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Sample records for asse ii salt

  1. Trial storage of high-level waste in the Asse II salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report covers a second phase of the work performed by GSF and KfK in the Asse II salt mine, with a view to disposal of radioactive waste in salt formations. New items of the research were geophysical investigations of the behaviour of heated salt and preparation of a trial storage in the Asse II salt mine

  2. Information on Asse II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brochure published by BfS describes the actual situation of Asse II with respect to the debate on an interim storage and the status of the realization of a final repository search law. During the visit of the new environment minister Hendricks in the underground facility repository Asse II the issue interim storage site and the retrieval of the corroded casks with radioactive waste were discussed. The challenges for BFS include the acceleration of the retrieval process and the safety of the procedure.

  3. Petrography, fine stratigraphy and petrofacies of the Stassfurt rock salt (Zechstein 2) in the development region of ASSE II salt mine near Brunswick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Stassfurt rock salt (Na2) in the Asse II salt mine constitutes a saline sequence of the sub-Hercynian basin. In the anticline of the Asse II the Na2 constitutes a core of the anticline with an interior special folding. The combination of underground mapping with the investigations of the salt petrography permits the recognition of stratigraphic unities and with it sedimentary and early diagenetic formation processes for the stratigraphic beds of the Hauptsalz (Na2β), the Speisesalz (Na2SP) and the Polyhalitbaenkchensalz (Na2P). An additional postdiagenetic new formation of minerals from the overlying Stassfurt potash layer (K2C) can be recognized in the kieseritic region of the ''Carnallitisch-Kieseritische Ueberganssalz (Na2K+C)'' and in the ''Tonliniensalz'' (Na2TL). The lower part of the Na2β belongs to a saline basin facies. In the upper part of the Na2β structural and textural characteristics refer to the swallowing of the saline sedimentation room. Simultaneously, more and more terrestrial influences of the saline sedimentation become conspicuous in the northwestern part of the Asse II. They have their clearest facies in the only locally formed Tonliniensalz (Na2TL). The petrographic review of the ''polyhalite region'', which encloses the upper part of the Na2β, the Na2SP and the Na2P, rendered obvious indications for a pseudomorphic origin of polyhalite from primarily sedimened gypsum. The replacement of anhydrite by polyhalite was compared to it as being of unimportant significance. The quantitative parts of the accessory minerals (polyhalite, anhydrite, kieserite, sylvite, carnallite) were determined by means of geochemical investigations in the stratigraphic horizons of Na2 in the mine Asse II. A regional comparison with the saline sedimentation of Zechstein 2 in the sub-Hercynian basin shows a progressive saline sedimentation cycle of the Stassfurt type for the fine stratigraphic division of the Na2 in Asse II. (orig./HP)

  4. Trial storage of high-level waste cylinders in the Asse II salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report covers the contract period 1976-77, as well as some of the tasks carried out during the extension in 1978, in the framework of the R and D programme for disposal of radioactive waste in salt formations. With regard to the in-situ tests for the liberation and migration of brine, the testing devices were examined successfully. Laboratory examinations carried out showed a stepwise liberation of the water contents in halite in dependence on the temperature. The amount of brine liberated stood in good agreement with the in situ results. A temperature test for borehole convergence resulted in definite convergence rates. Simultaneously no influence was registered in the stability of the surrounding rocks. For the realization of an integrated major experiment, temperature test field IV was mined on the 750 m level of the Asse Salt Mine and heater- as well as measurement drillings were carried out. Extensive rheological examinations are concentrated particularly on the halite and secondly on the Carnallite. They are chiefly based on uni- and multiaxial pressure tests. Computer programmes are developed to examine the heat generation in wastes as well as in salt. In comparison, the programme development of computer codes for the stability behaviour of rocks is still at a relatively early stage, because it has to build up on the results of heat generation. The works for the development of a transport container with a shielding combination are at a very advanced stage. An integrated disposal- and retrieval system was developed, tested and successfully demonstrated. A monitoring system in the mine has also been developed in its essential parts

  5. Information on Asse II; Informationen ueber die Schachtanlage Asse II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-02-15

    The information brochure on Asse II describes the situation in the repository for radioactive wastes that was closed by law due to the violations of safety standards. The discussed topics include the necessity of waste retrieval, the problems with public anxiety and public information, the hazard of an uncontrolled water ingress (worst case scenario), the work sites in the cavern, man-machine interactions and the cost of the project.

  6. Information on the shaft facility Asse II. That much is sure; Informationen ueber die Schachtanlage Asse II. Soviel ist mal sicher. Schwerpunkt Wissen and Wahrheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-11-15

    The following issues are discussed in the brochure on Asse II: collapse hazard, knowledge on the inventory, cancer incidence in the vicinity of Asse II, fact finding and waste retrieval delay, possibility of new shaft excavation, emergency preparedness - retrieval delay, retrieval only if intermediate storage facility is found, consequences in case of Asse flooding, salt caverns for final repository.

  7. Hydrogeological investigations at the Asse salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of recordings of water gauge indicators for the hydrological years 1982-1987, annual hydrograph curves for the water table in borings, groundwater table hydrograph curves, natural vertical flow, as well as the times and proportionate height of ground water recharge at the Asse salt mine are established. On the basis of the hydrograph curves for tritium content in ground water, the age of the tritium model was determined. (DG)

  8. Information on the shaft facility Asse II. That much is sure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following issues are discussed in the brochure on Asse II: collapse hazard, knowledge on the inventory, cancer incidence in the vicinity of Asse II, fact finding and waste retrieval delay, possibility of new shaft excavation, emergency preparedness - retrieval delay, retrieval only if intermediate storage facility is found, consequences in case of Asse flooding, salt caverns for final repository.

  9. Earth subsidences in the Asse salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earth subsidences in the Asse salt mine occur in the carstifiable Mesozoic flank rocks (containing Ruddle, Middle Shell-lime and Gypsum Keuper), more seldom in Zechstein gypsum. Of the 278 earth subsidences which have been mapped up to now, 184 originated in the Ruddle, 59 in the Middle Shell-lime and 35 in the Zechstein. Earth subsidences in the Keuper have not been recorded. As recent occurrences have shown earth subsidences are still developing in the flank rocks. For the purpose of dating the remaining ones, their fillings were examined by means of groove probing and lithostratigraphical dating. Samples taken were also analyzed palynologically. (orig.)

