasing assertiveness. (Contains references.)…

  4. Using Simulations in the Middle School: Does Assertiveness of Dyad Partners Influence Conceptual Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windschitl, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Examines how academic assertiveness in junior high school students was related to conceptual change and the degree to which their assertiveness affected conceptual change in the partners paired with them for a series of activities using a simulation of the human cardiovascular system. Indicates that the assertiveness ratings of the individuals'…

  5. Inter-Group and Intra-Group Assertiveness: Adolescents' Social Skills Following Cultural Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korem, Anat; Horenczyk, Gabriel; Tatar, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    The goals of this study were to examine intra-group and inter-group assertiveness among adolescents, and to compare these two domains of assertiveness between cultural groups in Israel. Measures of intra-group and inter-group assertiveness were developed, and questionnaires were administrated to 441 immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU),…

  6. The Cascade of Care for an Australian Community-Based Hepatitis C Treatment Service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J Wade

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C treatment uptake in Australia is low. To increase access to hepatitis C virus treatment for people who inject drugs, we developed a community-based, nurse-led service that linked a viral hepatitis service in a tertiary hospital to primary care clinics, and resulted in hepatitis C treatment provision in the community.A retrospective cohort study of patients referred to the community hepatitis service was undertaken to determine the cascade of care. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of hepatitis C treatment uptake.Four hundred and sixty-two patients were referred to the community hepatitis service; 344 attended. Among the 279 attendees with confirmed chronic hepatitis C, 257 (99% reported ever injecting drugs, and 124 (48% injected in the last month. Of 201 (72% patients who had their fibrosis staged, 63 (31% had F3-F4 fibrosis. Fifty-five patients commenced hepatitis C treatment; 26 (47% were current injectors and 25 (45% had F3-F4 fibrosis. Nineteen of the 27 (70% genotype 1 patients and 14 of the 26 (54% genotype 3 patients eligible for assessment achieved a sustained virologic response. Advanced fibrosis was a significant predictor of treatment uptake in adjusted analysis (AOR 2.56, CI 1.30-5.00, p = 0.006.Our community hepatitis service produced relatively high rates of fibrosis assessment, hepatitis C treatment uptake and cure, among people who inject drugs. These findings highlight the potential benefits of providing community-based hepatitis C care to people who inject drugs in Australia-benefits that should be realised as direct-acting antiviral agents become available.

  7. Seasonal variations of microbial community in a full scale oil field produced water treatment plant

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Q.; Bai, S; Y. Li; Liu, L; Wang, S.; Xi, J.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the microbial community in a full scale anaerobic baffled reactor and sequencing batch reactor system for oil-produced water treatment in summer and winter. The community structures of fungi and bacteria were analyzed through polymerase chain reaction–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and Illumina high-throughput sequencing, respectively. Chemical oxygen demand effluent concentration achieved lower than 50 mg/L level after the system in both summer and winter, ho...

  8. Bacterial community composition of a wastewater treatment system reliant on N{sub 2} fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, N.M.; Bowers, T.H.; Lloyd-Jones, G. [Scion, Rotorua (New Zealand)

    2008-05-15

    The temporal stability and change of the dominant phylogenetic groups of the domain bacteria were studied in a model plant-based industrial wastewater treatment system showing high levels of organic carbon removal supported by high levels of N{sub 2} fixation. Community profiles were obtained through terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and cloning of 16S rRNA amplicons followed by sequencing. Bacterial community profiles showed that ten common terminal restriction fragments made up approximately 50% of the measured bacterial community. As much as 42% of the measured bacterial community could be monitored by using quantitative PCR and primers that targeted three dominant operational taxonomic units. Despite changes in wastewater composition and dissolved oxygen levels, the bacterial community composition appeared stable and was dominated by {alpha}-Proteobacteria and {beta}-Proteobacteria, with a lesser amount of the highly diverse bacterial phylum Bacteroidetes. A short period of considerable change in the bacterial community composition did not appear to affect treatment performance indicating functional redundancy in this treatment system. (orig.)

  9. Effect of assertiveness training on homesickness in girls students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Tabe bordbar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 24 August, 2009 ; Accepted 13 January, 2010AbstractBackground and purpose: Homesickness is a complex cognitive, exciting and stimulating condition that comes into existence because of the individual’s transition into a new environment and it seems to present the reduction of coping strategies. This research aims to study the effectiveness of the method of assertiveness training on homesickness of female university students.Materials and methods: This was an interventional study pre and post test study. Among 249 female freshmen, 96 students were found to be suffering from homesickness among which 60 students were randomly selected and put in the intervention and control group. The information was gathered by Archer et al., homesickness questionnaire which involves 30 expressions, from 1 to 5 likert scale, and also by the researcher’s own questionnaire which involves demographic information. The pre test data were gathered within the first 2 weeks of their arrival to the dormitory. The experimental group took part in 12 90-minute training sessions followed by evaluation 3 weeks after the initial testing. The data were analyzed according to Mann-Whihtney test.Results: The pre- test data from the two groups showed no significant difference, however, with the presentation assertiveness training, the experimental group grades were significantly higher than control the group. Also, two factors of homesickness i.e., not-likening the university and strong attachment to their home did not show a difference in pre test, however, differences in post test were shown to be significant.Conclusion: The results of the study show that assertiveness training can be effective in alleviating problems that come up after the transition of the individual into the university and their new environment. J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 19(73: 28-33 (Persian.

  10. Comparison of ASSERT subchannel code with Marviken bundle data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper ASSERT predictions are compared with the Marviken 6-rod bundle and 36+1 rod bundle. The predictions are presented for two experiments in the 6-rod bundle and four experiments in the 36+1 rod bundle. For low inlet subcooling, the void predictions are in good agreement with the experimental data. For high inlet subcooling, however, the agreement is not as good. This is attributed to the fact that in the high inlet subcooling experiments, single phase turbulent mixing plays a more important role in determining flow conditions in the bundle

  11. EFFICACY OF COMMUNITY TREATMENTS FOR SCHIZOPHRENIA AND OTHER PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS: A LITERATURE REVIEW.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JulioArmijo

    2013-10-01

    Objectives: This study compiles and synthesizes available scientific evidence from the last 14 years on the effectiveness of community intervention strategies for schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. Methodology: An electronic search was carried out using PUBMED, LILACS and Science-Direct as databases. Criteria of inclusion: i: randomized clinical trials, ii. Community-based interventions, iii. diagnosis of schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder (section F2 of ICD-10. Exclusion Criteria: i. treatments exclusively pharmacological, ii. Interventions carried out in inpatient settings, ii. bipolar affective disorder or substance-induced psychosis (greater than 50% of sample. Results: 66 articles were reviewed. Community strategies for integrated treatment from the first outbreak of schizophrenia significantly reduced negative and psychotic symptoms, days of hospitalization, and comorbidity with substance abuse and improved global functioning and adherence to treatment. In other stages, there were improved outcomes in negative and positive symptoms and general psychopathology. Psychoeducation for patients and families reduced the levels of self-stigma and domestic abuse, as well as improved knowledge of the disease and treatment adherence. Training focused on cognitive, social, and labor skills has been shown to improve yields in social functioning and employment status. Conclusions: Community-based intervention strategies are widely supported in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia.

  12. Effects of habitat management treatments on plant community composition and biomass in a Montane wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, J.E.; Keough, J.R.; Pyle, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    Grazing and burning are commonly applied practices that can impact the diversity and biomass of wetland plant communities. We evaluated the vegetative response of wetlands and adjacent upland grasslands to four treatment regimes (continuous idle, fall prescribed burning followed by idle, annual fall cattle grazing, and rotation of summer grazing and idle) commonly used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Our study area was Grays Lake, a large, montane wetland in southeastern Idaho that is bordered by extensive wet meadows. We identified seven plant cover types, representing the transition from dry meadow to deep wetland habitats: mixed deep marsh, spikerush slough, Baltic rush (Juncus balticus), moist meadow, alkali, mesic meadow, and dry meadow. We compared changes in community composition and total aboveground biomass of each plant cover type between 1998, when all units had been idled for three years, and 1999 (1 yr post-treatment) and 2000 (2 yr post-treatment). Analysis using non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated that compositional changes varied among cover types, treatments, and years following treatment. Treatment-related changes in community composition were greatest in mixed deep marsh, Baltic rush, and mesic meadow. In mixed deep marsh and Baltic rush, grazing and associated trampling contributed to changes in the plant community toward more open water and aquatic species and lower dominance of Baltic rush; grazing and trampling also seemed to contribute to increased cover in mesic meadow. Changing hydrological conditions, from multiple years of high water to increasing drought, was an important factor influencing community composition and may have interacted with management treatments. Biomass differed among treatments and between years within cover types. In the wettest cover types, fall burning and grazing rotation treatments had greater negative impact on biomass than the idle treatment, but in drier cover types, summer grazing stimulated

  13. Achieving Security Assurance with Assertion-based Application Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Rubio-Medrano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern software applications are commonly built by leveraging pre-fabricated modules, e.g. application programming interfaces (APIs, which are essential to implement the desired functionalities of software applications, helping reduce the overall development costs and time. When APIs deal with security-related functionality, it is critical to ensure they comply with their design requirements since otherwise unexpected flaws and vulnerabilities may consequently occur. Often, such APIs may lack sufficient specification details, or may implement a semantically-different version of a desired security model to enforce, thus possibly complicating the runtime enforcement of security properties and making it harder to minimize the existence of serious vulnerabilities. This paper proposes a novel approach to address such a critical challenge by leveraging the notion of software assertions. We focus on security requirements in role-based access control models and show how proper verification at the source-code level can be performed with our proposed approach as well as with automated state-of-the-art assertion-based techniques.

  14. Frontline counselors in organizational contexts: a study of treatment practices in community settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brenda D; Manfredo, Irene T

    2011-09-01

    This study addresses the challenge of implementing evidence-based treatment approaches in typical community settings. It identifies individual and organizational characteristics associated with two contrasting treatment approaches used by frontline practitioners. One treatment approach involves techniques supported by research; the other approach involves techniques primarily supported by experience and tradition. The study uses a nested probability sample of 45 organizations and 279 frontline practitioners. Multilevel (hierarchical linear modeling) regression models appropriately address the nested sample. The findings indicate that practitioner beliefs and components of organizational social contexts are associated with treatment approach. The use of an evidence-supported treatment approach is associated with opportunities to use training and with transformational leadership. A traditional treatment approach is more commonly used when practitioners have more positive perceptions of the organizational climate. The findings underscore the challenge of implementing evidence-based treatment techniques among counselors committed to traditional approaches. PMID:21632198

  15. Seasonal variations of microbial community in a full scale oil field produced water treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the microbial community in a full scale anaerobic baffled reactor and sequencing batch reactor system for oil-produced water treatment in summer and winter. The community structures of fungi and bacteria were analyzed through polymerase chain reaction–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and Illumina high-throughput sequencing, respectively. Chemical oxygen demand effluent concentration achieved lower than 50 mg/L level after the system in both summer and winter, however, chemical oxygen demand removal rates after anaerobic baffled reactor treatment system were significant higher in summer than that in winter, which conformed to the microbial community diversity. Saccharomycotina, Fusarium, and Aspergillus were detected in both anaerobic baffled reactor and sequencing batch reactor during summer and winter. The fungal communities in anaerobic baffled reactor and sequencing batch reactor were shaped by seasons and treatment units, while there was no correlation between abundance of fungi and chemical oxygen demand removal rates. Compared to summer, the total amount of the dominant hydrocarbon degrading bacteria decreased by 10.2% in anaerobic baffled reactor, resulting in only around 23% of chemical oxygen demand was removed in winter. Although microbial community significantly varied in the three parallel sulfide reducing bacteria, the performance of these bioreactors had no significant difference between summer and winter.

  16. Continuous fungal treatment of non-sterile veterinary hospital effluent: pharmaceuticals removal and microbial community assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Badia-Fabregat, Marina; Lucas, Daniel; M. A. PEREIRA; Alves, M. M.; Pennanen, Taina; Fritze, Hannu; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damià; Vicent, Teresa; Caminal, Glòria

    2016-01-01

    Source point treatment of effluents with a high load of pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs), such as hospital wastewater, is a matter of discussion among the scientific community. Fungal treatments have been reported to be successful in degrading this type of pollutants and, therefore, the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor was applied for the removal of PhACs from veterinary hospital wastewater. Sixty-six percent removal was achieved in a non-sterile batch bioreactor inoculated with T....

  17. Efficacy of Community Treatments for Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    JulioArmijo; EmmanuelMendez; SaraSchilling; ArielCastro; GracielaRojas

    2013-01-01

    Background: In Chile, the clinical guidelines “for the treatment of people from first episode of schizophrenia” aim to support individuals with schizophrenia to live independently, establishment occupational goals, and gain an adequate quality of life and social interaction. This requires the implementation of a treatment model that integrates psychosocial and pharmacological dimensions. Community intervention strategies ensure the achievement of these goals. Objectives: This study compile...

  18. Systematic review of probiotics for the treatment of community-acquired acute diarrhea in children

    OpenAIRE

    Applegate, Jennifer A; Fischer Walker, Christa L.; Ambikapathi, Ramya; Robert E. Black

    2013-01-01

    Background Oral rehydration salts (ORS), zinc, and continued feeding are the recommended treatments for community-acquired acute diarrhea among young children. However, probiotics are becoming increasingly popular treatments for diarrhea in some countries. We sought to estimate the effect of probiotics on diarrhea morbidity and mortality in children < 5 years of age. Methods We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials to estimate the effect of probiotic microorganisms for...

  19. Contingency Management for Attendance to Group Substance Abuse Treatment Administered by Clinicians in Community Clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Ledgerwood, David M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Hanson, Tressa; Godley, Mark D.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2008-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) is effective in enhancing retention in therapy. After an 8-week baseline, four community-based substance abuse treatment clinics were exposed in random order to 16 weeks of standard care with CM followed by 16 weeks of standard care without CM or vice versa. In total, 75 outpatients participated. Patients who were enrolled in the clinics when the CM treatment phase was in effect attended a significantly greater percentage of therapy sessions than patients who were ...

  20. Improving acceptance of naltrexone in community addiction treatment centers: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Suzanne E.; Miller, Peter M.; Randall, Patrick K.; Book, Sarah W.

    2008-01-01

    Alcoholism pharmacotherapies are underutilized in community addiction treatment settings, in part because individuals who practice in these settings—non-medical addiction counselors and administrators—lack knowledge about and confidence in the value of adjunctive alcohol pharmacotherapies. We developed and tested an intervention to improve knowledge and attitudes about naltrexone. A team of researchers, physicians, addiction treatment counselors and administrators collaborated to develop a na...

  1. Waste water treatment plants for small communities: a methodology for estimating investment and operating costs

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre, O.

    2000-01-01

    Due to recent laws and regulations in France, small communities will have to increase their investment rate in waste water treatment plants in the coming years. However, for an objective analysis and comparison of available solutions, and beyond technical arguments, public contractors generally miss economical evaluations. We propose a method for getting references. As for investment costs, treatment chains are split into functional units, and each of them is estimated from a sample of buildi...

  2. The "Seeded" Focus Group: A strategy to recruit HIV+ community members into treatment research.

    OpenAIRE

    Busza, J; Zaba, B; Urassa, M

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE(S): We piloted an innovative community-based recruitment approach to contact known HIV+ individuals for referral to treatment without endangering their confidentiality. METHODS: Nested within an HIV cohort study, operations research to monitor and improve rural uptake of antiretroviral therapy (ART) was conducted alongside the introduction of Tanzania's national treatment programme. We confronted the challenge of recruiting participants without inadvertently disclosing their HIV sta...

  3. Race differences in psychopathology and disparities in treatment seeking: Community and jail-based treatment seeking patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Youman, Kerstin; Drapalski, Amy; Stuewig, Jeff; Bagley, Karen; Tangney, June

    2010-01-01

    Whites in community samples utilize mental health services at a much higher rate than African Americans (Kessler, et al., 2005). Is this also the case among those in jails? In this study of jail inmates (229 African American, 185 White) there were no race difference in the overall need for mental health treatment (63% of participants had significant symptoms on the Personality Assessment Inventory) but race differences in the level and types of symptoms were evident. Additionally, while White...

  4. 42 CFR 412.109 - Special treatment: Essential access community hospitals (EACHs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hospitals (EACHs). 412.109 Section 412.109 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL... Operating Costs § 412.109 Special treatment: Essential access community hospitals (EACHs). (a) General...

  5. Do Treatment Manuals Undermine Youth-Therapist Alliance in Community Clinical Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, David A.; McLeod, Bryce D.; Weisz, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Some critics of treatment manuals have argued that their use may undermine the quality of the client-therapist alliance. This notion was tested in the context of youth psychotherapy delivered by therapists in community clinics. Method: Seventy-six clinically referred youths (57% female, age 8-15 years, 34% Caucasian) were randomly…

  6. Integration of treatment wetlands as sustainable wastewater management systems for small communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discuses the applicability as well as the integration of the constructed wetlands technology within the environmental infrastructure in small communities. To that end, a case study involving the use of Constructed wetlands (CW) for waste management in the Nebraska plains is presented. CW systems have been shown to be effective treatment alternatives in resource-limited small communities; and hence, can contribute to improving the economic well-being and the sustainability of many small communities. The paper specifically discusses the performance of subsurface-flow constructed wetlands systems used as the wastewater treatment process for a small community in eastern Nebraska and outlines operational experience gained through five years of plant operation. The results show that effective and sufficient CW seasonal removals of TSS, VSS, CBOD5, COD, and fecal coliform were achieved. Wastewater temperatures seemed to affect CBOD5 and COD removal rates. Nitrogen and phosphorus reductions were not as effective and varied seasonally, as well as with wastewater temperature. The addition of a sand filter, to aid in further nitrification and disinfection following CW treatment, markedly improved the performance of the wetlands system. After a few years of operation, the performance of the system was dampened by apparent clogging and subsequent eruption of wastewater at the head-end of the treatment cells. While clogging was partially caused by biomass build-up in the wetlands substrate, visual observations suggest that excessive vegetation and relaxed maintenance may also be responsible. (author)

  7. Analysis of factors that contribute to treatment failure in patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genné, D; Sommer, R; Kaiser, L; Saaïdia, A; Pasche, A; Unger, P F; Lew, D

    2006-03-01

    To determine the causes of treatment failure and to evaluate the prognostic factors in patients hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia, a prospective, observational study of 228 adult patients hospitalized for a community-acquired pneumonia in the University Hospital of Geneva and the La Chaux-de-Fonds Community Hospital, Switzerland, was conducted. The percentage of patients who failed to improve (as defined by guidelines of the Infectious Disease Society of America) and the causes of treatment failure were assessed, and patients who failed to improve under antimicrobial therapy were compared with those who did improve. In the 54 (24%) patients who failed to improve, a mean increase in length of hospitalization of 4 days was observed. Most causes of treatment failure could be attributed to host factors (61%) rather than to the pathogen (16%) or to an inappropriate antibiotic regimen (3%). After adjusting for potentially confounding variables, concomitant neoplasia (OR 3.25; 95%CI 1.11-9.56), neurological disease (OR 2.34; 95%CI 1.07-5.13), and aspiration pneumonia (OR 2.97; 95%CI 29-6.86]) were associated with failure to improve, whereas monocytosis improved prognosis (OR 0.40; 95%CI 0.20-0.80). Almost one out of four patients hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia failed to respond to empirical antibiotic treatment. Aspiration pneumonia, concomitant neoplasia, and neurological disease were factors positively associated with failure to improve, whereas monocytosis was linked to a better prognosis. PMID:16528540

  8. Diversity and dynamics of microbial communities at each step of treatment plant for potable water generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenfang; Yu, Zhisheng; Zhang, Hongxun; Thompson, Ian P

    2014-04-01

    The dynamics of bacterial and eukaryotic community associated with each step of a water purification plant in China was investigated using 454 pyrosequencing and qPCR based approaches. Analysis of pyrosequencing revealed that a high degree diversity of bacterial and eukaryotic communities is present in the drinking water treatment process before sand filtration. In addition, the microbial compositions of the biofilm in the sand filters and those of the water of the putatively clear tanks were distinct, suggesting that sand filtration and chlorination treatments played primary roles in removing exposed microbial communities. Potential pathogens including Acinetobacter, Clostridium, Legionella, and Mycobacterium, co-occurred with protozoa such as Rhizopoda (Hartmannellidae), and fungi such as Penicillium and Aspergillus. Furthermore, this study supported the ideas based on molecular level that biofilm communities were different from those in corresponding water samples, and that the concentrations of Mycobacterium spp., Legionella spp., and Naegleria spp. in the water samples declined with each step of the water treatment process by qPCR. Overall, this study provides the first detailed evaluation of bacterial and eukaryotic diversity at each step of an individual potable water treatment process located in China. PMID:24268295

  9. Relationship of Evidence-Based Practice and Treatments: A Survey of Community Mental Health Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMeo, Michelle A.; Moore, G. Kurt; Lichtenstein, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    Evidence-based treatments (EBTs) are "interventions" that have been proven effective through rigorous research methodologies. Evidence-based practice (EBP), however, refers to a "decision-making process" that integrates the best available research, clinician expertise, and client characteristics. This study examined community mental health service…

  10. Recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the pneumonia acquired in the community in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pneumonia acquired in the community in adults, is the acute infection of the pulmonary parenchyma that is developed away from the hospital environment, it is manifested in the first 48 hours from the entrance to the hospital or after seven days of having left. The supplement includes clinical square, epidemiology, etiology classification, diagnostic, treatment and prevention among others

  11. Intensive treatment models and coercion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlenschlaeger, Johan; Thorup, Anne; Petersen, Lone;

    2007-01-01

    . Hospital-based Rehabilitation, an intensified inpatient treatment model, Integrated Treatment, an intensified model of Assertive Community Treatment, and standard treatment were compared for patients with first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Ninety-four patients with first-episode schizophrenia......-spectrum disorders estimated to benefit from long-term hospitalization were included consecutively from the Copenhagen OPUS-trial and randomized to the three treatment models. At 1-year follow-up, Hospital-based Rehabilitation and Integrated Treatment had better scores on symptoms in the negative dimension...... and on client satisfaction. Integrated Treatment had fewer bed-days, more patients living in non-supervised accommodation, and better score on quality of life. No differences were found as to the use of coercion. This study adds to the evidence that intensified treatment models are superior to standard...

  12. Differential effectiveness of residential versus outpatient aftercare for parolees from prison-based therapeutic community treatment programs

    OpenAIRE

    Messina Nena P; Prendergast Michael L; Dang Jeff; Burdon William M; Farabee David

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Research has indicated that more intense treatment is associated with better outcomes among clients who are appropriately matched to treatment intensity level based on the severity of their drug/alcohol problem. This study examined the differential effectiveness of community-based residential and outpatient treatment attended by male and female drug-involved parolees from prison-based therapeutic community substance abuse treatment programs based on the severity of their d...

  13. Effectiveness of very low-cost contingency management in a community adolescent treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, David C; Jencius, Simon

    2009-06-01

    Controlled studies have shown that motivational incentives reduce drug use, but community implementation has been limited. This observational study examines the effect of a contingency management (CM) program on urine, attendance, and cost measures in a community substance abuse treatment program for adolescents. Treatment included elements of 12-step facilitation, cognitive behavioral therapy, and motivational enhancement. All urine tests included cannabinoids, opioids, benzodiazepines, cocaine, and amphetamines. Patients with negative urines or perfect attendance earned chances to draw weekly from a bag for prizes of varying value, and the number of draws increased with each consecutive negative urine test. Data were collected for those patients (age 12-18) treated immediately before (n=83) and after (n=264) the CM program was introduced to the treatment center, and positive urine rates were compared using chi-square tests. Patients treated with the CM program had lower rates of urines positive for opioids (pcocaine (p<0.05), and non-significantly but consistently lower rates of urines positive for all other drug classes. Altogether, the proportion of urines positive for any drug decreased from 33.3% to 23.4% (p<0.01). Pre- and post-CM comparisons of attendance reveal lower daily attendance rates but longer retention in treatment. Expenses were minimal at $0.39 per patient per day. These data yield additional evidence for the feasibility and effectiveness of CM methods in community adolescent treatment programs. PMID:19250774

  14. County Government Fleet Purchasing Practices: Financial Efficiency vs. Need Assertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Modlin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An abundant amount of local government services are implemented through the use of automobiles each year. These costs include initial purchase, use, repair, and replacement. Traditional budgeting research is broad and does not isolate fleet costs or the influential actors in the process. This study examines the finance practices and need assertion associated with vehicle purchases and acquisition. Findings indicate most county governments in North and South Carolina choose to purchase vehicles on a cash basis, especially if there is a low resale value for surplus automobiles. In addition, county staff are very influential in additional vehicle purchases, especially if the sheriff can convince the county manager that additional automobiles of a particular make can enhance service delivery.

  15. Between compassionateness and assertiveness: A trust matrix for leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Manuel Monteiro Seco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Construct the structure of trust-building perceived by principals in Portuguese public schools.Design/methodology/approach: A grounded theory approach applied to a survey of open questions answered by school’s principals.Findings: (1 self-trust is the single trait common to all respondents; (2 compassion is a striking antecedent in the process of other-trust; compassionateness and assertiveness must combine with one another to achieve leadership based on smart trust, what is outlined in a matrix model built from the data.Research limitations/implications: The major limitation of this study was the impossibility to conduct face-to-face interviews given the limitation of free time alleged by the principals. In order to solve that limitation we decide to use the grounded theory approach.Practical implications: The consideration of a symbiosis category of the behaviors of principals can trigger positive expectations among the players who until now did not understand how it is possible to bring together the best of the worlds of management and leadership in a balanced way, with efficiency in authenticity.Social implications: The aforementioned dyadic model reflects a psychological state based on the belief that others do not take advantage of us, showing that trust is an essential element in positive human relations and becomes a strategic issue.Originality/value: The present study found that “pure” positive behaviors, as being compassionate, might need to be tempered or complemented with other behaviors such as assertiveness, to become really effective.

  16. Supportive-Expressive Dynamic Psychotherapy in the Community Mental Health System: A Pilot Effectiveness Trial for the Treatment of Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly Gibbons, Mary Beth; Thompson, Sarah M.; Scott, Kelli; Schauble, Lindsay A.; Mooney, Tessa; Thompson, Donald; Green, Patricia; MacArthur, Mary Jo; Crits-Christoph, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the current article is to present the results of a randomized pilot investigation of a brief dynamic psychotherapy compared with treatment-as-usual (TAU) in the treatment of moderate-to-severe depression in the community mental health system. Forty patients seeking services for moderate-to-severe depression in the community mental health system were randomized to 12 weeks of psychotherapy, with either a community therapist trained in brief dynamic psychotherapy or a TAU therapist....

  17. A Large-scale Dissemination and Implementation Model for Evidence-based Treatment and Continuing Care

    OpenAIRE

    Godley, Susan H.; Garner, Bryan R.; Smith, Jane Ellen; Meyers, Robert J.; Godley, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple evidence-based treatments for adolescents with substance use disorders are available; however, the diffusion of these treatments in practice remains minimal. A dissemination and implementation model incorporating research-based training components for simultaneous implementation across 33 dispersed sites and over 200 clinical staff is described. Key elements for the diffusion of the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach and Assertive Continuing Care were: (a) three years of fun...

  18. The Effect of Assertiveness Training on the Mobbing That Nurses Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaş, Sibel Asi; Okanli, Ayşe

    2015-10-01

    This research was designed to determine the impact of assertiveness training on the mobbing experience of nurses. This study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, 218 nurses completed the mobbing scale; the education group consisted of 38 nurses who received a score at or above 204 points. A total of 180 nurses were excluded from the education group because they received less than 204 points. The study was conducted with 30 nurses because 8 nurses did not agree to participate in the study. The 30 nurses received the assertiveness training program. Six months after training, the nurses completed the mobbing scale and Rathus Assertiveness Inventory (RAI) again. The assertiveness training positively affected the assertiveness and mobbing scores (p = .000). After the training, the assertiveness scores increased and the mobbing condition score decreased (p mobbing. In line with these results, training programs, which support nurses' personal development by providing counseling and support to nurse victims of mobbing, are recommended. PMID:26242741

  19. Challenges to providing quality substance abuse treatment services for American Indian and Alaska native communities: perspectives of staff from 18 treatment centers

    OpenAIRE

    Legha, Rupinder; Raleigh-Cohn, Ashley; Fickenscher, Alexandra; Novins, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Background Substance abuse continues to exact a significant toll, despite promising advancements in treatment, and American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities remain disproportionately impacted. Understanding the challenges to providing quality substance abuse treatment to AI/AN communities could ultimately result in more effective treatment interventions, but no multi-site studies have examined this important issue. Methods This qualitative study examined the challenges of providin...

  20. Determinants of Utilization and Community Experiences with Community Health Volunteers for Treatment of Childhood Illnesses in Rural Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yansaneh, Aisha I; George, Asha S; Sharkey, Alyssa; Brieger, William R; Moulton, Lawrence H; Yumkella, Fatu; Bangura, Peter; Kabano, Augustin; Diaz, Theresa

    2016-04-01

    In 2010, at the same time as the national roll out of the Free Health Care Initiative (FHCI), which removed user fees for facility based health care, trained community health volunteers (CHVs) were deployed to provide integrated community case management of diarrhea, malaria and pneumonia to children under 5 years of age (U5) in Kambia and Pujehun districts, Sierra Leone. After 2 years of implementation and in the context of FHCI, CHV utilization rate was 14.0 %. In this study, we examine the factors associated with this level of CHV utilization. A cross-sectional household-cluster survey of 1590 caregivers of 2279 children U5 was conducted in 2012; with CHV utilization assessed using a multiple logistic regression model. Focus groups and in-depth interviews were also conducted to understand communities' experiences with CHVs. Children with diarrhea (OR = 3.17, 95 % CI: 1.17-8.60), from female-headed households (OR = 4.55, 95 % CI: 1.88-11.00), and whose caregivers reported poor quality of care as a barrier to facility care-seeking (OR = 8.53, 95 % CI: 3.13-23.16) were more likely to receive treatment from a CHV. Despite low utilization, caregivers were highly familiar and appreciative of CHVs, but were concerned about the lack of financial remuneration for CHVs. CHVs remained an important source of care for children from female-headed households and whose caregivers reported poor quality of care at health facilities. CHVs are an important strategy for certain populations even when facility utilization is high or when facility services are compromised, as has happened with the recent Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone. PMID:26507650

  1. Trastornos de la conducta alimentaria y asertividad Lack of assertiveness in patients with eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Behar A; Rodrigo Manzo G; Dunny Casanova Z

    2006-01-01

    Background: Low self-assertion has been noted as an important feature among patients with eating disorders. Aim: To verify, in a female population, if assertiveness is related or has a predictive capacity for the development of eating disorders. Subjects and methods: An structured clinical interview, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40) and the Rathus Assertiveness Scale (RAS) were administered to 62 patients that fulfilled the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for eating disorders and to 120 female s...

  2. HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS' PROBLEM SOLVING AND ASSERTIVENESS SKILLS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIPS WITH SOME VARIABLES

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZBULAK, Berrin (EMRAN); Ayşe AYPAY; Ahmet AYPAY

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between assertiveness and problem solving skills of 200 9th grade high school students from İzmir high schools. In addition to descriptive statistics, t-tests, Anovas, and a multiple regression were used to analyze the data. Findings indicated that assertiveness and general problem solving skills did not differ based on gender, school type. Assertiveness differed based on mother's and father's educational level. General problem solving skill differed ...

  3. The assertive profile of the Bulgarian students in computer science and computer engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Peneva, Ivelina; Yordzhev, Krasimir

    2014-01-01

    Different points of view on the nature and content of the assertiveness are followed in this paper. The main purpose is to study the assertive profile of Bulgarian students in computer science and computer engineering by analyzing the components of assertiveness. Research was performed using testing methods. It was found that the level of expressivity of this personal quality among subjects were above-average level.

  4. Testing the independent species’ arrangement assertion made by theories of stochastic geometry of biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegand, Thorsten; Huth, Andreas; Getzin, Stephan; Wang, Xugao; Hao, Zhanqing; Gunatilleke, C. V. Savitri; Gunatilleke, I. A. U. Nimal

    2012-01-01

    The assertion that the spatial location of different species is independent of each other is fundamental in major ecological theories such as neutral theory that describes a stochastic geometry of biodiversity. However, this assertion has rarely been tested. Here we use techniques of spatial point pattern analysis to conduct a comprehensive test of the independence assertion by analysing data from three large forest plots with different species richness: a species-rich tropical forest at Barr...

  5. Community treatment orders: ethical practice in an era of magical thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, B

    2001-01-01

    With the passage of legislation in June 2000, coercive measures in the form of community treatment orders (CTOs) have become part of the community mental health landscape in Ontario. Given that community practitioners place a high value upon their ability to create voluntary and egalitarian partnerships with clients, the question of whether ethical practice is possible under conditions of legislated coercion is relevant. Based upon a review of the pro and con arguments that preceded CTO legislation, followed by an examination of available research on effectiveness, this paper suggests that forms of magical thinking have been at work on both sides of the CTO debate. A broader definition of coercion is proposed--one that envelopes both overt and covert forms. Finally, the author offers an approach to ethical practice which is based on the use of transformative power rather than coercive power, and which includes a 3-step strategy (using liberation tactics, proactive contracting, and procedural justice). PMID:11599136

  6. Using Fuzzy Logic in Test Case Prioritization for Regression Testing Programs with Assertions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali M. Alakeel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Program assertions have been recognized as a supporting tool during software development, testing, and maintenance. Therefore, software developers place assertions within their code in positions that are considered to be error prone or that have the potential to lead to a software crash or failure. Similar to any other software, programs with assertions must be maintained. Depending on the type of modification applied to the modified program, assertions also might have to undergo some modifications. New assertions may also be introduced in the new version of the program, while some assertions can be kept the same. This paper presents a novel approach for test case prioritization during regression testing of programs that have assertions using fuzzy logic. The main objective of this approach is to prioritize the test cases according to their estimated potential in violating a given program assertion. To develop the proposed approach, we utilize fuzzy logic techniques to estimate the effectiveness of a given test case in violating an assertion based on the history of the test cases in previous testing operations. We have conducted a case study in which the proposed approach is applied to various programs, and the results are promising compared to untreated and randomly ordered test cases.

