Sample records for assembly ligand recognition

  1. Photoswitchable gel assembly based on molecular recognition (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroyasu; Kobayashi, Yuichiro; Kobayashi, Ryosuke; Takashima, Yoshinori; Hashidzume, Akihito; Harada, Akira


    The formation of effective and precise linkages in bottom-up or top-down processes is important for the development of self-assembled materials. Self-assembly through molecular recognition events is a powerful tool for producing functionalized materials. Photoresponsive molecular recognition systems can permit the creation of photoregulated self-assembled macroscopic objects. Here we demonstrate that macroscopic gel assembly can be highly regulated through photoisomerization of an azobenzene moiety that interacts differently with two host molecules. A photoregulated gel assembly system is developed using polyacrylamide-based hydrogels functionalized with azobenzene (guest) or cyclodextrin (host) moieties. Reversible adhesion and dissociation of the host gel from the guest gel may be controlled by photoirradiation. The differential affinities of α-cyclodextrin or β-cyclodextrin for the trans-azobenzene and cis-azobenzene are employed in the construction of a photoswitchable gel assembly system. PMID:22215078

  2. Assembly of bionanostructures onto Beta-cyclodextrin molecular printboards for antibody recognition and lymphocyte cell counting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludden, M.J.W.; Li, X.; Greve, J.; Amerongen, van A.; Escalante, M.; Subramaniam, V.; Reinhoudt, D.N.; Huskens, J.


    The assembly of complex bionanostructures onto ß-cyclodextrin (ßCD) monolayers has been investigated with the aims of antibody recognition and cell adhesion. The formation of these assemblies relies on host¿guest, protein¿ligand, and protein¿protein interactions. The buildup of a structure

  3. Assembly of bionanostructures onto beta-cyclodextrin molecular printboards for antibody recognition and lymphocyte cell counting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludden, M.J.W.; Li, X.; Greve, Jan; van Amerongen, Aart; Escalante Marun, M.; Subramaniam, Vinod; Reinhoudt, David; Huskens, Jurriaan


    The assembly of complex bionanostructures onto β-cyclodextrin (βCD) monolayers has been investigated with the aims of antibody recognition and cell adhesion. The formation of these assemblies relies on host−guest, protein−ligand, and protein−protein interactions. The buildup of a structure

  4. Assembly of bionanostructures onto beta-cyclodextrin molecular printboards for antibody recognition and lymphocyte cell counting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludden, Manon J W; Li, Xiao; Greve, Jan; van Amerongen, Aart; Escalante, Maryana; Subramaniam, Vinod; Reinhoudt, David N; Huskens, Jurriaan


    The assembly of complex bionanostructures onto beta-cyclodextrin (betaCD) monolayers has been investigated with the aims of antibody recognition and cell adhesion. The formation of these assemblies relies on host-guest, protein-ligand, and protein-protein interactions. The buildup of a structure

  5. Structural basis for ligand recognition of incretin receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underwood, Christina Rye; Parthier, Christoph; Reedtz-Runge, Steffen


    The glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) receptor and the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor are homologous G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Incretin receptor agonists stimulate the synthesis and secretion of insulin from pancreatic β-cells and are therefore promising agents...... analysis of the ECDs of incretin receptors and related GPCRs has shed new light on the process of ligand recognition and binding and provided a basis to disclose some of the mechanisms underlying receptor activation at high resolution....

  6. Associative Pattern Recognition Through Macro-molecular Self-Assembly (United States)

    Zhong, Weishun; Schwab, David J.; Murugan, Arvind


    We show that macro-molecular self-assembly can recognize and classify high-dimensional patterns in the concentrations of N distinct molecular species. Similar to associative neural networks, the recognition here leverages dynamical attractors to recognize and reconstruct partially corrupted patterns. Traditional parameters of pattern recognition theory, such as sparsity, fidelity, and capacity are related to physical parameters, such as nucleation barriers, interaction range, and non-equilibrium assembly forces. Notably, we find that self-assembly bears greater similarity to continuous attractor neural networks, such as place cell networks that store spatial memories, rather than discrete memory networks. This relationship suggests that features and trade-offs seen here are not tied to details of self-assembly or neural network models but are instead intrinsic to associative pattern recognition carried out through short-ranged interactions.

  7. Consequences of Morphology on Molecularly Imprinted Polymer-Ligand Recognition

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    Annika M. Rosengren


    Full Text Available The relationship between molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP morphology and template-rebinding over a series of warfarin-imprinted methacrylic acid co(ethylene dimethacrylate polymers has been explored. Detailed investigations of the nature of template recognition revealed that an optimal template binding was obtained with polymers possessing a narrow population of pores (~3–4 nm in the mesopore size range. Importantly, the warfarin-polymer rebinding analyses suggest strategies for regulating ligand binding capacity and specificity through variation of the degree of cross-linking, where polymers prepared with a lower degree of cross-linking afford higher capacity though non-specific in character. In contrast, the co-existence of specific and non-specific binding was found in conjunction with higher degrees of cross-linking and resultant meso- and macropore size distributions.

  8. Consequences of Morphology on Molecularly Imprinted Polymer-Ligand Recognition (United States)

    Rosengren, Annika M.; Karlsson, Björn C. G.; Nicholls, Ian A.


    The relationship between molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) morphology and template-rebinding over a series of warfarin-imprinted methacrylic acid co(ethylene dimethacrylate) polymers has been explored. Detailed investigations of the nature of template recognition revealed that an optimal template binding was obtained with polymers possessing a narrow population of pores (~3–4 nm) in the mesopore size range. Importantly, the warfarin-polymer rebinding analyses suggest strategies for regulating ligand binding capacity and specificity through variation of the degree of cross-linking, where polymers prepared with a lower degree of cross-linking afford higher capacity though non-specific in character. In contrast, the co-existence of specific and non-specific binding was found in conjunction with higher degrees of cross-linking and resultant mesoand macropore size distributions. PMID:23303280

  9. Bidirectional PCA with assembled matrix distance metric for image recognition. (United States)

    Zuo, Wangmeng; Zhang, David; Wang, Kuanquan


    Principal component analysis (PCA) has been very successful in image recognition. Recent research on PCA-based methods has mainly concentrated on two issues, namely: 1) feature extraction and 2) classification. This paper proposes to deal with these two issues simultaneously by using bidirectional PCA (BD-PCA) supplemented with an assembled matrix distance (AMD) metric. For feature extraction, BD-PCA is proposed, which can be used for image feature extraction by reducing the dimensionality in both column and row directions. For classification, an AMD metric is presented to calculate the distance between two feature matrices and then the nearest neighbor and nearest feature line classifiers are used for image recognition. The results of the experiments show the efficiency of BD-PCA with AMD metric in image recognition.

  10. Molecular Recognition and Immobilization of Ligand-Conjugated Redox-Responsive Polymer Nanocontainers. (United States)

    de Vries, Wilke C; Tesch, Matthias; Studer, Armido; Ravoo, Bart Jan


    We present the preparation of ligand-conjugated redox-responsive polymer nanocontainers by the supramolecular decoration of cyclodextrin vesicles with a thin redox-cleavable polymer shell that displays molecular recognition units on its surface. Two widely different recognition motifs (mannose-Concanavalin A and biotin-streptavidin) are compared and the impact of ligand density on the nanocontainer surface as well as an additional functionalization with nonadhesive poly(ethylene glycol) is studied. Aggregation assays, dynamic light scattering, and a fluorometric quantification reveal that the molecular recognition of ligand-conjugated polymer nanocontainers by receptor proteins is strongly affected by the multivalency of interactions and the association strength of the recognition motif. Finally, microcontact printing is used to prepare streptavidin-patterned surfaces, and the specific immobilization of biotin-conjugated nanocontainers is demonstrated. As a prototype of a nanosensor, these tethered nanocontainers can sense a reductive environment and react by releasing a payload.

  11. Profiles of carbohydrate ligands associated with adsorbed proteins on self-assembled monolayers of defined chemistries. (United States)

    Shankar, Sucharita P; Chen, Inn Inn; Keselowsky, Benjamin G; García, Andrés J; Babensee, Julia E


    Conserved protein-carbohydrate-lipid pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) interact with cells of the innate immune system to mediate antigen recognition and internalization and activation of immune cells. We examined if analogous "biomaterial-associated molecular patterns" composed of proteins, specifically their carbohydrate modifications, existed on biomaterials, which can play a role in mediating the innate immune response to biomaterials. To probe for these carbohydrates in the adsorbed protein layer, as directed by the underlying biomaterial chemistry, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) presenting -CH(3), -OH, -COOH, or -NH(2) were preincubated with serum/plasma, and the presence of carbohydrate ligands of C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) was investigated using lectin probes in an enzyme-linked lectin assay (ELLA). Presentation of CLR ligands was detected on control tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS). Absorbances of mannose or N-acetylglucosamine increased with decreasing incubating serum concentration, whereas absorbances of sialylated epitopes or fucose remained unchanged. Absorbances of alpha-galactose or N-acetylgalactosamine decreased with decreasing incubating serum concentration; beta-galactose was undetectable. Among SAM endgroups, preincubation with 10% serum resulted in differential presentation of CLR ligands: higher alpha-galactose on COOH SAMs than NH(2) or CH(3) SAMs, highest complex mannose on NH(2) SAMs, and higher complex mannose on OH SAMs than CH(3) SAMs. Least sialylated groups were detected on CH(3) SAMs. In summary, biomaterial chemistry may regulate protein adsorption and hence unique presentation of associated carbohydrates. The ultimate goal is to identify the effects of protein glycosylations associated with biomaterials in stimulating innate immune responses. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Searching for avidity by chemical ligation of combinatorially self-assembled DNA-encoded ligand libraries. (United States)

    Matysiak, Stefan; Hellmuth, Klaus; El-Sagheer, Afaf H; Shivalingam, Arun; Ariyurek, Yavuz; de Jong, Marco; Hollestelle, Martine J; Out, Ruud; Brown, Tom


    DNA encoded ligands are self-assembled into bivalent complexes and chemically ligated to link their identities. To demonstrate their potential as a combinatorial screening platform for avidity interactions, the optimal bivalent aptamer design (examplar ligands) for human alpha-thrombin is determined in a single round of selection and the DNA scaffold replaced with minimal impact on the final design.

  13. Self-assembly of heteroleptic dinuclear metallosupramolecular kites from multivalent ligands via social self-sorting

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    Christian Benkhäuser


    Full Text Available A Tröger's base-derived racemic bis(1,10-phenanthroline ligand (rac-1 and a bis(2,2'-bipyridine ligand with a central 1,3-diethynylbenzene unit 2 were synthesized. Each of these ligands acts as a multivalent entity for the binding of two copper(I ions. Upon coordination to the metal ions these two ligands undergo selective self-assembly into heteroleptic dinuclear metallosupramolecular kites in a high-fidelity social self-sorting manner as evidenced by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry.

  14. A Bifunctional Spin Label for Ligand Recognition on Surfaces


    Hollas, Michael A.; Webb, Simon J.; Flitsch, Sabine L.; Fielding, Alistair J.


    Abstract In?situ monitoring of biomolecular recognition, especially at surfaces, still presents a significant technical challenge. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of biomolecules spin?labeled with nitroxides can offer uniquely sensitive and selective insights into these processes, but new spin?labeling strategies are needed. The synthesis and study of a bromoacrylaldehyde spin label (BASL), which features two attachment points with orthogonal reactivity is reported. The first examples o...

  15. Structure-Specific Ligand Recognition of Multistranded DNA Structures. (United States)

    Kaushik, Mahima; Singh, Anju; Kumar, Mohan; Chaudhary, Swati; Ahmed, Saami; Kukreti, Shrikant


    Structural polymorphism is an extremely significant phenomenon of nucleic acids, in which DNA and RNA oligonucleotide sequences are able to adapt various canonical, alternative and multistranded structures. These alternative forms of DNA and RNA have an enormous potential of participating in various cellular processes by recognizing ligands such as proteins, drugs and metal ions in a sequence and structure-specific manner. Such DNA-ligand interactions prove to be highly beneficial when exploited for therapeutic purposes. Many of these DNA/ RNA structures recognizing drugs have already proved their potential as anticancer, antibacterial, anthelmintic and antiviral properties. Over the last 2-3 decades, many mechanisms of DNA-drug interactions have been documented, but still many other new mechanisms are being explored. Designing new drugs with improved efficacy and specificity is of prime concern for all researchers which not only deals with the experiments related to synthesizing drugs, but also takes care of searching novel routes or agents for administration or delivery of these therapeutic agents by increasing their nuclear and cellular uptake. This review aims at explaining the structural polymorphs/ multistranded DNA structures and their interactions with pharmaceutical drugs in a structure-specific manner, along with their modes of interactions and biological relevance. This detailed overview of multistranded DNA structures and interacting drugs might further facilitate our understanding about molecular targets and drug development in a more precise manner for the larger benefit of mankind.

  16. Molecular basis of ligand recognition and transport by glucose transporters. (United States)

    Deng, Dong; Sun, Pengcheng; Yan, Chuangye; Ke, Meng; Jiang, Xin; Xiong, Lei; Ren, Wenlin; Hirata, Kunio; Yamamoto, Masaki; Fan, Shilong; Yan, Nieng


    The major facilitator superfamily glucose transporters, exemplified by human GLUT1-4, have been central to the study of solute transport. Using lipidic cubic phase crystallization and microfocus X-ray diffraction, we determined the structure of human GLUT3 in complex with D-glucose at 1.5 Å resolution in an outward-occluded conformation. The high-resolution structure allows discrimination of both α- and β-anomers of D-glucose. Two additional structures of GLUT3 bound to the exofacial inhibitor maltose were obtained at 2.6 Å in the outward-open and 2.4 Å in the outward-occluded states. In all three structures, the ligands are predominantly coordinated by polar residues from the carboxy terminal domain. Conformational transition from outward-open to outward-occluded entails a prominent local rearrangement of the extracellular part of transmembrane segment TM7. Comparison of the outward-facing GLUT3 structures with the inward-open GLUT1 provides insights into the alternating access cycle for GLUTs, whereby the C-terminal domain provides the primary substrate-binding site and the amino-terminal domain undergoes rigid-body rotation with respect to the C-terminal domain. Our studies provide an important framework for the mechanistic and kinetic understanding of GLUTs and shed light on structure-guided ligand design.

  17. Selective ligand recognition by a diversity-generating retroelement variable protein.

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    Jason L Miller


    Full Text Available Diversity-generating retroelements (DGRs recognize novel ligands through massive protein sequence variation, a property shared uniquely with the adaptive immune response. Little is known about how recognition is achieved by DGR variable proteins. Here, we present the structure of the Bordetella bacteriophage DGR variable protein major tropism determinant (Mtd bound to the receptor pertactin, revealing remarkable adaptability in the static binding sites of Mtd. Despite large dissimilarities in ligand binding mode, principles underlying selective recognition were strikingly conserved between Mtd and immunoreceptors. Central to this was the differential amplification of binding strengths by avidity (i.e., multivalency, which not only relaxed the demand for optimal complementarity between Mtd and pertactin but also enhanced distinctions among binding events to provide selectivity. A quantitatively similar balance between complementarity and avidity was observed for Bordetella bacteriophage DGR as occurs in the immune system, suggesting that variable repertoires operate under a narrow set of conditions to recognize novel ligands.

  18. Ligand functionality as a versatile tool to control the assembly behavior of preformed titania nanocrystals. (United States)

    Polleux, Julien; Pinna, Nicola; Antonietti, Markus; Hess, Christian; Wild, Ute; Schlögl, Robert; Niederberger, Markus


    Nanoparticle powders composed of surface-functionalized anatase crystals with diameters of about 3 nm self-organize into different structures upon redispersion in water. The assembly is directed by a small amount of a low-molecular-weight functional ligand (the "assembler") adsorbed on the surface of the nanoparticles. The ligand functionality determines the anisotropy of the resulting structures. Multidentate ligands, such as trizma ((HOCH(2))(3)CNH(2)) and serinol ((HOCH(2))(2)CNH(2)), with a chargeable terminal group preferentially induce the formation of anisotropic nanostructures several hundreds of nanometers in total length, whereas all the other investigated ligands (ethanolamine H(2)N(CH(2))(2)OH, glycine hydroxamate H(2)NCH(2)CONHOH, dopamine (OH)(2)C(6)H(3)(CH(2))(2)NH(3)Cl, tris (HOCH(2))(3)CCH(3)) mainly lead to uncontrolled agglomeration. Experimental data suggests that the anisotropic assembly is a consequence of the water-promoted desorption of the organic ligands from the {001} faces of the crystalline building blocks together with the dissociative adsorption of water on these crystal faces. Both processes induce the preferred attachment of the titania nanoparticles along the [001] direction. The use of polydentate and charged ligands to functionalize the surface of nanoparticles thus provides a versatile tool to control their arrangement on the nanoscale.

  19. Human NKG2D-ligands: cell biology strategies to ensure immune recognition

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    Lola eFernández-Messina


    Full Text Available Immune recognition mediated by the activating receptor NKG2D plays an important role for the elimination of stressed cells, including tumours and virus-infected cells. On the other hand, the ligands for NKG2D can also be shed into the sera of cancer patients where they weaken the immune response by downmodulating the receptor on effector cells, mainly NK and T cells. Although both families of NKG2D-ligands, MICA/B and ULBPs, are related to MHC molecules and their expression is increased after stress, many differences are observed in terms of their biochemical properties and cell trafficking. In this paper, we summarise the variety of NKG2D-ligands and propose that selection pressure has driven evolution of diversity in their trafficking and shedding, but not receptor binding affinity. However, it is also possible to identify functional properties common to individual ULBP molecules and MICA/B alleles, but not generally conserved within the MIC or ULBP families. These characteristics likely represent examples of convergent evolution for efficient immune recognition, but are also attractive targets for pathogen immune evasion strategies. Categorization of NKG2D-ligands according to their biological features, rather than their genetic family, may help to achieve a better understanding of NKG2D-ligand association with disease.

  20. Human NKG2D-ligands: cell biology strategies to ensure immune recognition


    Lola eFernández-Messina; Reyburn, Hugh T.; Mar eVales-Gomez


    Immune recognition mediated by the activating receptor NKG2D plays an important role for the elimination of stressed cells, including tumors and virus-infected cells. On the other hand, the ligands for NKG2D can also be shed into the sera of cancer patients where they weaken the immune response by downmodulating the receptor on effector cells, mainly NK and T cells. Although both families of NKG2D-ligands, major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain (MIC) A/B and UL16 binding prote...

  1. A Self-Assembled Electro-Active M8L4 Cage Based on Tetrathiafulvalene Ligands

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    Sébastien Goeb


    Full Text Available Two self-assembled redox-active cages are presented. They are obtained by coordination-driven self-assembly of a tetra-pyridile tetrathiafulvalene ligand with cis-M(dppf(OTf2 (M = Pd or Pt; dppf = 1,1′-bis(diphenylphosphinoferrocene; OTf = trifluoromethane-sulfonate complexes. Both species are fully characterized and are constituted of 12 electro-active subunits that can be reversibly oxidized.

  2. Structure and RNA recognition of ribosome assembly factor Utp30. (United States)

    Hu, Jianfei; Zhu, Xing; Ye, Keqiong


    The 90S preribosomes are gigantic early assembly intermediates of small ribosomal subunits. Cryo-EM structures of 90S were recently determined, but many of its components have not been accurately modeled. Here we determine the crystal structure of yeast Utp30, a ribosomal L1 domain-containing protein in 90S, at 2.65 Å resolution, revealing a classic two-domain fold. The structure of Utp30 fits well into the cryo-EM density of 90S, confirming its previously assigned location. Utp30 binds to the rearranged helix 41 of 18S rRNA and helix 4 of 5' external transcribed spacer in 90S. Comparison of RNA-binding modes of different L1 domains illustrates that they consistently recognize a short RNA duplex with the concaved surface of domain I, but are versatile in RNA recognition outside the core interface. Cic1 is a paralog of Utp30 associating with large subunit preribosomes. Utp30 and Cic1 share similar RNA-binding modes, suggesting that their distinct functions may be executed by a single protein in other organisms. Deletion of Utp30 does not affect the composition of 90S. The nonessential role of Utp30 could be ascribed to its peripheral localization and redundant interactions in 90S. © 2017 Hu et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  3. Roles for ordered and bulk solvent in ligand recognition and docking in two related cavities.

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    Sarah Barelier

    Full Text Available A key challenge in structure-based discovery is accounting for modulation of protein-ligand interactions by ordered and bulk solvent. To investigate this, we compared ligand binding to a buried cavity in Cytochrome c Peroxidase (CcP, where affinity is dominated by a single ionic interaction, versus a cavity variant partly opened to solvent by loop deletion. This opening had unexpected effects on ligand orientation, affinity, and ordered water structure. Some ligands lost over ten-fold in affinity and reoriented in the cavity, while others retained their geometries, formed new interactions with water networks, and improved affinity. To test our ability to discover new ligands against this opened site prospectively, a 534,000 fragment library was docked against the open cavity using two models of ligand solvation. Using an older solvation model that prioritized many neutral molecules, three such uncharged docking hits were tested, none of which was observed to bind; these molecules were not highly ranked by the new, context-dependent solvation score. Using this new method, another 15 highly-ranked molecules were tested for binding. In contrast to the previous result, 14 of these bound detectably, with affinities ranging from 8 µM to 2 mM. In crystal structures, four of these new ligands superposed well with the docking predictions but two did not, reflecting unanticipated interactions with newly ordered waters molecules. Comparing recognition between this open cavity and its buried analog begins to isolate the roles of ordered solvent in a system that lends itself readily to prospective testing and that may be broadly useful to the community.

  4. Ligand-independent assembly of recombinant human CD1 by using oxidative refolding chromatography (United States)

    Altamirano, Myriam M.; Woolfson, Adrian; Donda, Alena; Shamshiev, Abdijapar; Briseño-Roa, Luis; Foster, Nicholas W.; Veprintsev, Dmitry B.; De Libero, Gennaro; Fersht, Alan R.; Milstein, César


    CD1 is an MHC class I-like antigen-presenting molecule consisting of a heavy chain and β2-microglobulin light chain. The in vitro refolding of synthetic MHC class I molecules has always required the presence of ligand. We report here the use of a folding method using an immobilized chaperone fragment, a protein disulphide isomerase, and a peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (oxidative refolding chromatography) for the fast and efficient assembly of ligand-free and ligand-associated CD1a and CD1b, starting with material synthesized in Escherichia coli. The results suggest that “empty” MHC class I-like molecules can assemble and remain stable at physiological temperatures in the absence of ligand. The use of oxidative refolding chromatography thus is extended to encompass complex multisubunit proteins and specifically to members of the extensive, functionally diverse and important immunoglobulin supergene family of proteins, including those for which a ligand has yet to be identified. PMID:11248071

  5. Chiral recognition and selection during the self-assembly process of protein-mimic macroanions

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    Yin, Panchao; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Lv, Hongjin; Li, Tao; Haso, Fadi; Hu, Lang; Zhang, Baofang; Basca, John; Wei, Yongge; Gao, Yanqing; Hou, Yu; Li, Yang-Guang; Hill, Craig L.; Wang, En-Bo; Liu, Tianbo


    The research on chiral recognition and chiral selection is not only fundamental in resolving the puzzle of homochirality, but also instructive in chiral separation and stereoselective catalysis. Here we report the chiral recognition and chiral selection during the self-assembly process of two enantiomeric wheel-shaped macroanions, [Fe28(μ3-O)8(Tart)16(HCOO)24]20- (Tart=D- or L-tartaric acid tetra-anion). The enantiomers are observed to remain self-sorted and self-assemble into their individual assemblies in their racemic mixture solution. The addition of chiral co-anions can selectively suppress the self-assembly process of the enantiomeric macroanions, which is further used to separate the two enantiomers from their mixtures on the basis of the size difference between the monomers and the assemblies. We believe that delicate long-range electrostatic interactions could be responsible for such high-level chiral recognition and selection.

  6. Carbohydrate recognition in the immune system: contributions of neoglycolipid-based microarrays to carbohydrate ligand discovery. (United States)

    Feizi, Ten


    Oligosaccharide sequences in glycomes of eukaryotes and prokaryotes are enormously diverse. The reasons are not fully understood, but there is an increasing number of examples of the involvement of specific oligosaccharide sequences as ligands in protein-carbohydrate interactions in health and, directly or indirectly, in every major disease, be it infectious or noninfectious. The pinpointing and characterizing of oligosaccharide ligands within glycomes has been one of the most challenging aspects of molecular cell biology, as oligosaccharides cannot be cloned and are generally available in limited amounts. This overview recounts the background to the development of a microarray system that is poised for surveying proteomes for carbohydrate-binding activities and glycomes for assigning the oligosaccharide ligands. Examples are selected by way of illustrating the potential of "designer" microarrays for ligand discovery at the interface of infection, immunity, and glycobiology. Particularly highlighted are sulfo-oligosaccharide and gluco-oligosaccharide recognition systems elucidated using microarrays. © 2013 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of The New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. The roles of template complexation and ligand binding conditions on recognition in bupivacaine molecularly imprinted polymers. (United States)

    Karlsson, Jesper G; Karlsson, Björn; Andersson, Lars I; Nicholls, Ian A


    A model for the molecular basis for ligand recognition in bupivacaine imprinted methacrylic acid-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate co-polymers has been developed based upon a series of (1)H-NMR studies in conjunction with HPLC and radioligand binding analyses. (1)H-NMR studies indicated that functional monomer-template complexes survive the polymerisation process, at least up until the stage of gelation. Polymers were synthesised and characterised by surface area analysis (BET), FT-IR and SEM. A combination of zonal and frontal chromatographic studies in aqueous and non-polar media indicate that selectivity arises from a combination of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. However, in the concentration regime employed for LC-based studies, ligand recognition in aqueous media was shown to be predominantly non-specific and hydrophobic in character. Radioligand binding studies, in lower ligand binding concentration regimes, permitted closer examination of the higher affinity binding sites. It was shown that the presence of a polar modifier in a non-polar solvent, or an organic modifier in water, produced enhanced selectivity. Variable temperature studies showed that the temperature of binding influences selectivity as well as the apparent number of sites available and that this effect is different in organic and aqueous environments. This indicates that the system studied is more complex in character than is generally appreciated. A comparison of the techniques employed here indicates that although chromatographic studies provide a valuable first-round screen for polymer-ligand selectivities, the level of detail obtainable using radioligand binding studies (lower concentrations and true equilibrium binding) makes them superior for detailed evaluations of molecularly imprinted polymers.

  8. Ligand-induced twisting of nanoplatelets and their self-assembly into chiral ribbons. (United States)

    Jana, Santanu; de Frutos, Marta; Davidson, Patrick; Abécassis, Benjamin


    The emergence of chirality is a central issue in chemistry, materials science, and biology. In nanoparticle assemblies, chirality has been shown to arise through a few different processes, but chiral organizations composed of plate-like nanoparticles, a class of material under scrutiny due to their wide applicative potential, have not yet been reported. We show that ribbons of stacked board-shaped cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoplatelets (NPLs) twist upon the addition of oleic acid ligand, leading to chiral ribbons that reach several micrometers in length and display a well-defined pitch of ~400 nm. We demonstrate that the chirality originates from surface strain caused by the ligand because isolated NPLs in dilute solution undergo a transition from a flat to a twisted shape as the ligand coverage increases. When the platelets are closely stacked within ribbons, the individual twist propagates over the whole ribbon length. These results show that a ligand-induced mechanical stress can strongly distort thin NPLs and that this stress can be expressed at a larger scale, paving the way to stress engineering in assemblies of nanocrystals. Such a structural change resulting from a simple external stimulus could have broad implications for the design of sensors and other responsive materials.

  9. Logistic Regression of Ligands of Chemotaxis Receptors Offers Clues about Their Recognition by Bacteria

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    Takashi Sagawa


    Full Text Available Because of relative simplicity of signal transduction pathway, bacterial chemotaxis sensory systems have been expected to be applied to biosensor. Tar and Tsr receptors mediate chemotaxis of Escherichia coli and have been studied extensively as models of chemoreception by bacterial two-transmembrane receptors. Such studies are typically conducted using two canonical ligands: l-aspartate for Tar and l-serine for Tsr. However, Tar and Tsr also recognize various analogs of aspartate and serine; it remains unknown whether the mechanism by which the canonical ligands are recognized is also common to the analogs. Moreover, in terms of engineering, it is important to know a single species of receptor can recognize various ligands to utilize bacterial receptor as the sensor for wide range of substances. To answer these questions, we tried to extract the features that are common to the recognition of the different analogs by constructing classification models based on machine-learning. We computed 20 physicochemical parameters for each of 38 well-known attractants that act as chemoreception ligands, and 15 known non-attractants. The classification models were generated by utilizing one or more of the seven physicochemical properties as descriptors. From the classification models, we identified the most effective physicochemical parameter for classification: the minimum electron potential. This descriptor that occurred repeatedly in classification models with the highest accuracies, This descriptor used alone could accurately classify 42/53 of compounds. Among the 11 misclassified compounds, eight contained two carboxyl groups, which is analogous to the structure of characteristic of aspartate analog. When considered separately, 16 of the 17 aspartate analogs could be classified accurately based on the distance between their two carboxyl groups. As shown in these results, we succeed to predict the ligands for bacterial chemoreceptors using only a few

  10. Solid-Phase Bioconjugation of Heterobifunctional Adaptors for Versatile Assembly of Bispecific Targeting Ligands (United States)


    High-throughput generation of bispecific molecules promises to expedite the discovery of new molecular therapeutics and guide engineering of novel multifunctional constructs. However, high synthesis complexity and cost have hampered the discovery of bispecific molecules in drug development and biomedical research. Herein we describe a simple solid-phase bioconjugation procedure for preparation of Protein A(G,L)-PEG-Streptavidin heterobifunctional adaptors (with 1:1:1 stoichiometry), which enable self-assembly of unmodified antibodies and biotinylated molecules into bispecific targeting ligands in a versatile mix-and-use manner. Utility of such adaptors is demonstrated by assembly of anti-CD3 and anti-Her2 antibodies into bispecific CD3xHer2 targeting ligands, which efficiently drive T-cell-mediated lysis of Her2-positive cancer cells. In comparison to bioconjugation in solution, the solid-phase procedure described here offers precise stoichiometry control, ease of purification, and high yield of functional conjugates. Simplicity and versatility should prove this methodology instrumental for preparation of bispecific ligands, as well as for high-throughput screening of bispecific combinations, before proceeding to synthesis of lead candidates via recombinant engineering or chemical cross-linking. PMID:25010411

  11. Polar self-assembly: steric effects leading to polar mixed-ligand coordination cages. (United States)

    Zhang, Jianyong; Miller, Philip W; Nieuwenhuyzen, Mark; James, Stuart L


    We present a highly unusual example of self-assembly, specifically a polar, mixed-ligand cage which forms in preference to symmetrical homo-ligand products, and which suggests that steric effects can be exploited to obtain novel non-uniform polyhedral cages. In particular, reaction between the bulky tripodal triphosphine 2,4,6-tris(diphenylphosphino)triazine, L1, the non-bulky tripodal trinitrile 2,4,6-tris(cyanomethyl)trimethylbenzene, L2 and silver hexafluoroantimonate, AgSbF6, in a 3:1:4 ratio gives the mixed-ligand aggregate [Ag4(L1)3(L2)(SbF6)]3+, 1-SbF6, instantly as the only product in quantitative yield. The X-ray crystal structure of complex 1-SbF6 is consistent with the suspected solution-state structure. The cage derives from trigonal-pyramidal geometry, the basal vertices of which are defined by three bulky triphosphines, L1, and the apical vertex by the non-bulky trinitrile, L2. There is apical elongation amounting to 19% in comparison to the ideal uniform tetrahedron. The cage also encapsulates an SbF6 anion. 19F NMR spectra in solution for the analogous PF6 complex [Ag4(L1)3(L2)(PF6)]3+, 1-PF6, confirm that one anion is also encapsulated in solution. The synthesis of the analogous CF3SO3(-) complex, [Ag4(L1)3(L2)(OTf)]3+, 1-OTf, in solution is also described, although 1-PF6 and 1-OTf could not be isolated due to slow decomposition in solution. The selective formation of these mixed-ligand cages is discussed in terms of ligand-ligand and ligand-included anion steric repulsions, which we propose prevent the formation of the competing hypothetical homo-ligand tetrahedral structure [Ag4(L1)4(SbF6)]3+, and thus favour the mixed ligand cage. "Cage cone angles" for L1 and L2 are estimated at 115 degrees and 101 degrees, respectively. Variable-temperature 31P NMR spectroscopy shows that complex 1-SbF6 and the related previously reported partial tetrahedral complex [Ag4(L1)3(anion)]3+ undergo dynamic twisting processes in solution between enantiomeric C3

  12. Folding and ligand recognition of the TPP riboswitch aptamer at single-molecule resolution. (United States)

    Haller, Andrea; Altman, Roger B; Soulière, Marie F; Blanchard, Scott C; Micura, Ronald


    Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP)-sensitive mRNA domains are the most prevalent riboswitches known. Despite intensive investigation, the complex ligand recognition and concomitant folding processes in the TPP riboswitch that culminate in the regulation of gene expression remain elusive. Here, we used single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging to probe the folding landscape of the TPP aptamer domain in the absence and presence of magnesium and TPP. To do so, distinct labeling patterns were used to sense the dynamics of the switch helix (P1) and the two sensor arms (P2/P3 and P4/P5) of the aptamer domain. The latter structural elements make interdomain tertiary contacts (L5/P3) that span a region immediately adjacent to the ligand-binding site. In each instance, conformational dynamics of the TPP riboswitch were influenced by ligand binding. The P1 switch helix, formed by the 5' and 3' ends of the aptamer domain, adopts a predominantly folded structure in the presence of Mg(2+) alone. However, even at saturating concentrations of Mg(2+) and TPP, the P1 helix, as well as distal regions surrounding the TPP-binding site, exhibit an unexpected degree of residual dynamics and disperse kinetic behaviors. Such plasticity results in a persistent exchange of the P3/P5 forearms between open and closed configurations that is likely to facilitate entry and exit of the TPP ligand. Correspondingly, we posit that such features of the TPP aptamer domain contribute directly to the mechanism of riboswitch-mediated translational regulation.

  13. Rapid and Efficient Collection of Platinum from Karstedt's Catalyst Solution via Ligands-Exchange-Induced Assembly. (United States)

    Yang, Gonghua; Wei, Yanlong; Huang, Zhenzhu; Hu, Jiwen; Liu, Guojun; Ou, Ming; Lin, Shudong; Tu, Yuanyuan


    Reported herein is a novel strategy for the rapid and efficient collection of platinum from Karstedt's catalyst solution. By taking advantage of a ligand-exchange reaction between alkynols and the 1,3-divinyltetramethyldisiloxane ligand (M Vi M Vi ) that coordinated with platinum (Pt(0)), the Karstedt's catalyst particles with a size of approximately 2.5 ± 0.7 nm could be reconstructed and assembled into larger particles with a size of 150 ± 35 nm due to the hydrogen bonding between the hydroxyl groups of the alkynol. In addition, because the silicone-soluble M Vi M Vi ligand of the Karstedt's catalyst was replaced by water-soluble alkynol ligands, the resultant large particles were readily dispersed in water, resulting in rapid, efficient, and complete collection of platinum from the Karstedt's catalyst solutions with platinum concentrations in the range from ∼20 000 to 0.05 ppm. Our current strategy not only was used for the rapid and efficient collection of platinum from the Karstedt's catalyst solutions, but it also enabled the precise evaluation of the platinum content in the Karstedt's catalysts, even if this platinum content was extremely low (i.e., 0.05 ppm). Moreover, these platinum specimens that were efficiently collected from the Karstedt's catalyst solutions could be directly used for the evaluation of platinum without the need for pretreatment processes, such as calcination and digestion with hydrofluoric acid, that were traditionally used prior to testing via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in conventional methods.

  14. Superphenylphosphines: Nanographene-based Ligands That Control Coordination Geometry and Drive Supramolecular Assembly. (United States)

    Smith, Jordan Neale; Hook, James M; Lucas, Nigel T


    Tertiary phosphines remain widely utilized in synthesis, most notably as supporting ligands in metal complexes. A series of triarylphosphines bearing one to three hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (HBC) substituents has been prepared by an efficient divergent route. These "superphenylphosphines", P{HBC(t-Bu)5}nPh3-n (n = 1-3), form the palladium complexes Pd2Cl2L2 and Pd2Cl4L2 where the isomer distribution in solution is dependent on the number of HBC substituents. The crystalline structures of five complexes all show intramolecular π-stacking between HBC-phosphines to form a supramolecular bidentate-like ligand that distorts the metal coordination geometry. When n = 2 or 3, the additional HBC substituents engage in intermolecular π-stacking to assemble the complexes into continuous ribbons or sheets. The phosphines adopt HBC's characteristics including strong optical absorption, green emission, and redox activity.

  15. Recognition of Kinematic Joints of 3D Assembly Models Based on Reciprocal Screw Theory


    Tao Xiong; Liping Chen; Jianwan Ding; Yizhong Wu; Wenjie Hou


    Reciprocal screw theory is used to recognize the kinematic joints of assemblies restricted by arbitrary combinations of geometry constraints. Kinematic analysis is common for reaching a satisfactory design. If a machine is large and the incidence of redesign frequent is high, then it becomes imperative to have fast analysis-redesign-reanalysis cycles. This work addresses this problem by providing recognition technology for converting a 3D assembly model into a kinematic joint model, which is ...

  16. Sequential Block Copolymer Self-Assemblies Controlled by Metal-Ligand Stoichiometry. (United States)

    Yin, Liyuan; Wu, Hongwei; Zhu, Mingjie; Zou, Qi; Yan, Qiang; Zhu, Liangliang


    While numerous efforts have been devoted to developing easy-to-use probes based on block copolymers for detecting analytes due to their advantages in the fields of self-assembly and sensing, a progressive response on block copolymers in response to a continuing chemical event is not readily achievable. Herein, we report the self-assembly of a 4-piperazinyl-1,8-naphthalimide based functional block copolymer (PS-b-PN), whose self-assembly and photophysics can be controlled by the stoichiometry-dependent metal-ligand interaction upon the side chain. The work takes advantages of (1) stoichiometry-controlled coordination-structural transformation of the piperazinyl moiety on PS-b-PN toward Fe(3+) ions, thereby resulting in a shrinkage-expansion conversion of the self-assembled nanostructures in solution as well as in thin film, and (2) stoichiometry-controlled competition between photoinduced electron transfer and spin-orbital coupling process upon naphthalimide fluorophore leading to a boost-decline emission change of the system. Except Fe(3+) ions, such a stoichiometry-dependent returnable property cannot be observed in the presence of other transition ions. The strategy for realizing the dual-channel sequential response on the basis of the progressively alterable nanomorphologies and emissions might provide deeper insights for the further development of advanced polymeric sensors.

  17. Innate immune recognition of double-stranded RNA triggers increased expression of NKG2D ligands after virus infection. (United States)

    Esteso, Gloria; Guerra, Susana; Valés-Gómez, Mar; Reyburn, Hugh T


    Self/non-self-discrimination by the innate immune system relies on germline-encoded, non-rearranging receptors expressed by innate immune cells recognizing conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns. The natural killer group 2D (NKG2D) receptor is a potent immune-activating receptor that binds human genome-encoded ligands, whose expression is negligible in normal tissues, but increased in stress and disease conditions for reasons that are incompletely understood. Here it is not clear how the immune system reconciles receptor binding of self-proteins with self/non-self-discrimination to avoid autoreactivity. We now report that increased expression of NKG2D ligands after virus infection depends on interferon response factors activated by the detection of viral double-stranded RNA by pattern-recognition receptors (RIG-I/MDA-5) and that NKG2D ligand up-regulation can be blocked by the expression of viral dsRNA-binding proteins. Thus, innate immunity-mediated recognition of viral nucleic acids triggers the infected cell to release interferon for NK cell recruitment and to express NKG2D ligands to become more visible to the immune system. Finally, the observation that NKG2D-ligand induction is a consequence of signaling by pattern-recognition receptors that have been selected over evolutionary time to be highly pathogen-specific explains how the risks of autoreactivity in this system are minimized. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. RET Recognition of GDNF-GFRα1 Ligand by a Composite Binding Site Promotes Membrane-Proximal Self-Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry M. Goodman


    Full Text Available The RET receptor tyrosine kinase is essential to vertebrate development and implicated in multiple human diseases. RET binds a cell surface bipartite ligand comprising a GDNF family ligand and a GFRα coreceptor, resulting in RET transmembrane signaling. We present a hybrid structural model, derived from electron microscopy (EM and low-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS data, of the RET extracellular domain (RETECD, GDNF, and GFRα1 ternary complex, defining the basis for ligand recognition. RETECD envelopes the dimeric ligand complex through a composite binding site comprising four discrete contact sites. The GFRα1-mediated contacts are crucial, particularly close to the invariant RET calcium-binding site, whereas few direct contacts are made by GDNF, explaining how distinct ligand/coreceptor pairs are accommodated. The RETECD cysteine-rich domain (CRD contacts both ligand components and makes homotypic membrane-proximal interactions occluding three different antibody epitopes. Coupling of these CRD-mediated interactions suggests models for ligand-induced RET activation and ligand-independent oncogenic deregulation.

  19. Ligand binding and signaling of dendritic cell immunoreceptor (DCIR is modulated by the glycosylation of the carbohydrate recognition domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karien Bloem

    Full Text Available C-type lectins are innate receptors expressed on antigen-presenting cells that are involved in the recognition of glycosylated pathogens and self-glycoproteins. Upon ligand binding, internalization and/or signaling often occur. Little is known on the glycan specificity and ligands of the Dendritic Cell Immunoreceptor (DCIR, the only classical C-type lectin that contains an intracellular immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM. Here we show that purified DCIR binds the glycan structures Lewis(b and Man3. Interestingly, binding could not be detected when DCIR was expressed on cells. Since DCIR has an N-glycosylation site inside its carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD, we investigated the effect of this glycan in ligand recognition. Removing or truncating the glycans present on purified DCIR increased the affinity for DCIR-binding glycans. Nevertheless, altering the glycosylation status of the DCIR expressing cell or mutating the N-glycosylation site of DCIR itself did not increase glycan binding. In contrast, cis and trans interactions with glycans induced DCIR mediated signaling, resulting in a decreased phosphorylation of the ITIM sequence. These results show that glycan binding to DCIR is influenced by the glycosylation of the CRD region in DCIR and that interaction with its ligands result in signaling via its ITIM motif.

  20. Structure of the F-spondin Domain of Mindin an Integrin Ligand and Pattern Recognition Molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y Li; C Cao; W Jia; L Yu; M Mo; Q Wang; Y Huang; J Lim; M Ishihara; et. al.


    Mindin (spondin-2) is an extracellular matrix protein of unknown structure that is required for efficient T-cell priming by dendritic cells. Additionally, mindin functions as a pattern recognition molecule for initiating innate immune responses. These dual functions are mediated by interactions with integrins and microbial pathogens, respectively. Mindin comprises an N-terminal F-spondin (FS) domain and C-terminal thrombospondin type 1 repeat (TSR). We determined the structure of the FS domain at 1.8-A resolution. The structure revealed an eight-stranded antiparallel beta-sandwich motif resembling that of membrane-targeting C2 domains, including a bound calcium ion. We demonstrated that the FS domain mediates integrin binding and identified the binding site by mutagenesis. The mindin FS domain therefore represents a new integrin ligand. We further showed that mindin recognizes lipopolysaccharide (LPS) through its TSR domain, and obtained evidence that C-mannosylation of the TSR influences LPS binding. Through these dual interactions, the FS and TSR domains of mindin promote activation of both adaptive and innate immune responses.

  1. Design of supramolecular nanomaterials : from molecular recognition to hierarchical self-assembly


    El Idrissi, Mohamed


    In the present thesis, are reported new strategies for the design of nanostructures to partly address environmental issues. The work carried out has been divided into three parts: the design of cyclodextrin (CD)-based polymeric materials, the molecular engineering of a pyrene derivative for the formation of self-assembled nanostructures and the design of smart nanocarriers. Considerable efforts have been devoted to the design of molecular receptors capable of specific recognition of a wid...

  2. Structure of a glycomimetic ligand in the carbohydrate recognition domain of C-type lectin DC-SIGN. Structural requirements for selectivity and ligand design. (United States)

    Thépaut, Michel; Guzzi, Cinzia; Sutkeviciute, Ieva; Sattin, Sara; Ribeiro-Viana, Renato; Varga, Norbert; Chabrol, Eric; Rojo, Javier; Bernardi, Anna; Angulo, Jesus; Nieto, Pedro M; Fieschi, Franck


    In genital mucosa, different fates are described for HIV according to the subtype of dendritic cells (DCs) involved in its recognition. This notably depends on the C-type lectin receptor, langerin or DC-SIGN, involved in gp120 interaction. Langerin blocks HIV transmission by its internalization in specific organelles of Langerhans cells. On the contrary, DC-SIGN enhances HIV trans-infection of T lymphocytes. Thus, approaches aiming to inhibit DC-SIGN, without blocking langerin, represent attractive anti-HIV strategies. We previously demonstrated that dendrons bearing multiple copies of glycomimetic compounds were able to block DC-SIGN-dependent HIV infection in cervical explant models. Optimization of such ligand requires detailed characterization of its binding mode. In the present work, we determined the first high-resolution structure of a glycomimetic/DC-SIGN complex by X-ray crystallography. This glycomimetic, pseudo-1,2-mannobioside, shares shape and conformational properties with Manα1-2Man, its natural counterpart. However, it uses the binding epitope previously described for Lewis X, a ligand specific for DC-SIGN among the C-type lectin family. Thus, selectivity gain for DC-SIGN versus langerin is observed with pseudo-1,2-mannobioside as shown by surface plasmon resonance analysis. In parallel, ligand binding was also analyzed by TR-NOESY and STD NMR experiments, combined with the CORCEMA-ST protocol. These studies demonstrate that the complex, defined by X-ray crystallography, represents the unique binding mode of this ligand as opposed to the several binding orientations described for the natural ligand. This exclusive binding mode and its selective interaction properties position this glycomimetic as a good lead compound for rational improvement based on a structurally driven approach.

  3. Multicomponent assembly of fluorescent-tag functionalized ligands in metal-organic frameworks for sensing explosives. (United States)

    Gole, Bappaditya; Bar, Arun Kumar; Mukherjee, Partha Sarathi


    Detection of trace amounts of explosive materials is significantly important for security concerns and pollution control. Four multicomponent metal-organic frameworks (MOFs-12, 13, 23, and 123) have been synthesized by employing ligands embedded with fluorescent tags. The multicomponent assembly of the ligands was utilized to acquire a diverse electronic behavior of the MOFs and the fluorescent tags were strategically chosen to enhance the electron density in the MOFs. The phase purity of the MOFs was established by PXRD, NMR spectroscopy, and finally by single-crystal XRD. Single-crystal structures of the MOFs-12 and 13 showed the formation of three-dimensional porous networks with the aromatic tags projecting inwardly into the pores. These electron-rich MOFs were utilized for detection of explosive nitroaromatic compounds (NACs) through fluorescence quenching with high selectivity and sensitivity. The rate of fluorescence quenching for all the MOFs follows the order of electron deficiency of the NACs. We also showed the detection of picric acid (PA) by luminescent MOFs is not always reliable and can be misleading. This attracts our attention to explore these MOFs for sensing picryl chloride (PC), which is as explosive as picric acid and used widely to prepare more stable explosives like 2,4,6-trinitroaniline from PA. Moreover, the recyclability and sensitivity studies indicated that these MOFs can be reused several times with parts per billion (ppb) levels of sensitivity towards PC and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Syntheses, structures and physical properties of transition metal-organic frameworks assembled from trigonal heterofunctional ligands. (United States)

    Song, Shu-Yan; Song, Xue-Zhi; Zhao, Shu-Na; Qin, Chao; Su, Sheng-Qun; Zhu, Min; Hao, Zhao-Min; Zhang, Hong-Jie


    Six novel metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), {Mn(bpydb)(bpyHdbH)}(n) (1) {[Co(2)(bpydb)(2)](H(2)O)(0.5)}(n) (2), {[Ni(0.5)(bpydbH)(H(2)O)](DMF)(2)}(n) (3), {[Cu(2)(bpydb)(2)](H(2)O)(0.5)}(n) (4), {Zn(bpyHdb)(2)}(n) (5) and {[Cd(0.5)(bpydb)(0.5)(DMF)](H(2)O)}(n) (6), were successfully synthesized by assembling transition metal salts with trigonal heterofunctional ligand 4,4'-(4,4'-bipyridine-2,6-diyl) dibenzoic acid (bpydbH(2)) under hydrothermal and/or solvothermal conditions. Compound 1 features a rare 4-fold interpenetrating (3,5)-connected framework with hms-type topology. Isostructural compounds 2 and 4, constructed by M(2)(COO)(4) secondary building units, exhibit a robust 3D framework with alb topological type in 2-fold interpenetrating mode. Compound 3 consists of 2D (4,4) networks, which are further assembled into the new topological framework with the symbol (5(3)·6(2)·8)(5(3)·6(3))(2) through O-HO interactions. Compound 5 manifests a novel 4-connected interpenetrating framework, constructed by 2D (4,4) layers and interbedded N-HO interactions. Non-interpenetrating honeycomb networks are observed in compound 6, and further packed into a 3D framework featuring 1D channels. The magnetic susceptibility of compound 2 indicates antiferromagnetic interactions between cobalt ions. The photoluminescent properties of 5 and 6 were investigated in the solid state at room temperature.

  5. A Specific and Covalent JNK-1 Ligand Selected from an Encoded Self-Assembling Chemical Library. (United States)

    Zimmermann, Gunther; Rieder, Ulrike; Bajic, Davor; Vanetti, Sara; Chaikuad, Apirat; Knapp, Stefan; Scheuermann, Jörg; Mattarella, Martin; Neri, Dario


    We describe the construction of a DNA-encoded chemical library comprising 148 135 members, generated through the self-assembly of two sub-libraries, containing 265 and 559 members, respectively. The library was designed to contain building blocks potentially capable of forming covalent interactions with target proteins. Selections performed with JNK1, a kinase containing a conserved cysteine residue close to the ATP binding site, revealed the preferential enrichment of a 2-phenoxynicotinic acid moiety (building block A82) and a 4-(3,4-difluorophenyl)-4-oxobut-2-enoic acid moiety (building block B272). When the two compounds were joined by a short PEG linker, the resulting bidentate binder (A82-L-B272) was able to covalently modify JNK1 in the presence of a large molar excess of glutathione (0.5 mm), used to simulate intracellular reducing conditions. By contrast, derivatives of the individual building blocks were not able to covalently modify JNK1 in the same experimental conditions. The A82-L-B272 ligand was selective over related kinases (BTK and GAK), which also contain targetable cysteine residues in the vicinity of the active site. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Recognition of Kinematic Joints of 3D Assembly Models Based on Reciprocal Screw Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Xiong


    Full Text Available Reciprocal screw theory is used to recognize the kinematic joints of assemblies restricted by arbitrary combinations of geometry constraints. Kinematic analysis is common for reaching a satisfactory design. If a machine is large and the incidence of redesign frequent is high, then it becomes imperative to have fast analysis-redesign-reanalysis cycles. This work addresses this problem by providing recognition technology for converting a 3D assembly model into a kinematic joint model, which is represented by a graph of parts with kinematic joints among them. The three basic components of the geometric constraints are described in terms of wrench, and it is thus easy to model each common assembly constraint. At the same time, several different types of kinematic joints in practice are presented in terms of twist. For the reciprocal product of a twist and wrench, which is equal to zero, the geometry constraints can be converted into the corresponding kinematic joints as a result. To eliminate completely the redundant components of different geometry constraints that act upon the same part, the specific operation of a matrix space is applied. This ability is useful in supporting the kinematic design of properly constrained assemblies in CAD systems.

  7. Modeling ligand recognition at the P2Y12 receptor in light of X-ray structural information (United States)

    Paoletta, Silvia; Sabbadin, Davide; von Kügelgen, Ivar; Hinz, Sonja; Katritch, Vsevolod; Hoffmann, Kristina; Abdelrahman, Aliaa; Straßburger, Jens; Baqi, Younis; Zhao, Qiang; Stevens, Raymond C.; Moro, Stefano; Müller, Christa E.; Jacobson, Kenneth A.


    The G protein-coupled P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12R) is an important antithrombotic target and of great interest for pharmaceutical discovery. Its recently solved, highly divergent crystallographic structures in complex either with nucleotides (full or partial agonist) or with a nonnucleotide antagonist raise the question of which structure is more useful to understand ligand recognition. Therefore, we performed extensive molecular modeling studies based on these structures and mutagenesis, to predict the binding modes of major classes of P2Y12R ligands previously reported. Various nucleotide derivatives docked readily to the agonist-bound P2Y12R, but uncharged nucleotide-like antagonist ticagrelor required a hybrid receptor resembling the agonist-bound P2Y12R except for the top portion of TM6. Supervised molecular dynamics (SuMD) of ticagrelor binding indicated interactions with the extracellular regions of P2Y12R, defining possible meta-binding sites. Ureas, sulfonylureas, sulfonamides, anthraquinones and glutamic acid piperazines docked readily to the antagonist-bound P2Y12R. Docking dinucleotides at both agonist- and antagonist-bound structures suggested interactions with two P2Y12R pockets. Thus, our structure-based approach consistently rationalized the main structure-activity relationships within each ligand class, giving useful information for designing improved ligands.

  8. Design of porphyrin-based ligands for the assembly of [d-block metal : calcium] bimetallic centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koepf, Matthieu; Bergkamp, Jesse J.; Teillout, Anne-Lucie; Llansola-Portoles, Manuel J.; Kodis, Gerdenis; Moore, Ana L.; Gust, Devens; Moore, Thomas A.


    The association of different metals in stable, well-defined molecular assemblies remains a great challenge of supramolecular chemistry. In such constructs, the emergence of synergism, or cooperative effects between the different metal centers is particularly intriguing. These effects can lead to uncommon reactivity or remarkable physico-chemical properties that are not otherwise achievable. For example, the association of alkaline or alkaline-earth cations and transition metals is pivotal for the activity of several biomolecules and human-made catalysts that carry out fundamental redox transformations (water oxidation, nitrogen reduction, water–gas shift reaction, etc.). In many cases the precise nature of the interactions between the alkaline-earth cations and the redox-active transition metals remains elusive due to the difficulty of building stable molecular heterometallic assemblies that associate transition metals and alkaline or alkaline-earth cations in a controlled way. In this work we present the rational design of porphyrin-based ligands possessing a second binding site for alkaline-earth cations above the porphyrin macrocycle primary complexation site. We demonstrate that by using a combination of crown ether and carboxylic acid substituents suitably positioned on the periphery of the porphyrin, bitopic ligands can be obtained. The binding of calcium, a typical alkaline-earth cation, by the newly prepared ligands has been studied in detail and we show that a moderately large binding constant can be achieved in protic media using ligands that possess some degree of structural flexibility. The formation of Zn–Ca assemblies discussed in this work is viewed as a stepping stone towards the assembly of well defined molecular transition metal-alkaline earth bimetallic centers using a versatile organic scaffold.

  9. Rigid-body ligand recognition drives cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) receptor triggering. (United States)

    Yu, Chao; Sonnen, Andreas F-P; George, Roger; Dessailly, Benoit H; Stagg, Loren J; Evans, Edward J; Orengo, Christine A; Stuart, David I; Ladbury, John E; Ikemizu, Shinji; Gilbert, Robert J C; Davis, Simon J


    The inhibitory T-cell surface-expressed receptor, cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4), which belongs to the class of cell surface proteins phosphorylated by extrinsic tyrosine kinases that also includes antigen receptors, binds the related ligands, B7-1 and B7-2, expressed on antigen-presenting cells. Conformational changes are commonly invoked to explain ligand-induced "triggering" of this class of receptors. Crystal structures of ligand-bound CTLA-4 have been reported, but not the apo form, precluding analysis of the structural changes accompanying ligand binding. The 1.8-Å resolution structure of an apo human CTLA-4 homodimer emphasizes the shared evolutionary history of the CTLA-4/CD28 subgroup of the immunoglobulin superfamily and the antigen receptors. The ligand-bound and unbound forms of both CTLA-4 and B7-1 are remarkably similar, in marked contrast to B7-2, whose binding to CTLA-4 has elements of induced fit. Isothermal titration calorimetry reveals that ligand binding by CTLA-4 is enthalpically driven and accompanied by unfavorable entropic changes. The similarity of the thermodynamic parameters determined for the interactions of CTLA-4 with B7-1 and B7-2 suggests that the binding is not highly specific, but the conformational changes observed for B7-2 binding suggest some level of selectivity. The new structure establishes that rigid-body ligand interactions are capable of triggering CTLA-4 phosphorylation by extrinsic kinase(s).

  10. A strategy using NMR peptide structures of thromboxane A2 receptor as templates to construct ligand-recognition pocket of prostacyclin receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruan Ke-He


    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Prostacyclin receptor (IP and thromboxane A2 receptor (TP belong to rhodopsin-type G protein-coupling receptors and respectively bind to prostacyclin and thromboxane A2 derived from arachidonic acid. Recently, we have determined the extracellular loop (eLP structures of the human TP receptor by 2-D 1H NMR spectroscopy using constrained peptides mimicking the individual eLP segments. The studies have identified the segment along with several residues in the eLP domains important to ligand recognition, as well as proposed a ligand recognition pocket for the TP receptor. Results: The IP receptor shares a similar primary structure in the eLPs with those of the TP receptor. Forty percent residues in the second eLPs of the receptors are identical, which is the major region involved in forming the ligand recognition pocket in the TP receptor. Based on the high homology score, the eLP domains of the IP receptor were constructed by the homology modeling approach using the NMR structures of the TP eLPs as templates, and then configured to the seven transmembrane (TM domains model constructed using the crystal structure of the bovine rhodopsin as a template. A NMR structure of iloprost was docked into the modeled IP ligand recognition pocket. After dynamic studies, the segments and residues involved in the IP ligand recognition were proposed. A key residue, Arg173 involved in the ligand recognition for the IP receptor, as predicted from the modeling, was confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. Conclusion: A 3-D model of the human IP receptor was constructed by homology modeling using the crystal structure of bovine rhodopsin TM domains and the NMR structures of the synthetic constrained peptides of the eLP domains of the TP receptor as templates. This strategy can be applied to molecular modeling and the prediction of ligand recognition pockets for other prostanoid receptors.

  11. Contributions of Phenylalanine 335 to Ligand Recognition by Human Surfactant Protein D: Ring Interactions with SP-D Ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crouch,E.; McDonald, B.; Smith, K.; Cararella, T.; Seaton, B.; Head, J.


    Surfactant Protein D (SP-D) is an innate immune effector that contributes to antimicrobial host defense and immune regulation. Interactions of SP-D with microorganisms and organic antigens involve binding of glycoconjugates to the C-type lectin carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). A trimeric fusion protein encoding the human neck+CRD (hNCRD) bound to the aromatic glycoside, p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-maltoside, with nearly a log-fold higher affinity than maltose, the prototypical competitor. Maltotriose, which has the same linkage pattern as the maltoside, bound with intermediate affinity. Site-directed substitution of leucine for phenylalanine 335 (Phe335) decreased affinities for the maltoside and maltotriose without significantly altering the affinity for maltose or glucose, and substitution of tyrosine or tryptophan for leucine restored preferential binding to maltotriose and the maltoside. A mutant with alanine at this position failed to bind to mannan or maltose-substituted solid supports. Crystallographic analysis of the hNCRD complexed with maltotriose or p-nitrophenyl-maltoside showed stacking of the terminal glucose or nitrophenyl ring with the aromatic ring of Phe335. Our studies indicate that Phe335, which is evolutionarily conserved in all known SP-Ds, plays important - if not critical roles - in SP-D function.

  12. Generalized recognition of single-ended contact formations for use in automated assembly operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravuri, R. [Electro Scientific Industries (United States); Everett, L.J. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)


    Robots are preferred over any other form of automated machines for assembly tasks due to their capability of being programmed to perform a variety of tasks. However, in the present day industries, the turn around time for new designs have dramatically reduced. Therefore, the need for robots which can adapt its teaching and programming to new situations is strongly felt. This is especially true in the tasks such as assembly operations, which involve the robot making frequent contacts with its environment. This research addresses the problems that arise due to small changes in the work settings after the system has been programmed or trained. In an industry setting it is very likely that changes such as orientation and translation of the grasped object with respect to the robot axes can occur due to many unforeseen causes. The research here is focused on generalizing a Hybrid Control System, in which an assembly skill is described as a sequence of qualitative states and the desired transition between the states. In this case, the qualitative state takes the form of a single-ended contact formation, which describes how a grasped object touches its environment. Skill acquisition involves learning the sequence of qualitative states, the transition between those states, and the mapping from the sensor signals to the qualitative states. The authors discuss impact of changes in the orientation and the position of the grasped object with respect to the robot axes on the recognition of these qualitative states. They also propose a method of decreasing the performance degradation caused by this orientation change in recognition of these qualitative states, by adapting to the new situation with as minimum retraining as possible. Experimental results are presented which illustrate and validate the approach.

