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Sample records for assemblies target tissues

  1. Three-Dimensionally Engineered Normal Human Broncho-epithelial Tissue-Like Assemblies: Target Tissues for Human Respiratory Viral Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, T. J.; McCarthy, M.; Lin, Y-H

    2006-01-01

    In vitro three-dimensional (3D) human broncho-epithelial (HBE) tissue-like assemblies (3D HBE TLAs) from this point forward referred to as TLAs were engineered in Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) technology to mimic the characteristics of in vivo tissues thus providing a tool to study human respiratory viruses and host cell interactions. The TLAs were bioengineered onto collagen-coated cyclodextran microcarriers using primary human mesenchymal bronchial-tracheal cells (HBTC) as the foundation matrix and an adult human bronchial epithelial immortalized cell line (BEAS-2B) as the overlying component. The resulting TLAs share significant characteristics with in vivo human respiratory epithelium including polarization, tight junctions, desmosomes, and microvilli. The presence of tissue-like differentiation markers including villin, keratins, and specific lung epithelium markers, as well as the production of tissue mucin, further confirm these TLAs differentiated into tissues functionally similar to in vivo tissues. Increasing virus titers for human respiratory syncytial virus (wtRSVA2) and parainfluenza virus type 3 (wtPIV3 JS) and the detection of membrane bound glycoproteins over time confirm productive infections with both viruses. Therefore, TLAs mimic aspects of the human respiratory epithelium and provide a unique capability to study the interactions of respiratory viruses and their primary target tissue independent of the host's immune system.

  2. Three-Dimensionally Engineered Normal Human Lung Tissue-Like Assemblies: Target Tissues for Human Respiratory Viral Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J.; McCarthy, M.; Lin, Y-H.; Deatly, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    In vitro three-dimensional (3D) human lung epithelio-mesenchymal tissue-like assemblies (3D hLEM TLAs) from this point forward referred to as TLAs were engineered in Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) technology to mimic the characteristics of in vivo tissues thus providing a tool to study human respiratory viruses and host cell interactions. The TLAs were bioengineered onto collagen-coated cyclodextran microcarriers using primary human mesenchymal bronchial-tracheal cells (HBTC) as the foundation matrix and an adult human bronchial epithelial immortalized cell line (BEAS-2B) as the overlying component. The resulting TLAs share significant characteristics with in vivo human respiratory epithelium including polarization, tight junctions, desmosomes, and microvilli. The presence of tissue-like differentiation markers including villin, keratins, and specific lung epithelium markers, as well as the production of tissue mucin, further confirm these TLAs differentiated into tissues functionally similar to in vivo tissues. Increasing virus titers for human respiratory syncytial virus (wtRSVA2) and the detection of membrane bound glycoproteins over time confirm productive infection with the virus. Therefore, we assert TLAs mimic aspects of the human respiratory epithelium and provide a unique capability to study the interactions of respiratory viruses and their primary target tissue independent of the host s immune system.

  3. Target Assembly Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Target Assembly Facility integrates new armor concepts into actual armored vehicles. Featuring the capability ofmachining and cutting radioactive materials, it...

  4. Ribosome Assembly as Antimicrobial Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Nikolay

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Many antibiotics target the ribosome and interfere with its translation cycle. Since translation is the source of all cellular proteins including ribosomal proteins, protein synthesis and ribosome assembly are interdependent. As a consequence, the activity of translation inhibitors might indirectly cause defective ribosome assembly. Due to the difficulty in distinguishing between direct and indirect effects, and because assembly is probably a target in its own right, concepts are needed to identify small molecules that directly inhibit ribosome assembly. Here, we summarize the basic facts of ribosome targeting antibiotics. Furthermore, we present an in vivo screening strategy that focuses on ribosome assembly by a direct fluorescence based read-out that aims to identify and characterize small molecules acting as primary assembly inhibitors.

  5. Targeting adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haas Bodo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Two different types of adipose tissues can be found in humans enabling them to respond to starvation and cold: white adipose tissue (WAT is generally known and stores excess energy in the form of triacylglycerol (TG, insulates against cold, and serves as a mechanical cushion. Brown adipose tissue (BAT helps newborns to cope with cold. BAT has the capacity to uncouple the mitochondrial respiratory chain, thereby generating heat rather than adenosine triphosphate (ATP. The previously widely held view was that BAT disappears rapidly after birth and is no longer present in adult humans. Using positron emission tomography (PET, however, it was recently shown that metabolically active BAT occurs in defined regions and scattered in WAT of the adult and possibly has an influence on whole-body energy homeostasis. In obese individuals adipose tissue is at the center of metabolic syndrome. Targeting of WAT by thiazolidinediones (TZDs, activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ a ‘master’ regulator of fat cell biology, is a current therapy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Since its unique capacity to increase energy consumption of the body and to dissipate surplus energy as heat, BAT offers new perspectives as a therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity and associated diseases such as type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Recent discoveries of new signaling pathways of BAT development give rise to new therapeutic possibilities in order to influence BAT content and activity.

  6. Targeting adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Bodo; Schlinkert, Paul; Mayer, Peter; Eckstein, Niels

    2012-10-27

    Two different types of adipose tissues can be found in humans enabling them to respond to starvation and cold: white adipose tissue (WAT) is generally known and stores excess energy in the form of triacylglycerol (TG), insulates against cold, and serves as a mechanical cushion. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) helps newborns to cope with cold. BAT has the capacity to uncouple the mitochondrial respiratory chain, thereby generating heat rather than adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The previously widely held view was that BAT disappears rapidly after birth and is no longer present in adult humans. Using positron emission tomography (PET), however, it was recently shown that metabolically active BAT occurs in defined regions and scattered in WAT of the adult and possibly has an influence on whole-body energy homeostasis. In obese individuals adipose tissue is at the center of metabolic syndrome. Targeting of WAT by thiazolidinediones (TZDs), activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) a 'master' regulator of fat cell biology, is a current therapy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Since its unique capacity to increase energy consumption of the body and to dissipate surplus energy as heat, BAT offers new perspectives as a therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity and associated diseases such as type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Recent discoveries of new signaling pathways of BAT development give rise to new therapeutic possibilities in order to influence BAT content and activity.

  7. NIF Target Assembly Metrology Methodology and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alger, E. T. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Kroll, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dzenitis, E. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Montesanti, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hughes, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Swisher, M. [IAP, Livermore, CA (United States); Taylor, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Segraves, K. [IAP, Livermore, CA (United States); Lord, D. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Castro, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Edwards, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    During our inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) we require cryogenic targets at the 1-cm scale to be fabricated, assembled, and metrologized to micron-level tolerances. During assembly of these ICF targets, there are physical dimensmetrology is completed using optical coordinate measurement machines that provide repeatable measurements with micron precision, while also allowing in-process data collection for absolute accuracy in assembly. To date, 51 targets have been assembled and metrologized, and 34 targets have been successfully fielded on NIF relying on these metrology data. In the near future, ignition experiments on NIF will require tighter tolerances and more demanding target assembly and metrology capability. Metrology methods, calculations, and uncertainty estimates will be discussed. Target diagnostic port alignment, target position, and capsule location results will be reviewed for the 2009 Energetics Campaign. The information is presented via control charts showing the effect of process improvements that were made during target production. Certain parameters, including capsule position, met the 2009 campaign specifications but will have much tighter requirements in the future. Finally, in order to meet these new requirements assembly process changes and metrology capability upgrades will be necessary.

  8. Growing And Assembling Cells Into Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, David A.; Schwarz, Ray P.; Lewis, Marian L.; Cross, John H.; Huls, M. Helen

    1990-01-01

    Laboratory process for growth and assembly of mammalian cells into tissue-like masses demonstrated with hamster and rat cells. New process better able to provide culture environment with reduced fluid shear stress, freedom for three-dimensional spatial orientation of particles suspended in culture medium, and localization of particles of different or similar sedimentation properties in similar spatial region.

  9. Cooperative assembly in targeted drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auguste, Debra

    2012-02-01

    Described as cell analogues, liposomes are self-assembled lipid bilayer spheres that encapsulate aqueous volumes. Liposomes offer several drug delivery advantages due to their structural versatility related to size, composition, bilayer fluidity, and ability to encapsulate a large variety of compounds non-covalently. However, liposomes lack the structural information embedded within cell membranes. Partitioning of unsaturated and saturated lipids into liquid crystalline (Lα) and gel phase (Lβ) domains, respectively, affects local molecular diffusion and elasticity. Liposome microdomains may be used to pattern molecules, such as antibodies, on the liposome surface to create concentrated, segregated binding regions. We have synthesized, characterized, and evaluated a series of homogeneous and heterogeneous liposomal vehicles that target inflamed endothelium. These drug delivery vehicles are designed to complement the heterogeneous presentation of lipids and receptors on endothelial cells (ECs). EC surfaces are dynamic; they segregate receptors within saturated lipid microdomains on the cell surface to regulate binding and signaling events. We have demonstrated that cooperative binding of two antibodies enhances targeting by multiple fold. Further, we have shown that organization of these antibodies on the surface can further enhance cell uptake. The data suggest that EC targeting may be enhanced by designing liposomes that mirror the segregated structure of lipid and receptor molecules involved in neutrophil-EC adhesion. This strategy is employed in an atherosclerotic mouse model in vivo.

  10. Courtland Target Assembly Facility Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    Restoration Activities New concrete slabs would be poured to form the foundation for all six of the buildings; all buildings would be only above grade...The two MABs, MTF and IB-2 would be constructed of prefabricated steel structures that would be assembled on-site. Other materials that would be used...to the side of the MTF without blocking the track . Norfolk Southern operates the main rail line between Chattanooga and Memphis, Tennessee. The

  11. OXavidin for Tissue Targeting Biotinylated Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita De Santis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Avidin is a glycoprotein from hen egg white that binds biotin with very high affinity. Here we describe OXavidin, a product containing aldehyde groups, obtained by ligand-assisted sugar oxidation of avidin by sodium periodate. OXavidin chemically reacts with cellular and tissue proteins through Schiff's base formation thus residing in tissues for weeks while preserving the biotin binding capacity. The long tissue residence of OXavidin as well as that of OXavidin/biotinylated agent complex occurs in normal and neoplastic tissues and immunohistochemistry shows a strong and homogenous stromal localization. Once localized in tissue/tumor, OXavidin becomes an “artificial receptor” for intravenous injected biotin allowing tumor targeting with biotinylated therapeutics like radioisotopes or toxins. Moreover, present data also suggest that OXavidin might be useful for the homing of biotinylated cells. Overall, OXavidin exhibits a remarkable potential for many different therapeutic applications.

  12. Enzyme-directed assembly of a nanoparticle probe in tumor tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Miao-Ping; Thompson, Matthew P; Barback, Christopher V; Ku, Ti-Hsuan; Hall, David J; Gianneschi, Nathan C

    2013-07-12

    Enzyme-directed assembly in vivo: A targeting strategy is demonstrated, which leads to an active accumulation of nanoparticles by virtue of an assembly event specific to endogenous, enzymatic biochemical signals associated with tumor tissue. The viability of this approach is examined through a proof-of-concept study showing enzyme-directed particle targeting and accumulation in human xenograft tumors in mice following intravenous injection, and the retention of particles is demonstrated within tumors for extended periods of time. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Engineered human broncho-epithelial tissue-like assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional human broncho-epithelial tissue-like assemblies (TLAs) are produced in a rotating wall vessel (RWV) with microcarriers by coculturing mesenchymal bronchial-tracheal cells (BTC) and bronchial epithelium cells (BEC). These TLAs display structural characteristics and express markers of in vivo respiratory epithelia. TLAs are useful for screening compounds active in lung tissues such as antiviral compounds, cystic fibrosis treatments, allergens, and cytotoxic compounds.

  14. Single-Molecule Analysis for RISC Assembly and Target Cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hiroshi M; Tadakuma, Hisashi; Tomari, Yukihide

    2018-01-01

    RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) is a small RNA-protein complex that mediates silencing of complementary target RNAs. Biochemistry has been successfully used to characterize the molecular mechanism of RISC assembly and function for nearly two decades. However, further dissection of intermediate states during the reactions has been warranted to fill in the gaps in our understanding of RNA silencing mechanisms. Single-molecule analysis with total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy is a powerful imaging-based approach to interrogate complex formation and dynamics at the individual molecule level with high sensitivity. Combining this technique with our recently established in vitro reconstitution system of fly Ago2-RISC, we have developed a single-molecule observation system for RISC assembly. In this chapter, we summarize the detailed protocol for single-molecule analysis of chaperone-assisted assembly of fly Ago2-RISC as well as its target cleavage reaction.

  15. A method for the further assembly of targeted unigenes in a transcriptome after assembly by Trinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xinlong; Ma, Jinbiao; Sun, Yufang; Yao, Yinan

    2015-01-01

    RNA-sequencing has been widely used to obtain high throughput transcriptome sequences in various species, but the assembly of a full set of complete transcripts is still a significant challenge. Judging by the number of expected transcripts and assembled unigenes in a transcriptome library, we believe that some unigenes could be reassembled. In this study, using the nitrate transporter (NRT) gene family and phosphate transporter (PHT) gene family in Salicornia europaea as examples, we introduced an approach to further assemble unigenes found in transcriptome libraries which had been previously generated by Trinity. To find the unigenes of a particular transcript that contained gaps, we respectively selected 16 NRT candidate unigene pairs and 12 PHT candidate unigene pairs for which the two unigenes had the same annotations, the same expression patterns among various RNA-seq samples, and different positions of the proteins coded as mapped to a reference protein. To fill a gap between the two unigenes, PCR was performed using primers that mapped to the two unigenes and the PCR products were sequenced, which demonstrated that 5 unigene pairs of NRT and 3 unigene pairs of PHT could be reassembled when the gaps were filled using the corresponding PCR product sequences. This fast and simple method will reduce the redundancy of targeted unigenes and allow acquisition of complete coding sequences (CDS).

  16. A scalable and accurate targeted gene assembly tool (SAT-Assembler) for next-generation sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Sun, Yanni; Cole, James R

    2014-08-01

    Gene assembly, which recovers gene segments from short reads, is an important step in functional analysis of next-generation sequencing data. Lacking quality reference genomes, de novo assembly is commonly used for RNA-Seq data of non-model organisms and metagenomic data. However, heterogeneous sequence coverage caused by heterogeneous expression or species abundance, similarity between isoforms or homologous genes, and large data size all pose challenges to de novo assembly. As a result, existing assembly tools tend to output fragmented contigs or chimeric contigs, or have high memory footprint. In this work, we introduce a targeted gene assembly program SAT-Assembler, which aims to recover gene families of particular interest to biologists. It addresses the above challenges by conducting family-specific homology search, homology-guided overlap graph construction, and careful graph traversal. It can be applied to both RNA-Seq and metagenomic data. Our experimental results on an Arabidopsis RNA-Seq data set and two metagenomic data sets show that SAT-Assembler has smaller memory usage, comparable or better gene coverage, and lower chimera rate for assembling a set of genes from one or multiple pathways compared with other assembly tools. Moreover, the family-specific design and rapid homology search allow SAT-Assembler to be naturally compatible with parallel computing platforms. The source code of SAT-Assembler is available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/sat-assembler/. The data sets and experimental settings can be found in supplementary material.

  17. Molecularly self-assembled nucleic acid nanoparticles for targeted in vivo siRNA delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyukjin; Lytton-Jean, Abigail K. R.; Chen, Yi; Love, Kevin T.; Park, Angela I.; Karagiannis, Emmanouil D.; Sehgal, Alfica; Querbes, William; Zurenko, Christopher S.; Jayaraman, Muthusamy; Peng, Chang G.; Charisse, Klaus; Borodovsky, Anna; Manoharan, Muthiah; Donahoe, Jessica S.; Truelove, Jessica; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G.

    2012-06-01

    Nanoparticles are used for delivering therapeutics into cells. However, size, shape, surface chemistry and the presentation of targeting ligands on the surface of nanoparticles can affect circulation half-life and biodistribution, cell-specific internalization, excretion, toxicity and efficacy. A variety of materials have been explored for delivering small interfering RNAs (siRNAs)--a therapeutic agent that suppresses the expression of targeted genes. However, conventional delivery nanoparticles such as liposomes and polymeric systems are heterogeneous in size, composition and surface chemistry, and this can lead to suboptimal performance, a lack of tissue specificity and potential toxicity. Here, we show that self-assembled DNA tetrahedral nanoparticles with a well-defined size can deliver siRNAs into cells and silence target genes in tumours. Monodisperse nanoparticles are prepared through the self-assembly of complementary DNA strands. Because the DNA strands are easily programmable, the size of the nanoparticles and the spatial orientation and density of cancer-targeting ligands (such as peptides and folate) on the nanoparticle surface can be controlled precisely. We show that at least three folate molecules per nanoparticle are required for optimal delivery of the siRNAs into cells and, gene silencing occurs only when the ligands are in the appropriate spatial orientation. In vivo, these nanoparticles showed a longer blood circulation time (t1/2 ~ 24.2 min) than the parent siRNA (t1/2 ~ 6 min).

  18. Target Identification and Validation : Tissue Biobanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30407859X; Moll, F. L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070246882; Guzman, R. J.; de Kleijn, D. P V|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30481489X; Pasterkamp, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/138488304

    2015-01-01

    Tools, technical platforms and methods need to be wisely utilized to aid target identification and validation in translational processes. Amongst these, several -omics sciences have been established and constitute nowadays fields of their own. Such is the case of genomics, transcriptomics,

  19. Let's push things forward: disruptive technologies and the mechanics of tissue assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Victor D; Nelson, Celeste M

    2013-09-01

    Although many of the molecular mechanisms that regulate tissue assembly in the embryo have been delineated, the physical forces that couple these mechanisms to actual changes in tissue form remain unclear. Qualitative studies suggest that mechanical loads play a regulatory role in development, but clear quantitative evidence has been lacking. This is partly owing to the complex nature of these problems - embryonic tissues typically undergo large deformations and exhibit evolving, highly viscoelastic material properties. Still, despite these challenges, new disruptive technologies are enabling study of the mechanics of tissue assembly in unprecedented detail. Here, we present novel experimental techniques that enable the study of each component of these physical problems: kinematics, forces, and constitutive properties. Specifically, we detail advances in light sheet microscopy, optical coherence tomography, traction force microscopy, fluorescence force spectroscopy, microrheology and micropatterning. Taken together, these technologies are helping elucidate a more quantitative understanding of the mechanics of tissue assembly.

  20. Analysis Of Transcriptomes In A Porcine Tissue Collection Using RNA-Seq And Genome Assembly 10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornshøj, Henrik; Thomsen, Bo; Hedegaard, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The release of Sus scrofa genome assembly 10 supports improvement of the pig genome annotation and in depth transcriptome analyses using next-generation sequencing technologies. In this study we analyze RNA-seq reads from a tissue collection, including 10 separate tissues from Duroc boars and 10...... short read alignment software we mapped the reads to the genome assembly 10. We extracted contig sequences of gene transcripts using the Cufflinks software. Based on this information we identified expressed genes that are present in the genome assembly. The portion of these genes being previously known...... was roughly estimated by sequence comparison to known genes. Similarly, we searched for genes that are expressed in the tissues but not present in the genome assembly by aligning the non-genome-mapped reads to known gene transcripts. For the genes predicted to have alternative transcript variants by Cufflinks...

  1. Three-dimensional cell to tissue assembly process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, David A. (Inventor); Schwarz, Ray P. (Inventor); Lewis, Marian L. (Inventor); Cross, John H. (Inventor); Huls, Mary H. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    The present invention relates a 3-dimensional cell to tissue and maintenance process, more particularly to methods of culturing cells in a culture environment, either in space or in a gravity field, with minimum fluid shear stress, freedom for 3-dimensional spatial orientation of the suspended particles and localization of particles with differing or similar sedimentation properties in a similar spatial region.

  2. Intestinal mucosa is a target tissue for pancreatic polypeptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, W.R.; Kramer, J.L.; Frank, B.H.; Gingerich, R.L.

    1986-06-01

    Studies were carried out to identify mammalian tissues capable of specifically binding mammalian pancreatic polypeptide (PP). Bovine PP (bPP) radiolabeled with /sup 125/I was purified by HPLC to yield (/sup 125/I)iodo-(Tyr-27) bPP. The label was injected into three pairs of fasted littermate dogs and allowed to circulate for 5 min. One of the dogs was a control which received an excess of unlabeled porcine PP to provide competition for receptor binding. Unbound bPP was removed by perfusion with Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate and the tissue fixed in situ with Karnovsky's fixative. Tissue samples from various organs were removed, weighed, and counted. The entire gastrointestinal tract demonstrated high levels of /sup 125/I after injection of the labeled peptide. The duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon were the only tissues to exhibit specific binding of bPP. These tissues (mucosal and muscle layers) from experimental animals exhibited 31-76% higher binding than the corresponding tissues from the control animals. Sections of the gastrointestinal tract were scraped to separate the mucosal layer from the underlying muscle layer. The mucosal layer of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum exhibited 145-162% increases in binding compared to the control animals. The muscle layer of these tissues demonstrated no significant increase. These findings demonstrate that mucosal layer of the small intestine is a target tissue for mammalian PP.

  3. Assessing the Impact of Tissue Target Concentration Data on Uncertainty in In Vivo Target Coverage Predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, A; Luo, H; Chen, X; Singh, P; Bhattacharya, I; Jasper, P; Tolsma, J E; Jones, H M; Zutshi, A; Abraham, A K

    2016-10-01

    Understanding pharmacological target coverage is fundamental in drug discovery and development as it helps establish a sequence of research activities, from laboratory objectives to clinical doses. To this end, we evaluated the impact of tissue target concentration data on the level of confidence in tissue coverage predictions using a site of action (SoA) model for antibodies. By fitting the model to increasing amounts of synthetic tissue data and comparing the uncertainty in SoA coverage predictions, we confirmed that, in general, uncertainty decreases with longitudinal tissue data. Furthermore, a global sensitivity analysis showed that coverage is sensitive to experimentally identifiable parameters, such as baseline target concentration in plasma and target turnover half-life and fixing them reduces uncertainty in coverage predictions. Overall, our computational analysis indicates that measurement of baseline tissue target concentration reduces the uncertainty in coverage predictions and identifies target-related parameters that greatly impact the confidence in coverage predictions. © 2016 The Authors CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  4. Fluorescent imaging of cancerous tissues for targeted surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Lihong; Shen, Baozhong; Cheng, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    To maximize tumor excision and minimize collateral damage is the primary goal of cancer surgery. Emerging molecular imaging techniques have to “image-guided surgery” developing into “molecular imaging-guided surgery”, which is termed “targeted surgery” in this review. Consequently, the precision of surgery can be advanced from tissue-scale to molecule-scale, enabling “targeted surgery” to be a component of “targeted therapy”. Evidence from numerous experimental and clinical studies has demonstrated significant benefits of fluorescent imaging in targeted surgery with preoperative molecular diagnostic screening. Fluorescent imaging can help to improve intraoperative staging and enable more radical cytoreduction, detect obscure tumor lesions in special organs, highlight tumor margins, better map lymph node metastases, and identify important normal structures intraoperatively. Though limited tissue penetration of fluorescent imaging and tumor heterogeneity are two major hurdles for current targeted surgery, multimodality imaging and multiplex imaging may provide potential solutions to overcome these issues, respectively. Moreover, though many fluorescent imaging techniques and probes have been investigated, targeted surgery remains at a proof-of-principle stage. The impact of fluorescent imaging on cancer surgery will likely be realized through persistent interdisciplinary amalgamation of research in diverse fields. PMID:25064553

  5. Alternative Polyadenylation Directs Tissue-Specific miRNA Targeting in Caenorhabditis elegans Somatic Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazie, Stephen M; Geissel, Heather C; Wilky, Henry; Joshi, Rajan; Newbern, Jason; Mangone, Marco

    2017-06-01

    mRNA expression dynamics promote and maintain the identity of somatic tissues in living organisms; however, their impact in post-transcriptional gene regulation in these processes is not fully understood. Here, we applied the PAT-Seq approach to systematically isolate, sequence, and map tissue-specific mRNA from five highly studied Caenorhabditis elegans somatic tissues: GABAergic and NMDA neurons, arcade and intestinal valve cells, seam cells, and hypodermal tissues, and studied their mRNA expression dynamics. The integration of these datasets with previously profiled transcriptomes of intestine, pharynx, and body muscle tissues, precisely assigns tissue-specific expression dynamics for 60% of all annotated C. elegans protein-coding genes, providing an important resource for the scientific community. The mapping of 15,956 unique high-quality tissue-specific polyA sites in all eight somatic tissues reveals extensive tissue-specific 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) isoform switching through alternative polyadenylation (APA) . Almost all ubiquitously transcribed genes use APA and harbor miRNA targets in their 3'UTRs, which are commonly lost in a tissue-specific manner, suggesting widespread usage of post-transcriptional gene regulation modulated through APA to fine tune tissue-specific protein expression. Within this pool, the human disease gene C. elegans orthologs rack-1 and tct-1 use APA to switch to shorter 3'UTR isoforms in order to evade miRNA regulation in the body muscle tissue, resulting in increased protein expression needed for proper body muscle function. Our results highlight a major positive regulatory role for APA, allowing genes to counteract miRNA regulation on a tissue-specific basis. Copyright © 2017 Blazie et al.

  6. Self-assembling functionalized nanopeptides for immediate hemostasis and accelerative liver tissue regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tzu-Yun; Wu, Hsi-Chin; Huang, Ming-Yuan; Chang, Wen-Han; Lee, Chao-Hsiung; Wang, Tzu-Wei

    2013-03-01

    Traumatic injury or surgery may trigger extensive bleeding. However, conventional hemostatic methods have limited efficacy and may cause surrounding tissue damage. In this study, we use self-assembling peptides (SAPs) and specifically extend fragments of functional motifs derived from fibronectin and laminin to evaluate the capability of these functionalized SAPs in the effect of hemostasis and liver tissue regeneration. From the results, these peptides can self-assemble into nanofibrous network structure and gelate into hydrogel with pH adjustment. In animal studies, the efficacy of hemostasis is achieved immediately within seconds in a rat liver model. The histological analyses by hematoxylin-eosin stain and immunohistochemistry reveal that SAPs with these functionalized motifs significantly enhance liver tissue regeneration. In brief, these SAPs may have potential as pharmacological tools to extensively advance clinical therapeutic applications in hemostasis and tissue regeneration in the field of regenerative medicine.Traumatic injury or surgery may trigger extensive bleeding. However, conventional hemostatic methods have limited efficacy and may cause surrounding tissue damage. In this study, we use self-assembling peptides (SAPs) and specifically extend fragments of functional motifs derived from fibronectin and laminin to evaluate the capability of these functionalized SAPs in the effect of hemostasis and liver tissue regeneration. From the results, these peptides can self-assemble into nanofibrous network structure and gelate into hydrogel with pH adjustment. In animal studies, the efficacy of hemostasis is achieved immediately within seconds in a rat liver model. The histological analyses by hematoxylin-eosin stain and immunohistochemistry reveal that SAPs with these functionalized motifs significantly enhance liver tissue regeneration. In brief, these SAPs may have potential as pharmacological tools to extensively advance clinical therapeutic applications

  7. Lessons from Two Years of Building Fusion Ignition Targets with the Precision Robotic Assembly Machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montesanti, R C; Alger, E T; Atherton, L J; Bhandarkar, S D; Castro, C; Dzenitis, E G; Hamza, A V; Klingmann, J L; Nikroo, A; Parham, T G; Reynolds, J L; Seugling, R M; Swisher, M F; Taylor, J S; Witte, M C

    2010-02-19

    The Precision Robotic Assembly Machine was developed to manufacture the small and intricate laser-driven fusion ignition targets that are being used in the world's largest and most energetic laser, the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The National Ignition Campaign (NIC) goal of using the NIF to produce a self-sustaining nuclear fusion burn with energy gain - for the first time ever in a laboratory setting - requires targets that are demanding in materials fabrication, machining, and assembly. We provide an overview of the design and function of the machine, with emphasis on the aspects that revolutionized how NIC targets are manufactured.

  8. Assembling the Streptococcus thermophilus clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) array for multiplex DNA targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lijun; Xu, Kun; Liu, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Cunfang; Xin, Ying; Zhang, Zhiying

    2015-06-01

    In addition to the advantages of scalable, affordable, and easy to engineer, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) technology is superior for multiplex targeting, which is laborious and inconvenient when achieved by cloning multiple gRNA expressing cassettes. Here, we report a simple CRISPR array assembling method which will facilitate multiplex targeting usage. First, the Streptococcus thermophilus CRISPR3/Cas locus was cloned. Second, different CRISPR arrays were assembled with different crRNA spacers. Transformation assays using different Escherichia coli strains demonstrated efficient plasmid DNA targeting, and we achieved targeting efficiency up to 95% with an assembled CRISPR array with three crRNA spacers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Three-dimensional bioprinting using self-assembling scalable scaffold-free ?tissue strands? as a new bioink

    OpenAIRE

    Yin Yu; Kazim K. Moncal; Jianqiang Li; Weijie Peng; Iris Rivero; Martin, James A.; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in bioprinting have granted tissue engineers the ability to assemble biomaterials, cells, and signaling molecules into anatomically relevant functional tissues or organ parts. Scaffold-free fabrication has recently attracted a great deal of interest due to the ability to recapitulate tissue biology by using self-assembly, which mimics the embryonic development process. Despite several attempts, bioprinting of scale-up tissues at clinically-relevant dimensions with closely reca...

  10. Membrane-targeted self-assembling cyclic peptide nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Vázquez, Nuria; Ozores, H Lionel; Guerra, Arcadio; González-Freire, Eva; Fuertes, Alberto; Panciera, Michele; Priegue, Juan M; Outeiral, Juan; Montenegro, Javier; Garcia-Fandino, Rebeca; Amorin, Manuel; Granja, Juan R

    2014-01-01

    Peptide nanotubes are novel supramolecular nanobiomaterials that have a tubular structure. The stacking of cyclic components is one of the most promising strategies amongst the methods described in recent years for the preparation of nanotubes. This strategy allows precise control of the nanotube surface properties and the dimensions of the tube diameter. In addition, the incorporation of 3- aminocycloalkanecarboxylic acid residues in the nanotube-forming peptides allows control of the internal properties of the supramolecular tube. The research aimed at the application of membrane-interacting self-assembled cyclic peptide nanotubes (SCPNs) is summarized in this review. The cyclic peptides are designed to interact with phospholipid bilayers to induce nanotube formation. The properties and orientation of the nanotube can be tuned by tailoring the peptide sequence. Hydrophobic peptides form transmembrane pores with a hydrophilic orifice, the nature of which has been exploited to transport ions and small molecules efficiently. These synthetic ion channels are selective for alkali metal ions (Na(+), K(+) or Cs(+)) over divalent cations (Ca(2+)) or anions (Cl(-)). Unfortunately, selectivity was not achieved within the series of alkali metal ions, for which ion transport rates followed the diffusion rates in water. Amphipathic peptides form nanotubes that lie parallel to the membrane. Interestingly, nanotube formation takes place preferentially on the surface of bacterial membranes, thus making these materials suitable for the development of new antimicrobial agents.

  11. Exposure of non-target tissues in medical diathermy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitgeb, N; Omerspahic, A; Niedermayr, F

    2010-01-01

    With different prevalence in different regions, radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) are widely used for therapeutic tissue heating. Although short-wave diathermy (27.12 MHz) is the most popular treatment modality, quantitative data on patient's exposure have been lacking. By numerical simulation with the numerical anatomical model NORMAN, intracorporal distributions of specific absorption rates (SAR) were investigated for different treatment scenarios and applicators. Quantitative data are provided for exposures of target treatment areas as well as for vulnerable regions such as the eye lenses, central nervous system, and testes. Different applicators and distances were investigated. Capacitive and inductive applicators exhibit quite a different heating efficiency. It could be shown that for the same output power therapeutic heat deposition can vary by almost one order of magnitude. By mimicking therapist's practice to use patient's heat perception as an indicator for output power setting, numerical data were elaborated demonstrating that muscle tissue exposures may be several times higher for inductive than for capacitive applicators. Presented quantitative data serve as a guide for power adjustment preventing relevant overexposures without compromising therapy; they also provide a basis for estimating target tissue heat load and developing therapeutic guidelines. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Self-assembled peptide-based nanostructures: Smart nanomaterials toward targeted drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Neda; Kamaly, Nazila; Memic, Adnan; Shafiee, Hadi

    2016-02-01

    Self-assembly of peptides can yield an array of well-defined nanostructures that are highly attractive nanomaterials for many biomedical applications such as drug delivery. Some of the advantages of self-assembled peptide nanostructures over other delivery platforms include their chemical diversity, biocompatibility, high loading capacity for both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs, and their ability to target molecular recognition sites. Furthermore, these self-assembled nanostructures could be designed with novel peptide motifs, making them stimuli-responsive and achieving triggered drug delivery at disease sites. The goal of this work is to present a comprehensive review of the most recent studies on self-assembled peptides with a focus on their "smart" activity for formation of targeted and responsive drug-delivery carriers.

  13. Bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine: targeting pathological fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duong T; Burg, Karen J L

    2015-01-01

    Patients with bone diseases have the highest risk of sustaining fractures and of suffering from nonunion bone healing due to tissue degeneration. Current fracture management strategies are limited in design and functionality and do not effectively promote bone healing within a diseased bone environment. Fracture management approaches include pharmaceutical therapy, surgical intervention, and tissue regeneration for fracture prevention, fracture stabilization, and fracture site regeneration, respectively. However, these strategies fail to accommodate the pathological nature of fragility fractures, leading to unwanted side effects, implant failures, and nonunions. To target fragility fractures, fracture management strategies should include bioactive bone substitutes designed for the pathological environment. However, the clinical outcome of these materials must be predictable within various disease environments. Initial development of a targeted treatment strategy should focus on simulating the physiological in vitro bone environment to predict clinical effectiveness of the engineered bone. An in vitro test system can facilitate reduction of implant failures and non-unions in fragility fractures. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Self-assembled silk sericin/poloxamer nanoparticles as nanocarriers of hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs for targeted delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Biman B; Kundu, S C, E-mail: kundu@hijli.iitkgp.ernet.i [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2009-09-02

    In recent times self-assembled micellar nanoparticles have been successfully employed in tissue engineering for targeted drug delivery applications. In this review, silk sericin protein from non-mulberry Antheraea mylitta tropical tasar silk cocoons was blended with pluronic F-127 and F-87 in the presence of solvents to achieve self-assembled micellar nanostructures capable of carrying both hydrophilic (FITC-inulin) and hydrophobic (anticancer drug paclitaxel) drugs. The fabricated nanoparticles were subsequently characterized for their size distribution, drug loading capability, cellular uptake and cytotoxicity. Nanoparticle sizes ranged between 100 and 110 nm in diameter as confirmed by dynamic light scattering. Rapid uptake of these particles into cells was observed in in vitro cellular uptake studies using breast cancer MCF-7 cells. In vitro cytotoxicity assay using paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles against breast cancer cells showed promising results comparable to free paclitaxel drugs. Drug-encapsulated nanoparticle-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells was confirmed by FACS and confocal microscopic studies using Annexin V staining. Up-regulation of pro-apoptotic protein Bax, down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and cleavage of regulatory protein PARP through Western blot analysis suggested further drug-induced apoptosis in cells. This study projects silk sericin protein as an alternative natural biomaterial for fabrication of self-assembled nanoparticles in the presence of poloxamer for successful delivery of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs to target sites.

  15. Bioreactor-induced mesenchymal progenitor cell differentiation and elastic fiber assembly in engineered vascular tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shigang; Mequanint, Kibret

    2017-09-01

    In vitro maturation of engineered vascular tissues (EVT) requires the appropriate incorporation of smooth muscle cells (SMC) and extracellular matrix (ECM) components similar to native arteries. To this end, the aim of the current study was to fabricate 4mm inner diameter vascular tissues using mesenchymal progenitor cells seeded into tubular scaffolds. A dual-pump bioreactor operating either in perfusion or pulsatile perfusion mode was used to generate physiological-like stimuli to promote progenitor cell differentiation, extracellular elastin production, and tissue maturation. Our data demonstrated that pulsatile forces and perfusion of 3D tubular constructs from both the lumenal and ablumenal sides with culture media significantly improved tissue assembly, effectively inducing mesenchymal progenitor cell differentiation to SMCs with contemporaneous elastin production. With bioreactor cultivation, progenitor cells differentiated toward smooth muscle lineage characterized by the expression of smooth muscle (SM)-specific markers smooth muscle alpha actin (SM-α-actin) and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC). More importantly, pulsatile perfusion bioreactor cultivation enhanced the synthesis of tropoelastin and its extracellular cross-linking into elastic fiber compared with static culture controls. Taken together, the current study demonstrated progenitor cell differentiation and vascular tissue assembly, and provides insights into elastin synthesis and assembly to fibers. Incorporation of elastin into engineered vascular tissues represents a critical design goal for both mechanical and biological functions. In the present study, we seeded porous tubular scaffolds with multipotent mesenchymal progenitor cells and cultured in dual-pump pulsatile perfusion bioreactor. Physiological-like stimuli generated by bioreactor not only induced mesenchymal progenitor cell differentiation to vascular smooth muscle lineage but also actively promoted elastin synthesis and

  16. Features of modularly assembled compounds that impart bioactivity against an RNA target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzuczek, Suzanne G; Gao, Yu; Tang, Zhen-Zhi; Thornton, Charles A; Kodadek, Thomas; Disney, Matthew D

    2013-10-18

    Transcriptomes provide a myriad of potential RNAs that could be the targets of therapeutics or chemical genetic probes of function. Cell-permeable small molecules, however, generally do not exploit these targets, owing to the difficulty in the design of high affinity, specific small molecules targeting RNA. As part of a general program to study RNA function using small molecules, we designed bioactive, modularly assembled small molecules that target the noncoding expanded RNA repeat that causes myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), r(CUG)(exp). Herein, we present a rigorous study to elucidate features in modularly assembled compounds that afford bioactivity. Different modular assembly scaffolds were investigated, including polyamines, α-peptides, β-peptides, and peptide tertiary amides (PTAs). On the basis of activity as assessed by improvement of DM1-associated defects, stability against proteases, cellular permeability, and toxicity, we discovered that constrained backbones, namely, PTAs, are optimal. Notably, we determined that r(CUG)(exp) is the target of the optimal PTA in cellular models and that the optimal PTA improves DM1-associated defects in a mouse model. Biophysical analyses were employed to investigate potential sources of bioactivity. These investigations show that modularly assembled compounds have increased residence times on their targets and faster on rates than the RNA-binding modules from which they were derived. Moreover, they have faster on rates than the protein that binds r(CUG)(exp), the inactivation of which gives rise to DM1-associated defects. These studies provide information about features of small molecules that are programmable for targeting RNA, allowing for the facile optimization of therapeutics or chemical probes against other cellular RNA targets.

  17. Limb derived cells as a paradigm for engineering self-assembling skeletal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Warnakulasuriya A; Papantoniou, Ioannis; Mendes, Luis F; Hall, Gabriella Nilsson; Bosmans, Kathleen; Tam, Wai L; Teixeira, Liliana M; Moos, Malcolm; Geris, Liesbet; Luyten, Frank P

    2017-06-11

    Mimicking developmental events has been proposed as a strategy to engineer tissue constructs for regenerative medicine. However, this approach has not yet been investigated for skeletal tissues. Here, it is demonstrated that ectopic implantation of day-14.5 mouse embryonic long bone anlagen, dissociated into single cells and randomly incorporated in a bioengineered construct, gives rise to epiphyseal growth plate-like structures, bone and marrow, which share many morphological and molecular similarities to epiphyseal units that form after transplanting intact long bone anlage, demonstrating substantial robustness and autonomy of complex tissue self-assembly and the overall organogenesis process. In vitro studies confirm the self-aggregation and patterning capacity of anlage cells and demonstrate that the model can be used to evaluate the effects of large and small molecules on biological behaviour. These results reveal the preservation of self-organizing and self-patterning capacity of anlage cells even when disconnected from their developmental niche and subjected to system perturbations such as cellular dissociation. These inherent features make long bone anlage cells attractive as a model system for tissue engineering technologies aimed at creating constructs that have the potential to self-assemble and self-pattern complex architectural structures. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. A synthetic antibody fragment targeting nicastrin affects assembly and trafficking of γ-secretase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xulun; Hoey, Robert; Koide, Akiko; Dolios, Georgia; Paduch, Marcin; Nguyen, Phuong; Wu, Xianzhong; Li, Yueming; Wagner, Steven L; Wang, Rong; Koide, Shohei; Sisodia, Sangram S

    2014-12-12

    The γ-secretase complex, composed of presenilin, nicastrin (NCT), anterior pharynx-defective 1 (APH-1), and presenilin enhancer 2 (PEN-2), is assembled in a highly regulated manner and catalyzes the intramembranous proteolysis of many type I membrane proteins, including Notch and amyloid precursor protein. The Notch family of receptors plays important roles in cell fate specification during development and in adult tissues, and aberrant hyperactive Notch signaling causes some forms of cancer. γ-Secretase-mediated processing of Notch at the cell surface results in the generation of the Notch intracellular domain, which associates with several transcriptional coactivators involved in nuclear signaling events. On the other hand, γ-secretase-mediated processing of amyloid precursor protein leads to the production of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides that play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. We used a phage display approach to identify synthetic antibodies that specifically target NCT and expressed them in the single-chain variable fragment (scFv) format in mammalian cells. We show that expression of a NCT-specific scFv clone, G9, in HEK293 cells decreased the production of the Notch intracellular domain but not the production of amyloid β peptides that occurs in endosomal and recycling compartments. Biochemical studies revealed that scFvG9 impairs the maturation of NCT by associating with immature forms of NCT and, consequently, prevents its association with the other components of the γ-secretase complex, leading to degradation of these molecules. The reduced cell surface levels of mature γ-secretase complexes, in turn, compromise the intramembranous processing of Notch. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. A Versatile Multiple Target Detection System Based on DNA Nano-assembled Linear FRET Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yansheng; Du, Hongwu; Wang, Wenqian; Zhang, Peixun; Xu, Liping; Wen, Yongqiang; Zhang, Xueji

    2016-05-27

    DNA molecules have been utilized both as powerful synthetic building blocks to create nanoscale architectures and as inconstant programmable templates for assembly of biosensors. In this paper, a versatile, scalable and multiplex detection system is reported based on an extending fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET) cascades on a linear DNA assemblies. Seven combinations of three kinds of targets are successfully detected through the changes of fluorescence spectra because of the three-steps FRET or non-FRET continuity mechanisms. This nano-assembled FRET-based nanowire is extremely significant for the development of rapid, simple and sensitive detection system. The method used here could be extended to a general platform for multiplex detection through more-step FRET process.

  20. Tissue engineering by self-assembly and bio-printing of living cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakab, Karoly; Marga, Francoise; Forgacs, Gabor [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Norotte, Cyrille [Department of Biology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Murphy, Keith [Organovo, Inc., 5871 Oberlin Drive, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana, E-mail: forgacsg@missouri.ed [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Biofabrication of living structures with desired topology and functionality requires the interdisciplinary effort of practitioners of the physical, life and engineering sciences. Such efforts are being undertaken in many laboratories around the world. Numerous approaches are pursued, such as those based on the use of natural or artificial scaffolds, decellularized cadaveric extracellular matrices and, most lately, bioprinting. To be successful in this endeavor, it is crucial to provide in vitro micro-environmental clues for the cells resembling those in the organism. Therefore, scaffolds, populated with differentiated cells or stem cells, of increasing complexity and sophistication are being fabricated. However, no matter how sophisticated scaffolds are, they can cause problems stemming from their degradation, eliciting immunogenic reactions and other a priori unforeseen complications. It is also being realized that ultimately the best approach might be to rely on the self-assembly and self-organizing properties of cells and tissues and the innate regenerative capability of the organism itself, not just simply prepare tissue and organ structures in vitro followed by their implantation. Here we briefly review the different strategies for the fabrication of three-dimensional biological structures, in particular bioprinting. We detail a fully biological, scaffoldless, print-based engineering approach that uses self-assembling multicellular units as bio-ink particles and employs early developmental morphogenetic principles, such as cell sorting and tissue fusion. (topical review)

  1. Integrin suppresses neurogenesis and regulates brain tissue assembly in planarian regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Nicolle A; Petersen, Christian P

    2017-03-01

    Animals capable of adult regeneration require specific signaling to control injury-induced cell proliferation, specification and patterning, but comparatively little is known about how the regeneration blastema assembles differentiating cells into well-structured functional tissues. Using the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea as a model, we identify β1-integrin as a crucial regulator of blastema architecture. β1-integrin(RNAi) animals formed small head blastemas with severe tissue disorganization, including ectopic neural spheroids containing differentiated neurons normally found in distinct organs. By mimicking aspects of normal brain architecture but without normal cell-type regionalization, these spheroids bore a resemblance to mammalian tissue organoids synthesized in vitro We identified one of four planarian integrin-alpha subunits inhibition of which phenocopied these effects, suggesting that a specific receptor controls brain organization through regeneration. Neoblast stem cells and progenitor cells were mislocalized in β1-integrin(RNAi) animals without significantly altered body-wide patterning. Furthermore, tissue disorganization phenotypes were most pronounced in animals undergoing brain regeneration and not homeostatic maintenance or regeneration-induced remodeling of the brain. These results suggest that integrin signaling ensures proper progenitor recruitment after injury, enabling the generation of large-scale tissue organization within the regeneration blastema. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. A Monte Carlo studies of the entrance foil material in a target assembly for FDG production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merouani, A.; El Khayati, N. [Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Mohammed V University, Rabat (Morocco); EL Ghayour, A.; El Alamy, H.; Zoubir, B. [Cyclopharma, Bouskoura, Casablanca (Morocco)

    2015-07-01

    In this work, a Monte Carlo simulation was performed for different entrance foil Materials in the target assembly for [{sup 18}F] FDG production, to investigate the neutron generations in the entrance foil. However, the objective is to study a materials that has the more or less similar mechanical properties as the Havar{sup R} foil with less generation of secondary particles and without affecting, the yield of FDG production. (authors)

  3. Design of the EURISOL multi-MW target assembly radiation and safety issues

    CERN Document Server

    Felcini, Marta; Kadi, Yacine; Otto, Thomas; Tecchio, L

    2006-01-01

    The multi-MW target proposed for the EURISOL facility will be based on fission of uranium (or thorium) compounds to produce rare isotopes far from stability. A two-step process is used for the isotope production. First, neutrons are generated in a liquid mercury target, irradiated by the 1 GeV proton or deuteron beam, provided by the EURISOL linac driver. Then, the neutrons induce fission in a surrounding assembly of uranium carbide. R&D projects on several aspects of the target assembly are ongoing. Key criteria for the target design are a maximum beam power capability of 4 MW, a remote handling system with minimum downtime and maximum reliability, as well as radiation safety, minimization of hazards and the classification of the facility. In the framework of the ongoing radiation characterization and safety studies, radiation transport simulations have been performed to calculate the prompt radiation dose in the target and surrounding materials, as well as to determine shielding material and angle-depen...

  4. Novel tumor-targeting, self-assembling peptide nanofiber as a carrier for effective curcumin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianfeng; Liu, Jinjian; Xu, Hongyan; Zhang, Yumin; Chu, Liping; Liu, Qingfen; Song, Naling; Yang, Cuihong

    2014-01-01

    The poor aqueous solubility and low bioavailability of curcumin restrict its clinical application for cancer treatment. In this study, a novel tumor-targeting nanofiber carrier was developed to improve the solubility and tumor-targeting ability of curcumin using a self-assembled Nap-GFFYG-RGD peptide. The morphologies of the peptide nanofiber and the curcumin-encapsulated nanofiber were visualized by transmission electron microscopy. The tumor-targeting activity of the curcumin-encapsulated Nap-GFFYG-RGD peptide nanofiber (f-RGD-Cur) was studied in vitro and in vivo, using Nap-GFFYG-RGE peptide nanofiber (f-RGE-Cur) as the control. Curcumin was encapsulated into the peptide nanofiber, which had a diameter of approximately 10-20 nm. Curcumin showed sustained-release behavior from the nanofibers in vitro. f-RGD-Cur showed much higher cellular uptake in αvβ3 integrin-positive HepG2 liver carcinoma cells than did non-targeted f-RGE-Cur, thereby leading to significantly higher cytotoxicity. Ex vivo studies further demonstrated that curcumin could accumulate markedly in mouse tumors after administration of f-RGD-Cur via the tail vein. These results indicate that Nap-GFFYG-RGD peptide self-assembled nanofibers are a promising hydrophobic drug delivery system for targeted treatment of cancer.

  5. Endosialin and Associated Protein Expression in Soft Tissue Sarcomas: A Potential Target for Anti-Endosialin Therapeutic Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. O’Shannessy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endosialin (CD248, TEM-1 is expressed in pericytes, tumor vasculature, tumor fibroblasts, and some tumor cells, including sarcomas, with limited normal tissue expression, and appears to play a key role in tumor-stromal interactions, including angiogenesis. Monoclonal antibodies targeting endosialin have entered clinical trials, including soft tissue sarcomas. We evaluated a cohort of 94 soft tissue sarcoma samples to assess the correlation between gene expression and protein expression by immunohistochemistry for endosialin and PDGFR-β, a reported interacting protein, across available diagnoses. Correlations between the expression of endosialin and 13 other genes of interest were also examined. Within cohorts of soft tissue diagnoses assembled by tissue type (liposarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, undifferentiated sarcoma, and other, endosialin expression was significantly correlated with a better outcome. Endosialin expression was highest in liposarcomas and lowest in leiomyosarcomas. A robust correlation between protein and gene expression data for both endosialin and PDGFR-β was observed. Endosialin expression positively correlated with PDGFR-β and heparin sulphate proteoglycan 2 and negatively correlated with carbonic anhydrase IX. Endosialin likely interacts with a network of extracellular and hypoxia activated proteins in sarcomas and other tumor types. Since expression does vary across histologic groups, endosialin may represent a selective target in soft tissue sarcomas.

  6. Assembly and characterization of a nonlinear optical microscopy for in vivo and ex vivo tissue imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratavieira, S.; Buzzá, H. H.; Jorge, A. E.; Grecco, C.; Pires, L.; Cosci, A.; Bagnato, V. S.; Kurachi, C.

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study is the assembly and characterization of a custom-made non-linear microscope. The microscope allows the adjustment for in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo imaging of biological samples. Two galvanometer mirrors conjugated by two spherical mirrors are used for the lateral scan and for the axial scan a piezoeletric stage is utilized. The excitation is done using a tunable femtosecond Ti: Sapphire laser. The light is focused in tissue by an objective lens 20X, water immersion, numerical aperture of 1.0, and working distance of 2.0 mm. The detection system is composed by a cut off filter that eliminates laser light back reflections and diverse dichroic filters can be chosen to split the emitted signal for the two photomultiplier detector. The calibration and resolution of the microscope was done using a stage micrometer with 10 μm divisions and fluorescent particle slide, respectively. Fluorescence and second harmonic generation images were performed using epithelial and hepatic tissue, the images have a sub-cellular spatial resolution. Further characterization and differentiation of tissue layers can be obtained by performing axial scanning. By means of the microscope it is possible to have a three dimensional reconstruction of tissues with sub-cellular resolution.

  7. Three-dimensional bioprinting using self-assembling scalable scaffold-free "tissue strands" as a new bioink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yin; Moncal, Kazim K; Li, Jianqiang; Peng, Weijie; Rivero, Iris; Martin, James A; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T

    2016-06-27

    Recent advances in bioprinting have granted tissue engineers the ability to assemble biomaterials, cells, and signaling molecules into anatomically relevant functional tissues or organ parts. Scaffold-free fabrication has recently attracted a great deal of interest due to the ability to recapitulate tissue biology by using self-assembly, which mimics the embryonic development process. Despite several attempts, bioprinting of scale-up tissues at clinically-relevant dimensions with closely recapitulated tissue biology and functionality is still a major roadblock. Here, we fabricate and engineer scaffold-free scalable tissue strands as a novel bioink material for robotic-assisted bioprinting technologies. Compare to 400 μm-thick tissue spheroids bioprinted in a liquid delivery medium into confining molds, near 8 cm-long tissue strands with rapid fusion and self-assemble capabilities are bioprinted in solid form for the first time without any need for a scaffold or a mold support or a liquid delivery medium, and facilitated native-like scale-up tissues. The prominent approach has been verified using cartilage strands as building units to bioprint articular cartilage tissue.

  8. Three-dimensional bioprinting using self-assembling scalable scaffold-free “tissue strands” as a new bioink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yin; Moncal, Kazim K.; Li, Jianqiang; Peng, Weijie; Rivero, Iris; Martin, James A.; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in bioprinting have granted tissue engineers the ability to assemble biomaterials, cells, and signaling molecules into anatomically relevant functional tissues or organ parts. Scaffold-free fabrication has recently attracted a great deal of interest due to the ability to recapitulate tissue biology by using self-assembly, which mimics the embryonic development process. Despite several attempts, bioprinting of scale-up tissues at clinically-relevant dimensions with closely recapitulated tissue biology and functionality is still a major roadblock. Here, we fabricate and engineer scaffold-free scalable tissue strands as a novel bioink material for robotic-assisted bioprinting technologies. Compare to 400 μm-thick tissue spheroids bioprinted in a liquid delivery medium into confining molds, near 8 cm-long tissue strands with rapid fusion and self-assemble capabilities are bioprinted in solid form for the first time without any need for a scaffold or a mold support or a liquid delivery medium, and facilitated native-like scale-up tissues. The prominent approach has been verified using cartilage strands as building units to bioprint articular cartilage tissue. PMID:27346373

  9. Transcriptome Assembly, Gene Annotation and Tissue Gene Expression Atlas of the Rainbow Trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Mohamed; Paneru, Bam; Al-Tobasei, Rafet; Abdouni, Fatima; Thorgaard, Gary H.; Rexroad, Caird E.; Yao, Jianbo

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to obtain a comprehensive genome sequence for rainbow trout are ongoing and will be complemented by transcriptome information that will enhance genome assembly and annotation. Previously, transcriptome reference sequences were reported using data from different sources. Although the previous work added a great wealth of sequences, a complete and well-annotated transcriptome is still needed. In addition, gene expression in different tissues was not completely addressed in the previous studies. In this study, non-normalized cDNA libraries were sequenced from 13 different tissues of a single doubled haploid rainbow trout from the same source used for the rainbow trout genome sequence. A total of ~1.167 billion paired-end reads were de novo assembled using the Trinity RNA-Seq assembler yielding 474,524 contigs > 500 base-pairs. Of them, 287,593 had homologies to the NCBI non-redundant protein database. The longest contig of each cluster was selected as a reference, yielding 44,990 representative contigs. A total of 4,146 contigs (9.2%), including 710 full-length sequences, did not match any mRNA sequences in the current rainbow trout genome reference. Mapping reads to the reference genome identified an additional 11,843 transcripts not annotated in the genome. A digital gene expression atlas revealed 7,678 housekeeping and 4,021 tissue-specific genes. Expression of about 16,000–32,000 genes (35–71% of the identified genes) accounted for basic and specialized functions of each tissue. White muscle and stomach had the least complex transcriptomes, with high percentages of their total mRNA contributed by a small number of genes. Brain, testis and intestine, in contrast, had complex transcriptomes, with a large numbers of genes involved in their expression patterns. This study provides comprehensive de novo transcriptome information that is suitable for functional and comparative genomics studies in rainbow trout, including annotation of the genome. PMID

  10. Analysis of the thermomechanical behavior of the IFMIF bayonet target assembly under design loading scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardi, D., E-mail: davide.bernardi@enea.it [ENEA Brasimone, Camugnano, BO (Italy); Arena, P.; Bongiovì, G.; Di Maio, P.A. [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Palermo (Italy); Frisoni, M. [ENEA Bologna, Via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, Bologna (Italy); Miccichè, G.; Serra, M. [ENEA Brasimone, Camugnano, BO (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    In the framework of the IFMIF Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (IFMIF/EVEDA) phase, ENEA is responsible for the design of the European concept of the IFMIF lithium target system which foresees the possibility to periodically replace only the most irradiated and thus critical component (i.e., the backplate) while continuing to operate the rest of the target for a longer period (the so-called bayonet backplate concept). In this work, the results of the steady state thermomechanical analysis of the IFMIF bayonet target assembly under two different design loading scenarios (a “hot” scenario and a “cold” scenario) are briefly reported highlighting the relevant indications obtained with respect to the fulfillment of the design requirements. In particular, the analyses have shown that in the hot scenario the temperatures reached in the target assembly are within the material acceptable limits while in the cold scenario transition below the ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT) cannot be excluded. Moreover, results indicate that the contact between backplate and high flux test module is avoided and that the overall structural integrity of the system is assured in both scenarios. However, stress linearization analysis reveals that ITER Structural Design Criteria for In-vessel Components (SDC-IC) design rules are not always met along the selected paths at backplate middle plane section in the hot scenario, thus suggesting the need of a revision of the backplate design or a change of the operating conditions.

  11. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition: An emerging target in tissue fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meirong; Luan, Fuxin; Zhao, Yali; Hao, Haojie; Zhou, Yong; Han, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in a variety of tissue fibroses. Fibroblasts/myofibroblasts derived from epithelial cells contribute to the excessive accumulation of fibrous connective tissue in damaged tissue, which can lead to permanent scarring or organ malfunction. Therefore, EMT-related fibrosis cannot be neglected. This review highlights the findings that demonstrate the EMT to be a direct contributor to the fibroblast/myofibroblast population in the development of tissue fibrosis and helps to elucidate EMT-related anti-fibrotic strategies, which may enable the development of therapeutic interventions to suppress EMT and potentially reverse organ fibrosis. PMID:26361988

  12. Egr3 dependent sympathetic target tissue innervation in the absence of neuron death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    Full Text Available Nerve Growth Factor (NGF is a target tissue derived neurotrophin required for normal sympathetic neuron survival and target tissue innervation. NGF signaling regulates gene expression in sympathetic neurons, which in turn mediates critical aspects of neuron survival, axon extension and terminal axon branching during sympathetic nervous system (SNS development. Egr3 is a transcription factor regulated by NGF signaling in sympathetic neurons that is essential for normal SNS development. Germline Egr3-deficient mice have physiologic dysautonomia characterized by apoptotic sympathetic neuron death and abnormal innervation to many target tissues. The extent to which sympathetic innervation abnormalities in the absence of Egr3 is caused by altered innervation or by neuron death during development is unknown. Using Bax-deficient mice to abrogate apoptotic sympathetic neuron death in vivo, we show that Egr3 has an essential role in target tissue innervation in the absence of neuron death. Sympathetic target tissue innervation is abnormal in many target tissues in the absence of neuron death, and like NGF, Egr3 also appears to effect target tissue innervation heterogeneously. In some tissues, such as heart, spleen, bowel, kidney, pineal gland and the eye, Egr3 is essential for normal innervation, whereas in other tissues such as lung, stomach, pancreas and liver, Egr3 appears to have little role in innervation. Moreover, in salivary glands and heart, two tissues where Egr3 has an essential role in sympathetic innervation, NGF and NT-3 are expressed normally in the absence of Egr3 indicating that abnormal target tissue innervation is not due to deregulation of these neurotrophins in target tissues. Taken together, these results clearly demonstrate a role for Egr3 in mediating sympathetic target tissue innervation that is independent of neuron survival or neurotrophin deregulation.

  13. Three-dimensional assembly of tissue-engineered cartilage constructs results in cartilaginous tissue formation without retainment of zonal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurman, W; Harimulyo, E B; Gawlitta, D; Woodfield, T B F; Dhert, W J A; van Weeren, P R; Malda, J

    2016-04-01

    Articular cartilage has limited regenerative capabilities. Chondrocytes from different layers of cartilage have specific properties, and regenerative approaches using zonal chondrocytes may yield better replication of the architecture of native cartilage than when using a single cell population. To obtain high seeding efficiency while still mimicking zonal architecture, cell pellets of expanded deep zone and superficial zone equine chondrocytes were seeded and cultured in two layers on poly(ethylene glycol)-terephthalate-poly(butylene terephthalate) (PEGT-PBT) scaffolds. Scaffolds seeded with cell pellets consisting of a 1:1 mixture of both cell sources served as controls. Parallel to this, pellets of superficial or deep zone chondrocytes, and combinations of the two cell populations, were cultured without the scaffold. Pellet cultures of zonal chondrocytes in scaffolds resulted in a high seeding efficiency and abundant cartilaginous tissue formation, containing collagen type II and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in all groups, irrespective of the donor (n = 3), zonal population or stratified scaffold-seeding approach used. However, whereas total GAG production was similar, the constructs retained significantly more GAG compared to pellet cultures, in which a high percentage of the produced GAGs were secreted into the culture medium. Immunohistochemistry for zonal markers did not show any differences between the conditions. We conclude that spatially defined pellet culture in 3D scaffolds is associated with high seeding efficiency and supports cartilaginous tissue formation, but did not result in the maintenance or restoration of the original zonal phenotype. The use of pellet-assembled constructs leads to a better retainment of newly produced GAGs than the use of pellet cultures alone. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Novel apigenin-loaded sodium hyaluronate nano-assemblies for targeting tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ting; He, Yue; Chen, Huali; Bai, Yan; Hu, Wenjing; Zhang, Liangke

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to construct a novel nano-assembly carrying apigenin (APG), a hydrophobic drug, and to evaluate its in vitro targeting ability for A549 cells overexpressing CD44 receptors. The apigenin-loaded sodium hyaluronate nano-assemblies (APG/SH-NAs) were assembled by multiple non-covalent interactions between sodium hyaluronate (SH) and APG. The prepared APG/SH-NAs exhibited a small average size and narrow particle size distribution. In addition, satisfactory encapsulation efficiency and drug loading were obtained. The drug release curves indicated that APG/SH-NAs achieved a sustainable drug-release effect due to the presence of hydrophilic materials. The in vitro cytotoxicity of APG/SH-NAs against A549 cells and HepG2 cells was evaluated, and the results indicated that the prepared APG/SH-NA showed higher cytotoxicity compared to apigenin suspensions. When CD44 receptors on the surface of A549 cells were blocked by the addition of excess SH, the cytotoxicity of APG/SH-NA was significantly reduced. However, similar phenomena were not observed in HepG2 cells with relatively low CD44 receptor expression. The resulting APG/SH-NAs could efficiently facilitate the internalization of APG into A549 cells, which might be due to their high affinity for CD44 receptors. Moreover, the apoptotic rate of APG/SH-NAs through receptor-mediated endocytosis mechanism was higher than that of the other groups in A549 cells. Thus, such nano-assemblies were considered to be an effective transport system with excellent affinity for CD44 receptors to allow the SH-mediated targeted delivery of APG. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Lipoproteins in Drosophila melanogaster—Assembly, Function, and Influence on Tissue Lipid Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Wilhelm; Sampaio, Julio L.; Brankatschk, Marko; Carvalho, Maria; Mahmoud, Ali; Shevchenko, Andrej; Eaton, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Interorgan lipid transport occurs via lipoproteins, and altered lipoprotein levels correlate with metabolic disease. However, precisely how lipoproteins affect tissue lipid composition has not been comprehensively analyzed. Here, we identify the major lipoproteins of Drosophila melanogaster and use genetics and mass spectrometry to study their assembly, interorgan trafficking, and influence on tissue lipids. The apoB-family lipoprotein Lipophorin (Lpp) is the major hemolymph lipid carrier. It is produced as a phospholipid-rich particle by the fat body, and its secretion requires Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein (MTP). Lpp acquires sterols and most diacylglycerol (DAG) at the gut via Lipid Transfer Particle (LTP), another fat body-derived apoB-family lipoprotein. The gut, like the fat body, is a lipogenic organ, incorporating both de novo–synthesized and dietary fatty acids into DAG for export. We identify distinct requirements for LTP and Lpp-dependent lipid mobilization in contributing to the neutral and polar lipid composition of the brain and wing imaginal disc. These studies define major routes of interorgan lipid transport in Drosophila and uncover surprising tissue-specific differences in lipoprotein lipid utilization. PMID:22844248

  16. The rapid manufacture of uniform composite multicellular-biomaterial micropellets, their assembly into macroscopic organized tissues, and potential applications in cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babur, Betul Kul; Kabiri, Mahboubeh; Klein, Travis Jacob; Lott, William B; Doran, Michael Robert

    2015-01-01

    We and others have published on the rapid manufacture of micropellet tissues, typically formed from 100-500 cells each. The micropellet geometry enhances cellular biological properties, and in many cases the micropellets can subsequently be utilized as building blocks to assemble complex macrotissues. Generally, micropellets are formed from cells alone, however when replicating matrix-rich tissues such as cartilage it would be ideal if matrix or biomaterials supplements could be incorporated directly into the micropellet during the manufacturing process. Herein we describe a method to efficiently incorporate donor cartilage matrix into tissue engineered cartilage micropellets. We lyophilized bovine cartilage matrix, and then shattered it into microscopic pieces having average dimensions manufacture of thousands of replica composite micropellets, with each micropellet having a material/CD core and a cellular surface. This micropellet organization enabled the rapid bulking up of the micropellet core matrix content, and left an adhesive cellular outer surface. This morphological organization enabled the ready assembly of the composite micropellets into macroscopic tissues. Generically, this is a versatile method that enables the rapid and uniform integration of biomaterials into multicellular micropellets that can then be used as tissue building blocks. In this study, the addition of CD resulted in an approximate 8-fold volume increase in the micropellets, with the donor matrix functioning to contribute to an increase in total cartilage matrix content. Composite micropellets were readily assembled into macroscopic cartilage tissues; the incorporation of CD enhanced tissue size and matrix content, but did not enhance chondrogenic gene expression.

  17. Layer-by-layer assembled multilayers and polymeric nanoparticles for drug delivery in tissue engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Sumit

    Tissues and organs in vivo are structured in three dimensional (3-D) ordered assemblies to maintain their metabolic functions. In the case of an injury, certain tissues lack the regenerative abilities without an external supportive environment. In order to regenerate the natural in vivo environment post-injury, there is a need to design three-dimensional (3-D) tissue engineered constructs of appropriate dimensions along with strategies that can deliver growth factors or drugs at a controlled rate from such constructs. This thesis focuses on the applications of hydrogen bonded (H-bonded) nanoscale layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled multilayers for time controlled drug delivery, fabrication of polymeric nanoparticles as drug delivery carriers, and engineering 3-D cellular constructs. Axonal regeneration in the central nervous system after spinal cord injury is often disorganized and random. To support linear axonal growth into spinal cord lesion sites, certain growth factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), needs to be delivered at a controlled rate from an array of uniaxial channels patterned in a scaffold. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that H-bonded LbL assembled degradable thin films prepared over agarose hydrogel, whereby the protein was loaded separately from the agarose fabrication, provided sustained release of protein under physiological conditions for more than four weeks. Further, patterned agarose scaffolds implanted at the site of a spinal cord injury forms a reactive cell layer of leptomeningeal fibroblasts in and around the scaffold. This limits the ability of axons to reinnervate the spinal cord. To address this challenge, we demonstrate the time controlled release of an anti-mitotic agent from agarose hydrdgel to control the growth of the reactive cell layer of fibroblasts. Challenges in tissue engineering can also be addressed using gene therapy approaches. Certain growth factors in the body are known to inhibit

  18. Origin of Serum Affects Quality of Engineered Tissues Produced by the Self-Assembly Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Chabaud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the emergence of serum-free media for cell culture, the use of serum to supplement the culture media is still essential in order to produce engineered urologic tissues using the self-assembly approach, not only for the stromal compartment but also for the uroepithelium. Effects of sera on thickness of these two compartments were measured and quality of the epithelial differentiation was evaluated. For bladder mucosa substitute reconstruction, the use of postnatal sera failed to produce an adequate uroepithelium whereas the fetal sera supplementation did. Postnatal sera also provided thinner stromal compartments than the one obtained using fetal sera, no matter if the fibroblasts from healthy or psoriatic donors were used to reconstruct human skin substitutes.

  19. 3D Normal Human Neural Progenitor Tissue-Like Assemblies: A Model of Persistent VZV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a neurotropic human alphaherpesvirus that causes varicella upon primary infection, establishes latency in multiple ganglionic neurons, and can reactivate to cause zoster. Live attenuated VZV vaccines are available; however, they can also establish latent infections and reactivate. Studies of VZV latency have been limited to the analyses of human ganglia removed at autopsy, as the virus is strictly a human pathogen. Recently, terminally differentiated human neurons have received much attention as a means to study the interaction between VZV and human neurons; however, the short life-span of these cells in culture has limited their application. Herein, we describe the construction of a model of normal human neural progenitor cells (NHNP) in tissue-like assemblies (TLAs), which can be successfully maintained for at least 180 days in three-dimensional (3D) culture, and exhibit an expression profile similar to that of human trigeminal ganglia. Infection of NHNP TLAs with cell-free VZV resulted in a persistent infection that was maintained for three months, during which the virus genome remained stable. Immediate-early, early and late VZV genes were transcribed, and low-levels of infectious VZV were recurrently detected in the culture supernatant. Our data suggest that NHNP TLAs are an effective system to investigate long-term interactions of VZV with complex assemblies of human neuronal cells.

  20. Assembly of Francisella novicida Cpf1 endonuclease in complex with guide RNA and target DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcón, Pablo; Montoya, Guillermo; Stella, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    a target DNA preceded by a 5'-TTN-3' protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM) complementary to the RNA guide. To obtain structural insight into the inner workings of Cpf1, the crystallization of an active complex containing the full extent of the crRNA and a 31-nucleotide dsDNA target was attempted. The gene...... encoding Cpf1 from Francisella novicida was cloned, overexpressed and purified. The crRNA was transcribed and purified in vitro. Finally, the ternary FnCpf1-crRNA-DNA complex was assembled and purified by preparative electrophoresis before crystallization. Crystals belonging to space group C2221, with unit...... into six types and 19 subtypes according to conservation of the cas gene and loci organization. Recently, a new protein with endonuclease activity belonging to class 2 type V has been identified. This endonuclease, termed Cpf1, in complex with a single CRISPR RNA (crRNA) is able to recognize and cleave...

  1. Self-assembled gelatin-ι-carrageenan encapsulation structures for intestinal-targeted release applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Mascaraque, Laura G; Llavata-Cabrero, Beatriz; Martínez-Sanz, Marta; Fabra, María José; López-Rubio, Amparo

    2018-02-01

    In this work, natural biopolymeric encapsulation structures were developed through the self-assembly of gelatin and ι-carrageenan in aqueous solutions. The interactions of this binary system and of a ternary system containing a polyphenol-rich extract were deeply explored for the development of intestinal delivery systems. The processing of the structures (extrusion vs. freeze-drying) greatly influenced release properties, explained by the specific interactions between gelatin and polyphenols, thus allowing for tuning the processing conditions depending on the desired target application. Release was further controlled by incorporating a divalent salt, giving raise to extract-loaded ι-carrageenan/gelatin capsules with adequate release profiles for intestinal targeted delivery. These results demonstrate the potential of exploiting biopolymer interactions for designing bioactive delivery systems using environmentally friendly processes which do not involve the use of toxic or harsh solvents or cross-linkers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Conceptual Design of Target Assembly System for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kye, Y. U.; Shin, S. G. [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Namkung, W.; Cho, M. H. [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Y. S. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    There are many type of accelerator based BNCT. Cyclotron based proton beam is high energy. But it has weakness about low current, severe target damage, and radioactivity problem. This research would be treat by LINAC based proton beam because LINAC based proton beam has high current and low energy. These point are possible to reduce treatment time. Therefore, patients don't have to irradiate at normal cell by neutron beam. Monte Carlo and thermal hydraulics simulation were conducted as neutron flux after moderator assembly, temperature distribution of beryllium target. General consensus is that an epithermal neutron fluence of about 1 x 10{sup 13} /cm{sup 2} is required for successful Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT). If epithermal neutron flux is 1 x 10{sup 10} /cm{sup 2}· sec, the neutron irradiation time would be necessary about 3 hours for therapy.