  10. Experiments in the Underground Laboratory for Dosimetry and Spectrometry (UDO) of the PTB in the Asse II salt mine - summary highlighting work performed and outlook

    CERN Document Server

    Neumaier, S; Zwiener, R

    2003-01-01

    Due to its extremely low area dose rate, the Underground Laboratory for Dosimetry and Spectrometry (UDO) of the PTB at the 925 m level of the Asse II Salt Mine offers unique possibilities for the investigation and calibration of dosimetry systems of high sensitivity as are used, for example, in environmental monitoring. Due to its low area dose rate, this laboratory has an outstanding position worldwide. The low ambient dose equivalent rate in the UDO of approx. 1 nSv/h, that means of only approx. 1 percent of the ambient dose rate typically encountered at the Earth's surface, is mainly due to the following reasons: - At the depth at which the UDO is situated, the penetrating muon component of cosmic radiation which considerably contributes to the environmental equivalent dose rate at the Earth's surface (in Braunschweig, for example, approx. one third) is already attenuated by more than five orders of magnitude and is therefore completely negligible for dosimetric investigations; - The activity concentration...

  11. Geotechnical investigations on backfill materials in the Asse salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The compression behaviour of rock salt grit is being investigated by compression tests at the Asse salt mine. The various test parameters are introduced and their results are discussed. The permeability of rock salt grit with saturated NaCl-brine in dependency upon the grain size and compactness, resp. the porosity, is being determined at the Asse salt mine. The test equipment and the results determined here are shown. In addition to laboratory tests, geotechnical investigations are taking place in a carnallitic chamber of the Asse salt mine which had been backfilled in earlier years. They chiefly concern measurements of the deformation rates in drifts - which were mined between the chambers in remaining pillars - as well as horizontal deformation measurements in the backfilling. (orig./DG)

  12. Activities concerning plugging and sealing in the Asse salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large amount of experience regarding chamber sealing has been acquired in the Asse salt mine over the years. Various techniques were tested such as, for example, the pneumatic or pumping technique as well as the possible use of different constructional materials. The schematic construction of several existing bulkheads and the geotechnical instrumentation required for monitoring are described. Results of stress measurements from within a four year's old bulkhead are given. (orig./DG)

  13. Measurements in the 300-metre deep dry-drilled borehole and feasibility study on the dry-drilling of a 600-metre deep borehole in the Asse II salt-mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1980 a borehole with a diameter of 300 millimetres and a depth of 300 metres was drilled with a dry-drilling technique in the Asse II salt-mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. This borehole was used to perform a series of in-situ experiments to establish the constitutive behaviour of rock-salt, to measure the temperature-induced compression on a heated tube and to validate the computer codes for the thermo-mechanical behaviour. Three types of experiments are performed and described in this report: free isothermal convergence measurements; temperature-induced pressure measurements; free non-isothermal convergence measurements. It is shown that the thermo-mechanical behaviour of rock-salt can be described accurately with a set of constitutive equations based upon elastic behaviour and secondary creep. It is measured that the state of stress at a depth of 830 metres deviates significantly from the lithostatic pressure. This deviation is shown to be caused by the stress redistribution due to the large excavations in the mine. The maximum compression on a heated tube is measured to be about 35 MPa for a lithostatic pressure of 17 MPa and a maximum salt temperature of 175OC. In this report the results are given of a feasibility study on the dry drilling of a 600 metre deep borehole in Asse II. This study is based on the classic roller-bit configuration. Parallel, the GSF has developed a more advanced drilling technique, which will be pursued for the 600 metre hole experiment. The study under consideration must therefore be seen as a ''backing up solution'' in the improbable situation that the advanced GSF system will not fulfil its promises

  14. Brine migration test - Asse salt mine, Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the final report on the Cooperative German-American 'Brine Migration Tests' that were performed at the Asse Salt Mine in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), Columbus, Ohio, and the Institut fuer Tieflagerung (IfT), Braunschweig, of the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen (GSF). Final test and equipment design as well as manufacturing and installation was carried out by Westinghouse Electric Corporation. The tests were designed to simulate a nuclear waste repository to measure the effects of heat and gamma radiation on brine migration, salt decrepitation, disassociation of brine, and gases collected. The thermal mechanical behavior of salt, such as room closure, stresses and changes of the properties of salt are measured and compared with predicted behavior. The performance of an array of candidate waste package materials, test equipment and procedures under repository conditions will be evaluated with a view towards future in-depth testing of potential repository sites. (orig./RB)

  15. Information on the Schacht Asse II. Expensive home country. What costs the Asse facility? What is the value of region? Key aspect money

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The information brochure on Asse II includes the following contributions: The picture of the blind shaft 3 and what does it mean? What costs the Asse facility? Expensive home country. The history of Asse II shows that safety has to stand before economic interests. The Asse legislation of 203 opens new paths for the waste retrieval.

  16. Information on the Schacht Asse II. Responsibility; Informationen ueber die Schachtanlage Asse II. Verantwortung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-03-15

    The information brochure (BfS) on Asse - responsibility - discusses the issue of radioactive waste disposal. The members of the final repository commission have to present the final report on the site selection for the final repository. The central question is the safe disposal of nuclear waste for a million of years.

  17. Information on the Schacht Asse II. Expensive home country. What costs the Asse facility? What is the value of region? Key aspect money; Informationen ueber die Schachtanlage Asse II. Teure Heimat. Was kostet die Asse? Was ist die Region wert? Schwerpunkt Geld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-15

    The information brochure on Asse II includes the following contributions: The picture of the blind shaft 3 and what does it mean? What costs the Asse facility? Expensive home country. The history of Asse II shows that safety has to stand before economic interests. The Asse legislation of 203 opens new paths for the waste retrieval.