  13. Graphene–cyclodextrin–cytochrome c layered assembly with improved electron transfer rate and high supramolecular recognition capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Cheng-Bin; Guo, Cong-Cong; Jiang, Dan; Tang, Qian, E-mail:; Liu, Chang-Hua; Ma, Xue-Bing


    This study aimed to develop a new graphene-based layered assembly, named graphene–cyclodextrin–cytochrome c with improved electron transfer rate. This assembly has combined high conductivity of graphene nanosheets (GNs), selectively binding properties and electronegativity of cyclodextrins (CDs), as well as electropositivity of cytochrome c (Cyt c). This assembly can also mimic the confined environments of the intermembrane space of mitochondria. A β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) functionalized GN (GN–CD) assembly was initially prepared by a simple wet-chemical strategy, i.e., in situ thermal reduction of graphene oxide with hydrazine hydrate in the presence of β-CD. Cyt c was then intercalated to the GN–CD assembly to form a layered self-assembled structure, GN–CD–Cyt c, through electrostatic interaction. Compared with GNs and GN–CD, GN–CD–Cyt c assembly displayed improved electron transfer rate and high supramolecular recognition capability toward six probe molecules. - Highlights: • A new tertiary layered assembly named GN–CD–Cyt c was prepared. • Compared with GNs and GN–CD, GN–CD–Cyt c shows improved electron transfer rate. • GN–CD–Cyt c displays high supramolecular recognition capability.

  14. Rational-differential design of highly specific glycomimetic ligands: Targeting DC-SIGN and excluding Langerin recognition. (United States)

    Porkolab, Vanessa; Chabrol, Eric; Varga, Norbert; Ordanini, Stefania; Sutkeviciute, Ieva; Thépaut, Michel; Garcia-Jiménez, Maria José; Girard, Eric; Nieto, Pedro M; Bernardi, Anna; Fieschi, Franck


    At the surface of dendritic cells, C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) allow the recognition of carbohydrate-based PAMPS or DAMPS (pathogen- or danger-associated molecular patterns respectively) and promote immune response regulation. However, some CLRs are hijacked by viral and bacterial pathogens. Thus, the design of ligands able to target specifically one CLR, to either modulate a immune response or to inhibit a given infection mechanism, has a great potential value in therapeutic design. A case study is the selective blocking of DC-SIGN, involved notably in HIV trans-infection of T lymphocytes, without interfering with Langerin-mediated HIV clearance. This is a challenging task due to their overlapping carbohydrate specificity. Towards the rational design of DC-SIGN selective ligands, we performed a comparative affinity study between DC-SIGN and Langerin with natural ligands. We found that GlcNAc is recognized by both CLRs, however, selective sulfatations are shown to increase the selectivity in favour of Langerin. With the combination of site-directed mutagenesis and X-ray structural analysis of Langerin/GlcNS6S complex, we highlighted that 6-sulfatation of the carbohydrate ligand induced Langerin specificity. Additionally, the K313 residue from Langerin was identified as a critical feature of its binding site. Using a rational and a differential approach in the study of CLR binding sites, we designed, synthetized and characterized a new glycomimetic which is highly specific for DC-SIGN vs Langerin. STD NMR, SPR and ITC characterizations show that compound 7 conserved the overall binding mode of the natural disaccharide while possessing an improved affinity and a strict specificity for DC-SIGN.

  15. Synthesis of Janus-like gold nanoparticles with hydrophilic/hydrophobic faces by surface ligand exchange and their self-assemblies in water. (United States)

    Iida, Ryo; Kawamura, Hitoshi; Niikura, Kenichi; Kimura, Takashi; Sekiguchi, Shota; Joti, Yasumasa; Bessho, Yoshitaka; Mitomo, Hideyuki; Nishino, Yoshinori; Ijiro, Kuniharu


    This study aims at the synthesis of Janus gold nanoparticles (Janus GNPs) with hydrophilic/hydrophobic faces by a simple ligand exchange reaction in an homogeneous system and at the elucidation of the self-assembled structures of the Janus GNPs in water. As hydrophilic surface ligands, we synthesized hexaethylene glycol (E6)-terminated thiolate ligands with C3, C7, or C11 alkyl chains, referred to as E6C3, E6C7, and E6C11, respectively. As a hydrophobic ligand, a butyl-headed thiolate ligand C4-E6C11, in which a C4 alkyl was introduced on the E6C11 terminus, was synthesized. The degree of segregation between the two ligands on the GNPs (5 nm in diameter) was examined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of fright mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis. We found that the choice of immobilization methods, one-step or two-step addition of the two ligands to the GNP solution, crucially affects the degree of segregation. The two-step addition of a hydrophilic ligand (E6C3) followed by a hydrophobic ligand (C4-E6C11) produced a large degree of segregation on the GNPs, providing Janus-like GNPs. When dispersed in water, these Janus-like GNPs formed assemblies of ∼160 nm in diameter, whereas Domain GNPs, in which the two ligands formed partial domains on the surface, were precipitated even when the molar ratio of the hydrophilic ligand and the hydrophobic ligand on the surface of the NPs was almost 1:1. The assembled structure of the Janus-like GNPs in water was directly observed by pulsed coherent X-ray solution scattering using an X-ray free-electron laser, revealing irregular spherical structures with uneven surfaces.

  16. Probing ligand-protein recognition with sum-frequency generation spectroscopy: the avidin-biocytin case. (United States)

    Dreesen, Laurent; Sartenaer, Yannick; Humbert, Christophe; Mani, Alaa A; Méthivier, Christophe; Pradier, Claire-Marie; Thiry, Paul A; Peremans, André


    Infrared/visible sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy is used to study the recognition of a protein (avidin) by a derived vitamin (biocytin) adsorbed on a calcium fluoride substrate. The specificity of the process is tested by replacing avidin with bovine serum albumin or presaturated avidin. The SFG spectroscopy shows drastic modifications in the CH and NH spectral ranges only upon exposure of the biocytin film to avidin. The comparison of the SFG data with Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectra (FT-IRRAS) in the same spectral ranges illustrates the advantages of nonlinear spectroscopy for studying and detecting recognition between biomolecules.

  17. Understanding recognition and self-assembly in biology using the chemist's toolbox. Insight into medicinal chemistry. (United States)

    Quirolo, Z B; Benedini, L A; Sequeira, M A; Herrera, M G; Veuthey, T V; Dodero, V I


    Medicinal chemistry is intimately connected with basic science such as organic synthesis, chemical biology and biophysical chemistry among other disciplines. The reason of such connections is due to the power of organic synthesis to provide designed molecules; chemical biology to give tools to discover biological and/or pathological pathways and biophysical chemistry which provides the techniques to characterize and the theoretical background to understand molecular behaviour. The present review provides some selective examples of these research areas. Initially, template dsDNA organic synthesis and the spatio-temporal control of transcription are presenting following by the supramolecular entities used in drug delivery, such as liposomes and liquid crystal among others. Finally, peptides and protein self-assembly is connected with biomaterials and as an important event in the balance between health and disease. The final aim of the present review is to show the power of chemical tools not only for the synthesis of new molecules but also to improve our understanding of recognition and self-assembly in the biological context.

  18. Molecular mechanism of ligand recognition by NR3 subtype glutamate receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Yongneng; Harrison, Chris B.; Freddolino, Peter L.; Schulten, Klaus; Mayer, Mark L. (UIUC); (NIH)


    NR3 subtype glutamate receptors have a unique developmental expression profile, but are the least well-characterized members of the NMDA receptor gene family, which have key roles in synaptic plasticity and brain development. Using ligand binding assays, crystallographic analysis, and all atom MD simulations, we investigate mechanisms underlying the binding by NR3A and NR3B of glycine and D-serine, which are candidate neurotransmitters for NMDA receptors containing NR3 subunits. The ligand binding domains of both NR3 subunits adopt a similar extent of domain closure as found in the corresponding NR1 complexes, but have a unique loop 1 structure distinct from that in all other glutamate receptor ion channels. Within their ligand binding pockets, NR3A and NR3B have strikingly different hydrogen bonding networks and solvent structures from those found in NR1, and fail to undergo a conformational rearrangement observed in NR1 upon binding the partial agonist ACPC. MD simulations revealed numerous interdomain contacts, which stabilize the agonist-bound closed-cleft conformation, and a novel twisting motion for the loop 1 helix that is unique in NR3 subunits.

  19. Collision-induced dissociation of noncovalent complexes between vancomycin antibiotics and peptide ligand stereoisomers: evidence for molecular recognition in the gas phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Thomas J. D.; Delforge, D; Remacle, J


    phase stability between isomeric positively-charged complexes to a protonation of the C-terminus of the peptide ligand which destroys the specific interaction between antibiotic and peptide ligand. Molecular recognition phenomena in the gas phase were investigated by CID of mixed cluster ions consisting...... is clearly reflected in electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectra obtained from equimolar mixtures of an antibiotic, an isotopically labelled peptide ligand and an unlabelled peptide stereoisomer. Using collision-induced dissociation (CID) we have probed the gas phase stability of isomeric (1:1) noncovalent...... complexes formed between vancomycin and tripeptide stereoisomers. In negative ion mode the CID results show that a complex formed between vancomycin and a -L-Ala-L-Ala ligand fragments more readily than a complex formed between vancomycin and a -D-Ala-D-Ala ligand. This difference in gas phase stability...

  20. Piezoelectric tuning fork probe for atomic force microscopy imaging and specific recognition force spectroscopy of an enzyme and its ligand. (United States)

    Makky, Ali; Viel, Pascal; Chen, Shu-wen Wendy; Berthelot, Thomas; Pellequer, Jean-Luc; Polesel-Maris, Jérôme


    Piezoelectric quartz tuning fork has drawn the attention of many researchers for the development of new atomic force microscopy (AFM) self-sensing probes. However, only few works have been done for soft biological materials imaging in air or aqueous conditions. The aim of this work was to demonstrate the efficiency of the AFM tuning fork probe to perform high-resolution imaging of proteins and to study the specific interaction between a ligand and its receptor in aqueous media. Thus, a new kind of self-sensing AFM sensor was introduced to realize imaging and biochemical specific recognition spectroscopy of glucose oxidase enzyme using a new chemical functionalization procedure of the metallic tips based on the electrochemical reduction of diazonium salt. This scanning probe as well as the functionalization strategy proved to be efficient respectively for the topography and force spectroscopy of soft biological materials in buffer conditions. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Fragment-based solid-phase assembly of oligonucleotide conjugates with peptide and polyethylene glycol ligands. (United States)

    Dirin, Mehrdad; Urban, Ernst; Noe, Christian R; Winkler, Johannes


    Ligand conjugation to oligonucleotides is an attractive strategy for enhancing the therapeutic potential of antisense and siRNA agents by inferring properties such as improved cellular uptake or better pharmacokinetic properties. Disulfide linkages enable dissociation of ligands and oligonucleotides in reducing environments found in endosomal compartments after cellular uptake. Solution-phase fragment coupling procedures for producing oligonucleotide conjugates are often tedious, produce moderate yields and reaction byproducts are frequently difficult to remove. We have developed an improved method for solid-phase coupling of ligands to oligonucleotides via disulfides directly after solid-phase synthesis. A 2'-thiol introduced using a modified nucleotide building block was orthogonally deprotected on the controlled pore glass solid support with N-butylphosphine. Oligolysine peptides and a short monodisperse ethylene glycol chain were successfully coupled to the deprotected thiol. Cleavage from the resin and full removal of oligonucleotide protection groups were achieved using methanolic ammonia. After standard desalting, and without further purification, homogenous conjugates were obtained as demonstrated by HPLC, gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry. The attachment of both amphiphilic and cationic ligands proves the versatility of the conjugation procedure. An antisense oligonucleotide conjugate with hexalysine showed pronounced gene silencing in a cell culture tumor model in the absence of a transfection reagent and the corresponding ethylene glycol conjugate resulted in down regulation of the target gene to nearly 50% after naked application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. The conserved adenosine in helix 6 of Archaeoglobus fulgidus signal recognition particle RNA initiates SRP assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaming Yin


    Full Text Available The signal recognition particle (SRP RNA helix 6 of archaea and eukaryotes is essential for the binding of protein SRP19 and the assembly of a functional complex. The conserved adenosine at the third position of the tetraloop of helix 6 (A149 is crucial for the binding of protein SRP19 in the mammalian SRP. Here we investigated the significance of the equivalent adenosine residue at position 159 (A159 of Archaeoglobus fulgidus SRP RNA. The A159 of A. fulgidus and A149 of human SRP RNA were changed to C, G or U, and fragments containing helix 6 or helices 6 and 8 were synthesized by run-off transcription with T7 RNA polymerase. The ability of recombinant A. fulgidus and human SRP19 to form ribonucleoprotein complexes was measured in vitro. The simultaneous presence of A149 and helix 8 is required for the high-affinity binding of SRP19 to the human SRP RNA. In contrast, A. fulgidus SRP19 binds to the SRP RNA fragments with high affinity irrespective of the nature of the nucleotide, demonstrating that A159 does not directly participate in protein binding. Instead, as indicated by the resistance of the wild-type A. fulgidus RNA towards digestion by RNase A, this residue allows the formation of a tightly folded RNA molecule. The high affinity between A. fulgidus SRP19 and RNA molecules that contain both helices 6 and 8 suggests that A159 is likely to initiate archaeal SRP assembly by forming a conserved tertiary RNA– RNA interaction.

  3. Ferrocene-based compartmental ligand for the assembly of neutral Zn(II)/Ln(III) heterometallic complexes. (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli; Chakraborty, Amit; Sañudo, E Carolina


    A ferrocene-based compartmental ligand, H2L, was synthesized by the reaction of diacetyl ferrocene with hydrazine hydrate followed by a condensation reaction with o-vanillin. [L](2-) possesses a dual coordination pocket, an inner pocket of 2 imino nitrogens and two phenolate oxygens and an outer pocket of two phenolate and two methoxy oxygen atoms. Utilizing this ligand, several Zn(II)/Ln(III) heterobimetallic complexes were assembled: [LZn(μ-OAc)Dy(NO3)2] (2), [LZn(μ-OAc)Tb(NO3)2] (3), [LZn(μ-OAc)Gd(NO3)2·2CHCl3] (4), [LZn(μ-OAc)Er(NO3)2] (5), [LZn(μ-OAc)Ho(NO3)2] (6), [LZn(μ-OAc)Eu(NO3)2] (7). All of these metal complexes are neutral and isostructural: the Zn(II) ion occupies the inner coordination pocket while the Ln(III) ion occupies the outer coordination pocket of the doubly deprotonated ligand [L](2-). Zn(II) has a coordination number of 5 (2N, 3O) in a square pyramidal coordination geometry while Ln(III) has a coordination number of 9 (9O) in a distorted tricapped trigonal prismatic geometry. Zn(II) and the 4f metal ion are bridged to each other by two phenolate oxygen atoms and an acetate ligand. ESI-MS reveals that 2-7 retain their structural integrity in solution. Cyclic voltammetry of 1-7 revealed a quasi-reversible oxidation (involving the ferrocene motif) and an irreversible reduction of the hydrazone unit. Magnetic studies of 2, 3 and 6 were carried out. Ac susceptibility studies did not reveal slow relaxation of magnetization.

  4. Comparative thermodynamic studies on substrate and product binding of O-Acetylserine Sulfhydrylase reveals two different ligand recognition modes†

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaran Sangaralingam


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of understanding the detailed mechanism of cysteine biosynthesis in bacteria is underscored by the fact that cysteine is the only sulfur donor for all cellular components containing reduced sulfur. O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (OASS catalyzes this crucial last step in the cysteine biosynthesis and has been recognized as an important gene for the survival and virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Structural and kinetic studies have contributed to the understanding of mechanistic aspects of OASS, but details of ligand recognition features of OASS are not available. In the absence of any detailed study on the energetics of ligand binding, we have studied the thermodynamics of OASS from Salmonella typhimurium (StOASS, Haemophilus influenzae (HiOASS, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtOASS binding to their substrate O-acetylserine (OAS, substrate analogue (methionine, and product (cysteine. Results Ligand binding properties of three OASS enzymes are studied under defined solution conditions. Both substrate and product binding is an exothermic reaction, but their thermodynamic signatures are very different. Cysteine binding to OASS shows that both enthalpy and entropy contribute significantly to the binding free energy at all temperatures (10-30°C examined. The analyses of interaction between OASS with OAS (substrate or methionine (substrate analogue revealed a completely different mode of binding. Binding of both OAS and methionine to OASS is dominated by a favorable entropy change, with minor contribution from enthalpy change (ΔHSt-Met = -1.5 ± 0.1 kJ/mol; TΔSSt-Met = 8.2 kJ/mol at 20°C. Our salt dependent ligand binding studies indicate that methionine binding affinity is more sensitive to [NaCl] as compared to cysteine affinity. Conclusions We show that OASS from three different pathogenic bacteria bind substrate and product through two different mechanisms. Results indicate that predominantly entropy driven

  5. Recognition of Mannosylated Ligands and Influenza A Virus by Human Surfactant Protein D: Contributions of an Extended Site and Residue 343

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crouch, E.; Hartshorn, K; Horlacher, T; McDonald, B; Smith, K; Cafarella, T; Seaton, B; Seeberger, P; Head, J


    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) plays important roles in antiviral host defense. Although SP-D shows a preference for glucose/maltose, the protein also recognizes d-mannose and a variety of mannose-rich microbial ligands. This latter preference prompted an examination of the mechanisms of mannose recognition, particularly as they relate to high-mannose viral glycans. Trimeric neck plus carbohydrate recognition domains from human SP-D (hNCRD) preferred ?1-2-linked dimannose (DM) over the branched trimannose (TM) core, ?1-3 or ?1-6 DM, or d-mannose. Previous studies have shown residues flanking the carbohydrate binding site can fine-tune ligand recognition. A mutant with valine at 343 (R343V) showed enhanced binding to mannan relative to wild type and R343A. No alteration in affinity was observed for d-mannose or for ?1-3- or ?1-6-linked DM; however, substantially increased affinity was observed for ?1-2 DM. Both proteins showed efficient recognition of linear and branched subdomains of high-mannose glycans on carbohydrate microarrays, and R343V showed increased binding to a subset of the oligosaccharides. Crystallographic analysis of an R343V complex with 1,2-DM showed a novel mode of binding. The disaccharide is bound to calcium by the reducing sugar ring, and a stabilizing H-bond is formed between the 2-OH of the nonreducing sugar ring and Arg349. Although hNCRDs show negligible binding to influenza A virus (IAV), R343V showed markedly enhanced viral neutralizing activity. Hydrophobic substitutions for Arg343 selectively blocked binding of a monoclonal antibody (Hyb 246-05) that inhibits IAV binding activity. Our findings demonstrate an extended ligand binding site for mannosylated ligands and the significant contribution of the 343 side chain to specific recognition of multivalent microbial ligands, including high-mannose viral glycans.

  6. Control of stripelike and hexagonal self-assembly of gold nanoparticles by the tuning of interactions between triphenylene ligands. (United States)

    Shen, Zhongrong; Yamada, Mami; Miyake, Mikio


    We describe the self-assembly of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) protected with newly synthesized discotic liquid crystalline molecules of hexaalkoxy-substituted triphenylene (TP) in mixed toluene/methanol solvent. The stripelike (i.e., 2D consisting of linear 1D in stripe) self-assembly is realized successfully by the aid of pi-pi stacking of TP ligand on Au NPs. The smaller Au NPs with TP (AuTP) or the longer alkyl chain between TP and the gold core provide more free spaces among TP moieties. These spaces allow easy insertion of TP on adjacent AuTPs to lead an interparticle pi-pi interaction to form the stripelike arrangement. The solvent hydrophilicity can also serve as a controlled index to tune arrangement among stripelike, hexagonal close packed (hcp), or disorder. We have changed the solvent hydrophilicity by changing the ratio of methanol to toluene, which affects the balance of solution of AuTP (in toluene) and deposition (in methanol). The larger space between TPs and appropriate solvent hydrophilicity realize stripelike self-assembly caused by a strong pi-pi interaction between TPs, which was characterized by TEM, as well as fluorescence, dynamic light scattering, and 1H NMR spectra.

  7. New Trends in Inspecting GPCR-ligand Recognition Process: the Contribution of the Molecular Modeling Section (MMS) at the University of Padova. (United States)

    Ciancetta, Antonella; Cuzzolin, Alberto; Deganutti, Giuseppe; Sturlese, Mattia; Salmaso, Veronica; Cristiani, Andrea; Sabbadin, Davide; Moro, Stefano


    In this review, we present a survey of the recent advances carried out by our research groups in the field of ligand-GPCRs recognition process simulations recently implemented at the Molecular Modeling Section (MMS) of the University of Padova. We briefly describe a platform of tools we have tuned to aid the identification of novel GPCRs binders and the better understanding of their binding mechanisms, based on two extensively used computational techniques such as molecular docking and MD simulations. The developed methodologies encompass: (i) the selection of suitable protocols for docking studies, (ii) the exploration of the dynamical evolution of ligand-protein interaction networks, (iii) the detailed investigation of the role of water molecules upon ligand binding, and (iv) a glance at the way the ligand might go through prior reaching the binding site. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Assembly of new polyoxometalate–templated metal–organic frameworks based on flexible ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Na; Mu, Bao; Lv, Lei; Huang, Rudan, E-mail:


    Four new polyoxometalate(POM)–templated metal–organic frameworks based on flexible ligands, namely, [Cu{sub 6}(bip){sub 12}(PMo{sup VI}{sub 12}O{sub 40}){sub 2}(PMo{sup V}Mo{sup VI}{sub 11}O{sub 40}O{sub 2})]·8H{sub 2}O(1), [Cu{sup I}{sub 3}Cu{sup II}{sub 3}(bip){sub 12}(PMo{sup VI}{sub 12}O{sub 40}){sub 2}(PMo{sup V}{sub 12}O{sub 34})]·8H{sub 2}O(2), [Ni{sub 6}(bip){sub 12}(PMo{sup VI}{sub 12}O{sub 40})(PMo{sup VI}{sub 11}Mo{sup V}O{sub 40}){sub 2}]Cl·6H{sub 2}O(3), [Co{sup II}{sub 3}Co{sup III}{sub 2}(H{sub 2}bib){sub 2}(Hbib){sub 2}(PW{sub 9}O{sub 34}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]·6H{sub 2}O(4) (bip=1,3-bis(imidazolyl)propane, bib=1,4-bis(imidazolyl)butane) have been obtained under hydrothermal condition and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, elemental analyses, and thermogravimetric (TG) analyses. The studies of single crystal X-ray indicate that compounds 1–3 crystallize in the trigonal space group P-3, and compound 4 crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1. Compounds 1 and 3 represent 3D frameworks, and POMs as the guest molecules are incorporated into the cages which are composed of the ligands and metals, while compounds 2 and 4 show 3D frameworks by hydrogen bonds. This compounds provide new examples of host–guest compounds based on flexible bis(imidazole) ligands. In addition, the electrochemical property and the catalytic property of compound 1 have also been investigated. - Graphical abstract: Four inorganic–organic hybrid compounds based polyoxometalates (POMs) and flexible ligands, namely, have been obtained under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, elemental analyses, IR spectra, and thermogravimetric (TG) analyses. Compounds 1–3 are new examples of host–guest compounds based on flexible bis(imidazole) ligands and POMs as the guest molecules are incorporated into the cages which are composed of the ligands and metals. - Highlights: • Polyoxometalate

  9. Directional Carrier Transfer in Strongly Coupled Binary Nanocrystal Superlattice Films Formed by Assembly and in Situ Ligand Exchange at a Liquid–Air Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yaoting; Li, Siming; Gogotsi, Natalie; Zhao, Tianshuo; Fleury, Blaise; Kagan, Cherie R.; Murray, Christopher B.; Baxter, Jason B.


    Two species of monodisperse nanocrystals (NCs) can self-assemble into a variety of complex 2D and 3D periodic structures, or binary NC superlattice (BNSL) films, based on the relative number and size of the NCs. BNSL films offer great promise for both fundamental scientific studies and optoelectronic applications; however, the utility of as-assembled structures has been limited by the insulating ligands that originate from the synthesis of NCs. Here we report the application of an in situ ligand exchange strategy at a liquid–air interface to replace the long synthesis ligands with short ligands while preserving the long-range order of BNSL films. This approach is demonstrated for BNSL structures consisting of PbSe NCs of different size combinations and ligands of interest for photovoltaic devices, infrared detectors, and light-emitting diodes. To confirm enhanced coupling introduced by ligand exchange, we show ultrafast (~1 ps) directional carrier transfer across the type-I heterojunction formed by NCs of different sizes within ligand-exchanged BNSL films. In conclusion, this approach shows the potential promise of functional BNSL films, where the local and long-range energy landscape and electronic coupling can be adjusted by tuning NC composition, size, and interparticle spacing.

  10. Enantioselective recognition of an isomeric ligand by a biomolecule: mechanistic insights into static and dynamic enantiomeric behavior and structural flexibility. (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Ding, Fei


    Chirality is a ubiquitous basic attribute of nature, which inseparably relates to the life activity of living organisms. However, enantiomeric differences have still failed to arouse enough attention during the biological evaluation and practical application of chiral substances, and this poses a large threat to human health. In the current study, we explore the enantioselective biorecognition of a chiral compound by an asymmetric biomolecule, and then decipher the molecular basis of such a biological phenomenon on the static and, in particular, the dynamic scale. In light of the wet experiments, in silico docking results revealed that the orientation of the latter part of the optical isomer structures in the recognition domain can be greatly affected by the chiral carbon center in a model ligand molecule, and this event may induce large disparities between the static chiral bioreaction modes and noncovalent interactions (especially hydrogen bonding). Dynamic stereoselective biorecognition assays indicated that the conformational stability of the protein-(S)-diclofop system is clearly greater than the protein-(R)-diclofop adduct; and moreover, the conformational alterations of the diclofop enantiomers in the dynamic process will directly influence the conformational flexibility of the key residues found in the biorecognition region. These points enable the changing trends of biopolymer structural flexibility and free energy to exhibit significant distinctions when proteins sterically recognize the (R)-/(S)-stereoisomers. The outcomes of the energy decomposition further showed that the van der Waals' energy has roughly the same contribution to the chiral recognition biosystems, whereas the contribution of electrostatic energy to the protein-(R)-diclofop complex is notably smaller than to the protein-(S)-diclofop bioconjugate. This proves that differences in the noncovalent bonds would have a serious impact on the stereoselective biorecognition between a

  11. Lateral spacing of integrin ligands influences cell spreading and focal adhesion assembly. (United States)

    Cavalcanti-Adam, Elisabetta A; Micoulet, Alexandre; Blümmel, Jacques; Auernheimer, Jörg; Kessler, Horst; Spatz, Joachim P


    Cell-extracellular matrix (cell-ECM) interactions mediated by integrin receptors are essential for providing positional and environmental information necessary for many cell functions, such as proliferation, differentiation and survival. In vitro studies on cell adhesion to randomly adsorbed molecules on substrates have been limited to sub-micrometer patches, thus preventing the detailed study of structural arrangement of integrins and their ligands. In this article, we illustrate the role of the distance between integrin ligands, namely the RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartate) sequence present in ECM proteins, in the control of cell adhesion. By using substrates, which carry cyclic RGD peptides arranged in highly defined nanopatterns, we investigated the dynamics of cell spreading and the molecular composition of adhesion sites in relation to a fixed spacing between the peptides on the surface. Our novel approach for in vitro studies on cell adhesion indicates that not only the composition, but also the spatial organization of the extracellular environment is important in regulating cell-ECM interactions.

  12. Anion-induced structures and luminescent properties of chiral lanthanide-organic frameworks assembled by an achiral tripodal ligand. (United States)

    Yan, Xuhuan; Cai, Zhenghong; Yi, Chunli; Liu, Weisheng; Tan, Minyu; Tang, Yu


    To confirm how different anions influence sup-ramolecular self-assembly of lanthanide-organic frameworks (LnOFs) as well as their luminescent properties, a new flexible achiral tripodal ligand, 1,1,1-tris-{[(2'-benzylaminoformyl)phenoxyl]methyl}ethane (L) and the LnOFs {[EuL(NO(3))(3)]·1.5CHCl(3)}(n) and [EuL(pic)(3)](n) have been designed and assembled. In the two LnOFs, {[EuL(NO(3))(3)]·1.5CHCl(3)}(n) demonstrates an unprecedented chiral noninterpenetrated two-dimensional (2D) honeycomblike (6,3) (hcb, Schläfli symbol 6(3), vertex symbol 6·6·6) topological network, and [EuL(pic)(3)](n) confirms an unusual chiral LnOF with three-dimensional (3D) (10,3)-a (srs, SrSi(2), Schläfli symbol 10(3), vertex symbol 10(2)·10(4)·10(4)) topological framework. Also the anion-induced structures and energy transfer processes in the luminescence behavior of the two LnOFs were discussed in detail.

  13. Systematic design and research on a series of cadmium coordination polymers assembled due to tetracarboxylate ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lü, Lei; Mu, Bao; Li, Chang-Xia; Huang, Ru-Dan, E-mail:


    A series of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been prepared by tetracarboxylate ligands and Cd(II) ions under the hydrothermal or solvothermal conditions with the formulas of {[Cd_2(L_1)(H_2O)_4]·H_2O}{sub n} (1), {[(CH_3)_2NH_2]_2[Cd(L_1)]}{sub n} (2), [Cd(L{sub 2}){sub 0.5}(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (3), {[(CH_3)_2NH_2]_2 [Cd(L_2)]·2DMF}{sub n} (4), [Cd(L{sub 3}){sub 0.5}(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (5), {[Cd(L_3)_0_._5(H_2O)]·CH_3OH}{sub n} (6), {[(CH_3)_2NH_2]_2[Cd_3(L_4)_2]}{sub n} (7) (H{sub 4}L{sub 1}=[1,1′:4′,1″-terphenyl]-2,2″,5,5″-tetracarboxylic acid; H{sub 4}L{sub 2}=[1,1′:4′,1″-terphenyl]-2′,4,4″,5′-tetracarboxylic acid; H{sub 4}L{sub 3}=[1,1′:3′,1″-terphenyl]-2′,3,3″,5′-tetracarboxylic acid; H{sub 4}L{sub 4}=[1,1′:4′,1″-terphenyl]-3,3″,5,5″-tetracarboxylic acid), which are characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analyses, IR, TGA and PXRD. Complex 1 exhibits a three-dimensional (3D) supramolecular framework based on two-dimensional (2D) coordination networks. Complexes 2 and 4 possess 3D framework based on the 1D right-handed helix channels. Complexes 3 and 7 are a 3D architecture containing two different channels. Isostructural complexes 5 and 6 display 3D framework. The different synthetic methods and coordination modes of the tetracarboxylates ligands have effect on formation of various MOFs. Moreover, the luminescent properties and N{sub 2} adsorption behaviors have been reported. - Graphical abstract: A series of cadmium(II) high-dimensional coordination polymers constructed from four different kinds of tetracarboxylate ligands have been successfully prepared under hydrothermal or solvothermal conditions. The effect of solvents, the coordination modes of the tetracarboxylates and positions of carboxylate groups on the architectures of complexes 1–7 have been investigated in detail. The luminescent properties of the part of complexes, N{sub 2} adsorption behaviors of complexes 2, 4–7 have

  14. Systematic design and research on a series of cadmium coordination polymers assembled due to tetracarboxylate ligands (United States)

    Lü, Lei; Mu, Bao; Li, Chang-Xia; Huang, Ru-Dan


    A series of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been prepared by tetracarboxylate ligands and Cd(II) ions under the hydrothermal or solvothermal conditions with the formulas of {[Cd2(L1)(H2O)4]·H2O}n (1), {[(CH3)2NH2]2[Cd(L1)]}n (2), [Cd(L2)0.5(H2O)]n (3), {[(CH3)2NH2]2 [Cd(L2)]·2DMF}n (4), [Cd(L3)0.5(H2O)]n (5), {[Cd(L3)0.5(H2O)]·CH3OH}n (6), {[(CH3)2NH2]2[Cd3(L4)2]}n (7) (H4L1=[1,1‧:4‧,1″-terphenyl]-2,2″,5,5″-tetracarboxylic acid; H4L2=[1,1‧:4‧,1″-terphenyl]-2‧,4,4″,5‧-tetracarboxylic acid; H4L3=[1,1‧:3‧,1″-terphenyl]-2‧,3,3″,5‧-tetracarboxylic acid; H4L4=[1,1‧:4‧,1″-terphenyl]-3,3″,5,5″-tetracarboxylic acid), which are characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analyses, IR, TGA and PXRD. Complex 1 exhibits a three-dimensional (3D) supramolecular framework based on two-dimensional (2D) coordination networks. Complexes 2 and 4 possess 3D framework based on the 1D right-handed helix channels. Complexes 3 and 7 are a 3D architecture containing two different channels. Isostructural complexes 5 and 6 display 3D framework. The different synthetic methods and coordination modes of the tetracarboxylates ligands have effect on formation of various MOFs. Moreover, the luminescent properties and N2 adsorption behaviors have been reported.

  15. Multitopic ligand directed assembly of low-dimensional metal-chalcogenide organic frameworks. (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Ye, Kaiqi; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Qichun; Bu, Xianhui; Feng, Pingyun


    Despite tremendous progress in metal-organic frameworks, only limited success has been achieved with metal-chalcogenide organic frameworks. Metal-chalcogenide organic frameworks are desirable because they offer a promising route towards tunable semiconducting porous frameworks. Here, four novel semiconducting chalcogenide-organic hybrid compounds have been synthesized through a solvothermal method. Multitopic organic molecules, i.e., 1,2-di-(4-pyridyl)ethylene (L(1)), 1,3,5-tris(4-pyridyl-trans-ethenyl)benzene (L(2)) and tetrakis(4-pyridyloxymethylene)methane (L(3)), have been used as linkers to assemble Zn(SAr)2 or Zn2(SAr)4 units to generate different patterns of spatial organizations. Single-crystal structural analyses indicate that compounds NTU-2, NTU-3 and NTU-4 possess two-dimensional layer structures, while compound NTU-1 adopts a one-dimensional coordination framework (NTU-n, where n is the number related to a specific structure). The diffuse-reflectance spectra demonstrate that these four compounds possess indirect bandgaps and their tunable bandgaps are correlated with their compositions and crystal structures.

  16. Anion Recognition and Induced Self-Assembly of an α,γ-Cyclic Peptide To Form Spherical Clusters. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Vázquez, Nuria; Amorín, Manuel; Alfonso, Ignacio; Granja, Juan R


    A cyclic octapeptide composed of hydroxy-functionalized γ-amino acids folds in a "V-shaped" conformation that allows the selective recognition of anions such as chloride, nitrate, and carbonate. The process involves the simultaneous self-assembly of six peptide subunits and the recognition of four anions to form a tetrahedral structure, in which the anions are located at the corners of the resulting structure. Each anion is coordinated to three different peptides. The structure was fully characterized by several techniques, including NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, and the material was able to facilitate the transmembrane transport of chloride ions. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Honeycomb-shaped coordination polymers based on the self-assembly of long flexible ligands and alkaline-earth ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Chen; Liu, Liu; Guo, Xu; Long, Yinshuang; Jia, Shanshan; Li, Huanhuan; Yang, Lirong, E-mail:


    Two novel coordination polymers, namely, [Ca(NCP){sub 2}]{sub ∞} (I) and [Sr(NCP){sub 2}]{sub ∞} (II) were synthesized under hydrothermal conditions based on 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)imidazo(4,5-f)-(1,10)phenanthroline (HNCP) and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectrometry, X-ray powder diffraction and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Findings indicate that I and II are isomorphous and isostructural, containing the unit of M(NCP{sup −}){sub 4} (M=Ca(II) and Sr(II)), based on which to assemble into three-dimensional (3D) porous 4-fold interpenetration honeycomb-shaped neutral coordination polymers (CPs). Between the adjacent lamellar structures in I and II, there exist π–π interactions between the pyridine rings belonging to phenanthroline of NCP{sup −} which stabilize the frameworks. Both I and II display stronger fluorescence emissions as well as high thermal stability. - Graphical abstract: One-dimensional nanotubular channels with the cross dimension of 37.1959(20)×23.6141(11)Å{sup 2} in the three-dimensional honeycomb-shaped coordination network of II are observed. The topological analysis of II indicates that there exists a typical diamond framework possessing large adamantanoid cages, which containing four cyclohexane-shaped patterns in chair conformations. - Highlights: • Two isomorphous and isostructural coordination polymers based on flexible ligand and two alkaline-earth metal salts have been synthesized and characterized. • Structural analysis indicates that I and II are assembled into 3D porous honeycomb-shaped metal-organic frameworks. • Both I and II display stronger fluorescence emissions and higher thermal stability.

  18. Probing the effects of ligand isomerism in chiral luminescent lanthanide supramolecular self-assemblies: a europium "Trinity Sliotar" study. (United States)

    Kotova, Oxana; Kitchen, Jonathan A; Lincheneau, Christophe; Peacock, Robert D; Gunnlaugsson, Thorfinnur


    "Trinity Sliotar" family: Chiral ligands containing pyridyl and naphthalene moieties were synthesized and characterized. These ligands were successfully used for the synthesis of Eu(III) bundles where chirality of the ligand is successfully transferred onto the lanthanide centre resulting in circularly polarized red luminescence. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Simple and rapid mercury ion selective electrode based on 1-undecanethiol assembled Au substrate and its recognition mechanism. (United States)

    Li, Xian-Qing; Liang, Hai-Qing; Cao, Zhong; Xiao, Qing; Xiao, Zhong-Liang; Song, Liu-Bin; Chen, Dan; Wang, Fu-Liang


    A simple and rapid mercury ion selective electrode based on 1-undecanethiol (1-UDT) assembled Au substrate (Au/1-UDT) has been well constructed. 1-UDT was for the purpose of generating self-assembled monolayer on gold surface to recognize Hg 2+ in aqueous solution, which had a working concentration range of 1.0×10 -8 -1.0×10 -4 molL -1 , with a Nernst response slope of 28.83±0.4mV/-pC, a detection limit of 4.5×10 -9 molL -1 , and a good selectivity over the other tested cations. Also, the Au/1-UDT possessed good reproducibility, stability, and short response time. The recovery obtained for the determination of mercury ion in practical tremella samples was in the range of 99.8-103.4%. Combined electrochemical analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with quantum chemical computation, the probable recognition mechanism of the electrode for selective recognition of Hg 2+ has been investigated. The covalent bond formed between mercury and sulfur is stronger than the one between gold and sulfur and thus prevents the adsorption of 1-UDT molecules on the gold surface. The quantum chemical computation with density functional theory further demonstrates that the strong interaction between the mercury atom and the sulfur atom on the gold surface leads to the gold sulfur bond ruptured and the gold mercury metallophilic interaction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Interrogating the Molecular Basis for Substrate Recognition in Serotonin and Dopamine Transporters with High-Affinity Substrate-Based Bivalent Ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob; Ladefoged, Lucy Kate; Kristensen, Trine N. Bjerre


    The transporters for the neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine (SERT and DAT, respectively) are targets for drugs used in the treatment of mental disorders and widely used drugs of abuse. Studies of prokaryotic homologues have advanced our structural understanding of SERT and DAT, but it still...... remains enigmatic whether the human transporters contain one or two high-affinity substrate binding sites. We have designed and employed 24 bivalent ligands possessing a highly systematic combination of substrate moieties (serotonin and/or dopamine) and aliphatic or poly(ethylene glycol) spacers to reveal...... insight into substrate recognition in SERT and DAT. An optimized bivalent ligand comprising two serotonin moieties binds SERT with 3,800-fold increased affinity compared to that of serotonin, suggesting that the human transporters have two distinct substrate binding sites. We show that the bivalent...

  1. Selective recognition and stabilization of new ligands targeting the potassium form of the human telomeric G-quadruplex DNA (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Hwa; Chuang, Show-Mei; Wu, Pei-Ching; Chen, Chun-Liang; Jeyachandran, Sivakamavalli; Lo, Shou-Chen; Huang, Hsu-Shan; Hou, Ming-Hon


    The development of a ligand that is capable of distinguishing among the wide variety of G-quadruplex structures and targeting telomeres to treat cancer is particularly challenging. In this study, the ability of two anthraquinone telomerase inhibitors (NSC749235 and NSC764638) to target telomeric G-quadruplex DNA was probed. We found that these ligands specifically target the potassium form of telomeric G-quadruplex DNA over the DNA counterpart. The characteristic interaction with the telomeric G-quadruplex DNA and the anticancer activities of these ligands were also explored. The results of this present work emphasize our understanding of the binding selectivity of anthraquinone derivatives to G-quadruplex DNA and assists in future drug development for G-quadruplex-specific ligands.

  2. Carrier transport in quantum dot quantum well microstructures of the self-assembled CdTe/CdS/ligand core-shell system (United States)

    Li, K. Y.; Shan, Q. S.; Zhu, R. P.; Yin, H.; Lin, Y. Y.; Wang, L. Q.


    The study on the quantum dot quantum well (QDQW) microstructure modified by choosing different ligands containing a sulfhydryl group is of significance because it enables one to regulate photoexcited free charge carriers' (FCCs') transport behaviours in high-quality CdTe/ligand QDs via a self-assembled way. The photoelectron characteristics of ligand-capped CdTe nanoparticles were probed by a combination of surface photovoltaic (SPV) and photoacoustic technologies, supplemented by a computer simulation method of the CASTEP module. The experiment reveals that the D-value ΔEWi obtained by the associated two parameters of the SPV spectroscopy was closely related to the quantum confinement energy in the self-assembled CdTe/CdS/ligand core-shell system. In the paper the D-value was termed the depth of QWs, which were buried in the space charge regions located in the graded-band-gap and on either side of the shell-CdS. Obvious resonance quantum tunnelling may occur in the energy band structure with deep QWs on using certain ligands, resulting in an extended diffusion length of the FCCs on illumination of the photon energy hν >= Eg, core-CdTe, and in a strong SPV response at a specific wavelength region. In addition, the carrier-longitudinal optical phonon interaction is the reciprocal of the carriers' lifetime. The d-frontier orbital in the graded-band-gap plays an important role in both the microstructure and the resonance quantum tunnelling of the QDQW system according to the CASTEP calculations.The study on the quantum dot quantum well (QDQW) microstructure modified by choosing different ligands containing a sulfhydryl group is of significance because it enables one to regulate photoexcited free charge carriers' (FCCs') transport behaviours in high-quality CdTe/ligand QDs via a self-assembled way. The photoelectron characteristics of ligand-capped CdTe nanoparticles were probed by a combination of surface photovoltaic (SPV) and photoacoustic technologies

  3. Molecular recognition through divalent interactions with a self-assembled fibrillar network of a supramolecular organogel


    Escuder Gil, Beatriu; Miravet Celades, Juan Felipe; José A. Sáez


    The interaction of phenol derivatives with the self-assembled fibrillar network of two different supramolecular gels has been studied. NMR relaxometry reveals the selective interaction of resorcinol over other related molecules with a gel formed by the gelator 2 which contains terminal pyridine units. No selectivity is observed for a related gelator that contains phenyl instead of pyridine moieties. The selectivity observed by NMR experiments permits the selective suppression of t...

  4. Self-assembled supramolecular networks at interfaces: Molecular immobilization and recognition using nanoporous templates (United States)

    Li, Min; Zeng, Qingdao; Wang, Chen


    In this review a series of organic-based open porous networks are discussed, in which hydrogen bonds play an important role in network formation. Using these open networks as molecular templates: 1) a wealth of functional guest species can be immobilized; 2) fullerene molecules can be separated and recognized; 3) photoisomerization reactions can be observed by STM; 4) 1D molecular arrays can be constructed; and 5) heterogeneous bilayer structures can be formed. It is envisioned that these supramolecular networks might be developed into a new family of useful soft frameworks for studies toward shape-selective catalysis, molecular recognition and host-guest supramolecular chemistry.

  5. Effects of spectator ligands on the specific recognition of intrastrand platinum-DNA cross-links by high mobility group box and TATA-binding proteins. (United States)

    Wei, M; Cohen, S M; Silverman, A P; Lippard, S J


    The results presented describe the effects of various spectator ligands, attached to a platinum 1,2-intrastand d(GpG) cross-link in duplex DNA, on the binding of high mobility group box (HMGB) domains and the TATA-binding protein (TBP). In addition to cisplatin-modified DNA, 15-base pair DNA probes modified by [Pt(1R,2R-diaminocyclohexane)](2+), cis-[Pt(NH(3))(cyclohexylamine)](2+), [Pt(ethylenediamine)](2+), cis-[Pt(NH(3))(cyclobutylamine)](2+), and cis-[Pt(NH(3))(2-picoline)](2+) were examined. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays show that both the A and B domains of HMGB1 as well as TBP discriminate between different platinum-DNA adducts. HMGB1 domain A is the most sensitive to the nature of the spectator ligands on platinum. The effect of the spectator ligands on protein binding also depends highly on the base pairs flanking the platinated d(GpG) site. Double-stranded oligonucleotides containing the AG*G*C sequence, where the asterisks denote the sites of platination, with different spectator ligands are only moderately discriminated by the HMGB proteins and TBP, but the recognition of dsTG*G*A is highly dependent on the ligands. The effects of HMGB1 overexpression in a BG-1 ovarian cancer cell line, induced by steroid hormones, on the sensitivity of cells treated with [Pt(1R,2R-diaminocyclohexane)Cl(2)] and cis-[Pt(NH(3))(cyclohexylamine)Cl(2)] were also examined. The results suggest that HMGB1 protein levels influence the cellular processing of cis-[Pt(NH(3))- (cyclohexylamine)](2+), but not [Pt((1R,2R)-diaminocyclohexane)](2+), DNA lesions. This result is consistent with the observed binding of HMGB1a to platinum-modified dsTG*G*A probes but not with the binding affinity of HMGB1a and HMGB1 to platinum-damaged dsAG*G*C oligonucleotides. These experiments reinforce the importance of sequence context in platinum-DNA lesion recognition by cellular proteins.

  6. Unique contributions of an arginine side chain to ligand recognition in a glutamate-gated chloride channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynagh, Timothy; Komnatnyy, Vitaly V; Pless, Stephan A


    -gated chloride channel from the nematode Haemonchus contortus. Our data unveil a surprisingly small contribution of charge at a conserved arginine side chain previously suggested to form a salt bridge with the ligand, glutamate. Instead, our data show that Arg contributes crucially to ligand sensitivity via...... a hydrogen bond network, where Arg interacts both with agonist and with a conserved Thr side chain within the receptor. Together, the data provide a new explanation for the reliance of neurotransmitter receptors on Arg side chains and highlight the exceptional capacity of unnatural amino acid incorporation...

  7. Urea-Functionalized M4L6 Cage Receptors: Self-Assembly, Dynamics, and Anion Recognition in Aqueous Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Custelcean, Radu [ORNL; Bonnesen, Peter V [ORNL; Duncan, Nathan C [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL; Hay, Benjamin [ORNL


    We present an extensive study of a novel class of de novo designed tetrahedral M{sub 4}L{sub 6} (M = Ni, Zn) cage receptors, wherein internal decoration of the cage cavities with urea anion-binding groups, via functionalization of the organic components L, led to selective encapsulation of tetrahedral oxoanions EO{sub 4}{sup -} (E = S, Se, Cr, Mo, W, n = 2; E = P, n = 3) from aqueous solutions, based on shape, size, and charge recognition. External functionalization with tBu groups led to enhanced solubility of the cages in aqueous methanol solutions, thereby allowing for their thorough characterization by multinuclear ({sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 77}Se) and diffusion NMR spectroscopies. Additional experimental characterization by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, UV-vis spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction, as well as theoretical calculations, led to a detailed understanding of the cage structures, self-assembly, and anion encapsulation. We found that the cage self-assembly is templated by EO{sub 4}{sup -} oxoanions (n {ge} 2), and upon removal of the templating anion the tetrahedral M{sub 4}L{sub 6} cages rearrange into different coordination assemblies. The exchange selectivity among EO{sub 4}{sup -} oxoanions has been investigated with {sup 77}Se NMR spectroscopy using {sup 77}SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} as an anionic probe, which found the following selectivity trend: PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-} > SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} > SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} > MoO{sub 4}{sup 2-} > WO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. In addition to the complementarity and flexibility of the cage receptor, a combination of factors have been found to contribute to the observed anion selectivity, including the anions charge, size, hydration, basicity, and hydrogen-bond acceptor abilities.

  8. Conformational changes and ligand recognition of Escherichia coli D-xylose binding protein revealed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sooriyaarachchi, Sanjeewani; Ubhayasekera, Wimal; Park, Chankyu


    . The open liganded structure shows that xylose binds first to the C-terminal domain, with only very small conformational changes resulting. After a 34° closing motion, additional interactions are formed with the N-terminal domain; changes in this domain are larger and serve to make the structure more...

  9. The thermodynamic effects of ligand structure on the molecular recognition of mononuclear ruthenium polypyridyl complexes with B-DNA (United States)

    The ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes (RPCs), [(phen)2Ru(tatpp)]Cl2 (3Cl2) and [(phen)2Ru (tatpp)Ru(phen)2]Cl4 (4Cl4), containing the large planar and redox-active tetraazatetrapyrido- pentacene (tatpp) ligand, cleave DNA in the presence of reducing agents in cell-free assays and show significant...

  10. Electrostatic assembly of CdTe quantum dots with different charged ligands into TiO{sub 2} porous film for solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sai, Liman; Kong, Xiang Yang [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Institute of Materials for Mobile Energy, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai (China)


    We have demonstrated an approach for the electrostatic assembly of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) with different charged ligands as sensitizers, achieving high coverage and good dispersion in TiO{sub 2} porous films. The CdTe QD-sensitized TiO{sub 2} porous films were subjected to thermal annealing in a high vacuum chamber to remove the ligand linker, resulting in the formation of direct heterojunctions between the bare CdTe QDs and TiO{sub 2} for a favorable charge transfer. The as-received CdTe QD-sensitized TiO{sub 2} porous films were employed as photoanodes for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QSSCs), and the photocurrent density reached as high as 4.69 mA/cm{sup 2} under a standard illumination condition of simulated AM 1.5G (100 mW/cm{sup 2}). (orig.)

  11. Chiroptical Probing of Lanthanide-Directed Self-Assembly Formation Using btp Ligands Formed in One-Pot Diazo-Transfer/Deprotection Click Reaction from Chiral Amines. (United States)

    Byrne, Joseph P; Martínez-Calvo, Miguel; Peacock, Robert D; Gunnlaugsson, Thorfinnur


    A series of enantiomeric 2,6-bis(1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridines (btp)-containing ligands was synthesized by a one-pot two-step copper-catalyzed amine/alkyne click reaction. The Eu(III) - and Tb(III) -directed self-assembly formation of these ligands was studied in CH3 CN by monitoring their various photophysical properties, including their emerging circular dichroism and circularly polarized luminescence. The global analysis of the former enabled the determination of both the stoichiometry and the stability constants of the various chiral supramolecular species in solution. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Initial results on fault diagnosis of DSN antenna control assemblies using pattern recognition techniques (United States)

    Smyth, P.; Mellstrom, J.


    Initial results obtained from an investigation using pattern recognition techniques for identifying fault modes in the Deep Space Network (DSN) 70 m antenna control loops are described. The overall background to the problem is described, the motivation and potential benefits of this approach are outlined. In particular, an experiment is described in which fault modes were introduced into a state-space simulation of the antenna control loops. By training a multilayer feed-forward neural network on the simulated sensor output, classification rates of over 95 percent were achieved with a false alarm rate of zero on unseen tests data. It concludes that although the neural classifier has certain practical limitations at present, it also has considerable potential for problems of this nature.

  13. The effect of geometrical presentation of multimodal cation-exchange ligands on selective recognition of hydrophobic regions on protein surfaces. (United States)

    Woo, James; Parimal, Siddharth; Brown, Matthew R; Heden, Ryan; Cramer, Steven M


    The effects of spatial organization of hydrophobic and charged moieties on multimodal (MM) cation-exchange ligands were examined by studying protein retention behavior on two commercial chromatographic media, Capto™ MMC and Nuvia™ cPrime™. Proteins with extended regions of surface-exposed aliphatic residues were found to have enhanced retention on the Capto MMC system as compared to the Nuvia cPrime resin. The results further indicated that while the Nuvia cPrime ligand had a strong preference for interactions with aromatic groups, the Capto MMC ligand appeared to interact with both aliphatic and aromatic clusters on the protein surfaces. These observations were formalized into a new set of protein surface property descriptors, which quantified the local distribution of electrostatic and hydrophobic potentials as well as distinguishing between aromatic and aliphatic properties. Using these descriptors, high-performing quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models (R(2)>0.88) were generated for both the Capto MMC and Nuvia cPrime datasets at pH 5 and pH 6. Descriptors of electrostatic properties were generally common across the four models; however both Capto MMC models included descriptors that quantified regions of aliphatic-based hydrophobicity in addition to aromatic descriptors. Retention was generally reduced by lowering the ligand densities on both MM resins. Notably, elution order was largely unaffected by the change in surface density, but smaller and more aliphatic proteins tended to be more affected by this drop in ligand density. This suggests that modulating the exposure, shape and density of the hydrophobic moieties in multimodal chromatographic systems can alter the preference for surface exposed aliphatic or aromatic residues, thus providing an additional dimension for modulating the selectivity of MM protein separation systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Directed supramolecular assembly of Cu(II)-based "paddlewheels" into infinite 1-D chains using structurally bifunctional ligands. (United States)

    Aakeröy, Christer B; Schultheiss, Nate; Desper, John


    The construction of Cu(II)-containing supramolecular chains is achieved by combining suitable anionic ligands (for controlling the coordination geometry and for creating a neutral building block) with four new bifunctional ligands containing a metal-coordinating pyridyl site and a self-complementary hydrogen-bonding moiety. Seven crystal structures are presented and in each case, the copper(II) complex displays a "paddlewheel" arrangement, with four carboxylate ligands occupying the equatorial sites, leaving room for the bifunctional ligand to coordinate in the axial positions. The supramolecular chemistry, which organizes the coordination-complexes into the desired infinite 1-D chains, is driven by a combination of N-H...N and N-H...O hydrogen-bonds in five of the seven structures.

  15. Assembling metallic 1T-MoS2 nanosheets with inorganic-ligand stabilized quantum dots for exceptional solar hydrogen evolution. (United States)

    Li, Xu-Bing; Gao, Yu-Ji; Wu, Hao-Lin; Wang, Yang; Guo, Qing; Huang, Mao-Yong; Chen, Bin; Tung, Chen-Ho; Wu, Li-Zhu


    Due to their enhanced light harvesting, favored interfacial charge transfer and excellent proton reduction activity, hybrid photocatalysts of metallic 1T-MoS2 nanosheets and inorganic-ligand stabilized CdSe/ZnS QDs obtained via a self-assembly approach can produce H2 gas with a rate of ∼155 ± 3.5 μmol h-1 mg-1 under visible-light irradiation (λ = 410 nm), the most exceptional performance of solar H2 evolution using MoS2 as a cocatalyst known to date.

  16. Ligand recognition and domain structure of Vps10p, a vacuolar protein sorting receptor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M U; Emr, S D; Winther, Jakob R.


    Vp10p is a receptor that sorts several different vacuolar proteins by cycling between a late Golgi compartment and the endosome. The cytoplasmic tail of Vps10p is necessary for the recycling, whereas the lumenal domain is predicted to interact with the soluble ligands. We have studied ligand...... binding to Vps10p by introducing deletions in the lumenal region. This region contains two domains with homology to each other. Domain 2 binds carboxypeptidase Y (CPY), proteinase A (PrA) and hybrids of these proteases with invertase. Moreover, we show that aminopeptidase Y (APY) is a ligand of Vps10p....... The native proteases compete for binding to domain 2. Binding of CPY(156)-invertase or PrA(137)-invertase, on the other hand, do not interfere with binding of CPY to Vps10p. Furthermore, the Q24RPL27 sequence known to be important for vacuolar sorting of CPY, is of little importance in the Vps10p...

  17. Digital Imprinting of RNA Recognition and Processing on a Self-Assembled Nucleic Acid Matrix (United States)

    Redhu, Shiv K.; Castronovo, Matteo; Nicholson, Allen W.


    The accelerating progress of research in nanomedicine and nanobiotechnology has included initiatives to develop highly-sensitive, high-throughput methods to detect biomarkers at the single-cell level. Current sensing approaches, however, typically involve integrative instrumentation that necessarily must balance sensitivity with rapidity in optimizing biomarker detection quality. We show here that laterally-confined, self-assembled monolayers of a short, double-stranded(ds)[RNA-DNA] chimera enable permanent digital detection of dsRNA-specific inputs. The action of ribonuclease III and the binding of an inactive, dsRNA-binding mutant can be permanently recorded by the input-responsive action of a restriction endonuclease that cleaves an ancillary reporter site within the dsDNA segment. The resulting irreversible height change of the arrayed ds[RNA-DNA], as measured by atomic force microscopy, provides a distinct digital output for each dsRNA-specific input. These findings provide the basis for developing imprinting-based bio-nanosensors, and reveal the versatility of AFM as a tool for characterizing the behaviour of highly-crowded biomolecules at the nanoscale.

  18. Fluorescent Cross-Linked Supramolecular Polymer Constructed by Orthogonal Self-Assembly of Metal-Ligand Coordination and Host-Guest Interaction. (United States)

    Qian, Xiaomin; Gong, Weitao; Li, Xiaopeng; Fang, Le; Kuang, Xiaojun; Ning, Guiling


    A new host molecule consists of four terpyridine groups as the binding sites with zinc(II) ion and a copillar[5]arene incorporated in the center as a spacer to interact with guest molecule was designed and synthesized. Due to the 120 ° angle of the rigid aromatic segment, a cross-linked dimeric hexagonal supramolecular polymer was therefore generated as the result of the orthogonal self-assembly of metal-ligand coordination and host-guest interaction. UV/Vis spectroscopy, (1) H NMR spectroscopy, viscosity and dynamic light-scattering techniques were employed to characterize and understand the cross-linking process with the introduction of zinc(II) ion and guest molecule. More importantly, well-defined morphology of the self-assembled supramolecular structure can be tuned by altering the adding sequence of the two components, that is, the zinc(II) ion and the guest molecule. In addition, introduction of a competitive ligand suggested the dynamic nature of the supramolecular structure. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Self-Assembly of Discrete Metallocycles versus Coordination Polymers Based on Cu(I and Ag(I Ions and Flexible Ligands: Structural Diversification and Luminescent Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Vallejos


    Full Text Available Three new Ag(I and one Cu(I coordination compounds with two different positional isomers, propane-1,3-diyl bis(pyridine-4-carboxylate (L1 and propane-1,3-diyl bis(pyridine-3-carboxylate (L2, of a bis-(pyridyl-carboxylate ligand have been synthesized. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the self-assembly of L1 with AgCF3SO3 and AgClO4 salts leads to the formation of discrete binuclear metallocycles {Ag(L1CF3SO3}2 (1 and {Ag(L1ClO4}2 (2, respectively. However, self-assembly of the other ligand, L2, with AgCF3SO3 and CuCl salts, results in a 1-D zig-zag chain {Ag(L2CF3SO3}∞ (3 and a 1-D double-stranded helical chain {Cu2Cl2(L22}∞ (4 coordination polymers, respectively. Solid emission spectra recorded at room temperature show interesting luminescence properties for all four compounds in the range from 438 to 550 nm, especially for compound 4 that was found to change its emission color when the wavelength of the excitation radiation is switched from 332 to 436 nm.

  20. Crystal structure of the PEG-bound SH3 domain of myosin IB from Entamoeba histolytica reveals its mode of ligand recognition. (United States)

    Gautam, Gunjan; Rehman, Syed Arif Abdul; Pandey, Preeti; Gourinath, Samudrala


    The versatility in the recognition of various interacting proteins by the SH3 domain drives a variety of cellular functions. Here, the crystal structure of the C-terminal SH3 domain of myosin IB from Entamoeba histolytica (EhMySH3) is reported at a resolution of 1.7 Å in native and PEG-bound states. Comparisons with other structures indicated that the PEG molecules occupy protein-protein interaction pockets similar to those occupied by the peptides in other peptide-bound SH3-domain structures. Also, analysis of the PEG-bound EhMySH3 structure led to the recognition of two additional pockets, apart from the conventional polyproline and specificity pockets, that are important for ligand interaction. Molecular-docking studies combined with various comparisons revealed structural similarity between EhMySH3 and the SH3 domain of β-Pix, and this similarity led to the prediction that EhMySH3 preferentially binds targets containing type II-like PXXP motifs. These studies expand the understanding of the EhMySH3 domain and provide extensive structural knowledge, which is expected to help in predicting the interacting partners which function together with myosin IB during phagocytosis in E. histolytica infections.