  7. Self-stigma, personality traits, and willingness to seek treatment in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Paul B; Lichtenberg, James W; Clarke, Erik

    2016-08-01

    Stigma has received attention as a major barrier toward effective mental health service delivery, and previous research has demonstrated that the Five-Factor Model (FFM) domain of Openness to Experience is negatively correlated with stigmatized views of mental health. However, a lack of established relationships between personality and self-stigma, as well as how these concepts affect an individual's treatment-seeking intentions, has left a gap in the literature. To address this, our study recruited a low-income community sample and tested (a) the relationship between self-stigma of mental health treatment and the FFM, (b) the relationship between self-stigma and treatment-seeking intentions, and (c) the incremental validity of FFM personality beyond stigma in the prediction of treatment seeking. Results suggest that there is some incongruence with previous research on personality's relationship to stigma, personality does not act as an additive component in the prediction of the relationship between stigma and treatment seeking, and stigma is related only to the perceived need for mental health treatment but not to an individual's openness to seek that treatment. The discussion concludes with implications for the contextualization and treatment of stigma as a barrier for mental health treatment and a general synthesis of the personality trait profiles for those holding stigmatizing views of mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27253319

  8. Modified Therapeutic Community Treatment for Offenders with MICA Disorders: Antisocial Personality Disorder and Treatment Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendrick, Karen; Sullivan, Christopher; Banks, Steven; Sacks, Stanley

    2006-01-01

    Treatment outcomes 1 year after release from prison were compared for two subgroups of male inmates with co-occurring serious mental illness and chemical abuse (MICA) disorders, those with a diagnosis for Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD), and those without a diagnosis of APD. The foundation study had randomly assigned inmates to either…

  9. Ibuprofen removal in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands: treatment performance and fungal community dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongqing; Luo, Jinxue; Lee, Zarraz May Ping; Gersberg, Richard M; Liu, Yu; Tan, Soon Keat; Ng, Wun Jern

    2016-06-01

    The treatment performance of ibuprofen (IBP)-enriched wastewater by horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands planted with cattail (Typha angustifolia) and unplanted control mesocosms was investigated. Removal efficiencies of IBP were significantly (p wetland systems. The overall diversity of the fungal community was reduced under the IBP exposure. Taxonomic analysis revealed that 62.2% of the fungal sequences were affiliated with Basidiomycota, followed by Ascomycota (37.4%) at the phylum level. Uncultured fungus (48.2%), Chaetomium sp. (14.2%), Aspergillus sp. (12.4%), Trichoderma sp. (5.7%), Cladosporium sp. (5.4%), and Emericellopsis sp. (5.2%) were identified as dominant genera. At the genus level, a distinct profile of the fungal community in the IBP-enriched mesocosms was observed as compared to the control beds, and as well specific fungal genera were enhanced in the planted beds, regardless of IBP enrichment. However, despite these differences, the composition of the fungal community (as measured by Bray-Curtis similarity) was mostly unaffected by the significant IBP enrichment. On the other hand, a consistent similarity pattern of fungal community structure in the planted mesocosms suggests that the presence of higher macrophytes in the wetland systems may well help shape the fungal community structure. PMID:26581707

  10. Microbial community functional structures in wastewater treatment plants as characterized by GeoChip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biological WWTPs must be functionally stable to continuously and steadily remove contaminants which rely upon the activity of complex microbial communities. However, knowledge is still lacking in regard to microbial community functional structures and their linkages to environmental variables. AIMS: To investigate microbial community functional structures of activated sludge in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs and to understand the effects of environmental factors on their structure. METHODS: 12 activated sludge samples were collected from four WWTPs in Beijing. A comprehensive functional gene array named GeoChip 4.2 was used to determine the microbial functional genes involved in a variety of biogeochemical processes such as carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous and sulfur cycles, metal resistance, antibiotic resistance and organic contaminant degradation. RESULTS: High similarities of the microbial community functional structures were found among activated sludge samples from the four WWTPs, as shown by both diversity indices and the overlapped genes. For individual gene category, such as egl, amyA, lip, nirS, nirK, nosZ, ureC, ppx, ppk, aprA, dsrA, sox and benAB, there were a number of microorganisms shared by all 12 samples. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA showed that the microbial functional patterns were highly correlated with water temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO, ammonia concentrations and loading rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD. Based on the variance partitioning analyses (VPA, a total of 53% of microbial community variation from GeoChip data can be explained by wastewater characteristics (25% and operational parameters (23%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study provided an overall picture of microbial community functional structures of activated sludge in WWTPs and discerned the linkages between microbial communities and environmental variables in WWTPs.

  11. Anthelmintic treatment alters the parasite community in a wild mouse host

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Amy B.; Antonovics, Janis

    2013-01-01

    Individuals are often co-infected with several parasite species, yet the consequences of drug treatment on the dynamics of parasite communities in wild populations have rarely been measured. Here, we experimentally reduced nematode infection in a wild mouse population and measured the effects on other non-target parasites. A single oral dose of the anthelmintic, ivermectin, significantly reduced nematode infection, but resulted in a reciprocal increase in other gastrointestinal parasites, spe...

  12. Capacity Enhancement of Hepatitis C Virus Treatment through Integrated, Community-Based Care

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Warren D; Butt, Gail; Alvarez, Maria; Krajden, Mel

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An estimated 250,000 Canadians are infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The present study describes a cohort of individuals with HCV referred to community-based, integrated prevention and care projects developed in British Columbia. Treatment outcomes are reported for a subset of individuals undergoing antiviral therapy at four project sites.METHODS: Four demonstration projects based on a public health nurse and physician partnership were established in rural and small urban...

  13. PSYCOSOCIAL FACTORS EVALUATION ON PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF DIARRHEIC DISEASES IN YAQUI COMMUNITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Guadalupe Valenzuela Avendaño y Jesús Francisco Laborín Álvarez

    2007-01-01

    To analyze knowledge and some psychosocial factors influence on prevention and treatment of diarrheic diseases in Yaqui communities. By a non-probabilistic sampling, 209 mothers were selected from Yaqui families having at least one six years old child or younger, and that they had attended at least one diarrhoea episode within 72 hours previous the interview. A non-experimental, correlational and cross-sectional design was used to analyse data. The knowledge level that mothers show about caus...

  14. Influence Of Wastewater On Zooplankton Community Of The Daugava River After Daugavpils Wastewater Treatment Plant Modernization

    OpenAIRE

    Deksne, Rasma

    2015-01-01

    During seasonal studies 2010 (May-October, once/ thrice a month), samples of zooplankton were collected at the Daugava River section from 10 km upstream to 10 km downstream from the Daugavpils treatment plant wastewater discharge into the Daugava River. Changes in the quantitative and qualitative characteristics, saprobity index and species diversity (Shannon-Wiener index) were employed for the analysis of zooplankton community structure in the Daugava River. The Daugava River is polluted by ...

  15. Relationship Power and Sexual Risk among Women in Community-Based Substance Abuse Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Aimee N. C.; Tross, Susan; Dworkin, Shari L.; Hu, Mei-Chen; Manuel, Jennifer; Pavlicova, Martina; Nunes, Edward V.

    2009-01-01

    Relationship power has been highlighted as a major factor influencing women’s safer sex practices. Little research, however, has specifically examined relationship power in drug-involved women, a population with increased risk for HIV transmission. Using baseline data from a National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network multisite trial of a women’s HIV prevention intervention in community-based drug treatment programs, this paper examined the association between sexual relationship...

  16. Biofield and Fungicide Seed Treatment Influences on Soybean Productivity,Seed Quality and Weed Community

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Soybean production in Iowa USA is among the most productive for raínfed regions in the world. Despite generally having excellent soils, growing season temperatures and rainfall, soybean yields are decreased by weed interference and inadequate available soil water at key stages of crop development. A field study was conducted at two locations in lowa in 2012 to determine if seed-applied fungicide or biofield treatments influenced weed community, soil volumetric water concentration and s...

  17. Practice setting and physician influences on judgments of colon cancer treatment by community physicians.

    OpenAIRE

    McFall, S L; Warnecke, R B; Kaluzny, A D; Ford, L

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This article compares judgments about the treatment of Dukes' B2 and C colon cancer made by general surgeons to those of internists and family practitioners. Physician and practice variables were specialty, affiliation with a Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP) hospital, time in practice, professional centrality (level of participation in cancer information networks), solo practice, and number of colon cancer patients. DATA COLLECTION METHODS. Data are combined from national...

  18. Assessment of MLA assertiveness training for librarians: students' behavior changes after taking C.E. 669, Assertiveness and Human Relations Skills.

    OpenAIRE

    Caputo, J S

    1985-01-01

    C.E. 669, offered for three years, was MLA's first personal development continuing education course. Participants were asked to respond to a follow-up survey about their current assertive philosophy, awareness, and behavioral repertoire. They were also assessed by the Librarian's Assertiveness Inventory, a tool that indicates patterns of behavioral responses, for which some normative data were available from librarians who had not taken the class. Class participants were found to be more like...

  19. Impact of Community Mass Treatment with Azithromycin for Trachoma Elimination on the Prevalence of Yaws.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Marks

    Full Text Available Community mass treatment with 30 mg/kg azithromycin is central to the new WHO strategy for eradicating yaws. Both yaws and trachoma--which is earmarked for elimination by 2020 using a strategy that includes mass treatment with 20 mg/kg azithromycin--are endemic in the Pacific, raising the possibility of an integrated approach to disease control. Community mass treatment with azithromycin for trachoma elimination was conducted in the Solomon Islands in 2014.We conducted a study to assess the impact of mass treatment with 20 mg/kg azithromycin on yaws. We examined children aged 5-14 years and took blood and lesion samples for yaws diagnosis.We recruited 897 children, 6 months after mass treatment. There were no cases of active yaws. Serological evidence of current infection was found in 3.6% (95% CI= 2.5-5.0%. This differed significantly between individuals who had and had not received azithromycin (2.8% vs 6.5%, p=0.015; the prevalence of positive serology in 5-14 year-olds had been 21.7% (95% CI=14.6%-30.9% 6 months prior to mass treatment. Not receiving azithromycin was associated with an odds of 3.9 for infection (p=0.001. National figures showed a 57% reduction in reported cases of yaws following mass treatment.Following a single round of treatment we did not identify any cases of active yaws in a previously endemic population. We found a significant reduction in latent infection. Our data support expansion of the WHO eradication strategy and suggest an integrated approach to the control of yaws and trachoma in the Pacific may be viable.

  20. Resilience of soil microbial and nematode communities after biofumigant treatment with defatted seed meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocali, Stefano; Landi, Silvia; Curto, Giovanna; Elisabetta, Dallavalle; Infantino, Alessandro; Colzi, Claudia; d'Errico, Giada; Roversi, Pio Federico; D'Avino, Lorenzo; Lazzeri, Luca

    2015-04-01

    The use of alternative biocidal compounds to replace chemical pesticides after the Directive 2009/128/EC has raised renewed interest in the biofumigation technique. In particular, the defatted seed meals (DSM) derived from brassicaceae plant tissues with high glucosinolate content represent an efficient practice to control soil-born plant pathogens and pests that can be applied in synergy to catch crop green manures. For a wider and safer application of this technique, the impacts on non-target soil microorganisms and free-living nematodes have to be investigated in more depth. In this pot-scale experiment a naturally nematode-infected soil was amended with a glucosinolate-containing DSM from Brassica carinata (CAR), a non-glucosinolate-containing DSM from sunflower (SUN) and the metham-sodium fumigant (VAP). Tomato plants were transplanted and checked for the presence of pests and/or pathogens and plant vigour. The response of soil microbial communities was assessed through 454-pyrosequencing analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal 18S rRNA genes, whereas nematode indices were applied to assess their community structure 0, 10, 32 and 62 days after the treatments. Significant shifts were observed among both bacterial and fungal communities, whereas various changes of nematode communities occurred depending on the nematode family. Similar changes initially occurred in both bacterial and fungal community structure in response to DSM and VAP amendments, but after 62 days fungal communities were more strongly shaped by VAP fumigation than bacteria. The non-biofumigant SUN treatment added organic matter into the soil inducing significant changes in microbial communities, but it was not effective against M. incognita root infestation. Although the free-living nematode structure was negatively influenced by all treatments, B. carinata DMS proved the best compromise between efficiency to control M. incognita and environmental impact. These results confirmed the

  1. Exploring provider and community responses to the new malaria diagnostic and treatment regime in Solomon Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wini Lyndes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvements in availability and accessibility of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT for malaria treatment and the emergence of multi-drug-resistant parasites have prompted many countries to adopt ACT as the first-line drug. In 2009, Solomon Islands (SI likewise implemented new national treatment guidelines for malaria. The ACT, Coartem® (artemether-lumefantrine is now the primary pharmacotherapy in SI for Plasmodium falciparum malaria, Plasmodium vivax malaria or mixed infections. Targeted treatment is also recommended in the new treatment regime through maintenance of quality microscopy services and the introduction of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs. Ascertaining the factors that influence community and provider acceptance of and adherence to the new treatment regime will be vital to improving the effectiveness of this intervention and reducing the risk of development of drug resistance. Methods In order to understand community and prescriber perceptions and acceptability of the new diagnostic and treatment interventions, 12 focus group discussions (FGDs and 12 key informant interviews (KII were carried out in rural and urban villages of Malaita Province, Solomon Islands four months subsequent to roll out of these interventions. Results Lack of access to microscopy or distrust in the accuracy of diagnostic tools were reported by some participants as reasons for the ongoing practice of presumptive treatment of malaria. Lack of confidence in RDT accuracy has negatively impacted its acceptability. Coartem® had good acceptability among most participants, however, some rural participants questioned its effectiveness due to lack of side effects and the larger quantity of tablets required to be taken. Storing of left over medication for subsequent fever episodes was reported as common. Conclusion To address these issues, further training and supportive supervision of healthcare workers will be essential, as will the

  2. Virtual world for helping teens practice assertiveness skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemire, Kenneth; Beil, Joshua; Swan, Ronald W.

    1999-05-01

    Smoking is on the rise among adolescents. This pilot project combined the well-documented benefits of Life Skills Training (LST) with the unique multisensory, 3D qualities of virtual environment (VE) technology to address some of the disadvantages of traditional prevention programs by engaging teens better, presenting information more persuasively, and making prevention programs continuously available in computer labs. In an eight-week pilot study, 45 seventh- grade students were randomly assigned to LST, VE, or non- intervention control groups. The VE system included goggles, synthesized speech, head and hand trackers, hand-held controller, and speech recognition. Questionnaires measured participants' smoking knowledge and behavior,a participants' reports on the usability of the VE system, and reports of simulator sickness symptoms. Structured interviews with randomly selected participants from each group revealed more detailed information. Data indicated the VE group retained more information and had more positive experiences learning about dangers of smoking and assertiveness skills than did the LST group. Usability data showed ease of use and learning of the VE system, with no significant symptoms of simulator sickness. These data indicated that this VE application is a promising tool for keeping teens healthy.

  3. Bill (declared urgency) asserting the national commitment for the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bill asserting the French national commitment for the environment (also named 'Grenelle 2') is considered as the juridical tool-box of the French environmental policy. It confirms, strengthens, and concretizes the objectives defined by the Grenelle 1 law. The main dispositions of the bill concern the following domains: settlement and urbanism with the improvement of the energy efficiency, energy conservation and life-cycle of buildings; transports with the development of sustainable transportation systems; energy with the creation of regional climate, air and energy schemes with the aim of developing renewable energies (with some restrictions concerning wind power) and reducing CO2 emissions; biodiversity with the creation of ecological pathways between protected areas for the migration of flora and fauna species; environment and waste management with the reinforcement of measures for the abatement of environmental pollutant effects. Among the numerous dispositions involving more than 20 codes (urbanism, environment, buildings etc..) one concerns the progressive implementation of a 'carbon price' index taking into account the greenhouse gas emission costs during the whole life cycle of a product, another one concerns the monitoring of indoor air quality in public buildings. This document is made of three parts. Part 1 is the exposition of the intentions of each article of the bill, part 2 is the bill itself and part 3 is the impact study of the bill in terms of economical, social and environmental impact. (J.S.)

  4. Therapeutic community drug treatment success in Peru: a follow-up outcome study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Browne Thom

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of drug abuse treatment in Peru that used the therapeutic community (TC model. Program directors and several staff members from all study treatment facilities received two to eight weeks of in-country training on how to implement the TC treatment model prior to the follow-up study. Methods This outcome study involved 33 TC treatment facilities and 509 former clients in Lima and other cities in five providences across Peru. A retrospective pre-test (RPT follow-up design was employed in which 30-day use of illegal drugs and alcohol to intoxication was measured at baseline retrospectively, at the same time of the six-month follow-up. In-person interview data were collected from directors of 73 percent of the eligible TC organizations in January and February 2003 and from former 58 percent of the eligible TC former clients between October 2003 and October 2004. Drug testing was conducted on a small sample of former clients to increase the accuracy of the self-reported drug use data. Results Medium to large positive treatment effects were found when comparing 30-day illegal drug and alcohol use to intoxication before and six months after receiving treatment. As a supplemental analysis, we assumed the 42 percent of the former clients who were not interviewed at the six month assessment had returned to drugs. These results showed medium treatment effects as well. Hierarchical Generalized Linear Modeling (HGLM results showed higher implementation fidelity, less stigma after leaving treatment, and older clients, singly or in combination are key predictors of treatment success. Conclusion This study found that former clients of drug and alcohol treatment in facilities using the TC model reported substantial positive change in use of illegal drugs and alcohol to intoxication at a six-month follow-up. The unique contribution of this study is that the results also suggest attention should

  5. Associations of Sexual Victimization, Depression, and Sexual Assertiveness with Unprotected Sex: A Test of the Multifaceted Model of HIV Risk Across Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Morokoff, Patricia J.; Colleen A. Redding; Harlow, Lisa L.; Cho, Sookhyun; Rossi, Joseph S.; Meier, Kathryn S; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Koblin, Beryl; Brown-Peterside, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether the Multifaceted Model of HIV Risk (MMOHR) would predict unprotected sex based on predictors including gender, childhood sexual abuse (CSA), sexual victimization (SV), depression, and sexual assertiveness for condom use. A community-based sample of 473 heterosexually active men and women, aged 18–46 years completed survey measures of model variables. Gender predicted several variables significantly. A separate model for women demonstrated excellent fit, while the m...

  6. Communication Skills for Career Success. A Programmed Textbook. Book II: Assertive Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombana, Judy H.; Pratt, Phillip A.

    This programmed text for self-study provides information on assertive communication in business. Part of a series of such texts, the book presents examples of familiar work situations involving interpersonal problems. The text then discusses each of the answers and explains why one or the other is appropriate for communicating assertively. Some of…

  7. Adolescents' Self-Assertion in the Process of Upbringing and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islamova, Z. B.

    2010-01-01

    Self-assertion involves an individual's search for and realization of his own special path in the world, his values and purpose in life in every given moment. It is a process that accompanies a person throughout his life. Self-assertion becomes exceptionally important in adolescence as it marks a turning point in one's attitude toward oneself; one…

  8. Counteracting the Effects of Sex-role Stereotyping Using Assertive Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Elizabeth Young

    1977-01-01

    The article discussed the relationship between sex-role behaviors and assertiveness. It was concluded that assertive training is potentially valuable to students and educators alike in helping to modify some of the extreme behaviors associated with sex-role stereotypes and as such is beneficial in bringing about more adaptive forms of behavior in…

  9. Effects of Gender, Age, and Education on Assertiveness in a Nigerian Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeizugbo, Eucharia U.

    2003-01-01

    Two hundred fourteen (214) married persons, 101 men and 113 women aged 20-60, with at least high school education, participated in the study which investigated the effects of gender, age, and educational attainment on assertiveness among married persons in Nigeria. The Assertive Behavior Assessment scale (ABAS; Onyeizugbo, 1998) was used to…

  10. Sexual Assertiveness Mediates the Effect of Social Interaction Anxiety on Sexual Victimization Risk among College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schry, Amie R.; White, Susan W.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual victimization is prevalent among college women and is associated with adverse psychological consequences. Social anxiety, particularly related to interpersonal interaction, may increase risk of sexual victimization among college women by decreasing sexual assertiveness and decreasing the likelihood of using assertive resistance techniques.…

  11. Correlates of Adolescent Assertiveness with HIV Avoidance in a Four-Nation Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuoha, Francis N.; Munakata, Tsunetsugu

    2005-01-01

    Adolescents are frequently admonished to be socially assertive in order to confront negative interpersonal peer influences. Since the advent of HIV/AIDS in human social chemistry, the admonition has become more critical than ever. But the warning is often proffered in the misguided presumption that social assertiveness is the all-required…

  12. Assertive Skills and Academic Performance in Primary and Secondary Education, Giftedness, and Conflictive Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marugan de Miguelsanz, Montserrat; Carbonero Martin, Miguel Angel; Palazuelo Martinez, Ma Marcela

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This study explores the level of assertiveness in various samples of students from Primary and Secondary Education. With the data obtained, on the one hand, we analyzed the relation between assertiveness and academic performance and, on the other, we verified whether students who are excluded from the norm, either because of their…

  13. An Investigation of High School Seniors' Assertiveness Levels Based on Their Demographic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çam, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    High school students who are in the development age or in the last class and have chance to win the university exams or disposal stage of the business life must also have a high level of assertiveness. In this context, the purpose of this research is to compare the assertiveness levels of high school seniors. The study group consists of 312 high…

  14. Relation between Assertiveness, Academic Self-Efficacy, and Psychosocial Adjustment among International Graduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyrazli, Senel; Arbona, Consuelo; Nora, Amaury; McPherson, Robert; Pisecco, Stewart

    2002-01-01

    Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, Academic Self-Efficacy Scale, The Inventory for Student Adjustment Strain, and UCLA Loneliness Scale were used to examine a total of 122 graduate international students. Findings indicate that English proficiency, assertiveness, and academic self-efficacy contributed uniquely to the variance in students' general…

  15. Relationships of Assertiveness, Depression, and Social Support Among Older Nursing Home Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the relationships of assertiveness, depression, and social support among nursing home residents. The sample included 50 older nursing home residents (mean age=75 years; 75% female; 92% Caucasian). There was a significant correlation between assertiveness and depression (r=-.33), but the correlations between social support and…

  16. Longitudinal Study of Assertion Training as a Drug Abuse Prevention Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, John J.; Williams, John M.

    1982-01-01

    Nonassertive junior high school students were assigned randomly to assertion training involving drug-use peer pressure. At posttest and at a three-year follow-up point, students continued to display high levels of assertiveness and less willingness to use alcohol and marijuana. (Author/PN)

  17. Low temperature treatment of domestic wastewater by purple phototrophic bacteria: Performance, activity, and community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hülsen, Tim; Barry, Edward M; Lu, Yang; Puyol, Daniel; Batstone, Damien J

    2016-09-01

    Low wastewater temperatures affect microbial growth rates and microbial populations, as well as physical chemical characteristics of the wastewater. Wastewater treatment plant design needs to accommodate changing temperatures, and somewhat limited capacity is a key criticism of low strength anaerobic treatment such as Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors (AnMBR). This study evaluates the applicability of an alternative platform utilizing purple phototrophic bacteria for low temperature domestic wastewater treatment. Two photo-anaerobic membrane bioreactors (PAnMBR) at ambient (22 °C) and low temperatures (10 °C) were compared to fully evaluate temperature response of critical processes. The results show good functionality at 10 °C in comparison with ambient operation. This enabled operation at 10 °C to discharge limits (TCOD < 100 mg L(-1); TN < 10 mg L(-1) and TP < 1 mg L(-1)) at a HRT < 1 d. While capacity of the system was not limited, microbial community showed a strong shift to a far narrower diversity, almost complete dominance by PPB, and of a single Rhodobacter spp. compared to a more diverse community in the ambient reactor. The outcomes of the current work enable applicability of PPB for domestic wastewater treatment to a broad range of regions. PMID:27235774

  18. Prediction of Addiction Potential on the Basis of Aggression and Assertiveness in University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Hajihasani

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of present research was the prediction of addiction potential on the basis of aggression and assertiveness in Allameh Tabbatabaei girl students. Method: The research method was correlational design and population of research was girl students of Allameh Tabatabaei university. By available sampling 150 girls were selected and Ahvaz Aggression Questionnaire, Gambril & Rigy Assertiveness questionnaire and Zargari Addiction Potential Questionnaire administered among selected sample. Findings: the results of the Pearson correlation showed that the relationship between aggression, assertiveness, and addiction potential was significant. Also, the results of multivariate regression analysis showed that aggression, assertiveness and depression can predict the Addiction Potential. Conclusion: Addiction potential can be predicted by aggression and assertiveness.

  19. Changes in bacterial community structure in a full-scale membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Kurumi; Tsutsui, Hirofumi; Takada, Kazuki; Hamada, Hiroshi; Sakai, Kousuke; Inoue, Daisuke; Sei, Kazunari; Soda, Satoshi; Yamashita, Kyoko; Tsuji, Koji; Hashimoto, Toshikazu; Ike, Michihiko

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated changes in the structure and metabolic capabilities of the bacterial community in a full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating municipal wastewater. Microbial monitoring was also conducted for a parallel-running conventional activated sludge (CAS) process treating the same influent. The mixed-liquor suspended solid concentration in the MBR reached a steady-state on day 73 after the start-up. Then the MBR maintained higher rates of removal of organic compounds and nitrogen than the CAS process did. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed that the bacterial community structure in the MBR was similar to that in the CAS process at the start-up, but it became very different from that in the CAS process in the steady state. The bacterial community structure of the MBR continued to change dynamically even after 20 months of the steady-state operation, while that of the CAS process was maintained in a stable condition. By contrast, Biolog assay revealed that the carbon source utilization potential of the MBR resembled that of the CAS process as a whole, although it declined transiently. Overall, the results indicate that the bacterial community of the MBR has flexibility in terms of its phylogenetic structure and metabolic activity to maintain the high wastewater treatment capability. PMID:26811223

  20. Treatment delay among pulmonary tuberculosis patients in pastoralist communities in Bale Zone, Southeast Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussen Awol

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB is a major public health problem in Africa with Ethiopia being the most affected. Treatment delay is an important indicator of access to TB diagnosis and treatment. However, little is known about factors associated with treatment delay of pulmonary TB among pastoralists. Health facility based cross sectional study was conducted on 129 pulmonary TB patients in pastoralist community. The study was conducted in three health centers and a hospital. Time between onset of TB symptoms and first visit to a professional health care provider (patient delay, and the time between first visits to the professional health care provider to the date of diagnosis (provider's delay were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 statistical software. Findings A total of 129 new smear positive pulmonary TB patients participated in the study. The median total delay was 97 days. The median patient and health provider delays were 63 and 34 days, respectively. Ninety six percent of the patients were delayed for more than the twenty one days cutoff point. Patient delay was positively associated with first visit to traditional healer/private clinic/drug shop, rural residence, being illiterate, living in more than 10 kilometers from health facility; severity of illness at first presentation to health facility. Provider delay was positively associated with rural residence, being illiterate, patient with good functional status, patients in contact with more than two health providers, and place of first visit being traditional healer/private clinic/drug shop. Conclusions This study showed that majority of smear positive patients delayed either for diagnosis or treatment, thus continue to serve as reservoirs of infection. This indicates that there is a need for intervention to decrease patient and provider delays. Effort to reduce delays in pastoralist communities should focus on improving access to services in rural communities, engaging traditional and

  1. Contextualizing trauma: using evidence-based treatments in a multicultural community after 9/11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Randall D; Suh, Eun Jung

    2003-01-01

    The mental health community was caught unaware after 9/11 with respect to treatment of survivors of terrorist attacks. Because this form of trauma was quite rare in the U.S., few trauma specialists had extensive experience, or taught regularly on this subject. Since the primary objective of terrorism is the creation of demoralization, fear, and uncertainty in the general population, a focus on mental health from therapeutic and public health perspectives is critically important to successful resolution of the crisis. Surveys after 9/11 showed unequivocally that symptomatology related to the attacks were found in hundreds of thousands of people, most of whom were not escapees or the families of the deceased. Soon after 9/11, our center formed a collaboration with other academic sites in Manhattan to rapidly increase capacity for providing state-of-the-art training and treatment for trauma-related psychiatric problems. Our experience suggests that evidence-based treatments such as Prolonged Exposure Therapy have proven successful in treating 9/11-related PTSD. However, special clinical issues have arisen, such as the influence of culture on clinical presentation and treatment expectations in a multiethnic community; the need to focus on more subtle aspects of relative risk appraisal in examining trauma-related avoidance; the range of changes in daily life that constitute adaptation to ongoing threat; the difficulties in working as a therapist who is also a member of the traumatized community; and grappling with multiple secondary consequences of 9/11 such as unemployment, work relocation, grief, and apocalyptic fears leading to a dramatically foreshortened vision of the future. PMID:14686462

  2. Impact of drug awareness and treatment camps on attendance at a community outreach de-addiction clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Prakash Giri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Substance misuse is an increasing problem in urban and rural India. The utility of community-based interventions and preventive strategies are increasingly emphasized in this context. The drug de-addiction and treatment center, Department of Psychiatry, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, has been running a drug de-addiction and treatment clinic at Kharar Civil Hospital, Kharar, District Mohali, Punjab, since 1998. As part of an effort to enhance this community outreach program, community-based drug awareness and treatment camps have been organized since March 2004 in villages in and around Tehsil Kharar of Mohali. Aim: To study the impact of the drug awareness and treatment camps on the attendance of patients at the community outreach drug de-addiction and treatment clinic at Kharar Civil Hospital. Methods: Sociodemographic and clinical variables, including treatment outcome-related variables, of patients attending the clinic at Kharar Civil Hospital, before and after the camps were compared. Discussion and Conclusion: The study showed a positive impact on drug awareness and treatment camps held in the community on outpatient attendance at a community outreach clinic, with attendance increasing more than 1.8 times.

  3. PSYCOSOCIAL FACTORS EVALUATION ON PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF DIARRHEIC DISEASES IN YAQUI COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Valenzuela Avendaño y Jesús Francisco Laborín Álvarez

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available To analyze knowledge and some psychosocial factors influence on prevention and treatment of diarrheic diseases in Yaqui communities. By a non-probabilistic sampling, 209 mothers were selected from Yaqui families having at least one six years old child or younger, and that they had attended at least one diarrhoea episode within 72 hours previous the interview. A non-experimental, correlational and cross-sectional design was used to analyse data. The knowledge level that mothers show about causes, symptoms and care during the diarrhoea is medium. Data also demonstrate a low to moderate level of correlation among the factors of the reasoned action model. The theory of reasoned action was not 100% suitable for Yaqui communities, because this model was originally proposed for urban areas and studied populations, therefore we recommend combine it quantitative and qualitative techniques with the purpose of collecting more reliable data, as include in the evaluation referring aspects to the culture and idiosyncrasy.

  4. Factors associated with compliance with community directed treatment with ivermectin for onchocerciasis control in Southwestern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wondafrash Mekite

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although ivermectin is distributed free of charge through the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC, not all eligible individuals within communities receive the annual treatment. This poses a serious threat to efforts aimed to control onchocerciasis. This study attempts to determine factors associated with compliance to Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI and provides a basis for trying to understand how best to sustain long-term compliance in order to achieve success in the control of onchocerciasis. Methods An unmatched case-control study was conducted in Bebeka coffee plantation southwest Ethiopia. Cases were, compliant i.e., those individuals who had been registered on the relevant treatment registers and had taken all the five annual doses of Ivermectin. Controls were non-compliant, i.e. those individuals who had been recorded in the relevant treatment registers during the first treatment round(2003, and did not take at least two doses of which one being in the last treatment round (2007. Data were collected using a pre-tested interviewer administered structured questionnaire. Data were edited, cleaned, coded and analyzed using SPSS version 12.0.1 for Microsoft Windows. Multiple logistic regression models was used to identify factors associated with compliance to ivermectin. Results From the total of 456 individuals selected for administration of the survey questionnaire, 450(225 cases and 225 controls were contacted and completed the study 2 refused and 4 were unavailable. Five factors associated with compliance were identified: high risk perception [Adjusted Odds Ratio(AOR = 1.98, 95% Confidence Interval (CI, 1.32-2.95], one's family support [AOR = 1.86, 95% CI, 1.22-2.84], perceiving that the Community Drug Distributors (CDDs are doing their work well [AOR = 2.84, 95% CI, 1.50-5.37] and perceiving measuring height is the best way to determine a person's treatment dose [AOR = 6.37, 95% CI, 2

  5. Individual Community-Based Treatment of Offenders With Mental Illness: Relationship to Recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abracen, Jeffrey; Gallo, Alessandra; Looman, Jan; Goodwill, Alasdair

    2016-06-01

    This study explores the effectiveness of psychological intervention at reducing the risk of recidivism among a group of high-risk, high-need offenders housed in a Community Correctional Centre (CCC) operated by the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC). File reviews on 136 male federal offenders living in a CCC in a large metropolitan area were included in the present investigation. Previous research on this sample by our team indicated that the majority of this sample met diagnostic criteria for a variety of psychiatric conditions. Data on the number of individual counseling sessions received and progress in treatment were collected from official file information for the purpose of the present investigation. After accounting for actuarially assessed risk, moderate doses of treatment were found to be associated with 7.7 times less likelihood of recidivism, and high doses of treatment were found to be associated with 11.6 times less likelihood of recidivism, when compared with offenders who received no treatment or were only assessed for treatment. These results are discussed in the context of correctional models of offender risk assessment and rehabilitation. It is notable that a very simple measure of global mental health treatment attendance, with no consideration of such factors as responsiveness, added considerable incremental predictive validity to the results after having statistically accounted for actuarially assessed risk of recidivism. PMID:25731931

  6. Toxicity and aquatic community impacts of membrane and ion exchange water treatment effluents in coastal North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document summarizes a study titled "Assessment of Potential Toxicity and Aquatic Community Impacts Associated with Membrane and Ion Exchange Water Treatment...

  7. Seasonal Changes in Bacterial Communities Cause Foaming in a Wastewater Treatment Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Yu, Zhisheng; Zhao, Jihong; Zhang, Hongxun

    2016-04-01

    Bio-foaming is a major problem in solid separation in activated sludge (AS) wastewater treatment systems. Understanding the changes in bacterial communities during sludge foaming is vital for explaining foam formation. Changes in bacterial communities in the foam, corresponding foaming AS, and non-foaming AS in a seasonal foaming wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Northern China were investigated by high-throughput pyrosequencing and molecular quantification-based approaches. We found that bacterial communities of the foam and the corresponding foaming AS were similar but markedly different from those of the non-foaming AS. Actinobacteria was the predominant phylum in the foam and the corresponding foaming AS, whereas Proteobacteria was predominant in the non-foaming AS. Similar to the results of most previous studies, our results showed that Candidatus "Microthrix parvicella" was the predominant filamentous bacteria in the foam and the corresponding foaming AS and was significantly enriched in the foam compared to the corresponding foaming AS. Its abundance decreased gradually with a slow disappearance of sludge foaming, indicating that its overgrowth had a direct relationship with sludge foaming. In addition to Candidatus M. parvicella, Tetrasphaera and Trichococcus might play a role in sludge foaming, because they supported the changes in AS microbial ecology for foam formation. The effluent water quality of the surveyed plant remained stable during the period of sludge foaming, but the microbial consortia responsible for nitrogen and phosphorus transformation and removal markedly changed compared to that in the non-foaming AS. This study adds to the previous understanding of bacterial communities causing foaming in WWTPs. PMID:26577577

  8. A novel approach for harnessing biofilm communities in moving bed biofilm reactors for industrial wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe A. Lemire

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs are an effective biotechnology for treating industrial wastewater. Biomass retention on moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR carriers (biofilm support materials, allows for the ease-of-operation and high treatment capacity of MBBR systems. Optimization of MBBR systems has largely focused on aspects of carrier design, while little attention has been paid to enhancing strategies for harnessing microbial biomass. Previously, our research group demonstrated that mixed-species biofilms can be harvested from an industrial wastewater inoculum [oil sands process water (OSPW] using the Calgary Biofilm Device (CBD. Moreover, the resultant biofilm communities had the capacity to degrade organic toxins (naphthenic acids—NAs that are found in OSPW. Therefore, we hypothesized that harnessing microbial communities from industrial wastewater, as biofilms, on MBBR carriers may be an effective method to bioremediate industrial wastewater.Here, we detail our methodology adapting the workflow employed for using the CBD, to generate inoculant carriers to seed an MBBR.In this study, OSPW-derived biofilm communities were successfully grown, and their efficacy evaluated, on commercially available MBBR carriers affixed within a modified CBD system. The resultant biofilms demonstrated the capacity to transfer biomass to recipient carriers within a scaled MBBR. Moreover, MBBR systems inoculated in this manner were fully active 2 days post-inoculation, and readily degraded a select population of NAs. Together, these findings suggest that harnessing microbial communities on carriers affixed within a modified CBD system may represent a facile and rapid method for obtaining functional inoculants for use in wastewater MBBR treatment systems.