  3. Solid-Phase Bioconjugation of Heterobifunctional Adaptors for Versatile Assembly of Bispecific Targeting Ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput generation of bispecific molecules promises to expedite the discovery of new molecular therapeutics and guide engineering of novel multifunctional constructs. However, high synthesis complexity and cost have hampered the discovery of bispecific molecules in drug development and biomedical research. Herein we describe a simple solid-phase bioconjugation procedure for preparation of Protein A(G,L)-PEG-Streptavidin heterobifunctional adaptors (with 1:1:1 stoichiometry), which enable self-assembly of unmodified antibodies and biotinylated molecules into bispecific targeting ligands in a versatile mix-and-use manner. Utility of such adaptors is demonstrated by assembly of anti-CD3 and anti-Her2 antibodies into bispecific CD3xHer2 targeting ligands, which efficiently drive T-cell-mediated lysis of Her2-positive cancer cells. In comparison to bioconjugation in solution, the solid-phase procedure described here offers precise stoichiometry control, ease of purification, and high yield of functional conjugates. Simplicity and versatility should prove this methodology instrumental for preparation of bispecific ligands, as well as for high-throughput screening of bispecific combinations, before proceeding to synthesis of lead candidates via recombinant engineering or chemical cross-linking. PMID:25010411

  4. Chondroitin Sulfate- and Decorin-Based Self-Assembling Scaffolds for Cartilage Tissue Engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Recha-Sancho

    Full Text Available Cartilage injury and degenerative tissue progression remain poorly understood by the medical community. Therefore, various tissue engineering strategies aim to recover areas of damaged cartilage by using non-traditional approaches. To this end, the use of biomimetic scaffolds for recreating the complex in vivo cartilage microenvironment has become of increasing interest in the field. In the present study, we report the development of two novel biomaterials for cartilage tissue engineering (CTE with bioactive motifs, aiming to emulate the native cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM. We employed a simple mixture of the self-assembling peptide RAD16-I with either Chondroitin Sulfate (CS or Decorin molecules, taking advantage of the versatility of RAD16-I. After evaluating the structural stability of the bi-component scaffolds at a physiological pH, we characterized these materials using two different in vitro assessments: re-differentiation of human articular chondrocytes (AC and induction of human adipose derived stem cells (ADSC to a chondrogenic commitment. Interestingly, differences in cellular morphology and viability were observed between cell types and culture conditions (control and chondrogenic. In addition, both cell types underwent a chondrogenic commitment under inductive media conditions, and this did not occur under control conditions. Remarkably, the synthesis of important ECM constituents of mature cartilage, such as type II collagen and proteoglycans, was confirmed by gene and protein expression analyses and toluidine blue staining. Furthermore, the viscoelastic behavior of ADSC constructs after 4 weeks of culture was more similar to that of native articular cartilage than to that of AC constructs. Altogether, this comparative study between two cell types demonstrates the versatility of our novel biomaterials and suggests a potential 3D culture system suitable for promoting chondrogenic differentiation.

  5. Reconstruction of a human cornea by the self-assembly approach of tissue engineering using the three native cell types

    OpenAIRE

    Proulx, St?phanie; Uwamaliya, Jeanne d?Arc; Carrier, Patrick; Deschambeault, Alexandre; Audet, Caroline; Giasson, Claude J.; Gu?rin, Sylvain L.; Auger, Fran?ois A.; Germain, Lucie

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to produce and characterize human tissue-engineered corneas reconstructed using all three corneal cell types (epithelial, stromal, and endothelial cells) by the self-assembly approach. Methods Fibroblasts cultured in medium containing serum and ascorbic acid secreted their own extracellular matrix and formed sheets that were superposed to reconstruct a stromal tissue. Endothelial and epithelial cells were seeded on each side of the reconstructed stroma. A...

  6. Satellite-like Gold Nanocomposites for Targeted Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Tumor Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yu-Ting; Harroun, Scott G; Wu, Chien-Wei; Mao, Ju-Yi; Chang, Huan-Tsung; Huang, Chih-Ching

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a simple, rapid, high-throughput cancer diagnosis system using functional nanoparticles (NPs) consisting of poly(catechin) capped-gold NPs (Au@PC NPs) and smaller nucleolin-binding aptamer (AS1411) conjugated gold NPs (AS1411-Au NPs). The AS1411-Au NPs/Au@PC NP is used as a targeting agent in laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS)-based tumor tissue imaging. Self-assembled core-shell Au@PC NPs are synthesized by a simple reaction of tetrachloroaurate(III) with catechin. Au@PC NPs with a well-defined and dense poly(catechin) shell (~40-60 nm) on the surface of each Au core (~60-80 nm) are obtained through careful control of the ratio of catechin to gold ions, as well as the pH of the reaction solution. Furthermore, we have shown that AS1411-conjugated Au NPs (13-nm) self-assembled on Au@PC NP can from a satellite-like gold nanocomposite. The high density of AS1411-Au NPs on the surface of Au@PC NP enhances multivalent binding with nucleolin molecules on tumor cell membranes. We have employed LDI-MS to detect AS1411-Au NPs/Au@PC NPs labeled nucleolin-overexpressing MCF-7 breast cancer cells through the monitoring of Au cluster ions ([Au n ](+); 1 ≤ n ≤ 3). The ultrahigh signal amplification from Au NPs through the formation of a huge number of [Au n ](+) ions results in a sensing platform with a limit of detection of 100 MCF-7 cells mL(-1). Further, we have applied the satellite-like AS1411-Au NPs/Au@PC NP nanocomposite as a labeling agent for tumor tissue imaging by LDI-MS. Our nanocomposite-assisted LDI-MS imaging platform can be extended for simultaneous analysis of different tumor markers on cell membranes when using different ligand-modified metal nanoparticles.

  7. BMP-1/tolloid-like proteinases synchronize matrix assembly with growth factor activation to promote morphogenesis and tissue remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadon-Le Goff, Sandrine; Hulmes, David J S; Moali, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein-1 (BMP-1)/tolloid-like proteinases, here called BTPs, include the proteases originally identified for their roles in the C-terminal maturation of fibrillar procollagens ("procollagen C-proteinase"). Though numerous other substrates have since been discovered, the BTPs remain the main proteases involved in extracellular matrix assembly with little or no implication in matrix degradation. During the same period however, the BTPs have also become established as important proteases in the activation of growth factors, including TGF-β1, BMP-2/-4, GDF-8/-11 and IGFs, as well as the release of anti-angiogenic fragments from parent proteins. The BTPs are therefore key players in many pathophysiological processes such as morphogenesis, tissue repair and tumor progression. This mini-review summarizes our current knowledge of the functions of BTPs, their substrates and unusual mechanisms of regulation, and discusses their potential as new targets for future therapies. Copyright © 2015 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Rational design of bioactive, modularly assembled aminoglycosides targeting the RNA that causes myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs-Disney, Jessica L; Parkesh, Raman; Nakamori, Masayuki; Thornton, Charles A; Disney, Matthew D

    2012-12-21

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is caused when an expanded r(CUG) repeat (r(CUG)(exp)) binds the RNA splicing regulator muscleblind-like 1 protein (MBNL1) as well as other proteins. Previously, we reported that modularly assembled small molecules displaying a 6'-N-5-hexynoate kanamycin A RNA-binding module (K) on a peptoid backbone potently inhibit the binding of MBNL1 to r(CUG)(exp). However, these parent compounds are not appreciably active in cell-based models of DM1. The lack of potency was traced to suboptimal cellular permeability and localization. To improve these properties, second-generation compounds that are conjugated to a d-Arg(9) molecular transporter were synthesized. These modified compounds enter cells in higher concentrations than the parent compounds and are efficacious in cell-based DM1 model systems at low micromolar concentrations. In particular, they improve three defects that are the hallmarks of DM1: a translational defect due to nuclear retention of transcripts containing r(CUG)(exp); pre-mRNA splicing defects due to inactivation of MBNL1; and the formation of nuclear foci. The best compound in cell-based studies was tested in a mouse model of DM1. Modest improvement of pre-mRNA splicing defects was observed. These studies suggest that a modular assembly approach can afford bioactive compounds that target RNA.

  9. Gene Delivery Particle Engineering Strategies for Shape-dependent Targeting of Cells and Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozielski, Kristen L; Sitti, Metin

    2017-01-01

    Successful gene delivery requires overcoming both systemic and intracellular obstacles before the nucleic acid cargo can successfully reach its tissue and subcellular target location. Materials & Methods: Non-viral mechanisms to enable targeting while avoiding off-target delivery have arisen via biological, chemical, and physical engineering strategies. Herein we will discuss the physical parameters in particle design that promote tissue- and cell-targeted delivery of genetic cargo. We will discuss systemic concerns, such as circulation, tissue localization, and clearance, as well as cell-scale obstacles, such as cellular uptake and nucleic acid packaging. In particular, we will focus on engineering particle shape and size in order to enhance delivery and promote precise targeting. We will also address methods to program or change particle shape in situ using environmentally triggered cues. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Target and Tissue Selectivity Prediction by Integrated Mechanistic Pharmacokinetic-Target Binding and Quantitative Structure Activity Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlot, A.H.C.; Witte, de W.E.A.; Danhof, M.; Graaf, van der P.H.; Westen, van G.J.P.; Lange, de E.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Selectivity is an important attribute of effective and safe drugs, and prediction of in vivo target and tissue selectivity would likely improve drug development success rates. However, a lack of understanding of the underlying (pharmacological) mechanisms and availability of directly applicable

  11. Tissue-Specific Posttranslational Modification Allows Functional Targeting of Thyrotropin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Ikegami

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH; thyrotropin is a glycoprotein secreted from the pituitary gland. Pars distalis-derived TSH (PD-TSH stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones (THs, whereas pars tuberalis-derived TSH (PT-TSH acts on the hypothalamus to regulate seasonal physiology and behavior. However, it had not been clear how these two TSHs avoid functional crosstalk. Here, we show that this regulation is mediated by tissue-specific glycosylation. Although PT-TSH is released into the circulation, it does not stimulate the thyroid gland. PD-TSH is known to have sulfated biantennary N-glycans, and sulfated TSH is rapidly metabolized in the liver. In contrast, PT-TSH has sialylated multibranched N-glycans; in the circulation, it forms the macro-TSH complex with immunoglobulin or albumin, resulting in the loss of its bioactivity. Glycosylation is fundamental to a wide range of biological processes. This report demonstrates its involvement in preventing functional crosstalk of signaling molecules in the body.

  12. Small molecule inhibitors target the tissue transglutaminase and fibronectin interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhtiyor Yakubov

    Full Text Available Tissue transglutaminase (TG2 mediates protein crosslinking through generation of ε-(γ-glutamyl lysine isopeptide bonds and promotes cell adhesion through interaction with fibronectin (FN and integrins. Cell adhesion to the peritoneal matrix regulated by TG2 facilitates ovarian cancer dissemination. Therefore, disruption of the TG2-FN complex by small molecules may inhibit cell adhesion and metastasis. A novel high throughput screening (HTS assay based on AlphaLISA™ technology was developed to measure the formation of a complex between His-TG2 and the biotinylated FN fragment that binds TG2 and to discover small molecules that inhibit this protein-protein interaction. Several hits were identified from 10,000 compounds screened. The top candidates selected based on >70% inhibition of the TG2/FN complex formation were confirmed by using ELISA and bioassays measuring cell adhesion, migration, invasion, and proliferation. In conclusion, the AlphaLISA bead format assay measuring the TG2-FN interaction is robust and suitable for HTS of small molecules. One compound identified from the screen (TG53 potently inhibited ovarian cancer cell adhesion to FN, cell migration, and invasion and could be further developed as a potential inhibitor for ovarian cancer dissemination.

  13. Engineering on the straight and narrow: the mechanics of nanofibrous assemblies for fiber-reinforced tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauck, Robert L; Baker, Brendon M; Nerurkar, Nandan L; Burdick, Jason A; Li, Wan-Ju; Tuan, Rocky S; Elliott, Dawn M

    2009-06-01

    Tissue engineering of fibrous tissues of the musculoskeletal system represents a considerable challenge because of the complex architecture and mechanical properties of the component structures. Natural healing processes in these dense tissues are limited as a result of the mechanically challenging environment of the damaged tissue and the hypocellularity and avascular nature of the extracellular matrix. When healing does occur, the ordered structure of the native tissue is replaced with a disorganized fibrous scar with inferior mechanical properties, engendering sites that are prone to re-injury. To address the engineering of such tissues, we and others have adopted a structurally motivated approach based on organized nanofibrous assemblies. These scaffolds are composed of ultrafine polymeric fibers that can be fabricated in such a way to recreate the structural anisotropy typical of fiber-reinforced tissues. This straight-and-narrow topography not only provides tailored mechanical properties, but also serves as a 3D biomimetic micropattern for directed tissue formation. This review describes the underlying technology of nanofiber production and focuses specifically on the mechanical evaluation and theoretical modeling of these structures as it relates to native tissue structure and function. Applying the same mechanical framework for understanding native and engineered fiber-reinforced tissues provides a functional method for evaluating the utility and maturation of these unique engineered constructs. We further describe several case examples where these principles have been put to test, and discuss the remaining challenges and opportunities in forwarding this technology toward clinical implementation.

  14. Engineering on the Straight and Narrow: The Mechanics of Nanofibrous Assemblies for Fiber-Reinforced Tissue Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Brendon M.; Nerurkar, Nandan L.; Burdick, Jason A.; Li, Wan-Ju; Tuan, Rocky S.; Elliott, Dawn M.

    2009-01-01

    Tissue engineering of fibrous tissues of the musculoskeletal system represents a considerable challenge because of the complex architecture and mechanical properties of the component structures. Natural healing processes in these dense tissues are limited as a result of the mechanically challenging environment of the damaged tissue and the hypocellularity and avascular nature of the extracellular matrix. When healing does occur, the ordered structure of the native tissue is replaced with a disorganized fibrous scar with inferior mechanical properties, engendering sites that are prone to re-injury. To address the engineering of such tissues, we and others have adopted a structurally motivated approach based on organized nanofibrous assemblies. These scaffolds are composed of ultrafine polymeric fibers that can be fabricated in such a way to recreate the structural anisotropy typical of fiber-reinforced tissues. This straight-and-narrow topography not only provides tailored mechanical properties, but also serves as a 3D biomimetic micropattern for directed tissue formation. This review describes the underlying technology of nanofiber production and focuses specifically on the mechanical evaluation and theoretical modeling of these structures as it relates to native tissue structure and function. Applying the same mechanical framework for understanding native and engineered fiber-reinforced tissues provides a functional method for evaluating the utility and maturation of these unique engineered constructs. We further describe several case examples where these principles have been put to test, and discuss the remaining challenges and opportunities in forwarding this technology toward clinical implementation. PMID:19207040

  15. Assembly of Francisella novicida Cpf1 endonuclease in complex with guide RNA and target DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcón, Pablo; Montoya, Guillermo; Stella, Stefano

    2017-07-01

    Bacteria and archaea use the CRISPR-Cas system as an adaptive response against infection by foreign nucleic acids. Owing to its remarkable flexibility, this mechanism has been harnessed and adopted as a powerful tool for genome editing. The CRISPR-Cas system includes two classes that are subdivided into six types and 19 subtypes according to conservation of the cas gene and loci organization. Recently, a new protein with endonuclease activity belonging to class 2 type V has been identified. This endonuclease, termed Cpf1, in complex with a single CRISPR RNA (crRNA) is able to recognize and cleave a target DNA preceded by a 5'-TTN-3' protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM) complementary to the RNA guide. To obtain structural insight into the inner workings of Cpf1, the crystallization of an active complex containing the full extent of the crRNA and a 31-nucleotide dsDNA target was attempted. The gene encoding Cpf1 from Francisella novicida was cloned, overexpressed and purified. The crRNA was transcribed and purified in vitro. Finally, the ternary FnCpf1-crRNA-DNA complex was assembled and purified by preparative electrophoresis before crystallization. Crystals belonging to space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 85.2, b = 137.6, c = 320.5 Å, were obtained and subjected to preliminary diffraction experiments.

  16. Mechanism of Assembly of a Substrate Transfer Complex during Tail-anchored Protein Targeting*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gristick, Harry B.; Rome, Michael E.; Chartron, Justin W.; Rao, Meera; Hess, Sonja; Shan, Shu-ou; Clemons, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Tail-anchored (TA) proteins, defined as having a single transmembrane helix at their C terminus, are post-translationally targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane by the guided entry of TA proteins (GET) pathway. In yeast, the handover of TA substrates is mediated by the heterotetrameric Get4/Get5 complex (Get4/5), which tethers the co-chaperone Sgt2 to the targeting factor, the Get3 ATPase. Binding of Get4/5 to Get3 is critical for efficient TA targeting; however, questions remain about the formation of the Get3·Get4/5 complex. Here we report crystal structures of a Get3·Get4/5 complex from Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 2.8 and 6.0 Å that reveal a novel interface between Get3 and Get4 dominated by electrostatic interactions. Kinetic and mutational analyses strongly suggest that these structures represent an on-pathway intermediate that rapidly assembles and then rearranges to the final Get3·Get4/5 complex. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the Get3·Get4/5 complex is dominated by a single Get4/5 heterotetramer bound to one monomer of a Get3 dimer, uncovering an intriguing asymmetry in the Get4/5 heterotetramer upon Get3 binding. Ultrafast diffusion-limited electrostatically driven Get3·Get4/5 association enables Get4/5 to rapidly sample and capture Get3 at different stages of the GET pathway. PMID:26451041

  17. Immunological tumor destruction in a murine melanoma model by targeted LTalpha independent of secondary lymphoid tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrama, D.; Voigt, H.; Eggert, A.O.

    2008-01-01

    as demonstrated by in situ TRP-2/K(b) tetramer staining. Mechanistically, targeted LTalpha therapy seems to induce changes at the tumor site which allows a coordinated interaction of immune competent cells triggering the induction of tertiary lymphoid tissue. CONCLUSION: Thus, our data demonstrate that targeted......BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated that targeting lymphotoxin alpha (LTalpha) to the tumor evokes its immunological destruction in a syngeneic B16 melanoma model. Since treatment was associated with the induction of peritumoral tertiary lymphoid tissue, we speculated that the induced immune...... LTalpha promotes an accelerated immune response by enabling the priming of T cells at the tumor site Udgivelsesdato: 2008/1...

  18. Epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted lipid nanoparticles retain self-assembled nanostructures and provide high specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jiali; Scoble, Judith A.; Li, Nan; Lovrecz, George; Waddington, Lynne J.; Tran, Nhiem; Muir, Benjamin W.; Coia, Gregory; Kirby, Nigel; Drummond, Calum J.; Mulet, Xavier

    2015-02-01

    Next generation drug delivery utilising nanoparticles incorporates active targeting to specific sites. In this work, we combined targeting with the inherent advantages of self-assembled lipid nanoparticles containing internal nano-structures. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting, PEGylated lipid nanoparticles using phytantriol and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-PEG-maleimide amphiphiles were created. The self-assembled lipid nanoparticles presented here have internal lyotropic liquid crystalline nano-structures, verified by synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering and cryo-transmission electron microscopy, that offer the potential of high drug loading and enhanced cell penetration. Anti-EGFR Fab' fragments were conjugated to the surface of nanoparticles via a maleimide-thiol reaction at a high conjugation efficiency and retained specificity following conjugation to the nanoparticles. The conjugated nanoparticles were demonstrated to have high affinity for an EGFR target in a ligand binding assay.Next generation drug delivery utilising nanoparticles incorporates active targeting to specific sites. In this work, we combined targeting with the inherent advantages of self-assembled lipid nanoparticles containing internal nano-structures. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting, PEGylated lipid nanoparticles using phytantriol and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-PEG-maleimide amphiphiles were created. The self-assembled lipid nanoparticles presented here have internal lyotropic liquid crystalline nano-structures, verified by synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering and cryo-transmission electron microscopy, that offer the potential of high drug loading and enhanced cell penetration. Anti-EGFR Fab' fragments were conjugated to the surface of nanoparticles via a maleimide-thiol reaction at a high conjugation efficiency and retained specificity following conjugation to the nanoparticles. The conjugated nanoparticles

  19. Assembling a prototype resonance electrical impedance spectroscopy system for breast tissue signal detection: preliminary assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumkin, Jules; Zheng, Bin; Gruss, Michelle; Drescher, John; Leader, Joseph; Good, Walter; Lu, Amy; Cohen, Cathy; Shah, Ratan; Zuley, Margarita; Gur, David

    2008-03-01

    Using electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technology to detect breast abnormalities in general and cancer in particular has been attracting research interests for decades. Large clinical tests suggest that current EIS systems can achieve high specificity (>= 90%) at a relatively low sensitivity ranging from 15% to 35%. In this study, we explore a new resonance frequency based electrical impedance spectroscopy (REIS) technology to measure breast tissue EIS signals in vivo, which aims to be more sensitive to small tissue changes. Through collaboration between our imaging research group and a commercial company, a unique prototype REIS system has been assembled and preliminary signal acquisition has commenced. This REIS system has two detection probes mounted in the two ends of a Y-shape support device with probe separation of 60 mm. During REIS measurement, one probe touches the nipple and the other touches to an outer point of the breast. The electronic system continuously generates sweeps of multi-frequency electrical pulses ranging from 100 to 4100 kHz. The maximum electric voltage and the current applied to the probes are 1.5V and 30mA, respectively. Once a "record" command is entered, multi-frequency sweeps are recorded every 12 seconds until the program receives a "stop recording" command. In our imaging center, we have collected REIS measurements from 150 women under an IRB approved protocol. The database includes 58 biopsy cases, 78 screening negative cases, and other "recalled" cases (for additional imaging procedures). We measured eight signal features from the effective REIS sweep of each breast. We applied a multi-feature based artificial neural network (ANN) to classify between "biopsy" and normal "non-biopsy" breasts. The ANN performance is evaluated using a leave-one-out validation method and ROC analysis. We conducted two experiments. The first experiment attempted to classify 58 "biopsy" breasts and 58 "non-biopsy" breasts acquired on 58 women

  20. U50: A New Metric for Measuring Assembly Output Based on Non-Overlapping, Target-Specific Contigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Christina J; Ng, Terry Fei Fan

    2017-11-01

    Advances in next-generation sequencing technologies enable routine genome sequencing, generating millions of short reads. A crucial step for full genome analysis is the de novo assembly, and currently, performance of different assembly methods is measured by a metric called N50. However, the N50 value can produce skewed, inaccurate results when complex data are analyzed, especially for viral and microbial datasets. To provide a better assessment of assembly output, we developed a new metric called U50. The U50 identifies unique, target-specific contigs by using a reference genome as baseline, aiming at circumventing some limitations that are inherent to the N50 metric. Specifically, the U50 program removes overlapping sequence of multiple contigs by utilizing a mask array, so the performance of the assembly is only measured by unique contigs. We compared simulated and real datasets by using U50 and N50, and our results demonstrated that U50 has the following advantages over N50: (1) reducing erroneously large N50 values due to a poor assembly, (2) eliminating overinflated N50 values caused by large measurements from overlapping contigs, (3) eliminating diminished N50 values caused by an abundance of small contigs, and (4) allowing comparisons across different platforms or samples based on the new percentage-based metric UG50%. The use of the U50 metric allows for a more accurate measure of assembly performance by analyzing only the unique, non-overlapping contigs. In addition, most viral and microbial sequencing have high background noise (i.e., host and other non-targets), which contributes to having a skewed, misrepresented N50 value-this is corrected by U50. Also, the UG50% can be used to compare assembly results from different samples or studies, the cross-comparisons of which cannot be performed with N50.

  1. Identification and target prediction of miRNAs specifically expressed in rat neural tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu Kang

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a large group of RNAs that play important roles in regulating gene expression and protein translation. Several studies have indicated that some miRNAs are specifically expressed in human, mouse and zebrafish tissues. For example, miR-1 and miR-133 are specifically expressed in muscles. Tissue-specific miRNAs may have particular functions. Although previous studies have reported the presence of human, mouse and zebrafish tissue-specific miRNAs, there have been no detailed reports of rat tissue-specific miRNAs. In this study, Home-made rat miRNA microarrays which established in our previous study were used to investigate rat neural tissue-specific miRNAs, and mapped their target genes in rat tissues. This study will provide information for the functional analysis of these miRNAs. Results In order to obtain as complete a picture of specific miRNA expression in rat neural tissues as possible, customized miRNA microarrays with 152 selected miRNAs from miRBase were used to detect miRNA expression in 14 rat tissues. After a general clustering analysis, 14 rat tissues could be clearly classified into neural and non-neural tissues based on the obtained expression profiles with p values Conclusion Our work provides a global view of rat neural tissue-specific miRNA profiles and a target map of miRNAs, which is expected to contribute to future investigations of miRNA regulatory mechanisms in neural systems.

  2. De novo transcriptome assembly analysis of weed Apera spica-venti from seven tissues and growth stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babineau, Marielle; Mahmood, Khalid; Mathiassen, Solvejg K; Kudsk, Per; Kristensen, Michael

    2017-02-06

    Loose silky bentgrass (Apera spica-venti) is an important weed in Europe with a recent increase in herbicide resistance cases. The lack of genetic information about this noxious weed limits its biological understanding such as growth, reproduction, genetic variation, molecular ecology and metabolic herbicide resistance. This study produced a reference transcriptome for A. spica-venti from different tissues (leaf, root, stem) and various growth stages (seed at phenological stages 05, 07, 08, 09). The de novo assembly was performed on individual and combined dataset followed by functional annotations. Individual transcripts and gene families involved in metabolic based herbicide resistance were identified. Eight separate transcriptome assemblies were performed and compared. The combined transcriptome assembly consists of 83,349 contigs with an N50 and average contig length of 762 and 658 bp, respectively. This dataset contains 74,724 transcripts consisting of total 54,846,111 bp. Among them 94% had a homologue to UniProtKB, 73% retrieved a GO mapping, and 50% were functionally annotated. Compared with other grass species, A. spica-venti has 26% proteins in common to Brachypodium distachyon, and 41% to Lolium spp. Glycosyltransferases had the highest number of transcripts in each tissue followed by the cytochrome P450s. The GSTF1 and CYP89A2 transcripts were recovered from the majority of tissues and aligned at a maximum of 66 and 30% to proven herbicide resistant allele from Alopecurus myosuroides and Lolium rigidum, respectively. De novo transcriptome assembly enabled the generation of the first reference transcriptome of A. spica-venti. This can serve as stepping stone for understanding the metabolic herbicide resistance as well as the general biology of this problematic weed. Furthermore, this large-scale sequence data is a valuable scientific resource for comparative transcriptome analysis for Poaceae grasses.

  3. Targeting and assembly of components of the TOC protein import complex at the chloroplast outer envelope membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Lynn G L; Paila, Yamuna D; Siman, Steven R; Chen, Yi; Smith, Matthew D; Schnell, Danny J

    2014-01-01

    The translocon at the outer envelope membrane of chloroplasts (TOC) initiates the import of thousands of nuclear encoded preproteins required for chloroplast biogenesis and function. The multimeric TOC complex contains two GTP-regulated receptors, Toc34 and Toc159, which recognize the transit peptides of preproteins and initiate protein import through a β-barrel membrane channel, Toc75. Different isoforms of Toc34 and Toc159 assemble with Toc75 to form structurally and functionally diverse translocons, and the composition and levels of TOC translocons is required for the import of specific subsets of coordinately expressed proteins during plant growth and development. Consequently, the proper assembly of the TOC complexes is key to ensuring organelle homeostasis. This review will focus on our current knowledge of the targeting and assembly of TOC components to form functional translocons at the outer membrane. Our analyses reveal that the targeting of TOC components involves elements common to the targeting of other outer membrane proteins, but also include unique features that appear to have evolved to specifically facilitate assembly of the import apparatus.

  4. Targeting and Assembly of Components of the TOC Protein Import Complex at the Chloroplast Outer Envelope Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn G.L. Richardson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The translocon at the outer envelope membrane of chloroplasts (TOC initiates the import of thousands of nuclear encoded preproteins required for chloroplast biogenesis and function. The multimeric TOC complex contains two GTP-regulated receptors, Toc34 and Toc159, which recognize the transit peptides of preproteins and initiate protein import through a β–barrel membrane channel, Toc75. Different isoforms of Toc34 and Toc159 assemble with Toc75 to form structurally and functionally diverse translocons, and the composition and levels of TOC translocons is required for the import of specific subsets of coordinately expressed proteins during plant growth and development. Consequently, the proper assembly of the TOC complexes is key to ensuring organelle homeostasis. This review will focus on our current knowledge of the targeting and assembly of TOC components to form functional translocons at the outer membrane. Our analyses reveal that the targeting of TOC components involves elements common to the targeting of other outer membrane proteins, but also include unique features that appear to have evolved to specifically facilitate assembly of the import apparatus.

  5. Construction of a standard test assembly for controlled laser studies in tissues: preliminary study on human bone material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Franziska; Passow, Harald

    2008-02-01

    The aim of the study is the construction of a test assembly, which facilitates objective, comparative studies on the cutting performance of lasers in hard tissue. To ensure the applicability of our own construction for the reproducible performance of laser incisions in hard tissue, eleven freshly extracted blocks (2x1.5 cm2) of human bone were prepared with a Er,Cr:YSGG laser by using a handheld handpiece, respectively, using the constructed device for a standardized cutting. A total of 44 cuts were executed. The specimen were then histologically evaluated. The standard test assembly met the requirements concerning the provision of objective results. The findings of the histological evaluation prove the reproducibility of the results. The standard test assembly presented in this paper facilitates comparative studies of different laser systems by reducing subjective influence on the preparation to a minimum. The results of this preliminary study show that the precision of the guiding instrument for laser cutting reduces the error of cut width by 50-fold, from 50 to 1 microm.

  6. High-throughput extraction and quantification method for targeted metabolomics in murine tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukunft, Sven; Prehn, Cornelia; Röhring, Cornelia; Möller, Gabriele; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Adamski, Jerzy; Tokarz, Janina

    2018-01-01

    Global metabolomics analyses using body fluids provide valuable results for the understanding and prediction of diseases. However, the mechanism of a disease is often tissue-based and it is advantageous to analyze metabolomic changes directly in the tissue. Metabolomics from tissue samples faces many challenges like tissue collection, homogenization, and metabolite extraction. We aimed to establish a metabolite extraction protocol optimized for tissue metabolite quantification by the targeted metabolomics AbsoluteIDQ™ p180 Kit (Biocrates). The extraction method should be non-selective, applicable to different kinds and amounts of tissues, monophasic, reproducible, and amenable to high throughput. We quantified metabolites in samples of eleven murine tissues after extraction with three solvents (methanol, phosphate buffer, ethanol/phosphate buffer mixture) in two tissue to solvent ratios and analyzed the extraction yield, ionization efficiency, and reproducibility. We found methanol and ethanol/phosphate buffer to be superior to phosphate buffer in regard to extraction yield, reproducibility, and ionization efficiency for all metabolites measured. Phosphate buffer, however, outperformed both organic solvents for amino acids and biogenic amines but yielded unsatisfactory results for lipids. The observed matrix effects of tissue extracts were smaller or in a similar range compared to those of human plasma. We provide for each murine tissue type an optimized high-throughput metabolite extraction protocol, which yields the best results for extraction, reproducibility, and quantification of metabolites in the p180 kit. Although the performance of the extraction protocol was monitored by the p180 kit, the protocol can be applicable to other targeted metabolomics assays.

  7. Engineered cartilaginous tubes for tracheal tissue replacement via self-assembly and fusion of human mesenchymal stem cell constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikina, Anna D; Strobel, Hannah A; Lai, Bradley P; Rolle, Marsha W; Alsberg, Eben

    2015-06-01

    There is a critical need to engineer a neotrachea because currently there are no long-term treatments for tracheal stenoses affecting large portions of the airway. In this work, a modular tracheal tissue replacement strategy was developed. High-cell density, scaffold-free human mesenchymal stem cell-derived cartilaginous rings and tubes were successfully generated through employment of custom designed culture wells and a ring-to-tube assembly system. Furthermore, incorporation of transforming growth factor-β1-delivering gelatin microspheres into the engineered tissues enhanced chondrogenesis with regard to tissue size and matrix production and distribution in the ring- and tube-shaped constructs, as well as luminal rigidity of the tubes. Importantly, all engineered tissues had similar or improved biomechanical properties compared to rat tracheas, which suggests they could be transplanted into a small animal model for airway defects. The modular, bottom up approach used to grow stem cell-based cartilaginous tubes in this report is a promising platform to engineer complex organs (e.g., trachea), with control over tissue size and geometry, and has the potential to be used to generate autologous tissue implants for human clinical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Glycyrrhetinic acid-poly(ethylene glycol)-glycyrrhetinic acid tri-block conjugates based self-assembled micelles for hepatic targeted delivery of poorly water soluble drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fengbo; Xu, Ting; Liu, Chi; Chen, Can; Song, Xiangrong; Zheng, Yu; He, Gu

    2013-01-01

    The triblock 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid-poly(ethylene glycol)18β-glycyrrhetinic acid conjugates (GA-PEG-GA) based self-assembled micelles were synthesized and characterized by FTIR, NMR, transmission electron microscopy, and particle size analysis. The GA-PEG-GA conjugates having the critical micelle concentration of 6 × 10(-5) M were used to form nanosized micelles, with mean diameters of 159.21 ± 2.2 nm, and then paclitaxel (PTX) was incorporated into GA-PEG-GA micelles by self-assembly method. The physicochemical properties of the PTX loaded GA-PEG-GA micelles were evaluated including in vitro cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, drug release profile, and in vivo tissue distribution. The results demonstrate that the GA-PEG-GA micelles had low cytotoxicity and good ability of selectively delivering drug to hepatic cells in vitro and in vivo by the targeting moiety glycyrrhetinic acid. In conclusion, the GA-PEG-GA conjugates have potential medical applications for targeted delivery of poor soluble drug delivery.

  9. Site-targeted acoustic contrast agent detects molecular expression of tissue factor after balloon angioplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Christopher S.; Abendschein, Dana R.; Scherrer, David E.; Scott, Michael J.; Marsh, Jon N.; Wickline, Samuel A.; Lanza, Gregory M.

    2000-04-01

    Complex molecular signaling heralds the early stages of pathologies such as angiogenesis, inflammation, and cellular responses to mechanically damaged coronary arteries after balloon angioplasty. In previous studies, we have demonstrated acoustic enhancement of blood clot morphology with the use of a nongaseous, ligand-targeted acoustic nanoparticle emulsion delivered to areas of thrombosis both in vitro and in vivo. In this paper, we characterize the early expression of tissue factor which contributes to subsequent arterial restenosis. Tissue factor is a 42kd glycoprotein responsible for blood coagulation but also plays a well-described role in cancer metastasis, angiogenesis, and vascular restenosis. This study was designed to determine whether the targeted contrast agent could localize tissue factor expressed within the wall of balloon-injured arteries. Both carotid arteries of five pigs (20 kg) were injured using an 8 X 20 mm angioplasty balloon. The carotids were treated in situ with a perfluorocarbon nanoparticle emulsion covalently complexed to either specific anti-tissue factor polyclonal F(ab) fragments (treatment) or non-specific IgG F(ab) fragments (control). Intravascular ultrasound (30 MHz) images of the arteries were obtained before and after exposure to the emulsions. Tissue- factor targeted ultrasonic contrast agent acoustically enhanced the subintima and media at the site of balloon- induced injury compared with control contrast arteries (p less than 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the presence of increased tissue factor at the sites of acoustic enhancement. Binding of the targeted agents was demonstrated in vitro by scanning electron microscope images of cultured smooth muscle cells that constitutively express tissue factor. This study demonstrates the concept of molecular imaging and localization of carotid arteries' tissue factor in vivo using a new, nanoparticulate emulsion. Enhancement of the visualization of the molecular

  10. De novo Transcriptome Assembly of Chinese Kale and Global Expression Analysis of Genes Involved in Glucosinolate Metabolism in Multiple Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuanghua; Lei, Jianjun; Chen, Guoju; Chen, Hancai; Cao, Bihao; Chen, Changming

    2017-01-01

    Chinese kale, a vegetable of the cruciferous family, is a popular crop in southern China and Southeast Asia due to its high glucosinolate content and nutritional qualities. However, there is little research on the molecular genetics and genes involved in glucosinolate metabolism and its regulation in Chinese kale. In this study, we sequenced and characterized the transcriptomes and expression profiles of genes expressed in 11 tissues of Chinese kale. A total of 216 million 150-bp clean reads were generated using RNA-sequencing technology. From the sequences, 98,180 unigenes were assembled for the whole plant, and 49,582~98,423 unigenes were assembled for each tissue. Blast analysis indicated that a total of 80,688 (82.18%) unigenes exhibited similarity to known proteins. The functional annotation and classification tools used in this study suggested that genes principally expressed in Chinese kale, were mostly involved in fundamental processes, such as cellular and molecular functions, the signal transduction, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. The expression levels of all unigenes were analyzed in various tissues of Chinese kale. A large number of candidate genes involved in glucosinolate metabolism and its regulation were identified, and the expression patterns of these genes were analyzed. We found that most of the genes involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis were highly expressed in the root, petiole, and in senescent leaves. The expression patterns of ten glucosinolate biosynthetic genes from RNA-seq were validated by quantitative RT-PCR in different tissues. These results provided an initial and global overview of Chinese kale gene functions and expression activities in different tissues. PMID:28228764

  11. Vibrational characterization of self-assembling oligopeptides for tissue engineering on TiO 2 surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Foggia, M.; Taddei, P.; Fagnano, C.; Torreggiani, A.; Dettin, M.; Sanchez-Cortes, S.; Tinti, A.

    2009-04-01

    Four alternating polar/non-polar peptides derived from the self-assembling peptide EAK-16 (Ac-AEAKAEAKAEAKAEAK-NH 2) were examined in comparison with the EAK-16 parent form (peptide 1), both as-synthesised and after deposition on TiO 2. The peptides were studied for their possible use as biomimetic materials due to their auto-assembling properties and to the presence, in two of them, of the RGD sequence, an active modulator of cell adhesion. IR and Raman spectroscopies were used to investigate the influence of the amino acid substitutions in the sequence on the self-assembly before and after deposition on TiO 2. SERS spectroscopy was also used to elucidate the interaction with metal. As regards the as-synthesised peptides, basic amino acid substitution (K → O, peptide 2) or contemporaneous acid and basic substitution (E → D and K → O, peptide 3) did not induce significant conformational changes with respect to peptide 1: the prevailing structure was beta-sheet (about 70%). The insertion of the RGD sequence (peptide 4), induced a decrease in beta-sheet content (50%); the simultaneous scrambling of the sequence (peptide 5) made alfa-helix the prevailing structure. After deposition on TiO 2 all peptides showed that the interaction with the surface was mediated by carboxylate groups; peptides maintained a prevalent beta-sheet structure with slightly higher percentages for peptides 1 and 4 which proved to form a more ordered layer. In conclusion, the substitution of polar aminoacid residues influences the ability of self-assembling more than the insertion of the RGD sequence, while the scrambling of the sequence did not appreciably alter the peptide ability of self-assembling on TiO 2.

  12. A Monte Carlo study of composition effect of the target assembly entrance foil on the {sup 18}F radioisotope production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merouani, A.; El Khayati, N. [Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Mohammed V University, Rabat (Morocco); EL Ghayour, A.; Elalamy, H.; Zoubir, B. [Cyclopharma, Commune ouled saleh, Bouskoura, Casablanca (Morocco)

    2015-07-01

    In this work, a Monte Carlo simulation was performed to investigate the neutron generation in different materials of entrance foil to a target assembly for [{sup 18}F] FDG production. However, the aim is to study a materials that has, more or less, similar mechanical properties as the Havar{sup R} foil with less generation of secondary particles and without affecting, the yield of FDG production. (authors)

  13. Expression of protein-tyrosine phosphatases in the major insulin target tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norris, K; Norris, F; Kono, D H

    1997-01-01

    Protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are key regulators of the insulin receptor signal transduction pathway. We have performed a detailed analysis of PTP expression in the major human insulin target tissues or cells (liver, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and endothelial cells). To obtain...... a representative picture, all tissues were analyzed by PCR using three different primer sets corresponding to conserved regions of known PTPs. A total of 24 different PTPs were identified. A multiprobe RNase protection assay was developed to obtain a semiquantitative measure of the expression levels of selected...... PTPs. Surprisingly, PTP-LAR, previously suggested to be a major regulator of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase, was expressed in extremely low levels in skeletal muscle, whereas the related receptor-type PTP-sigma and PTP-alpha were expressed in relatively high levels in all four tissues. The low...

  14. Localized increase of tissue oxygen tension by magnetic targeted drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liong, Celine; Ortiz, Daniel; Ao-ieong, Eilleen; Navati, Mahantesh S.; Friedman, Joel M.; Cabrales, Pedro

    2014-07-01

    Hypoxia is the major hindrance to successful radiation therapy of tumors. Attempts to increase the oxygen (O2) tension (PO2) of tissue by delivering more O2 have been clinically disappointing, largely due to the way O2 is transported and released by the hemoglobin (Hb) within the red blood cells (RBCs). Systemic manipulation of O2 transport increases vascular resistance due to metabolic autoregulation of blood flow to prevent over oxygenation. This study investigates a new technology to increase O2 delivery to a target tissue by decreasing the Hb-O2 affinity of the blood circulating within the targeted tissue. As the Hb-O2 affinity decreases, the tissue PO2 to satisfy tissue O2 metabolic needs increases without increasing O2 delivery or extraction. Paramagnetic nanoparticles (PMNPs), synthetized using gadolinium oxide, were coated with the cell permeable Hb allosteric effector L35 (3,5-trichlorophenylureido-phenoxy-methylpropionic acid). L35 decreases Hb affinity for O2 and favors the release of O2. The L35-coated PMNPs (L35-PMNPs) were intravenously infused (10 mg kg-1) to hamsters instrumented with the dorsal window chamber model. A magnetic field of 3 mT was applied to localize the effects of the L35-PMNPs to the window chamber. Systemic O2 transport characteristics and microvascular tissue oxygenation were measured after administration of L35-PMNPs with and without magnetic field. The tissue PO2 in untreated control animals was 25.2 mmHg. L35-PMNPs without magnetic field decreased tissue PO2 to 23.4 mmHg, increased blood pressure, and reduced blood flow, largely due to systemic modification of Hb-O2 affinity. L35-PMNPs with magnetic field increased tissue PO2 to 27.9 mmHg, without systemic or microhemodynamic changes. These results indicate that localized modification of Hb-O2 affinity can increase PO2 of target tissue without affecting systemic O2 delivery or triggering O2 autoregulation mechanisms. This technology can be used to treat local hypoxia and to

  15. Drug-Induced Self-Assembly of Modified Albumins as Nano-theranostics for Tumor-Targeted Combination Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Wang, Xin; Wang, Chao; Feng, Liangzhu; Li, Yonggang; Liu, Zhuang

    2015-05-26

    Paclitaxel (PTX) can bind to human serum albumin (HSA) via hydrophobic interaction, forming Abraxane, which is a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved effective antitumor nanomedicine drug. Herein, the effective antitumor drug PTX is used to induce the self-assembly of HSA modified with either a photosensitizer chlorin e6 (Ce6), which at the same time serves as a chelating agent for Mn(2+) to enable magnetic resonance imaging, or acyclic Arg-Gly-Asp (cRGDyK) peptide that targets αvβ3-integrin overexpressed on tumor angiogenic endothelium. Two types of tumor-targeting theranostic nanoparticles are constructed, either by coassembly of both HSA-Ce6 and HSA-RGD simultaneously or by forming an HSA-Ce6@HSA-RGD core-shell structure, with the assistance of PTX-induced albumin aggregation. Such albumin-based nanoparticles on one hand could targetαvβ3-integrin, as evidenced by both in vitro and in vivo experiments, and on the other hand enable combined photodynamic/chemotherapy, which offers remarkably improved therapeutic efficacy to kill cancer in comparison to the respective monotherapies. Our work presents a new type of tumor-targeted multifunctional albumin-based nanoparticles by drug-induced self-assembly, which is a rather simple method without any sophisticated chemistry or materials engineering and is promising for multimodel imaging-guided combination therapy of cancer.

  16. Thermal infrared images to quantify thermal ablation effects of acid and base on target tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia (42-46°C, treatment of tumor tissue through elevated temperature, offers several advantages including high cost-effectiveness, highly targeted ablation and fewer side effects and hence higher safety level over traditional therapies such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recently, hyperthermia using heat release through exothermic acid-base neutralization comes into view owing to its relatively safe products of salt and water and highly confined ablation. However, lack of quantitative understanding of the spatial and temporal temperature profiles that are produced by simultaneous diffusion of liquid chemical and its chemical reaction within tumor tissue impedes the application of this method. This article is dedicated to quantify thermal ablation effects of acid and base both individually and as in neutralization via infrared captured thermal images. A theoretical model is used to approximate specific heat absorption rate (SAR based on experimental measurements that contrast two types of tissue, normal pork and pig liver. According to the computation, both pork and liver tissue has a higher ability in absorbing hydrochloric acid (HCl than sodium hydroxide, hence suggesting that a reduced dosage for HCl is appropriate in a surgery. The heating effect depends heavily on the properties of tissue types and amount of chemical reagents administered. Given thermal parameters such as SAR for different tissues, a computational model can be made in predicting temperature transitions which will be helpful in planning and optimizing surgical hyperthermia procedures.

  17. Thermal infrared images to quantify thermal ablation effects of acid and base on target tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ran, E-mail: jliubme@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: liuran@tsinghua.edu.cn; Liu, Jing, E-mail: jliubme@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: liuran@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Jia [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Hyperthermia (42-46°C), treatment of tumor tissue through elevated temperature, offers several advantages including high cost-effectiveness, highly targeted ablation and fewer side effects and hence higher safety level over traditional therapies such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recently, hyperthermia using heat release through exothermic acid-base neutralization comes into view owing to its relatively safe products of salt and water and highly confined ablation. However, lack of quantitative understanding of the spatial and temporal temperature profiles that are produced by simultaneous diffusion of liquid chemical and its chemical reaction within tumor tissue impedes the application of this method. This article is dedicated to quantify thermal ablation effects of acid and base both individually and as in neutralization via infrared captured thermal images. A theoretical model is used to approximate specific heat absorption rate (SAR) based on experimental measurements that contrast two types of tissue, normal pork and pig liver. According to the computation, both pork and liver tissue has a higher ability in absorbing hydrochloric acid (HCl) than sodium hydroxide, hence suggesting that a reduced dosage for HCl is appropriate in a surgery. The heating effect depends heavily on the properties of tissue types and amount of chemical reagents administered. Given thermal parameters such as SAR for different tissues, a computational model can be made in predicting temperature transitions which will be helpful in planning and optimizing surgical hyperthermia procedures.

  18. Thermal infrared images to quantify thermal ablation effects of acid and base on target tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ran; Wang, Jia; Liu, Jing

    2015-07-01

    Hyperthermia (42-46°C), treatment of tumor tissue through elevated temperature, offers several advantages including high cost-effectiveness, highly targeted ablation and fewer side effects and hence higher safety level over traditional therapies such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recently, hyperthermia using heat release through exothermic acid-base neutralization comes into view owing to its relatively safe products of salt and water and highly confined ablation. However, lack of quantitative understanding of the spatial and temporal temperature profiles that are produced by simultaneous diffusion of liquid chemical and its chemical reaction within tumor tissue impedes the application of this method. This article is dedicated to quantify thermal ablation effects of acid and base both individually and as in neutralization via infrared captured thermal images. A theoretical model is used to approximate specific heat absorption rate (SAR) based on experimental measurements that contrast two types of tissue, normal pork and pig liver. According to the computation, both pork and liver tissue has a higher ability in absorbing hydrochloric acid (HCl) than sodium hydroxide, hence suggesting that a reduced dosage for HCl is appropriate in a surgery. The heating effect depends heavily on the properties of tissue types and amount of chemical reagents administered. Given thermal parameters such as SAR for different tissues, a computational model can be made in predicting temperature transitions which will be helpful in planning and optimizing surgical hyperthermia procedures.

  19. Evaluating Statistical Targets for Assembling Parallel Mixed-Format Test Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debeer, Dries; Ali, Usama S.; van Rijn, Peter W.

    2017-01-01

    Test assembly is the process of selecting items from an item pool to form one or more new test forms. Often new test forms are constructed to be parallel with an existing (or an ideal) test. Within the context of item response theory, the test information function (TIF) or the test characteristic curve (TCC) are commonly used as statistical…

  20. Ablation of the spindle assembly checkpoint by a compound targeting Mps1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, M.; Budirahardja, Y.; Klompmaker, R.; Medema, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint ensures accurate chromosome segregation by delaying anaphase initiation until all chromosomes are properly attached to the mitotic spindle. Here, we show that the previously reported c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125 effectively disrupts spindle

  1. Tetrameric far-red fluorescent protein as a scaffold to assemble an octavalent peptide nanoprobe for enhanced tumor targeting and intracellular uptake in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Haiming; Yang, Jie; Jin, Honglin; Huang, Chuan; Fu, Jianwei; Yang, Fei; Gong, Hui; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming; Zhang, Zhihong

    2011-06-01

    Relatively weak tumor affinities and short retention time in vivo hinder the application of targeting peptides in tumor molecular imaging. Multivalent strategies based on various scaffolds have been utilized to improve the ability of peptide-receptor binding or extend the clearance time of peptide-based probes. Here, we use a tetrameric far-red fluorescent protein (tfRFP) as a scaffold to create a self-assembled octavalent peptide fluorescent nanoprobe (Octa-FNP) using a genetic engineering approach. The multiligand connecting, fluorophore labeling and nanostructure formation of Octa-FNP were performed in one step. In vitro studies showed Octa-FNP is a 10-nm fluorescent probe with excellent serum stability. Cellular uptake of Octa-FNP by human nasopharyngeal cancer 5-8F cells is 15-fold of tetravalent probe, ∼80-fold of monovalent probe and ∼600-fold of nulvalent tfRFP. In vivo enhanced tumor targeting and intracellular uptake of Octa-FNP were confirmed using optical imaging and Western blot analysis. It achieved extremely high contrast of Octa-FNP signal between tumor tissue and normal organs, especially seldom Octa-FNP detected in liver and spleen. Owing to easy preparation, precise structural and functional control, and multivalent effect, Octa-FNP provides a powerful tool for tumor optical molecular imaging and evaluating the targeting ability of numerous peptides in vivo.

  2. Endothelial cells assemble into a 3-dimensional prevascular network in a bone tissue engineering construct

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouwkema, Jeroen; de Boer, Jan; van Blitterswijk, Clemens

    2006-01-01

    To engineer tissues with clinically relevant dimensions, one must overcome the challenge of rapidly creating functional blood vessels to supply cells with oxygen and nutrients and to remove waste products. We tested the hypothesis that endothelial cells, cocultured with osteoprogenitor cells, can

  3. New bioactive motifs and their use in functionalized self-assembling peptides for NSC differentiation and neural tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelain, F.; Cigognini, D.; Caprini, A.; Silva, D.; Colleoni, B.; Donegá, M.; Antonini, S.; Cohen, B. E.; Vescovi, A.

    2012-04-01

    Developing functionalized biomaterials for enhancing transplanted cell engraftment in vivo and stimulating the regeneration of injured tissues requires a multi-disciplinary approach customized for the tissue to be regenerated. In particular, nervous tissue engineering may take a great advantage from the discovery of novel functional motifs fostering transplanted stem cell engraftment and nervous fiber regeneration. Using phage display technology we have discovered new peptide sequences that bind to murine neural stem cell (NSC)-derived neural precursor cells (NPCs), and promote their viability and differentiation in vitro when linked to LDLK12 self-assembling peptide (SAPeptide). We characterized the newly functionalized LDLK12 SAPeptides via atomic force microscopy, circular dichroism and rheology, obtaining nanostructured hydrogels that support human and murine NSC proliferation and differentiation in vitro. One functionalized SAPeptide (Ac-FAQ), showing the highest stem cell viability and neural differentiation in vitro, was finally tested in acute contusive spinal cord injury in rats, where it fostered nervous tissue regrowth and improved locomotor recovery. Interestingly, animals treated with the non-functionalized LDLK12 had an axon sprouting/regeneration intermediate between Ac-FAQ-treated animals and controls. These results suggest that hydrogels functionalized with phage-derived peptides may constitute promising biomimetic scaffolds for in vitro NSC differentiation, as well as regenerative therapy of the injured nervous system. Moreover, this multi-disciplinary approach can be used to customize SAPeptides for other specific tissue engineering applications.Developing functionalized biomaterials for enhancing transplanted cell engraftment in vivo and stimulating the regeneration of injured tissues requires a multi-disciplinary approach customized for the tissue to be regenerated. In particular, nervous tissue engineering may take a great advantage from the

  4. Paramyxovirus Infection Mimics In Vivo Cellular Dynamics in Three-Demensional Human Bronchio-Epithelial Tissue-Like Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deatly, Anne M.; Lin, Yen-Huei; McCarthy, Maureen; Chen, Wei; Miller, Lynn Z.; Quiroz, Jorge; Nowak, Becky M.; Lerch, Robert A.; Udem, Stephen A.; Goodwin, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus cause severe respiratory disease, especially in infants, children and the elderly. An in vitro model that accurately mimics infection of the human respiratory epithelium (HRE) would facilitate vaccine development greatly. Monolayer cultures traditionally used to study these viruses do not accurately and precisely differentiate the replication efficiencies of wild type and attenuated viruses. Therefore, we engineered novel three-dimensional (3D) tissue-like assemblies (TLAs) of human broncho-epithelial (HBE) cells to produce a more physiologically relevant in vitro model of the HRE. TLAs resemble HRE structurally and by expression of differentiated epithelial cell markers. Most significantly, wild type viruses exhibited a clear growth advantage over attenuated strains in TLAs unlike monolayer cultures. In addition, the TLAs responded to virus infection by secreting pro-inflammatory mediators similar to the respiratory epithelia of infected children. These characteristics make the TLA model a valuable platform technology to develop and evaluate live, attenuated respiratory virus vaccine candidates for human use. Respiratory virus diseases, the most frequent and least preventable of all infectious diseases, range in severity from the common cold to severe bronchiolitis and pneumonia . Two paramyxoviruses, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3), are responsible for a majority of the most severe respiratory diseases of infants and young children. RSV causes 70% of all bronchiolitis cases and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in infants. PIV3 causes 10-15% of bronchiolitis and pneumonia during infancy, second only to RSV, and 40% of croup in infants To date, licensed vaccines are not available to prevent these respiratory diseases. At present, traditional monkey kidney (Vero and LLC-MK2) and human (HEp-2) tissue culture cells and small animal models (mouse

  5. Clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic target attainment of pazufloxacin in prostate tissue: Dosing considerations for prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kogenta; Ikawa, Kazuro; Nishikawa, Genya; Kobayashi, Ikuo; Narushima, Masahiro; Muramatsu, Hiroyuki; Morinaga, Shingo; Kajikawa, Keishi; Kato, Yoshiharu; Watanabe, Masahito; Zennami, Kenji; Kanao, Kent; Morikawa, Norifumi; Sumitomo, Makoto

    2017-12-01

    The present study examined the clinical pharmacokinetics of pazufloxacin in prostate tissue and estimated the probability of target attainment for tissue-specific pharmacodynamic goals related to treating prostatitis using various intravenous dosing regimens. Patients with prostatic hypertrophy received prophylactic infusions of pazufloxacin (500 mg, n = 23; 1000 mg, n = 25) for 0.5 h prior to transurethral prostate resection. Drug concentrations in plasma (0.5-5 h) and prostate tissue (0.5-1.5 h) were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and used for subsequent noncompartmental and three-compartmental analysis. Monte Carlo simulation was performed to evaluate the probability of target attainment of a specific minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in prostate tissue: the proportion that achieved both area under the drug concentration over time curve (AUC)/MIC = 100 and maximum concentration (Cmax)/MIC = 8. Prostatic penetration of pazufloxacin was good with mean Cmax ratios (prostate tissue/plasma) of 0.82-0.99 and for AUC, 0.80-0.98. The probability of reaching target MIC concentrations in prostate tissue was more than 90% for dosing schedules of 0.25 mg/L for 500 mg every 24 h (500 mg daily), 0.5 mg/L for 500 mg every 12 h (1000 mg daily), 1 mg/L for 1000 mg every 24 h (1000 mg daily), and 2 mg/L for 1000 mg every 12 h (2000 mg daily). Importantly, the 2000 mg daily regimen of pazufloxacin produced a profile sufficient to have an antibacterial effect in prostate tissue against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia with MIC values less than 2 mg/L. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The importance of surrounding tissues and window settings for contouring of moving targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borm, Kai Joachim [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Medical School, Munich (Germany); Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Oechsner, Markus; Berndt, Johannes; Combs, Stephanie Elisabeth; Molls, Michael; Duma, Marciana Nona [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    The aim of the study was to assess the importance of surrounding tissues for the delineation of moving targets in tissue-specific phantoms and to find optimal settings for lung, soft tissue, and liver tumors. Tumor movement was simulated by a water-filled table tennis ball (target volume, TV). Three phantoms were created: corkboards to simulate lung tissue (lung phantom, LunPh), animal fat as fatty soft tissue (fatty tissue phantom, FatPh), and water enhanced with contrast medium as the liver tissue (liver phantom, LivPh). Slow planning three-dimensional compute tomography images (3D-CTs) were acquired with and without phantom movements. One-dimensional tumor movement (1D), three-dimensional tumor movement (3D), as well as a real patient's tumor trajectories were simulated. The TV was contoured using two lung window settings, two soft-tissue window settings, and one liver window setting. The volumes were compared to mathematical calculated values. TVs were underestimated in all phantoms due to movement. The use of soft-tissue windows in the LivPh led to a significantunderestimation of the TV (70.8 % of calculated TV). When common window settings [LunPh + 200 HU/-1,000 HU (upper window/lower window threshold); FatPh: + 240 HU/-120 HU; LivPh: + 175 HU/+ 50 HU] were used, the contoured TVs were: LivPh, 84.0 %; LunPh, 93.2 %, and FatPh, 92.8 %. The lower window threshold had a significant impact on the size of the delineated TV, whereas changes of the upper threshold led only to small differences. The decisive factor for window settings is the lower window threshold (for adequate TV delineation in the lung and fatty-soft tissue it should be lower than density values of surrounding tissue). The use of a liver window should be considered. (orig.) [German] Das Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, den Einfluss des umgebenden Gewebes auf die Konturierung bewegter Objekte zu untersuchen. Um die optimalen CT-Fensterungen fuer Lungen-, Weichteil- und Lebertumoren zu bestimmen

  7. Bioorthogonal SERS Nanoprobes for Mulitplex Spectroscopic Detection, Tumor Cell Targeting, and Tissue Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junzhou; Liang, Duanwei; Jin, Qingqing; Liu, Jie; Zheng, Meiling; Duan, Xuanming; Tang, Xinjing

    2015-09-07

    A surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique shows extraordinary features for a range of biological and biomedical applications. Herein, a series of novel bioorthogonal SERS nanoprobes were constructed with Gold nanoflower (AuNF) and Raman reporters, the signals of which were located in a Raman-silent region of biological samples. AS1411 aptamer was also co-conjugated with AuNF through a self-assembled monolayer coverage strategy. Multiplex SERS imaging using these nanoprobes with three different bioorthogonal small-molecule Raman reporters is successfully achieved with high multiplexing capacity in a biologically Raman-silent region. These Raman nanoprobes co-conjugated with AS1411 showed high affinity for tumor cells with overexpressed nucleolin and can be used for selective tumor cell screening and tissue imaging. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. In situ assembly states of (Na+,K+)-pump ATPase in human erythrocytes. Radiation target size analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hah, J; Goldinger, J M; Jung, C Y

    1985-11-15

    The in situ assembly state of the (Na+,K+)-pump ATPase of human erythrocytes was studied by applying the classical target theory to radiation inactivation data of the ouabain-sensitive sodium efflux and ATP hydrolysis. Erythrocytes and their extensively washed white ghosts were irradiated at -45 to -50 degrees C with an increasing dose of 1.5-MeV electron beam, and after thawing, the Na+-pump flux and/or enzyme activities were assayed. Each activity measured was reduced as a simple exponential function of radiation dose, from which a radiation sensitive mass (target size) was calculated. When intact cells were used, the target sizes for the pump and for the ATPase activities were equal and approximately 620,000 daltons. The target size for the ATPase activity was reduced to approximately 320,000 daltons if the cells were pretreated with digitoxigenin. When ghosts were used, the target size for the ATPase activity was again approximately 320,000 daltons. Our target size measurements together with other information available in literature suggest that (Na+,K+)-pump ATPase may exist in human erythrocytes either as a tetramer of alpha beta or as a dimer of alpha beta in tight association with other protein mass, probably certain glycolytic enzymes, and that this tetrameric or heterocomplex association is dissociable by digitoxigenin treatment or by extensive wash during ghost preparation.

  9. In Vitro and In Vivo Efficacy of Self-Assembling RGD Peptide Amphiphiles for Targeted Delivery of Paclitaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraf, Poonam; Li, Xiaoling; Wrischnik, Lisa; Jasti, Bhaskara

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this work was to compare the efficacy of self-assembling cyclic and linear RGD peptide amphiphiles as carriers for delivering paclitaxel to αvβ3 integrin overexpressing tumors. Linear (C18-ADA5-RGD) and cyclic (C18-ADA5-cRGDfK) peptide amphiphiles were synthesized and characterized for CMC, aggregation number and micelle stability using fluorescence spectroscopy methods. Size and morphology of micelles was studied using TEM. Fluorescence polarization and confocal microscopy assays were established to compare binding and internalization of micelles. The targeting efficacy was studied in A2058 cells using cytotoxicity assay as well as in vivo in melanoma xenograft mouse model. The linear and cyclic RGD amphiphiles exhibited CMC of 25 and 8 μM, respectively, formed nano-sized spherical micelles and showed competitive binding to αvβ3 integrin protein. FITC-loaded RGD micelles rapidly internalized into A2058 melanoma cells. Paclitaxel-loaded RGD micelles exhibited higher cytotoxicity compared with free drug in A2058 cells in vitro as well as in vivo. Cyclic RGD micelles exhibited better targeting efficacy but were less effective compared to linear RGD micelles as drug delivery vehicle due to lower drug solubilization capacity and lesser kinetic stability. Results from the study proved the effectiveness of self-assembling low molecular weight RGD amphiphiles as carriers for targeted delivery of paclitaxel.

  10. Reconstruction of a human cornea by the self-assembly approach of tissue engineering using the three native cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Stéphanie; d'Arc Uwamaliya, Jeanne; Carrier, Patrick; Deschambeault, Alexandre; Audet, Caroline; Giasson, Claude J; Guérin, Sylvain L; Auger, François A; Germain, Lucie

    2010-10-29

    The purpose of this study was to produce and characterize human tissue-engineered corneas reconstructed using all three corneal cell types (epithelial, stromal, and endothelial cells) by the self-assembly approach. Fibroblasts cultured in medium containing serum and ascorbic acid secreted their own extracellular matrix and formed sheets that were superposed to reconstruct a stromal tissue. Endothelial and epithelial cells were seeded on each side of the reconstructed stroma. After culturing at the air-liquid interface, the engineered corneas were fixed for histology and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Immunofluorescence labeling of epithelial keratins, basement membrane components, Na+/K+-ATPase α1, and collagen type I was also performed. Epithelial and endothelial cells adhered to the reconstructed stroma. After 10 days at the air-liquid interface, the corneal epithelial cells stratified (4 to 5 cell layers) and differentiated into well defined basal and wing cells that also expressed Na+/K+-ATPase α1 protein, keratin 3/12, and basic keratins. Basal epithelial cells from the reconstructed epithelium formed many hemidesmosomes and secreted a well defined basement membrane rich in laminin V and collagen VII. Endothelial cells formed a monolayer of tightly-packed cells and also expressed the function related protein Na+/K+-ATPase α1. This study demonstrates the feasibility of producing a complete tissue-engineered human cornea, similar to native corneas, using untransformed fibroblasts, epithelial and endothelial cells, without the need for exogenous biomaterial.

  11. aTRAM - automated target restricted assembly method: a fast method for assembling loci across divergent taxa from next-generation sequencing data

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Julie M; Huang, Daisie I; Cronk, Quentin C; Johnson, Kevin P

    2015-01-01

    Background Assembling genes from next-generation sequencing data is not only time consuming but computationally difficult, particularly for taxa without a closely related reference genome. Assembling even a draft genome using de novo approaches can take days, even on a powerful computer, and these assemblies typically require data from a variety of genomic libraries. Here we describe software that will alleviate these issues by rapidly assembling genes from distantly related taxa using a sing...

  12. Efficient targeting of fatty-acid modified oligonucleotides to live cell membranes through stepwise assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, Tejal; Gartner, Zev; Weber, RJ; Liang, Si; Selden, NS; Desai, TA; Gartner, ZJ

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 American Chemical Society.Lipid modifications provide efficient targeting of oligonucleotides to live cell membranes in a range of applications. Targeting efficiency is a function of the rate of lipid DNA insertion into the cell surface and its pers

  13. Microscale sample deposition onto hydrophobic target plates for trace level detection of neuropeptides in brain tissue by MALDI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hui; Dean, Stacey L; Parkin, Mark C; Nolkrantz, Kerstin; O'Callaghan, James P; Kennedy, Robert T

    2005-10-01

    A sample preparation method that combines a modified target plate with a nanoscale reversed-phase column (nanocolumn) was developed for detection of neuropeptides by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). A gold-coated MALDI plate was modified with an octadecanethiol (ODT) self-assembled monolayer to create a hydrophobic surface that could concentrate peptide samples into a approximately 200-500-microm diameter spot. The spot sizes generated were comparable to those obtained for a substrate patterned with 200-microm hydrophilic spots on a hydrophobic substrate. The sample spots on the ODT-coated plate were 100-fold smaller than those formed on an unmodified gold plate with a 1-microl sample and generated 10 to 50 times higher mass sensitivity for peptide standards by MALDI-TOF MS. When the sample was deposited on an ODT-modified plate from a nanocolumn, the detection limit for peptides was as low as 20 pM for 5-microl samples corresponding to 80 amol deposited. This technique was used to analyze extracts of microwave-fixed tissue from rat brain striatum. Ninety-eight putative peptides were detected including several that had masses matching neuropeptides expected in this brain region such as substance P, rimorphin, and neurotensin. Twenty-three peptides had masses that matched peaks detected by capillary liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization MS. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Fluorescent polymeric assemblies as stimuli-responsive vehicles for drug controlled release and cell/tissue imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ying; Li, Yang; Yu, Shirong; Mao, Jie; Liu, Cheng; Li, Qi; Yuan, Conghui; He, Ning; Luo, Weiang; Dai, Lizong

    2015-01-16

    Polymer assemblies with good biocompatibility, stimuli-responsive properties and clinical imaging capability are desirable carriers for future biomedical applications. Herein, we report on the synthesis of a novel anthracenecarboxaldehyde-decorated poly(N-(4-aminophenyl) methacryl amide-oligoethyleneglycolmonomethylether methacrylate) (P(MAAPAC-MAAP-MAPEG)) copolymer, comprising fluorescent chromophore and acid-labile moiety. This copolymer can assemble into micelles in aqueous solution and shows a spherical shape with well-defined particle size and narrow particle size distribution. The pH-responsive property of the micelles has been evaluated by the change of particle size and the controlled release of guest molecules. The intrinsic fluorescence property endows the micelles with excellent cell/tissue imaging capability. Cell viability evaluation with human hepatocellular carcinoma BEL-7402 cells demonstrates that the micelles are nontoxic. The cellular uptake of the micelles indicates a time-dependent behavior. The H22-tumor bearing mice treated with the micelles clearly exhibits the tumor accumulation. These multi-functional nanocarriers may be of great interest in the application of drug delivery.

  15. Enzyme sensitive smart inulin-dehydropeptide conjugate self-assembles into nanostructures useful for targeted delivery of ornidazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivhare, Kriti; Garg, Charu; Priyam, Ayushi; Gupta, Alka; Sharma, Ashwani Kumar; Kumar, Pradeep

    2018-01-01

    Molecular self-assembly of biodegradable amphiphilic polymers allows rational design of biocompatible nanomaterials for drug delivery. Use of substituted polysaccharides for such applications offers the ease of design and synthesis, and provides higher biofunctionality and biocompatibility to nanomaterials. The present work focuses on the synthesis, characterization and potential biomedical applications of self-assembled polysaccharide-based materials. We demonstrated that the synthesized amphiphilic inulin self-assembled in aqueous medium into nanostructures with average size in the range of 146-486nm and encapsulated hydrophobic therapeutic molecule, ornidazole. Hydrophophic dehydropeptide was conjugated with inulin via a biocompatible ester linkage. Dehydrophenylalanine, an unusual amino acid, was incorporated in the peptide to make it stable at a broader range of pH as well as against proteases. The resulting core-shell type of nanostructures could encapsulate ornidazole in the hydrophobic core and released it in a controlled fashion. By taking the advantage of inulin, which gets degraded in the colon by colonic bacteria, the effect of enzyme, inulinase, present in the microflora of the large intestine, on inulin-peptide degradation followed by drug release has been studied. Altogether, small peptide conjugated to inulin offers novel scaffold for the future design of nanostructures with potential applications in the field of targeted drug delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Relative binding affinity of carboxylate-, phosphonate-, and bisphosphonate-functionalized gold nanoparticles targeted to damaged bone tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Ryan D. [Rush University Medical Center, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology (United States); Cole, Lisa E.; Roeder, Ryan K., E-mail: rroeder@nd.edu [University of Notre Dame, Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering Bioengineering Graduate Program (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Functionalized Au NPs have received considerable recent interest for targeting and labeling cells and tissues. Damaged bone tissue can be targeted by functionalizing Au NPs with molecules exhibiting affinity for calcium. Therefore, the relative binding affinity of Au NPs surface functionalized with either carboxylate (l-glutamic acid), phosphonate (2-aminoethylphosphonic acid), or bisphosphonate (alendronate) was investigated for targeted labeling of damaged bone tissue in vitro. Targeted labeling of damaged bone tissue was qualitatively verified by visual observation and backscattered electron microscopy, and quantitatively measured by the surface density of Au NPs using field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The surface density of functionalized Au NPs was significantly greater within damaged tissue compared to undamaged tissue for each functional group. Bisphosphonate-functionalized Au NPs exhibited a greater surface density labeling damaged tissue compared to glutamic acid- and phosphonic acid-functionalized Au NPs, which was consistent with the results of previous work comparing the binding affinity of the same functionalized Au NPs to synthetic hydroxyapatite crystals. Targeted labeling was enabled not only by the functional groups but also by the colloidal stability in solution. Functionalized Au NPs were stabilized by the presence of the functional groups, and were shown to remain well dispersed in ionic (phosphate buffered saline) and serum (fetal bovine serum) solutions for up to 1 week. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that bisphosphonate-functionalized Au NPs have potential for targeted delivery to damaged bone tissue in vitro and provide motivation for in vivo investigation.

  17. Target guided synthesis using DNA nano-templates for selectively assembling a G-quadruplex binding c-MYC inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Deepanjan; Saha, Puja; Das, Tania; Dash, Jyotirmayee

    2017-07-01

    The development of small molecules is essential to modulate the cellular functions of biological targets in living system. Target Guided Synthesis (TGS) approaches have been used for the identification of potent small molecules for biological targets. We herein demonstrate an innovative example of TGS using DNA nano-templates that promote Huisgen cycloaddition from an array of azide and alkyne fragments. A G-quadruplex and a control duplex DNA nano-template have been prepared by assembling the DNA structures on gold-coated magnetic nanoparticles. The DNA nano-templates facilitate the regioselective formation of 1,4-substituted triazole products, which are easily isolated by magnetic decantation. The G-quadruplex nano-template can be easily recovered and reused for five reaction cycles. The major triazole product, generated by the G-quadruplex inhibits c-MYC expression by directly targeting the c-MYC promoter G-quadruplex. This work highlights that the nano-TGS approach may serve as a valuable strategy to generate target-selective ligands for drug discovery.