  1. New types of the flexible self-assembled metal-organic coordination polymers constructed by aliphatic dicarboxylates and rigid bidentate nitrogen ligands. (United States)

    Mao, Hongyan; Zhang, Changzheng; Li, Gang; Zhang, Hongyun; Hou, Hongwei; Li, Linke; Wu, Qingan; Zhu, Yu; Wang, Enbo


    The reaction of metal ions, flexible aliphatic dicarboxylates and rigid bidentate linear ligands under mild conditions in water afford four novel metal-organic coordination polymers, [Cd(mu-mal)(mu-pyz)(0.5)(H(2)O)](n) 1 (mal = malonate dianion, pyz = pyrazine), [Cd(2)(mu-suc)(2)(mu-pyz)(H(2)O)(2)](n) 2 (suc = succinate dianion), and ([M(mu-bipy)(H(2)O)4][suc].4H(2)O)(n)(M = Co, 3, M = Zn, 4, bipy = 4,4'-bipyridine). The molecular structures of 1-4 have been established by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. 1 is a 3D network being composed of layers of octahedrally coordinated Cd atoms bridged by malonate anions in syn-anti configurations within the layers and pyz molecules between layers. Unlike that in 1, each Cd atom in 2 displays uncommon pentagonal-bipyramidal geometry to form 2D infinite grid sheets with square grid dimensions of ca. 7.936 x 7.936 [Angstrom]. Both 3 and 4 exhibit 1D linear -M-bipy-M-bipy- chain polymers, and these chains were packed as ...ABCABC... layered structures. The bridging succinate ligands in 2 adopt the syn-anti mode with a torsion angle of 60.8(7) degrees, while the solvated succinate ligands in 3 and 4 adopt the anti-anti mode with a torsion angle of 180.0 degrees. To our knowledge, compound 2 represents the first example of flexible self-assembled succinate-pyrazine mixed bridging ligand coordination network. 3 and 4 are the first two cases of succinate-bipy polymers with non-coordinated succinate. The magnetic behavior for 3 was studied in the temperature range of 5-300 K. The result indicates the occurrence of a weak antiferromagnetic coupling between the cobalt(II) ions.

  2. DMBT1 functions as pattern-recognition molecule for poly-sulfated and poly-phosphorylated ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    End, Caroline; Bikker, Floris; Renner, Marcus


    at unraveling the molecular basis of its function in mucosal protection and of its broad pathogen-binding specificity. We report that DMBT1 directly interacts with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and carrageenan, a structurally similar sulfated polysaccharide, which is used as a texturizer and thickener in human...... dietary products. However, binding of DMBT1 does not reduce the cytotoxic effects of these agents to intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. DSS and carrageenan compete for DMBT1-mediated bacterial aggregation via interaction with its bacterial-recognition motif. Competition and ELISA studies identify poly...

  3. CO₂-Responsive Pillar[5]arene-Based Molecular Recognition in Water: Establishment and Application in Gas-Controlled Self-Assembly and Release. (United States)

    Jie, Kecheng; Zhou, Yujuan; Yao, Yong; Shi, Bingbing; Huang, Feihe


    Here we developed a novel CO2-responsive pillararene-based molecular recognition motif established from a water-soluble pillar[5]arene and an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS). The inclusion complex acted as a supramolecular amphiphile and self-assembled into spherical bilayer vesicles as confirmed by DLS, SEM, and TEM experiments. These vesicles were disrupted upon bubbling N2 or adding much more SDS to eliminate the inclusion complex. The assembly and disassembly of vesicles were successfully employed in gas and surfactant triggered releases of calcein, a water-soluble dye.

  4. Assembly and Properties of Heterobimetallic CoII/III/CaII Complexes with Aquo and Hydroxo Ligands (United States)

    Lacy, David C.; Park, Young Jun; Ziller, Joseph W.; Yano, Junko; Borovik, A. S.


    The use of water as a reagent in redox-driven reactions is advantageous because it is abundant and environmentally compatible. The conversion of water to dioxygen in photosynthesis illustrates one example, in which a redox-inactive CaII ion and four manganese ions are required for function. In this report we describe the stepwise formation of two new heterobimetallic complexes containing CoII/III and CaII ions, and either hydroxo or aquo ligands. The preparation of a 4-coordinate CoII synthon was achieved with the tripodal ligand, N,N′,N″-[2,2′,2″-nitrilotris(ethane-2,1-diyl)]tris(2,4,6-trimethylbenzenesulfonamido, [MST]3−. Water binds to [CoIIMST]− to form the 5-coordinate [CoIIMST(OH2)]− complex that was used to prepare the CoII/CaII complex [CoIIMST(μ-OH2)CaII⊂15-crown-5(OH2)]+ ([CoII(μ-OH2)CaIIOH2]+). [CoII(μ-OH2)CaOH2]+ contained two aquo ligands, one bonded to the CaII ion and one bridging between the two metal ions and thus represents an unusual example of a heterobimetallic complex containing 2 aquo ligands spanning different metal ions. Both aquo ligands formed intramolecular hydrogen bonds with the [MST]3− ligand. [CoIIMST(OH2)]− was oxidized to form [CoIIIMST(OH2)] that was further converted to [CoIIIMST(μ-OH)CaII⊂15-crown-5]+ ([CoIII(μ-OH)CaII]+) in the presence of base and CaIIOTf2/15-crown-5. [CoIII(μ-OH)CaII]+ was also synthesized from the oxidation of [CoIIMST]− with PhIO in the presence of CaIIOTf2/15-crown-5. Allowing [CoIII(μ-OH)CaII]+ to react with diphenylhydrazine afforded [CoII(μ-OH2)CaIIOH2]+ and azobenzene. Additionally, the characterization of [CoIII(μ-OH)CaII]+ provides another formulation for the previously reported CoIV–oxo complex, [(TMG3tren)CoIV(μ-O)ScIII(OTf)3]2+ to one that instead could contain a CoIII–OH unit. PMID:22998407

  5. Assembly and properties of heterobimetallic Co(II/III)/Ca(II) complexes with aquo and hydroxo ligands. (United States)

    Lacy, David C; Park, Young Jun; Ziller, Joseph W; Yano, Junko; Borovik, A S


    The use of water as a reagent in redox-driven reactions is advantageous because it is abundant and environmentally compatible. The conversion of water to dioxygen in photosynthesis illustrates one example, in which a redox-inactive Ca(II) ion and four manganese ions are required for function. In this report we describe the stepwise formation of two new heterobimetallic complexes containing Co(II/III) and Ca(II) ions and either hydroxo or aquo ligands. The preparation of a four-coordinate Co(II) synthon was achieved with the tripodal ligand, N,N',N"-[2,2',2"-nitrilotris(ethane-2,1-diyl)]tris(2,4,6-trimethylbenzenesulfonamido, [MST](3-). Water binds to [Co(II)MST](-) to form the five-coordinate [Co(II)MST(OH(2))](-) complex that was used to prepare the Co(II)/Ca(II) complex [Co(II)MST(μ-OH(2))Ca(II)⊂15-crown-5(OH(2))](+) ([Co(II)(μ-OH(2))Ca(II)OH(2)](+)). [Co(II)(μ-OH(2))CaOH(2)](+) contained two aquo ligands, one bonded to the Ca(II) ion and one bridging between the two metal ions, and thus represents an unusual example of a heterobimetallic complex containing two aquo ligands spanning different metal ions. Both aquo ligands formed intramolecular hydrogen bonds with the [MST](3-) ligand. [Co(II)MST(OH(2))](-) was oxidized to form [Co(III)MST(OH(2))] that was further converted to [Co(III)MST(μ-OH)Ca(II)⊂15-crown-5](+) ([Co(III)(μ-OH)Ca(II)](+)) in the presence of base and Ca(II)OTf(2)/15-crown-5. [Co(III)(μ-OH)Ca(II)](+) was also synthesized from the oxidation of [Co(II)MST](-) with iodosylbenzene (PhIO) in the presence of Ca(II)OTf(2)/15-crown-5. Allowing [Co(III)(μ-OH)Ca(II)](+) to react with diphenylhydrazine afforded [Co(II)(μ-OH(2))Ca(II)OH(2)](+) and azobenzene. Additionally, the characterization of [Co(III)(μ-OH)Ca(II)](+) provides another formulation for the previously reported Co(IV)-oxo complex, [(TMG(3)tren)Co(IV)(μ-O)Sc(III)(OTf)(3)](2+) to one that instead could contain a Co(III)-OH unit.

  6. Molecular recognition in a diverse set of protein-ligand interactions studied with molecular dynamics simulations and end-point free energy calculations. (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Li, Liwei; Hurley, Thomas D; Meroueh, Samy O


    End-point free energy calculations using MM-GBSA and MM-PBSA provide a detailed understanding of molecular recognition in protein-ligand interactions. The binding free energy can be used to rank-order protein-ligand structures in virtual screening for compound or target identification. Here, we carry out free energy calculations for a diverse set of 11 proteins bound to 14 small molecules using extensive explicit-solvent MD simulations. The structure of these complexes was previously solved by crystallography and their binding studied with isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) data enabling direct comparison to the MM-GBSA and MM-PBSA calculations. Four MM-GBSA and three MM-PBSA calculations reproduced the ITC free energy within 1 kcal·mol(-1) highlighting the challenges in reproducing the absolute free energy from end-point free energy calculations. MM-GBSA exhibited better rank-ordering with a Spearman ρ of 0.68 compared to 0.40 for MM-PBSA with dielectric constant (ε = 1). An increase in ε resulted in significantly better rank-ordering for MM-PBSA (ρ = 0.91 for ε = 10), but larger ε significantly reduced the contributions of electrostatics, suggesting that the improvement is due to the nonpolar and entropy components, rather than a better representation of the electrostatics. The SVRKB scoring function applied to MD snapshots resulted in excellent rank-ordering (ρ = 0.81). Calculations of the configurational entropy using normal-mode analysis led to free energies that correlated significantly better to the ITC free energy than the MD-based quasi-harmonic approach, but the computed entropies showed no correlation with the ITC entropy. When the adaptation energy is taken into consideration by running separate simulations for complex, apo, and ligand (MM-PBSAADAPT), there is less agreement with the ITC data for the individual free energies, but remarkably good rank-ordering is observed (ρ = 0.89). Interestingly, filtering MD snapshots by prescoring

  7. Syntheses, structures and photoluminescence of lanthanide-organic frameworks assembled from multifunctional N,O-donor ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Che, Guang-Bo, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Preparation and Applications of Environmental Friendly Materials, Jilin Normal University, Chinese Ministry of Education, Siping 136000 (China); Liu, Shu-Yu [Key Laboratory of Preparation and Applications of Environmental Friendly Materials, Jilin Normal University, Chinese Ministry of Education, Siping 136000 (China); Zhang, Qing [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Liu, Chun-Bo, E-mail: [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Zhang, Xing-Jing [Key Laboratory of Preparation and Applications of Environmental Friendly Materials, Jilin Normal University, Chinese Ministry of Education, Siping 136000 (China)


    Four new lanthanide complexes [Ln(O–NCP){sub 2}(NO{sub 3})]{sub n} based on multifunctional N,O-donor ligand 2-(2-carboxyphenyl)imidazo(4,5-f)-(1,10)phenanthroline (O–HNCP) and Ln(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}·6H{sub 2}O (Ln=Nd(1), La(2), Sm(3), Eu(4)) have been achieved under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by elemental analyses, infrared spectra and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Structural analyses revealed that all of these four complexes possess similar two-dimensional layer structures. In addition, thermal stability and luminescent properties of these complexes were also investigated. - Graphical abstract: A series of lanthanide(III) coordination polymers with intriguing structures based on 2-(2-carboxyphenyl)imidazo(4,5-f)-(1,10)phenanthroline ligand have been hydrothermally synthesized. The thermal stabilities and photoluminescence properties of these complexes have been investigated. - Highlights: • Four lanthanide(III) complexes have been hydrothermally synthesized. • The N,O-donor O–HNCP was used as the ligand. • TGA and PL properties of complexes 1–4 have been investigated.

  8. The encapsulation of ferrocyanide by copper(II) complexes of tripodal tetradentate ligands. Novel H-bonding networks incorporating heptanuclear and pentanuclear heterometallic assemblies. (United States)

    Parker, R J; Spiccia, L; Batten, S R; Cashion, J D; Fallon, G D


    Substitution of the weakly binding aqua ligand in [Cu(tren)OH2](2+) and [Cu(tpa)OH2](2+) (tren = tris(2-aminoethyl)amine; tpa = tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine) by a cyano ligand on ferricyanide results in the assembly of heteropolynuclear cations around the cyanometalate core. In water, the reduction of the Fe(III) core to Fe(II) generates complexes that feature heteropolycations in which ferrocyanide is encapsulated by the Cu(II) moieties: [(Cu(tpa)CN)6Fe][ClO4]8-3H2O 1, [(Cu(tren)CN)6Fe][ClO4]8-10H2O 2, [(Cu(tren)CN)6Fe][Fe(CN)6]2[ClO4]2-15.8H2O 3, and [(Cu(tren)CN)6Fe][(Cu(tren)CN)4Fe(CN)2][Fe(CN)6)]4-6DMSO-21H2O 4. The formation of discrete molecules, in preference to extended networks or polymeric structures, has been encouraged through the use of branched tetradentate ligands in conjunction with copper(II), a metal center with the propensity to form five-coordinate complexes. Complex 3 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/c (#14) with a = 14.8674(10), b = 25.9587(10), c = 27.5617(10) A, beta = 100.8300(10) degrees, and Z = 4, and it is comprised of almost spherical heptanuclear cations, [(Cu(tren)CN)6Fe](8+), whose charge is balanced by two ferricyanide and two perchlorate counteranions. Complex 4 crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1 (# 1) with a = 14.8094(8), b = 17.3901(7), c = 21.1565(11) A, alpha = 110.750(3), beta = 90.206(2), gamma = 112.754(3) degrees, and Z = 1, and it is comprised of the heptanuclear [(Cu(tren)CN)6Fe](8+) cation and pentanuclear [(Cu(tren)CN)4Fe(CN)2](4+) cation, whose terminal cyano ligands are oriented trans to each other. The charge is balanced exclusively by ferricyanide counteranions. In both complexes, H-bonding interactions between hydrogens on primary amines of the tren ligand, terminal cyano groups of the ferricyanide counterions, and the solvent of crystallization generate intricate 3D H-bonding networks.

  9. Layer-by-layer assembly of luminescent ultrathin films by Mg-Al-Eu LDHs nanosheets and organic ligand with high transparency (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjun; Li, Yanlin; Fan, Hongxian


    We fabricated a kind of luminescent ordered multilayer transparent ultrathin films (OMTFs) based on inorganic rare earth doped layered double hydroxides (Mg-Al-Eu LDHs) nanosheets and the organic ligand 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) via layer-by-layer assembly method. At the same time, Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) aqueous solution was used as intermediate linkers. UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, fluorescence spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were introduced to investigate the structure and properties of these films. Surprisingly, the uniformity and the fluorescence emission intensity of OMTFs which utilized polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) as intermediate linkers are significantly enhanced compared with that of OMTFs without PVA. Herein, it was found that the fluorescence emission intensity of this kind of ultrathin film with PVA displays a monotonic increase as the number of deposition cycles increasing, and further the films which are highly transparent, uniform and ultrathin have potential applications in the optical display devices.

  10. Assembly and Properties of Heterobimetallic CoII/III/CaII Complexes with Aquo and Hydroxo Ligands


    Lacy, David C.; Park, Young Jun; Ziller, Joseph W.; Yano, Junko; Borovik, A. S.


    The use of water as a reagent in redox-driven reactions is advantageous because it is abundant and environmentally compatible. The conversion of water to dioxygen in photosynthesis illustrates one example, in which a redox-inactive CaII ion and four manganese ions are required for function. In this report we describe the stepwise formation of two new heterobimetallic complexes containing CoII/III and CaII ions, and either hydroxo or aquo ligands. The preparation of a 4-coordinate CoII synthon...

  11. Synthesis of an S T = 7 [Mn 3 ] Mixed-Valence Complex Based on 1,3-Propanediol Ligand Derivatives and Its One-Dimensional Assemblies

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jian


    Controlled organization of high-spin complexes and single-molecule magnets is a great challenge in molecular magnetism in order to study the effect of the intercomplex magnetic interactions on the intrinsic properties of a given magnetic object. In this work, a new ST = 7 trinuclear mixed-valence Mn complex, [MnIIIMnII 2(LA) 2(Br)4(CH3OH)6] ·Br· (CH3OH)1.5·(H2O)0.5 (1), is reported using a pyridinium-functionalized 1,3-propanediol ligand (H 2LABr = 1-(3-bromo-2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propyl)pyridinium bromide). Using azido anions as bridging ligands and different pyridinium-functionalized 1,3-propanediol ligands (H2LBBr = 1-(3-bromo-2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propyl)-4-picolinium bromide; H 2LCBr = 1-(3-bromo-2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propyl)-3,5- lutidinium bromide), the linear [MnIIIMnII 2L2X4]+ building block has been assembled into one-dimensional coordination networks: [MnIIIMn II 2(LA)2(Br)4(CH 3OH)4(N3)]·((C2H 5)2O)1.25 (2∞), [MnIIIMn II 2(LB)2(Br)4(C 2H5OH)(CH3OH)(H2O) 2(N3)]·(H2O)0.25 (3∞), and [MnIIIMnII 2(LC) 2(Cl)3.8(Br)0.2(C2H 5OH)3(CH3OH)(N3)] (4∞). The syntheses, characterization, crystal structures, and magnetic properties of these new [Mn3]-based materials are reported. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  12. Peptidic ligands to control the three-dimensional self-assembly of quantum rods in aqueous media. (United States)

    Bizien, Thomas; Even-Hernandez, Pascale; Postic, Marie; Mazari, Elsa; Chevance, Soizic; Bondon, Arnaud; Hamon, Cyrille; Troadec, David; Largeau, Ludovic; Dupuis, Christophe; Gosse, Charlie; Artzner, Franck; Marchi, Valérie


    The use of peptidic ligands is validated as a generic chemical platform allowing one to finely control the organization in solid phase of semiconductor nanorods originally dispersed in an aqueous media. An original method to generate, on a macroscopic scale and with the desired geometry, three-dimensional supracrystals composed of quantum rods is introduced. In a first step, nanorods are transferred in an aqueous phase thanks to the substitution of the original capping layer by peptidic ligands. Infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy data prove that the exchange is complete; fluorescence spectroscopy demonstrates that the emitter optical properties are not significantly altered; electrophoresis and dynamic light scattering experiments assess the good colloidal stability of the resulting aqueous suspension. In a second step, water evaporation in a microstructured environment yields superstructures with a chosen geometry and in which nanorods obey a smectic B arrangement, as shown by electron microscopy. Incidentally, bulk drying in a capillary tube generates a similar local order, as evidenced by small angle X-ray scattering. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Structural Basis of Differential Ligand Recognition by Two Classes of bis-(3-5)-cyclic Dimeric Guanosine Monophosphate-binding Riboswitches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K Smith; C Shanahan; E Moore; A Simon; S Strobel


    The bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) signaling pathway regulates biofilm formation, virulence, and other processes in many bacterial species and is critical for their survival. Two classes of c-di-GMP-binding riboswitches have been discovered that bind this second messenger with high affinity and regulate diverse downstream genes, underscoring the importance of RNA receptors in this pathway. We have solved the structure of a c-di-GMP-II riboswitch, which reveals that the ligand is bound as part of a triplex formed with a pseudoknot. The structure also shows that the guanine bases of c-di-GMP are recognized through noncanonical pairings and that the phosphodiester backbone is not contacted by the RNA. Recognition is quite different from that observed in the c-di-GMP-I riboswitch, demonstrating that at least two independent solutions for RNA second messenger binding have evolved. We exploited these differences to design a c-di-GMP analog that selectively binds the c-di-GMP-II aptamer over the c-di-GMP-I RNA. There are several bacterial species that contain both types of riboswitches, and this approach holds promise as an important tool for targeting one riboswitch, and thus one gene, over another in a selective fashion.

  14. Molecular recognition and self-assembly special feature: Integrative self-sorting is a programming language for high level self-assembly. (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Schalley, Christoph A


    Starting from the basis of a simple 4-component self-sorting system of crown ethers and ammonium ions, we design 6 building blocks in which 2 identical or different binding sites are incorporated. These building blocks can be mixed in many different ways to yield quite distinctly different pseudorotaxane assemblies. The self-sorting process integrates all building blocks in specific places so that this approach permits us to exert positional control and can widely influence the resulting assemblies with respect to the details of their structures. At maximum, we report quadruply interlocked species with up to 5 subunits that form specific assemblies. Although NMR methods are limited to the analysis of simpler complexes, ESI-MS and, in particular, tandem mass spectrometry is highly useful to analyze the assemblies' connectivities.

  15. Self-assembly of iron coordination polymer of bowl-shaped N-ligand and dodecamolybdosilicate anion (United States)

    Tang, Qun; Chen, Ya-Guang


    [FeII2(ttmb)2(H2O)6][SiMo12O40]·4H2O (1) (ttmb = 1,3,5-tris(triazol-1-ylmethyl) benzene) was synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by IR spectroscopy, TG analysis and X-ray diffraction method. In 1 the bowl-like tridentate ligand, ttmb, bridges Fe2+ ions forming a coordination polymeric layer, [FeII2(ttmb)2(H2O)6]n4n+, with a large dimensional grid of 7.00 × 7.11 Å, in the presence of Keggin-type polyoxoanion as a template. The coordination polymeric layers and the polyoxoanions are fused into an inorganic-organic hybrid by hydrogen bonds. The photoluminescent spectrum of 1 in solid state at room temperature shows that the coordination of ttmb to Fe2+ ion results in a quench of the ttmb intramolecular fluorescence and a weak O-Mo LMCT fluorescent emission was observed at 520 nm.

  16. Solvent-like ligand-coated ultrasmall cadmium selenide nanocrystals: strong electronic coupling in a self-organized assembly (United States)

    Lawrence, Katie N.; Johnson, Merrell A.; Dolai, Sukanta; Kumbhar, Amar; Sardar, Rajesh


    Strong inter-nanocrystal electronic coupling is a prerequisite for delocalization of exciton wave functions and high conductivity. We report 170 meV electronic coupling energy of short chain poly(ethylene glycol) thiolate-coated ultrasmall (Cryo-transmission electron microscopy analysis showed the formation of a pearl-necklace assembly of nanocrystals in solution with regular inter-nanocrystal spacing. The electronic coupling was studied as a function of CdSe nanocrystal size where the smallest nanocrystals exhibited the largest coupling energy. The electronic coupling in spin-cast thin-film (electronic coupling of SNCs in a self-organized film could facilitate the large-scale production of highly efficient electronic materials for advanced optoelectronic device application.Strong inter-nanocrystal electronic coupling is a prerequisite for delocalization of exciton wave functions and high conductivity. We report 170 meV electronic coupling energy of short chain poly(ethylene glycol) thiolate-coated ultrasmall (Cryo-transmission electron microscopy analysis showed the formation of a pearl-necklace assembly of nanocrystals in solution with regular inter-nanocrystal spacing. The electronic coupling was studied as a function of CdSe nanocrystal size where the smallest nanocrystals exhibited the largest coupling energy. The electronic coupling in spin-cast thin-film (electronic coupling of SNCs in a self-organized film could facilitate the large-scale production of highly efficient electronic materials for advanced optoelectronic device application. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional experimental procedure, UV-vis absorption, EDS, and NMR spectra and cryo-TEM image. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02038g

  17. Low-Resolution Tactile Image Recognition for Automated Robotic Assembly Using Kernel PCA-Based Feature Fusion and Multiple Kernel Learning-Based Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hung Liu


    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a robust tactile sensing image recognition scheme for automatic robotic assembly. First, an image reprocessing procedure is designed to enhance the contrast of the tactile image. In the second layer, geometric features and Fourier descriptors are extracted from the image. Then, kernel principal component analysis (kernel PCA is applied to transform the features into ones with better discriminating ability, which is the kernel PCA-based feature fusion. The transformed features are fed into the third layer for classification. In this paper, we design a classifier by combining the multiple kernel learning (MKL algorithm and support vector machine (SVM. We also design and implement a tactile sensing array consisting of 10-by-10 sensing elements. Experimental results, carried out on real tactile images acquired by the designed tactile sensing array, show that the kernel PCA-based feature fusion can significantly improve the discriminating performance of the geometric features and Fourier descriptors. Also, the designed MKL-SVM outperforms the regular SVM in terms of recognition accuracy. The proposed recognition scheme is able to achieve a high recognition rate of over 85% for the classification of 12 commonly used metal parts in industrial applications.

  18. Self-assembly of luminescent alkynyl-based platinum-cadmium complexes containing auxiliary diimine or terpyridine ligands. (United States)

    Berenguer, Jesús R; Gil, Belén; Fernández, Julio; Forniés, Juan; Lalinde, Elena


    Reaction of different "Cd(N-N)(2)(2+)" (N-N = bpy, dmbpy, phen) or "Cd(trpy)(2+)" fragments with cis- or trans- (5) dianionic bis(alkynyl)platinate substrates [Pt(C(6)F(5))(2)(C[triple bond]CR)(2)](2-) (R = Ph a, Tol b) leads to the generation of novel bimetallic neutral Platinum-Cadmium derivatives, which show photoluminescence (PL) strongly influenced by the structure and the media. In complexes [cis-Pt(C(6)F(5))(2)(C[triple bond]CR)(2)Cd(N-N)(2)] (N-N = bpy (1), dmbpy (2), phen (3)), the dianionic cis-bis(alkynyl)platinate fragment interacts with the "Cd(N-N)(2)(+2)" unit mainly through both the C(alpha) atoms (d(Cd-C(alpha)) = 2.417(5)-2.554(5) A) and the Pt center (d(Pt-Cd) approximately 3.10 A); while in complexes [cis-Pt(C(6)F(5))(2)(C[triple bond]CR)(2)Cd(trpy)] (4), probably because of the presence of only three Cd-N bonds, the Pt-Cd interaction is enhanced (d(Pt-Cd) approximately 3.00 A), the Cd(II) atom being additionally solvated with acetone or H(2)O. By contrast, in complexes [trans-Pt(C(6)F(5))(2)(C[triple bond]CR)(2)Cd(bpy)(2)] (6) the Cd center is found to be in a distorted trigonal-bipyramid coordination, interacting with one of the Pt-C(alpha) bonds of the platina-bis(alkynyl) unit with very short Cd-C(alpha) (2.376(10) A) and Pt-Cd (2.8931(6) A) bond distances. Bimetallic complexes 1-4, having cis-configured platinum fragments, exhibit, in solid state, blue and/or green phosphorescence with contribution of close emissive states of different natures: metal (Pt, Cd) perturbed pi pi* intraligand (alkynyl, polyimine) manifolds mixed, to a greater (trpy complexes 4) or lesser extent, with (Pt-Cd) charge transfer (MM'CT). In glassy state (2-MeTHF, 77 K), complexes 1b-4b exhibit structured emissions mainly ascribed to (diimine 1b-3b, trpy 4b) (3)pi pi phosphorescence, likely mixed with some ligand (alkyne) to ligand (imine) charge transfer ((3)LL'CT). Complexes 6 are not emissive in solid state at room temperature. At 77 K they display a high energy (3

  19. Recognition of interaction interface residues in low-resolution structures of protein assemblies solely from the positions of C(alpha atoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupali A Gadkari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The number of available structures of large multi-protein assemblies is quite small. Such structures provide phenomenal insights on the organization, mechanism of formation and functional properties of the assembly. Hence detailed analysis of such structures is highly rewarding. However, the common problem in such analyses is the low resolution of these structures. In the recent times a number of attempts that combine low resolution cryo-EM data with higher resolution structures determined using X-ray analysis or NMR or generated using comparative modeling have been reported. Even in such attempts the best result one arrives at is the very course idea about the assembly structure in terms of trace of the C(alpha atoms which are modeled with modest accuracy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this paper first we present an objective approach to identify potentially solvent exposed and buried residues solely from the position of C(alpha atoms and amino acid sequence using residue type-dependent thresholds for accessible surface areas of C(alpha. We extend the method further to recognize potential protein-protein interface residues. CONCLUSION/ SIGNIFICANCE: Our approach to identify buried and exposed residues solely from the positions of C(alpha atoms resulted in an accuracy of 84%, sensitivity of 83-89% and specificity of 67-94% while recognition of interfacial residues corresponded to an accuracy of 94%, sensitivity of 70-96% and specificity of 58-94%. Interestingly, detailed analysis of cases of mismatch between recognition of interface residues from C(alpha positions and all-atom models suggested that, recognition of interfacial residues using C(alpha atoms only correspond better with intuitive notion of what is an interfacial residue. Our method should be useful in the objective analysis of structures of protein assemblies when positions of only (alpha positions are available as, for example, in the cases of integration of cryo

  20. pH-value-controlled assembly of photoluminescent zinc coordination polymers in the mixed-ligand system (United States)

    Liu, Kang; Hu, Hanbin; Sun, Jing; Zhang, Yiheng; Han, Jishu; Wang, Lei


    Three novel coordination polymers, [Zn(sdi)2(NO3)(H2O)]·NO3 (1), [Zn(sdi)2(H2O)2]·2NO3 (2) and [Zn(sdi)0.5(H2C3O4)(H2O)] (3), (sdi = N,N‧-sulfuryldiimidazole) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, single crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analyses. These compounds have abundant structural chemistry ranging from zero-dimensional (0D) (1), one-dimensional (1D) (2), to three-dimensional (3D) (3) networks. Compound 1 displays a 0D structure which formed by [Zn(sdi)2]2 dimers. Compound 2 possesses 1D chain with closed loops. Notably, compound 3 exhibits a 3D (3,4)-connected net with a (63)(65·8) topology. Interestingly, compounds 1-3 were obtained under similar reaction conditions and the structural diversity of these coordination polymers illustrate the remarkable effect of pH on the self-assembling process. Moreover, the fluorescent properties of these compounds have been investigated.

  1. Assembly and use of high-density recombinant peptide chips for large-scale ligand screening is a practical alternative to synthetic peptide libraries. (United States)

    Hundsberger, Harald; Önder, Kamil; Schuller-Götzburg, Peter; Virok, Dezso P; Herzog, Julia; Rid, Raphaela


    Recombinant peptide chips could constitute a versatile complementation to state-of-the-art in situ (chemical on-chip) synthesis, particle-based printing, or pre-manufactured peptide spotting. Bottlenecks still impeding a routine implementation - from restricted peptide lengths, low diversity and low array densities to high costs - could so be overcome. To assess overall performance, we assembled recombinant chips composed of 38,400 individual peptide spots on the area of a standard 96-well microtiter plate from comprehensive, highly diverse (>107 single clones) short random peptide libraries. Screening of altogether 476,160 clones against Streptavidin uncovered 2 discrete new binders: a characteristic HPQ-motif containing VSHPQAPF and a cyclic CSGSYGSC peptide. Interactions were technically confirmed by fluorescence polarization as well as biolayer-interferometry, and their potential suitability as novel detection tags evaluated by detection of a peptide-fused exemplary test protein. From our data we conclude that the presented technical pipeline can reliably identify novel hits, useful as first-generation binders or templates for subsequent ligand design plus engineering.

  2. Self-assembly of novel supramolecular silver(I) compound based on mixed ligands bipy/TST3- H3TST=2,4,6-tris (4-sulfophenylamino)-1,3,5-triazine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Yunfang; Wei, Yongqin; Broer, Ria; Wu, Kechen


    The novel supramolecular silver(I) compound with formula [Ag-6(TST)(2)(bipy)(6)(H2O)(2)](n) center dot 3nH(2)O (1) based on assembly of Ag(I) and mixed ligand bipy/TST3-, bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine, H3TST = 2,4,6-tris(4-sulfophenylamino)-1,3,5-triazine, has been prepared by hydrothermal method. In the

  3. Ion-pair triple helicates and mesocates self-assembled from ditopic 2,2'-bipyridine-bis(urea) ligands and Ni(ii) or Fe(ii) sulfate salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Custelcean, Radu [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bonnesen, Peter V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Roach, Benjamin D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Duncan, Nathan C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    Here, NiSO4and FeSO4 self-assemble with heteroditopic ligands (L) comprising 2,2'-bipyridine and o-phenylene-(bis)urea cation- and anion-binding sites, respectively, into [ML3SO4] (M = Ni2+, Fe2+) triple-stranded ion-pair helicates and mesocates.

  4. Pattern-recognition techniques applied to performance monitoring of the DSS 13 34-meter antenna control assembly (United States)

    Mellstrom, J. A.; Smyth, P.


    The results of applying pattern recognition techniques to diagnose fault conditions in the pointing system of one of the Deep Space network's large antennas, the DSS 13 34-meter structure, are discussed. A previous article described an experiment whereby a neural network technique was used to identify fault classes by using data obtained from a simulation model of the Deep Space Network (DSN) 70-meter antenna system. Described here is the extension of these classification techniques to the analysis of real data from the field. The general architecture and philosophy of an autonomous monitoring paradigm is described and classification results are discussed and analyzed in this context. Key features of this approach include a probabilistic time-varying context model, the effective integration of signal processing and system identification techniques with pattern recognition algorithms, and the ability to calibrate the system given limited amounts of training data. Reported here are recognition accuracies in the 97 to 98 percent range for the particular fault classes included in the experiments.

  5. Fluorescence turn-on recognition of chiral amino acids using dye incorporated β-CD functionalized AuNPs assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aswathy, B., E-mail:; Sony, G., E-mail:


    An assembly of dye incorporated β-cyclodextrin (βCD) functionalized AuNPs for the fluorescent probing of chiral amino acids is presented. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) possessing a high extinction coefficient function can be used as excellent fluorescent quenchers in AuNP–fluorophore system. Inclusion of fluorescein (FL) into β-cyclodextrin (βCD) makes energy transfer to occur through the donor and quencher nearby. This energy transfer switches off by virtue of the analyte induced release of FL from β-CD cavity, which results in the fluorescence recovery of the quenched dye. Analysis suggests that the assembly of AuNPs–βCDs–FL is effective as a turn-on fluorescent probe for the chiroselective optical discrimination between D,L-tryptophan, D,L-phenyl alanine and D,L-tyrosine. The detection limits for analyzing L-tryptophan, L-phenyl alanine and L-tyrosine were found to be 0.59, 1.2 and 1.5 μM respectively. - Highlights: • Fluorescence quenching AuNP–βCD–dye assembly via energy transfer. • Energy transfer from dye to AuNPs is a SET process. • Fluorescence turn-on detection of amino acids by the competitive binding method. • Chiroselective discrimination between enantiomeric amino acids.

  6. Orc1 Binding to Mitotic Chromosomes Precedes Spatial Patterning during G1 Phase and Assembly of the Origin Recognition Complex in Human Cells. (United States)

    Kara, Nihan; Hossain, Manzar; Prasanth, Supriya G; Stillman, Bruce


    Replication of eukaryotic chromosomes occurs once every cell division cycle in normal cells and is a tightly controlled process that ensures complete genome duplication. The origin recognition complex (ORC) plays a key role during the initiation of DNA replication. In human cells, the level of Orc1, the largest subunit of ORC, is regulated during the cell division cycle, and thus ORC is a dynamic complex. Upon S phase entry, Orc1 is ubiquitinated and targeted for destruction, with subsequent dissociation of ORC from chromosomes. Time lapse and live cell images of human cells expressing fluorescently tagged Orc1 show that Orc1 re-localizes to condensing chromatin during early mitosis and then displays different nuclear localization patterns at different times during G1 phase, remaining associated with late replicating regions of the genome in late G1 phase. The initial binding of Orc1 to mitotic chromosomes requires C-terminal amino acid sequences that are similar to mitotic chromosome-binding sequences in the transcriptional pioneer protein FOXA1. Depletion of Orc1 causes concomitant loss of the mini-chromosome maintenance (Mcm2-7) helicase proteins on chromatin. The data suggest that Orc1 acts as a nucleating center for ORC assembly and then pre-replication complex assembly by binding to mitotic chromosomes, followed by gradual removal from chromatin during the G1 phase. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Recognition through self-assembly. A quadruply-hydrogen-bonded, strapped porphyrin cleft that binds dipyridyl molecules and a [2]rotaxane. (United States)

    Shao, Xue-Bin; Jiang, Xi-Kui; Zhao, Xin; Zhao, Cheng-Xue; Chen, Yan; Li, Zhan-Ting


    Quadruply-hydrogen-bonded porphyrin homodimer Zn1.Zn1 has been designed, assembled, and evaluated as a supramolecular cleft-featured receptor for its ability to bind dipyridyl guests in chloroform-d. Monomer Zn1 consists of a 2-ureidopyrimidin-4(1H)-one unit, which was initially reported by Meijer et al., and a zinc porphyrin unit. The zinc porphyrin is strapped with an additional aliphatic chain for controlling the atropisomerization of porphyrin. The 2-ureidopyrimidin-4(1H)-one unit dimerizes exclusively in chloroform even at the dilute concentration of 10(-)(4) M, while the two "strapped" zinc porphyrin units of the homodimer provide additional binding sites for selective guest recognition. (1)H NMR studies indicate that the new homodimer Zn1.Zn1 adopts an S-type conformation due to strong donor-acceptor interaction between the electron-rich porphyrin units and the electron-deficient 2-ureidopyrimidin-4(1H)-one unit. (1)H NMR, UV-vis, and vapor pressure osmometry investigations reveal that Zn1.Zn1 could function as a new generation of assembled supramolecular cleft, to be able to not only efficiently bind linear dipyridyl molecules 14-17, resulting in the formation of stable termolecular complexes, with K(aasoc) values ranging from 3.8 x 10(6) to 8.9 x 10(7) M(-)(1), but also strongly complex a hydrogen-bond-assembled [2]rotaxane, 18, which consists of a rigid fumaramide thread and a pyridine-incorporated tetraamide cyclophane, with K(aasoc) = 1.2 x 10(4) M(-)(1). (1)H NMR competition experiments reveal that complexation to the dipyriyl guests also promotes the stability of the quadruply-hydrogen-bonded dimeric receptor.

  8. Biliverdin amides reveal roles for propionate side chains in bilin reductase recognition and in holophytochrome assembly and photoconversion. (United States)

    Shang, Lixia; Rockwell, Nathan C; Martin, Shelley S; Lagarias, J Clark


    Linear tetrapyrroles (bilins) perform important antioxidant and light-harvesting functions in cells from bacteria to humans. To explore the role of the propionate moieties in bilin metabolism, we report the semisynthesis of mono- and diamides of biliverdin IXalpha and those of its non-natural XIIIalpha isomer. Initially, these were examined as substrates of two types of NADPH-dependent biliverdin reductase, BVR and BvdR, and of the representative ferredoxin-dependent bilin reductase, phycocyanobilin:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PcyA). Our studies indicate that the NADPH-dependent biliverdin reductases are less accommodating to amidation of the propionic acid side chains of biliverdin IXalpha than PcyA, which does not require free carboxylic acid side chains to yield its phytobilin product, phycocyanobilin. Bilin amides were also assembled with BV-type and phytobilin-type apophytochromes, demonstrating a role for the 8-propionate in the formation of the spectroscopically native P(r) dark states of these biliprotein photosensors. Neither ionizable propionate side chain proved to be essential to primary photoisomerization for both classes of phytochromes, but an unsubstituted 12-propionate was required for full photointerconversion of phytobilin-type phytochrome Cph1. Taken together, these studies provide insight into the roles of the ionizable propionate side chains in substrate discrimination by two bilin reductase families while further underscoring the mechanistic differences between the photoconversions of BV-type and phytobilin-type phytochromes.

  9. Biliverdin amides reveal roles for propionate side chains in bilin reductase recognition and in holophytochrome assembly and photoconversion† (United States)

    Shang, Lixia; Rockwell, Nathan C.; Martin, Shelley S.; Lagarias, J. Clark


    Linear tetrapyrroles (bilins) perform important antioxidant and light harvesting functions in cells from bacteria to humans. To explore the role of the propionate moieties in bilin metabolism, we report the semisynthesis of mono- and di-amides of biliverdin IXα and those of its non-natural XIIIα isomer. Initially, these were examined as substrates of two types of NADPH-dependent biliverdin reductase, BVR and BvdR, and of the representative ferredoxin-dependent bilin reductase, phycocyanobilin:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PcyA). Our studies indicate that the NADPH-dependent biliverdin reductases are less accommodating to amidation of the propionic acid sidechains of biliverdin IXα than PcyA, which does not require free carboxylic acid sidechains to yield its phytobilin product, phycocyanobilin. Bilin amides were also assembled with BV-type and phytobilin-type apophytochromes, demonstrating a role for the 8-propionate in formation of the spectroscopically native Pr dark states of these biliprotein photosensors. Neither ionizable propionate sidechain proved essential to primary photoisomerization for both classes of phytochromes, but an unsubstituted 12-propionate was required for full photointerconversion of phytobilin-type phytochrome Cph1. Taken together, these studies provide insight into the roles of the ionizable propionate sidechains in substrate discrimination by two bilin reductase families while further underscoring the mechanistic differences between the photoconversions of BV-type and phytobilin-type phytochromes. PMID:20565135

  10. A Stimuli-Responsive Biosensor of Glucose on Layer-by-Layer Films Assembled through Specific Lectin-Glycoenzyme Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiqin Yao


    Full Text Available The research on intelligent bioelectrocatalysis based on stimuli-responsive materials or interfaces is of great significance for biosensors and other bioelectronic devices. In the present work, lectin protein concanavalin A (Con A and glycoenzyme glucose oxidase (GOD were assembled into {Con A/GOD}n layer-by-layer (LbL films by taking advantage of the biospecific lectin-glycoenzyme affinity between them. These film electrodes possess stimuli-responsive properties toward electroactive probes such as ferrocenedicarboxylic acid (Fc(COOH2 by modulating the surrounding pH. The CV peak currents of Fc(COOH2 were quite large at pH 4.0 but significantly suppressed at pH 8.0, demonstrating reversible stimuli-responsive on-off behavior. The mechanism of stimuli-responsive property of the films was explored by comparative experiments and attributed to the different electrostatic interaction between the films and the probes at different pH. This stimuli-responsive films could be used to realize active/inactive electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose by GOD in the films and mediated by Fc(COOH2 in solution, which may establish a foundation for fabricating novel stimuli-responsive electrochemical biosensors based on bioelectrocatalysis with immobilized enzymes.

  11. Structure and properties of the Ca(2+)-binding CUB domain, a widespread ligand-recognition unit involved in major biological functions. (United States)

    Gaboriaud, Christine; Gregory-Pauron, Lynn; Teillet, Florence; Thielens, Nicole M; Bally, Isabelle; Arlaud, Gérard J


    CUB domains are 110-residue protein motifs exhibiting a β-sandwich fold and mediating protein-protein interactions in various extracellular proteins. Recent X-ray structural and mutagenesis studies have led to the identification of a particular CUB domain subset, cbCUB (Ca(2+)-binding CUB domain). Unlike other CUB domains, these harbour a homologous Ca(2+)-binding site that underlies a conserved binding site mediating ionic interaction between two of the three conserved acidic Ca(2+) ligands and a basic (lysine or arginine) residue of a protein ligand, similar to the interactions mediated by the low-density lipoprotein receptor family. cbCUB-mediated protein-ligand interactions usually involve multipoint attachment through several cbCUBs, resulting in high-affinity binding through avidity, despite the low affinity of individual interactions. The aim of the present review is to summarize our current knowledge about the structure and functions of cbCUBs, which represent the majority of the known CUB repertoire and are involved in a variety of major biological functions, including immunity and development, as well as in various cancer types. Examples discussed in the present review include a wide range of soluble and membrane-associated human proteins, as well as some archaeal and invertebrate proteins. The fact that these otherwise unrelated proteins share a common Ca(2+)-dependent ligand-binding ability suggests a mechanism inherited from very primitive ancestors. The information provided in the present review should stimulate further investigations on the crucial interactions mediated by cbCUB-containing proteins. © The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 Biochemical Society

  12. Molecular Engineering of Platinum(II) Terpyridine Complexes with Tetraphenylethylene-Modified Alkynyl Ligands: Supramolecular Assembly via Pt···Pt and/or π-π Stacking Interactions and the Formation of Various Superstructures. (United States)

    Cheng, Heung-Kiu; Yeung, Margaret Ching-Lam; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah


    A series of platinum(II) terpyridine complexes with tetraphenylethylene-modified alkynyl ligands has been designed and synthesized. The introduction of the tetraphenylethylene motif has led to aggregation-induced emission (AIE) properties, which upon self-assembly led to the formation of metal-metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MMLCT) behavior stabilized by Pt···Pt and/or π-π interactions. Tuning the steric bulk or hydrophilicity through molecular engineering of the platinum(II) complexes has been found to alter their spectroscopic properties and result in interesting superstructures (including nanorods, nanospheres, nanowires, and nanoleaves) in the self-assembly process. The eye-catching color and emission changes upon varying the solvent compositions may have potential applications in chemosensing materials for the detection of microenvironment changes. Furthermore, the importance of the directional Pt···Pt and/or π-π interactions on the construction of distinctive superstructures has also been examined by UV-vis absorption and emission spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. This work represents the interplay of both inter- and intramolecular interactions as well as the energies of the two different chromophoric/luminophoric systems that may open up a new route for the development of platinum(II)-AIE hybrids as functional materials.

  13. Switching of bacterial adhesion to a glycosylated surface by reversible reorientation of the carbohydrate ligand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Theresa; Chrasekaran, Vijayan; Stamer, Insa


    The surface recognition in many biological systems is guided by the interaction of carbohydrate-specific proteins (lectins) with carbohydrate epitopes (ligands) located within the unordered glycoconjugate layer (glycocalyx) of cells. Thus, for recognition, the respective ligand has to reorient...

  14. Modeling the interactions of a peptide-major histocompatibility class I ligand with its receptors. I. Recognition by two alpha beta T cell receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rognan, D; Stryhn, A; Fugger, L


    were successfully docked into the Ha255-262/Kk model. We have previously used a systematic and exhaustive panel of 144 single amino acid substituted analogs to analyze both MHC binding and T cell recognition of the parental viral peptide. This large body of experimental data was used to evaluate...... the models. They were found to account well for the experimentally obtained data, lending considerable support to the proposed models and suggesting a universal docking mode for alpha beta TCRs to MHC-peptide complexes. Such models may also be useful in guiding future rational experimentation....

  15. Synergistic assembly of heavy metal clusters and luminescent organic bridging ligands in metal-organic frameworks for highly efficient X-ray scintillation. (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Volotskova, Olga; Lu, Kuangda; Ahmad, Moiz; Sun, Conroy; Xing, Lei; Lin, Wenbin


    We have designed two metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to efficiently convert X-ray to visible-light luminescence. The MOFs are constructed from M6(μ3-O)4(μ3-OH)4(carboxylate)12 (M = Hf or Zr) secondary building units (SBUs) and anthracene-based dicarboxylate bridging ligands. The high atomic number of Zr and Hf in the SBUs serves as effective X-ray antenna by absorbing X-ray photons and converting them to fast electrons through the photoelectric effect. The generated electrons then excite multiple anthracene-based emitters in the MOF through inelastic scattering, leading to efficient generation of detectable photons in the visible spectrum. The MOF materials thus serve as efficient X-ray scintillators via synergistic X-ray absorption by the metal-cluster SBUs and optical emission by the bridging ligands.

  16. Solvent-Controlled Assembly of ionic Metal-Organic Frameworks Based on Indium and Tetracarboxylate Ligand: Topology Variety and Gas Sorption Properties

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Bing


    Four Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) based on Indium and tetracarboxylate ligand have been synthesized through regulation of the solvent conditions, the resulted compounds not only exhibited rich structural topologies (pts, soc and unique topologies), but also interesting charge reversal framework features. By regulating the solvent, different building units (indium monomer, trimer) have been generated in situ, and they are connected with the ligand to form ionic frameworks 1-4, respectively. Among the synthesized four ionic frameworks, compounds 3 and 4 could keep their crystallinity upon heating temperature up to 300oC after fully removal of solvent guest molecules, they also exhibit the charge reversal framework features (3 adopts an overall cationic framework, while 4 has an anionic framework). Both compounds 3 and 4 exhibit significant uptake capacity for CO2 and H2, besides that, compounds 3 and 4 also present excellent selective adsorption of CO2 over N2 and CH4.

  17. Self-assembling hydrogels crosslinked solely by receptor-ligand interactions: tunability, rationalization of physical properties, and 3D cell culture. (United States)

    Thompson, Michael S; Tsurkan, Mikhail V; Chwalek, Karolina; Bornhauser, Martin; Schlierf, Michael; Werner, Carsten; Zhang, Yixin


    We report a novel, noncovalent hydrogel system crosslinked solely by receptor-ligand interactions between biotin and avidin. The simple hydrogel synthesis and functionalization together with the widespread use of biotinylated ligands in biosciences make this versatile system suitable for many applications. The gels possess a range of tunable physical properties, including stiffness, lifetime, and swelling. The erosion rates, unexpectedly fast compared to the kinetic parameters for biotin-avidin, are explored in terms of stretching tensions on the polymers, a concept well-known on the single-molecule level, but largely unexplored in supramolecular systems. As proof of utility, the gels were functionalized with different peptide sequences to control human mesenchymal stromal cell morphology in 3D culture. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Synergistic Assembly of Heavy Metal Clusters and Luminescent Organic Bridging Ligands in Metal–Organic Frameworks for Highly Efficient X-ray Scintillation (United States)


    We have designed two metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) to efficiently convert X-ray to visible-light luminescence. The MOFs are constructed from M6(μ3-O)4(μ3-OH)4(carboxylate)12 (M = Hf or Zr) secondary building units (SBUs) and anthracene-based dicarboxylate bridging ligands. The high atomic number of Zr and Hf in the SBUs serves as effective X-ray antenna by absorbing X-ray photons and converting them to fast electrons through the photoelectric effect. The generated electrons then excite multiple anthracene-based emitters in the MOF through inelastic scattering, leading to efficient generation of detectable photons in the visible spectrum. The MOF materials thus serve as efficient X-ray scintillators via synergistic X-ray absorption by the metal-cluster SBUs and optical emission by the bridging ligands. PMID:24730683

  19. Composite organization of the cobalamin binding and cubilin recognition sites of intrinsic factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedosov, Sergey N; Fedosova, Natalya U; Berglund, Lars


    of the ligand. Each isolated fragment of IF was tested for the binding to the specific receptor cubilin in the presence or absence of Cbl. Neither apo nor holo forms of IF(20) and IF(30) were recognized by the receptor. When two fragments were mixed and incubated with Cbl, they associated into a stable complex......, IF(30+20).Cbl, which bound to cubilin as well as the noncleaved IF(50).Cbl complex. We suggest that formation of the cubilin recognition site on IF is caused by assembly of two distant domains, which allows the saturated protein to be recognized by the receptor. The obtained parameters for ligand...

  20. Design and Formation of a Large, Tetrahedral, Metal-ligand Cluster Using 1,1'-Binaphthyl Ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biros, Shannon M.; Yeh, Robert M.; Raymond, Kenneth N.


    Many chemists have been fascinated with the development of discrete supramolecular structures that encapsulate guest molecules. These structures can be assembled through covalent or hydrogen bonds, electrostatic or metal-ligand interactions. These host structures have provided valuable insight into the forces involved in small molecule recognition. Our work has focused on the design and study of metal-ligand clusters of varying sizes. The naphthalene [M{sub 4}L{sub 6}]{sup 12-} cluster 1, shown in Figure 1, has demonstrated diastereoselective guest binding and chiral induction properties as well as the ability to catalyze reactions carried out inside the cavity in an enzyme-like manner. However, the size of the cavity (ca. 300-500 {angstrom}{sup 3}) has often limited the scope of substrates for these transformations.

  1. Assembly and tunable luminescence of lanthanide-organic frameworks constructed from 4-(3,5-dicarboxyphenyl)pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wenqian; Yu, Jiancan [State Key Lab of Silicon Materials, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Cui, Yuanjing, E-mail: [State Key Lab of Silicon Materials, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Rao, Xingtang; Yang, Yu [State Key Lab of Silicon Materials, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Qian, Guodong, E-mail: [State Key Lab of Silicon Materials, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new N-heterocycle muticarboxylate ligand 4-(3,5-dicarboxyphenyl)pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (H{sub 4}dpda) was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Several lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (Ln = Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy) and Eu/Tb mixed MOFs were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ligand H{sub 4}dpda can provide efficient sensitization for the lanthanide ion Tb(III) and Eu(III). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Luminescence color of the mixed MOFs can be easily tuned by varying the molar ratios of Eu(III)/Tb(III). - Abstract: A novel N-heterocycle multicarboxylate ligand 4-(3,5-dicarboxyphenyl)pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (H{sub 4}dpda) was synthesized, and then reacted with lanthanide salts to yield a series of lanthanide metal-organic frameworks, [Ln(Hdpda)(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}]{center_dot}0.5(H{sub 2}O) (Ln = Eu(1), Gd(2), Tb(3), Dy(4)) and [Tb{sub 1-x}Eu{sub x}(Hdpda)(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}]{center_dot}0.5(H{sub 2}O) (x = 0.1-10 mol%). Single crystal X-ray diffraction and powder XRD patterns confirm these MOFs are isostructural. Luminescent measurements suggest that the ligand can provide efficient sensitization for the lanthanide ion Tb(III) and Eu(III) in the mixed lanthanide MOFs. Additionally, the luminescence color of the mixed MOFs can be easily tuned from green to green-yellow, yellow, orange, red-orange and red by varying the molar ratio of Eu(III)/Tb(III).

  2. Heterobimetallic metal-complex assemblies constructed from the flexible arm-like ligand 1,1'-bis[(3-pyridylamino)carbonyl]ferrocene: structural versatility in the solid state. (United States)

    Wei, Kai-Ju; Ni, Jia; Liu, Yangzhong


    The bidentate ferrocenyl sandwich molecule 1,1'-bis[(3-pyridylamino)carbonyl]ferrocene (3-BPFA) has been employed as an organometallic ligand in reactions with a series of transition metal salts to construct heterobimetallic architectures. X-ray crystallographic characterization reveals that the crystal packing of free ligand 3-BPFA induces spontaneous resolution of helical chains via intermolecular hydrogen bonds. By combining the flexibility from the arm-like molecule (3-BPFA) with the variation of the coordination property from different metal ions and/or the different counteranions, five different types of architectures are prepared: one octahedral coordination cage (copper(II) complex 1); two discrete pseudocapsules for combination of chlorine anions (nickel(II) complex 2 and cobalt(II) complex 3); two dimers with metal-metal interactions (silver(I) complexes 4 and 5); one macrocyclic complex (mercury(II) complex 6); and five two-dimensional mixed-metal-organic frameworks (M'-MOFs) (zinc(II), cadmium(II), and mercury(II) complexes 7-11). The structures of all complexes are characterized in detail by IR, elementary analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The factors inducing the structure variation among the complexes are discussed by taking account of the coordination geometry of different metal ions, the span angle between the two "arms", and the coordination mode of the 3-BPFA ligand.

  3. A multi-resolution model to capture both global fluctuations of an enzyme and molecular recognition in the ligand-binding site

    CERN Document Server

    Fogarty, Aoife C; Kremer, Kurt


    In multi-resolution simulations, different system components are simultaneously modelled at different levels of resolution, these being smoothly coupled together. In the case of enzyme systems, computationally expensive atomistic detail is needed in the active site to capture the chemistry of substrate binding. Global properties of the rest of the protein also play an essential role, determining the structure and fluctuations of the binding site; however, these can be modelled on a coarser level. Similarly, in the most computationally efficient scheme only the solvent hydrating the active site requires atomistic detail. We present a methodology to couple atomistic and coarse-grained protein models, while solvating the atomistic part of the protein in atomistic water. This allows a free choice of which protein and solvent degrees of freedom to include atomistically, without loss of accuracy in the atomistic description. This multi-resolution methodology can successfully model stable ligand binding, and we furt...

  4. Evolution of DNA aptamers through in vitro metastatic-cell-based systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment for metastatic cancer recognition and imaging. (United States)

    Li, Xilan; An, Yuan; Jin, Jiang; Zhu, Zhi; Hao, Linlin; Liu, Lu; Shi, Yongquan; Fan, Daiming; Ji, Tianhai; Yang, Chaoyong James


    Metastasis, the capability of tumor cells to spread and grow at distant sites, is the primary factor in cancer mortality. Because metastasis in sentinel lymph nodes suggests the original spread of tumors from a primary site, the detection of lymph node involvement with cancer serves as an important prognostic and treatment parameter. Here we have developed a panel of DNA aptamers specifically binding to colon cancer cell SW620 derived from metastatic site lymph node, with high affinity after 14 rounds of selection by the cell-SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) method. The binding affinities of selected aptamers were evaluated by flow cytometry. Aptamer XL-33 with the best binding affinity (0.7 nM) and its truncated sequence XL-33-1 with 45 nt showed excellent selectivity for recognizing target cell SW620. The binding entity of the selected aptamer has been preliminarily determined as a membrane protein on the cell surface. Tissue imaging results showed that XL-33-1 was highly specific to the metastatic tumor tissue or lymph node tissue with corresponding cancer metastasis and displayed an 81.7% detection rate against colon cancer tissue with metastasis in regional lymph nodes. These results suggest that XL-33-1 has great potential to become a molecular imaging agent for early detection of lymph node tissue with colon cancer metastasis. More importantly, this study clearly demonstrates that DNA ligands selectively recognizing metastatic cancer cells can be readily generated by metastatic-cell-based SELEX for potential applications in metastatic cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  5. Rational assembly of Pb(II)/Cd(II)/Mn(II) coordination polymers based on flexible V-shaped dicarboxylate ligand: Syntheses, helical structures and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Gao-Shan [School of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Liu, Chong-Bo, E-mail: [School of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Liu, Hong [School of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Robbins, Julianne; Zhang, Z. John [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Yin, Hong-Shan [School of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Wen, Hui-Liang [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); Wang, Yu-Hua [School of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China)


    Six new coordination polymers, namely, [Pb(L)(H{sub 2}O)] (1), [Pb(L)(phen)] (2), [Pb{sub 2}(L){sub 2}(4,4′-bipy){sub 0.5}] (3), [Cd(L)(phen)] (4), [Cd(L)(4,4′-bipy)]·H{sub 2}O (5) and [Mn(L)(4,4′-bipy)]·H{sub 2}O (6) have been synthesized by the hydrothermal reaction of 2,2′-[hexafluoroisopropylidenebis(p-phenyleneoxy)]diacetic acid (H{sub 2}L) with Pb(II)/Cd(II)/Mn(II) in the presence of ancillary ligands 4,4′-bipyridine (4,4′-bipy) or 1,10-phenanthroline (phen). Complexes 1 and 4–6 exhibit 2-D structures, and complexes 2–3 display 3-D frameworks, of which L{sup 2−} ligands join metal ions to single-stranded helical chains of 1, 3–6 and double-stranded helical chains of 2. Complexes 2 and 3 also contain double-stranded Metal–O helices. Topology analysis reveals that complexes 1 and 4 both represent 4-connected sql net, 2 represents 6-connected pcu net, 3 exhibits a novel (3,12)-connected net, while 5 and 6 display (3,5)-connected gek1 net. The six complexes exhibit two kinds of inorganic–organic connectivities: I{sup 0}O{sup 2} for 1, 4–6, and I{sup 1}O{sup 2} for 2–3. The photoluminescent properties of 4–5 and the magnetic properties of 6 have been investigated. - Graphical abstract: Six new Pb(II)/Cd(II)/Mn(II) coordination polymers with helical structures based on flexible V-shaped dicarboxylate ligand have been synthesized and structurally characterized. Photoluminescent and magnetic properties have been investigated. - Highlights: • Six novel M(II) coordination polymers with 2,2′-[hexafluoroisopropylidenebis(p-phenyleneoxy)]diacetic acid and N-donor ligands. • Complexes 1–6 show diverse intriguing helical characters. • The luminescent properties of complexes 1–5 were investigated. • Complex 6 shows antiferromagnetic coupling.

  6. Synergistic Assembly of Heavy Metal Clusters and Luminescent Organic Bridging Ligands in Metal?Organic Frameworks for Highly Efficient X-ray Scintillation


    Wang, Cheng; Volotskova, Olga; Lu, Kuangda; Ahmad, Moiz; Sun, Conroy; Xing, Lei; Lin, Wenbin


    We have designed two metal?organic frameworks (MOFs) to efficiently convert X-ray to visible-light luminescence. The MOFs are constructed from M6(?3-O)4(?3-OH)4(carboxylate)12 (M = Hf or Zr) secondary building units (SBUs) and anthracene-based dicarboxylate bridging ligands. The high atomic number of Zr and Hf in the SBUs serves as effective X-ray antenna by absorbing X-ray photons and converting them to fast electrons through the photoelectric effect. The generated electrons then excite mult...