  9. Relationship between Use of Water from Community-Scale Water Treatment Refill Kiosks and Childhood Diarrhea in Jakarta

    OpenAIRE

    Sima, Laura C.; Desai, Mayur M.; McCarty, Kathleen M; Elimelech, Menachem

    2012-01-01

    In developing countries, safe piped drinking water is generally unavailable, and bottled water is unaffordable for most people. Purchasing drinking water from community-scale decentralized water treatment and refill kiosks (referred to as isi ulang depots in Indonesia) is becoming a common alternative. This study investigates the association between diarrhea risk and community-scale water treatment and refill kiosk. We monitored daily diarrhea status and water source for 1,000 children 1–4 ye...

  10. Effect of streptomycin treatment on bacterial community structure in the apple phyllosphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Yashiro

    Full Text Available We studied the effect of many years of streptomycin use in apple orchards on the proportion of phyllosphere bacteria resistant to streptomycin and bacterial community structure. Leaf samples were collected during early July through early September from four orchards that had been sprayed with streptomycin during spring of most years for at least 10 years and four orchards that had not been sprayed. The percentage of cultured phyllosphere bacteria resistant to streptomycin at non-sprayed orchards (mean of 65% was greater than at sprayed orchards (mean of 50% (P = 0.0271. For each orchard, a 16S rRNA gene clone library was constructed from leaf samples. Proteobacteria dominated the bacterial communities at all orchards, accounting for 71 of 104 OTUs (determined at 97% sequence similarity and 93% of all sequences. The genera Massilia, Methylobacterium, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, and Sphingomonas were shared across all sites. Shannon and Simpson's diversity indices and Pielou's evenness index were similar among orchards regardless of streptomycin use. Analysis of Similarity (ANOSIM indicated that long-term streptomycin treatment did not account for the observed variability in community structure among orchards (R = -0.104, P = 0.655. Other variables, including time of summer, temperature and time at sampling, and relative distance of the orchards from each other, also had no significant effect on bacterial community structure. We conclude that factors other than streptomycin exposure drive both the proportion of streptomycin-resistant bacteria and phylogenetic makeup of bacterial communities in the apple phyllosphere in middle to late summer.

  11. Identifying the microbial communities and operational conditions for optimized wastewater treatment in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Shun'ichi; Suzuki, Shino; Norden-Krichmar, Trina M; Wu, Angela; Yamanaka, Yuko; Nealson, Kenneth H; Bretschger, Orianna

    2013-12-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are devices that exploit microorganisms as "biocatalysts" to recover energy from organic matter in the form of electricity. MFCs have been explored as possible energy neutral wastewater treatment systems; however, fundamental knowledge is still required about how MFC-associated microbial communities are affected by different operational conditions and can be optimized for accelerated wastewater treatment rates. In this study, we explored how electricity-generating microbial biofilms were established at MFC anodes and responded to three different operational conditions during wastewater treatment: 1) MFC operation using a 750 Ω external resistor (0.3 mA current production); 2) set-potential (SP) operation with the anode electrode potentiostatically controlled to +100 mV vs SHE (4.0 mA current production); and 3) open circuit (OC) operation (zero current generation). For all reactors, primary clarifier effluent collected from a municipal wastewater plant was used as the sole carbon and microbial source. Batch operation demonstrated nearly complete organic matter consumption after a residence time of 8-12 days for the MFC condition, 4-6 days for the SP condition, and 15-20 days for the OC condition. These results indicate that higher current generation accelerates organic matter degradation during MFC wastewater treatment. The microbial community analysis was conducted for the three reactors using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Although the inoculated wastewater was dominated by members of Epsilonproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes species, the electricity-generating biofilms in MFC and SP reactors were dominated by Deltaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Within Deltaproteobacteria, phylotypes classified to family Desulfobulbaceae and Geobacteraceae increased significantly under the SP condition with higher current generation; however those phylotypes were not found in the OC reactor. These analyses suggest that species

  12. Essential elements of treatment: a comparative study between European and American therapeutic communities for addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goethals, Ilse; Soyez, Veerle; Melnick, Gerald; De Leon, George; Broekaert, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether European and American therapeutic communities (TCs) for addiction, both traditional and modified, share a common perspective on what is essential in treatment using the Survey of Essential Elements Questionnaire (SEEQ). The European sample (N = 19) was gathered in 2009. For the American sample (N = 19), we used previously published research data. Despite comparable perspectives, European traditional TCs (N = 11) scored significantly higher than their American predecessors (N = 11) on four SEEQ domains. Cluster differences were more pronounced in Europe than in America. PMID:21235341

  13. Community-Based Addiction Treatment Staff Attitudes about the Usefulness of Evidence-Based Addiction Treatment and CBO Organizational Linkages to Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Lena; Krull, Ivy; Zerden, Lisa de Saxe; McCarty, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    This national study of community-based addiction-treatment organizations' (CBOs) implementation of evidence-based practices explored CBO Program Directors' (n = 296) and clinical staff (n = 518) attitudes about the usefulness of science-based addiction treatment. Through multivariable regression modeling, the study identified that identical…

  14. Effect of a community-based delivery of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy on treatment seeking for malaria at health units in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, A K; Schultz Hansen, K; Bygbjerg, I C;

    2008-01-01

    community had sought malaria treatment (70.3%), suggesting the possibility that the novel approach had a positive impact on care seeking for malaria. Similarly, utilization of antenatal care, insecticide-treated nets and delivery care by women in the community was high. The total costs per woman receiving...... benefited from malaria treatment and other services at health units. However, the costs for accessing malaria treatment and other services are high and could be a limiting factor in mitigating the burden of malaria in Uganda....

  15. Antiretroviral treatment for HIV in rural Uganda: two-year treatment outcomes of a prospective health centre/community-based and hospital-based cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Kipp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, a shortage of trained health professionals and limited geographical access to health facilities present major barriers to the expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART. We tested the utility of a health centre (HC/community-based approach in the provision of ART to persons living with HIV in a rural area in western Uganda. METHODS: The HIV treatment outcomes of the HC/community-based ART program were evaluated and compared with those of an ART program at a best-practice regional hospital. The HC/community-based cohort comprised 185 treatment-naïve patients enrolled in 2006. The hospital cohort comprised of 200 patients enrolled in the same time period. The HC/community-based program involved weekly home visits to patients by community volunteers who were trained to deliver antiretroviral drugs to monitor and support adherence to treatment, and to identify and report adverse reactions and other clinical symptoms. Treatment supporters in the homes also had the responsibility to remind patients to take their drugs regularly. ART treatment outcomes were measured by HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL after two years of treatment. Adherence was determined through weekly pill counts. RESULTS: Successful ART treatment outcomes in the HC/community-based cohort were equivalent to those in the hospital-based cohort after two years of treatment in on-treatment analysis (VL≤400 copies/mL, 93.0% vs. 87.3%, p = 0.12, and in intention-to-treat analysis (VL≤400 copies/mL, 64.9% and 62.0%, p = 0.560. In multivariate analysis patients in the HC/community-based cohort were more likely to have virologic suppression compared to hospital-based patients (adjusted OR = 2.47, 95% CI 1.01-6.04. CONCLUSION: Acceptable rates of virologic suppression were achieved using existing rural clinic and community resources in a HC/community-based ART program run by clinical officers and supported by lay volunteers and treatment supporters

  16. Training and supervision of residential staff in Community-based Treatment Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axer, Andrzej

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Oregon’s Public Mental Health System employs a large number of unlicensed personnel with limited formal mental health training, both in state hospitals and in residential treatment programs. These mentalhealth paraprofessionals often have the most frequent and direct contact with seriously mentally ill individuals, and therefore have significant impact on their lives. The authors describe organization as well as clinical and administrative supervision of a mostly paraprofessional team working with severely and persistently mentally ill (SPMI criminal offenders. The purpose of this article is to delineate the most important factors allowing for effective and safe utilization of the fairy unsophisticated personnel in the community based-secure treatment facility for individuals under criminal commitment, conditionally released from Oregon State Hospital.

  17. Microbial communities in riparian soils of a settling pond for mine drainage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Miaochun; Lin, Yanbing; Huo, Haibo; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Entao; Chen, Weimin; Wei, Gehong

    2016-06-01

    Mine drainage leads to serious contamination of soil. To assess the effects of mine drainage on microbial communities in riparian soils, we used an Illumina MiSeq platform to explore the soil microbial composition and diversity along a settling pond used for mine drainage treatment. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis showed that the microbial communities differed significantly among the four sampling zones (influent, upstream, downstream and effluent), but not seasonally. Constrained analysis of principal coordinates indicated heavy metals (zinc, lead and copper), total sulphur, pH and available potassium significantly influenced the microbial community compositions. Heavy metals were the key determinants separating the influent zone from the other three zones. Lower diversity indices were observed in the influent zone. However, more potential indicator species, related to sulphur and organic matter metabolism were found there, such as the sulphur-oxidizing genera Acidiferrobacter, Thermithiobacillus, Limnobacter, Thioprofundum and Thiovirga, and the sulphur-reducing genera Desulfotomaculum and Desulfobulbus; the organic matter degrading genera, Porphyrobacter and Paucimonas, were also identified. The results indicated that more microorganisms related to sulphur- and carbon-cycles may exist in soils heavily contaminated by mine drainage. PMID:27055175

  18. Computation of two phase flow distribution and CHF in horizontal bundles using the assert subchannel code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ASSERT subchannel code has been developed specifically to model flow and phase distributions within CANDU fuel bundles. ASSERT uses a drift-flux model which permits the phases to have unequal velocities, and can thus model phase separation tendencies which may occur in horizontal flow. The basic principles of ASSERT are outlined, and computed results are compared against data from various experiments for validation purposes. The paper concludes with an example of the use of the code to predict critical heat flux in CANDU geometries

  19. ASSERT-PV simulations of two-phase flow in horizontal and vertical subchannels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a part of the effort to assess the ASSERT-PV code which is supposedly capable of quantifying the effect of small flow boundary changes in the fuel channel of CANDU reactors. Two independently performed subchannel experiments are simulated by the ASSERT-PV code. The result includes the pressure and the void fraction distributions in each subchannel. It is found that the ASSERT-PV predicts both experimental data quite well by selecting the void diffusion constant properly for the adiabatic two-phase flows. (author)

  20. Examining China’s Assertiveness through the Eyes of Chinese IR Scholars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Huiyun; He, Kai

    reactions. Relying on an original survey of China’s IR scholars conducted in Beijing in 2013 and using structural equation modeling (SEM), we empirically examine Chinese IR scholars’ attitude towards Chinese power versus the United States, their perceptions of U.S. policy in Asia, and their preference for...... an assertive Chinese foreign policy. We find that both the power perception and policy reaction arguments make sense in accounting for Chinese IR scholars’ attitude regarding China’s assertive diplomacy. However, our research suggests that a more pessimistic view on Chinese power is more likely to be...... associated with a preference for an assertive foreign policy....

  1. [Analysis of Microbial Community in the Membrane Bio-Reactor (MBR) Rural Sewage Treatment System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiao; Cui, Bing-jian; Jin, De-cai; Wu, Shang-hua; Yang, Bo; Deng, Ye; Zhuang, Guo-qiang; Zhuang, Xu-liang

    2015-09-01

    Uncontrolled release and arbitrary irrigation reuse of rural wastewater may lead to water pollution, and the microbial pathogens could threaten the safety of freshwater resources and public health. To understand the microbial community structure of rural wastewater and provide the theory for microbial risk assessment of wastewater irrigation, microbial community diversities in the Membrane Bio-Reactor (MBR) process for rural wastewater treatment was studied by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and 16S rDNA gene clone library. Meanwhile, changes of Arcobacter spp. and total bacteria before and after treatment were detected through real-time quantitative PCR. The clone library results showed that there were 73 positive clones included Proteobacteria (91. 80%), Firmicutes (2. 70%), Bacteroidetes (1. 40%), and uncultured bacteria (4. 10%) in the untreated wastewater. The typical pathogenic genus Arcobacter belonging to e-Proteobacteria was the dominant component of the library, accounting for 68. 5% of all clones. The main groups and their abundance in different treatments were significantly distinct. The highest values of species abundance (S), Shannon-Wiener (H) and Evenness (E) were observed in the adjusting tank, which were 43. 0, 3. 56 and 0. 95, respectively. The real-time quantitative PCR results showed that the copy number of Arcobacter spp. was (1. 09 ± 0. 064 0) x 10(11) copies.L-1 in the untreated sewage, which was consistent with the result of 16S rDNA gene clone library. Compared to untreated wastewater, bacterial copy number in the treated effluent decreased 100 to 1 000 times, respectively, suggesting that MBR treatment system could remove the microbial quantity in such scale. In the recycled water, the physicochemical parameters and indicator bacteria met the water quality standard of farmland irrigation. However, further research is needed to estimate the potential health risks caused by residual pathogenic microorganisms in

  2. Journeys to tuberculosis treatment: a qualitative study of patients, families and communities in Jogjakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rintiswati N

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many tuberculosis (TB patients in Indonesia are diagnosed late. We seek to document patient journeys toward TB diagnosis and treatment and factors that influence health care seeking behavior. Methods TB patients in Jogjakarta municipality (urban and Kulon Progo district (rural were recruited from health care facilities participating in the DOTS strategy and health care facilities not participating in the DOTS strategy, using purposive sampling methods. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with TB patients and members of their family and through Focus Group Discussions (FGD with community members. Results In total, 67 TB patients and 22 family members were interviewed and 6 FGDs were performed. According to their care seeking behavior patients were categorized into National TB program's (NTP dream cases (18%, 'slow-but-sure patients' (34%, 'shopaholics' (45%, and the NTP's nightmare case (3%. Care seeking behavior patterns did not seem to be influenced by gender, place of residence and educational level. Factors that influenced care seeking behavior include income and advice from household members or friends. Family members based their recommendation on previous experience and affordability. FGD results suggest that the majority of people in the urban area preferred the hospital or chest clinic for diagnosis and treatment of TB whereas in the rural area private practitioners were preferred. Knowledge about TB treatment being free of charge was better in the urban area. Many community members from the rural area doubted whether TB treatment would be available free of charge. Conclusion Most TB patients took over a month to reach a DOTS facility after symptoms appeared and had consulted a number of providers. Their income and advice from household members and friends were factors that influenced their care seeking behavior most.

  3. Microbial community structure of activated sludge in treatment plants with different wastewater compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya M. Shchegolkova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Activated sludge (AS plays a crucial role in the treatment of domestic and industrial wastewater. AS is a biocenosis of microorganisms capable of degrading various pollutants, including organic compounds, toxicants and xenobiotics. We performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing of AS and incoming sewage in three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs responsible for processing sewage with different origins: municipal wastewater, slaughterhouse wastewater, and refinery sewage. In contrast to incoming wastewater, the taxonomic structure of AS biocenosis was found to become stable in time, and each WWTP demonstrated a unique taxonomic pattern. Most pathogenic microorganisms (Streptococcus, Trichococcus, etc. and inductors of AS bulking and flocculation (Comamonadaceae, Flavobacteriaceae, etc., which are abundantly represented in incoming sewage, were significantly decreased in AS of all WWTPs, except for the slaughterhouse wastewater, which was rich in organic matter. Here we present a novel approach enabling the prediction of the metabolic potential of bacterial communities based on their taxonomic structures and MetaCyc database data. We developed a software application, XeDetect, to implement this approach. Using XeDetect, we found that the metabolic potential of the three bacterial communities clearly reflected the substrate composition. We revealed that the microorganisms responsible for AS flocculation and bulking (abundant in AS of slaughterhouse wastewater played a leading role in the degradation of substrates such as fatty acids, amino acids, and other bioorganic compounds. Moreover, we discovered that the chemical, rather than the bacterial composition of the incoming wastewater was the main factor in AS structure formation. XeDetect (freely available: https://sourceforge.net/projects/xedetect represents a novel powerful tool for the analysis of the metabolic capacity of bacterial communities. The tool will help to optimize bioreactor performance and

  4. Microbial Community Structure of Activated Sludge in Treatment Plants with Different Wastewater Compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchegolkova, Nataliya M; Krasnov, George S; Belova, Anastasia A; Dmitriev, Alexey A; Kharitonov, Sergey L; Klimina, Kseniya M; Melnikova, Nataliya V; Kudryavtseva, Anna V

    2016-01-01

    Activated sludge (AS) plays a crucial role in the treatment of domestic and industrial wastewater. AS is a biocenosis of microorganisms capable of degrading various pollutants, including organic compounds, toxicants, and xenobiotics. We performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing of AS and incoming sewage in three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) responsible for processing sewage with different origins: municipal wastewater, slaughterhouse wastewater, and refinery sewage. In contrast to incoming wastewater, the taxonomic structure of AS biocenosis was found to become stable in time, and each WWTP demonstrated a unique taxonomic pattern. Most pathogenic microorganisms (Streptococcus, Trichococcus, etc.), which are abundantly represented in incoming sewage, were significantly decreased in AS of all WWTPs, except for the slaughterhouse wastewater. Additional load of bioreactors with influent rich in petroleum products and organic matter was associated with the increase of bacteria responsible for AS bulking and foaming. Here, we present a novel approach enabling the prediction of the metabolic potential of bacterial communities based on their taxonomic structures and MetaCyc database data. We developed a software application, XeDetect, to implement this approach. Using XeDetect, we found that the metabolic potential of the three bacterial communities clearly reflected the substrate composition. We revealed that the microorganisms responsible for AS bulking and foaming (most abundant in AS of slaughterhouse wastewater) played a leading role in the degradation of substrates such as fatty acids, amino acids, and other bioorganic compounds. Moreover, we discovered that the chemical, rather than the bacterial composition of the incoming wastewater was the main factor in AS structure formation. XeDetect (freely available: https://sourceforge.net/projects/xedetect) represents a novel powerful tool for the analysis of the metabolic capacity of bacterial communities. The tool will

  5. Community-based addiction treatment staff attitudes about the usefulness of evidence-based addiction treatment and CBO organizational linkages to research institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Lundgren, Lena; Krull, Ivy; Zerden, Lisa de Saxe; McCarty, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    This national study of community-based addiction-treatment organizations’ (CBOs) implementation of evidence-based practices explored CBO Program Directors’ (n = 296) and clinical staff (n = 518) attitudes about the usefulness of science-based addiction treatment. Through multivariable regression modeling, the study identified that identical factors were associated with directors, and staff attitudes about the usefulness of science-based addiction treatment. For both directors and staff workin...

  6. The Psychometric Development and Initial Validation of the DCI-A Short Form for Adolescent Therapeutic Community Treatment Process

    OpenAIRE

    Stucky, Brian D.; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Vaughan, Christine A.; Tucker, Joan S.; Butler, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The 5-factor client-report Dimensions of Change in Therapeutic Communities Treatment Instrument-Adolescent (DCI-A) was developed to assess adolescent substance abuse treatment process in the therapeutic community (TC). The goal of this study was to use bifactor modeling to derive a unidimensional DCI-A short-form (DCI-A-SF) that would represent content from the original DCI-A factors. Data are from 442 adolescents receiving treatment at one of seven residential TC programs. Bifactor analyses ...

  7. [Causal relationship between assertiveness and adjustment in children: A short-term longitudinal study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Megumi; Hamaguchi, Yoshikazu

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the causal relationships between assertiveness and both internal and external adjustment in children. Elementary school children in grades four through six (N = 284) participated in the study, which used a short-term longitudinal design. The children completed questionnaires twice during a 6-months period. They responded to assertiveness questionnaires that included two components: "self-expression" and "consideration of others". They also completed a self-esteem scale as an index of internal adjustment, and the Class Life Satisfaction scale as an index of external adjustment. There was a positive causative relationship between "self-expression" and internal adjustment and between "consideration for others" and external adjustment. In addition, the effects on adjustment varied according to the type of assertiveness. Cluster analysis and MANOVA indicated that the group with high "self-expression" and "consideration for others" had high internal and external adjustment, while the children with poor assertiveness showed the lowest degree of adaptivity. PMID:26402950

  8. Comparison of ASSERT-4 CHF predictions with measurements in 28-element simulated fuel string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subchannel analysis code ASSERT-4 was used to model CHF experiments with a 28-element simulated fuel string carried out by Ontario Hydro at Columbia University. ASSERT was run with eleven CHF test conditions to determine dryout power using each of the five CHF models available in the code. The location of first dryout and the spreading of dryout with increasing power were also investigated. The five CHF models used in ASSERT are the Whalley mechanistic model; W-3, Bowring and Biasi correlations; and table lookup. Of these, implementation in ASSERT-4 of the Biasi correlation gives the most accurate dryout power predictions. Predictions using the table lookup method and the Whalley model are almost equally good, while those using the W-3 correlation and, especially, the Bowring correlation are inferior. In predicting dryout spreading patterns, use of the Whalley model comes the closest to adequately identifying the actual dryout location

  9. ASSERTIVENESS AMONG MUSLIM ADOLESCENT GIRLS AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH PARENTING STYLE

    OpenAIRE

    A.SAJITHA QADIR; V. Raji Sugumar

    2015-01-01

    he present study was conducted with an aim to study the assertiveness among Muslim adolescent girls in relation to selected demographic variables. The study also aimed to find the association between assertiveness and the parenting style adopted by the mothers of the selected girls. For the present study, 1500 Muslim girls studying in Muslim minority Arts and Science Colleges and Muslim Minority Engineering Colleges in Chennai Metropolitan Area, Tamil Nadu were selected. The Rathus Assertiven...

  10. Risk Taking Behaviour And Assertiveness Behaviour Of D.T.ED., Teacher Trainees – A Study

    OpenAIRE

    A.C. LAL KUMAR; R.Muthumanickam

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the risk taking behaviour and assertiveness behaviour of D.T.Ed., Teacher Trainees. The sample of the study consisted of 400 D.T.Ed., Teacher Trainees (129 male and 271 female). The tools used in the study were the Risk Taking Behaviour Scale by Answer Yousuf and Assertiveness Inventory by Tasneem Naqvi (1988).After framing necessary objectives and hypotheses, appropriate analysis was carried out on the collected data .From this analysis ...

  11. The Impact of Exploring Feelings Training on The Assertiveness of University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Yücel ÖKSÜZ

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the effects of exploring feelings training on the assertiveness of university students. The research was carried out with students of class teacher department of the Educational Faculty of Ondokuz Mayıs University for the 2003-2004 academic year. The research was designed pre-test, post-test control group design and both, the experimantel group and the control group included 22 students each.The students’ loneliness level was measured by using the RAE, Rathus Assertiveness...

  12. Prediction of Addiction Potential on the Basis of Aggression and Assertiveness in University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrdad Hajihasani; Abdoolah Shafiabadi; Fahmideh Pirsaghi; Mehrab Bashirpour

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of present research was the prediction of addiction potential on the basis of aggression and assertiveness in Allameh Tabbatabaei girl students. Method: The research method was correlational design and population of research was girl students of Allameh Tabatabaei university. By available sampling 150 girls were selected and Ahvaz Aggression Questionnaire, Gambril & Rigy Assertiveness questionnaire and Zargari Addiction Potential Questionnaire administered among selected...

  13. Wu’s Characteristic Set Method for SystemVerilog Assertions Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyan Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a verification solution based on characteristic set of Wu’s method towards SystemVerilog assertion checking over digital circuit systems. We define a suitable subset of SVAs so that an efficient polynomial modeling mechanism for both circuit descriptions and assertions can be applied. We present an algorithm framework based on the algebraic representations using characteristic set of polynomial system. This symbolic algebraic approach is a useful supplement to the existent verification methods based on simulation.

  14. PSYCHOLOGICAL SEX AND ASSERTIVE BEHAVIOUR AMONG STUDENTS OF UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN WROCLAW

    OpenAIRE

    Romanowska-tolloczko, Anna; Bartusiak, Irena; Nowak, Agata

    2009-01-01

    Psychological sex and assertiveness belong to human characteristics and abilities prone to social influence. These properties to a large extent determine the individuals' behaviour and their perception of themselves as well as of the surrounding world. The aim of the research was to establish the type of psychological sex and the level of assertive behaviour abilities among students of University School of Physical Education in Wrocław. The correlation between the two properties was also meas...

  15. Chinese assertiveness in the South China Sea and Southeast Asian responses

    OpenAIRE

    Thayer, Carlyle A.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews Chinese assertive behaviour towards the Philippines and Vietnam over South China Sea issues in 2011. The article compares and contrasts Chinese diplomatic behaviour in the period before and after the adoption by ASEAN member states and China of Guidelines for the Implementation the Declaration on Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea in July. In the first period China aggressively asserted its claims to sovereignty by interfering with commercial fishing and oil explor...

  16. The Use of Financial Reporting Assertions at the Various Stages of Audit

    OpenAIRE

    Alla Aleksandrovna Vasilenko

    2015-01-01

    In the context of unsustainable economic development, the requirements that apply to reliability of financial reporting are growing steadily. From the auditor’s perspective it means actualization of the audit methodology problems which can be solved both at the level of financial reporting and the level of its assertions. The article examines the correlation between the audit stages and the usage of financial reporting assertions by auditor in the context of progressive audit. The author prov...

  17. Effect of Meta-Cognitive Therapy on Self Assertiveness Skill in Patients with

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hossein Bahadori; Marziyeh Jahanbakhsh; Fatemeh Mohammad Hosseinpour; Salar Faramarzi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Self assertiveness can be considered as hearth of interpersonal behavior and weakness in this area is one of the obvious characteristic in the patients with social phobia disorder. This study aimed to determine the effect of meta-cognitive therapy on the rate of self assertiveness skill in patients with social phobia disorder. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted with pretest-posttest and follow-up design, using control group. From all social...

  18. Why Community Works: The Use of Alfred Adler's Individual Psychology as a Foundational Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Robert K.; Keith, Edwin M.

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that the Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler should be used as a foundational theory for student affairs work. The success of community building programs is explained and the concepts of Individual Psychology are summarized. Also asserts that the current drive to develop programs to develop community on college campuses is firmly rooted…

  19. Not a Hearing Loss, a Deaf Gain: Power, Self-Naming, and the Deaf Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David James

    2013-01-01

    Self-naming has long stood as the primary assertion of power for disenfranchised communities in the western world. While person first language (e.g. "person who is deaf") has been the preferred language of disability and disability services for the last 20 years, members of the Deaf community have asserted their cultural capital, and…

  20. Motivation for treatment among women offenders in prison-based treatment and longitudinal outcomes among those who participate in community aftercare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grella, Christine E; Rodriguez, Luz

    2011-09-01

    Participation in aftercare may reduce risk of recidivism among women offenders with substance use problems following their release to the community. This study examines motivation to participate in aftercare among women offenders and whether their participation in both in-custody and aftercare treatment reduces their risk of recidivism. Surveys were conducted with women (N = 1,158) in prison-based substance abuse treatment programs. Return-to-prison was examined among participants in community-based aftercare (N = 1,182) over 12 months following treatment discharge. Higher treatment motivation was associated with child welfare involvement, prior treatment, and use of "harder" drugs; ethnic minority women had lower treatment motivation compared with White women. Participants who completed the aftercare program, or who had longer treatment duration, and those who had participated in an in-prison program prior to parole had reduced risk of recidivism. Study findings suggest the value of community aftercare for women offenders, particularly when combined with prior in-prison treatment. PMID:22185040

  1. Validation of the ASSERT subchannel code for MAPLE-X10 reactor conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ASSERT subchannel analysis code has been developed specifically to model flow and phase distributions within CANDU fuel channels. Recently, ASSERT has been adapted for use in simulating the MAPLE-X10 reactor. ASSERT uses an advanced drift-flux model, which permits the phases to have unequal velocities and unequal temperatures (UVUT), and thus can model non-equilibrium effects such as phase separation tendencies and subcooled boiling. Modelling subcooled boiling accurately is particularly important for MAPLE-X10. This paper briefly summarizes the non-equilibrium model used in the ASSERT code, the equations used to represent these models, and the algorithms used to solve the equations numerically. Very few modifications to the ASSERT models were needed to address MAPLE conditions. These centered on the manner in which finned fuel rods are treated, and they are discussed in the paper. The paper also gives results from validation exercises, in which the ASSERT code predictions of subcooled boiling void-fraction and critical heat flux were compared to experiments using MAPLE-X10 finned fuel elements in annuli and various bundles. 18 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Life cycle assessment of wastewater treatment options for small and decentralized communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, A P; Urbano, L; Brito, A G; Janknecht, P; Salas, J J; Nogueira, R

    2007-01-01

    Sustainability has strong implications on the practice of engineering. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an appropriate methodology for assessing the sustainability of a wastewater treatment plant design. The present study used a LCA approach for comparing alternative wastewater treatment processes for small and decentralised rural communities. The assessment was focused on two energy-saving systems (constructed wetland and slow rate infiltration) and a conventional one (activated sludge process). The low environmental impact of the energy-saving wastewater treatment plants was demonstrated, the most relevant being the global warming indicator. Options for reduction of life cycle impacts were assessed including materials used in construction and operational lifetime of the systems. A 10% extension of operation lifetime of constructed wetland and slow rate infiltration systems led to a 1% decrease in CO2 emissions, in both systems. The decrease in the abiotic depletion was 5 and 7%, respectively. Also, replacing steel with HDPE in the activated sludge tank resulted in a 1% reduction in CO2 emission and 1% in the abiotic depletion indicator. In the case of the Imhoff tank a 1% reduction in CO2 emissions and 5% in the abiotic depletion indicator were observed when concrete was replaced by HDPE. PMID:17802833

  3. Evidence based approach to the treatment of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppard, William J; Daniels, Anne; Fehrenbacher, Lynne; Winner, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections have increased dramatically over the last two decades. The types of infections can range from complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI) to pneumonia and endocarditis. Oral antimicrobial therapy, such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, clindamycin, long-acting tetracyclines, or linezolid may provide enhanced benefit to those with uncomplicated cutaneous lesions when used in conjunction with incision and drainage in an outpatient setting. However, resistance, susceptibilities, patient-specific circumstances, and adverse effects can impact a healthcare professional's choice of antibiotics. In patients with complicated infections requiring hospitalization or parenteral treatment, vancomycin remains the drug of choice, even though increased resistance and decreased efficacy have crept into clinical practice. Linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin, daptomycin, and tigecycline are alternative intravenous agents for the treatment of CA-MRSA. Investigational agents such as dalbavancin, telavancin, oritivancin, iclaprim, ceftobiprole, ceftaroline, and others may expand our therapeutic armamentarium for the treatment of infections caused by CA-MRSA in the future. PMID:21694885

  4. High organic loading treatment for industrial molasses wastewater and microbial community shifts corresponding to system development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Kyohei; Chosei, Tomoaki; Nakahara, Nozomi; Hatamoto, Masashi; Wakabayashi, Takashi; Kawai, Toshikazu; Araki, Nobuo; Syutsubo, Kazuaki; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    Molasses wastewater contains high levels of organic compounds, cations, and anions, causing operational problems for anaerobic biological treatment. To establish a high organic loading treatment system for industrial molasses wastewater, this study designed a combined system comprising an acidification tank, a thermophilic multi-stage (MS)-upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, mesophilic UASB reactor, and down-flow hanging sponge reactor. The average total chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand removal rates were 85%±3% and 95%±2%, respectively, at an organic loading rate of 42kgCODcrm(-3)d(-1) in the MS-UASB reactor. By installation of the acidification tank, the MS-UASB reactor achieved low H2-partial pressure. The abundance of syntrophs such as fatty acid-degrading bacteria increased in the MS-UASB and 2nd-UASB reactors. Thus, the acidification tank contributed to maintaining a favorable environment for syntrophic associations. This study provides new information regarding microbial community composition in a molasses wastewater treatment system. PMID:26241842

  5. Value of rapid aetiological diagnosis in optimization of antimicrobial treatment in bacterial community acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareković, Ivana; Plecko, Vanda; Boras, Zagorka; Pavlović, Ladislav; Budimir, Ana; Bosnjak, Zrinka; Puretić, Hrvoje; Zele-Starcević, Lidija; Kalenić, Smilja

    2012-06-01

    In 80 adult patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) conventional microbiological methods, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were performed and the appropriateness of the empirical antimicrobial treatment was evaluated according to bacterial pathogen detected. The aetiology was determined in 42 (52.5%) patients, with Streptococcus pneumoniae as the most common pathogen. PCR applied to bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) provided 2 and PCR on sputum samples 1 additional aetiological diagnosis of CAP The mean CRP values in the S. pneumoniae group were not significantly higher than in the group with other aetiological diagnoses (166.89 mg/L vs. 160.11 mg/L, p = 0.457). In 23.8% (10/42) of patients with determined aetiology, the empirical antimicrobial treatment was inappropriate. PCR tests need further investigation, particularly those for the atypical pathogens, as they are predominant in inappropriately treated patients. Our results do not support the use of CRP as a rapid test to guide the antimicrobial treatment in patients with CAP. PMID:22856222

  6. Examining the use of metaphors to understand the experience of community treatment orders for patients and mental health workers

    OpenAIRE

    Lawn, Sharon; Delany, Toni; Pulvirenti, Mariastella; Smith, Ann; McMillan, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Community Treatment Orders (CTOs) are often complex because of the ethical tensions created by an intervention that aims at promoting the patient’s good through an inherently coercive process. There is limited research that examines the complexity of CTOs and how patients on CTOs and workers administering CTOs make sense of their experiences. Methods The study involved in-depth interviews with 8 patients on CTOs and 10 community mental health workers in South Australia, to explore ...

  7. Measuring depression and stigma towards depression and mental health treatment among adolescents in an Arab-American community

    OpenAIRE

    Jaber, R.M.; Farroukh, M.; Ismail, M; Najda, J.; Sobh, H.; Hammad, A; Dalack, G.W.

    2014-01-01

    There has been limited research that has examined the prevalence of depression and attitudes towards depression and mental health treatment in Arab-American adolescents; we sought to assess these in a predominantly Arab-American community in metro Detroit. A health survey of adolescents aged 12–17 years was conducted (n=98). Participants were recruited from two local community organizations in Dearborn, MI. Depression was assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) Depression Scale...

  8. Effect of integrated treatment on the use of coercive measures in first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorder. A randomized clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlenschlaeger, Johan; Nordentoft, Merete; Thorup, Anne; Jeppesen, Pia; Petersen, Lone; Christensen, Torben; Krarup, Gertrud; Jørgensen, Per

    2008-01-01

    The effect of integrated treatment on the use of coercive measures in first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorder in Denmark is not known. A total of 328 patients were randomly assigned to integrated treatment (167 patients) or standard treatment (161 patients). Integrated treatment consisted of...... assertive community treatment, psycho-educational multi-family groups, and social skills training. Data on coercion were extracted from the register from the National Board of Health, and data on continuity from medical records. Even though the level of continuity seemed higher in integrated treatment, this...