  18. Nuclear waste repository simulation experiments, Asse salt mine, Federal Republic of Germany. Annual report 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the second joint annual report (1984) on experiments simulating a nuclear waste repository at the 800-m (2624-ft) level of the Asse salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. This report describes the Asse salt mine, the test equipment, and the pretest properties of the salt in the mine and in the vicinity of the test area. Also included are test data for the first 19 months of operation on the following: brine migration rates, thermal mechanical behavior of the salt (including room closure, stress reading, and thermal profiles), and borehole gas pressures. In addition to field data, laboratory analyses of results are included in this report. The duration of the experiment will be 2 years, ending in December 1985

  19. Nuclear waste repository simulation experiments. Asse salt mine: Annual report 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the Second Annual Report (1984) which describes experiments simulating a nuclear waste repository at the 800 meter-level of the Asse Salt Mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. The report describes the Asse Salt Mine, the test equipment, and the pretest properties of the salt in the mine and in the vicinity of the test area. Also included are test data for the first sixteen months of operation on the following: brine migration rates, thermal mechanical behavior of the salt (including room closure, stress readings and thermal profiles) and borehole gas pressures. In addition to field data laboratory analyses of results are also included in this report. The duration of the experiment will be two years, ending in December 1985. (orig.)

  20. Brine migration test report: Asse Salt Mine, Federal Republic of Germany: Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a summary of Brine Migration Tests which were undertaken at the Asse mine of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) under a bilateral US/FRG agreement. This experiment simulates a nuclear waste repository at the 800-m (2624-ft) level of the Asse salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. This report describes the Asse salt mine, the test equipment, and the pretest properties of the salt in the mine and in the vicinity of the test area. Also included are selected test data (for the first 28 months of operation) on the following: brine migration rates, thermomechaical behavior of the salt (including room closure, stress reading, and thermal profiles), borehole gas pressures, and borehole gas analyses. In addition to field data, laboratory analyses of pretest salt properties are included in this report. The operational phase of these experiments was completed on October 4, 1985, with the commencement of cooldown and the start of posttest activities. 7 refs., 68 figs., 48 tabs

  1. Brine migration test report: Asse Salt Mine, Federal Republic of Germany: Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, A.J.; Eckert, J.; Kalia, H.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents a summary of Brine Migration Tests which were undertaken at the Asse mine of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) under a bilateral US/FRG agreement. This experiment simulates a nuclear waste repository at the 800-m (2624-ft) level of the Asse salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. This report describes the Asse salt mine, the test equipment, and the pretest properties of the salt in the mine and in the vicinity of the test area. Also included are selected test data (for the first 28 months of operation) on the following: brine migration rates, thermomechaical behavior of the salt (including room closure, stress reading, and thermal profiles), borehole gas pressures, and borehole gas analyses. In addition to field data, laboratory analyses of pretest salt properties are included in this report. The operational phase of these experiments was completed on October 4, 1985, with the commencement of cooldown and the start of posttest activities. 7 refs., 68 figs., 48 tabs.

  2. Groundwater movement in the overlying rock and at the flumes of the salt wash surface in the Asse salt stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are two groundwater storeys in the Asse massif. One within the overlaying rock and one at the flumes of the top of the salt plug. Both groundwater storeys are hydraulically connected via two points of contact. With the exception of this connecting path between overlaying rock and top of salt plug no further connecting path of this kind is known in the investigation area. Due to the petrographic formation of the strata in the investigation area, the decisive groundwater flow is only possible in the joints. (orig./PW)

  3. Modeling of radionuclide transport through rock formations and the resulting radiation exposure of reference persons. Calculations using Asse II parameters; Modellierung des Transports von Radionukliden durch Gesteinsschichten und der resultierenden Strahlenexposition von Referenzpersonen. Berechnungen mit Parametern der Asse II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueppers, Christian; Ustohalova, Veronika; Steinhoff, Mathias

    2012-05-21

    The long-term release of radioactivity into the ground water path cannot be excluded for the radioactive waste repository Asse II. The possible radiological consequences were analyzed using a radio-ecological scenario developed by GRS. A second scenario was developed considering the solubility of radionuclides in salt saturated solutions and retarding/retention effects during the radionuclide transport through the cap rock layers. The modeling of possible radiation exposure was based on the lifestyle habits of reference persons. In Germany the calculation procedure for the prediction of radionuclide release from final repositories is not defined by national standards, the used procedures are based on analogue methods from other radiation protection calculations.

  4. The HAW project. Demonstrative disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in the Asse salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1968 the GSF has been carrying out research and development programs for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HAW) in salt formations. The heat producing waste has been simulated so far by means of electrical heaters and also cobalt-60-sources. In order to improve the final concept for HAW disposal in salt formations the complete technical system of an underground repository is to be tested in a one-to-one scale test facility. To satisfy the test objectives thirty high radioactive canisters containing the radionuclides Cs-137 and Sr-90 will be emplaced in six boreholes located in two test galleries at the 800 m-level in the Asse salt mine. The duration of testing will be approximately five years. For the handling of the radioactive canisters and their emplacement into the boreholes a system consisting of transportation casks, transportation vehicle, disposal machine, and borehole slider will be developed and tested. The actual scientific investigation program is based on the estimation and observation of the interaction between the radioactive canisters and the rock salt. This program includes measurement of thermally and radiolytically induced water and gas release from the rock salt and the radiolytical decomposition of salt minerals. Also the thermally induced stress and deformation fields in the surrounding rock mass will be investigated carefully. (orig./HP)

  5. Analysis of the utilization history and the planning and the participation profiles of the shaft plant Asse II. Final report; Analyse der Nutzungsgeschichte und der Planungs- und Beteiligungsformen der Schachtanlage Asse II. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ipsen, Detlev; Kost, Susanne; Weichler, Holger

    2010-03-08

    The report on the utilization history of Asse II covers the following issues: Historical facts of the purchase of the shaft plant Asse II, decision sequences and line of arguments, research mine or final repository? Emplacement of radioactive materials (inventory), stability of the mine layout and water ingress, risk assessment - accident analysis, communication and public information, conclusions and recommendations.