  7. The IntFOLD server: an integrated web resource for protein fold recognition, 3D model quality assessment, intrinsic disorder prediction, domain prediction and ligand binding site prediction. (United States)

    Roche, Daniel B; Buenavista, Maria T; Tetchner, Stuart J; McGuffin, Liam J


    The IntFOLD server is a novel independent server that integrates several cutting edge methods for the prediction of structure and function from sequence. Our guiding principles behind the server development were as follows: (i) to provide a simple unified resource that makes our prediction software accessible to all and (ii) to produce integrated output for predictions that can be easily interpreted. The output for predictions is presented as a simple table that summarizes all results graphically via plots and annotated 3D models. The raw machine readable data files for each set of predictions are also provided for developers, which comply with the Critical Assessment of Methods for Protein Structure Prediction (CASP) data standards. The server comprises an integrated suite of five novel methods: nFOLD4, for tertiary structure prediction; ModFOLD 3.0, for model quality assessment; DISOclust 2.0, for disorder prediction; DomFOLD 2.0 for domain prediction; and FunFOLD 1.0, for ligand binding site prediction. Predictions from the IntFOLD server were found to be competitive in several categories in the recent CASP9 experiment. The IntFOLD server is available at the following web site:

  8. Spacer-Controlled Supramolecular Assemblies of Cu(II with Bis(2-Hydroxyphenylimine Ligands. from Monoligand Complexes to Double-Stranded Helicates and Metallomacrocycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Kelly


    Full Text Available Reaction of Cu(NO32·3H2O or Cu(CH3COO2·H2O with the bis(2-hydroxyphenylimine ligands H2L1-H2L4 gave four Cu(II complexes of composition [Cu2(L1(NO32(H2O]·MeOH, [Cu2(L22], [Cu2(L32] and [Cu2(L42]·2MeOH. Depending on the spacer unit, the structures are characterized by a dinuclear arrangement of Cu(II within one ligand (H2L1, by a double-stranded [2+2] helical binding mode (H2L2 and H2L3 and a [2 + 2] metallomacrocycle formation (H2L4. In these complexes, the Cu(II coordination geometries are quite different, varying between common square planar or square pyramidal arrangements, and rather rare pentagonal bipyramidal and tetrahedral geometries. In addition, solution studies of the complex formation using UV/Vis and ESI-MS as well as solvent extraction are reported.

  9. Cyclo- and carbophosphazene-supported ligands for the assembly of heterometallic (Cu2+/Ca2+, Cu2+/Dy3+, Cu2+/Tb3+) complexes: synthesis, structure, and magnetism. (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli; Senapati, Tapas; Dey, Atanu; Das, Sourav; Kalisz, Marguerite; Clérac, Rodolphe


    The carbophosphazene and cyclophosphazene hydrazides, [{NC(N(CH(3))(2))}(2){NP{N(CH(3))NH(2)}(2)}] (1) and [N(3)P(3)(O(2)C(12)H(8))(2){N(CH(3))NH(2)}(2)] were condensed with o-vanillin to afford the multisite coordination ligands [{NC(N(CH(3))(2))}(2){NP{N(CH(3))N═CH-C(6)H(3)-(o-OH)(m-OCH(3))}(2)}] (2) and [{N(2)P(2)(O(2)C(12)H(8))(2)}{NP{N(CH(3))N═CH-C (6)H(3)-(o-OH)(m-OCH(3))}(2)}] (3), respectively. These ligands were used for the preparation of heterometallic complexes [{NC(N(CH(3))(2))}(2){NP{N(CH(3))N═CH-C(6)H(3)-(o-O)(m-OCH(3))}(2)}{CuCa(NO(3))(2)}] (4), [{NC(N(CH(3))(2))}(2){NP{N(CH(3))N═CH-C(6)H(3)-(o-O)(m-OCH(3))}(2)}{Cu(2)Ca(2)(NO(3))(4)}]·4H(2)O (5), [{NC(N(CH(3))(2))}(2){NP{N(CH(3))N═CH-C(6)H(3)-(o-O)(m-OCH(3))}(2)}{CuDy(NO(3))(4)}]·CH(3)COCH(3) (6), [{NP(O(2)C(12)H(8))}(2){NP{N(CH(3))N═CH-C(6)H(3)-(o-O)(m-OCH(3))}(2)}{CuDy(NO(3))(3)}] (7), and [{NP(O(2)C(12)H(8))}(2){NP{N(CH(3))N═CH-C(6)H(3)-(o-O)(m-OCH(3))}(2)}{CuTb(NO(3))(3)}] (8). The molecular structures of these compounds reveals that the ligands 2 and 3 possess dual coordination pockets which are used to specifically bind the transition metal ion and the alkaline earth/lanthanide metal ion; the Cu(2+)/Ca(2+), Cu(2+)/Tb(3+), and Cu(2+)/Dy(3+) pairs in these compounds are brought together by phenoxide and methoxy oxygen atoms. While 4, 6, 7, and 8 are dinuclear complexes, 5 is a tetranuclear complex. Detailed magnetic properties on 6-8 reveal that these compounds show weak couplings between the magnetic centers and magnetic anisotropy. However, the ac susceptibility experiments did not reveal any out of phase signal suggesting that in these compounds slow relaxation of magnetization is absent above 1.8 K.

  10. Cell type-specific recognition of human metapneumoviruses (HMPVs) by retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and TLR7 and viral interference of RIG-I ligand recognition by HMPV-B1 phosphoprotein. (United States)

    Goutagny, Nadege; Jiang, Zhaozhao; Tian, Jane; Parroche, Peggy; Schickli, Jeanne; Monks, Brian G; Ulbrandt, Nancy; Ji, Hong; Kiener, Peter A; Coyle, Anthony J; Fitzgerald, Katherine A


    Human metapneumoviruses (HMPVs) are recently identified Paramyxoviridae that contribute to respiratory tract infections in children. No effective treatments or vaccines are available. Successful defense against virus infection relies on early detection by germ line-encoded pattern recognition receptors and activation of cytokine and type I IFN genes. Recently, the RNA helicase retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) has been shown to sense HMPV. In this study, we investigated the abilities of two prototype strains of HMPV (A1 [NL\\1\\00] and B1 [NL\\1\\99]) to activate RIG-I and induce type I IFNs. Despite the abilities of both HMPV-A1 and HMPV-B1 to infect and replicate in cell lines and primary cells, only the HMPV-A1 strain triggered RIG-I to induce IFNA/B gene transcription. The failure of the HMPV-B1 strain to elicit type I IFN production was dependent on the B1 phosphoprotein, which specifically prevented RIG-I-mediated sensing of HMPV viral 5' triphosphate RNA. In contrast to most cell types, plasmacytoid dendritic cells displayed a unique ability to sense both HMPV-A1 and HMPV-B1 and in this case sensing was via TLR7 rather than RIG-I. Collectively, these data reveal differential mechanisms of sensing for two closely related viruses, which operate in cell type-specific manners.

  11. Bioorganometallic Chemistry, Part 15. A novel molecular recognition process of host, trans-[Cp*Rh({eta}{sup 1}(N3)-1-methylcytosine)({mu}-OH)]{sub 2} (OTf){sub 2}, with l-aromatic amino acid guests: selective hydrogen bonding to the {mu}-OH groups and the 1-methylcytosine ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elduque, Anabel; Carmona, Daniel; Oro, Luis; Eisenstein, Miriam; Fish, Richard H.


    The {sup 1}H-NMR and computer docking experiments have elucidated a novel molecular recognition process of host, trans-[Cp*Rh({eta}{sup 1}(Ne)-1-methylcytosine)({mu}-OH)]{sub 2}(OTf){sub 2} (1), with L-aromatic amino acids, which is predicated on a selective hydrogen bonding regime of the NH{sub 3}{sup +} of the amino acid to one of the Rh-{mu}-OH groups, as well as to a C{double_bond}O group of one of the other 1-methycytosine ligands, while the COO{sup -} H-bonds to an NH{sub 2} of the other 1-methycytosine ligand.

  12. Metal ions directed assembly of two coordination polymers based on an organic phosphonate anion and a multidentate N-donor ligand (United States)

    Kan, Wei-Qiu; Xu, Ji-Ming; Wen, Shi-Zheng; Yang, Lin


    Two new coordination polymers [Cd(4,4‧-tmbpt)(HL)(H2O)] (1) and [Cu(4,4‧-tmbpt)(HL)]·H2O (2) (H3L = 2‧-carboxybiphenyl-4-ylmethylphosphonic and 4,4‧-tmbpt = 1-((1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)methyl)-3,5-bis(4-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazole) have been synthesized hydrothermally. The two compounds have the same metal to ligand ratio, but different metal ions. As a result, the two compounds display different 2D layer structures, which is mainly caused by the different coordination numbers of the different metal ions. The effects of the metal ions on the structures, the optical band gaps and photoluminescent and photocatalytic properties of the compounds have been studied.

  13. Biomimetic iron(III) complexes of facially and meridionally coordinating tridentate 3N ligands: tuning of regioselective extradiol dioxygenase activity in organized assemblies. (United States)

    Sankaralingam, Muniyandi; Saravanan, Natarajan; Anitha, Natarajan; Suresh, Eringathodi; Palaniandavar, Mallayan


    Four mononuclear iron(III) complexes of the type [Fe(L)Cl3] 1-4, where L is a tridentate 3N ligand such as (2-pyridin-2-ylethyl)(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amine (L1), (methyl)(2-pyridin-2-ylethyl)(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amine (L2), bis(pyridin-2-ylethyl)amine (L3), and (1-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-ylmethyl)(pyridin-2-ylethyl)amine (L4), have been isolated and studied as functional models for catechol dioxygenase enzymes. In [Fe(L2)Cl3] 2, the ligand L2 is coordinated facially to iron(III) whereas in [Fe(L1)Cl3] 1 and [Fe(L4)Cl3] 4 the ligands L1 and L4 are coordinated meridionally. In DCM, CH3CN and aqueous SDS, CTAB and TX-100 micellar media, the positions of both the low and high energy catecholate-to-iron(III) LMCT bands (465-530, 690-860 nm) observed for the 3,4-di-tert-butylcatecholate (DBC(2-)) adducts of the iron(III) complexes vary in the order 2 > 1 > 3 > 4, which reflects the influence of the stereoelectronic factors, mode of coordination and the chelate ring size formed by the tridentate ligands. Spectral and electrochemical studies disclose the formation and location of the cationic adducts as solvated [Fe(L)(DBC)(H2O)](+) species mostly in the aqueous micellar pseudophases of SDS and TX-100 and in the aqueous phase of CTAB micellar solution. The [Fe(L)(DBC)Cl] adducts of 1, 3 and 4, generated in situ, afford major amounts of intradiol cleavage products (17.0-70.0%) and smaller amounts of extradiol (1.2-4.2%) products with varying extradiol to intradiol cleavage product selectivity (E/I: 1, 0.08 : 1; 3, 0.02 : 1; 4, 0.3 : 1). On the other hand, interestingly, the adduct [Fe(L2)(DBC)Cl] of 2 generated in DCM yields a major amount of extradiol (54.0%) and a lower amount (18.3%) of the intradiol cleavage products (E/I, 3 : 1). Remarkably, in aqueous SDS micellar media, it shows exclusive extradiol cleavage products (79.4%) while all the other complexes show very low selectivity (E/I: 1, 0.03 : 1; 2, 79.4 : 0, 3, 0.06 : 1, 4, 0.06 : 1

  14. Rational assembly of Pb(II)/Cd(II)/Mn(II) coordination polymers based on flexible V-shaped dicarboxylate ligand: Syntheses, helical structures and properties (United States)

    Yang, Gao-Shan; Liu, Chong-Bo; Liu, Hong; Robbins, Julianne; Zhang, Z. John; Yin, Hong-Shan; Wen, Hui-Liang; Wang, Yu-Hua


    Six new coordination polymers, namely, [Pb(L)(H2O)] (1), [Pb(L)(phen)] (2), [Pb2(L)2(4,4‧-bipy)0.5] (3), [Cd(L)(phen)] (4), [Cd(L)(4,4‧-bipy)]·H2O (5) and [Mn(L)(4,4‧-bipy)]·H2O (6) have been synthesized by the hydrothermal reaction of 2,2‧-[hexafluoroisopropylidenebis(p-phenyleneoxy)]diacetic acid (H2L) with Pb(II)/Cd(II)/Mn(II) in the presence of ancillary ligands 4,4‧-bipyridine (4,4‧-bipy) or 1,10-phenanthroline (phen). Complexes 1 and 4-6 exhibit 2-D structures, and complexes 2-3 display 3-D frameworks, of which L2- ligands join metal ions to single-stranded helical chains of 1, 3-6 and double-stranded helical chains of 2. Complexes 2 and 3 also contain double-stranded Metal-O helices. Topology analysis reveals that complexes 1 and 4 both represent 4-connected sql net, 2 represents 6-connected pcu net, 3 exhibits a novel (3,12)-connected net, while 5 and 6 display (3,5)-connected gek1 net. The six complexes exhibit two kinds of inorganic-organic connectivities: I0O2 for 1, 4-6, and I1O2 for 2-3. The photoluminescent properties of 4-5 and the magnetic properties of 6 have been investigated.

  15. Alanine Mutagenesis in the Complementarity Determining Region 3 of the MTB and HIV-1 Peptide-Bispecific T Cell Receptor Beta Chain Affects Ligand Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Ying Zhou


    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis/human immunodeficiency virus (MTB/HIV coinfection presents a special challenge to the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS. Adoptive transfer of high-affinity T cell receptor (TCR gene-modified T cells against MTB and HIV antigens is a promising approach to treating MTB/HIV coinfected patients whose cellular immunity is obviously disordered. We have previously successfully identified that a bispecific TCR screened out from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a HLA-A*0201+ healthy individual using the complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3 spectratype analysis recognizes both MTB Ag85B199–207 and HIV-1 Env120–128 peptide. However, it has not been known how residues on CDR3 loops, which have been shown to play a leading role in antigen binding and specificity contribute to the bispecific TCR contact with the peptide–major histocompatibility complex (MHC complexes. In this study, we provided an extensive investigation of residues in the predicted CDR3 of the bispecific TCR beta (β chain using alanine scanning mutagenesis. Our data showed that three of the five substituted residues (G115A, T116A, A117G in CDR3β of the bispecific TCR caused a significantly diminished T cell response to antigen, whereas the remaining two substituted residues (D114A, S118A resulted in completely eliminated response, thus identifying the two residues that were particularly critical for the recognition of peptide–MHC in the bispecific TCR. These findings will provide an imperative foundation for generating an improved high-affinity bispecific TCR for use in T cell adoptive immunotherapy for MTB/HIV coinfected individuals.

  16. Alanine Mutagenesis in the Complementarity Determining Region 3 of the MTB and HIV-1 Peptide-Bispecific T Cell Receptor Beta Chain Affects Ligand Recognition. (United States)

    Zhou, Chao-Ying; Wang, Rui-Ning; Wen, Qian; He, Wen-Ting; Zhang, Shi-Meng; Du, Xia-Lin; Yang, Jia-Hui; Ma, Li


    Mycobacterium tuberculosis /human immunodeficiency virus (MTB/HIV) coinfection presents a special challenge to the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS. Adoptive transfer of high-affinity T cell receptor (TCR) gene-modified T cells against MTB and HIV antigens is a promising approach to treating MTB/HIV coinfected patients whose cellular immunity is obviously disordered. We have previously successfully identified that a bispecific TCR screened out from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a HLA-A*0201 + healthy individual using the complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) spectratype analysis recognizes both MTB Ag85B 199-207 and HIV-1 Env 120-128 peptide. However, it has not been known how residues on CDR3 loops, which have been shown to play a leading role in antigen binding and specificity contribute to the bispecific TCR contact with the peptide-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) complexes. In this study, we provided an extensive investigation of residues in the predicted CDR3 of the bispecific TCR beta (β) chain using alanine scanning mutagenesis. Our data showed that three of the five substituted residues (G115A, T116A, A117G) in CDR3β of the bispecific TCR caused a significantly diminished T cell response to antigen, whereas the remaining two substituted residues (D114A, S118A) resulted in completely eliminated response, thus identifying the two residues that were particularly critical for the recognition of peptide-MHC in the bispecific TCR. These findings will provide an imperative foundation for generating an improved high-affinity bispecific TCR for use in T cell adoptive immunotherapy for MTB/HIV coinfected individuals.

  17. Dynamic covalent chemistry in aid of peptide self-assembly. (United States)

    Sadownik, Jan W; Ulijn, Rein V


    Self-assembled peptide systems have been widely studied in the context of gaining understanding of the rules that govern biomolecular processes and increasingly as new bio-inspired nanomaterials. Such materials may be designed to be highly dynamic, displaying adaptive and self-healing properties. This review focuses on recent approaches, which exploit reversible covalent and noncovalent chemistry in combination with peptide-based self-assembly. Selected examples of recent advances include sulphur and nitrogen-based reversible reactions, metal-ligand coordination and enzyme-assisted transamidation that lead to structures such as catenanes, nanofibres, β-hairpins and coiled-coil assemblies. It is demonstrated that these structures give rise to nanomaterials with emergent properties that are highly sensitive and adaptive to external conditions and may allow for in vitro evolution of novel peptide nanostructures via templating or self-recognition. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tetrameric Self-Assembly of a Cu(II) Complex Containing Schiff-Base Ligand and Its Unusually High Catecholase-like Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Shuranjan; Lee, Hongin [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Woo Ram; Hong, Chang Seop [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    We report a new tetrameric supramolecular Cu(II) complex (Cu{sub 4}L{sub 4} = tetrakis(N,N'-bis(salicylidene)-2,2'-ethylenedianiline) Copper(II)) with a Schiff-base ligand (H{sub 2}L = N,N'-bis (salicylaldimine)-1,2-ethylenediamine) containing two N,O-bidentate chelate groups. Though the copper sites of Cu{sub 4}L{sub 4} are non-coupled, the complex exhibits a unusually high catecholase-like activity (k{sub cat} = 935 h{sup -1}) when the Cu{sub 4}L{sub 4} solution is treated with 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol (3,5-DTBC) at basic condition in the presence of air. Combined information obtained from UV-VIS and EPR measurements could lead the suggestion of the reaction pathway in which the substrate may bind to Cu(II) ions by anti-anti didentate bridging mode.

  19. Two luminescent d10 metal coordination polymers assembled from a semirigid terpyridyl carboxylate ligand with high selective detecting of Cu2+, Cr2O72- and acetone (United States)

    Yuan, Fei; Wang, Ting-Ting; Hu, Huai-Ming; Li, Chuan-Ti; Zhou, Chun-Sheng; Wang, Xiaofang; Xue, Ganglin


    Using a carboxylic oligopyridine ligand, 4‧-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,2‧:6‧,4″- terpyridine (Hcptpy), and imidazole-4,5-dicarboxylic acid (H3idc), two metal(II)-cptpy compounds formulated as [Zn2(cptpy)4]n·nH2O (1), [Zn2(cptpy)2(Hidc)(H2O)2]n·nH2O (2) have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 shows a 2D +2D →3D supramolecular framework structure generated by two-fold interpenetrating 3-connected 2D framework (2D+2D→2D) with the sql topological net and the Schläfli symbol of {44·62}. Compound 2 displays a 1D ladder chain structure. The luminescent properties of 1 and the ones immersed in various kinds of organic compounds and nitrate@DMF solutions have been investigated. Importantly, 1 shows highly selective and sensitive response to acetone and Cu2+ through luminescence quenching effects, making it a promising luminescent sensor for acetone molecule and Cu2+. Meaningwhile, compound 2 shows highly selective sensitivity for Cr2O72-.

  20. Self-Assembling Molecular Capsules Based on α,γ-Cyclic Peptides. (United States)

    Ozores, Haxel Lionel; Amorín, Manuel; Granja, Juan R


    A new capsule based on a β-sheet self-assembling cyclic peptide with the ability to recognize and release several guests is described. The host structure is composed of two self-complementary α,γ-cyclic peptides bearing a Zn porphyrin cap that is used for the selective recognition of the guest. The two components are linked through two dynamic covalent bonds. The combination of binding forces, including hydrogen bonding, metal coordination, and dynamic hydrazone bonds, allows the reversible recognition of long bipyridine guests. The affinity for these ligands showed a strong dependence on the guest length. Delivery of the encapsulated ligand can be achieved by hydrolysis of hydrazones to disrupt the sandwich complex structure.

  1. Recognition of anti-mycolic acid antibody at self-assembled mycolic acid antigens on a gold electrode: a potential impedimetric immunosensing platform for active tuberculosis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mathebula, NS


    Full Text Available *ac Received (in Cambridge, UK) 13th March 2009, Accepted 28th April 2009 First published as an Advance Article on the web DOI: 10.1039/b905192a Electrochemical impedimetric recognition by anti-mycolic acid antibodies, present in tuberculosis (TB...- mental section, cartoons not drawn to scale. The images are the corresponding micrographs of (a) bare gold, (b) Au–MEODA, and (c) Au–MEODA–MA obtained from the AFM experiments. a Department of Chemistry, University of Pretoria, South Africa b...

  2. Aptamer-assembled nanomaterials for fluorescent sensing and imaging (United States)

    Lu, Danqing; He, Lei; Zhang, Ge; Lv, Aiping; Wang, Ruowen; Zhang, Xiaobing; Tan, Weihong


    Aptamers, which are selected in vitro by a technology known as the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), represent a crucial recognition element in molecular sensing. With advantages such as good biocompatibility, facile functionalization, and special optical and physical properties, various nanomaterials can protect aptamers from enzymatic degradation and nonspecific binding in living systems and thus provide a preeminent platform for biochemical applications. Coupling aptamers with various nanomaterials offers many opportunities for developing highly sensitive and selective sensing systems. Here, we focus on the recent applications of aptamer-assembled nanomaterials in fluorescent sensing and imaging. Different types of nanomaterials are examined along with their advantages and disadvantages. Finally, we look toward the future of aptamer-assembled nanomaterials.

  3. Four thiophene-pyridyl-amide-based Zn{sup II}/Cd{sup II} coordination polymers: Assembly, structures, photocatalytic properties and fluorescent recognition for Fe{sup 3+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiu-Li; Wu, Xiao-Mei; Liu, Guo-Cheng; Li, Qiao-Min; Lin, Hong-Yan; Wang, Xiang


    By tuning metal ions and combining with different dicarboxylates, four new semi-rigid thiophene-bis-pyridyl-bis-amide-based coordination polymers, namely, [Zn(3-bptpa)(1,3-BDC)]·DMA·2H{sub 2}O (1), [Zn(3-bptpa)(5-MIP)] (2), [Cd(3-bptpa)(1,3-BDC)]·2H{sub 2}O (3) and [Cd(3-bptpa)(5-MIP)]·4H{sub 2}O (4) (3-bptpa=N,N′-bis(pyridine-3-yl)thiophene-2,5-dicarboxamide, 1,3-H{sub 2}BDC=1,3-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 5-H{sub 2}MIP=5-methylisophthalic acid, DMA=N,N-dimethylacetamide), were solvothermally/hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, IR spectra, UV–vis diffuse-reflectance spectra (DRS), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and thermal gravimetric analyses (TG). The structural analysis reveals that Zn-complexes 1 and 2 are similar 2D networks. While Cd-complexes 3 and 4 exhibit similar 2-fold interpenetrating 3D α-Po frameworks with the (4{sup 12}·6{sup 3}) topology. The photocatalytic properties for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under ultraviolet light irradiation of the title complexes have been investigated in detail. Furthermore, the luminescent sensing behaviors for metal cations of 1–4 have been studied, the results indicate that 3 is an excellent fluorescent probe, with high sensitivity, selectivity, and simple regeneration, for environmentally relevant Fe{sup 3+} ions. - Graphical abstract: Four Zn{sup II}/Cd{sup II} coordination polymers with a thiophene-pyridyl-amide ligand have been prepared. The photocatalytic activities and fluorescent sensing properties for metal ions of the title complexes have been investigated. - Highlights: • Four coordination polymers with thiophene-pyridyl-amide ligands have been obtained. • The central metal ions play an important role in the formation of the frameworks. • The photoluminescent sensing and the photocatalytic properties have been investigated.

  4. Pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Theodoridis, Sergios


    Pattern recognition is a scientific discipline that is becoming increasingly important in the age of automation and information handling and retrieval. Patter Recognition, 2e covers the entire spectrum of pattern recognition applications, from image analysis to speech recognition and communications. This book presents cutting-edge material on neural networks, - a set of linked microprocessors that can form associations and uses pattern recognition to ""learn"" -and enhances student motivation by approaching pattern recognition from the designer's point of view. A direct result of more than 10

  5. Supramolecular recognition influences magnetism in [X@HV(IV) 8 V(V) 14 O54 ](6-) self-assemblies with symmetry-breaking guest anions. (United States)

    Monakhov, Kirill Yu; Linnenberg, Oliver; Kozłowski, Piotr; van Leusen, Jan; Besson, Claire; Secker, Tim; Ellern, Arkady; López, Xavier; Poblet, Josep M; Kögerler, Paul


    Mixed-valence polyoxovanadates(IV/V) have emerged as one of the most intricate class of supramolecular all-inorganic host species, able to encapsulate a wide variety of smaller guest templates during their self-assembly formation process. As showcased herein, the incorporation of guests, though governed solely by ultra-weak electrostatic and van der Waals interactions, can cause drastic effects on the electronic and magnetic characteristics of the shell complex of the polyoxovanadate. We address the question of methodology for the magnetochemical analysis of virtually isostructural {V(IV/V) 22 O54 }-type polyoxoanions of D2d symmetry enclosing diamagnetic VO2 F2 (-) (C2v ), SCN(-) (C∞v ), or ClO4 (-) (Td ) template anions. These induce different polarization effects related to differences in their geometric structures, symmetry, ion radii, and valence shells, eventually resulting in a supramolecular modulation of magnetic exchange between the V(3d) electrons that are partly delocalized over the {V22 O54 } shells. We also include the synthesis and characterization of the novel [V(V) O2 F2 @HV(IV) 8 V(V) 14 O54 ](6-) system that comprises the rarely encountered discrete difluorovanadate anion as a quasi-isolated guest species. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Atomic interactions of neonicotinoid agonists with AChBP: Molecular recognition of the distinctive electronegative pharmacophore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talley, Todd T.; Harel, Michal; Hibbs, Ryan E.; Radi, Zoran; Tomizawa, Motohiro; Casida, John E.; Taylor, Palmer (UCB); (UCSD)


    Acetylcholine-binding proteins (AChBPs) from mollusks are suitable structural and functional surrogates of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors when combined with transmembrane spans of the nicotinic receptor. These proteins assemble as a pentamer with identical ACh binding sites at the subunit interfaces and show ligand specificities resembling those of the nicotinic receptor for agonists and antagonists. A subset of ligands, termed the neonicotinoids, exhibit specificity for insect nicotinic receptors and selective toxicity as insecticides. AChBPs are of neither mammalian nor insect origin and exhibit a distinctive pattern of selectivity for the neonicotinoid ligands. We define here the binding orientation and determinants of differential molecular recognition for the neonicotinoids and classical nicotinoids by estimates of kinetic and equilibrium binding parameters and crystallographic analysis. Neonicotinoid complex formation is rapid and accompanied by quenching of the AChBP tryptophan fluorescence. Comparisons of the neonicotinoids imidacloprid and thiacloprid in the binding site from Aplysia californica AChBP at 2.48 and 1.94 {angstrom} in resolution reveal a single conformation of the bound ligands with four of the five sites occupied in the pentameric crystal structure. The neonicotinoid electronegative pharmacophore is nestled in an inverted direction compared with the nicotinoid cationic functionality at the subunit interfacial binding pocket. Characteristic of several agonists, loop C largely envelops the ligand, positioning aromatic side chains to interact optimally with conjugated and hydrophobic regions of the neonicotinoid. This template defines the association of interacting amino acids and their energetic contributions to the distinctive interactions of neonicotinoids.

  7. Ligand-Mediated Coating of Liposomes with Human Serum Albumin. (United States)

    Sato, Hikari; Nakhaei, Elnaz; Kawano, Takahito; Murata, Masaharu; Kishimura, Akihiro; Mori, Takeshi; Katayama, Yoshiki


    Coating liposome surfaces with human serum albumin (HSA) can improve the colloidal stability and prevent opsonization. HSA coating via specific binding with alkyl ligands is promising because although the ligand-mediated coating is relatively stable it can spontaneously exchange with fresh HSA. However, to achieve surface coating with HSA, multiple hydrophobic ligands must be exposed to an aqueous medium prior to binding with HSA. This presents a challenge, as hydrophobic ligands tend to be buried in the liposomal membrane. Here we present the first HSA modification of liposome surfaces via alkyl ligands. We found that a relatively short alkyl ligand, or a long alkyl ligand with a terminal carboxylate, could be exposed on the liposome surface without causing aggregation of the liposomes and these ligands could subsequently bind HSA. The resulting HSA-coated liposomes were as inert as conventional PEGylated liposomes in terms of macrophage recognition.

  8. Enantiomerically pure [M(6)L(12)] or [M(12)L(24)] polyhedra from flexible bis(pyridine) ligands. (United States)

    Gütz, Christoph; Hovorka, Rainer; Klein, Christoph; Jiang, Qian-Qian; Bannwarth, Christoph; Engeser, Marianne; Schmuck, Carsten; Assenmacher, Wilfried; Mader, Werner; Topić, Filip; Rissanen, Kari; Grimme, Stefan; Lützen, Arne


    Coordination-driven self-assembly is one of the most powerful strategies to prepare nanometer-sized discrete (supra)molecular assemblies. Herein, we report on the use of two constitutionally isomeric BINOL-based bis(pyridine) ligands for this purpose. Upon coordination to Pd(II) ions these self-assemble into enantiomerically pure endo- and exo-functionalized hexa- and dodecanuclear metallosupramolecular spheres with a chiral skeleton depending on the substitution pattern of the BINOL core. These aggregates were characterized by NMR, MS, DLS, TEM, and EELS as well as ECD. Furthermore, experimental ECD data could be compared to those obtained from theoretical simulations using a simplified Tamm-Dancoff approximation to time-dependent DFT to rationalize the extraordinary high molar circular dichroisms. Despite the rotational freedom around the central aryl-aryl bond of these ligands, the self-assembly process happens completely selective in a "narcissistic" self-recognition manner. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Coordination polymers from the self-assembly of silver(I) salts and two nonlinear aliphatic dinitrile ligands, cis-1,3-cyclopentanedicarbonitrile and cis-1,3-bis(cyanomethyl)cyclopentane: synthesis, structures, and photoluminescent properties. (United States)

    Genuis, Emerson D; Kelly, Joel A; Patel, Malay; McDonald, Robert; Ferguson, Michael J; Greidanus-Strom, Grace


    Six coordination polymers with aliphatic dinitrile ligands, {[Ag(cpdcn)2]ClO4}n (6a), {[Ag(cpdcn)2]PF6}n (6b), {[Ag(cpdcn)2]SbF6}n (6c, cpdcn = cis-1,3-cyclopentanedicarbonitrile), {[Ag(bcmcp)2] ClO4}n (7a), {[Ag(bcmcp)2]PF6}n (7b), {[Ag(bcmcp)2]SbF6}n, (7c, bcmcp = cis-1,3-bis(cyanomethyl)cyclopentane) have been synthesized and structurally characterized by IR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray crystallography. Both ligands used in this study are meso-compounds; while the ligand cpdcn is structurally rigid, the ligand bcmcp has greater conformational flexibility. X-ray crystallography has revealed that structures 6a-c consist of chiral 1D-polymers. The structure of complexes 7a and 7b are best described as a 2D chiral (4,4) square mesh with 3-fold parallel interpenetration. Surprisingly, complex 7c was characterized to be an achiral 1D coordination polymer. The synthesis of the ligands, IR spectra of the free and coordinated CN groups, DSC and TGA, and the photoluminescent properties of complexes 6a-c and 7a-c are also discussed.

  10. Muscle assembly: a titanic achievement? (United States)

    Gregorio, C C; Granzier, H; Sorimachi, H; Labeit, S


    The formation of perfectly aligned myofibrils in striated muscle represents a dramatic example of supramolecular assembly in eukaryotic cells. Recently, considerable progress has been made in deciphering the roles that titin, the third most abundant protein in muscle, has in this process. An increasing number of sarcomeric proteins (ligands) are being identified that bind to specific titin domains. Titin may serve as a molecular blueprint for sarcomere assembly and turnover by specifying the precise position of its ligands within each half-sarcomere in addition to functioning as a molecular spring that maintains the structural integrity of the contracting myofibrils.

  11. Controlling Nanocrystal Superlattice Symmetry and Shape-Anisotropic Interactions through Variable Ligand Surface Coverage

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Joshua J.


    The assembly of colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) into superstructures with long-range translational and orientational order is sensitive to the molecular interactions between ligands bound to the NC surface. We illustrate how ligand coverage on colloidal PbS NCs can be exploited as a tunable parameter to direct the self-assembly of superlattices with predefined symmetry. We show that PbS NCs with dense ligand coverage assemble into face-centered cubic (fcc) superlattices whereas NCs with sparse ligand coverage assemble into body-centered cubic (bcc) superlattices which also exhibit orientational ordering of NCs in their lattice sites. Surface chemistry characterization combined with density functional theory calculations suggest that the loss of ligands occurs preferentially on {100} than on reconstructed {111} NC facets. The resulting anisotropic ligand distribution amplifies the role of NC shape in the assembly and leads to the formation of superlattices with translational and orientational order. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  12. Speech Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Morariu


    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of speech recognition by pattern recognition techniques. Learning consists in determining the unique characteristics of a word (cepstral coefficients by eliminating those characteristics that are different from one word to another. For learning and recognition, the system will build a dictionary of words by determining the characteristics of each word to be used in the recognition. Determining the characteristics of an audio signal consists in the following steps: noise removal, sampling it, applying Hamming window, switching to frequency domain through Fourier transform, calculating the magnitude spectrum, filtering data, determining cepstral coefficients.

  13. A Dynamic Combinatorial Approach for Identifying Side Groups that Stabilize DNA-Templated Supramolecular Self-Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Paolantoni


    Full Text Available DNA-templated self-assembly is an emerging strategy for generating functional supramolecular systems, which requires the identification of potent multi-point binding ligands. In this line, we recently showed that bis-functionalized guanidinium compounds can interact with ssDNA and generate a supramolecular complex through the recognition of the phosphodiester backbone of DNA. In order to probe the importance of secondary interactions and to identify side groups that stabilize these DNA-templated self-assemblies, we report herein the implementation of a dynamic combinatorial approach. We used an in situ fragment assembly process based on reductive amination and tested various side groups, including amino acids. The results reveal that aromatic and cationic side groups participate in secondary supramolecular interactions that stabilize the complexes formed with ssDNA.

  14. Liquid-liquid interfacial nanoparticle assemblies (United States)

    Emrick, Todd S [South Deerfield, MA; Russell, Thomas P [Amherst, MA; Dinsmore, Anthony [Amherst, MA; Skaff, Habib [Amherst, MA; Lin, Yao [Amherst, MA


    Self-assembly of nanoparticles at the interface between two fluids, and methods to control such self-assembly process, e.g., the surface density of particles assembling at the interface; to utilize the assembled nanoparticles and their ligands in fabrication of capsules, where the elastic properties of the capsules can be varied from soft to tough; to develop capsules with well-defined porosities for ultimate use as delivery systems; and to develop chemistries whereby multiple ligands or ligands with multiple functionalities can be attached to the nanoparticles to promote the interfacial segregation and assembly of the nanoparticles. Certain embodiments use cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles, since the photoluminescence of the particles provides a convenient means by which the spatial location and organization of the particles can be probed. However, the systems and methodologies presented here are general and can, with suitable modification of the chemistries, be adapted to any type of nanoparticle.

  15. Impact of the Nature and Size of the Polymeric Backbone on the Ability of Heterobifunctional Ligands to Mediate Shiga Toxin and Serum Amyloid P Component Ternary Complex Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen D. Armstrong


    Full Text Available Inhibition of AB5-type bacterial toxins can be achieved by heterobifunctional ligands (BAITs that mediate assembly of supramolecular complexes involving the toxin’s pentameric cell membrane-binding subunit and an endogenous protein, serum amyloid P component, of the innate immune system. Effective in vivo protection from Shiga toxin Type 1 (Stx1 is achieved by polymer-bound, heterobifunctional inhibitors-adaptors (PolyBAITs, which exhibit prolonged half-life in circulation and by mediating formation of face-to-face SAP-AB5 complexes, block receptor recognition sites and redirect toxins to the spleen and liver for degradation. Direct correlation between solid-phase activity and protective dose of PolyBAITs both in the cytotoxicity assay and in vivo indicate that the mechanism of protection from intoxication is inhibition of toxin binding to the host cell membrane. The polymeric scaffold influences the activity not only by clustering active binding fragments but also by sterically interfering with the supramolecular complex assembly. Thus, inhibitors based on N-(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylamide (HPMA show significantly lower activity than polyacrylamide-based analogs. The detrimental steric effect can partially be alleviated by extending the length of the spacer, which separates pendant ligand from the backbone, as well as extending the spacer, which spans the distance between binding moieties within each heterobifunctional ligand. Herein we report that polymer size and payload of the active ligand had moderate effects on the inhibitor’s activity.

  16. Analysis of the HIV-2 protease's adaptation to various ligands: characterization of backbone asymmetry using a structural alphabet. (United States)

    Triki, Dhoha; Cano Contreras, Mario Enrique; Flatters, Delphine; Visseaux, Benoit; Descamps, Diane; Camproux, Anne-Claude; Regad, Leslie


    The HIV-2 protease (PR2) is a homodimer of 99 residues with asymmetric assembly and binding various ligands. We propose an exhaustive study of the local structural asymmetry between the two monomers of all available PR2 structures complexed with various inhibitors using a structural alphabet approach. On average, PR2 exhibits asymmetry in 31% of its positions-i.e., exhibiting different backbone local conformations in the two monomers. This asymmetry was observed all along its structure, particularly in the elbow and flap regions. We first differentiated structural asymmetry conserved in most PR2 structures from the one specific to some PR2. Then, we explored the origin of the detected asymmetry in PR2. We localized asymmetry that could be induced by PR2's flexibility, allowing transition from the semi-open to closed conformations and the asymmetry potentially induced by ligand binding. This latter could be important for the PR2's adaptation to diverse ligands. Our results highlighted some differences between asymmetry of PR2 bound to darunavir and amprenavir that could explain their differences of affinity. This knowledge is critical for a better description of PR2's recognition and adaptation to various ligands and for a better understanding of the resistance of PR2 to most PR2 inhibitors, a major antiretroviral class.

  17. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION Recognition of self-assembled ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    _publ_contact_author_email _publ_contact_author_phone +34922318300. _publ_contact_author_fax +34922318320. loop_. _publ_author_name. _publ_author_address. 'Jorge Pasan'. ;Laboratorio de Rayos X y Materiales Moleculares. Dpto. Fisica. Facultad de Ciencias. Universidad de La Laguna.

  18. Slow molecular recognition by RNA. (United States)

    Gleitsman, Kristin R; Sengupta, Raghuvir N; Herschlag, Daniel


    Molecular recognition is central to biological processes, function, and specificity. Proteins associate with ligands with a wide range of association rate constants, with maximal values matching the theoretical limit set by the rate of diffusional collision. As less is known about RNA association, we compiled association rate constants for all RNA/ligand complexes that we could find in the literature. Like proteins, RNAs exhibit a wide range of association rate constants. However, the fastest RNA association rates are considerably slower than those of the fastest protein associations and fall well below the diffusional limit. The apparently general observation of slow association with RNAs has implications for evolution and for modern-day biology. Our compilation highlights a quantitative molecular property that can contribute to biological understanding and underscores our need to develop a deeper physical understanding of molecular recognition events. © 2017 Gleitsman et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  19. Facial Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mihalache Sergiu; Stoica Mihaela-Zoica


    .... From birth, faces are important in the individual's social interaction. Face perceptions are very complex as the recognition of facial expressions involves extensive and diverse areas in the brain...

  20. pH-Directed assembly of four polyoxometalate-based supramolecular hybrids by using tritopic bridging ligand 1, 3, 5-tris-(1-imidazolyl)-benzene: Structures and electrocatalytic properties (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuanfang; Pang, Haijun; Ma, Huiyuan; Li, Shaobin; Zhao, Chunyan


    Four new inorganic-organic supramolecular compounds, namely, (H2tib)2[GeW12O40] (1), [Mn(Htib)4][HGeW12O40]2·4H2O (2), [Mn(tib)]2(H2O)6[GeW12O40]·4H2O (3) and [Mn(tib)]2(H2O)6[GeW12O40]·2H2O (4) (tib = 1, 3, 5-tris-(1-imidazolyl)-benzene), have been synthesized through the hydrothermal reaction of [GeW12O40]4- anions, MnII cations and tib ligands under different pH conditions. Compounds 1 and 2 were prepared at lower pH (pH ≈ 2.0 for 1 and 3.2 for 2). Compound 1 exhibits a simple monomer structure. In 2, the Mn cation is coordinated with four tib ligands and two [GeW12 O40]4- anions to form a dimer, in which each of [GeW12 O40]4- anion connects with one Mn cation. Compounds 3 and 4 were pr

  1. Syntheses, spectral, electrochemical and thermal studies of mononuclear manganese(III) complexes with ligands derived from 1,2-propanediamine and 2-hydroxy-3 or 5-methoxybenzaldehyde: self-assembled monolayer formation on nanostructure zinc oxide thin film. (United States)

    Habibi, Mohammad Hossein; Askari, Elham; Amirnasr, Mehdi; Amiri, Ahmad; Yamane, Yuki; Suzuki, Takayoshi


    Mononuclear Mn(III) complexes have been prepared via the Mn(II) reaction of an equimolar of Schiff-bases derived from reaction of 2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde or 2-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzaldehyde with 1,2-diaminopropane. Axial ligands L include: pyridine (py) and H(2)O. The resulting complexes have been characterized by FT-IR and UV-vis spectroscopy. The crystal structures of the complexes were determined and indicate that in the solid state the complex adopts a slightly distorted octahedral environment of the imine N and hydroxo O with the two axial ligands. The electrochemical reduction of these complexes at a glassy carbon electrode in acetonitrile solution indicates that the first reduction process corresponding to Mn(III)-Mn(II) is electrochemically quasi-reversible. Thermal stability of these complexes was determined by TG and DTG. Layers of these complexes were formed on nanostructure zinc oxide thin film and a red shift was observed when zinc oxide thin film is modified by complex. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rummi Devi Saini


    Full Text Available Physiological processes are controlled mainly by intermolecular recognition mechanisms which involve protein–protein and protein–ligand interactions with a high specificity and affinity to form a specific complex. Proteins being an important class of macromolecules in biological systems, it is important to understand their actions through binding to other molecules of proteins or ligands. In fact, the binding of low molecular weight ligands to proteins plays a significant role in regulating biological processes such as cellular metabolism and signal transmission. Therefore knowledge of the protein–ligand interactions and the knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the protein-ligand recognition and binding are key in understanding biology at molecular level which will facilitate the discovery, design, and development of drugs. In this review, the mechanisms involved in protein–ligand binding, the binding kinetics, thermodynamic concepts and binding driving forces are discussed. Thermodynamic mechanisms involved in a few important protein-ligand binding are described. Various spectroscopic, non-spectroscopic and computational method for analysis of protein–ligand binding are also discussed.

  3. Designer TGFβ superfamily ligands with diversified functionality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George P Allendorph

    Full Text Available Transforming Growth Factor--beta (TGFβ superfamily ligands, including Activins, Growth and Differentiation Factors (GDFs, and Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs, are excellent targets for protein-based therapeutics because of their pervasiveness in numerous developmental and cellular processes. We developed a strategy termed RASCH (Random Assembly of Segmental Chimera and Heteromer, to engineer chemically-refoldable TGFβ superfamily ligands with unique signaling properties. One of these engineered ligands, AB208, created from Activin-βA and BMP-2 sequences, exhibits the refolding characteristics of BMP-2 while possessing Activin-like signaling attributes. Further, we find several additional ligands, AB204, AB211, and AB215, which initiate the intracellular Smad1-mediated signaling pathways more strongly than BMP-2 but show no sensitivity to the natural BMP antagonist Noggin unlike natural BMP-2. In another design, incorporation of a short N-terminal segment from BMP-2 was sufficient to enable chemical refolding of BMP-9, without which was never produced nor refolded. Our studies show that the RASCH strategy enables us to expand the functional repertoire of TGFβ superfamily ligands through development of novel chimeric TGFβ ligands with diverse biological and clinical values.

  4. Semiconductor Quantum Dots with Photoresponsive Ligands. (United States)

    Sansalone, Lorenzo; Tang, Sicheng; Zhang, Yang; Thapaliya, Ek Raj; Raymo, Françisco M; Garcia-Amorós, Jaume


    Photochromic or photocaged ligands can be anchored to the outer shell of semiconductor quantum dots in order to control the photophysical properties of these inorganic nanocrystals with optical stimulations. One of the two interconvertible states of the photoresponsive ligands can be designed to accept either an electron or energy from the excited quantum dots and quench their luminescence. Under these conditions, the reversible transformations of photochromic ligands or the irreversible cleavage of photocaged counterparts translates into the possibility to switch luminescence with external control. As an alternative to regulating the photophysics of a quantum dot via the photochemistry of its ligands, the photochemistry of the latter can be controlled by relying on the photophysics of the former. The transfer of excitation energy from a quantum dot to a photocaged ligand populates the excited state of the species adsorbed on the nanocrystal to induce a photochemical reaction. This mechanism, in conjunction with the large two-photon absorption cross section of quantum dots, can be exploited to release nitric oxide or to generate singlet oxygen under near-infrared irradiation. Thus, the combination of semiconductor quantum dots and photoresponsive ligands offers the opportunity to assemble nanostructured constructs with specific functions on the basis of electron or energy transfer processes. The photoswitchable luminescence and ability to photoinduce the release of reactive chemicals, associated with the resulting systems, can be particularly valuable in biomedical research and can, ultimately, lead to the realization of imaging probes for diagnostic applications as well as to therapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer.

  5. Sequence assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheibye-Alsing, Karsten; Hoffmann, S.; Frankel, Annett Maria


    Despite the rapidly increasing number of sequenced and re-sequenced genomes, many issues regarding the computational assembly of large-scale sequencing data have remain unresolved. Computational assembly is crucial in large genome projects as well for the evolving high-throughput technologies...... and plays an important role in processing the information generated by these methods. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the current publicly available sequence assembly programs. We describe the basic principles of computational assembly along with the main concerns, such as repetitive sequences...... in genomic DNA, highly expressed genes and alternative transcripts in EST sequences. We summarize existing comparisons of different assemblers and provide a detailed descriptions and directions for download of assembly programs at:

  6. Binuclear Complexes and Extended Chains Featuring Pt(II)-Tl(I) Bonds: Influence of the Pyridine-2-Thiolate and Cyclometalated Ligands on the Self-Assembly and Luminescent Behavior. (United States)

    Berenguer, Jesús R; Lalinde, Elena; Martín, Antonio; Moreno, M Teresa; Sánchez, Sergio; Shahsavari, Hamid R


    Platinum solvate complexes [Pt(C6F5)(C^N)(S)] [C^N = phenylpyridinyl (ppy), S = dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (A); C^N = benzoquinolinyl (bzq), S = CH3COCH3 (B)] react with [Tl(Spy)] (Spy = 2-pyridinethiolate) to afford binuclear [{Pt(C6F5)(C^N)}Tl(Spy)] [C^N = ppy (1) and bzq (2)] species containing a Pt-Tl bonding interaction, supported by a μ-Spy-κN,S bridging ligand, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction. However, the related reactions with [Tl(SpyCF3-5)] [SpyCF3-5 = 5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinethiolate] give neutral extended chains [{Pt(C6F5)(C^N)}Tl(SpyCF3-5)]n [C^N = ppy (3) and bzq (4)]. 3 features a zigzag -Pt-Tl···S-Pt- chain, generated by Pt-Tl and Tl···S bonds, with the SpyCF3 acting as a μ-κN:κ(2)S bridging ligand, whereas 4 displays an unsupported ···Tl-Pt···Tl-Pt··· backbone (angle of ca. 158.7°). The lowest-energy absorption bands in the UV-vis spectra in CH2Cl2, associated with (1)L'LCT transitions with minor (1)LC/(1)MLCT (L' = Spy or SpyCF3-5; L = C^N) character, are similar for all complexes 1-4, demonstrating that for 3 and 4 the chains break down in solution to yield similar bimetallic Pt-Tl units. For 2, two different forms, 2-o (orange) and 2-y (yellow), exhibiting different colors and emissions were found depending on the isolation conditions. Slow crystallization favors formation of the thermodynamically more stable yellow form (2-y), which exhibits a high-energy (HE) structured emission band, whereas fast crystallization gives rise to the orange form (2-o), with a remarkably lower energy structureless emission. Complexes 1 and 3 exhibit dual luminescence in the solid state at 298 K: an unstructured low-energy band associated with (3)ππ* excimeric emission due to π···π (C^N) interactions and a more structured HE band, assigned, with support of density functional theory calculations, to an intraligand (3)LC (C^N) excited state mixed with some ligand (SPy)/platinum-to-ligand (C^N)(3)[(L' + M)LCT] charge transfer. Chain

  7. Dynamic Nanoparticles Assemblies (United States)



    in the field may include different size dimensionalities: discrete assemblies (artificial molecules), one-dimensional (spaced chains) and two-dimensional (sheets) and three-dimensional (superlattices, twisted structures) assemblies. Notably, these dimensional attributes must be regarded as primarily topological in nature because all of these superstructures can acquire complex three-dimensional shapes. Preparation We discuss three primary strategies used to prepare NP superstructures: (1) anisotropy-based assemblies utilizing either intrinsic force field anisotropy around NPs or external anisotropy associated with templates and/or applied fields; (2) assembly methods utilizing uniform NPs with isotropic interactions; and (3) methods based on mutual recognition of biomolecules, such as DNA and antigen-antibody interactions. Applications We consider optical, electronic, and magnetic properties of dynamic superstructures, focusing primarily on multiparticle effects in NP superstructures as represented by surface plasmon resonance, NP-NP charge transport, and multibody magnetization. Unique properties of NP superstructures are being applied to biosensing, drug delivery, and nanoelectronics. For both Class 1 and Class 2 dynamic assemblies, biosensing is the most dominant and well-developed area of dynamic nanostructures being successfully transitioned into practice. We can foresee the rapid development of dynamic NP assemblies toward applications in harvesting of dissipated energy, photonics, and electronics. The final part of the review is devoted to the fundamental questions facing dynamic assemblies of NPs in the future. PMID:22449243

  8. Dynamic nanoparticle assemblies. (United States)

    Wang, Libing; Xu, Liguang; Kuang, Hua; Xu, Chuanlai; Kotov, Nicholas A


    a molecule from atoms. Finer classification of NP assemblies in accord with established conventions in the field may include different size dimensionalities: discrete assemblies (artificial molecules) and one-dimensional (spaced chains), two-dimensional (sheets), and three-dimensional (superlattices, twisted structures) assemblies. Notably, these dimensional attributes must be regarded as primarily topological in nature because all of these superstructures can acquire complex three-dimensional shapes. We discuss three primary strategies used to prepare NP superstructures: (1) anisotropy-based assemblies utilizing either intrinsic force field anisotropy around NPs or external anisotropy associated with templates or applied fields, (2) assembly methods utilizing uniform NPs with isotropic interactions, and (3) methods based on mutual recognition of biomolecules, such as DNA and antigen-antibody interactions. We consider optical, electronic, and magnetic properties of dynamic superstructures, focusing primarily on multiparticle effects in NP superstructures as represented by surface plasmon resonance, NP-NP charge transport, and multibody magnetization. Unique properties of NP superstructures are being applied to biosensing, drug delivery, and nanoelectronics. For both Class 1 and Class 2 dynamic assemblies, biosensing is the most dominant and well-developed area of dynamic nanostructures being successfully transitioned into practice. We can foresee the rapid development of dynamic NP assemblies toward applications in harvesting of dissipated energy, photonics, and electronics. The final part of this Account is devoted to the fundamental questions facing dynamic assemblies of NPs in the future.

  9. Facial Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihalache Sergiu


    Full Text Available During their lifetime, people learn to recognize thousands of faces that they interact with. Face perception refers to an individual's understanding and interpretation of the face, particularly the human face, especially in relation to the associated information processing in the brain. The proportions and expressions of the human face are important to identify origin, emotional tendencies, health qualities, and some social information. From birth, faces are important in the individual's social interaction. Face perceptions are very complex as the recognition of facial expressions involves extensive and diverse areas in the brain. Our main goal is to put emphasis on presenting human faces specialized studies, and also to highlight the importance of attractiviness in their retention. We will see that there are many factors that influence face recognition.

  10. Self-assembly of chiral coordination polymers and macrocycles: a metal template effect on the polymer-macrocycle equilibrium. (United States)

    Burchell, Tara J; Puddephatt, Richard J


    The self-assembly of racemic and enantiopure binaphthyl-bis(amidopyridyl) ligands 1,1'-C(20)H(12){NHC(=O)-4-C(5)H(4)N}(2), 1, and 1,1'-C(20)H(12){NHC(=O)-3-C(5)H(4)N}(2), 2, with mercury(II) halides (HgX(2); X = Cl, Br, I) to form extended metal-containing arrays is described. It is shown that the self-assembly can lead to homochiral or heterochiral polymers or macrocycles, through self-recognition or self-discrimination of the ligand units, and the primary materials can further self-assemble through hydrogen bonding between amide substituents. In addition, the formation of macrocycles or polymers can be influenced by the presence or absence of excess mercury(II) halide, through a template effect, and mercury(II) halide inclusion complexes may be formed. In one case, an unusual polymeric compound was obtained, with 1 guest HgX(2) molecule for every 12 mercury halide units in the polymer.

  11. Quantum.Ligand.Dock: protein-ligand docking with quantum entanglement refinement on a GPU system. (United States)

    Kantardjiev, Alexander A


    Quantum.Ligand.Dock (protein-ligand docking with graphic processing unit (GPU) quantum entanglement refinement on a GPU system) is an original modern method for in silico prediction of protein-ligand interactions via high-performance docking code. The main flavour of our approach is a combination of fast search with a special account for overlooked physical interactions. On the one hand, we take care of self-consistency and proton equilibria mutual effects of docking partners. On the other hand, Quantum.Ligand.Dock is the the only docking server offering such a subtle supplement to protein docking algorithms as quantum entanglement contributions. The motivation for development and proposition of the method to the community hinges upon two arguments-the fundamental importance of quantum entanglement contribution in molecular interaction and the realistic possibility to implement it by the availability of supercomputing power. The implementation of sophisticated quantum methods is made possible by parallelization at several bottlenecks on a GPU supercomputer. The high-performance implementation will be of use for large-scale virtual screening projects, structural bioinformatics, systems biology and fundamental research in understanding protein-ligand recognition. The design of the interface is focused on feasibility and ease of use. Protein and ligand molecule structures are supposed to be submitted as atomic coordinate files in PDB format. A customization section is offered for addition of user-specified charges, extra ionogenic groups with intrinsic pK(a) values or fixed ions. Final predicted complexes are ranked according to obtained scores and provided in PDB format as well as interactive visualization in a molecular viewer. Quantum.Ligand.Dock server can be accessed at

  12. Structural basis for AMPA receptor activation and ligand selectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogner, A; Kastrup, Jette Sandholm Jensen; Jin, R


    with Br-HIBO and ACPA have allowed us to explain the molecular mechanism behind this selectivity and to identify key residues for ligand recognition. The agonists induce the same degree of domain closure as AMPA, except for Br-HIBO, which shows a slightly lower degree of domain closure. An excellent...

  13. Ligand modeling and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, B.P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)


    The purpose of this work is to develop and implement a molecular design basis for selecting organic ligands that would be used in the cost-effective removal of specific radionuclides from nuclear waste streams. Organic ligands with metal ion specificity are critical components in the development of solvent extraction and ion exchange processes that are highly selective for targeted radionuclides. The traditional approach to the development of such ligands involves lengthy programs of organic synthesis and testing, which in the absence of reliable methods for screening compounds before synthesis, results in wasted research effort. The author`s approach breaks down and simplifies this costly process with the aid of computer-based molecular modeling techniques. Commercial software for organic molecular modeling is being configured to examine the interactions between organic ligands and metal ions, yielding an inexpensive, commercially or readily available computational tool that can be used to predict the structures and energies of ligand-metal complexes. Users will be able to correlate the large body of existing experimental data on structure, solution binding affinity, and metal ion selectivity to develop structural design criteria. These criteria will provide a basis for selecting ligands that can be implemented in separations technologies through collaboration with other DOE national laboratories and private industry. The initial focus will be to select ether-based ligands that can be applied to the recovery and concentration of the alkali and alkaline earth metal ions including cesium, strontium, and radium.

  14. Speaker Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti; Jørgensen, Kasper Winther


    Speaker recognition is basically divided into speaker identification and speaker verification. Verification is the task of automatically determining if a person really is the person he or she claims to be. This technology can be used as a biometric feature for verifying the identity of a person...... in applications like banking by telephone and voice mail. The focus of this project is speaker identification, which consists of mapping a speech signal from an unknown speaker to a database of known speakers, i.e. the system has been trained with a number of speakers which the system can recognize....

  15. On Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjødsbøl, Iben Mundbjerg; Svendsen, Mette Nordahl


    to misrecognize and humiliate the person under examination. The article ends by proposing that dementia be the condition that forces us to rethink our ways of recognizing persons more generally. Thus, dementia diagnostics provide insights into different enactments of the person that invite us to explore practices......This article investigates how a person with dementia is made up through intersubjective acts of recognition. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in a Danish memory clinic, we show that identification of disease requires patients to be substituted by their relatives in constructing believable medical...

  16. Nanoparticle decoration with surfactants: Molecular interactions, assembly, and applications (United States)

    Heinz, Hendrik; Pramanik, Chandrani; Heinz, Ozge; Ding, Yifu; Mishra, Ratan K.; Marchon, Delphine; Flatt, Robert J.; Estrela-Lopis, Irina; Llop, Jordi; Moya, Sergio; Ziolo, Ronald F.


    Nanostructures of diverse chemical nature are used as biomarkers, therapeutics, catalysts, and structural reinforcements. The decoration with surfactants has a long history and is essential to introduce specific functions. The definition of surfactants in this review is very broad, following its lexical meaning ;surface active agents;, and therefore includes traditional alkyl modifiers, biological ligands, polymers, and other surface active molecules. The review systematically covers covalent and non-covalent interactions of such surfactants with various types of nanomaterials, including metals, oxides, layered materials, and polymers as well as their applications. The major themes are (i) molecular recognition and noncovalent assembly mechanisms of surfactants on the nanoparticle and nanocrystal surfaces, (ii) covalent grafting techniques and multi-step surface modification, (iii) dispersion properties and surface reactions, (iv) the use of surfactants to influence crystal growth, as well as (v) the incorporation of biorecognition and other material-targeting functionality. For the diverse materials classes, similarities and differences in surfactant assembly, function, as well as materials performance in specific applications are described in a comparative way. Major factors that lead to differentiation are the surface energy, surface chemistry and pH sensitivity, as well as the degree of surface regularity and defects in the nanoparticle cores and in the surfactant shell. The review covers a broad range of surface modifications and applications in biological recognition and therapeutics, sensors, nanomaterials for catalysis, energy conversion and storage, the dispersion properties of nanoparticles in structural composites and cement, as well as purification systems and classical detergents. Design principles for surfactants to optimize the performance of specific nanostructures are discussed. The review concludes with challenges and opportunities.

  17. Three luminescent d{sup 10} metal coordination polymers assembled from a semirigid V-shaped ligand with high selective detecting of Cu{sup 2+} ion and nitrobenzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wei-Ping [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of the Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Physico-Inorg. Chem., College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Institute of Functional Materials, College of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Sichuan University of Science & Engineering, Zigong 643000 (China); Liu, Ping; Liang, Yu-Tong; Cui, Lin; Xi, Zheng-Ping [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of the Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Physico-Inorg. Chem., College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Wang, Yao-Yu, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of the Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Physico-Inorg. Chem., College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China)


    Three 2D luminescent coordination polymers with helical frameworks, [ZnL{sub 2}]{sub n} (1) and ([ML{sub 2}]·(H{sub 2}O)){sub n} (M=Zn (2), Cd (3)) (HL=4-((2-methyl-1 H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl)benzoic acid), have been assembled under hydro(solvo)thermal conditions. Complex 1 is in chiral space group and displays a rare 2D→2D 2-fold parallel interpenetrated layer network with two types of chiral double helixes. Interestingly, the single crystal structure analyses indicate the coexistence of enantiomers la and 1b in one pot, while the bulk crystallization of 1 are racemic mixtures based on the CD measurement. 2 and 3 are isostructural, in the structure, there are two kinds of 2D chiral helical-layers which stack in an -ABAB- sequence leading to the overall structure are mesomer and achiral. All compounds display intense luminescence in solid state at room temperature with high chemical and thermal stability. More importantly, 1 has been successfully applied in the detection of Cu{sup 2+} ions in aqueous media and nitrobenzene and the probable detecting mechanism was also discussed. - Graphical abstract: Three luminescent d{sup 10} metal coordination polymers with helical-layer based on 4-((2-methyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl)benzoic acid have been obtained. Compound 1 shows high selective detecting for Cu{sup 2+} ion in aqueous and nitrobenzene. - Highlights: • Three coordination polymers with chiral helical-layer have been obtained. • 1 Can luminescent detect Cu{sup 2+} ion in aqueous media and nitrobenzene. • Racemic mixture or mesomer compounds can be obtained by controlling the reaction conditions.

  18. Surfactant Ligand Removal and Rational Fabrication of Inorganically Connected Quantum Dots

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Haitao


    A novel method is reported to create inorganically connected nanocrystal (NC) assemblies for both II-VI and IV-VI semiconductors by removing surfactant ligands using (NH 4) 2S. This surface modification process differs from ligand exchange methods in that no new surfactant ligands are introduced and the post-treated NC surfaces are nearly bare. The detailed mechanism study shows that the high reactivity between (NH 4) 2S and metal-surfactant ligand complexes enables the complete removal of surfactant ligands in seconds and converts the NC metal-rich shells into metal sulfides. The post-treated NCs are connected through metal-sulfide bonding and form a larger NCs film assembly, while still maintaining quantum confinement. Such "connected but confined" NC assemblies are promising new materials for electronic and optoelectronic devices. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  19. Ligand modeling and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)


    The purpose of this work is to develop and implement a molecular design basis for selecting organic ligands that would be used tin applications for the cost-effective removal of specific radionuclides from nuclear waste streams.