  9. Annual glyphosate treatments alter growth of unaffected bentgrass (Agrostis weeds and plant community composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin W Ahrens

    Full Text Available Herbicide resistance is becoming more common in weed ecotypes and crop species including turfgrasses, but current gaps in knowledge limit predictive ecological risk assessments and risk management plans. This project examined the effect of annual glyphosate applications on the vegetative growth and reproductive potential of two weedy bentgrasses, creeping bentgrass (CB and redtop (RT, where the glyphosate resistance (GR trait was mimicked by covering the bentgrass plants during glyphosate application. Five field plots were studied in habitats commonly inhabited by weedy bentgrasses including an agricultural hayfield, natural meadow, and wasteland. Results showed that annual glyphosate treatment improved bentgrass survivorship, vegetative growth, and reproductive potential compared with bentgrass in unsprayed subplots. In the second year of growth, RT plants had an 86-fold increase in flower number in glyphosate-treated subplots versus controls, while CB plants had a 20-fold increase. At the end of the three year study, plant community composition had changed in glyphosate-treated subplots in hayfield and meadow plots compared to controls. Soils in subplots receiving glyphosate had higher nitrate concentrations than controls. This is the first study to mimic the GR trait in bentgrass plants with the goal of quantifying bentgrass response to glyphosate selection pressure and understanding the impacts on surrounding plant communities.

  10. Waterbird communities in rice fields subjected to different post-harvest treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, J.H.; Colwell, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    In California's Sacramento Valley, the potential value of rice fields as habitat for waterbirds may vary with harvest method, post-harvest treatment of rice straw (chopped, burned, plowed), and extent of flooding. Recent changes in rice harvesting methods (i.e., use of stripper-headers) and a legislative mandate to decrease burning of rice straw after harvest may alter habitat availability and use. Thus, we investigated species richness and community composition of nonbreeding waterbirds during October-March 1993-94 and 1994-95 in rice fields of the northern Sacramento Valley. Most (85-91% of land area) rice was conventionally harvested (i.e., cutter bar), and the remainder was stripped. Rice straw was left untreated in more than half of fields (52% in 1994 and 54% in 1995), especially in stripped fields (56-70%). In fields where farmers treated straw, the most common management methods were plowing (15-21%), burning (19-24%), and chopping (3-5%). Fields became increasingly wet from October through March as seasonal precipitation accumulated and farmers flooded fields to facilitate straw decomposition and provide habitat for ducks. Species richness of waterbirds was greater (P 0.23). Species richness in stripped fields probably was low because foraging opportunities were limited by tall dense straw, decreased grain density, and infrequent flooding. We recommend that land managers wishing to provide habitat for a diverse waterbird community harvest rice using conventional methods and flood fields shallowly.

  11. [Capability and microbial community analysis of a membrane bioreactor for acrylic fiber wastewater treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jian; Song, Yong-Huil; Zhao, Le

    2014-12-01

    Sequencing batch membrane bioreactor (SBMBR) was used for the treatment of acrylic fiber polymerization wastewater and acrylonitrile wastewater. The operation efficiencies of SBMBR under different wastewater ratios and operation conditions were investigated, and the microbial community structure of the SBMBR system was analyzed by using PCR-DGGE technology. The results showed that SBMBR had a high removal efficiency on pollutants in acrylic fiber wastewater, and the lacking of carbon source and alkalinity were the main limiting factors for nitrogen removal. Under the designed operation conditions of 90 min anoxic/150 min aerobic cyclic operation and HRT of 24 h, the average COD, NH4(+) -N and TN removal efficiencies were 82.5%, 98.7% and 74.6%, respectively. The effluent of the SBMBR could steadily meet the Grade I standards of the Wastewater Comprehensive Discharge Standard of China (GB 8978-1996). The PCR-DGGE analyses showed that the microbial communities in SBMBR had a significant shift with the changes of influent characteristics and operation conditions. By cloning and sequencing analyses of selected dominant bacteria, 22 16S rDNA sequence were successfully identified from 9 sludge samples, from which 7 dominant functional microorganisms for the degradation of organic pollutants in acrylic fiber wastewater were screened out. PMID:25826932

  12. Biological Treatment of Ammonia-Rich Wastewaters by Natural Microbial Communities in the ATOXIC/ASSET Purification System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL; Fisher, L. Suzanne [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA); Brodie, Greg A [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA); Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Analyses of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes along with high throughput 454 pyrosequencing technology were used to identify microbial communities present at a novel passive wastewater treatment system designed to remove ammonium, nitrate, and heavy metals from fossil plant effluents. Seasonal changes in microbial community composition were observed, however significant (p=0.001) changes were detected in bacterial and archaeal communities consistent with ammonium removal throughout the treatment systems. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed presence of potential ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), Nitrosomonas, Nitrosococcus, Planctomycetes, and OD1. Other bacteria, such as Nitrospira, Nitrococcus, Nitrobacter, Thiobacillus, -Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, which play roles in nitrification and denitrification, were also detected. The relative abundance of the potential ammonium-oxidizing archaea (AOA) (Thermoprotei within the phylum Crenarchaeota) increased with ammonium availability at the splitter box and zero-valent iron extraction trenches even though AOB removed half of the ammonium in the trickling filters at the beginning of the treatment system. The microbial community removed the ammonium from the wastewater within both pilot-scale treatment systems, thus the treatment system components provided an effective environment for the treatment of ammonium enriched wastewater from coal burning power plants equipped with selective catalytic reducers for nitrogen oxide removal.

  13. Treatment of Diarrhoea in Rural African Communities: An Overview of Measures to Maximise the Medicinal Potentials of Indigenous Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collise Njume

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhoea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in rural communities in Africa, particularly in children under the age of five. This calls for the development of cost effective alternative strategies such as the use of herbal drugs in the treatment of diarrhoea in these communities. Expenses associated with the use of orthodox medicines have generated renewed interest and reliance on indigenous medicinal plants in the treatment and management of diarrhoeal infections in rural communities. The properties of many phenolic constituents of medicinal plants such as their ability to inhibit enteropooling and delay gastrointestinal transit are very useful in the control of diarrhoea, but problems such as scarcity of valuable medicinal plants, lack of standardization of methods of preparation, poor storage conditions and incertitude in some traditional health practitioners are issues that affect the efficacy and the practice of traditional medicine in rural African communities. This review appraises the current strategies used in the treatment of diarrhoea according to the Western orthodox and indigenous African health-care systems and points out major areas that could be targeted by health-promotion efforts as a means to improve management and alleviate suffering associated with diarrhoea in rural areas of the developing world. Community education and research with indigenous knowledge holders on ways to maximise the medicinal potentials in indigenous plants could improve diarrhoea management in African rural communities.

  14. Asserting "Needs" and Claiming "Rights": The Cultural Politics of Community Language Education in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kathleen

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the paradox involved in constructing a language policy: language is invoked as a reified object associated with essentialist constructs of identity to stand for much more complex and changing patterns of language use. Considers this paradox from the perspective of a campaign led by Sikh parents to have Punjabi introduced into curriculum…

  15. Effect of Copper Treatment on the Composition and Function of the Bacterial Community in the Sponge Haliclona cymaeformis

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, R.-M.

    2014-11-04

    Marine sponges are the most primitive metazoan and host symbiotic microorganisms. They are crucial components of the marine ecological system and play an essential role in pelagic processes. Copper pollution is currently a widespread problem and poses a threat to marine organisms. Here, we examined the effects of copper treatment on the composition of the sponge-associated bacterial community and the genetic features that facilitate the survival of enriched bacteria under copper stress. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing results showed that the sponge Haliclona cymaeformis harbored symbiotic sulfur-oxidizing Ectothiorhodospiraceae and photosynthetic Cyanobacteria as dominant species. However, these autotrophic bacteria decreased substantially after treatment with a high copper concentration, which enriched for a heterotrophic-bacterium-dominated community. Metagenomic comparison revealed a varied profile of functional genes and enriched functions, including bacterial motility and chemotaxis, extracellular polysaccharide and capsule synthesis, virulence-associated genes, and genes involved in cell signaling and regulation, suggesting short-period mechanisms of the enriched bacterial community for surviving copper stress in the microenvironment of the sponge. Microscopic observation and comparison revealed dynamic bacterial aggregation within the matrix and lysis of sponge cells. The bacteriophage community was also enriched, and the complete genome of a dominant phage was determined, implying that a lytic phage cycle was stimulated by the high copper concentration. This study demonstrated a copper-induced shift in the composition of functional genes of the sponge-associated bacterial community, revealing the selective effect of copper treatment on the functions of the bacterial community in the microenvironment of the sponge. IMPORTANCE This study determined the bacterial community structure of the common sponge Haliclona cymaeformis and examined the effect of copper

  16. Perceptions of a literate community regarding causation, presentation and treatment practices of intestinal worms among children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To find out the perceived common causes of intestinal worms, their presentations and treatment options taken by the respondents, among children. A total of 2000 families responded to a self-administered questionnaire that was designed to obtain the study objectives. A single adult individual from each family was asked to respond to the questionnaire. Families having health care workers or health professionals were excluded. Medical students were properly trained to ensure competence in collecting a reliable data. The majority of the total respondents were females (66.3%) and were between 15-25 years of age (mean age = 25.4 years) with 100% literacy rate. A noticeable number of respondents (31%) revealed that overeating of sugar causes intestinal worms and that they mainly presented as altered eating habits / appetite (51.8%), abdominal pain (40.8%) and generalized weakness (26.3%). Regarding perceptions of drug treatment, nearly 2/3 of the respondents felt that the de-worming agent should be given to suspected child only (p < 0.001), whereas 65% of the participants expected to observe worms after de-worming treatment (p < 0.001). Contrary to the common use of self-medication in most other illnesses, self-treatment of worms on suspicion was declared by only 21.5% of the respondents (p < 0.0001). This study confirms that misconceptions about intestinal worms in children were prevalent within the community. In addition to the issue of environmental sanitation, removal of the mistaken beliefs is a prerequisite for an effective and long-lasting parasitic control among children. (author)

  17. Contrasting microbial community composition and function perspective in sections of a full-scale coking wastewater treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shuang; Wu, Haizhen; Wei, Chaohai; Zhou, Lin; Xie, Junting

    2016-01-01

    To characterize the microbial community of the coking wastewater (CWW) treatment system and to study the effects of CWW characteristics and operational parameters on microbial communities, active sludge samples were collected from a full-scale CWW treatment plant using three-phase fluidized bed biological reactors. High-throughput MiSeq sequencing was used to examine the 16S rRNA genes of microbiology, revealing a distinct microbial composition among the active sludge samples of three sequential bioreactors. Pseudomonas, Comamonas, and Thiobacillus-related sequences dominated in the anaerobic bioreactor A, aerobic bioreactor O1, and aerobic bioreactor O2 active sludge with relative abundance of 72.59, 56.75, and 27.82 %, respectively. The physico-chemical characteristics of CWW were analyzed by standard methods and operational parameters were recorded to examine their effects on the microbial communities. The redundancy analysis (RDA) results showed that the bacterial communities of bioreactors A, O1, and O2 correlated strongly with cyanides, phenols, and ammonia, respectively. These results expand the knowledge about the biodiversity and population dynamics of microorganisms and discerned the relationships between bacterial communities and environmental variables in the biological treatment processes in the full-scale CWW treatment system. PMID:26428241

  18. A STUDY ON THE ASSERTIVENESS LEVEL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS COLLEGE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdogan B.S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine some of the variables in the level of students’ boldness who study at Physical education and sports colleges and to compare the findings with the other studies in the literature. The Research Group contains 92 male and 64 female (/age = 21,612 + 1,921, in total 156 students from Selcuk University physical education and sports college. In order to reach the purpose of the study “Rathus Assertiveness Schedule” has been used as the methodology which is developed by Rathus [12,13], and adopted to Turkish by Voltan [18]. For the interpretation of the data, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, one way anova test have been applied and to determine the difference between the groups Turkey test has been applied too. The significance was P <0.05. According to the level of sports; the difference between the average levels of scores of the assertiveness is meaningful [t value = 4,327 P = 0,000 < 0.05]. Looking at average values; average levels of the assertiveness of students doing some sports is ( =86,5614, average levels of the assertiveness of students doing some sports is ( =80,7857. As a result of this study; According to the level of sports observations, the difference between the average levels of scores of the assertiveness is meaningful [t value = 4,327 P = 0,000 < 0.05]. Looking at average values we see that students, who engaged in sports, has been obtained more level of average score of assertiveness than students engaged in no sports. From the point of assertiveness, participation in sport from the perspective of individuals there is a difference in favor of those engaged in sports.

  19. Motivation for Treatment Among Women Offenders in Prison-Based Treatment and Longitudinal Outcomes Among Those Who Participate in Community Aftercare

    OpenAIRE

    GRELLA, CHRISTINE E.; Rodriguez, Luz

    2011-01-01

    Participation in aftercare may reduce risk of recidivism among women offenders with substance use problems following their release to the community. This study examines motivation to participate in aftercare among women offenders and whether their participation in both in-custody and aftercare treatment reduces their risk of recidivism. Surveys were conducted with women (N = 1,158) in prison-based substance abuse treatment programs. Return-to-prison was examined among participants in communit...

  20. Treatment seeking behaviour of rural adolescent girls-a community based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baliga Sulakshana

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The transition from childhood to adulthood occurs during adolescence period which is characterized by major biological changes like physical growth, sexual maturation and psycho-social development. During this phase of growth the girls first experience menstruation and related problems which is marked by feelings of anxiety and eagerness to know about this natural phenomenon. Present study was undertaken to determine health status of adolescent girls by studying morbidity patterns amongst them and to know treatment seeking behaviour of adolescent girls. Methods: This one year community based cross-sectional study was done at village Peeranwadi, PHC Kinaye, Belgaum. Four Hundred (400 adolescent girls were selected randomly from each block. Study was approved by Institutional Ethics Committee, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Belgaum. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Information on socio-demographic variables, history regarding illness one month prior and treatment seeking behavior were recorded. Haemoglobin estimation was done by cyanmethaemoglobin method. Results: Majority (82.25% had age between 10 to 14 years and mean age of study population was 12.9±2.06 years and 98.5% were literates. Of 400 adolescent girls, 51% had attained menarche. The mean height, weight and BMI was less among 10 to 14 years compared to 15 to 19 years (p=0.000. In this study 15 (3.75% were married and of them 60% were pregnant and all had registered for antenatal care. Most common morbidity reported in last one month was GI infections (14.75%, fever (12.75% and dysmenorrhoea (12%. Prevalence of anaemia was 75% and 49.75% had mild, 20.75% had moderate and 4.5% had severe anaemia. 61.25% had taken treatment of which 74.69% visited health facility for treatment, 19.21% took home remedy and 6.12% did not take any treatment. The place of treatment was decided by themselves in 20.81% whereas 78.78% family members were

  1. Effect of a community-based delivery of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy on treatment seeking for malaria at health units in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, Anthony; Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Bygbjerg, Ib;

    2008-01-01

    whether traditional birth attendants, drug-shop vendors, community reproductive health workers and adolescent peer mobilizers can administer IPTp with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) to pregnant women, reach those at greatest risk of malaria, and increase access and compliance with IPTp. Study design: An...... intervention study compared the delivery of IPTp in the community with routine delivery of IPTp at health units. The primary outcome measures were the proportion of adolescents and primigravidae accessed, and the proportion of women who received two doses of SP. The study also assessed the effect of the...... intervention on access to malaria treatment, antenatal care, other services and related costs. Results: More women (67.5%) received two doses of SP through the community approach compared with health units (39.9%; P<0.0001). Women who accessed IPTp in the community were at an earlier stage of pregnancy (21...

  2. Community periodontal index of treatment needs index: An indicator of anaerobic periodontal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukumar S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN index is commonly used to measure periodontal disease. It′s uniqueness, apart from assessing the periodontal status, also gives the treatment needs for the underlying condition. Benzoyl-DL-arginine napthylamide (BANA test is a chair side diagnostic test used to detect the presence of putative periodontal pathogens. We correlated the CPITN scores of patients with BANA test results to assess the validity of CPITN as an indicator of anaerobic periodontal infection. Objectives : The present study was aimed to correlate the CPITN scores with the BANA activity of subgingival plaque. The objective was to assess the validity of CPITN index as indicator of anaerobic periodontal infection. Patients and Methods : A total of 80 sites were selected from 20 patients with generalized chronic periodontitis. After measuring the probing depth with CPITN C probe, the highest score from each sextant was selected according to the CPITN criteria and subgingival plaque samples were collected using a sterile curette and the BANA test was performed. Results : Kendall′s tau-b and Chi- square test were used to assess the correlation between the BANA test results and CPITN scores. Results indicated sensitivity (92.86%, specificity (80% and agreement (91.25%; indicating the validity of CPITN in assessing anaerobic infection. Conclusion : There was a significant correlation between BANA test results and scores 3 and score 4 of CPITN index (P < 0.001 clearly indicating the presence of anaerobic periodontal infection.

  3. Long term impact of large scale community-directed delivery of doxycycline for the treatment of onchocerciasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamarozzi Francesca

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anti-Wolbachia treatment with doxycycline is effective in sterilising and killing adult Onchocerca volvulus nematodes, proving superior to ivermectin and of great potential as an alternative approach for the treatment and control of onchocerciasis, particularly in areas of Loa loa co-endemicity. Nevertheless, the length of the required treatment poses potential logistical problems and risk of poor compliance, raising a barrier to the use of doxycycline in Mass Drug Administration (MDA strategies. In 2007 and 2008 a feasibility trial of community-directed treatment with doxycycline was carried out in two health districts in Cameroon, co-endemic for O. volvulus and L. loa. With 17,519 eligible subjects, the therapeutic coverage was 73.8% with 97.5% compliance, encouraging the feasibility of using doxycycline community-directed delivery in restricted populations of this size. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of this community-directed delivery of doxycycline four years after delivery. Findings Infection with O. volvulus was evaluated by skin biopsy and nodule palpation. Of the 507 subjects recruited, 375 had completed the treatment with doxycycline followed by one or two rounds of annual ivermectin MDA and 132 received one or two rounds of annual ivermectin MDA alone. Statistically significant lower microfilarial prevalence (17.0% [doxycycline plus ivermectin group], 27.0% [ivermectin only group], p = 0.014 and load (p = 0.012 were found in people that had received doxycycline followed by ivermectin compared to those who received ivermectin only. Conclusions This study demonstrates the long-term effectiveness of doxycycline treatment delivered with a community-directed strategy even when evaluated four years after delivery in an area of ongoing transmission. This finding shows that a multi-week course of treatment is not a barrier to community-delivery of MDA in restricted populations of this size and supports its

  4. Assessment of subchannel code ASSERT-PV for flow-distribution predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Assessment of the subchannel code ASSERT-PV 3.2 for the prediction of flow distribution. • Open literature and in-house experimental data to quantify ASSERT-PV predictions. • Model changes assessed against vertical and horizontal flow experiments. • Improvement of flow-distribution predictions under CANDU-relevant conditions. - Abstract: This paper reports an assessment of the recently released subchannel code ASSERT-PV 3.2 for the prediction of flow-distribution in fuel bundles, including subchannel void fraction, quality and mass fluxes. Experimental data from open literature and from in-house tests are used to assess the flow-distribution models in ASSERT-PV 3.2. The prediction statistics using the recommended model set of ASSERT-PV 3.2 are compared to those from previous code versions. Separate-effects sensitivity studies are performed to quantify the contribution of each flow-distribution model change or enhancement to the improvement in flow-distribution prediction. The assessment demonstrates significant improvement in the prediction of flow-distribution in horizontal fuel channels containing CANDU bundles

  5. Input modelling of ASSERT-PV V2R8M1 for RUFIC fuel bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the input modelling for subchannel analysis of CANFLEX-RU (RUFIC) fuel bundle which has been developed for an advanced fuel bundle of CANDU-6 reactor, using ASSERT-PV V2R8M1 code. Execution file of ASSERT-PV V2R8M1 code was recently transferred from AECL under JRDC agreement between KAERI and AECL. SSERT-PV V2R8M1 which is quite different from COBRA-IV-i code has been developed for thermalhydraulic analysis of CANDU-6 fuel channel by subchannel analysis method and updated so that 43-element CANDU fuel geometry can be applied. Hence, ASSERT code can be applied to the subchannel analysis of RUFIC fuel bundle. The present report was prepared for ASSERT input modelling of RUFIC fuel bundle. Since the ASSERT results highly depend on user's input modelling, the calculation results may be quite different among the user's input models. The objective of the present report is the preparation of detail description of the background information for input data and gives credibility of the calculation results

  6. LEVEL OF SELF-RESPECT AND ASSERTIVENESS SKILLS AND TEACHERS’ EDUCATIONAL COMPETENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanowska-Tolloczko Anna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: determining of self-respect level and assertiveness of teachers. Verification of whether there is a relationship between the measured trait and the correlation of educational competence. Material and methods: the study used three tools: Polish adaptation of SES M.Rosenberg's Self Esteem Scale, a questionnaire to determine the levels of assertiveness - P.Majewicz's Scale "I and others" and a questionnaire to examine the professional competence of teachers by A.Romanowska-Tołłoczko. The study examined 275 primary school teachers of different subjects. Results: after the statement of the research’s results in the field of self-respect and assertiveness, it turns out that there is some regularity in relation to the level of the studied traits. People with high self-respect also receive higher scores assertive skills compared with those of average and low self-respect. This pattern is seen in all groups of teachers. Conclusions: although the observed differences are not great and statistically significant, they show some evidence of the occurrence trend of interdependence in a range of predispositions. Moreover, a positive correlation between the level of self-respect and assertiveness and parental perception of their competence was noted.

  7. Putting Corporate Social Responsibility to Work in Mining Communities: Exploring Community Needs for Central Appalachian Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Cook; Emily Sarver; Leigh-Anne Krometis

    2015-01-01

    Due to the finite nature of non-renewable mineral and energy resources such as coal, resource extraction is inherently unsustainable; however, mining and related activities can contribute to sustainable development. Indeed, the principles of corporate social responsibility (CSR) require that mine operators design and conduct their activities in ways that provide for net positive impacts on surrounding communities and environments. In Central Appalachia, there appears to be a particularly ripe...

  8. Evidence for the Treatment of Osteoporosis with Vitamin D in Residential Care and in the Community Dwelling Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. A. Geddes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Vitamin D is common treatment for osteoporosis. Both age >70 years and living in residential care are associated with increased fracture risk. Community dwelling elderly are a heterogeneous group who may have more similatiry with residential care groups than younger community dwelling counterparts. Aims. To review the evidence for cholecalciferol or ergocalciferol tretment of osteoporosis in either community dwelling patients aged ≥70 years of age, or redidential care patients. Secondly endpoints were changes in bone mineral denisty, and in bone turnover markers. Methods. We performed a literature search using search terms for osteoporosis and vitamin D. Treatment for at least one year was required. Results. Only one residential care study using cholecalciferol, showed non-vertebral and hip fracture reduction in vitamin D deficient subjects. In the community setting one quasi randomised study using ergocalciferol showed reduction in total but not hip or non-vertebral fracture, and a second randomised study showed increased hip fracture risk. Three studies reported increases in hip bone mineral denisty. Discussion. A minority of studies demonstrated a fracture benefit form vitamin D and one suggested possible harm in a community setting. Current practice should be to only offer this treatment to subjects identified as deficient.

  9. Recovery of fish communities in receiving streams after improvements in waste water treatment at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological monitoring programs have documented recovery of fish communities in four receiving streams associated with three DOE facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Since 1985, twice-yearly electrofishing surveys have been conducted at sites immediately downstream of each facility. These surveys indicated that increases in abundance and species richness of fish communities were associated with the implementation of various remedial actions such as new waste water treatment facilities, closure of waste disposal ponds, and waste stream dechlorination. Increased abundance was the initial indicator of fish community recovery. Density increased from 0--0.1 fish/m2 to 3.0--29.7 fish/m2 at the four stream sites. Species richness also increased from 0--5 species per sample to 4--12 species per sample at the four sites. The increases in species number involved only fish species that were not sensitive to environmental disturbance. Fish community responses corresponded with treatment start-up dates; the responses generally were incremental, as increments of treatment occurred. Although recovery was evident at each site, the extent of recovery varied and did not match density and species richness patterns in the fish communities of suitable upstream or offsite reference sites

  10. Design paper: The CapOpus trial: a randomized, parallel-group, observer-blinded clinical trial of specialized addiction treatment versus treatment as usual for young patients with cannabis abuse and psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorthøj, Carsten; Fohlmann, Allan; Larsen, Anne-Mette;

    2008-01-01

    ) treatment as usual. The specialized addiction treatment is manualized and consists of both individual and group-based motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy, and incorporates both the family and the case manager of the patient.The primary outcome measure will be changes in amount of...... major objective for the CapOpus trial is to evaluate the additional effect on cannabis abuse of a specialized addiction treatment program adding group treatment and motivational interviewing to treatment as usual. DESIGN: The trial is designed as a randomized, parallel-group, observer-blinded clinical...... trial. Patients are primarily recruited through early-psychosis detection teams, community mental health centers, and assertive community treatment teams. Patients are randomized to one of two treatment arms, both lasting six months: 1) specialized addiction treatment plus treatment as usual or 2...

  11. Differential effectiveness of residential versus outpatient aftercare for parolees from prison-based therapeutic community treatment programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messina Nena P

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has indicated that more intense treatment is associated with better outcomes among clients who are appropriately matched to treatment intensity level based on the severity of their drug/alcohol problem. This study examined the differential effectiveness of community-based residential and outpatient treatment attended by male and female drug-involved parolees from prison-based therapeutic community substance abuse treatment programs based on the severity of their drug/alcohol problem. Methods Subjects were 4,165 male and female parolees who received prison-based therapeutic community substance abuse treatment and who subsequently participated in only outpatient or only residential treatment following release from prison. The dependent variable of interest was return to prison within 12 months. The primary independent variables of interest were alcohol/drug problem severity (low, high and type of aftercare (residential, outpatient. Chi-square analyses were conducted to examine the differences in 12-month RTP rates between and within the two groups of parolees (residential and outpatient parolees based on alcohol/drug problem severity (low severity, high severity. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine if aftercare modality (outpatient only vs. residential only was a significant predictor of 12-month RTP rates for subjects who were classified as low severity versus those who were classified as high severity. Results Subjects benefited equally from outpatient and residential aftercare, regardless of the severity of their drug/alcohol problem. Conclusion As states and the federal prison system further expand prison-based treatment services, the demand and supply of aftercare treatment services will also increase. As this occurs, systems and policies governing the transitioning of individuals from prison- to community-based treatment should include a systematic and validated assessment of post

  12. Analysis of bacterial community in two wastewater treatment plants by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and fluorescent in situ hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combination of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and oligonucleotide probes was used to characterize and follow the dynamic of bacterial community in two wastewater treatment plants with an A2 O system of each plant. To complete this technique, we used Fluorescent in situ Hybridization (FISH) to quantify the main groups in activated sludges samples. (Author)

  13. Self-Stigma and Quality of Life among People with Mental Illness Who Receive Compulsory Community Treatment Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, James

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the relationship between self-stigma and quality of life over a one year time period for 71 people with mental illness who were receiving compulsory community mental health treatment. It was hypothesized that, over time, self-stigma would have the direct effect of eroding quality of life among people with…

  14. Community-based promotional campaign to improve uptake of intermittent preventive antimalarial treatment in pregnancy in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Gies; S.O. Coulibaly; C. Ky; F.T. Ouattara; B.J. Brabin; U. D'Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    Malaria preventive strategies in pregnancy were assessed in a health center randomized trial comparing intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) with and without community based promotional activities in rural Burkina Faso. The study involved 2,240 secundigravidae an

  15. Ivermectin Treatment and Sanitation Effectively Reduce Strongyloides stercoralis Infection Risk in Rural Communities in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrer, Armelle; Khieu, Virak; Schindler, Christian; Schär, Fabian; Marti, Hanspeter; Char, Meng Chuor; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Strongyloides stercoralis is the only soil-transmitted helminth with the ability to replicate within its host, leading to long-lasting and potentially fatal infections. It is ubiquitous and its worldwide prevalence has recently been estimated to be at least half that of hookworm. Information on the epidemiology of S. stercoralis remains scarce and modalities for its large-scale control are yet to be determined. Methodology/Principal Findings A community-based two-year cohort study was conducted among the general population in a rural province in North Cambodia. At each survey, participants infected with S. stercoralis were treated with a single oral dose of ivermectin (200μg/kg BW). Diagnosis was performed using a combination of the Baermann method and Koga agar plate culture on two stool samples. The cohort included participants from eight villages who were either positive or negative for S. stercoralis at baseline. Mixed logistic regression models were employed to assess risk factors for S. stercoralis infection at baseline and re-infection at follow-up. A total of 3,096 participants were examined at baseline, revealing a S. stercoralis prevalence of 33.1%. Of these participants, 1,269 were followed-up over two years. Re-infection and infection rates among positive and negative participants at baseline were 14.4% and 9.6% at the first and 11.0% and 11.5% at the second follow-up, respectively. At follow-up, all age groups were at similar risk of acquiring an infection, while infection risk significantly decreased with increasing village sanitation coverage. Conclusions/Significance Chemotherapy-based control of S. stercoralis is feasible and highly beneficial, particularly in combination with improved sanitation. The impact of community-based ivermectin treatment on S. stercoralis was high, with over 85% of villagers remaining negative one year after treatment. The integration of S. stercoralis into existing STH control programs should be considered

  16. A Man's (Precarious) Place: Men's Experienced Threat and Self-Assertive Reactions to Female Superiors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netchaeva, Ekaterina; Kouchaki, Maryam; Sheppard, Leah D

    2015-09-01

    Across three studies, we investigate men's reactions to women in superior roles. Drawing from precarious manhood theory, we hypothesize that when a woman occupies a superior organizational role, men in subordinate positions experience threat, which leads them to behave more assertively toward her and advocate for themselves. In Studies 1 and 2, we demonstrate that men feel more threatened (relative to women) by women in superior roles (relative to men in superior roles) and, as a result, engage in more assertive behaviors toward these women. In Study 3, we investigate a boundary condition to this effect and demonstrate that a woman in a superior role who displays qualities associated with administrative agency (e.g., directness, proactivity) rather than ambitious agency (e.g., self-promotion, power-seeking) elicits less assertive behavior from men. We conclude by discussing implications as well as directions for future research. PMID:26162611

  17. Assessment of ASSERT-PV for prediction of post-dryout heat transfer in CANDU bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Assessment of the new Canadian subchannel code ASSERT-PV 3.2 for PDO sheath temperature prediction. • CANDU 28-, 37- and 43-element bundle PDO experiments. • Prediction improvement of ASSERT-PV 3.2 over previous code versions. • Sensitivity study of the effect of PDO model options. - Abstract: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed the subchannel thermalhydraulics code ASSERT-PV for the Canadian nuclear industry. The recently released ASSERT-PV 3.2 provides enhanced models for improved predictions of subchannel flow distribution, critical heat flux (CHF), and post-dryout (PDO) heat transfer in horizontal CANDU fuel channels. This paper presents results of an assessment of the new code version against PDO tests performed during five full-size CANDU bundle experiments conducted between 1992 and 2009 by Stern Laboratories (SL), using 28-, 37- and 43-element bundles. A total of 10 PDO test series with varying pressure-tube creep and/or bearing-pad height were analyzed. The SL experiments encompassed the bundle geometries and range of flow conditions for the intended ASSERT-PV applications for existing CANDU reactors. Code predictions of maximum PDO fuel-sheath temperature were compared against measurements from the SL PDO tests to quantify the code's prediction accuracy. The prediction statistics using the recommended model set of ASSERT-PV 3.2 were compared to those from previous code versions. Furthermore, separate-effects sensitivity studies quantified the contribution of each PDO model change or enhancement to the improvement in PDO heat transfer prediction. Overall, the assessment demonstrated significant improvement in prediction of PDO sheath temperature in horizontal fuel channels containing CANDU bundles

  18. Assessment of ASSERT-PV for prediction of critical heat flux in CANDU bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Assessment of the new Canadian subchannel code ASSERT-PV 3.2 for CHF prediction. • CANDU 28-, 37- and 43-element bundle CHF experiments. • Prediction improvement of ASSERT-PV 3.2 over previous code versions. • Sensitivity study of the effect of CHF model options. - Abstract: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed the subchannel thermalhydraulics code ASSERT-PV for the Canadian nuclear industry. The recently released ASSERT-PV 3.2 provides enhanced models for improved predictions of flow distribution, critical heat flux (CHF), and post-dryout (PDO) heat transfer in horizontal CANDU fuel channels. This paper presents results of an assessment of the new code version against five full-scale CANDU bundle experiments conducted in 1990s and in 2009 by Stern Laboratories (SL), using 28-, 37- and 43-element (CANFLEX) bundles. A total of 15 CHF test series with varying pressure-tube creep and/or bearing-pad height were analyzed. The SL experiments encompassed the bundle geometries and range of flow conditions for the intended ASSERT-PV applications for CANDU reactors. Code predictions of channel dryout power and axial and radial CHF locations were compared against measurements from the SL CHF tests to quantify the code prediction accuracy. The prediction statistics using the recommended model set of ASSERT-PV 3.2 were compared to those from previous code versions. Furthermore, the sensitivity studies evaluated the contribution of each CHF model change or enhancement to the improvement in CHF prediction. Overall, the assessment demonstrated significant improvement in prediction of channel dryout power and axial and radial CHF locations in horizontal fuel channels containing CANDU bundles

  19. ASSERT/NUCIRC commissioning for CANDU 6 fuel channel CCP analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CANDU PHWR fuel channel pressure tubes will expand or creep under long-term (aging process) influence of temperature, pressure, and neutron flux. This diametral pressure tube creep will influence the critical channel power (CCP), or conditions that lead to dryout. In order to provide safety analysis models to quantify the effect of diametral pressure tube creep on CCP, a COG (AECL/NBP/HQ) project is underway to commission the ASSERT and NUCIRC codes to establish reliable production tools for the assessment of CANDU6 CCP in nominal (uncrept) and crept pressure tube fuel channels. This paper gives an overview of the background and objectives of the project along with a brief introduction into the subchannel analysis code ASSERT and the 1-D thermalhydraulics code NUCIRC. This project is a multistage endeavour, for which the first stage results are presented. A detailed cross-comparison of the 1-D (NUCIRC) and subchannel (ASSERT) models of pressure drop (ΔP) and critical heat flux (CHF) has been undertaken and has led to several enhancements and refinements to the respective models. These results are presented in addition to results of ASSERT commissioning against NUCIRC for a matrix of ΔP and dryout cases in a nominal pressure tube, which are based upon Gentilly 2 and Point Lepreau site area. Additionally, the initial results of an assessment, using ASSERT, of the effects of creep on ΔP are presented. In concluding, the status and future directions for ASSERT/NUCIRC CANDU 6 CCP analysis project are summarized. (author). 2 refs., 12 figs

  20. Assessment of ASSERT-PV for prediction of post-dryout heat transfer in CANDU bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Z., E-mail: chengz@aecl.ca; Rao, Y.F., E-mail: raoy@aecl.ca; Waddington, G.M., E-mail: waddingg@aecl.ca

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Assessment of the new Canadian subchannel code ASSERT-PV 3.2 for PDO sheath temperature prediction. • CANDU 28-, 37- and 43-element bundle PDO experiments. • Prediction improvement of ASSERT-PV 3.2 over previous code versions. • Sensitivity study of the effect of PDO model options. - Abstract: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed the subchannel thermalhydraulics code ASSERT-PV for the Canadian nuclear industry. The recently released ASSERT-PV 3.2 provides enhanced models for improved predictions of subchannel flow distribution, critical heat flux (CHF), and post-dryout (PDO) heat transfer in horizontal CANDU fuel channels. This paper presents results of an assessment of the new code version against PDO tests performed during five full-size CANDU bundle experiments conducted between 1992 and 2009 by Stern Laboratories (SL), using 28-, 37- and 43-element bundles. A total of 10 PDO test series with varying pressure-tube creep and/or bearing-pad height were analyzed. The SL experiments encompassed the bundle geometries and range of flow conditions for the intended ASSERT-PV applications for existing CANDU reactors. Code predictions of maximum PDO fuel-sheath temperature were compared against measurements from the SL PDO tests to quantify the code's prediction accuracy. The prediction statistics using the recommended model set of ASSERT-PV 3.2 were compared to those from previous code versions. Furthermore, separate-effects sensitivity studies quantified the contribution of each PDO model change or enhancement to the improvement in PDO heat transfer prediction. Overall, the assessment demonstrated significant improvement in prediction of PDO sheath temperature in horizontal fuel channels containing CANDU bundles.