  18. MegaGTA: a sensitive and accurate metagenomic gene-targeted assembler using iterative de Bruijn graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dinghua; Huang, Yukun; Leung, Chi-Ming; Luo, Ruibang; Ting, Hing-Fung; Lam, Tak-Wah

    2017-10-16

    The recent release of the gene-targeted metagenomics assembler Xander has demonstrated that using the trained Hidden Markov Model (HMM) to guide the traversal of de Bruijn graph gives obvious advantage over other assembly methods. Xander, as a pilot study, indeed has a lot of room for improvement. Apart from its slow speed, Xander uses only 1 k-mer size for graph construction and whatever choice of k will compromise either sensitivity or accuracy. Xander uses a Bloom-filter representation of de Bruijn graph to achieve a lower memory footprint. Bloom filters bring in false positives, and it is not clear how this would impact the quality of assembly. Xander does not keep track of the multiplicity of k-mers, which would have been an effective way to differentiate between erroneous k-mers and correct k-mers. In this paper, we present a new gene-targeted assembler MegaGTA, which attempts to improve Xander in different aspects. Quality-wise, it utilizes iterative de Bruijn graphs to take full advantage of multiple k-mer sizes to make the best of both sensitivity and accuracy. Computation-wise, it employs succinct de Bruijn graphs (SdBG) to achieve low memory footprint and high speed (the latter is benefited from a highly efficient parallel algorithm for constructing SdBG). Unlike Bloom filters, an SdBG is an exact representation of a de Bruijn graph. It enables MegaGTA to avoid false-positive contigs and to easily incorporate the multiplicity of k-mers for building better HMM model. We have compared MegaGTA and Xander on an HMP-defined mock metagenomic dataset, and showed that MegaGTA excelled in both sensitivity and accuracy. On a large rhizosphere soil metagenomic sample (327Gbp), MegaGTA produced 9.7-19.3% more contigs than Xander, and these contigs were assigned to 10-25% more gene references. In our experiments, MegaGTA, depending on the number of k-mers used, is two to ten times faster than Xander. MegaGTA improves on the algorithm of Xander and achieves higher

  19. Assembly of Francisella novicida Cpf1 endonuclease in complex with guide RNA and target DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcón, Pablo; Montoya, Guillermo; Stella, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Bacteria and archaea use the CRISPR-Cas system as an adaptive response against infection by foreign nucleic acids. Owing to its remarkable flexibility, this mechanism has been harnessed and adopted as a powerful tool for genome editing. The CRISPR-Cas system includes two classes that are subdivided...... encoding Cpf1 from Francisella novicida was cloned, overexpressed and purified. The crRNA was transcribed and purified in vitro. Finally, the ternary FnCpf1-crRNA-DNA complex was assembled and purified by preparative electrophoresis before crystallization. Crystals belonging to space group C2221, with unit...

  20. Role of the HIV-1 Matrix Protein in Gag Intracellular Trafficking and Targeting to the Plasma Membrane for Virus Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruba H Ghanam

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 encodes a polypeptide called Gag that is able to form virus-like particles (VLPs in vitro in the absence of any cellular or viral constituents. During the late phase of the HIV-1 infection, Gag polyproteins are transported to the plasma membrane (PM for assembly. In the past two decades, in vivo, in vitro and structural studies have shown that Gag trafficking and targeting to the PM are orchestrated events that are dependent on multiple factors including cellular proteins and specific membrane lipids. The matrix (MA domain of Gag has been the focus of these studies as it appears to be engaged in multiple intracellular interactions that are suggested to be critical for virus assembly and replication. The interaction between Gag and the PM is perhaps the most understood. It is now established that the ultimate localization of Gag on punctate sites on the PM is mediated by specific interactions between the MA domain of Gag and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5P2, a minor lipid localized on the inner leaflet of the PM. Structure-based studies revealed that binding of PI(4,5P2 to MA induces minor conformational changes, leading to exposure of the myristyl (myr group. Exposure of the myr group is also triggered by binding of calmodulin, enhanced by factors that promote protein self-association like the capsid domain of Gag, and is modulated by pH. Despite the steady progress in defining both the viral and cellular determinants of retroviral assembly and release, Gag’s intracellular interactions and trafficking to its assembly sites in the infected cell are poorly understood. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the structural and functional role of MA in HIV replication.

  1. Kidney tissue targeted metabolic profiling of unilateral ureteral obstruction rats by NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Yu Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Renal interstitial fibrosis is a common pathological process in the progression of kidney disease. A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR based metabolomic approach was used to analyze the kidney tissues of rats with renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF, induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO. The combination of a variety of statistical methods were used to screen out 14 significantly changed potential metabolites, which are related with multiple biochemical processes including amino acid metabolism, adenine metabolism, energy metabolism, osmolyte change and induced oxidative stress. The exploration of the contralateral kidneys enhanced the understanding of the disease, which was also supported by serum biochemistry and kidney histopathology results. In addition, the pathological parameters (clinical chemistry, histological and immunohistochemistry results were correlated with the significantly changed differential metabolites related with RIF. This study showed that targeted tissue metabolomic analysis can be used as a useful tool to understand the mechanism of the disease and provide a novel insight in the pathogenesis of RIF.

  2. Statistical use of argonaute expression and RISC assembly in microRNA target identification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A Stanhope

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs posttranscriptionally regulate targeted messenger RNAs (mRNAs by inducing cleavage or otherwise repressing their translation. We address the problem of detecting m/miRNA targeting relationships in homo sapiens from microarray data by developing statistical models that are motivated by the biological mechanisms used by miRNAs. The focus of our modeling is the construction, activity, and mediation of RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs competent for targeted mRNA cleavage. We demonstrate that regression models accommodating RISC abundance and controlling for other mediating factors fit the expression profiles of known target pairs substantially better than models based on m/miRNA expressions alone, and lead to verifications of computational target pair predictions that are more sensitive than those based on marginal expression levels. Because our models are fully independent of exogenous results from sequence-based computational methods, they are appropriate for use as either a primary or secondary source of information regarding m/miRNA target pair relationships, especially in conjunction with high-throughput expression studies.

  3. Peripheral CLOCK Regulates Target-Tissue Glucocorticoid Receptor Transcriptional Activity in a Circadian Fashion in Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charmandari, Evangelia; Chrousos, George P.; Lambrou, George I.; Pavlaki, Aikaterini; Koide, Hisashi; Ng, Sinnie Sin Man; Kino, Tomoshige

    2011-01-01

    Context and Objective Circulating cortisol fluctuates diurnally under the control of the “master” circadian CLOCK, while the peripheral “slave” counterpart of the latter regulates the transcriptional activity of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) at local glucocorticoid target tissues through acetylation. In this manuscript, we studied the effect of CLOCK-mediated GR acetylation on the sensitivity of peripheral tissues to glucocorticoids in humans. Design and Participants We examined GR acetylation and mRNA expression of GR, CLOCK-related and glucocorticoid-responsive genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained at 8 am and 8 pm from 10 healthy subjects, as well as in PBMCs obtained in the morning and cultured for 24 hours with exposure to 3-hour hydrocortisone pulses every 6 hours. We used EBV-transformed lymphocytes (EBVLs) as non-synchronized controls. Results GR acetylation was higher in the morning than in the evening in PBMCs, mirroring the fluctuations of circulating cortisol in reverse phase. All known glucocorticoid-responsive genes tested responded as expected to hydrocortisone in non-synchronized EBVLs, however, some of these genes did not show the expected diurnal mRNA fluctuations in PBMCs in vivo. Instead, their mRNA oscillated in a Clock- and a GR acetylation-dependent fashion in naturally synchronized PBMCs cultured ex vivo in the absence of the endogenous glucocorticoid, suggesting that circulating cortisol might prevent circadian GR acetylation-dependent effects in some glucocorticoid-responsive genes in vivo. Conclusions Peripheral CLOCK-mediated circadian acetylation of the human GR may function as a target-tissue, gene-specific counter regulatory mechanism to the actions of diurnally fluctuating cortisol, effectively decreasing tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids in the morning and increasing it at night. PMID:21980503

  4. Peripheral CLOCK regulates target-tissue glucocorticoid receptor transcriptional activity in a circadian fashion in man.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia Charmandari

    Full Text Available Circulating cortisol fluctuates diurnally under the control of the "master" circadian CLOCK, while the peripheral "slave" counterpart of the latter regulates the transcriptional activity of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR at local glucocorticoid target tissues through acetylation. In this manuscript, we studied the effect of CLOCK-mediated GR acetylation on the sensitivity of peripheral tissues to glucocorticoids in humans.We examined GR acetylation and mRNA expression of GR, CLOCK-related and glucocorticoid-responsive genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs obtained at 8 am and 8 pm from 10 healthy subjects, as well as in PBMCs obtained in the morning and cultured for 24 hours with exposure to 3-hour hydrocortisone pulses every 6 hours. We used EBV-transformed lymphocytes (EBVLs as non-synchronized controls.GR acetylation was higher in the morning than in the evening in PBMCs, mirroring the fluctuations of circulating cortisol in reverse phase. All known glucocorticoid-responsive genes tested responded as expected to hydrocortisone in non-synchronized EBVLs, however, some of these genes did not show the expected diurnal mRNA fluctuations in PBMCs in vivo. Instead, their mRNA oscillated in a Clock- and a GR acetylation-dependent fashion in naturally synchronized PBMCs cultured ex vivo in the absence of the endogenous glucocorticoid, suggesting that circulating cortisol might prevent circadian GR acetylation-dependent effects in some glucocorticoid-responsive genes in vivo.Peripheral CLOCK-mediated circadian acetylation of the human GR may function as a target-tissue, gene-specific counter regulatory mechanism to the actions of diurnally fluctuating cortisol, effectively decreasing tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids in the morning and increasing it at night.

  5. Targeted hepatocellular carcinoma therapy: transferrin modified, self-assembled polymeric nanomedicine for co-delivery of cisplatin and doxorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoran; Li, Jinxiu; Yan, Meixing

    2016-10-01

    Targeted hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) therapy was carried out to improve the efficacy of liver cancers. The aim of this study was to develop transferrin (Tf) modified, self-assembled polymeric nanoparticles for co-delivery doxorubicin (DOX) and cisplatin (DDP), to achieve combination tumor therapy. Tf modified polyethylene glycol (PEG) containing DOX prodrug (Tf-PEG-DOX) was synthesized. DDP containing poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) materials (PLGA-DDP) were prepared. Tf modified DOX and DDP loaded PLGA nanoparticles (Tf-DOX/DDP NPs) were prepared by using nanoprecipitation method. The particles sizes, zeta potentials, drug loading effects were characterized. The cytotoxicity of the NPs was evaluated in human hepatoma carcinoma cell lines (HepG2 cells), and in vivo anti-tumor was observed in mice bearing human HepG2 cells model. Tf-DOX/DDP NPs displayed higher cytotoxicity and enhanced antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo over their non-modified and single drug loaded counterparts. Tf-DOX/DDP NPs can achieve outstanding anti-tumor activity due to the combination effect of two drugs and the active targeting ability of Tf ligands. The self-assembled polymeric nanomedicine could act as an efficient therapy method for HCC treatment.

  6. Target detect system in 3D using vision apply on plant reproduction by tissue culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez Rueda, Martin G.; Hahn, Federico

    2001-03-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results for a system in tree dimension that use a system vision to manipulate plants in a tissue culture process. The system is able to estimate the position of the plant in the work area, first calculate the position and send information to the mechanical system, and recalculate the position again, and if it is necessary, repositioning the mechanical system, using an neural system to improve the location of the plant. The system use only the system vision to sense the position and control loop using a neural system to detect the target and positioning the mechanical system, the results are compared with an open loop system.

  7. Albendazole sulphoxide enantiomeric ratios in plasma and target tissues after intravenous administration of ricobendazole to cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofol, C; Virkel, G; Alvarez, L; Sánchez, S; Arboix, M; Lanusse, C

    2001-04-01

    The comparative concentration profiles of the (+) and (-) albendazole sulphoxide (ABZSO) enantiomers obtained in plasma and in selected target tissues/fluids after intravenous (i.v.) administration of a racemic formulation of ricobendazole (RBZ) to cattle were characterised. Fourteen Holstein calves received RBZ (racemic solution, 150 mg/mL) by i.v. administration at 7.5 mg/kg. Jugular blood samples were collected over 48 h post-treatment (plasma kinetic trial) and two animals were sacrificed at either 4, 12, 20, 28 or 32 h post-treatment to obtain samples of abomasal/small intestine mucosal tissue, abomasal/small intestine fluids, bile, liver and lung tissue (tissue distribution study). The (-)ABZSO enantiomer was depleted significantly faster from plasma compared with the (+)ABZSO antipode. The plasma AUC for (+)ABZSO (38.3 microg. h/mL) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared with that obtained for (-)ABZSO (20.5 microg. h/mL). The (+)ABZSO enantiomer was the predominant antipode measured in bile, abomasal fluid and abomasal mucosa. For instance, at 12 h post-treatment the (+)/(-) concentration ratios were: 12.9 (plasma), 1.62 (abomasal mucosa), 13.0 (abomasal fluid), 2.92 (intestinal mucosa), 9.87 (intestinal fluid) and 21.5 (bile). No marked differences between the concentration profiles of both enantiomers were observed in the liver tissue. Albendazole (ABZ) was recovered from the liver, lung and gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal tissues of RBZ-treated calves up to 32 h post-treatment, probably produced by a GI microflora-mediated sulphoreduction of RBZ. An enantioselective kinetic behaviour may account both for the faster depletion of the (-) enantiomer and for the higher availabilities of the (+) antipode observed in plasma and in most of the tissues/fluids investigated. The simultaneous evaluation of the plasma kinetics and tissue concentration profiles of both enantiomeric forms reported here, may help to interpret the relationship between chiral

  8. Diannexin protects against renal ischemia reperfusion injury and targets phosphatidylserines in ischemic tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley E Wever

    Full Text Available Renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI frequently complicates shock, renal transplantation and cardiac and aortic surgery, and has prognostic significance. The translocation of phosphatidylserines to cell surfaces is an important pro-inflammatory signal for cell-stress after IRI. We hypothesized that shielding of exposed phosphatidylserines by the annexin A5 (ANXA5 homodimer Diannexin protects against renal IRI. Protective effects of Diannexin on the kidney were studied in a mouse model of mild renal IRI. Diannexin treatment before renal IRI decreased proximal tubule damage and leukocyte influx, decreased transcription and expression of renal injury markers Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin and Kidney Injury Molecule-1 and improved renal function. A mouse model of ischemic hind limb exercise was used to assess Diannexin biodistribution and targeting. When comparing its biodistribution and elimination to ANXA5, Diannexin was found to have a distinct distribution pattern and longer blood half-life. Diannexin targeted specifically to the ischemic muscle and its affinity exceeded that of ANXA5. Targeting of both proteins was inhibited by pre-treatment with unlabeled ANXA5, suggesting that Diannexin targets specifically to ischemic tissues via phosphatidylserine-binding. This study emphasizes the importance of phosphatidylserine translocation in the pathophysiology of IRI. We show for the first time that Diannexin protects against renal IRI, making it a promising therapeutic tool to prevent IRI in a clinical setting. Our results indicate that Diannexin is a potential new imaging agent for the study of phosphatidylserine-exposing organs in vivo.

  9. Identification of vitamin D3 target genes in human breast cancer tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Lei; Anderson, Paul H; Turner, Andrew G; Pishas, Kathleen I; Dhatrak, Deepak J; Gill, Peter G; Morris, Howard A; Callen, David F

    2016-11-01

    Multiple epidemiological studies have shown that high vitamin D3 status is strongly associated with improved breast cancer survival. To determine the molecular pathways influenced by 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) in breast epithelial cells we isolated RNA from normal human breast and cancer tissues treated with 1,25D in an ex vivo explant system. RNA-Seq revealed 523 genes that were differentially expressed in breast cancer tissues in response to 1,25D treatment, and 127 genes with altered expression in normal breast tissues. GoSeq KEGG pathway analysis revealed 1,25D down-regulated cellular metabolic pathways and enriched pathways involved with intercellular adhesion. The highly 1,25D up-regulated target genes CLMN, SERPINB1, EFTUD1, and KLK6were selected for further analysis and up-regulation by 1,25D was confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis in breast cancer cell lines and in a subset of human clinical samples from normal and cancer breast tissues. Ketoconazole potentiated 1,25D-mediated induction of CLMN, SERPINB1, and KLK6 mRNA through inhibition of 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) activity. Elevated expression levels of CLMN, SERPINB1, and KLK6 are associated with prolonged relapse-free survival for breast cancer patients. The major finding of the present study is that exposure of both normal and malignant breast tissue to 1,25D results in changes in cellular adhesion, metabolic pathways and tumor suppressor-like pathways, which support epidemiological data suggesting that adequate vitamin D3 levels may improve breast cancer outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Improved and targeted delivery of bioactive molecules to cells with magnetic layer-by-layer assembled microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Anton M; Gabriel, Samantha A; Sukhorukov, Gleb B; Gould, David J

    2015-06-07

    Despite our increasing knowledge of cell biology and the recognition of an increasing repertoire of druggable intracellular therapeutic targets, there remain a limited number of approaches to deliver bioactive molecules to cells and even fewer that enable targeted delivery. Layer-by-layer (LbL) microcapsules are assembled using alternate layers of oppositely charged molecules and are potential cell delivery vehicles for applications in nanomedicine. There are a wide variety of charged molecules that can be included in the microcapsule structure including metal nanoparticles that introduce physical attributes. Delivery of bioactive molecules to cells with LbL microcapsules has recently been demonstrated, so in this study we explore the delivery of bioactive molecules (luciferase enzyme and plasmid DNA) to cells using biodegradable microcapsules containing a layer of magnetite nanoparticles. Interestingly, significantly improved intracellular luciferase enzyme activity (25 fold) and increased transfection efficiency with plasmid DNA (3.4 fold) was observed with magnetic microcapsules. The use of a neodymium magnet enabled efficient targeting of magnetic microcapsules which further improved the delivery efficiency of the cargoes as a consequence of increased microcapsule concentration at the magnetic site. Microcapsules were well tolerated by cells in these experiments and only displayed signs of toxicity at a capsule : cell ratio of 100 : 1 and with extended exposure. These studies illustrate how multi-functionalization of LbL microcapsules can improve and target delivery of bioactive molecules to cells.

  11. Design of the Fifth-Generation Target-Moderator-Reflector-Shield Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowicki, Suzanne Florence [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mocko, Michal [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-16

    The facilities at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center are described first. The target is being redesigned so that the Flight Paths (FP) in the upper tier provide a higher intensity in the epithermal and medium energy range. It is found that a 3-piece design looks promising: intensity in epithermal and medium energy range in upper tier is an order of magnitude higher than current Mark III, and intensity in the thermal energy range is higher in the lower tier than current Mark III. Time emission spectra show a bump due to the scattering of fast neutrons. Other investigations such as the addition of wings around the upper target will be conducted.

  12. Calculation of Absorbed Dose in Target Tissue and Equivalent Dose in Sensitive Tissues of Patients Treated by BNCT Using MCNP4C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, M.; Kasesaz, Y.; Khalafi, H.; Pooya, S. M. Hosseini

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is used for treatment of many diseases, including brain tumors, in many medical centers. In this method, a target area (e.g., head of patient) is irradiated by some optimized and suitable neutron fields such as research nuclear reactors. Aiming at protection of healthy tissues which are located in the vicinity of irradiated tissue, and based on the ALARA principle, it is required to prevent unnecessary exposure of these vital organs. In this study, by using numerical simulation method (MCNP4C Code), the absorbed dose in target tissue and the equiavalent dose in different sensitive tissues of a patiant treated by BNCT, are calculated. For this purpose, we have used the parameters of MIRD Standard Phantom. Equiavelent dose in 11 sensitive organs, located in the vicinity of target, and total equivalent dose in whole body, have been calculated. The results show that the absorbed dose in tumor and normal tissue of brain equal to 30.35 Gy and 0.19 Gy, respectively. Also, total equivalent dose in 11 sensitive organs, other than tumor and normal tissue of brain, is equal to 14 mGy. The maximum equivalent doses in organs, other than brain and tumor, appear to the tissues of lungs and thyroid and are equal to 7.35 mSv and 3.00 mSv, respectively.

  13. Tumor-Targeted Silencing of Bcl-2/Bcl-xl by Self-Assembled Sirna-Nanovectors as a Novel Molecular Therapy for Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Liang

    2007-01-01

    The major goal of this Concept Award project is to explore the anti-Her-2 antibody as targeting ligand to establish the self-assembled nanovectors for targeted siRNA delivery to Her-2(+) breast cancer. Our hypothesis is (1...

  14. Targeted therapy for soft tissue sarcomas in adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steppan DA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Diana A Steppan, Christine A Pratilas, David M Loeb Division of Pediatric Oncology, The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Soft tissue sarcomas (STSs are a heterogeneous group of tumors originating from the mesenchyme. Even though they affect individuals in all age groups, the prevalence of subtypes of STSs changes significantly from childhood through adolescence into adulthood. The mainstay of therapy is surgery, with or without the addition of chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. These treatment modalities are associated, in many cases, with significant morbidity and, given the heterogeneity of tumor histologies encompassed by the term “STS”, have not uniformly improved outcomes. Moreover, some subgroups of STSs appear to be more, and others less, responsive to conventional chemotherapy agents. Over the last two decades, our understanding of the biology of STSs is slowly increasing, allowing for the development of more targeted therapies. We review the new treatment modalities that have been tested on patients with STSs, with a special focus on adolescents and young adults, a group of patients that is often underrepresented in clinical trials and has not received the dedicated attention it deserves, given the significant differences in biology and treatment response in comparison to children and adults. Keywords: synovial sarcoma, MPNST, soft tissue sarcoma, targeted therapy

  15. Unraveling Chagas disease transmission through the oral route: Gateways to Trypanosoma cruzi infection and target tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Silva-Dos-Santos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Oral transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, is the most important route of infection in Brazilian Amazon and Venezuela. Other South American countries have also reported outbreaks associated with food consumption. A recent study showed the importance of parasite contact with oral cavity to induce a highly severe acute disease in mice. However, it remains uncertain the primary site of parasite entry and multiplication due to an oral infection. Here, we evaluated the presence of T. cruzi Dm28c luciferase (Dm28c-luc parasites in orally infected mice, by bioluminescence and quantitative real-time PCR. In vivo bioluminescent images indicated the nasomaxillary region as the site of parasite invasion in the host, becoming consistently infected throughout the acute phase. At later moments, 7 and 21 days post-infection (dpi, luminescent signal is denser in the thorax, abdomen and genital region, because of parasite dissemination in different tissues. Ex vivo analysis demonstrated that the nasomaxillary region, heart, mandibular lymph nodes, liver, spleen, brain, epididymal fat associated to male sex organs, salivary glands, cheek muscle, mesenteric fat and lymph nodes, stomach, esophagus, small and large intestine are target tissues at latter moments of infection. In the same line, amastigote nests of Dm28c GFP T. cruzi were detected in the nasal cavity of 6 dpi mice. Parasite quantification by real-time qPCR at 7 and 21 dpi showed predominant T. cruzi detection and expansion in mouse nasal cavity. Moreover, T. cruzi DNA was also observed in the mandibular lymph nodes, pituitary gland, heart, liver, small intestine and spleen at 7 dpi, and further, disseminated to other tissues, such as the brain, stomach, esophagus and large intestine at 21 dpi. Our results clearly demonstrated that oral cavity and adjacent compartments is the main target region in oral T. cruzi infection leading to parasite multiplication at the nasal

  16. Unraveling Chagas disease transmission through the oral route: Gateways to Trypanosoma cruzi infection and target tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-dos-Santos, Danielle; Barreto-de-Albuquerque, Juliana; Guerra, Bárbara; Moreira, Otacilio C.; Berbert, Luiz Ricardo; Ramos, Mariana Tavares; Mascarenhas, Barbara Angelica S.; Britto, Constança; Morrot, Alexandre; Serra Villa-Verde, Déa M.; Garzoni, Luciana Ribeiro; Savino, Wilson; Cotta-de-Almeida, Vinícius; de Meis, Juliana

    2017-01-01

    Oral transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, is the most important route of infection in Brazilian Amazon and Venezuela. Other South American countries have also reported outbreaks associated with food consumption. A recent study showed the importance of parasite contact with oral cavity to induce a highly severe acute disease in mice. However, it remains uncertain the primary site of parasite entry and multiplication due to an oral infection. Here, we evaluated the presence of T. cruzi Dm28c luciferase (Dm28c-luc) parasites in orally infected mice, by bioluminescence and quantitative real-time PCR. In vivo bioluminescent images indicated the nasomaxillary region as the site of parasite invasion in the host, becoming consistently infected throughout the acute phase. At later moments, 7 and 21 days post-infection (dpi), luminescent signal is denser in the thorax, abdomen and genital region, because of parasite dissemination in different tissues. Ex vivo analysis demonstrated that the nasomaxillary region, heart, mandibular lymph nodes, liver, spleen, brain, epididymal fat associated to male sex organs, salivary glands, cheek muscle, mesenteric fat and lymph nodes, stomach, esophagus, small and large intestine are target tissues at latter moments of infection. In the same line, amastigote nests of Dm28c GFP T. cruzi were detected in the nasal cavity of 6 dpi mice. Parasite quantification by real-time qPCR at 7 and 21 dpi showed predominant T. cruzi detection and expansion in mouse nasal cavity. Moreover, T. cruzi DNA was also observed in the mandibular lymph nodes, pituitary gland, heart, liver, small intestine and spleen at 7 dpi, and further, disseminated to other tissues, such as the brain, stomach, esophagus and large intestine at 21 dpi. Our results clearly demonstrated that oral cavity and adjacent compartments is the main target region in oral T. cruzi infection leading to parasite multiplication at the nasal cavity. PMID

  17. Tissue-specific target analysis of disease-associated microRNAs in human signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kowarsch

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are a large class of post-transcriptional regulators that bind to the 3' untranslated region of messenger RNAs. They play a critical role in many cellular processes and have been linked to the control of signal transduction pathways. Recent studies indicate that microRNAs can function as tumor suppressors or even as oncogenes when aberrantly expressed. For more general insights of disease-associated microRNAs, we analyzed their impact on human signaling pathways from two perspectives. On a global scale, we found a core set of signaling pathways with enriched tissue-specific microRNA targets across diseases. The function of these pathways reflects the affinity of microRNAs to regulate cellular processes associated with apoptosis, proliferation or development. Comparing cancer and non-cancer related microRNAs, we found no significant differences between both groups. To unveil the interaction and regulation of microRNAs on signaling pathways locally, we analyzed the cellular location and process type of disease-associated microRNA targets and proteins. While disease-associated proteins are highly enriched in extracellular components of the pathway, microRNA targets are preferentially located in the nucleus. Moreover, targets of disease-associated microRNAs preferentially exhibit an inhibitory effect within the pathways in contrast to disease proteins. Our analysis provides systematic insights into the interaction of disease-associated microRNAs and signaling pathways and uncovers differences in cellular locations and process types of microRNA targets and disease-associated proteins.

  18. Liver-targeting of interferon-alpha with tissue-specific domain antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Coulstock

    Full Text Available Interferon alpha (IFNα is used for the treatment of hepatitis C infection and whilst efficacious it is associated with multiple adverse events including reduced leukocyte, erythrocyte, and platelet counts, fatigue, and depression. These events are most likely caused by systemic exposure to interferon. We therefore hypothesise that targeting the therapeutic directly to the intended site of action in the liver would reduce exposure in blood and peripheral tissue and hence improve the safety and tolerability of IFNα therapy. We genetically fused IFN to a domain antibody (dAb specific to a hepatocyte restricted antigen, asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR. Our results show that the murine IFNα2 homolog (mIFNα2 fused to an ASGPR specific dAb, termed DOM26h-196-61, could be expressed in mammalian tissue culture systems and retains the desirable biophysical properties and activity of both fusion partners when measured in vitro. Furthermore a clear increase in in vivo targeting of the liver by mIFNα2-ASGPR dAb fusion protein, compared to that observed with either unfused mIFNα2 or mIFNα2 fused to an isotype control dAb VHD2 (which does not bind ASGPR was demonstrated using microSPECT imaging. We suggest that these findings may be applicable in the development of a liver-targeted human IFN molecule with improved safety and patient compliance in comparison to the current standard of care, which could ultimately be used as a treatment for human hepatitis virus infections.

  19. The carcinogenic liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis: new assembly, reannotation and analysis of the genome and characterization of tissue transcriptomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Huang

    Full Text Available Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis, an important food-borne parasite that inhabits the intrahepatic bile duct and causes clonorchiasis, is of interest to both the public health field and the scientific research community. To learn more about the migration, parasitism and pathogenesis of C. sinensis at the molecular level, the present study developed an upgraded genomic assembly and annotation by sequencing paired-end and mate-paired libraries. We also performed transcriptome sequence analyses on multiple C. sinensis tissues (sucker, muscle, ovary and testis. Genes encoding molecules involved in responses to stimuli and muscle-related development were abundantly expressed in the oral sucker. Compared with other species, genes encoding molecules that facilitate the recognition and transport of cholesterol were observed in high copy numbers in the genome and were highly expressed in the oral sucker. Genes encoding transporters for fatty acids, glucose, amino acids and oxygen were also highly expressed, along with other molecules involved in metabolizing these substrates. All genes involved in energy metabolism pathways, including the β-oxidation of fatty acids, the citrate cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, and fumarate reduction, were expressed in the adults. Finally, we also provide valuable insights into the mechanism underlying the process of pathogenesis by characterizing the secretome of C. sinensis. The characterization and elaborate analysis of the upgraded genome and the tissue transcriptomes not only form a detailed and fundamental C. sinensis resource but also provide novel insights into the physiology and pathogenesis of C. sinensis. We anticipate that this work will aid the development of innovative strategies for the prevention and control of clonorchiasis.

  20. A novel high-speed production process to create modular components for the bottom-up assembly of large scale tissue engineered constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Omar F.; Voice, Derek N.; Leung, Brendan M.

    2014-01-01

    To replace damaged or diseased tissues, large tissue-engineered constructs can be prepared by assembling modular components in a bottom-up approach. However, a high speed method is needed to produce sufficient numbers of these modules for full-sized tissue substitutes. To this end, we have devised a novel production technique that combines air shearing and a plug flow reactor-style design to rapidly produce large quantities of hydrogel-based (here type I collagen) cylindrical modular components with tunable diameters and length. Using this technique, modules containing NIH 3T3 cells showed greater than 95% viability while endothelial cell surface attachment and confluent monolayer formation was demonstrated. Additionally, the rapidly-produced modules were used to assemble large tissue constructs (> 1 cm3) in vitro. Module building blocks containing luciferase-expressing L929 cells were packed in full size adult rat liver-shaped bioreactors and perfused with cell medium, to demonstrate the capacity to build organ-shaped constructs; bioluminescence demonstrated sustained viability over 3 days. Cardiomyocyte embedded modules were also used to assemble electrically stimulatable contractile tissue. PMID:24895070

  1. Chemopreventive glucosinolate accumulation in various broccoli and collard tissues: Microfluidic-based targeted transcriptomics for by-product valorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Sang; Ku, Kang-Mo; Becker, Talon M; Juvik, John A

    2017-01-01

    Floret, leaf, and root tissues were harvested from broccoli and collard cultivars and extracted to determine their glucosinolate and hydrolysis product profiles using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromotography. Quinone reductase inducing bioactivity, an estimate of anti-cancer chemopreventive potential, of the extracts was measured using a hepa1c1c7 murine cell line. Extracts from root tissues were significantly different from other tissues and contained high levels of gluconasturtiin and glucoerucin. Targeted gene expression analysis on glucosinolate biosynthesis revealed that broccoli root tissue has elevated gene expression of AOP2 and low expression of FMOGS-OX homologs, essentially the opposite of what was observed in broccoli florets, which accumulated high levels of glucoraphanin. Broccoli floret tissue has significantly higher nitrile formation (%) and epithionitrile specifier protein gene expression than other tissues. This study provides basic information of the glucosinolate metabolome and transcriptome for various tissues of Brassica oleracea that maybe utilized as potential byproducts for the nutraceutical market.

  2. Injectable 3-D Fabrication of Medical Electronics at the Target Biological Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chao; Zhang, Jie; Li, Xiaokang; Yang, Xueyao; Li, Jingjing; Liu, Jing

    2013-12-01

    Conventional transplantable biomedical devices generally request sophisticated surgery which however often causes big trauma and serious pain to the patients. Here, we show an alternative way of directly making three-dimensional (3-D) medical electronics inside the biological body through sequential injections of biocompatible packaging material and liquid metal ink. As the most typical electronics, a variety of medical electrodes with different embedded structures were demonstrated to be easily formed at the target tissues. Conceptual in vitro experiments provide strong evidences for the excellent performances of the injectable electrodes. Further in vivo animal experiments disclosed that the formed electrode could serve as both highly efficient ECG (Electrocardiograph) electrode and stimulator electrode. These findings clarified the unique features and practicability of the liquid metal based injectable 3-D fabrication of medical electronics. The present strategy opens the way for directly manufacturing electrophysiological sensors or therapeutic devices in situ via a truly minimally invasive approach.

  3. The metabolic disturbances of isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats based on a tissue targeted metabonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue-tao; Jia, Hong-mei; Chang, Xing; Ding, Gang; Zhang, Hong-wu; Zou, Zhong-Mei

    2013-11-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality but the precise mechanism of its pathogenesis remains obscure. To achieve the most comprehensive screening of the entire metabolome related to isoproterenol (ISO) induced-MI, we present a tissue targeted metabonomic study using an integrated approach of ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF MS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). Twenty-two metabolites were detected as potential biomarkers related to the formation of MI, and the levels of pantothenic acid (), lysoPC(18:0) (), PC(18:4(6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z)/18:0) (), taurine (), lysoPC(20:3(8Z,11Z,14Z)) (), threonine (), alanine (), creatine (), phosphocreatine (), glucose 1-phosphate (), glycine (), xanthosine (), creatinine () and glucose () were decreased significantly, while the concentrations of histamine (), L-palmitoylcarnitine (), GSSG (), inosine (), arachidonic acid (), linoelaidic acid (), 3-methylhistamine () and glycylproline () were increased significantly in the MI rats compared with the control group. The identified potential biomarkers were involved in twelve metabolic pathways and achieved the most entire metabolome contributing to the injury of the myocardial tissue. Five pathways, including taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, glycolysis, arachidonic acid metabolism, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism and histidine metabolism, were significantly influenced by ISO-treatment according to MetPA analysis and suggested that the most prominent changes included inflammation, interference of calcium dynamics, as well as alterations of energy metabolism in the pathophysiologic process of MI. These findings provided a unique perspective on localized metabolic information of ISO induced-MI, which gave us new insights into the pathogenesis of MI, discovery of targets for clinical diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Study of the integrity of pressurized LEH window assemblies at cryogenic temperatures for NIF targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamza, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-05

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a directorate of LLNL, a DOE Lab, and is home to the world’s largest laser. This laser shoots its 192 beams at a target about the size of a pencil eraser. Within the target are two main chambers; and depending on the type of shot, those chambers need to be pressurized to a certain point at a very low temperature (18 Kelvin). The component used for keeping the hohlraum at its designated pressure is a Laser Entrance Hole (LEH) window, made from a thin (0.5um) polyimide film and an aluminum washer attached with a miniscule amount of polymeric adhesive. One issue that has been known to happen is the chambers will leak, at very low rates (5.0E-7 mBar-liter/s and under). At higher pressures significantly larger leak rates have been observed.There are three proposed mechanisms by which the LEH windows are leaking. The first is that there is a small pinhole somewhere in the freestanding film. This is the most unlikely because before any film is shipped from Luxel, it must pass a 50-75 torr room temperature pressure test. The second is a tear in the film at the edge of the washer. This type of damage suggests that the film is under additional stress at this edge portion and/or the edge of the washer itself is what is doing the damage. Lastly, it has been hypothesized that there are small channels under the window that do not get completely filled by the glue and, if they connect to the edge of the freestanding portion of the film, then the pressure can escape through them. These channels were the mechanism being most directly tested over the course of the experiments.

  5. Targeting Adipose Tissue Lipid Metabolism to Improve Glucose Metabolism in Cardiometabolic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan W.E. Jocken

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With Type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease prevalence on the rise, there is a growing need for improved strategies to prevent or treat obesity and insulin resistance, both of which are major risk factors for these chronic diseases. Impairments in adipose tissue lipid metabolism seem to play a critical role in these disorders. In the classical picture of intracellular lipid breakdown, cytosolic lipolysis was proposed as the sole mechanism for triacylglycerol hydrolysis in adipocytes. Recent evidence suggests involvement of several hormones, membrane receptors, and intracellular signalling cascades, which has added complexity to the regulation of cytosolic lipolysis. Interestingly, a specific form of autophagy, called lipophagy, has been implicated as alternative lipolytic pathway. Defective regulation of cytosolic lipolysis and lipophagy might have substantial effects on lipid metabolism, thereby contributing to adipose tissue dysfunction, insulin resistance, and related cardiometabolic (cMet diseases. This review will discuss recent advances in our understanding of classical lipolysis and lipophagy in adipocyte lipid metabolism under normal and pathological conditions. Furthermore, the question of whether modulation of adipocyte lipolysis and lipophagy might be a potential therapeutic target to combat cMet disorders will be addressed.

  6. Pancreatic polypeptide: Identification of target tissues and investigation of possible physiologic significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shetzline, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Pancreatic Polypeptide (PP) is a 36 amino acid peptide with hormonal properties but whose physiologic function remains unknown. In order to determine the function of this peptide we investigated potential target tissues using an in vivo radioreceptor assay. In vitro high concentrations of unlabeled hormone competitively inhibit low concentrations of labeled hormone from binding to receptors. Our in vivo studies indicate that, in the presence of concentrated unlabeled peptide, labeled PP distributes between the plasma and interstitial fluid. When saline rather than excess unlabeled PP is injected, the labeled peptide appears to distribute in a volume exceeding the combined plasma and interstitial fluid volume of tissue. The distribution volume which exceeds the anatomic extracellular volume and which is not present with excess unlabeled peptide, is the receptor compartment. With this assay we demonstrated in the rat specific and displaceable PP binding to the ductus choledochus, duodenum, ileum, and adrenal gland. In vitro rat adrenal cell membranes showed specific I-125 labeled PP binding. Specific binding also occurred in bovine cortical and medullary membranes.

  7. Brown adipose tissue activity as a target for the treatment of obesity/insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poher, Anne-Laure; Altirriba, Jordi; Veyrat-Durebex, Christelle; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Presence of brown adipose tissue (BAT), characterized by the expression of the thermogenic uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), has recently been described in adult humans. UCP1 is expressed in classical brown adipocytes, as well as in "beige cells" in white adipose tissue (WAT). The thermogenic activity of BAT is mainly controlled by the sympathetic nervous system. Endocrine factors, such as fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and bone morphogenic protein factor-9 (BMP-9), predominantly produced in the liver, were shown to lead to activation of BAT thermogenesis, as well as to "browning" of WAT. This was also observed in response to irisin, a hormone secreted by skeletal muscles. Different approaches were used to delineate the impact of UCP1 on insulin sensitivity. When studied under thermoneutral conditions, UCP1 knockout mice exhibited markedly increased metabolic efficiency due to impaired thermogenesis. The impact of UCP1 deletion on insulin sensitivity in these mice was not reported. Conversely, several studies in both rodents and humans have shown that BAT activation (by cold exposure, β3-agonist treatment, transplantation and others) improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Interestingly, similar results were obtained by adipose tissue-specific overexpression of PR-domain-containing 16 (PRDM16) or BMP4 in mice. The mediators of such beneficial effects seem to include FGF21, interleukin-6, BMP8B and prostaglandin D2 synthase. Interestingly, some of these molecules can be secreted by BAT itself, indicating the occurrence of autocrine effects. Stimulation of BAT activity and/or recruitment of UCP1-positive cells are therefore relevant targets for the treatment of obesity/type 2 diabetes in humans.

  8. MicroRNA-145 Impedes Thrombus Formation via Targeting Tissue Factor in Venous Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Sahu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Venous thromboembolism (VTE, the third leading cardiovascular complication, requires more understanding at molecular levels. Here, we have identified miR-145 as a key molecule for regulating thrombus formation in venous thrombosis (VT employing network based bioinformatics approach and in vivo experiments. Levels of miR-145 showed an inverse correlation with thrombus load determined by coagulation variables. MiRNA target prediction tools and in vitro study identified tissue factor (TF as a target gene for miR-145. The restoration of miR-145 levels in thrombotic animals via in vivo miR-145 mimic delivery resulted in decreased TF level and activity, accompanied by reduced thrombogenesis. MiR-145 levels were also reduced in VT patients and correlated with increased TF levels in patients, thereby, confirming our preclinical findings. Our study identifies a previously undescribed role of miRNA in VT by regulating TF expression. Therefore, restoration of miR-145 levels may serve as a promising therapeutic strategy for management of VT.

  9. Targeting an Oncolytic Influenza A Virus to Tumor Tissue by Elastase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Kuznetsova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic viruses are currently established as a novel type of immunotherapy. The challenge is to safely target oncolytic viruses to tumors. Previously, we have generated influenza A viruses (IAVs containing deletions in the viral interferon antagonist. Those deletions have attenuated the virus in normal tissue but allowed replication in tumor cells. IAV entry is mediated by hemagglutinin (HA, which needs to be activated by a serine protease, for example, through trypsin. To further target the IAV to tumors, we have changed the trypsin cleavage site to an elastase cleavage site. We chose this cleavage site because elastase is expressed in the tumor microenvironment. Moreover, the exchange of the cleavage site previously has been shown to attenuate viral growth in lungs. Newly generated elastase-activated influenza viruses (AE viruses grew to similar titers in tumor cells as the trypsin-activated counterparts (AT viruses. Intratumoral injection of AE viruses into syngeneic B16f1 melanoma-derived tumors in mice reduced tumor growth similar to AT viruses and had a better therapeutic effect in heterologous human PANC-1-derived tumors. Therefore, the introduction of the attenuation marker “elastase cleavage site” in viral HA allows for safe, effective oncolytic virus therapy.

  10. Comparison of targeted proteomics approaches for detecting and quantifying proteins derived from human cancer tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faktor, Jakub; Sucha, Rita; Paralova, Vendula; Liu, Yansheng; Bouchal, Pavel

    2017-03-01

    Targeted mass spectrometry-based proteomics approaches enable the simultaneous and reproducible quantification of multiple protein analytes across numerous conditions in biology and clinical studies. These approaches involve e.g. selected reaction monitoring (SRM) typically conducted on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, its high-resolution variant named pseudo-SRM (p-SRM), carried out in a quadrupole coupled with an TOF analyzer (qTOF), and "sequential window acquisition of all theoretical spectra" (SWATH). Here we compared these methods in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), coefficient of variance (CV), fold change (FC), limit of detection and quantitation (LOD, LOQ). We have shown the highest S/N for p-SRM mode, followed by SRM and SWATH, demonstrating a trade-off between sensitivity and level of multiplexing for SRM, p-SRM, and SWATH. SRM was more sensitive than p-SRM based on determining their LOD and LOQ. Although SWATH has the worst S/N, it enables peptide multiplexing with post-acquisition definition of the targets, leading to better proteome coverage. FC between breast tumors of different clinical-pathological characteristics were highly correlated (R2 >0.97) across three methods and consistent with the previous study on 96 tumor tissues. Our technical note presented here, therefore, confirmed that outputs of all the three methods were biologically relevant and highly applicable to cancer research. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Contributions of thrombin targets to tissue factor-dependent metastasis in hyperthrombotic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, N; Zarpellon, A; Chakrabarty, S; Bogdanov, V Y; Gruber, A; Castellino, F J; Mackman, N; Ellies, L G; Weiler, H; Ruggeri, Z M; Ruf, W

    2014-01-01

    Tumor cell tissue factor (TF)-initiated coagulation supports hematogenous metastasis by fibrin formation, platelet activation and monocyte/macrophage recruitment. Recent studies identified host anticoagulant mechanisms as a major impediment to successful hematogenous tumor cell metastasis. Here we address mechanisms that contribute to enhanced metastasis in hyperthrombotic mice with functional thrombomodulin deficiency (TM(Pro) mice). Pharmacological and genetic approaches were combined to characterize relevant thrombin targets in a mouse model of experimental hematogenous metastasis. TF-dependent, but contact pathway-independent, syngeneic breast cancer metastasis was associated with marked platelet hyperreactivity and formation of leukocyte-platelet aggregates in immune-competent TM(Pro) mice. Blockade of CD11b or genetic deletion of platelet glycoprotein Ibα excluded contributions of these receptors to enhanced platelet-dependent metastasis in hyperthrombotic mice. Mice with very low levels of the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) did not phenocopy the enhanced metastasis seen in TM(Pro) mice. Genetic deletion of the thrombin receptor PAR1 or endothelial thrombin signaling targets alone did not diminish enhanced metastasis in TM(Pro) mice. Combined deficiency of PAR1 on tumor cells and the host reduced metastasis in TM(Pro) mice. Metastasis in the hyperthrombotic TM(Pro) mouse model is mediated by platelet hyperreactivity and contributions of PAR1 signaling on tumor and host cells. © 2013 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  12. Modelling PET radionuclide production in tissue and external targets using Geant4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, T.; Infantino, A.; Lindsay, C.; Barlow, R.; Hoehr, C.

    2017-07-01

    The Proton Therapy Facility in TRIUMF provides 74 MeV protons extracted from a 500 MeV H- cyclotron for ocular melanoma treatments. During treatment, positron emitting radionuclides such as 1C, 15O and 13N are produced in patient tissue. Using PET scanners, the isotopic activity distribution can be measured for in-vivo range verification. A second cyclotron, the TR13, provides 13 MeV protons onto liquid targets for the production of PET radionuclides such as 18F, 13N or 68Ga, for medical applications. The aim of this work was to validate Geant4 against FLUKA and experimental measurements for production of the above-mentioned isotopes using the two cyclotrons. The results show variable degrees of agreement. For proton therapy, the proton-range agreement was within 2 mm for 11C activity, whereas 13N disagreed. For liquid targets at the TR13 the average absolute deviation ratio between FLUKA and experiment was 1.9±2.7, whereas the average absolute deviation ratio between Geant4 and experiment was 0. 6±0.4. This is due to the uncertainties present in experimentally determined reaction cross sections.

  13. Targeting the r(CGG) repeats that cause FXTAS with modularly assembled small molecules and oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tuan; Childs-Disney, Jessica L; Liu, Biao; Guan, Lirui; Rzuczek, Suzanne; Disney, Matthew D

    2014-04-18

    We designed small molecules that bind the structure of the RNA that causes fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), an incurable neuromuscular disease. FXTAS is caused by an expanded r(CGG) repeat (r(CGG)(exp)) that inactivates a protein regulator of alternative pre-mRNA splicing. Our designed compounds modulate r(CGG)(exp) toxicity in cellular models of FXTAS, and pull-down experiments confirm that they bind r(CGG)(exp) in vivo. Importantly, compound binding does not affect translation of the downstream open reading frame (ORF). We compared molecular recognition properties of our optimal compound to oligonucleotides. Studies show that r(CGG)(exp)'s self-structure is a significant energetic barrier for oligonucleotide binding. A fully modified 2'-OMethyl phosphorothioate is incapable of completely reversing an FXTAS-associated splicing defect and inhibits translation of the downstream ORF, which could have deleterious effects. Taken together, these studies suggest that a small molecule that recognizes structure may be more well suited for targeting highly structured RNAs that require strand invasion by a complementary oligonucleotide.

  14. Targeted delivery using peptide-functionalised gold nanoparticles to white adipose tissues of obese rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thovhogi, Ntevheleni; Sibuyi, Nicole [Medical Research Council, Diabetes Research Group (South Africa); Meyer, Mervin [University of the Western Cape, Biotechnology Department, DST/Mintek Nanotechnology Innovation Centre (South Africa); Onani, Martin [University of the Western Cape, Chemistry Department (South Africa); Madiehe, Abram, E-mail: amadiehe@csir.co.za [Medical Research Council, Diabetes Research Group (South Africa)

    2015-02-15

    Obesity is a complex metabolic disease of excessive fat accumulation. It is a worldwide epidemic affecting billions of people. Current pharmacological treatment of obesity remains limited and ineffective due to systemic drug toxicity and undesirable side effects. The current epidemic raises a serious need for development of safer drugs to treat obesity. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery system for administering pharmaceutical compound to achieve therapeutic effects is currently an exciting field in cancer treatment. Drug delivery involves either modification of drug release profile, absorption, distribution and/or elimination, for the benefit of improving drug efficacy and safety. Therefore, nanotechnology holds promise in the treatment of diseases including obesity. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) functionalised with different biomolecules have been successfully used as drug delivery, labelling and imaging tools in biomedical research. In this study, the binding-specificity and targeting ability of adipose homing peptide (AHP)-functionalised GNPs (AHP-GNPs) were evaluated using flow cytometry and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. Caco-2 cells and rats fed either chow or a high-fat diet were treated with either unfunctionalised GNPs or AHP-GNPs. Cellular uptake of GNPs was detected in cells treated with AHP-GNPs and not those treated with GNPs alone. Binding of AHP to cells was both temperature- and concentration-dependent. Compared to rats treated with GNPs alone, treatment of obese rats with AHP-GNPs resulted in the targeted delivery of the GNPs to the white adipose tissue (WAT). This paper reports the successful targeting of AHP-functionalised GNPs to WAT of obese rats.

  15. Microgravity Analogues of Herpes Virus Pathogenicity: Human Cytomegalovirus (hCMV) and Varicella Zoster (VZV) Infectivity in Human Tissue Like Assemblies (TLAs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, T. J.; McCarthy, M.; Albrecht, T.; Cohrs, R.

    2009-01-01

    The old adage we are our own worst enemies may perhaps be the most profound statement ever made when applied to man s desire for extraterrestrial exploration and habitation of Space. Consider the immune system protects the integrity of the entire human physiology and is comprised of two basic elements the adaptive or circulating and the innate immune system. Failure of the components of the adaptive system leads to venerability of the innate system from opportunistic microbes; viral, bacteria, and fungal, which surround us, are transported on our skin, and commonly inhabit the human physiology as normal and imunosuppressed parasites. The fine balance which is maintained for the preponderance of our normal lives, save immune disorders and disease, is deregulated in microgravity. Thus analogue systems to study these potential Risks are essential for our progress in conquering Space exploration and habitation. In this study we employed two known physiological target tissues in which the reactivation of hCMV and VZV occurs, human neural and lung systems created for the study and interaction of these herpes viruses independently and simultaneously on the innate immune system. Normal human neural and lung tissue analogues called tissue like assemblies (TLAs) were infected with low MOIs of approximately 2 x 10(exp -5) pfu hCMV or VZV and established active but prolonged low grade infections which spanned .7-1.5 months in length. These infections were characterized by the ability to continuously produce each of the viruses without expiration of the host cultures. Verification and quantification of viral replication was confirmed via RT_PCR, IHC, and confocal spectral analyses of the respective essential viral genomes. All host TLAs maintained the ability to actively proliferate throughout the entire duration of the experiments as is analogous to normal in vivo physiological conditions. These data represent a significant advance in the ability to study the triggering

  16. Disulfide-induced self-assembled targets: A novel strategy for the label free colorimetric detection of DNAs/RNAs via unmodified gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, Ehsan; Hosseini, Morteza; Davari, Mehdi D.; Ganjali, Mohammad R.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Rezaee, Farhad

    2017-04-01

    A modified non-cross-linking gold-nanoparticles (Au-NPs) aggregation strategy has been developed for the label free colorimetric detection of DNAs/RNAs based on self-assembling target species in the presence of thiolated probes. Two complementary thiol- modified probes, each of which specifically binds at one half of the target introduced SH groups at both ends of dsDNA. Continuous disulfide bond formation at 3‧ and 5‧ terminals of targets leads to the self-assembly of dsDNAs into the sulfur- rich and flexible products with different lengths. These products have a high affinity for the surface of Au-NPs and efficiently protect the surface from salt induced aggregation. To evaluate the assay efficacy, a small part of the citrus tristeza virus (CTV) genome was targeted, leading to a detection limit of about 5 × 10-9 mol.L-1 over a linear ranged from 20 × 10-9 to 10 × 10-7 mol.L-1. This approach also exhibits good reproducibility and recovery levels in the presence of plant total RNA or human plasma total circulating RNA extracts. Self-assembled targets can be then sensitively distinguished from non-assembled or mismatched targets after gel electrophoresis. The disulfide reaction method and integrating self-assembled DNAs/RNAs targets with bare AuNPs as a sensitive indicator provide us a powerful and simple visual detection tool for a wide range of applications.

  17. Design, construction and performance evaluation of the target tissue thickness measurement system in intraoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Mohammad Reza; Setayeshi, Saeed; Arabalibeik, Hossein; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil

    2017-05-01

    Intraoperative electron radiation therapy (IOERT), which uses electron beams for irradiating the target directly during the surgery, has the advantage of delivering a homogeneous dose to a controlled layer of tissue. Since the dose falls off quickly below the target thickness, the underlying normal tissues are spared. In selecting the appropriate electron energy, the accuracy of the target tissue thickness measurement is critical. In contrast to other procedures applied in IOERT, the routine measurement method is considered to be completely traditional and approximate. In this work, a novel mechanism is proposed for measuring the target tissue thickness with an acceptable level of accuracy. An electronic system has been designed and manufactured with the capability of measuring the tissue thickness based on the recorded electron density under the target. The results indicated the possibility of thickness measurement with a maximum error of 2 mm for 91.35% of data. Aside from system limitation in estimating the thickness of 5 mm phantom, for 88.94% of data, maximum error is 1 mm.

  18. Design, construction and performance evaluation of the target tissue thickness measurement system in intraoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdani, Mohammad Reza, E-mail: myazdani@aut.ac.ir [Faculty of Energy Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Setayeshi, Saeed, E-mail: setayesh@aut.ac.ir [Faculty of Energy Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Arabalibeik, Hossein, E-mail: arabalibeik@tums.ac.ir [Research Center for Biomedical Technology and Robotics (RCBTR), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil [Cancer Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-05-21

    Intraoperative electron radiation therapy (IOERT), which uses electron beams for irradiating the target directly during the surgery, has the advantage of delivering a homogeneous dose to a controlled layer of tissue. Since the dose falls off quickly below the target thickness, the underlying normal tissues are spared. In selecting the appropriate electron energy, the accuracy of the target tissue thickness measurement is critical. In contrast to other procedures applied in IOERT, the routine measurement method is considered to be completely traditional and approximate. In this work, a novel mechanism is proposed for measuring the target tissue thickness with an acceptable level of accuracy. An electronic system has been designed and manufactured with the capability of measuring the tissue thickness based on the recorded electron density under the target. The results indicated the possibility of thickness measurement with a maximum error of 2 mm for 91.35% of data. Aside from system limitation in estimating the thickness of 5 mm phantom, for 88.94% of data, maximum error is 1 mm.

  19. Equine insulin receptor and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor expression in digital lamellar tissue and insulin target tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullmann, A; Weber, P S; Bishop, J B; Roux, T M; Norby, B; Burns, T A; McCutcheon, L J; Belknap, J K; Geor, R J

    2016-09-01

    Hyperinsulinaemia is implicated in the pathogenesis of endocrinopathic laminitis. Insulin can bind to different receptors: two insulin receptor isoforms (InsR-A and InsR-B), insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and InsR/IGF-1R hybrid receptor (Hybrid). Currently, mRNA expression of these receptors in equine tissues and the influence of body type and dietary carbohydrate intake on expression of these receptors is not known. The study objectives were to characterise InsR-A, InsR-B, IGF-1R and Hybrid expression in lamellar tissue (LT) and insulin responsive tissues from horses and examine the effect of dietary nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) on mRNA expression of these receptors in LT, skeletal muscle, liver and two adipose tissue (AT) depots of lean and obese ponies. In vivo experiment. Lamellar tissue samples were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) for receptor mRNA expression (n = 8) and immunoblotting for protein expression (n = 3). Archived LT, skeletal muscle, liver and AT from lean and obese mixed-breed ponies fed either a low (~7% NSC as dry matter; 5 lean, 5 obese) or high NSC diet (~42% NSC as dry matter; 6 lean, 6 obese) for 7 days were evaluated by RT-qPCR to determine the effect of body condition and diet on expression of the receptors in different tissues. Significance was set at P≤0.05. Lamellar tissue expresses both InsR isoforms, IGF-1R and Hybrid. LT IGF-1R gene expression was greater than either InsR isoform and InsR-A expression was greater than InsR-B (P≤0.05). Obesity significantly lowered IGF-1R, InsR-A and InsR-B mRNA expression in LT and InsR-A in tailhead AT. High NSC diet lowered expression of all three receptor types in liver; IGF-1R and InsR-A in LT and InsR-A in tailhead AT. Lamellar tissue expresses IGF-1R, InsR isoforms and Hybrids. The functional characteristics of these receptors and their role in endocrinopathic laminitis warrants further investigation. © 2015 EVJ

  20. Ubiquitin fusion expression and tissue-dependent targeting of hG-CSF in transgenic tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Li

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (hG-CSF is an important human cytokine which has been widely used in oncology and infection protection. To satisfy clinical needs, expression of recombinant hG-CSF has been studied in several organisms, including rice cell suspension culture and transient expression in tobacco leaves, but there was no published report on its expression in stably transformed plants which can serve as a more economical expression platform with potential industrial application. Results In this study, hG-CSF expression was investigated in transgenic tobacco leaves and seeds in which the accumulation of hG-CSF could be enhanced through fusion with ubiquitin by up to 7 fold in leaves and 2 fold in seeds, leading to an accumulation level of 2.5 mg/g total soluble protein (TSP in leaves and 1.3 mg/g TSP in seeds, relative to hG-CSF expressed without a fusion partner. Immunoblot analysis showed that ubiquitin was processed from the final protein product, and ubiquitination was up-regulated in all transgenic plants analyzed. Driven by CaMV 35S promoter and phaseolin signal peptide, hG-CSF was observed to be secreted into apoplast in leaves but deposited in protein storage vacuole (PSV in seeds, indicating that targeting of the hG-CSF was tissue-dependent in transgenic tobacco. Bioactivity assay showed that hG-CSF expressed in both seeds and leaves was bioactive to support the proliferation of NFS-60 cells. Conclusions In this study, the expression of bioactive hG-CSF in transgenic plants was improved through ubiquitin fusion strategy, demonstrating that protein expression can be enhanced in both plant leaves and seeds through fusion with ubiquitin and providing a typical case of tissue-dependent expression of recombinant protein in transgenic plants.

  1. Endothelial and Perivascular Adipose Tissue Abnormalities in Obesity-Related Vascular Dysfunction: Novel Targets for Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinzari, Francesca; Tesauro, Manfredi; Cardillo, Carmine

    2017-06-01

    The heavy impact of obesity on the development and progression of cardiovascular disease has sparked sustained efforts to uncover the mechanisms linking excess adiposity to vascular dysfunction. In addition to its well-established role in maintaining vascular homeostasis, the endothelium has been increasingly recognized as a key player in modulating healthy adipose tissue expansion in response to excess calories by providing adipocyte precursors and driving angiogenesis. When this increased storage need is unmet, excessive deposition of fat occurs at ectopic locations, including perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT). PVAT is in intimate contact with the vessel wall, hence affecting vascular function and structure. In lean individuals, PVAT exerts anticontractile and anti-inflammatory activities to protect the vasculature. In obesity, instead, these beneficial properties are lost and PVAT releases inflammatory mediators, promotes oxidative stress, and contributes to vascular dysfunction. The underlying mechanisms elicited by these outside-in signals include resistance to the vasodilator actions of insulin and activation of endothelin (ET)-1-mediated vasoconstriction. A number of adipokines and gut hormones, which are important modulators of food intake, energy balance, glucose and lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and inflammation, have also positive vascular actions. This feature makes them promising tools for targeting both the metabolic and cardiovascular complications of obesity, a view supported by recent large-scale clinical trials indicating that novel drugs for type 2 diabetes with cardiovascular potential may translate into clinically significant benefits. There is, therefore, real hope that unleashing the power of fat- and gut-derived substances might provide effective dual-action therapies for obesity and its complications.

  2. Improved Plant-based Production of E1 endoglucanase Using Potato: Expression Optimization and Tissue Targeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Ziyu [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hooker, Brian S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, Daniel B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thomas, Steven R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2000-06-01

    Optimization of Acidothermus cellulolyticus endoglucanase (E1) gene expression in transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) was examined in this study, where the E1 coding sequence was transcribed under control of a leaf specific promoter (tomato RbcS-3C) or the Mac promoter (a hybrid promoter of mannopine synthase promoter and cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter enhancer region). Average E1 activity in leaf extracts of potato transformants, in which E1 protein was targeted by a chloroplast signal peptide and an apoplast signal peptide were much higher than those by an E1 native signal peptide and a vacuole signal peptide. E1 protein accumulated up to 2.6% of total leaf soluble protein, where E1 gene was under control of the RbcS-3C promoter, alfalfa mosaic virus 5-untranslated leader, and RbcS-2A signal peptide. E1 protein production, based on average E1 activity and E1 protein accumulation in leaf extracts, is higher in potato than those measured previously in transgenic tobacco bearing the same transgene constructs. Comparisons of E1 activity, protein accumulation, and relative mRNA levels showed that E1 expression under control of tomato RbcS-3C promoter was specifically localized in leaf tissues, while E1 gene was expressed in both leaf and tuber tissues under control of Mac promoter. This suggests dual-crop applications in which potato vines serve as enzyme production `bioreactors' while tubers are preserved for culinary applications.

  3. Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Target Brain Tumor-Initiating Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung Ah; Lee, Ji Yeoun; Kwon, Sung Eun; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Phi, Ji Hoon; Choi, Jung Won; Jin, Xiong; Lim, Ja Yun; Kim, Hyunggee; Kim, Seung-Ki

    2015-01-01

    In neuro-oncology, the biology of neural stem cells (NSCs) has been pursued in two ways: as tumor-initiating cells (TICs) and as a potential cell-based vehicle for gene therapy. NSCs as well as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been reported to possess tumor tropism capacities. However, there is little data on the migratory capacity of MSCs toward brain tumor-initiating cells (BTICs). This study focuses on the ability of human adipose tissue derived MSCs (hAT-MSCs) to target BTICs and their crosstalk in the microenvironment. BTICs were isolated from three different types of brain tumors. The migration capacities of hAT-MSCs toward BTICs were examined using an in vitro migration assay and in vivo bioluminescence imaging analysis. To investigate the crosstalk between hAT-MSCs and BTICs, we analyzed the mRNA expression patterns of cyto-chemokine receptors by RT-qPCR and the protein level of their ligands in co-cultured medium. The candidate cyto-chemokine receptors were selectively inhibited using siRNAs. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments showed that hAT-MSCs possess migratory abilities to target BTICs isolated from medulloblastoma, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) and glioblastoma. Different types of cyto-chemokines are involved in the crosstalk between hAT-MSCs and BTICs (medulloblastoma and AT/RT: CXCR4/SDF-1, CCR5/RANTES, IL6R/IL-6 and IL8R/IL8; glioblastoma: CXCR4/SDF-1, IL6R/IL-6, IL8R/IL-8 and IGF1R/IGF-1). Our findings demonstrated the migratory ability of hAT-MSCs for BTICs, implying the potential use of MSCs as a delivery vehicle for gene therapy. This study also confirmed the expression of hAT-MSCs cytokine receptors and the BTIC ligands that play roles in their crosstalk.

  4. Preparation of thermosensitive magnetic liposome encapsulated recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for targeted thrombolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Hao-Lung [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Kwei-San, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Jyh-Ping, E-mail: jpchen@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Kwei-San, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Craniofacial Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kwei-San, Taoyuan 33305, Taiwan, ROC (China); Graduate Institute of Health Industry and Technology, Research Center for Industry of Human Ecology, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Kwei-San, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, Tai-Shan, New Taipei City 24301, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2017-04-01

    Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) was encapsulated in thermosensitive magnetic liposome (TML) prepared from 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, distearolyphosphatidyl ethanolamine-N-poly(ethylene glycol) 2000, cholesterol and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles by solvent evaporation/sonication and freeze-thaw cycles method. Response surface methodology was proved to be a powerful tool to predict the drug encapsulation efficiency and temperature-sensitive drug release. Validation experiments verified the accuracy of the model that provides a simple and effective method for fabricating TML with controllable encapsulation efficiency and predictable temperature-sensitive drug release behavior. The prepared samples were characterized for physico-chemical properties by dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. Temperature-sensitive release of rtPA could be confirmed from in vitro thrombolysis experiments. A thrombolytic drug delivery system using TML could be proposed for magnetic targeted delivery of rtPA to the site of thrombus followed by temperature-triggered controlled drug release in an alternating magnetic field. - Highlights: • rtPA and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} MNP were encapsulated in thermosensitive magnetic liposome (TML). • RSM could predict the drug encapsulation efficiency and temperature-sensitive drug release from TML. • Temperature-sensitive release of rtPA was confirmed from in vitro thrombolysis experiments. • TML-rtPA will be useful as a magnetic targeted nanodrug to improve clinical thrombolytic therapy.

  5. Disulfide-induced self-assembled targets : A novel strategy for the label free colorimetric detection of DNAs/RNAs via unmodified gold nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shokri, Ehsan; Hosseini, Morteza; Davari, Mehdi D.; Ganjali, Mohammad R.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Rezaee, Farhad

    2017-01-01

    A modified non-cross-linking gold-nanoparticles (Au-NPs) aggregation strategy has been developed for the label free colorimetric detection of DNAs/RNAs based on self-assembling target species in the presence of thiolated probes. Two complementary thiol-modified probes, each of which specifically

  6. Disulfide-induced self-assembled targets: A novel strategy for the label free colorimetric detection of DNAs/RNAs via unmodified gold nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shokri, E. (Ehsan); M. Hosseini (Morteza); Davari, M.D. (Mehdi D.); Ganjali, M.R. (Mohammad R.); M.P. Peppelenbosch (Maikel); F. Rezaee (Farhad)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractA modified non-cross-linking gold-nanoparticles (Au-NPs) aggregation strategy has been developed for the label free colorimetric detection of DNAs/RNAs based on self-assembling target species in the presence of thiolated probes. Two complementary thiol- modified probes, each of which

  7. Overexpression of adiponectin targeted to adipose tissue in transgenic mice: impaired adipocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauche, Isabelle B; El Mkadem, Samira Ait; Pottier, Anne-Marie; Senou, Maximin; Many, Marie-Christine; Rezsohazy, René; Penicaud, Luc; Maeda, Norikazu; Funahashi, Tohru; Brichard, Sonia M

    2007-04-01

    Adiponectin (ApN) is an adipokine whose expression and plasma levels are inversely related to obesity and insulin-resistant states. Chronic repercussions of ApN treatment or overexpression on adiposity and body weight are still controversial. Here, we generated a transgenic (Tg) mouse model allowing persistent and moderate overexpression of native full-length ApN targeted to white adipose tissue. Adipose mass and adipocyte size of Tg mice were reduced despite preserved calorie intake. This reduction resulted from increased energy expenditure and up-regulation of uncoupling proteins, and from abrogation of the adipocyte differentiation program, as shown by the loss of a key lipogenic enzyme and of adipocyte markers. Adipose mass remodeling favors enhanced insulin sensitivity and improved lipid profile of Tg mice. Alteration of the adipocyte phenotype was likely to result from increased expression of the preadipocyte factor-1 and from down-regulation of the transcription factor, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-alpha, which orchestrates adipocyte differentiation. We further found that recombinant ApN directly stimulated pre- adipocyte factor-1 mRNA and attenuated CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-alpha expression in cultured 3T3-F442A cells. Conversely, opposite changes in the expression of these genes were observed in white fat of ApN-deficient mice. Thus, besides enhanced energy expenditure, our work shows that impairment of adipocyte differentiation contributes to the anti-adiposity effect of ApN.

  8. The potentials of human adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells in targeted therapy of experimental glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAN Cun-gang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults. With current standard therapy which includes extensive microsurgical resection along with concurrent chemoradiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ, the median survival of glioblastoma patients is only 14.60 months nowadays. Recent studies demonstrated that human adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAT-MSCs possessed the glioma-trophic migratory capacity. The engineered hAT-MSCs expressing herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase (HSV-tk, yeast cytosine deaminase::uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (CDy:: UPRT, and rabbit carboxylesterase (rCE could exert inhibitory effects on glioma when combined with prodrugs, such as ganciclovir (GCV, 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC and irinotecan (CPT-11, respectively. hAT-MSCs carrying the oncolytic virus or expressing tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL also could inhibit the growth of glioma. This paper summarizes the recent progress in this field to pave the way for hAT-MSCs based targeted therapy of glioma in future.

  9. Human brown adipose tissue as a target for obesity management; beyond cold-induced thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, R K C; Kingwell, B A; Carey, A L

    2017-11-01

    Elevating energy expenditure via adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a potential strategy to reverse obesity. Much early enthusiasm for this approach, based on rodent studies, was tempered by the belief that BAT was relatively inconsequential in healthy adult humans. Interest was reinvigorated a decade ago when a series of studies re-identified BAT, primarily in upper thoracic regions, in adults. Despite the ensuing explosion of pre-clinical investigations and identification of an extensive list of potential target molecules for BAT recruitment, our understanding of human BAT physiology remains limited, particularly regarding interventions which might hold therapeutic promise. Cold-induced BAT thermogenesis (CIT) has been well studied, although is not readily translatable as an anti-obesity approach, whereas little is known regarding the role of BAT in human diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT). Furthermore, human studies dedicated to translating known pharmacological mechanisms of adipose browning from animal models are sparse. Several lines of recent evidence suggest that molecular regulation and physiology of human BAT differ to that of laboratory rodents, which form the majority of our knowledge base. This review will summarize knowledge on CIT and expand upon the current understanding and evidence gaps related to human adaptive thermogenesis via mechanisms other than cold. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  10. Preparation of thermosensitive magnetic liposome encapsulated recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for targeted thrombolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hao-Lung; Chen, Jyh-Ping

    2017-04-01

    Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) was encapsulated in thermosensitive magnetic liposome (TML) prepared from 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, distearolyphosphatidyl ethanolamine-N-poly(ethylene glycol) 2000, cholesterol and Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles by solvent evaporation/sonication and freeze-thaw cycles method. Response surface methodology was proved to be a powerful tool to predict the drug encapsulation efficiency and temperature-sensitive drug release. Validation experiments verified the accuracy of the model that provides a simple and effective method for fabricating TML with controllable encapsulation efficiency and predictable temperature-sensitive drug release behavior. The prepared samples were characterized for physico-chemical properties by dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. Temperature-sensitive release of rtPA could be confirmed from in vitro thrombolysis experiments. A thrombolytic drug delivery system using TML could be proposed for magnetic targeted delivery of rtPA to the site of thrombus followed by temperature-triggered controlled drug release in an alternating magnetic field.