  20. Identification of VDR Antagonists among Nuclear Receptor Ligands Using Virtual Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Teske


    Full Text Available Herein, we described the development of two virtual screens to identify new vitamin D receptor (VDR antagonists among nuclear receptor (NR ligands. Therefore, a database of 14330 nuclear receptor ligands and their NR affinities was assembled using the online available “Binding Database.” Two different virtual screens were carried out in conjunction with a reported VDR crystal structure applying a stringent and less stringent pharmacophore model to filter docked NR ligand conformations. The pharmacophore models were based on the spatial orientation of the hydroxyl functionalities of VDR's natural ligands 1,25(OH2D3 and 25(OH2D3. The first virtual screen identified 32 NR ligands with a calculated free energy of VDR binding of more than -6.0 kJ/mol. All but nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA are VDR ligands, which inhibited the interaction between VDR and coactivator peptide SRC2-3 with an IC50 value of 15.8 μM. The second screen identified 162 NR ligands with a calculated free energy of VDR binding of more than -6.0 kJ/mol. More than half of these ligands were developed to bind VDR followed by ERα/β ligands (26%, TRα/β ligands (7%, and LxRα/β ligands (7%. The binding between VDR and ERα ligand H6036 as well as TRα/β ligand triiodothyronine and a homoserine analog thereof was confirmed by fluorescence polarization.

  1. Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Infection Promotes Immune Evasion by Preventing NKG2D-Ligand Surface Expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle; Andresen, Lars; Nielsen, Jens


    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has recently gained attention for its oncolytic ability in cancer treatment. Initially, we hypothesized that VSV infection could increase immune recognition of cancer cells through induction of the immune stimulatory NKG2D-ligands. Here we show that VSV infection......D-ligand expression at an early post-transcriptional level. Our results show that VSV possess an escape mechanism, which could affect the immune recognition of VSV infected cancer cells. This may also have implications for immune recognition of cancer cells after combined treatment with VSV...

  2. One-step orthogonal-bonding approach to the self-assembly of neutral rhenium-based metallacycles: synthesis, structures, photophysics, and sensing applications. (United States)

    Thanasekaran, Pounraj; Lee, Chung-Chou; Lu, Kuang-Lieh


    Self-assembled metallacycles offer structural diversity and interesting properties based on their unique frameworks and host-guest chemistry. As a result, the design and synthesis of these materials has attracted significant research interest. This Account describes our comprehensive investigations of an effective orthogonal-bonding approach for the self-assembly of neutral Re-based metallacycles. We discuss the various types of assemblies that can be created based on the nuclearity of the luminophore, including bimetallic materials, rectangles, cages, and calixarenes. This approach permits the preparation of a rectangular molecule, rather than two molecular squares, in excellent yields. We extended this strategy to the high yield synthesis of a series of Re-based metallacycles with different shapes. With the rich spectroscopic and luminescence properties, Re(I) metallacycles provide an excellent platform for studies of host-guest interactions. When possible, we also present potential applications of the luminescent Re-based metallosupramolecular assemblies. The orthogonal-bonding approach involves the simultaneous introduction of two ligands: a bis-chelating ligand to coordinate to two equatorial sites of two fac-(CO)(3)Re cores and a monotopic or ditopic nitrogen-donor ligand to the remaining orthogonal axial site. Furthermore, by the appropriate choice of the predesigned organic ligands with various backbones and connectivity information and fac-Re(CO)(3) metal centers, we could also design other novel functional metallacycles including rotors, gondolas, cages, triangles, and metallacalixarenes in high yields. The incorporation of flexible ligands into the Re(I) metallacycles allows us to introduce various conformation states and novel structures. As a result, these structures acquire new functions, such as adaptive recognition properties. For example, we assembled Re(I)-based metallacyclic rotors via a one-step process. These rotors, which contain a para

  3. Balancing specificity, sensitivity, and speed of ligand discrimination by zero-order ultraspecificity (United States)

    Kajita, Masashi K.; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Kobayashi, Tetsuya J.


    Specific interactions between receptors and their target ligands in the presence of nontarget ligands are crucial for biological processes such as T cell ligand discrimination. To discriminate between the target and nontarget ligands, cells have to increase specificity to the target ligands by amplifying the small differences in affinity among ligands. In addition, sensitivity to the ligand concentration and quick discrimination are also important to detect low amounts of target ligands and facilitate fast cellular decision making after ligand recognition. In this work we propose a mechanism for nonlinear specificity amplification (ultraspecificity) based on zero-order saturating reactions, which was originally proposed to explain nonlinear sensitivity amplification (ultrasensitivity) to the ligand concentration. In contrast to the previously proposed proofreading mechanisms that amplify the specificity by a multistep reaction, our model can produce an optimal balance of specificity, sensitivity, and quick discrimination. Furthermore, we show that a model for insensitivity to a large number of nontarget ligands can be naturally derived from a model with the zero-order ultraspecificity. The zero-order ultraspecificity, therefore, may provide an alternative way to understand ligand discrimination from the viewpoint of nonlinear properties in biochemical reactions.

  4. Targeting pattern recognition receptors in cancer immunotherapy. (United States)

    Goutagny, Nadège; Estornes, Yann; Hasan, Uzma; Lebecque, Serge; Caux, Christophe


    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are known for many years for their role in the recognition of microbial products and the subsequent activation of the immune system. The 2011 Nobel Prize for medicine indeed rewarded J. Hoffmann/B. Beutler and R. Steinman for their revolutionary findings concerning the activation of the immune system, thus stressing the significance of understanding the mechanisms of activation of the innate immunity. Such immunostimulatory activities are of major interest in the context of cancer to induce long-term antitumoral responses. Ligands for the toll-like receptors (TLRs), a well-known family of PRR, have been shown to have antitumoral activities in several cancers. Those ligands are now undergoing extensive clinical investigations both as immunostimulant molecules and as adjuvant along with vaccines. However, when considering the use of these ligands in tumor therapy, one shall consider the potential effect on the tumor cells themselves as well as on the entire organism. Recent data indeed demonstrate that TLR activation in tumor cells could trigger both pro- or antitumoral effect depending on the context. This review discusses this balance between the intrinsic activation of PRR in tumor cells and the extrinsic microenvironment activation in term of overall effect of PRR ligands on tumor development. We review recent advances in the field and underline appealing prospects for clinical development of PRR agonists in the light of our current knowledge on their expression and activation.

  5. Insights into Protein–Ligand Interactions: Mechanisms, Models, and Methods (United States)

    Du, Xing; Li, Yi; Xia, Yuan-Ling; Ai, Shi-Meng; Liang, Jing; Sang, Peng; Ji, Xing-Lai; Liu, Shu-Qun


    Molecular recognition, which is the process of biological macromolecules interacting with each other or various small molecules with a high specificity and affinity to form a specific complex, constitutes the basis of all processes in living organisms. Proteins, an important class of biological macromolecules, realize their functions through binding to themselves or other molecules. A detailed understanding of the protein–ligand interactions is therefore central to understanding biology at the molecular level. Moreover, knowledge of the mechanisms responsible for the protein-ligand recognition and binding will also facilitate the discovery, design, and development of drugs. In the present review, first, the physicochemical mechanisms underlying protein–ligand binding, including the binding kinetics, thermodynamic concepts and relationships, and binding driving forces, are introduced and rationalized. Next, three currently existing protein-ligand binding models—the “lock-and-key”, “induced fit”, and “conformational selection”—are described and their underlying thermodynamic mechanisms are discussed. Finally, the methods available for investigating protein–ligand binding affinity, including experimental and theoretical/computational approaches, are introduced, and their advantages, disadvantages, and challenges are discussed. PMID:26821017

  6. Aptamer-based molecular recognition for biosensor development. (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Battig, Mark R; Wang, Yong


    Nucleic acid aptamers are an emerging class of synthetic ligands and have recently attracted significant attention in numerous fields. One is in biosensor development. In principle, nucleic acid aptamers can be discovered to recognize any molecule of interest with high affinity and specificity. In addition, unlike most ligands evolved in nature, synthetic nucleic acid aptamers are usually tolerant of harsh chemical, physical, and biological conditions. These distinguished characteristics make aptamers attractive molecular recognition ligands for biosensing applications. This review first concisely introduces methods for aptamer discovery including upstream selection and downstream truncation, then discusses aptamer-based biosensor development from the viewpoint of signal production.

  7. Sterically demanding iminopyridine ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Irrgang, Torsten; Keller, Sandra; Maisel, Heidi; Kretschmer, Winfried; Kempe, Rhett

    Two sterically demanding iminopyridine ligands, (2,6-diisopropylphenyl)[6-(2,4,6-triisopropylphenyl)pyridin-2-ylmeth- ylene]amine and (2,6-diisopropylphenyl)]6-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)pyridin-2-ylmethylene]amine, were prepared by a two-step process: first, condensation of 6-bromopyridine-2-carbaldehyde

  8. Investigation of efficient features for image recognition by neural networks. (United States)

    Goltsev, Alexander; Gritsenko, Vladimir


    In the paper, effective and simple features for image recognition (named LiRA-features) are investigated in the task of handwritten digit recognition. Two neural network classifiers are considered-a modified 3-layer perceptron LiRA and a modular assembly neural network. A method of feature selection is proposed that analyses connection weights formed in the preliminary learning process of a neural network classifier. In the experiments using the MNIST database of handwritten digits, the feature selection procedure allows reduction of feature number (from 60 000 to 7000) preserving comparable recognition capability while accelerating computations. Experimental comparison between the LiRA perceptron and the modular assembly neural network is accomplished, which shows that recognition capability of the modular assembly neural network is somewhat better. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of ligand binding strength and facet coverage on the morphology of nanocrystal superlattices (United States)

    Bealing, Clive; Hennig, Richard


    Nanocrystals (NCs) of lead-salt have been proposed for a number of photovoltaic applications. These NCs consist of an inorganic core, in the rock salt structure, whose surface is usually passivated by oleate ligands. The self-assembly of NCs from colloidal solutions into mesoscale superlattices provides a path to materials with tunable electronic, physical and chemical properties that are promising for applications. The self-assembly is controlled by the NC shape and by ligand-mediated interactions between NCs; to understand this, it is necessary to know the effect of the ligands on the surface energies, as well as the relative coverage of the different facets. Our density functional calculations of the binding energies of carboxylic acid-based ligands on PbSe and PbS show that the ligands exhibit a strong energetic preference to particular facets. The results suggest that the transformation of the NC superlattice structure from fcc to bcc in aged NC assemblies is caused by the preferential detachment of ligands from particular facets, leading to anisotropic ligand coverage. Combined with the experimental results, our calculations present a potential route to greater control over the morphology of the NC superlattice assembly. This work was supported by Award No. KUS-C1-018-02, made by King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST).

  10. Metal-ligand cooperation at tethered pi-ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, Dide G. A.; Moret, Marc-Etienne


    Metal–ligand cooperativity in homogeneous catalysis is emerging as a powerful tool for the design of efficient transition-metal catalysts. This perspective highlights recent advances in the use of neutral π-coordinating ligands, tethered to a transition-metal center by other donor ligands, as

  11. Templated Formation of Discrete RNA and DNA:RNA Hybrid G-Quadruplexes and Their Interactions with Targeting Ligands. (United States)

    Bonnat, Laureen; Dejeu, Jérôme; Bonnet, Hugues; Génnaro, Béatrice; Jarjayes, Olivier; Thomas, Fabrice; Lavergne, Thomas; Defrancq, Eric


    G-rich RNA and DNA oligonucleotides derived from the human telomeric sequence were assembled onto addressable cyclopeptide platforms through oxime ligations and copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAc) reactions. The resulting conjugates were able to fold into highly stable RNA and DNA:RNA hybrid G-quadruplex (G4) architectures as demonstrated by UV, circular dichroism (CD), and NMR spectroscopic analysis. Whereas rationally designed parallel RNA and DNA:RNA hybrid G4 topologies could be obtained, we could not force the formation of an antiparallel RNA G4 structure, thus supporting the idea that this topology is strongly disfavored. The binding affinities of four representative G4 ligands toward the discrete RNA and DNA:RNA hybrid G4 topologies were compared to the one obtained with the corresponding DNA G4 structure. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) binding analysis suggests that the accessibility to G4 recognition elements is different among the three structures and supports the idea that G4 ligands might be shaped to achieve structure selectivity in a biological context. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    5th April, 2016 – Ordinary General Assembly of the Staff Association! In the first semester of each year, the Staff Association (SA) invites its members to attend and participate in the Ordinary General Assembly (OGA). This year the OGA will be held on Tuesday, April 5th 2016 from 11:00 to 12:00 in BE Auditorium, Meyrin (6-2-024). During the Ordinary General Assembly, the activity and financial reports of the SA are presented and submitted for approval to the members. This is the occasion to get a global view on the activities of the SA, its financial management, and an opportunity to express one’s opinion, including taking part in the votes. Other points are listed on the agenda, as proposed by the Staff Council. Who can vote? Only “ordinary” members (MPE) of the SA can vote. Associated members (MPA) of the SA and/or affiliated pensioners have a right to vote on those topics that are of direct interest to them. Who can give his/her opinion? The Ordinary General Asse...

  13. Macromolecular recognition in the Protein Data Bank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janin, Joël, E-mail: [Laboratoire d’Enzymologie et de Biochimie Structurales, UPR9063, CNRS, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Institut de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, UMR8619, Bâtiment 430, Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Rodier, Francis [Laboratoire d’Enzymologie et de Biochimie Structurales, UPR9063, CNRS, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Chakrabarti, Pinak [Department of Biochemistry, Bose Institute, P-1/12 CIT Scheme VIIM, Calcutta 700 054 (India); Bahadur, Ranjit P. [Institut de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, UMR8619, Bâtiment 430, Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Department of Biochemistry, Bose Institute, P-1/12 CIT Scheme VIIM, Calcutta 700 054 (India); Laboratoire d’Enzymologie et de Biochimie Structurales, UPR9063, CNRS, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)


    X-ray structures in the PDB illustrate both the specific recognition of two polypeptide chains in protein–protein complexes and dimeric proteins and their nonspecific interaction at crystal contacts. Crystal structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank illustrate the diversity of biological macromolecular recognition: transient interactions in protein–protein and protein–DNA complexes and permanent assemblies in homodimeric proteins. The geometric and physical chemical properties of the macromolecular interfaces that may govern the stability and specificity of recognition are explored in complexes and homodimers compared with crystal-packing interactions. It is found that crystal-packing interfaces are usually much smaller; they bury fewer atoms and are less tightly packed than in specific assemblies. Standard-size interfaces burying 1200–2000 Å{sup 2} of protein surface occur in protease–inhibitor and antigen–antibody complexes that assemble with little or no conformation changes. Short-lived electron-transfer complexes have small interfaces; the larger size of the interfaces observed in complexes involved in signal transduction and homodimers correlates with the presence of conformation changes, often implicated in biological function. Results of the CAPRI (critical assessment of predicted interactions) blind prediction experiment show that docking algorithms efficiently and accurately predict the mode of assembly of proteins that do not change conformation when they associate. They perform less well in the presence of large conformation changes and the experiment stimulates the development of novel procedures that can handle such changes.

  14. Descriptor Data Bank (DDB): A Cloud Platform for Multiperspective Modeling of Protein-Ligand Interactions. (United States)

    Ashtawy, Hossam M; Mahapatra, Nihar R


    Protein-ligand (PL) interactions play a key role in many life processes such as molecular recognition, molecular binding, signal transmission, and cell metabolism. Examples of interaction forces include hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic effects, steric clashes, electrostatic contacts, and van der Waals attractions. Currently, a large number of hypotheses and perspectives to model these interaction forces are scattered throughout the literature and largely forgotten. Instead, had they been assembled and utilized collectively, they would have substantially improved the accuracy of predicting binding affinity of protein-ligand complexes. In this work, we present Descriptor Data Bank (DDB), a data-driven platform on the cloud for facilitating multiperspective modeling of PL interactions. DDB is an open-access hub for depositing, hosting, executing, and sharing descriptor extraction tools and data for a large number of interaction modeling hypotheses. The platform also implements a machine-learning (ML) toolbox for automatic descriptor filtering and analysis and scoring function (SF) fitting and prediction. The descriptor filtering module is used to filter out irrelevant and/or noisy descriptors and to produce a compact subset from all available features. We seed DDB with 16 diverse descriptor extraction tools developed in-house and collected from the literature. The tools altogether generate over 2700 descriptors that characterize (i) proteins, (ii) ligands, and (iii) protein-ligand complexes. The in-house descriptors we extract are protein-specific which are based on pairwise primary and tertiary alignment of protein structures followed by clustering and trilateration. We built and used DDB's ML library to fit SFs to the in-house descriptors and those collected from the literature. We then evaluated them on several data sets that were constructed to reflect real-world drug screening scenarios. We found that multiperspective SFs that were constructed using a large number

  15. Assembling consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assembling Consumption marks a definitive step in the institutionalisation of qualitative business research. By gathering leading scholars and educators who study markets, marketing and consumption through the lenses of philosophy, sociology and anthropology, this book clarifies and applies...... the investigative tools offered by assemblage theory, actor-network theory and non-representational theory. Clear theoretical explanation and methodological innovation, alongside empirical applications of these emerging frameworks will offer readers new and refreshing perspectives on consumer culture and market...... societies. This is an essential reading for both seasoned scholars and advanced students of markets, economies and social forms of consumption....

  16. A Novel Benzimidazolyl-based Receptor for the recognition of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A novel benzimidazole based ligand (1) has been synthesized and studied its anion recognition properties. The binding of anion with 1 was studied using UV-Visible spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and 1H-NMR techniques at very low concentrations. The results obtained from the spectroscopic studies ...

  17. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    Mardi 5 mai à 11 h 00 Salle 13-2-005 Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : 1- Adoption de l’ordre du jour. 2- Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 22 mai 2014. 3- Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2014. 4- Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2014. 5- Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2014. 6- Programme 2015. 7- Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2015 et taux de cotisation pour 2015. 8- Pas de modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposée. 9- Élections des membres de la Commission é...

  18. General assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    Mardi 5 mai à 11 h 00 Salle 13-2-005 Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : Adoption de l’ordre du jour. Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 22 mai 2014. Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2014. Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2014. Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2014. Programme 2015. Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2015 et taux de cotisation pour 2015. Pas de modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposée. Élections des membres de la Commission électorale. &am...

  19. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    Mardi 5 avril à 11 h 00 BE Auditorium Meyrin (6-2-024) Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : Adoption de l’ordre du jour. Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 5 mai 2015. Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2015. Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2015. Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2015. Programme de travail 2016. Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2016 Approbation du taux de cotisation pour 2017. Modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposée. Élections des membres de la Commissio...

  20. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : Adoption de l’ordre du jour. Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 5 avril 2016. Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2016. Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2016. Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2016. Programme de travail 2017. Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2017 Approbation du taux de cotisation pour 2018. Modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposées. Élections des membres de la Commission électorale. Élections des vérifica...

  1. Object reading: text recognition for object recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karaoglu, S.; van Gemert, J.C.; Gevers, T.


    We propose to use text recognition to aid in visual object class recognition. To this end we first propose a new algorithm for text detection in natural images. The proposed text detection is based on saliency cues and a context fusion step. The algorithm does not need any parameter tuning and can

  2. Molecular Recognition in the Colloidal World. (United States)

    Elacqua, Elizabeth; Zheng, Xiaolong; Shillingford, Cicely; Liu, Mingzhu; Weck, Marcus


    Colloidal self-assembly is a bottom-up technique to fabricate functional nanomaterials, with paramount interest stemming from programmable assembly of smaller building blocks into dynamic crystalline domains and photonic materials. Multiple established colloidal platforms feature diverse shapes and bonding interactions, while achieving specific orientations along with short- and long-range order. A major impediment to their universal use as building blocks for predesigned architectures is the inability to precisely dictate and control particle functionalization and concomitant reversible self-assembly. Progress in colloidal self-assembly necessitates the development of strategies that endow bonding specificity and directionality within assemblies. Methodologies that emulate molecular and polymeric three-dimensional (3D) architectures feature elements of covalent bonding, while high-fidelity molecular recognition events have been installed to realize responsive reconfigurable assemblies. The emergence of anisotropic 'colloidal molecules', coupled with the ability to site-specifically decorate particle surfaces with supramolecular recognition motifs, has facilitated the formation of superstructures via directional interactions and shape recognition. In this Account, we describe supramolecular assembly routes to drive colloidal particles into precisely assembled architectures or crystalline lattices via directional noncovalent molecular interactions. The design principles are based upon the fabrication of colloidal particles bearing surface-exposed functional groups that can undergo programmable conjugation to install recognition motifs with high fidelity. Modular and versatile by design, our strategy allows for the introduction and integration of molecular recognition principles into the colloidal world. We define noncovalent molecular interactions as site-specific forces that are predictable (i.e., feature selective and controllable complementary bonding partners

  3. Thermomechanical Response of Self-Assembled Nanoparticle Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yifan [Department; James; Chan, Henry [Center; Narayanan, Badri [Center; McBride, Sean P. [Department; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K. R. S. [Center; Lin, Xiao-Min [Center; Jaeger, Heinrich M. [Department; James


    Monolayers composed of colloidal nanoparticles, with a thickness of less than 10 nm, have remarkable mechanical moduli and can suspend over micrometer-sized holes to form free-standing membranes. In this paper, we discuss experiment's and coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations characterizing the thermomechanical properties of these self-assembled nanoparticle membranes. These membranes remain strong and resilient up to temperatures much higher than previous simulation predictions and exhibit an unexpected hysteretic behavior during the first heating cooling cycle. We show this hysteretic behavior can be explained by an asymmetric ligand configuration from the self assembly process and can be controlled by changing the ligand coverage or cross-linking the ligand molecules. Finally, we show the screening effect of water molecules on the ligand interactions can strongly affect the moduli and thermomechanical behavior.

  4. Face Detection and Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jain, Anil K


    This report describes research efforts towards developing algorithms for a robust face recognition system to overcome many of the limitations found in existing two-dimensional facial recognition systems...

  5. Natural Cytotoxicity Receptors: Pattern Recognition and Involvement of Carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Porgador


    Full Text Available Natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs, expressed by natural killer (NK cells, trigger NK lysis of tumor and virus-infected cells on interaction with cell-surface ligands of these target cells. We have determined that viral hemagglutinins expressed on the surface of virus-infected cells are involved in the recognition by the NCRs, NKp44 and NKp46. Recognition of tumor cells by the NCRs NKp30 and NKp46 involves heparan sulfate epitopes expressed on the tumor cell membrane. Our studies provide new evidence for the identity of the ligands for NCRs and indicate that a broader definition should be applied to pathological patterns recognized by innate immune receptors. Since nonmicrobial endogenous carbohydrate structures contribute significantly to this recognition, there is an imperative need to develop appropriate tools for the facile sequencing of carbohydrate moieties.

  6. Glutamate receptor ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldbrandt, Mette; Johansen, Tommy N; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea


    Homologation and substitution on the carbon backbone of (S)-glutamic acid [(S)-Glu, 1], as well as absolute stereochemistry, are structural parameters of key importance for the pharmacological profile of (S)-Glu receptor ligands. We describe a series of methyl-substituted 2-aminoadipic acid (AA.......g., IC(50) = 300 microM for (2R,4S)-4-methyl-AA (5d)]. The two unsaturated analogs (S)- (7a) and (R)-(E)-Delta(4)-5-methyl-AA (7b) turned out to be a weak AMPA receptor agonist and a weak mixed NMDA/AMPA receptor antagonist, respectively....

  7. AMPA receptor ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømgaard, Kristian; Mellor, Ian


    Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors (AMPAR), subtype of the ionotropic glutamate receptors (IGRs), mediate fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS), and are involved in many neurological disorders, as well as being a key player...... polyamines are known to modulate the function of these receptors in vivo. In this study, recent developments in the medicinal chemistry of polyamine-based ligands are given, particularly focusing on the use of solid-phase synthesis (SPS) as a tool for the facile generation of libraries of polyamine toxin...

  8. Reaction chemistry and ligand exchange at cadmium selenide nanocrystal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, Jonathan; Park, Jungwon; Trudeau, Paul-Emile; Alivisatos, A. Paul


    Chemical modification of nanocrystal surfaces is fundamentally important to their assembly, their implementation in biology and medicine, and greatly impacts their electrical and optical properties. However, it remains a major challenge owing to a lack of analytical tools to directly determine nanoparticle surface structure. Early nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies of CdSe nanocrystals prepared in tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (1) and tri-n-octylphosphine (2), suggested these coordinating solvents are datively bound to the particle surface. However, assigning the broad NMR resonances of surface-bound ligands is complicated by significant concentrations of phosphorus-containing impurities in commercial sources of 1, and XPS provides only limited information about the nature of the phosphorus containing molecules in the sample. More recent reports have shown the surface ligands of CdSe nanocrystals prepared in technical grade 1, and in the presence of alkylphosphonic acids, include phosphonic and phosphinic acids. These studies do not, however, distinguish whether these ligands are bound datively, as neutral, L-type ligands, or by X-type interaction of an anionic phosphonate/phosphinate moiety with a surface Cd{sup 2+} ion. Answering this question would help clarify why ligand exchange with such particles does not proceed generally as expected based on a L-type ligand model. By using reagents with reactive silicon-chalcogen and silicon-chlorine bonds to cleave the ligands from the nanocrystal surface, we show that our CdSe and CdSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystal surfaces are likely terminated by X-type binding of alkylphosphonate ligands to a layer of Cd{sup 2+}/Zn{sup 2+} ions, rather than by dative interactions. Further, we provide spectroscopic evidence that 1 and 2 are not coordinated to our purified nanocrystals.

  9. Microsphere Assemblies via Phosphonate Monoester Coordination Chemistry. (United States)

    Bladek, Kamila J; Reid, Margaret E; Nishihara, Hirotomo; Akhtar, Farid; Gelfand, Benjamin S; Shimizu, George K H


    By complexing a bent phosphonate monoester ligand with cobalt(II), coupled with in situ ester hydrolysis, coordination microspheres (CALS=CALgary Sphere) are formed whereas the use of the phosphonic acid directly resulted in a sheet-like structure. Manipulation of the synthetic conditions gave spheres with different sizes, mechanical stabilities, and porosities. Time-dependent studies determined that the sphere formation likely occurred through the formation of a Co 2+ and ligand chain that propagates in three dimensions through different sets of interactions. The relative rates of these assembly processes versus annealing by ester hydrolysis and metal dehydration determine the growth of the microspheres. Hardness testing by nanoindentation is carried out on the spheres and sheets. Notably, no templates or capping agents are employed, the growth of the spheres is intrinsic to the ligand geometry and the coordination chemistry of cobalt(II) and the phosphonate monoester. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Tunable longitudinal modes in extended silver nanoparticle assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serene S. Bayram


    Full Text Available Nanostructured materials with tunable properties are of great interest for a wide range of applications. The self-assembly of simple nanoparticle building blocks could provide an inexpensive means to achieve this goal. Here, we generate extended anisotropic silver nanoparticle assemblies in solution using controlled amounts of one of three inexpensive, widely available, and environmentally benign short ditopic ligands: cysteamine, dithiothreitol and cysteine in aqueous solution. The self-assembly of our extended structures is enforced by hydrogen bonding. Varying the ligand concentration modulates the extent and density of these unprecedented anisotropic structures. Our results show a correlation between the chain nature of the assembly and the generation of spectral anisotropy. Deuterating the ligand further enhances the anisotropic signal by triggering more compact aggregates and reveals the importance of solvent interactions in assembly size and morphology. Spectral and morphological evolutions of the AgNPs assemblies are followed via UV–visible spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Spectroscopic measurements are compared to calculations of the absorption spectra of randomly assembled silver chains and aggregates based on the discrete dipole approximation. The models support the experimental findings and reveal the importance of aggregate size and shape as well as particle polarizability in the plasmon coupling between nanoparticles.

  11. Ligand effects in aluminum cluster basedEnergetic materials (United States)


    heard of the term DFT. Dr. Hooper channeled Mr. Miyagi from the Karate Kid to help me learn DFT. There was quite a bit of “ paint the fence” and “wax...been achieved in the area of self-assembled monolayers [16]. Jouet et al. successfully produced organic-coated, oxide-free aluminum nanoparticles the formation of nanoparticles , and AlCp* units have proven to be an efficient ligand in many transition metal complexes [22]–[25]. Larger

  12. Estimation of kinetic and thermodynamic ligand-binding parameters using computational strategies. (United States)

    Deganutti, Giuseppe; Moro, Stefano


    Kinetic and thermodynamic ligand-protein binding parameters are gaining growing importance as key information to consider in drug discovery. The determination of the molecular structures, using particularly x-ray and NMR techniques, is crucial for understanding how a ligand recognizes its target in the final binding complex. However, for a better understanding of the recognition processes, experimental studies of ligand-protein interactions are needed. Even though several techniques can be used to investigate both thermodynamic and kinetic profiles for a ligand-protein complex, these procedures are very often laborious, time consuming and expensive. In the last 10 years, computational approaches have enormous potential in providing insights into each of the above effects and in parsing their contributions to the changes in both kinetic and thermodynamic binding parameters. The main purpose of this review is to summarize the state of the art of computational strategies for estimating the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of a ligand-protein binding.

  13. PANP is a novel O-glycosylated PILR{alpha} ligand expressed in neural tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogure, Amane [Department of Immunochemistry, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Laboratory of Immunochemistry, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Shiratori, Ikuo [Department of Immunochemistry, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Wang, Jing [Department of Immunochemistry, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Laboratory of Immunochemistry, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Lanier, Lewis L. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology and the Cancer Research Institute, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States); Arase, Hisashi, E-mail: [Department of Immunochemistry, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Laboratory of Immunochemistry, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); JST CREST, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)


    Research highlights: {yields} A Novel molecule, PANP, was identified to be a PILR{alpha} ligand. {yields} Sialylated O-glycan structures on PANP were required for PILR{alpha} recognition. {yields} Transcription of PANP was mainly observed in neural tissues. {yields} PANP seems to be involved in immune regulation as a ligand for PILR{alpha}. -- Abstract: PILR{alpha} is an immune inhibitory receptor possessing an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) in its cytoplasmic domain enabling it to deliver inhibitory signals. Binding of PILR{alpha} to its ligand CD99 is involved in immune regulation; however, whether there are other PILR{alpha} ligands in addition to CD99 is not known. Here, we report that a novel molecule, PILR-associating neural protein (PANP), acts as an additional ligand for PILR{alpha}. Transcription of PANP was mainly observed in neural tissues. PILR{alpha}-Ig fusion protein bound cells transfected with PANP and the transfectants stimulated PILR{alpha} reporter cells. Specific O-glycan structures on PANP were found to be required for PILR recognition of this ligand. These results suggest that PANP is involved in immune regulation as a ligand of the PILR{alpha}.

  14. Metal-ligand cooperation at tethered π-ligands. (United States)

    Verhoeven, Dide G A; Moret, Marc-Etienne


    Metal-ligand cooperativity in homogeneous catalysis is emerging as a powerful tool for the design of efficient transition-metal catalysts. This perspective highlights recent advances in the use of neutral π-coordinating ligands, tethered to a transition-metal center by other donor ligands, as cooperative reaction centers. The state-of-the-art organometallic complexes, including π-coordinating ligands originating from C[double bond, length as m-dash]C, C[double bond, length as m-dash]E (E = O, N) and boron containing moieties, are described here, with special attention on their specific reactivity. Geometric and electronic aspects of ligand design and their influence on the coordination mode and reactivity of the π-system are discussed.

  15. Macrocyclic Assembly: A Dive into the Pecking Order and Applied Aspects of Multitalented Metallomacrocycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashu Chaudhary


    Full Text Available To aid in knowledge of macrocyclic complexes and biomedical scientists, we are presenting here a review article with compilation of work done so far along in relation to macrocyclic ligands and their metal complexes. The metal ion chemistry of macrocyclic ligands has now become a major subdivision of coordination chemistry. This overview focuses on developments in design, synthesis, and self-assembly of metal-based architectures and ligands related to macrocyclic chemistry.

  16. Controllable coordination-driven self-assembly: from discrete metallocages to infinite cage-based frameworks. (United States)

    Chen, Lian; Chen, Qihui; Wu, Mingyan; Jiang, Feilong; Hong, Maochun


    CONSPECTUS: Nanosized supramolecular metallocages have a unique self-assembly process that allows chemists to both understand and control it. In addition, well-defined cavities of such supramolecular aggregates have various attractive applications including storage, separation, catalysis, recognition, drug delivery, and many others. Coordination-driven self-assembly of nanosized supramolecular metallocages is a powerful methodology to construct supramolecular metallocages with considerable size and desirable shapes. In this Account, we summarize our recent research on controllable coordination-driven assembly of supramolecular metallocages and infinite cage-based frameworks. To this end, we have chosen flexible ligands that can adopt various conformations and metal ions with suitable coordination sites for the rational design and assembly of metal-organic supramolecular ensembles. This has resulted in various types of metallocages including M3L2, M6L8, M6L4, and M12L8 with different sizes and shapes. Because the kinds of metal geometries are limited, we have found that we can replace single metal ions with metal clusters to alternatively increase molecular diversity and complexity. There are two clear-cut merits of this strategy. First, metal clusters are much bigger than single metal ions, which helps in the construction and stabilization of large metallocages, especially nanosized cages. Second, metal clusters can generate diverse assembly modes that chemists could not synthesize with single metal ions. This allows us to obtain a series of unprecedented supramolecular metallocages. The large cavities and potential unsaturated coordination sites of these discrete supramolecular cages offer opportunities to construct infinite cage-based frameworks. This in turn can offer us a new avenue to understand self-assembly and realize certain various functionalities. We introduce two types of infinite cage-based frameworks here: cage-based coordination polymers and cage

  17. Macrocyclic G-quadruplex ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M C; Ulven, Trond


    are macrocyclic structures which have been modeled after the natural product telomestatin or from porphyrin-based ligands discovered in the late 1990s. These two structural classes of G-quadruplex ligands are reviewed here with special attention to selectivity and structure-activity relationships, and with focus...

  18. Programmed Nanomaterial Assemblies in Large Scales: Applications of Synthetic and Genetically- Engineered Peptides to Bridge Nano-Assemblies and Macro-Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, Hiroshi


    Work is reported in these areas: Large-scale & reconfigurable 3D structures of precise nanoparticle assemblies in self-assembled collagen peptide grids; Binary QD-Au NP 3D superlattices assembled with collagen-like peptides and energy transfer between QD and Au NP in 3D peptide frameworks; Catalytic peptides discovered by new hydrogel-based combinatorial phage display approach and their enzyme-mimicking 2D assembly; New autonomous motors of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) powered by reorganization of self-assembled peptides at interfaces; Biomimetic assembly of proteins into microcapsules on oil-in-water droplets with structural reinforcement via biomolecular recognition-based cross-linking of surface peptides; and Biomimetic fabrication of strong freestanding genetically-engineered collagen peptide films reinforced by quantum dot joints. We gained the broad knowledge about biomimetic material assembly from nanoscale to microscale ranges by coassembling peptides and NPs via biomolecular recognition. We discovered: Genetically-engineered collagen-like peptides can be self-assembled with Au NPs to generate 3D superlattices in large volumes (> μm{sup 3}); The assembly of the 3D peptide-Au NP superstructures is dynamic and the interparticle distance changes with assembly time as the reconfiguration of structure is triggered by pH change; QDs/NPs can be assembled with the peptide frameworks to generate 3D superlattices and these QDs/NPs can be electronically coupled for the efficient energy transfer; The controlled assembly of catalytic peptides mimicking the catalytic pocket of enzymes can catalyze chemical reactions with high selectivity; and, For the bacteria-mimicking swimmer fabrication, peptide-MOF superlattices can power translational and propellant motions by the reconfiguration of peptide assembly at the MOF-liquid interface.

  19. Selectin ligands and tumor-associated carbohydrate structures: specificities of alpha 2,3-sialyltransferases in the assembly of 3'-sialyl-6-sialyl/sulfo Lewis a and x, 3'-sialyl-6'-sulfo Lewis x, and 3'-sialyl-6-sialyl/sulfo blood group T-hapten. (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, E V; Jain, R K; Larsen, R D; Wlasichuk, K; Matta, K L


    The sequence in the assembly of the functional unit of selectin ligands containing sulfate, sialic acid, and fucose and also tumor-associated O-glycan structures was studied by examining the specificities of alpha 2,3-sialyltransferases (ST). The first enzyme, porcine liver ST, was 57, 37, and 79% active (Km: 0.105, 0.420, and 0.200 mM), respectively, toward 6-sulfo, 6-sialyl, or 6-O-methyl derivatives of the Gal beta 1,3GalNAc alpha- unit; C-3 or C-6 substitution on Gal abolished sialylation. An acrylamide copolymer (MW approximately 40,000) containing approximately 40 T-haptens and asialo Cowper's gland mucin (MW approximately 200,000) containing approximately 48 T-haptens was 5-fold more active as an acceptor as compared to Gal beta 1, 3GalNAc alpha-O-Al on a molecular weight basis. The second enzyme, a cloned alpha-2,3-ST specific for lactose-based structure, was 70, 102, and 108% active (Km: 0.500, 0.210, and 0.330 mM), respectively, toward 6-sialyl, 6-sulfo, or 6-O-methyl derivatives of the Gal beta 1,3GlcNAc beta- unit; C-3 and C-6 substitution on Gal abolished sialylation. Gal beta 1,4GlcNAc beta- and its 6-sulfo derivative were approximately 20% active; the Lewis a structure, Gal beta 1,3- (Fuc alpha 1,4)GlcNAc beta-, was not an acceptor. The acrylamide copolymers containing approximately 40 units of Gal beta 1,3GlcNAc beta-, Gal beta 1,3(6-sulfo)GlcNAc beta-, or fetuin triantennary asialo or bovine IgG diantennary glycopeptides were respectively 5.9-, 5.4-, 0.7-, and 0.1-fold as active. A transfer of 7-9 mol of NeuAc per mole of the above copolymers was catalyzed by this ST, the sialyl linkage being susceptible to alpha 2,3-specific sialidase. A partially purified Colo 205 Lewis type (alpha 1, 3/4) fucosyltransferase catalyzed the formation of 3'-sialyl-6-sulfo Lewis a from [9-3H]NeuAc alpha 2, 3Gal beta 1, 3(6-sulfo)GlcNAc beta-O-Allyl and copolymer containing [9-3H]NeuAc alpha 2, 3Gal beta 1, 3(6-sulfo)GlcNAc beta- units, using GDP[14C]Fuc as fucosyl

  20. Multimodal eye recognition (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi; Du, Yingzi; Thomas, N. L.; Delp, Edward J., III


    Multimodal biometrics use more than one means of biometric identification to achieve higher recognition accuracy, since sometimes a unimodal biometric is not good enough used to do identification and classification. In this paper, we proposed a multimodal eye recognition system, which can obtain both iris and sclera patterns from one color eye image. Gabor filter and 1-D Log-Gabor filter algorithms have been applied as the iris recognition algorithms. In sclera recognition, we introduced automatic sclera segmentation, sclera pattern enhancement, sclera pattern template generation, and sclera pattern matching. We applied kernelbased matching score fusion to improve the performance of the eye recognition system. The experimental results show that the proposed eye recognition method can achieve better performance compared to unimodal biometric identification, and the accuracy of our proposed kernel-based matching score fusion method is higher than two classic linear matching score fusion methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA).

  1. Investigation of synthetic molecular recognition for biosensing applications (United States)

    Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra N.; McMasters, Sun; Sooter, Letha J.; Pellegrino, Paul M.


    A fundamental understanding of the factors which influence binding performance is critical to any technology or methodology relying on molecular recognition of a specific target species. For the Army, there is a growing need for a basic understanding of these interactions with traditional recognition elements (e.g., antibodies) in non-traditional environmental conditions, such as with new and emerging threats. There is a similar need for building a base of knowledge on non-traditional affinity ligands that are biomimetic or biosynthetic in nature. In this paper, specific research at the Army Research Laboratory towards the development, evaluation and use of synthetic affinity ligands for sensing applications is discussed. This includes the results of our investigations of aptamer-based affinity ligands targeting Campylobacter jejuni. Using capillary electrophoretic techniques, the relative binding affinities of the aptamer ligands towards the target pathogen as well as the degree of cross-reactivity with other food borne-pathogens (i.e., Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium) were evaluated. Current progress towards the development of synthetic affinity ligands for sensing applications will also be discussed.

  2. Pattern recognition & machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Anzai, Y


    This is the first text to provide a unified and self-contained introduction to visual pattern recognition and machine learning. It is useful as a general introduction to artifical intelligence and knowledge engineering, and no previous knowledge of pattern recognition or machine learning is necessary. Basic for various pattern recognition and machine learning methods. Translated from Japanese, the book also features chapter exercises, keywords, and summaries.

  3. Colorimetric recognition of the coralyne-poly(dA) interaction using unmodified gold nanoparticle probes, and further detection of coralyne based upon this recognition system. (United States)

    Lv, Zhaozi; Wei, Hui; Li, Bingling; Wang, Erkang


    Among the functional nucleic acids studied, adenine-rich nucleic acids have attracted attention due to their critical roles in many biological processes and self-assembly-based nanomaterials, especially deoxyribonucleic acids (abbreviated as poly(dA)). Therefore the ligands binding to poly(dA) might serve as potential therapeutic agents. Coralyne, a kind of planar alkaloid, has been firstly found that it could bind strongly to poly(dA). This work herein reports an approach for visual sensing of the coralyne-poly(dA) interaction. This method was based on the coralyne inducing poly(dA) into the homo-adenine DNA duplex and the difference in electrostatic affinity between single-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA with gold nanoparticles (GNPs). Furthermore, we applied the recognition process of the interaction between coralyne and poly(dA) into specific coralyne detection with the assistance of certain software (such as Photoshop). A linear response from 0 to 728 nM was obtained for coralyne, and a detection limit of 91 nM was achieved.

  4. Recognition and Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune


    Recognition and toleration are ways of relating to the diversity characteristic of multicultural societies. The article concerns the possible meanings of toleration and recognition, and the conflict that is often claimed to exist between these two approaches to diversity. Different forms or inter......Recognition and toleration are ways of relating to the diversity characteristic of multicultural societies. The article concerns the possible meanings of toleration and recognition, and the conflict that is often claimed to exist between these two approaches to diversity. Different forms...

  5. Statistical Pattern Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Andrew R


    Statistical pattern recognition relates to the use of statistical techniques for analysing data measurements in order to extract information and make justified decisions.  It is a very active area of study and research, which has seen many advances in recent years. Applications such as data mining, web searching, multimedia data retrieval, face recognition, and cursive handwriting recognition, all require robust and efficient pattern recognition techniques. This third edition provides an introduction to statistical pattern theory and techniques, with material drawn from a wide range of fields,

  6. Bos taurus genome assembly. (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Qin, Xiang; Song, Xing-Zhi Henry; Jiang, Huaiyang; Shen, Yufeng; Durbin, K James; Lien, Sigbjørn; Kent, Matthew Peter; Sodeland, Marte; Ren, Yanru; Zhang, Lan; Sodergren, Erica; Havlak, Paul; Worley, Kim C; Weinstock, George M; Gibbs, Richard A


    We present here the assembly of the bovine genome. The assembly method combines the BAC plus WGS local assembly used for the rat and sea urchin with the whole genome shotgun (WGS) only assembly used for many other animal genomes including the rhesus macaque. The assembly process consisted of multiple phases: First, BACs were assembled with BAC generated sequence, then subsequently in combination with the individual overlapping WGS reads. Different assembly parameters were tested to separately optimize the performance for each BAC assembly of the BAC and WGS reads. In parallel, a second assembly was produced using only the WGS sequences and a global whole genome assembly method. The two assemblies were combined to create a more complete genome representation that retained the high quality BAC-based local assembly information, but with gaps between BACs filled in with the WGS-only assembly. Finally, the entire assembly was placed on chromosomes using the available map information.Over 90% of the assembly is now placed on chromosomes. The estimated genome size is 2.87 Gb which represents a high degree of completeness, with 95% of the available EST sequences found in assembled contigs. The quality of the assembly was evaluated by comparison to 73 finished BACs, where the draft assembly covers between 92.5 and 100% (average 98.5%) of the finished BACs. The assembly contigs and scaffolds align linearly to the finished BACs, suggesting that misassemblies are rare. Genotyping and genetic mapping of 17,482 SNPs revealed that more than 99.2% were correctly positioned within the Btau_4.0 assembly, confirming the accuracy of the assembly. The biological analysis of this bovine genome assembly is being published, and the sequence data is available to support future bovine research.

  7. Bos taurus genome assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sodergren Erica


    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present here the assembly of the bovine genome. The assembly method combines the BAC plus WGS local assembly used for the rat and sea urchin with the whole genome shotgun (WGS only assembly used for many other animal genomes including the rhesus macaque. Results The assembly process consisted of multiple phases: First, BACs were assembled with BAC generated sequence, then subsequently in combination with the individual overlapping WGS reads. Different assembly parameters were tested to separately optimize the performance for each BAC assembly of the BAC and WGS reads. In parallel, a second assembly was produced using only the WGS sequences and a global whole genome assembly method. The two assemblies were combined to create a more complete genome representation that retained the high quality BAC-based local assembly information, but with gaps between BACs filled in with the WGS-only assembly. Finally, the entire assembly was placed on chromosomes using the available map information. Over 90% of the assembly is now placed on chromosomes. The estimated genome size is 2.87 Gb which represents a high degree of completeness, with 95% of the available EST sequences found in assembled contigs. The quality of the assembly was evaluated by comparison to 73 finished BACs, where the draft assembly covers between 92.5 and 100% (average 98.5% of the finished BACs. The assembly contigs and scaffolds align linearly to the finished BACs, suggesting that misassemblies are rare. Genotyping and genetic mapping of 17,482 SNPs revealed that more than 99.2% were correctly positioned within the Btau_4.0 assembly, confirming the accuracy of the assembly. Conclusion The biological analysis of this bovine genome assembly is being published, and the sequence data is available to support future bovine research.

  8. 2-deoxy D-glucose prevents cell surface expression of NKG2D ligands through inhibition of N-linked glycosylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Lars; Skovbakke, Sarah Line; Persson, Gry


    NKG2D ligand surface expression is important for immune recognition of stressed and neotransformed cells. In this study, we show that surface expression of MICA/B and other NKG2D ligands is dependent on N-linked glycosylation. The inhibitor of glycolysis and N-linked glycosylation, 2-deoxy...

  9. The fertilization layer mediated block to polyspermy in Xenopus laevis: isolation of the cortical granule lectin ligand. (United States)

    Quill, T A; Hedrick, J L


    The fertilization layer of Xenopus laevis eggs is formed by the cortical granule lectin binding to its ligand. The binding requires Ca2+, is specific for galactose, and functionally establishes a block to polyspermy at fertilization. We have designed a new enzyme-linked lectin assay for the cortical granule lectin (CGL) ligand which can detect the presence of the CGL ligand at a sensitivity of 1-2 ng/ml. This assay is specifically inhibited with galactose, 50% inhibition at 9.9 mM, and produces a linear response between 2 and 20 ng of jelly adsorbed to the microtiter plate. Using this assay, the CGL ligand was purified through gel filtration, anion-exchange, and CGL affinity chromatography. Hydrolysis of the purified CGL ligand with a series of exoglycosidases showed that a terminal alpha-galactose is the ligand structure required for recognition by CGL.

  10. Vesicular stomatitis virus infection promotes immune evasion by preventing NKG2D-ligand surface expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Jensen

    Full Text Available Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV has recently gained attention for its oncolytic ability in cancer treatment. Initially, we hypothesized that VSV infection could increase immune recognition of cancer cells through induction of the immune stimulatory NKG2D-ligands. Here we show that VSV infection leads to a robust induction of MICA mRNA expression, however the subsequent surface expression is potently hindered. Thus, VSV lines up with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV and adenovirus, which actively subvert the immune system by negatively affecting NKG2D-ligand surface expression. VSV infection caused an active suppression of NKG2D-ligand surface expression, affecting both endogenous and histone deacetylase (HDAC-inhibitor induced MICA, MICB and ULBP-2 expression. The classical immune escape mechanism of VSV (i.e., the M protein blockade of nucleocytoplasmic mRNA transport was not involved, as the VSV mutant strain, VSV(ΔM51, which possess a defective M protein, prevented MICA surface expression similarly to wild-type VSV. The VSV mediated down modulation of NKG2D-ligand expression did not involve apoptosis. Constitutive expression of MICA bypassed the escape mechanism, suggesting that VSV affect NKG2D-ligand expression at an early post-transcriptional level. Our results show that VSV possess an escape mechanism, which could affect the immune recognition of VSV infected cancer cells. This may also have implications for immune recognition of cancer cells after combined treatment with VSV and chemotherapeutic drugs.

  11. Modulation of the immune system by ligands of the C-type lectin DC-SIGN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijzen, K.


    DC-SIGN is a C-type lectin specifically expressed on dendritic cells that recognize high-mannose and fucose glycans. This carbohydrate specificity of DC-SIGN enables recognition of a large array of ligands which include both pathogen-derived as well as endogenous glycoconjugates. Because of the wide

  12. NNAlign: a platform to construct and evaluate artificial neural network models of receptor-ligand interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Andreatta, Massimo


    Peptides are extensively used to characterize functional or (linear) structural aspects of receptor-ligand interactions in biological systems, e.g. SH2, SH3, PDZ peptide-recognition domains, the MHC membrane receptors and enzymes such as kinases and phosphatases. NNAlign is a method for the ident...

  13. Toxoplasma gondii peptide ligands open the gate of the HLA class I binding groove

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McMurtrey, Curtis; Trolle, Thomas; Sansom, Tiffany


    HLA class I presentation of pathogen-derived peptide ligands is essential for CD8+ T cell recognition of Toxoplasma gondii infected cells. Currently, little data exist pertaining to peptides that are presented after T. gondii infection. Herein we purify HLA-A*02:01 complexes from T. gondii infected...

  14. GAP: A computer program for gene assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisnstein, J.R.; Uberbacher, E.C.; Guan, X.; Mural, R.J.; Mann, R.C.


    A computer program, GAP (Gene Assembly Program), has been written to assemble and score hypothetical genes, given a DNA sequence containing the gene, and the outputs of several other programs which analyze the sequence. These programs include the codign-recognition and splice-junction-recognition modules developed in this laboratory. GAP is a prototype of a planned system in which it will be integrated with an expert system and rule base. Initial tests of GAP have been carried out with four sequences, the exons of which have been determined by biochemcial methods. The highest-scoring hypothetical genes for each of the four sequences had percent correct splice junctions ranging from 50 to 100% (average 81%) and percent correct bases ranging from 92 to 100% (average 96%). 9 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Ligand design for multidimensional magnetic materials: a metallosupramolecular perspective. (United States)

    Pardo, Emilio; Ruiz-García, Rafael; Cano, Joan; Ottenwaelder, Xavier; Lescouëzec, Rodrigue; Journaux, Yves; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel


    The aim and scope of this review is to show the general validity of the 'complex-as-ligand' approach for the rational design of metallosupramolecular assemblies of increasing structural and magnetic complexity. This is illustrated herein on the basis of our recent studies on oxamato complexes with transition metal ions looking for the limits of the research avenue opened by Kahn's pioneering research twenty years ago. The use as building blocks of mono-, di- and trinuclear metal complexes with a novel family of aromatic polyoxamato ligands allowed us to move further in the coordination chemistry-based approach to high-nuclearity coordination compounds and high-dimensionality coordination polymers. In order to do so, we have taken advantage of the new developments of metallosupramolecular chemistry and in particular, of the molecular-programmed self-assembly methods that exploit the coordination preferences of metal ions and specifically tailored ligands. The judicious choice of the oxamato metal building block (substitution pattern and steric requirements of the bridging ligand, as well as the electronic configuration and magnetic anisotropy of the metal ion) allowed us to control the overall structure and magnetic properties of the final multidimensional nD products (n = 0-3). These species exhibit interesting magnetic properties which are brand-new targets in the field of molecular magnetism, such as single-molecule or single-chain magnets, and the well-known class of molecule-based magnets. This unique family of molecule-based magnetic materials expands on the reported examples of nD species with cyanide and related oxalato and dithiooxalato analogues. Moreover, the development of new oxamato metal building blocks with potential photo or redox activity at the aromatic ligand counterpart will provide us with addressable, multifunctional molecular materials for future applications in molecular electronics and nanotechnology.

  16. Two novel mixed-ligand complexes containing organosulfonate ligands. (United States)

    Li, Mingtian; Huang, Jun; Zhou, Xuan; Fang, Hua; Ding, Liyun


    The structures reported herein, viz. bis(4-aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonato-kappaO)bis(4,5-diazafluoren-9-one-kappa(2)N,N')copper(II), [Cu(C(10)H(8)NO(3)S)(2)(C(11)H(6)N(2)O)(2)], (I), and poly[[[diaquacadmium(II)]-bis(mu-4-aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonato)-kappa(2)O:N;kappa(2)N:O] dihydrate], {[Cd(C(10)H(8)NO(3)S)(2)(H(2)O)(2)].2H(2)O}(n), (II), are rare examples of sulfonate-containing complexes where the anion does not fulfill a passive charge-balancing role, but takes an active part in coordination as a monodentate and/or bridging ligand. Monomeric complex (I) possesses a crystallographic inversion center at the Cu(II) atom, and the asymmetric unit contains one-half of a Cu atom, one complete 4-aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonate (ans) ligand and one 4,5-diazafluoren-9-one (DAFO) ligand. The Cu(II) atom has an elongated distorted octahedral coordination geometry formed by two O atoms from two monodentate ans ligands and by four N atoms from two DAFO molecules. Complex (II) is polymeric and its crystal structure is built up by one-dimensional chains and solvent water molecules. Here also the cation (a Cd(II) atom) lies on a crystallographic inversion center and adopts a slightly distorted octahedral geometry. Each ans anion serves as a bridging ligand linking two Cd(II) atoms into one-dimensional infinite chains along the [010] direction, with each Cd(II) center coordinated by four ans ligands via O and N atoms and by two aqua ligands. In both structures, there are significant pi-pi stacking interactions between adjacent ligands and hydrogen bonds contribute to the formation of two- and three-dimensional networks.

  17. NMR and computational methods in the structural and dynamic characterization of ligand-receptor interactions. (United States)

    Ghitti, Michela; Musco, Giovanna; Spitaleri, Andrea


    The recurrent failures in drug discovery campaigns, the asymmetry between the enormous financial investments and the relatively scarce results have fostered the development of strategies based on complementary methods. In this context in recent years the rigid lock-and-key binding concept had to be revisited in favour of a dynamic model of molecular recognition accounting for conformational changes of both the ligand and the receptor. The high level of complexity required by a dynamic description of the processes underlying molecular recognition requires a multidisciplinary investigation approach. In this perspective, the combination of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with molecular docking, conformational searches along with molecular dynamics simulations has given new insights into the dynamic mechanisms governing ligand receptor interactions, thus giving an enormous contribution to the identification and design of new and effective drugs. Herein a succinct overview on the applications of both NMR and computational methods to the structural and dynamic characterization of ligand-receptor interactions will be presented.

  18. Recognition and Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune


    Recognition and toleration are ways of relating to the diversity characteristic of multicultural societies. The article concerns the possible meanings of toleration and recognition, and the conflict that is often claimed to exist between these two approaches to diversity. Different forms or inter...

  19. Recognition as care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlmark, Nanna; Whyte, Susan Reynolds; Harting, Janneke


    -based and solidarity-based recognition to analyse what was at stake in these experiences, and we engage Annemarie Mol’s concept of a logic of care to show how recognition unfolded practically during the training. We propose that participants’ wider social context and experiences of misrecognition situated the training...

  20. Molecular Recognition Directed Self-Assembly of Supramolecular Architectures (United States)


    or hexa-coordinated, is too large to fit within the crown ether cavity and is, therefore, complexed in a sandwich manner by two moles of benzo-15...those from their chain ends and 26 are named dendrimers or arbols . These names are, however, synony’mies of Greek, Latin and respective English origin

  1. Newnes electronics assembly handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith


    Newnes Electronics Assembly Handbook: Techniques, Standards and Quality Assurance focuses on the aspects of electronic assembling. The handbook first looks at the printed circuit board (PCB). Base materials, basic mechanical properties, cleaning of assemblies, design, and PCB manufacturing processes are then explained. The text also discusses surface mounted assemblies and packaging of electromechanical assemblies, as well as the soldering process. Requirements for the soldering process; solderability and protective coatings; cleaning of PCBs; and mass solder/component reflow soldering are des

  2. Challenging ocular image recognition (United States)

    Pauca, V. Paúl; Forkin, Michael; Xu, Xiao; Plemmons, Robert; Ross, Arun A.


    Ocular recognition is a new area of biometric investigation targeted at overcoming the limitations of iris recognition performance in the presence of non-ideal data. There are several advantages for increasing the area beyond the iris, yet there are also key issues that must be addressed such as size of the ocular region, factors affecting performance, and appropriate corpora to study these factors in isolation. In this paper, we explore and identify some of these issues with the goal of better defining parameters for ocular recognition. An empirical study is performed where iris recognition methods are contrasted with texture and point operators on existing iris and face datasets. The experimental results show a dramatic recognition performance gain when additional features are considered in the presence of poor quality iris data, offering strong evidence for extending interest beyond the iris. The experiments also highlight the need for the direct collection of additional ocular imagery.

  3. Tilt assembly for tracking solar collector assembly (United States)

    Almy, Charles; Peurach, John; Sandler, Reuben


    A tilt assembly is used with a solar collector assembly of the type comprising a frame, supporting a solar collector, for movement about a tilt axis by pivoting a drive element between first and second orientations. The tilt assembly comprises a drive element coupler connected to the drive element and a driver, the driver comprising a drive frame, a drive arm and a drive arm driver. The drive arm is mounted to the drive frame for pivotal movement about a drive arm axis. Movement on the drive arm mimics movement of the drive element. Drive element couplers can extend in opposite directions from the outer portion of the drive arm, whereby the assembly can be used between adjacent solar collector assemblies in a row of solar collector assemblies.

  4. Heme-Protein Active Site Models via Self-Assembly in Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiammengo, R.; Wojciechowski, Kamil; Crego Calama, Mercedes; Figoli, A.; Wessling, Matthias; Reinhoudt, David; Timmerman, P.


    Water-soluble models of heme-protein active sites are obtained via the self-assembly of cationic porphyrins 1 and tetrasulfonato calix[4]arene 2 (K1·2 = 105 M-1). Selective binding of ligands either outside or inside the cavity of assemblies 1·2 via coordination to the zinc center has been observed.

  5. Correcting ligands, metabolites, and pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ott, M.A.; Vriend, G.


    BACKGROUND: A wide range of research areas in bioinformatics, molecular biology and medicinal chemistry require precise chemical structure information about molecules and reactions, e.g. drug design, ligand docking, metabolic network reconstruction, and systems biology. Most available databases,

  6. FAS Ligand Triggers Pulmonary Silicosis (United States)

    Borges, Valéria M.; Falcão, Haroldo; Leite-Júnior, José H.; Alvim, Luciana; Teixeira, Gerlinde P.; Russo, Momtchilo; Nóbrega, Alberto F.; Lopes, Marcela F.; Rocco, Patricia M.; Davidson, Wendy F.; Linden, Rafael; Yagita, Hideo; Zin, Walter A.; DosReis, George A.