  6. Irradiation effects on the rock-salt HAW-Asse Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1988 ANDRA is involved in the HAW project, a test disposal of high level radioactive canisters in a salt dome, at Asse in FRG. ANDRA is responsible of in situ measurements, laboratory analyses and predictive calculations. Thus are delayed in situ dose measurements. Two methods have been developed, one is based on thermoluminescent dosemeters and measure an integrated dose, the other uses ionization chambers and gives a dose rate. Specific equipments had to be developed: manufacturing and testing. Geomechanics is also concerned by in situ measurement, especially rocksalt deformation, induced by the heat production of the canisters. Three groups of tiltmeters have been installed, providing informations on both natural creeping of rocksalt and effect of electrical heating in two boreholes. Laboratory studies consist in analyzing gases released by Asse salt samples irradiated under various conditions. Most of the 150 sample irradiations are completed. The last topic to the project intends to predict gamma ray flux and spectrum in the HAW test field using computer models. The work carried out and discussed includes digitalization of test data (sources, borehole lining, rocksalt), Bremsstrahlung sensitivity analysis, and calculation of both energy deposited and dose rate around the sources. This calculation was performed for 50 points, requiring 400 runs of Mercure-5 models. Interpolation functions are also provided in order to give values between these 50 points. The next step aim to determine gamma spectrum in salt and also energy deposited at various locations in the dummy canister where samples are intended to be emplaced. TRIPOLI-2 Model will be used for these purposes

  7. HAW simulation experiments with cobalt-60 radiation sources in the Asse salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the experimental work and the measured data of the joint German-American project for the HAW simulation experiment with cobalt-60 radiation sources in the Asse salt mine, covering the period up to the end of the third quarter 1986. The experiment is intended to yield information on the synergistic effects of heat and ionizing radiation on the salt rock under representative waste repository conditions. The investigations aim at the migration, release, and radiolytic decomposition of the water and gas components in the rock salt, and at the thermally induced strain and deformation processes. In addition, corrosion tests are planned to be made on various container test materials, and analyses of salt rock core samples for assessing the effect of heat and radiation on the rock. The report in hand presents all data obtained during the experiment. The results of the subsequent evaluation and verification studies will be presented in another report, the programme being given in an annex to the report in hand. (orig./RB)

  8. Results of temperature test 6 in the Asse salt mine. Volume 1 - Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the year 1985 a heater test with a mean heat load of 50 kW was carried out in the Asse salt mine for 78 days. Its main aims were to investigate possible fracturing of the rock; investigations on the transport of brine and gases; comparison of the measured mechanical stresses and temperatures, as compared to those determined by numerical methods. The evaluation of the measurement results was impeded by premature failure of some of the heaters, which proved to be a handicap to the symmetry of the experiment. It was possible, nevertheless, to find a good agreement between the measured and the numerically calculated temperatures. The mechanical stress measurements showed, as compared to the 2D-FE-calculations, that the measured stresses lay within the expected range. Fracturing was detected by means of seismic observations, especially after termination of the heating. Brine transport was ascertained using geoelectric four point -and self-potential measurements. The staining test showed no sharp fracturing of the rock salt, but a loosened-up zone at the grain boundaries impregnated with staining oil

  9. Investigation for determining the retention properties of rock over the ASSE II mine for dissolved radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a model consideration of groundwater movement and the associated transport of dissolved substance in deep groundwater, the retention properties of the ASSE II mine for radionuclides dissolved in water were determined. A series of properties of rocks were examined and described for this purpose. Apart from the chemical, mineralogical and petrophysical characteristics of the rocks, the retention was determined by 3 different methods and stated in the form of distribution coefficients for specific elements. A comparison of the results of vibration and diffusion experiments gave good agreement, while the results in through column experiments only reached the same order of magnitude after an expensive determination with the aid of a place concentration distribution. The distribution coefficients for the elements carbon, selenium, strontium, technetium, iodine, caesium, lead, radium, actinium, proto-actinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium are listed and collected for model rock packages. (orig./HP)

  10. The HAW-Project. Test disposal of highly radioactive radiation sources in the Asse salt mine. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to improve the final concept for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HAW) in boreholes drilled into salt formation plans were developed a couple of years ago for a full scale testing of the complete technical system of an underground repository. To satisfy the test objectives, thirty highly radioactive radiation sources were planned to be emplaced in six boreholes located in two test galleries at the 800-m-level in the Asse salt mine. A duration of testing of approximately five years was envisaged. Because of licensing uncertainties the German Federal Government decided on December 3rd, 1992 to stop all activities for the preparation of the test disposal immediately. In the course of the preparation of the test disposal, however, a system, necessary for handling of the radiation sources was developed and installed in the Asse salt mine and two non-radioactive reference tests with electrical heaters were started in November 1988. These tests served for the investigation of thermal effects in comparison to the planned radioactive tests. An accompanying scientific investigation programme performed in situ and in the laboratory comprises the estimation and observation of the thermal, radiation-induced, and mechanical interaction between the rock salt and the electrical heaters and the radiation sources, respectively. The laboratory investigations are carried out at Braunschweig (FRG), Petten (NL), Saclay (F) and Barcelona (E). As a consequence of the premature termination of the project the working programme was revised. The new programme agreed to by the project partners included a controlled shutdown of the heater tests in 1993 and a continuation of the laboratory activities until the end of 1994. (orig.)

  11. Evaluation of the participation process in the proceedings concerning the decommissioning of the Schachtanlage Asse II. Final report on 28-02-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final report on the participation process in the proceedings concerning the decommissioning of the Schachtanlage Asse II includes the following chapters: (1) Introduction. (2) Structure of the participation process: bodies and interaction of participants, financing. (3) Actual development of the proceeding: change of the operator, evaluation criteria, feasibility studies, comparison of options, environmental monitoring, health monitoring, tumor incidence, inventory, emergency plans, time schedule, fact finding, and enquiry commission. (4) Functioning of the support group (Asse II) and the working group. (5) Evaluation of the participation process for the reference date February 28, 2011.