  11. 3D Surface Mapping of Capsule Fill-Tube Assemblies used in Laser-Driven Fusion Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buice, E S; Alger, E T; Antipa, N A; Bhandarkar, S D; Biesiada, T A; Conder, A D; Dzenitis, E G; Flegel, M S; Hamza, A V; Heinbockel, C L; Horner, J; Johnson, M A; Kegelmeyer, L M; Meyer, J S; Montesanti, R C; Reynolds, J L; Taylor, J S; Wegner, P J

    2011-02-18

    This paper presents the development of a 3D surface mapping system used to measure the surface of a fusion target Capsule Fill-Tube Assembly (CFTA). The CFTA consists of a hollow Ge-doped plastic sphere, called a capsule, ranging in outer diameter between 2.2 mm and 2.6 mm and an attached 150 {micro}m diameter glass-core fill-tube that tapers down to a 10{micro} diameter at the capsule. The mapping system is an enabling technology to facilitate a quality assurance program and to archive 3D surface information of each capsule used in fusion ignition experiments that are currently being performed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The 3D Surface Mapping System is designed to locate and quantify surface features with a height of 50 nm and 300 nm in width or larger. Additionally, the system will be calibrated such that the 3D measured surface can be related to the capsule surface angular coordinate system to within 0.25 degree (1{sigma}), which corresponds to approximately 5 {micro}m linear error on the capsule surface.

  12. Testosterone differentially regulates targets of lipid and glucose metabolism in liver, muscle and adipose tissues of the testicular feminised mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Daniel M; Akhtar, Samia; Sellers, Donna J; Muraleedharan, Vakkat; Channer, Kevin S; Jones, T Hugh

    2016-11-01

    Testosterone deficiency is commonly associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and their clinical consequences-hepatic steatosis and atherosclerosis. The testicular feminised mouse (non-functional androgen receptor and low testosterone) develops fatty liver and aortic lipid streaks on a high-fat diet, whereas androgen-replete XY littermate controls do not. Testosterone treatment ameliorates these effects, although the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We compared the influence of testosterone on the expression of regulatory targets of glucose, cholesterol and lipid metabolism in muscle, liver, abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. Testicular feminised mice displayed significantly reduced GLUT4 in muscle and glycolytic enzymes in muscle, liver and abdominal subcutaneous but not visceral adipose tissue. Lipoprotein lipase required for fatty acid uptake was only reduced in subcutaneous adipose tissue; enzymes of fatty acid synthesis were increased in liver and subcutaneous tissue. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 that catalyses oleic acid synthesis and is associated with insulin resistance was increased in visceral adipose tissue and cholesterol efflux components (ABCA1, apoE) were decreased in subcutaneous and liver tissue. Master regulator nuclear receptors involved in metabolism-Liver X receptor expression was suppressed in all tissues except visceral adipose tissue, whereas PPARγ was lower in abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue and PPARα only in abdominal subcutaneous. Testosterone treatment improved the expression (androgen receptor independent) of some targets but not all. These exploratory data suggest that androgen deficiency may reduce the buffering capability for glucose uptake and utilisation in abdominal subcutaneous and muscle and fatty acids in abdominal subcutaneous. This would lead to an overspill and uptake of excess glucose and triglycerides into visceral adipose tissue, liver and arterial walls.

  13. Sparing Healthy Tissue and Increasing Tumor Dose Using Bayesian Modeling of Geometric Uncertainties for Planning Target Volume Personalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herschtal, Alan, E-mail: Alan.Herschtal@petermac.org [Department of Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Faculty of Health, Arts and Design, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne (Australia); Te Marvelde, Luc [Department of Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Mengersen, Kerrie [School of Mathematical Sciences, Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane (Australia); Foroudi, Farshad [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); The Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Eade, Thomas [Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Radiation Oncology Department, Royal North Shore Hospital, St. Leonards, Sydney (Australia); Northern Clinical School, University of Sydney (Australia); Pham, Daniel [Department of Radiation Therapy, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Caine, Hannah [Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Radiation Oncology Department, Royal North Shore Hospital, St. Leonards, Sydney (Australia); Kron, Tomas [The Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia)

    2015-06-01

    Objective: To develop a mathematical tool that can update a patient's planning target volume (PTV) partway through a course of radiation therapy to more precisely target the tumor for the remainder of treatment and reduce dose to surrounding healthy tissue. Methods and Materials: Daily on-board imaging was used to collect large datasets of displacements for patients undergoing external beam radiation therapy for solid tumors. Bayesian statistical modeling of these geometric uncertainties was used to optimally trade off between displacement data collected from previously treated patients and the progressively accumulating data from a patient currently partway through treatment, to optimally predict future displacements for that patient. These predictions were used to update the PTV position and margin width for the remainder of treatment, such that the clinical target volume (CTV) was more precisely targeted. Results: Software simulation of dose to CTV and normal tissue for 2 real prostate displacement datasets consisting of 146 and 290 patients treated with a minimum of 30 fractions each showed that re-evaluating the PTV position and margin width after 8 treatment fractions reduced healthy tissue dose by 19% and 17%, respectively, while maintaining CTV dose. Conclusion: Incorporating patient-specific displacement patterns from early in a course of treatment allows PTV adaptation for the remainder of treatment. This substantially reduces the dose to healthy tissues and thus can reduce radiation therapy–induced toxicities, improving patient outcomes.

  14. Sparing healthy tissue and increasing tumor dose using bayesian modeling of geometric uncertainties for planning target volume personalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschtal, Alan; Te Marvelde, Luc; Mengersen, Kerrie; Foroudi, Farshad; Eade, Thomas; Pham, Daniel; Caine, Hannah; Kron, Tomas

    2015-06-01

    To develop a mathematical tool that can update a patient's planning target volume (PTV) partway through a course of radiation therapy to more precisely target the tumor for the remainder of treatment and reduce dose to surrounding healthy tissue. Daily on-board imaging was used to collect large datasets of displacements for patients undergoing external beam radiation therapy for solid tumors. Bayesian statistical modeling of these geometric uncertainties was used to optimally trade off between displacement data collected from previously treated patients and the progressively accumulating data from a patient currently partway through treatment, to optimally predict future displacements for that patient. These predictions were used to update the PTV position and margin width for the remainder of treatment, such that the clinical target volume (CTV) was more precisely targeted. Software simulation of dose to CTV and normal tissue for 2 real prostate displacement datasets consisting of 146 and 290 patients treated with a minimum of 30 fractions each showed that re-evaluating the PTV position and margin width after 8 treatment fractions reduced healthy tissue dose by 19% and 17%, respectively, while maintaining CTV dose. Incorporating patient-specific displacement patterns from early in a course of treatment allows PTV adaptation for the remainder of treatment. This substantially reduces the dose to healthy tissues and thus can reduce radiation therapy-induced toxicities, improving patient outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Detection of p53 overexpression in routinely paraffin-embedded tissue of human carcinomas using a novel target unmasking fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, F. M.; Baas, I. O.; Polak, M. M.; Offerhaus, G. J.

    1993-01-01

    With the aid of a newly developed target unmasking fluid (TUF), p53 overexpression was visualized by immunohistochemistry on recent and archival paraffin-embedded tissue samples of colon, stomach, and pancreas neoplasms. Using monoclonal anti-p53 antibody pAb1801 as well as polyclonal antiserum to

  16. Tissue fibrosis and carcinogenesis: divergent or successive pathways dictate multiple molecular therapeutic targets for oligo decoy therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutroneo, Kenneth R; White, Sheryl L; Chiu, Jen-Fu; Ehrlich, H Paul

    2006-04-15

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is composed of several families of macromolecular components: fibrous proteins such as collagens, type I collagen (COL1), type III collagen (COL3), fibronectin, elastin, and glycoconjugates such as proteoglycans and matrix glycoproteins. Their receptors on the cell membrane, most of which in the case of the ECM belong to the integrins, which are heterodimeric proteins composed of alpha and beta chains. COL1 is the major fibrous collagen of bone, tendon, and skin; while COL3 is the more pliable collagen of organs like liver. Focus will not only be given to the regulation of synthesis of several fibrogenic parameters but also modulation of their degradation during growth factor-induced tissue fibrosis and cancer development. Evidence will be provided that certain tissues, which undergo fibrosis, also become cancerous. Why does there exist a divergency between tissues, which undergo frank fibrosis as an endpoint, and those tissues that undergo fibrosis and subsequently are susceptible to carcinogenicity; resulting from the etiological factor(s) causing the initial injury? For example, why does a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sponge implant become encapsulated and filled with fibrous tissue then fibrosis tissue growth stops? Why does the subcutaneous injection of a fibrogenic growth factor cause a benign growth and incisional wounding results in fibrosis and ultimately scarring? There are many examples of tissues, which undergo fibrosis as a prerequisite to carcinogenesis. Is there a cause-effect relationship? If you block tissue fibrosis in these precancerous tissues, would you block cancer formation? What are the molecular targets for blocking fibrosis and ultimately carcinogenesis? How can oligo decoys may be used to attenuate carcinogenesis and which oligo decoys specifically attenuate fibrogenesis as a prelude to carcinogenesis? What are other molecular targets for oligo decoy therapy in carcinogenesis? Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Are predictions of cancer response to targeted drugs, based on effects in unrelated tissues, the 'Black Swan' events?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbel, Beatrica; Golem, Ante Zvonimir; Kurbel, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Adverse effects of targeted drugs on normal tissues can predict the cancer response. Rash correlates with efficacy of erlotinib, cetuximab and gefitinib and onset of arterial hypertension with response to bevacizumab, sunitinib, axitinib and sorafenib, possible examples of 'Black Swan' events, unexpected scientific observations, as described by Karl Popper in 1935. The proposition is that our patients have individual intrinsic variants of cell growth control, important for tumor response and adverse effects on tumor-unrelated tissue. This means that the lack of predictive side effects in healthy tissue is linked with poor results of tumor therapy when tumor resistance is caused by mechanisms that protect all cells of that patient from the targeted drug effects.

  18. Kinase Gene Expression Profiling of Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Tissue Identifies Potential New Therapeutic Targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Ghatalia

    Full Text Available Kinases are therapeutically actionable targets. Kinase inhibitors targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR improve outcomes in metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC, but are not curative. Metastatic tumor tissue has not been comprehensively studied for kinase gene expression. Paired intra-patient kinase gene expression analysis in primary tumor (T, matched normal kidney (N and metastatic tumor tissue (M may assist in identifying drivers of metastasis and prioritizing therapeutic targets. We compared the expression of 519 kinase genes using NanoString in T, N and M in 35 patients to discover genes over-expressed in M compared to T and N tissue. RNA-seq data derived from ccRCC tumors in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA were used to demonstrate differential expression of genes in primary tumor tissue from patients that had metastasis at baseline (n = 79 compared to those that did not develop metastasis for at least 2 years (n = 187. Functional analysis was conducted to identify key signaling pathways by using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Of 10 kinase genes overexpressed in metastases compared to primary tumor in the discovery cohort, 9 genes were also differentially expressed in TCGA primary tumors with metastasis at baseline compared to primary tumors without metastasis for at least 2 years: EPHB2, AURKA, GSG2, IKBKE, MELK, CSK, CHEK2, CDC7 and MAP3K8; p<0.001. The top pathways overexpressed in M tissue were pyridoxal 5'-phosphate salvage, salvage pathways of pyrimidine ribonucleotides, NF-kB signaling, NGF signaling and cell cycle control of chromosomal replication. The 9 kinase genes validated to be over-expressed in metastatic ccRCC may represent currently unrecognized but potentially actionable therapeutic targets that warrant functional validation.

  19. Targeted tissue perfusion versus macrocirculation-guided standard care in patients with septic shock (TARTARE-2S)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettilä, Ville; Merz, Tobias; Wilkman, Erika

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Septic shock has a 90-day mortality risk of up to 50 %. The hemodynamic targets, including mean arterial pressure (MAP) are not based on robust clinical data. Both severe hypotension and high doses of vasopressors may be harmful. Hence, re-evaluation of hemodynamic targets in septic...... shock is relevant. METHODS/DESIGN: The targeted tissue perfusion versus macrocirculation-guided standard care in patients with septic shock (TARTARE-2S) trial is a prospective, two-parallel-group, randomized, open-label, multicenter trial with assessor-blinded outcome evaluation. We will randomize...... at least 200 patients with septic shock in four European intensive care units (ICUs) to test whether a tissue perfusion-guided treatment strategy based on capillary refill time, peripheral temperature, arterial lactate concentrations, and accepting lower MAP levels, leads to a faster resolution of shock...

  20. De novo transcriptome assembly and characterization of nine tissues of Lonicera japonica to identify potential candidate genes involved in chlorogenic acid, luteolosides, and secoiridoid biosynthesis pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Amit; Kamochi, Hidetaka; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Michimi; Takahashi, Hiroki; Hatada, Tomoki; Saito, Kazuki; Yamazaki, Mami

    2017-01-01

    Lonicera japonica is one of the most important medicinal plants with applications in traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine for thousands of years. Extensive studies on the constituents of L. japonica extracts have revealed an accumulation of pharmaceutically active metabolite classes, such as chlorogenic acid, luteolin and other flavonoids, and secoiridoids, which impart characteristic medicinal properties. Despite being a rich source of pharmaceutically active metabolites, little is known about the biosynthetic enzymes involved, and their expression profile across different tissues of L. japonica. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly for L. japonica, representing transcripts from nine different tissues. A total of 22 Gbps clean RNA-seq reads from nine tissues of L. japonica were used, resulting in 243,185 unigenes, with 99,938 unigenes annotated based on a homology search using blastx against the NCBI-nr protein database. Unsupervised principal component analysis and correlation studies using transcript expression data from all nine tissues of L. japonica showed relationships between tissues, explaining their association at different developmental stages. Homologs for all genes associated with chlorogenic acid, luteolin, and secoiridoid biosynthesis pathways were identified in the L. japonica transcriptome assembly. Expression of unigenes associated with chlorogenic acid was enriched in stems and leaf-2, unigenes from luteolin were enriched in stems and flowers, while unigenes from secoiridoid metabolic pathways were enriched in leaf-1 and shoot apex. Our results showed that different tissues of L. japonica are enriched with sets of unigenes associated with specific pharmaceutically important metabolic pathways and, therefore, possess unique medicinal properties. The present study will serve as a resource for future attempts for functional characterization of enzyme coding genes within key metabolic processes.

  1. Fast heating of fuel assembled in a spherical deuterated polystyrene shell target by counter-irradiating tailored laser pulses delivered by a HAMA 1 Hz ICF driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Y.; Nishimura, Y.; Hanayama, R.; Nakayama, S.; Ishii, K.; Kitagawa, Y.; Sekine, T.; Takeuchi, Y.; Kurita, T.; Satoh, N.; Kawashima, T.; Komeda, O.; Nishi, T.; Azuma, H.; Hioki, T.; Motohiro, T.; Sunahara, A.; Sentoku, Y.; Miura, E.

    2017-11-01

    Fast heating is a method of heating an assembled high-density plasma into a hot state by irradiating it with short-duration (sub-picosecond), high-intensity (> 1018 W cm-2 ) laser pulses before the plasma expands and dissolves hydrodynamically. In this paper, we present detailed experimental results of fast heating fuel assembled in a spherical deuterated polystyrene shell target of 500 μ m diameter and 7 μm thickness with counterbeam illumination by using a HAMA 1 Hz, 5.9 J inertial confinement fusion laser driver with pulse tailoring. These tailored pulses contain three pulses in sequence: a ‘foot’ pulse of 2.4 J/25 ns, a ‘spike’ pulse of 0.5 J/300 ps and a ‘heater’ pulse of 0.4 J/110 fs; these pulses are designed to assemble the fuel and heat it. By varying the energy of the foot pulse, we find that fast heating the fuel is achieved only if the fuel is weakly ablated by the foot pulse and then shock-assembled by the spike pulse into the target centre so that the heater pulse can access the fuel with a focal intensity greater than 1018 W cm-2 . Without a foot pulse, the heater pulse contributes to assembling the fuel. For higher foot-pulse energies, the heater pulse drives a hydrodynamic motion with speeds of the order 107 cm s-1 with intensities of the order 1017 W cm-2 , resulting in re-assembling and additional heating of the pre-assembled fuel. Once a shock-assembled core is achieved at the target centre, we succeed qualitatively in fast heating the core for shots in sequence with variations of laser energy within 18%. The coupling efficiency from the heating laser to the core is inferred to be (10 +/- 2) % in total: (8 +/- 1.6) % for the ionized bulk electrons and (2 +/- 0.4) % for the bulk ions. The fusion neutron spectrum detected on the laser axis exhibits peaks at 1.0 MeV, 1.7 MeV and 3.8 MeV. These peaks are attributed to the C(d, n){\\hspace{0pt}}13 N and d(d, n){\\hspace{0pt}}3 He reactions induced by counterpropagating fast deuterons

  2. Chemopreventive glucosinolate accumulation in various broccoli and collard tissues: Microfluidic-based targeted transcriptomics for by-product valorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Talon M.; Juvik, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Floret, leaf, and root tissues were harvested from broccoli and collard cultivars and extracted to determine their glucosinolate and hydrolysis product profiles using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromotography. Quinone reductase inducing bioactivity, an estimate of anti-cancer chemopreventive potential, of the extracts was measured using a hepa1c1c7 murine cell line. Extracts from root tissues were significantly different from other tissues and contained high levels of gluconasturtiin and glucoerucin. Targeted gene expression analysis on glucosinolate biosynthesis revealed that broccoli root tissue has elevated gene expression of AOP2 and low expression of FMOGS-OX homologs, essentially the opposite of what was observed in broccoli florets, which accumulated high levels of glucoraphanin. Broccoli floret tissue has significantly higher nitrile formation (%) and epithionitrile specifier protein gene expression than other tissues. This study provides basic information of the glucosinolate metabolome and transcriptome for various tissues of Brassica oleracea that maybe utilized as potential byproducts for the nutraceutical market. PMID:28945821

  3. Weak mitochondrial targeting sequence determines tissue-specific subcellular localization of glutamine synthetase in liver and brain cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Gideon D; Gur, Noa; Koopman, Werner J H; Pines, Ophry; Vardimon, Lily

    2010-02-01

    Evolution of the uricotelic system for ammonia detoxification required a mechanism for tissue-specific subcellular localization of glutamine synthetase (GS). In uricotelic vertebrates, GS is mitochondrial in liver cells and cytoplasmic in brain. Because these species contain a single copy of the GS gene, it is not clear how tissue-specific subcellular localization is achieved. Here we show that in chicken, which utilizes the uricotelic system, the GS transcripts of liver and brain cells are identical and, consistently, there is no difference in the amino acid sequence of the protein. The N-terminus of GS, which constitutes a 'weak' mitochondrial targeting signal (MTS), is sufficient to direct a chimeric protein to the mitochondria in hepatocytes and to the cytoplasm in astrocytes. Considering that a weak MTS is dependent on a highly negative mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi) for import, we examined the magnitude of DeltaPsi in hepatocytes and astrocytes. Our results unexpectedly revealed that DeltaPsi in hepatocytes is considerably more negative than that of astrocytes and that converting the targeting signal into 'strong' MTS abolished the capability to confer tissue-specific subcellular localization. We suggest that evolutional selection of weak MTS provided a tool for differential targeting of an identical protein by taking advantage of tissue-specific differences in DeltaPsi.

  4. Reconstruction of enhancer-target networks in 935 samples of human primary cells, tissues and cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qin; Anyansi, Christine; Hu, Xihao; Xu, Liangliang; Xiong, Lei; Tang, Wenshu; Mok, Myth T S; Cheng, Chao; Fan, Xiaodan; Gerstein, Mark; Cheng, Alfred S L; Yip, Kevin Y

    2017-10-01

    We propose a new method for determining the target genes of transcriptional enhancers in specific cells and tissues. It combines global trends across many samples and sample-specific information, and considers the joint effect of multiple enhancers. Our method outperforms existing methods when predicting the target genes of enhancers in unseen samples, as evaluated by independent experimental data. Requiring few types of input data, we are able to apply our method to reconstruct the enhancer-target networks in 935 samples of human primary cells, tissues and cell lines, which constitute by far the largest set of enhancer-target networks. The similarity of these networks from different samples closely follows their cell and tissue lineages. We discover three major co-regulation modes of enhancers and find defense-related genes often simultaneously regulated by multiple enhancers bound by different transcription factors. We also identify differentially methylated enhancers in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and experimentally confirm their altered regulation of HCC-related genes.

  5. Mucosal delivery routes for optimal immunization: targeting immunity to the right tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerkinsky, C; Holmgren, J

    2012-01-01

    The mucosal immune system exhibits a high degree of anatomic compartmentalization related to the migratory patterns of lymphocytes activated at different mucosal sites. The selective localization of mucosal lymphocytes to specific tissues is governed by cellular "homing" and chemokine receptors in conjunction with tissue-specific addressins and epithelial cell-derived chemokines that are differentially expressed in "effector" tissues. The compartmentalization of mucosal immune responses imposes constraints on the selection of vaccine administration route. Traditional routes of mucosal immunization include oral and nasal routes. Other routes for inducing mucosal immunity include the rectal, vaginal, sublingual, and transcutaneous routes. Sublingual administration is a new approach that results in induction of mucosal and systemic T cell and antibody responses with an exceptionally broad dissemination to different mucosae, including the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, and the genital mucosa. Here, we discuss how sublingual and different routes of immunization can be used to generate immune responses in the desired mucosal tissue(s).

  6. Pericoronary adipose tissue: a novel therapeutic target in obesity-related coronary atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Tomasz; Opolski, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation plays a crucial role in the development and destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques in coronary vessels. Adipose tissue is considered to act in paracrine manner, which modulates a number of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Perivascular adipose tissue has developed specific properties that distinguish it from the fat in other locations. Interestingly, its activity depends on several metabolic conditions associated with insulin resistance and weight gain. Particularly in obesity perivascular fat seems to change its character from a protective to a detrimental one. The present review analyzes literature in terms of the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, with particular emphasis on inflammatory processes. Additionally, the authors summarize data about confirmed paracrine activity of visceral adipose tissue and especially about pericoronary fat influence on the vascular wall. The contribution of adiponectin, leptin and resistin is addressed. Experimental and clinical data supporting the thesis of outside-to-inside signaling in the pericoronary milieu are further outlined. Clinical implications of epicardial and pericoronary adipose tissue activity are also evaluated. The role of pericoronary adipose tissue in obesity-related atherosclerosis is highlighted. In conclusion, the authors discuss potential therapeutical implications of these novel phenomena, including adipokine imbalance in pericoronary adipose tissue in the setting of obesity, the influence of lifestyle and diet modification, pharmaceutical interventions and the growing role of microRNAs in adipogenesis, insulin resistance and obesity. Key teaching points: • adipose tissue as a source of inflammatory mediators • changes in the vascular wall as a result of outside-to-inside signaling • anatomy, physiology, and clinical implications of epicardial and pericoronary adipose tissue activity • adipokines and their role in obesity-related atherosclerosis • therapeutic

  7. Tissue factor is an angiogenic-specific receptor for factor VII-targeted immunotherapy and photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhiwei; Cheng, Jijun; Xu, Jie; Ruf, Wolfram; Lockwood, Charles J

    2017-02-01

    Identification of target molecules specific for angiogenic vascular endothelial cells (VEC), the inner layer of pathological neovasculature, is critical for discovery and development of neovascular-targeting therapy for angiogenesis-dependent human diseases, notably cancer, macular degeneration and endometriosis, in which vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a central pathophysiological role. Using VEGF-stimulated vascular endothelial cells (VECs) isolated from microvessels, venous and arterial blood vessels as in vitro angiogenic models and unstimulated VECs as a quiescent VEC model, we examined the expression of tissue factor (TF), a membrane-bound receptor on the angiogenic VEC models compared with quiescent VEC controls. We found that TF is specifically expressed on angiogenic VECs in a time-dependent manner in microvessels, venous and arterial vessels. TF-targeted therapeutic agents, including factor VII (fVII)-IgG1 Fc and fVII-conjugated photosensitizer, can selectively bind angiogenic VECs, but not the quiescent VECs. Moreover, fVII-targeted photodynamic therapy can selectively and completely eradicate angiogenic VECs. We conclude that TF is an angiogenic-specific receptor and the target molecule for fVII-targeted therapeutics. This study supports clinical trials of TF-targeted therapeutics for the treatment of angiogenesis-dependent diseases such as cancer, macular degeneration and endometriosis.

  8. Transplantation of Xenopus laevis tissues to determine the ability of motor neurons to acquire a novel target.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L Elliott

    Full Text Available The evolutionary origin of novelties is a central problem in biology. At a cellular level this requires, for example, molecularly resolving how brainstem motor neurons change their innervation target from muscle fibers (branchial motor neurons to neural crest-derived ganglia (visceral motor neurons or ear-derived hair cells (inner ear and lateral line efferent neurons. Transplantation of various tissues into the path of motor neuron axons could determine the ability of any motor neuron to innervate a novel target. Several tissues that receive direct, indirect, or no motor innervation were transplanted into the path of different motor neuron populations in Xenopus laevis embryos. Ears, somites, hearts, and lungs were transplanted to the orbit, replacing the eye. Jaw and eye muscle were transplanted to the trunk, replacing a somite. Applications of lipophilic dyes and immunohistochemistry to reveal motor neuron axon terminals were used. The ear, but not somite-derived muscle, heart, or liver, received motor neuron axons via the oculomotor or trochlear nerves. Somite-derived muscle tissue was innervated, likely by the hypoglossal nerve, when replacing the ear. In contrast to our previous report on ear innervation by spinal motor neurons, none of the tissues (eye or jaw muscle was innervated when transplanted to the trunk. Taken together, these results suggest that there is some plasticity inherent to motor innervation, but not every motor neuron can become an efferent to any target that normally receives motor input. The only tissue among our samples that can be innervated by all motor neurons tested is the ear. We suggest some possible, testable molecular suggestions for this apparent uniqueness.

  9. BMP-1/tolloid-like proteinases synchronize matrix assembly with growth factor activation to promote morphogenesis and tissue remodeling

    OpenAIRE

    Vadon-Le Goff, Sandrine; Hulmes, David J. S.; Moali, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein-1 (BMP-1)/tolloid-like proteinases, here called BTPs, include the proteases originally identified for their roles in the C-terminal maturation of fibrillar procollagens ("procollagen C-proteinase"). Though numerous other substrates have since been discovered, the BTPs remain the main proteases involved in extracellular matrix assembly with little or no implication in matrix degradation. During the same period however, the BTPs have also become established as importa...

  10. Carbon nanotube-composite hydrogels promote intercalated disc assembly in engineered cardiac tissues through β1-integrin mediated FAK and RhoA pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongyu; Tang, Jiajia; Mou, Yongchao; Zhou, Jing; Qu, Linlin; Duval, Kayla; Huang, Zhu; Lin, Ning; Dai, Ruiwu; Liang, Chengxiao; Chen, Zi; Tang, Lijun; Tian, Fuzhou

    2017-01-15

    Carbon nanotube (CNT)-based hydrogels have been shown to support cardiomyocyte growth and function. However, their role in cellular integrity among cardiomyocytes has not been studied in detail and the mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear. Here, single walled CNTs incorporated into gelatin with methacrylate anhydride (CNT/GelMA) hydrogels were utilized to construct cardiac tissues, which enhanced cardiomyocyte adhesion and maturation. Furthermore, through the use of immunohistochemical staining, transmission electron microscopy and intracellular calcium transient measurement, the incorporation of CNTs into the scaffolds was observed to markedly enhance the assembly and formation in the cardiac constructs. Importantly, we further explored the underlying mechanism behind these effects through the use of immunohistochemical staining and western blotting. The β1-integrin-mediated FAK and RhoA signaling pathways were found to be responsible for CNT-induced upregulation of electrical and mechanical junction proteins respectively. Together, our study provides new insights into the facilitative effects of CNTs on ID formation, which has important significance for improving the quality of engineered cardiac tissue and applying them to cardiac regenerative therapies. Currently, the bottleneck to engineering cardiac tissues (ECTs) for cardiac regeneration is the lack of efficient cellular integrity among adjacent cells, especially the insufficient remodeling of intercalated discs (IDs) in ECTs. Recently, carbon nanotube (CNT) hydrogels provide an advantageous supporting microenvironment and therefore benefit greatly the functional performance of ECTs. Although their beneficial effect in modulating ECT performance is evident, the influence of CNTs on structural integrity of ECTs has not been studied in detail, and the mechanisms underlying the process remain to be determined. Here, we utilized carbon nanotube incorporated into gelatin with methacrylate anhydride

  11. New target tissue for food-borne virus detection in oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D; Wu, Q; Yao, L; Wei, M; Kou, X; Zhang, J

    2008-11-01

    To evaluate the different tissues of naturally contaminated oyster for food-borne virus detection. The different tissues of 136 field oyster samples were analysed for norovirus (NV), hepatitis A virus (HAV) and rotavirus (RV) by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and were confirmed by sequencing. These viruses were detected in 20 samples (14.71%), showing positivity for NV (1.47%), HAV (5.15%) and RV (8.82%). Furthermore, among different tissues, the highest positive rate of the food-borne viruses was found in the gills (14.71%), followed by the stomach (13.97%) and the digestive diverticula (13.24%). The food-borne viruses were detected in the gills, stomach, digestive diverticula and the cilia of the mantle. In addition, the results showed that the gills are one of the appropriate tissues for viral detection in oysters by nucleic acid assay. This is the first paper to report on the presence of food-borne viruses in the gills and the cilia of the mantle of naturally contaminated oysters. The research team hopes that the results of the study will be of help in sampling the appropriate tissues for the detection of food-borne viruses in commercial oysters.

  12. Deep-Dive Targeted Quantification for Ultrasensitive Analysis of Proteins in Nondepleted Human Blood Plasma/Serum and Tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, Song [Biological Sciences Division; Shi, Tujin [Biological Sciences Division; Fillmore, Thomas L. [Biological Sciences Division; Schepmoes, Athena A. [Biological Sciences Division; Brewer, Heather [Biological Sciences Division; Gao, Yuqian [Biological Sciences Division; Song, Ehwang [Biological Sciences Division; Wang, Hui [Biological Sciences Division; Rodland, Karin D. [Biological Sciences Division; Qian, Wei-Jun [Biological Sciences Division; Smith, Richard D. [Biological Sciences Division; Liu, Tao [Biological Sciences Division

    2017-08-11

    Mass spectrometry-based targeted proteomics (e.g., selected reaction monitoring, SRM) is emerging as an attractive alternative to immunoassays for protein quantification. Recently we have made significant progress in SRM sensitivity for enabling quantification of low ng/mL to sub-ng/mL level proteins in nondepleted human blood plasma/serum without affinity enrichment. However, precise quantification of extremely low abundant but biologically important proteins (e.g., ≤100 pg/mL in blood plasma/serum) using targeted proteomics approaches still remains challenging. To address this need, we have developed an antibody-independent Deep-Dive SRM (DD-SRM) approach that capitalizes on multidimensional high-resolution reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) separation for target peptide enrichment combined with precise selection of target peptide fractions of interest, significantly improving SRM sensitivity by ~5 orders of magnitude when compared to conventional LC-SRM. Application of DD-SRM to human serum and tissue has been demonstrated to enable precise quantification of endogenous proteins at ~10 pg/mL level in nondepleted serum and at <10 copies per cell level in tissue. Thus, DD-SRM holds great promise for precisely measuring extremely low abundance proteins or protein modifications, especially when high-quality antibody is not available.

  13. 3D Printing of Human Tissue Mimics via Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Polymer/Hydrogel Biopapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringeisen, Bradley

    2015-03-01

    The foundations of tissue engineering were built on two fundamental areas of research: cells and scaffolds. Multipotent cells and their derivatives are traditionally randomly seeded into sophisticated polymer or hydrogel scaffolds, ultimately with the goal of forming a tissue-like material through cell differentiation and cell-material interactions. One problem with this approach is that no matter how complex or biomimetic the scaffold is, the cells are still homogeneously distributed throughout this three dimensional (3D) material. Natural tissue is inherently heterogeneous on both a microscopic and macroscopic level. It also contains different types of cells in close proximity, extracellular matrix, voids, and a complex vascularized network. Recently developed 3D cell and organ printers may be able to enhance traditional tissue engineering experiments by building scaffolds layer-by-layer that are crafted to mimic the microscopic and macroscopic structure of natural tissue or organs. Over the past decade, my laboratory has developed a capillary-free, live cell printer termed biological laser printing, or BioLP. We find that printed cells do not express heat shock protein and retain >99% viability. Printed cells also incur no DNA strand fracture and preserve their ability to differentiate. Recent work has used a layer-by-layer approach, stacking sheets of hybrid polymer/hydrogel biopapers in conjunction with live cell printing to create 3D tissue structures. Our specific work is now focused on the blood-brain-barrier and air-lung interface and will be described during the presentation.

  14. Targeting obesity-related adipose tissue dysfunction to prevent cancer development and progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucalp, Ayca; Iyengar, Neil M; Hudis, Clifford A; Dannenberg, Andrew J

    2016-02-01

    The incidence of obesity, a leading modifiable risk factor for common solid tumors, is increasing. Effective interventions are needed to minimize the public health implications of obesity. Although the mechanisms linking increased adiposity to malignancy are incompletely understood, growing evidence points to complex interactions among multiple systemic and tissue-specific pathways including inflamed white adipose tissue. The metabolic and inflammatory consequences of white adipose tissue dysfunction collectively provide a plausible explanation for the link between overweight/obesity and carcinogenesis. Gaining a better understanding of these underlying molecular pathways and developing risk assessment tools that identify at-risk populations will be critical in implementing effective and novel cancer prevention and management strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [The oncofetal gene survivin - a possible target gene for regenerative therapy concepts in cartilaginous tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechler, P; Handel, M; Anders, S; Balakrishnan, S; Grifka, J

    2012-04-01

    Survivin, the smallest member of the inhibitor of the apoptosis protein gene family (IAP) is a key molecule for mammalian cell cycle regulation and cellular survival. Of note these functions have been thought to be limited to embryonic and malignant tissues. However, a growing body of evidence indicates a limited expression of survivin in some highly specific adult tissues and cells. In the present study it has been demonstrated that the antiapoptotic protein survivin is re-expressed in osteoarthritic human cartilage and primary human chondrocytes. Furthermore, the data indicated that survivin significantly affects cell cycle regulation and cellular survival. The modulation of survivin expression and function in cartilaginous tissues might be important for understanding osteoarthritis and the development of regenerative strategies.

  16. De novo Transcriptome Assembly of Common Wild Rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) and Discovery of Drought-Response Genes in Root Tissue Based on Transcriptomic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xin-Jie; Long, Yan; Wang, Jiao; Zhang, Jing-Wen; Wang, Yan-Yan; Li, Wei-Min; Peng, Yu-Fa; Yuan, Qian-Hua; Pei, Xin-Wu

    2015-01-01

    The perennial O. rufipogon (common wild rice), which is considered to be the ancestor of Asian cultivated rice species, contains many useful genetic resources, including drought resistance genes. However, few studies have identified the drought resistance and tissue-specific genes in common wild rice. In this study, transcriptome sequencing libraries were constructed, including drought-treated roots (DR) and control leaves (CL) and roots (CR). Using Illumina sequencing technology, we generated 16.75 million bases of high-quality sequence data for common wild rice and conducted de novo assembly and annotation of genes without prior genome information. These reads were assembled into 119,332 unigenes with an average length of 715 bp. A total of 88,813 distinct sequences (74.42% of unigenes) significantly matched known genes in the NCBI NT database. Differentially expressed gene (DEG) analysis showed that 3617 genes were up-regulated and 4171 genes were down-regulated in the CR library compared with the CL library. Among the DEGs, 535 genes were expressed in roots but not in shoots. A similar comparison between the DR and CR libraries showed that 1393 genes were up-regulated and 315 genes were down-regulated in the DR library compared with the CR library. Finally, 37 genes that were specifically expressed in roots were screened after comparing the DEGs identified in the above-described analyses. This study provides a transcriptome sequence resource for common wild rice plants and establishes a digital gene expression profile of wild rice plants under drought conditions using the assembled transcriptome data as a reference. Several tissue-specific and drought-stress-related candidate genes were identified, representing a fully characterized transcriptome and providing a valuable resource for genetic and genomic studies in plants.

  17. Layer-by-layer assembly of type I collagen and chondroitin sulfate on aminolyzed PU for potential cartilage tissue engineering application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Xianyun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang Yingjun, E-mail: imwangyj@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China) and National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, Guangzhou 510006 (China) and Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wu Gang, E-mail: imwugang@scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2012-10-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel biodegradable polyurethane (PU) was successfully synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface aminolyzing of the PU was performed by reacting it with 1,3-propanediamine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Collagen and chondroitin sulfate were deposited alternately on the PU surface. - Abstract: In this paper, a two-step method was used to synthesize a biodegradable polyurethane (PU) composed of L-lysine ethyl ester diisocyanate (LDI), poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) diols (PCL-diol) and 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-D-sorbitol (isosorbide). Amino groups were introduced onto the surface of the PU membrane by an amination reacting with 1,3-propanediamine to produce polycationic substratum. And then, type I collagen (Col) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) were deposited alternately on the polycationic substratum through layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly technology. The FTIR and {sup 1}H NMR results showed that the polyurethane was successfully synthesized. Rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RBITC) fluorescence spectrum indicated that amino groups were successfully introduced onto the PU surface. The results of quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) and RBITC-Col fluorescence spectroscopy monitoring the LBL assemble process presented that the Col/CS deposited alternately on the PU surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results displayed that the CS deposited on the PU surface as well. The surface of the assembled PU became even smoother observed from the surface morphology by atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging. The hydrophilicity of the PU membrane was greatly enhanced though the modification of LBL assembly. The PU modified with the adsorption of Col/CS may be a potential application for cartilage tissue engineering due to its created mimicking chondrogenic environment.

  18. A Combination of Radiosurgery and Soluble Tissue Factor Enhances Vascular Targeting for Experimental Glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Tu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiosurgery for glioblastoma is limited to the development of resistance, allowing tumor cells to survive and initiate tumor recurrence. Based on our previous work that coadministration of tissue factor and lipopolysaccharide following radiosurgery selectively induced thrombosis in cerebral arteriovenous malformations, achieving thrombosis of 69% of the capillaries and 39% of medium sized vessels, we hypothesized that a rapid and selective shutdown of the capillaries in glioblastoma vasculature would decrease the delivery of oxygen and nutrients, reducing tumor growth, preventing intracranial hypertension, and improving life expectancy. Glioblastoma was formed by implantation of GL261 cells into C57Bl/6 mouse brain. Mice were intravenously injected tissue factor, lipopolysaccharide, a combination of both, or placebo 24 hours after radiosurgery. Control mice received both agents after sham irradiation. Coadministration of tissue factor and lipopolysaccharide led to the formation of thrombi in up to 87 ± 8% of the capillaries and 46 ± 4% of medium sized vessels within glioblastoma. The survival rate of mice in this group was 80% versus no survivor in placebo controls 30 days after irradiation. Animal body weight increased with time in this group (r=0.88, P=0.0001. Thus, radiosurgery enhanced treatment with tissue factor, and lipopolysaccharide selectively induces thrombosis in glioblastoma vasculature, improving life expectancy.

  19. Assembly and Irradiation Modeling of Residual Stresses in Low-Enriched Uranium Foil-Based Annular Targets for Molybdenum-99 Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srisharan G. Govindarajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a composite cylindrical structure, with low-enriched uranium (LEU foil enclosed between two aluminum 6061-T6 cylinders. A recess is cut all around the outer circumference of the inner tube to accommodate the LEU foil of open-cross section. To obtain perfect contact at the interfaces of the foil and the tubes, an internal pressure is applied to the inner tube, thereby plastically and elastically deforming it. The residual stresses resulting from the assembly process are used along with a thermal stress model to predict the stress margins in the cladding during irradiation. The whole process was simulated as a steady-state two-dimensional problem using the commercial finite element code Abaqus FEA. The irradiation behavior of the annular target has been presented, and the effect of the assembly residual stresses has been discussed.

  20. Advances in oral nano-delivery systems for colon targeted drug delivery in inflammatory bowel disease: selective targeting to diseased versus healthy tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Susan; Marks, Ellen; Schneider, Jennifer J; Keely, Simon

    2015-07-01

    Colon targeted drug delivery is an active area of research for local diseases affecting the colon, as it improves the efficacy of therapeutics and enables localized treatment, which reduces systemic toxicity. Targeted delivery of therapeutics to the colon is particularly advantageous for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Advances in oral drug delivery design have significantly improved the bioavailability of drugs to the colon; however in order for a drug to have therapeutic efficacy during disease, considerations must be made for the altered physiology of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract that is associated with GI inflammation. Nanotechnology has been used in oral dosage formulation design as strategies to further enhance uptake into diseased tissue within the colon. This review will describe some of the physiological challenges faced by orally administered delivery systems in IBD, the important developments in orally administered nano-delivery systems for colon targeting, and the future advances of this research. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) poses a significant problem for a large number of patients worldwide. Current medical therapy mostly aims at suppressing the active inflammatory episodes. In this review article, the authors described and discussed the various approaches current nano-delivery systems can offer in overcoming the limitations of conventional drug formulations. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Targeting MED1 LxxLL Motifs for Tissue-Selective Treatment of Human Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Kynamro) has recently gained FDA approval for the treatment of high cholesterol , a major contributor to Coronary Heart Disease (CDH). Kynamro is a...stage II colon cancer into groups at low and high risk of disease recurrence, thereby adding prognostic value to the traditional clinicopathological... risk factors (11). miRNAs can be further used as biomarkers for identifying tissue origin in metastatic tumors (13, 14). By measuring miRNA

  2. Targeting Adipose Tissue Lipid Metabolism to Improve Glucose Metabolism in Cardiometabolic Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jocken, Johan W. E.; Goossens, Gijs H.; Blaak, Ellen E

    2014-01-01

    With Type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease prevalence on the rise, there is a growing need for improved strategies to prevent or treat obesity and insulin resistance, both of which are major risk factors for these chronic diseases. Impairments in adipose tissue lipid metabolism seem to play a critical role in these disorders. In the classical picture of intracellular lipid breakdown, cytosolic lipolysis was proposed as the sole mechanism for triacylglycerol hydrolysis in adipocy...

  3. Effect of skin thickness on target motion during needle insertion into soft-tissue phantoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abayazid, Momen; op den Buijs, J.; de Korte, C.L.; Misra, Sarthak

    2012-01-01

    Small breast lesions are increasingly detected by medical imaging modalities. However, a biopsy of the lesion is required to make a definitive diagnosis. During the biopsy, displacement of the target (lesion) occurs as the needle indents and punctures the skin layer, and penetrates further into the

  4. In vivo evidence of the targeting of cartilaginous tissue by pyridinium functionalized nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlieras, Jessica; Chezal, Jean-Michel; Miot-Noirault, Elizabeth; Vidal, Aurélien; Besse, Sophie; Kryza, David; Truillet, Charles; Mignot, Anna; Antoine, Rodolphe; Dugourd, Philippe; Redini, Françoise; Sancey, Lucie; Lux, François; Perriat, Pascal; Janier, Marc; Tillement, Olivier

    2013-04-14

    Ultrasmall gadolinium based particles have been functionalized with positively charged pyridinium quaternary ammonium and labelled with (111)In. Evidence of their active targeting properties towards proteoglycans has been demonstrated in vivo after intravenous injection into rats opening thus a route to cancer imaging and therapy.

  5. Human anti-Aβ IgGs target conformational epitopes on synthetic dimer assemblies and the AD brain-derived peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welzel, Alfred T; Williams, Angela D; McWilliams-Koeppen, Helen P; Acero, Luis; Weber, Alfred; Blinder, Veronika; Mably, Alex; Bunk, Sebastian; Hermann, Corinna; Farrell, Michael A; Ehrlich, Hartmut J; Schwarz, Hans P; Walsh, Dominic M; Solomon, Alan; O'Nuallain, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Soluble non-fibrillar assemblies of amyloid-beta (Aβ) and aggregated tau protein are the proximate synaptotoxic species associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Anti-Aβ immunotherapy is a promising and advanced therapeutic strategy, but the precise Aβ species to target is not yet known. Previously, we and others have shown that natural human IgGs (NAbs) target diverse Aβ conformers and have therapeutic potential. We now demonstrate that these antibodies bound with nM avidity to conformational epitopes on plate-immobilized synthetic Aβ dimer assemblies, including synaptotoxic protofibrils, and targeted these conformers in solution. Importantly, NAbs also recognized Aβ extracted from the water-soluble phase of human AD brain, including species that migrated on denaturing PAGE as SDS-stable dimers. The critical reliance on Aβ's conformational state for NAb binding, and not a linear sequence epitope, was confirmed by the antibody's nM reactivity with plate-immobilized protofibrills, and weak uM binding to synthetic Aβ monomers and peptide fragments. The antibody's lack of reactivity against a linear sequence epitope was confirmed by our ability to isolate anti-Aβ NAbs from intravenous immunoglobulin using affinity matrices, immunoglobulin light chain fibrils and Cibacron blue, which had no sequence similarity with the peptide. These findings suggest that further investigations on the molecular basis and the therapeutic/diagnostic potential of anti-Aβ NAbs are warranted.

  6. Targeted Delivery of Neutralizing Anti-C5 Antibody to Renal Endothelium Prevents Complement-Dependent Tissue Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Durigutto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Complement activation is largely implicated in the pathogenesis of several clinical conditions and its therapeutic neutralization has proven effective in preventing tissue and organ damage. A problem that still needs to be solved in the therapeutic control of complement-mediated diseases is how to avoid side effects associated with chronic neutralization of the complement system, in particular, the increased risk of infections. We addressed this issue developing a strategy based on the preferential delivery of a C5 complement inhibitor to the organ involved in the pathologic process. To this end, we generated Ergidina, a neutralizing recombinant anti-C5 human antibody coupled with a cyclic-RGD peptide, with a distinctive homing property for ischemic endothelial cells and effective in controlling tissue damage in a rat model of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI. As a result of its preferential localization on renal endothelium, the molecule induced complete inhibition of complement activation at tissue level, and local protection from complement-mediated tissue damage without affecting circulating C5. The ex vivo binding of Ergidina to surgically removed kidney exposed to cold ischemia supports its therapeutic use to prevent posttransplant IRI leading to delay of graft function. Moreover, the finding that the ex vivo binding of Ergidina was not restricted to the kidney, but was also seen on ischemic heart, suggests that this RGD-targeted anti-C5 antibody may represent a useful tool to treat organs prior to transplantation. Based on this evidence, we propose preliminary data showing that Ergidina is a novel targeted drug to prevent complement activation on the endothelium of ischemic kidney.

  7. Reagent Precoated Targets for Rapid In-Tissue Derivatization of the Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Isoniazid Followed by MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manier, M. Lisa; Reyzer, Michelle L.; Goh, Anne; Dartois, Veronique; Via, Laura E.; Barry, Clifton E.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2011-08-01

    Isoniazid (INH) is an important component of front-line anti-tuberculosis therapy with good serum pharmacokinetics but unknown ability to penetrate tuberculous lesions. However, endogenous background interferences hinder our ability to directly analyze INH in tissues. Chemical derivatization has been successfully used to measure isoniazid directly from tissue samples using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). MALDI targets were pretreated with trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA) prior to mounting tissue slices. Isoniazid present in the tissues was efficiently derivatized and the INH-CA product measured by MS/MS. Precoating of MALDI targets allows the tissues to be directly thaw-mounted and derivatized, thus simplifying the preparation. A time-course series of tissues from tuberculosis infected/INH dosed animals were assayed and the MALDI MS/MS response correlates well with the amount of INH determined to be in the tissues by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-MS/MS.

  8. Mononuclear phagocytes as targets, tissue reservoirs, and immunoregulatory cells in human immunodeficiency virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, M S; Gendelman, H E

    1992-01-01

    We have presented evidence in this review for the following: 1. Macrophages are likely the first cell infected by HIV. Studies document recovery of HIV into macrophages in the early stages of infection in which virus isolation in T cells is unsuccessful and detectable levels of antibodies against HIV are absent. 2. Macrophages are major tissue reservoirs for HIV during all stages of infection. Unlike the lytic infection of T cells, many HIV-infected macrophages show little or no virus-induced cytopathic effects. HIV-infected macrophages persist in tissue for extended periods of time (months) with large numbers of infectious particles contained within intracytoplasmic vacuoles. 3. Macrophages are a vector for the spread of infection to different tissues within the patient and between individuals. Several studies suggest a "Trojan horse" role for HIV-infected macrophages in dissemination of infectious particles. The predominant cell in most bodily fluids (alveolar fluid, colostrum, semen, vaginal secretions) is the macrophage. In semen, for example, the numbers of macrophages exceed those of lymphocytes by more than 20-fold (Wolf and Anderson 1988). 4. Macrophages are major regulatory cells that control the pace and intensity of disease progression in HIV infection. Macrophage secretory products are implicated in the pathogenesis of CNS disease and in control of viral latency in HIV-infected T cells. This litany of events in which macrophages participate in HIV infection in man parallels similar observations in such animal lentivirus infections as visna-maedi or caprine arthritis-encephalitis viruses. HIV interacts with monocytes differently than with T cells. Understanding this interaction may more clearly define both the pathogenesis of HIV disease and strategies for therapeutic intervention.

  9. Targeted photodynamic therapy of established soft-tissue infections in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, Faten; Zahra, Touqir; Hasan, Tayyaba; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2004-06-01

    The worldwide rise in antibiotic resistance necessitates the development of novel antimicrobial strategies. Although many workers have used photodynamic therapy (PDT) to kill bacteria in vitro, the use of this approach has seldom been reported in vivo in animal models of infection. We have previously described the first use of PDT to treat excisional wound infections by Gram-negative bacteria in living mice. However these infected wound models used a short time after infection (30 min) before PDT. We now report on the use of PDT to treat an established soft-tissue infection in mice. We used Staphylococcus aureus stably transformed with a Photorhabdus luminescens lux operon (luxABCDE) that was genetically modified to be functional in Gram-positive bacteria. These engineered bacteria emitted bioluminescence allowing the progress of the infection to be monitored in both space and time with a lowlight imaging charged couple device (CCD) camera. One million cells were injected into one or both thigh muscles of mice that had previously been rendered neutropenic by cyclophosphamide administration. Twenty-four hours later the bacteria had multiplied more than one hundred-fold, and poly-L-lysine chlorin(e6) conjugate or free chlorin(e6) was injected into one area of infected muscle and imaged with the CCD camera. Thirty-minutes later red light from a diode laser was delivered as a surface spot or by interstitial fiber into the infection. There was a lightdose dependent loss of bioluminescence (to PDT-mediated tissue damage. PDT-treated infected legs healed better than legs with untreated infections. This data shows that PDT may have applications in drug-resistant soft-tissue infections.

  10. Always cleave up your mess: targeting collagen degradation to treat tissue fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKleroy, William; Lee, Ting-Hein

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a vexing clinical problem with no proven therapeutic options. In the normal lung there is continuous collagen synthesis and collagen degradation, and these two processes are precisely balanced to maintain normal tissue architecture. With lung injury there is an increase in the rate of both collagen production and collagen degradation. The increase in collagen degradation is critical in preventing the formation of permanent scar tissue each time the lung is exposed to injury. In pulmonary fibrosis, collagen degradation does not keep pace with collagen production, resulting in extracellular accumulation of fibrillar collagen. Collagen degradation occurs through both extracellular and intracellular pathways. The extracellular pathway involves cleavage of collagen fibrils by proteolytic enzyme including the metalloproteinases. The less-well-described intracellular pathway involves binding and uptake of collagen fragments by fibroblasts and macrophages for lysosomal degradation. The relationship between these two pathways and their relevance to the development of fibrosis is complex. Fibrosis in the lung, liver, and skin has been associated with an impaired degradative environment. Much of the current scientific effort in fibrosis is focused on understanding the pathways that regulate increased collagen production. However, recent reports suggest an important role for collagen turnover and degradation in regulating the severity of tissue fibrosis. The objective of this review is to evaluate the roles of the extracellular and intracellular collagen degradation pathways in the development of fibrosis and to examine whether pulmonary fibrosis can be viewed as a disease of impaired matrix degradation rather than a disease of increased matrix production. PMID:23564511

  11. Nanoparticle-Enabled Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems for Enhanced Dose Control and Tissue Targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Palmer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal drug delivery systems have been around for decades, and current technologies (e.g., patches, ointments, and creams enhance the skin permeation of low molecular weight, lipophilic drugs that are efficacious at low doses. The objective of current transdermal drug delivery research is to discover ways to enhance skin penetration of larger, hydrophilic drugs and macromolecules for disease treatment and vaccination. Nanocarriers made of lipids, metals, or polymers have been successfully used to increase penetration of drugs or vaccines, control drug release, and target drugs to specific areas of skin in vivo. While more research is needed to identify the safety of nanocarriers, this technology has the potential to expand the use of transdermal routes of administration to a wide array of therapeutics. Here, we review the current state of nanoparticle skin delivery systems with special emphasis on targeting skin diseases.

  12. Hepatoblastoma: A Need for Cell Lines and Tissue Banks to Develop Targeted Drug Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Raj Rikhi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Limited research exists regarding the most aggressive forms of hepatoblastoma. Cell lines of the rare subtypes of hepatoblastoma with poor prognosis are not only difficult to attain, but are challenging to characterize histologically. A community approach to educating parents and families of the need for donated tissue is necessary for scientists to have access to resources for murine models and drug discovery. Herein we describe the currently available resources, the today’s existing gaps in research, and the path to move forward for uniform cure of hepatoblastoma.

  13. An off-on fluorescence probe targeting mitochondria based on oxidation-reduction response for tumor cell and tissue imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hanchun; Cao, Li; Zhao, Weiwei; Zhang, Suge; Zeng, Man; Du, Bin

    2017-10-01

    In this study, a tumor-targeting poly( d, l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) loaded "off-on" fluorescent probe nanoparticle (PFN) delivery system was developed to evaluate the region of tumor by off-on fluorescence. The biodegradability of the nanosize PFN delivery system readily released the probe under tumor acidic conditions. The probe with good biocompatibility was used to monitor the intracellular glutathione (GSH) of cancer cells and selectively localize to mitochondria for tumor imaging. The incorporated tumor-targeting probe was based on the molecular photoinduced electron transfer (PET) mechanism preventing fluorescence ("off" state) and could be easily released under tumor acidic conditions. However, the released tumor-targeting fluorescence probe molecule was selective towards GSH with high selectivity and an ultra-sensitivity for the mitochondria of cancer cells and tissues significantly increasing the probe molecule fluorescence signal ("on" state). The tumor-targeting fluorescence probe showed sensitivity to GSH avoiding interference from cysteine and homocysteine. The PFNs could enable fluorescence-guided cancer imaging during cancer therapy. This work may expand the biological applications of PFNs as a diagnostic reagent, which will be beneficial for fundamental research in tumor imaging. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. An automated flow system incorporating in-line acid dissolution of bismuth metal from a cyclotron irradiated target assembly for use in the isolation of astatine-211

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Hara, Matthew J.; Krzysko, Anthony J.; Niver, Cynthia M.; Morrison, Samuel S.; Owsley, Stanley L.; Hamlin, Donald K.; Dorman, Eric F.; Scott Wilbur, D.

    2017-04-01

    Astatine-211 (211At) is a promising cyclotron-produced radionuclide being investigated for use in targeted alpha therapy of blood borne and metastatic cancers, as well as treatment of tumor remnants after surgical resections. The isolation of trace quantities of 211At, produced within several grams of a Bi metal cyclotron target, involves a complex, multi-step procedure: (1) Bi metal dissolution in strong HNO3, (2) distillation of the HNO3 to yield Bi salts containing 211At, (3) dissolution of the salts in strong HCl, (4) solvent extraction of 211At from bismuth salts with diisopropyl ether (DIPE), and (5) back-extraction of 211At from DIPE into NaOH, leading to a purified 211At product. Step (1) has been addressed first to begin the process of automating the onerous 211At isolation process. A computer-controlled Bi target dissolution system has been designed. The system performs in-line dissolution of Bi metal from the target assembly using an enclosed target dissolution block, routing the resulting solubilized 211At/Bi mixture to the subsequent process step. The primary parameters involved in Bi metal solubilization (HNO3 concentration and influent flow rate) were optimized prior to evaluation of the system performance on replicate cyclotron irradiated targets. The results indicate that the system performs reproducibly, having nearly quantitative release of 211At from irradiated targets, with cumulative 211At recoveries that follow a sigmoidal function. The predictable nature of the 211At release profile allows the user to tune the system to meet target processing requirements.

  15. Transcriptome sequencing of different narrow-leafed lupin tissue types provides a comprehensive uni-gene assembly and extensive gene-based molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, Lars G; Hane, James K; Nelson, Matthew N; Gao, Lingling; Atkins, Craig A; Singh, Karam B

    2015-01-01

    Narrow-leafed lupin (NLL; Lupinus angustifolius L.) is an important grain legume crop that is valuable for sustainable farming and is becoming recognized as a human health food. NLL breeding is directed at improving grain production, disease resistance, drought tolerance and health benefits. However, genetic and genomic studies have been hindered by a lack of extensive genomic resources for the species. Here, the generation, de novo assembly and annotation of transcriptome datasets derived from five different NLL tissue types of the reference accession cv. Tanjil are described. The Tanjil transcriptome was compared to transcriptomes of an early domesticated cv. Unicrop, a wild accession P27255, as well as accession 83A:476, together being the founding parents of two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations. In silico predictions for transcriptome-derived gene-based length and SNP polymorphic markers were conducted and corroborated using a survey assembly sequence for NLL cv. Tanjil. This yielded extensive indel and SNP polymorphic markers for the two RIL populations. A total of 335 transcriptome-derived markers and 66 BAC-end sequence-derived markers were evaluated, and 275 polymorphic markers were selected to genotype the reference NLL 83A:476 × P27255 RIL population. This significantly improved the completeness, marker density and quality of the reference NLL genetic map. © 2014 CSIRO. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. [The development of mucosal vaccine using bacterial function for targeting mucosal tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hidehiko; Kondoh, Masuo; Yagi, Kiyohito; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Kunisawa, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Most pathogens invade body through the mucosal epithelium, which is a primary target to prevent the infectious diseases. Mucosal vaccine has been considered to be an effective strategy to establish immunosurveillance against pathogens by the induction of antigen-specific immune responses at both mucosal and systemic immune compartments. The development of antigen delivery system and mucosal adjuvants are required for the sufficient induction of protective immunity in the development of mucosal vaccine. In this review, we shed light on the recent advances in the development of antigen delivery system using microbial functions for mucosal vaccines.

  17. Targeted delivery and pH-responsive release of stereoisomeric anti-cancer drugs using β-cyclodextrin assemblied Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congli; Huang, Lizhen; Song, Shengmei; Saif, Bassam; Zhou, Yehong; Dong, Chuan; Shuang, Shaomin

    2015-12-01

    The β-cyclodextrin assemblied magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (β-CD-MNPs) were successfully fabricated via a layer-by-layer method. Possessing an average size 14 nm, good stability and super-paramagnetic response (Ms 64 emu/g), the resultant nanocomposites could be served as a versatile biocompatible platform for selective loading, targeted delivery and pH-responsive release of stereoisomeric doxorubicin (DOX) and epirubicin (EPI). 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) and the computer simulation further give the evidence that partial anthracene ring of drug molecule is included by β-CD. In addition, non-toxic β-CD-MNPs have excellent biocompatibility on MCF-7 cells, and cellular uptake indicate that different amounts of DOX or EPI can be transported to targeting site and released from the internalized carriers. The results demonstrate that as-prepared β-CD-MNPs could be a very promising vehicle for DOX and EPI.

  18. Mining the epigenetic landscape of tissue polarity in search of new targets for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atrian, Farzaneh; Lelièvre, Sophie A

    2015-01-01

    The epigenetic nature of cancer encourages the development of inhibitors of epigenetic pathways. Yet, the clinical use for solid tumors of approved epigenetic drugs is meager. We argue that this situation might improve upon understanding the coinfluence between epigenetic pathways and tissue architecture. We present emerging information on the epigenetic control of the polarity axis, a central feature of epithelial architecture created by the orderly distribution of multiprotein complexes at cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix contacts and altered upon cancer onset (with apical polarity loss), invasive progression (with basolateral polarity loss) and metastatic development (with basoapical polarity imbalance). This information combined with the impact of polarity-related proteins on epigenetic mechanisms of cancer enables us to envision how to guide the choice of drugs specific for distinct epigenetic modifiers, in order to halt cancer development and counter the consequences of polarity alterations.

  19. The Respiratory Pathogen Moraxella catarrhalis Targets Collagen for Maximal Adherence to Host Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birendra Singh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Moraxella catarrhalis is a human respiratory pathogen that causes acute otitis media in children and is associated with exacerbations in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The first step in M. catarrhalis colonization is adherence to the mucosa, epithelial cells, and extracellular matrix (ECM. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of M. catarrhalis interactions with collagens from various angles. Clinical isolates (n = 43 were tested for collagen binding, followed by a detailed analysis of protein-protein interactions using recombinantly expressed proteins. M. catarrhalis-dependent interactions with collagen produced by human lung fibroblasts and tracheal tissues were studied by utilizing confocal immunohistochemistry and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. A mouse smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD model was used to estimate the adherence of M. catarrhalis in vivo. We found that all M. catarrhalis clinical isolates tested adhered to fibrillar collagen types I, II, and III and network-forming collagens IV and VI. The trimeric autotransporter adhesins ubiquitous surface protein A2 (UspA2 and UspA2H were identified as major collagen-binding receptors. M. catarrhalis wild type adhered to human tracheal tissue and collagen-producing lung fibroblasts, whereas UspA2 and UspA2H deletion mutants did not. Moreover, in the COPD mouse model, bacteria devoid of UspA2 and UspA2H had a reduced level of adherence to the respiratory tract compared to the adherence of wild-type bacteria. Our data therefore suggest that the M. catarrhalis UspA2 and UspA2H-dependent interaction with collagens is highly critical for adherence in the host and, furthermore, may play an important role in the establishment of disease.

  20. Determination of the most efficient target tissue and helium pressure for biolistic transformation of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amornrat Phongdara

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available An efficient genetic transformation system for oil palm using particle bombardment was established. The transformation was performed using the pCAMBIA 1302 DNA which contains the green fluorescent protein (mgfp5 reporter gene and the selectable marker hygromycin phosphotransferase (hph gene. Oil palm explants were bombarded under the following conditions: rupture disk to macrocarrier distance, 11 mm; macrocarrier to target tissue, 90 mm and using 1 μm gold particles as microcarrier. Four different pressures of helium were tested with three types of target tissues (mature embryo, embryogenic callus and young seedlings. From the transformation efficiency, calli were much more efficiently transformed in the biolistic process compared with mature embryos and seedlings. A 100% transformation efficiency for DNA delivery into callus oil palm explants was obtained at 850 psi helium pressures, for embryos a maximum 81.8% efficiency required 850 psi and for seedlings a maximum 75.9% efficiency required 1,550 psi. Using a confocal laser scanning microscope, and appropriate filters to block out the red fluorescence of chlorophyll, expression of the GFP gene was observed in all three bombarded explant types by a bright-green fluorescence. The mgfp5 gene was still present more than 8 months after bombardment, hence it indicated the stability of transgene in those transformants.

  1. Explaining clinical effects of deep brain stimulation through simplified target-specific modeling of the volume of activated tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mädler, B; Coenen, V A

    2012-06-01

    Although progress has been made in understanding the optimal anatomic structures as target areas for DBS, little effort has been put into modeling and predicting electromagnetic field properties of activated DBS electrodes and understanding their interactions with the adjacent tissue. Currently, DBS is performed with the patient awake to assess the effectiveness and the side effect spectrum of stimulation. This study was designed to create a robust and rather simple numeric and visual tool that provides sufficient and practical relevant information to visualize the patient's individual VAT. Multivariate polynomial fitting of previously obtained data from a finite-element model, based on a similar DBS system, was used. The model estimates VAT as a first-approximation sphere around the active DBS contact, using stimulation voltages and individual tissue-electrode impedances. Validation uses data from 2 patients with PD by MR imaging, DTI, fiber tractography, and postoperative CT data. Our model can predict VAT for impedances between 500 and 2000 Ω with stimulation voltages up to 10 V. It is based on assumptions for monopolar DBS. Evaluation of 2 DBS cases showed a convincing correspondence between predicted VAT and neurologic (side) effects (internal capsule activation). Stimulation effects during DBS can be readily explained with this simple VAT model. Its implementation in daily clinical routine might help in understanding the types of tissues activated during DBS. This technique might have the potential to facilitate DBS implantations with the patient under general anesthesia while yielding acceptable clinical effectiveness.

  2. Targeted delivery and pH-responsive release of stereoisomeric anti-cancer drugs using β-cyclodextrin assemblied Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Congli; Huang, Lizhen; Song, Shengmei; Saif, Bassam; Zhou, Yehong; Dong, Chuan; Shuang, Shaomin, E-mail: smshuang@sxu.edu.cn

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • β-Cyclodextrin assemblied magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (β-CD-MNPs) with good stability were successfully fabricated. • Stereoisomeric doxorubicin (DOX) and epirubicin (EPI) were used to explore the loading and release performance. • The loading properties of β-CD-MNPs were investigated using the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption equilibrium models. • {sup 1}H NMR and the computer simulation were used to demonstrate the inclusion position between drug molecules and β-CD. - Abstract: The β-cyclodextrin assemblied magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (β-CD-MNPs) were successfully fabricated via a layer-by-layer method. Possessing an average size 14 nm, good stability and super-paramagnetic response (Ms 64 emu/g), the resultant nanocomposites could be served as a versatile biocompatible platform for selective loading, targeted delivery and pH-responsive release of stereoisomeric doxorubicin (DOX) and epirubicin (EPI). {sup 1}H-nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR) and the computer simulation further give the evidence that partial anthracene ring of drug molecule is included by β-CD. In addition, non-toxic β-CD-MNPs have excellent biocompatibility on MCF-7 cells, and cellular uptake indicate that different amounts of DOX or EPI can be transported to targeting site and released from the internalized carriers. The results demonstrate that as-prepared β-CD-MNPs could be a very promising vehicle for DOX and EPI.

  3. Tissue tropism and target cells of NSs-deleted rift valley fever virus in live immunodeficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Gommet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV causes disease in livestock and humans. It can be transmitted by mosquitoes, inhalation or physical contact with the body fluids of infected animals. Severe clinical cases are characterized by acute hepatitis with hemorrhage, meningoencephalitis and/or retinitis. The dynamics of RVFV infection and the cell types infected in vivo are poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: RVFV strains expressing humanized Renilla luciferase (hRLuc or green fluorescent protein (GFP were generated and inoculated to susceptible Ifnar1-deficient mice. We investigated the tissue tropism in these mice and the nature of the target cells in vivo using whole-organ imaging and flow cytometry. After intraperitoneal inoculation, hRLuc signal was observed primarily in the thymus, spleen and liver. Macrophages infiltrating various tissues, in particular the adipose tissue surrounding the pancreas also expressed the virus. The liver rapidly turned into the major luminescent organ and the mice succumbed to severe hepatitis. The brain remained weakly luminescent throughout infection. FACS analysis in RVFV-GFP-infected mice showed that the macrophages, dendritic cells and granulocytes were main target cells for RVFV. The crucial role of cells of the monocyte/macrophage/dendritic lineage during RVFV infection was confirmed by the slower viral dissemination, decrease in RVFV titers in blood, and prolonged survival of macrophage- and dendritic cell-depleted mice following treatment with clodronate liposomes. Upon dermal and nasal inoculations, the viral dissemination was primarily observed in the lymph node draining the injected ear and in the lungs respectively, with a significant increase in survival time. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings reveal the high levels of phagocytic cells harboring RVFV during viral infection in Ifnar1-deficient mice. They demonstrate that bioluminescent and fluorescent viruses can shed new

  4. ICAM-1–targeted thrombomodulin mitigates tissue factor–driven inflammatory thrombosis in a human endothelialized microfluidic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Ian H.; Villa, Carlos H.; Gollomp, Kandace; Esmon, Charles T.; Cines, Douglas B.; Poncz, Mortimer

    2017-01-01

    Diverse human illnesses are characterized by loss or inactivation of endothelial thrombomodulin (TM), predisposing to microvascular inflammation, activation of coagulation, and tissue ischemia. Single-chain antibody fragment (scFv)/TM) fusion proteins, previously protective against end-organ injury in murine models of inflammation, are attractive candidates to treat inflammatory thrombosis. However, animal models have inherent differences in TM and coagulation biology, are limited in their ability to resolve and control endothelial biology, and do not allow in-depth testing of “humanized” scFv/TM fusion proteins, which are necessary for translation to the clinical domain. To address these challenges, we developed a human whole-blood, microfluidic model of inflammatory, tissue factor (TF)–driven coagulation that features a multichannel format for head-to-head comparison of therapeutic approaches. In this model, fibrin deposition, leukocyte adhesion, and platelet adhesion and aggregation showed a dose-dependent response to tumor necrosis factor-α activation and could be quantified via real-time microscopy. We used this model to compare hTM/R6.5, a humanized, intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1)–targeted scFv/TM biotherapeutic, to untargeted antithrombotic agents, including soluble human TM (shTM), anti–TF antibodies, and hirudin. The targeted hTM/R6.5 more effectively inhibited TF-driven coagulation in a protein C (PC)–dependent manner and demonstrated synergy with supplemental PC. These results support the translational prospects of ICAM-targeted scFv/TM and illustrate the utility of the microfluidic system as a platform to study humanized therapeutics at the interface of endothelium and whole blood under flow. PMID:29296786

  5. Micro-RNA-126 Reduces the Blood Thrombogenicity in Diabetes Mellitus via Targeting of Tissue Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Marco; Weithauser, Alice; Tabaraie, Termeh; Steffens, Daniel; Kränkel, Nicolle; Witkowski, Mario; Stratmann, Bernd; Tschoepe, Diethelm; Landmesser, Ulf; Rauch-Kroehnert, Ursula

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus involves vascular inflammatory processes and is a main contributor to cardiovascular mortality. Notably, heightened levels of circulating tissue factor (TF) account for the increased thrombogenicity and put those patients at risk for thromboembolic events. Here, we sought to investigate the role of micro-RNA (miR)-driven TF expression and thrombogenicity in diabetes mellitus. Plasma samples of patients with diabetes mellitus were analyzed for TF protein and activity as well as miR-126 expression before and after optimization of the antidiabetic treatment. We found low miR-126 levels to be associated with markedly increased TF protein and TF-mediated thrombogenicity. Reduced miR-126 expression was accompanied by increased vascular inflammation as evident from the levels of vascular adhesion molecule-1 and fibrinogen, as well as leukocyte counts. With optimization of the antidiabetic treatment miR-126 levels increased and thrombogenicity was reduced. Using a luciferase reporter system, we demonstrated miR-126 to directly bind to the F3-3'-untranslated region, thereby reducing TF expression both on mRNA and on protein levels in human microvascular endothelial cells as well as TF mRNA and activity in monocytes. Circulating miR-126 exhibits antithrombotic properties via regulating post-transcriptional TF expression, thereby impacting the hemostatic balance of the vasculature in diabetes mellitus. © 2016 The Authors.

  6. Self-Assembled Polymeric Micelles Based on Hyaluronic Acid-g-Poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide Copolymer for Tumor Targeting

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    Gyung Mo Son

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Graft copolymer composed hyaluronic acid (HA and poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA (HAgLG was synthesized for antitumor targeting via CD44 receptor of tumor cells. The carboxylic end of PLGA was conjugated with hexamethylenediamine (HMDA to have amine end group in the end of chain (PLGA-amine. PLGA-amine was coupled with carboxylic acid of HA. Self-assembled polymeric micelles of HAgLG have spherical morphologies and their sizes were around 50–200 nm. Doxorubicin (DOX-incorporated polymeric micelles were prepared by dialysis procedure. DOX was released over 4 days and its release rate was accelerated by the tumoric enzyme hyaluronidase. To assess targetability of polymeric micelles, CD44-positive HepG2 cells were employed treated with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC-labeled polymeric micelles. HepG2 cells strongly expressed green fluorescence at the cell membrane and cytosol. However, internalization of polymeric micelles were significantly decreased when free HA was pretreated to block the CD44 receptor. Furthermore, the CD44-specific anticancer activity of HAgLG polymeric micelles was confirmed using CD44-negative CT26 cells and CD44-positive HepG2 cells. These results indicated that polymeric micelles of HaLG polymeric micelles have targetability against CD44 receptor of tumor cells. We suggest HAgLG polymeric micelles as a promising candidate for specific drug targeting.