    We investigated the role of Fas ligand in murine silicosis. Wild-type mice instilled with silica developed severe pulmonary inflammation, with local production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interstitial neutrophil and macrophage infiltration in the lungs. Strikingly, Fas ligand–deficient generalized lymphoproliferative disease mutant (gld) mice did not develop silicosis. The gld mice had markedly reduced neutrophil extravasation into bronchoalveolar space, and did not show increased TNF-α production, nor pulmonary inflammation. Bone marrow chimeras and local adoptive transfer demonstrated that wild-type, but not Fas ligand–deficient lung macrophages recruit neutrophils and initiate silicosis. Silica induced Fas ligand expression in lung macrophages in vitro and in vivo, and promoted Fas ligand–dependent macrophage apoptosis. Administration of neutralizing anti-Fas ligand antibody in vivo blocked induction of silicosis. Thus, Fas ligand plays a central role in induction of pulmonary silicosis. PMID:11457890

  7. Metabolic Value Chemoattractants Are Preferentially Recognized at Broad Ligand Range Chemoreceptor of Pseudomonas putida KT2440

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Fernández


    Full Text Available Bacteria have evolved a wide range of chemoreceptors with different ligand specificities. Typically, chemoreceptors bind ligands with elevated specificity and ligands serve as growth substrates. However, there is a chemoreceptor family that has a broad ligand specificity including many compounds that are not of metabolic value. To advance the understanding of this family, we have used the PcaY_PP (PP2643 chemoreceptor of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 as a model. Using Isothermal Titration Calorimetry we showed here that the recombinant ligand binding domain (LBD of PcaY_PP recognizes 17 different C6-ring containing carboxylic acids with KD values between 3.7 and 138 μM and chemoeffector affinity correlated with the magnitude of the chemotactic response. Mutation of the pcaY_PP gene abolished chemotaxis to these compounds; phenotype that was restored following gene complementation. Growth experiments using PcaY_PP ligands as sole C-sources revealed functional relationships between their metabolic potential and affinity for the chemoreceptor. Thus, only 7 PcaY_PP ligands supported growth and their KD values correlated with the length of the bacterial lag phase. Furthermore, PcaY_PP ligands that did not support growth had significantly higher KD values than those that did. The receptor has thus binds preferentially compounds that serve as C-sources and amongst them those that rapidly promote growth. Tightest binding compounds were quinate, shikimate, 3-dehydroshikimate and protocatechuate, which are at the interception of the biosynthetic shikimate and catabolic quinate pathways. Analytical ultracentrifugation studies showed that ligand free PcaY_PP-LBD is present in a monomer-dimer equilibrium (KD = 57.5 μM. Ligand binding caused a complete shift to the dimeric state, which appears to be a general feature of four-helix bundle LBDs. This study indicates that the metabolic potential of compounds is an important parameter in the molecular recognition

  8. Metal ligand aromatic cation-pi interactions in metalloproteins: ligands coordinated to metal interact with aromatic residues. (United States)

    Zarić, S D; Popović, D M; Knapp, E W


    Cation-pi interactions between aromatic residues and cationic amino groups in side chains and have been recognized as noncovalent bonding interactions relevant for molecular recognition and for stabilization and definition of the native structure of proteins. We propose a novel type of cation-pi interaction in metalloproteins; namely interaction between ligands coordinated to a metal cation--which gain positive charge from the metal--and aromatic groups in amino acid side chains. Investigation of crystal structures of metalloproteins in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) has revealed that there exist quite a number of metalloproteins in which aromatic rings of phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan are situated close to a metal center interacting with coordinated ligands. Among these ligands are amino acids such as asparagine, aspartate, glutamate, histidine, and threonine, but also water and substrates like ethanol. These interactions play a role in the stability and conformation of metalloproteins, and in some cases may also be directly involved in the mechanism of enzymatic reactions, which occur at the metal center. For the enzyme superoxide dismutase, we used quantum chemical computation to calculate that Trp163 has an interaction energy of 10.09 kcal mol(-1) with the ligands coordinated to iron.

  9. Innate immune recognition of the microbiota promotes host-microbial symbiosis


    Chu, Hiutung; Mazmanian, Sarkis K.


    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are traditionally known to recognize microbial molecules during infection to initiate inflammatory responses. However, ligands for PRRs are not exclusive to pathogens, and are abundantly produced by the resident microbiota during normal colonization. Mechanism(s) that underlie this paradox have remained unclear. Recent studies reveal that gut bacterial ligands from the microbiota signal through PRRs to promote host tissue and immune development, and protec...

  10. Recognition: Conceptualization and Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimmler, Antje


    be evaluated. In the first section, I will introduce the concept of recognition as a travelling concept playing a role both on the intellectual stage and in real life. In the second section, I will concentrate on the presentation of Honneth’s theory of recognition, emphasizing the construction of the concept......In this article, I shall examine the cognitive, heuristic and theoretical functions of the concept of recognition. To evaluate both the explanatory power and the limitations of a sociological concept, the theory construction must be analysed and its actual productivity for sociological theory must...

  11. Autonomous electrochromic assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berland, Brian Spencer; Lanning, Bruce Roy; Stowell, Jr., Michael Wayne


    This disclosure describes system and methods for creating an autonomous electrochromic assembly, and systems and methods for use of the autonomous electrochromic assembly in combination with a window. Embodiments described herein include an electrochromic assembly that has an electrochromic device, an energy storage device, an energy collection device, and an electrochromic controller device. These devices may be combined into a unitary electrochromic insert assembly. The electrochromic assembly may have the capability of generating power sufficient to operate and control an electrochromic device. This control may occur through the application of a voltage to an electrochromic device to change its opacity state. The electrochromic assembly may be used in combination with a window.

  12. Firearm trigger assembly (United States)

    Crandall, David L.; Watson, Richard W.


    A firearm trigger assembly for use with a firearm includes a trigger mounted to a forestock of the firearm so that the trigger is movable between a rest position and a triggering position by a forwardly placed support hand of a user. An elongated trigger member operatively associated with the trigger operates a sear assembly of the firearm when the trigger is moved to the triggering position. An action release assembly operatively associated with the firearm trigger assembly and a movable assembly of the firearm prevents the trigger from being moved to the triggering position when the movable assembly is not in the locked position.

  13. Nanoparticle Assemblies at Fluid Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Thomas P. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States). Dept. of Polymer Science and Engineering


    A systematic study of the structure and dynamics of nanoparticles (NP) and NP-surfactants was performed. The ligands attached to both the NPs and NP-surfactants dictate the manner in which the nanoscopic materials assemble at fluid interfaces. Studies have shown that a single layer of the nanoscpic materials form at the interface to reduce the interactions between the two immiscible fluids. The shape of the NP is, also, important, where for spherical particles, a disordered, liquid-like monolayer forms, and, for nanorods, ordered domains at the interface is found and, if the monolayers are compressed, the orientation of the nanorods with respect to the interface can change. By associating end-functionalized polymers to the NPs assembled at the interface, NP-surfactants are formed that increase the energetic gain in segregating each NP at the interface which allows the NP-surfactants to jam at the interface when compressed. This has opened the possibility of structuring the two liquids by freezing in shape changes of the liquids.

  14. Inhibitory and Coactivating Receptors Recognising the Same Ligand: Immune Homeostasis Exploited by Pathogens and Tumours. (United States)

    Levi-Schaffer, Francesca; Mandelboim, Ofer


    Coactivating and inhibitory receptors that share at least one ligand interact with a wide variety of ligands, indicating their importance in a range of situations. Here, we discuss principles of mainly human paired receptor function and ligand recognition, and possible therapeutic implications of targeting these receptors in cancer, autoimmune diseases, and allergy. We summarise and emphasise the idea that these receptors, which have evolved in part in response to pathogen pressure, fine-tune the immune response, preserve homeostasis, and that pathogens and tumours use the dominance of the inhibitory receptors over the coactivating receptors to avoid immune elimination. Finally, we discuss the options of using paired receptors and their ligand for immune cell education and therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Contrasting roles for TLR ligands in HIV-1 pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beda Brichacek


    Full Text Available The first line of a host's response to various pathogens is triggered by their engagement of cellular pattern recognition receptors (PRRs. Binding of microbial ligands to these receptors leads to the induction of a variety of cellular factors that alter intracellular and extracellular environment and interfere directly or indirectly with the life cycle of the triggering pathogen. Such changes may also affect any coinfecting microbe. Using ligands to Toll-like receptors (TLRs 5 and 9, we examined their effect on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 replication in lymphoid tissue ex vivo. We found marked differences in the outcomes of such treatment. While flagellin (TLR5 agonist treatment enhanced replication of CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR 5-tropic and CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4-tropic HIV-1, treatment with oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN M362 (TLR9 agonist suppressed both viral variants. The differential effects of these TLR ligands on HIV-1 replication correlated with changes in production of CC chemokines CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, and of CXC chemokines CXCL10, and CXCL12 in the ligand-treated HIV-1-infected tissues. The nature and/or magnitude of these changes were dependent on the ligand as well as on the HIV-1 viral strain. Moreover, the tested ligands differed in their ability to induce cellular activation as evaluated by the expression of the cluster of differentiation markers (CD 25, CD38, CD39, CD69, CD154, and human leukocyte antigen D related (HLA-DR as well as of a cell proliferation marker, Ki67, and of CCR5. No significant effect of the ligand treatment was observed on apoptosis and cell death/loss in the treated lymphoid tissue ex vivo. Our results suggest that binding of microbial ligands to TLRs is one of the mechanisms that mediate interactions between coinfected microbes and HIV-1 in human tissues. Thus, the engagement of appropriate TLRs by microbial molecules or their mimetic might become a new strategy for HIV therapy or prevention.

  16. Machine Recognition vs Human Recognition of Voices (United States)


    been studied for a while. For example, an early reference [1] is from 1966. 10 male speakers were recorded and their voices were presented to 16... recognized . The accuracy of speaker recognition for disyllables was 87%. For monosyllables, it was 81%, consonant-vowel excerpts were 63%, and...vowel excerpts were 56%. Thus, they demonstrated that the identification performance decreased as the number of phonemes decreased. In [2], the

  17. A multistep continuous-flow system for rapid on-demand synthesis of receptor ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Trine P; Ritzén, Andreas; Ulven, Trond


    A multistep continuous-flow system for synthesis of receptor ligands by assembly of three variable building blocks in a single unbroken flow is described. The sequence consists of three reactions and two scavenger steps, where a Cbz-protected diamine is reacted with an isocyanate, deprotected, an...

  18. Conformational proofreading: the impact of conformational changes on the specificity of molecular recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonatan Savir

    Full Text Available To perform recognition, molecules must locate and specifically bind their targets within a noisy biochemical environment with many look-alikes. Molecular recognition processes, especially the induced-fit mechanism, are known to involve conformational changes. This raises a basic question: Does molecular recognition gain any advantage by such conformational changes? By introducing a simple statistical-mechanics approach, we study the effect of conformation and flexibility on the quality of recognition processes. Our model relates specificity to the conformation of the participant molecules and thus suggests a possible answer: Optimal specificity is achieved when the ligand is slightly off target; that is, a conformational mismatch between the ligand and its main target improves the selectivity of the process. This indicates that deformations upon binding serve as a conformational proofreading mechanism, which may be selected for via evolution.

  19. A proposal for positive cooperation in anion-cation binding in yttrium and lutetium complexes based on o-amino-substituted phenolate ligands. On the way to coordination polymers by self-assembly. Molecular structures of [ClLu(OAr)3Na] (X-ray) and [ClY(OAr')3Y(OAr')3Na] (X-ray and 89Y-NMR)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Hogerheide, M.P.; Ringelberg, S.N.; Grove, D.M.; Jastrzebski, J.T.B.H.; Boersma, J.; Smeets, W.J.J.; Spek, A.L.


    Unique hetero(poly)metallic complexes [ClM(OAr)3Na] (M = Lu (3a), Y (3b)) and [ClY(OAr')3Y(OAr')3Na] (4) containing the bis (OAr = OC6H2(CH2NMe2)2-2,6-Me-4) and mono (OAr' = OC6H4(CH2NMe2)-2) o-amino-substituted phenolate ligands have been synthesized and characterized by NMR (1H, 13C, and 89Y) and

  20. Algebraic pattern recognition (United States)

    Przybyłek, Michał R.


    This paper offers an algebraic explanation for the phenomenon of a new and prosperous branch of evolutionary metaheuristics - "skeletal algorithms". We show how this explanation gives rise to algorithms for recognition of algebraic theories and present sample applications.

  1. Forensic speaker recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier


    The aim of forensic speaker recognition is to establish links between individuals and criminal activities, through audio speech recordings. This field is multidisciplinary, combining predominantly phonetics, linguistics, speech signal processing, and forensic statistics. On these bases, expert-based

  2. Automatic speech recognition systems (United States)

    Catariov, Alexandru


    In this paper is presented analyses in automatic speech recognition (ASR) to find out what is the state of the arts in this direction and, eventually, it can be a starting point for the implementation of a real ASR system. In the second chapter of this work, it is revealed the structure of a typical speech recognition system and the used methods for each step of the recognition process, and in special, there are described two kinds of speech recognition algorithms, namely, Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) and Hidden Markov Model (HMM). The work continues with some results of ASR, in order to make conclusions about what is needed to be improved and what is more eligible to implement an ASR system.

  3. Work and Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willig, Rasmus


    individual and collective identity formation and has led to an increase in social pathological illnesses such as stress and depression. By juxtaposing these analyses with Honneth’s theory on recognition, we conclude that the contemporary logic of work is unable to provide adequate forms of recognition......The article deals with the relationship between work and recognition, taking Axel Honneth’s social-philosophical theory of the struggle for recognition as its point of departure. In order to give sociological substance to Honneth’s theory, we turn to three contemporary social theorists - Jean......-Pierre Le Goff, Christophe Dejours and Emmanuel Renault. In spite of many differences, their work is united by a critical description of the logic of work and its consequences for individual individuation. These theorists agree that the growth of autonomy, flexibility and mobility has destabilised...

  4. Antibody-ligand interactions for hydrophobic charge-induction chromatography: a surface plasmon resonance study. (United States)

    Cheng, Fang; Li, Ming-Yang; Wang, Han-Qi; Lin, Dong-Qiang; Qu, Jing-Ping


    This article describes the use of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy to study antibody-ligand interactions for hydrophobic charge-induction chromatography (HCIC) and its versatility in investigating the surface and solution factors affecting the interactions. Two density model surfaces presenting the HCIC ligand (mercapto-ethyl-pyridine, MEP) were prepared on Au using a self-assembly technique. The surface chemistry and structure, ionization, and protein binding of such model surfaces were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), contact-angle titration, and SPR, respectively. The influences of the surface and solution factors, e.g., ligand density, salt concentration, and solution pH, on protein adsorption were determined by SPR. Our results showed that ligand density affects both equilibrium and dynamic aspects of the interactions. Specifically, a dense ligand leads to an increase in binding strength, rapid adsorption, slow desorption, and low specificity. In addition, both hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding contribute significantly to the protein adsorption at neutral pH, while the electrostatic repulsion is overwhelmed under acidic conditions. The hydrophobic interaction at a high concentration of lyotropic salt would cause drastic conformational changes in the adsorbed protein. Combined with the self-assembly technique, SPR proves to be a powerful tool for studying the interactions between an antibody and a chromatographic ligand.

  5. Ligand design for functional metal-organic frameworks. (United States)

    Paz, Filipe A Almeida; Klinowski, Jacek; Vilela, Sérgio M F; Tomé, João P C; Cavaleiro, José A S; Rocha, João


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), also known as coordination polymers, are formed by the self-assembly of metallic centres and bridging organic linkers. In this critical review, we review the key advances in the field and discuss the relationship between the nature and structure of specifically designed organic linkers and the properties of the products. Practical examples demonstrate that the physical and chemical properties of the linkers play a decisive role in the properties of novel functional MOFs. We focus on target materials suitable for the storage of hydrogen and methane, sequestration of carbon dioxide, gas separation, heterogeneous catalysis and as magnetic and photoluminescent materials capable of both metal- and ligand-centred emission, ion exchangers and molecular sieves. The advantages of highly active discrete complexes as metal-bearing ligands in the construction of MOFs are also briefly reviewed (128 references). This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  6. Evaluating music emotion recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.


    A fundamental problem with nearly all work in music genre recognition (MGR)is that evaluation lacks validity with respect to the principal goals of MGR. This problem also occurs in the evaluation of music emotion recognition (MER). Standard approaches to evaluation, though easy to implement, do...... not reliably differentiate between recognizing genre or emotion from music, or by virtue of confounding factors in signals (e.g., equalization). We demonstrate such problems for evaluating an MER system, and conclude with recommendations....

  7. The Recognition Of Fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsass, Peter; Jensen, Bodil; Mørup, Rikke


    Elsass P., Jensen B., Morup R., Thogersen M.H. (2007). The Recognition Of Fatigue: A qualitative study of life-stories from rehabilitation clients. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation. 11 (2), 75-87......Elsass P., Jensen B., Morup R., Thogersen M.H. (2007). The Recognition Of Fatigue: A qualitative study of life-stories from rehabilitation clients. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation. 11 (2), 75-87...

  8. Character Recognition (Devanagari Script)


    Ankita Karia; Sonali Sharma


    Character Recognition is has found major interest in field of research and practical application to analyze and study characters in different languages using image as their input. In this paper the user writes the Devanagari character using mouse as a plotter and then the corresponding character is saved in the form of image. This image is processed using Optical Character Recognition in which location, segmentation, pre-processing of image is done. Later Neural Networks is used t...

  9. Why recognition is rational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clintin P. Davis-Stober


    Full Text Available The Recognition Heuristic (Gigerenzer and Goldstein, 1996; Goldstein and Gigerenzer, 2002 makes the counter-intuitive prediction that a decision maker utilizing less information may do as well as, or outperform, an idealized decision maker utilizing more information. We lay a theoretical foundation for the use of single-variable heuristics such as the Recognition Heuristic as an optimal decision strategy within a linear modeling framework. We identify conditions under which over-weighting a single predictor is a mini-max strategy among a class of a priori chosen weights based on decision heuristics with respect to a measure of statistical lack of fit we call ``risk''. These strategies, in turn, outperform standard multiple regression as long as the amount of data available is limited. We also show that, under related conditions, weighting only one variable and ignoring all others produces the same risk as ignoring the single variable and weighting all others. This approach has the advantage of generalizing beyond the original environment of the Recognition Heuristic to situations with more than two choice options, binary or continuous representations of recognition, and to other single variable heuristics. We analyze the structure of data used in some prior recognition tasks and find that it matches the sufficient conditions for optimality in our results. Rather than being a poor or adequate substitute for a compensatory model, the Recognition Heuristic closely approximates an optimal strategy when a decision maker has finite data about the world.

  10. Heterobifunctional crosslinkers for tethering single ligand molecules to scanning probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riener, Christian K.; Kienberger, Ferry; Hahn, Christoph D.; Buchinger, Gerhard M.; Egwim, Innocent O.C.; Haselgruebler, Thomas; Ebner, Andreas; Romanin, Christoph; Klampfl, Christian; Lackner, Bernd; Prinz, Heino; Blaas, Dieter; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Gruber, Hermann J


    Single molecule recognition force microscopy (SMRFM) is a versatile atomic force microscopy (AFM) method to probe specific interactions of cognitive molecules on the single molecule level. It allows insights to be gained into interaction potentials and kinetic barriers and is capable of mapping interaction sites with nm positional accuracy. These applications require a ligand to be attached to the AFM tip, preferably by a distensible poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chain between the measuring tip and the ligand molecule. The PEG chain greatly facilitates specific binding of the ligand to immobile receptor sites on the sample surface. The present study contributes to tip-PEG-ligand tethering in three ways: (i) a convenient synthetic route was found to prepare NH{sub 2}-PEG-COOH which is the key intermediate for long heterobifunctional crosslinkers; (ii) a variety of heterobifunctional PEG derivatives for tip-PEG-ligand linking were prepared from NH{sub 2}-PEG-COOH; (iii) in particular, a new PEG crosslinker with one thiol-reactive end and one terminal nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) group was synthesized and successfully used to tether His{sub 6}-tagged protein molecules to AFM tips via noncovalent NTA-Ni{sup 2+}-His{sub 6} bridges. The new crosslinker was applied to link a recombinant His{sub 6}-tagged fragment of the very-low density lipoprotein receptor to the AFM tip whereupon specific docking to the capsid of human rhinovirus particles was observed by force microscopy. In a parallel study, the specific interaction of the small GTPase Ran with the nuclear import receptor importin {beta}1 was studied in detail by SMRFM, using the new crosslinker to link His{sub 6}-tagged Ran to the measuring tip [Nat. Struct. Biol. (2003), 10, 553-557].

  11. Rational Design for Complementary Donor-Acceptor Recognition Pairs Using Self-Complementary Hydrogen Bonds. (United States)

    Sikder, Amrita; Ghosh, Boyli; Chakraborty, Saptarshi; Paul, Ankan; Ghosh, Suhrit


    An adaptable and efficient molecular recognition pair has been established by taking advantage of the complementary nature of donor-acceptor interactions together with the strength of hydrogen bonds. Such distinct molecular recognition propagates in orthogonal directions to effect extended alternating co-assembly of two different appended molecular entities. The dimensions of the assembled structures can be tuned by stoichiometric imbalance between the donor and acceptor building blocks. The morphology of the self-assembled material can be correlated with the ratio of the two building blocks. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies (United States)

    Miller, David H [Redondo Beach, CA


    Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies are provided. In an embodiment, by way of example only, a sensor mount assembly includes a busbar, a main body, a backing surface, and a first finger. The busbar has a first end and a second end. The main body is overmolded onto the busbar. The backing surface extends radially outwardly relative to the main body. The first finger extends axially from the backing surface, and the first finger has a first end, a second end, and a tooth. The first end of the first finger is disposed on the backing surface, and the tooth is formed on the second end of the first finger.

  13. Why mercury prefers soft ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccardi, Demian M [ORNL; Guo, Hao-Bo [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL; Summers, Anne [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Miller, S [University of California, San Francisco; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL


    Mercury (Hg) is a major global pollutant arising from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Defining the factors that determine the relative affinities of different ligands for the mercuric ion, Hg2+, is critical to understanding its speciation, transformation, and bioaccumulation in the environment. Here, we use quantum chemistry to dissect the relative binding free energies for a series of inorganic anion complexes of Hg2+. Comparison of Hg2+ ligand interactions in the gaseous and aqueous phases shows that differences in interactions with a few, local water molecules led to a clear periodic trend within the chalcogenide and halide groups and resulted in the well-known experimentally observed preference of Hg2+ for soft ligands such as thiols. Our approach establishes a basis for understanding Hg speciation in the biosphere.

  14. Palmitoylation of MICA, a ligand for NKG2D, mediates its recruitment to membrane microdomains and promotes its shedding


    Agüera-González, Sonia; Gross, Catharina C.; Fernández-Messina, Lola; Ashiru, Omodele; Esteso, Gloria; Hang, Howard C.; Reyburn, Hugh T.; Long, Eric O; Valés-Gómez, Mar


    MICA and MICB (MHC-class-I-related chain A/B) are transmembrane proteins expressed in pathological conditions that are ligands for NKG2D, an activating receptor found on cytotoxic lymphocytes. The recognition on target cells of NKG2D ligands leads to the activation of lysis and cytokine secretion by NK cells and T cells. Besides being expressed at the cell surface, MICA/B can be released as soluble proteins. Soluble NKG2D ligands downmodulate expression of the NKG2D receptor on lymphocytes, l...

  15. Reverse depletion effects and the determination of ligand density on some spherical bioparticles (United States)

    Wang, Chunxiang; Liu, Yanhui; Fan, Yangtao; Liu, Yijun; Li, Qiancheng; Xu, Houqiang


    In cell environments crowded with macromolecules, the depletion effects act and assist in the assembly of a wide range of cellular structures, from the cytoskeleton to the chromatin loop, which are well accepted. But a recent quantum dot experiment indicated that the dimensions of the receptor-ligand complex have strong effects on the size-dependent exclusion of proteins in cell environments. In this article, a continuum elastic model is constructed to resolve the competition between the dimension of the receptor-ligand complex and depletion effects in the endocytosis of a spherical virus-like bioparticle. Our results show that the depletion effects do not always assist endocytosis of a spherical virus-like bioparticle; while the dimension of the ligand-receptor complex is larger than the size of a small bioparticle in cell environments, the depletion effects do not work and reverse effects appear. The ligand density covered on the virus can be identified quantitatively.

  16. Phenanthroline-2,9-bistriazoles as selective G-quadruplex ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Corvinius; Larsen, Anders Foller; Abdikadir, Faisal Hussein


    (I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) in CH2Cl2 and water in the presence of a complexing agent. Characterization of the target compounds on telomeric and c-KIT G4 sequences led to the identification of guanidinium-substituted compounds as potent G4 DNA ligands with high selectivity over duplex DNA......G-quadruplex (G4) ligands are currently receiving considerable attention as potential anticancer therapeutics. A series of phenanthroline-2,9-bistriazoles carrying tethered positive end groups has been synthesized and evaluated as G4 stabilizers. The compounds were efficiently assembled by copper...... were thus identified as potent G4 ligands with high selectivity over duplex DNA, and preliminary results indicate that the scaffold may form basis for the development of subtype-specific G4 ligands....

  17. Soldering in electronics assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Judd, Mike


    Soldering in Electronics Assembly discusses several concerns in soldering of electronic assemblies. The book is comprised of nine chapters that tackle different areas in electronic assembly soldering. Chapter 1 discusses the soldering process itself, while Chapter 2 covers the electronic assemblies. Chapter 3 talks about solders and Chapter 4 deals with flux. The text also tackles the CS and SC soldering process. The cleaning of soldered assemblies, solder quality, and standards and specifications are also discussed. The book will be of great use to professionals who deal with electronic assem

  18. Multiligand Metal-Phenolic Assembly from Green Tea Infusions. (United States)

    Rahim, Md Arifur; Björnmalm, Mattias; Bertleff-Zieschang, Nadja; Ju, Yi; Mettu, Srinivas; Leeming, Michael G; Caruso, Frank


    The synthesis of hybrid functional materials using the coordination-driven assembly of metal-phenolic networks (MPNs) is of interest in diverse areas of materials science. To date, MPN assembly has been explored as monoligand systems (i.e., containing a single type of phenolic ligand) where the phenolic components are primarily obtained from natural sources via extraction, isolation, and purification processes. Herein, we demonstrate the fabrication of MPNs from a readily available, crude phenolic source-green tea (GT) infusions. We employ our recently introduced rust-mediated continuous assembly strategy to prepare these GT MPN systems. The resulting hollow MPN capsules contain multiple phenolic ligands and have a shell thickness that can be controlled through the reaction time. These multiligand MPN systems have different properties compared to the analogous MPN systems reported previously. For example, the Young's modulus (as determined using colloidal-probe atomic force microscopy) of the GT MPN system presented herein is less than half that of MPN systems prepared using tannic acid and iron salt solutions, and the disassembly kinetics are faster (∼50%) than other, comparable MPN systems under identical disassembly conditions. Additionally, the use of rust-mediated assembly enables the formation of stable capsules under conditions where the conventional approach (i.e., using iron salt solutions) results in colloidally unstable dispersions. These differences highlight how the choice of phenolic ligand and its source, as well as the assembly protocol (e.g., using solution-based or solid-state iron sources), can be used to tune the properties of MPNs. The strategy presented herein expands the toolbox of MPN assembly while also providing new insights into the nature and robustness of metal-phenolic interfacial assembly when using solution-based or solid-state metal sources.

  19. Structural linkage between ligand discrimination and receptor activation by type I interferons. (United States)

    Thomas, Christoph; Moraga, Ignacio; Levin, Doron; Krutzik, Peter O; Podoplelova, Yulia; Trejo, Angelica; Lee, Choongho; Yarden, Ganit; Vleck, Susan E; Glenn, Jeffrey S; Nolan, Garry P; Piehler, Jacob; Schreiber, Gideon; Garcia, K Christopher


    Type I Interferons (IFNs) are important cytokines for innate immunity against viruses and cancer. Sixteen human type I IFN variants signal through the same cell-surface receptors, IFNAR1 and IFNAR2, yet they can evoke markedly different physiological effects. The crystal structures of two human type I IFN ternary signaling complexes containing IFNα2 and IFNω reveal recognition modes and heterotrimeric architectures that are unique among the cytokine receptor superfamily but conserved between different type I IFNs. Receptor-ligand cross-reactivity is enabled by conserved receptor-ligand "anchor points" interspersed among ligand-specific interactions that "tune" the relative IFN-binding affinities, in an apparent extracellular "ligand proofreading" mechanism that modulates biological activity. Functional differences between IFNs are linked to their respective receptor recognition chemistries, in concert with a ligand-induced conformational change in IFNAR1, that collectively control signal initiation and complex stability, ultimately regulating differential STAT phosphorylation profiles, receptor internalization rates, and downstream gene expression patterns. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Page Recognition: Quantum Leap In Recognition Technology (United States)

    Miller, Larry


    No milestone has proven as elusive as the always-approaching "year of the LAN," but the "year of the scanner" might claim the silver medal. Desktop scanners have been around almost as long as personal computers. And everyone thinks they are used for obvious desktop-publishing and business tasks like scanning business documents, magazine articles and other pages, and translating those words into files your computer understands. But, until now, the reality fell far short of the promise. Because it's true that scanners deliver an accurate image of the page to your computer, but the software to recognize this text has been woefully disappointing. Old optical-character recognition (OCR) software recognized such a limited range of pages as to be virtually useless to real users. (For example, one OCR vendor specified 12-point Courier font from an IBM Selectric typewriter: the same font in 10-point, or from a Diablo printer, was unrecognizable!) Computer dealers have told me the chasm between OCR expectations and reality is so broad and deep that nine out of ten prospects leave their stores in disgust when they learn the limitations. And this is a very important, very unfortunate gap. Because the promise of recognition -- what people want it to do -- carries with it tremendous improvements in our productivity and ability to get tons of written documents into our computers where we can do real work with it. The good news is that a revolutionary new development effort has led to the new technology of "page recognition," which actually does deliver the promise we've always wanted from OCR. I'm sure every reader appreciates the breakthrough represented by the laser printer and page-makeup software, a combination so powerful it created new reasons for buying a computer. A similar breakthrough is happening right now in page recognition: the Macintosh (and, I must admit, other personal computers) equipped with a moderately priced scanner and OmniPage software (from Caere

  1. Mauve assembly metrics. (United States)

    Darling, Aaron E; Tritt, Andrew; Eisen, Jonathan A; Facciotti, Marc T


    High-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have spurred the development of numerous novel methods for genome assembly. With few exceptions, these algorithms are heuristic and require one or more parameters to be manually set by the user. One approach to parameter tuning involves assembling data from an organism with an available high-quality reference genome, and measuring assembly accuracy using some metrics. We developed a system to measure assembly quality under several scoring metrics, and to compare assembly quality across a variety of assemblers, sequence data types, and parameter choices. When used in conjunction with training data such as a high-quality reference genome and sequence reads from the same organism, our program can be used to manually identify an optimal sequencing and assembly strategy for de novo sequencing of related organisms. GPL source code and a usage tutorial is at Supplementary data is available at Bioinformatics online.

  2. Critical Self-assembly Concentration of Bolaamphiphilic Peptides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of the self-assembly properties of peptides and proteins is important for the understanding of molecular recognition processes and for the rational design of functional biomaterials. Novel bolaamphiphilic peptides and peptide hybrids incorporating non-natural aminoacids were designed around a model ...

  3. The role of KIR genes and ligands in leukemia surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian eBabor


    Full Text Available The anti-leukemic potential of natural killer (NK cells has been of rising interest in recent years. Interactions between inhibitory killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR and HLA class I ligands seem to be critically involved in the immunosurveillance process. It is also well established that mismatching of HLA class I-encoded KIR ligands in the setting of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation leads to allorecognition of leukemic cells by NK cells, which is in line with the concept of missing-self recognition. Recent data now suggest that KIR gene polymorphism constitutes another important parameter that needs to be taken into account for selection of suitable stem cell donors. Moreover, the role of KIR gene polymorphism for predisposition to leukemia is a current matter of debate. Here, we would like to review the role of KIR function and genetic polymorphism for recognition of leukemia and discuss the impact of these findings for developing novel concepts for NK cell-based immunotherapy strategies.

  4. Explicit all-atom modeling of realistically sized ligand-capped nanocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Kaushik, Ananth P.


    We present a study of an explicit all-atom representation of nanocrystals of experimentally relevant sizes (up to 6 nm), capped with alkyl chain ligands, in vacuum. We employ all-atom molecular dynamics simulation methods in concert with a well-tested intermolecular potential model, MM3 (molecular mechanics 3), for the studies presented here. These studies include determining the preferred conformation of an isolated single nanocrystal (NC), pairs of isolated NCs, and (presaging studies of superlattice arrays) unit cells of NC superlattices. We observe that very small NCs (3 nm) behave differently in a superlattice as compared to larger NCs (6 nm and above) due to the conformations adopted by the capping ligands on the NC surface. Short ligands adopt a uniform distribution of orientational preferences, including some that lie against the face of the nanocrystal. In contrast, longer ligands prefer to interdigitate. We also study the effect of changing ligand length and ligand coverage on the NCs on the preferred ligand configurations. Since explicit all-atom modeling constrains the maximum system size that can be studied, we discuss issues related to coarse-graining the representation of the ligands, including a comparison of two commonly used coarse-grained models. We find that care has to be exercised in the choice of coarse-grained model. The data provided by these realistically sized ligand-capped NCs, determined using explicit all-atom models, should serve as a reference standard for future models of coarse-graining ligands using united atom models, especially for self-assembly processes. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  5. Collagen fibril surface displays a constellation of sites capable of promoting fibril assembly, stability, and hemostasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orgel, J.P.; Antipova, O.; Sagi, I.; Bitler, A.; Qiu, D.; Wang, R.; Xu, Y.; San Antonio, J.D. (IIT)


    Fibrillar collagens form the structural basis of organs and tissues including the vasculature, bone, and tendon. They are also dynamic, organizational scaffolds that present binding and recognition sites for ligands, cells, and platelets. We interpret recently published X-ray diffraction findings and use atomic force microscopy data to illustrate the significance of new insights into the functional organization of the collagen fibril. These data indicate that collagen's most crucial functional domains localize primarily to the overlap region, comprising a constellation of sites we call the 'master control region.' Moreover, the collagen's most exposed aspect contains its most stable part - the C-terminal region that controls collagen assembly, cross-linking, and blood clotting. Hidden beneath the fibril surface exists a constellation of 'cryptic' sequences poised to promote hemostasis and cell - collagen interactions in tissue injury and regeneration. These findings begin to address several important, and previously unresolved, questions: How functional domains are organized in the fibril, which domains are accessible, and which require proteolysis or structural trauma to become exposed? Here we speculate as to how collagen fibrillar organization impacts molecular processes relating to tissue growth, development, and repair.

  6. Collagen fibril surface displays a constellation of sites capable of promoting fibril assembly, stability, and hemostasis. (United States)

    Orgel, J P R O; Antipova, O; Sagi, I; Bitler, A; Qiu, D; Wang, R; Xu, Y; San Antonio, J D


    Fibrillar collagens form the structural basis of organs and tissues including the vasculature, bone, and tendon. They are also dynamic, organizational scaffolds that present binding and recognition sites for ligands, cells, and platelets. We interpret recently published X-ray diffraction findings and use atomic force microscopy data to illustrate the significance of new insights into the functional organization of the collagen fibril. These data indicate that collagen's most crucial functional domains localize primarily to the overlap region, comprising a constellation of sites we call the "master control region." Moreover, the collagen's most exposed aspect contains its most stable part-the C-terminal region that controls collagen assembly, cross-linking, and blood clotting. Hidden beneath the fibril surface exists a constellation of "cryptic" sequences poised to promote hemostasis and cell-collagen interactions in tissue injury and regeneration. These findings begin to address several important, and previously unresolved, questions: How functional domains are organized in the fibril, which domains are accessible, and which require proteolysis or structural trauma to become exposed? Here we speculate as to how collagen fibrillar organization impacts molecular processes relating to tissue growth, development, and repair.

  7. Rosetta Ligand docking with flexible XML protocols. (United States)

    Lemmon, Gordon; Meiler, Jens


    RosettaLigand is premiere software for predicting how a protein and a small molecule interact. Benchmark studies demonstrate that 70% of the top scoring RosettaLigand predicted interfaces are within 2Å RMSD from the crystal structure [1]. The latest release of Rosetta ligand software includes many new features, such as (1) docking of multiple ligands simultaneously, (2) representing ligands as fragments for greater flexibility, (3) redesign of the interface during docking, and (4) an XML script based interface that gives the user full control of the ligand docking protocol.

  8. Confined-but-Connected Quantum Solids via Controlled Ligand Displacement

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgardner, William J.


    Confined-but-connected quantum dot solids (QDS) combine the advantages of tunable, quantum-confined energy levels with efficient charge transport through enhanced electronic interdot coupling. We report the fabrication of QDS by treating self-assembled films of colloidal PbSe quantum dots with polar nonsolvents. Treatment with dimethylformamide balances the rates of self-assembly and ligand displacement to yield confined-but-connected QDS structures with cubic ordering and quasi-epitaxial interdot connections through facets of neighboring dots. The QDS structure was analyzed by a combination of transmission electron microscopy and wide-angle and small-angle X-ray scattering. Excitonic absorption signatures in optical spectroscopy confirm that quantum confinement is preserved. Transport measurements show significantly enhanced conductivity in treated films. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  9. Role of oxido incorporation and ligand lability in expanding redox accessibility of structurally related Mn4 clusters


    Kanady, Jacob S.; Tran, Rosalie; Stull, Jamie A.; Lu, Luo; Stich, Troy A.; Day, Michael W.; Yano, Junko; Britt, R. David; Agapie, Theodor


    Photosystem II supports four manganese centers through nine oxidation states from manganese(II) during assembly through to the most oxidized state before O_2 formation and release. The protein-based carboxylate and imidazole ligands allow for significant changes of the coordination environment during the incorporation of hydroxido and oxido ligands upon oxidation of the metal centers. We report the synthesis and characterization of a series of tetramanganese complexes in four of the six oxida...

  10. Photobleaching-activated micropatterning on self-assembled monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scrimgeour, Jan; Kodali, Vamsi K; Kovari, Daniel T; Curtis, Jennifer E, E-mail: jennifer.curtis@physics.gatech.ed [School of Physics and Petit Institute for Bioengineering and Biosciences (IBB), Georgia Institute of Technology, 837 State St, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)


    Functional chemical micropatterns were fabricated by exploiting the photobleaching of dye-coupled species near methacrylate self-assembled monolayers. Using this approach we have demonstrated that multiple chemistries can be coupled to the monolayer using a standard fluorescence microscope. The surface bound functional groups remain active and patterns with feature sizes down to 3 {mu}m can be readily achieved with excellent signal-to-noise ratio. Control over the ligand binding density was demonstrated to illustrate the convenient route provided by this platform for fabricating complex spatial gradients in ligand density.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 30, 2010 ... ion. This brings about repulsion between the adsorbent and positively charged ion and consequently a reduction in the amount of heavy metal adsorbed at lower pH. (Lee, 1999). The effectiveness of the anionic ligands in the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution seems to be low for the EDTA.

  12. Probabilistic Open Set Recognition (United States)

    Jain, Lalit Prithviraj

    Real-world tasks in computer vision, pattern recognition and machine learning often touch upon the open set recognition problem: multi-class recognition with incomplete knowledge of the world and many unknown inputs. An obvious way to approach such problems is to develop a recognition system that thresholds probabilities to reject unknown classes. Traditional rejection techniques are not about the unknown; they are about the uncertain boundary and rejection around that boundary. Thus traditional techniques only represent the "known unknowns". However, a proper open set recognition algorithm is needed to reduce the risk from the "unknown unknowns". This dissertation examines this concept and finds existing probabilistic multi-class recognition approaches are ineffective for true open set recognition. We hypothesize the cause is due to weak adhoc assumptions combined with closed-world assumptions made by existing calibration techniques. Intuitively, if we could accurately model just the positive data for any known class without overfitting, we could reject the large set of unknown classes even under this assumption of incomplete class knowledge. For this, we formulate the problem as one of modeling positive training data by invoking statistical extreme value theory (EVT) near the decision boundary of positive data with respect to negative data. We provide a new algorithm called the PI-SVM for estimating the unnormalized posterior probability of class inclusion. This dissertation also introduces a new open set recognition model called Compact Abating Probability (CAP), where the probability of class membership decreases in value (abates) as points move from known data toward open space. We show that CAP models improve open set recognition for multiple algorithms. Leveraging the CAP formulation, we go on to describe the novel Weibull-calibrated SVM (W-SVM) algorithm, which combines the useful properties of statistical EVT for score calibration with one-class and binary

  13. CREDO: a protein-ligand interaction database for drug discovery. (United States)

    Schreyer, Adrian; Blundell, Tom


    Harnessing data from the growing number of protein-ligand complexes in the Protein Data Bank is an important task in drug discovery. In order to benefit from the abundance of three-dimensional structures, structural data must be integrated with sequence as well as chemical data and the protein-small molecule interactions characterized structurally at the inter-atomic level. In this study, we present CREDO, a new publicly available database of protein-ligand interactions, which represents contacts as structural interaction fingerprints, implements novel features and is completely scriptable through its application programming interface. Features of CREDO include implementation of molecular shape descriptors with ultrafast shape recognition, fragmentation of ligands in the Protein Data Bank, sequence-to-structure mapping and the identification of approved drugs. Selected analyses of these key features are presented to highlight a range of potential applications of CREDO. The CREDO dataset has been released into the public domain together with the application programming interface under a Creative Commons license at We believe that the free availability and numerous features of CREDO database will be useful not only for commercial but also for academia-driven drug discovery programmes.

  14. Touchless palmprint recognition systems

    CERN Document Server

    Genovese, Angelo; Scotti, Fabio


    This book examines the context, motivation and current status of biometric systems based on the palmprint, with a specific focus on touchless and less-constrained systems. It covers new technologies in this rapidly evolving field and is one of the first comprehensive books on palmprint recognition systems.It discusses the research literature and the most relevant industrial applications of palmprint biometrics, including the low-cost solutions based on webcams. The steps of biometric recognition are described in detail, including acquisition setups, algorithms, and evaluation procedures. Const


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen ERTAŞ


    Full Text Available The explosive growth of information technology in the last decade has made a considerable impact on the design and construction of systems for human-machine communication, which is becoming increasingly important in many aspects of life. Amongst other speech processing tasks, a great deal of attention has been devoted to developing procedures that identify people from their voices, and the design and construction of speaker recognition systems has been a fascinating enterprise pursued over many decades. This paper introduces speaker recognition in general and discusses its relevant parameters in relation to system performance.

  16. Methods and Software Architecture for Activity Recognition from Position Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godsk, Torben

    the recordings of the measurements. This is done by describing the movement taking place between two positions. These descriptions of the given movements are then assembled in segments of a given size. A series of statistical calculations is performed on the ensemble of movements residing within the segment...... architecture is the first step towards a decision support system for dairy farmers. The system is to include a component for recognition of cow activities. The decision support system will -- in its final version -- convert the result of the activity recognition to knowledge about the cows' individual behavior...

  17. [Prosopagnosia and facial expression recognition]. (United States)

    Koyama, Shinichi


    This paper reviews clinical neuropsychological studies that have indicated that the recognition of a person's identity and the recognition of facial expressions are processed by different cortical and subcortical areas of the brain. The fusiform gyrus, especially the right fusiform gyrus, plays an important role in the recognition of identity. The superior temporal sulcus, amygdala, and medial frontal cortex play important roles in facial-expression recognition. Both facial recognition and facial-expression recognition are highly intellectual processes that involve several regions of the brain.

  18. -Pincer Ligand Family through Ligand Post-Modification

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Mei-Hui


    A series of air-stable nickel complexes containing triazine-based PN3P-pincer ligands were synthesized and fully characterized. Complex 3 contains a de-aromatized central triazine ring from the deprotonation of one of the N–H arms. With a post-modification strategy, the Me-PN3P*NiCl complex (3) could be converted into a new class of diimine–traizine PN3P-pincer nickel complexes.

  19. Harmonization versus Mutual Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp

    The present paper examines trade liberalization driven by the coordination of product standards. For oligopolistic firms situated in separate markets that are initially sheltered by national standards, mutual recognition of standards implies entry and reduced profits at home paired with the oppor...

  20. Facial Expression Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantic, Maja; Li, S.; Jain, A.


    Facial expression recognition is a process performed by humans or computers, which consists of: 1. Locating faces in the scene (e.g., in an image; this step is also referred to as face detection), 2. Extracting facial features from the detected face region (e.g., detecting the shape of facial

  1. Recognition of fractal graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perepelitsa, VA; Sergienko, [No Value; Kochkarov, AM


    Definitions of prefractal and fractal graphs are introduced, and they are used to formulate mathematical models in different fields of knowledge. The topicality of fractal-graph recognition from the point of view, of fundamental improvement in the efficiency of the solution of algorithmic problems

  2. ex vivo DNA assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam B Fisher


    Full Text Available Even with decreasing DNA synthesis costs there remains a need for inexpensive, rapid and reliable methods for assembling synthetic DNA into larger constructs or combinatorial libraries. Advances in cloning techniques have resulted in powerful in vitro and in vivo assembly of DNA. However, monetary and time costs have limited these approaches. Here, we report an ex vivo DNA assembly method that uses cellular lysates derived from a commonly used laboratory strain of Escherichia coli for joining double-stranded DNA with short end homologies embedded within inexpensive primers. This method concurrently shortens the time and decreases costs associated with current DNA assembly methods.

  3. Target Assembly Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Target Assembly Facility integrates new armor concepts into actual armored vehicles. Featuring the capability ofmachining and cutting radioactive materials, it...

  4. Composite turbine bucket assembly (United States)

    Liotta, Gary Charles; Garcia-Crespo, Andres


    A composite turbine blade assembly includes a ceramic blade including an airfoil portion, a shank portion and an attachment portion; and a transition assembly adapted to attach the ceramic blade to a turbine disk or rotor, the transition assembly including first and second transition components clamped together, trapping said ceramic airfoil therebetween. Interior surfaces of the first and second transition portions are formed to mate with the shank portion and the attachment portion of the ceramic blade, and exterior surfaces of said first and second transition components are formed to include an attachment feature enabling the transition assembly to be attached to the turbine rotor or disk.

  5. Whole-book recognition. (United States)

    Xiu, Pingping; Baird, Henry S


    Whole-book recognition is a document image analysis strategy that operates on the complete set of a book's page images using automatic adaptation to improve accuracy. We describe an algorithm which expects to be initialized with approximate iconic and linguistic models--derived from (generally errorful) OCR results and (generally imperfect) dictionaries--and then, guided entirely by evidence internal to the test set, corrects the models which, in turn, yields higher recognition accuracy. The iconic model describes image formation and determines the behavior of a character-image classifier, and the linguistic model describes word-occurrence probabilities. Our algorithm detects "disagreements" between these two models by measuring cross entropy between 1) the posterior probability distribution of character classes (the recognition results resulting from image classification alone) and 2) the posterior probability distribution of word classes (the recognition results from image classification combined with linguistic constraints). We show how disagreements can identify candidates for model corrections at both the character and word levels. Some model corrections will reduce the error rate over the whole book, and these can be identified by comparing model disagreements, summed across the whole book, before and after the correction is applied. Experiments on passages up to 180 pages long show that when a candidate model adaptation reduces whole-book disagreement, it is also likely to correct recognition errors. Also, the longer the passage operated on by the algorithm, the more reliable this adaptation policy becomes, and the lower the error rate achieved. The best results occur when both the iconic and linguistic models mutually correct one another. We have observed recognition error rates driven down by nearly an order of magnitude fully automatically without supervision (or indeed without any user intervention or interaction). Improvement is nearly monotonic, and

  6. Protein-ligand interfaces are polarized: discovery of a strong trend for intermolecular hydrogen bonds to favor donors on the protein side with implications for predicting and designing ligand complexes. (United States)

    Raschka, Sebastian; Wolf, Alex J; Bemister-Buffington, Joseph; Kuhn, Leslie A


    Understanding how proteins encode ligand specificity is fascinating and similar in importance to deciphering the genetic code. For protein-ligand recognition, the combination of an almost infinite variety of interfacial shapes and patterns of chemical groups makes the problem especially challenging. Here we analyze data across non-homologous proteins in complex with small biological ligands to address observations made in our inhibitor discovery projects: that proteins favor donating H-bonds to ligands and avoid using groups with both H-bond donor and acceptor capacity. The resulting clear and significant chemical group matching preferences elucidate the code for protein-native ligand binding, similar to the dominant patterns found in nucleic acid base-pairing. On average, 90% of the keto and carboxylate oxygens occurring in the biological ligands formed direct H-bonds to the protein. A two-fold preference was found for protein atoms to act as H-bond donors and ligand atoms to act as acceptors, and 76% of all intermolecular H-bonds involved an amine donor. Together, the tight chemical and geometric constraints associated with satisfying donor groups generate a hydrogen-bonding lock that can be matched only by ligands bearing the right acceptor-rich key. Measuring an index of H-bond preference based on the observed chemical trends proved sufficient to predict other protein-ligand complexes and can be used to guide molecular design. The resulting Hbind and Protein Recognition Index software packages are being made available for rigorously defining intermolecular H-bonds and measuring the extent to which H-bonding patterns in a given complex match the preference key.

  7. Electrophilic Metal Alkyl Chemistry in New Ligand Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Richard F. [University of Chicago


    The goals of this project were to design new electrophilic metal alkyl complexes and to exploit these systems in fundamental studies of olefin polymerization and other important and new catalytic reactions. A key target reaction is insertion copolymerization of olefins and polar CH2=CHX vinyl monomers such as vinyl halides and vinyl ethers. During the period covered by this report we (i) investigated the properties of ortho-alkoxy-arylphosphine ligands in Ni-based olefin polymerization catalysts, (ii) studied the synthesis of double-end-capped polyethylene using group 4 metal catalysts that contain tris-pyrazolylborate ligands, (iii) explored the ethylene insertion reactivity of group 4 metal tris-pyrazolyl-borate complexes, (iv) showed that (α-diimine)PdMe{sup +} species undergo multiple insertion of silyl vinyl ethers, (v) synthesized and explored the reactivity of base-free Ni benzyl complexes that contain ortho-phosphino-arene sulfonate ligands, (vi) established the mechanism of the reaction of vinyl chloride with (α-diimine)PdMe{sup +} catalysts, (vii) explored the role of cationic polymerization and insertion chemistry in the reactions of vinyl ethers with (α-diimine)PdMe{sup +} species, (viii) discovered a new class of self-assembled tetranuclear Pd catalysts that produce high molecular weight linear polyethylene and copolymerize ethylene and vinyl fluoride, and (ix) developed model systems that enabled investigation of cis-trans isomerization of {phosphine-sulfonate}Pd(II) complexes.

  8. Autonomy and Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Giusti


    Full Text Available Resumen:El presente ensayo contiene dos partes. En la primera se hace una breve descripción de las carencias de la reflexión moral a las que parece venir al encuentro el concepto de reconocimiento. Charles Taylor y Axel Honneth, protagonistas en estos debates, dan buenas razones para dirigir la discusión hacia el tema del reconocimiento, pero no coinciden ni en su definición, ni en el modo de recuperar la tesis de Hegel, ni tampoco en la forma de tratar la relación entre autonomía y reconocimiento. En la segunda parte se analiza la concepción propiamente hegeliana, con la intención de destacar el nexo esencial, no la ruptura, que existe entre la noción de reconocimiento y el modelo conceptual de la voluntad libre o del espíritu. Abstract:This essay is divided into two parts. The first one is a short description of the deficiencies of moral reflection, which seem to lead the discussion towards the concept of recognition. Charles Taylor and Axel Honneth, two of the protagonists of these debates, give very good reasons for turning the argument towards the issue of recognition, but they do not agree on its definition, on the way to recover the Hegelian thesis, or on how to approach the relationship between autonomy and recognition. The second part constitutes an analysis of the Hegelian conception of recognition, in order to highlight the essential link –rather than the rupture– between the notion of recognition and the conceptual model of free will or spirit.

  9. Redesigning an FKBP-ligand interface to generate chemical dimerizers with novel specificity. (United States)

    Clackson, T; Yang, W; Rozamus, L W; Hatada, M; Amara, J F; Rollins, C T; Stevenson, L F; Magari, S R; Wood, S A; Courage, N L; Lu, X; Cerasoli, F; Gilman, M; Holt, D A


    FKBP ligand homodimers can be used to activate signaling events inside cells and animals that have been engineered to express fusions between appropriate signaling domains and FKBP. However, use of these dimerizers in vivo is potentially limited by ligand binding to endogenous FKBP. We have designed ligands that bind specifically to a mutated FKBP over the wild-type protein by remodeling an FKBP-ligand interface to introduce a specificity binding pocket. A compound bearing an ethyl substituent in place of a carbonyl group exhibited sub-nanomolar affinity and 1,000-fold selectivity for a mutant FKBP with a compensating truncation of a phenylalanine residue. Structural and functional analysis of the new pocket showed that recognition is surprisingly relaxed, with the modified ligand only partially filling the engineered cavity. We incorporated the specificity pocket into a fusion protein containing FKBP and the intracellular domain of the Fas receptor. Cells expressing this modified chimeric protein potently underwent apoptosis in response to AP1903, a homodimer of the modified ligand, both in culture and when implanted into mice. Remodeled dimerizers such as AP1903 are ideal reagents for controlling the activities of cells that have been modified by gene therapy procedures, without interference from endogenous FKBP.

  10. Approaching the RNA ligand for RIG-I? (United States)

    Schlee, Martin; Hartmann, Evelyn; Coch, Christoph; Wimmenauer, Vera; Janke, Markus; Barchet, Winfried; Hartmann, Gunther


    Innate and antigen-specific antiviral immunity are triggered by immunorecognition of viral nucleic acids. The helicase retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) (also known as DDX58) is the key sensor of negative strand RNA viruses in the cytosol of cells. RNA containing a triphosphate at the 5'-end was shown to activate RIG-I, but the exact structure of RNA supporting 5'-triphosphate recognition, the requirement of a 5'-triphosphate group, as well as the existence of RNA structures detected by RIG-I in the absence of 5'-triphosphate remain controversial. Here, we revisit the literature on RIG-I and RIG-I ligands. The literature proposes at least six different RIG-I ligands: (i) single strand with a 5'-triphosphate, (ii) double-stranded RNA with a 5'-triphosphate, (iii) 5'-triphosphate single-stranded RNA with A- and U-rich 3'-sequences, (iv) double-stranded RNA of intermediate length (>300 and <2000 bp) without 5'-triphosphate, (v) blunt-end short double-stranded RNA (23-30 bp) without 5'-triphosphate, and (vi) short double-stranded RNA (23-30 bp) with 5'-monophosphate. RIG-I thus seems promiscuous for a variety of different RNA molecules, very similar to the Toll-like receptors, of which 10 family members are sufficient for the safe detection of the microbial cosmos. In the light of these outstanding publications, it seems an unlikely possibility that there is a fundamental shortcoming in the design of all studies. Looking closely, the only issue that comes to mind is the in vitro transcription technique used by all investigators without confirming the identity of RNA products. This technique, together with the different biological systems used, the lack of dose responses and of proper comparison of different published ligands and controls leave us with more questions than answers as to what the exact RIG-I ligand is, if in fact it exists.

  11. Assembly of heterobimetallic Ni(II)-Ln(III) (Ln(III) = Dy(III), Tb(III), Gd(III), Ho(III), Er(III), Y(III)) complexes using a ferrocene ligand: slow relaxation of the magnetization in Dy(III), Tb(III) and Ho(III) analogues. (United States)

    Chakraborty, Amit; Bag, Prasenjit; Rivière, Eric; Mallah, Talal; Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli


    A family of dinuclear 3d-4f heterobimetallic complexes [LNi(H2O)(μ-OAc)Ln(NO3)2]·CH3CN; {Ln = Dy(III) (1), Tb(III) (2), Ho(III) (3), Gd(III) (4), Er(III) (5), Y(III) (6)} have been synthesized by utilizing a ferrocene-based, dual compartmental ligand H2L. 1-6 are isostructural and crystallize in the triclinic (P1) space group. In these complexes Ni(II) is present in the inner coordination sphere of the dianionic [L](2-) ligand; Ln(III) is encapsulated in the outer coordination pocket. Ni(II) shows a 2N, 4O coordination environment in a distorted octahedral geometry, while the Ln(III) ion possesses a 9O coordination environment in a distorted tricapped trigonal prismatic geometry. ESI-MS studies suggest that the structural integrity of 1-6 is retained in solution. Electrochemical studies reveal that these complexes show a reversible one-electron response typical of the ferrocene motif along with an irreversible one-electron oxidation involving the Ni(II)/Ni(III) couple. Magnetic studies revealed the presence of ferromagnetic exchange coupling between Ni(II) and Ln(III) centers as shown by the increase of χMT value upon cooling below 50 K for compounds 1, 2, 4 and 5. Further, dynamic magnetic susceptibility measurements (1-3) confirm the absence of an out-of-phase (χ'') signal at zero dc fields. However, when these measurements were carried out at 1000 Oe dc field the χ'' signal was observed, although maxima could not be detected up to 2 K.

  12. Stereotype Associations and Emotion Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlstra, Gijsbert; Holland, Rob W.; Dotsch, Ron; Hugenberg, Kurt; Wigboldus, Daniel H. J.

    We investigated whether stereotype associations between specific emotional expressions and social categories underlie stereotypic emotion recognition biases. Across two studies, we replicated previously documented stereotype biases in emotion recognition using both dynamic (Study 1) and static

  13. Galeotti on recognition as inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune


    Anna Elisabetta Galeotti's theory of 'toleration as recognition' has been criticised by Peter Jones for being conceptually incoherent, since liberal toleration presupposes a negative attitude to differences, whereas multicultural recognition requires positive affirmation hereof. The paper spells ...

  14. Tuning the functional properties of metal complexes containing polytopic heteroaromatic nitrogen ligands. (United States)

    Pettinari, Claudio; Masciocchi, Norberto; Pandolfo, Luciano; Pucci, Daniela


    The preparation, characterization, and optimization of the functional properties of mono- and polynuclear coordination complexes containing heteroaromatic nitrogen ligands are discussed here, taking the advantage of numerous studies performed in our laboratories on exploring a variety of different metal ions and polytopic ligands. We highlight how very minor changes in connectivity, composition, and polarity of the molecular entities employed in the self-assembly steps may significantly affect the structural, thermal, sorptive, magnetic, and mesomorphic behavior of the resulting materials. Examples from three different classes are included: 1) pyrazolate-based polynuclear coordination compounds, 2) homoleptic and heteroleptic coordination polymers, and 3) 2,2'-bipyridine metal-based liquid crystals.

  15. Tumor targeting via integrin ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udaya Kiran eMarelli


    Full Text Available Selective and targeted delivery of drugs to tumors is a major challenge for an effective cancer therapy and also to overcome the side effects associated with current treatments. Overexpression of various receptors on tumor cells is a characteristic structural and biochemical aspect of tumors and distinguishes them from physiologically normal cells. This abnormal feature is therefore suitable for selectively directing anticancer molecules to tumors by using ligands that can preferentially recognize such receptors. Several subtypes of integrin receptors that are crucial for cell adhesion, cell signaling, cell viability and motility have been shown to have an upregulated expression on cancer cells. Thus, ligands that recognize specific integrin subtypes represent excellent candidates to be conjugated to drugs or drug carrier systems and be targeted to tumors. In this regard, integrins recognizing the RGD cell adhesive sequence have been extensively targeted for tumor specific drug delivery. Here we review key recent examples on the presentation of RGD-based integrin ligands by means of distinct drug delivery systems, and discuss the prospects of such therapies to specifically target tumor cells.

  16. Doing Justice to Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Colish


    Full Text Available The traditional role of justice is to arbitrate where the good will of people is not enough, if even present, to settle a dispute between the concerned parties. It is a procedural approach that assumes a fractured relationship between those involved. Recognition, at first glance, would not seem to mirror these aspects of justice. Yet recognition is very much a subject of justice these days. The aim of this paper is to question the applicability of justice to the practice of recognition. The methodological orientation of this paper is a Kantian-style critique of the institution of justice, highlighting the limits of its reach and the dangers of overextension. The critique unfolds in the following three steps: 1 There is an immediate appeal to justice as a practice of recognition through its commitment to universality. This allure is shown to be deceptive in providing no prescription for the actual practice of this universality. 2 The interventionist character of justice is designed to address divided relationships. If recognition is only given expression through this channel, then we can only assume division as our starting ground. 3 The outcome of justice in respect to recognition is identification. This identification is left vulnerable to misrecognition itself, creating a cycle of injustice that demands recognition from anew. It seems to be well accepted that recognition is essentjustice, but less clear how to do justice to recognition. This paper is an effort in clarification. Le rôle traditionnel de la justice est celui d’arbitrer des situations où la bonne volonté ne suffit pas à régler un différend entre les parties concernées. Il s'agit d'une approche procédurale qui suppose une relation brisée entre les personnes impliquées. La reconnaissance, à première vue, ne semble pas refléter ces caractéristiques de la justice. Pourtant, elle est souvent présentée comme rétablissant une justice entre les parties concernés. Le

  17. Immediate recognition memory for wine


    Johnson, A.J.; Volp, A.; Miles, C.


    We describe a preliminary investigation concerning the short-term recognition memory function for gustatory stimuli (wines). In Experiment 1a, 24 non-expert wine drinkers completed a yes/no recognition task for 3-wine sequences. For the raw recognition scores, the serial position function comprised both primacy and recency. Recency did not, however, achieve significance for the d′ scores. In Experiment 1b, 24 participants completed the same yes/no recognition task for 3-visual matrix sequence...