  1. Effect of Meta-Cognitive Therapy on Self Assertiveness Skill in Patients with

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Bahadori

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self assertiveness can be considered as hearth of interpersonal behavior and weakness in this area is one of the obvious characteristic in the patients with social phobia disorder. This study aimed to determine the effect of meta-cognitive therapy on the rate of self assertiveness skill in patients with social phobia disorder. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted with pretest-posttest and follow-up design, using control group. From all social phobia disorder patients visited in psychology clinics in Shiraz, south western part of Iran in 2012, 22 patients were selected through the objective sampling method and randomly divided into two experimental (11 persons and control (11 persons groups. The instruments of this study were social phobia symptoms assessment questioner (SPSAQ and self assertiveness scale (SAS. The experimental group received 8 weeks of Wells’ meta-cognitive therapy sessions. Data were analyzed through covariance analysis method. Results: The results showed that the mean of the self assertiveness scores in post-test and follow up in the experimental group is significantly higher than that of the control group (p<0.05. The results of analysis of multivariate covariance showed that MCT had a significant effect on increscent of the self assertiveness skill scores of posttest (0.39 and follow up (0.38 in patients with social phobia disorder (p<0.001. Conclusion: This intervention is believed to improve self assertiveness skill in SPD patients by facilitating transmission from the object mode to the meta-cognitive mode and enhancing the efficient and flexible coping skills.

  2. Equivalence and standard scores of the Hurlbert Index of Sexual Assertiveness across Spanish men and women

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Santos-Iglesias; Pablo Vallejo-Medina; Juan C. Sierra

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la presencia de invarianza de medida y funcionamiento diferencial del ??tem de la versi??n espa??ola del Hurlbert Index of Sexual Assertiveness en funci??n del sexo. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 1.600 mujeres y 1.598 hombres de Espa??a, con edades comprendidas entre los 18 y 84 a??os. El Hurlbert Index of Sexual Assertiveness solo mostr?? invarianza d??bil entre hombres y mujeres. El an??lisis de funcionamiento diferencial del ??tem mostr?? que ??ni...

  3. Investigate the assertiveness scores of the 5th grade students according to the several variables

    OpenAIRE

    Ateş, Bünyamin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the assertiveness scores of the 5th grade students according to the several variables. The study group consists of the total number of 571, of whom 270 of them are girls, and 301 of them are boys studying in 2011-2012 Education Year. In the study, “Personal Data Form” which has been de- veloped by the researcher, and assertiveness measurement test developed by Topuk- çu(1982) have been utilized. In the process of analysis, independent groups t test ...

  4. SystemVerilog assertions and functional coverage guide to language, methodology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Ashok B

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a hands-on, application-oriented guide to the language and methodology of both SystemVerilog Assertions and SytemVerilog Functional Coverage.  Readers will benefit from the step-by-step approach to functional hardware verification, which will enable them to uncover hidden and hard to find bugs, point directly to the source of the bug, provide for a clean and easy way to model complex timing checks and objectively answer the question 'have we functionally verified everything'.  Written by a professional end-user of both SystemVerilog Assertions and SystemVerilog Functional Co

  5. Treatment of Individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder Using Dialectical Behavior Therapy in a Community Mental Health Setting: Clinical Application and a Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Porath, Denise D.; Peterson, Gregory A.; Smee, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    This article describes an effort to implement and examine dialectical behavior therapy's (DBT) effectiveness in a community mental health setting. Modifications made to address unique aspects of community mental health settings are described. Barriers encountered in implementation of DBT treatment in community mental health settings, such as staff…

  6. Community participation for malaria elimination in tafea province, vanuatu: part ii. social and cultural aspects of treatment-seeking behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riley Ian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early diagnosis and prompt effective case management are important components of any malaria elimination strategy. Tafea Province, Vanuatu has a rich history of traditional practices and beliefs, which have been integrated with missionary efforts and the introduction of modern constructions of health. Gaining a detailed knowledge of community perceptions of malarial symptomatology and treatment-seeking behaviours is essential in guiding effective community participation strategies for malaria control and elimination. Method An ethnographic study involving nine focus group discussions (FGD, 12 key informant interviews (KII and seven participatory workshops were carried out on Tanna Island, Vanuatu. Villages in areas of high and low malaria transmission risk were selected. Four ni-Vanuatu research officers, including two from Tanna, were trained and employed to conduct the research. Data underwent thematic analysis to examine treatment-seeking behaviour and community perceptions of malaria. Results Malaria was perceived to be a serious, but relatively new condition, and in most communities, identified as being apparent only after independence in 1980. Severe fever in the presence of other key symptoms triggered a diagnosis of malaria by individuals. Use of traditional or home practices was common: perceived vulnerability of patient and previous experience with malaria impacted on the time taken to seek treatment at a health facility. Barriers to health care access and reasons for delay in care-seeking included the availability of health worker and poor community infrastructure. Conclusion Due to programme success of achieving low malaria transmission, Tafea province has been identified for elimination of malaria by 2012 in the Government of Vanuatu Malaria Action Plans (MAP. An effective malaria elimination programme requires interactions between the community and its leaders, malaria workers and health providers for success in

  7. Obstacles to prompt and effective malaria treatment lead to low community-coverage in two rural districts of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillip Angel

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is still a leading child killer in sub-Saharan Africa. Yet, access to prompt and effective malaria treatment, a mainstay of any malaria control strategy, is sub-optimal in many settings. Little is known about obstacles to treatment and community-effectiveness of case-management strategies. This research quantified treatment seeking behaviour and access to treatment in a highly endemic rural Tanzanian community. The aim was to provide a better understanding of obstacles to treatment access in order to develop practical and cost-effective interventions. Methods We conducted community-based treatment-seeking surveys including 226 recent fever episodes in 2004 and 2005. The local Demographic Surveillance System provided additional household information. A census of drug retailers and health facilities provided data on availability and location of treatment sources. Results After intensive health education, the biomedical concept of malaria has largely been adopted by the community. 87.5% (78.2–93.8 of the fever cases in children and 80.7% (68.1–90.0 in adults were treated with one of the recommended antimalarials (at the time SP, amodiaquine or quinine. However, only 22.5% (13.9–33.2 of the children and 10.5% (4.0–21.5 of the adults received prompt and appropriate antimalarial treatment. Health facility attendance increased the odds of receiving an antimalarial (OR = 7.7 but did not have an influence on correct dosage. The exemption system for under-fives in public health facilities was not functioning and drug expenditures for children were as high in health facilities as with private retailers. Conclusion A clear preference for modern medicine was reflected in the frequent use of antimalarials. Yet, quality of case-management was far from satisfactory as was the functioning of the exemption mechanism for the main risk group. Private drug retailers played a central role by complementing existing formal health

  8. Assessment of the ecological potential of mine-water treatment wetlands using a baseline survey of macroinvertebrate communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A baseline survey of macroinvertebrate populations in two mine-water treatment wetlands, one treating a net acidic spoil heap discharge and one a net alkaline ferruginous pumped mine water, was undertaken to assess the potential of these systems to provide habitats for faunal communities. Both wetlands were found to be impoverished in comparison to natural wetlands but did sustain a macroinvertebrate community that could support higher organisms. Wetland size and water quality in terms of pH, conductivity and metal concentrations were found to be important factors in determining the quality of the populations supported. Direct toxicity to organisms was unlikely to be the main cause of lower diversity, but the smothering of organisms via the precipitation of iron hydroxides particularly in the early parts of the treatment systems affected macroinvertebrate communities. The presence of areas of open water within the planted systems was found to be important for providing habitats for macroinvertebrates and this should be both a future design and maintenance consideration for environmental managers. - Mine-water treatment wetlands can be engineered to provide habitats for ecological communities

  9. Monitoring impact of mefenacet treatment on soil microbial communities by PCR-DGGE fingerprinting and conventional testing procedures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The effect of acetanilide herbicide mefenacet on soil microbial communities was studied using paddy soil samples with different short-term treatments. The culturable bacteria (plate counts), dehydrogenase activity and changes in community structure(denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis) were used for biological community assessments. Mefenacet was a significant stimulus to cultural aerobic bacteria and dehydrogenase activity while Sphingobacterium multivorum Y1, a bacterium efficiently degrading the mefenacet, only induced the increasing colony-forming unit (CFU) of bacteria but little effect on dehydrogenase activity during the whole experiment. The degree of similarity between the 16S rDNA profiles of the communities was quantified by numerically analyzing the DGGE band patterns. Similarity dendrograms showed that the microbial community structures of the mefenacet-treated and non-treated soils were not significantly different. But supplement ofS. multivorum Y1 could increase the diversity of the microbial community in the mefenacet-polluted paddy soil. This work is a new attempt to apply the S. multivorum Y1for remediation of the mefenacet-polluted environments.

  10. The local community development and the community-based tourism : a comparative conceptual analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvie PARENT; Klein, Juan-Luis; Jolin, Louis

    2009-01-01

    According to the authors of this paper, mass tourism does not generate the development of local communities but rather their devitalization. This paper presents a cross-literature survey on community-based tourism and local community development. It proposes some links between these two approaches and asserts that community-based tourism can be a strategy to trigger local community development. It address the conditions under which the convergence of these two approaches may allow the launchi...

  11. Sewerage Treatment Plants, Community Facility- wastewater treatment, Published in 2010, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Georgia Department of Community Affairs.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Sewerage Treatment Plants dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2010. It is described as...

  12. Improving the Physical Health Monitoring of City & Hackney Assertive Outreach Service Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyuz, Elvan; Jain, Amit; Phelan, Declan; Gupta, Susham

    2016-01-01

    Improving physical healthcare to reduce premature mortality in people with SMI (Serious Mental Illness) is a priority for ELFT (East London NHS Foundation Trust) and NHS England. It is well know that people with schizophrenia have a life expectancy which is approximately 20% shorter than that of the general population and a substantial mortality difference exists between people with schizophrenia and the general community.[1-2] Among other risk factors, such as poor diet, physical inactivity, and high rates of smoking, the iatrogenic effects of anti-psychotic medications have been found to increase the risk of metabolic syndrome. This can easily be detected through regular monitoring. Through this project, it was our aim to improve the physical health monitoring of City & Hackney Assertive Outreach Service (AOS) patients with a view to decrease mortality rate, increase life expectancy, increase the quality of life, and reduce harm from medication. This was done using quality improvement methods, including several change ideas, each of which started sequentially over the course of a nine month period from November 2014. Following QI methodology, this utilised cycles of iterative learning using PDSA methods and was supported by the Trust's extensive programme of quality improvement, including training provided by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement. The project involved setting a specific aim which was improving the physical health monitoring of AOS patients to 80% by July 2015 and for our patients to have physical health checks (blood tests, weight, ECG, BP) as a minimum annually. From baseline measurements of between 50-75%, we reached our target of 80% for weight, BP and blood tests monitoring, with 89%, 91%, and 84% achieved respectively by July 2015. Further progress still needs to be made on ECGs, with 77% achieved by July 2015, although the monitoring of ECG nearly doubled from 39% in November 2014 to 77% in July 2015. This project demonstrated that

  13. Personality Pathology and Mental Health Treatment Seeking in a Community Sample of Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lawton, Erin M.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    Sampling issues are extremely important in studies of psychopathology, especially with regard to the investigation of personality disorders (PDs). Many studies rely on clinical samples while others have focused on representative samples of community residents. Do people who qualify for a PD diagnosis seek and receive mental health services with greater (or possibly reduced) frequency compared to others in the community? Do community-based studies of PDs include people who have been treated? A...

  14. Genotypic analysis of β-tubulin in Onchocerca volvulus from communities and individuals showing poor parasitological response to ivermectin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y; Boakye, Daniel A; Awadzi, Kwablah; Gyapong, John O; Prichard, Roger K

    2012-12-01

    Ivermectin (IVM) has been in operational use for the control of onchocerciasis for two decades and remains the only drug of choice. To investigate the parasitological responses and genetic profile of Onchocerca volvulus, we carried out a 21 month epidemiological study to determine the response of the parasite to IVM in 10 Ghanaian endemic communities. Onchocerca nodules were surgically removed from patients in three IVM response categories (good, intermediate and poor) and one IVM naïve community. DNA from adult worms was analyzed to determine any association between genotype and IVM response phenotypic. Embryogramme analysis showed significantly higher reproductive activity in worms from poor response communities, which had up to 41% of females with live stretched microfilaria (mf) in utero, despite IVM treatment, compared with good response communities, which had no intra-uterine stretched mf. β-tubulin isotype 1 gene has been shown to be linked to IVM selection in O. volvulus and also known to be associated with IVM resistance in veterinary nematodes. We have genotyped the full length genomic DNA sequence of the β-tubulin gene from 127 adult worms obtained from the four community categories. We found SNPs at 24 sites over the entire 3696 bp. Eight of the SNPs occurred at significantly higher (p < 0.05) frequencies in the poor response communities compared with the good response communities and the IVM naïve community. Phenotypic and genotypic analyses show that IVM resistance has been selected and the genotype (1183GG/1188CC/1308TT/1545GG) was strongly associated with the resistance phenotype. Since the region in the β-tubulin gene where these four SNPs occur is within 362 bp, it is feasible to develop a genetic marker for the early detection of IVM resistance. PMID:24533268

  15. The effect of recreational physical exercise on depression and assertiveness levels of university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülcan Tekin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available  The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the recreational physical exercise on depression and assertiveness levels of the university students who had never participated in regular physical exercise before. There were 15 male and 15 female totally 30 students in control group and 15 male and 15 female students in exercise group of research. The students in control group carried on their usual life during the research while the students in exercise group participated in a 8 week exercise program including folk dances and step for an hour 3 times a week. The data collecting materials were the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI for depression scores, and the Rathus Assertiveness Inventory (RAI for the scores of assertiveness. Both Inventories were applied to the control group for 2 times as first and last measurement (at first week before exercise and last week after exercise and to the exercise group for 3 times as first, mid and last measurement (at first week before exercise, at eighth week after exercise, and last week after exercise. Mean, frequency, percent, standart deviation, t-test, ANOVA, and Tukey HSD Post Hoc tests scores were given in texts, figures, and tables. The results showed that participation in physical exercise in leisure affects the depression and assertiveness levels of students in both sex positively

  16. The effect of recreational physical exercise on depression and assertiveness levels of university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülcan Tekin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the recreational physical exercise on depression and assertiveness levels of the university students who had never participated in regular physical exercise before. There were 15 male and 15 female totally 30 students in control group and 15 male and 15 female students in exercise group of research. The students in control group carried on their usual life during the research while the students in exercise group participated in a 8 week exercise program including folk dances and step for an hour 3 times a week. The data collecting materials were the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI for depression scores, and the Rathus Assertiveness Inventory (RAI for the scores of assertiveness. Both Inventories were applied to the control group for 2 times as first and last measurement (at first week before exercise and last week after exercise and to the exercise group for 3 times as first, mid and last measurement (at first week before exercise, at eighth week after exercise, and last week after exercise. Mean, frequency, percent, standart deviation, t-test, ANOVA, and Tukey HSD Post Hoc tests scores were given in texts, figures, and tables. The results showed that participation in physical exercise in leisure affects the depression and assertiveness levels of students in both sex positively.

  17. Computerized Laser Videodisc Programs for Training Speechreading and Assertive Communication Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tye-Murray, Nancy; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Three laser videodisc programs are described for training the communication skills of children and adults with hearing impairments. The programs are designed to provide analytic and synthetic speechreading practice and to encourage assertive communication behaviors. The report describes the training modules and test battery designed to assess the…

  18. Assertiveness for Librarians Harried by Inappropriate Lecture Hall and Classroom Assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J. Carlyle

    1990-01-01

    Describes problems encountered by public librarians when assisting students with assignments that are difficult or impossible to complete. Examples of librarians' successes in assertive, tactful communication with instructors and a list of solutions to inappropriate assignments are provided. Special emphasis is given to assignments dealing with…

  19. Assertive/Leveling Communication and Empathy in Adolescent Drug Abuse Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englander-Golden, Paula; And Others

    This paper reports feedback from 349 fifth through eighth graders who participated in Say It Straight (SIS), a school-based drug abuse prevention program which combines assertiveness training with role playing and guided imagery. The feedback presented concerns students' feelings about sending and receiving messages using the following…

  20. "Who You Dissin', Dude?" At-Risk Students Learn Assertive Communication Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangelosi, Barbara R.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a four-week unit developed by the author to teach her at-risk high school students assertive communication as a means of empowerment, a way of taking control of situations. Describes organizing the content and implementing the curriculum, and notes students' positive and enthusiastic feedback. (SR)

  1. Assertive Classroom Management Strategies and Students' Performance: The Case of EFL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliakbari, Mohammad; Bozorgmanesh, Bafrin

    2015-01-01

    Ample research findings support the effective role that classroom management strategies play in enhancing students' learning. Drawing upon Iranian high school teachers' classroom management strategies, this article is intended to examine the extent to which these teachers follow assertive classroom management strategies and if these strategies…

  2. Women are Warmer but No Less Assertive than Men: Gender and Language on Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gregory; Yaden, David Bryce; Schwartz, H Andrew; Kern, Margaret L; Eichstaedt, Johannes C; Kosinski, Michael; Stillwell, David; Ungar, Lyle H; Seligman, Martin E P

    2016-01-01

    Using a large social media dataset and open-vocabulary methods from computational linguistics, we explored differences in language use across gender, affiliation, and assertiveness. In Study 1, we analyzed topics (groups of semantically similar words) across 10 million messages from over 52,000 Facebook users. Most language differed little across gender. However, topics most associated with self-identified female participants included friends, family, and social life, whereas topics most associated with self-identified male participants included swearing, anger, discussion of objects instead of people, and the use of argumentative language. In Study 2, we plotted male- and female-linked language topics along two interpersonal dimensions prevalent in gender research: affiliation and assertiveness. In a sample of over 15,000 Facebook users, we found substantial gender differences in the use of affiliative language and slight differences in assertive language. Language used more by self-identified females was interpersonally warmer, more compassionate, polite, and-contrary to previous findings-slightly more assertive in their language use, whereas language used more by self-identified males was colder, more hostile, and impersonal. Computational linguistic analysis combined with methods to automatically label topics offer means for testing psychological theories unobtrusively at large scale. PMID:27223607

  3. Women are Warmer but No Less Assertive than Men: Gender and Language on Facebook.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Park

    Full Text Available Using a large social media dataset and open-vocabulary methods from computational linguistics, we explored differences in language use across gender, affiliation, and assertiveness. In Study 1, we analyzed topics (groups of semantically similar words across 10 million messages from over 52,000 Facebook users. Most language differed little across gender. However, topics most associated with self-identified female participants included friends, family, and social life, whereas topics most associated with self-identified male participants included swearing, anger, discussion of objects instead of people, and the use of argumentative language. In Study 2, we plotted male- and female-linked language topics along two interpersonal dimensions prevalent in gender research: affiliation and assertiveness. In a sample of over 15,000 Facebook users, we found substantial gender differences in the use of affiliative language and slight differences in assertive language. Language used more by self-identified females was interpersonally warmer, more compassionate, polite, and-contrary to previous findings-slightly more assertive in their language use, whereas language used more by self-identified males was colder, more hostile, and impersonal. Computational linguistic analysis combined with methods to automatically label topics offer means for testing psychological theories unobtrusively at large scale.

  4. 77 FR 25475 - Inquiry To Learn Whether Businesses Assert Business Confidentiality Claims Regarding Waste Import...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... AGENCY Inquiry To Learn Whether Businesses Assert Business Confidentiality Claims Regarding Waste Import... notices similar to this one in the Federal Register, the latest one being at 76 FR 362, January 4, 2011... information at issue: the preliminary inquiry and the notice of opportunity to comment. a. Inquiry To...

  5. 75 FR 4812 - Inquiry To Learn Whether Businesses Assert Business Confidentiality Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... AGENCY Inquiry To Learn Whether Businesses Assert Business Confidentiality Claims AGENCY: Environmental... Information EPA has previously published notices similar to this one in the Federal Register, at 74 FR 20293, May 1, 2009, and 72 FR 21006, April 27, 2007 that address issues similar to those raised by...

  6. 76 FR 362 - Inquiry To Learn Whether Businesses Assert Business Confidentiality Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... AGENCY Inquiry To Learn Whether Businesses Assert Business Confidentiality Claims AGENCY: Environmental... previously published notices similar to this one in the Federal Register, the latest one being at 75 FR 4812... issue: The preliminary inquiry and the notice of opportunity to comment. a. Inquiry To Learn...

  7. 77 FR 109 - Inquiry To Learn Whether Businesses Assert Business Confidentiality Claims Regarding Waste Import...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... AGENCY Inquiry To Learn Whether Businesses Assert Business Confidentiality Claims Regarding Waste Import... published notices similar to this one in the Federal Register, the latest one being at 76 FR 362, January 4... and the notice of opportunity to comment. a. Inquiry To Learn Whether Affected Businesses (Other...

  8. 75 FR 44951 - Inquiry To Learn Whether Businesses Assert Business Confidentiality Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... AGENCY Inquiry To Learn Whether Businesses Assert Business Confidentiality Claims AGENCY: Environmental... previously published notices similar to this one in the Federal Register, the latest one being at 75 FR 4812... issue: The preliminary inquiry and the notice of opportunity to comment. a. Inquiry To Learn...

  9. ASSERT-PV 3.2: Advanced subchannel thermalhydraulics code for CANDU fuel bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Introduction to a new version of the Canadian subchannel code, ASSERT-PV 3.2. • Enhanced models for flow-distribution, CHF and post-dryout heat transfer prediction. • Model changes focused on unique features of horizontal CANDU bundles. • Detailed description of model changes for all major thermalhydraulics models. • Discussion on rationale and limitation of the model changes. - Abstract: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed the subchannel thermalhydraulics code ASSERT-PV for the Canadian nuclear industry. The most recent release version, ASSERT-PV 3.2 has enhanced phenomenon models for improved predictions of flow distribution, dryout power and CHF location, and post-dryout (PDO) sheath temperature in horizontal CANDU fuel bundles. The focus of the improvements is mainly on modeling considerations for the unique features of CANDU bundles such as horizontal flows, small pitch to diameter ratios, high mass fluxes, and mixed and irregular subchannel geometries, compared to PWR/BWR fuel assemblies. This paper provides a general introduction to ASSERT-PV 3.2, and describes the model changes or additions in the new version to improve predictions of flow distribution, dryout power and CHF location, and PDO sheath temperatures in CANDU fuel bundles

  10. An Assertiveness Training Program for Indecisive Students Attending an Italian University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nota, Laura; Soresi, Salvatore

    2003-01-01

    Indecisive students often present with social skills problems, which may make academic and vocational decision-making tasks difficult and complex for them. This article presents a training program devised to augment assertive competencies in indecisive students choosing a university course of study. Intended aims and the analyses to assess the…

  11. A Study of the Relationship between Assertive Parenting Styles and Career Indecision in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Keith C.

    2013-01-01

    For a variety of reasons, higher levels of parental assertiveness have begun to impact even the basic conflicts college students encounter while in attendance. Called "helicopter parenting" within the popular press, these parents are described as involving themselves in the minutia of their child's college experience, engaging with…

  12. The Effects of a Sport Education Season on Empathy and Assertiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-López, L. M.; Gutiérrez, D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the objectives of the new Spanish Education Act is for students to develop a series of social skills, largely derived from the ability variables of assertiveness and empathy. Sport Education is an instructional model that is deemed useful in the development of personal and social responsibility and social values. It requires…

  13. Perceived Social Support and Assertiveness as a Predictor of Candidates Psychological Counselors' Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Bünyamin

    2016-01-01

    In this research, to what extent the variables of perceived social support (family, friends and special people) and assertiveness predicted the psychological well-being levels of candidate psychological counselors. The research group of this study included totally randomly selected 308 candidate psychological counselors including 174 females…

  14. Investigation of flow blockage in a fuel channel with the ASSERT subchannel code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On behalf of New Brunswick Power, a study was undertaken to determine if safe operation of a CANDU-6 reactor can be maintained at low reactor powers with the presence of debris in the fuel channels. In particular, the concern was to address if a small blockage due to the presence of debris would cause a significant reduction in dryout powers, and hence, to determine the safe operation power level to maintain dryout margins. In this work the NUCIRC(1,2), ASSERT-IV(3), and ASSERT-PV(3) computer codes are used in conjunction with a pool boiling model to determine the safe operation power level which maintains dryout safety margins. NUCIRC is used to provide channel boundary conditions for the ASSERTcodes and to select a representative channel for analysis. This pool boiling model is provided as a limiting lower bound analysis. As expected, the ASSERT results predict higher CHF ratios than the pool boiling model. In general, the ASSERT results show that as the model comes closer to modelling a complete blockage it reduces toward, but does not reach the pool boiling model. (author)

  15. Effects of Assertiveness Training and Expressive Writing on Acculturative Stress in International Students: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Shedeh; Lumley, Mark A.; Hijazi, Alaa M.; Slavin-Spenny, Olga M.; Parris, George P.

    2009-01-01

    International university students often experience acculturative stress, and culturally appropriate techniques to manage stress are needed. This randomized trial tested the effects of group assertiveness training, private expressive writing, their combination, and a wait-list control on the acculturative stress, affect, and health of 118…

  16. 78 FR 51677 - Children's Online Privacy Protection Rule Proposed Parental Consent Method; AssertID, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... meets the requirements for parental consent described in 16 CFR 312.5(b)(1). \\1\\ 64 FR 59888 (1999). \\2\\ 16 CFR part 312. \\3\\ 78 FR 3972 (2013). \\4\\ 16 CFR 312.12(a); 78 FR at 3991-3992, 4013. Pursuant to... Parental Consent Method; AssertID, Inc. Application for Approval of Parental Consent Method AGENCY:...

  17. Women are Warmer but No Less Assertive than Men: Gender and Language on Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gregory; Schwartz, H. Andrew; Kern, Margaret L.; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Kosinski, Michael; Stillwell, David; Ungar, Lyle H.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2016-01-01

    Using a large social media dataset and open-vocabulary methods from computational linguistics, we explored differences in language use across gender, affiliation, and assertiveness. In Study 1, we analyzed topics (groups of semantically similar words) across 10 million messages from over 52,000 Facebook users. Most language differed little across gender. However, topics most associated with self-identified female participants included friends, family, and social life, whereas topics most associated with self-identified male participants included swearing, anger, discussion of objects instead of people, and the use of argumentative language. In Study 2, we plotted male- and female-linked language topics along two interpersonal dimensions prevalent in gender research: affiliation and assertiveness. In a sample of over 15,000 Facebook users, we found substantial gender differences in the use of affiliative language and slight differences in assertive language. Language used more by self-identified females was interpersonally warmer, more compassionate, polite, and—contrary to previous findings—slightly more assertive in their language use, whereas language used more by self-identified males was colder, more hostile, and impersonal. Computational linguistic analysis combined with methods to automatically label topics offer means for testing psychological theories unobtrusively at large scale. PMID:27223607

  18. 40 CFR 68.151 - Assertion of claims of confidential business information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... business information. 68.151 Section 68.151 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.151 Assertion of claims of confidential business information. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of...

  19. Associations between assertiveness, psychological well-being, and self-esteem in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarkova, Maria; Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Orosova, Olga; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Katreniakova, Zuzana; Klein, Daniel; van den Heuvel, Wim; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the associations between adolescents assertive behavior, psychological well-being, and self-esteem. The sample consisted of 1,023 students (14.9 +/-.51; 47.6% boys). Two dimensions of the Scale for Interpersonal Behavior (distress and performance), 2 factors of the General Health

  20. 48 CFR 252.227-7019 - Validation of asserted restrictions-Computer software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... restrictions-Computer software. 252.227-7019 Section 252.227-7019 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...—Computer software. As prescribed in 227.7104(e)(3) or 227.7203-6(c), use the following clause: Validation of Asserted Restrictions—Computer Software (JUN 1995) (a) Definitions. (1) As used in this...

  1. Differentiating between Confrontive and Coercive Kinds of Parental Power-Assertive Disciplinary Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, I differentiate between coercive and confrontive kinds of power assertion to elucidate the significantly different effects on children's well-being of authoritarian and authoritative styles of parental authority. Although both parenting styles (in contrast to the permissive style) are equally demanding, forceful, and…

  2. Putting Corporate Social Responsibility to Work in Mining Communities: Exploring Community Needs for Central Appalachian Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Cook

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the finite nature of non-renewable mineral and energy resources such as coal, resource extraction is inherently unsustainable; however, mining and related activities can contribute to sustainable development. Indeed, the principles of corporate social responsibility (CSR require that mine operators design and conduct their activities in ways that provide for net positive impacts on surrounding communities and environments. In Central Appalachia, there appears to be a particularly ripe opportunity for the coal industry to put CSR to work: participation in sustainable solutions to the long-standing problem of inadequately treated wastewater discharges—which not only represent a potential human health hazard, but also contribute to the relatively high incidence of bacterial impairments in surface waters in the region. In this paper, we outline the underlying factors of this problem and the advantages of industry-aided solutions in a region where limited economic and technical resources are not always aligned with social and environmental needs. We also suggest a framework for problem-solving, which necessarily involves all interested stakeholders, and identify the primary challenges that must be overcome in pursuit of sustainable solutions.

  3. A QUANTIFIER-ELIMINATION BASED HEURISTIC FOR AUTOMATICALLY GENERATING INDUCTIVE ASSERTIONS FOR PROGRAMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deepak KAPUR

    2006-01-01

    A method using quantifier-elimination is proposed for automatically generating program invariants/inductive assertions. Given a program, inductive assertions, hypothesized as parameterized formulas in a theory, are associated with program locations. Parameters in inductive assertions are discovered by generating constraints on parameters by ensuring that an inductive assertion is indeed preserved by all execution paths leading to the associated location of the program. The method can be used to discover loop invariants-properties of variables that remain invariant at the entry of a loop. The parameterized formula can be successively refined by considering execution paths one by one; heuristics can be developed for determining the order in which the paths are considered. Initialization of program variables as well as the precondition and postcondition, if available, can also be used to further refine the hypothesized invariant. The method does not depend on the availability of the precondition and postcondition of a program. Constraints on parameters generated in this way are solved for possible values of parameters. If no solution is possible, this means that an invariant of the hypothesized form is not likely to exist for the loop under the assumptions/approximations made to generate the associated verification condition. Otherwise, if the parametric constraints are solvable, then under certain conditions on methods for generating these constraints, the strongest possible invariant of the hypothesized form can be generated from most general solutions of the parametric constraints. The approach is illustrated using the logical languages of conjunction of polynomial equations as well as Presburger arithmetic for expressing assertions.

  4. Acclimatization of communities of ammonia oxidizing bacteria to seasonal changes in optimal conditions in a coke wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Mo

    2013-11-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the correlation between optimal conditions of ammonia oxidation rates (AORs) and communities of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) adapting to seasonal changes in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The optimal temperature and pH of specific AORs reflected seasonal variation patterns, showing the lowest values during the cold season, while the highest values in the warm season. Throughout the study period, Nitrosomonas europaea/eutropha and Nitrosomonas nitrosa remained the dominant AOB, indicating resistance to the influences of a changing environment. These results show that the optimal conditions for AOR can be adjusted to accommodate changing environmental conditions, relying on the acclimatization of a stable AOB community to given conditions, without any visible shift in the AOB community. PMID:24001689

  5. Assessment of periodontal status in dental fluorosis subjects using community periodontal index of treatment needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontitis is multifactorial in nature. The various determinants of periodontal disease are age, sex, race, socioeconomic status, and risk factors including tobacco usage and oral hygiene status. However, there is inconsistent epidemiological data on the periodontal status of subjects living in high-fluoride areas. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of dental fluorosis on the periodontal status using community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN, as a clinical study. The purpose of this study is to determine the periodontal status using CPITN index in a population aged between 15 and 74 years residing in the high-fluoride areas of Davangere district. The possible reasons for the susceptibility of this population to periodontal disease are discussed. Materials and Methods: 1029 subjects, aged between 15 and 74 years suffering from dental fluorosis were assessed for their periodontal status. Clinical parameters recorded were OHI-S to assess the oral hygiene status, Jackson′s fluorosis index to assess the degree of fluorosis and CPITN index to assess the periodontal status where treatment need was excluded. Results: Gingivitis and periodontitis were more common in females (65.9% and 32.8%, respectively than in males (75.1% and 24.2%, respectively. Periodontitis was significantly more common in females. As the age advanced from 15 to 55 years and above, gingivitis reduced from 81.0 to 42.9% and periodontitis increased steadily from 18.0 to 57.1%, which was significant. Periodontitis was high in subjects with poor oral hygiene (81.3%, compared to those with good oral hygiene (14.5%, which was significant. As the degree of fluorosis increased, severity of gingivitis reduced and periodontitis increased, i.e., with A degree fluorosis, gingivitis was 89.4% and periodontitis 8.5%, but with F degree fluorosis the former was 64% and the latter 35.8%, which was statistically significant. Conclusion: The results

  6. A Randomized Trial of a Multimodal Community-Based Prisoner Reentry Program Emphasizing Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grommon, Eric; Davidson, William S., II; Bynum, Timothy S.

    2013-01-01

    Prisoner reentry programs continue to be developed and implemented to ease the process of transition into the community and to curtail fiscal pressures. This study describes and provides relapse and recidivism outcome findings related to a randomized trial evaluating a multimodal, community-based reentry program that prioritized substance abuse…

  7. Multisystemic Therapy: Bridging the Gap between University- and Community-Based Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henggeler, Scott W.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Proposes two theory- and empirically-based explanations for the emergent success of multisystemic therapy (MST) in community settings. First, MST may have demonstrated success because it bridges the gap between university-based psychotherapy studies and their community-based counterparts. Second, its favorable outcomes may exemplify the successful…

  8. Senior Outreach Services: A Treatment-Oriented Outreach Team in Community Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Bob; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes the development of a mobile geriatric outreach team. The importance of thorough, interdisciplinary assessment and the offering of active, brief psychotherapy are stressed. Community education programs and consultations to the aging network reach the senior community and other referral sources. Preliminary program evaluation data are…

  9. Analysis of bacterial community structures in two sewage treatment plants with different sludge properties and treatment performance by nested PCR-DGGE method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xin-chun; ZHANG Yu; YANG Min; WANG Zhen-yu; LV Wen-zhou

    2007-01-01

    The bacterial community structures in two sewage treatment plants with different processes and performance were investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments with group-specific primers. Samples of raw sewage and treated effluents were amplified using the whole-cell PCR method, and the activated sludge samples were amplified using the extracted genomic DNA before the PCR products were loaded on the same DGGE gel for bacterial community analysis. Ammonia-oxidizing bacterial and actinomycetic community analysis were also carried out to investigate the relationship between specific population structures and system or sludge performance. The two plants demonstrated a similarity in bacterial community structures of raw sewage and activated sludge, but they had different effluent populations. Many dominant bacterial populations of raw sewage did not appear in the activated sludge samples, suggesting that the dominant bacterial populations in raw sewage might not play an important role during wastewater treatment. Although the two plants had different sludge properties in terms of settleability and foam forming ability, they demonstrated similar actinomycetic community structures. For activated sludge with bad settling performance, the treated water presented a similar DGGE pattern with that of activated sludge, indicating the nonselective washout of bacteria from the system. The plant with better ammonium removal efficiency showed higher ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) species richness. Analysis of sequencing results showed that the major populations in raw sewage were uncultured bacterium, while in activated sludge the predominant populations were beta proteobacteria.