  7. Dual-Targeting Lactoferrin-Conjugated Polymerized Magnetic Polydiacetylene-Assembled Nanocarriers with Self-Responsive Fluorescence/Magnetic Resonance Imaging for In Vivo Brain Tumor Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jen-Hung; Chiu, Tsung-Lang; Huang, Wei-Chen; Lai, Yen-Ho; Hu, Shang-Hsiu; Chen, You-Yin; Chen, San-Yuan

    2016-03-01

    Maintaining a high concentration of therapeutic agents in the brain is difficult due to the restrictions of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and rapid removal from blood circulation. To enable controlled drug release and enhance the blood-brain barrier (BBB)-crossing efficiency for brain tumor therapy, a new dual-targeting magnetic polydiacetylene nanocarriers (PDNCs) delivery system modified with lactoferrin (Lf) is developed. The PDNCs are synthesized using the ultraviolet (UV) cross-linkable 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid (PCDA) monomers through spontaneous assembling onto the surface of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles to form micelles-polymerized structures. The results demonstrate that PDNCs will reduce the drug leakage and further control the drug release, and display self-responsive fluorescence upon intracellular uptake for cell trafficking and imaging-guided tumor treatment. The magnetic Lf-modified PDNCs with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dual-targeting ability can enhance the transportation of the PDNCs across the BBB for tracking and targeting gliomas. An enhanced therapeutic efficiency can be obtained using Lf-Cur (Curcumin)-PDNCs by improving the retention time of the encapsulated Cur and producing fourfold higher Cur amounts in the brain compared to free Cur. Animal studies also confirm that Lf targeting and controlled release act synergistically to significantly suppress tumors in orthotopic brain-bearing rats. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. A redox-responsive mesoporous silica nanoparticle capped with amphiphilic peptides by self-assembly for cancer targeting drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dong; Jia, Hui-Zhen; Ma, Ning; Zhuo, Ren-Xi; Zhang, Xian-Zheng

    2015-05-01

    A redox-responsive mesoporous silica nanoparticle (RRMSN) was developed as a drug nanocarrier by noncovalent functionalization of MSNs with amphiphilic peptides containing the RGD ligand. The alkyl chain stearic acid (C18) with a thiol terminal group was anchored on the surface of MSNs via a disulfide bond, and the amphiphilic peptide (AP) C18-DSDSDSDSRGDS was coated by self-assembly through hydrophobic interactions between the octadecyl groups of MSNs and alkyl chains of AP, which played the role of a gatekeeper collectively. In vitro drug release profiles demonstrated that the anticancer drug (DOX) could be entrapped with nearly no leakage in the absence of dithiothreitol (DTT) or glutathione (GSH). With the addition of DTT or GSH, the entrapped drug released quickly due to the cleavage of the disulfide bond. It was found that after the internalization of MSNs by cancer cells via the receptor-mediated endocytosis, the surface amphiphilic peptides and alkyl chain of RRMSN/DOX were removed to induce rapid drug release intracellularly after the cleavage of the disulfide bond, triggered by GSH secreted in cancer cells. This novel intelligent RRMSN/DOX drug delivery system using self-assembly of amphiphilic peptides around the MSNs provides a facile, but effective strategy for the design and development of smart drug delivery for cancer therapy.A redox-responsive mesoporous silica nanoparticle (RRMSN) was developed as a drug nanocarrier by noncovalent functionalization of MSNs with amphiphilic peptides containing the RGD ligand. The alkyl chain stearic acid (C18) with a thiol terminal group was anchored on the surface of MSNs via a disulfide bond, and the amphiphilic peptide (AP) C18-DSDSDSDSRGDS was coated by self-assembly through hydrophobic interactions between the octadecyl groups of MSNs and alkyl chains of AP, which played the role of a gatekeeper collectively. In vitro drug release profiles demonstrated that the anticancer drug (DOX) could be entrapped with

  9. Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase as a target of sFRP2 in cardiac fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sean; Lin, Huey; Ejimadu, Chukwuemeka; Lee, Techung

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies of myocardial infarction in secreted Frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP2) knockout mice and our hamster heart failure therapy based on sFRP2 blockade have established sFRP2 as a key profibrotic cytokine in the heart. The failing hamster heart is marked by prominent fibrosis and calcification with elevated expression of sFRP2. Noting the involvement of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) in bone mineralization and vascular calcification, we determined whether sFRP2 might be an upstream regulator of TNAP. Biochemical assays revealed an approximately twofold increase in the activity of TNAP and elevated levels of inorganic phosphate (Pi) in the failing heart compared with the normal heart. Neither was this change detected in the liver or hamstring muscle nor was it associated with systemic hyperphosphatemia. TNAP was readily cloned from the hamster heart and upon overexpression increased the level of extracellular but not intracellular Pi, which is consistent with the cell surface location of the ectoenzyme. In line with the previous demonstration that sFRP2 blockade attenuated fibrosis, we show here that the therapy downregulated TNAP. This in vivo finding is corroborated by the in vitro study showing that cultured cardiac fibroblasts treated with recombinant sFRP2 protein exhibited progressive increase in the expression and activity of TNAP, which was completely abrogated by cycloheximide or tunicamycin. Induction of TNAP by sFRP2 is restricted to cardiac fibroblasts among the multiple cell types examined, and was not observed with sFRP4. The current work indicates that sFRP2 may promote cardiac fibrocalcification through coordinate activation of tolloid-like metalloproteinases and TNAP. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Acute resistance exercise modulates microRNA expression profiles: Combined tissue and circulatory targeted analyses.

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    Randall F D'Souza

    Full Text Available A subset of short non-coding RNAs, microRNAs (miRs, have been identified in the regulation of skeletal muscle hypertrophy and atrophy. Expressed within cells, miRs are also present in circulation (c-miR and have a putative role in cross-tissue signalling. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of a single bout of high intensity resistance exercise (RE on skeletal muscle and circulatory miRs harvested simultaneously. Resistance trained males (n = 9, 24.6 ± 4.9 years undertook a single bout of high volume RE with venous blood and muscle biopsies collected before, 2 and 4hr post-exercise. Real time polymerase chain reaction (Rt-PCR analyses was performed on 30 miRs that have previously been shown to be required for skeletal muscle function. Of these, 6 miRs were significantly altered within muscle following exercise; miR-23a, -133a, -146a, -206, -378b and 486. Analysis of these same miRs in circulation demonstrated minimal alterations with exercise, although c-miR-133a (~4 fold, p = 0.049 and c-miR-149 (~2.4 fold; p = 0.006 were increased 4hr post-exercise. Thus a single bout of RE results in the increased abundance of a subset of miRs within the skeletal muscle, which was not evident in plasma. The lack a qualitative agreement in the response pattern of intramuscular and circulating miR expression suggests the analysis of circulatory miRs is not reflective of the miR responses within skeletal muscle after exercise.

  11. Dedifferentiated Human Articular Chondrocytes Redifferentiate to a Cartilage-Like Tissue Phenotype in a Poly(ε-Caprolactone/Self-Assembling Peptide Composite Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Recha-Sancho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Adult articular cartilage has a limited capacity for growth and regeneration and, with injury, new cellular or biomaterial-based therapeutic platforms are required to promote repair. Tissue engineering aims to produce cartilage-like tissues that recreate the complex mechanical and biological properties found in vivo. In this study, a unique composite scaffold was developed by infiltrating a three-dimensional (3D woven microfiber poly (ε-caprolactone (PCL scaffold with the RAD16-I self-assembling nanofibers to obtain multi-scale functional and biomimetic tissue-engineered constructs. The scaffold was seeded with expanded dedifferentiated human articular chondrocytes and cultured for four weeks in control and chondrogenic growth conditions. The composite constructs were compared to control constructs obtained by culturing cells with 3D woven PCL scaffolds or RAD16-I independently. High viability and homogeneous cell distribution were observed in all three scaffolds used during the term of the culture. Moreover, gene and protein expression profiles revealed that chondrogenic markers were favored in the presence of RAD16-I peptide (PCL/RAD composite or alone under chondrogenic induction conditions. Further, constructs displayed positive staining for toluidine blue, indicating the presence of synthesized proteoglycans. Finally, mechanical testing showed that constructs containing the PCL scaffold maintained the initial shape and viscoelastic behavior throughout the culture period, while constructs with RAD16-I scaffold alone contracted during culture time into a stiffer and compacted structure. Altogether, these results suggest that this new composite scaffold provides important mechanical requirements for a cartilage replacement, while providing a biomimetic microenvironment to re-establish the chondrogenic phenotype of human expanded articular chondrocytes.

  12. Vinculin but not alpha-actinin is a target of PKC phosphorylation during junctional assembly induced by calcium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez-Moreno, M; Avila, A; Islas, S

    1998-01-01

    proteins ZO1, ZO2 and ZO3, in a previous work we specifically explored these molecules but found no alteration in their phosphorylation pattern. To continue the search for the target of protein kinase C, in the present work we have studied the subcellular distribution and phosphorylation of vinculin...

  13. Synthesis, characterization and liver targeting evaluation of self-assembled hyaluronic acid nanoparticles functionalized with glycyrrhetinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaodan; Gu, Xiangqin; Wang, Huimin; Sun, Yujiao; Wu, Haiyang; Mao, Shirui

    2017-01-01

    Recently, polymeric materials with multiple functions have drawn great attention as the carrier for drug delivery system design. In this study, a series of multifunctional drug delivery carriers, hyaluronic acid (HA)-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) succinate (HSG) copolymers were synthesized via hydroxyl group modification of hyaluronic acid. It was shown that the HSG nanoparticles had sub-spherical shape, and the particle size was in the range of 152.6-260.7nm depending on GA graft ratio. HSG nanoparticles presented good short term and dilution stability. MTT assay demonstrated all the copolymers presented no significant cytotoxicity. In vivo imaging analysis suggested HSG nanoparticles had superior liver targeting efficiency and the liver targeting capacity was GA graft ratio dependent. The accumulation of DiR (a lipophilic, NIR fluorescent cyanine dye)-loaded HSG-6, HSG-12, and HSG-20 nanoparticles in liver was 1.8-, 2.1-, and 2.9-fold higher than that of free DiR. The binding site of GA on HA may influence liver targeting efficiency. These results indicated that HSG copolymers based nanoparticles are potential drug carrier for improved liver targeting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Promotion of astrocytoma cell invasion by micro RNA-22 targeting of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Yu-Ichiro; Iwatsuki, Koichi; Ishihara, Masahiro; Ohkawa, Toshika; Kinoshita, Manabu; Shinzawa, Koei; Fujimoto, Yasunori; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE Diffuse astrocytomas (DAs) have a high recurrence rate due to diffuse infiltration into the brain and spinal cord. Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding to complementary sequences of target messenger RNA (mRNA). It has been reported that miRNA-22 (miR-22) is involved in the invasion of some cancer cell lines. The aim of this study was to identify the biological effects of miR-22 in regard to the invasion of human DAs. METHODS The authors evaluated whether the level of miR-22 is elevated in human spinal DAs by using miRNA chips. Next, the role of miR-22 in 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells was investigated. Finally, to elucidate whether miR-22 promotes invasion by astrocytoma cells in vivo, the authors transplanted miR-22 overexpressed astrocytoma cells into mouse thoracic spinal cord. RESULTS The miR-22 significantly upregulated the invasion capacity of 1321N1 cells. Computational in silico analysis predicted that tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP2) is a target gene of miR-22. This was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, which showed that miR-22 inhibited TIMP2 mRNA and protein expression, respectively. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that miR-22 directly bound the 3'-untranslated regions of TIMP2. The authors further showed that miR-22 promoted invasiveness in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells when transplanted into mouse spinal cord. CONCLUSIONS These data suggest that miR-22 acts to regulate invasion of 1321N1 astrocytoma cells by targeting TIMP2 expression. Additional studies with more cases and cell lines are required to elucidate the findings of this study for a novel treatment target for spinal DAs.

  15. Tissue-restricted expression of Nrf2 and its target genes in zebrafish with gene-specific variations in the induction profiles.

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    Hitomi Nakajima

    Full Text Available The Keap1-Nrf2 system serves as a defense mechanism against oxidative stress and electrophilic toxicants by inducing more than one hundred cytoprotective proteins, including antioxidants and phase 2 detoxifying enzymes. Since induction profiles of Nrf2 target genes have been studied exclusively in cultured cells, and not in animal models, their tissue-specificity has not been well characterized. In this paper, we examined and compared the tissue-specific expression of several Nrf2 target genes in zebrafish larvae by whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH. Seven zebrafish genes (gstp1, mgst3b, prdx1, frrs1c, fthl, gclc and hmox1a suitable for WISH analysis were selected from candidates for Nrf2 targets identified by microarray analysis. Tissue-restricted induction was observed in the nose, gill, and/or liver for all seven genes in response to Nrf2-activating compounds, diethylmaleate (DEM and sulforaphane. The Nrf2 gene itself was dominantly expressed in these three tissues, implying that tissue-restricted induction of Nrf2 target genes is defined by tissue-specific expression of Nrf2. Interestingly, the induction of frrs1c and gclc in liver and nose, respectively, was quite low and that of hmox1a was restricted in the liver. These results indicate the existence of gene-specific variations in the tissue specificity, which can be controlled by factors other than Nrf2.

  16. Layer-by-layer assembled magnetic prednisolone microcapsules (MPC) for controlled and targeted drug release at rheumatoid arthritic joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabu, Chakkarapani [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology & Centre for Excellence in Nanobio Translational Research, Anna University, Bharathidasan Institute of Technology Campus, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu (India); Latha, Subbiah, E-mail: lathasuba2010@gmail.com [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology & Centre for Excellence in Nanobio Translational Research, Anna University, Bharathidasan Institute of Technology Campus, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu (India); Selvamani, Palanisamy [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology & Centre for Excellence in Nanobio Translational Research, Anna University, Bharathidasan Institute of Technology Campus, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu (India); Ahrentorp, Fredrik; Johansson, Christer [Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Arvid Hedvalls Backe 4, Göteborg (Sweden); Takeda, Ryoji; Takemura, Yasushi [Electrical & Computer Engineering & Faculty of Engineering Division of Intelligent Systems Engineering, Yokohama National University (Japan); Ota, Satoshi [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Shizuoka University (Japan)

    2017-04-01

    We report here in about the formulation and evaluation of Magnetic Prednisolone Microcapsules (MPC) developed in order to improve the therapeutic efficacy relatively at a low dose than the conventional dosage formulations by means of magnetic drug targeting and thus enhancing bioavailability at the arthritic joints. Prednisolone was loaded to poly (sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) doped calcium carbonate microspheres confirmed by the decrease in surface area from 97.48 m{sup 2}/g to 12.05 of m{sup 2}/g by BET analysis. Adsorption with oppositely charged polyelectrolytes incorporated with iron oxide nanoparticles was confirmed through zeta analysis. Removal of calcium carbonate core yielded MPC with particle size of ~3.48 µm, zeta potential of +29.7 mV was evaluated for its magnetic properties. Functional integrity of MPC was confirmed through FT-IR spectrum. Stability studies were performed at 25 °C±65% relative humidity for 60 days showed no considerable changes. Further the encapsulation efficiency of 63%, loading capacity of 18.2% and drug release of 88.3% for 36 h and its kinetics were also reported. The observed results justify the suitability of MPC for possible applications in the magnetic drug targeting for efficient therapy of rheumatoid arthritis. - Highlights: • Development of magnetic prednisolone microcapsules (MPC). • Physicochemical, pharmaceutical and magnetic properties of MPC were characterized. • Multiple layers of alternative polyelectrolytes prolonged prednisolone release time. • MPC is capable for targeted and sustained release rheumatoid arthritis therapy.

  17. SEARCH FOR TARGET TISSUE IN THE EYE ORBIT FOR AUTOIMMUNE AGGRESSION OF THYROID ANTIBODIES IN ENDOCRINE OPHTHALMOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Likhvantseva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We searched for a possible target tissue in eye orbit for thyroid autoantibodies in endocrine ophthalmopathy (Graves’ disease, using correlation analysis method. We examined a group of 139 patients (278 eye orbits with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy associated with diffuse toxic goiter. Serological parameters (antibodies to thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor; thyroglobulin, thyroid peroxidase were compared with instrumental diagnostic data (multi-layer CT, ultrasonography of eye orbit, and exophthalmometer, as well as clinical symptoms. Statistical correlation analysis enabled us to show different degrees of association between thyroid antibodies and clinical manifestations of Graves’ disease and eye orbit involvement. Especially, carriers of antibodies to TSH receptor and thyroglobulin (as compared to seronegative patients exhibited higher exophthalmos scores (19.16±0.26 mm, p < 0.001, and 19.41±0.40 mm, p < 0.05, respectively, and with total muscle index (2.42±0.05, p < 0.01, and 2.42±0.08, respectively. Meanwhile, eyelids in carriers of antibodies to TSH receptor and thyroid peroxidase proved to be more swollen (p < 0.001, p < 0.05, respectively. Carriage of antibodies to thyroglobulin was associated with synchronous involvement of two structures of the eye orbit: extraocular muscles and retrobulbar tissue, which is reflected by increase in the average ntegral exophthalmos index within the group.

  18. Automated discovery of tissue-targeting enhancers and transcription factors from binding motif and gene function data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetu Tuteja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying enhancers regulating gene expression remains an important and challenging task. While recent sequencing-based methods provide epigenomic characteristics that correlate well with enhancer activity, it remains onerous to comprehensively identify all enhancers across development. Here we introduce a computational framework to identify tissue-specific enhancers evolving under purifying selection. First, we incorporate high-confidence binding site predictions with target gene functional enrichment analysis to identify transcription factors (TFs likely functioning in a particular context. We then search the genome for clusters of binding sites for these TFs, overcoming previous constraints associated with biased manual curation of TFs or enhancers. Applying our method to the placenta, we find 33 known and implicate 17 novel TFs in placental function, and discover 2,216 putative placenta enhancers. Using luciferase reporter assays, 31/36 (86% tested candidates drive activity in placental cells. Our predictions agree well with recent epigenomic data in human and mouse, yet over half our loci, including 7/8 (87% tested regions, are novel. Finally, we establish that our method is generalizable by applying it to 5 additional tissues: heart, pancreas, blood vessel, bone marrow, and liver.

  19. Target-triggered catalytic hairpin assembly and TdT-catalyzed DNA polymerization for amplified electronic detection of thrombin in human serums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Kai; Dou, Baoting; Yang, Jianmei; Yuan, Ruo; Xiang, Yun

    2017-01-15

    Specific and sensitive detection of protein biomarkers is of great importance in biomedical and bioanalytical applications. In this work, a dual amplified signal enhancement approach based on the integration of catalytic hairpin assembly (CHA) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated in situ DNA polymerization has been developed for highly sensitive and label-free electrochemical detection of thrombin in human serums. The presence of the target thrombin leads to the unfolding and capture of a significant number of hairpin signal probes with free 3'-OH termini on the sensor electrode. Subsequently, TdT can catalyze the elongation of the signal probes and formation of many G-quadruplex sequence replicates with the presence of dGTP and dATP at a molar ratio of 6:4. These G-quadruplex sequences bind hemin and generate drastically amplified current response for sensitive detection of thrombin in a completely label-free fashion. The sensor shows a linear range of 0.5pM-10.0nM and a detection limit of 0.12pM for thrombin. Moreover, the developed sensor can selectively discriminate the target thrombin against other non-target proteins and can be employed to monitor thrombin in human serum samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The N-Terminus of Iron-Sulfur Cluster Assembly Factor ISD11 Is Crucial for Subcellular Targeting and Interaction with l-Cysteine Desulfurase NFS1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friemel, Martin; Marelja, Zvonimir; Li, Kuanyu; Leimkühler, Silke

    2017-03-28

    Assembly of iron-sulfur (FeS) clusters is an important process in living cells. The initial sulfur mobilization step for FeS cluster biosynthesis is catalyzed by l-cysteine desulfurase NFS1, a reaction that is localized in mitochondria in humans. In humans, the function of NFS1 depends on the ISD11 protein, which is required to stabilize its structure. The NFS1/ISD11 complex further interacts with scaffold protein ISCU and regulator protein frataxin, thereby forming a quaternary complex for FeS cluster formation. It has been suggested that the role of ISD11 is not restricted to its role in stabilizing the structure of NFS1, because studies of single-amino acid variants of ISD11 additionally demonstrated its importance for the correct assembly of the quaternary complex. In this study, we are focusing on the N-terminal region of ISD11 to determine the role of N-terminal amino acids in the formation of the complex with NFS1 and to reveal the mitochondrial targeting sequence for subcellular localization. Our in vitro studies with the purified proteins and in vivo studies in a cellular system show that the first 10 N-terminal amino acids of ISD11 are indispensable for the activity of NFS1 and especially the conserved "LYR" motif is essential for the role of ISD11 in forming a stable and active complex with NFS1.

  1. "Clickable" Nanogels via Thermally Driven Self-Assembly of Polymers: Facile Access to Targeted Imaging Platforms using Thiol-Maleimide Conjugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktan, Bugra; Chambre, Laura; Sanyal, Rana; Sanyal, Amitav

    2017-02-13

    Multifunctionalizable nanogels are fabricated using thermally driven self-assembly and cross-linking of reactive thermoresponsive copolymers. Nanogels thus fabricated can be easily conjugated with various appropriately functionalized small molecules and/or ligands to tailor them for various applications in delivery and imaging. In this study, a poly(ethylene glycol)-methacrylate-based maleimide-bearing copolymer was cross-linked with a dithiol-based cross-linker to synthesize nanogels. Because of lower critical solution temperature (LCST) around 55 °C in aqueous media, these copolymers assemble into nanosized aggregates when heated to this temperature, and they are cross-linked using the thiol-maleimide conjugation. Nanogels thus fabricated contain both thiol and maleimide groups in the same cross-linked nanogels. Postgelation functionalization of the residual maleimide and thiol groups is demonstrated through conjugation of a thiol-bearing hydrophobic dye (BODIPY-SH) and N-(fluoresceinyl) maleimide, respectively. In addition, to demonstrate the utility of multifunctionality of these nanogels, a thiol-bearing cyclic-peptide-based targeting group, cRGDfC, and N-(fluoresceinyl)-maleimide-based fluorescent tag was conjugated to nanogels in aqueous media. Upon treatment with breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231, it was deduced from cellular internalization studies using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry that the peptide carrying constructs were preferentially internalized. Overall, a facile synthesis of multifunctionalizable nanogels that can be tailored using effective conjugation chemistry under mild conditions can serve as promising candidates for various applications.

  2. Liquid metal bath as conformable soft electrodes for target tissue ablation in radio-frequency ablation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuyang; He, Zhi-Zhu; Deng, Zhong-Shan; Zhou, Yi-Xin; Liu, Jing

    2017-11-23

    Radio-frequency ablation has been an important physical method for tumor hyperthermia therapy. The conventional rigid electrode boards are often uncomfortable and inconvenient for performing surgery on irregular tumors, especially for those tumors near the joints, such as ankles, knee-joints or other facets like finger joints. We proposed and demonstrated a highly conformable tumor ablation strategy through introducing liquid metal bath as conformable soft electrodes. Different heights of liquid metal bath electrodes were adopted to perform radio-frequency ablation on targeted tissues. Temperature and ablation area were measured to compare the ablation effect with plate metal electrodes. The recorded temperature around the ablation electrode was almost twice as high as that with the plate electrode and the effective ablated area was 2-3 fold larger in all the mimicking situations of bone tumors, span-shaped or round-shaped tumors. Another unique feature of the liquid metal electrode therapy is that the incidence of heat injury was reduced, which is a severe accident that can occur during the treatment of irregular tumors with plate metal boards. The present method suggests a new way of using soft liquid metal bath electrodes for targeted minimally invasive tumor ablation in future clinical practice.

  3. Cyclic RGD peptides target human trabecular meshwork cells while ameliorating connective tissue growth factor-induced fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Robert; Kuespert, Sabrina; Haunberger, Alexandra; Goepferich, Achim; Fuchshofer, Rudolf

    2016-12-01

    The major risk factor for primary open-angle glaucoma is increased intraocular pressure stemming from elevated outflow resistance in the trabecular meshwork (TM) region. Integrins play a pivotal role in the TM by influencing its biological properties and growth factor signaling. Pathologic changes in the TM are partially mediated by growth factors like connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). Specific targeting of TM cells could play a critical clinical role by increasing the therapeutic efficacy of nanoparticles, e.g. for nonviral gene delivery. Quantum dots with cyclo(RGDfC) covalently immobilized to their surface effectively targeted cultured TM cells and were rapidly and efficiently endocytosed by binding to αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrins. Compared to the integrin-overexpressing U87-MG cell line, the association of RGD-modified nanoparticles with the TM cells was significantly higher. Binding and uptake into TM cells was receptor-mediated and suppressible with free peptide. Soluble cyclic RGD peptides effectively attenuated CTGF-mediated effects and inhibited CTGF signaling. Due to their antagonism for αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrins, these cyclic RGD pentapeptides effectively ameliorated the CTGF-induced effects and strongly promoted specific nanoparticle association. Thus, cyclic RGD peptides are powerful multifunctional ligands for both addressing nanomaterials to the TM and interfering with pathologic CTGF signaling upon arrival.

  4. Hypothalamus metabolomic profiling to elucidate the tissue-targeted biochemical basis of febrile response in yeast-induced pyrexia rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiyu; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Baosheng; Zhang, Zhixin; Qin, Lingling; Zhang, Qingqing; Wang, Qing; Lu, Zhiwei; Gao, Xiaoyan

    2015-04-25

    In the previous reports regarding thermoregulation, the hypothalamus is thought to be the primary centre in the central nervous system for controlling the body temperature. However, to date, there has not been sufficient evidence to reveal its thermoregulatory mechanism. In the current study, we utilised a tissue-targeted metabolomics strategy to elucidate the underlying biochemical mechanisms of thermoregulation in the fever process by analysing the global metabolic profile of the hypothalamus in yeast-induced pyrexia rats. Data acquisition was completed using the HPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap/MS in both positive and negative ion mode. Principal component analysis was used to observe the cluster characteristics between the control group and the pyrexia group. Potential biomarkers were screened using orthogonal partial least-squares-discriminant analysis. Seventeen potential biomarkers were identified in the hypothalamus samples to discriminate the control and pyrexia groups, including amino acids, nucleic acids, vitamins, carbohydrates, and phospholipids. As a result, purine metabolism was enhanced pronouncedly, and perturbation of lipid metabolism was also observed. Meanwhile, amino acid metabolism and energy metabolism were also activated significantly. In conclusion, the study indicated that hypothalamus-targeted metabolomics could provide a powerful tool to further understand the pathogenesis of febrile response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Targeted expression of suicide gene by tissue-specific promoter and microRNA regulation for cancer gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danda, Ravikanth; Krishnan, Gopinath; Ganapathy, Kalaivani; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Vikas, Khetan; Elchuri, Sailaja; Chatterjee, Nivedita; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

    2013-01-01

    In order to realise the full potential of cancer suicide gene therapy that allows the precise expression of suicide gene in cancer cells, we used a tissue specific Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) promoter (EGP-2) that directs transgene Herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) expression preferentially in EpCAM over expressing cancer cells. EpCAM levels are considerably higher in retinoblastoma (RB), a childhood eye cancer with limited expression in normal cells. Use of miRNA regulation, adjacent to the use of the tissue-specific promoter, would provide the second layer of control to the transgene expression only in the tumor cells while sparing the normal cells. To test this hypothesis we cloned let-7b miRNA targets in the 3'UTR region of HSV-TK suicide gene driven by EpCAM promoter because let-7 family miRNAs, including let-7b, were found to be down regulated in the RB tumors and cell lines. We used EpCAM over expressing and let-7 down regulated RB cell lines Y79, WERI-Rb1 (EpCAM (+ve)/let-7b(down-regulated)), EpCAM down regulated, let-7 over expressing normal retinal Müller glial cell line MIO-M1(EpCAM (-ve)/let-7b(up-regulated)), and EpCAM up regulated, let-7b up-regulated normal thyroid cell line N-Thy-Ori-3.1(EpCAM (+ve)/let-7b(up-regulated)) in the study. The cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay, apoptosis was measured by probing cleaved Caspase3, EpCAM and TK expression were quantified by Western blot. Our results showed that the EGP2-promoter HSV-TK (EGP2-TK) construct with 2 or 4 copies of let-7b miRNA targets expressed TK gene only in Y79, WERI-Rb-1, while the TK gene did not express in MIO-M1. In summary, we have developed a tissue-specific, miRNA-regulated dual control vector, which selectively expresses the suicide gene in EpCAM over expressing cells.

  6. Targeted expression of suicide gene by tissue-specific promoter and microRNA regulation for cancer gene therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikanth Danda

    Full Text Available In order to realise the full potential of cancer suicide gene therapy that allows the precise expression of suicide gene in cancer cells, we used a tissue specific Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM promoter (EGP-2 that directs transgene Herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase (HSV-TK expression preferentially in EpCAM over expressing cancer cells. EpCAM levels are considerably higher in retinoblastoma (RB, a childhood eye cancer with limited expression in normal cells. Use of miRNA regulation, adjacent to the use of the tissue-specific promoter, would provide the second layer of control to the transgene expression only in the tumor cells while sparing the normal cells. To test this hypothesis we cloned let-7b miRNA targets in the 3'UTR region of HSV-TK suicide gene driven by EpCAM promoter because let-7 family miRNAs, including let-7b, were found to be down regulated in the RB tumors and cell lines. We used EpCAM over expressing and let-7 down regulated RB cell lines Y79, WERI-Rb1 (EpCAM (+ve/let-7b(down-regulated, EpCAM down regulated, let-7 over expressing normal retinal Müller glial cell line MIO-M1(EpCAM (-ve/let-7b(up-regulated, and EpCAM up regulated, let-7b up-regulated normal thyroid cell line N-Thy-Ori-3.1(EpCAM (+ve/let-7b(up-regulated in the study. The cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay, apoptosis was measured by probing cleaved Caspase3, EpCAM and TK expression were quantified by Western blot. Our results showed that the EGP2-promoter HSV-TK (EGP2-TK construct with 2 or 4 copies of let-7b miRNA targets expressed TK gene only in Y79, WERI-Rb-1, while the TK gene did not express in MIO-M1. In summary, we have developed a tissue-specific, miRNA-regulated dual control vector, which selectively expresses the suicide gene in EpCAM over expressing cells.

  7. Intracellular delivery and passive tumor targeting of a self-assembled nanogel containing carborane clusters for boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Riku; Sasaki, Yoshihiro; Akiyoshi, Kazunari

    2017-01-29

    Boron neutron capture therapy, based on the release of thermal neutron irradiation from boron, is a targeted radiation therapy for cancer. Targeted and sufficient accumulation of boron in tumor cells to achieve cytotoxic efficacy and reduce off-target effects remains a challenge. Carborane has been investigated for use as a delivery agent in boron neutron capture therapy because of its high boron content and chemical stability; however, it is cytotoxic, making safe delivery difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of carborane-bearing pullulan nanogels to safely and effectively deliver boron to tumor cells in vitro and in vivo and, consequently, assess their potential as a boron neutron capture therapeutic. Murine fibrosarcoma cells (CMS5a) were used for in vitro investigations of nanogel cytotoxicity, cell uptake. A mouse fibrosarcoma xenograft model was used to investigate the bio-distribution of nanogels after intravenous administration. The nanogels produced no apparent cytotoxicity and underwent cell uptake in CMS5a cells after a 24 h incubation at up to 2000 μg/mL and 400 μg/mL, respectively. The internalized nanogels were localized around the nuclear membrane. The nanogels were administered intravenously to mice bearing fibrosarcoma xenografts. Nanogel tumor localization likely occurred through the enhanced permeation and retention effect. The nanogels successfully reduced the cytotoxicity of carborane, were internalized into tumor cells, acted as a dual-delivery therapeutic and accumulated in tumors in vivo. Consequently, they demonstrate significant potential as a boron neutron capture therapeutic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Intracellular Assembly of Nuclear-Targeted Gold Nanosphere Enables Selective Plasmonic Photothermal Therapy of Cancer by Shifting Their Absorption Wavelength toward Near-Infrared Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panikkanvalappil, Sajanlal R; Hooshmand, Nasrin; El-Sayed, Mostafa A

    2017-09-20

    Despite the important applications of near-infrared (NIR) absorbing nanomaterials in plasmonic photothermal therapy (PPT), their high yield synthesis and nonspecific heating during the active- and passive-targeted cancer therapeutic strategies remain challenging. In the present work, we systematically demonstrate that in situ aggregation of typical non-NIR absorbing plasmonic nanoparticles at the nuclear region of the cells could translate them into an effective NIR photoabsorber in plasmonic photothermal therapy of cancer due to a significant shift of the plasmonic absorption band to the NIR region. We evaluated the potential of nuclear-targeted AuNSs as photoabsorber at various stages of endocytosis by virtue of their inherent in situ assembling capabilities at the nuclear region of the cells, which has been considered as one of the most thermolabile structures within the cells, to selectively destruct cancer cells with minimal damage to healthy cells. Various plasmonic nanoparticles such as rods and cubes have been exploited to elucidate the role of plasmonic field coupling in assembled nanoparticles and their subsequent killing efficiency. The NIR absorbing capabilities of aggregated AuNSs have been further demonstrated both experimentally and theoretically using discrete dipolar approximation (DDA) techniques, which was in concordance with the observed results in plasmonic photothermal therapeutic studies. While the current work was able to demonstrate the utility of non-NIR absorbing plasmonic nanoparticles as a potential alternative for plasmonic photothermal therapy by inducing localized plasmonic heating at the nuclear region of the cells, these findings could potentially open up new possibilities in developing more efficient nanoparticles for efficient cancer treatment modalities.

  9. Biotherapeutic target or sink: analysis of the macrophage mannose receptor tissue distribution in murine models of lysosomal storage diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin Sheen; Brondyk, William; Lydon, John T; Thurberg, Beth L; Piepenhagen, Peter A

    2011-06-01

    Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are metabolic disorders caused by enzyme deficiencies that lead to lysosomal accumulation of undegraded substrates. Enzyme replacement therapies (ERT) have been developed as treatments for patients with Gaucher, Niemann-Pick, Fabry, and Pompe diseases. Depending on the disease, the corresponding therapeutic enzyme is designed to be internalized by diseased cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis via macrophage mannose receptors (MMR) or mannose-6-phosphate receptors (M6PR). Enzymes developed to treat Gaucher and Niemann-Pick diseases are meant to target MMR-expressing cells, and in the case of Cerezyme [recombinant human β-glucocerebrosidase (rhβGC)] for treating Gaucher disease, glycans on the enzyme are modified to increase specificity toward this receptor. Due to heterogeneity in glycosylation on enzymes intended to target the M6PR, however, there may also be some unintended targeting to MMR-expressing cells, which could act as unwanted sinks. Examples include Fabrazyme [recombinant human α-galactosidase A (rhαGal)] for treating Fabry disease and Myozyme [recombinant human acid α-glucosidase (rhGAA)] for treating Pompe disease. It is therefore of great interest to better understand the cell type and tissue distribution of MMR in murine LSD models used to evaluate ERT efficacy and mechanism of action. In this study, we generated affinity-purified polyclonal antibody against murine MMR and used it to carry out a systematic examination of MMR protein localization in murine models of Gaucher, Niemann-Pick, Fabry, and Pompe diseases. Using immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and confocal microscopy, we examined MMR distribution in liver, spleen, lung, kidney, heart, diaphragm, quadriceps, and triceps in these animal models and compared them with MMR distribution in wild-type mice.

  10. Layer-by-layer assembled magnetic prednisolone microcapsules (MPC) for controlled and targeted drug release at rheumatoid arthritic joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabu, Chakkarapani; Latha, Subbiah; Selvamani, Palanisamy; Ahrentorp, Fredrik; Johansson, Christer; Takeda, Ryoji; Takemura, Yasushi; Ota, Satoshi

    2017-04-01

    We report here in about the formulation and evaluation of Magnetic Prednisolone Microcapsules (MPC) developed in order to improve the therapeutic efficacy relatively at a low dose than the conventional dosage formulations by means of magnetic drug targeting and thus enhancing bioavailability at the arthritic joints. Prednisolone was loaded to poly (sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) doped calcium carbonate microspheres confirmed by the decrease in surface area from 97.48 m2/g to 12.05 of m2/g by BET analysis. Adsorption with oppositely charged polyelectrolytes incorporated with iron oxide nanoparticles was confirmed through zeta analysis. Removal of calcium carbonate core yielded MPC with particle size of 3.48 μm, zeta potential of +29.7 mV was evaluated for its magnetic properties. Functional integrity of MPC was confirmed through FT-IR spectrum. Stability studies were performed at 25 °C±65% relative humidity for 60 days showed no considerable changes. Further the encapsulation efficiency of 63%, loading capacity of 18.2% and drug release of 88.3% for 36 h and its kinetics were also reported. The observed results justify the suitability of MPC for possible applications in the magnetic drug targeting for efficient therapy of rheumatoid arthritis.

  11. Hierarchical self-assembly of magnetic nanoclusters for theranostics: Tunable size, enhanced magnetic resonance imagability, and controlled and targeted drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dai Hai; Lee, Jung Seok; Choi, Jong Hoon; Park, Kyung Min; Lee, Yunki; Park, Ki Dong

    2016-04-15

    Nanoparticle-based imaging and therapy are of interest for theranostic nanomedicine. In particular, superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted much attention in cancer imaging, diagnostics, and treatment because of their superior imagability and biocompatibility (approved by the Food and Drug Administration). Here, we developed SPIO nanoparticles (NPs) that self-assembled into magnetic nanoclusters (SAMNs) in aqueous environments as a theranostic nano-system. To generate multi-functional SPIO NPs, we covalently conjugated β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) to SPIO NPs using metal-adhesive dopamine groups. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and paclitaxel (PTX) were hosted in the β-CD cavity through high affinity complexation. The core-shell structure of the magnetic nanoclusters was elucidated based on the condensed SPIO core and a PEG shell using electron microscopy and the composition was analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Our results indicate that nanocluster size could be readily controlled by changing the SPIO/PEG ratio in the assemblies. Interestingly, we observed a significant enhancement in magnetic resonance contrast due to the large cluster size and dense iron oxide core. In addition, tethering a tumor-targeting peptide to the SAMNs enhanced their uptake into tumor cells. PTX was efficiently loaded into β-CDs and released in a controlled manner when exposed to competitive guest molecules. These results strongly indicate that the SAMNs developed in this study possess great potential for application in image-guided cancer chemotherapy. In this study, we developed multi-functional SPIO NPs that self-assembled into magnetic nanoclusters (SAMNs) in aqueous conditions as a theranostic nano-system. The beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) was immobilized on the surfaces of SPIO NPs and RGD-conjugated polyethylene glycol (PEG) and paclitaxel (PTX) were hosted in the β-CD cavity through high affinity complexation. We found that nanocluster size could be

  12. Three-Dimensional Human Bronchial-Tracheal Epithelial Tissue-Like Assemblies (TLAs) as Hosts for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-CoV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suderman, M. T.; McCarthy, M.; Mossell, E.; Watts, D. M.; Peters, C. J.; Shope, R.; Goodwin, T. J.

    2006-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) tissue-like assembly (TLA) of human bronchial-tracheal mesenchymal (HBTC) cells with an overlay of human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells was constructed using a NASA Bioreactor to survey the infectivity of SARS-CoV. This TLA was inoculated with a low passage number Urbani strain of SARS-CoV. At selected intervals over a 10-day period, media and cell aliquots of the 3-D TLA were harvested for viral titer assay and for light and electron microscopy examination. All viral titer assays were negative in both BEAS-2B two-dimensional monolayer and TLA. Light microscopy immunohistochemistry demonstrated antigen-antibody reactivity with anti-SARS-CoV polyclonal antibody to spike and nuclear proteins on cell membranes and cytoplasm. Coronavirus Group 2 cross-reactivity was demonstrated by positive reaction to anti-FIPV 1 and anti-FIPV 1 and 2 antibodies. TLA examination by transmission electron microscopy indicated increasing cytoplasmic vacuolation with numerous electron-dense bodies measuring 45 to 270 nm from days 4 through 10. There was no evidence of membrane blebbing, membrane duplication, or fragmentation of organelles in the TLAs. However, progressive disruption of endoplasmic reticulum was observed throughout the cells. Antibody response to SARS-CoV specific spike and nucleocapsid glycoproteins, cross-reactivity with FIPV antibodies, and the cytoplasmic pathology suggests this HBTE TLA model is permissive to SARS-CoV infection.

  13. Targeting tissue factor on tumour cells and angiogenic vascular endothelial cells by factor VII-targeted verteporfin photodynamic therapy for breast cancer in vitro and in vivo in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Rao Benqiang; Hu Zhiwei; Chen Shimin; Duanmu Jinzhong

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective of this study was to develop a ligand-targeted photodynamic therapy (tPDT) by conjugating factor VII (fVII) protein with photosensitiser verteporfin in order to overcome the poor selectivity and enhance the effect of non-targeted PDT (ntPDT) for cancer. fVII is a natural ligand for receptor tissue factor (TF) with high affinity and specificity. The reason for targeting receptor TF for the development of tPDT is that TF is a common but specific target on angio...

  14. Evaluating the forensic application of 19 target microRNAs as biomarkers in body fluid and tissue identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirker, M; Fimmers, R; Schneider, P M; Gomes, I

    2017-03-01

    RNA-based body fluid and tissue identification has evolved as a promising and reliable new technique to classify type and source of biological evidence in crime cases. In particular, mRNA-based approaches are currently on the rise to replace conventional protein-based methods and are increasingly implemented into forensic casework. However, degradation of these nucleic acid molecules can cause issues on laboratory scale and need to be considered for a credible investigation. For this reason, the analysis of miRNAs using qPCR has been proposed to be a sensitive and specific approach to identify the origin of a biological trace taking advantage of their small size and resistance to degradation. Despite the straightforward workflow of this method, suitable endogenous controls are inevitable when performing real-time PCR to ensure accurate normalization of gene expression data in order to allow a meaningful interpretation. In this regard, we have validated reference genes for a set of forensically relevant body fluids and tissues (blood, saliva, semen, vaginal secretions, menstrual blood and skin) and tested 15 target genes aiming to identify abovementioned sample types. Our data showed that preselected endogenous controls (miR26b, miR92 and miR484) and miR144, initially selected as potential marker for the detection of menstrual blood, were the most stable expressed genes among our set of samples. Normalizing qPCR data with these four validated references revealed that only five miRNA markers are necessary to differentiate between the six different cell types selected in this study. Nevertheless, our observations in the present study indicate that miRNA analysis methods may not provide straightforward data interpretation strategies required for an implementation in forensic casework. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comprehensive profiling of retroviral integration sites using target enrichment methods from historical koala samples without an assembled reference genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin Cui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Retroviral integration into the host germline results in permanent viral colonization of vertebrate genomes. The koala retrovirus (KoRV is currently invading the germline of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus and provides a unique opportunity for studying retroviral endogenization. Previous analysis of KoRV integration patterns in modern koalas demonstrate that they share integration sites primarily if they are related, indicating that the process is currently driven by vertical transmission rather than infection. However, due to methodological challenges, KoRV integrations have not been comprehensively characterized. Results. To overcome these challenges, we applied and compared three target enrichment techniques coupled with next generation sequencing (NGS and a newly customized sequence-clustering based computational pipeline to determine the integration sites for 10 museum Queensland and New South Wales (NSW koala samples collected between the 1870s and late 1980s. A secondary aim of this study sought to identify common integration sites across modern and historical specimens by comparing our dataset to previously published studies. Several million sequences were processed, and the KoRV integration sites in each koala were characterized. Conclusions. Although the three enrichment methods each exhibited bias in integration site retrieval, a combination of two methods, Primer Extension Capture and hybridization capture is recommended for future studies on historical samples. Moreover, identification of integration sites shows that the proportion of integration sites shared between any two koalas is quite small.

  16. MRI analyses show that kinesio taping affects much more than just the targeted superficial tissues and causes heterogeneous deformations within the whole limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamuk, Uluç; Yucesoy, Can A

    2015-12-16

    Kinesio taping (KT) is widely used in the treatment of sports injuries and various neuro-musculoskeletal disorders. However, it is considered as selectively effective on targeted tissues and its mechanical effects have not been quantified objectively. Ascribed to continuity of muscular and connective tissues, mechanical loading imposed can have widespread heterogeneous effects. The aim was to characterize the mechanical effects of KT objectively and to test the hypotheses that KT causes acutely, local deformations not necessarily (I) in agreement with tape adhering direction and (II) limited to the directly targeted tissues. High-resolution 3D magnetic resonance image sets were acquired in healthy human subjects (n=5) prior to and acutely after KT application over the skin along m. tibialis anterior (TA). Hip, knee and ankle angles were kept constant. Demons image registration algorithm was used to calculate local tissue deformations within the lower leg, in vivo. Mean peak tissue strains were significantly higher than strain artifacts. Only KT-to-TA region in part shows local deformations in agreement with tape adhering direction whereas, superficial skin, the rest of KT-to-TA and TA regions show deformations (up to 51.5% length change) in other directions. Non-targeted tissues also show sizable heterogeneous deformations, but in smaller amplitudes. Inter-subject variability is notable. Magnetic resonance imaging analyses allow for a detailed assessment of local tissue deformation occurring acutely after KT application. The findings confirm our hypotheses and characterize how KT affects the underlying tissues, both immediately targeted and distant. This allows revealing mechanisms that can affect clinical outcomes of KT objectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dgp71WD is required for the assembly of the acentrosomal Meiosis I spindle, and is not a general targeting factor for the γ-TuRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard F. Reschen

    2012-03-01

    Dgp71WD/Nedd1 proteins are essential for mitotic spindle formation. In human cells, Nedd1 targets γ-tubulin to both centrosomes and spindles, but in other organisms the function of Dgp71WD/Nedd1 is less clear. In Drosophila cells, Dgp71WD plays a major part in targeting γ-tubulin to spindles, but not centrosomes, while in Xenopus egg extracts, Nedd1 acts as a more general microtubule (MT organiser that can function independently of γ-tubulin. The interpretation of these studies, however, is complicated by the fact that some residual Dgp71WD/Nedd1 is likely present in the cells/extracts analysed. Here we generate a Dgp71WD null mutant lacking all but the last 12 nucleotides of coding sequence. The complete loss of Dgp71WD has no quantifiable effect on γ-tubulin or Centrosomin recruitment to the centrosome in larval brain cells. The recruitment of γ-tubulin to spindle MTs, however, is severely impaired, and spindle MT density is reduced in a manner that is indistinguishable from cells lacking Augmin or γ-TuRC function. In contrast, the absence of Dgp71WD leads to defects in the assembly of the acentrosomal female Meiosis I spindle that are more severe than those seen in Augmin or γ-TuRC mutants, indicating that Dgp71WD has additional functions that are independent of these complexes in oocytes. Moreover, the localisation of bicoid RNA during oogenesis, which requires γ-TuRC function, is unperturbed in Dgp71WD120 mutants. Thus, Dgp71WD is not simply a general cofactor required for γ-TuRC and/or Augmin targeting, and it appears to have a crucial role independent of these complexes in the acentrosomal Meiosis I spindle.

  18. The evolution of the natural killer complex; a comparison between mammals using new high-quality genome assemblies and targeted annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, John C; Gibson, Mark S; Heimeier, Dorothea; Koren, Sergey; Phillippy, Adam M; Bickhart, Derek M; Smith, Timothy P L; Medrano, Juan F; Hammond, John A

    2017-04-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are a diverse population of lymphocytes with a range of biological roles including essential immune functions. NK cell diversity is in part created by the differential expression of cell surface receptors which modulate activation and function, including multiple subfamilies of C-type lectin receptors encoded within the NK complex (NKC). Little is known about the gene content of the NKC beyond rodent and primate lineages, other than it appears to be extremely variable between mammalian groups. We compared the NKC structure between mammalian species using new high-quality draft genome assemblies for cattle and goat; re-annotated sheep, pig, and horse genome assemblies; and the published human, rat, and mouse lemur NKC. The major NKC genes are largely in the equivalent positions in all eight species, with significant independent expansions and deletions between species, allowing us to propose a model for NKC evolution during mammalian radiation. The ruminant species, cattle and goats, have independently evolved a second KLRC locus flanked by KLRA and KLRJ, and a novel KLRH-like gene has acquired an activating tail. This novel gene has duplicated several times within cattle, while other activating receptor genes have been selectively disrupted. Targeted genome enrichment in cattle identified varying levels of allelic polymorphism between the NKC genes concentrated in the predicted extracellular ligand-binding domains. This novel recombination and allelic polymorphism is consistent with NKC evolution under balancing selection, suggesting that this diversity influences individual immune responses and may impact on differential outcomes of pathogen infection and vaccination.

  19. Kinetics of naphthalene metabolism in target and non-target tissues of rodents and in nasal and airway microsomes from the Rhesus monkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckpitt, Alan, E-mail: arbuckpitt@ucdavis.edu [Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Morin, Dexter [Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Murphy, Shannon; Edwards, Patricia; Van Winkle, Laura [Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Cell Biology, School of Veterinary Medicine, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Center for Health and the Environment, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616 United States (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Naphthalene produces species and cell selective injury to respiratory tract epithelial cells of rodents. In these studies we determined the apparent K{sub m}, V{sub max}, and catalytic efficiency (V{sub max}/K{sub m}) for naphthalene metabolism in microsomal preparations from subcompartments of the respiratory tract of rodents and non-human primates. In tissues with high substrate turnover, major metabolites were derived directly from naphthalene oxide with smaller amounts from conjugates of diol epoxide, diepoxide, and 1,2- and 1,4-naphthoquinones. In some tissues, different enzymes with dissimilar K{sub m} and V{sub max} appeared to metabolize naphthalene. The rank order of V{sub max} (rat olfactory epithelium > mouse olfactory epithelium > murine airways ≫ rat airways) correlated well with tissue susceptibility to naphthalene. The V{sub max} in monkey alveolar subcompartment was 2% that in rat nasal olfactory epithelium. Rates of metabolism in nasal compartments of the monkey were low. The catalytic efficiencies of microsomes from known susceptible tissues/subcompartments are 10 and 250 fold higher than in rat airway and monkey alveolar subcompartments, respectively. Although the strong correlations between catalytic efficiencies and tissue susceptibility suggest that non-human primate tissues are unlikely to generate metabolites at a rate sufficient to produce cellular injury, other studies showing high levels of formation of protein adducts support the need for additional studies. - Highlights: • Naphthalene is metabolized with high catalytic efficiency in susceptible tissue. • Naphthalene is metabolized at low catalytic efficiency in non-susceptible tissue. • Respiratory tissues of the non human primate metabolize naphthalene slowly.

  20. Mathematical models of tissue stem and transit target cell divisions and the risk of radiation- or smoking-associated cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P Little

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There is compelling biological data to suggest that cancer arises from a series of mutations in single target cells, resulting in defects in cell renewal and differentiation processes which lead to malignancy. Because much mutagenic damage is expressed following cell division, more-rapidly renewing tissues could be at higher risk because of the larger number of cell replications. Cairns suggested that renewing tissues may reduce cancer risk by partitioning the dividing cell populations into lineages comprising infrequently-dividing long-lived stem cells and frequently-dividing short-lived daughter transit cells. We develop generalizations of three recent cancer-induction models that account for the joint maintenance and renewal of stem and transit cells, also competing processes of partially transformed cell proliferation and differentiation/apoptosis. We are particularly interested in using these models to separately assess the probabilities of mutation and development of cancer associated with "spontaneous" processes and with those linked to a specific environmental mutagen, specifically ionizing radiation or cigarette smoking. All three models demonstrate substantial variation in cancer risks, by at least 20 orders of magnitude, depending on the assumed number of critical mutations required for cancer, and the stem-cell and transition-cell mutation rates. However, in most cases the conditional probabilities of cancer being mutagen-induced range between 7-96%. The relative risks associated with mutagen exposure compared to background rates are also stable, ranging from 1.0-16.0. Very few cancers, generally 0.3 between lifetime cancer-site specific radiation risk and the probability of that cancer being mutagen-induced. These results do not depend on the assumed critical number of mutations leading to cancer, or on the assumed mutagen-associated mutation rate, within the generally-accepted ranges tested. However, there are borderline

  1. Use of diagnostic dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI for targeting of soft tissue tumour biopsies at 3T: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noebauer-Huhmann, Iris-Melanie [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, High Field MR Center, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna/Vienna General Hospital, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Amann, Gabriele [Medical University of Vienna, Clinical Institute for Pathology, Vienna (Austria); Krssak, Martin [Medical University of Vienna, High Field MR Center, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Department of Internal Medicine III, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vienna (Austria); Panotopoulos, Joannis; Funovics, Philipp; Windhager, Reinhard [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Orthopaedics, Vienna (Austria); Szomolanyi, Pavol [Medical University of Vienna, High Field MR Center, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Slovak Academy of Sciences, Department of Imaging Methods, Institute of Measurement Science, Bratislava (Slovakia); Weber, Michael; Czerny, Christian; Nemec, Stefan [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Breitenseher, Martin [Landesklinikum Waldviertel Horn, Horn (Austria); Grabner, Guenther; Bogner, Wolfgang [Medical University of Vienna, High Field MR Center, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Dominkus, Martin [Orthopaedics Hospital Speising, Vienna (Austria); Trattnig, Siegfried [Medical University of Vienna, High Field MR Center, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Experimental and Clinical Traumatology, Austrian Cluster for Tissue Regeneration, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-07-15

    To test the feasibility and accuracy of MR-guided soft tissue tumour biopsy at 3T, using the dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) information from staging MRI for intralesional targeting. After obtaining written informed consent for this institutional review board-approved study, 53 patients with suspected soft tissue tumours prospectively underwent preoperative staging MRI at 3T, including DCE, and subsequent MR-guided core needle biopsy. In 44/53 cases, DCE was heterogeneous and was used for intralesional biopsy targeting. Surgical, whole-specimen histology was used as the gold standard in 43/44 patients and revealed 42 soft tissue tumours (24 men; 18 women; mean age, 52 years; range, 19 - 84). Final surgical histology revealed eight benign lesions, six tumours of intermediate dignity, and 28 malignancies. All malignancies had shown heterogeneous DCE. The diagnostic yield of the biopsies was 100 % (42/42). Histological accuracy rates of biopsy were 100 % in predicting the dignity (42/42; 95 % CI [0.916 - 1.000]), 95.2 % for the tissue-specific entity (40/42; 95 % CI [0.847 - 0.987]), and 90.5 % for the tumour grade (38/42; 95 % CI [0.779 - 0.962]). Our preliminary study indicates that biopsy of soft tissue tumours can be performed accurately and safely with DCE targeted MR-guidance at 3T, using a combined staging/biopsy MRI protocol. (orig.)

  2. MicroRNA-145 Inhibits Cell Migration and Invasion and Regulates Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) by Targeting Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF) in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qiang; Zhang, Hua-Yong; Zhong, Bei-Long; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Hua

    2016-10-23

    BACKGROUND This study investigated the mechanism of miR-145 in targeting connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), which affects the proliferation, migration, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of ESCC cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 50 ESCC tissues and their corresponding normal adjacent esophageal tissue samples were collected. Then, miR-145 expression in both ESCC clinical specimens and cell lines was detected using quantitative real-time PCR. CTGF protein was detected using immunohistochemistry. Dual luciferase reporter gene assay was employed to assess the effect of miR-145 on the 3'UTR luciferase activity of CTGF. Eca109 cells were transfected with miR-145 mimics and CTGF siRNA, respectively, and changes in cellular proliferation, migration, and invasion were detected via MTT assay, wound-healing assay, and Transwell assay, respectively. Western blotting assay was used to detect the expression of marker genes related to EMT. RESULTS MiR-145 was significantly down-regulated in ESCC tissues and cell lines compared with normal tissues and cell lines (Ptissues was than in normal adjacent esophageal tissues (Ptissues and cell lines, while the protein expression of CTGF exhibited the opposite trend. MiR-145 inhibited the proliferation, migration, invasiveness, and the EMT process of ESCC cells through targeted regulation of CTGF expression.

  3. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): the G02 field, Herschel-ATLAS target selection and Data Release 3 arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Baldry, I.K.; Brown, M.J.I.; Robotham, A.S.G.; Driver, S.P.; Dunne, L.; Alpaslan, M.; Brough, S.; Cluver, M.E.; Eardley, E.; Farrow, D.J.; Heymans, C.; Hildebrandt, H.; Hopkins, A.M.; Kelvin, L.S.; Loveday, J.; Moffett, A.J.; Norberg, P.; Owers, M.S.; Taylor, E.N.; Wright, A.H.; Bamford, S.P.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bourne, N.; Bremer, M.N.; Colless, M.; Conselice, C.J.; Croom, S.M.; Davies, L.J.M.; Foster, C.; Grootes, M.W.; Holwerda, B.W.; Jones, D.H.; Kafle, P.R.; Kuijken, K.; Lara-Lopez, M.A.; Lopez-Sanchez, A.R.; Meyer, M.J.; Phillipps, S.; Sutherland, W.J.; van Kampen, E.; Wilkins, S.M.

    We describe data release 3 (DR3) of the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. The GAMA survey is a spectroscopic redshift and multi-wavelength photometric survey in three equatorial regions each of 60.0 deg^2 (G09, G12, G15), and two southern regions of 55.7 deg^2 (G02) and 50.6 deg^2 (G23). DR3 consists of: the first release of data covering the G02 region and of data on H-ATLAS sources in the equatorial regions; and updates to data on sources released in DR2. DR3 includes 154809 sources with secure redshifts across four regions. A subset of the G02 region is 95.5% redshift complete to r<19.8 over an area of 19.5 deg^2, with 20086 galaxy redshifts, that overlaps substantially with the XXL survey (X-ray) and VIPERS (redshift survey). In the equatorial regions, the main survey has even higher completeness (98.5%), and spectra for about 75% of H-ATLAS filler targets were also obtained. This filler sample extends spectroscopic redshifts, for probable optical counterparts to H-ATLAS sub-mm sources, to 0.8 ma...

  4. NG2 proteoglycan as a pericyte target for anticancer therapy by tumor vessel infarction with retargeted tissue factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Caroline; Schliemann, Christoph; Ring, Janine; Kessler, Torsten; Bäumer, Sebastian; Angenendt, Linus; Mantke, Verena; Ross, Rebecca; Hintelmann, Heike; Spieker, Tilmann; Wardelmann, Eva; Mesters, Rolf M; Berdel, Wolfgang E; Schwöppe, Christian

    2016-02-09

    tTF-TAA and tTF-LTL are fusion proteins consisting of the extracellular domain of tissue factor (TF) and the peptides TAASGVRSMH and LTLRWVGLMS, respectively. These peptides represent ligands of NG2, a surface proteoglycan expressed on angiogenic pericytes and some tumor cells. Here we have expressed the model compound tTF-NGR, tTF-TAA, and tTF-LTL with different lengths in the TF domain in E. coli and used these fusion proteins for functional studies in anticancer therapy. We aimed to retarget TF to tumor vessels leading to tumor vessel infarction with two barriers of selectivity, a) the leaky endothelial lining in tumor vessels with the target NG2 being expressed on pericytes on the abluminal side of the endothelial cell barrier and b) the preferential expression of NG2 on angiogenic vessels such as in tumors. Chromatography-purified tTF-TAA showed identical Factor X (FX)-activating procoagulatory activity as the model compound tTF-NGR with Km values of approx. 0.15 nM in Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The procoagulatory activity of tTF-LTL varied with the chosen length of the TF part of the fusion protein. Flow cytometry revealed specific binding of tTF-TAA to NG2-expressing pericytes and tumor cells with low affinity and dissociation KD in the high nM range. In vivo and ex vivo fluorescence imaging of tumor xenograft-carrying animals and of the explanted tumors showed reduction of tumor blood flow upon tTF-TAA application. Therapeutic experiments showed a reproducible antitumor activity of tTF-TAA against NG2-expressing A549-tumor xenografts, however, with a rather small therapeutic window (active/toxic dose in mg/kg body weight).

  5. Selective targeted delivery of the TNF-alpha receptor p75 and uteroglobin to the vasculature of inflamed tissues: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Elisa; Balza, Enrica; Borsi, Laura; Tutolo, Giorgia; Carnemolla, Barbara; Castellani, Patrizia; Zardi, Luciano

    2011-11-10

    Ligand-targeted approaches have proven successful in improving the therapeutic index of a number of drugs. We hypothesized that the specific targeting of TNF-alpha antagonists to inflamed tissues could increase drug efficacy and reduce side effects. Using uteroglobin (UG), a potent anti-inflammatory protein, as a scaffold, we prepared a bispecific tetravalent molecule consisting of the extracellular ligand-binding portion of the human TNF-alpha receptor P75 (TNFRII) and the scFv L19. L19 binds to the ED-B containing fibronectin isoform (B-FN), which is expressed only during angiogenesis processes and during tissue remodeling. B-FN has also been demonstrated in the pannus in rheumatoid arthritis. L19-UG-TNFRII is a stable, soluble homodimeric protein that maintains the activities of both moieties: the immuno-reactivity of L19 and the capability of TNFRII to inhibit TNF-alpha. In vivo bio-distribution studies demonstrated that the molecule selectively accumulated on B-FN containing tissues, showing a very fast clearance from the blood but a very long residence time on B-FN containing tissues. Despite the very fast clearance from the blood, this fusion protein was able to significantly improve the severe symptomatology of arthritis in collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) mouse model. The recombinant protein described here, able to selectively deliver the TNF-alpha antagonist TNFRII to inflamed tissues, could yield important contributions for the therapy of degenerative inflammatory diseases.

  6. Characterization of IgG monoclonal antibody targeted to both tissue cyst and sporocyst walls of Toxoplasma gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii infects approximately one third of the human population and animals habiting terrestrial and aquatic environments. Its environmentally resistant oocysts are excreted by felids, and the stage encysted in tissues (tissue cysts), are important in the horizontal transmission of T. gon...

  7. Large-scale inference of protein tissue origin in gram-positive sepsis plasma using quantitative targeted proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmström, Erik; Kilsgård, Ola; Hauri, Simon; Smeds, Emanuel; Herwald, Heiko; Malmström, Lars; Malmström, Johan

    2016-01-06

    The plasma proteome is highly dynamic and variable, composed of proteins derived from surrounding tissues and cells. To investigate the complex processes that control the composition of the plasma proteome, we developed a mass spectrometry-based proteomics strategy to infer the origin of proteins detected in murine plasma. The strategy relies on the construction of a comprehensive protein tissue atlas from cells and highly vascularized organs using shotgun mass spectrometry. The protein tissue atlas was transformed to a spectral library for highly reproducible quantification of tissue-specific proteins directly in plasma using SWATH-like data-independent mass spectrometry analysis. We show that the method can determine drastic changes of tissue-specific protein profiles in blood plasma from mouse animal models with sepsis. The strategy can be extended to several other species advancing our understanding of the complex processes that contribute to the plasma proteome dynamics.

  8. Methods for Reducing Normal Tissue Complication Probabilities in Oropharyngeal Cancer: Dose Reduction or Planning Target Volume Elimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuels, Stuart E.; Eisbruch, Avraham; Vineberg, Karen; Lee, Jae; Lee, Choonik; Matuszak, Martha M.; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Brock, Kristy K., E-mail: kbrock@med.umich.edu

    2016-11-01

    Purpose: Strategies to reduce the toxicities of head and neck radiation (ie, dysphagia [difficulty swallowing] and xerostomia [dry mouth]) are currently underway. However, the predicted benefit of dose and planning target volume (PTV) reduction strategies is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to compare the normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP) for swallowing and salivary structures in standard plans (70 Gy [P70]), dose-reduced plans (60 Gy [P60]), and plans eliminating the PTV margin. Methods and Materials: A total of 38 oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) plans were analyzed. Standard organ-sparing volumetric modulated arc therapy plans (P70) were created and then modified by eliminating the PTVs and treating the clinical tumor volumes (CTVs) only (C70) or maintaining the PTV but reducing the dose to 60 Gy (P60). NTCP dose models for the pharyngeal constrictors, glottis/supraglottic larynx, parotid glands (PGs), and submandibular glands (SMGs) were analyzed. The minimal clinically important benefit was defined as a mean change in NTCP of >5%. The P70 NTCP thresholds and overlap percentages of the organs at risk with the PTVs (56-59 Gy, vPTV{sub 56}) were evaluated to identify the predictors for NTCP improvement. Results: With the P60 plans, only the ipsilateral PG (iPG) benefited (23.9% vs 16.2%; P<.01). With the C70 plans, only the iPG (23.9% vs 17.5%; P<.01) and contralateral SMG (cSMG) (NTCP 32.1% vs 22.9%; P<.01) benefited. An iPG NTCP threshold of 20% and 30% predicted NTCP benefits for the P60 and C70 plans, respectively (P<.001). A cSMG NTCP threshold of 30% predicted for an NTCP benefit with the C70 plans (P<.001). Furthermore, for the iPG, a vPTV{sub 56} >13% predicted benefit with P60 (P<.001) and C70 (P=.002). For the cSMG, a vPTV{sub 56} >22% predicted benefit with C70 (P<.01). Conclusions: PTV elimination and dose-reduction lowered the NTCP of the iPG, and PTV elimination lowered the NTCP of the cSMG. NTCP thresholds and the

  9. Tumor targeting using {sup 67}Ga-DOTA-Bz-folate - investigations of methods to improve the tissue distribution of radiofolates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Cristina, E-mail: cristina.mueller@psi.ch [Center for Radiopharmaceutical Sciences ETH-PSI-USZ, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Vlahov, Iontcho R.; Santhapuram, Hari Krishna R.; Leamon, Christopher P. [Endocyte Inc., West Lafayette, IN 47906 (United States); Schibli, Roger [Center for Radiopharmaceutical Sciences ETH-PSI-USZ, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2011-07-15

    Introduction: Use of folic acid radioconjugates for folate receptor (FR) targeting is a promising strategy for imaging purposes as well as for potential therapy of cancer and inflammatory diseases due to the frequent FR overexpression found on cancer cells and activated macrophages. Herein, we report on preclinical results using a novel DOTA-Bz-EDA-folate conjugate radiolabeled with [{sup 67}Ga]-gallium. Methods: DOTA-Bz-EDA-folate was prepared by conjugation of ethylenediamine-({gamma})-folate with 2-(p-isothiocyanobenzyl)-DOTA. Radiolabeling was carried out with {sup 67}GaCl{sub 3} according to standard procedures. Biodistribution studies of the tracer were performed in mice bearing FR-positive KB tumor xenografts. The effects on radiofolate biodistribution with coadministered renal uptake-blocking amino acids, diuretic agents, antifolates as well as different routes of administration were likewise investigated. Supportive imaging studies were performed using a small-animal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT scanner. Results: {sup 67}Ga-DOTA-Bz-EDA-folate showed a high and specific accumulation in tumors (6.30%{+-}0.75% ID/g, 1 h pi and 6.08%{+-}0.89% ID/g, 4 h pi). Nonspecific radioactivity uptake in nontargeted tissues was negligible, but significant accumulation was found in FR-positive kidneys, which resulted in unfavorably low tumor-to-kidney ratios (<0.1). Coadministered amino acids or diuretics did not effectively reduce renal accumulation; in contrast, predosed pemetrexed did significantly reduce kidney uptake (<29% of control values). The SPECT/CT studies confirmed the excellent tumor-to-background contrast of {sup 67}Ga-radiofolate and the favorable reduction in kidney uptake (with improved imaging quality) resulting from pemetrexed administration. Conclusion: Conventional methods to reduce kidney uptake of radiofolates fail. However, the novel {sup 67}Ga-radiolabeled DOTA-Bz-EDA-folate can effectively be used to image FR

  10. Pillar[5]arene-based amphiphilic supramolecular brush copolymer: fabrication, controllable self-assembly and application in self-imaging targeted drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guocan; Zhao, Run; Wu, Dan; Zhang, Fuwu; Shao, Li; Zhou, Jiong; Yang, Jie; Tang, Guping; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Huang, Feihe

    2016-10-28

    Supramolecular brush copolymers have attracted continuing interest due to their unusual architectures, fascinating properties, and potential applications in many fields involving smart stimuli-responsive drug delivery systems. Herein, the first pillararene-based amphiphilic supramolecular brush copolymer (P5-PEG-Biotin⊃PTPE) was constructed on the basis of the host-guest molecular recognition between a water-soluble pillar[5]arene (P5) and a viologen salt (M). P5-PEG-Biotin⊃PTPE self-assembled into supramolecular nanoparticles (SNPs), which were utilized as a self-imaging drug delivery vehicle by taking advantage of the aggregation-induced emission (AIE) effect. Encapsulation of anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) caused deactivation of the fluorescences of both the tetraphenylethene (TPE) and DOX chromophores due to the energy transfer relay (ETR) effect, mediated by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ). The release of loaded DOX molecules can be triggered by low pH and reductase, recovering the "silenced" fluorescence caused by the interruption of the ETR effect, achieving in situ visualization of the drug release process by observing the location and magnitude of the energy transfer-dependent fluorescence variation. The biotin ligands on the surfaces of the DOX-loaded SNPs act as targeting agents to deliver DOX preferentially to cancer cells over-expressing biotin receptor. In vitro studies demonstrated that the loading of DOX by this supramolecular nanomaterial exhibited selective cytotoxicity towards cancer cells over normal cells. The potency of this sophisticated supramolecular drug delivery system in cancer therapy was further evaluated in HeLa tumor-bearing mice. In vivo experiments confirmed that the DOX-loaded SNPs possess excellent antitumor efficacy with negligible systemic toxicity.

  11. Octanoyl galactose ester-modified microemulsion system self-assembled by coix seed components to enhance tumor targeting and hepatoma therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Ding; Liu, Mingjian; Huang, Mengmeng; Wang, Lixiang; Chen, Yan; Liu, Congyan; Liu, Yuping

    2017-01-01

    A nanosized drug delivery platform with a combination of rational components and tumor targeting is significant for enhancement of anticancer therapy and reduction of side effects. In this study, we developed a octanoyl galactose ester-modified microemulsion system self-assembled by coix seed components (Gal(oct)-C-MEs), which improved the tumor accumulation through asialoglycoprotein receptor-mediated endocytosis and promoted the antitumor efficacy through multicomponent-mediated synergistic effect. Octanoyl galactose ester (Gal(oct)) with a yield of 82.3% was synthesized through a green enzymatic reaction and multidimensional characterization. Gal(oct)-C-MEs with a spherical shape had a small and uniform particle size (58.49±1.03 nm), narrow polydispersity index (0.09±0.01) and neutral surface charge (-5.82±0.57 mV). In the cellular uptake studies, the internalized Gal(oct)-C-ME was 2.28-fold higher relative to that of coix seed component-based microemulsions (C-MEs). The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of Gal(oct)-C-MEs against HepG2 cells was 46.5±2.4 μg/mL, which was notably higher than that of C-MEs. Importantly, the intratumor fluorescence of HepG2 xenograft-bearing nude mice treated with Cy5/Gal(oct)-C-MEs was 1.9-fold higher relative to treatment with Cy5/C-MEs. In the study of antitumor efficacy in vivo, HepG2 xenograft-bearing nude mice intragastrically administered Gal(oct)-C-MEs for 14 days exhibited the strongest inhibition of tumor growth and the lowest toxicity against liver and kidney among all the treatments. In summary, Gal(oct)-C-ME, as a highly effective and safe anticancer drug delivery system, showed promising potential for hepatoma therapy.