  18. Automatic anatomy recognition via multiobject oriented active shape models. (United States)

    Chen, Xinjian; Udupa, Jayaram K; Alavi, Abass; Torigian, Drew A


    This paper studies the feasibility of developing an automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) system in clinical radiology and demonstrates its operation on clinical 2D images. The anatomy recognition method described here consists of two main components: (a) multiobject generalization of OASM and (b) object recognition strategies. The OASM algorithm is generalized to multiple objects by including a model for each object and assigning a cost structure specific to each object in the spirit of live wire. The delineation of multiobject boundaries is done in MOASM via a three level dynamic programming algorithm, wherein the first level is at pixel level which aims to find optimal oriented boundary segments between successive landmarks, the second level is at landmark level which aims to find optimal location for the landmarks, and the third level is at the object level which aims to find optimal arrangement of object boundaries over all objects. The object recognition strategy attempts to find that pose vector (consisting of translation, rotation, and scale component) for the multiobject model that yields the smallest total boundary cost for all objects. The delineation and recognition accuracies were evaluated separately utilizing routine clinical chest CT, abdominal CT, and foot MRI data sets. The delineation accuracy was evaluated in terms of true and false positive volume fractions (TPVF and FPVF). The recognition accuracy was assessed (1) in terms of the size of the space of the pose vectors for the model assembly that yielded high delineation accuracy, (2) as a function of the number of objects and objects' distribution and size in the model, (3) in terms of the interdependence between delineation and recognition, and (4) in terms of the closeness of the optimum recognition result to the global optimum. When multiple objects are included in the model, the delineation accuracy in terms of TPVF can be improved to 97%-98% with a low FPVF of 0.1%-0.2%. Typically, a

  19. NMR-Based Strategies to Elucidate Bioactive Conformations of Weakly Binding Ligands (United States)

    Blommers, Marcel J. J.; Strauss, Andre; Geiser, Martin; Ramage, Paul; Sparrer, Helmut; Jahnke, Wolfgang

    Key processes in molecular biology are regulated by interactions between biomolecules. Protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions, e.g., in signal transduction pathways, rely on the subtle interactions between atoms at the binding interface of the involved molecules. Because biomolecules often have many interacting partners, these interactions are not necessarily strong. The study of molecular recognition gives insight into the complex network of signaling in life and is the basis of structure-based drug design.

  20. Self-Assembly and Surface-Patterning of Polymer-Functionalized Nanoparticles (United States)

    Choueiri, Rachel

    This thesis explores the preparation of polymer-functionalized nanoparticles, the surface-segregation of their polymer ligands to generate patchy nanocolloids, and the use of patchy and non-patchy polymer-functionalized nanoparticles as building blocks for self-assembly. In Chapter 3, the self-assembly of nanospheres uniformly functionalized with polymer was explored. Both chain-like and globular structures were generated from the same spherical nanoparticle building blocks by tuning the interplay of nanoscale forces. The molecular weight of polymer ligands and the polarity and ionic strength of the self-assembly medium were changed to adjust the interparticle hydrophobic attraction and electrostatic repulsion in order to obtain the desired self-assembled structure. The experimental results were in agreement with theoretical predictions for the most thermodynamically favourable self-assemblies. Hierarchical structures made from assembled globules of nanospheres were also generated and the reversibility of the self-assemblies was demonstrated. In Chapter 4, the segregation of polymer ligands into pinned micelles on the surface of nanospheres was explored. Single and multi-patch nanospheres were generated by studying the interplay of nanosphere curvature and polymer molecular weight. The statistics of patchy nanosphere species was quantified and compared to theoretical predictions. Permanent crosslinking of polymer patches was achieved in addition to tomography of the generated colloids to further characterize the morphology. In Chapter 5, the surface segregation of polymer ligands on nanoparticles with different shapes and composition such as spherocylindrical nanorods, nanorods with a dumbbell shape, and nanocubes was demonstrated. The surface segregation of different polymers (including pH-responsive and conductive polymers) on nanospheres was also achieved demonstrating the versatility of the polymer segregation approach for nanopatterning. In addition, the self-assembly

  1. Extending reference assembly models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Church, Deanna M.; Schneider, Valerie A.; Steinberg, Karyn Meltz


    The human genome reference assembly is crucial for aligning and analyzing sequence data, and for genome annotation, among other roles. However, the models and analysis assumptions that underlie the current assembly need revising to fully represent human sequence diversity. Improved analysis tools...... and updated data reporting formats are also required....

  2. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Quaglia, Adamo; Epifano, Calogera M.


    The improvements of automatic face recognition during the last 2 decades have disclosed new applications like border control and camera surveillance. A new application field is forensic face recognition. Traditionally, face recognition by human experts has been used in forensics, but now there is a

  3. Visual Recognition Memory across Contexts (United States)

    Jones, Emily J. H.; Pascalis, Olivier; Eacott, Madeline J.; Herbert, Jane S.


    In two experiments, we investigated the development of representational flexibility in visual recognition memory during infancy using the Visual Paired Comparison (VPC) task. In Experiment 1, 6- and 9-month-old infants exhibited recognition when familiarization and test occurred in the same room, but showed no evidence of recognition when…

  4. Assembly principles and relaxation processes in nanosized heterogeneous complexes


    Zenkevich, E.I; von Borczyskowski, C.


    Based on the extra-ligand addition effect, the principles of targeted self-assembly of nanosized multiporphyrin complexes of various types with controllable geometry and composition (up to 8 tetrapyrroles) and heterogeneous composites based on trioctylphosphine oxide-stabilized CdSe/ZnS semiconductor nanocrystals and organic compounds were developed. The dynamics and mechanisms of energy and charge transfer (including electron tunneling) in such systems were studied by continuous, picoseco...

  5. Supramolecular assembly of self-healing nanocomposite hydrogels. (United States)

    Gerth, Marieke; Bohdan, Malgorzata; Fokkink, Remco; Voets, Ilja; van der Gucht, Jasper; Sprakel, Joris


    Hierarchical self-assembly of transient composite hydrogels is demonstrated through a two-step, orthogonal strategy using nanoparticle tectons interconnected through metal-ligand coordination complexes. The resulting materials are highly tunable with moduli and viscosities spanning many orders of magnitude, and show promising self-healing properties, while maintaining complete optical transparency. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Self-assembly of boron-based supramolecular structures


    Christinat, Nicolas


    This work describes the synthesis and characterization of boronic acid-based supramolecular structures. Macrocycles, dendritic structures, polymers, rotaxanes, and cages were assembled using four types of reversible reactions. The key point of the strategy is the parallel utilization of two –or more– of these reactions. Initially, aryl and alkylboronic acids were condensed with dihydroxypyridine ligands to give tetrameric or pentameric macrocycles, in which four or five boronate esters are co...

  7. Self-assembled nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jin Z; Liu, Jun; Chen, Shaowei; Liu, Gang-yu


    Nanostructures refer to materials that have relevant dimensions on the nanometer length scales and reside in the mesoscopic regime between isolated atoms and molecules in bulk matter. These materials have unique physical properties that are distinctly different from bulk materials. Self-Assembled Nanostructures provides systematic coverage of basic nanomaterials science including materials assembly and synthesis, characterization, and application. Suitable for both beginners and experts, it balances the chemistry aspects of nanomaterials with physical principles. It also highlights nanomaterial-based architectures including assembled or self-assembled systems. Filled with in-depth discussion of important applications of nano-architectures as well as potential applications ranging from physical to chemical and biological systems, Self-Assembled Nanostructures is the essential reference or text for scientists involved with nanostructures.

  8. Mechanisms of Virus Assembly (United States)

    Perlmutter, Jason D.; Hagan, Michael F.


    Viruses are nanoscale entities containing a nucleic acid genome encased in a protein shell called a capsid, and in some cases surrounded by a lipid bilayer membrane. This review summarizes the physics that govern the processes by which capsids assembles within their host cells and in vitro. We describe the thermodynamics and kinetics for assembly of protein subunits into icosahedral capsid shells, and how these are modified in cases where the capsid assembles around a nucleic acid or on a lipid bilayer. We present experimental and theoretical techniques that have been used to characterize capsid assembly, and we highlight aspects of virus assembly which are likely to receive significant attention in the near future. PMID:25532951

  9. Modeling Viral Capsid Assembly (United States)


    I present a review of the theoretical and computational methodologies that have been used to model the assembly of viral capsids. I discuss the capabilities and limitations of approaches ranging from equilibrium continuum theories to molecular dynamics simulations, and I give an overview of some of the important conclusions about virus assembly that have resulted from these modeling efforts. Topics include the assembly of empty viral shells, assembly around single-stranded nucleic acids to form viral particles, and assembly around synthetic polymers or charged nanoparticles for nanotechnology or biomedical applications. I present some examples in which modeling efforts have promoted experimental breakthroughs, as well as directions in which the connection between modeling and experiment can be strengthened. PMID:25663722

  10. Affinity-mass spectrometry approaches for elucidating structures and interactions of protein-ligand complexes. (United States)

    Petre, Brînduşa Alina


    Affinity-based approaches in combination with mass spectrometry for molecular structure identification in biological complexes such as protein-protein, and protein-carbohydrate complexes have become popular in recent years. Affinity-mass spectrometry involves immobilization of a biomolecule on a chemically activated support, affinity binding of ligand(s), dissociation of the complex, and mass spectrometric analysis of the bound fraction. In this chapter the affinity-mass spectrometric methodologies will be presented for (1) identification of the epitope structures in the Abeta amyloid peptide, (2) identification of oxidative modifications in proteins such as nitration of tyrosine, (3) determination of carbohydrate recognition domains, and as (4) development of a biosensor chip-based mass spectrometric system for concomitant quantification and identification of protein-ligand complexes.

  11. Computational Approaches to the Chemical Equilibrium Constant in Protein-ligand Binding. (United States)

    Montalvo-Acosta, Joel José; Cecchini, Marco


    The physiological role played by protein-ligand recognition has motivated the development of several computational approaches to the ligand binding affinity. Some of them, termed rigorous, have a strong theoretical foundation but involve too much computation to be generally useful. Some others alleviate the computational burden by introducing strong approximations and/or empirical calibrations, which also limit their general use. Most importantly, there is no straightforward correlation between the predictive power and the level of approximation introduced. Here, we present a general framework for the quantitative interpretation of protein-ligand binding based on statistical mechanics. Within this framework, we re-derive self-consistently the fundamental equations of some popular approaches to the binding constant and pinpoint the inherent approximations. Our analysis represents a first step towards the development of variants with optimum accuracy/efficiency ratio for each stage of the drug discovery pipeline. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Image recognition: visual grouping, recognition, and learning. (United States)

    Buhmann, J M; Malik, J; Perona, P


    Vision extracts useful information from images. Reconstructing the three-dimensional structure of our environment and recognizing the objects that populate it are among the most important functions of our visual system. Computer vision researchers study the computational principles of vision and aim at designing algorithms that reproduce these functions. Vision is difficult: the same scene may give rise to very different images depending on illumination and viewpoint. Typically, an astronomical number of hypotheses exist that in principle have to be analyzed to infer a correct scene description. Moreover, image information might be extracted at different levels of spatial and logical resolution dependent on the image processing task. Knowledge of the world allows the visual system to limit the amount of ambiguity and to greatly simplify visual computations. We discuss how simple properties of the world are captured by the Gestalt rules of grouping, how the visual system may learn and organize models of objects for recognition, and how one may control the complexity of the description that the visual system computes.

  13. Assembly: a resource for assembled genomes at NCBI (United States)

    Kitts, Paul A.; Church, Deanna M.; Thibaud-Nissen, Françoise; Choi, Jinna; Hem, Vichet; Sapojnikov, Victor; Smith, Robert G.; Tatusova, Tatiana; Xiang, Charlie; Zherikov, Andrey; DiCuccio, Michael; Murphy, Terence D.; Pruitt, Kim D.; Kimchi, Avi


    The NCBI Assembly database ( provides stable accessioning and data tracking for genome assembly data. The model underlying the database can accommodate a range of assembly structures, including sets of unordered contig or scaffold sequences, bacterial genomes consisting of a single complete chromosome, or complex structures such as a human genome with modeled allelic variation. The database provides an assembly accession and version to unambiguously identify the set of sequences that make up a particular version of an assembly, and tracks changes to updated genome assemblies. The Assembly database reports metadata such as assembly names, simple statistical reports of the assembly (number of contigs and scaffolds, contiguity metrics such as contig N50, total sequence length and total gap length) as well as the assembly update history. The Assembly database also tracks the relationship between an assembly submitted to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Consortium (INSDC) and the assembly represented in the NCBI RefSeq project. Users can find assemblies of interest by querying the Assembly Resource directly or by browsing available assemblies for a particular organism. Links in the Assembly Resource allow users to easily download sequence and annotations for current versions of genome assemblies from the NCBI genomes FTP site. PMID:26578580

  14. Towards Automatic Threat Recognition (United States)


    York: Bantam. Forschungsinstitut für Kommunikation , Informationsverarbeitung und Ergonomie FGAN Informationstechnik und Führungssysteme KIE Towards...Automatic Threat Recognition Dr. Ulrich Schade Joachim Biermann Miłosław Frey FGAN – FKIE Germany Forschungsinstitut für Kommunikation Processing Principle Back to the Example Conclusion and Outlook Forschungsinstitut für Kommunikation , Informationsverarbeitung und Ergonomie FGAN

  15. Amazigh recognition in Algeria


    Kristensen, Mia; Meškinytė, Vilma


    The indigenous people of North Africa, the Amazigh population, have been outnumbered by the Arabs since their invasion in the 7th century. Fighting and bombing heads have been regular ever since. However, during the period of decolonization the two populations fought side by side. After independence in the North African countries a heavy Arabisation followed, once again creating tension between the Arab and Amazigh population. Fighting to get recognition the Amazigh population has gained some...

  16. Pattern Recognition Control Design (United States)

    Gambone, Elisabeth A.


    Spacecraft control algorithms must know the expected vehicle response to any command to the available control effectors, such as reaction thrusters or torque devices. Spacecraft control system design approaches have traditionally relied on the estimated vehicle mass properties to determine the desired force and moment, as well as knowledge of the effector performance to efficiently control the spacecraft. A pattern recognition approach was used to investigate the relationship between the control effector commands and spacecraft responses. Instead of supplying the approximated vehicle properties and the thruster performance characteristics, a database of information relating the thruster ring commands and the desired vehicle response was used for closed-loop control. A Monte Carlo simulation data set of the spacecraft dynamic response to effector commands was analyzed to establish the influence a command has on the behavior of the spacecraft. A tool developed at NASA Johnson Space Center to analyze flight dynamics Monte Carlo data sets through pattern recognition methods was used to perform this analysis. Once a comprehensive data set relating spacecraft responses with commands was established, it was used in place of traditional control methods and gains set. This pattern recognition approach was compared with traditional control algorithms to determine the potential benefits and uses.

  17. Audio-visual gender recognition (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Xu, Xun; Huang, Thomas S.


    Combining different modalities for pattern recognition task is a very promising field. Basically, human always fuse information from different modalities to recognize object and perform inference, etc. Audio-Visual gender recognition is one of the most common task in human social communication. Human can identify the gender by facial appearance, by speech and also by body gait. Indeed, human gender recognition is a multi-modal data acquisition and processing procedure. However, computational multimodal gender recognition has not been extensively investigated in the literature. In this paper, speech and facial image are fused to perform a mutli-modal gender recognition for exploring the improvement of combining different modalities.

  18. Dynamic melody recognition: distinctiveness and the role of musical expertise. (United States)

    Bailes, Freya


    The hypothesis that melodies are recognized at moments when they exhibit a distinctive musical pattern was tested. In a melody recognition experiment, point-of-recognition (POR) data were gathered from 32 listeners (16 musicians and 16 nonmusicians) judging 120 melodies. A series of models of melody recognition were developed, resulting from a stepwise multiple regression of two classes of information relating to melodic familiarity and melodic distinctiveness. Melodic distinctiveness measures were assembled through statistical analyses of over 15,000 Western themes and melodies. A significant model, explaining 85% of the variance, entered measures primarily of timing distinctiveness and pitch distinctiveness, but excluding familiarity, as predictors of POR. Differences between nonmusician and musician models suggest a processing shift from momentary to accumulated information with increased exposure to music. Supplemental materials for this article may be downloaded from

  19. The effect of ligand-ligand interactions on the formation of photoluminescent gold nanoclusters embedded in Au(i)-thiolate supramolecules. (United States)

    Chang, Hsiang-Yu; Tseng, Yu-Ting; Yuan, Zhiqin; Chou, Hung-Lung; Chen, Ching-Hsiang; Hwang, Bing-Joe; Tsai, Meng-Che; Chang, Huan-Tsung; Huang, Chih-Ching


    In this study, we prepared photoluminescent l-cysteine (Cys)-capped gold nanoclusters (Cys-Au NCs) via NaBH4-mediated reduction of aggregated coordination polymers (supramolecules) of -[Cys-Au(i)]n-. The -[Cys-Au(i)]n- supramolecules with interesting chiral properties were formed through simple reactions of chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) with Cys at certain pH values (pH 3-7). The -[Cys-Au(i)]n- polymers could self-assemble into -[Cys-Au(i)]n- supramolecules with irregular morphologies and diameters larger than 500 nm through stacked hydrogen bonding and zwitterionic interactions between Cys ligands and through Au(i)Au(i) aurophilic interactions in solutions with pH values ≤7. The photoluminescent Au NCs (quantum yield = 11.6%) dominated by a Au13 core were embedded in -[Cys-Au(i)]n- supramolecules after NaBH4-mediated reduction. The optical and structural properties of Cys-Au NCs/-[Cys-Au(i)]n- nanocomposites were investigated, revealing that the interaction between Cys ligands plays a critical role in the self-assembly of -[Cys-Au(i)]n- supramolecules and in the formation of photoluminescent Cys-Au NCs embedded in the supramolecules. To further demonstrate that the photoluminescence properties and structures of the nanocomposites are mediated by the intermolecular forces of thiol ligands, other thiol ligands (l-penicillamine, l-homocysteine, 3-mercaptopropionic acid, and l-glutathione) and a ligand-crosslinking agent [bis(sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate; BS3] were used. We concluded that the electrostatic interactions, hydrogen bonding and steric effects dominate the polymer self-assembly into thiol-ligand-Au(i) supramolecules and thus the formation of Au NCs. Our study provides insights into the bottom-up synthesis of photoluminescent Au NCs from thiol-ligand-Au(i) complexes, polymers, and supramolecules. The hybrid Au NCs/-[Cys-Au(i)]n- nanocomposites can potentially be employed as drug carriers and bioimaging agents.

  20. Fuel assembly assessment from CVD image analysis: A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, C.S.; Lindblad, T. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Physics


    The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate commissioned a feasibility study of automatic assessment of fuel assemblies from images obtained with the digital Cerenkov viewing device currently in development. The goal is to assist the IAEA inspectors in evaluating the fuel since they typically have only a few seconds to inspect an assembly. We report results here in two main areas: Investigation of basic image processing and recognition techniques needed to enhance the images and find the assembly in the image; Study of the properties of the distributions of light from the assemblies to determine whether they provide unique signatures for different burn-up and cooling times for real fuel or indicate presence of non-fuel. 8 refs, 27 figs.

  1. Lack of Ligand-Selective Binding of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor to Putative DNA Binding Sites Regulating Expression of Bax and Paraoxonase 1 Genes


    DeGroot, Danica E.; Hayashi, Ai; Michael S Denison


    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that mediates the biological and toxicological effects of structurally diverse chemicals through its ability to bind specific DNA recognition sites (dioxin responsive elements (DREs)), and activate transcription of adjacent genes. While the DRE has a highly conserved consensus sequence, it has been suggested that the nucleotide specificity of AhR DNA binding may be ligand-dependent. The upstream regulatory regions ...

  2. Structure of the Membrane-tethering GRASP Domain Reveals a Unique PDZ Ligand Interaction That Mediates Golgi Biogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truschel, S.T.; Heroux, A.; Sengupta, D.; Foote, A.; Macbeth, M. R.; Linstedt, A. D.


    Biogenesis of the ribbon-like membrane network of the mammalian Golgi requires membrane tethering by the conserved GRASP domain in GRASP65 and GRASP55, yet the tethering mechanism is not fully understood. Here, we report the crystal structure of the GRASP55 GRASP domain, which revealed an unusual arrangement of two tandem PDZ folds that more closely resemble prokaryotic PDZ domains. Biochemical and functional data indicated that the interaction between the ligand-binding pocket of PDZ1 and an internal ligand on PDZ2 mediates the GRASP self-interaction, and structural analyses suggest that this occurs via a unique mode of internal PDZ ligand recognition. Our data uncover the structural basis for ligand specificity and provide insight into the mechanism of GRASP-dependent membrane tethering of analogous Golgi cisternae.

  3. Structure of the Membrane-tethering GRASP Domain Reveals a Unique PDZ Ligand Interaction That Mediates Golgi Biogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S Truschel; D Sengupta; A Foote; A Heroux; M Macbeth; A Linstedt


    Biogenesis of the ribbon-like membrane network of the mammalian Golgi requires membrane tethering by the conserved GRASP domain in GRASP65 and GRASP55, yet the tethering mechanism is not fully understood. Here, we report the crystal structure of the GRASP55 GRASP domain, which revealed an unusual arrangement of two tandem PDZ folds that more closely resemble prokaryotic PDZ domains. Biochemical and functional data indicated that the interaction between the ligand-binding pocket of PDZ1 and an internal ligand on PDZ2 mediates the GRASP self-interaction, and structural analyses suggest that this occurs via a unique mode of internal PDZ ligand recognition. Our data uncover the structural basis for ligand specificity and provide insight into the mechanism of GRASP-dependent membrane tethering of analogous Golgi cisternae.

  4. Fluorescent Phthalocyanine Assembly Distinguishes Chiral Isomers of Different Types of Amino Acids and Sugars. (United States)

    Jiang, Yuying; Liu, Chenxi; Wang, Xiqian; Wang, Tianyu; Jiang, Jianzhuang


    The functions of some natural supramolecular architectures, such as ribosomes, are dependent on the recognition of different types of chiral biomolecules. However, the recognition of different types of chiral molecules (multiobject chiral recognition), such as amino acids and sugars, by independent and identically artificial supramolecular assembly, was rarely achieved. In this article, simple amphiphilic achiral phthalocyanine was found to form supramolecular chiral assemblies with charged water-soluble polymers upon host-guest interactions at the air/water interface. Among these systems, one identical phthalocyanine/poly(l-lysine) assembly not only can distinguish enantiomers of different amino acids but also can recognize several epimers of monose. The chiral recognitions were achieved by comparing either the steady-state fluorescence intensity or fluorescence quenching rate of phthalocyanine/poly(l-lysine) assemblies, before and after interaction with different small chiral molecules. It was demonstrated that the interactions between poly(l-lysine) and different small chiral molecules could change the aggregation of phthalocyanines. And the sensitivity of fluorescence and the excellent multiobject chiral recognition properties of the phthalocyanine/poly(l-lysine) assembly are dependent on the subtle molecular packing mode and the cooperation of different noncovalent interactions.

  5. Rewriting nature's assembly manual for a ssRNA virus. (United States)

    Patel, Nikesh; Wroblewski, Emma; Leonov, German; Phillips, Simon E V; Tuma, Roman; Twarock, Reidun; Stockley, Peter G


    Satellite tobacco necrosis virus (STNV) is one of the smallest viruses known. Its genome encodes only its coat protein (CP) subunit, relying on the polymerase of its helper virus TNV for replication. The genome has been shown to contain a cryptic set of dispersed assembly signals in the form of stem-loops that each present a minimal CP-binding motif AXXA in the loops. The genomic fragment encompassing nucleotides 1-127 is predicted to contain five such packaging signals (PSs). We have used mutagenesis to determine the critical assembly features in this region. These include the CP-binding motif, the relative placement of PS stem-loops, their number, and their folding propensity. CP binding has an electrostatic contribution, but assembly nucleation is dominated by the recognition of the folded PSs in the RNA fragment. Mutation to remove all AXXA motifs in PSs throughout the genome yields an RNA that is unable to assemble efficiently. In contrast, when a synthetic 127-nt fragment encompassing improved PSs is swapped onto the RNA otherwise lacking CP recognition motifs, assembly is partially restored, although the virus-like particles created are incomplete, implying that PSs outside this region are required for correct assembly. Swapping this improved region into the wild-type STNV1 sequence results in a better assembly substrate than the viral RNA, producing complete capsids and outcompeting the wild-type genome in head-to-head competition. These data confirm details of the PS-mediated assembly mechanism for STNV and identify an efficient approach for production of stable virus-like particles encapsidating nonnative RNAs or other cargoes. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  6. Innovative self-assembled and microfabricated structures to be used in distinct biomedical applications


    Mendes, Ana Carina


    Tese de doutoramento em Engenharia Biomédica Advances in self-assembly offer new opportunities in molecular design of biomaterials. A major advantage of these systems is their ability to generate similar fibrillar structures to those found in the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) of tissues and to integrate directly into their structure biomolecular ligands for cell signalling. On the other hand, the integration of self-assembly into existing microtechnologies could offer new ...

  7. Robust, self-assembled, biocompatible films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, Basil I; Anderson, Aaron S.; Dattelbaum, Andrew M.; Schmidt, Jurgen G.


    The present invention provides a composite material including a substrate having an oxide surface, and, a continuous monolayer on the oxide surface, the monolayer including a silicon atom from a trifunctional alkyl/alkenyl/alkynyl silane group that attaches to the oxide surface, an alkyl/alkenyl/alkynyl portion of at least three carbon atoms, a polyalkylene glycol spacer group, and either a reactive site (e.g., a recognition ligand) or a site resistant to non-specific binding (e.g., a methoxy or the like) at the terminus of each modified SAM. The present invention further provides a sensor element, a sensor array and a method of sensing, each employing the composite material. Patterning is also provided together with backfilling to minimize non-specific binding.

  8. Reverse depletion effects and the determination of ligand density on some spherical bioparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chunxiang [Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University (China); Liu, Yanhui, E-mail:; Fan, Yangtao; Liu, Yijun; Li, Qiancheng; Xu, Houqiang, E-mail: [Guizhou University (China)


    In cell environments crowded with macromolecules, the depletion effects act and assist in the assembly of a wide range of cellular structures, from the cytoskeleton to the chromatin loop, which are well accepted. But a recent quantum dot experiment indicated that the dimensions of the receptor–ligand complex have strong effects on the size-dependent exclusion of proteins in cell environments. In this article, a continuum elastic model is constructed to resolve the competition between the dimension of the receptor–ligand complex and depletion effects in the endocytosis of a spherical virus-like bioparticle. Our results show that the depletion effects do not always assist endocytosis of a spherical virus-like bioparticle; while the dimension of the ligand–receptor complex is larger than the size of a small bioparticle in cell environments, the depletion effects do not work and reverse effects appear. The ligand density covered on the virus can be identified quantitatively.

  9. Neat and complete: Thiolate-ligand exchange on a silver molecular nanoparticle

    KAUST Repository

    AbdulHalim, Lina G.


    Atomically precise thiolate-protected noble metal molecular nanoparticles are a promising class of model nanomaterials for catalysis, optoelectronics, and the bottom-up assembly of true molecular crystals. However, these applications have not fully materialized due to a lack of ligand exchange strategies that add functionality, but preserve the properties of these remarkable particles. Here we present a method for the rapid (<30 s) and complete thiolate-for-thiolate exchange of the highly sought after silver molecular nanoparticle [Ag44(SR)30]-4. Only by using this method were we able to preserve the precise nature of the particles and simultaneously replace the native ligands with ligands containing a variety of functional groups. Crucially, as a result of our method we were able to process the particles into smooth thin films, paving the way for their integration into solution-processed devices.

  10. Microtubule Self- Assembly (United States)

    Jho, Yongseok; Choi, M. C.; Farago, O.; Kim, Mahnwon; Pincus, P. A.


    Microtubules are important structural elements for neurons. Microtubles are cylindrical pipes that are self-assembled from tubulin dimers, These structures are intimately related to the neuron transport system. Abnormal microtubule disintegration contributes to neuro-disease. For several decades, experimentalists investigated the structure of the microtubules using TEM and Cryo-EM. However, the detailed structure at a molecular level remain incompletely understood. . In this presentation, we report numerically studies of the self-assembly process using a toy model for tubulin dimers. We investigate the nature of the interactions which are essential to stabilize such the cylindrical assembly of protofilaments. We use Monte Carlo simulations to suggest the pathways for assembly and disassembly of the microtubules.

  11. Flexseal Insulator Test Assembly (United States)

    Buchanan, Eric


    Small-scale version of solid-fuel rocket motor flexseal nozzle bearing assembly instrumented and tested in compression-testing fixture simulating conditions during rocket motor operation described in report.

  12. Ligand photo-isomerization triggers conformational changes in iGluR2 ligand binding domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tino Wolter

    Full Text Available Neurological glutamate receptors bind a variety of artificial ligands, both agonistic and antagonistic, in addition to glutamate. Studying their small molecule binding properties increases our understanding of the central nervous system and a variety of associated pathologies. The large, oligomeric multidomain membrane protein contains a large and flexible ligand binding domains which undergoes large conformational changes upon binding different ligands. A recent application of glutamate receptors is their activation or inhibition via photo-switchable ligands, making them key systems in the emerging field of optochemical genetics. In this work, we present a theoretical study on the binding mode and complex stability of a novel photo-switchable ligand, ATA-3, which reversibly binds to glutamate receptors ligand binding domains (LBDs. We propose two possible binding modes for this ligand based on flexible ligand docking calculations and show one of them to be analogues to the binding mode of a similar ligand, 2-BnTetAMPA. In long MD simulations, it was observed that transitions between both binding poses involve breaking and reforming the T686-E402 protein hydrogen bond. Simulating the ligand photo-isomerization process shows that the two possible configurations of the ligand azo-group have markedly different complex stabilities and equilibrium binding modes. A strong but slow protein response is observed after ligand configuration changes. This provides a microscopic foundation for the observed difference in ligand activity upon light-switching.

  13. Re-thinking employee recognition: understanding employee experiences of recognition


    Smith, Charlotte


    Despite widespread acceptance of the importance of employee recognition for both individuals and organisations and evidence of its increasing use in organisations, employee recognition has received relatively little focused attention from academic researchers. Particularly lacking is research exploring the lived experience of employee recognition and the interpretations and meanings which individuals give to these experiences. Drawing on qualitative interviews conducted as part of my PhD rese...

  14. Assembling Sustainable Territories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandergeest, Peter; Ponte, Stefano; Bush, Simon


    The authors show how certification assembles ‘sustainable’ territories through a complex layering of regulatory authority in which both government and nongovernment entities claim rule-making authority, sometimes working together, sometimes in parallel, sometimes competitively. It is argued...... dynamic in assembling sustainable territories, and that certification always involves state agencies in determining how the key elements that comprise it are defined. Whereas some state agencies have been suspicious of sustainability certification, others have embraced it or even used it to extend...

  15. Polymer Directed Protein Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick van Rijn


    Full Text Available Protein aggregation and protein self-assembly is an important occurrence in natural systems, and is in some form or other dictated by biopolymers. Very obvious influences of biopolymers on protein assemblies are, e.g., virus particles. Viruses are a multi-protein assembly of which the morphology is dictated by poly-nucleotides namely RNA or DNA. This “biopolymer” directs the proteins and imposes limitations on the structure like the length or diameter of the particle. Not only do these bionanoparticles use polymer-directed self-assembly, also processes like amyloid formation are in a way a result of directed protein assembly by partial unfolded/misfolded biopolymers namely, polypeptides. The combination of proteins and synthetic polymers, inspired by the natural processes, are therefore regarded as a highly promising area of research. Directed protein assembly is versatile with respect to the possible interactions which brings together the protein and polymer, e.g., electrostatic, v.d. Waals forces or covalent conjugation, and possible combinations are numerous due to the large amounts of different polymers and proteins available. The protein-polymer interacting behavior and overall morphology is envisioned to aid in clarifying protein-protein interactions and are thought to entail some interesting new functions and properties which will ultimately lead to novel bio-hybrid materials.

  16. Creating molecular macrocycles for anion recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar H. Flood


    Full Text Available The creation and functionality of new classes of macrocycles that are shape persistent and can bind anions is described. The genesis of triazolophane macrocycles emerges out of activity surrounding 1,2,3-triazoles made using click chemistry; and the same triazoles are responsible for anion capture. Mistakes made and lessons learnt in anion recognition provide deeper understanding that, together with theory, now provides for computer-aided receptor design. The lessons are acted upon in the creation of two new macrocycles. First, cyanostars are larger and like to capture large anions. Second is tricarb, which also favors large anions but shows a propensity to self-assemble in an orderly and stable manner, laying a foundation for future designs of hierarchical nanostructures.

  17. Bitopic Ligands and Metastable Binding Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fronik, Philipp; Gaiser, Birgit I; Sejer Pedersen, Daniel


    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) belong to a large superfamily of membrane receptors mediating a variety of physiological functions. As such they are attractive targets for drug therapy. However, it remains a challenge to develop subtype selective GPCR ligands due to the high conservation...... sites. Computational studies on ligand binding to GPCRs have revealed transient, low-affinity binding sites, termed metastable binding sites. Metastable binding sites may provide a new source of allosteric binding sites that could be exploited in the design of bitopic ligands. Unlike the bitopic ligands...

  18. Clinical Use of PPARγ Ligands in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Hatton


    Full Text Available The role of PPARγ in adipocyte differentiation has fueled intense interest in the function of this steroid nuclear receptor for regulation of malignant cell growth and differentiation. Given the antiproliferative and differentiating effects of PPARγ ligands on liposarcoma cells, investigation of PPARγ expression and ligand activation in other solid tumors such as breast, colon, and prostate cancers ensued. The anticancer effects of PPARγ ligands in cell culture and rodent models of a multitude of tumor types suggest broad applicability of these agents to cancer therapy. This review focuses on the clinical use of PPARγ ligands, specifically the thiazolidinediones, for the treatment and prevention of cancer.

  19. Killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) and KIR-ligand genotype do not correlate with clinical outcome of renal cell carcinoma patients receiving high-dose IL2. (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Erbe, Amy K; Gallenberger, Mikayla; Kim, KyungMann; Carmichael, Lakeesha; Hess, Dustin; Mendonca, Eneida A; Song, Yiqiang; Hank, Jacquelyn A; Cheng, Su-Chun; Signoretti, Sabina; Atkins, Michael; Carlson, Alexander; Weiss, Jonathan M; Mier, James; Panka, David; McDermott, David F; Sondel, Paul M


    NK cells play a role in many cancer immunotherapies. NK cell activity is tightly regulated by killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) and KIR-ligand interactions. Inhibitory KIR-ligands have been identified as HLA molecules, while activating KIR-ligands are largely unknown. Individuals that have not inherited the corresponding KIR-ligand for at least one inhibitory KIR gene are termed the "KIR-ligand missing" genotype, and they are thought to have a subset of NK cells that express inhibitory KIRs for which the corresponding KIR-ligand is missing on autologous tissue, and thus will not be inhibited through KIR-ligand recognition. In some settings where an anticancer immunotherapeutic effect is likely mediated by NK cells, individuals with a KIR-ligand missing genotype have shown improved clinical outcome compared to individuals with an "all KIR-ligands present" genotype. In addition, patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplants for leukemia may do better if their donor has more activating KIR genes (i.e., KIR haplotype-B). In a recent multi-institution clinical trial of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma receiving high-dose IL2 (HD-IL2), 25 % of patients showed a complete or partial tumor response to this therapy. We genotyped KIR and KIR-ligand genes for these patients (n = 107) and tested whether KIR/KIR-ligand genotypes correlated with patient clinical outcomes. In these analyses, we did not find any significant association of KIR/KIR-ligand genotype (either KIR-ligand missing or the presence of KIR haplotype-B) with patient outcome in response to the HD-IL2 therapy.

  20. Single molecule high-throughput footprinting of small and large DNA ligands. (United States)

    Manosas, Maria; Camunas-Soler, Joan; Croquette, Vincent; Ritort, Felix


    Most DNA processes are governed by molecular interactions that take place in a sequence-specific manner. Determining the sequence selectivity of DNA ligands is still a challenge, particularly for small drugs where labeling or sequencing methods do not perform well. Here, we present a fast and accurate method based on parallelized single molecule magnetic tweezers to detect the sequence selectivity and characterize the thermodynamics and kinetics of binding in a single assay. Mechanical manipulation of DNA hairpins with an engineered sequence is used to detect ligand binding as blocking events during DNA unzipping, allowing determination of ligand selectivity both for small drugs and large proteins with nearly base-pair resolution in an unbiased fashion. The assay allows investigation of subtle details such as the effect of flanking sequences or binding cooperativity. Unzipping assays on hairpin substrates with an optimized flat free energy landscape containing all binding motifs allows determination of the ligand mechanical footprint, recognition site, and binding orientation.Mapping the sequence specificity of DNA ligands remains a challenge, particularly for small drugs. Here the authors develop a parallelized single molecule magnetic tweezers approach using engineered DNA hairpins that can detect sequence selectivity, thermodynamics and kinetics of binding for small drugs and large proteins.

  1. Bovine Norovirus: Carbohydrate Ligand, Environmental Contamination, and Potential Cross-Species Transmission via Oysters ▿ † (United States)

    Zakhour, Maha; Maalouf, Haifa; Di Bartolo, Ilaria; Haugarreau, Larissa; Le Guyader, Françoise S.; Ruvoën-Clouet, Nathalie; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Ruggeri, Franco Maria; Pommepuy, Monique; Le Pendu, Jacques


    Noroviruses (NoV) are major agents of acute gastroenteritis in humans and the primary pathogens of shellfish-related outbreaks. Previous studies showed that some human strains bind to oyster tissues through carbohydrate ligands that are similar to their human receptors. Thus, based on presentation of shared norovirus carbohydrate ligands, oysters could selectively concentrate animal strains with increased ability to overcome species barriers. In comparison with human GI and GII strains, bovine GIII NoV strains, although frequently detected in bovine feces and waters of two estuaries of Brittany, were seldom detected in oysters grown in these estuaries. Characterization of the carbohydrate ligand from a new GIII strain indicated recognition of the alpha-galactosidase (α-Gal) epitope not expressed by humans, similar to the GIII.2 Newbury2 strain. This ligand was not detectable on oyster tissues, suggesting that oysters may not be able to accumulate substantial amounts of GIII strains due to the lack of shared carbohydrate ligand and that they should be unable to contribute to select GIII strains with an increased ability to recognize humans. PMID:20709837

  2. Bovine norovirus: carbohydrate ligand, environmental contamination, and potential cross-species transmission via oysters. (United States)

    Zakhour, Maha; Maalouf, Haifa; Di Bartolo, Ilaria; Haugarreau, Larissa; Le Guyader, Françoise S; Ruvoën-Clouet, Nathalie; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Ruggeri, Franco Maria; Pommepuy, Monique; Le Pendu, Jacques


    Noroviruses (NoV) are major agents of acute gastroenteritis in humans and the primary pathogens of shellfish-related outbreaks. Previous studies showed that some human strains bind to oyster tissues through carbohydrate ligands that are similar to their human receptors. Thus, based on presentation of shared norovirus carbohydrate ligands, oysters could selectively concentrate animal strains with increased ability to overcome species barriers. In comparison with human GI and GII strains, bovine GIII NoV strains, although frequently detected in bovine feces and waters of two estuaries of Brittany, were seldom detected in oysters grown in these estuaries. Characterization of the carbohydrate ligand from a new GIII strain indicated recognition of the alpha-galactosidase (α-Gal) epitope not expressed by humans, similar to the GIII.2 Newbury2 strain. This ligand was not detectable on oyster tissues, suggesting that oysters may not be able to accumulate substantial amounts of GIII strains due to the lack of shared carbohydrate ligand and that they should be unable to contribute to select GIII strains with an increased ability to recognize humans.

  3. Molecular view of ligands specificity for CAG repeats in anti-Huntington therapy. (United States)

    Bochicchio, Anna; Rossetti, Giulia; Tabarrini, Oriana; Krauβ, Sybille; Carloni, Paolo


    Huntington's disease is a fatal and devastating neurodegenerative genetic disorder for which there is currently no cure. It is characterized by Huntingtin protein's mRNA transcripts with 36 or more CAG repeats. Inhibiting the formation of pathological complexes between these expanded transcripts and target proteins may be a valuable strategy against the disease. Yet, the rational design of molecules specifically targeting the expanded CAG repeats is limited by the lack of structural information. Here, we use well-tempered metadynamics-based free energy calculations to investigate pose and affinity of two ligands targeting CAG repeats for which affinities have been previously measured. The first consists of two 4-guanidinophenyl rings linked by an ester group. It is the most potent ligand identified so far, with Kd = 60(30) nM. The second consists of a 4-phenyl dihydroimidazole and 4-1H-indole dihydroimidazole connected by a C-C bond (Kd = 700(80) nM). Our calculations reproduce the experimental affinities and uncover the recognition pattern between ligands' and their RNA target. They also provide a molecular basis for the markedly different affinity of the two ligands for CAG repeats as observed experimentally. These findings may pave the way for a structure-based hit-to-lead optimization to further improve ligand selectivity toward CAG repeat-containing mRNAs.

  4. Um paradigma da química medicinal: a flexibilidade dos ligantes e receptores A medicinal chemistry paradigm: ligands and receptor flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Verli


    Full Text Available In general, molecular modeling techniques applied in medicinal chemistry have been static and drug based. However the active site geometry and the intrinsic flexibility of both receptor and ligand are fundamental properties for molecular recognition and drug action. As a consequence, the use of dynamic models to describe the ligand-receptor complex is becoming a more common procedure. In this work we discuss the relevance of considering the receptor structure in medicinal chemistry studies as well as the flexibility of the ligand-receptor complex.

  5. Human activity recognition and prediction

    CERN Document Server


    This book provides a unique view of human activity recognition, especially fine-grained human activity structure learning, human-interaction recognition, RGB-D data based action recognition, temporal decomposition, and causality learning in unconstrained human activity videos. The techniques discussed give readers tools that provide a significant improvement over existing methodologies of video content understanding by taking advantage of activity recognition. It links multiple popular research fields in computer vision, machine learning, human-centered computing, human-computer interaction, image classification, and pattern recognition. In addition, the book includes several key chapters covering multiple emerging topics in the field. Contributed by top experts and practitioners, the chapters present key topics from different angles and blend both methodology and application, composing a solid overview of the human activity recognition techniques. .

  6. Human Assisted Assembly Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Automatic assembly sequencing and visualization tools are valuable in determining the best assembly sequences, but without Human Factors and Figure Models (HFFMs) it is difficult to evaluate or visualize human interaction. In industry, accelerating technological advances and shorter market windows have forced companies to turn to an agile manufacturing paradigm. This trend has promoted computerized automation of product design and manufacturing processes, such as automated assembly planning. However, all automated assembly planning software tools assume that the individual components fly into their assembled configuration and generate what appear to be a perfectly valid operations, but in reality the operations cannot physically be carried out by a human. Similarly, human figure modeling algorithms may indicate that assembly operations are not feasible and consequently force design modifications; however, if they had the capability to quickly generate alternative assembly sequences, they might have identified a feasible solution. To solve this problem HFFMs must be integrated with automated assembly planning to allow engineers to verify that assembly operations are possible and to see ways to make the designs even better. Factories will very likely put humans and robots together in cooperative environments to meet the demands for customized products, for purposes including robotic and automated assembly. For robots to work harmoniously within an integrated environment with humans the robots must have cooperative operational skills. For example, in a human only environment, humans may tolerate collisions with one another if they did not cause much pain. This level of tolerance may or may not apply to robot-human environments. Humans expect that robots will be able to operate and navigate in their environments without collisions or interference. The ability to accomplish this is linked to the sensing capabilities available. Current work in the field of cooperative

  7. Quantification of Stereochemical Communication in Metal-Organic Assemblies. (United States)

    Castilla, Ana M; Miller, Mark A; Nitschke, Jonathan R; Smulders, Maarten M J


    The derivation and application of a statistical mechanical model to quantify stereochemical communication in metal-organic assemblies is reported. The factors affecting the stereochemical communication within and between the metal stereocenters of the assemblies were experimentally studied by optical spectroscopy and analyzed in terms of a free energy penalty per "incorrect" amine enantiomer incorporated, and a free energy of coupling between stereocenters. These intra- and inter-vertex coupling constants are used to track the degree of stereochemical communication across a range of metal-organic assemblies (employing different ligands, peripheral amines, and metals); temperature-dependent equilibria between diastereomeric cages are also quantified. The model thus provides a unified understanding of the factors that shape the chirotopic void spaces enclosed by metal-organic container molecules.

  8. Reversible Guest Exchange Mechanisms in Supramolecular Host-GuestAssemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pluth, Michael D.; Raymond, Kenneth N.


    Synthetic chemists have provided a wide array of supramolecular assemblies able to encapsulate guest molecules. The scope of this tutorial review focuses on supramolecular host molecules capable of reversibly encapsulating polyatomic guests. Much work has been done to determine the mechanism of guest encapsulation and guest release. This review covers common methods of monitoring and characterizing guest exchange such as NMR, UV-VIS, mass spectroscopy, electrochemistry, and calorimetry and also presents representative examples of guest exchange mechanisms. The guest exchange mechanisms of hemicarcerands, cucurbiturils, hydrogen-bonded assemblies, and metal-ligand assemblies are discussed. Special attention is given to systems which exhibit constrictive binding, a motif common in supramolecular guest exchange systems.

  9. Radically enhanced molecular recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Trabolsi, Ali


    The tendency for viologen radical cations to dimerize has been harnessed to establish a recognition motif based on their ability to form extremely strong inclusion complexes with cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) in its diradical dicationic redox state. This previously unreported complex involving three bipyridinium cation radicals increases the versatility of host-guest chemistry, extending its practice beyond the traditional reliance on neutral and charged guests and hosts. In particular, transporting the concept of radical dimerization into the field of mechanically interlocked molecules introduces a higher level of control within molecular switches and machines. Herein, we report that bistable and tristable [2]rotaxanes can be switched by altering electrochemical potentials. In a tristable [2]rotaxane composed of a cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) ring and a dumbbell with tetrathiafulvalene, dioxynaphthalene and bipyridinium recognition sites, the position of the ring can be switched. On oxidation, it moves from the tetrathiafulvalene to the dioxynaphthalene, and on reduction, to the bipyridinium radical cation, provided the ring is also reduced simultaneously to the diradical dication. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  10. Deep Learning For Smile Recognition


    Glauner, Patrick O.


    Inspired by recent successes of deep learning in computer vision, we propose a novel application of deep convolutional neural networks to facial expression recognition, in particular smile recognition. A smile recognition test accuracy of 99.45% is achieved for the Denver Intensity of Spontaneous Facial Action (DISFA) database, significantly outperforming existing approaches based on hand-crafted features with accuracies ranging from 65.55% to 79.67%. The novelty of this approach includes a c...

  11. Research of speech recognition methods


    Prokopovič, Valerij


    Two speech recognition methods: Dynamic Time Warping and Hidden Markov model based methods were investigated in this work To estimate efficiency of the methods, speaker dependent and speaker independent isolated word recognition experiments were performed. During experimental research it was determined that Dynamic Time Warping method is suitable only for speaker dependent speech recognition. Hidden Markov model based method is suitable for both – speaker dependent and speaker independent spe...

  12. Pilgrims Face Recognition Dataset -- HUFRD


    Aly, Salah A.


    In this work, we define a new pilgrims face recognition dataset, called HUFRD dataset. The new developed dataset presents various pilgrims' images taken from outside the Holy Masjid El-Harram in Makkah during the 2011-2012 Hajj and Umrah seasons. Such dataset will be used to test our developed facial recognition and detection algorithms, as well as assess in the missing and found recognition system \\cite{crowdsensing}.

  13. Selectivity in ligand binding to uranyl compounds: A synthetic, structural, thermodynamic and computational study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, John [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The uranyl cation (UO₂²⁺) is the most abundant form of uranium on the planet. It is estimated that 4.5 billion tons of uranium in this form exist in sea water. The ability to bind and extract the uranyl cation from aqueous solution while separating it from other elements would provide a limitless source of nuclear fuel. A large body of research concerns the selective recognition and extraction of uranyl. A stable molecule, the cation has a linear O=U=O geometry. The short U-O bonds (1.78 Å) arise from the combination of uranium 5f/6d and oxygen 2p orbitals. Due to the oxygen moieties being multiply bonded, these sites were not thought to be basic enough for Lewis acidic coordination to be a viable approach to sequestration. The goal of this research is thus to broaden the coordination chemistry of the uranyl ion by studying new ligand systems via synthetic, structural, thermodynamic and computational methods. It is anticipated that this fundamental science will find use beyond actinide separation technologies in areas such as nuclear waste remediation and nuclear materials. The focus of this study is to synthesize uranyl complexes incorporating amidinate and guanidinate ligands. Both synthetic and computational methods are used to investigate novel equatorial ligand coordination and how this affects the basicity of the oxo ligands. Such an understanding will later apply to designing ligands incorporating functionalities that can bind uranyl both equatorially and axially for highly selective sequestration. Efficient and durable chromatography supports for lanthanide separation will be generated by (1) identifying robust peptoid-based ligands capable of binding different lanthanides with variable affinities, and (2) developing practical synthetic methods for the attachment of these ligands to Dowex ion exchange resins.

  14. Decoding of lipoprotein-receptor interactions: properties of ligand binding modules governing interactions with apolipoprotein E. (United States)

    Guttman, Miklos; Prieto, J Helena; Croy, Johnny E; Komives, Elizabeth A


    Clusters of complement-type ligand binding repeats in the LDL receptor family are thought to mediate the interactions between these receptors and their various ligands. Apolipoprotein E, a key ligand for cholesterol homeostasis, has been shown to interact with LDLR, LRP, and VLDLR, through these clusters. LDLR and VLDLR each contain a single ligand binding repeat cluster, whereas LRP contains three large clusters of ligand binding repeats, each with ligand binding functions. We show that within sLRP3 the three-repeat subcluster CR16-18 recapitulated ligand binding to the isolated receptor binding portion of ApoE (residues 130-149). Binding experiments with LA3-5 of LDLR and CR16-18 showed that a conserved W25/D30 pair appears to be critical for high-affinity binding to ApoE(130-149). The triple repeat LA3-5 showed the expected interaction with ApoE(1-191).DMPC, but surprisingly CR16-18 did not interact with this form of ApoE. To understand these differences in ApoE binding affinity, we introduced mutations of conserved residues from LA5 into CR18 and produced a CR16-18 variant capable of binding ApoE(1-191).DMPC. This change cannot fully be accounted for by the interaction with the proposed ApoE receptor binding region; therefore, we speculate that LA5 is recognizing a distinct epitope on ApoE that may only exist in the lipid-bound form. The combination of avidity effects with this distinct recognition process likely governs the ApoE-LDL receptor interaction.

  15. Photo-Induced Assembly of a Luminescent Tetraruthenium Square. (United States)

    Laramée-Milette, Baptiste; Nastasi, Francesco; Puntoriero, Fausto; Campagna, Sebastiano; Hanan, Garry S


    Self-assembly is a powerful synthetic tool that has led to the development of one-, two- and three-dimensional architectures. From MOFs to molecular flasks, self-assembled materials have proven to be of great interest to the scientific community. Here we describe a strategy for the construction and de-construction of a supramolecular structure through unprecedented photo-induced assembly and dis-assembly. The combination of two approaches, a [n×1]-directional bonding strategy and a ligand photo-dissociation strategy, allows the photo-induced assembly of a polypyridyl RuII precursor into a discrete molecular square. Diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy confirmed the synthesis of a higher volume species, while the identity of the species was established by high-resolution mass spectrometry and single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The self-assembled square is not obtained by classical thermal techniques in similar conditions, but is obtained only by light-irradiation. The tetraruthenium square has an excited-state lifetime (135 ns), 40 times that of its mononuclear precursor and its luminescence quantum yield (1.0 %) is three orders of magnitude higher. These remarkable luminescence properties are closely related to the relatively rigid square structure of the tetraruthenium assembly, as suggested by slow radiationless decay and transient absorption spectroscopy. The results described herein are a rare example of photo-induced assembly and dis-assembly processes, and can open the way to a new avenue in supramolecular chemistry, leading to the preparation of structurally organized supermolecules by photochemical techniques. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. The Movable Type Method Applied to Protein-Ligand Binding. (United States)

    Zheng, Zheng; Ucisik, Melek N; Merz, Kenneth M


    Accurately computing the free energy for biological processes like protein folding or protein-ligand association remains a challenging problem. Both describing the complex intermolecular forces involved and sampling the requisite configuration space make understanding these processes innately difficult. Herein, we address the sampling problem using a novel methodology we term "movable type". Conceptually it can be understood by analogy with the evolution of printing and, hence, the name movable type. For example, a common approach to the study of protein-ligand complexation involves taking a database of intact drug-like molecules and exhaustively docking them into a binding pocket. This is reminiscent of early woodblock printing where each page had to be laboriously created prior to printing a book. However, printing evolved to an approach where a database of symbols (letters, numerals, etc.) was created and then assembled using a movable type system, which allowed for the creation of all possible combinations of symbols on a given page, thereby, revolutionizing the dissemination of knowledge. Our movable type (MT) method involves the identification of all atom pairs seen in protein-ligand complexes and then creating two databases: one with their associated pairwise distant dependent energies and another associated with the probability of how these pairs can combine in terms of bonds, angles, dihedrals and non-bonded interactions. Combining these two databases coupled with the principles of statistical mechanics allows us to accurately estimate binding free energies as well as the pose of a ligand in a receptor. This method, by its mathematical construction, samples all of configuration space of a selected region (the protein active site here) in one shot without resorting to brute force sampling schemes involving Monte Carlo, genetic algorithms or molecular dynamics simulations making the methodology extremely efficient. Importantly, this method explores the free

  17. Robust 3D face recognition by local shape difference boosting. (United States)

    Wang, Yueming; Liu, Jianzhuang; Tang, Xiaoou


    This paper proposes a new 3D face recognition approach, Collective Shape Difference Classifier (CSDC), to meet practical application requirements, i.e., high recognition performance, high computational efficiency, and easy implementation. We first present a fast posture alignment method which is self-dependent and avoids the registration between an input face against every face in the gallery. Then, a Signed Shape Difference Map (SSDM) is computed between two aligned 3D faces as a mediate representation for the shape comparison. Based on the SSDMs, three kinds of features are used to encode both the local similarity and the change characteristics between facial shapes. The most discriminative local features are selected optimally by boosting and trained as weak classifiers for assembling three collective strong classifiers, namely, CSDCs with respect to the three kinds of features. Different schemes are designed for verification and identification to pursue high performance in both recognition and computation. The experiments, carried out on FRGC v2 with the standard protocol, yield three verification rates all better than 97.9 percent with the FAR of 0.1 percent and rank-1 recognition rates above 98 percent. Each recognition against a gallery with 1,000 faces only takes about 3.6 seconds. These experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm is not only effective but also time efficient.

  18. Markov Models for Handwriting Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Plotz, Thomas


    Since their first inception, automatic reading systems have evolved substantially, yet the recognition of handwriting remains an open research problem due to its substantial variation in appearance. With the introduction of Markovian models to the field, a promising modeling and recognition paradigm was established for automatic handwriting recognition. However, no standard procedures for building Markov model-based recognizers have yet been established. This text provides a comprehensive overview of the application of Markov models in the field of handwriting recognition, covering both hidden

  19. Speech Recognition on Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Zheng-Hua; Lindberg, Børge


    The enthusiasm of deploying automatic speech recognition (ASR) on mobile devices is driven both by remarkable advances in ASR technology and by the demand for efficient user interfaces on such devices as mobile phones and personal digital assistants (PDAs). This chapter presents an overview of ASR...... in the mobile context covering motivations, challenges, fundamental techniques and applications. Three ASR architectures are introduced: embedded speech recognition, distributed speech recognition and network speech recognition. Their pros and cons and implementation issues are discussed. Applications within...... command and control, text entry and search are presented with an emphasis on mobile text entry....

  20. Molecular Mechanisms of Odor Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anholt, Robert


    .... We characterized the transduction pathway for the recognition of pheromones in the vomeronasal organ and also characterized subpopulations of olfactory neurons expressing different axonal G proteins...

  1. Macrocyclic ligands for uranium complexation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potts, K.T.


    A highly preorganized 24-macrocycle containing biuret, thiobiuret and pyridine subunits has been prepared by high dilution ring-closure procedures. Intermediate products to this macrocycle have been utilized to extend this synthetic route to include further representatives where solubility and stability will be influenced by substituent variation. A 1:1 complex has been formed from uranyl acetate and a quinquepyridine derivative, this representing a new type of ligand for the uranyl ion. A very convenient synthetic procedure that will allow the incorporation of these macrocycles into polymeric systems has been developed for the introduction of a vinyl substituent into the 4-position of the pyridine ring. Using triflate, vinyltributyltin and Pd{sup 0} chemistry, this procedure should make a variety of substituted 4-vinylpyridines available for the first time. 3 refs.

  2. The length of vesicular stomatitis virus particles dictates a need for actin assembly during clathrin-dependent endocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K Cureton


    Full Text Available Microbial pathogens exploit the clathrin endocytic machinery to enter host cells. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV, an enveloped virus with bullet-shaped virions that measure 70 x 200 nm, enters cells by clathrin-dependent endocytosis. We showed previously that VSV particles exceed the capacity of typical clathrin-coated vesicles and instead enter through endocytic carriers that acquire a partial clathrin coat and require local actin filament assembly to complete vesicle budding and internalization. To understand why the actin system is required for VSV uptake, we compared the internalization mechanisms of VSV and its shorter (75 nm long defective interfering particle, DI-T. By imaging the uptake of individual particles into live cells, we found that, as with parental virions, DI-T enters via the clathrin endocytic pathway. Unlike VSV, DI-T internalization occurs through complete clathrin-coated vesicles and does not require actin polymerization. Since VSV and DI-T particles display similar surface densities of the same attachment glycoprotein, we conclude that the physical properties of the particle dictate whether a virus-containing clathrin pit engages the actin system. We suggest that the elongated shape of a VSV particle prevents full enclosure by the clathrin coat and that stalling of coat assembly triggers recruitment of the actin machinery to finish the internalization process. Since some enveloped viruses have pleomorphic particle shapes and sizes, our work suggests that they may use altered modes of endocytic uptake. More generally, our findings show the importance of cargo geometry for specifying cellular entry modes, even when the receptor recognition properties of a ligand are maintained.

  3. The Length of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Particles Dictates a Need for Actin Assembly during Clathrin-Dependent Endocytosis (United States)

    Cureton, David K.; Massol, Ramiro H.; Whelan, Sean P. J.; Kirchhausen, Tomas


    Microbial pathogens exploit the clathrin endocytic machinery to enter host cells. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), an enveloped virus with bullet-shaped virions that measure 70×200 nm, enters cells by clathrin-dependent endocytosis. We showed previously that VSV particles exceed the capacity of typical clathrin-coated vesicles and instead enter through endocytic carriers that acquire a partial clathrin coat and require local actin filament assembly to complete vesicle budding and internalization. To understand why the actin system is required for VSV uptake, we compared the internalization mechanisms of VSV and its shorter (75 nm long) defective interfering particle, DI-T. By imaging the uptake of individual particles into live cells, we found that, as with parental virions, DI-T enters via the clathrin endocytic pathway. Unlike VSV, DI-T internalization occurs through complete clathrin-coated vesicles and does not require actin polymerization. Since VSV and DI-T particles display similar surface densities of the same attachment glycoprotein, we conclude that the physical properties of the particle dictate whether a virus-containing clathrin pit engages the actin system. We suggest that the elongated shape of a VSV particle prevents full enclosure by the clathrin coat and that stalling of coat assembly triggers recruitment of the actin machinery to finish the internalization process. Since some enveloped viruses have pleomorphic particle shapes and sizes, our work suggests that they may use altered modes of endocytic uptake. More generally, our findings show the importance of cargo geometry for specifying cellular entry modes, even when the receptor recognition properties of a ligand are maintained. PMID:20941355

  4. Photovoltaic self-assembly.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavin, Judith; Kemp, Richard Alan; Stewart, Constantine A.


    This late-start LDRD was focused on the application of chemical principles of self-assembly on the ordering and placement of photovoltaic cells in a module. The drive for this chemical-based self-assembly stems from the escalating prices in the 'pick-and-place' technology currently used in the MEMS industries as the size of chips decreases. The chemical self-assembly principles are well-known on a molecular scale in other material science systems but to date had not been applied to the assembly of cells in a photovoltaic array or module. We explored several types of chemical-based self-assembly techniques, including gold-thiol interactions, liquid polymer binding, and hydrophobic-hydrophilic interactions designed to array both Si and GaAs PV chips onto a substrate. Additional research was focused on the modification of PV cells in an effort to gain control over the facial directionality of the cells in a solvent-based environment. Despite being a small footprint research project worked on for only a short time, the technical results and scientific accomplishments were significant and could prove to be enabling technology in the disruptive advancement of the microelectronic photovoltaics industry.

  5. Hierarchical assembly of block copolymer micelles into reversible networks: MC simulations (United States)

    Wang, Zilu; Dormidontova, Elena


    The rapid development of nanoscience has considerably expanded the range of building blocks for complex self-assembled nanostructure formation, which show great potential for numerous advanced applications. We apply Monte Carlo simulations to gain understanding of molecular mechanism of self-assembly of nanostructures formed by diblock copolymer micelles interconnected by means of metal-ligand complexation. These systems exhibit interesting chemical and mechanical stimuli-responsive behavior and possess two levels of self-assembly: 1) self-assembly of diblock copolymers into micelles and 2) reversible inter-micelle bridging by coordination bonding between metal ions and ligands attached to the corona of nanoparticles, which is responsible for the network viscoelastic properties. Using MC simulations we investigate the effect of metal-ligand complexation on diblock-copolymer micelle formation and vice versa. We analyze the extent of intra- and inter-micelle loops and bridges formed by metal-ligand complexation in relation to the degree of crosslinking and elastic properties of the network. The effect of polymer concentration, hydrophilic block length, metal to oligomer ratio and type of complexation (2:1 or 3:1) on equilibrium properties of reversible networks will be discussed.