  12. Characterization of hydraulic connections between mine shaft and caprock based on time series analysis of water level changes for the flooded Asse I salt mine in northern Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauchler, Ralf; Mettier, Ralph; Schulte, Peter [AF-Consult Switzerland AG, Baden (Switzerland); Fuehrboeter, Jens Fred [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Salzgitter (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    In the context of safe enclosure of nuclear waste in salt formations, one of the main challenges is potential water inflow into the excavations. In this context, the hydraulic relationship between the abandoned Asse I salt mine and the salt dissolution network at the base of the caprock of the Asse salt structure in northern Germany is characterized by utilizing time series analysis of water level changes. The data base comprises a time series of water level measurements over eight years with a temporal resolution of 15 minutes (in general) and up to 2 minutes for specific intervals. The water level measurements were collected in the shaft of the flooded mine, which is filled with ground rock salt until a depth of 140 m, and a deep well, which is screened in 240 m depth at the salt dissolution zone at the base of the caprock. The distance between the well and the shaft is several hundred meters. Since the beginning of the continuous observations in the 1970s, the shaft has shown periodically abrupt declines of the water level of several meters occurring in intervals of approx. 8 to 10 years. The time series analysis consists of trend, Fourier-, autocorrelation and cross-correlation analysis. The analysis showed that during times with small water level changes the measured water level in the well and the shaft are positively correlated whereas during the abrupt water level drops in the shaft, the measured water levels between the shaft and the well are negatively correlated. A potential explanation for this behavior is that during times with small changes, the measured water levels in the well and in the shaft are influenced by the same external events with similar response times. In contrast, during the abrupt water level decline events in the shaft, a negatively correlated pressure signal is induced in the well, which supports the assumption of a direct hydraulic connection between the shaft and the well via flooded excavations and the salt dissolution network

  13. Cyanoplatinate (II) salts as luminescent materials for scintillation counting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergsøe, P.; Hansen, P.Gregers; Jacobsen, C.F.

    1962-01-01

    described, and for two other salts information on the composition was lacking. Many of the salts are colorless and the luminescence is in most cases in the blue region. The measurements include light yield and decay time under excitation with fast electrons. Most of the salts were found to be efficient......Eleven cyanoplatinate (II) salts have been studied under excitation with fast, charged particles. The salts were prepared via the barium compound, and crystals were grown from aqueous solutions. The formulae were determined by standard analytical procedures. Four of the salts were not previously...

  14. Two different molecular conformations found in chitosan type II salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertworasirikul, Amornrat; Tsue, Shin-ichiro; Noguchi, Keiichi; Okuyama, Kenji; Ogawa, Kozo

    2003-05-23

    The type II structure of chitosan acidic salts prepared from crab tendon in solid state was studied using an X-ray fiber diffraction technique together with the linked-atom least-squares (LALS) technique. The cylindrical Patterson method was applied to confirm the molecular conformation of the chitosan. It was shown that there are two different helical conformations for type II salts. One is the relaxed twofold helix having a tetrasaccharide as an asymmetric unit as found in chitosan.HCl salt, which was previously reported as a conformation of chitosan.HCOOH salt. The other is the fourfold helix having a disaccharide as an asymmetric unit newly found in chitosan.HI salt.

  15. Risk considerations for a long-term open-state of the radioactive waste storage facility Schacht Asse II. Variation of the parameter sets for radio-ecological modeling using the Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk considerations for a long-term open-state of the radioactive waste storage facility Schacht Asse II include the following issues: description of radio-ecological models for the radionuclide transport in the covering rock formations and determination of the radiation exposure, parameters of the radio-ecological and their variability, Monte-Carlo method application. The results of the modeling calculations include the group short-living radionuclides, long-living radionuclides, radionuclides in the frame of decay chains and sensitivity analyses with respect to the correlation of input data and results.

  16. In-situ corrosion testing of selected HLW container materials under the conditions of the HLW test disposal in the Asse salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The materials investigated were: The corrosion resistant (passively corroding) materials Ti 99.8-Pd, Hastelloy C4, Nickel and Cr-Nr steel 1.4833, and the corrosion allowance (actively corroding) TStE 355 carbon steel. Specimens of the above-mentioned materials were stored for about five years in an electrically heated cased borehole at temperatures between 170 C and 190 C. The casing consisted of steel with corrosion protection of Ti 99.8-Pd. During the test duration, the specimens were exposed to water/brine and gases (mainly CO2, CH4 and H2) released from the rock salt or generated by corrosion (H2). The corrosion results indicate that the alloy Ti 99.8-Pd is highly resistant to pitting and crevice corrosion, and its general corrosion rate is negligible low (<0.1 μm/a). Nickel is subjected to non-uniform general corrosion, and its corrosion rate (13 μm/a) is clearly higher than that of Ti 99.8-Pd. The Cr-Ni steel 1.4833 investigated suffers from severe pitting corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. Therefore, the Cr-Ni steels must be excluded as material for long-lived containers. The Cr-Ni-Mo alloy Hastelloy C4 shows a high resistance to general corrosion, but the formation of some small pits on the specimen surface was observed. For this reason there is some doubt about the suitability of Hastelloy C4 as container material. The corrosion allowance (actively corroded) material carbon steel TStE 355 shows a good resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion, and its general corrosion rates (13-37 μ/a) imply corrosion allowance acceptable for thick-walled containers. In view of these results, the alloy Ti 99.8-Pd and the carbon steels continue to be considered as the most promising materials for the realization of the corrosion resistant and corrosion allowance container concept, respectively. Further indepth corrosion studies on these materials are in progress. (orig./MM)

  17. Computer thermal modeling for the Salt Rock II experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, O.L. Jr.

    1980-10-01

    The Salt Block II experiment consisted of a cylindrical block of bedded salt which was heated from within by a cylindrical electric heater. It was an extensively instrumented laboratory experiment that served, among other things, as a touchstone against which to measure the validity of a computer thermal model. The thermal model consisted of 282 nodes joined by 572 conductors, and was constructed for use with the CINDA heat transfer code. Both transient and steady-state temperature distributions within the salt were computed for heater power levels of 200, 400, 600, 1000 and 1500 watts. Temperature versus time plots are presented for 23 locations throughout the Block over a 58-day period. Comparisons of the model results and experimental results are shown for both transient and steady-state conditions. The computed steady-state results were used to develop equations describing both the temperature and the temperature derivative as functions of radial location.