  10. Association of Biodiversity with the Rates of Micropollutant Biotransformations among Full-Scale Wastewater Treatment Plant Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbling, Damian E.; Lee, Tae Kwon; Park, Joonhong; Fenner, Kathrin; Kohler, Hans-Peter E.; Ackermann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Biodiversities can differ substantially among different wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) communities. Whether differences in biodiversity translate into differences in the provision of particular ecosystem services, however, is under active debate. Theoretical considerations predict that WWTP communities with more biodiversity are more likely to contain strains that have positive effects on the rates of particular ecosystem functions, thus resulting in positive associations between those two variables. However, if WWTP communities were sufficiently biodiverse to nearly saturate the set of possible positive effects, then positive associations would not occur between biodiversity and the rates of particular ecosystem functions. To test these expectations, we measured the taxonomic biodiversity, functional biodiversity, and rates of 10 different micropollutant biotransformations for 10 full-scale WWTP communities. We have demonstrated that biodiversity is positively associated with the rates of specific, but not all, micropollutant biotransformations. Thus, one cannot assume whether or how biodiversity will associate with the rate of any particular micropollutant biotransformation. We have further demonstrated that the strongest positive association is between biodiversity and the collective rate of multiple micropollutant biotransformations. Thus, more biodiversity is likely required to maximize the collective rates of multiple micropollutant biotransformations than is required to maximize the rate of any individual micropollutant biotransformation. We finally provide evidence that the positive associations are stronger for rare micropollutant biotransformations than for common micropollutant biotransformations. Together, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that differences in biodiversity can indeed translate into differences in the provision of particular ecosystem services by full-scale WWTP communities. PMID:25398862

  11. Changes and recovery of soil bacterial communities influenced by biological soil disinfestation as compared with chloropicrin-treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Mowlick, Subrata; Inoue, Takashi; Takehara, Toshiaki; Kaku, Nobuo; Ueki, Katsuji; Ueki, Atsuko

    2013-01-01

    Soil bacterial composition, as influenced by biological soil disinfestation (BSD) associated with biomass incorporation was investigated to observe the effects of the treatment on the changes and recovery of the microbial community in a commercial greenhouse setting. Chloropicrin (CP) was also used for soil disinfestation to compare with the effects of BSD. The fusarium wilt disease incidence of spinach cultivated in the BSD- and CP-treated plots was reduced as compared with that in the untre...

  12. Inoculum pre-treatment affects the fermentative activity of hydrogen-producing communities in the presence of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, Micol; Botticella, Giuseppe; Francavilla, Matteo; Beneduce, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    To enhance the productivity of mixed microbial cultures for fermentative bio-hydrogen production, chemical-physical pre-treatments of the original seed are needed to suppress the activity of hydrogen (H2)-consuming microbes. This approach might influence negatively the composition and diversity of the hydrogen-producing community with consequences on the functional stability of the H2-producing systems in case of perturbations. In this study, we aimed at investigating the effect of different types of pre-treatment on the performance of hydrogen production systems in the presence of an inhibitor, such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The efficiency and the microbial community structure of batch reactors amended with HMF and inoculated with non-pretreated and pretreated (acid, heat shock, and aeration) anaerobic sludge were evaluated and compared with control systems. The type of pre-treatments influenced the microbial community assembly and activity in inhibited systems, with significant effect on the performance. Cumulative H2 production tests showed that the pre-aerated systems (control and HMF inhibited) were the most efficient, while the difference of the lag phase of the pre-acidified control and HMF-added test was negligible. Analyses of the structure of the enriched microbial community in the systems through PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) followed by band sequencing revealed that the differences in performance were mostly related to shifts in the metabolic pathways rather than in the predominant species. In conclusion, the findings suggest that the use of specific inoculum pre-treatment could contribute to regulate the metabolic activity of the fermentative H2-producing bacteria in order to enhance the bio-energy production. PMID:26428244

  13. The Acceptability of Treatments for Depression to a Community Sample of Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporino, Nicole E.; Karver, Marc S.

    2012-01-01

    An efficacious treatment is diminished in value if consumers do not seek it out and adhere to it, making treatment acceptability an important predictor of the effectiveness of treatment. This study examined the acceptability of treatments for depression to 67 female high school students. All participants read a vignette describing a depressed…

  14. Microbes in biological processes for municipal landfill leachate treatment: Community, function and interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Duoying; Vahala, Riku; Wang, Yu;

    2016-01-01

    Landfill leachate (LFL) contains high strength of ammonium and complex organic substances including biodegradable volatile fatty acids (VFAs), refractory aquatic humic substances (AHS) and micro-scale xenobiotic organic chemicals (XOCs), which promotes the diverse microbial community in LFL...

  15. Secondary prevention of renal and cardiovascular disease: results of a renal and cardiovascular treatment program in an Australian aboriginal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Wendy E; Wang, Zhiqiang; Baker, Philip R A; Kelly, Angela M

    2003-07-01

    Australian Aborigines are experiencing an epidemic of renal and cardiovascular disease. In late 1995 we introduced a treatment program into the Tiwi community, which has a three- to fivefold increase in death rates and a recent annual incidence of treated ESRD of 2760 per million. Eligible for treatment were people with hypertension, diabetics with micro or overt albuminuria, and all people with overt albuminuria. Treatment centered around use of perindopril (Coversyl, Servier), with other agents added to reach BP goals; attempts to control glucose and lipid levels; and health education. Thirty percent of the adult population, or 267 people, were enrolled, with a mean follow up of 3.39 yr. Clinical parameters were followed every 6 mo, and rates of terminal endpoints were compared with those of 327 historical controls matched for baseline disease severity, followed in the pretreatment program era. There was a dramatic reduction in BP in the treatment group, which was sustained through 3 yr of treatment. Albuminuria and GFR stabilized or improved. Rates of natural deaths were reduced by an estimated 50% (P = 0.012); renal deaths were reduced by 57% (P = 0.038); and nonrenal deaths by 46% (P = 0.085). Survival benefit was suggested at all levels of overt albuminuria, and regardless of diabetes status, baseline BP, or prior administration of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI). No significant benefit was apparent among people without overt albuminuria, nor among those with GFR less than 60 ml/min. An estimated 13 renal deaths and 10 nonrenal deaths were prevented, with the number-needed-to-treat to avoid one terminal event of only 11.6. Falling deaths and renal failure in the whole community support these estimates. The program was extremely cost-effective. Programs like this should be introduced to all high-risk communities as a matter of urgency. PMID:12819325

  16. Effect of cerium dioxide, titanium dioxide, silver, and gold nanoparticles on the activity of microbial communities intended in wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Ana; Delgado, Lucia; Tora, Josep A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Casals, Eudald; Gonzalez, Edgar [Institut Catala de Nanotecnologia, Campus de la Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Puntes, Victor [Institut Catala de Nanotecnologia, Campus de la Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Institut Catala de Recerca i Estudis Avancats, Passeig Lluis Companys, 23, 08010 Barcelona (Spain); Font, Xavier; Carrera, Julian [Department of Chemical Engineering, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Sanchez, Antoni, E-mail: antoni.sanchez@uab.cat [Department of Chemical Engineering, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Toxicity of TiO{sub 2}, CeO{sub 2}, Ag and Au nanoparticles (NP) has been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NP were synthesized in the lab and stabilized to prevent agglomeration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Toxicity was studied in all the communities used for the wastewater treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heterotrophic, nitrifying and anaerobic organisms were studied for nanotoxicology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Au and TiO{sub 2} NP were not toxic, but Ag and CeO{sub 2} NP were inhibitory. - Abstract: Growth in production and use of nanoparticles (NPs) will result increased concentrations of these in industrial and urban wastewaters and, consequently, in wastewater-treatment facilities. The effect of this increase on the performance of the wastewater-treatment process has not been studied systematically and including all the microbial communities involved in wastewater treatment. The present work investigates, by using respiration tests and biogas-production analysis, the inhibitory effect of four different commonly used metal oxide (CeO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}) and zero-valent metal (Ag and Au) nanoparticles on the activity of the most important microbial communities present in a modern wastewater-treatment plant. Specifically, the actions of ordinary heterotrophic organisms, ammonia oxidizing bacteria, and thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic bacteria were tested in the presence and absence of the nanoparticles. In general, CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles caused the greatest inhibition in biogas production (nearly 100%) and a strong inhibitory action of other biomasses; Ag nanoparticles caused an intermediate inhibition in biogas production (within 33-50%) and a slight inhibition in the action of other biomasses, and Au and TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles caused only slight or no inhibition for all tested biomasses.

  17. Equivalence and standard scores of the Hurlbert Index of Sexual Assertiveness across Spanish men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Santos-Iglesias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to analyze the measurement invariance and differential item functioning of the Spanish version of the Hurlbert Index of Sexual Assertiveness across gender. The sample was composed of 1,600 women and 1,598 men from Spain, with ages ranging from 18 to 84 years old. The Hurlbert Index of Sexual Assertiveness only showed weak invariance for men and women. The differential item functioning analysis showed that only item 2 ("I feel that I am shy when it comes to sex" flagged moderate uniform differential item functioning. More specifically, women tended to respond "Always" to this item more frequently than did men. Results strongly suggested eliminating item 2, resulting in a final version with 18 items clustered into two dimensions with good reliability values for men and women. Standard scores for both Initiation and No Shyness/Refusal reflected traditional sexual scripts for men and women.

  18. Assertion-Based Design Exploration of DVS in Network Processor Architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Jia; Chen, Xi; Hsieh, Harry; Yang, Jun; Balarin, Felice

    2011-01-01

    With the scaling of technology and higher requirements on performance and functionality, power dissipation is becoming one of the major design considerations in the development of network processors. In this paper, we use an assertion-based methodology for system-level power/performance analysis to study two dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) techniques, traffic-based DVS and execution-based DVS, in a network processor model. Using the automatically generated distribution analyzers, we analyze the power and performance distributions and study their trade-offs for the two DVS policies with different parameter settings such as threshold values and window sizes. We discuss the optimal configurations of the two DVS policies under different design requirements. By a set of experiments, we show that the assertion-based trace analysis methodology is an efficient tool that can help a designer easily compare and study optimal architectural configurations in a large design space.

  19. Effect of heterogeneous Fenton-like pre-treatment on anaerobic granular sludge performance and microbial community for the treatment of traditional Chinese medicine wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chengyuan; Li, Weiguang; Lu, Yuxiang; Chen, Menglin; Huang, Zhi

    2016-08-15

    The effect of a heterogeneous Fenton-like pre-treatment on the anaerobic processes, characteristics and microbial community of sludge was investigated for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) wastewater containing rhein. When the concentrations of rhein were 50mg/L and 100mg/L, the toxic effect was physiological toxicity for anaerobic granular sludge. Using a single double circle (DC) reactor for the treatment of TCM wastewater containing rhein at concentrations of 15-20mg/L, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate was 69%, and coenzyme F420 was nearly undetectable in the 3D-excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra of soluble microbial products (SMP). The abundances of Methanoregula, Methanobacterium, Methanosphaerula were only 5.57%, 2.39% and 1.08% in the DC reactor, respectively. TCM wastewater containing rhein could be successfully treated by the combination of the heterogeneous Fenton-like pre-treatment and the DC reactor processes, and the COD removal rate reached 95%. Meanwhile, the abundances of Methanoregula, Methanobacterium, Methanosphaerula increased to 22.5%, 18.5%, and 13.87%, respectively. For the bacterial community, the abundance of Acidobacteria_Gp6 decreased from 6.99% to 1.07%, while the abundances of Acidobacteria_Gp1 and Acidobacteria_Gp2 increased from 1.61% to 6.55% and from 1.28% to 5.87%, respectively. PMID:27107235

  20. An Assertional Proof System for Multithreaded Java - Theory and Tool Support

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, E

    2005-01-01

    Besides the features of a class-based object-oriented language, Java integrates concurrency via its thread classes, allowing for a multithreaded flow of control. The concurrency model includes shared-variable concurrency via instance variables, coordination via reentrant synchronization monitors, synchronous message passing, and dynamic thread creation. To reason about safety properties of multithreaded Java programs, we introduce a tool-supported assertional proof method for JavaMT ("Multi-T...

  1. Assertive classroom management strategies and students’ performance: The case of EFL classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Aliakbari; Bafrin Bozorgmanesh

    2015-01-01

    Ample research findings support the effective role that classroom management strategies play in enhancing students’ learning. Drawing upon Iranian high school teachers’ classroom management strategies, this article is intended to examine the extent to which these teachers follow assertive classroom management strategies and if these strategies affect students’ performance. Conducting a survey including 123 female students, it was found out that Iranian teachers apply classroom management stra...

  2. Asserted and neglected issues linking evidence-based and Chinese medicines for cardiac rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Arthur Sá; de Moura, Nathalia Gomes Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    High blood pressure is among the most prevalent chronic disease in adults that impacts on the quality of life of patients, which are often subjected to physical rehabilitation. Chinese medicine intervention in patients with hypertension presents promising albeit inconclusive results, mostly due to methodological issues. This paper discusses asserted and neglected issues linking evidence-based and Chinese medicines as related to systemic arterial hypertension, as well as their impact on the ph...

  3. The effects of a sport education season on empathy and assertiveness

    OpenAIRE

    García López, Luis Miguel; Gutiérrez Díaz del Campo, David

    2013-01-01

    Background: One of the objectives of the new Spanish Education Act is for students to develop a series of social skills, largely derived from the ability variables of assertiveness and empathy. Sport Education is an instructional model that is deemed useful in the development of personal and social responsibility and social values. It requires interaction among students during group activities as there are many roles and responsibilities involved. Previous research on Sport Education reveals ...

  4. The Use of Financial Reporting Assertions at the Various Stages of Audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Aleksandrovna Vasilenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of unsustainable economic development, the requirements that apply to reliability of financial reporting are growing steadily. From the auditor’s perspective it means actualization of the audit methodology problems which can be solved both at the level of financial reporting and the level of its assertions. The article examines the correlation between the audit stages and the usage of financial reporting assertions by auditor in the context of progressive audit. The author provides the results of the synthesis approaches of researchers to allocation and justification of the audit stages. The audit process consists of two directions: achieving the overall audit objectives and achieving the objectives at the level of individual segments. It is proposed to consider the four audit stages in accordance with International Standards on Auditing: 1 planning an audit; 2 audit procedures and audit evidence; 3 evaluation of misstatements identified during the audit; 4 forming an opinion in the audit report. It is established that financial reporting assertions are applied at the three of four audit stages. The analysis of standards on auditing has revealed strong relationship between the audit procedures and the financial reporting assertions. The links which are described in the article are implemented in the practice of auditing organizations by the development of audit documentation set for the various stages of audit. It allows to structure process of planning and performing audit procedures basing on the requirements of the international standards on auditing. As a result, the optimal conditions are created for expressing the opinion by auditor in his report regarding the reliability of the financial statements.

  5. Women are Warmer but No Less Assertive than Men: Gender and Language on Facebook

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory Park; David Bryce Yaden; H Andrew Schwartz; Kern, Margaret L.; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Michael Kosinski; David Stillwell; Ungar, Lyle H.; Seligman, Martin E.P.

    2016-01-01

    Using a large social media dataset and open-vocabulary methods from computational linguistics, we explored differences in language use across gender, affiliation, and assertiveness. In Study 1, we analyzed topics (groups of semantically similar words) across 10 million messages from over 52,000 Facebook users. Most language differed little across gender. However, topics most associated with self-identified female participants included friends, family, and social life, whereas topics most asso...

  6. The Relation between Assertiveness Levels, Locus of Control and Academic Success of Turkish Language Teacher Candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Güneyli; Sibel Dinçyürek; Mehmet Çağlar

    2012-01-01

    Before they start their career, candidate teachers must have deep knowledge about the characteristics that a successful teachers should have. The purpose is to create awareness that personal traits of a teacher are critical during education period and to improve and develop these traits. The research is a descriptive one and the basic purpose of this study is to examine the relation between the assertiveness levels and locus of control, on one hand, and academic success, on the other, of seni...

  7. Assertiveness Skills Training Efficiency on College Students’ Persuasive Subjective Norms against Substance Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    M Barati; H. Allahverdipour; B. Moeini; A. Farhadi Nasab; H. Mahjub; F. Jalilian

    2011-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: The prevalence of substance abuse among college students is increasing drastically and requires immediate skill-based substance abuse intervention such as assertive skills. The purpose of this study was to develope the healthy behavior to change the subjective norms of students in order to decrease their tendency towards substance abuse. Materials & Methods: A pre and post nonequivalent control group design study carried out on college students. A total number of 140...

  8. Effects of Assertiveness Training and Expressive Writing on Acculturative Stress in International Students: A Randomized Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Tavakoli, Shedeh; Lumley, Mark A.; Hijazi, Alaa M.; Slavin-Spenny, Olga M.; Parris, George P.

    2009-01-01

    International university students often experience acculturative stress, and culturally appropriate techniques to manage stress are needed. This randomized trial tested the effects of group assertiveness training, private expressive writing, their combination, and a wait-list control on the acculturative stress, affect, and health of 118 international students at an urban, American university. Interventions were conducted at the start of a semester, and assessments were conducted at baseline ...

  9. Self-Esteem and Assertiveness Levels of Nursing and Midwifery Students

    OpenAIRE

    DİNÇER, Uz. Hem.Feray; ÖZTUNÇ, Doç. Dr. Gürsel

    2009-01-01

    Nursing and midwifery education is a difficult and stressful process. In this process, nursing and midwifery students are expected to have a high self-confidence, to express themselves, to communicate effectively, and to be able to defend his/her herself. The population of our descriptive study, which was conducted to determine self-esteem and assertiveness levels of nursing and midwifery students, consisted of the students of Çukurova University Adana Health College. Data is collected by que...

  10. ART adherence changes among patients in community substance use treatment: a preliminary analysis from MACH14

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen Marc I; Black Anne C; Arnsten Julia H; Simoni Jane M; Wagner Glann J; Goggin Kathleen; Remien Robert H; Golin Carol E; Wang Yan; Bangsberg David; Liu Honghu H

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Opiate substitution treatment has been associated with better adherence to lifesaving antiretroviral medications, but the impact of other substance abuse treatment on adherence is unknown. Findings In this study, 215 patients who had been in adherence-focused research studies provided electronically-measured adherence data and a measure of whether the patient had recently been in substance abuse treatment. Recent engagement in substance abuse treatment was independently as...

  11. Impact of Community-Based DOT on Tuberculosis Treatment Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, HaiYang; Ehiri, John; Yang, Huan; Tang, Shenglan; Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Background Poor adherence to tuberculosis (TB) treatment can lead to prolonged infectivity and poor treatment outcomes. Directly observed treatment (DOT) seeks to improve adherence to TB treatment by observing patients while they take their anti-TB medication. Although community-based DOT (CB-DOT) programs have been widely studied and promoted, their effectiveness has been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to critical appraise and summarize evidence of the effects of CB-DOT on TB treatment outcomes. Methods Studies published up to the end of February 2015 were identified from three major international literature databases: Medline/PubMed, EBSCO, and EMBASE. Unpublished data from the grey literature were identified through Google and Google Scholar searches. Results Seventeen studies involving 12,839 pulmonary TB patients (PTB) in eight randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and nine cohort studies from 12 countries met the criteria for inclusion in this review and 14 studies were included in meta-analysis. Compared with clinic-based DOT, pooled results of RCTs for all PTB cases (including smear-negative or -positive, new or retreated TB cases) and smear-positive PTB cases indicated that CB-DOT promoted successful treatment [pooled RRs (95%CIs): 1.11 (1.02–1.19) for all PTB cases and 1.11 (1.02–1.19) for smear-positive PTB cases], and completed treatment [pooled RRs (95%CIs): 1.74(1.05, 2.90) for all PTB cases and 2.22(1.16, 4.23) for smear-positive PTB cases], reduced death [pooled RRs (95%CIs): 0.44 (0.26–0.72) for all PTB cases and 0.39 (0.23–0.66) for smear-positive PTB cases], and transfer out [pooled RRs (95%CIs): 0.37 (0.23–0.61) for all PTB cases and 0.42 (0.25–0.70) for smear-positive PTB cases]. Pooled results of all studies (RCTs and cohort studies) with all PTB cases demonstrated that CB-DOT promoted successful treatment [pooled RR (95%CI): 1.13 (1.03–1.24)] and curative treatment [pooled RR (95%CI): 1.24 (1.04–1.48)] compared with

  12. Diasporic Authenticity Assertions: Analysis of Amy Tan’s The Bonesetter’s Daughter

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    Naeimeh Tabatabaei Lotfi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay is an attempt to examine the active interaction of history and memory, in formulation of a diasporic authentic picture of past, in Amy Tan’s The Bonesetter’s Daughter (2001. Amongst discursive disciplines, memory and history perform vitally, in picturing past; both attempt to reproduce events, by emblematic narrative acts. However, their erratic quality endorses the existence of counter- stories that endangers displaying a homogeneous past. Among miscellaneous categories of memories, autobiographical memory asserts to obtain an authentic presentation, but as any other forms of accounts, it exhibits an imprecise fictional image. This psychological alleviation ensures the future mental integrity of trauma victims. In memory narratives, the contingent temperament of power network and continual formulation of resisting frameworks might be explored. Tan’s diasporic assertion of authenticity, as a migrant writer, amalgamated with employment of fantasy is to obtain a shared diasporic identity, among her characters, although personal accounts of characters undergo an extensive amount of contingency. The newly forged identity is collective in nature and defies the geographical and temporal borders and grants a humane picture rather than a diasporic one; an identity that is established to venerate the cardinal role of personal memory, in endowing legitimate truth.Keywords: Amy Tan- Authenticity Assertion- Memory- History- Diasporic Narrative

  13. ASSERT validation against the Stern Laboratories' single-phase pressure drop tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the preliminary validation of ASSERT-IV against the single-phase pressure drop tests from the 37-element CHF (critical heat flux) experiments conducted at Stern Laboratories, and shows how this study fits into the overall ASSERT validation plan. The effects on the pressure drop of several friction and form loss models are evaluated, including the geometry-based K-factor model. The choice of friction factor has a small effect on the predicted channel pressure drop, compared to the form loss model choice. Using the uniform K-factors of Hameed, the computed pressure drops are in excellent agreement with the experimental results from the nominal pressure tube tests. For future ASSERT applications, either Hameed's uniform K-factors or the geometry-based model using Idelchik's thick-edged orifice equation are recommended, as are the friction factor correlations of Colebrook-White, Selander, and Aly and Groeneveld. More analysis of the geometry-based K-factor model is required. (author). 23 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs

  14. Assertiveness Skills Training Efficiency on College Students’ Persuasive Subjective Norms against Substance Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barati

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The prevalence of substance abuse among college students is increasing drastically and requires immediate skill-based substance abuse intervention such as assertive skills. The purpose of this study was to develope the healthy behavior to change the subjective norms of students in order to decrease their tendency towards substance abuse. Materials & Methods: A pre and post nonequivalent control group design study carried out on college students. A total number of 140 students were selected through randomized cluster sampling and randomly assigned to the intervention (n=70 and the control (n=70 groups. The data-gathering tool consisted of a self-report questionnaire assessing the variables of moral , descriptive , and injunctive norms. After the diagnostic evaluation, assertive skills promoting program was applied to persuade the participants against substances abuse. Respondents in the control and experimental groups completed questionnaires at baseline and 2 months after the intervention. Results: The result showed that educational manipulation had significant effect on intervention group’s average response for moral norms (t= -3.36, P<0.001, descriptive norms (t= -3.07, P<0.003, and injunctive norms for persuading substance abuse (t=-3.79, P<0.000.Conclusion: These findings suggest that assertive skills training would be an efficient tool in drug abuse prevention programs among adolescents that should also be included in the comprehensive school health programs. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2011;18(3:40-49

  15. Formal verification of reactor process control software using assertion checking environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assertion Checking Environment (ACE) was developed in-house for carrying out formal (rigorous/ mathematical) functional verification of embedded software written in MISRA C. MISRA C is an industrially sponsored safe sub-set of C programming language and is well accepted in the automotive and aerospace industries. ACE uses static assertion checking technique for verification of MISRA C programs. First the functional specifications of the program are derived from the specifications in the form of pre- and post-conditions for each C function. These pre- and post-conditions are then introduced as assertions (formal comments) in the program code. The annotated C code is then formally verified using ACE. In this paper we present our experience of using ACE for the formal verification of process control software of a nuclear reactor. The Software Requirements Document (SRD) contained textual specifications of the process control software. The SRD was used by the designers to draw logic diagrams which were given as input to a code generator. The verification of the generated C code was done at 2 levels viz. (i) verification against specifications derived from logic diagrams, and (ii) verification against specifications derived from SRD. In this work we checked approximately 600 functional specifications of the software having roughly 15000 lines of code. (author)

  16. Chinese Assertiveness in the South China Sea and Southeast Asian Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlyle A. Thayer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews Chinese assertive behaviour towards the Philippines and Vietnam over South China Sea issues in 2011. The article compares and contrasts Chinese diplomatic behaviour in the period before and after the adoption by ASEAN member states and China of Guidelines for the Implementation the Declaration on Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea in July. In the first period China aggressively asserted its claims to sovereignty by interfering with commercial fishing and oil exploration activities of vessels operating in the Exclusive Economic Zones of Vietnam and the Philippines. Both states resisted Chinese actions. The Philippines allocated increased funding for defence modernization, lobbied ASEAN states and shored up its alliance with the United States. Vietnam too protested Chinese action and undertook symbolic steps to defend national sovereignty. In the second period all states moved to contain South China Sea tensions from affecting their larger bilateral relations. It remains to be seen, however, if proposed confidence building measures will ameliorate Chinese assertiveness.

  17. Initiation and adherence to TB treatment in a Pakistani community influenced more by perceptions than by knowledge of tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubashir Zafar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The tuberculosis (TB literature is written almost entirely from a biomedical perspective, while recent studies show that it is imperative to understand lay perception to determine why people seek treatment and may stop taking treatment. Aims: To investigate knowledge about TB, perceptions of (access to TB treatment, and adherence to treatment among a Pakistani population. Setting and Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: A total of 175 participants were selected nonrandomly, 100 were TB patient and 75 were non-TB patient in proportion to the total number of participants in each ward of hospital. Statistical Analysis: Analysis of attitudes and perceptions toward TB, adherence to TB treatment, health seeking behavior, and TB treatment types done by frequency counts and percentages. Regression analysis and logistic regression analysis were performed to test whether differences in age, gender, and education level led to different knowledge scores and different attitudes and preferences toward TB, adherence to TB treatment, health seeking behavior, and TB treatment types. All statistical analyses were performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 16.0. Result: TB knowledge can be considered fairly well among this community. Respondents′ perceptions suggest that stigma may influence TB patients′ decision in health seeking behavior and adherence to TB treatment. A full 95% of those interviewed believe people with TB tend to hide their TB status out of fear of what others may say. Conclusion: Most of the subjects were unaware of TB that seems to be due to their illiteracy and those who knew had got the knowledge from media, but the majority of the patients who were on directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS were found to be satisfied.

  18. Effectiveness of Provider and Community Interventions to Improve Treatment of Uncomplicated Malaria in Nigeria: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

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    Obinna Onwujekwe

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization recommends that malaria be confirmed by parasitological diagnosis before treatment using Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT. Despite this, many health workers in malaria endemic countries continue to diagnose malaria based on symptoms alone. This study evaluates interventions to help bridge this gap between guidelines and provider practice. A stratified cluster-randomized trial in 42 communities in Enugu state compared 3 scenarios: Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs with basic instruction (control; RDTs with provider training (provider arm; and RDTs with provider training plus a school-based community intervention (provider-school arm. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients treated according to guidelines, a composite indicator requiring patients to be tested for malaria and given treatment consistent with the test result. The primary outcome was evaluated among 4946 (93% of the 5311 patients invited to participate. A total of 40 communities (12 in control, 14 per intervention arm were included in the analysis. There was no evidence of differences between the three arms in terms of our composite indicator (p = 0.36: stratified risk difference was 14% (95% CI -8.3%, 35.8%; p = 0.26 in the provider arm and 1% (95% CI -21.1%, 22.9%; p = 0.19 in the provider-school arm, compared with control. The level of testing was low across all arms (34% in control; 48% provider arm; 37% provider-school arm; p = 0.47. Presumptive treatment of uncomplicated malaria remains an ingrained behaviour that is difficult to change. With or without extensive supporting interventions, levels of testing in this study remained critically low. Governments and researchers must continue to explore alternative ways of encouraging providers to deliver appropriate treatment and avoid the misuse of valuable medicines.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01350752.

  19. Utility of repeated praziquantel dosing in the treatment of schistosomiasis in high-risk communities in Africa: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles H King

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Controversy persists about the optimal approach to drug-based control of schistosomiasis in high-risk communities. In a systematic review of published studies, we examined evidence for incremental benefits from repeated praziquantel dosing, given 2 to 8 weeks after an initial dose, in Schistosoma-endemic areas of Africa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed systematic searches of electronic databases PubMed and EMBASE for relevant data using search terms 'schistosomiasis', 'dosing' and 'praziquantel' and hand searches of personal collections and bibliographies of recovered articles. In 10 reports meeting study criteria, improvements in parasitological treatment outcomes after two doses of praziquantel were greater for S. mansoni infection than for S. haematobium infection. Observed cure rates (positive to negative conversion in egg detection assays were, for S. mansoni, 69-91% cure after two doses vs. 42-79% after one dose and, for S. haematobium, 46-99% cure after two doses vs. 37-93% after a single dose. Treatment benefits in terms of reduction in intensity (mean egg count were also different for the two species-for S. mansoni, the 2-dose regimen yielded an weighted average 89% reduction in standardized egg counts compared to a 83% reduction after one dose; for S. haematobium, two doses gave a 93% reduction compared to a 94% reduction with a single dose. Cost-effectiveness analysis was performed based on Markov life path modeling. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although schedules for repeated treatment with praziquantel require greater inputs in terms of direct costs and community participation, there are incremental benefits to this approach at an estimated cost of $153 (S. mansoni-$211 (S. haematobium per additional lifetime QALY gained by double treatment in school-based programs. More rapid reduction of infection-related disease may improve program adherence, and if, as an externality of the program, transmission can be

  20. Impact of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the bacterial communities of biological activated carbon filter intended for drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyuan, Liu; Shuili, Yu; Heedeung, Park; Qingbin, Yuan; Guicai, Liu; Qi, Li

    2016-08-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are inevitably present in the aquatic environment owing to their increasing production and use. However, knowledge of the potential effects of TiO2 NPs on the treatment of drinking water is scarce. Herein, the effects of two types of anatase TiO2 NPs (TP1, 25 nm; TP2, 100 nm) on the bacterial community in a biological activated carbon (BAC) filter were investigated via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) analysis, ATP quantification, and 454 pyrosequencing analysis. Both TP1 and TP2 significantly inhibited the bacterial ATP level (p < 0.01) and induced a decrease in the abundance of bacterial 16S rDNA gene copies at doses of 0.1 and 100 mg L(-1). Simultaneously, the diversity and evenness of the bacterial communities were considerably reduced. The relative abundances of bacteria annotated to OTUs from Nitrospira class and Betaproteobacteria class decreased upon TiO2 NP treatment, whereas those of Bacilli class and Gammaproteobacteria class increased. TiO2 NP size showed a greater effect on the bacterial composition than did the dose based on Bray-Curtis distances. These findings identified negative effects of TiO2 NPs on the bacterial community in the BAC filter. Given the fact that BAC filters are used widely in drinking water treatment plants, these results suggested a potential threat by TiO2 NP to drinking water treatment system. PMID:27126871

  1. Analysis of denitrifier community in a bioaugmented sequencing batch reactor for the treatment of coking wastewater containing pyridine and quinoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Yaohui; Xing, Rui; Wen, Donghui; Tang, Xiaoyan [Peking Univ., Beijing (CN). Key Lab. of Water and Sediment Sciences (Ministry of Education); Sun, Qinghua [Peking Univ., Beijing (CN). Key Lab. of Water and Sediment Sciences (Ministry of Education); Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing (China). Inst. of Environmental Health and Related Product Safety

    2011-05-15

    The denitrifier community and associated nitrate and nitrite reduction in the bioaugmented and general sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) during the treatment of coking wastewater containing pyridine and quinoline were investigated. The efficiency and stability of nitrate and nitrite reduction in SBR was considerably improved after inoculation with four pyridine- or quinoline-degrading bacterial strains (including three denitrifying strains). Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) based on the nosZ gene revealed that the structures of the denitrifier communities in bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented reactors were distinct and varied during the course of the experiment. Bioaugmentation protected indigenous denitrifiers from disruptions caused by pyridine and quinoline. Clone library analysis showed that one of the added denitrifiers comprised approximately 6% of the denitrifier population in the bioaugmented sludge. (orig.)

  2. Sensation Seeking, Substance Abuse, and Psychopathology in Treatment-Seeking and Community Cocaine Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Samuel A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Assessed sensation seeking, substance abuse severity, and psychiatric disorders in clinical and community sample of 335 cocaine abusers. In contrast to low-sensation-seeking subjects, high-sensation seekers exhibited more severe symptoms of substance abuse, exhibited more severe psychosocial impairment, were more likely to be polysubstance…

  3. SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS DESIGN FOR COMMUNITIES IN PANAM&AACUTE;

    Science.gov (United States)

    In collaboration with the Panamanian non-governmental organization Centro de Estudios y Acción Social Panameño (CEASPA), the Northwestern University chapter of Engineers for a Sustainable World (ESW-NU) has been working with the rural ranching community of San...