  12. Bioinspired Titanium Drug Eluting Platforms Based on a Poly-β-cyclodextrin-Chitosan Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembly Targeting Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Anes, Alexandra; Gargouri, Myriem; Laure, William; Van Den Berghe, Hélène; Courcot, Elisabeth; Sobocinski, Jonathan; Tabary, Nicolas; Chai, Feng; Blach, Jean-François; Addad, Ahmed; Woisel, Patrice; Douroumis, Dennis; Martel, Bernard; Blanchemain, Nicolas; Lyskawa, Joël

    2015-06-17

    In the field of implantable titanium-based biomaterials, infections and inflammations are the most common forms of postoperative complications. The controlled local delivery of therapeutics from implants through polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) has recently emerged as a versatile technique that has shown great promise in the transformation of a classical medical implant into a drug delivery system. Herein, we report the design and the elaboration of new biodegradable multidrug-eluting titanium platforms based on a polyelectrolyte multilayer bioactive coating that target infections. These systems were built up in mild conditions according to the layer-by-layer (L-b-L) assembly and incorporate two biocompatible polysaccharides held together through electrostatic interactions. A synthetic, negatively charged β-cyclodextrin-based polymer (PCD), well-known for forming stable and reversible complexes with hydrophobic therapeutic agents, was exploited as a multidrug reservoir, and chitosan (CHT), a naturally occurring, positively charged polyelectrolyte, was used as a barrier for controlling the drug delivery rate. These polyelectrolyte multilayer films were strongly attached to the titanium surface through a bioinspired polydopamine (PDA) film acting as an adhesive first layer and promoting the robust anchorage of PEMs onto the biomaterials. Prior to the multilayer film deposition, the interactions between both oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, as well the multilayer growth, were monitored by employing surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Several PEMs integrating 5, 10, and 15 bilayers were engineered using the dip coating strategy, and the polyelectrolyte surface densities were estimated by colorimetric titrations and gravimetric analyses. The morphologies of these multilayer systems, as well as their naturally occurring degradation in a physiological medium, were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and their thicknesses were measured by means of

  13. Mitoxantrone Loaded Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles for Drug Targeting: A Versatile and Sensitive Method for Quantification of Drug Enrichment in Rabbit Tissues Using HPLC-UV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Tietze

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In medicine, superparamagnetic nanoparticles bound to chemotherapeutics are currently investigated for their feasibility in local tumor therapy. After intraarterial application, these particles can be accumulated in the targeted area by an external magnetic field to increase the drug concentration in the region of interest (Magnetic-Drug-Targeting. We here present an analytical method (HPLC-UV, to detect pure or ferrofluid-bound mitoxantrone in a complex matrix even in trace amounts in order to perform biodistribution studies. Mitoxantrone could be extracted in high yields from different tissues. Recovery of mitoxantrone in liver tissue (5000 ng/g was 76±2%. The limit of quantification of mitoxantrone standard was 10 ng/mL ±12%. Validation criteria such as linearity, precision, and stability were evaluated in ranges achieving the FDA requirements. As shown for pilot samples, biodistribution studies can easily be performed after application of pure or ferrofluid-bound mitoxantrone.

  14. Adipose tissue biglycan as a potential anti-inflammatory target of sodium salicylate in mice fed a high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adapala Venkata J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation in adipose tissue (AT during obesity causes impaired AT function. Although multiple extracellular matrix (ECM proteins are expressed in AT their potential role in adipose tissue inflammation is unclear. Biglycan, a pro-inflammatory ECM gene, is highly enriched in adipose tissue. However, whether it is correlated with adipose tissue inflammation is unknown. We provide evidence in support of a strong association between biglycan expression and inflammatory status of adipose tissue. Methods C57BL6 mice were fed either a control (10% fat calories or a high fat diet (HFD (60% fat calories for 8 weeks. Adipose tissue was analyzed for the expression of biglycan, IL-6 and TNFα. Biglycan knockout or wild type were also fed a high fat diet for 8 weeks and the expression of inflammatory genes in the mesenteric adipose tissue was examined. To test anti-inflammatory treatment on biglycan expression, a group of mice were fed either the low fat or high fat diet for eight weeks supplemented with either saline or sodium salicylate @ 25mg/100ml in their drinking water. Results Mice on HFD had an increase in ECM genes (BGN and COL1A1, inflammatory genes (IL-6 and TNFα in both the subcutaneous and epididymal depots. However, correlation analysis only shows a positive correlation between biglycan, IL-6 and TNFα expression. In addition, lower expression of IL-6 and CD68 was found in the mesenteric adipose tissue of biglycan knockout mice compared to the wild type. Sodium salicylate treatment reduced subcutaneous adipose tissue expression of BGN, COL1A1, and COL6A1 and a concurrent downregulation of TNFα and IL-6 and TLR4 expression. Salicylate also lowered the serum TGFβ1 levels. Conclusion Biglycan expression correlates with adipose tissue inflammation, especially in the subcutaneous depot compared to the epididymal depot. This is supported by the greater effect of sodium salicylate in attenuating both inflammatory and ECM gene

  15. A practical guide to build de-novo assemblies for single tissues of non-model organisms: the example of a Neotropical frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Mendieta, Santiago; Grabherr, Manfred; Lantz, Henrik; De la Riva, Ignacio; Leonard, Jennifer A; Webster, Matthew T; Vilà, Carles

    2017-01-01

    Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is a very valuable resource to understand the evolutionary history of poorly known species. However, in organisms with large genomes, as most amphibians, WGS is still excessively challenging and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) represents a cost-effective tool to explore genome-wide variability. Non-model organisms do not usually have a reference genome and the transcriptome must be assembled de-novo. We used RNA-seq to obtain the transcriptomic profile for Oreobates cruralis, a poorly known South American direct-developing frog. In total, 550,871 transcripts were assembled, corresponding to 422,999 putative genes. Of those, we identified 23,500, 37,349, 38,120 and 45,885 genes present in the Pfam, EggNOG, KEGG and GO databases, respectively. Interestingly, our results suggested that genes related to immune system and defense mechanisms are abundant in the transcriptome of O. cruralis. We also present a pipeline to assist with pre-processing, assembling, evaluating and functionally annotating a de-novo transcriptome from RNA-seq data of non-model organisms. Our pipeline guides the inexperienced user in an intuitive way through all the necessary steps to build de-novo transcriptome assemblies using readily available software and is freely available at: https://github.com/biomendi/TRANSCRIPTOME-ASSEMBLY-PIPELINE/wiki.

  16. A practical guide to build de-novo assemblies for single tissues of non-model organisms: the example of a Neotropical frog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Montero-Mendieta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Whole genome sequencing (WGS is a very valuable resource to understand the evolutionary history of poorly known species. However, in organisms with large genomes, as most amphibians, WGS is still excessively challenging and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq represents a cost-effective tool to explore genome-wide variability. Non-model organisms do not usually have a reference genome and the transcriptome must be assembled de-novo. We used RNA-seq to obtain the transcriptomic profile for Oreobates cruralis, a poorly known South American direct-developing frog. In total, 550,871 transcripts were assembled, corresponding to 422,999 putative genes. Of those, we identified 23,500, 37,349, 38,120 and 45,885 genes present in the Pfam, EggNOG, KEGG and GO databases, respectively. Interestingly, our results suggested that genes related to immune system and defense mechanisms are abundant in the transcriptome of O. cruralis. We also present a pipeline to assist with pre-processing, assembling, evaluating and functionally annotating a de-novo transcriptome from RNA-seq data of non-model organisms. Our pipeline guides the inexperienced user in an intuitive way through all the necessary steps to build de-novo transcriptome assemblies using readily available software and is freely available at: https://github.com/biomendi/TRANSCRIPTOME-ASSEMBLY-PIPELINE/wiki.

  17. MAGEA4 expression in bone and soft tissue tumors: its utility as a target for immunotherapy and diagnostic marker combined with NY-ESO-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iura, Kunio; Kohashi, Kenichi; Ishii, Takeaki; Maekawa, Akira; Bekki, Hirofumi; Otsuka, Hiroshi; Yamada, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Oda, Yoshinao

    2017-07-26

    Cancer-testis (CT) antigens have promise as targets for immunotherapy, because of their restricted expression in tumor or testis tissue. MAGEA4 is both a MAGE family member and a CT antigen, and has attracted attention as a potential immunotherapeutic target. We investigated MAGEA4 expression by immunohistochemistry in bone and soft tissue tumor specimens that consisted of 35 malignant or intermediate and 24 benign histological subtypes, in order to evaluate its possible utility as an immunotherapy target and its potential use as a diagnostic marker when combined with another CT antigen, NY-ESO-1. Among these tumors, MAGEA4 was detected in 82.2% of synovial sarcomas, 67.7% of myxoid liposarcomas, 43.8% of osteosarcomas, 41.4% of angiosarcomas, 24.6% of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), and 21.4% of chondrosarcomas. NY-ESO-1 expression was found in 88.2% of myxoid liposarcomas, 61.1% of synovial sarcomas, 31.3% of osteosarcomas, 21.4% of pleomorphic liposarcomas, 16.7% of desmoplastic small round cell tumors, and 14.3% of chondrosarcomas. Benign tumors and non-tumorous tissue, except for testis tissue, did not express MAGEA4 or NY-ESO-1. Combined use of MAGEA4 and NY-ESO-1 increased the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values for distinguishing synovial sarcoma from spindle cell tumors and other mimicking tumors, compared to individual use of MAGEA4 or NY-ESO-1. Our results support the immunotherapy targeting MAGEA4 or NY-ESO-1 can be an ancillary therapy in the above-mentioned tumors, and the potential utility of MAGEA4 as an ancillary diagnostic marker for synovial sarcoma combined with NY-ESO-1.

  18. Different growth hormone sensitivity of target tissues and growth hormone response to glucose in HIV-infected patients with and without lipodystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Haugaard, Steen B; Hansen, Birgitte R

    2004-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH)-secretion in HIV-lipodystrophy is impaired; however, GH-sensitivity of GH-target tissues remains to be evaluated. We measured overnight fasting concentrations of GH-sensitive insulin-like growth-factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) including GH binding protein ...... glucose in LIPO compared with NONLIPO and NAIVE (p inversely correlated with AUC-GH (p

  19. Vascular targeting to the SST2 receptor improves the therapeutic response to near-IR two-photon activated PDT for deep-tissue cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Jean R; Pascucci, Elizabeth M; Drobizhev, Mikhail A; Elliott, Aleisha; Rebane, Aleksander K

    2013-10-01

    Broader clinical acceptance of photodynamic therapy is currently hindered by (a) poor depth efficacy, and (b) predisposition towards establishment of an angiogenic environment during the treatment. Improved depth efficacy is being sought by exploiting the NIR tissue transparency window and by photo-activation using two-photon absorption (2PA). Here, we use two-photon activation of PDT sensitizers, untargeted and targeted to SST2 receptors or EGF receptors, to achieve deep tissue treatment. Human tumor lines, positive or negative for SST2r expression were used, as well as murine 3LL cells and bovine aortic endothelial cells. Expression of SST2 receptors on cancer cells and tumor vasculature was evaluated in vitro and frozen xenograft sections. PDT effects on tumor blood flow were followed using in vivo scanning after intravenous injection of FITC conjugated dextran 150K. Dependence of the PDT efficacy on the laser pulse duration was evaluated. Effectiveness of targeting to vascular SST2 receptors was compared to that of EGF receptors, or no targeting. Tumor vasculature stained for SST2 receptors even in tumors from SST2 receptor negative cell lines, and SST2r targeted PDT led to tumor vascular shutdown. Stretching the pulse from ~120fs to ~3ps led to loss of the PDT efficacy especially at greater depth. PDT targeted to SST2 receptors was much more effective than untargeted PDT or PDT targeted to EGF receptors. The use of octreotate to target SST2 receptors expressed on tumor vessels is an excellent approach to PDT with few recurrences and some long term cures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationship of hepatotoxicity and the target tissue dose of decabrominated diphenyl ether in subacutely exposed Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćurčić Marijana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Based on numerous studies in animals, the most prominent toxic effects of decabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-209 are observed in the liver, thyroid hormone homeostasis, reproductive and nervous systems. BDE-209 exhibits its toxic effects partly through the aryl hydrocarbon (Ah receptor and consequent induction of hepatic microsomal enzymes. The aim of this study was to assess the hepatotoxic effect vs target tissue dose of BDE-209 in the subacutely orally exposed Wistar rats. Methods. Effects were examined on male Wistar rats, weighing 200-240 g, exposed to doses of 1,000, 2,000 or 4,000 mg BDE-209/kg body weight (bw/day by gavage during 28 days. Animals were treated according to the decision of the Ethics Committee of the Military Medical Academy, No 9667-1/2011. Evaluation of the hepatotoxic effect was based on: relative liver weight water and food intake, biochemical parameters of liver function [aspartate amino transferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, gama glutamyl transferase (γ-GT], and oxidative stress parameters in liver homogenates [malondialdehiyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, -SH] and morphological and pathohistological changes in the liver. For the assessment of internal dose - response relationship, lower confidence limit of Benchmark dose (BMDL of 5% or 10% i.e. BMDL5 or BMDL10, were calculated using PROAST software. Results. After the application of 1,000, 2,000 or 4,000 mg BDE-209/kg bw/day, the concentrations of BDE-209 measured in liver were 0.269, 0.569 and 0.859 mg/kg of liver wet weight, (ww respectively. Internal doses correlated with external (r = 0.972; p < 0.05 according to equation: internal dose (mg BDE-209/kg of liver ww = 0.0002 x external dose (mg/kg bw/day + 0.0622. Hepato-toxicity was demonstrated based on significant increase in AST and γ-GT activities and the degree of histopathological changes. The lowest BMDL5 of 0.07228 mg BDE-209/kg of liver ww

  1. Physicochemical characterization of pH-responsive and fusogenic self-assembled non-phospholipid vesicles for a potential multiple targeting therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, Martina; Celia, Christian; Primavera, Rosita; D'Avanzo, Nicola; Locatelli, Marcello; Fresta, Massimo; Cilurzo, Felisa; Ventura, Cinzia Anna; Paolino, Donatella; Di Marzio, Luisa

    2017-08-07

    In order to obtain nanocarriers suitable for the delivery of drugs in the treatment of cancer, pH-responsive nanovesicles capable of facilitating fusion (fusogenic nanovesicles) were synthesized and then their physicochemical characteristics were modified. These nanovesicles were made by combining polysorbates having different physicochemical features with the aim of realizing multiple-targeting nanoformulations suitable for in vitro treatment of cancer cells. Tween21 and Tween80 were self-assembled at different molar concentrations resulting in pH-responsive fusogenic nanovesicles with an average size of less than 150nm, and a narrow size distribution (polydispersity index) value of less than 0.2. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic fluorescent probes were loaded inside the nanovesicles in order to study their pH-responsiveness and fusogenic properties and it was noted that this process did not modify their physicochemical features. The pH-responsiveness and fusogenic assay demonstrated that the nanovesicles containing Tween21 at different molar ratios were pH-responsive and interacted with a synthetic model of a biological membrane supplemented with Ca2+ in the incubation medium. Fifty percent (molar ratio) of Tween21 was replaced with Tween80, since Tween80 can promote the adsorption of apolipoproteins (A-E) onto the surfaces of nanovesicles without altering their pH-responsiveness or fusogenic properties. In fact this equivalent molar concentration of Tween21 and Tween80 also maintained their degree of interaction with the apolipoproteins (A-E). Doxorubicin hydrochloride-loaded nanovesicles were synthesized and physicochemically characterized in order to obtain nanoformulations suitable for anticancer treatment. The therapeutic nanovesicles showed physicochemical properties similar to those of empty nanoformulations, and maintained pH-responsiveness, fusogenic properties and targeting versus the apolipoproteins (A-E). The doxorubicin hydrochloride was loaded into the

  2. SrmB, a DEAD-box helicase involved in Escherichia coli ribosome assembly, is specifically targeted to 23S rRNA in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Trubetskoy, Dmitrii; Proux, Florence; Allemand, Fr?d?ric; Dreyfus, Marc; Iost, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    DEAD-box proteins play specific roles in remodeling RNA or ribonucleoprotein complexes. Yet, in vitro, they generally behave as nonspecific RNA-dependent ATPases, raising the question of what determines their specificity in vivo. SrmB, one of the five Escherichia coli DEAD-box proteins, participates in the assembly of the large ribosomal subunit. Moreover, when overexpressed, it compensates for a mutation in L24, the ribosomal protein (r-protein) thought to initiate assembly. Here, using the ...

  3. α-Fetoprotein promoter-driven Cre/LoxP-switched RNA interference for hepatocellular carcinoma tissue-specific target therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Fei Peng

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi has recently emerged as a potential treatment modality for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC therapy, but the lack of cellular targets and sustained efficacy limits its application. The purpose of this study is to develop an HCC tissue-specific RNAi system and investigate its possibility for HCC treatment.Two different HCC-specific RNAi systems in which therapeutic miRNA or shRNA against target gene (Beclin 1 was directly or indirectly driven by alpha-fetoprotein promoter (AFP-miRNA and AFP-Cre/LoxP-shRNA were constructed. Human HCC cell lines (HepG2, Hep3B and HCCLM3 and non-HCC cell lines (L-02, Hela and SW1116 were infected with the systems. The effectiveness and tissue-specificity of the systems were examined by Q-PCR and western blot analysis. The efficacy of the systems was further tested in mouse model of HCC by intravenous or intratumoral administration. The feasibility of the system for HCC treatment was evaluated by applying the system as adjuvant therapy to enhance sorafenib treatment. An AFP-Cre/LoxP-shRNA system targeting Atg5 gene (AFP-Cre/LoxP-shRNA-Atg5 was constructed and its efficacy in sensitizing HCC cells (MHCC97L/PLC to sorafenib treatment was examined by apoptosis assay in vitro and tumorigenesis assay in vivo.The AFP-miRNA system could silence target gene (Beclin 1 but required a high titer which was lethal to target cells. The AFP-Cre/LoxP-shRNA system could efficiently knockdown target gene while maintain high HCC specificity. Intratumoral injection of the AFP-Cre/LoxP-shRNA system could efficiently silence target gene (Beclin 1 in vivo while intravenous administration could not. The AFP-Cre/LoxP-shRNA system target Atg5 gene could significantly sensitize MHCC97L/PLC cells to sorafenib-induced apoptosis in vitro and tumor growth suppression in vivo.An efficient HCC tissue-specific RNAi system (AFP-Cre/LoxP-shRNA was successfully established. The system provides a usable tool for HCC-specific RNAi

  4. Quantitative detection of HER2 protein concentration in breast cancer tissue does not increase the number of patients eligible for adjuvant HER2-targeted therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Troels; Olsen, Dorte Aalund; Jakobsen, Erik Hugger

    2013-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) is overexpressed in 15-20% of breast cancer patients and is associated with an aggressive tumor and a poor prognosis. Currently, patients are selected for adjuvant HER2-targeted therapy based on HER2 status by immunohistochemistry (IHC...... by Centaur, but not treated with adjuvant HER2-targeted therapy, compared to patients defined as HER2-positive by IHC/FISH and therefore treated with adjuvant HER2-targeted therapy. Tumor tissue was obtained at primary surgery from 415 breast cancer patients between 2004 and 2010. HER2 status was determined...... for invasive disease-free survival (IDFS) and 4.2 years for overall survival (OS). The quantitative Centaur assay defined a greater number of patients (100 patients, 26.4%) as HER2-positive than IHC/FISH (63 patients, 16.6%) (P...

  5. Gene Electrotransfer of Plasmid with Tissue Specific Promoter Encoding shRNA against Endoglin Exerts Antitumor Efficacy against Murine TS/A Tumors by Vascular Targeted Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimac, Monika; Dolinsek, Tanja; Lampreht, Ursa; Cemazar, Maja; Sersa, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Vascular targeted therapies, targeting specific endothelial cell markers, are promising approaches for the treatment of cancer. One of the targets is endoglin, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) co-receptor, which mediates proliferation, differentiation and migration of endothelial cells forming neovasculature. However, its specific, safe and long-lasting targeting remains the challenge. Therefore, in our study we evaluated the transfection efficacy, vascular targeted effects and therapeutic potential of the plasmid silencing endoglin with the tissue specific promoter, specific for endothelial cells marker endothelin-1 (ET) (TS plasmid), in comparison to the plasmid with constitutive promoter (CON plasmid), in vitro and in vivo. Tissue specificity of TS plasmid was demonstrated in vitro on several cell lines, and its antiangiogenic efficacy was demonstrated by reducing tube formation of 2H11 endothelial cells. In vivo, on a murine mammary TS/A tumor model, we demonstrated good antitumor effect of gene electrotransfer (GET) of either of both plasmids in treatment of smaller tumors still in avascular phase of growth, as well as on bigger tumors, already well vascularized. In support to the observations on predominantly vascular targeted effects of endoglin, histological analysis has demonstrated an increase in necrosis and a decrease in the number of blood vessels in therapeutic groups. A significant antitumor effect was observed in tumors in avascular and vascular phase of growth, possibly due to both, the antiangiogenic and the vascular disrupting effect. Furthermore, the study indicates on the potential use of TS plasmid in cancer gene therapy since the same efficacy as of CON plasmid was determined.

  6. Gene Electrotransfer of Plasmid with Tissue Specific Promoter Encoding shRNA against Endoglin Exerts Antitumor Efficacy against Murine TS/A Tumors by Vascular Targeted Effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Stimac

    Full Text Available Vascular targeted therapies, targeting specific endothelial cell markers, are promising approaches for the treatment of cancer. One of the targets is endoglin, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β co-receptor, which mediates proliferation, differentiation and migration of endothelial cells forming neovasculature. However, its specific, safe and long-lasting targeting remains the challenge. Therefore, in our study we evaluated the transfection efficacy, vascular targeted effects and therapeutic potential of the plasmid silencing endoglin with the tissue specific promoter, specific for endothelial cells marker endothelin-1 (ET (TS plasmid, in comparison to the plasmid with constitutive promoter (CON plasmid, in vitro and in vivo. Tissue specificity of TS plasmid was demonstrated in vitro on several cell lines, and its antiangiogenic efficacy was demonstrated by reducing tube formation of 2H11 endothelial cells. In vivo, on a murine mammary TS/A tumor model, we demonstrated good antitumor effect of gene electrotransfer (GET of either of both plasmids in treatment of smaller tumors still in avascular phase of growth, as well as on bigger tumors, already well vascularized. In support to the observations on predominantly vascular targeted effects of endoglin, histological analysis has demonstrated an increase in necrosis and a decrease in the number of blood vessels in therapeutic groups. A significant antitumor effect was observed in tumors in avascular and vascular phase of growth, possibly due to both, the antiangiogenic and the vascular disrupting effect. Furthermore, the study indicates on the potential use of TS plasmid in cancer gene therapy since the same efficacy as of CON plasmid was determined.

  7. De novo transcriptome assembly analysis of weed Apera spica-venti from seven tissues and growth stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babineau, Marielle; Mahmood, Khalid; Mathiassen, Solvejg Kopp

    2017-01-01

    distachyon, and 41% to Lolium spp. Glycosyltransferases had the highest number of transcripts in each tissue followed by the cytochrome P450s. The GSTF1 and CYP89A2 transcripts were recovered from the majority of tissues and aligned at a maximum of 66 and 30% to proven herbicide resistant allele from...

  8. Weak mitochondrial targeting sequence determines tissue-specific subcellular localization of glutamine synthetase in liver and brain cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthews, G.D.; Gur, N.; Koopman, W.J.H.; Pines, O.; Vardimon, L.

    2010-01-01

    Evolution of the uricotelic system for ammonia detoxification required a mechanism for tissue-specific subcellular localization of glutamine synthetase (GS). In uricotelic vertebrates, GS is mitochondrial in liver cells and cytoplasmic in brain. Because these species contain a single copy of the GS

  9. The effect of set-up uncertainties, contour changes, and tissue inhomogeneities on target dose-volume histograms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cho, B. C. John; van Herk, Marcel; Mijnheer, Ben J.; Bartelink, Harry

    2002-01-01

    Understanding set-up uncertainty effects on dose distributions is an important clinical problem but difficult to model accurately due to their dependence on tissue inhomogeneities and changes in the surface contour (i.e., variant effects). The aims are: (1) to evaluate and quantify the invariant and

  10. Selective targeted delivery of the TNF-alpha receptor p75 and uteroglobin to the vasculature of inflamed tissues: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ventura Elisa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ligand-targeted approaches have proven successful in improving the therapeutic index of a number of drugs. We hypothesized that the specific targeting of TNF-alpha antagonists to inflamed tissues could increase drug efficacy and reduce side effects. Results Using uteroglobin (UG, a potent anti-inflammatory protein, as a scaffold, we prepared a bispecific tetravalent molecule consisting of the extracellular ligand-binding portion of the human TNF-alpha receptor P75 (TNFRII and the scFv L19. L19 binds to the ED-B containing fibronectin isoform (B-FN, which is expressed only during angiogenesis processes and during tissue remodeling. B-FN has also been demonstrated in the pannus in rheumatoid arthritis. L19-UG-TNFRII is a stable, soluble homodimeric protein that maintains the activities of both moieties: the immuno-reactivity of L19 and the capability of TNFRII to inhibit TNF-alpha. In vivo bio-distribution studies demonstrated that the molecule selectively accumulated on B-FN containing tissues, showing a very fast clearance from the blood but a very long residence time on B-FN containing tissues. Despite the very fast clearance from the blood, this fusion protein was able to significantly improve the severe symptomatology of arthritis in collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA mouse model. Conclusions The recombinant protein described here, able to selectively deliver the TNF-alpha antagonist TNFRII to inflamed tissues, could yield important contributions for the therapy of degenerative inflammatory diseases.

  11. Inducibility of chemical defences by two chewing insect herbivores in pine trees is specific to targeted plant tissue, particular herbivore and defensive trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Xoaquín; Lundborg, Lina; Zas, Rafael; Carrillo-Gavilán, Amparo; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Sampedro, Luis

    2013-10-01

    There is increasing evidence that plants can react to biotic aggressions with highly specific responses. However, few studies have attempted to jointly investigate whether the induction of plant defences is specific to a targeted plant tissue, plant species, herbivore identity, and defensive trait. Here we studied those factors contributing to the specificity of induced defensive responses in two economically important pine species against two chewing insect pest herbivores. Juvenile trees of Pinus pinaster and P. radiata were exposed to herbivory by two major pest threats, the large pine weevil Hylobius abietis (a bark-feeder) and the pine processionary caterpillar Thaumetopoea pityocampa (a folivore). We quantified in two tissues (stem and needles) the constitutive (control plants) and herbivore-induced concentrations of total polyphenolics, volatile and non-volatile resin, as well as the profile of mono- and sesquiterpenes. Stem chewing by the pine weevil increased concentrations of non-volatile resin, volatile monoterpenes, and (marginally) polyphenolics in stem tissues. Weevil feeding also increased the concentration of non-volatile resin and decreased polyphenolics in the needle tissues. Folivory by the caterpillar had no major effects on needle defensive chemistry, but a strong increase in the concentration of polyphenolics in the stem. Interestingly, we found similar patterns for all these above-reported effects in both pine species. These results offer convincing evidence that induced defences are highly specific and may vary depending on the targeted plant tissue, the insect herbivore causing the damage and the considered defensive compound. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hyper bio assembler for 3D cellular systems

    CERN Document Server

    Arai, Fumihito; Yamato, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Hyper Bio Assembler for Cellular Systems is the first book to present a new methodology for measuring and separating target cells at high speed and constructing 3D cellular systems in vitro. This book represents a valuable resource for biologists, biophysicists and robotic engineers, as well as researchers interested in this new frontier area, offering a better understanding of the measurement, separation, assembly, analysis and synthesis of complex biological tissue, and of the medical applications of these technologies. This book is the outcome of the new academic fields of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology’s Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research in Japan.

  13. The role of sequences unique to nuclear intermediate filaments in the targeting and assembly of human lamin B: evidence for lack of interaction of lamin B with its putative receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mical, T I; Monteiro, M J

    1998-12-01

    The mechanism by which human nuclear lamin B is targeted and assembled has been studied by transfecting into mammalian cells lamin mutants deleted of three sequences unique to lamins. Nuclear lamins contain an extra 42 amino acids (aa) in their rod domains and NLS and CAAX motifs in their tail domains, which distinguishes them from cytoplasmic IF proteins. These three sequences act in concert to ensure correct temporal and spatial assembly of lamin B. Deletion of any one of these three sequences from lamin B did not significantly disrupt nuclear lamina targeting, but when two or more of these sequences were deleted, targeting was severely compromised. The CAAX motif is necessary for the efficient integration of lamin B into an already formed nuclear lamina, since lamin B CAAX- mutants had reduced targeting to the lamina when arrested in S phase of the cell cycle. CAAX-deficient mutant lamin B proteins were soluble and not associated with membranes at mitosis, proving that the CAAX motif is responsible for association of human lamin B with membranes. In addition, CAAX- mutant lamin B proteins fractionated independently of the lamin B-receptor (LBR), indicating that these two proteins do not bind directly to each other.

  14. Sequence assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheibye-Alsing, Karsten; Hoffmann, S.; Frankel, Annett Maria

    2009-01-01

    Despite the rapidly increasing number of sequenced and re-sequenced genomes, many issues regarding the computational assembly of large-scale sequencing data have remain unresolved. Computational assembly is crucial in large genome projects as well for the evolving high-throughput technologies...... and plays an important role in processing the information generated by these methods. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the current publicly available sequence assembly programs. We describe the basic principles of computational assembly along with the main concerns, such as repetitive sequences...... in genomic DNA, highly expressed genes and alternative transcripts in EST sequences. We summarize existing comparisons of different assemblers and provide a detailed descriptions and directions for download of assembly programs at: http://genome.ku.dk/resources/assembly/methods.html....

  15. In vivo phenytoin-initiated oxidative damage to proteins and lipids in murine maternal hepatic and embryonic tissue organelles: potential molecular targets of chemical teratogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L; Wells, P G

    1994-04-01

    The widely used anticonvulsant drug phenytoin may be bioactivated by peroxidases such as prostaglandin H synthase (PHS) to a reactive free radical intermediate that initiates teratogenesis. This in vivo study evaluated the potential molecular targets mediating phenytoin teratogenicity. In vivo phenytoin-induced oxidative tissue damage following bioactivation was quantified in both maternal hepatic and embryonic tissues from pregnant CD-1 mice using lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation and degradation as indices. Pregnant mice were injected with a teratogenic dose of phenytoin, 65 mg/kg ip, during organogenesis on Gestational Day 12. alpha-Phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone (PBN), a free radical spin trapping agent, 41.5 mg/kg, or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), an inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase component of PHS, 10 mg/kg, were injected ip 2 hr before phenytoin treatment, and maternal hepatic and embryonic tissues were obtained at 0, 3, 6, 8, and 24 hr. Phenytoin enhanced lipid peroxidation in maternal plasma, hepatic microsomes, cytosol, mitochondria, and nuclei and in embryonic microsomes, cytosol, and mitochondria (p teratogenicity by PBN and ASA, suggest that peroxidase-catalyzed bioactivation of phenytoin may initiate oxidative damage to lipids and proteins in embryonic tissues, with teratological consequences.

  16. The application of an optically switched dielectrophoretic (ODEP) force for the manipulation and assembly of cell-encapsulating alginate microbeads in a microfluidic perfusion cell culture system for bottom-up tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Heng; Yang, Ya-Wen; Chen, Yi-Dao; Wang, Shih-Siou; Chang, Yu-Han; Wu, Min-Hsien

    2012-03-21

    This study reports the utilisation of an optically switched dielectrophoretic (ODEP) force for the manipulation and assembly of cell-encapsulating alginate microbeads in a microfluidic perfusion cell culture system for bottom-up tissue engineering. One of the key features of this system is the ODEP force-based mechanism, which allows a commercial projector to be coupled with a computer to manipulate and assemble cell-encapsulating microbeads in an efficient, manageable, and user-friendly manner. Another distinctive feature is the design of the microfluidic cell culture chip, which allows the patterned cell-encapsulating microbeads to be cultivated on site under culture medium perfusion conditions. For demonstrating its application in bottom-up cartilage tissue engineering, chondrocyte-encapsulating alginate microbeads varying in encapsulated cell densities were generated. The manipulation forces associated with operating the alginate microbeads were experimentally evaluated. The results revealed that the measured manipulation forces increased with increases in both the applied electric voltage and the number of cells in the alginate microbeads. Nevertheless, the observed manipulation force was found to be independent of the size of the cell-free alginate microbeads. It can be speculated that the friction force may influence the estimation of the ODEP force within the experimental conditions investigated. In this study, chondrocyte-encapsulating alginate microbeads with three different cell densities were manipulated and assembled in the proposed microfluidic system to form a compact sheet-like cell culture construct that imitates the cell distribution in the cross-section of native articular cartilage. Moreover, the demonstration case also showed that the cell viability of the cultured cells in the microfluidic system remained as high as 96 ± 2%. In this study, four sheet-like cell culture constructs were stacked to create a larger assembled cell culture construct

  17. Value of the radiolabelled GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin(9-39) for targeting of GLP-1 receptor-expressing pancreatic tissues in mice and humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waser, Beatrice; Reubi, Jean Claude [University of Berne, Division of Cell Biology and Experimental Cancer Research, Institute of Pathology, P.O. Box 62, Bern (Switzerland)

    2011-06-15

    Radiolabelled glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists have recently been shown to successfully image benign insulinomas in patients. Moreover, it was recently reported that antagonist tracers were superior to agonist tracers for somatostatin and gastrin-releasing peptide receptor targeting of tumours. The present preclinical study determines therefore the value of an established GLP-1 receptor antagonist for the in vitro visualization of GLP-1 receptor-expressing tissues in mice and humans. Receptor autoradiography studies with {sup 125}I-GLP-1(7-36)amide agonist or {sup 125}I-Bolton-Hunter-exendin(9-39) antagonist radioligands were performed in mice pancreas and insulinomas as well as in human insulinomas; competition experiments were performed in the presence of increasing concentration of GLP-1(7-36)amide or exendin(9-39). The antagonist {sup 125}I-Bolton-Hunter-exendin(9-39) labels mouse pancreatic {beta}-cells and mouse insulinomas, but it does not label human pancreatic {beta}-cells and insulinomas. High affinity displacement (IC{sub 50} approximately 2 nM) is observed in mouse {beta}-cells and insulinomas with either the exendin(9-39) antagonist or GLP-1(7-36)amide agonist. For comparison, the agonist {sup 125}I-GLP-1(7-36)amide intensively labels mouse pancreatic {beta}-cells, mouse insulinoma and human insulinomas; high affinity displacement is observed for the GLP-1(7-36)amide in all tissues; however, a 5 and 20 times lower affinity is found for exendin(9-39) in the mouse and human tissues, respectively. This study reports a species-dependent behaviour of the GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin(9-39) that can optimally target GLP-1 receptors in mice but not in human tissue. Due to its overly low binding affinity, this antagonist is an inadequate targeting agent for human GLP-1 receptor-expressing tissues, as opposed to the GLP-1 receptor agonist, GLP-1(7-36)amide. (orig.)

  18. Different growth hormone sensitivity of target tissues and growth hormone response to glucose in HIV-infected patients with and without lipodystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Haugaard, Steen B; Hansen, Birgitte R

    2004-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH)-secretion in HIV-lipodystrophy is impaired; however, GH-sensitivity of GH-target tissues remains to be evaluated. We measured overnight fasting concentrations of GH-sensitive insulin-like growth-factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) including GH binding protein...... (GHBP), a marker of GH-receptor sensitivity, in antiretroviral treated HIV-infected patients with (LIPO) and without lipodystrophy (NONLIPO) and antiretroviral naive HIV-infected patients (NAIVE). Three h GH-suppression tests using oral glucose were undertaken to determine dynamics of GH-secretion. IGF...... glucose in LIPO compared with NONLIPO and NAIVE (p lipodystrophy....

  19. A Cost-Effective Culture System for the In Vitro Assembly, Maturation, and Stimulation of Advanced Multilayered Multiculture Tubular Tissue Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loy, Caroline; Pezzoli, Daniele; Candiani, Gabriele; Mantovani, Diego

    2018-01-01

    The development of tubular engineered tissues is a challenging research area aiming to provide tissue substitutes but also in vitro models to test drugs, medical devices, and even to study physiological and pathological processes. In this work, the design, fabrication, and validation of an original cost-effective tubular multilayered-tissue culture system (TMCS) are reported. By exploiting cellularized collagen gel as scaffold, a simple moulding technique and an endothelialization step on a rotating system, TMCS allowed to easily prepare in 48 h, trilayered arterial wall models with finely organized cellular composition and to mature them for 2 weeks without any need of manipulation. Multilayered constructs incorporating different combinations of vascular cells are compared in terms of cell organization and viscoelastic mechanical properties demonstrating that cells always progressively aligned parallel to the longitudinal direction. Also, fibroblast compacted less the collagen matrix and appeared crucial in term of maturation/deposition of elastic extracellular matrix. Preliminary studies under shear stress stimulation upon connection with a flow bioreactor are successfully conducted without damaging the endothelial monolayer. Altogether, the TMCS herein developed, thanks to its versatility and multiple functionalities, holds great promise for vascular tissue engineering applications, but also for other tubular tissues such as trachea or oesophagus. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Influence of eye size and beam entry angle on dose to non-targeted tissues of the eye during stereotactic x-ray radiosurgery of AMD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantley, Justin L.; Hanlon, Justin; Chell, Erik; Lee, Choonsik; Smith, W. Clay; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2013-10-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is a leading cause of vision loss for the elderly population of industrialized nations. The IRay® Radiotherapy System, developed by Oraya® Therapeutics, Inc., is a stereotactic low-voltage irradiation system designed to treat the wet form of the disease. The IRay System uses three robotically positioned 100 kVp collimated photon beams to deliver an absorbed dose of up to 24 Gy to the macula. The present study uses the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX to assess absorbed dose to six non-targeted tissues within the eye—total lens, radiosensitive tissues of the lens, optic nerve, distal tip of the central retinal artery, non-targeted portion of the retina, and the ciliary body--all as a function of eye size and beam entry angle. The ocular axial length was ranged from 20 to 28 mm in 2 mm increments, with the polar entry angle of the delivery system varied from 18° to 34° in 2° increments. The resulting data showed insignificant variations in dose for all eye sizes. Slight variations in the dose to the optic nerve and the distal tip of the central retinal artery were noted as the polar beam angle changed. An increase in non-targeted retinal dose was noted as the entry angle increased, while the dose to the lens, sensitive volume of the lens, and ciliary body decreased as the treatment polar angle increased. Polar angles of 26° or greater resulted in no portion of the sensitive volume of the lens receiving an absorbed dose of 0.5 Gy or greater. All doses to non-targeted structures reported in this study were less than accepted thresholds for post-procedure complications.

  1. Synthesis and functionalization of protease-activated nanoparticles with tissue plasminogen activator peptides as targeting moiety and diagnostic tool for pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobiasch, Sophie; Szanyi, Szilard; Kjaev, Aleko; Werner, Jens; Strauss, Albert; Weis, Christian; Grenacher, Lars; Kapilov-Buchman, Katya; Israel, Liron-Limor; Lellouche, Jean-Paul; Locatelli, Erica; Franchini, Mauro Comes; Vandooren, Jennifer; Opdenakker, Ghislain; Felix, Klaus

    2016-12-19

    Functionalized nanoparticles (NPs) are one promising tool for detecting specific molecular targets and combine molecular biology and nanotechnology aiming at modern imaging. We aimed at ligand-directed delivery with a suitable target-biomarker to detect early pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Promising targets are galectins (Gal), due to their strong expression in and on PDAC-cells and occurrence at early stages in cancer precursor lesions, but not in adjacent normal tissues. Molecular probes (10-29 AA long peptides) derived from human tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) were selected as binding partners to galectins. Affinity constants between the synthesized t-PA peptides and Gal were determined by microscale thermophoresis. The 29 AA-long t-PA-peptide-1 with a lactose-functionalized serine revealed the strongest binding properties to Gal-1 which was 25-fold higher in comparison with the native t-PA protein and showed additional strong binding to Gal-3 and Gal-4, both also over-expressed in PDAC. t-PA-peptide-1 was selected as vector moiety and linked covalently onto the surface of biodegradable iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs). In particular, CAN-doped maghemite NPs (CAN-Mag), promising as contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), were selected as magnetic core and coated with different biocompatible polymers, such as chitosan (CAN-Mag-Chitosan NPs) or polylactic co glycolic acid (PLGA) obtaining polymeric nanoparticles (CAN-Mag@PNPs), already approved for drug delivery applications. The binding efficacy of t-PA-vectorized NPs determined by exposure to different pancreatic cell lines was up to 90%, as assessed by flow cytometry. The in vivo targeting and imaging efficacy of the vectorized NPs were evaluated by applying murine pancreatic tumor models and assessed by 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The t-PA-vectorized NPs as well as the protease-activated NPs with outer shell decoration (CAN-Mag@PNPs-PEG-REGAcp-PEG/tPA-pep1Lac) showed

  2. Transrectal real-time tissue elastography targeted biopsy coupled with peak strain index improves the detection of clinically important prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qi; Yang, Dong-Rong; Xue, Bo-Xin; Wang, Cheng; Chen, Han-Bin; Dong, Yun; Wang, Cai-Shan; Shan, Yu-Xi

    2017-07-01

    The focus of the present study was to evaluate transrectal real-time tissue elastography (RTE)-targeted two-core biopsy coupled with peak strain index for the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) and to compare this method with 10-core systematic biopsy. A total of 141 patients were enrolled for evaluation. The diagnostic value of peak strain index was assessed using a receiver operating characteristic curve. The cancer detection rates of the two approaches and corresponding positive cores and Gleason score were compared. The cancer detection rate per core in the RTE-targeted biopsy (44%) was higher compared with that in systematic biopsy (30%). The peak strain index value of PCa was higher compared with that of the benign lesion. PCa was detected with the highest sensitivity (87.5%) and specificity (85.5%) using the threshold value of a peak strain index of ≥5.97 with an area under the curve value of 0.95. When the Gleason score was ≥7, RTE-targeted biopsy coupled with peak strain index detected 95.6% of PCa cases, but 84.4% were detected using systematic biopsy. Peak strain index as a quantitative parameter may improve the differentiation of PCa from benign lesions in the prostate peripheral zone. Transrectal RTE-targeted biopsy coupled with peak strain index may enhance the detection of clinically significant PCa, particularly when combined with systematic biopsy.

  3. Targeted Overexpression of Inducible 6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase in Adipose Tissue Increases Fat Deposition but Protects against Diet-induced Insulin Resistance and Inflammatory Responses*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Yuqing; Guo, Xin; Li, Honggui; Xu, Hang; Halim, Vera; Zhang, Weiyu; Wang, Huan; Fan, Yang-Yi; Ong, Kuok Teong; Woo, Shih-Lung; Chapkin, Robert S.; Mashek, Douglas G.; Chen, Yanming; Dong, Hui; Lu, Fuer; Wei, Lai; Wu, Chaodong

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates the dissociation of fat deposition, the inflammatory response, and insulin resistance in the development of obesity-related metabolic diseases. As a regulatory enzyme of glycolysis, inducible 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (iPFK2, encoded by PFKFB3) protects against diet-induced adipose tissue inflammatory response and systemic insulin resistance independently of adiposity. Using aP2-PFKFB3 transgenic (Tg) mice, we explored the ability of targeted adipocyte PFKFB3/iPFK2 overexpression to modulate diet-induced inflammatory responses and insulin resistance arising from fat deposition in both adipose and liver tissues. Compared with wild-type littermates (controls) on a high fat diet (HFD), Tg mice exhibited increased adiposity, decreased adipose inflammatory response, and improved insulin sensitivity. In a parallel pattern, HFD-fed Tg mice showed increased hepatic steatosis, decreased liver inflammatory response, and improved liver insulin sensitivity compared with controls. In both adipose and liver tissues, increased fat deposition was associated with lipid profile alterations characterized by an increase in palmitoleate. Additionally, plasma lipid profiles also displayed an increase in palmitoleate in HFD-Tg mice compared with controls. In cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes, overexpression of PFKFB3/iPFK2 recapitulated metabolic and inflammatory changes observed in adipose tissue of Tg mice. Upon treatment with conditioned medium from iPFK2-overexpressing adipocytes, mouse primary hepatocytes displayed metabolic and inflammatory responses that were similar to those observed in livers of Tg mice. Together, these data demonstrate a unique role for PFKFB3/iPFK2 in adipocytes with regard to diet-induced inflammatory responses in both adipose and liver tissues. PMID:22556414

  4. Polar N-terminal Residues Conserved in Type 2 Secretion Pseudopilins Determine Subunit Targeting and Membrane Extraction Steps during Fibre Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Moreno, Javier; East, Alexandra; Guilvout, Ingrid; Nadeau, Nathalie; Bond, Peter J; Tran Van Nhieu, Guy; Francetic, Olivera

    2017-06-02

    Bacterial type 2 secretion systems (T2SS), type 4 pili, and archaeal flagella assemble fibres from initially membrane-embedded pseudopilin and pilin subunits. Fibre subunits are made as precursors with positively charged N-terminal anchors, whose cleavage via the prepilin peptidase, essential for pilin membrane extraction and assembly, is followed by N-methylation of the mature (pseudo)pilin N terminus. The conserved Glu residue at position 5 (E5) of mature (pseudo)pilins is essential for assembly. Unlike T4 pilins, where E5 residue substitutions also abolish N-methylation, the E5A variant of T2SS pseudopilin PulG remains N-methylated but is affected in interaction with the T2SS component PulM. Here, biochemical and functional analyses showed that the PulM interaction defect only partly accounts for the PulGE5A assembly defect. First, PulGT2A variant, equally defective in PulM interaction, remained partially functional. Furthermore, pseudopilus assembly defect of pulG(E5A) mutant was stronger than that of the pulM deletion mutant. To understand the dominant effect of E5A mutation, we used molecular dynamics simulations of PulGE5A, methylated PulGWT (MePulGWT), and MePulGE5A variant in a model membrane. These simulations pointed to a key role for an intramolecular interaction between the pseudopilin N-terminal amine and E5 to limit polar interactions with membrane phospholipids. N-methylation of the N-terminal amine further limited its interactions with phospholipid head-groups to facilitate pseudopilin membrane escape. By binding to polar residues in the conserved N-terminal region of PulG, we propose that PulM acts as chaperone to promote pseudopilin recruitment and coordinate its membrane extraction with subsequent steps of the fibre assembly process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Targeted isolation, sequence assembly and characterization of two white spruce (Picea glauca BAC clones for terpenoid synthase and cytochrome P450 genes involved in conifer defence reveal insights into a conifer genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritland Carol

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conifers are a large group of gymnosperm trees which are separated from the angiosperms by more than 300 million years of independent evolution. Conifer genomes are extremely large and contain considerable amounts of repetitive DNA. Currently, conifer sequence resources exist predominantly as expressed sequence tags (ESTs and full-length (FLcDNAs. There is no genome sequence available for a conifer or any other gymnosperm. Conifer defence-related genes often group into large families with closely related members. The goals of this study are to assess the feasibility of targeted isolation and sequence assembly of conifer BAC clones containing specific genes from two large gene families, and to characterize large segments of genomic DNA sequence for the first time from a conifer. Results We used a PCR-based approach to identify BAC clones for two target genes, a terpene synthase (3-carene synthase; 3CAR and a cytochrome P450 (CYP720B4 from a non-arrayed genomic BAC library of white spruce (Picea glauca. Shotgun genomic fragments isolated from the BAC clones were sequenced to a depth of 15.6- and 16.0-fold coverage, respectively. Assembly and manual curation yielded sequence scaffolds of 172 kbp (3CAR and 94 kbp (CYP720B4 long. Inspection of the genomic sequences revealed the intron-exon structures, the putative promoter regions and putative cis-regulatory elements of these genes. Sequences related to transposable elements (TEs, high complexity repeats and simple repeats were prevalent and comprised approximately 40% of the sequenced genomic DNA. An in silico simulation of the effect of sequencing depth on the quality of the sequence assembly provides direction for future efforts of conifer genome sequencing. Conclusion We report the first targeted cloning, sequencing, assembly, and annotation of large segments of genomic DNA from a conifer. We demonstrate that genomic BAC clones for individual members of multi-member gene

  6. The epidermis of the pea epicotyl is not a unique target tissue for auxin-induced growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayle, D. L.; Nowbar, S.; Cleland, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that the epidermis of dicotyledonous stems is the primary site of auxin action in elongation growth. We show for pea (Pisum sativum L.) epicotyl sections that this hypothesis is incorrect. In buffer (pH 6.5), sections from which the outer cell layers were removed (peeled) elongated slowly and to the same extent as intact sections. Addition of 10 micromolar indoleacetic acid to this incubation medium caused peeled sections to grow to the same extent and with the same kinetics as auxin-treated nonpeeled sections. This indicates that both epidermis and cortical tissues have the ability to respond rapidly to auxin and that the epidermis is not the sole site of auxin action in dicotyledonous stems. Previous reports that peeled pea sections respond poorly to auxin may have resulted from an acid extension of these sections due to the use of distilled water as the incubation medium.

  7. CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots-Labeled Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Targeted Fluorescence Imaging of Pancreas Tissues and Therapy of Type 1 Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoqi; Tang, Wei; Li, Chao; Lv, Pinlei; Wang, Zheng; Liu, Yanlei; Zhang, Cunlei; Bao, Yi; Chen, Haiyan; Meng, Xiangying; Song, Yan; Xia, Xiaoling; Pan, Fei; Cui, Daxiang; Shi, Yongquan

    2015-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used for therapy of type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, the in vivo distribution and therapeutic effects of transplanted MSCs are not clarified well. Herein, we reported that CdSe/ZnS quantum dots-labeled MSCs were prepared for targeted fluorescence imaging and therapy of pancreas tissues in rat models with type 1 diabetes. CdSe/ZnS quantum dots were synthesized, their biocompatibility was evaluated, and then, the appropriate concentration of quantum dots was selected to label MSCs. CdSe/ZnS quantum dots-labeled MSCs were injected into mouse models with type 1 diabetes via tail vessel and then were observed by using the Bruker In-Vivo F PRO system, and the blood glucose levels were monitored for 8 weeks. Results showed that prepared CdSe/ZnS quantum dots owned good biocompatibility. Significant differences existed in distribution of quantum dots-labeled MSCs between normal control rats and diabetic rats (p quantum dots-labeled MSC injection. Statistical differences existed between the blood glucose levels of the diabetic rat control group and MSC-injected diabetic rat group (p < 0.01), and the MSC-injected diabetic rat group displayed lower blood glucose levels. In conclusion, CdSe/ZnS-labeled MSCs can target in vivo pancreas tissues in diabetic rats, and significantly reduce the blood glucose levels in diabetic rats, and own potential application in therapy of diabetic patients in the near future.

  8. Pillar[5]arene-based amphiphilic supramolecular brush copolymer: fabrication, controllable self-assembly and application in self-imaging targeted drug delivery†

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Guocan; Zhao, Run; Wu, Dan; Zhang,Fuwu; Shao, Li; Zhou, Jiong; Yang, Jie; Tang, Guping; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Huang, Feihe

    2016-01-01

    Supramolecular brush copolymers have attracted continuing interest due to their unusual architectures, fascinating properties, and potential applications in many fields involving smart stimuli-responsive drug delivery systems. Herein, the first pillararene-based amphiphilic supramolecular brush copolymer (P5-PEG-Biotin⊃PTPE) was constructed on the basis of the host–guest molecular recognition between a water-soluble pillar[5]arene (P5) and a viologen salt (M). P5-PEG-Biotin⊃PTPE self-assemble...

  9. Novel theranostic zinc phthalocyanine-phospholipid complex self-assembled nanoparticles for imaging-guided targeted photodynamic treatment with controllable ROS production and shape-assisted enhanced cellular uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinyuan; Li, Yang; Liu, Guihua; Li, Ai; Chen, Yilin; Zhou, Xinyi; Chen, Dengyue; Hou, Zhenqing; Zhu, Xuan

    2018-02-01

    The novel drug delivery system based on self-assembly of zinc phthalocyanine-soybean phosphatidylcholine (ZnPc-SPC) complex was developed by a co-solvent method followed by a nanoprecipitaion technique. DSPE-PEG-methotrexate (DSPE-PEG-MTX) was introduced on the surface of ZnPc-SPC self-assembled nanoparticles (ZS) to endow them with folate receptor-targeting property. NMR, XRD, FTIR, and UV-vis-NIR analysis demonstrated the weak molecular interaction between ZnPc and SPC. The ZS functionalized with DSPE-PEG-MTX (ZSPM) was successfully constructed with an average particle size of ∼170nm, a narrow size distribution, and could remain physiologically stable for at least 7days. In vitro cellular uptake and cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that ZSPM exhibited stronger cellular uptake efficacy and photodynamic cytotoxicity against HeLa and MCF-7 cells than ZS functionalized with DSPE-mPEG (ZSP) and free ZnPc. More importantly, ZSPM showed the enhanced accumulation effect at the tumor region compared with ZSP by the active-plus-passive targeting via enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect and folate receptor-mediated endocytosis. Furthermore, in vivo antitumor effect and histological analysis demonstrated the superior tumor growth inhibition effect of ZSPM. In addition, the needle-shape ZSP (ZSPN) exhibited better in vitro cellular uptake and in vivo tumor accumulation compared with ZSP due to the shape-assisted effect. Moreover, the interesting off-on switch effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production of ZnPc-SPC complex-based nanoparticles was discovered to achieve photodynamic treatment in a controllable way. These findings suggested that the ZnPc-SPC complex-based self-assembled nanoparticles could serve as a promising and effective formulation to achieve tumor-targeting fluorescence imaging and enhanced photodynamic treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Lamin B receptor plays a role in stimulating nuclear envelope production and targeting membrane vesicles to chromatin during nuclear envelope assembly through direct interaction with importin beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Cai, Shang; Lv, Quanlong; Jiang, Qing; Zhang, Quan; Sodmergen; Zhai, Zhonghe; Zhang, Chuanmao

    2007-02-01

    Lamin B receptor (LBR), a chromatin and lamin binding protein in the inner nuclear membrane, has been proposed to play a vital role in nuclear envelope (NE) assembly. But the specific role for LBR in NE assembly remains unknown. In the present study, we show that overexpression of LBR causes membrane overproduction, inducing NE invagination and membrane stack formation, and that these processes require the transmembrane domain of LBR. Biochemical analysis shows that the N-terminal domain of LBR directly interacts with importin beta in a Ran sensitive and importin alpha independent manner. Using an in vitro NE assembly assay, we also demonstrate that blocking full length LBR binding sites on importin beta, by the addition of the LBR N-terminal domain inhibits the recruitment of LBR-containing vesicles to importin beta- or Ran-coated beads to form NE structure. Our results suggest that LBR is recruited to chromatin through direct interaction with importin beta to contribute to the fusion of membrane vesicles and formation of the NE.

  11. Evaluation of antiglypican-3 therapy as a promising target for amelioration of hepatic tissue damage in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghloul, Randa A; El-Shishtawy, Mamdouh M; El Galil, Khaled H Abd; Ebrahim, Mohamed A; Metwaly, AbdelHamid A; Al-Gayyar, Mohammed M

    2015-01-05

    In Egypt, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was predicted to continue to rise over the next few decades causing a national problem. Meanwhile, glypican-3 (GPC3), a highly expressed glypican, has emerged as a potential target for HCC immunotherapy. Therefore, we aimed to identify the impact of blocking GPC3 on liver damage in HCC as well as a possible mechanism. Fifty four HCC patients, 20 cirrhotic patients and 10 healthy subjects were recruited. Serum levels of GPC3, sulfatase-2 (SULF-2), heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) were measured by ELISA. In parallel, HCC was induced in 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats in presence/absence of antiGPC-3. Liver impairment was detected by investigating liver sections stained with hematoxylin/eosin and serum α-fetoprotein (AFP). Liver homogenates of GPC3, SULF-2, and HSPG were measured by ELISA. Gene expression of caspase-3 and IGF-II were assayed by RT-PCR. HCC patients showed significant elevated serum levels of GPC3, IGF-II and SULF-2 accompanied by decreased HSPG. However, treatment of HCC rats with antiGPC-3 significantly reduced serum AFP and showed nearly normal hepatocytes. In addition, antiGPC-3 significantly reduced elevated liver homogenates protein levels of GPC3 and SULF-2 and gene expression of IGF-II and caspase-3. antiGPC-3 restored the reduced hepatic HSPG. antiGPC-3 showed anti-tumor activity as well as hepatoprotective effects. antiGPC-3-chemoprotective effect can be explained by forced reduction of IGF-II expression, restoration of HSPGs, deactivation of SULF-2 and reduction of gene expression of caspase-3. Targeting GPC3 is a promising therapeutic approach for HCC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Physical attributes and assembly of PEG-linked immuno-labeled gold nanoparticles for OCM image contrast in tissue engineering and developmental biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Alanna L.; Bean, Nathaniel J. H.; DuBose, Theodore B.; Orwin, Elizabeth J.; Haskell, Richard C.

    2014-03-01

    Excessive nonspecific binding often occurs when labeling cells with immuno-labeled gold nanoparticles (IgG-AuNPs). We have investigated the physical properties of IgG-AuNPs assembled with three different protocols in an attempt to understand and eliminate this non-specific binding. One of these protocols involves conjugating the secondary antibody AP124F via van der Waals (vdW) and/or electrostatic forces to the AuNPs, and the other two employ a PEG-linker, OPSS-PEG-NHS (OPN). In all three protocols we follow with PEG-SH to provide protection against aggregation in saline solution. OPN and PEG-SH chains of varying molecular weights were examined in different combinations to determine the optimally protective layer. The hydrodynamic radius and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) were monitored at each stage of assembly using a dynamic light scattering (DLS) instrument and spectrophotometer, respectively. SPR measurements indicate a different physical structure near the gold surface when the PEG-linker is bound to gold first and then bound to the antibody second (AP124F-[OPN-Au]) rather than vice versa ([AP124F-OPN]- Au). These observed structural differences may lead to differences in the amount of non-specific binding observed when immuno-labeling cells. SPR measurements also yielded a half-life of 27 minutes for the binding of the PEG-linker to the surface of the AuNPs and a half-life of 133 minutes for the hydrolysis of the NHS functional groups on the OPN molecule. These different reaction rates led us to add AP124F 40 minutes after the linker began binding to the AuNPs, so that the antibody can bind covalently to the correct end of the OPN linker.

  13. Ewing’s Sarcoma: An Analysis of miRNA Expression Profiles and Target Genes in Paraffin-Embedded Primary Tumor Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina Parafioriti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanism responsible for Ewing’s Sarcoma (ES remains largely unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, a class of small non-coding RNAs able to regulate gene expression, are deregulated in tumors and may serve as a tool for diagnosis and prediction. However, the status of miRNAs in ES has not yet been thoroughly investigated. This study compared global miRNAs expression in paraffin-embedded tumor tissue samples from 20 ES patients, affected by primary untreated tumors, with miRNAs expressed in normal human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs by microarray analysis. A miRTarBase database was used to identify the predicted target genes for differentially expressed miRNAs. The miRNAs microarray analysis revealed distinct patterns of miRNAs expression between ES samples and normal MSCs. 58 of the 954 analyzed miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed in ES samples compared to MSCs. Moreover, the qRT-PCR analysis carried out on three selected miRNAs showed that miR-181b, miR-1915 and miR-1275 were significantly aberrantly regulated, confirming the microarray results. Bio-database analysis identified BCL-2 as a bona fide target gene of the miR-21, miR-181a, miR-181b, miR-29a, miR-29b, miR-497, miR-195, miR-let-7a, miR-34a and miR-1915. Using paraffin-embedded tissues from ES patients, this study has identified several potential target miRNAs and one gene that might be considered a novel critical biomarker for ES pathogenesis.

  14. Common and distinct regulation of human and mouse brown and beige adipose tissues: a promising therapeutic target for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuejiao; Cervantes, Christopher; Liu, Feng

    2017-06-01

    Obesity, which underlies various metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, is a growing public health challenge for which established therapies are inadequate. Given the current obesity epidemic, there is a pressing need for more novel therapeutic strategies that will help adult individuals to manage their weight. One promising therapeutic intervention for reducing obesity is to enhance energy expenditure. Investigations into human brown fat and the recently discovered beige/brite fat have galvanized intense research efforts during the past decade because of their pivotal roles in energy dissipation. In this review, we summarize the evolution of human brown adipose tissue (hBAT) research and discuss new in vivo methodologies for evaluating energy expenditure in patients. We highlight the differences between human and mouse BAT by integrating and comparing their cellular morphology, function, and gene expression profiles. Although great advances in hBAT biology have been achieved in the past decade, more cellular models are needed to acquire a better understanding of adipose-specific processes and molecular mechanisms. Thus, this review also describes the development of a human brown fat cell line, which could provide promising mechanistic insights into hBAT function, signal transduction, and development. Finally, we focus on the therapeutic potential and current limitations of hBAT as an anti-glycemic, anti-lipidemic, and weight loss-inducing 'metabolic panacea'.

  15. Radionuclide therapy with tissue factor targeting Lu-177-FVIIai inhibits growth in an experimental mouse model of human pancreatic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten; Jensen, Mette; Fonslet, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    of pancreatic cancer. Methods: p-SCN-Bn-CHX-A’’-DTPA was conjugated to FVIIai followed by radiolabeling with 177Lu (177Lu-CHX-A’’-DTPA-FVIIai). A pancreas xenograft mouse model (BxPC3) was used to assess the therapeutic potential of 177Lu-FVIIai. NMRI nude mice with subcutaneous BxPC3 tumors were used. The mice...... uptake of 99mTc-DMSA was significantly decreased in all the treatment groups compared to the vehicle group when measured by SPECT imaging. Conclusion: FVIIai was successfully radiolabeled with 177Lu. 177Lu-FVIIai showed anti-tumor activity in a mouse model of human pancreatic cancer. Treatment with 177Lu......Objectives: Tissue factor (TF) is related to aggressiveness and invasiveness of cancer and there is a correlation between tumor TF expression, metastatic potential, and patient outcome. The aim of the study was to test the therapeutic potential and toxicity of a novel compound for localized TF...

  16. Micro RNA detection in long-term fixed tissue of cortical glutamatergic pyramidal neurons after targeted laser-capture neuroanatomical microdissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herai, Roberto R; Stefanacci, Lisa; Hrvoj-Mihic, Branka; Chailangkarn, Thanathom; Hanson, Kari; Semendeferi, Katerina; Muotri, Alysson R

    2014-09-30

    Formalin fixation (FF) is the standard and most common method for preserving postmortem brain tissue. FF stabilizes cellular morphology and tissue architecture, and can be used to study the distinct morphologic and genetic signatures of different cell types. Although the procedure involved in FF degrades messenger RNA over time, an alternative approach is to use small RNAs (sRNAs) for genetic analysis associated with cell morphology. Although genetic analysis is carried out on fresh or frozen tissue, there is limited availability or impossibility on targeting specific cell populations, respectively. The goal of this study is to detect miRNA and other classes of sRNA stored in formalin or in paraffin embedded for over decades. Two brain samples, one formed by a mixed population of cortical and subcortical cells, and one formed by pyramidal shaped cells collected by laser-capture microdissection, were subjected to sRNA sequencing. Performing bioinformatics analysis over the sequenced sRNA from brain tissue, we detected several classes of sRNA, such as miRNAs that play key roles in brain neurodevelopmental and maintenance pathways, and hsa-mir-155 expression in neurons. Comparison with existing method: Our method is the first to combine the approaches for: laser-capture of pyramidal neurons from long-term formalin-fixed brain; extract sRNA from laser-captured pyramidal neurons; apply a suite of bioinformatics tools to detect miRNA and other classes of sRNAs on sequenced samples having high levels of RNA degradation. This is the first study to show that sRNA can be rescued from laser-captured FF pyramidal neurons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Targeted thrombolysis of tissue plasminogen activator and streptokinase with extracellular biosynthesis nanoparticles using optimized Streptococcus equi supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadayon, Ateke; Jamshidi, Reza; Esmaeili, Akbar

    2016-03-30

    Extracellular biosynthesis of nanoparticles have many important advantages such as well dispersed in aqueous solutions, low energy requirements, ecofriendly, non-toxic, low-costs and non-flocculate. This technique have shown significant promise as targeted drug delivery applications. In this investigation, for the first time, we examine the efficacy of targeted therapeutic delivery with t-PA and SK immobilized to biosynthesis of nanoparticles (CuNP) by using Streptococcus equi strains isolated from the horses of Iran and their ability to produce metallic nanoparticles. Also we compared them with their chemical synthesis. The S. equi was screened for its ability to produce MNPs. The minimum size and shapes (23-89 nm) are presented in the formation with good dispersion and high stability. Response Surface methodology was applied for the optimized production of biological CuNPs. The growth factors like pH, temperature and incubation time was changed. The optimum conditions to obtain CuNPs were found with the culture conditions of pH 7.5 in 120 h at 35 °C. To determine some of MNPs structural properties UV-vis absorption spectrophotometer, FTIR, XRD and SEM has characterized. The results provided some parameters may impact on the formation of biological MNPs. Lastly, these MNPs were conjugated with t-PA and SK, as a drug carrier. In addition, effective thrombolysis with magnet-guided SiO2CuNPs-tPA-SK is demonstrated in rat embolism model where 18.6% of the regular t-PA dose and 15.78% of SK dose restored and 15-25 min reductions in blood clot lysis time were observed compared with runs with free t-PA and without magnet-guided and using the same drug dosage. The comparison between CuNPs with MNPs shows that thrombolysis had not been directed to the type of magnetic carrier under the magnetic guide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Large-Scale Cognitive GWAS Meta-Analysis Reveals Tissue-Specific Neural Expression and Potential Nootropic Drug Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Lam

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present a large (n = 107,207 genome-wide association study (GWAS of general cognitive ability (“g”, further enhanced by combining results with a large-scale GWAS of educational attainment. We identified 70 independent genomic loci associated with general cognitive ability. Results showed significant enrichment for genes causing Mendelian disorders with an intellectual disability phenotype. Competitive pathway analysis implicated the biological processes of neurogenesis and synaptic regulation, as well as the gene targets of two pharmacologic agents: cinnarizine, a T-type calcium channel blocker, and LY97241, a potassium channel inhibitor. Transcriptome-wide and epigenome-wide analysis revealed that the implicated loci were enriched for genes expressed across all brain regions (most strongly in the cerebellum. Enrichment was exclusive to genes expressed in neurons but not oligodendrocytes or astrocytes. Finally, we report genetic correlations between cognitive ability and disparate phenotypes including psychiatric disorders, several autoimmune disorders, longevity, and maternal age at first birth.

  19. Assembly of Fibronectin Extracellular Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Purva; Carraher, Cara; Schwarzbauer, Jean E.

    2013-01-01

    In the process of matrix assembly, multivalent extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are induced to self-associate and to interact with other ECM proteins to form fibrillar networks. Matrix assembly is usually initiated by ECM glycoproteins binding to cell surface receptors, such as fibronectin (FN) dimers binding to α5β1 integrin. Receptor binding stimulates FN self-association mediated by the N-terminal assembly domain and organizes the actin cytoskeleton to promote cell contractility. FN conformational changes expose additional binding sites that participate in fibril formation and in conversion of fibrils into a stabilized, insoluble form. Once assembled, the FN matrix impacts tissue organization by contributing to the assembly of other ECM proteins. Here, we describe the major steps, molecular interactions, and cellular mechanisms involved in assembling FN dimers into fibrillar matrix while highlighting important issues and major questions that require further investigation. PMID:20690820

  20. Breast tissue-based microRNA panel highlights microRNA-23a and selected target genes as putative biomarkers for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Sanaa; Matboli, Marwa; Shehata, Hanan H

    2015-03-01

    We explored the differential expression of breast tissue-based panel of microRNAs (miRNAs) and their potential application as prognostic markers of breast cancer (BC). This study was divided into the following phases: (1) A panel of 6 BC characteristic miRNAs, which were retrieved based on the microarray signature profiling (released by miRWalk), was explored using SYBR Green-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array in 16 cancerous and 16 noncancerous breast tissue; (2) pathway enrichment analysis of the key miRNA target genes; (3) marker choice and validation by real-time PCR in a larger set of 76 patients with BC, 36 benign breast conditions, and 36 healthy volunteers; (4) validation of miRNA (miR)-23a target genes (forkhead box m [FOXM1] and histidine-rich glycoprotein [HRG]) by conventional reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR; and (5) the prognostic significance of the investigated parameters in the BC validation group was explored. In PCR array-based miRNA expression analysis, 4 miRNAs were found to be altered more than twice (miR-96, miR-29c, miR-221, and miR-23a). Bioinformatic analysis of the target genes revealed enrichment for special biological process categories, that is, cell cycle, angiogenesis, apoptosis, cell proliferation, and cell adhesion. miR-23a, HRG messenger RNA, and FOX messenger RNA were positive in BC by 82.9%, 72.4%, and 71.1%, respectively. The overall concordance rates between miR-23a with HRG and FOXM1 tissue RNAs were 91% and 79%, respectively. The median follow-up period was 49 months. mi-23a and HRG RNA were significant independent prognostic markers in relapse-free survival. miR-23a may have an oncogenic function and enhance BC progression by directly activating FOXM1 and HRG at RNA level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Targeting tissue factor on tumour cells and angiogenic vascular endothelial cells by factor VII-targeted verteporfin photodynamic therapy for breast cancer in vitro and in vivo in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to develop a ligand-targeted photodynamic therapy (tPDT) by conjugating factor VII (fVII) protein with photosensitiser verteporfin in order to overcome the poor selectivity and enhance the effect of non-targeted PDT (ntPDT) for cancer. fVII is a natural ligand for receptor tissue factor (TF) with high affinity and specificity. The reason for targeting receptor TF for the development of tPDT is that TF is a common but specific target on angiogenic tumour vascular endothelial cells (VEC) and many types of tumour cells, including solid tumours and leukaemia. Methods Murine factor VII protein (mfVII) containing a mutation (Lys341Ala) was covalently conjugated via a cross linker EDC with Veterporfin (VP) that was extracted from liposomal Visudyne, and then free VP was separated by Sephadex G50 spin columns. fVII-tPDT using mfVII-VP conjugate, compared to ntPDT, was tested in vitro for the killing of breast cancer cells and VEGF-stimulated VEC and in vivo for inhibiting the tumour growth of breast tumours in a mouse xenograft model. Results We showed that: (i) fVII protein could be conjugated with VP without affecting its binding activity; (ii) fVII-tPDT could selectively kill TF-expressing breast cancer cells and VEGF-stimulated angiogenic HUVECs but had no side effects on non-TF expressing unstimulated HUVEC, CHO-K1 and 293 cells; (iii) fVII targeting enhanced the effect of VP PDT by three to four fold; (iii) fVII-tPDT induced significantly stronger levels of apoptosis and necrosis than ntPDT; and (iv) fVII-tPDT had a significantly stronger effect on inhibiting breast tumour growth in mice than ntPDT. Conclusions We conclude that the fVII-targeted VP PDT that we report here is a novel and effective therapeutic with improved selectivity for the treatment of breast cancer. Since TF is expressed on many types of cancer cells including leukaemic cells and selectively on angiogenic tumour VECs, fVII-tPDT could have broad

  2. Targeting tissue factor on tumour cells and angiogenic vascular endothelial cells by factor VII-targeted verteporfin photodynamic therapy for breast cancer in vitro and in vivo in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Benqiang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to develop a ligand-targeted photodynamic therapy (tPDT by conjugating factor VII (fVII protein with photosensitiser verteporfin in order to overcome the poor selectivity and enhance the effect of non-targeted PDT (ntPDT for cancer. fVII is a natural ligand for receptor tissue factor (TF with high affinity and specificity. The reason for targeting receptor TF for the development of tPDT is that TF is a common but specific target on angiogenic tumour vascular endothelial cells (VEC and many types of tumour cells, including solid tumours and leukaemia. Methods Murine factor VII protein (mfVII containing a mutation (Lys341Ala was covalently conjugated via a cross linker EDC with Veterporfin (VP that was extracted from liposomal Visudyne, and then free VP was separated by Sephadex G50 spin columns. fVII-tPDT using mfVII-VP conjugate, compared to ntPDT, was tested in vitro for the killing of breast cancer cells and VEGF-stimulated VEC and in vivo for inhibiting the tumour growth of breast tumours in a mouse xenograft model. Results We showed that: (i fVII protein could be conjugated with VP without affecting its binding activity; (ii fVII-tPDT could selectively kill TF-expressing breast cancer cells and VEGF-stimulated angiogenic HUVECs but had no side effects on non-TF expressing unstimulated HUVEC, CHO-K1 and 293 cells; (iii fVII targeting enhanced the effect of VP PDT by three to four fold; (iii fVII-tPDT induced significantly stronger levels of apoptosis and necrosis than ntPDT; and (iv fVII-tPDT had a significantly stronger effect on inhibiting breast tumour growth in mice than ntPDT. Conclusions We conclude that the fVII-targeted VP PDT that we report here is a novel and effective therapeutic with improved selectivity for the treatment of breast cancer. Since TF is expressed on many types of cancer cells including leukaemic cells and selectively on angiogenic tumour VECs, fVII-tPDT could have

  3. Canonical A-to-I and C-to-U RNA editing is enriched at 3'UTRs and microRNA target sites in multiple mouse tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongjun Gu

    Full Text Available RNA editing is a process that modifies RNA nucleotides and changes the efficiency and fidelity of the central dogma. Enzymes that catalyze RNA editing are required for life, and defects in RNA editing are associated with many diseases. Recent advances in sequencing have enabled the genome-wide identification of RNA editing sites in mammalian transcriptomes. Here, we demonstrate that canonical RNA editing (A-to-I and C-to-U occurs in liver, white adipose, and bone tissues of the laboratory mouse, and we show that apparent non-canonical editing (all other possible base substitutions is an artifact of current high-throughput sequencing technology. Further, we report that high-confidence canonical RNA editing sites can cause non-synonymous amino acid changes and are significantly enriched in 3' UTRs, specifically at microRNA target sites, suggesting both regulatory and functional consequences for RNA editing.