  18. COSA II Further benchmark exercises to compare geomechanical computer codes for salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Project COSA (COmputer COdes COmparison for SAlt) was a benchmarking exercise involving the numerical modelling of the geomechanical behaviour of heated rock salt. Its main objective was to assess the current European capability to predict the geomechanical behaviour of salt, in the context of the disposal of heat-producing radioactive waste in salt formations. Twelve organisations participated in the exercise in which their solutions to a number of benchmark problems were compared. The project was organised in two distinct phases: The first, from 1984-1986, concentrated on the verification of the computer codes. The second, from 1986-1988 progressed to validation, using three in-situ experiments at the Asse research facility in West Germany as a basis for comparison. This document reports the activities of the second phase of the project and presents the results, assessments and conclusions

  19. Mercury Phase II Study - Mercury Behavior in Salt Processing Flowsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, V. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Shah, H. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States). Sludge and Salt Planning; Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Wilmarth, W. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-07-25

    Mercury (Hg) in the Savannah River Site Liquid Waste System (LWS) originated from decades of canyon processing where it was used as a catalyst for dissolving the aluminum cladding of reactor fuel. Approximately 60 metric tons of mercury is currently present throughout the LWS. Mercury has long been a consideration in the LWS, from both hazard and processing perspectives. In February 2015, a Mercury Program Team was established at the request of the Department of Energy to develop a comprehensive action plan for long-term management and removal of mercury. Evaluation was focused in two Phases. Phase I activities assessed the Liquid Waste inventory and chemical processing behavior using a system-by-system review methodology, and determined the speciation of the different mercury forms (Hg+, Hg++, elemental Hg, organomercury, and soluble versus insoluble mercury) within the LWS. Phase II activities are building on the Phase I activities, and results of the LWS flowsheet evaluations will be summarized in three reports: Mercury Behavior in the Salt Processing Flowsheet (i.e. this report); Mercury Behavior in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Flowsheet; and Mercury behavior in the Tank Farm Flowsheet (Evaporator Operations). The evaluation of the mercury behavior in the salt processing flowsheet indicates, inter alia, the following: (1) In the assembled Salt Batches 7, 8 and 9 in Tank 21, the total mercury is mostly soluble with methylmercury (MHg) contributing over 50% of the total mercury. Based on the analyses of samples from 2H Evaporator feed and drop tanks (Tanks 38/43), the source of MHg in Salt Batches 7, 8 and 9 can be attributed to the 2H evaporator concentrate used in assembling the salt batches. The 2H Evaporator is used to evaporate DWPF recycle water. (2) Comparison of data between Tank 21/49, Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), and Tank 50 samples suggests that the total mercury as well as speciated

  20. Degradation of the Bile Salt Export Pump at Endoplasmic Reticulum in Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis Type II (PFIC II)

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lin; Dong, Huiping; Soroka, Carol J.; WEI, NING; Boyer, James L.; Hochstrasser, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The bile salt export pump (Bsep) represents the major bile salt transport system at the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes. When examined in model cell lines, genetic mutations in the BSEP gene impair its targeting and transport function, contributing to the pathogenesis of PFIC II. PFIC II mutations are known to lead to a deficiency of BSEP in human hepatocytes, suggesting that PFIC II mutants are unstable and degraded in the cell. To investigate this further, we have characterized the impa...

  1. Diversion of aspartate in ASS1-deficient tumours fosters de novo pyrimidine synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Shiran; Adler, Lital; Yizhak, Keren; Sarver, Alona; Silberman, Alon; Agron, Shani; Stettner, Noa; Sun, Qin; Brandis, Alexander; Helbling, Daniel; Korman, Stanley; Itzkovitz, Shalev; Dimmock, David; Ulitsky, Igor; Nagamani, Sandesh C S; Ruppin, Eytan; Erez, Ayelet

    2015-11-19

    Cancer cells hijack and remodel existing metabolic pathways for their benefit. Argininosuccinate synthase (ASS1) is a urea cycle enzyme that is essential in the conversion of nitrogen from ammonia and aspartate to urea. A decrease in nitrogen flux through ASS1 in the liver causes the urea cycle disorder citrullinaemia. In contrast to the well-studied consequences of loss of ASS1 activity on ureagenesis, the purpose of its somatic silencing in multiple cancers is largely unknown. Here we show that decreased activity of ASS1 in cancers supports proliferation by facilitating pyrimidine synthesis via CAD (carbamoyl-phosphate synthase 2, aspartate transcarbamylase, and dihydroorotase complex) activation. Our studies were initiated by delineating the consequences of loss of ASS1 activity in humans with two types of citrullinaemia. We find that in citrullinaemia type I (CTLN I), which is caused by deficiency of ASS1, there is increased pyrimidine synthesis and proliferation compared with citrullinaemia type II (CTLN II), in which there is decreased substrate availability for ASS1 caused by deficiency of the aspartate transporter citrin. Building on these results, we demonstrate that ASS1 deficiency in cancer increases cytosolic aspartate levels, which increases CAD activation by upregulating its substrate availability and by increasing its phosphorylation by S6K1 through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Decreasing CAD activity by blocking citrin, the mTOR signalling, or pyrimidine synthesis decreases proliferation and thus may serve as a therapeutic strategy in multiple cancers where ASS1 is downregulated. Our results demonstrate that ASS1 downregulation is a novel mechanism supporting cancerous proliferation, and they provide a metabolic link between the urea cycle enzymes and pyrimidine synthesis.