  4. Is forced migration a barrier to treatment success? Similar HIV treatment outcomes among refugees and a surrounding host community in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, Joshua B; Schilperoord, Marian; Spiegel, Paul; Balasundaram, Susheela; Radhakrishnan, Anuradha; Lee, Christopher K C; Larke, Natasha; Grant, Alison D; Sondorp, Egbert; Ross, David A

    2014-02-01

    In response to an absence of studies among refugees and host communities accessing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in urban settings, our objective was to compare adherence and virological outcomes among clients attending a public clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among adult clients (≥18 years). Data sources included a structured questionnaire that measured self-reported adherence, a pharmacy-based measure of HAART prescription refills over the previous 24 months, and HIV viral loads. The primary outcome was unsuppressed viral load (≥40 copies/mL). Among a sample of 153 refugees and 148 host community clients, refugees were younger (median age 35 [interquartile range, IQR 31, 39] vs 40 years [IQR 35, 48], p refugee and host clients were refugees vs 16 % of host clients, p = 0.54). Refugee status was not independently associated with the outcome (adjusted odds ratio, aOR = 1.28, 95 % CI 0.52, 3.14). Overall, the proportions of refugee and host community clients with unsuppressed viral loads and sub-optimal adherence were similar, supporting the idea that refugees in protracted asylum situations are able to sustain good treatment outcomes and should explicitly be included in the HIV strategic plans of host countries with a view to expanding access in accordance with national guidelines for HAART. PMID:23748862

  5. Effect of Different Fertilizer Treatments on Quantity of Soil Microbes and Structure of Ammonium Oxidizing Bacterial Community in a Calcareous Purple Paddy Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The quantity of soil microbes and the structure of ammonium oxidizing bacterial (AOB) community were analyzed using the dilution plate counting and most probable number method (MPN), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), respectively. Fertilizer application tended to increase the number of soil microbes and alter the AOB community compared to the control with no fertilizer application (CK). Among the eight fertilizer treatments, soil samples from the treatments of mineral fertilizers (e.g., N, P, K) in combination with farmyard manure (M) had greater numbers of soil microbes and more complex structure of AOB community than those receiving mineral fertilizers alone. The principal component analyses (PCA) for ammonium oxidizing bacterial community structure showed that the eight fertilizer treatments could be divided into two PCA groups (PCA1 and PCA2). For the soil sampled after rice harvest, PCA1 included NP, NM, NPM and NPKM fertilizer treatments, while PCA2 was consisted of CK, N, M and NPK fertilizer treatments. For soil samples collected after wheat harvest, PCA1 was consisted of M, NM, NPM and NPKM fertilizer treatments, while PCA2 was composed of CK, N, NP and NPK fertilizer treatments. For a given rotation, the richness of AOB community in PCA1 was greater than that in PCA2. In addition, AOB community structure was more complex in the soil after rice harvest than that after wheat harvest. The results indicated that different fertilizer treatments resulted in substantial changes of soil microbe number and AOB community. Furthermore, mineral fertilizers (N, NP, NPK) combined with farmyard manure were effective for increasing the quantity of soil microbes, enriching AOB community, and improving the soil biofertility.

  6. Performance Assessment of Full-Scale Wastewater Treatment Plants Based on Seasonal Variability of Microbial Communities via High-Throughput Sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Tang; LIU, SHUFENG; Zheng, Maosheng; CHEN, Qian; Ni, Jinren

    2016-01-01

    Microbial communities of activated sludge (AS) play a key role in the performance of wastewater treatment processes. However, seasonal variability of microbial population in varying AS-based processes has been poorly correlated with operation of full-scale wastewater treatment systems (WWTSs). In this paper, significant seasonal variability of AS microbial communities in eight WWTSs located in the city of Guangzhou were revealed in terms of 16S rRNA-based Miseq sequencing. Furthermore, variat...

  7. BEHAVIORAL ASPECTS IN COMMUNITY ORAL HEALTH PROBLEMS: A STUDY ON DENTAL TREATMENT DISCONTINUATION

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    Felix Aryadi Joelimar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The low value of F/DMF-T ration on Performed Treatment Index in Indoneisa gives an indication of great problems in dental treatment utilization. Dental treatment utilization is affected by several obstacles, the greatest among which is psychosocial obstacles. In this study the psychosocial obstacles were detected through Intrinsic Obstacles, Obstacles in Transportation, and Obstacles in Dental Clinic related to their effects on their discontinuation of dental treatments at Balkesmas Kiara, Kecamatan Senen, Jakarta Pusat. The discontinuation of dental treatments was mostly affected by Intrinsic Obstacles, through its components as Types of Cases, Dental Anxiety Scale, and Intrinsic Motivation. Generally Obstacles in Transportation had no effects, excpet its components of Travel Time and Tiredness. Obstacles in Dental Clinic had a significant effect on the discontinuation of dental treatments through the unpleasant manner of the druggist, the hot waiting room, and the high expense on drugs.

  8. Community risk factors for ocular Chlamydia infection in Niger: pre-treatment results from a cluster-randomized trachoma trial.

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    Abdou Amza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trachoma control programs utilize mass azithromycin distributions to treat ocular Chlamydia trachomatis as part of an effort to eliminate this disease world-wide. But it remains unclear what the community-level risk factors are for infection. METHODS: This cluster-randomized, controlled trial entered 48 randomly selected communities in a 2×2 factorial design evaluating the effect of different treatment frequencies and treatment coverage levels. A pretreatment census and examination established the prevalence of risk factors for clinical trachoma and ocular chlamydia infection including years of education of household head, distance to primary water source, presence of household latrine, and facial cleanliness (ocular discharge, nasal discharge, and presence of facial flies. Univariate and multivariate associations were tested using linear regression and Bayes model averaging. FINDINGS: There were a total of 24,536 participants (4,484 children aged 0-5 years in 6,235 households in the study. Before treatment in May to July 2010, the community-level prevalence of active trachoma (TF or TI utilizing the World Health Organization [WHO] grading system was 26.0% (95% CI: 21.9% to 30.0% and the mean community-level prevalence of chlamydia infection by Amplicor PCR was 20.7% (95% CI: 16.5% to 24.9% in children aged 0-5 years. Univariate analysis showed that nasal discharge (0.29, 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.54; P = 0.03, presence of flies on the face (0.40, 95% CI: 0.17 to 0.64; P = 0.001, and years of formal education completed by the head of household (0.07, 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.13; P = 0.03 were independent risk factors for chlamydia infection. In multivariate analysis, facial flies (0.26, 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.49; P = 0.03 and years of formal education completed by the head of household (0.06, 95% CI: 0.008 to 0.11; P = 0.02 were associated risk factors for ocular chlamydial infection. INTERPRETATION: We have found that the presence

  9. Adaptation of the Patient Feedback Survey at a Community Treatment Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Kolodziej, Monika E.; Muchowski, Patrice M.; Hamdi, Nayla R.; Morrissette, Paula; Psy.D.,; McGowan, Alicen J.; Weiss, Roger D.

    2011-01-01

    The Patient Feedback Survey is a performance improvement measure designed to assess the quality of outpatient substance abuse treatment. We modified and administered this measure to 500 individuals at a multi-site treatment provider. Although the feedback scores were high in general, analyses of variance showed score variability in relation to type and length of treatment. Moreover, respondents who reported any use of marijuana, cravings for substances, or mutual-support group attendance (i.e...

  10. Differential effects of biocide treatments on saxicolous communities: Case study of the Segovia cathedral cloister (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Ríos, Asunción de los; Pérez Ortega, Sergio; Wierzchos, Jacek; Ascaso, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the differential elimination of surface lichen thalli and their penetrating hyphae and epilithic and endolithic cyanobacteria by two biocide treatments applied on a small scale to the cloister of the Segovia cathedral. Both chemical treatments were followed by mechanical cleaning, and their effects were determined by scanning electron microscopy with backscattered electron imaging (SEM–BSE). Both treatments were effective at killing epilithic lichens and cyanobacteria, a...

  11. The Effectiveness of Social Skills Training by Cognitive-Behavioral Group in the Increase of Girls’ Self-Esteem and Assertiveness with Addicted Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Esmaeili

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was the survey of social skills training by cognitive behavioral group in the increase of girls’ self-esteem and assertiveness with addicted parents in Isfahan. Method: 20 students with addicted parents who had the lowest rate of assertiveness were selected by semi-experimental method in third to fifth grades. Randomly research projects pre-test-post-test control group. Questionnaire to measure assertiveness and assertiveness Gmbryl and Richie Esteem Questionna...

  12. Community perceptions of malaria and malaria treatment behaviour in a rural district of Ghana: implications for artemisinin combination therapy

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    Boahen Owusu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artesunate-amodiaquine (AS-AQ was introduced in Ghana as the first line drug for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in 2004. We report the perceptions of malaria and malaria treatment behaviour, the community awareness of and perceptions about AS-AQ two years after the introduction of this ACT treatment for malaria. Methods Two surveys were conducted; a cross-sectional survey of 729 randomly selected household heads (urban-362, rural-367 and 282 women with children Results Majority of respondents ( > 75% in the sampled survey mentioned mosquito bites as the cause of malaria. Other causes mentioned include environmental factors (e.g. dirty surroundings and standing in the sun. Close to 60% of the household heads and 40% of the care-givers interviewed did not know about AS-AQ. The community respondents who knew about and had ever taken AS-AQ perceived it to be a good drug; although they mentioned they had experienced some side effects including headaches and body weakness. Co-blistered AS-AQ was available in all the government health facilities in the study area. Different formulations of ACTs were however found in urban chemical shops but not in rural chemical stores where monotherapy antimalarials were predominant. Conclusion The knowledge of fever as a symptom of malaria is high among the study population. The awareness of AS-AQ therapy and its side-effect was low in the study area. Community education and sensitization, targeting all categories of the population, has to be intensified to ensure an efficient implementation process.

  13. Treatment of adults with community-acquired respiratory tract infections: results of a multicentric clinical trial with gatifloxacin

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    Medeiros Eduardo Alexandrino Servolo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory tract infections have an important clinical and economic impact and they are the most common indication for antibiotic use in outpatient practice. This prospective, multicenter non-controlled trial assessed the efficacy and safety of gatifloxacin in the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections. Patients were treated with a daily oral dose of gatifloxacin 400 mg for 7-14 days. The diagnosis of respiratory infection was made based on the clinical condition and/or radiologic findings. A total of 5,044 adult patients with community-acquired respiratory infections was treated with gatifloxacin in different centers in Brazil between March 1, 2001, and October 31, 2001. Among the 5,044 patients treated, 1,501 patients (29.76% had community-acquired pneumonia, 756 (14.99% had acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis and 2,787 (55.25% had acute sinusitis. Of the total of patients treated, 3,607 (71.51% were considered cured, 1,261 (25% progressed with some clinical improvement, 28 (0.56% presented a relapse, 56 (1.11% failed to treatment and 92 (1.82% were unable to be evaluated. Adverse events were described in 634 (12.57% patients. The most common adverse events were: nausea (2.24%; dyspepsia (1.86%; diarrhea (0.79%; change in taste (0.46%; insomnia and irritability (0.22%; dizziness (0.77%; headache (0.42%; allergic reaction (0.18%; Central Nervous System alterations - insomnia, agitation, anxiety - (0.46%. This study showed that the treatment of respiratory tract infections with gatifloxacin was safe and efficient and had a low incidence of adverse events.

  14. Efficacy and Safety of Intravenous Moxifloxacin Versus Cefoperazone with Azithromycin in the Treatment of Community Acquired Pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shuyun; XIONG Shengdao; XU Yongjian; LIU Jin; LIU Huiguo; ZHAO Jianping; XIONG Weining

    2006-01-01

    To compare the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of intravenous moxifloxacin with those of a commonly used empirical antibiotic regimen, cefoperazone and azithromycin in the treatment of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adult patients requiring initial parenteral therapy, 40 patients with CAP were divided into two groups, a moxifloxacin group (n=20) and a control group(n=20), which were treated for 7 to 14 days. The patients in the moxifloxacin group were intravenously given 400 mg of moxifloxacin (AveloxR) once a day. Patients in the control group were administered 2.0 g of cefoperazone twice a day and azithromycin 0.5 g once a day. Clinical, bacteriological, and laboratory examinations were performed before the treatment, and at the end of the treatment. Our results showed that there was no significant difference in the clinical efficacy rate between two treatment groups at end of therapy (90 % for moxifloxacin, 95 % for cefoperazone plus azithromycin) (P>0.05). The bacteriologic eradication rate at the end of treatment was 90 % in the moxifloxacin group and 80 % in the cefoperazone-plus-azithromycin group, whereas there was no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05). In addition, both drugs were well-tolerated in this trial, with the number of drug-related adverse events being comparable. It is concluded that moxifloxacin is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for CAP and was equivalent to the commonly used empirical treatment of cefoperazone plus azithromycin. Moxifloxacin is likely to offer clinicians an alternative for reliable empirical CAP treatment in the face of increasing antibiotic resistance.

  15. ART adherence changes among patients in community substance use treatment: a preliminary analysis from MACH14

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Marc I.; Black, Anne C.; ARNSTEN, JULIA H.; Simoni, Jane M; Wagner, Glann J; Goggin, Kathleen; Remien, Robert H.; Golin, Carol E.; Wang, Yan; Bangsberg, David; Liu, Honghu H.; ,

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Opiate substitution treatment has been associated with better adherence to lifesaving antiretroviral medications, but the impact of other substance abuse treatment on adherence is unknown. Findings In this study, 215 patients who had been in adherence-focused research studies provided electronically-measured adherence data and a measure of whether the patient had recently ...

  16. A Treatment Study of Mode Deactivation Therapy in an Out Patient Community Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apsche, Jack A.; Bass, Christopher K.; Siv, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a review of the outpatient data and recidivism for an 18 month post treatment follow-up of Mode Deactivation Therapy (MDT). The follow up data suggests that effects of MDT generalized for over one-year post treatment in these adolescent conduct disordered males in an inpatient therapeutic setting. This research compared the…

  17. Factors Associated with the Severity of Gambling Problems in a Community Gambling Treatment Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namrata, Raylu; Oei, Tian P. S.

    2009-01-01

    Factors (demographics, gambling behaviors and comorbid problems) that may be related to the severity of gambling problems were investigated among 440 problem gamblers seeking treatment in an Australian outpatient treatment agency. The participants were divided into sub-threshold pathological gamblers (SPGs; N = 104) and pathological gamblers (PGs;…

  18. Test Anxiety: Theory, Assessment, and Treatment. The Series in Clinical and Community Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberger, Charles D., Ed.; Vagg, Peter R., Ed.

    It is not surprising that a broad array of treatment programs have been developed to reduce test anxiety, since the consequences can be serious. The contributions in this volume review and evaluate the theory of test anxiety, its measurement, its manifestations, and possible treatments and their outcomes. The following chapters are included: (1)…

  19. The Bambui Health and Aging Study (BHAS: factors associated with the treatment of hypertension in older adults in the community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firmo Josélia Oliveira Araújo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the factors associated with the treatment of hypertension among older adults living in the community. All residents (n = 1,742 of Bambuí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil (15,000 inhabitants aged superscript three 60 years were selected, and 1494 (85.8% were interviewed and examined. Of these, 919 (61.5% were hypertensive, 704 were aware of their condition (study population, and 578 were under treatment. Only 38.8% of the individuals under treatment presented controlled systolic and diastolic pressures (< 140 and < 90mmHg, respectively. Independent associations with treatment of hypertension were found for, in decreasing order of magnitude: less time elapsed since the last blood pressure measurement, greater number of physician visits in the past 12 months, higher body mass index, female gender, history of coronary disease, changes in diet due to arterial hypertension, and higher family income. Our results show that the factors most strongly associated with treatment of hypertension (use of health services could be modified through adequate health policies for older adults.

  20. Acute stroke treatment in the community: improving our performance and expanding our options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russman, Andrew N; Katzan, Irene L

    2005-12-01

    Three-quarters of all strokes are managed outside of academic medical centers, making optimization of stroke care in the community setting a central part of minimizing the disability from stroke. In addition, the care of stroke patients crosses multiple different components of the health care system and requires a multifaceted and coordinated approach. This article reviews the current status of stroke care across the care continuum and reviews methods found to be effective in educating the public and organizing regional delivery of hyperacute stroke care. Successful community-based stroke care models and current national initiatives in improving hospital management are discussed. Local implementation of these strategies provides an exciting opportunity to improve outcomes after stroke. PMID:16341990

  1. Evaluating Community Inclusion: A Novel Treatment Program for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie J. Webb

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A state-funded, non-profit organization developed an innovative inclusion program for children with Autism spectrum disorders and developmental delays, Including Special Kids, which offers activities for children with developmental delays alongside typically developing children in collaboration with well-established local youth programs. This case study examines the ISK intervention program at the original community host sites to determine if the evidence supports a measurable and demonstrable change in behaviors in a real-world setting that may lead to increased quality of life and greater inclusion in the community. Using evidence-based data, we measured the progress of 30 children over 6-24 months. Children participating in the program showed average improvement in all but two function areas and improvement in all composite scores. While these results do not prove program success, they offer an indication that the program helps children learn skills and behaviors to successfully navigate and become part of community-based, after-school recreational programs.

  2. Effect of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) treatment on the composition and function of the bacterial community in the sponge Haliclona cymaeformis.

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, Ren-Mao

    2014-01-01

    Marine sponges play important roles in benthic environments and are sensitive to environmental stresses. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been widely used as flame retardants since the 1970s and are cytotoxic and genotoxic to organisms. In the present study, we studied the short-period effect of PBDE-47 (2,2\\',4,4\\'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether) treatment on the community structure and functional gene composition of the bacterial community inhabiting the marine sponge Haliclona cymaeformis. Our results showed that the bacterial community shifted from an autotrophic bacteria-dominated community to a heterotrophic bacteria-dominated community in response to PBDE-47 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. A potentially symbiotic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium (SOB) was dominant (>80% in abundance) in the untreated sponge. However, exposure to a high concentration (1 μg/L) of PBDE-47 caused a substantial decrease in the potential symbiont and an enrichment of heterotrophic bacteria like Clostridium. A metagenomic analysis showed a selective effect of the high concentration treatment on the functional gene composition of the enriched heterotrophic bacteria, revealing an enrichment for the functions responsible for DNA repair, multidrug efflux pumping, and bacterial chemotaxis and motility. This study demonstrated that PBDE-47 induced a shift in the composition of the community and functional genes in the sponge-associated bacterial community, revealing the selective effect of PBDE-47 treatment on the functions of the bacterial community in the microenvironment of the sponge.

  3. Effect of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE treatment on the composition and function of the bacterial community in the sponge Haliclona cymaeformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renmao eTian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges play important roles in benthic environments and are sensitive to environmental stresses. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs have been widely used as flame retardants since the 1970s and are cytotoxic and genotoxic to organisms. In the present study, we studied the short-period effect of PBDE-47 (2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether treatment on the community structure and functional gene composition of the bacterial community inhabiting the marine sponge Haliclona cymaeformis. Our results showed that the bacterial community shifted from an autotrophic bacteria-dominated community to a heterotrophic bacteria-dominated community in response to PBDE-47 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. A potentially symbiotic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium (SOB was dominant (>80% in abundance in the untreated sponge. However, exposure to a high concentration (1 µg/L of PBDE-47 caused a substantial decrease in the potential symbiont and an enrichment of heterotrophic bacteria like Clostridium. A metagenomic analysis showed a selective effect of the high concentration treatment on the functional gene composition of the enriched heterotrophic bacteria, revealing an enrichment for the functions responsible for DNA repair, multidrug efflux pumping, and bacterial chemotaxis and motility. This study demonstrated that PBDE-47 induced a shift in the composition of the community and functional genes in the sponge-associated bacterial community, revealing the selective effect of PBDE-47 treatment on the functions of the bacterial community in the microenvironment of the sponge.

  4. Analysis on the Level of Assertiveness of the Athletes Took Part in Eliminations for Adults Taekwondo National Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner YILMAZ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Several elements may affect assertiveness. Woman's traditional sister or caretaker role causes her sometimes to become aggressive by behaving in a stiff, authoritarian way and sometimes passive. The aim of this study is to research the level of as sertiveness of the athletes took part in the Turkey Taekwondo National Team eliminations in 2014. 106 males at the average age of 21, 12 and 56 females at the average age of 20,39 took part in the research. RAE (Rathus Assertiveness Schedule developed by Rathus in 1977 and adapted to Turkish by Nilüfer Voltan Acar (1980 was used to determine the level of assertiveness. In conclusion, no significant difference was found between males and females in terms of assertiveness level scores.

  5. Expanding the role of primary care in the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity: a review of clinic- and community-based recommendations and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vine, Michaela; Hargreaves, Margaret B; Briefel, Ronette R; Orfield, Cara

    2013-01-01

    Although pediatric providers have traditionally assessed and treated childhood obesity and associated health-related conditions in the clinic setting, there is a recognized need to expand the provider role. We reviewed the literature published from 2005 to 2012 to (1) provide examples of the spectrum of roles that primary care providers can play in the successful treatment and prevention of childhood obesity in both clinic and community settings and (2) synthesize the evidence of important characteristics, factors, or strategies in successful community-based models. The review identified 96 articles that provide evidence of how primary care providers can successfully prevent and treat childhood obesity by coordinating efforts within the primary care setting and through linkages to obesity prevention and treatment resources within the community. By aligning the most promising interventions with recommendations published over the past decade by the Institute of Medicine, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and other health organizations, we present nine areas in which providers can promote the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity through efforts in clinical and community settings: weight status assessment and monitoring, healthy lifestyle promotion, treatment, clinician skill development, clinic infrastructure development, community program referrals, community health education, multisector community initiatives, and policy advocacy. PMID:23710345

  6. Expanding the Role of Primary Care in the Prevention and Treatment of Childhood Obesity: A Review of Clinic- and Community-Based Recommendations and Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Vine

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although pediatric providers have traditionally assessed and treated childhood obesity and associated health-related conditions in the clinic setting, there is a recognized need to expand the provider role. We reviewed the literature published from 2005 to 2012 to (1 provide examples of the spectrum of roles that primary care providers can play in the successful treatment and prevention of childhood obesity in both clinic and community settings and (2 synthesize the evidence of important characteristics, factors, or strategies in successful community-based models. The review identified 96 articles that provide evidence of how primary care providers can successfully prevent and treat childhood obesity by coordinating efforts within the primary care setting and through linkages to obesity prevention and treatment resources within the community. By aligning the most promising interventions with recommendations published over the past decade by the Institute of Medicine, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and other health organizations, we present nine areas in which providers can promote the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity through efforts in clinical and community settings: weight status assessment and monitoring, healthy lifestyle promotion, treatment, clinician skill development, clinic infrastructure development, community program referrals, community health education, multisector community initiatives, and policy advocacy.

  7. Treatment of complex dissociative disorders: a comparison of interventions reported by community therapists versus those recommended by experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrick, Amie C; Chasson, Gregory S; Lanius, Ruth A; Leventhal, Barry; Brand, Bethany L

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of empirical data to assist clinicians in choosing interventions to use with patients with complex dissociative disorder (DD; i.e., dissociative identity disorder and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified) at different stages in treatment. This study compared interventions used by a sample of international outpatient therapists treating DD clients in the 1st 2 stages of treatment with those recommended by expert DD therapists. There were many similarities between therapists' and experts' interventions, including the use of several emotion regulation and dissociation-focused interventions. However, community therapists reported significantly less focus on relationally oriented interventions, teaching and using grounding and containment skills, and stabilizing patients after revictimization by alleged perpetrators. This study has important implications for the development and implementation of training opportunities for DD therapists. PMID:25365637

  8. Anemia Screening and Treatment Outcomes of Children in a Low-resource Community in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, John D; Steele, MacGregor

    2016-04-01

    Iron is often initiated for children with low hemoglobin values in the absence of other indicators of iron deficiency in low-resource settings. Unfortunately, there are few reports describing outcomes from such an approach outside of clinical trials. This study examined outcomes of an anemia screening and treatment service in a low-resource community in the Dominican Republic. Complete blood counts (CBC) and receipt of iron supplementation were extracted from health records of young children participating in a well-baby clinic in the targeted community. Of the 265 children screened, 68.7% had hemoglobin values children had follow-up CBCs. While 72.3% of those with follow-up CBCs picked-up some iron supplements, only 21.4% had a follow-up hemoglobin ≥11.0 g/dl. Amount of iron given was not related to change in hemoglobin at follow-up. More follow-up monitoring of quality and impact of community care is required with associated evidence-informed benchmark targets. PMID:26637824

  9. Women’s Condom Use Assertiveness and Sexual Risk-Taking: Effects of Alcohol Intoxication and Adult Victimization

    OpenAIRE

    Stoner, Susan A.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Morrison, Diane M.; Zawacki, Tina; DAVIS, KELLY CUE; Hessler, Danielle M

    2008-01-01

    This experiment examined relationships among adulthood victimization, sexual assertiveness, alcohol intoxication, and sexual risk-taking in female social drinkers (N = 161). Women completed measures of sexual assault and intimate partner violence history and sexual assertiveness before random assignment to 1 of 4 beverage conditions: control, placebo, low dose (.04%), or high dose (.08%). After drinking, women read a second-person story involving a sexual encounter with a new partner. As prot...

  10. The Investigation of relation between elementary school second grade students’ self-esteem, different skills and assertiveness levels

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Sarıçam; Elifcan Yılmaz; Arzu Gülbahçe; Öner Gülbahçe; Mehmet Çardak

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relation among the self esteem, different abilility levels and assertiveness levels of second grade primary education. An investigation has been done on over 180 students, chosen randomly, from the primary education schools of Erzurum MEB in accordance with the purpose of this study. Information Form, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, Basic Aptitude Test 6-8 and Rathus Assertiveness Inventory were used. SPSS 15.0/WINDOWS programme was used for data analysis. ‘t ...

  11. The Relationship with Self Esteem Between Assertiveness Levels of Sub-Elite In-Door Soccer Players

    OpenAIRE

    Serdar SUCAN; TURAN, Mehmet Behzat; Osman PEPE; Doğan DOĞAN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was investigated the relationship with self esteem between assertiveness levels of sub-elite in-door soccer players. For this aim, 18–28 aged, 86 male and 91 female athletes studying 7 universities which joined in-door soccer championship of Turkish University Sport Federation was participated to study volunteerly.Participants were performed socio- demographic data formi Rathus Assertiveness Schedule and Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Data were analyzed by using IBM ...

  12. [Team-based community psychiatry: importance of context factors and transferability of evidence from studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinmann, S; Gühne, U; Kösters, M; Gaebel, W; Becker, T

    2012-07-01

    The German Society for Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Neurology (DGPPN) guidelines on psychosocial interventions for people with severe mental illness appraise the transferability of results of trials evaluating community-based mental health services to the German situation. This assessment has to draw on research results on factors determining effectiveness. This must be seen against the background of a lack of high-quality trials in Germany. The article discusses system, context and setting factors related to the transfer of evidence on community-based service models from other countries. These issues are discussed on the basis of evidence concerning the models of case management, assertive community treatment and community mental health teams. International differences in study findings are highlighted and the importance of treatment-as-usual in influencing study results is emphasized. The more control services including elements of community-based care there are and the less the pressure to reduce inpatient treatment (threshold to inpatient care admission), the smaller the relative effect sizes of innovative care models will be.In the absence of direct evidence, careful examination of transferability is required before introducing health care models. Research has revealed solid evidence for several factors influencing the effects of innovative community mental health care. Among key factors in the care of people with severe mental illness, home visits and joint team responsibility for both psychiatric and social care were identified. This evidence can facilitate the adaptation of successful mental health care models in Germany. PMID:22688090

  13. Performance Assessment of Full-Scale Wastewater Treatment Plants Based on Seasonal Variability of Microbial Communities via High-Throughput Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tang; Liu, Shufeng; Zheng, Maosheng; Chen, Qian; Ni, Jinren

    2016-01-01

    Microbial communities of activated sludge (AS) play a key role in the performance of wastewater treatment processes. However, seasonal variability of microbial population in varying AS-based processes has been poorly correlated with operation of full-scale wastewater treatment systems (WWTSs). In this paper, significant seasonal variability of AS microbial communities in eight WWTSs located in the city of Guangzhou were revealed in terms of 16S rRNA-based Miseq sequencing. Furthermore, variation redundancy analysis (RDA) demonstrated that the microbial community compositions closely correlated with WWTS operation parameters such as temperature, BOD, NH4+-N and TN. Consequently, support vector regression models which reasonably predicted effluent BOD, SS and TN in WWTSs were established based on microbial community compositions. This work provided an alternative tool for rapid assessment on performance of full-scale wastewater treatment plants. PMID:27049964

  14. Availability of substance abuse treatment services in Spanish: A GIS analysis of Latino communities in Los Angeles County, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis Andrew

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The percentage of Latino clients entering outpatient substance abuse treatment (OSAT in the United States has increased significantly in the past 10 years. Evidence suggests that a lack of services in Spanish is a significant barrier to treatment access among Latinos. Methods Using a geographic information system (GIS approach, data from the U.S. Census Bureau and the National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS were analyzed to determine the geographic distance between OSAT facilities with services in Spanish and Latino communities throughout Los Angeles County, CA. Data from N-SSATS were also analyzed using logistic regression models to examine organizational characteristics and their association with offering services in Spanish. Our GIS methods are tested in their ability to provide baseline measures to inform future analysis comparing changes in demography and service infrastructure. Results GIS analysis revealed cold spots representing high-density Latino communities with extensive travel distance to facilities offering services in Spanish. The average linear distance between Latino communities and facilities offering Spanish-language services ranged from 2 to 6 miles, while the location of the cold spots pointed to a need for services in Spanish in a particular subregion of the county. Further, secondary data analysis revealed that, on average, being privately owned (OR = .23, 95% CI = 0.06-0.90 was associated with a lower likelihood of providing services in Spanish compared to public facilities. Additionally, a facility with a state license (OR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.12-3.88 or a higher number of Medicaid recipients (OR = 2.98, 95% CI = 1.76-5.05 was twice as likely to offer services in Spanish. Conclusion Despite the significant presence of Latinos in L.A. County in 2000, low capacity was found in discrete Latino communities in terms of offering OSAT services in Spanish. Funding and regulation play a

  15. Correlation of community dynamics and process parameters as a tool for the prediction of the stability of wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Susanne; Koch, Christin; Hübschmann, Thomas; Röske, Isolde; Müller, Roland Arno; Bley, Thomas; Harms, Hauke; Müller, Susann

    2012-01-01

    Wastewater treatment often suffers from instabilities and the failure of specific functions such as biological phosphorus removal by polyphosphate accumulating organisms. Since most of the microorganisms involved in water clarification are unknown it is challenging to operate the process accounting for the permanent varying abiotic parameters and the complex composition and unrevealed metabolic capacity of a wastewater microbial community. Fulfilling the demands for water quality irrespective of substrate inflow conditions may emit severe problems if the limited management resources of municipal wastewater treatment plants are regarded. We used flow cytometric analyses of cellular DNA and polyphosphate to create patterns mirroring dynamics in community structure. These patterns were resolved in up to 15 subclusters, the presence and abundances of which correlated with abiotic data. The study used biostatistics to determine the kind and strength of the correlation. Samples investigated were obtained from a primary clarifier and two activated sludge basins. The stability of microbial community structure was found to be high in the basins and low in the primary clarifier. Despite major abiotic changes certain subcommunities were dominantly present (up to 80% stability), whereas others emerged only sporadically (down to 3% stability, both according to equivalence testing). Additionally, subcommunities of diagnostic value were detected showing positive correlation with substrate influxes. For instance blackwater (r(s) = 0.5) and brewery inflow (both r(s) = 0.6) were mirrored by increases in cell abundances in subclusters 1 and 6 as well as 4 and 8, respectively. Phosphate accumulation was obviously positively correlated with nitrate (r(s) = 0.4) and the presence of denitrifying organisms (Rhodacyclaceae). Various other correlations between community structure and abiotic parameters were apparent. The bacterial composition of certain subcommunities was determined by cell

  16. An exploratory study of sexual assertiveness and characteristics of African American women in negotiating condom use at an HBCU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Chalice C; Kennedy, Bernice Roberts

    2013-01-01

    The transmission of HIV/AIDS among African American women through heterosexual sex is an epidemic. Critical themes extracted from the HIV/AIDS sexual assertiveness literature revealed that: (a) sexual assertiveness is related to HIV risk, (b) sexual assertiveness is related to communication, and (c) women with low sexual assertiveness are at risk for HIV. This descriptive study sought to answer the following research question: What do young adult college attending African American women self-report about asking information about their partner's sexual history? The multifaceted model of HIV risk is the theoretical framework which guided this descriptive study. A basic tenet of the multifaceted model of HIV risk is that there is no single predictor of women's HIV risk behavior. Results revealed that 104 young adult college attending African American women who volunteered to attend a one day HIV prevention training overall scored high on a Sexual Assertive Scale on subscales of Information Communication, Refusal, and Pregnancy/STD Prevention Subscale, and scored in the medium range on the Initiation Subscales. The Information Communication and Pregnancy/ STD Prevention Subscale received the highest scores. More research is needed targeting diverse African American females with different socioeconomic status, various locations, and educated to determine their sexual assertiveness with partners which are essential in developing specific programs for diverse groups of African American females. PMID:24279130

  17. The Relations h ip with Self Esteem Between Assertiveness Levels of Sub - Elite In - Door Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar SUCAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was investigated the relationship with self esteem between assertiveness levels of sub - elite in - door soccer players. For this aim, 18 – 28 aged, 86 male and 91 female athletes studying 7 universities which joined in - door soccer champio nship of Turkish University Sport Federation was participated to study volunteerly. Participants were performed socio - demographic data formi Rathus Assertiveness Schedule and Coopersmith Self - Esteem Inventory. Data were analyzed by using IBM SPSS (versi on 20.0. Spearman Correlation parameter calculated in order to comment the relationship with data, Multiple regretion analysis was performed for the predictive power of self - esteem for assertiveness levels of participants. According to analysis, a positi ve relationship was found between self esteem and assertivenes levels and it was found that self - esteem levels predictived assertiveness levels substantially. As a result of this study, high self - eseteemed athletes could transfer their feelings to others a nd could increase their assertiveness levels. It was known that highly self - esteemed athletes could increase their performance. Therefore, we could say that necessary studies about athletes’ gaining assertiveness behaviors, should take part of primary stud ies of trainers.

  18. Home Water Treatment Habits and Effectiveness in a Rural Arizona Community

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan Lothrop; Wilkinson, Sarah T.; Marc Verhougstraete; Anastasia Sugeng; Loh, Miranda M.; Walter Klimecki; Beamer, Paloma I.

    2015-01-01

    Drinking water quality in the United States (US) is among the safest in the world. However, many residents, often in rural areas, rely on unregulated private wells or small municipal utilities for water needs. These utilities may violate the Safe Drinking Water Act contaminant guidelines, often because they lack the required financial resources. Residents may use alternative water sources or install a home water treatment system. Despite increased home water treatment adoption, few studies ha...

  19. Predicting Frequency of Treatment Visits in Community-Based Youth Psychotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Haine, Rachel A.; Gabayan, Elaine N.; Garland, Ann F

    2008-01-01

    The current study examines factors associated with the number of treatment visits attended by a youth and/or family, including sociodemographic variables, youth clinical characteristics and parent/family characteristics at intake, therapist characteristics, and treatment entry characteristics. A total of 57 therapists in two publicly-funded youth mental health clinics and 169 youths and parents from the therapists’ combined caseloads were included in the study. Negative binomial regression wa...

  20. Predictors of retention in community-based methadone maintenance treatment program in Pearl River Delta, China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Fang; Lin, Peng; Li, Yan; He, Qun; Long, Qisui; Fu, Xiaobing; Luo, Yulan

    2013-01-01

    Background The aims were to identify predictors of treatment retention in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinics in Pearl River Delta, China. Methods Retrospective longitudinal study. Participants: 6 MMT clinics in rural and urban area were selected. Statistical analysis: Stratified random sampling was employed, and the data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and life table method. Protective or risk factors were explored using Cox’s proportional hazards model. Independen...

  1. Microbial community structure of activated sludge in treatment plants with different wastewater compositions

    OpenAIRE

    Shchegolkova, Nataliya M.; George S Krasnov; Belova, Anastasia A.; Alexey A Dmitriev; Sergey eKharitonov; Klimina, Kseniya M.; Nataliya V. Melnikova; Anna V Kudryavtseva

    2016-01-01

    Activated sludge (AS) plays a crucial role in the treatment of domestic and industrial wastewater. AS is a biocenosis of microorganisms capable of degrading various pollutants, including organic compounds, toxicants and xenobiotics. We performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing of AS and incoming sewage in three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) responsible for processing sewage with different origins: municipal wastewater, slaughterhouse wastewater, and refinery sewage. In contrast to incoming was...