  4. Comprehensive adipocytic and neurogenic tissue microarray analysis of NY-ESO-1 expression - a promising immunotherapy target in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and liposarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurell, Elizabeth; Vergara-Lluri, Maria E; Li, Yunfeng; Crompton, Joseph G; Singh, Arun; Bernthal, Nicholas; Wu, Hong; Eilber, Fritz C; Dry, Sarah M

    2016-11-08

    Immunotherapy targeting cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1 shows promise for tumors with poor response to chemoradiation. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) and liposarcomas (LPS) are chemoresistant and have few effective treatment options. Materials Methods: Using a comprehensive tissue microarray (TMA) of both benign and malignant tumors in primary, recurrent, and metastatic samples, we examined NY-ESO-1 expression in peripheral nerve sheath tumor (PNST) and adipocytic tumors. The PNST TMA included 42 MPNSTs (spontaneous n = 26, NF1-associated n = 16), 35 neurofibromas (spontaneous n = 22, NF-1 associated n = 13), 11 schwannomas, and 18 normal nerves. The LPS TMA included 48 well-differentiated/dedifferentiated (WD/DD) LPS, 13 myxoid/round cell LPS, 3 pleomorphic LPS, 8 lipomas, 1 myelolipoma, and 3 normal adipocytic tissue samples. Stained in triplicate, NY-ESO-1 intensity and density were scored. NY-ESO-1 expression was exclusive to malignant tumors. 100% of myxoid/round cell LPS demonstrated NY-ESO-1 expression, while only 6% of WD/DD LPS showed protein expression, one of which was WD LPS. Of MPNST, 4/26 (15%) spontaneous and 2/16 (12%) NF1-associated MPNSTs demonstrated NY-ESO-1 expression. Strong NY-ESO-1 expression was observed in myxoid/round cell and dedifferentiated LPS, and MPNST in primary, neoadjuvant, and metastatic settings. We found higher prevalence of NY-ESO-1 expression in MPNSTs than previously reported, highlighting a subset of MPNST patients who may benefit from immunotherapy. This study expands our understanding of NY-ESO-1 in WD/DD LPS and is the first demonstration of staining in a WD LPS and metastatic/recurrent myxoid/round cell LPS. These results suggest immunotherapy targeting NY-ESO-1 may benefit patients with aggressive tumors resistant to conventional therapy.

  5. Geometric reasoning about assembly tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    Planning for assembly requires reasoning about various tools used by humans, robots, or other automation to manipulate, attach, and test parts and subassemblies. This paper presents a general framework to represent and reason about geometric accessibility issues for a wide variety of such assembly tools. Central to the framework is a use volume encoding a minimum space that must be free in an assembly state to apply a given tool, and placement constraints on where that volume must be placed relative to the parts on which the tool acts. Determining whether a tool can be applied in a given assembly state is then reduced to an instance of the FINDPLACE problem. In addition, the author presents more efficient methods to integrate the framework into assembly planning. For tools that are applied either before or after their target parts are mated, one method pre-processes a single tool application for all possible states of assembly of a product in polynomial time, reducing all later state-tool queries to evaluations of a simple expression. For tools applied after their target parts are mated, a complementary method guarantees polynomial-time assembly planning. The author presents a wide variety of tools that can be described adequately using the approach, and surveys tool catalogs to determine coverage of standard tools. Finally, the author describes an implementation of the approach in an assembly planning system and experiments with a library of over one hundred manual and robotic tools and several complex assemblies.

  6. CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots-Labeled Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Targeted Fluorescence Imaging of Pancreas Tissues and Therapy of Type 1 Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoqi; Tang, Wei; Li, Chao; Lv, Pinlei; Wang, Zheng; Liu, Yanlei; Zhang, Cunlei; Bao, Yi; Chen, Haiyan; Meng, Xiangying; Song, Yan; Xia, Xiaoling; Pan, Fei; Cui, Daxiang; Shi, Yongquan

    2015-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used for therapy of type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, the in vivo distribution and therapeutic effects of transplanted MSCs are not clarified well. Herein, we reported that CdSe/ZnS quantum dots-labeled MSCs were prepared for targeted fluorescence imaging and therapy of pancreas tissues in rat models with type 1 diabetes. CdSe/ZnS quantum dots were synthesized, their biocompatibility was evaluated, and then, the appropriate concentration of quantum dots was selected to label MSCs. CdSe/ZnS quantum dots-labeled MSCs were injected into mouse models with type 1 diabetes via tail vessel and then were observed by using the Bruker In-Vivo F PRO system, and the blood glucose levels were monitored for 8 weeks. Results showed that prepared CdSe/ZnS quantum dots owned good biocompatibility. Significant differences existed in distribution of quantum dots-labeled MSCs between normal control rats and diabetic rats ( p pancreas of rats in the diabetes group, and was about 32 %, while that in the normal control group rats was about 18 %. The blood glucose levels were also monitored for 8 weeks after quantum dots-labeled MSC injection. Statistical differences existed between the blood glucose levels of the diabetic rat control group and MSC-injected diabetic rat group ( p pancreas tissues in diabetic rats, and significantly reduce the blood glucose levels in diabetic rats, and own potential application in therapy of diabetic patients in the near future.

  7. Prediction of a neuropeptidome for the eyestalk ganglia of the lobster Homarus americanus using a tissue-specific de novo assembled transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Andrew E; Roncalli, Vittoria; Cieslak, Matthew C; Pascual, Micah G; Yu, Andy; Lameyer, Tess J; Stanhope, Meredith E; Dickinson, Patsy S

    2017-03-01

    In silico transcriptome mining is a powerful tool for crustacean peptidome prediction. Using homology-based BLAST searches and a simple bioinformatics workflow, large peptidomes have recently been predicted for a variety of crustaceans, including the lobster, Homarus americanus. Interestingly, no in silico studies have been conducted on the eyestalk ganglia (lamina ganglionaris, medulla externa, medulla interna and medulla terminalis) of the lobster, although the eyestalk is the location of a major neuroendocrine complex, i.e., the X-organ-sinus gland system. Here, an H. americanus eyestalk ganglia-specific transcriptome was produced using the de novo assembler Trinity. This transcriptome was generated from 130,973,220 Illumina reads and consists of 147,542 unique contigs. Eighty-nine neuropeptide-encoding transcripts were identified from this dataset, allowing for the deduction of 62 distinct pre/preprohormones. Two hundred sixty-two neuropeptides were predicted from this set of precursors; the peptides include members of the adipokinetic hormone-corazonin-like peptide, allatostatin A, allatostatin B, allatostatin C, bursicon α, CCHamide, corazonin, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), CHH precursor-related peptide, diuretic hormone 31, diuretic hormone 44, eclosion hormone, elevenin, FMRFamide-like peptide, glycoprotein hormone α2, glycoprotein hormone β5, GSEFLamide, intocin, leucokinin, molt-inhibiting hormone, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide F, orcokinin, orcomyotropin, pigment dispersing hormone, proctolin, pyrokinin, red pigment concentrating hormone, RYamide, short neuropeptide F, SIFamide, sulfakinin, tachykinin-related peptide and trissin families. The predicted peptides expand the H. americanus eyestalk ganglia neuropeptidome approximately 7-fold, and include 78 peptides new to the lobster. The transcriptome and predicted neuropeptidome described here provide new resources for investigating peptidergic

  8. Targeted genomic enrichment and sequencing of CyHV-3 from carp tissues confirms low nucleotide diversity and mixed genotype infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliha Hammoumi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD is an emerging disease that causes mass mortality in koi and common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. Its causative agent is Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3, also known as koi herpesvirus (KHV. Although data on the pathogenesis of this deadly virus is relatively abundant in the literature, still little is known about its genomic diversity and about the molecular mechanisms that lead to such a high virulence. In this context, we developed a new strategy for sequencing full-length CyHV-3 genomes directly from infected fish tissues. Total genomic DNA extracted from carp gill tissue was specifically enriched with CyHV-3 sequences through hybridization to a set of nearly 2 million overlapping probes designed to cover the entire genome length, using KHV-J sequence (GenBank accession number AP008984 as reference. Applied to 7 CyHV-3 specimens from Poland and Indonesia, this targeted genomic enrichment enabled recovery of the full genomes with >99.9% reference coverage. The enrichment rate was directly correlated to the estimated number of viral copies contained in the DNA extracts used for library preparation, which varied between ∼5000 and ∼2×107. The average sequencing depth was >200 for all samples, thus allowing the search for variants with high confidence. Sequence analyses highlighted a significant proportion of intra-specimen sequence heterogeneity, suggesting the presence of mixed infections in all investigated fish. They also showed that inter-specimen genetic diversity at the genome scale was very low (>99.95% of sequence identity. By enabling full genome comparisons directly from infected fish tissues, this new method will be valuable to trace outbreaks rapidly and at a reasonable cost, and in turn to understand the transmission routes of CyHV-3.

  9. Targeted gene delivery into peripheral sensorial neurons mediated by self-assembled vectors composed of poly(ethylene imine) and tetanus toxin fragment c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Hugo; Fernandez, Ramon; Pires, Liliana R; Martins, M Cristina L; Simões, Sérgio; Barbosa, Mário A; Pêgo, Ana P

    2010-05-10

    A simple, safe and efficient system that can specifically transfect peripheral sensorial neurons can bring new answers to address peripheral neuropathies. A multi-component non-viral gene delivery vector targeted to peripheral nervous system cells was developed, using poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) as starting material. A binary DNA/polymer complex based on thiolated PEI (PEISH) was optimized, considering complex size and zeta potential and the ability to transfect a sensorial neuron cell line (ND7/23). The 50 kDa non-toxic fragment from tetanus toxin (HC), which has been previously shown to interact specifically with peripheral neurons and to undergo retrograde transport, was grafted to the complex core via a bifunctional PEG (HC-PEG) reactive for the thiol moieties present in the complex surface. Several formulations of HC-PEG ternary complexes were tested for targeting, by assessing the extent of cellular internalization and levels of transfection, in both the ND7/23 and NIH 3 T3 (fibroblast) cell lines. Targeted gene transfer to the neuronal cell line was observed for the complex formulations containing 5 and 7.5 microg of HC-PEG. Finally, our results demonstrate that the developed ternary vectors are able to transfect primary cultures of dorsal root ganglion dissociated neurons in a targeted manner and elicit the expression of a relevant neurotrophic factor. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Holotrichia oblita Midgut Proteins That Bind to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry8-Like Toxin and Assembly of the H. oblita Midgut Tissue Transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jian; Huang, Ying; Shu, Changlong; Soberón, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra; Liu, Chunqing; Song, Fuping; Lai, Jinsheng; Zhang, Jie

    2017-06-15

    The Bacillus thuringiensis strain HBF-18 (CGMCC 2070), containing two cry genes (cry8-like and cry8Ga), is toxic to Holotrichia oblita larvae. Both Cry8-like and Cry8Ga proteins are active against this insect pest, and Cry8-like is more toxic. To analyze the characteristics of the binding of Cry8-like and Cry8Ga proteins to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) in H. oblita larvae, binding assays were conducted with a fluorescent DyLight488-labeled Cry8-like toxin. The results of saturation binding assays demonstrated that Cry8-like bound specifically to binding sites on BBMVs from H. oblita, and heterologous competition assays revealed that Cry8Ga shared binding sites with Cry8-like. Furthermore, Cry8-like-binding proteins in the midgut from H. oblita larvae were identified by pulldown assays and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In addition, the H. oblita midgut transcriptome was assembled by high-throughput RNA sequencing and used for identification of Cry8-like-binding proteins. Eight Cry8-like-binding proteins were obtained from pulldown assays conducted with BBMVs. The LC-MS/MS data for these proteins were successfully matched with the H. oblita transcriptome, and BLASTX results identified five proteins as serine protease, transferrin-like, uncharacterized protein LOC658236 of Tribolium castaneum, ATPase catalytic subunit, and actin. These identified Cry8-like-binding proteins were different from those confirmed previously as receptors for Cry1A proteins in lepidopteran insect species, such as aminopeptidase, alkaline phosphatase, and cadherin.IMPORTANCEHolotrichia oblita is one of the main soil-dwelling pests in China. The larvae damage the roots of crops, resulting in significant yield reductions and economic losses. H. oblita is difficult to control, principally due to its soil-dwelling habits. In recent years, some Cry8 toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis were shown to be active against this pest. Study of the mechanism of action

  11. Self-assembled Nanomaterials for Chemotherapeutic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Aileen

    The self-assembly of short designed peptides into functional nanostructures is becoming a growing interest in a wide range of fields from optoelectronic devices to nanobiotechnology. In the medical field, self-assembled peptides have especially attracted attention with several of its attractive features for applications in drug delivery, tissue regeneration, biological engineering as well as cosmetic industry and also the antibiotics field. We here describe the self-assembly of peptide conjugated with organic chromophore to successfully deliver sequence independent micro RNAs into human non-small cell lung cancer cell lines. The nanofiber used as the delivery vehicle is completely non-toxic and biodegradable, and exhibit enhanced permeability effect for targeting malignant tumors. The transfection efficiency with nanofiber as the delivery vehicle is comparable to that of the commercially available RNAiMAX lipofectamine while the toxicity is significantly lower. We also conjugated the peptide sequence with camptothecin (CPT) and observed the self-assembly of nanotubes for chemotherapeutic applications. The peptide scaffold is non-toxic and biodegradable, and drug loading of CPT is high, which minimizes the issue of systemic toxicity caused by extensive burden from the elimination of drug carriers. In addition, the peptide assembly drastically increases the solubility and stability of CPT under physiological conditions in vitro, while active CPT is gradually released from the peptide chain under the slight acidic tumor cell environment. Cytotoxicity results on human colorectal cancer cells and non-small cell lung cancer cell lines display promising anti-cancer properties compared to the parental CPT drug, which cannot be used clinically due to its poor solubility and lack of stability in physiological conditions. Moreover, the peptide sequence conjugated with 5-fluorouracil formed a hydrogel with promising topical chemotherapeutic applications that also display

  12. Transportation risk assessment for the shipment of irradiated FFTF tritium target assemblies from the Hanford Site to the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, D. L.

    1997-11-19

    A Draft Technical Information Document (HNF-1855) is being prepared to evaluate proposed interim tritium and medical isotope production at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). This report examines the potential health and safety impacts associated with transportation of irradiated tritium targets from FFTF to the Savannah River Site for processing at the Tritium Extraction Facility. Potential risks to workers and members of the public during normal transportation and accident conditions are assessed.

  13. Antiproton Target

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Antiproton target used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). The first type of antiproton production target used from 1980 to 1982 comprised a rod of copper 3mm diameter and 120mm long embedded in a graphite cylinder that was itself pressed into a finned aluminium container. This assembly was air-cooled and it was used in conjunction with the Van der Meer magnetic horn. In 1983 Fermilab provided us with lithium lenses to replace the horn with a view to increasing the antiproton yield by about 30%. These lenses needed a much shorter target made of heavy metal - iridium was chosen for this purpose. The 50 mm iridium rod was housed in an extension to the original finned target container so that it could be brought very close to the entrance to the lithium lens. Picture 1 shows this target assembly and Picture 2 shows it mounted together with the lithium lens. These target containers had a short lifetime due to a combination of beam heating and radiation damage. This led to the design of the water-cooled target in...

  14. Development of a Patient-Specific Tumor Mold Using MRI and 3D Printing Technology for Targeted Tissue Procurement and Radiomics Analysis of Renal Masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Durgesh Kumar; Chatzinoff, Yonatan; Zhang, Yue; Yuan, Qing; Fulkerson, Michael; Chopra, Rajiv; Brugarolas, James; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A; Kapur, Payal; Pedrosa, Ivan

    2017-10-19

    To implement a platform for co-localization of in vivo quantitative multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) features with ex vivo surgical specimens of patients with renal masses using patient-specific 3D-printed tumor molds, which may aid in targeted tissue procurement and radiomics/radiogenomic analyses. Volumetric segmentation of 6 renal masses was performed with 3D Slicer (http://www.slicer.org) to create a three-dimensional (3D) tumor model. A slicing guide template was created with specialized software, which included notches corresponding to the anatomic locations of the MRI images. The tumor model was subtracted from the slicing guide to create a depression in the slicing guide corresponding to the exact size and shape of the tumor. A customized, tumor-specific, slicing guide was then printed using a 3D printer. After partial nephrectomy, the surgical specimen was bivalved through the preselected MRI plane. A thick slab of the tumor was obtained, fixed and processed as a whole-mount slide and correlated to mpMRI findings. All patients successfully underwent partial nephrectomy and adequate fitting of the tumor specimens within the 3D mold was achieved in all tumors. Distinct in vivo MRI features corresponded to unique pathologic characteristics in the same tumor. The average cost of printing each mold was US$ 160.7 ± 111.1 (range: US$ 20.9 - 350.7). MRI-based pre-operative 3D printing of tumor-specific molds allow for accurate sectioning of the tumor after surgical resection and co-localization of in vivo imaging features with tissue-based analysis in radiomics/radiogenomic studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Redesign of the Target-Moderator-Reflector-Shield Assembly for Optimization of the Neutron Flux in the 0.001 – 1 MeV at LANSCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowicki, Suzanne Florence [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mocko, Michal [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wender, Stephen Arthur [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ferres, Laurent [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-10

    These are the slides for a presentation at the 2016 Postdoc Summer Seminar Series at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The conclusions of the research presented are the following: we can provide a significant gain in intensity in the upper tier; lower and upper tier are coupled: translating the target in the FOV of the upper tier decreases the intensity in the lower tier; it is possible to balance the production between the upper and lower tier if we keep some of the material between the tiers.

  16. IBI302, a promising candidate for AMD treatment, targeting both the VEGF and complement system with high binding affinity in vitro and effective targeting of the ocular tissue in healthy rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xinyi; Li, Jia; Xu, Xianxing; Wang, Chunming; Cheng, Yuanguo

    2016-04-01

    Uncontrolled activation of complement and upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) play fundamental roles in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, most drugs used to treat AMD focus on a single target, and the percentage of effectively treated patients in clinical practice needs to be improved. Therefore, novel AMD treatment approaches are needed. IBI302 is a novel bispecific decoy receptor fusion protein designed with both a VEGF inhibition domain and a complement cascade inhibition domain, which are connected by the Fc region of human immunoglobulin. In this study, we systematically evaluated the binding affinity between IBI302 and VEGF isoforms and complement proteins by using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology. Anti-VEGF blockers (aflibercept and bevacizumab) and complement receptor 1 were used as references. The SPR assay results indicated that IBI302 could bind different VEGF isoforms and complement proteins with high affinity. The biological activity of IBI302 was also studied. IBI302 showed an inhibitory effect on human primary umbilical vein endothelial cell proliferation and the activation of complement pathways in vitro. Finally, the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of IBI302 were evaluated in rhesus monkeys. The PK results showed that after a 0.5 mg/eye intravitreal dosage, IBI302 became rapidly distributed from the vitreous humor into targeted tissues and remained active over 504 h. Overall, the favorable anti-angiogenic and anti-complement effects of IBI302 along with the good PK profiles in rhesus monkeys support the selection and development of IBI302 as a promising candidate for AMD treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Role of the ATPase/helicase maleless (MLE in the assembly, targeting, spreading and function of the male-specific lethal (MSL complex of Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morra Rosa

    2011-04-01

    other MSL proteins in the cytoplasm. These data suggest that the MSL proteins assemble into complexes or subcomplexes before entering the nucleus. Conclusions This study provides insights into the role that MLE plays in the function of the MSL complex through its association with roX RNAs and the other MSL subunits, and suggests a hypothesis to explain the role of MLE in the synthesis of these RNAs.

  18. Amplified cross-linking efficiency of self-assembled monolayers through targeted dissociative electron attachment for the production of carbon nanomembranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Koch

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the negative ion yield of 2′-chloro-1,1′-biphenyl (2-Cl-BP, 2′-bromo-1,1′-biphenyl (2-Br-BP and 2′-iodo-1,1′-biphenyl (2-I-BP upon dissociative electron attachment (DEA at an electron energy of 0 eV revealed cross section values that were more than ten times higher for iodide loss from 2-I-BP than for the other halogenides from the respective biphenyls (BPs. Comparison with dissociative ionization mass spectra shows that the ratio of the efficiency of electron impact ionization induced fragmentation of 2-I-BP, 2-Br-BP, and 2-Cl-BP amounts to approximately 1:0.7:0.6. Inspired by these results, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs of the respective biphenyl-4-thiols, 2-Cl-BPT, 2-Br-BPT, 2-I-BPT as well as BPT, were grown on a Au(111 substrate and exposed to 50 eV electrons. The effect of electron irradiation was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, to determine whether the high relative DEA cross section for iodide loss from 2-I-BPT as compared to 2-Br-BP and 2-Cl-BP is reflected in the cross-linking efficiency of SAMs made from these materials. Such sensitization could reduce the electron dose needed for the cross-linking process and may thus lead to a significantly faster conversion of the respective SAMs into carbon nanomembranes (CNMs without the need for an increased current density. XPS data support the notation that DEA sensitization may be used to achieve more efficient electron-induced cross-linking of SAMs, revealing more than ten times faster cross-linking of 2-I-BPT SAMs compared to those made from the other halogenated biphenyls or from native BPT at the same current density. Furthermore, the transfer of a freestanding membrane onto a TEM grid and the subsequent investigation by helium ion microscopy (HIM verified the existence of a mechanically stable CNM created from 2-I-BPT after exposure to an electron dose as low as 1.8 mC/cm2. In contrast, SAMs made from BPT, 2-Cl-BPT and 2-Br

  19. 3D tumor tissue analogs and their orthotopic implants for understanding tumor-targeting of microenvironment-responsive nanosized chemotherapy and radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Pallavi; Jyoti, Amar; Swindell, Elden P; Chan, Ryan; Langner, Ulrich W; Feddock, Jonathan M; Nagarajan, Radhakrishnan; O'Halloran, Thomas V; Upreti, Meenakshi

    2015-11-01

    An appropriate representation of the tumor microenvironment in tumor models can have a pronounced impact on directing combinatorial treatment strategies and cancer nanotherapeutics. The present study develops a novel 3D co-culture spheroid model (3D TNBC) incorporating tumor cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts as color-coded murine tumor tissue analogs (TTA) to better represent the tumor milieu of triple negative breast cancer in vitro. Implantation of TTA orthotopically in nude mice, resulted in enhanced growth and aggressive metastasis to ectopic sites. Subsequently, the utility of the model is demonstrated for preferential targeting of irradiated tumor endothelial cells via radiation-induced stromal enrichment of galectin-1 using anginex conjugated nanoparticles (nanobins) carrying arsenic trioxide and cisplatin. Demonstration of a multimodal nanotherapeutic system and inclusion of the biological response to radiation using an in vitro/in vivo tumor model incorporating characteristics of tumor microenvironment presents an advance in preclinical evaluation of existing and novel cancer nanotherapies. Existing in-vivo tumor models are established by implanting tumor cells into nude mice. Here, the authors described their approach 3D spheres containing tumor cells, enodothelial cells and fibroblasts. This would mimic tumor micro-environment more realistically. This interesting 3D model should reflect more accurately tumor response to various drugs and would enable the design of new treatment modalities. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A smart ZnO@polydopamine-nucleic acid nanosystem for ultrasensitive live cell mRNA imaging by the target-triggered intracellular self-assembly of active DNAzyme nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dinggeng; He, Xing; Yang, Xue; Li, Hung-Wing

    2017-04-01

    Efficient strategies for the ultrasensitive imaging of gene expression in living cells are essential in chemistry and cell biology. Here, we report a novel and efficient enzyme-free dual signal amplification strategy for live cell mRNA imaging by using a smart nucleic acid hairpin-based nanosystem. This nanosystem consists of a ZnO nanoparticle core, an interlayer of polydopamine and an outer layer of four hairpin DNA (hpDNA) probes. Such a core-shell nanosystem facilitates the cellular uptake of molecular hairpin payloads, protects them from nuclease digestion, and delivers them into the cytoplasm by the acid-triggered dissolution of the ZnO core. In the presence of target mRNA, the released hpDNA probes self-assemble via HCR into wire-shaped active DNAzymes that catalyze the generation of a fluorescence signal. The target-initiated HCR events and DNAzyme cascades offer efficient dual amplification and enable the ultrasensitive detection of mRNA with a femtomolar detection limit. Live cell assays show an intense fluorescence response from a tumor-related biomarker survivin mRNA only in tumor cells untreated with a survivin expression repressor YM155, but not in normal cells. The developed nanosystem provides a potential platform for the amplified imaging of low-abundance disease-related biomarkers in live cells.

  1. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    5th April, 2016 – Ordinary General Assembly of the Staff Association! In the first semester of each year, the Staff Association (SA) invites its members to attend and participate in the Ordinary General Assembly (OGA). This year the OGA will be held on Tuesday, April 5th 2016 from 11:00 to 12:00 in BE Auditorium, Meyrin (6-2-024). During the Ordinary General Assembly, the activity and financial reports of the SA are presented and submitted for approval to the members. This is the occasion to get a global view on the activities of the SA, its financial management, and an opportunity to express one’s opinion, including taking part in the votes. Other points are listed on the agenda, as proposed by the Staff Council. Who can vote? Only “ordinary” members (MPE) of the SA can vote. Associated members (MPA) of the SA and/or affiliated pensioners have a right to vote on those topics that are of direct interest to them. Who can give his/her opinion? The Ordinary General Asse...

  2. Self-assembling multimeric nucleic acid constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, C.R.; Niemeyer, C.M.; Smith, C.L.; Sano, Takeshi; Hnatowich, D.J.; Rusckowski, M.

    1996-10-01

    The invention is directed to constructs and compositions containing multimeric forms of nucleic acid. Multimeric nucleic acids comprise single-stranded nucleic acids attached via biotin to streptavidin and bound with a functional group. These constructs can be utilized in vivo to treat or identify diseased tissue or cells. Repeated administrations of multimeric nucleic acid compositions produce a rapid and specific amplification of nucleic acid constructs and their attached functional groups. For treatment purposes, functional groups may be toxins, radioisotopes, genes or enzymes. Diagnostically, labeled multimeric constructs may be used to identify specific targets in vivo or in vitro. Multimeric nucleic acids may also be used in nanotechnology and to create self-assembling polymeric aggregates such as membranes of defined porosity, microcircuits and many other products. 5 figs.

  3. Assessment of DNA Binding and Oxidative DNA Damage by Acrylonitrile in Two Rat Target Tissues of Carcinogenicity: Implications for the Mechanism of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gary M; Kobets, Tetyana; Duan, Jian-Dong; Iatropoulos, Michael J

    2017-07-17

    Exposure to acrylonitrile induces formation of tumors at multiple sites in rats, with females being more sensitive. The present study assessed possible mechanisms of acrylonitrile tumorigenicity, covalent DNA binding, DNA breakage, and oxidative DNA damage, in two target tissues, the brain and Zymbal's glands, of sensitive female Fischer (F344) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. One group received acrylonitrile in drinking water at 100 ppm for 28 days. Two other groups were administered either acrylonitrile in drinking water at 100 ppm or drinking water alone for 27 days, followed by a single oral gavage dose of 11 mg/kg bw (14)C-acrylonitrile on day 28. A positive control group received a single dose of 5 mg/kg bw of 7-(14)C-benzo[a]pyrene, on day 27 following the administration of drinking water for 26 days. Using liquid scintillation counting, no association of radiolabeled acrylonitrile with brain DNA was found. In accelerator mass spectrometry analysis, the association of (14)C of acrylonitrile with DNA in brains was detected and was similar in both strains, which may reflect acrylonitrile binding to protein as well as to DNA. Nucleotide (32)P-postlabeling assay analysis of brain samples from rats of both strains yielded no evidence of acrylonitrile DNA adducts. Negative conventional comet assay results indicate the absence of direct DNA strand breaks in the brain and Zymbal's gland in both strains of rats dosed with acrylonitrile. In both rat strains, positive results in an enhanced comet assay were found only in brain samples digested with formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase but not with human 8-hydroxyguanine-DNA glycosylase, indicating possible oxidative DNA damage, other than 8-oxodG formation. In conclusion, definitive evidence of DNA binding of acrylonitrile in the brain and Zymbal's gland was not obtained under the test conditions. A role for oxidative stress in tumorigenesis in the brain but not Zymbal's gland may exist.

  4. Tissue Microarray: A rapidly evolving diagnostic and research tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawhar, Nazar M.T.

    2009-01-01

    Tissue microarray is a recent innovation in the field of pathology. A microarray contains many small representative tissue samples from hundreds of different cases assembled on a single histologic slide, and therefore allows high throughput analysis of multiple specimens at the same time. Tissue microarrays are paraffin blocks produced by extracting cylindrical tissue cores from different paraffin donor blocks and re-embedding these into a single recipient (microarray) block at defined array coordinates. Using this technique, up to 1000 or more tissue samples can be arrayed into a single paraffin block. It can permit simultaneous analysis of molecular targets at the DNA, mRNA, and protein levels under identical, standardized conditions on a single glass slide, and also provide maximal preservation and use of limited and irreplaceable archival tissue samples. This versatile technique, in which data analysis is automated facilitates retrospective and prospective human tissue studies. It is a practical and effective tool for high-throughput molecular analysis of tissues that is helping to identify new diagnostic and prognostic markers and targets in human cancers, and has a range of potential applications in basic research, prognostic oncology and drug discovery. This article summarizes the technical aspects of tissue microarray construction and sectioning, advantages, application, and limitations. PMID:19318744

  5. Nano-odontology: nanostructured assemblies for endodontic regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioretti, F; Mendoza-Palomares, C; Avoaka-Boni, M C; Ramaroson, J; Bahi, S; Richert, L; Granier, F; Benkirane-Jessel, N; Haikel, Y

    2011-06-01

    The vitality of the pulp is so fundamental to the functional life of the tooth that new strategies are required to avoid the removal of the whole pulp following irreversible pulpitis and to regenerate the lost endodontic tissues. Nano-odontology would provide suitable solutions for pulp tissue conservative and regenerative approaches. In our group, we have shown that when covalently coupled to Poly-Glutamic Acid (PGA) the incorporation of an anti-inflammatory hormone (melanocortin, a-MSH) into the multilayered films Poly-L-Lysine (PLL)/PGA increases the anti-inflammatory reaction of pulp fibroblasts and macrophages stimulated by LPS (Lipo-Polysaccharides). Recently, usual linear PLL polymers have been chemically grafted for making new Dendrigraft polymers (DGLG4) whose higher branching ratios can give useful properties. The objective is to use nanostructured assemblies containing DGLG4 and PGA-alpha-MSH to design a new nanomaterial. These nanostructured assemblies (DGLG4-PGA-alpha-MSH)n constitute a thick reservoir of the anti-inflammatory peptide and promote adhesion and proliferation of pulp fibroblast on the biomaterial surface. These nanostructured films could be adapted for an endodontic regeneration application to target pulp connective tissue regeneration. Firstly, the crucial reduction of inflammation could be helpful by using PGA-alpha-MSH and secondly the initiation of the regeneration of the connective tissue will be promoted by the whole nanostructured film of which allows pulp cells colonisation.

  6. Assembling consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assembling Consumption marks a definitive step in the institutionalisation of qualitative business research. By gathering leading scholars and educators who study markets, marketing and consumption through the lenses of philosophy, sociology and anthropology, this book clarifies and applies...... the investigative tools offered by assemblage theory, actor-network theory and non-representational theory. Clear theoretical explanation and methodological innovation, alongside empirical applications of these emerging frameworks will offer readers new and refreshing perspectives on consumer culture and market...... societies. This is an essential reading for both seasoned scholars and advanced students of markets, economies and social forms of consumption....

  7. Simulated nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta, Victor T.

    1993-01-01

    An apparatus for electrically simulating a nuclear reactor fuel assembly. It includes a heater assembly having a top end and a bottom end and a plurality of concentric heater tubes having electrical circuitry connected to a power source, and radially spaced from each other. An outer target tube and an inner target tube is concentric with the heater tubes and with each other, and the outer target tube surrounds and is radially spaced from the heater tubes. The inner target tube is surrounded by and radially spaced from the heater tubes and outer target tube. The top of the assembly is generally open to allow for the electrical power connection to the heater tubes, and the bottom of the assembly includes means for completing the electrical circuitry in the heater tubes to provide electrical resistance heating to simulate the power profile in a nuclear reactor. The embedded conductor elements in each heater tube is split into two halves for a substantial portion of its length and provided with electrical isolation such that each half of the conductor is joined at one end and is not joined at the other end.

  8. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Mardi 5 mai à 11 h 00 Salle 13-2-005 Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : 1- Adoption de l’ordre du jour. 2- Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 22 mai 2014. 3- Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2014. 4- Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2014. 5- Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2014. 6- Programme 2015. 7- Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2015 et taux de cotisation pour 2015. 8- Pas de modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposée. 9- Élections des membres de la Commission é...

  9. General assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Mardi 5 mai à 11 h 00 Salle 13-2-005 Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : Adoption de l’ordre du jour. Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 22 mai 2014. Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2014. Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2014. Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2014. Programme 2015. Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2015 et taux de cotisation pour 2015. Pas de modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposée. Élections des membres de la Commission électorale. &am...

  10. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Mardi 5 avril à 11 h 00 BE Auditorium Meyrin (6-2-024) Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : Adoption de l’ordre du jour. Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 5 mai 2015. Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2015. Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2015. Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2015. Programme de travail 2016. Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2016 Approbation du taux de cotisation pour 2017. Modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposée. Élections des membres de la Commissio...

  11. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : Adoption de l’ordre du jour. Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 5 avril 2016. Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2016. Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2016. Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2016. Programme de travail 2017. Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2017 Approbation du taux de cotisation pour 2018. Modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposées. Élections des membres de la Commission électorale. Élections des vérifica...

  12. Targeted delivery of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 to colon tissue and identification of a major 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 glycoside from Solanumglaucophyllum plant leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Duane R; Koszewski, Nicholas J; Hoy, Derrel A; Goff, Jesse P; Horst, Ronald L

    2015-04-01

    Leaves of the Solanum glaucophyllum (Sg) plant, indigenous to South America, have long been known for their calcinogenic toxicity in ruminant animals. It was determined the leaves contained glycosidic derivatives of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) and liberation of the free hormone by rumen bacterial populations elicited a hypercalcemic response. Our interest in the leaves is predicated on the concept that the glycoside forms of 1,25D3 would target release of the active hormone in the lower gut of non-ruminant mammals. This would provide a means of delivering 1,25D3 directly to the colon, where the hormone has been shown to have beneficial effects in models of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colon cancer. We fed mice for 10 days with variable amounts of Sg leaf. Feeding 7-333μg leaf/day produced no changes in plasma Ca(2+) and 1,25D3 concentrations, and only at ≥1000μg leaf/day did these values become significantly elevated compared to controls. Gene expression studies from colon tissue indicated a linear relationship between the amount of leaf consumed and expression of the Cyp24a1 gene. In contrast, Cyp24a1 gene expression in the duodenums and ileums of these mice was unchanged compared to controls. One of the major 1,25D3-glycosides was isolated from leaves following extraction and purification by Sep-Pak cartridges and HPLC fractionation. Ultraviolet absorbance was consistent with modification of the 1-hydroxyl group, and positive ion ESI mass spectrometry indicated a diglycoside of 1,25D3. 2-Dimensional NMR analyses were carried out and established the C1 proton of the A-ring was interacting with a C1' sugar proton, while the C3 proton of the A-ring was linked with a second C1' sugar proton. The structure of the isolated compound is therefore consistent with a β-linked 1,3-diglycoside of 1,25D3. Thus, Sg leaf administered to mice at up to 333 ug/day can elicit colon-specific enhancement of Cyp24a1 gene expression without inducing hypercalcemia, and

  13. Prostatic response to supranutritional selenium supplementation: comparison of the target tissue potency of selenomethionine vs. selenium-yeast on markers of prostatic homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, David J; Shen, Shuren; Kengeri, Seema S; Chiang, Emily C; Combs, Gerald F; Morris, J Steven; Bostwick, David G

    2012-11-06

    Prostate cancer is the product of dysregulated homeostasis within the aging prostate. Supplementation with selenium in the form of selenized yeast (Se-yeast) significantly reduced prostate cancer incidence in the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial. Conversely, the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) showed no such cancer-protective advantage using selenomethionine (SeMet). The possibility that SeMet and Se-yeast are not equipotent in promoting homeostasis and cancer risk reduction in the aging prostate has not been adequately investigated; no direct comparison has ever been reported in man or animals. Here, we analyzed data on prostatic responses to SeMet or Se-yeast from a controlled feeding trial of 49 elderly beagle dogs-the only non-human species to frequently develop prostate cancer during aging-randomized to one of five groups: control; low-dose SeMet, low-dose Se-yeast (3 μg/kg); high-dose SeMet, high-dose Se-yeast (6 μg/kg). After seven months of supplementation, we found no significant selenium form-dependent differences in toenail or intraprostatic selenium concentration. Next, we determined whether SeMet or Se-yeast acts with different potency on six markers of prostatic homeostasis that likely contribute to prostate cancer risk reduction-intraprostatic dihydrotestosterone (DHT), testosterone (T), DHT:T, and epithelial cell DNA damage, proliferation, and apoptosis. By analyzing dogs supplemented with SeMet or Se-yeast that achieved equivalent intraprostatic selenium concentration after supplementation, we showed no significant differences in potency of either selenium form on any of the six parameters over three different ranges of target tissue selenium concentration. Our findings, which represent the first direct comparison of SeMet and Se-yeast on a suite of readouts in the aging prostate that reflect flux through multiple gene networks, do not further support the notion that the null results of SELECT are attributable to

  14. Prostatic Response to Supranutritional Selenium Supplementation: Comparison of the Target Tissue Potency of Selenomethionine vs. Selenium-Yeast on Markers of Prostatic Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, David J.; Shen, Shuren; Kengeri, Seema S.; Chiang, Emily C.; Combs, Gerald F.; Morris, J. Steven; Bostwick, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the product of dysregulated homeostasis within the aging prostate. Supplementation with selenium in the form of selenized yeast (Se-yeast) significantly reduced prostate cancer incidence in the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial. Conversely, the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) showed no such cancer-protective advantage using selenomethionine (SeMet). The possibility that SeMet and Se-yeast are not equipotent in promoting homeostasis and cancer risk reduction in the aging prostate has not been adequately investigated; no direct comparison has ever been reported in man or animals. Here, we analyzed data on prostatic responses to SeMet or Se-yeast from a controlled feeding trial of 49 elderly beagle dogs—the only non-human species to frequently develop prostate cancer during aging—randomized to one of five groups: control; low-dose SeMet, low-dose Se-yeast (3 μg/kg); high-dose SeMet, high-dose Se-yeast (6 μg/kg). After seven months of supplementation, we found no significant selenium form-dependent differences in toenail or intraprostatic selenium concentration. Next, we determined whether SeMet or Se-yeast acts with different potency on six markers of prostatic homeostasis that likely contribute to prostate cancer risk reduction—intraprostatic dihydrotestosterone (DHT), testosterone (T), DHT:T, and epithelial cell DNA damage, proliferation, and apoptosis. By analyzing dogs supplemented with SeMet or Se-yeast that achieved equivalent intraprostatic selenium concentration after supplementation, we showed no significant differences in potency of either selenium form on any of the six parameters over three different ranges of target tissue selenium concentration. Our findings, which represent the first direct comparison of SeMet and Se-yeast on a suite of readouts in the aging prostate that reflect flux through multiple gene networks, do not further support the notion that the null results of SELECT are attributable

  15. Clinical Validation of Atlas-Based Auto-Segmentation of Multiple Target Volumes and Normal Tissue (Swallowing/Mastication) Structures in the Head and Neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teguh, David N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Levendag, Peter C., E-mail: p.levendag@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Voet, Peter W.J.; Al-Mamgani, Abrahim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Han Xiao; Wolf, Theresa K.; Hibbard, Lyndon S. [Elekta-CMS Software, Maryland Heights, MO 63043 (United States); Nowak, Peter; Akhiat, Hafid; Dirkx, Maarten L.P.; Heijmen, Ben J.M.; Hoogeman, Mischa S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    . Conclusion: Multiple-subject ABAS of computed tomography images proved to be a useful novel tool in the rapid delineation of target and normal tissues. Although editing of the autocontours is inevitable, a substantial time reduction was achieved using editing, instead of manual contouring (180 vs. 66 min).

  16. Tertiary lymphoid tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Caro, Giuseppe; Marchesi, Federica

    2014-01-01

    Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes influence colorectal cancer progression. We have recently documented that tertiary lymphoid tissue in the colorectal cancer microenvironment orchestrates lymphocyte infiltration and that tertiary lymphoid tissue and lymphocytes cooperate in a coordinated antitumor immune response to improve patient outcome. Thus, tertiary lymphoid tissue represents a potential target in the design of tailored immune-based therapeutic approaches. PMID:25083321

  17. Cell and Tissue Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    “Cell and Tissue Engineering” introduces the principles and new approaches in cell and tissue engineering. It includes both the fundamentals and the current trends in cell and tissue engineering, in a way useful both to a novice and an expert in the field. The book is composed of 13 chapters all of which are written by the leading experts. It is organized to gradually assemble an insight in cell and tissue function starting form a molecular nano-level, extending to a cellular micro-level and finishing at the tissue macro-level. In specific, biological, physiological, biophysical, biochemical, medical, and engineering aspects are covered from the standpoint of the development of functional substitutes of biological tissues for potential clinical use. Topics in the area of cell engineering include cell membrane biophysics, structure and function of the cytoskeleton, cell-extracellular matrix interactions, and mechanotransduction. In the area of tissue engineering the focus is on the in vitro cultivation of ...

  18. Research on Outfitting Virtual Assembly based on Ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Zuhua

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the present situation where the assembly work of ship outfitting depends on manual experiential operation, the thesis, taking outfitting assembly operation as the research object and optimal assembly path as the target, puts forward the simulation method and procedure of outfitting virtual assembly considering operational posture, operational load, reachability and visibility and other ergonomic factors, taking pipe assembly operation of ship section as the application example. The results show that the method can obtain better assembly operation path, avoid interference of workers’ operation process and improve the efficiency of assembly operation.

  19. Demonstration of Coupled Tiamat Single Assembly Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novascone, Stephen R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hales, Jason D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gardner, Russell [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pawlowski, R. P. P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pastore, Giovanni [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Toth, Alex [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Clarno, Kevin T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Collins, Benjamin S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stimpson, Shane G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This report corresponds to milestone L3:PHI.PCI.P15.03, which was originally intended to investigate the time discretization approaches with the newly developed fully coupled Tiamat capability, targeting single assembly problems.

  20. Degradable Polymersomes for Targeted Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Matthew Alan

    Chemotherapy today is often accompanied by major side effects due to delivery of toxic drugs to healthy tissue in addition to diseased cells. Targeted drug delivery offers the possibility of minimizing these side effects by specific delivery to cancer cells using targeted nanocarriers that enhance drug accumulation in tumors and facilitate target-specific cellular uptake. Polymersomes, vesicles self-assembled from polymeric amphiphiles, are an attractive targeted vehicle, as they are capable of encapsulating both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs, have lengthy circulation times in vivo, and can employ degradable functionality for triggered release of payload and clearance from the body. This thesis reports on efforts to enhance the capabilities of degradable polymersomes for targeted delivery. First, targeting functionality is incorporated into polymersomes of the block copolymer poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(gamma-methyl-epsilon-caprolactone) by incorporating the reactive vinyl sulfone group into the amphiphile's hydrophilic terminus, allowing site-selective reaction with cysteine-functionalized targeting peptides following self-assembly. The performance of targeted delivery using this polymersome is then evaluated in vitro. Binding and delivery to model cell lines for targeted and bystander cells is tracked using nontargeted polymersomes and compared to that for polymersomes using a high- or low-affinity ligand. Polymer degradation is also tracked both in simple media and during cellular delivery. Finally, a new monomer is developed incorporating acid-labile acetal functionality into a cyclic polyester. The polymerization of this monomer to two distinct polymers is also characterized and the degradation behavior of both polymers evaluated.

  1. Real-time and label free determination of ligand binding-kinetics to primary cancer tissue specimens; a novel tool for the assessment of biomarker targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Thomas Mandel; Ayres Pereira, Marina; Oo, Htoo Zarni

    2016-01-01

    crystal microbalance (QCM) enabled biosensor technology. We analysed the interaction between the rVAR2 protein and its placental-like chondroitin sulfate (pl-CS) receptor in primary human placenta tissue and in breast and prostate tumour specimens in situ. rVAR2 interacted with FFPE human placenta...... and cancer tissue with an affinity in the nanomolar range, and showed no detectable interaction with pl-CS negative normal tissue. We further validated the method by including analysis with the androgen receptor N-20 antibody (anti-AR). As the KD value produced by this method is independent of the number...... of epitopes available, this readout offers a quantitative and unbiased readout for in situ binding-avidity and amount of binding epitopes. In summary, this method adds a new and important dimension to classical IHC-based molecular pathology by adding information about the binding characteristics...

  2. Degradation of MSCRAMM target macromolecules in VLU slough by Lucilia sericata chymotrypsin 1 (ISP) persists in the presence of tissue gelatinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, David I; Brown, Alan P

    2015-08-01

    Venous leg ulcer slough is unpleasant to the patient and difficult to manage clinically. It harbours infection, also preventing wound management materials and dressings from supporting the underlying viable tissues. In other words, slough has significant nuisance value in the tissue viability clinic. In this study, we have sought to increase our knowledge of slough by building upon a previous but limited analysis of this necrotic tissue. In particular, slough has been probed using Western blotting for the presence of proteins with the capacity to engage microbial surface components recognising adhesive matrix macromolecules. Although the samples were difficult to resolve, we detected fibrinogen, fibronectin, IgG, collagen, human serum albumin and matrix metalloproteinase-9. Furthermore, the effect of a maggot-derived debridement enzyme, chymotrypsin 1 on macromolecules in slough was confirmed across seven patient samples. The effect of chymotrypsin 1 on slough confirms our thesis that this potential debridement enzyme could be effective in removing slough along with its associated bacteria, given its observed resistance to intrinsic gelatinase activity. In summary, we believe that the data provide scientists and clinicians with further insights into the potential molecular interactions between bacteria, wound tissue and Lucilia sericata in a clinically problematic yet scientifically interesting wound ecosystem. © 2013 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2013 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Quantitative profiling of bile acids in biofluids and tissues based on accurate mass high resolution LC-FT-MS: Compound class targeting in a metabolomics workflow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobeldijk, I.; Hekman, M.; Vries de- Weij, J.van der; Coulier, L.; Ramaker, R.; Kleemann, R.; Kooistra, T.; Rubingh, C.; Freidig, A.; Verheij, E.

    2008-01-01

    We report a sensitive, generic method for quantitative profiling of bile acids and other endogenous metabolites in small quantities of various biological fluids and tissues. The method is based on a straightforward sample preparation, separation by reversed-phase high performance

  4. Bos taurus genome assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Qin, Xiang; Song, Xing-Zhi Henry; Jiang, Huaiyang; Shen, Yufeng; Durbin, K James; Lien, Sigbjørn; Kent, Matthew Peter; Sodeland, Marte; Ren, Yanru; Zhang, Lan; Sodergren, Erica; Havlak, Paul; Worley, Kim C; Weinstock, George M; Gibbs, Richard A

    2009-04-24

    We present here the assembly of the bovine genome. The assembly method combines the BAC plus WGS local assembly used for the rat and sea urchin with the whole genome shotgun (WGS) only assembly used for many other animal genomes including the rhesus macaque. The assembly process consisted of multiple phases: First, BACs were assembled with BAC generated sequence, then subsequently in combination with the individual overlapping WGS reads. Different assembly parameters were tested to separately optimize the performance for each BAC assembly of the BAC and WGS reads. In parallel, a second assembly was produced using only the WGS sequences and a global whole genome assembly method. The two assemblies were combined to create a more complete genome representation that retained the high quality BAC-based local assembly information, but with gaps between BACs filled in with the WGS-only assembly. Finally, the entire assembly was placed on chromosomes using the available map information.Over 90% of the assembly is now placed on chromosomes. The estimated genome size is 2.87 Gb which represents a high degree of completeness, with 95% of the available EST sequences found in assembled contigs. The quality of the assembly was evaluated by comparison to 73 finished BACs, where the draft assembly covers between 92.5 and 100% (average 98.5%) of the finished BACs. The assembly contigs and scaffolds align linearly to the finished BACs, suggesting that misassemblies are rare. Genotyping and genetic mapping of 17,482 SNPs revealed that more than 99.2% were correctly positioned within the Btau_4.0 assembly, confirming the accuracy of the assembly. The biological analysis of this bovine genome assembly is being published, and the sequence data is available to support future bovine research.

  5. Bos taurus genome assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sodergren Erica

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present here the assembly of the bovine genome. The assembly method combines the BAC plus WGS local assembly used for the rat and sea urchin with the whole genome shotgun (WGS only assembly used for many other animal genomes including the rhesus macaque. Results The assembly process consisted of multiple phases: First, BACs were assembled with BAC generated sequence, then subsequently in combination with the individual overlapping WGS reads. Different assembly parameters were tested to separately optimize the performance for each BAC assembly of the BAC and WGS reads. In parallel, a second assembly was produced using only the WGS sequences and a global whole genome assembly method. The two assemblies were combined to create a more complete genome representation that retained the high quality BAC-based local assembly information, but with gaps between BACs filled in with the WGS-only assembly. Finally, the entire assembly was placed on chromosomes using the available map information. Over 90% of the assembly is now placed on chromosomes. The estimated genome size is 2.87 Gb which represents a high degree of completeness, with 95% of the available EST sequences found in assembled contigs. The quality of the assembly was evaluated by comparison to 73 finished BACs, where the draft assembly covers between 92.5 and 100% (average 98.5% of the finished BACs. The assembly contigs and scaffolds align linearly to the finished BACs, suggesting that misassemblies are rare. Genotyping and genetic mapping of 17,482 SNPs revealed that more than 99.2% were correctly positioned within the Btau_4.0 assembly, confirming the accuracy of the assembly. Conclusion The biological analysis of this bovine genome assembly is being published, and the sequence data is available to support future bovine research.

  6. Newnes electronics assembly handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Newnes Electronics Assembly Handbook: Techniques, Standards and Quality Assurance focuses on the aspects of electronic assembling. The handbook first looks at the printed circuit board (PCB). Base materials, basic mechanical properties, cleaning of assemblies, design, and PCB manufacturing processes are then explained. The text also discusses surface mounted assemblies and packaging of electromechanical assemblies, as well as the soldering process. Requirements for the soldering process; solderability and protective coatings; cleaning of PCBs; and mass solder/component reflow soldering are des

  7. Tissue sampling methods and standards for vertebrate genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Pamela BY

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The recent rise in speed and efficiency of new sequencing technologies have facilitated high-throughput sequencing, assembly and analyses of genomes, advancing ongoing efforts to analyze genetic sequences across major vertebrate groups. Standardized procedures in acquiring high quality DNA and RNA and establishing cell lines from target species will facilitate these initiatives. We provide a legal and methodological guide according to four standards of acquiring and storing tissue for the Genome 10K Project and similar initiatives as follows: four-star (banked tissue/cell cultures, RNA from multiple types of tissue for transcriptomes, and sufficient flash-frozen tissue for 1 mg of DNA, all from a single individual; three-star (RNA as above and frozen tissue for 1 mg of DNA; two-star (frozen tissue for at least 700 μg of DNA; and one-star (ethanol-preserved tissue for 700 μg of DNA or less of mixed quality. At a minimum, all tissues collected for the Genome 10K and other genomic projects should consider each species’ natural history and follow institutional and legal requirements. Associated documentation should detail as much information as possible about provenance to ensure representative sampling and subsequent sequencing. Hopefully, the procedures outlined here will not only encourage success in the Genome 10K Project but also inspire the adaptation of standards by other genomic projects, including those involving other biota.

  8. Tilt assembly for tracking solar collector assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almy, Charles; Peurach, John; Sandler, Reuben

    2012-01-24

    A tilt assembly is used with a solar collector assembly of the type comprising a frame, supporting a solar collector, for movement about a tilt axis by pivoting a drive element between first and second orientations. The tilt assembly comprises a drive element coupler connected to the drive element and a driver, the driver comprising a drive frame, a drive arm and a drive arm driver. The drive arm is mounted to the drive frame for pivotal movement about a drive arm axis. Movement on the drive arm mimics movement of the drive element. Drive element couplers can extend in opposite directions from the outer portion of the drive arm, whereby the assembly can be used between adjacent solar collector assemblies in a row of solar collector assemblies.

  9. A profile of NSAID-targeted arachidonic acid metabolisms in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs): implication of the negative effects of NSAIDs on heart tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chillar, Annirudha; So, Shui-Ping; Ruan, Cheng-Huai; Shelat, Harnath; Geng, Yong-Jian; Ruan, Ke-He

    2011-08-04

    An emerging technology using human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to regenerate infarcted heart tissue has been underdeveloped. However, because non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin, are taken during the infarction, it becomes critical to know whether the NSAIDs have negative impacts on heart tissue regeneration when using hESCs. Mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses were used to analyze the functional presence of the elaborate prostanoids' biosynthesis and signaling systems in hESCs. The detected endogenous arachidonic acid (AA) released in the hESC membranes reflects the activity of phospholipase which directly controls the biosyntheses of the prostanoids. The complete inhibition of the endogenous prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) biosynthesis by the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, NS398, confirmed that the major prostanoids synthesized in the hESCs are mediated by the COX-2 enzyme. We also found that PGE(2) and the prostacyclin (PGI(2)) metabolite, 6-keto-PGF(1α), are present in the undifferentiated hESCs. This indicated different cyclooxygenase (COX)-downstream synthases and metabolizing enzymes are involved in the AA products' signaling through the COX-1 and COX-2 pathways. The presence of many enzymes' and receptors' [(COX-1, COX-2, microsomal prostaglandin E synthase (mPGES), cytosolic prostaglandin E synthase (cPGES), prostaglandin I synthase (PGIS), the PGE(2) subtype receptors (EP(1), EP(2), and EP(4)) and the prostacyclin receptor (IP)] involvement in the prostanoid biosynthesis and activity was confirmed by western blot. The studies implied the negative effects of NSAIDs, such as aspirin and COX-2 inhibitors, which suppress prostanoid production during tissue regeneration for infarcted heart when using hESCs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. In vivo evaluation of wound bed reaction and graft performance after cold skin graft storage: new targets for skin tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Alicia; Kornmann, Kai; Kerl, Katrin; Calcagni, Maurizio; Schmidt, Christian A; Vollmar, Brigitte; Giovanoli, Pietro; Lindenblatt, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Surplus harvested skin grafts are routinely stored at 4 to 6°C in saline for several days in plastic surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of storage on human skin graft performance in an in vivo intravital microscopic setting after transplantation. Freshly harvested human full-thickness skin grafts and split-thickness skin grafts (STSGs) after storage of 0, 3, or 7 days in moist saline at 4 to 6°C were transplanted into the modified dorsal skinfold chamber, and intravital microscopy was performed to evaluate vessel morphology and angiogenic change of the wound bed. The chamber tissue was harvested 10 days after transplantation for evaluation of tissue integrity and inflammation (hematoxylin and eosin) as well as for immunohistochemistry (human CD31, murine CD31, Ki67, Tdt-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labelling). Intravital microscopy results showed no differences in the host angiogenic response between fresh and preserved grafts. However, STSGs and full-thickness skin grafts exhibited a trend toward different timing and strength in capillary widening and capillary bud formation. Preservation had no influence on graft quality before transplantation, but fresh STSGs showed better quality 10 days after transplantation than 7-day preserved grafts. Proliferation and apoptosis as well as host capillary in-growth and graft capillary degeneration were equal in all groups. These results indicate that cells may activate protective mechanisms under cold conditions, allowing them to maintain function and morphology. However, rewarming may disclose underlying tissue damage. These findings could be translated to a new approach for the design of full-thickness skin substitutes.

  11. A systems-wide comparison of red rice (Oryza longistaminata) tissues identifies rhizome specific genes and proteins that are targets for cultivated rice improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ruifeng; Salvato, Fernanda; Park, Jeong-Jin; Kim, Min-Jeong; Nelson, William; Balbuena, Tiago S; Willer, Mark; Crow, John A; May, Greg D; Soderlund, Carol A; Thelen, Jay J; Gang, David R

    2014-02-12

    The rhizome, the original stem of land plants, enables species to invade new territory and is a critical component of perenniality, especially in grasses. Red rice (Oryza longistaminata) is a perennial wild rice species with many valuable traits that could be used to improve cultivated rice cultivars, including rhizomatousness, disease resistance and drought tolerance. Despite these features, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that contribute to rhizome growth, development and function in this plant. We used an integrated approach to compare the transcriptome, proteome and metabolome of the rhizome to other tissues of red rice. 116 Gb of transcriptome sequence was obtained from various tissues and used to identify rhizome-specific and preferentially expressed genes, including transcription factors and hormone metabolism and stress response-related genes. Proteomics and metabolomics approaches identified 41 proteins and more than 100 primary metabolites and plant hormones with rhizome preferential accumulation. Of particular interest was the identification of a large number of gene transcripts from Magnaportha oryzae, the fungus that causes rice blast disease in cultivated rice, even though the red rice plants showed no sign of disease. A significant set of genes, proteins and metabolites appear to be specifically or preferentially expressed in the rhizome of O. longistaminata. The presence of M. oryzae gene transcripts at a high level in apparently healthy plants suggests that red rice is resistant to this pathogen, and may be able to provide genes to cultivated rice that will enable resistance to rice blast disease.

  12. Self-assembled nanomaterials for photoacoustic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Pei-Pei; Zhao, Xiao-Xiao; Wang, Hao

    2016-02-07

    In recent years, extensive endeavors have been paid to construct functional self-assembled nanomaterials for various applications such as catalysis, separation, energy and biomedicines. To date, different strategies have been developed for preparing nanomaterials with diversified structures and functionalities via fine tuning of self-assembled building blocks. In terms of biomedical applications, bioimaging technologies are urgently calling for high-efficient probes/contrast agents for high-performance bioimaging. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is an emerging whole-body imaging modality offering high spatial resolution, deep penetration and high contrast in vivo. The self-assembled nanomaterials show high stability in vivo, specific tolerance to sterilization and prolonged half-life stability and desirable targeting properties, which is a kind of promising PA contrast agents for biomedical imaging. Herein, we focus on summarizing recent advances in smart self-assembled nanomaterials with NIR absorption as PA contrast agents for biomedical imaging. According to the preparation strategy of the contrast agents, the self-assembled nanomaterials are categorized into two groups, i.e., the ex situ and in situ self-assembled nanomaterials. The driving forces, assembly modes and regulation of PA properties of self-assembled nanomaterials and their applications for long-term imaging, enzyme activity detection and aggregation-induced retention (AIR) effect for diagnosis and therapy are emphasized. Finally, we conclude with an outlook towards future developments of self-assembled nanomaterials for PA imaging.

  13. Identification of aryl hydrocarbon receptor binding targets in mouse hepatic tissue treated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Raymond; Celius, Trine [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Forgacs, Agnes L. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Dere, Edward [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); MacPherson, Laura [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Harper, Patricia [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Zacharewski, Timothy [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Matthews, Jason, E-mail: jason.matthews@utoronto.ca [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-11-15

    Genome-wide, promoter-focused ChIP-chip analysis of hepatic aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) binding sites was conducted in 8-week old female C57BL/6 treated with 30 {mu}g/kg/body weight 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) for 2 h and 24 h. These studies identified 1642 and 508 AHR-bound regions at 2 h and 24 h, respectively. A total of 430 AHR-bound regions were common between the two time points, corresponding to 403 unique genes. Comparison with previous AHR ChIP-chip studies in mouse hepatoma cells revealed that only 62 of the putative target genes overlapped with the 2 h AHR-bound regions in vivo. Transcription factor binding site analysis revealed an over-representation of aryl hydrocarbon response elements (AHREs) in AHR-bound regions with 53% (2 h) and 68% (24 h) of them containing at least one AHRE. In addition to AHREs, E2f-Myc activator motifs previously implicated in AHR function, as well as a number of other motifs, including Sp1, nuclear receptor subfamily 2 factor, and early growth response factor motifs were also identified. Expression microarray studies identified 133 unique genes differentially regulated after 4 h treatment with TCDD. Of which, 39 were identified as AHR-bound genes at 2 h. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis on the 39 AHR-bound TCDD responsive genes identified potential perturbation in biological processes such as lipid metabolism, drug metabolism, and endocrine system development as a result of TCDD-mediated AHR activation. Our findings identify direct AHR target genes in vivo, highlight in vitro and in vivo differences in AHR signaling and show that AHR recruitment does not necessarily result in changes in target gene expression. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ChIP-chip analysis of hepatic AHR binding after 2 h and 24 h of TCDD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We identified 1642 and 508 AHR-bound regions at 2 h and 24 h. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 430 regions were common to both time points and highly enriched with

  14. Autonomous electrochromic assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berland, Brian Spencer; Lanning, Bruce Roy; Stowell, Jr., Michael Wayne

    2015-03-10

    This disclosure describes system and methods for creating an autonomous electrochromic assembly, and systems and methods for use of the autonomous electrochromic assembly in combination with a window. Embodiments described herein include an electrochromic assembly that has an electrochromic device, an energy storage device, an energy collection device, and an electrochromic controller device. These devices may be combined into a unitary electrochromic insert assembly. The electrochromic assembly may have the capability of generating power sufficient to operate and control an electrochromic device. This control may occur through the application of a voltage to an electrochromic device to change its opacity state. The electrochromic assembly may be used in combination with a window.

  15. Firearm trigger assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, David L.; Watson, Richard W.

    2010-02-16

    A firearm trigger assembly for use with a firearm includes a trigger mounted to a forestock of the firearm so that the trigger is movable between a rest position and a triggering position by a forwardly placed support hand of a user. An elongated trigger member operatively associated with the trigger operates a sear assembly of the firearm when the trigger is moved to the triggering position. An action release assembly operatively associated with the firearm trigger assembly and a movable assembly of the firearm prevents the trigger from being moved to the triggering position when the movable assembly is not in the locked position.

  16. Stimuli-responsive copolymer solution and surface assemblies for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Elizabeth G.; Albert, Julie N. L.

    2013-01-01

    Stimuli-responsive polymeric materials is one of the fastest growing fields of the 21st century, with the annual number of papers published more than quadrupling in the last ten years. The responsiveness of polymer solution assemblies and surfaces to biological stimuli (e.g. pH, reduction-oxidation, enzymes, glucose) and externally applied triggers (e.g. temperature, light, solvent quality) shows particular promise for various biomedical applications including drug delivery, tissue engineering, medical diagnostics, and bioseparations. Furthermore, the integration of copolymer architectures into stimuli-responsive materials design enables exquisite control over the locations of responsive sites within self-assembled nanostructures. The combination of new synthesis techniques and well-defined copolymer self-assembly has facilitated substantial developments in stimuli-responsive materials in recent years. In this tutorial review, we discuss several methods that have been employed to synthesize self-assembling and stimuli-responsive copolymers for biomedical applications, and we identify common themes in the response mechanisms among the targeted stimuli. Additionally, we highlight parallels between the chemistries used for generating solution assemblies and those employed for creating copolymer surfaces. PMID:23403471

  17. Cinnamon intake reduces serum T3 level and modulates tissue-specific expression of thyroid hormone receptor and target genes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaique, Thaiane G; Lopes, Bruna P; Souza, Luana L; Paula, Gabriela S M; Pazos-Moura, Carmen C; Oliveira, Karen J

    2016-06-01

    Cinnamon has several effects on energy metabolism. However, no data exist on the impact of cinnamon intake on thyroid hormone serum concentrations and action, since thyroid hormones (THs) play a major role in metabolism. Male rats were treated with cinnamon water extract (400 mg kg(-1) body weight, 25 days). Cinnamon supplementation resulted in a lower serum total T3 level accompanied by normal serum T4 and TSH levels. The cinnamon-treated rats did not exhibit significant differences in TSHβ subunit, TRβ or deiodinase type 2 mRNA expression in the pituitary. In the liver, cinnamon did not change the TRβ protein expression or the deiodinase type 1 mRNA expression, suggesting that there were no changes in T3 signaling or metabolism in this organ. However, mitochondrial GPDH, a target gene for T3 in the liver, exhibited no changes in mRNA expression, although its activity level was reduced by cinnamon. In the cardiac ventricle, T3 action was markedly reduced by cinnamon, as demonstrated by the lower TRα mRNA and protein levels, reduced SERCA2a and RyR2 and increased phospholamban mRNA expression. This study has revealed that TH action is a novel target of cinnamon, demonstrating impairment of T3 signaling in the cardiac ventricles. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Targeted gene expression without a tissue-specific promoter: creating mosaic embryos using laser-induced single-cell heat shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, M. S.; Kose, H.; Chiba, A.; Keshishian, H.

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a method to target gene expression in the Drosophila embryo to a specific cell without having a promoter that directs expression in that particular cell. Using a digitally enhanced imaging system to identify single cells within the living embryo, we apply a heat shock to each cell individually by using a laser microbeam. A 1- to 2-min laser treatment is sufficient to induce a heat-shock response but is not lethal to the heat-shocked cells. Induction of heat shock was measured in a variety of cell types, including neurons and somatic muscles, by the expression of beta-galactosidase from an hsp26-lacZ reporter construct or by expression of a UAS target gene after induction of hsGAL4. We discuss the applicability of this technique to ectopic gene expression studies, lineage tracing, gene inactivation studies, and studies of cells in vitro. Laser heat shock is a versatile technique that can be adapted for use in a variety of research organisms and is useful for any studies in which it is desirable to express a given gene in only a distinct cell or clone of cells, either transiently or constitutively, at a time point of choice.

  19. Cell Source for Tissue and Organ Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Yuan, Yuyu; Yoo, James J.

    Organ printing, a novel approach in tissue engineering, applies computer-driven deposition of cells, growth factors, biomaterials layer-by-layer to create complex 3D tissue or organ constructs. This emerging technology shows great promise in regenerative medicine, because it may help to address current crisis of tissue and organ shortage for transplantation. Organ printing is developing fast, and there are exciting new possibilities in this area. Successful cell and organ printing requires many key elements. Among these, the choice of appropriate cells for printing is vital. This chapter surveys available cell sources for cell and organ printing application and discusses factors that affect cell choice. Special emphasis is put on several important factors, including the proposed printing system and bioprinters, the assembling method, and the target tissues or organs, which need to be considered to select proper cell sources and cell types. In this chapter, characterizations of the selected cells to justify and/or refine the cell selection will also be discussed. Finally, future prospects in this field will be envisioned.

  20. Development of suspect and non-target screening methods for detection of organic contaminants in highway runoff and fish tissue with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Bowen; Lofton, Jonathan M; Peter, Katherine T; Gipe, Alexander D; James, C Andrew; McIntyre, Jenifer K; Scholz, Nathaniel L; Baker, Joel E; Kolodziej, Edward P

    2017-09-20

    Untreated urban stormwater runoff contributes to poor water quality in receiving waters. The ability to identify toxicants and other bioactive molecules responsible for observed adverse effects in a complex mixture of contaminants is critical to effective protection of ecosystem and human health, yet this is a challenging analytical task. The objective of this study was to develop analytical methods using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) to detect organic contaminants in highway runoff and in runoff-exposed fish (adult coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch). Processing of paired water and tissue samples facilitated contaminant prioritization and aided investigation of chemical bioavailability and uptake processes. Simple, minimal processing effort solid phase extraction (SPE) and elution procedures were optimized for water samples, and selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE) procedures were optimized for fish tissues. Extraction methods were compared by detection of non-target features and target compounds (e.g., quantity and peak area), while minimizing matrix interferences. Suspect screening techniques utilized in-house and commercial databases to prioritize high-risk detections for subsequent MS/MS characterization and identification efforts. Presumptive annotations were also screened with an in-house linear regression (log Kowvs. retention time) to exclude isobaric compounds. Examples of confirmed identifications (via reference standard comparison) in highway runoff include ethoprophos, prometon, DEET, caffeine, cotinine, 4(or 5)-methyl-1H-methylbenzotriazole, and acetanilide. Acetanilide was also detected in runoff-exposed fish gill and liver samples. Further characterization of highway runoff and fish tissues (14 and 19 compounds, respectively with tentative identification by MS/MS data) suggests that many novel or poorly characterized organic contaminants exist in urban stormwater

  1. Comparative pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution analysis of systemically administered 17-β-estradiol and its metabolites in vivo delivered using a cationic nanoemulsion or a peptide-modified nanoemulsion system for targeting atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Dipti; Kethireddy, Sravani; Gattacceca, Florence; Amiji, Mansoor

    2014-04-28

    The primary objective of this study was to compare the biodistribution and pharmacokinetic profile of 17-β-estradiol (17-βE) on systemic delivery using either the cationic or the CREKA-peptide-modified (Cysteine-Arginine-Glutamic-acid-Lysine-Alanine) omega-3-fatty acid oil containing nanoemulsion system in vivo in the wild type C57BL/6 mice. Higher blood concentrations of 17-βE, higher accumulation in the tissues of interest - heart and aorta, and higher accumulation within the other tissues - liver and kidney was observed on delivering 17-βE using the CREKA-peptide-modified nanoemulsion system (AUClast in plasma - 263.89±21.81min*%/injected dose/ml) as compared to the cationic nanoemulsion (AUClast in plasma - 20.2±1.86min*%/injected dose/ml) and solution form (AUClast in plasma - 44.9±1.24min*%/injected dose/ml) respectively. Both, the cationic nanoemulsion and the CREKA-peptide-modified nanoemulsion showed a higher relative targeting efficiency of 4.57 and 4.86 respectively for 17-βE than the relative targeting efficiency of 1.78 observed with the solution form. In conclusion, since the maximum exposure (highest AUClast for plasma and tissues) for 17-βE was observed with the CREKA-peptide-modified nanoemulsion system, the study shows that CREKA-peptide-modified nanoemulsion system was the most suitable vehicle for systemic delivery of 17-βE in the wild type C57BL/6 mice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. In silico analysis and expression profiling of miRNAs targeting genes of steviol glycosides biosynthetic pathway and their relationship with steviol glycosides content in different tissues of Stevia rebaudiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifi, Monica; Nasrullah, Nazima; Ahmad, Malik Mobeen; Ali, Athar; Khan, Jawaid A; Abdin, M Z

    2015-09-01

    miRNAs are emerging as potential regulators of the gene expression. Their proven promising role in regulating biosynthetic pathways related gene networks may hold the key to understand the genetic regulation of these pathways which may assist in selection and manipulation to get high performing plant genotypes with better secondary metabolites yields and increased biomass. miRNAs associated with genes of steviol glycosides biosynthetic pathway, however, have not been identified so far. In this study miRNAs targeting genes of steviol glycosides biosynthetic pathway were identified for the first time whose precursors were potentially generated from ESTs and nucleotide sequences of Stevia rebaudiana. Thereafter, stem-loop coupled real time PCR based expressions of these miRNAs in different tissues of Stevia rebaudiana were investigated and their relationship pattern was analysed with the expression levels of their target mRNAs as well as steviol glycoside contents. All the miRNAs investigated showed differential expressions in all the three tissues studied, viz. leaves, flowers and stems. Out of the eleven miRNAs validated, the expression levels of nine miRNAs (miR319a, miR319b, miR319c, miR319d, miR319e, miR319f, miR319h, miRstv_7, miRstv_9) were found to be inversely related, while expression levels of the two, i.e. miR319g and miRstv_11 on the contrary, showed direct relation with the expression levels of their target mRNAs and steviol glycoside contents in the leaves, flowers and stems. This study provides a platform for better understanding of the steviol glycosides biosynthetic pathway and these miRNAs can further be employed to manipulate the biosynthesis of these metabolites to enhance their contents and yield in S. rebaudiana. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 is preferentially expressed in Th1 and Th17 T-helper cell subsets and is a direct STAT target gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewole Adamson

    Full Text Available CD4(+ T helper (Th cells differentiate into distinct effector subsets that are critical for host defense, but are also implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders. Thelper17 (Th17 cells in particular are emerging as important drivers of multiple diseases including psoriasis, spondyloarthropathy and multiple sclerosis. To gain insight into the function of Th17 cells, we performed transcriptional profiling in hopes of elucidating products not previously recognized as being functionally relevant in these T cells. Herein, we demonstrate that tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1, a secreted protein with pleiotropic effects on cellular growth, survival and integrity of the extracellular matrix, is preferentially produced by Th17 and Th1 cells. We further show that Th1 and Th17 cell TIMP1 regulation follows separate mechanisms with a requirement for STAT4 in the former and STAT3 in the latter. Finally, we demonstrate that when restricted to T cells, expression of TIMP1 promotes neuropathology in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.