  2. Study of Interaction Platinum Salts (Ii and Palladium (Ii on the Biologically Active Ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmat Nizami Kyzy Azizova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Studied complexing ability of platinum (II and palladium (II with a time of personal gray-oxygen and sulfur-containing ligands donor nitrogens in different taniyah. A combination of functional groups. It is found that the complexation unimportant role nature of the starting metal salts, the pH of the medium, the nature of the solvent and the ratio of reactants. Determine the actual denticity tiodiuksusnoy, tiodipro propionic acid, mercaptoethanol, and bis -- hydroxyethyl sulfide. Discovered that a molecule entering the reaction of cysteamine origin walks splitting S–S communication and the resulting deproto-bined mercamine enter into complexation. In non-aqueous medium splitting S–S communication occurs.

  3. Le décret du 14 frimaire an II sur l’assèchement des étangs  : folles espérances et piètres résultats. L’application du décret en Brie

    OpenAIRE

    Derex, Jean-Michel

    2006-01-01

    Le décret du 14 frimaire an II décidait l’assèchement de tous les étangs de la République. Voté pour des raisons de circonstances autant qu’idéologiques, il faut aussi replacer cette décision dans la politique d’assèchement menée depuis le milieu du xviiie siècle. Menée d’une manière brutale et précipitée, l’application du décret suscita de nombreuses oppositions dans le pays. Elle révéla la mauvaise appréciation de la réalité hydrologique des milieux politiques parisiens....

  4. Brine migration test for Asse Mine, Federal Republic of Germany: final test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States and the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) will conduct a brine migration test in the Asse Salt Mine in the FRG as part of the US/FRG Cooperative Radioactive Waste Management Agreement. Two sets of two tests each will be conducted to study both liquid inclusion migration and vapor migration in the two salt types chosen for the experiments: (1) pure salt, for its characteristics similar to the salt that might occur in potential US repositories, and (2) transitional salt, for its similarity to the salt that might occur in potential repositories in Germany

  5. Brine migration test for Asse Mine, Federal Republic of Germany: final test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-07-01

    The United States and the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) will conduct a brine migration test in the Asse Salt Mine in the FRG as part of the US/FRG Cooperative Radioactive Waste Management Agreement. Two sets of two tests each will be conducted to study both liquid inclusion migration and vapor migration in the two salt types chosen for the experiments: (1) pure salt, for its characteristics similar to the salt that might occur in potential US repositories, and (2) transitional salt, for its similarity to the salt that might occur in potential repositories in Germany.

  6. Mercury Phase II Study - Mercury Behavior in Salt Processing Flowsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, V. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Shah, H. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States). Sludge and Salt Planning; Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Wilmarth, W. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-07-25

    Mercury (Hg) in the Savannah River Site Liquid Waste System (LWS) originated from decades of canyon processing where it was used as a catalyst for dissolving the aluminum cladding of reactor fuel. Approximately 60 metric tons of mercury is currently present throughout the LWS. Mercury has long been a consideration in the LWS, from both hazard and processing perspectives. In February 2015, a Mercury Program Team was established at the request of the Department of Energy to develop a comprehensive action plan for long term management and removal of mercury. Evaluation was focused in two Phases. Phase I activities assessed the Liquid Waste inventory and chemical processing behavior using a system by system review methodology and determined the speciation of the different mercury forms (Hg+, Hg++, elemental Hg, organomercury, and soluble versus insoluble mercury) within the LWS. The evaluation of the mercury behavior in the salt processing flowsheet indicates: • In the assembled Salt Batches 7, 8 and 9 in Tank 21, the total mercury is mostly soluble with methylmercury (MHg) contributing over 50% of the total mercury. Based on the analyses of samples from 2H Evaporator feed and drop tanks (Tanks 38/43), the source of MHg in Salt Batches 7, 8 and 9 can be attributed to the 2H evaporator concentrate used in assembling the salt batches. The 2H Evaporator is used to evaporate DWPF recycle water. • Comparison of data between Tank 21/49, Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), and Tank 50 samples suggests that the total mercury as well as speciated forms in the assembled salt batches in Tanks 21/49 pass through the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) / Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) process to Tank 50 with no significant change in the mercury chemistry. • In Tank 50, Decontaminated Salt Solution (DSS) from ARP/MCU is the major contributor to the total mercury including MHg. More information can be found about what

  7. HLW Salt Disposition Alternatives Preconceptual Phase II Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piccolo, S.F.

    1999-07-09

    The purpose of the report is to summarize the process used to identify the Short List alternatives that will be evaluated during Phase III and to document the results of the selection process. The Phase III evaluation will result in the determination of the preferred alternative(s) to be used for final disposition of the HLW salt to a permitted waste form.

  8. Nuclear waste repository simulation experiments (brine migration), Asse Mine of the Federal Republic of Germany: Quarterly brine migration data report, October--December 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tenth brine migration data report describes experiments simulating a nuclear waste repository at the 800-m (2624-ft) level of the Asse Salt Mine in the Federal Republic of Germany from May 1983 through December 1985. This report describes the test equipment, the Asse Salt Mine, and the pretest properties of the salt in the test gallery. This report includes test data for 31 months of operations on brine migration rates, borehole pressure, salt temperatures and thermomechanical behavior of the salt. 3 refs., 118 figs., 93 tabs

  9. Quarterly brine migration data report, May-September 1983: Nuclear Waste Repository simulation experiments (brine migration), Asse Mine of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first quarterly brine migration data report describes experiments simulating a nuclear waste repository at the 800-m (2624-ft) level of the Asse Salt Mine in the Federal Republic of Germany from May 1983 through September 1983. This report describes the test equipment, the Asse Salt Mine, and the pretest properties of the salt in the test gallery. This report also includes test data for the first 4 months of operations on brine migration rates, borehole pressure, salt temperatures, and thermomechanical behavior of the salt. The duration of the experiments will be approximately 2 years, ending in December 1985. 83 figs., 55 tabs

  10. Discharge of RVLM vasomotor neurons is not increased in anesthetized angiotensin II-salt hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrino, Gustavo R; Calderon, Alfredo S; Andrade, Mary Ann; Cravo, Sergio L; Toney, Glenn M