  2. Microbial Community Structure of Activated Sludge in Treatment Plants with Different Wastewater Compositions

    OpenAIRE

    Shchegolkova, Nataliya M.; George S Krasnov; Belova, Anastasia A.; Alexey A Dmitriev; Kharitonov, Sergey L.; Klimina, Kseniya M.; Nataliya V. Melnikova; Anna V Kudryavtseva

    2016-01-01

    Activated sludge (AS) plays a crucial role in the treatment of domestic and industrial wastewater. AS is a biocenosis of microorganisms capable of degrading various pollutants, including organic compounds, toxicants, and xenobiotics. We performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing of AS and incoming sewage in three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) responsible for processing sewage with different origins: municipal wastewater, slaughterhouse wastewater, and refinery sewage. In contrast to incoming wa...

  3. Supporting Mothers’ Engagement in a Community-Based Methadone Treatment Program

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole Letourneau; Mary Ann Campbell; Jennifer Woodland; Jennifer Colpitts

    2013-01-01

    Unmanaged maternal opioid addiction poses health and social risks to both mothers and children in their care. Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is a targeted public health service to which nurses and other allied health professionals may refer these high risk families for support. Mothers participating in MMT to manage their addiction and their service providers were interviewed to identify resources to maximize mothers’ engagement in treatment and enhance mothers’ parenting capacity. Twe...

  4. ACCESS TO TREATMENT IN HIV PREVENTION TRIALS: PERSPECTIVES FROM A SOUTH AFRICAN COMMUNITY

    OpenAIRE

    BARSDORF, NICOLA; Maman, Suzanne; Kass, Nancy; Slack, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Access to treatment, in HIV vaccine trials (HVTs), remains ethically controversial. In most prevention trials, including in South Africa, participants who seroconvert are referred to publicly funded programmes for treatment. This strategy is problematic when there is inadequate and uneven access to public sector antiretroviral therapy (ART) and support resources. The responsibilities, if any, of researchers, sponsors and public health authorities involved in HVTs has been hotly debated among ...

  5. Low referral completion of rapid diagnostic test-negative patients in community-based treatment of malaria in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid Tony

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is hyper-endemic and a major public health problem in Sierra Leone. To provide malaria treatment closer to the community, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF launched a community-based project where Community Malaria Volunteers (CMVs tested and treated febrile children and pregnant women for malaria using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs. RDT-negative patients and severely ill patients were referred to health facilities. This study sought to determine the referral rate and compliance of patients referred by the CMVs. Methods In MSF's operational area in Bo and Pujehun districts, Sierra Leone, a retrospective analysis of referral records was carried out for a period of three months. All referral records from CMVs and referral health structures were reviewed, compared and matched for personal data. The eligible study population included febrile children between three and 59 months and pregnant women in their second or third trimester with fever who were noted as having received a referral advice in the CMV recording form. Results The study results showed a total referral rate of almost 15%. During the study period 36 out of 2,459 (1.5% referred patients completed their referral. There was a significant difference in referral compliance between patients with fever but a negative RDT and patients with signs of severe malaria. Less than 1% (21/2,442 of the RDT-negative patients with fever completed their referral compared to 88.2% (15/17 of the patients with severe malaria (RR = 0.010 95% CI 0.006 - 0.015. Conclusions In this community-based malaria programme, RDT-negative patients with fever were referred to a health structure for further diagnosis and care with a disappointingly low rate of referral completion. This raises concerns whether use of CMVs, with referral as backup in RDT-negative cases, provides adequate care for febrile children and pregnant women. To improve the referral completion in MSF's community-based malaria

  6. Community-directed delivery of doxycycline for the treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loiasis in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanji Samuel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe side effects following ivermectin treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loaisis have been an impediment for the work of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC in forested regions of several countries. Doxycycline has been shown to be effective in the treatment of onchocerciasis and has the added advantages of killing adult Onchocerca volvulus but neither adult Loa loa nor their microfilariae. This drug therefore offers great potential for the treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loiasis. The limitation of use of this drug is the duration of treatment that may pose a potential problem with therapeutic coverage and compliance with treatment. To benefit from the advantages that doxycycline offers in the treatment of onchocerciasis, it will be necessary to establish an effective distribution system that can access remote communities. This study assessed the feasibility of a large-scale distribution of doxycycline for the treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loiasis using a community-directed approach. Methods The study was carried out in 5 health areas co-endemic for Onchocerca volvulus and Loa loa which had no prior experience of the Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI. The community-directed delivery process was introduced using a cascade mechanism from the central health system that passed through the regional health delegation, health district and the health areas. Community health implementers (CHIs were trained to deliver doxycycline to community members and, under the supervision of the health system, to monitor and document drug intake and side effects. Results The community members adhered massively to the process. Of the 21355 individuals counted, 17519 were eligible for treatment and 12936 were treated with doxycycline; giving a therapeutic coverage of eligible population of 73.8%. Of the 12936 who started the

  7. Verification of Correspondence Assertions in a Calculus for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Kühnrich, Morten; Godskesen, Jens Christian

    We introduce a novel process calculus called DBSPI (distributed broadcast SPI-calculus) which models mobile ad hoc networks (MANET). The calculus is a cryptographic broadcast calculus with locations and migration. Communication and migration are limited to neighborhoods. Neighborhood definitions...... are explicitly part of the syntax allowing dynamic extension using bound identifiers. In this semantic setting we study authentication of agents in MANET protocols. A safety property dealing with authentication correspondence assertions is defined. Later a dependent type and effect system is given and...

  8. Un estudio psicométrico del Hurlbert Index of Sexual Assertiveness en mujeres hispanas

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Sierra; Pablo Santos; José Ricardo Gutiérrez-Quintanilla; Pilar Gómez; María Dolores Maeso

    2008-01-01

    La asertividad sexual constituye un factor determinante de la salud sexual que requiere en su evaluación de instrumentos con adecuadas garantías científi cas. En este estudio instrumental se analizan algunas propiedades psicométricas del Hurlbert Index of Sexual Assertiveness (HISA) en dos muestras de mujeres hispanas (230 españolas y 300 salvadoreñas) de la población general, con edades comprendidas entre 17 y 70 años, que mantenían una relación de pareja heterosexual desde al me...

  9. The effect of recreational physical exercise on depression and assertiveness levels of university students

    OpenAIRE

    Gülcan Tekin; M. Tayfun Amman; Ali Tekin

    2009-01-01

     The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the recreational physical exercise on depression and assertiveness levels of the university students who had never participated in regular physical exercise before. There were 15 male and 15 female totally 30 students in control group and 15 male and 15 female students in exercise group of research. The students in control group carried on their usual life during the research while the students in exercise group participated in a 8 week...

  10. Comment on the Kundracute at-Lokajacute icek assertion about the applicability of the Martin formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contrary to the assertion of Kundracute at and Lokajacute icek that the Martin formula, which relates the real part of the elastic hadron-hadron scattering amplitude with its imaginary part, can be used only at small momentum transfers |t|approx-lt 0.15(GeV/c)2 in the CERN ISR and Sp bar pS region, the formula can be used consistently at high energies for the observed experimental data in the whole region of the momentum transfer of the experiments. Their errors are due to an inappropriate numerical approach for solving the problem. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  11. A STUDY ON THE ASSERTIVENESS LEVEL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS COLLEGE STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Erdogan B.S.; Erbasi F.Y.; Aldemir G.Y.; Eraslan M.; Kaya E.; Şahan, H; Yıldız, M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine some of the variables in the level of students’ boldness who study at Physical education and sports colleges and to compare the findings with the other studies in the literature. The Research Group contains 92 male and 64 female (/age = 21,612 + 1,921), in total 156 students from Selcuk University physical education and sports college. In order to reach the purpose of the study “Rathus Assertiveness Schedule” has been used as the methodology which ...

  12. Relationship of Depression and Assertiveness in Normal Population and Depressed Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Ms. Maryam Khurshid; Ms. Bushra Mueen; Dr. Ishtiaq Hassan

    2006-01-01

    The present study is aimed at exploring the relationship between depression and self-assertiveness. Sample of the study consisted of 100 people (men = 50, women = 50), who were taken from different offices, houses, and hospitals. Their age ranged between 18 to 50 years, and education level was at least middle standard and above. Their marital status was of both types i.e. married and unmarried. They belonged to lower and middle socio-economic status. For the measurement of depression and self...

  13. Thermal-hydraulics performance optimization of Candu fuel using Assert subchannel code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An optimization of fuel bundle geometry using the subchannel code ASSERT is performed in support of Candu fuel design to enhance the thermohydraulics performance. The new bundle design is based on a reference CANFLEX bundle with changes to the centre and inner-ring element diameters and pitch-circle diameters (PCDs) of various element rings. Different methods of varying the PCDs for reaching the optimized geometry are considered in an attempt to minimize the optimization effort. The optimized geometry in the present analysis is the one that maximizes the dryout power and that has simultaneous CHF (critical heat flux) initiation involving more than one subchannel rings. (authors)

  14. Associations between assertiveness, psychological well-being, and self-esteem in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkova, Maria; Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Orosova, Olga; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Katreniakova, Zuzana; Klein, Daniel; van den Heuvel, Wim; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the associations between adolescents assertive behavior, psychological well-being, and self-esteem. The sample consisted of 1,023 students (14.9 +/-.51; 47.6% boys). Two dimensions of the Scale for Interpersonal Behavior (distress and performance), 2 factors of the General Health Questionnaire-12 (depression/anxiety and social dysfunction), and 2 factors of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (positive self-esteem and negative self-esteem) were used; data were analyzed using h...

  15. Changes and recovery of soil bacterial communities influenced by biological soil disinfestation as compared with chloropicrin-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowlick, Subrata; Inoue, Takashi; Takehara, Toshiaki; Kaku, Nobuo; Ueki, Katsuji; Ueki, Atsuko

    2013-01-01

    Soil bacterial composition, as influenced by biological soil disinfestation (BSD) associated with biomass incorporation was investigated to observe the effects of the treatment on the changes and recovery of the microbial community in a commercial greenhouse setting. Chloropicrin (CP) was also used for soil disinfestation to compare with the effects of BSD. The fusarium wilt disease incidence of spinach cultivated in the BSD- and CP-treated plots was reduced as compared with that in the untreated control plots, showing effectiveness of both methods to suppress the disease. The clone library analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that members of the Firmicutes became dominant in the soil bacterial community after the BSD-treatment. Clone groups related to the species in the class Clostridia, such as Clostridium saccharobutylicum, Clostridium tetanomorphum, Clostridium cylindrosporum, Oxobacter pfennigii, etc., as well as Bacillus niacini in the class Bacilli were recognized as the most dominant members in the community. For the CP-treated soil, clones affiliated with the Bacilli related to acid-tolerant or thermophilic bacteria such as Tuberibacillus calidus, Sporolactobacillus laevolacticus, Pullulanibacillus naganoensis, Alicyclobacillus pomorum, etc. were detected as the major groups. The clone library analysis for the soil samples collected after spinach cultivation revealed that most of bacterial groups present in the original soil belonging to the phyla Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes, Planctomycetes, TM7, etc. were recovered in the BSD-treated soil. For the CP-treated soil, the recovery of the bacterial groups belonging to the above phyla was also noted, but some major clone groups recognized in the original soil did not recover fully. PMID:23958081

  16. Correlation between microbial community and granule conductivity in anaerobic bioreactors for brewery wastewater treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Pravin; Malvankar, Nikhil S.; Werner, Jeffrey;

    2014-01-01

    Prior investigation of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating brewery wastes suggested that direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) significantly contributed to interspecies electron transfer to methanogens. To investigate DIET in granules further, the electrical...... previous studies, which have demonstrated that Geobacter species can donate electrons to methanogens that are typically predominant in anaerobic digesters, suggest that DIET may be a widespread phenomenon in UASB reactors treating brewery wastes....... conductivity and bacterial community composition of granules in fourteen samples from four different UASB reactors treating brewery wastes were investigated. All of the UASB granules were electrically conductive whereas control granules from ANAMMOX (ANaerobic AMMonium OXidation) reactors and microbial...

  17. Consumers stated and revealed preferences for community health workers and other strategies for the provision of timely and appropriate treatment of malaria in southeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Elvis

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The African Heads of State meeting in Abuja, Nigeria on Roll Back Malaria adopted effective treatment of malaria nearer the home as one of the strategies for malaria control in Africa. A potentially effective strategy for bringing early, appropriate and low cost treatment of malaria closer to the home is through the use of community health workers (CHWs. There is paucity of information about people's actual preferences for CHWs and how stated preferences relates to revealed preferences for both the CHW strategy and other strategies for improving the timeliness of malaria treatment in not only Nigeria but in many malaria endemic countries. Objectives To determine peoples' stated and actual preferences for different strategies for improving the timeliness and appropriateness of treatment of malaria before and after the implementation of a community health workers (CHW strategy in their community. Methods A prospective study was undertaken in a rural malaria holo-endemic Nigerian community. A questionnaire was used to collect information on health-seeking from householders before (first survey and after (second survey implementation of a CHW malaria treatement strategy. Results The consumers mostly preferred the CHW strategy over self-treatment in the homes and other strategies of treatment. The use of community health workers (CHWs increased from 0% to 26.1% (p Conclusion Community health workers can be used to improve and ensure timely and appropriate treatment of malaria. The CHW strategy could also be sustained since it was preferred and used by consumers over self-treatment in the homes as well as other strategies for improving treatment. Hence, the CHW strategy is a feasible and promising method of improving home-management of uncomplicated malaria.

  18. Impact of Dialectical Behavior Therapy versus Community Treatment by Experts on Emotional Experience, Expression, and Acceptance in Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neacsiu, Andrada D.; Lungu, Anita; Harned, Melanie S.; Rizvi, Shireen L.; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests that heightened negative affectivity is a prominent feature of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) that often leads to maladaptive behaviors. Nevertheless, there is little research examining treatment effects on the experience and expression of specific negative emotions. Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is an effective treatment for BPD, hypothesized to reduce negative affectivity (Linehan, 1993a). The present study analyzes secondary data from a randomized controlled trial with the aim to assess the unique effectiveness of DBT when compared to Community Treatment by Experts (CTBE) in changing the experience, expression, and acceptance of negative emotions. Suicidal and/or self-injuring women with BPD (n = 101) were randomly assigned to DBT or CTBE for one year of treatment and one year of follow-up. Several indices of emotional experience and expression were assessed. Results indicate that DBT decreased experiential avoidance and expressed anger significantly more than CTBE. No differences between DBT and CTBE were found in improving guilt, shame, anxiety, or anger suppression, trait, and control. These results suggest that DBT has unique effects on improving the expression of anger and experiential avoidance, whereas changes in the experience of specific negative emotions may be accounted for by general factors associated with expert therapy. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:24418652

  19. Clinical Decision-Making in Community Children's Mental Health: Using Innovative Methods to Compare Clinicians with and without Training in Evidence-Based Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Ericzén, Mary J.; Jenkins, Melissa M.; Park, Soojin; Garland, Ann F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mental health professionals' decision-making practice is an area of increasing interest and importance, especially in the pediatric research and clinical communities. Objective: The present study explored the role of prior training in evidence-based treatments (EBTs) on clinicians' assessment and treatment formulations using…

  20. Interpersonal Community Psychiatric Treatment for non-psychotic chronic patients and nurses in outpatient mental health care: A controlled pilot study on feasibility and effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koekkoek, B.; Meijel, B. van; Schene, A.; Smit, A.; Kaasenbrood, A.; Hutschemaekers, G.

    2011-01-01

    In psychiatric care professionals perceive some patients as 'difficult', especially patients with long-term non-psychotic disorders. For these patients few evidence-based treatments exist. An intervention program, Interpersonal Community Psychiatric Treatment (ICPT), was developed by the authors. It

  1. Posttraumatic Child Therapy (P-TCT): Assessment and Treatment Factors in Clinical Work with Inner-City Children Exposed to Catastrophic Community Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parson, Erwin Randolph

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the psychological influence and adverse health effects of political terror and community violence on the minds and bodies of children. Claims that a posttraumatic assessment of these children is a critical dimension of clinical treatment. Proposes a treatment approach to alter the child's cognitive theories of self, trauma, and world.…

  2. Removal of plutonium from drinking water by community water treatment facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium removal factors (RF) averaged 14 +- 10 during a study of the effectiveness of three drinking-water treatment plants for removing Pu from Savannah River water. Plutonium concentrations between 0.1 and 3.5 femtocurie/l were measured in raw and finished water samples. From 50 to 10,000 liter samples of water were concentrated by ion exchange techniques and processed to determine the concentrations of 239Pu and 240Pu and to derive Pu RF's. The similarity between RF's observed for both Pu and suspended solids suggests a colloidal behavior for Pu. Plutonium RF's may be limited by low-level buildup on the treatment facility filters and subsequent bleeding into finished water, and thus may be higher during abnormal Pu releases to the environment. Flocculation and filtration appear to be the primary factors in the water treatment process contributing to Pu removal. The similarity between the plutonium contents of finished water from treatment facilities upstream and downstream of the Savannah River Plant (SRP) indicates that there is no measurable dose-to-man from SRP Pu releases in the water. The 70-year bone dose commitment to an individual from consumption for one year of 1.65 liters per day of treated Savannah River water, based on the Pu concentrations of finished waters from the three treatment facilities, is 5 x 10-5 em

  3. Community Pharmacists role in obesity treatment in Kuwait: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awad Abdelmoneim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a growing health concern in Kuwait. Obesity has been identified as a key risk factor for many chronic diseases including hypertension, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has been shown that community pharmacists' involvement is associated with successful weight management in developed countries. This study was conducted to investigate the role of community pharmacists in obesity counseling, and to identify the barriers to counseling in Kuwait. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study involved 220 community pharmacies that were selected via stratified and systematic random sampling. A pretested self-administered questionnaire collected information on frequency and comfort level with obesity counseling, and the perceived effectiveness of four aspects of obesity management (diet and exercise, prescribed antiobesity medications, diet foods, and nonprescription products and dietary supplements. Information on perceived confidence in achieving positive outcomes as a result of counseling and barriers to counseling was also collected. Descriptive and Spearman’ r analysis were conducted using SPSS version 17. Responses with Likert scale rating 1(low score to 5 (high score and binary choices (yes/no were presented as mean (SD and (95% CI, respectively. Results The response rate was 93.6%. The overall mean (SD responses indicated that pharmacists counseled obese patients sometimes to most of the time, 3.67 (1.19 and were neutral to comfortable with counseling about aspects of obesity management, 3.77 (1.19. Respondents perceived obesity management aspects to be somewhat effective, 3.80 (1.05. Of the four aspects of obesity management, diet and exercise, and diet foods were the highest ranked in terms of frequency of counseling, comfort level and perceived effectiveness. Pharmacists were neutral to confident in achieving positive outcomes as a result of obesity counseling, 3.44 (1.09. Overall mean responses of

  4. Alexithymia, Assertiveness and Psychosocial Functioning in HIV: Implications for Medication Adherence and Disease Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Roger C; Ironson, Gail; Antoni, Michael; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Schneiderman, Neil

    2016-02-01

    Psychosocial function and adherence to antiretroviral regimen are key factors in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease management. Alexithymia (AL) is a trait deficit in the ability to identify and describe feelings, emotions and bodily sensations. A structural equation model was used to test whether high levels of AL indirectly relate to greater non-adherent behavior and HIV disease severity via psychosocial dysfunction. Blood draws for HIV-1 viral load and CD4 T-lymphocyte, along with psychosocial surveys were collected from 439 HIV positive adults aged 18-73 years. The structural model supports significant paths from: (1) AL to non-active patient involvement, psychological distress, and lower social support, (2) psychological distress and non-active involvement to non-adherent behavior, and (3) non-adherence to greater HIV disease severity (CFI = .97, RMSEA = .04, SRMR = .05). A second model confirmed the intermediary effect of greater patient assertiveness on the path from AL to social support and non-active patient involvement (CFI = .94, RMSEA = .04, SRMR = .05). Altogether, AL is indirectly linked with HIV disease management through it's association with poor psychosocial function, however greater patient assertiveness buffers the negative impact of AL on relationship quality with healthcare providers and members of one's social support network. PMID:26143246

  5. SystemVerilog assertions and functional coverage guide to language, methodology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Ashok B

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a hands-on, application-oriented guide to the language and methodology of both SystemVerilog Assertions and SystemVerilog Functional Coverage. Readers will benefit from the step-by-step approach to functional hardware verification using SystemVerilog Assertions and Functional Coverage, which will enable them to uncover hidden and hard to find bugs, point directly to the source of the bug, provide for a clean and easy way to model complex timing checks and objectively answer the question ‘have we functionally verified everything’. Written by a professional end-user of ASIC/SoC/CPU and FPGA design and Verification, this book explains each concept with easy to understand examples, simulation logs and applications derived from real projects. Readers will be empowered to tackle the modeling of complex checkers for functional verification, thereby drastically reducing their time to design and debug. This updated second edition addresses the latest functional set released in IEEE-1800 (2012) L...

  6. Applying active learning to assertion classification of concepts in clinical text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yukun; Mani, Subramani; Xu, Hua

    2012-04-01

    Supervised machine learning methods for clinical natural language processing (NLP) research require a large number of annotated samples, which are very expensive to build because of the involvement of physicians. Active learning, an approach that actively samples from a large pool, provides an alternative solution. Its major goal in classification is to reduce the annotation effort while maintaining the quality of the predictive model. However, few studies have investigated its uses in clinical NLP. This paper reports an application of active learning to a clinical text classification task: to determine the assertion status of clinical concepts. The annotated corpus for the assertion classification task in the 2010 i2b2/VA Clinical NLP Challenge was used in this study. We implemented several existing and newly developed active learning algorithms and assessed their uses. The outcome is reported in the global ALC score, based on the Area under the average Learning Curve of the AUC (Area Under the Curve) score. Results showed that when the same number of annotated samples was used, active learning strategies could generate better classification models (best ALC-0.7715) than the passive learning method (random sampling) (ALC-0.7411). Moreover, to achieve the same classification performance, active learning strategies required fewer samples than the random sampling method. For example, to achieve an AUC of 0.79, the random sampling method used 32 samples, while our best active learning algorithm required only 12 samples, a reduction of 62.5% in manual annotation effort. PMID:22127105

  7. Assertive Communication and Teamwork: Results of an Intervention Program to the Supervisors of a Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús H. Montes de Oca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the effect of the implementation of the program "Manage your Talent" in competence assertive communication skills and teamwork. A quasi-experimental research design was used with pre-test - intervention - post-test with control group. The sample included 28 supervisors of a private company, 13 in the experimental group and 15 in the control group. A type of purposive sample was used. The results suggest a positive impact of the program to significantly increase competition achievement assertive communication (U = 3.5, Z = 4.58, *** P <.000, just as in effective dialogue dimensions (U = 8.0, feedback (U = 10.0, conflict resolution (U= 7.0 and non-verbal communication (U = 4.0, the skills of this competence in the highest increase was recorded were effective dialogue and nonverbal communication. In the other, the increase was lower. Regarding competition teamwork (U = 0.00, Z = 4.837, *** P <.000, just as in the dimensions (U = 9.0, Goal Achievement (U = 15.0, democratic environment (U= 12.0 and decision making (U = 7.0. The skills of this competence in the highest increase was recorded were the subject property, democratic environment and goal achievement. Minor increase in decision-making for managing consensus.

  8. Barcroft's bold assertion: All dwellers at high altitudes are persons of impaired physical and mental powers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John B

    2016-03-01

    Barcroft's bold assertion that everyone at high altitude has physical and mental impairment compared with sea level was very provocative. It was a result of the expedition that he led to Cerro de Pasco in Peru, altitude 4300 m. Although it is clear that newcomers to high altitude have reduced physical powers, some people believe that this does not apply to permanent residents who have been at high altitude for generations. The best evidence supports Barcroft's contention, although permanent residents often perform better than acclimatized lowlanders. Turning to neuropsychological function, newcomers to high altitude certainly have some impairment, and there is evidence that the same applies to highlanders. However the notion that permanent residents are impaired is anathema to many people. For example the eminent Peruvian physician Carlos Monge took great exception to Barcroft's remark and even attributed it to the fact that Barcroft was suffering from acute mountain sickness when he made it! Monge referred to 'climatic aggression', by which he meant the negative consequences of the inevitable hypoxia of high altitude. Recent technological advances such as oxygen enrichment of room air can overcome this 'aggression'. This might be useful in some settings at high altitude such as a nursery where newborn babies are cared for, and possibly operating rooms where the surgeon's dexterity may be enhanced. Other situations might be dormitories, conference rooms, and perhaps some school rooms. These constitute possible ways by which the effects of Barcroft's assertion might be countered. PMID:25962370

  9. Treatment and rehabilitation on a stroke unit improves 5-year survival. A community-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, H S; Kammersgaard, L P; Nakayama, H; Raaschou, H O; Larsen, K; Hübbe, P; Olsen, T S

    1999-01-01

    We have previously reported a marked reduction in mortality up to 1 year after treatment and rehabilitation on a stroke unit versus on general neurological and medical wards in unselected stroke patients. In the present study we wanted to test the hypothesis that this mortality-reducing effect is...

  10. TB treatment initiation and adherence in a South African community influenced more by perceptions than by knowledge of tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Møller Valerie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB is a global health concern. Inadequate case finding and case holding has been cited as major barrier to the control of TB. The TB literature is written almost entirely from a biomedical perspective, while recent studies show that it is imperative to understand lay perception to determine why people seek treatment and may stop taking treatment. The Eastern Cape is known as a province with high TB incidence, prevalence and with one of the worst cure rates of South Africa. Its inhabitants can be considered lay experts when it comes to TB. Therefore, we investigated knowledge, perceptions of (access to TB treatment and adherence to treatment among an Eastern Cape population. Methods An area-stratified sampling design was applied. A total of 1020 households were selected randomly in proportion to the total number of households in each neighbourhood. Results TB knowledge can be considered fairly good among this community. Respondents' perceptions suggest that stigma may influence TB patients' decision in health seeking behavior and adherence to TB treatment. A full 95% of those interviewed believe people with TB tend to hide their TB status out of fear of what others may say. Regression analyses revealed that in this population young and old, men and women and the lower and higher educated share the same attitudes and perceptions. Our findings are therefore likely to reflect the actual situation of TB patients in this population. Conclusions The lay experts' perceptions suggests that stigma appears to effect case holding and case finding. Future interventions should be directed at improving attitudes and perceptions to potentially reduce stigma. This requires a patient-centered approach to empower TB patients and active involvement in the development and implementation of stigma reduction programs.

  11. Efficiency of the Treatment of Domestic Sewage in Rural Communities Through Septic Tank Biodisgestor

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto José Hussar; Leandro José Simoni Peres; Euzebio Beli

    2010-01-01

    The large population growth as a consequence, the increase in consumption of natural resources and the pollutants generated. The problem of the release of wastewater treated or untreated , causes changes in physical and chemical properties of the water, which can in severe and profound ecological changes in the aquatic environment. In rural areas, the problem of the inadequate disposal of the domestic sewage is even worse, because these places have no infrastructure for treatment. One of the...

  12. Factors influencing tobacco use treatment patterns among Vietnamese health care providers working in community health centers

    OpenAIRE

    Shelley, Donna; Tseng, Tuo-Yen; Pham, Hieu; Nguyen, Linh; Keithly, Sarah; Stillman, Frances; Nguyen, Nam

    2014-01-01

    Background Almost half of adult men in Viet Nam are current smokers, a smoking prevalence that is the second highest among South East Asian countries (SEAC). Although Viet Nam has a strong public health delivery system, according to the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey, services to treat tobacco dependence are not readily available to smokers. The purpose of this study was to characterize current tobacco use treatment patterns among Vietnamese health care providers and factors influencing adh...

  13. Community Effectiveness of Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Infants (IPTi) in Rural Southern Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong Schellenberg, Joanna R M; Shirima, Kizito; Maokola, Werner; Manzi, Fatuma; Mrisho, Mwifadhi; Mushi,Adiel; Mshinda, Hassan; Alonso, Pedro; Tanner, Marcel; Schellenberg, David M

    2010-01-01

    Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine shows evidence of efficacy in individually randomized, controlled trials. In a large-scale effectiveness study, IPTi was introduced in April 2005 by existing health staff through routine contacts in 12 randomly selected divisions out of 24 in 6 districts of rural southern Tanzania. Coverage and effects on malaria and anemia were estimated through a representative survey in 2006 with 600 children age...

  14. A novel approach for harnessing biofilm communities in moving bed biofilm reactors for industrial wastewater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lemire, Joe A.; Marc A Demeter; Iain George; Howard Ceri; Turner, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    Moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs) are an effective biotechnology for treating industrial wastewater. Biomass retention on moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) carriers (biofilm support materials), allows for the ease-of-operation and high treatment capacity of MBBR systems. Optimization of MBBR systems has largely focused on aspects of carrier design, while little attention has been paid to enhancing strategies for harnessing microbial biomass. Previously, our research group demonstrated that ...

  15. Community perceptions, attitude, practices and treatment seeking behaviour for schistosomiasis in L. Victoria islands in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Kabatereine, Narcis; Fleming, Fiona; Thuo, Wangechi; Tinkitina, Benjamin; Edridah M Tukahebwa; Fenwick, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Background Over 200,000 people, most of them infected with Schistosoma mansoni inhabit 150 islands in Lake Victoria in Uganda. Although a programme to control the disease has been ongoing since 2003, its implementation in islands is inadequate due to high transport costs on water. In 2011 and 2012, the Global Network for Neglected Tropical Diseases (GNNTD) through Schistosomiasis Control Initiative (SCI) provided financial support to ease treatment delivery on the islands and over the period,...

  16. Klebsiella pneumoniae related community-acquired acute lower respiratory infections in Cambodia: Clinical characteristics and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In many Asian countries, Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) is the second pathogen responsible for community-acquired pneumonia. Yet, very little is known about KP etiology in ALRI in Cambodia, a country that has one of the weakest medical infrastructures in the region. We present here the first clinico-radiological description of KP community-acquired ALRI in hospitalized Cambodian patients. Methods Through ALRI surveillance in two provincial hospitals, KP was isolated from sputum and blood cultures, and identified by API20E gallery from patients ≥ 5 years-old with fever and respiratory symptoms onset ≤14 days. Antibiotics susceptibility testing was provided systematically to clinicians when bacteria were isolated. We collected patients' clinical, radiological and microbiological data and their outcome 3 months after discharge. We also compared KP-related with other bacteria-related ALRI to determine risk factors for KP infection. Results From April 2007 to December 2009, 2315 ALRI patients ≥ 5 years-old were enrolled including 587 whose bacterial etiology could be assigned. Of these, 47 (8.0%) had KP infection; their median age was 55 years and 68.1% were females. Reported prior medication was high (42.5%). Patients' chest radiographs showed pneumonia (61.3% including 39% that were necrotizing), preexisting parenchyma lesions (29.5%) and pleural effusions alone (4.5%) and normal parenchyma (4.5%). Five patients had severe conditions on admission and one patient died during hospitalization. Of the 39 patients that were hospital discharged, 14 died including 12 within 1 month after discharge. Only 13 patients (28%) received an appropriate antibiotherapy. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) - producing strains were found in 8 (17.0%) patients. Female gender (Odds ratio (OR) 2.1; p = 0.04) and diabetes mellitus (OR 3.1; p = 0.03) were independent risk factors for KP-related ALRI. Conclusions KP ALRI in Cambodia has high fatality rate, are more

  17. Klebsiella pneumoniae related community-acquired acute lower respiratory infections in Cambodia: Clinical characteristics and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rammaert Blandine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many Asian countries, Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP is the second pathogen responsible for community-acquired pneumonia. Yet, very little is known about KP etiology in ALRI in Cambodia, a country that has one of the weakest medical infrastructures in the region. We present here the first clinico-radiological description of KP community-acquired ALRI in hospitalized Cambodian patients. Methods Through ALRI surveillance in two provincial hospitals, KP was isolated from sputum and blood cultures, and identified by API20E gallery from patients ≥ 5 years-old with fever and respiratory symptoms onset ≤14 days. Antibiotics susceptibility testing was provided systematically to clinicians when bacteria were isolated. We collected patients' clinical, radiological and microbiological data and their outcome 3 months after discharge. We also compared KP-related with other bacteria-related ALRI to determine risk factors for KP infection. Results From April 2007 to December 2009, 2315 ALRI patients ≥ 5 years-old were enrolled including 587 whose bacterial etiology could be assigned. Of these, 47 (8.0% had KP infection; their median age was 55 years and 68.1% were females. Reported prior medication was high (42.5%. Patients' chest radiographs showed pneumonia (61.3% including 39% that were necrotizing, preexisting parenchyma lesions (29.5% and pleural effusions alone (4.5% and normal parenchyma (4.5%. Five patients had severe conditions on admission and one patient died during hospitalization. Of the 39 patients that were hospital discharged, 14 died including 12 within 1 month after discharge. Only 13 patients (28% received an appropriate antibiotherapy. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL - producing strains were found in 8 (17.0% patients. Female gender (Odds ratio (OR 2.1; p = 0.04 and diabetes mellitus (OR 3.1; p = 0.03 were independent risk factors for KP-related ALRI. Conclusions KP ALRI in Cambodia has high fatality rate

  18. Effect of Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent on Microbial Function and Community Structure in the Sediment of a Freshwater Stream with Variable Seasonal Flow▿

    OpenAIRE

    Wakelin, Steven A.; Colloff, Matt J.; Kookana, Rai S.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effects of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharge on the ecology of bacterial communities in the sediment of a small, low-gradient stream in South Australia. The quantification of genes involved in the biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nitrogen was used to assess potential impacts on ecosystem functions. The effects of disturbance on bacterial community structure were assessed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA genes, and clone library analy...

  19. A comparative assessment of intensive and extensive wastewater treatment technologies for removing emerging contaminants in small communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamoros, Víctor; Rodríguez, Yolanda; Albaigés, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem pollution due to the lack of or inefficient wastewater treatment coverage in small communities is still a matter of great concern, even in developed countries. This study assesses the seasonal performance of 4 different full-scale wastewater technologies that have been used in small communities (wetland (CW) and a waste stabilization pond (WSP)), all located in north-eastern Spain. The studied compounds belonged to the groups of pharmaceuticals, sunscreen compounds, fragrances, antiseptics, flame retardants, surfactants, pesticides and plasticizers. The 25 ECs occurred in wastewater at concentrations ranging from undetectable to 80 μg L(-1). The average removal efficiency was 42% for the CW, 62% for the AS, 63% for the RBC and 82% for the WSP. All the technologies except the WSP system showed seasonal variability in the removal of ECs. The ecotoxicological assessment study revealed that, whilst all the technologies were capable of decreasing the aquatic risk, only the WSP yielded no risk in both seasons. PMID:26595099

  20. Design of a Chlorinator in a Water Treatment plant for Small Village Community in Borno State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Abdulkareem

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The chlorinator is use as a discharge for chlorine which service as a disinfectant of bacterial in the rural water treatment plant in a small village community in Borno State. The percentage of chlorine was evaluated to be approximately 0.00002% which is within the accepted international standard limit for drinking water. The retention time of 5hrs was taken for the tank with volume of 0.0101m3 and diameter of 250mm and a calculated height of 206mm, the diameter of the orifice is approximately 1.5mm. Wood was use as the material for the construction of the tank because of its high resistance to chemicals.