  4. Swertiamarin: An Active Lead from Enicostemma littorale Regulates Hepatic and Adipose Tissue Gene Expression by Targeting PPAR-γ and Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Experimental NIDDM Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar P. Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Enicostemma littorale (EL Blume is one of the herbs widely used for treating and alleviating the effects of both type I and type II diabetes. However, lack of understanding of mechanism precludes the use of the herb and its molecules. In this study, we attempt to unravel the molecular mechanism of action of swertiamarin, a compound isolated form EL, by comparing its molecular effects with those of aqueous EL extract in alleviating the insulin resistance in type II diabetes. We further investigated hypolipidemic and insulin sensitizing effect of swertiamarin in experimentally induced noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM in rats. Swertiamarin (50 mg/kg and aqueous extract (15 grams dried plant equivalent extract/kg were administered to rats orally for 40 days and tight regulation of serum glucose, insulin, and lipid profile was found in both groups. Their mode of action was by restoring G6Pase and HMG-CoA reductase activities to normal levels and restoring normal transcriptional levels of PEPCK, GK, Glut 2, PPAR-γ, leptin, adiponectin, LPL, SREBP-1c, and Glut 4 genes. This suggests that both treatments increased insulin sensitivity and regulated carbohydrate and fat metabolism. This is the first report on the role of SM in regulating the PPARγ-mediated regulation of candidate genes involved in metabolism in peripheral tissues in vivo.

  5. The influence of different diets on metabolism and atherosclerosis processes-A porcine model: Blood serum, urine and tissues 1H NMR metabolomics targeted analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Zabek

    Full Text Available The global epidemic of cardiovascular diseases leads to increased morbidity and mortality caused mainly by myocardial infarction and stroke. Atherosclerosis is the major pathological process behind this epidemic. We designed a novel model of atherosclerosis in swine. Briefly, the first group (11 pigs received normal pig feed (balanced diet group-BDG for 12 months, the second group (9 pigs was fed a Western high-calorie diet (unbalanced diet group-UDG for 12 months, the third group (8 pigs received a Western type high-calorie diet for 9 months later replaced by a normal diet for 3 months (regression group-RG. Clinical measurements included zoometric data, arterial blood pressure, heart rate and ultrasonographic evaluation of femoral arteries. Then, the animals were sacrificed and the blood serum, urine and skeletal muscle tissue were collected and 1H NMR based metabolomics studies with the application of fingerprinting PLS-DA and univariate analysis were done. Our results have shown that the molecular disturbances might overlap with other diseases such as onset of diabetes, sleep apnea and other obesity accompanied diseases. Moreover, we revealed that once initiated, molecular changes did not return to homeostatic equilibrium, at least for the duration of this experiment.

  6. Micro-Assembly of a Vascular-Like Micro-Channel with Railed Micro-Robot Team-Coordinated Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaping Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The 3D assembly of cellular structures is important for the fabrication of biological substitutes in tissue engineering. In particular, a micro-channel with a 200 μm diameter is of interest because of its promising ability to construct the vascular network for oxygen and nutrition delivery in thick biological substitutes in the future. In this paper, a novel rail-guided micro-robot-team system is proposed for the micro-assembly of a cellular structure. The cellular two-dimensional (2D component was fabricated by ultraviolet (UV illumination of a cross-linkable hydrogel. The modular rail-guided micro-robotic system was set up with multi-micromanipulators as the modules and controlled with hybrid motors to achieve an operation resolution of 30 nm. To realize the bottom-up fabrication of the cellular micro-channel, different micro-assembly strategies with multi-manipulators were developed. The micro-assembly success rate and the efficiency of the different strategies were evaluated based on the assembly of micro-donuts. Through the novel, designed, concentric movement of the multi-manipulators along the rail, arbitrary change of the approaching angle and the coordination posture was achieved to improve the micro-assembly's flexibility. The operation range for every micromanipulator in different coordinated manipulation modes was analysed to avoid the breakdown of the assembled 3D structure. The image processing for the target location and end-effector identification was conducted to improve assembly efficiency in the micro-robot-team system. Finally, the assembly of the cellular vascular-like micro-channel was achieved with coordinated manipulation in the rail-guided micro-robot-team system.

  7. Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David H [Redondo Beach, CA

    2012-04-10

    Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies are provided. In an embodiment, by way of example only, a sensor mount assembly includes a busbar, a main body, a backing surface, and a first finger. The busbar has a first end and a second end. The main body is overmolded onto the busbar. The backing surface extends radially outwardly relative to the main body. The first finger extends axially from the backing surface, and the first finger has a first end, a second end, and a tooth. The first end of the first finger is disposed on the backing surface, and the tooth is formed on the second end of the first finger.

  8. Holothurian glycosaminoglycan inhibits metastasis and thrombosis via targeting of nuclear factor-κB/tissue factor/Factor Xa pathway in melanoma B16F10 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Daohai; Wang, Sheng; Tao, Li; Wang, Aiyun; Chen, Wenxing; Zhu, Zhijie; Zheng, Shizhong; Gao, Xiang; Lu, Yin

    2013-01-01

    Holothurian glycosaminoglycan (hGAG) is a high-molecular-weight form of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate and has an antithrombotic effect. Our previous studies demonstrated that hGAG efficiently inhibited tumor cell metastasis. The interplays between thrombosis and tumor progression may have a major impact on hematogenous metastasis. In this study, we demonstrated that the mouse melanoma B16F10 cells treated with hGAG displayed a significant reduction of metastasis and coagulation capacity in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistic studies revealed that hGAG treatment in B16F10 cells remarkably inhibited the formation of fibrin through attenuating the generation of activated Factor Xa (FXa), without affecting the expression of urokinase (uPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) that involved in fibrinolysis. Moreover, hGAG treatment downregulated the transcription and protein expression of tissue factor (TF). Promoter deletions, site mutations and functional studies identified that the nuclear transcription factor NF-κB binding region is responsible for hGAG-induced inhibition of TF expression. While the hGAG treatment of B16F10 cells was unable to inhibit NF-κB expression and phosphorylation, hGAG significantly prevented nuclear translocation of NF-κB from the cytosol, a potential mechanism underlying the transcriptional suppression of TF. Moreover, hGAG markedly suppressed the activation of p38MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling pathways, the central regulators for the expression of metastasis-related matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Consequently, hGAG exerts a dual function in the inhibition of metastasis and coagulation activity in mouse melanoma B16F10 cells. Our studies suggest hGAG to be a promising therapeutic agent for metastatic cancer treatment.

  9. Ethanol modulation of mammalian BK channels in excitable tissues: molecular targets and their possible contribution to alcohol-induced altered behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex M. Dopico

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In most tissues, the function of calcium- and voltage-gated potassium (BK channels is modified in response to ethanol concentrations reached in human blood during alcohol intoxication. In general, modification of BK current from ethanol-naïve preparations in response to brief ethanol exposure results from changes in channel open probability without modification of unitary conductance or change in BK protein levels in the membrane. Protracted and/or repeated ethanol exposure, however, may evoke changes in BK expression. The final ethanol effect on BK open probability leading to either BK current potentiation or BK current reduction is determined by an orchestration of molecular factors, including levels of activating ligand (cytosolic calcium, BK subunit composition and posttranslational modifications, and the channel’s lipid microenvironment. These factors seem to allosterically regulate a direct interaction between ethanol and a recognition pocket of discrete dimensions recently mapped to the channel-forming (slo1 subunit. Type of ethanol exposure also plays a role in the final BK response to the drug: in several central nervous system regions (e.g., striatum, primary sensory neurons, and supraoptic nucleus, acute exposure to ethanol reduces neuronal excitability by enhancing BK activity. In contrast, protracted or repetitive ethanol administration may alter BK subunit composition and membrane expression, rendering the BK complex insensitive to further ethanol exposure. In neurohypophysial axon terminals, ethanol potentiation of BK channel activity leads to a reduction in neuropeptide release. In vascular smooth muscle, however, ethanol inhibition of BK current leads to cell contraction and vascular constriction.

  10. Human cancer tissues exhibit reduced A-to-I editing of miRNAs coupled with elevated editing of their targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Yishay; Buchumenski, Ilana; Levanon, Erez Y; Eisenberg, Eli

    2017-11-20

    A-to-I RNA editing is an important post-transcriptional modification, known to be altered in tumors. It targets dozens of sites within miRNAs, some of which impact miRNA biogenesis and function, as well as many miRNA recognition sites. However, the full extent of the effect of editing on regulation by miRNAs and its behavior in human cancers is still unknown. Here we systematically characterized miRNA editing in 10 593 human samples across 32 cancer types and normal controls. We find that the majority of previously reported sites show little to no evidence for editing in this dataset, compile a list of 58 reliable miRNA editing sites, and study them across normal and cancer samples. Edited miRNA versions tend to suppress expression of known oncogenes, and, consistently, we observe a clear global tendency for hypo-editing in tumors, in strike contrast to the behavior for mRNA editing, allowing an accurate classification of normal/tumor samples based on their miRNA editing profile. In many cancers this profile correlates with patients' survival. Finally, thousands of miRNA binding sites are differentially edited in cancer. Our study thus establishes the important effect of RNA editing on miRNA-regulation in the tumor cell, with prospects for diagnostic and prognostic applications. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  11. Preliminary High-Throughput Metagenome Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusheyko, Serge; Furman, Craig; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Shapiro, Harris; Tu, Hank

    2007-03-26

    Metagenome data sets present a qualitatively different assembly problem than traditional single-organism whole-genome shotgun (WGS) assembly. The unique aspects of such projects include the presence of a potentially large number of distinct organisms and their representation in the data set at widely different fractions. In addition, multiple closely related strains could be present, which would be difficult to assemble separately. Failure to take these issues into account can result in poor assemblies that either jumble together different strains or which fail to yield useful results. The DOE Joint Genome Institute has sequenced a number of metagenomic projects and plans to considerably increase this number in the coming year. As a result, the JGI has a need for high-throughput tools and techniques for handling metagenome projects. We present the techniques developed to handle metagenome assemblies in a high-throughput environment. This includes a streamlined assembly wrapper, based on the JGI?s in-house WGS assembler, Jazz. It also includes the selection of sensible defaults targeted for metagenome data sets, as well as quality control automation for cleaning up the raw results. While analysis is ongoing, we will discuss preliminary assessments of the quality of the assembly results (http://fames.jgi-psf.org).

  12. Soldering in electronics assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Judd, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Soldering in Electronics Assembly discusses several concerns in soldering of electronic assemblies. The book is comprised of nine chapters that tackle different areas in electronic assembly soldering. Chapter 1 discusses the soldering process itself, while Chapter 2 covers the electronic assemblies. Chapter 3 talks about solders and Chapter 4 deals with flux. The text also tackles the CS and SC soldering process. The cleaning of soldered assemblies, solder quality, and standards and specifications are also discussed. The book will be of great use to professionals who deal with electronic assem

  13. miR-199a-5p Is upregulated during fibrogenic response to tissue injury and mediates TGFbeta-induced lung fibroblast activation by targeting caveolin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lino Cardenas, Christian Lacks; Henaoui, Imène Sarah; Courcot, Elisabeth; Roderburg, Christoph; Cauffiez, Christelle; Aubert, Sébastien; Copin, Marie-Christine; Wallaert, Benoit; Glowacki, François; Dewaeles, Edmone; Milosevic, Jadranka; Maurizio, Julien; Tedrow, John; Marcet, Brice; Lo-Guidice, Jean-Marc; Kaminski, Naftali; Barbry, Pascal; Luedde, Tom; Perrais, Michael; Mari, Bernard; Pottier, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    R-199a-5p represents a general mechanism contributing to the fibrotic process. MiR-199a-5p thus behaves as a major regulator of tissue fibrosis with therapeutic potency to treat fibroproliferative diseases.

  14. miR-199a-5p Is upregulated during fibrogenic response to tissue injury and mediates TGFbeta-induced lung fibroblast activation by targeting caveolin-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lacks Lino Cardenas

    dysregulation of miR-199a-5p represents a general mechanism contributing to the fibrotic process. MiR-199a-5p thus behaves as a major regulator of tissue fibrosis with therapeutic potency to treat fibroproliferative diseases.

  15. miR-199a-5p Is Upregulated during Fibrogenic Response to Tissue Injury and Mediates TGFbeta-Induced Lung Fibroblast Activation by Targeting Caveolin-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courcot, Elisabeth; Roderburg, Christoph; Cauffiez, Christelle; Aubert, Sébastien; Copin, Marie-Christine; Wallaert, Benoit; Glowacki, François; Dewaeles, Edmone; Milosevic, Jadranka; Maurizio, Julien; Tedrow, John; Marcet, Brice; Lo-Guidice, Jean-Marc; Kaminski, Naftali; Barbry, Pascal; Luedde, Tom; Perrais, Michael

    2013-01-01

    R-199a-5p represents a general mechanism contributing to the fibrotic process. MiR-199a-5p thus behaves as a major regulator of tissue fibrosis with therapeutic potency to treat fibroproliferative diseases. PMID:23459460

  16. Mauve assembly metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Aaron E; Tritt, Andrew; Eisen, Jonathan A; Facciotti, Marc T

    2011-10-01

    High-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have spurred the development of numerous novel methods for genome assembly. With few exceptions, these algorithms are heuristic and require one or more parameters to be manually set by the user. One approach to parameter tuning involves assembling data from an organism with an available high-quality reference genome, and measuring assembly accuracy using some metrics. We developed a system to measure assembly quality under several scoring metrics, and to compare assembly quality across a variety of assemblers, sequence data types, and parameter choices. When used in conjunction with training data such as a high-quality reference genome and sequence reads from the same organism, our program can be used to manually identify an optimal sequencing and assembly strategy for de novo sequencing of related organisms. GPL source code and a usage tutorial is at http://ngopt.googlecode.com aarondarling@ucdavis.edu Supplementary data is available at Bioinformatics online.

  17. Innovation in Layer-by-Layer Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Joseph J; Cui, Jiwei; Björnmalm, Mattias; Braunger, Julia A; Ejima, Hirotaka; Caruso, Frank

    2016-12-14

    Methods for depositing thin films are important in generating functional materials for diverse applications in a wide variety of fields. Over the last half-century, the layer-by-layer assembly of nanoscale films has received intense and growing interest. This has been fueled by innovation in the available materials and assembly technologies, as well as the film-characterization techniques. In this Review, we explore, discuss, and detail innovation in layer-by-layer assembly in terms of past and present developments, and we highlight how these might guide future advances. A particular focus is on conventional and early developments that have only recently regained interest in the layer-by-layer assembly field. We then review unconventional assemblies and approaches that have been gaining popularity, which include inorganic/organic hybrid materials, cells and tissues, and the use of stereocomplexation, patterning, and dip-pen lithography, to name a few. A relatively recent development is the use of layer-by-layer assembly materials and techniques to assemble films in a single continuous step. We name this "quasi"-layer-by-layer assembly and discuss the impacts and innovations surrounding this approach. Finally, the application of characterization methods to monitor and evaluate layer-by-layer assembly is discussed, as innovation in this area is often overlooked but is essential for development of the field. While we intend for this Review to be easily accessible and act as a guide to researchers new to layer-by-layer assembly, we also believe it will provide insight to current researchers in the field and help guide future developments and innovation.

  18. HIV-1 assembly in macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benaroch Philippe

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The molecular mechanisms involved in the assembly of newly synthesized Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV particles are poorly understood. Most of the work on HIV-1 assembly has been performed in T cells in which viral particle budding and assembly take place at the plasma membrane. In contrast, few studies have been performed on macrophages, the other major target of HIV-1. Infected macrophages represent a viral reservoir and probably play a key role in HIV-1 physiopathology. Indeed macrophages retain infectious particles for long periods of time, keeping them protected from anti-viral immune response or drug treatments. Here, we present an overview of what is known about HIV-1 assembly in macrophages as compared to T lymphocytes or cell lines. Early electron microscopy studies suggested that viral assembly takes place at the limiting membrane of an intracellular compartment in macrophages and not at the plasma membrane as in T cells. This was first considered as a late endosomal compartment in which viral budding seems to be similar to the process of vesicle release into multi-vesicular bodies. This view was notably supported by a large body of evidence involving the ESCRT (Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport machinery in HIV-1 budding, the observation of viral budding profiles in such compartments by immuno-electron microscopy, and the presence of late endosomal markers associated with macrophage-derived virions. However, this model needs to be revisited as recent data indicate that the viral compartment has a neutral pH and can be connected to the plasma membrane via very thin micro-channels. To date, the exact nature and biogenesis of the HIV assembly compartment in macrophages remains elusive. Many cellular proteins potentially involved in the late phases of HIV-1 cycle have been identified; and, recently, the list has grown rapidly with the publication of four independent genome-wide screens. However, their respective

  19. AA antiproton production target

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The first version of the antiproton production target was a tungsten rod, 11 cm long and 3 mm in diameter. The rod was embedded in graphite, pressure-seated into an outer casing of stainless steel. At the entrance to the target assembly was a scintillator screen, imprinted with circles every 5 mm in radius, which allowed to precisely aim the 26 GeV high-intensity proton beam from the PS onto the centre of the target rod. The scintillator screen was a 1 mm thick plate of Cr-doped alumina. See also 7903034 and 7905091.

  20. Synovial tissue research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orr, Carl; Sousa, Elsa; Boyle, David L

    2017-01-01

    The synovium is the major target tissue of inflammatory arthritides such as rheumatoid arthritis. The study of synovial tissue has advanced considerably throughout the past few decades from arthroplasty and blind needle biopsy to the use of arthroscopic and ultrasonographic technologies that enable...... easier visualization and improve the reliability of synovial biopsies. Rapid progress has been made in using synovial tissue to study disease pathogenesis, to stratify patients, to discover biomarkers and novel targets, and to validate therapies, and this progress has been facilitated by increasingly...... diverse and sophisticated analytical and technological approaches. In this Review, we describe these approaches, and summarize how their use in synovial tissue research has improved our understanding of rheumatoid arthritis and identified candidate biomarkers that could be used in disease diagnosis...

  1. Peptide Self-Assembled Nanostructures for Drug Delivery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taotao Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Peptide self-assembled nanostructures are very popular in many biomedical applications. Drug delivery is one of the most promising applications among them. The tremendous advantages for peptide self-assembled nanostructures include good biocompatibility, low cost, tunable bioactivity, high drug loading capacities, chemical diversity, specific targeting, and stimuli responsive drug delivery at disease sites. Peptide self-assembled nanostructures such as nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanofibers, and hydrogels have been investigated by many researchers for drug delivery applications. In this review, the underlying mechanisms for the self-assembled nanostructures based on peptides with different types and structures are introduced and discussed. Peptide self-assembled nanostructures associated promising drug delivery applications such as anticancer drug and gene drug delivery are highlighted. Furthermore, peptide self-assembled nanostructures for targeted and stimuli responsive drug delivery applications are also reviewed and discussed.

  2. Layer-by-layer cell membrane assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matosevic, Sandro; Paegel, Brian M.

    2013-11-01

    Eukaryotic subcellular membrane systems, such as the nuclear envelope or endoplasmic reticulum, present a rich array of architecturally and compositionally complex supramolecular targets that are as yet inaccessible. Here we describe layer-by-layer phospholipid membrane assembly on microfluidic droplets, a route to structures with defined compositional asymmetry and lamellarity. Starting with phospholipid-stabilized water-in-oil droplets trapped in a static droplet array, lipid monolayer deposition proceeds as oil/water-phase boundaries pass over the droplets. Unilamellar vesicles assembled layer-by-layer support functional insertion both of purified and of in situ expressed membrane proteins. Synthesis and chemical probing of asymmetric unilamellar and double-bilayer vesicles demonstrate the programmability of both membrane lamellarity and lipid-leaflet composition during assembly. The immobilized vesicle arrays are a pragmatic experimental platform for biophysical studies of membranes and their associated proteins, particularly complexes that assemble and function in multilamellar contexts in vivo.

  3. ex vivo DNA assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam B Fisher

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Even with decreasing DNA synthesis costs there remains a need for inexpensive, rapid and reliable methods for assembling synthetic DNA into larger constructs or combinatorial libraries. Advances in cloning techniques have resulted in powerful in vitro and in vivo assembly of DNA. However, monetary and time costs have limited these approaches. Here, we report an ex vivo DNA assembly method that uses cellular lysates derived from a commonly used laboratory strain of Escherichia coli for joining double-stranded DNA with short end homologies embedded within inexpensive primers. This method concurrently shortens the time and decreases costs associated with current DNA assembly methods.

  4. Composite turbine bucket assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotta, Gary Charles; Garcia-Crespo, Andres

    2014-05-20

    A composite turbine blade assembly includes a ceramic blade including an airfoil portion, a shank portion and an attachment portion; and a transition assembly adapted to attach the ceramic blade to a turbine disk or rotor, the transition assembly including first and second transition components clamped together, trapping said ceramic airfoil therebetween. Interior surfaces of the first and second transition portions are formed to mate with the shank portion and the attachment portion of the ceramic blade, and exterior surfaces of said first and second transition components are formed to include an attachment feature enabling the transition assembly to be attached to the turbine rotor or disk.

  5. Vanillin-molecularly targeted extraction of stir bar based on magnetic field induced self-assembly of multifunctional Fe3O4@Polyaniline nanoparticles for detection of vanilla-flavor enhancers in infant milk powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinhua; Yang, Zaiyue; Chen, Ning; Zhu, Wanying; Hong, Junli; Huang, Changgao; Zhou, Xuemin

    2015-03-15

    A molecularly imprinted stir bar was constructed based on Fe3O4@Polyaniline nanoparticles with magnetic field-induced self-assembly process. The monomer, methacrylic acid, was pre-assembled into the pre-polymers with vanillin as template by the formation of hydrogen bonds. After that, the magnetic complexes were generated by the hydrogen bonding, the hydrophobic and π-π interaction between the pre-polymers and Fe3O4@Polyaniline. The complexes were adsorbed on the surface of magnetic stir bar under the magnetic induction, and the coating of vanillin-molecularly imprinted polymers was generated by the one-step copolymerization basing on the cross linking of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate. The molecular imprinting stir bar showed superior selectivity and fast binding kinetics for vanillin, and was used for the enrichment of vanilla-flavor enhancers (vanillin, ethyl maltol and methyl vanillin) in infant milk powders. The results measured by HPLC-UV exhibited good linear ranges of 0.01-100, 0.02-100 and 0.03-100μgmL(-1) with the limit of detection of 2.5-10.0ngmL(-1), and the recoveries were 94.7-98.9%, 82.1-96.7% and 84.5-93.2% with RSD<7.2% for the three enhancers, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nanostructured materials for applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Michael; Langer, Robert; Jia, Xinqiao

    2007-01-01

    Research in the areas of drug delivery and tissue engineering has witnessed tremendous progress in recent years due to their unlimited potential to improve human health. Meanwhile, the development of nanotechnology provides opportunities to characterize, manipulate and organize matter systematically at the nanometer scale. Biomaterials with nano-scale organizations have been used as controlled release reservoirs for drug delivery and artificial matrices for tissue engineering. Drug-delivery systems can be synthesized with controlled composition, shape, size and morphology. Their surface properties can be manipulated to increase solubility, immunocompatibility and cellular uptake. The limitations of current drug delivery systems include suboptimal bioavailability, limited effective targeting and potential cytotoxicity. Promising and versatile nano-scale drug-delivery systems include nanoparticles, nanocapsules, nanotubes, nanogels and dendrimers. They can be used to deliver both small-molecule drugs and various classes of biomacromolecules, such as peptides, proteins, plasmid DNA and synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides. Whereas traditional tissue-engineering scaffolds were based on hydrolytically degradable macroporous materials, current approaches emphasize the control over cell behaviors and tissue formation by nano-scale topography that closely mimics the natural extracellular matrix (ECM). The understanding that the natural ECM is a multifunctional nanocomposite motivated researchers to develop nanofibrous scaffolds through electrospinning or self-assembly. Nanocomposites containing nanocrystals have been shown to elicit active bone growth. Drug delivery and tissue engineering are closely related fields. In fact, tissue engineering can be viewed as a special case of drug delivery where the goal is to accomplish controlled delivery of mammalian cells. Controlled release of therapeutic factors in turn will enhance the efficacy of tissue engineering. From a materials

  7. Multiplex pairwise assembly of array-derived DNA oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Jason C; Lajoie, Marc J; Schwartz, Jerrod J; Strauch, Eva-Maria; Nelson, Jorgen; Baker, David; Shendure, Jay

    2016-03-18

    While the cost of DNA sequencing has dropped by five orders of magnitude in the past decade, DNA synthesis remains expensive for many applications. Although DNA microarrays have decreased the cost of oligonucleotide synthesis, the use of array-synthesized oligos in practice is limited by short synthesis lengths, high synthesis error rates, low yield and the challenges of assembling long constructs from complex pools. Toward addressing these issues, we developed a protocol for multiplex pairwise assembly of oligos from array-synthesized oligonucleotide pools. To evaluate the method, we attempted to assemble up to 2271 targets ranging in length from 192-252 bases using pairs of array-synthesized oligos. Within sets of complexity ranging from 131-250 targets, we observed error-free assemblies for 90.5% of all targets. When all 2271 targets were assembled in one reaction, we observed error-free constructs for 70.6%. While the assembly method intrinsically increased accuracy to a small degree, we further increased accuracy by using a high throughput 'Dial-Out PCR' protocol, which combines Illumina sequencing with an in-house set of unique PCR tags to selectively amplify perfect assemblies from complex synthetic pools. This approach has broad applicability to DNA assembly and high-throughput functional screens. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  8. Tetrahymena dynamin-related protein 6 self-assembles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Usha P Kar

    2017-12-30

    Dec 30, 2017 ... Self-assembly on target membranes is one of the important properties of all dynamin family proteins. Drp6, a dynamin- related protein in Tetrahymena, controls nuclear remodelling and undergoes cycles of assembly/disassembly on the nuclear envelope. To elucidate the mechanism of Drp6 function, we ...

  9. Assembling tests for the measurement of multiple traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    1996-01-01

    For the measurement of multiple traits, this paper pro poses assembling tests based on the targets for the (as ymptotic) variance functions of the estimators of each of the traits. A linear programming model is presented that can be used to computerize the assembly process. Several cases of test

  10. Extending reference assembly models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Church, Deanna M.; Schneider, Valerie A.; Steinberg, Karyn Meltz

    2015-01-01

    The human genome reference assembly is crucial for aligning and analyzing sequence data, and for genome annotation, among other roles. However, the models and analysis assumptions that underlie the current assembly need revising to fully represent human sequence diversity. Improved analysis tools...... and updated data reporting formats are also required....

  11. Self-assembled nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jin Z; Liu, Jun; Chen, Shaowei; Liu, Gang-yu

    2003-01-01

    Nanostructures refer to materials that have relevant dimensions on the nanometer length scales and reside in the mesoscopic regime between isolated atoms and molecules in bulk matter. These materials have unique physical properties that are distinctly different from bulk materials. Self-Assembled Nanostructures provides systematic coverage of basic nanomaterials science including materials assembly and synthesis, characterization, and application. Suitable for both beginners and experts, it balances the chemistry aspects of nanomaterials with physical principles. It also highlights nanomaterial-based architectures including assembled or self-assembled systems. Filled with in-depth discussion of important applications of nano-architectures as well as potential applications ranging from physical to chemical and biological systems, Self-Assembled Nanostructures is the essential reference or text for scientists involved with nanostructures.

  12. Mechanisms of Virus Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, Jason D.; Hagan, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Viruses are nanoscale entities containing a nucleic acid genome encased in a protein shell called a capsid, and in some cases surrounded by a lipid bilayer membrane. This review summarizes the physics that govern the processes by which capsids assembles within their host cells and in vitro. We describe the thermodynamics and kinetics for assembly of protein subunits into icosahedral capsid shells, and how these are modified in cases where the capsid assembles around a nucleic acid or on a lipid bilayer. We present experimental and theoretical techniques that have been used to characterize capsid assembly, and we highlight aspects of virus assembly which are likely to receive significant attention in the near future. PMID:25532951

  13. Modeling Viral Capsid Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    I present a review of the theoretical and computational methodologies that have been used to model the assembly of viral capsids. I discuss the capabilities and limitations of approaches ranging from equilibrium continuum theories to molecular dynamics simulations, and I give an overview of some of the important conclusions about virus assembly that have resulted from these modeling efforts. Topics include the assembly of empty viral shells, assembly around single-stranded nucleic acids to form viral particles, and assembly around synthetic polymers or charged nanoparticles for nanotechnology or biomedical applications. I present some examples in which modeling efforts have promoted experimental breakthroughs, as well as directions in which the connection between modeling and experiment can be strengthened. PMID:25663722

  14. Tissue tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    Tissue tests are widely used in horticulture practice and have in comparison with soil or substrate testing advantages as well disadvantages in comparison with soil testing. One of the main advantages of tissue tests is the certainty that analysed nutrients in plant tissues are really present in the

  15. Assembly: a resource for assembled genomes at NCBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitts, Paul A.; Church, Deanna M.; Thibaud-Nissen, Françoise; Choi, Jinna; Hem, Vichet; Sapojnikov, Victor; Smith, Robert G.; Tatusova, Tatiana; Xiang, Charlie; Zherikov, Andrey; DiCuccio, Michael; Murphy, Terence D.; Pruitt, Kim D.; Kimchi, Avi

    2016-01-01

    The NCBI Assembly database (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/assembly/) provides stable accessioning and data tracking for genome assembly data. The model underlying the database can accommodate a range of assembly structures, including sets of unordered contig or scaffold sequences, bacterial genomes consisting of a single complete chromosome, or complex structures such as a human genome with modeled allelic variation. The database provides an assembly accession and version to unambiguously identify the set of sequences that make up a particular version of an assembly, and tracks changes to updated genome assemblies. The Assembly database reports metadata such as assembly names, simple statistical reports of the assembly (number of contigs and scaffolds, contiguity metrics such as contig N50, total sequence length and total gap length) as well as the assembly update history. The Assembly database also tracks the relationship between an assembly submitted to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Consortium (INSDC) and the assembly represented in the NCBI RefSeq project. Users can find assemblies of interest by querying the Assembly Resource directly or by browsing available assemblies for a particular organism. Links in the Assembly Resource allow users to easily download sequence and annotations for current versions of genome assemblies from the NCBI genomes FTP site. PMID:26578580

  16. Construction and analysis of tissue microarrays in the era of digital pathology: a pilot study targeting CDX1 and CDX2 in a colon cancer cohort of 612 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Sarah; Zlobec, Inti; Lugli, Alessandro; Hohenberger, Werner; Croner, Roland; Merkel, Susanne; Hartmann, Arndt; Geppert, Carol I; Rau, Tilman T

    2017-01-01

    CDX1 and CDX2 are possibly predictive biomarkers in colorectal cancer. We combined digitally-guided (next generation) TMA construction (ngTMA) and the utility of digital image analysis (DIA) to assess accuracy, tumour heterogeneity and the selective impact of different combined intensity-percentage levels on prognosis.CDX1 and CDX2 immunohistochemistry was performed on ngTMAs covering normal tissue, tumour centre and invasive front. The percentages of all epithelial cells per staining intensity per core were analysed digitally. Beyond classical prognosis analysis following REMARK guidelines, we investigated pre-analytical conditions, three different types of heterogeneity (mosaic-like, targeted and haphazard) and influences on cohort segregation and patient selection. The ngTMA-DIA approach produced robust biomarker data with infrequent core loss and excellent on-target punching. The detailed assessment of tumour heterogeneity could - except for a certain diffuse mosaic-like heterogeneity - exclude differences between the invasive front and tumour centre, as well as detect haphazard clonal heterogeneous elements. Moreover, lower CDX1 and CDX2 counts correlated with mucinous histology, higher TNM stage, higher tumour grade and worse survival ( p  < 0.01, all). Different protein expression intensity levels shared comparable prognostic power and a great overlap in patient selection. The combination of ngTMA with DIA enhances accuracy and controls for biomarker analysis. Beyond the confirmation of CDX1 and CDX2 as prognostically relevant markers in CRC, this study highlights the greater robustness of CDX2 in comparison to CDX1. For the assessment of CDX2 protein loss, cut-points as percentage data of complete protein loss can be deduced as a recommendation.

  17. RTOG Sarcoma Radiation Oncologists Reach Consensus on Gross Tumor Volume and Clinical Target Volume on Computed Tomographic Images for Preoperative Radiotherapy of Primary Soft Tissue Sarcoma of Extremity in Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Dian, E-mail: dwang@mcw.edu [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Bosch, Walter [Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Roberge, David [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Finkelstein, Steven E. [Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States); Petersen, Ivy; Haddock, Michael [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Chen, Yen-Lin E.; Saito, Naoyuki G. [Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Kirsch, David G. [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Hitchcock, Ying J. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wolfson, Aaron H. [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States); DeLaney, Thomas F. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: To develop a Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) atlas delineating gross tumor volume (GTV) and clinical target volume (CTV) to be used for preoperative radiotherapy of primary extremity soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Methods and Materials: A consensus meeting was held during the RTOG meeting in January 2010 to reach agreement about GTV and CTV delineation on computed tomography (CT) images for preoperative radiotherapy of high-grade large extremity STS. Data were presented to address the local extension of STS. Extensive discussion ensued to develop optimal criteria for GTV and CTV delineation on CT images. Results: A consensus was reached on appropriate CT-based GTV and CTV. The GTV is gross tumor defined by T1 contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images. Fusion of magnetic resonance and images is recommended to delineate the GTV. The CTV for high-grade large STS typically includes the GTV plus 3-cm margins in the longitudinal directions. If this causes the field to extend beyond the compartment, the field can be shortened to include the end of a compartment. The radial margin from the lesion should be 1.5 cm, including any portion of the tumor not confined by an intact fascial barrier, bone, or skin surface. Conclusion: The consensus on GTV and CTV for preoperative radiotherapy of high-grade large extremity STS is available as web-based images and in a descriptive format through the RTOG. This is expected to improve target volume consistency and allow for rigorous evaluation of the benefits and risks of such treatment.

  18. Enzymatic self-assembly of nanostructures for theranostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Liang, Gaolin

    2012-01-01

    Self-assembly of small molecules or macromolecules through non-covalent or covalent bonds to build up supramolecular nanostructures is a prevalent and important process in nature. While most chemists use small molecules to assemble nanostructures with physical or chemical perturbations, nature adopts enzymes to catalyze the reaction to assemble biological, functional nanostructures with high efficiency and specificity. Although enzymatic self-assembly of nanostructures has been remained challenging for chemists, there are still a few examples of using important enzymes to initiate the self-assembly of nanostructures for diagnosis or therapy of certain diseases because down-regulation or overexpression of certain enzymes always associates with abnormalities of tissues/organs or diseases in living body. Herein, we introduce the concept of enzymatic self-assembly and illustrate the design and application of enzyme-catalyzed or -regulated formation of nanostructures for theranostics.

  19. Dynamic Nanoparticles Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, LIBING; XU, LIGUANG; KUANG, HUA; XU, CHUANLAI; KOTOV, NICHOLAS A.

    2012-01-01

    CONSPECTUS Importance Although nanoparticle (NP) assemblies are at the beginning of their development, their unique geometrical shapes and media-responsive optical, electronic and magnetic properties have attracted significant interest. Nanoscale assembly bridges multiple sizes of materials: individual nanoparticles, discrete molecule-like or virus-like nanoscale agglomerates, microscale devices, and macroscale materials. The capacity to self-assemble can greatly facilitate the integration of nanotechnology with other technologies and, in particular, with microscale fabrication. In this Account, we describe developments in the emerging field of dynamic NP assemblies, which are spontaneously formed superstructures containing more than two inorganic nanoscale particles that display ability to change their geometrical, physical, chemical, and other attributes. In many ways, dynamic assemblies can represent a bottleneck in the ‘bottom-up’ fabrication of NP-based devices because they can produce a much greater variety of assemblies, but they also provide a convenient tool for variation of geometries and dimensions of nanoparticle assemblies. Classification Superstructures of NPs (and those held together by similar intrinsic forces) are classified into two groups: Class 1 where media and external fields can alter shape, conformation, and order of stable superstructures with a nearly constant number same. The future development of successful dynamic assemblies requires understanding the equilibrium in dynamic NP systems. The dynamic nature of Class 1 assemblies is associated with the equilibrium between different conformations of a superstructure and is comparable to the isomerization in classical chemistry. Class 2 assemblies involve the formation and/or breakage of linkages between the NPs, which is analogous to the classical chemical equilibrium for the formation of a molecule from atoms. Finer classification of NP assemblies in accord with established conventions

  20. Dynamic nanoparticle assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Libing; Xu, Liguang; Kuang, Hua; Xu, Chuanlai; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2012-11-20

    Although nanoparticle (NP) assemblies are at the beginning of their development, their unique geometrical shapes and media-responsive optical, electronic, and magnetic properties have attracted significant interest. Nanoscale assembly bridges multiple levels of hierarchy of materials: individual nanoparticles, discrete molecule-like or virus-like nanoscale agglomerates, microscale devices, and macroscale materials. The capacity to self-assemble can greatly facilitate the integration of nanotechnology with other technologies and, in particular, with microscale fabrication. In this Account, we describe developments in the emerging field of dynamic NP assemblies, which are spontaneously form superstructures containing more than two inorganic nanoscale particles that display the ability to change their geometrical, physical, chemical, and other attributes. In many ways, dynamic assemblies can represent a bottleneck in the "bottom-up" fabrication of NP-based devices because they can produce a much greater variety of assemblies, but they also provide a convenient tool for variation of geometries and dimensions of nanoparticle assemblies. Superstructures of NPs (and those held together by similar intrinsic forces)are classified into two groups: Class 1 where media and external fields can alter shape, conformation, and order of stable super structures with a nearly constant number of NPs or Class 2 where the total number of NPs changes, while the organizational motif in the final superstructure remains the same. The future development of successful dynamic assemblies requires understanding the equilibrium in dynamic NP systems. The dynamic nature of Class 1 assemblies is associated with the equilibrium between different conformations of a superstructure and is comparable to the isomerization in classical chemistry. Class 2 assemblies involve the formation or breakage of linkages between the NPs, which is analogous to the classical chemical equilibrium for the formation of

  1. Spatial isolation slows down directional plant functional group assembly in restored semi‐natural grasslands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Helsen, Kenny; Hermy, Martin; Honnay, Olivier; Firn, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Ecological restoration schemes often assume that after reinstating appropriate abiotic conditions, plant communities will assemble following a single predictable pathway towards a fixed target state...

  2. Assembly of cells and vesicles for organ engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, Tetsushi, E-mail: taguchi.tetsushi@nims.go.jp [Biofunctional Materials Unit, Nano-Bio Field, Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    The development of materials and technologies for the assembly of cells and/or vesicles is a key for the next generation of tissue engineering. Since the introduction of the tissue engineering concept in 1993, various types of scaffolds have been developed for the regeneration of connective tissues in vitro and in vivo. Cartilage, bone and skin have been successfully regenerated in vitro, and these regenerated tissues have been applied clinically. However, organs such as the liver and pancreas constitute numerous cell types, contain small amounts of extracellular matrix, and are highly vascularized. Therefore, organ engineering will require the assembly of cells and/or vesicles. In particular, adhesion between cells/vesicles will be required for regeneration of organs in vitro. This review introduces and discusses the key technologies and materials for the assembly of cells/vesicles for organ regeneration. (topical review)

  3. Assembly of cells and vesicles for organ engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Tetsushi

    2011-12-01

    The development of materials and technologies for the assembly of cells and/or vesicles is a key for the next generation of tissue engineering. Since the introduction of the tissue engineering concept in 1993, various types of scaffolds have been developed for the regeneration of connective tissues in vitro and in vivo. Cartilage, bone and skin have been successfully regenerated in vitro, and these regenerated tissues have been applied clinically. However, organs such as the liver and pancreas constitute numerous cell types, contain small amounts of extracellular matrix, and are highly vascularized. Therefore, organ engineering will require the assembly of cells and/or vesicles. In particular, adhesion between cells/vesicles will be required for regeneration of organs in vitro. This review introduces and discusses the key technologies and materials for the assembly of cells/vesicles for organ regeneration.

  4. Three-Dimensional Normal Human Neural Progenitor Tissue-Like Assemblies: A Model for Persistent Varicell-Zoster Virus Infection and Platform to Study Viral Infectivity and Oxidative Stress and Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, T. J.; McCarthy, M.; Osterrieder, N.; Cohrs, R. J.; Kaufer, B. B.

    2014-01-01

    The environment of space results in a multitude of challenges to the human physiology that present barriers to extended habitation and exploration. Over 40 years of investigation to define countermeasures to address space flight adaptation has left gaps in our knowledge regarding mitigation strategies partly due to the lack of investigative tools, monitoring strategies, and real time diagnostics to understand the central causative agent(s) responsible for physiologic adaptation and maintaining homeostasis. Spaceflight-adaptation syndrome is the combination of space environmental conditions and the synergistic reaction of the human physiology. Our work addresses the role of oxidative stress and damage (OSaD) as a negative and contributing Risk Factor (RF) in the following areas of combined spaceflight related dysregulation: i) radiation induced cellular damage [1], [2] ii) immune impacts and the inflammatory response [3], [4] and iii) varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation [5]. Varicella-zoster (VZV)/Chicken Pox virus is a neurotropic human alphaherpesvirus resulting in varicella upon primary infection, suppressed by the immune system becomes latent in ganglionic neurons, and reactivates under stress events to re-express in zoster and possibly shingles. Our laboratory has developed a complex threedimensional (3D) normal human neural tissue model that emulates several characteristics of the human trigeminal ganglia (TG) and allows the study of combinatorial experimentation which addresses, simultaneously, OSaD associated with Spaceflight adaptation and habitation [6].

  5. Keratoconus as a manifestation of connective tissue dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Bikbov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Common association of keratoconus and connective tissue dysplasia indicates that these disorders possibly share etiology and pathogenesis. Connective tissue dysplasia is characterized by the decrease in certain types of collagen, abnormalities of their proportion, alteration of collagen synthesis and assembly, immature collagen synthesis, abnormalities of collagen fiber structure, defects of type III collagen synthesis, peptidase deficiency, and increase in pro-collagen as compared with collagen. The latter accounts for immature collagen level increase in tissues and organs and systemic congenital laxity of connective tissue. This results in the abnormalities of biomechanical properties of organs and tissues which are composed of collagen fibers. Corneal stroma consists of collagen fibers and glycoprotein matrix. Hence, quantitative and qualitative changes in connective tissue dysplasia affect corneal biomechanics. Abnormalities of collagen fibril orientation result in their reorganization thus influencing corneal shape and transparency. In keratoconus, decreased total collagen and type I, type III, and type IV collagen, increased type XV collagen, and abnormalities of their proportion in corneal stroma as well as allele differences in COL4A3 and CoL4A4 genes encoding 2 of 6 α-chains of type IV collagen were demonstrated. Nucleotide polymorphisms in LOX genes encoding lysyl oxidase and lysyl oxidase-like enzymes which are responsible for cross-linking of collagen polypeptide chains (and, therefore, mechanical strength of fibrils were revealed as well. LOX gene deficiency that accounts for systemic biomechanical abnormalities was also recognized in certain connective tissue dysplasia. Further studies will provide early diagnosis and pathogenically target therapy of genetic disorders associated with tissue abnormalities 

  6. Keratoconus as a manifestation of connective tissue dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Bikbov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Common association of keratoconus and connective tissue dysplasia indicates that these disorders possibly share etiology and pathogenesis. Connective tissue dysplasia is characterized by the decrease in certain types of collagen, abnormalities of their proportion, alteration of collagen synthesis and assembly, immature collagen synthesis, abnormalities of collagen fiber structure, defects of type III collagen synthesis, peptidase deficiency, and increase in pro-collagen as compared with collagen. The latter accounts for immature collagen level increase in tissues and organs and systemic congenital laxity of connective tissue. This results in the abnormalities of biomechanical properties of organs and tissues which are composed of collagen fibers. Corneal stroma consists of collagen fibers and glycoprotein matrix. Hence, quantitative and qualitative changes in connective tissue dysplasia affect corneal biomechanics. Abnormalities of collagen fibril orientation result in their reorganization thus influencing corneal shape and transparency. In keratoconus, decreased total collagen and type I, type III, and type IV collagen, increased type XV collagen, and abnormalities of their proportion in corneal stroma as well as allele differences in COL4A3 and CoL4A4 genes encoding 2 of 6 α-chains of type IV collagen were demonstrated. Nucleotide polymorphisms in LOX genes encoding lysyl oxidase and lysyl oxidase-like enzymes which are responsible for cross-linking of collagen polypeptide chains (and, therefore, mechanical strength of fibrils were revealed as well. LOX gene deficiency that accounts for systemic biomechanical abnormalities was also recognized in certain connective tissue dysplasia. Further studies will provide early diagnosis and pathogenically target therapy of genetic disorders associated with tissue abnormalities 

  7. A simplified approach to design for assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moultrie, James; Maier, Anja

    2014-01-01

    The basic principles of design for assembly (DfA) are well established. This paper presents a short review of the development of DfA approaches before presenting a new tool in which these principles are packaged for use in teams, both in an industrial and an educational context. The fundamental......, feeding and fixing, this process also encourages the team to explore how this relates to the overall assembly flow and specifically the achievement of throughput targets. The novel approach is an improvement to established methods and encompasses an original assessment tool and its delivery process...

  8. Three-Dimensional Normal Human Neutral Progenitor Tissue-Like Assemblies: A Model for Persistent Varicella-Zoster Virus Infection and Platform to Study Oxidate Stress and Damage in Multiple Hit Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J.; McCarthy, M.; Osterrieder, N.; Cohrs, R. J.; Kaufer, B. B.

    2014-01-01

    The environment of space results in a multitude of challenges to the human physiology that present barriers to extended habitation and exploration. Over 40 years of investigation to define countermeasures to address space flight adaptation has left gaps in our knowledge regarding mitigation strategies partly due to the lack of investigative tools, monitoring strategies, and real time diagnostics to understand the central causative agent(s) responsible for physiologic adaptation and maintaining homeostasis. Spaceflight-adaptation syndrome is the combination of space environmental conditions and the synergistic reaction of the human physiology. Our work addresses the role of oxidative stress and damage (OSaD) as a negative and contributing Risk Factor (RF) in the following areas of combined spaceflight related dysregulation: i) radiation induced cellular damage [1], [2] ii) immune impacts and the inflammatory response [3], [4] and iii) varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation [5]. Varicella-zoster (VZV)/Chicken Pox virus is a neurotropic human alphaherpes virus resulting in varicella upon primary infection, suppressed by the immune system becomes latent in ganglionic neurons, and reactivates under stress events to re-express in zoster and possibly shingles. Our laboratory has developed a complex three-dimensional (3D) normal human neural tissue model that emulates several characteristics of the human trigeminal ganglia (TG) and allows the study of combinatorial experimentation which addresses, simultaneously, OSaD associated with Spaceflight adaptation and habitation [6]. By combining the RFs of microgravity, radiation, and viral infection we will demonstrate that living in the space environment leads to significant physiological consequences for the peripheral and subsequently the central nervous system (PNS, CNS) associated with OSaD generation and consequentially endangers long-duration and exploration-class missions.

  9. Microtubule Self- Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jho, Yongseok; Choi, M. C.; Farago, O.; Kim, Mahnwon; Pincus, P. A.

    2008-03-01

    Microtubules are important structural elements for neurons. Microtubles are cylindrical pipes that are self-assembled from tubulin dimers, These structures are intimately related to the neuron transport system. Abnormal microtubule disintegration contributes to neuro-disease. For several decades, experimentalists investigated the structure of the microtubules using TEM and Cryo-EM. However, the detailed structure at a molecular level remain incompletely understood. . In this presentation, we report numerically studies of the self-assembly process using a toy model for tubulin dimers. We investigate the nature of the interactions which are essential to stabilize such the cylindrical assembly of protofilaments. We use Monte Carlo simulations to suggest the pathways for assembly and disassembly of the microtubules.

  10. Flexseal Insulator Test Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Eric

    1995-01-01

    Small-scale version of solid-fuel rocket motor flexseal nozzle bearing assembly instrumented and tested in compression-testing fixture simulating conditions during rocket motor operation described in report.

  11. Assembling Sustainable Territories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandergeest, Peter; Ponte, Stefano; Bush, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The authors show how certification assembles ‘sustainable’ territories through a complex layering of regulatory authority in which both government and nongovernment entities claim rule-making authority, sometimes working together, sometimes in parallel, sometimes competitively. It is argued...... dynamic in assembling sustainable territories, and that certification always involves state agencies in determining how the key elements that comprise it are defined. Whereas some state agencies have been suspicious of sustainability certification, others have embraced it or even used it to extend...

  12. Polymer Directed Protein Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick van Rijn

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein aggregation and protein self-assembly is an important occurrence in natural systems, and is in some form or other dictated by biopolymers. Very obvious influences of biopolymers on protein assemblies are, e.g., virus particles. Viruses are a multi-protein assembly of which the morphology is dictated by poly-nucleotides namely RNA or DNA. This “biopolymer” directs the proteins and imposes limitations on the structure like the length or diameter of the particle. Not only do these bionanoparticles use polymer-directed self-assembly, also processes like amyloid formation are in a way a result of directed protein assembly by partial unfolded/misfolded biopolymers namely, polypeptides. The combination of proteins and synthetic polymers, inspired by the natural processes, are therefore regarded as a highly promising area of research. Directed protein assembly is versatile with respect to the possible interactions which brings together the protein and polymer, e.g., electrostatic, v.d. Waals forces or covalent conjugation, and possible combinations are numerous due to the large amounts of different polymers and proteins available. The protein-polymer interacting behavior and overall morphology is envisioned to aid in clarifying protein-protein interactions and are thought to entail some interesting new functions and properties which will ultimately lead to novel bio-hybrid materials.

  13. Tissue types (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are 4 basic types of tissue: connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. Connective tissue supports ... binds them together (bone, blood, and lymph tissues). Epithelial tissue provides a covering (skin, the linings of the ...

  14. Characterization of a de novo assembled transcriptome of the Common Blackbird (Turdus merula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koglin, Sven; Trense, Daronja; Wink, Michael; Sauer-Gürth, Hedwig; Tietze, Dieter Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, next generation high throughput sequencing technologies have proven to be useful tools for investigations concerning the genomics or transcriptomics also of non-model species. Consequently, ornithologists have adopted these technologies and the respective bioinformatics tools to survey the genomes and transcriptomes of a few avian non-model species. The Common Blackbird is one of the most common bird species living in European cities, which has successfully colonized urban areas and for which no reference genome or transcriptome is publicly available. However, to target questions like genome wide gene expression analysis, a reference genome or transcriptome is needed. Therefore, in this study two Common Blackbirds were sacrificed, their mRNA was isolated and analyzed by RNA-Seq to de novo assemble a transcriptome and characterize it. Illumina reads (125 bp paired-end) and a Velvet/Oases pipeline led to 162,158 transcripts. For the annotation (using Blast+), an unfiltered protein database was used. SNPs were identified using SAMtools and BCFtools. Furthermore, mRNA from three single tissues (brain, heart and liver) of the same two Common Blackbirds were sequenced by Illumina (75 bp single-end reads). The draft transcriptome and the three single tissues were compared by their BLAST hits with the package VennDiagram in R. Following the annotation against protein databases, we found evidence for 15,580 genes in the transcriptome (all well characterized hits after annotation). On 18% of the assembled transcripts, 144,742 SNPs were identified which are, consequently, 0.09% of all nucleotides in the assembled transcriptome. In the transcriptome and in the single tissues (brain, heart and liver), 10,182 shared genes were found. Using a next-generation technology and bioinformatics tools, we made a first step towards the genomic investigation of the Common Blackbird. The de novo assembled transcriptome is usable for downstream analyses such as differential

  15. Characterization of a de novo assembled transcriptome of the Common Blackbird (Turdus merula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Koglin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background In recent years, next generation high throughput sequencing technologies have proven to be useful tools for investigations concerning the genomics or transcriptomics also of non-model species. Consequently, ornithologists have adopted these technologies and the respective bioinformatics tools to survey the genomes and transcriptomes of a few avian non-model species. The Common Blackbird is one of the most common bird species living in European cities, which has successfully colonized urban areas and for which no reference genome or transcriptome is publicly available. However, to target questions like genome wide gene expression analysis, a reference genome or transcriptome is needed. Methods Therefore, in this study two Common Blackbirds were sacrificed, their mRNA was isolated and analyzed by RNA-Seq to de novo assemble a transcriptome and characterize it. Illumina reads (125 bp paired-end and a Velvet/Oases pipeline led to 162,158 transcripts. For the annotation (using Blast+, an unfiltered protein database was used. SNPs were identified using SAMtools and BCFtools. Furthermore, mRNA from three single tissues (brain, heart and liver of the same two Common Blackbirds were sequenced by Illumina (75 bp single-end reads. The draft transcriptome and the three single tissues were compared by their BLAST hits with the package VennDiagram in R. Results Following the annotation against protein databases, we found evidence for 15,580 genes in the transcriptome (all well characterized hits after annotation. On 18% of the assembled transcripts, 144,742 SNPs were identified which are, consequently, 0.09% of all nucleotides in the assembled transcriptome. In the transcriptome and in the single tissues (brain, heart and liver, 10,182 shared genes were found. Discussion Using a next-generation technology and bioinformatics tools, we made a first step towards the genomic investigation of the Common Blackbird. The de novo assembled transcriptome is

  16. Human Assisted Assembly Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CALTON,TERRI L.; PETERS,RALPH R.

    2000-01-01

    Automatic assembly sequencing and visualization tools are valuable in determining the best assembly sequences, but without Human Factors and Figure Models (HFFMs) it is difficult to evaluate or visualize human interaction. In industry, accelerating technological advances and shorter market windows have forced companies to turn to an agile manufacturing paradigm. This trend has promoted computerized automation of product design and manufacturing processes, such as automated assembly planning. However, all automated assembly planning software tools assume that the individual components fly into their assembled configuration and generate what appear to be a perfectly valid operations, but in reality the operations cannot physically be carried out by a human. Similarly, human figure modeling algorithms may indicate that assembly operations are not feasible and consequently force design modifications; however, if they had the capability to quickly generate alternative assembly sequences, they might have identified a feasible solution. To solve this problem HFFMs must be integrated with automated assembly planning to allow engineers to verify that assembly operations are possible and to see ways to make the designs even better. Factories will very likely put humans and robots together in cooperative environments to meet the demands for customized products, for purposes including robotic and automated assembly. For robots to work harmoniously within an integrated environment with humans the robots must have cooperative operational skills. For example, in a human only environment, humans may tolerate collisions with one another if they did not cause much pain. This level of tolerance may or may not apply to robot-human environments. Humans expect that robots will be able to operate and navigate in their environments without collisions or interference. The ability to accomplish this is linked to the sensing capabilities available. Current work in the field of cooperative

  17. De novo assembly of the Carcinus maenas transcriptome and characterization of innate immune system pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbruggen, Bas; Bickley, Lisa K; Santos, Eduarda M; Tyler, Charles R; Stentiford, Grant D; Bateman, Kelly S; van Aerle, Ronny

    2015-06-16

    The European shore crab, Carcinus maenas, is used widely in biomonitoring, ecotoxicology and for studies into host-pathogen interactions. It is also an important invasive species in numerous global locations. However, the genomic resources for this organism are still sparse, limiting research progress in these fields. To address this resource shortfall we produced a C. maenas transcriptome, enabled by the progress in next-generation sequencing technologies, and applied this to assemble information on the innate immune system in this species. We isolated and pooled RNA for twelve different tissues and organs from C. maenas individuals and sequenced the RNA using next generation sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. After de novo assembly a transcriptome was generated encompassing 212,427 transcripts (153,699 loci). The transcripts were filtered, annotated and characterised using a variety of tools (including BLAST, MEGAN and RSEM) and databases (including NCBI, Gene Ontology and KEGG). There were differential patterns of expression for between 1,223 and 2,741 transcripts across tissues and organs with over-represented Gene Ontology terms relating to their specific function. Based on sequence homology to immune system components in other organisms, we show both the presence of transcripts for a series of known pathogen recognition receptors and response proteins that form part of the innate immune system, and transcripts representing the RNAi, Toll-like receptor signalling, IMD and JAK/STAT pathways. We have produced an assembled transcriptome for C. maenas that provides a significant molecular resource for wide ranging studies in this species. Analysis of the transcriptome has revealed the presence of a series of known targets and functional pathways that form part of their innate immune system and illustrate tissue specific differences in their expression patterns.

  18. Photovoltaic self-assembly.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavin, Judith; Kemp, Richard Alan; Stewart, Constantine A.

    2010-10-01

    This late-start LDRD was focused on the application of chemical principles of self-assembly on the ordering and placement of photovoltaic cells in a module. The drive for this chemical-based self-assembly stems from the escalating prices in the 'pick-and-place' technology currently used in the MEMS industries as the size of chips decreases. The chemical self-assembly principles are well-known on a molecular scale in other material science systems but to date had not been applied to the assembly of cells in a photovoltaic array or module. We explored several types of chemical-based self-assembly techniques, including gold-thiol interactions, liquid polymer binding, and hydrophobic-hydrophilic interactions designed to array both Si and GaAs PV chips onto a substrate. Additional research was focused on the modification of PV cells in an effort to gain control over the facial directionality of the cells in a solvent-based environment. Despite being a small footprint research project worked on for only a short time, the technical results and scientific accomplishments were significant and could prove to be enabling technology in the disruptive advancement of the microelectronic photovoltaics industry.

  19. Attomolar DNA detection with chiral nanorod assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei; Kuang, Hua; Xu, Liguang; Ding, Li; Xu, Chuanlai; Wang, Libing; Kotov, Nicholas A.

    2013-10-01

    Nanoscale plasmonic assemblies display exceptionally strong chiral optical activity. So far, their structural design was primarily driven by challenges related to metamaterials whose practical applications are remote. Here we demonstrate that gold nanorods assembled by the polymerase chain reaction into DNA-bridged chiral systems have promising analytical applications. The chiroplasmonic activity of side-by-side assembled patterns is attributed to a 7-9 degree twist between the nanorod axes. This results in a strong polarization rotation that matches theoretical expectations. The amplitude of the bisignate ‘wave’ in the circular dichroism spectra of side-by-side assemblies demonstrates excellent linearity with the amount of target DNA. The limit of detection for DNA using side-by-side assemblies is as low as 3.7 aM. This chiroplasmonic method may be particularly useful for biological analytes larger than 2-5 nm which are difficult to detect by methods based on plasmon coupling and ‘hot spots’. Circular polarization increases for inter-nanorod gaps between 2 and 20 nm when plasmonic coupling rapidly decreases. Reaching the attomolar limit of detection for simple and reliable bioanalysis of oligonucleotides may have a crucial role in DNA biomarker detection for early diagnostics of different diseases, forensics and environmental monitoring.

  20. Tumor suppressor roles of CENP-E and Nsl1 in Drosophila epithelial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente-Ruiz, Marta; Muzzopappa, Mariana; Milán, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Depletion of spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) genes in Drosophila epithelial tissues leads to JNK-dependent programmed cell death and additional blockade of the apoptotic program drives tumorigenesis. A recent report proposes that chromosomal instability (CIN) is not the driving force in the tumorigenic response of the SAC-deficient tissue, and that checkpoint proteins exert a SAC-independent tumor suppressor role. This notion is based on observations that the depletion of CENP-E levels or prevention of Bub3 from binding to the kinetochore in Drosophila tissues unable to activate the apoptotic program induces CIN but does not cause hyperproliferation. Here we re-examined this proposal. In contrast to the previous report, we observed that depletion of CENP-E or Nsl1-the latter mediating kinetochore targeting of Bub3-in epithelial tissues unable to activate the apoptotic program induces significant levels of aneuploidy and drives tumor-like growth. The induction of the JNK transcriptional targets Wingless, a mitogenic molecule, and MMP1, a matrix metaloproteinase 1 involved in basement membrane degradation was also observed in these tumors. An identical response of the tissue was previously detected upon depletion of several SAC genes or genes involved in spindle assembly, chromatin condensation, and cytokinesis, all of which have been described to cause CIN. All together, these results reinforce the role of CIN in driving tumorigenesis in Drosophila epithelial tissues and question the proposed SAC-independent roles of checkpoint proteins in suppressing tumorigenesis. Differences in aneuploidy rates might explain the discrepancy between the previous report and our results.

  1. Target Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — [Part of the ATLAS user facility.] The Physics Division operates a target development laboratory that produces targets and foils of various thickness and substrates,...

  2. Tissue Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Leemput, Koen; Puonti, Oula

    2015-01-01

    Computational methods for automatically segmenting magnetic resonance images of the brain have seen tremendous advances in recent years. So-called tissue classification techniques, aimed at extracting the three main brain tissue classes (white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid), are now...... well established. In their simplest form, these methods classify voxels independently based on their intensity alone, although much more sophisticated models are typically used in practice. This article aims to give an overview of often-used computational techniques for brain tissue classification...

  3. Wrist joint assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, L.; Johnson, J. D. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A wrist joint assembly is provided for use with a mechanical manipulator arm for finely positioning an end-effector carried by the wrist joint on the terminal end of the manipulator arm. The wrist joint assembly is pivotable about a first axis to produce a yaw motion, a second axis is to produce a pitch motion, and a third axis to produce a roll motion. The wrist joint assembly includes a disk segment affixed to the terminal end of the manipulator arm and a first housing member, a second housing member, and a third housing member. The third housing member and the mechanical end-effector are moved in the yaw, pitch, and roll motion. Drive means are provided for rotating each of the housings about their respective axis which includes a cluster of miniature motors having spur gears carried on the output drive shaft which mesh with a center drive gear affixed on the housing to be rotated.

  4. Integrated magnetic transformer assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to an integrated magnetics transformer assembly comprising a first magnetically permeable core forming a first substantially closed magnetic flux path and a second magnetically permeable core forming a second substantially closed magnetic flux path. A first input...... inductor winding is wound around a first predetermined segment of the first magnetically permeable core and a second input inductor winding is wound around a first predetermined segment of the second magnetically permeable core. The integrated magnetics transformer assembly further comprises a first output......-winding of the first output inductor winding and the first half-winding of the second output inductor winding are configured to produce aligned, i.e. in the same direction, magnetic fluxes through the first substantially closed magnetic flux path. The integrated magnetics transformer assembly is well- suited for use...

  5. Power module assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jeremy B [Torrance, CA; Newson, Steve [Redondo Beach, CA

    2011-11-15

    A power module assembly of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicular power inverter, wherein the power inverter has a grounded chassis, is provided. The power module assembly comprises a conductive base layer electrically coupled to the chassis, an insulating layer disposed on the conductive base layer, a first conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, a second conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, wherein the first and second conductive nodes are electrically isolated from each other. The power module assembly also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the first conductive node, and further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the second conductive node.

  6. Low inductance connector assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holbrook, Meghan Ann; Carlson, Douglas S

    2013-07-09

    A busbar connector assembly for coupling first and second terminals on a two-terminal device to first and second contacts on a power module is provided. The first terminal resides proximate the first contact and the second terminal resides proximate the second contact. The assembly comprises a first bridge having a first end configured to be electrically coupled to the first terminal, and a second end configured to be electrically coupled to the second contact, and a second bridge substantially overlapping the first bridge and having a first end electrically coupled to the first contact, and a second end electrically coupled to the second terminal.

  7. Phylogenetic Comparative Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husemann, Peter; Stoye, Jens

    Recent high throughput sequencing technologies are capable of generating a huge amount of data for bacterial genome sequencing projects. Although current sequence assemblers successfully merge the overlapping reads, often several contigs remain which cannot be assembled any further. It is still costly and time consuming to close all the gaps in order to acquire the whole genomic sequence. Here we propose an algorithm that takes several related genomes and their phylogenetic relationships into account to create a contig adjacency graph. From this a layout graph can be computed which indicates putative adjacencies of the contigs in order to aid biologists in finishing the complete genomic sequence.

  8. Hand Controller Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandera, Pablo (Inventor); Buchele, Paul (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A user input device for a vehicular electrical system is provided. The user input device includes a handle sized and shaped to be gripped by a human hand and a gimbal assembly within the handle. The gimbal assembly includes a first gimbal component, a second gimbal component coupled to the first gimbal component such that the second gimbal component is rotatable relative to the first gimbal component about a first axis, and a third gimbal component coupled to the second gimbal component such that the third gimbal component is rotatable relative to the second gimbal component about a second axis.

  9. Assembling an aesthetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Emily

    2012-12-01

    Recent research informing and related to the study of three-dimensional scientific models is assembled here in a way that explores an aesthetic, specifically, of touch. I concentrate on the materiality of models, drawing on insights from the history and philosophy of science, design and metaphysics. This article chronicles the ways in which touch, or material interactions, operate in the world of 3D models, and its role in what models mean and do. I end with a call for greater attention to scientific process, described as assembly of and within science, which is revealed by this focus on touch. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. To assemble or fold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anindita; Ghosh, Suhrit

    2014-10-11

    This communication reports an elegant structure formation by an amide functionalized donor (D)-acceptor (A) dyad by stepwise folding and assembly. It adopts a folded conformation by intra-chain CT-interaction that subsequently dimerizes by inter-molecular H-bonding to produce a folded dimer (FD) with a DAAD stacking sequence. Incompatibility of the aromatic stacked face with MCH triggers macroscopic assembly by solvophobically driven edge-to-edge stacking of the FD with concomitant growth in the orthogonal direction by D-D π-stacking leading to the formation of a reverse-vesicle.

  11. Organ printing: tissue spheroids as building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, Vladimir; Visconti, Richard P; Kasyanov, Vladimir; Forgacs, Gabor; Drake, Christopher J; Markwald, Roger R

    2009-04-01

    Organ printing can be defined as layer-by-layer additive robotic biofabrication of three-dimensional functional living macrotissues and organ constructs using tissue spheroids as building blocks. The microtissues and tissue spheroids are living materials with certain measurable, evolving and potentially controllable composition, material and biological properties. Closely placed tissue spheroids undergo tissue fusion - a process that represents a fundamental biological and biophysical principle of developmental biology-inspired directed tissue self-assembly. It is possible to engineer small segments of an intraorgan branched vascular tree by using solid and lumenized vascular tissue spheroids. Organ printing could dramatically enhance and transform the field of tissue engineering by enabling large-scale industrial robotic biofabrication of living human organ constructs with "built-in" perfusable intraorgan branched vascular tree. Thus, organ printing is a new emerging enabling technology paradigm which represents a developmental biology-inspired alternative to classic biodegradable solid scaffold-based approaches in tissue engineering.

  12. Polymeric Nanofibers in Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, Rebecca L.; Kasper, F. Kurtis

    2011-01-01

    Polymeric nanofibers can be produced using methods such as electrospinning, phase separation, and self-assembly, and the fiber composition, diameter, alignment, degradation, and mechanical properties can be tailored to the intended application. Nanofibers possess unique advantages for tissue engineering. The small diameter closely matches that of extracellular matrix fibers, and the relatively large surface area is beneficial for cell attachment and bioactive factor loading. This review will update the reader on the aspects of nanofiber fabrication and characterization important to tissue engineering, including control of porous structure, cell infiltration, and fiber degradation. Bioactive factor loading will be discussed with specific relevance to tissue engineering. Finally, applications of polymeric nanofibers in the fields of bone, cartilage, ligament and tendon, cardiovascular, and neural tissue engineering will be reviewed. PMID:21699434

  13. Fire resistant PV shingle assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2012-10-02

    A fire resistant PV shingle assembly includes a PV assembly, including PV body, a fire shield and a connection member connecting the fire shield below the PV body, and a support and inter-engagement assembly. The support and inter-engagement assembly is mounted to the PV assembly and comprises a vertical support element, supporting the PV assembly above a support surface, an upper interlock element, positioned towards the upper PV edge, and a lower interlock element, positioned towards the lower PV edge. The upper interlock element of one PV shingle assembly is inter-engageable with the lower interlock element of an adjacent PV shingle assembly. In some embodiments the PV shingle assembly may comprise a ventilation path below the PV body. The PV body may be slidably mounted to the connection member to facilitate removal of the PV body.

  14. A Method for Designing Assembly Tolerance Networks of Mechanical Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When designing mechanical assemblies, assembly tolerance design is an important issue which must be seriously considered by designers. Assembly tolerances reflect functional requirements of assembling, which can be used to control assembling qualities and production costs. This paper proposes a new method for designing assembly tolerance networks of mechanical assemblies. The method establishes the assembly structure tree model of an assembly based on its product structure tree model. On this basis, assembly information model and assembly relation model are set up based on polychromatic sets (PS theory. According to the two models, the systems of location relation equations and interference relation equations are established. Then, using methods of topologically related surfaces (TTRS theory and variational geometric constraints (VGC theory, three VGC reasoning matrices are constructed. According to corresponding relations between VGCs and assembly tolerance types, the reasoning matrices of tolerance types are also established by using contour matrices of PS. Finally, an exemplary product is used to construct its assembly tolerance networks and meanwhile to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.