  6. Self-assembled monolayers with biospecific affinity for lactate dehydrogenase for the electroenzymatic oxidation of lactate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlereth, Daniela D.; Kooyman, R.P.H.


    Surface modified gold electrodes with high biospecific affinity for NAD(H)-dependent lactate dehydrogenase have been prepared by covalent attachment of several traizine dyes to stepwise functionalized mixed alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers. The biospecific affinity of such ligand-anchored

  7. Diastereoselective self-assembly of dinuclear heterochiral metallosupramolecular rhombs in a self-discriminating process. (United States)

    Weilandt, Torsten; Kiehne, Ulf; Schnakenburg, Gregor; Lützen, Arne


    A racemic bis(nitrile) ligand based on the Tröger's base scaffold self-assembles into an achiral dinuclear heterochiral rhomb in a diastereoselective self-discrimination process; this occurs upon coordination to (dppp)Pd(OTf)(2) as evidenced by nmr spectroscopy and X-ray crystal structure analysis.

  8. Engineered cell-adhesive nanoparticles nucleate extracellular matrix assembly. (United States)

    Pereira, Marian; Sharma, Ram I; Penkala, Rebecca; Gentzel, Thomas A; Schwarzbauer, Jean E; Moghe, Prabhas V


    Tissue engineering aims to regenerate new biological tissue for replacing diseased or injured tissues. We propose a new approach to accelerate the deposition of cell-secreted matrix proteins into extracellular matrix fibrils. We examined whether dynamic substrates with nanoscale ligand features allowing for alpha5beta1 integrin recruiting, cellular tension generation, and alpha5beta1 integrin mobility would enhance fibronectin matrix assembly in a ligand model system that is routinely not sufficient for its induction. To this end, we developed biodynamic substrates consisting of cell adhesive fragment from the 9th and 10th type repeats of fibronectin (FNf ) functionalized to 100 nm prefabricated albumin nanoparticles (ANPs). FNf-ANPs modulated cellular spreading processes, promoting the development of stellate or dendritic morphologies. Concomitant with the spreading, FNf-ANPs rapidly recruited beta1 integrins to focal contacts and promoted the migration of beta1 integrins centripetally from the cell periphery toward the center. FNf-ANPs stimulated the deposition of secreted fibronectin into matrix fibrils; FNf, the key ligand alone, was not sufficient for fibronectin fibrillogenesis. When FNf-ANPs were displayed from "immobilized" substrates, abolishing any mobility of ligated beta1 integrins, fibronectin matrix assembly was abrogated, implicating the role of dynamic matrix display on matrix assembly. Receptor ligation of FNf-ANPs via noncontractile adhesions was not sufficient to stimulate fibrillogenesis, and Rho-kinase inhibitors abolished fibronectin matrix deposition. Our approach highlights the possibility of engineering integrin-based extracellular matrix assembly using nanotechnology, which may have implications for improved biomaterials for wound repair and basic understanding of matrix remodeling within pathogenesis and biomedicine.

  9. Ligand-binding kinetics on histamine receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, Reggie; Mocking, T.A.M.; Leurs, R.; Vischer, H.F.


    Equilibrium-binding affinities of ligands for a drug target do not always accurately reflect the success of drug candidates in the clinic. Affinity-based predictions concerning competitive antagonism on the target will only be accurate if equilibrium binding of both ligands is allowed. Unless

  10. Ligand based pharmacophore modelling of anticancer histone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 21, 2010 ... deacetylases (HDAC) have emerged as an important class of anticancer agents. Various side effects like myocardium damage and ... calculated through the software Jmol. The proposed model has been .... The study was carried out using the software Ligand Scout (version. 2.03[i2_001]). Ligand Scout is a ...

  11. Simple tertiary phosphines to hexaphosphane ligands: Syntheses ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Designing efficient phosphorus-based ligands to make catalysts for homogeneous catalysis has been a great challenge for chemists. Despite a plethora of phosphorus ligands ranging from simple tertiary phosphines to polyphosphines are known, the enthusiasm to generate new ones is mainly due to the demand.

  12. Organotellurium ligands – designing and complexation reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. A variety of tellurium ligands has been designed and studied for their complexation reactions in the last decade. Of these hybrid telluroethers, halotellurium ligands and polytellurides are the most notable ones. RTe–and polytelluride ions have also been used to design clusters. Ligation of ditelluroethers and ...

  13. CXCR4 Ligands : The Next Big Hit?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walenkamp, Annemiek M. E.; Lapa, Constantin; Herrmann, Ken; Wester, Hans-Juergen


    The G protein-coupled protein receptor C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is an attractive target for cancer diagnosis and treatment, as it is overexpressed in many solid and hematologic cancers. Binding of its ligand, C-X-C chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12), results in receptor internalization and

  14. Lack of gender-specific antibody recognition of products from domains of a var gene implicated in pregnancy-associated Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anja T R; Zornig, Hanne D; Buhmann, Caecilie


    Gender-specific and parity-dependent acquired antibody recognition is characteristic of variant surface antigens (VSA) expressed by chondroitin sulfate A (CSA)-adherent Plasmodium falciparum involved in pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM). However, antibody recognition of recombinant products of a...... regarding the molecular identity of the parasite ligand mediating adhesion to CSA in PAM....

  15. SAR: Stroke Authorship Recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Shaheen, Sara


    Are simple strokes unique to the artist or designer who renders them? If so, can this idea be used to identify authorship or to classify artistic drawings? Also, could training methods be devised to develop particular styles? To answer these questions, we propose the Stroke Authorship Recognition (SAR) approach, a novel method that distinguishes the authorship of 2D digitized drawings. SAR converts a drawing into a histogram of stroke attributes that is discriminative of authorship. We provide extensive classification experiments on a large variety of data sets, which validate SAR\\'s ability to distinguish unique authorship of artists and designers. We also demonstrate the usefulness of SAR in several applications including the detection of fraudulent sketches, the training and monitoring of artists in learning a particular new style and the first quantitative way to measure the quality of automatic sketch synthesis tools. © 2015 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Iris Recognition Using Wavelet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaliq Masood


    Full Text Available Biometric systems are getting more attention in the present era. Iris recognition is one of the most secure and authentic among the other biometrics and this field demands more authentic, reliable and fast algorithms to implement these biometric systems in real time. In this paper, an efficient localization technique is presented to identify pupil and iris boundaries using histogram of the iris image. Two small portions of iris have been used for polar transformation to reduce computational time and to increase the efficiency of the system. Wavelet transform is used for feature vector generation. Rotation of iris is compensated without shifts in the iris code. System is tested on Multimedia University Iris Database and results show that proposed system has encouraging performance.

  17. Automatic speech recognition (United States)

    Espy-Wilson, Carol


    Great strides have been made in the development of automatic speech recognition (ASR) technology over the past thirty years. Most of this effort has been centered around the extension and improvement of Hidden Markov Model (HMM) approaches to ASR. Current commercially-available and industry systems based on HMMs can perform well for certain situational tasks that restrict variability such as phone dialing or limited voice commands. However, the holy grail of ASR systems is performance comparable to humans-in other words, the ability to automatically transcribe unrestricted conversational speech spoken by an infinite number of speakers under varying acoustic environments. This goal is far from being reached. Key to the success of ASR is effective modeling of variability in the speech signal. This tutorial will review the basics of ASR and the various ways in which our current knowledge of speech production, speech perception and prosody can be exploited to improve robustness at every level of the system.

  18. Interactive Systems for Designing Machine Elements and Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacalak Wojciech


    Full Text Available The article describes the development of fundamentals of machine elements and assemblies design processes automation using artificial intelligence, and descriptions of structural elements’ features in a natural language. In the proposed interactive automated design systems, computational artificial intelligence methods allow communication by speech and natural language, resulting in analyses of design engineer’s messages, analyses of constructions, encoding and assessments of constructions, CAD system controlling and visualizations. The system is equipped with several adaptive intelligent layers for human biometric identification, recognition of speech and handwriting, recognition of words, analyses and recognition of messages, enabling interpretation of messages, and assessments of human reactions. The article proposes a concept of intelligent processing for analysis of descriptions of machine elements’ structural features in a natural language. It also presents the developed methodology for similarity analysis between structural features of designed machine elements and corresponding antipatterns allowing normalization of parameters of the analysed structural solutions.

  19. Flexible ligand docking using a genetic algorithm (United States)

    Oshiro, C. M.; Kuntz, I. D.; Dixon, J. Scott


    Two computational techniques have been developed to explore the orientational and conformational space of a flexible ligand within an enzyme. Both methods use the Genetic Algorithm (GA) to generate conformationally flexible ligands in conjunction with algorithms from the DOCK suite of programs to characterize the receptor site. The methods are applied to three enzyme-ligand complexes: dihydrofolate reductase-methotrexate, thymidylate synthase-phenolpthalein and HIV protease-thioketal haloperidol. Conformations and orientations close to the crystallographically determined structures are obtained, as well as alternative structures with low energy. The potential for the GA method to screen a database of compounds is also examined. A collection of ligands is evaluated simultaneously, rather than docking the ligands individually into the enzyme.

  20. Wrist joint assembly (United States)

    Kersten, L.; Johnson, J. D. (Inventor)


    A wrist joint assembly is provided for use with a mechanical manipulator arm for finely positioning an end-effector carried by the wrist joint on the terminal end of the manipulator arm. The wrist joint assembly is pivotable about a first axis to produce a yaw motion, a second axis is to produce a pitch motion, and a third axis to produce a roll motion. The wrist joint assembly includes a disk segment affixed to the terminal end of the manipulator arm and a first housing member, a second housing member, and a third housing member. The third housing member and the mechanical end-effector are moved in the yaw, pitch, and roll motion. Drive means are provided for rotating each of the housings about their respective axis which includes a cluster of miniature motors having spur gears carried on the output drive shaft which mesh with a center drive gear affixed on the housing to be rotated.

  1. Integrated magnetic transformer assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to an integrated magnetics transformer assembly comprising a first magnetically permeable core forming a first substantially closed magnetic flux path and a second magnetically permeable core forming a second substantially closed magnetic flux path. A first input...... inductor winding is wound around a first predetermined segment of the first magnetically permeable core and a second input inductor winding is wound around a first predetermined segment of the second magnetically permeable core. The integrated magnetics transformer assembly further comprises a first output......-winding of the first output inductor winding and the first half-winding of the second output inductor winding are configured to produce aligned, i.e. in the same direction, magnetic fluxes through the first substantially closed magnetic flux path. The integrated magnetics transformer assembly is well- suited for use...

  2. Power module assembly (United States)

    Campbell, Jeremy B [Torrance, CA; Newson, Steve [Redondo Beach, CA


    A power module assembly of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicular power inverter, wherein the power inverter has a grounded chassis, is provided. The power module assembly comprises a conductive base layer electrically coupled to the chassis, an insulating layer disposed on the conductive base layer, a first conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, a second conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, wherein the first and second conductive nodes are electrically isolated from each other. The power module assembly also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the first conductive node, and further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the second conductive node.

  3. Metal Controlled Diastereoselective Self-assembly and Circularly Polarized Luminescence of a Chiral Heptanuclear Europium Wheel (United States)

    Bozoklu, Gülay; Gateau, Christelle; Imbert, Daniel; Pécaut, Jacques; Robeyns, Koen; Filinchuk, Yaroslav; Memon, Farah; Muller, Gilles


    The chiral dissymmetric tetradentate ligand SPhbipox (6’-(4-phenyloxazolin-2-yl)-2,2’-bipyridine-6-carboxylic acid) leads to the diastereoselective assembly of a homochiral Eu(III) triangle and of a highly emissive (QY=27%) heptanuclear wheel which is the largest example of chiral luminescent complex of Eu(III) reported to date. We show that the nuclearity of the assembly is controlled by the solvent and the europium cation. All the compounds show large circularly polarized luminescence with an activity which varies with the nature of the assembly (highest for the homochiral trimer). PMID:22548280

  4. Specificity analysis of three clonal and five non-clonal alpha 1,3-L-fucosyltransferases with sulfated, sialylated, or fucosylated synthetic carbohydrates as acceptors in relation to the assembly of 3'-sialyl-6'-sulfo Lewis x (the L-selectin ligand) and related complex structures. (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, E V; Jain, R K; Larsen, R D; Wlasichuk, K; DiCioccio, R A; Matta, K L


    Unique specificities of the cloned alpha 1,3-L-fucosyltransferases (FTs), FT III (Lewis type), FT IV (myeloid type), and FT V (plasma type), and the alpha 1,3-FTs of Colo 205 (colon carcinoma), HL 60 (myeloid), B142 (lymphoid), EKVX (lung carcinoma), and calf mesenteric lymph nodes (CMLN) were discerned with sulfated, sialylated, and/or fucosylated Gal beta 1,3/4GlcNAc beta-based acceptor moieties. (a) FT V was 1.0-, 20.8-, and 4.6-fold active in forming Lewis x, Lewis y, and 3'-alpha-galactosyl Lewis x, respectively. (b) FT III and FT V formed approximately 4-fold 3'-sulfo Lewis x, as compared to 3'-sialyl Lewis x. (c) FT IV showed great efficiency in forming 3'-sulfo Lewis x (249%) and Lewis x (345%) in mucin-type branched chains. (d) FT III, FT IV, and FT V formed 19%, 62%, and 47% 6-sulfo Lewis x as compared to Lewis x. (e) 6'-Sulfo Lewis x and 3'-sialyl-6'-sulfo Lewis x (GLYCAM ligand) were not synthesized from their immediate precursors by FT III, FT IV, or FT V. (f) FT III, FT IV, and FT V were 311%, 9%, and 188% active, respectively, with 2'-fucosyl lactose but were not active with 2'- fucosyl-6'-sulfo lactose. (g) FT III and FT V were 7.0- and 0.5-fold active in forming Lewis a as compared to Lewis x, whereas, FT IV was inactive. (h) FT III was -2.0-fold more active in forming 3'-alpha-galactosyl Lewis a than Lewis b. (i) FT III synthesized 6-sialyl Lewis a (40% efficiency as compared to Lewis a) from 6-sialyl type 1. (j) FT III did not act on 6'-sulfo or 6'-sialyl type 1 but was 106% and 22% active with 3'-sulfo and 6-sulfo type 1, respectively. (k) The Colo 205 FT activities with type 1 compounds almost paralleled that of FT III except for the low activity (9%) with Gal beta 1,3(NeuAc alpha 2, 6)GlcNAc beta-O-Bn, but with type 2 considerable differences between Colo 205 FT and FT III were noticed. (l) The alpha 1,3-FTs of CMLN, HL60, B142, and EKVX were 1.2-1.7 times active with Fuc alpha 1,2Gal beta 1,4GlcNAc beta- O-pNP and Gal alpha 1,3Gal beta 1

  5. The Legal Recognition of Sign Languages (United States)

    De Meulder, Maartje


    This article provides an analytical overview of the different types of explicit legal recognition of sign languages. Five categories are distinguished: constitutional recognition, recognition by means of general language legislation, recognition by means of a sign language law or act, recognition by means of a sign language law or act including…

  6. Pyridine coordination chemistry for molecular assemblies on surfaces. (United States)

    de Ruiter, Graham; Lahav, Michal; van der Boom, Milko E


    CONSPECTUS: Since the first description of coordination complexes, many types of metal-ligand interactions have creatively been used in the chemical sciences. The rich coordination chemistry of pyridine-type ligands has contributed significantly to the incorporation of diverse metal ions into functional materials. Here we discuss molecular assemblies (MAs) formed with a variety of pyridine-type compounds and a metal containing cross-linker (e.g., PdCl2(PhCN2)). These MAs are formed using Layer-by-Layer (LbL) deposition from solution that allows for precise fitting of the assembly properties through molecular programming. The position of each component can be controlled by altering the assembly sequence, while the degree of intermolecular interactions can be varied by the level of π-conjugation and the availability of metal coordination sites. By setting the structural parameters (e.g., bond angles, number of coordination sites, geometry) of the ligand, control over MA structure was achieved, resulting in surface-confined metal-organic networks and oligomers. Unlike MAs that are constructed with organic ligands, MAs with polypyridyl complexes of ruthenium, osmium, and cobalt are active participants in their own formation and amplify the growth of the incoming molecular layer. Such a self-propagating behavior for molecular systems is rare, and the mechanism of their formation will be discussed. These exponentially growing MAs are capable of storing metal salts that can be used during the buildup of additional molecular layers. Various parameters influencing the film growth mechanism will be presented, including (i) the number of binding sites and geometry of the organic ligands, (ii) the metal and the structure of the polypyridyl complexes, (iii) the influence of the metal cross-linker (e.g., second or third row transition metals), and (iv) the deposition conditions. By systematic variation of these parameters, switching between linear and exponential growth could

  7. FILTWAM and Voice Emotion Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bahreini, Kiavash; Nadolski, Rob; Westera, Wim


    This paper introduces the voice emotion recognition part of our framework for improving learning through webcams and microphones (FILTWAM). This framework enables multimodal emotion recognition of learners during game-based learning. The main goal of this study is to validate the use of microphone

  8. Face recognition using Krawtchouk moment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Feature extraction is one of the important tasks in face recognition. Moments are widely used feature extractor due to their superior discriminatory power and geometrical invariance. Moments generally capture the global features of the image. This paper proposes Krawtchouk moment for feature extraction in face recognition ...

  9. Sign Facilitation in Word Recognition. (United States)

    Wauters, Loes N.; Knoors, Harry E. T.; Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.; Aarnoutse, Cor A. J.


    This study examined whether use of sign language would facilitate reading word recognition by 16 deaf children (6- to 1 years-old) in the Netherlands. Results indicated that if words were learned through speech, accompanied by the relevant sign, accuracy of word recognition was greater than if words were learned solely through speech. (Contains…

  10. Iris Recognition - Beyond One Meter (United States)

    Matey, James R.; Kennell, Lauren R.

    Iris recognition Iris recognition is, arguably, the most robust form of biometric Biometrics identification. It has been deployed in large-scale systems that have been very effective. The systems deployed to date make use of iris Remote Biometric cameras that require significant user cooperation; that in turn imposes significant constraints on the deployment scenarios that are practical.

  11. Methods of Teaching Speech Recognition (United States)

    Rader, Martha H.; Bailey, Glenn A.


    Objective: This article introduces the history and development of speech recognition, addresses its role in the business curriculum, outlines related national and state standards, describes instructional strategies, and discusses the assessment of student achievement in speech recognition classes. Methods: Research methods included a synthesis of…

  12. Side-View Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santemiz, P.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.


    Side-view face recognition is a challenging problem with many applications. Especially in real-life scenarios where the environment is uncontrolled, coping with pose variations up to side-view positions is an important task for face recognition. In this paper we discuss the use of side view face

  13. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan


    Beside a few papers which focus on the forensic aspects of automatic face recognition, there is not much published about it in contrast to the literature on developing new techniques and methodologies for biometric face recognition. In this report, we review forensic facial identification which is

  14. Side-View Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santemiz, P.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; van den Biggelaar, Olivier

    As a widely used biometrics, face recognition has many advantages such as being non-intrusive, natural and passive. On the other hand, in real-life scenarios with uncontrolled environment, pose variation up to side-view positions makes face recognition a challenging work. In this paper we discuss

  15. Recognition of emotion in others

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijda, N.H.; Paglieri, F.


    This chapter argues that recognition of emotion had a simple basis and a highly complex edifice above it. Its basis is formed by catching intent from expressive and other emotional behavior, using elementary principles of perceptual integration. In intent recognition, mirror neurons under particular

  16. Low inductance connector assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holbrook, Meghan Ann; Carlson, Douglas S


    A busbar connector assembly for coupling first and second terminals on a two-terminal device to first and second contacts on a power module is provided. The first terminal resides proximate the first contact and the second terminal resides proximate the second contact. The assembly comprises a first bridge having a first end configured to be electrically coupled to the first terminal, and a second end configured to be electrically coupled to the second contact, and a second bridge substantially overlapping the first bridge and having a first end electrically coupled to the first contact, and a second end electrically coupled to the second terminal.

  17. Phylogenetic Comparative Assembly (United States)

    Husemann, Peter; Stoye, Jens

    Recent high throughput sequencing technologies are capable of generating a huge amount of data for bacterial genome sequencing projects. Although current sequence assemblers successfully merge the overlapping reads, often several contigs remain which cannot be assembled any further. It is still costly and time consuming to close all the gaps in order to acquire the whole genomic sequence. Here we propose an algorithm that takes several related genomes and their phylogenetic relationships into account to create a contig adjacency graph. From this a layout graph can be computed which indicates putative adjacencies of the contigs in order to aid biologists in finishing the complete genomic sequence.

  18. Hand Controller Assembly (United States)

    Bandera, Pablo (Inventor); Buchele, Paul (Inventor)


    A user input device for a vehicular electrical system is provided. The user input device includes a handle sized and shaped to be gripped by a human hand and a gimbal assembly within the handle. The gimbal assembly includes a first gimbal component, a second gimbal component coupled to the first gimbal component such that the second gimbal component is rotatable relative to the first gimbal component about a first axis, and a third gimbal component coupled to the second gimbal component such that the third gimbal component is rotatable relative to the second gimbal component about a second axis.

  19. Assembling an aesthetic. (United States)

    Candela, Emily


    Recent research informing and related to the study of three-dimensional scientific models is assembled here in a way that explores an aesthetic, specifically, of touch. I concentrate on the materiality of models, drawing on insights from the history and philosophy of science, design and metaphysics. This article chronicles the ways in which touch, or material interactions, operate in the world of 3D models, and its role in what models mean and do. I end with a call for greater attention to scientific process, described as assembly of and within science, which is revealed by this focus on touch. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. To assemble or fold? (United States)

    Das, Anindita; Ghosh, Suhrit


    This communication reports an elegant structure formation by an amide functionalized donor (D)-acceptor (A) dyad by stepwise folding and assembly. It adopts a folded conformation by intra-chain CT-interaction that subsequently dimerizes by inter-molecular H-bonding to produce a folded dimer (FD) with a DAAD stacking sequence. Incompatibility of the aromatic stacked face with MCH triggers macroscopic assembly by solvophobically driven edge-to-edge stacking of the FD with concomitant growth in the orthogonal direction by D-D π-stacking leading to the formation of a reverse-vesicle.

  1. Viewpoint Manifolds for Action Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souvenir Richard


    Full Text Available Abstract Action recognition from video is a problem that has many important applications to human motion analysis. In real-world settings, the viewpoint of the camera cannot always be fixed relative to the subject, so view-invariant action recognition methods are needed. Previous view-invariant methods use multiple cameras in both the training and testing phases of action recognition or require storing many examples of a single action from multiple viewpoints. In this paper, we present a framework for learning a compact representation of primitive actions (e.g., walk, punch, kick, sit that can be used for video obtained from a single camera for simultaneous action recognition and viewpoint estimation. Using our method, which models the low-dimensional structure of these actions relative to viewpoint, we show recognition rates on a publicly available dataset previously only achieved using multiple simultaneous views.

  2. Microprocessor-based single board computer for high energy physics event pattern recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, H.; Gould, J.J.; Imossi, R.; Kopp, J.K.; Love, W.A.; Ozaki, S.; Platner, E.D.; Kramer, M.A.


    A single board MC 68000 based computer has been assembled and bench marked against the CDC 7600 running portions of the pattern recognition code used at the MPS. This computer has a floating coprocessor to achieve throughputs equivalent to several percent that of the 7600. A major part of this work was the construction of a FORTRAN compiler including assembler, linker and library. The intention of this work is to assemble a large number of these single board computers in a parallel FASTBUS environment to act as an on-line and off-line filter for the raw data from MPS II and ISABELLE experiments.

  3. Fire resistant PV shingle assembly (United States)

    Lenox, Carl J.


    A fire resistant PV shingle assembly includes a PV assembly, including PV body, a fire shield and a connection member connecting the fire shield below the PV body, and a support and inter-engagement assembly. The support and inter-engagement assembly is mounted to the PV assembly and comprises a vertical support element, supporting the PV assembly above a support surface, an upper interlock element, positioned towards the upper PV edge, and a lower interlock element, positioned towards the lower PV edge. The upper interlock element of one PV shingle assembly is inter-engageable with the lower interlock element of an adjacent PV shingle assembly. In some embodiments the PV shingle assembly may comprise a ventilation path below the PV body. The PV body may be slidably mounted to the connection member to facilitate removal of the PV body.

  4. Programmed Self-Assembly of Branched Nanocrystals with an Amphiphilic Surface Pattern. (United States)

    Taniguchi, Yuki; Sazali, Muhammad Adli Bin; Kobayashi, Yusei; Arai, Noriyoshi; Kawai, Tsuyoshi; Nakashima, Takuya


    Site-selective surface modification on the shape-controlled nanocrystals is a key approach in the programmed self-assembly of inorganic colloidal materials. This study demonstrates a simple methodology to gain self-assemblies of semiconductor nanocrystals with branched shapes through tip-to-tip attachment. Short-chained water-soluble cationic thiols are employed as a surface ligand for CdSe tetrapods and CdSe/CdS core/shell octapods. Because of the less affinity of arm-tip to the surface ligands compared to the arm-side wall, the tip-surface becomes uncapped to give a hydrophobic nature, affording an amphiphilic surface pattern. The amphiphilic tetrapods aggregated into porous agglomerates through tip-to-tip connection in water, while they afforded a hexagonally arranged Kagome-like two-dimensional (2D) assembly by the simple casting of aqueous dispersion with the aid of a convective self-assembly mechanism. A 2D net-like assembly was similarly obtained from amphiphilic octapods. A dissipative particle dynamics simulation using a planar tripod model with an amphiphilic surface pattern reproduced the formation of the Kagome-like assembly in a 2D confined space, demonstrating that the lateral diffusion of nanoparticles and the firm contacts between the hydrophobic tips play crucial roles in the self-assembly.

  5. Correcting ligands, metabolites, and pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vriend Gert


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A wide range of research areas in bioinformatics, molecular biology and medicinal chemistry require precise chemical structure information about molecules and reactions, e.g. drug design, ligand docking, metabolic network reconstruction, and systems biology. Most available databases, however, treat chemical structures more as illustrations than as a datafield in its own right. Lack of chemical accuracy impedes progress in the areas mentioned above. We present a database of metabolites called BioMeta that augments the existing pathway databases by explicitly assessing the validity, correctness, and completeness of chemical structure and reaction information. Description The main bulk of the data in BioMeta were obtained from the KEGG Ligand database. We developed a tool for chemical structure validation which assesses the chemical validity and stereochemical completeness of a molecule description. The validation tool was used to examine the compounds in BioMeta, showing that a relatively small number of compounds had an incorrect constitution (connectivity only, not considering stereochemistry and that a considerable number (about one third had incomplete or even incorrect stereochemistry. We made a large effort to correct the errors and to complete the structural descriptions. A total of 1468 structures were corrected and/or completed. We also established the reaction balance of the reactions in BioMeta and corrected 55% of the unbalanced (stoichiometrically incorrect reactions in an automatic procedure. The BioMeta database was implemented in PostgreSQL and provided with a web-based interface. Conclusion We demonstrate that the validation of metabolite structures and reactions is a feasible and worthwhile undertaking, and that the validation results can be used to trigger corrections and improvements to BioMeta, our metabolite database. BioMeta provides some tools for rational drug design, reaction searches, and

  6. A Method for Designing Assembly Tolerance Networks of Mechanical Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang


    Full Text Available When designing mechanical assemblies, assembly tolerance design is an important issue which must be seriously considered by designers. Assembly tolerances reflect functional requirements of assembling, which can be used to control assembling qualities and production costs. This paper proposes a new method for designing assembly tolerance networks of mechanical assemblies. The method establishes the assembly structure tree model of an assembly based on its product structure tree model. On this basis, assembly information model and assembly relation model are set up based on polychromatic sets (PS theory. According to the two models, the systems of location relation equations and interference relation equations are established. Then, using methods of topologically related surfaces (TTRS theory and variational geometric constraints (VGC theory, three VGC reasoning matrices are constructed. According to corresponding relations between VGCs and assembly tolerance types, the reasoning matrices of tolerance types are also established by using contour matrices of PS. Finally, an exemplary product is used to construct its assembly tolerance networks and meanwhile to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Driving nucleolar assembly. (United States)

    McCann, Kathleen L; Baserga, Susan J


    In this issue of Genes & Development, Grob and colleagues (pp. 220-230) identify the minimal molecular requirements to assemble a fully functional nucleolus in human cells and demonstrate the importance of the nucleolar transcription factor upstream binding factor (UBF) as a mitotic bookmark at the ribosomal DNA (rDNA).

  8. Nanoparticle assemblies and superstructures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kotov, Nicholas A


    ... building blocks of larger and more complex systems. Therefore, the present challenge of nanoscale science is to shift from making certain building blocks to organizing them in one-, two-, and three-dimensional structures. Such assemblies and superstructures are the next logical step in the development of nanoscience and nanotechnology. In this re...

  9. Turbomachine blade assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Crespo, Andres Jose


    Embodiments of the present disclosure include a system comprising a turbomachine blade assembly having a blade portion, a shank portion, and a mounting portion, wherein the blade portion, the shank portion, and the mounting portion comprise a first plurality of plies extending from a tip of the airfoil to a base of the dovetail.

  10. Ordinary General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    Tuesday 12 April at 14.00 Council Chamber, Bldg 503 In conformity with the Statutes of the Staff Association, an ordinary General Assembly is organized once a year (article IV.2.1). Agenda   Adoption of the Agenda Approval of the Draft Minutes of the Ordinary General Assembly of 20 April 2010 Presentation and approval of the Activity Report 2010 Presentation and approval of the Financial Report 2010 Presentation and approval of the Auditors Report 2010 Programme for 2011 Presentation et and approval of the draft budget and subscription rate 2012 Election of the Election Committee Election of the Board of Auditors Miscellaneous We remind members of article IV.3.4 in the Statutes of the Association which reads: “After having dealt with all the items on the agenda, the members may, with the consent of the Assembly, have other matters discussed, but decisions may be taken only on the items listed on the agenda. Nevertheless, the Assembly ma...

  11. Ordinary General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    Tuesday 20 April at 10.00 Council Chamber, Bldg 503 In conformity with the Statutes of the Staff Association, an ordinary General Assembly is organized once a year (article IV.2.1). Agenda   Adoption of the Agenda Approval of the Draft Minutes of the Ordinary General Assembly of 12 May 2009 Presentation and approval of the Activity Report 2009 Presentation and approval of the Financial Report 2009 Presentation and approval of the Auditors Report 2009 Programme for 2010 Presentation et and approval of the draft budget and subscription rate 2010 Election of the Election Committee Election of the Board of Auditors Miscellaneous We remind members of article IV.3.4 in the Statutes of the Association which reads: “After having dealt with all the items on the agenda, the members may, with the consent of the Assembly, have other matters discussed, but decisions may be taken only on the items listed on the agenda. Nevertheless, the Assembly may require t...

  12. Ordinary General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    Tuesday 12 April at 14.00 Council Chamber, Bldg 503 In conformity with the Statutes of the Staff Association, an ordinary General Assembly is organized once a year (article IV.2.1). Agenda   Adoption of the Agenda Approval of the Draft Minutes of the Ordinary General Assembly of 20 April 2010 Presentation and approval of the Activity Report 2010 Presentation and approval of the Financial Report 2010 Presentation and approval of the Auditors Report 2010 Programme for 2011 Presentation and approval of the draft budget and subscription rate 2012 Election of the Election Committee Election of the Board of Auditors Miscellaneous We remind members of article IV.3.4 in the Statutes of the Association which reads: “After having dealt with all the items on the agenda, the members may, with the consent of the Assembly, have other matters discussed, but decisions may be taken only on the items listed on the agenda. Nevertheless, the Assembly may r...

  13. Industrial Assembly Cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekilde, Lars-Peter; Buch, Jacob Pørksen; Iversen, Thorbjørn Mosekjær

    This technical report presents 13 different industrial assembly tasks, which are composed of 70 different operations. The report is written to provide an overview and do as such not contain product specific information such as object weights, dimensions etc. The operations are classified into a set...

  14. Multidimensional constrained test assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, Bernard P.


    Two mathematical programming approaches are presented for the assembly of ability tests from item pools calibrated under a multidimensional item response theory model. Item selection is based on Fisher information matrix. Several criteria can be used to optimize this matrix. In this article, the

  15. Constrained multidimensional test assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, Bernard P.


    Two mathematical programming approaches are presented for the assembly of ability test from item pools calibrated under a multidimensional item response theory model. Item selection is based on Fisher's Information matrix. Several criteria can be used to optimize this matrix. In this paper, the

  16. Nanotechnology: A molecular assembler (United States)

    Kelly, T. Ross; Snapper, Marc L.


    The idea of nanometre-scale machines that can assemble molecules has long been thought of as the stuff of science fiction. Such a machine has now been built -- and might herald a new model for organic synthesis. See Letter p.374

  17. Rotary shaft sealing assembly (United States)

    Dietle, Lannie L.; Schroeder, John E.; Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Alvarez, Patricio D.


    A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

  18. America's Assembly Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David Edwin

    A social history of the assembly line, invented in 1913. Both praised as a boon to consumers and as a curse for workers, it has been satirized, imitated, and celebrated for 100 years. It has inspired fiction, comedy, cafeteria layouts, and suburban housing. It transformed industrial labor...

  19. A microprocessor-based single board computer for high energy physics event pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Bernstein, H; Imossi, R; Kopp, J K; Kramer, M A; Love, W A; Ozaki, S; Platner, E D


    A single board MC 68000 based computer has been assembled and benchmarked against the CDC 7600 running portions of the pattern recognition code used at the MPS. This computer has a floating coprocessor to achieve throughputs equivalent to several percent that of the 7600. A major part of this work was the construction of a FORTR

  20. Chemistry of marine ligands and siderophores. (United States)

    Vraspir, Julia M; Butler, Alison


    Marine microorganisms are presented with unique challenges to obtain essential metal ions required to survive and thrive in the ocean. The production of organic ligands to complex transition metal ions is one strategy to both facilitate uptake of specific metals, such as iron, and to mitigate the potential toxic effects of other metal ions, such as copper. A number of important trace metal ions are complexed by organic ligands in seawater, including iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, and cadmium, thus defining the speciation of these metal ions in the ocean. In the case of iron, siderophores have been identified and structurally characterized. Siderophores are low molecular weight iron-binding ligands produced by marine bacteria. Although progress has been made toward the identity of in situ iron-binding ligands, few compounds have been identified that coordinate the other trace metals. Deciphering the chemical structures and production stimuli of naturally produced organic ligands and the organisms they come from is fundamental to understanding metal speciation and bioavailability. The current evidence for marine ligands, with an emphasis on siderophores, and discussion of the importance and implications of metal-binding ligands in controlling metal speciation and cycling within the world's oceans are presented.

  1. Speech Recognition: How Do We Teach It? (United States)

    Barksdale, Karl


    States that growing use of speech recognition software has made voice writing an essential computer skill. Describes how to present the topic, develop basic speech recognition skills, and teach speech recognition outlining, writing, proofreading, and editing. (Contains 14 references.) (SK)

  2. Dynamic Multi-Component Covalent Assembly for the Reversible Binding of Secondary Alcohols and Chirality Sensing (United States)

    You, Lei; Berman, Jeffrey S.; Anslyn, Eric V.


    Reversible covalent bonding is often employed for the creation of novel supramolecular structures, multi-component assemblies, and sensing ensembles. In spite of remarkable success of dynamic covalent systems, the reversible binding of a mono-alcohol with high strength is challenging. Here we show that a strategy of carbonyl activation and hemiaminal ether stabilization can be embodied in a four-component reversible assembly that creates a tetradentate ligand and incorporates secondary alcohols with exceptionally high affinity. Evidence is presented that the intermediate leading to binding and exchange of alcohols is an iminium ion. Further, to demonstrate the use of this assembly process we explored chirality sensing and enantiomeric excess determinations. An induced twist in the ligand by a chiral mono-ol results in large Cotton effects in the circular dichroism spectra indicative of the alcohol’s handedness. The strategy revealed in this study should prove broadly applicable for the incorporation of alcohols into supramolecular architecture construction. PMID:22109274

  3. Apoptotic cell and phagocyte interplay: recognition and consequences in different cell systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira Maria Elisabete C.


    Full Text Available Cell death by apoptosis is characterized by specific biochemical changes, including the exposure of multiple ligands, expected to tag the dying cell for prompt recognition by phagocytes. In non-pathological conditions, an efficient clearance is assured by the redundant interaction between apoptotic cell ligands and multiple receptor molecules present on the engulfing cell surface. This review concentrates on the molecular interactions operating in mammalian and non-mammalian systems for apoptotic cell recognition, as well as on the consequences of their signaling. Furthermore, some cellular models where the exposure of the phosphatidylserine (PS phospholipid, a classical hallmark of the apoptotic phenotype, is not followed by cell death will be discussed.

  4. Coordinate unsaturation with fluorinated ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rack, J.L.; Hurlburt, P.K.; Anderson, O.P.; Strauss, S.H. [Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, CO (United States)


    The preparation and characterization of Zn(OTeF{sub 5}){sub 2} has resulted in a model compound with which to explore the concept of coordinative unsaturation. The coordination of solvents of varying donicity and dielectric constant to the Zn(II) ions in Zn(OTeF{sub 5}){sub 2} was studied by vapor phase monometry, NMR and IR spectroscopy, conductimetry, and X-Ray crystallography. The structures of [Zn(C{sub 6}H{sub 5}NO{sub 2}){sub 2}(OTeF{sub 5})2]2 and Zn(C{sub 6}H{sub 5}NO{sub 2}){sub 3}(OTEF{sub 5}){sub 2} demonstrate the electronic flexibility of some weakly coordinating solvents in that nitrobenzene can function as either an {eta}{sup 1}O or {eta}{sup 2}O,O`-ligand. The dependence of the number of bound solvent molecules and the degree of OTeF{sub 5}{minus} dissociation on solvent donor number and dielectric constant will be presented.

  5. Ligand binding induces a conformational change in ifnar1 that is propagated to its membrane-proximal domain. (United States)

    Strunk, Jennifer Julia; Gregor, Ingo; Becker, Yvonne; Li, Zongli; Gavutis, Martynas; Jaks, Eva; Lamken, Peter; Walz, Thomas; Enderlein, Jörg; Piehler, Jacob


    The type I interferon (IFN) receptor plays a key role in innate immunity against viral and bacterial infections. Here, we show by intramolecular Förster resonance energy transfer spectroscopy that ligand binding induces substantial conformational changes in the ectodomain of ifnar1 (ifnar1-EC). Binding of IFN alpha 2 and IFN beta induce very similar conformations of ifnar1, which were confirmed by single-particle electron microscopy analysis of the ternary complexes formed by IFN alpha 2 or IFN beta with the two receptor subunits ifnar1-EC and ifnar2-EC. Photo-induced electron-transfer-based fluorescence quenching and single-molecule fluorescence lifetime measurements revealed that the ligand-induced conformational change in the membrane-distal domains of ifnar1-EC is propagated to its membrane-proximal domain, which is not involved in ligand recognition but is essential for signal activation. Temperature-dependent ligand binding studies as well as stopped-flow fluorescence experiments corroborated a multistep conformational change in ifnar1 upon ligand binding. Our results thus suggest that the relatively intricate architecture of the type I IFN receptor complex is designed to propagate the ligand binding event to and possibly even across the membrane by conformational changes.

  6. Ligand- and drug-binding studies of membrane proteins revealed through circular dichroism spectroscopy. (United States)

    Siligardi, Giuliano; Hussain, Rohanah; Patching, Simon G; Phillips-Jones, Mary K


    A great number of membrane proteins have proven difficult to crystallise for use in X-ray crystallographic structural determination or too complex for NMR structural studies. Circular dichroism (CD) is a fast and relatively easy spectroscopic technique to study protein conformational behaviour. In this review examples of the applications of CD and synchrotron radiation CD (SRCD) to membrane protein ligand binding interaction studies are discussed. The availability of SRCD has been an important advancement in recent progress, most particularly because it can be used to extend the spectral region in the far-UV region (important for increasing the accuracy of secondary structure estimations) and for working with membrane proteins available in only small quantities for which SRCD has facilitated molecular recognition studies. Such studies have been accomplished by probing in the near-UV region the local tertiary structure of aromatic amino acid residues upon addition of chiral or non-chiral ligands using long pathlength cells of small volume capacity. In particular, this review describes the most recent use of the technique in the following areas: to obtain quantitative data on ligand binding (exemplified by the FsrC membrane sensor kinase receptor); to distinguish between functionally similar drugs that exhibit different mechanisms of action towards membrane proteins (exemplified by secretory phospholipase A2); and to identify suitable detergent conditions to observe membrane protein-ligand interactions using stabilised proteins (exemplified by the antiseptic transporter SugE). Finally, the importance of characterising in solution the conformational behaviour and ligand binding properties of proteins in both far- and near-UV regions is discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Structural and biophysical characterisation of membrane protein-ligand binding. © 2013.

  7. Pattern recognition in spectra (United States)

    Gebran, M.; Paletou, F.


    We present a new automated procedure that simultaneously derives the effective temperature Teff, surface gravity log g, metallicity [Fe/H], and equatorial projected rotational velocity ve sin i for stars. The procedure is inspired by the well-known PCA-based inversion of spectropolarimetric full-Stokes solar data, which was used both for Zeeman and Hanle effects. The efficiency and accuracy of this procedure have been proven for FGK, A, and late type dwarf stars of K and M spectral types. Learning databases are generated from the Elodie stellar spectra library using observed spectra for which fundamental parameters were already evaluated or with synthetic data. The synthetic spectra are calculated using ATLAS9 model atmospheres. This technique helped us to detect many peculiar stars such as Am, Ap, HgMn, SiEuCr and binaries. This fast and efficient technique could be used every time a pattern recognition is needed. One important application is the understanding of the physical properties of planetary surfaces by comparing aboard instrument data to synthetic ones.

  8. Arabic character recognition (United States)

    Allam, May


    This paper presents a complete system for learning and recognizing Arabic characters. Arabic OCR faces technical problems not encountered in other languages such as cursiveness, overriding and overlapping of characters, multiple shapes per character and the presence of vowels above and below the characters. The proposed approach relies on the fact that the process of connecting Arabic characters to produce cursive writing tends to form a fictitious baseline. During preprocessing, contour analysis provides both component isolation and baseline location. In the feature extraction phase, the words are processed from right to left to generate a sequence of labels. Each label is one of a predetermined codebook that represents all possible bit distribution with respect to the baseline. At a certain position, which depends on the label context, a segmentation decision is taken. During training, a model is generated for each character. This model describes the probability of the occurrence of the labels at each vertical position. During recognition, the probability of the label observation sequence is computed and accumulated. The system has been tested on different typewritten, typeset fonts and diacriticized versions of both and the evaluation results are presented.

  9. Kernel learning algorithms for face recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jun-Bao; Pan, Jeng-Shyang


    Kernel Learning Algorithms for Face Recognition covers the framework of kernel based face recognition. This book discusses the advanced kernel learning algorithms and its application on face recognition. This book also focuses on the theoretical deviation, the system framework and experiments involving kernel based face recognition. Included within are algorithms of kernel based face recognition, and also the feasibility of the kernel based face recognition method. This book provides researchers in pattern recognition and machine learning area with advanced face recognition methods and its new

  10. Vision-Based Navigation and Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosenfeld, Azriel


    .... (4) Invariants -- both geometric and other types. (5) Human faces: Analysis of images of human faces, including feature extraction, face recognition, compression, and recognition of facial expressions...

  11. Vision-Based Navigation and Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosenfeld, Azriel


    .... (4) Invariants: both geometric and other types. (5) Human faces: Analysis of images of human faces, including feature extraction, face recognition, compression, and recognition of facial expressions...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish S Hiremath


    Full Text Available An important task in content based video indexing is to extract text information from videos. The challenges involved in text extraction and recognition are variation of illumination on each video frame with text, the text present on the complex background and different font size of the text. Using various image processing algorithms like morphological operations, blob detection and histogram of oriented gradients the character recognition of video subtitles is implemented. Segmentation, feature extraction and classification are the major steps of character recognition. Several experimental results are shown to demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm

  13. Face Recognition using Approximate Arithmetic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marso, Karol

    Face recognition is image processing technique which aims to identify human faces and found its use in various different fields for example in security. Throughout the years this field evolved and there are many approaches and many different algorithms which aim to make the face recognition as effective...... processing applications the results do not need to be completely precise and use of the approximate arithmetic can lead to reduction in terms of delay, space and power consumption. In this paper we examine possible use of approximate arithmetic in face recognition using Eigenfaces algorithm....

  14. Facial recognition in education system (United States)

    Krithika, L. B.; Venkatesh, K.; Rathore, S.; Kumar, M. Harish


    Human beings exploit emotions comprehensively for conveying messages and their resolution. Emotion detection and face recognition can provide an interface between the individuals and technologies. The most successful applications of recognition analysis are recognition of faces. Many different techniques have been used to recognize the facial expressions and emotion detection handle varying poses. In this paper, we approach an efficient method to recognize the facial expressions to track face points and distances. This can automatically identify observer face movements and face expression in image. This can capture different aspects of emotion and facial expressions.

  15. Iris recognition via plenoptic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J.; Boehnen, Chris Bensing; Bolme, David S.


    Iris recognition can be accomplished for a wide variety of eye images by using plenoptic imaging. Using plenoptic technology, it is possible to correct focus after image acquisition. One example technology reconstructs images having different focus depths and stitches them together, resulting in a fully focused image, even in an off-angle gaze scenario. Another example technology determines three-dimensional data for an eye and incorporates it into an eye model used for iris recognition processing. Another example technology detects contact lenses. Application of the technologies can result in improved iris recognition under a wide variety of scenarios.

  16. Genetic Algorithm based Gait Recognition


    R.Ashok Kumar Reddy; G. Venkata Narasimhulu; Dr. S. A. K. Jilani; Dr D.Seshappa


    In this paper, a face/gait recognition system for personal identification and verification using genetic algorithm. This face/gait Recognition System (FRS/GRS) is also being trained for gender identification. The Face/Gait recognition system consists of three steps. At the very outset some pre-processing are applied on the input image. Secondly face/gait features are extracted, which will be taken as the input of the BPNN and genetic algorithm (GA) in the third step and classification is carr...

  17. Self-Assembled PbSe Nanowire:Perovskite Hybrids

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhenyu


    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Inorganic semiconductor nanowires are of interest in nano- and microscale photonic and electronic applications. Here we report the formation of PbSe nanowires based on directional quantum dot alignment and fusion regulated by hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite surface ligands. All material synthesis is carried out at mild temperatures. Passivation of PbSe quantum dots was achieved via a new perovskite ligand exchange. Subsequent in situ ammonium/amine substitution by butylamine enables quantum dots to be capped by butylammonium lead iodide, and this further drives the formation of a PbSe nanowire superlattice in a two-dimensional (2D) perovskite matrix. The average spacing between two adjacent nanowires agrees well with the thickness of single atomic layer of 2D perovskite, consistent with the formation of a new self-assembled semiconductor nanowire:perovskite heterocrystal hybrid.

  18. X-Ray Assembler Data (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Federal regulations require that an assembler who installs one or more certified components of a diagnostic x-ray system submit a report of assembly. This database...

  19. Assembling large, complex environmental metagenomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, A. C. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Plant Soil and Microbial Sciences; Jansson, J. [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Division; Malfatti, S. A. [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Tringe, S. G. [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Tiedje, J. M. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Plant Soil and Microbial Sciences; Brown, C. T. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Computer Science and Engineering


    The large volumes of sequencing data required to sample complex environments deeply pose new challenges to sequence analysis approaches. De novo metagenomic assembly effectively reduces the total amount of data to be analyzed but requires significant computational resources. We apply two pre-assembly filtering approaches, digital normalization and partitioning, to make large metagenome assemblies more computationaly tractable. Using a human gut mock community dataset, we demonstrate that these methods result in assemblies nearly identical to assemblies from unprocessed data. We then assemble two large soil metagenomes from matched Iowa corn and native prairie soils. The predicted functional content and phylogenetic origin of the assembled contigs indicate significant taxonomic differences despite similar function. The assembly strategies presented are generic and can be extended to any metagenome; full source code is freely available under a BSD license.

  20. Optical Space Telescope Assembly Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Optical Space Telescope Assembly (OSTA) task is to demonstrate the technology readiness of assembling large space telescopes on orbit in 2015. This task is an...

  1. Thermodynamic fingerprints of ligand binding to human telomeric G-quadruplexes (United States)

    Bončina, Matjaž; Podlipnik, Črtomir; Piantanida, Ivo; Eilmes, Julita; Teulade-Fichou, Marie-Paule; Vesnaver, Gorazd; Lah, Jurij


    Thermodynamic studies of ligand binding to human telomere (ht) DNA quadruplexes, as a rule, neglect the involvement of various ht-DNA conformations in the binding process. Therefore, the thermodynamic driving forces and the mechanisms of ht-DNA G-quadruplex-ligand recognition remain poorly understood. In this work we characterize thermodynamically and structurally binding of netropsin (Net), dibenzotetraaza[14]annulene derivatives (DP77, DP78), cationic porphyrin (TMPyP4) and two bisquinolinium ligands (Phen-DC3, 360A-Br) to the ht-DNA fragment (Tel22) AGGG(TTAGGG)3 using isothermal titration calorimetry, CD and fluorescence spectroscopy, gel electrophoresis and molecular modeling. By global thermodynamic analysis of experimental data we show that the driving forces characterized by contributions of specific interactions, changes in solvation and conformation differ significantly for binding of ligands with low quadruplex selectivity over duplexes (Net, DP77, DP78, TMPyP4; KTel22 ≈ KdsDNA). These contributions are in accordance with the observed structural features (changes) and suggest that upon binding Net, DP77, DP78 and TMPyP4 select hybrid-1 and/or hybrid-2 conformation while Phen-DC3 and 360A-Br induce the transition of hybrid-1 and hybrid-2 to the structure with characteristics of antiparallel or hybrid-3 type conformation. PMID:26546516

  2. Ligand based pharmacophore modelling of anticancer histone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 21, 2010 ... for designing the pharmacophore onto the set of 70 compounds of three different classes and two subclasses. ... More effective anticancer drug production with novel modes of action .... with Ligand Scout using default settings.

  3. Controlling Signal Transduction with Synthetic Ligands (United States)

    Spencer, David M.; Wandless, Thomas J.; Schreiber, Stuart L.; Crabtree, Gerald R.


    Dimerization and oligomerization are general biological control mechanisms contributing to the activation of cell membrane receptors, transcription factors, vesicle fusion proteins, and other classes of intra- and extracellular proteins. Cell permeable, synthetic ligands were devised that can be used to control the intracellular oligomerization of specific proteins. To demonstrate their utility, these ligands were used to reduce intracellular oligomerization of cell surface receptors that lacked their transmembrane and extracellular regions but contained intracellular signaling domains. Addition of these ligands to cells in culture resulted in signal transmission and specific target gene activation. Monomeric forms of the ligands blocked the pathway. This method of ligandregulated activation and termination of signaling pathways has the potential to be applied wherever precise control of a signal transduction pathway is desired.

  4. Organometallic chemistry of chiral diphosphazane ligands ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Organometallic chemistry of chiral diphosphazane ligands: Synthesis and structural characterisation. KANNAN RAGHURAMAN, SWADHIN K MANDAL,. T S VENKATAKRISHNAN, SETHARAMPATTU S. KRISHNAMURTHY* and MUNIRATHINAM NETHAJI. Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of ...

  5. EGFR Activation by Spatially Restricted Ligands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goodrich, Jennifer S


    ...) activity has been associated with an increased prognosis of breast cancer. During oogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster, local EGFR activation by the spatially restricted TGF alpha-like ligand, Gurken (Grk...

  6. Asymmetric hydrogenation using monodentate phosphoramidite ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Ben L.; Lefort, Laurent; De Vries, Johannes G.


    Monodentate phosphoramidites are excellent ligands for Rh-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenations of substituted olefins. Enantioselectivities between 95 and 99% were obtained in the asymmetric hydrogenation of protected alpha- and beta-dehydroamino acids and esters, itaconic acid and esters, aromatic

  7. Assembly 6: occupation and epidemiology


    Christer Janson


    Assembly 6 is an interdisciplinary assembly that gathers together pneumologists, epidemiologists, clinicians, statisticians, occupational doctors, air pollution scientists and health educators. The assembly now has almost 500 members and has seen a steady growth in membership. Assembly 6 comprises four different groups that complement each other and often work together in joint activities. The groups are: 6.1) epidemiology; 6.2) occupational and environmental health; 6.3) tobacco, smoking con...

  8. Ranking ligand affinity for the DNA minor groove by experiment and simulation. (United States)

    Wittayanarakul, Kitiyaporn; Anthony, Nahoum G; Treesuwan, Witcha; Hannongbua, Supa; Alniss, Hasan; Khalaf, Abedawn I; Suckling, Colin J; Parkinson, John A; Mackay, Simon P


    The structural and thermodynamic basis for the strength and selectivity of the interactions of minor groove binders (MGBs) with DNA is not fully understood. In 2003, we reported the first example of a thiazole-containing MGB that bound in a phase-shifted pattern that spanned six base pairs rather than the usual four (for tricyclic distamycin-like compounds). Since then, using DNA footprinting, NMR spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry, and molecular dynamics, we have established that the flanking bases around the central four being read by the ligand have subtle effects on recognition. We have investigated the effect of these flanking sequences on binding and the reasons for the differences and established a computational method to rank ligand affinity against varying DNA sequences.

  9. Facile design of organic-inorganic hybrid gels for molecular recognition of nucleoside triphosphates. (United States)

    Jeon, Jong-Hwan; Kakuta, Takahiro; Tanaka, Kazuo; Chujo, Yoshiki


    We report the molecular recognition for nucleoside triphosphates inside the ligand-modified water-soluble organic-inorganic hybrid gels composed of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS). The series of ligands were designed to make hydrogen bonds with each nucleobase and introduced into the hybrid gels. From the titration experiments, the binding constants between the ligand inside the gels and nucleosides were evaluated. Accordingly, it was found that the ligands inside the gels can form a stable complex only with the target nucleoside triphosphate which has the complementary pattern of the hydrogen bonds (Ka=G-gel/cytidine triphosphate (CTP), 3.5×10(8)M(-1); U-gel/adenosine triphosphate (ATP), 1.6×10(3)M(-1); A-gel/uridine triphosphate (UTP), 1.9×10(7), respectively). With other nucleoside derivatives which have different numbers of phosphate units or different types of nucleobases, the much weaker interaction was detected. These data indicate that the complex formation only with nucleoside triphosphates should occur inside the hybrid gels, and selective recognition of each nucleoside triphosphate can be accomplished. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ingestion resistant seal assembly (United States)

    Little, David A [Chuluota, FL


    A seal assembly limits gas leakage from a hot gas path to one or more disc cavities in a gas turbine engine. The seal assembly includes a seal apparatus associated with a blade structure including a row of airfoils. The seal apparatus includes an annular inner shroud associated with adjacent stationary components, a wing member, and a first wing flange. The wing member extends axially from the blade structure toward the annular inner shroud. The first wing flange extends radially outwardly from the wing member toward the annular inner shroud. A plurality of regions including one or more recirculation zones are defined between the blade structure and the annular inner shroud that recirculate working gas therein back toward the hot gas path.

  11. Low inductance busbar assembly (United States)

    Holbrook, Meghan Ann


    A busbar assembly for electrically coupling first and second busbars to first and second contacts, respectively, on a power module is provided. The assembly comprises a first terminal integrally formed with the first busbar, a second terminal integrally formed with the second busbar and overlapping the first terminal, a first bridge electrode having a first tab electrically coupled to the first terminal and overlapping the first and second terminals, and a second tab electrically coupled to the first contact, a second bridge electrode having a third tab electrically coupled to the second terminal, and overlapping the first and second terminals and the first tab, and a fourth tab electrically coupled to the second contact, and a fastener configured to couple the first tab to the first terminal, and the third tab to the second terminal.

  12. Hearing Aid Assembly (United States)

    Grugel, Richard N. (Inventor)


    Progress in hearing aids has come a long way. Yet despite such progress hearing aids are not the perfect answer to many hearing problems. Some adult ears cannot accommodate tightly fitting hearing aids. Mouth movements such as chewing, talking, and athletic or other active endeavors also lead to loosely fitting ear molds. It is well accepted that loosely fitting hearing aids are the cause of feedback noise. Since feedback noise is the most common complaint of hearing aid wearers it has been the subject of various patents. Herein a hearing aid assembly is provided eliminating feedback noise. The assembly includes the combination of a hearing aid with a headset developed to constrict feedback noise.

  13. Turbine seal assembly (United States)

    Little, David A.


    A seal assembly that limits gas leakage from a hot gas path to one or more disc cavities in a turbine engine. The seal assembly includes a seal apparatus that limits gas leakage from the hot gas path to a respective one of the disc cavities. The seal apparatus comprises a plurality of blade members rotatable with a blade structure. The blade members are associated with the blade structure and extend toward adjacent stationary components. Each blade member includes a leading edge and a trailing edge, the leading edge of each blade member being located circumferentially in front of the blade member's corresponding trailing edge in a direction of rotation of the turbine rotor. The blade members are arranged such that a space having a component in a circumferential direction is defined between adjacent circumferentially spaced blade members.

  14. Unequal recognition, misrecognition and injustice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune


    Euro-multiculturalism is (1) concerned with religiously defined immigrant minorities; (2) sees policies of recognition as a means to secure multicultural equality between groups; (3) endorses the moderate secularism of European states; and (4) adopts a contextualist approach to answering the norm......Euro-multiculturalism is (1) concerned with religiously defined immigrant minorities; (2) sees policies of recognition as a means to secure multicultural equality between groups; (3) endorses the moderate secularism of European states; and (4) adopts a contextualist approach to answering...... by the state of religious minorities. It argues that state–religion relations can be analysed as relations of recognition, which are not only unequal but also multi-dimensional, and that it is difficult to answer the question whether multi-dimensional recognitive inequalities are unjust or wrong if one...

  15. Indoor navigation by image recognition (United States)

    Choi, Io Teng; Leong, Chi Chong; Hong, Ka Wo; Pun, Chi-Man


    With the progress of smartphones hardware, it is simple on smartphone using image recognition technique such as face detection. In addition, indoor navigation system development is much slower than outdoor navigation system. Hence, this research proves a usage of image recognition technique for navigation in indoor environment. In this paper, we introduced an indoor navigation application that uses the indoor environment features to locate user's location and a route calculating algorithm to generate an appropriate path for user. The application is implemented on Android smartphone rather than iPhone. Yet, the application design can also be applied on iOS because the design is implemented without using special features only for Android. We found that digital navigation system provides better and clearer location information than paper map. Also, the indoor environment is ideal for Image recognition processing. Hence, the results motivate us to design an indoor navigation system using image recognition.

  16. On speech recognition during anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alapetite, Alexandre


    This PhD thesis in human-computer interfaces (informatics) studies the case of the anaesthesia record used during medical operations and the possibility to supplement it with speech recognition facilities. Problems and limitations have been identified with the traditional paper-based anaesthesia...... interface with speech input facilities in Danish. The evaluation of the new interface was carried out in a full-scale anaesthesia simulator. This has been complemented by laboratory experiments on several aspects of speech recognition for this type of use, e.g. the effects of noise on speech recognition...... accuracy. Finally, the last part of the thesis looks at the acceptance and success of a speech recognition system introduced in a Danish hospital to produce patient records....

  17. Similarity measures for face recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Vezzetti, Enrico


    Face recognition has several applications, including security, such as (authentication and identification of device users and criminal suspects), and in medicine (corrective surgery and diagnosis). Facial recognition programs rely on algorithms that can compare and compute the similarity between two sets of images. This eBook explains some of the similarity measures used in facial recognition systems in a single volume. Readers will learn about various measures including Minkowski distances, Mahalanobis distances, Hansdorff distances, cosine-based distances, among other methods. The book also summarizes errors that may occur in face recognition methods. Computer scientists "facing face" and looking to select and test different methods of computing similarities will benefit from this book. The book is also useful tool for students undertaking computer vision courses.

  18. Genetic specificity of face recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nicholas G. Shakeshaft; Robert Plomin


    ...), both phenotypically and genetically. Recent twin studies have found the ability to memorize and recognize faces to be an exception, being similarly heritable but phenotypically substantially uncorrelated both with g and with general object recognition...

  19. Pattern recognition and string matching

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Xiuzhen


    The research and development of pattern recognition have proven to be of importance in science, technology, and human activity. Many useful concepts and tools from different disciplines have been employed in pattern recognition. Among them is string matching, which receives much theoretical and practical attention. String matching is also an important topic in combinatorial optimization. This book is devoted to recent advances in pattern recognition and string matching. It consists of twenty eight chapters written by different authors, addressing a broad range of topics such as those from classifica­ tion, matching, mining, feature selection, and applications. Each chapter is self-contained, and presents either novel methodological approaches or applications of existing theories and techniques. The aim, intent, and motivation for publishing this book is to pro­ vide a reference tool for the increasing number of readers who depend upon pattern recognition or string matching in some way. This includes student...

  20. Types for DSP Assembler Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ken


    in assembler language. However, programming in assembler causes numerous problems, such as memory corruption, for instance. To test the thesis I define a model assembler language called Featherweight DSP which captures some of the essential features of a real custom DSP used in the industrial partner's digital...