    2013-12-01

    Neurons of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) are critical for generating and regulating sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). Systemic administration of ANG II combined with a high-salt diet induces hypertension that is postulated to involve elevated SNA. However, a functional role for RVLM vasomotor neurons in ANG II-salt hypertension has not been established. Here we tested the hypothesis that RVLM vasomotor neurons have exaggerated resting discharge in rats with ANG II-salt hypertension. Rats in the hypertensive (HT) group consumed a high-salt (2% NaCl) diet and received an infusion of ANG II (150 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1) sc) for 14 days. Rats in the normotensive (NT) group consumed a normal salt (0.4% NaCl) diet and were infused with normal saline. Telemetric recordings in conscious rats revealed that mean arterial pressure (MAP) was significantly increased in HT compared with NT rats (P chloralose), MAP remained elevated in HT compared with NT rats (P < 0.01). Extracellular single unit recordings in HT (n = 28) and NT (n = 22) rats revealed that barosensitive RVLM neurons in both groups (HT, 23 cells; NT, 34 cells) had similar cardiac rhythmicity and resting discharge. However, a greater (P < 0.01) increase of MAP was needed to silence discharge of neurons in HT (17 cells, 44 ± 5 mmHg) than in NT (28 cells, 29 ± 3 mmHg) rats. Maximum firing rates during arterial baroreceptor unloading were similar across groups. We conclude that heightened resting discharge of sympathoexcitatory RVLM neurons is not required for maintenance of neurogenic ANG II-salt hypertension. PMID:24124187

  11. Determining the extragalactic extinction law with SALT - II. Additional sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, Ido; Brosch, Noah; Kniazev, Alexei Y.; Väisänen, Petri; Buckley, David A. H.; O'Donoghue, Darragh; Gulbis, Amanda; Hashimoto, Yas; Loaring, Nicola; Romero-Colmenero, Encarni; Sefako, Ramotholo

    2010-12-01

    We present new results from an ongoing programme to study the dust extragalactic extinction law in E/S0 galaxies with dust lanes with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) during its performance verification phase. The wavelength dependence of the dust extinction for seven galaxies is derived in six spectral bands ranging from the near-ultraviolet atmospheric cut-off to the near-infrared. The derivation of an extinction law is performed by fitting model galaxies to the unextinguished parts of the image in each spectral band, and subtracting from these the actual images. We compare our results with the derived extinction law in the Galaxy and find them to run parallel to the Galactic extinction curve with a mean total-to-selective extinction value of RV = 2.71 +/- 0.43. We use total optical extinction values to estimate the dust mass for each galaxy, compare these with dust masses derived from IRAS measurements, and find them to range from 104 to 107 Msolar. We study the case of the well-known dust-lane galaxy NGC2685 for which Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (HST/WFPC2) data are available to test the dust distribution on different scales. Our results imply a scale-free dust distribution across the dust lanes, at least within ~1arcsec (~60 pc) regions. Based on observations made with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). E-mail: ido@wise.tau.ac.il (IF); noah@wise.tau.ac.il (NB); akniazev@saao.ac.za (AYK); petri@saao.ac.za (PV); dibnob@saao.ac.za (DAHB); dod@saao.ac.za (DO); amanda@saao.ac.za (AG); hashimot@ntnu.edu.tw (YH); nsl@saao.ac.za (NL); erc@saao.ac.za (ER-C); rrs@saao.ac.za (RS)

  12. Copper(II)-salt-promoted oxidative ring-opening reactions of bicyclic cyclopropanol derivatives via radical pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Hasegawa, Eietsu; Tateyama, Minami; Nagumo, Ryosuke; Tayama, Eiji; Iwamoto, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    Copper(II)-salt-promoted oxidative ring-opening reactions of bicyclic cyclopropanol derivatives were investigated. The regioselectivities of these processes were found to be influenced by the structure of cyclopropanols as well as the counter anion of the copper(II) salts. A mechanism involving rearrangement reactions of radical intermediates and their competitive trapping by copper ions is proposed.

  13. Copper(II-salt-promoted oxidative ring-opening reactions of bicyclic cyclopropanol derivatives via radical pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eietsu Hasegawa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Copper(II-salt-promoted oxidative ring-opening reactions of bicyclic cyclopropanol derivatives were investigated. The regioselectivities of these processes were found to be influenced by the structure of cyclopropanols as well as the counter anion of the copper(II salts. A mechanism involving rearrangement reactions of radical intermediates and their competitive trapping by copper ions is proposed.

  14. Some remarks on the African wild ass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemmel, van A.C.V.

    1972-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Without any doubt the African Wild Ass should be considered a species threatened with extinction. Therefore, it seems worth-while to collect as many data on this species as possible and to do this quickly. Data and material, however, are scarce. Many sportsmen and zoologists observed th

  15. Determination of high volatile components from triassic sediments from Asse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During site investigations in the area of ASSE salt mine a number of drillings had been carried out, to investigate the geological and hydrogeological situation. Additional to investigations to determine the chemical, mineralogical and petrophysical properties of the rocks, radionuclide retention properties also had been determined. Thereby some of the rocks fixed iodine unusually high. Within the time this property reduced permanently and continually. So it was obvious that volatile matter was the reason for this behaviour. To prove this during the drillings at borehole R7 rock samples had been taken after cleaning at the drilling site. These samples were stored in leak proof containers to insure a similar degassing period for all rocks. Additional to chemical and mineralogical compositions the release of volatile matter had been determined on the basis of the free, mechanical, and thermal degassing. (orig./RB)

  16. Deep borehole investigations on the southwest side of the Asse anticline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of five deep borings on the south-west side of the Asse anticline, the roof rock strata series in the vicinity of the mine building erected eastwestwards, and potentials aquiferous geologic horizons were investigated. A seismic cross profile gives a survey of the whole geologic structure of the Asse salt mine. Geologic and hydrogeologic explorations of the roof rock were carried out to analyse the characteristic formation and stratification of the rock strata adjacent to the Zechstein salt anticline in respect of their water-carrying and water-impounding features, as well as the saliniferous interstratification in the Keuper, Middle Shell-lime and Upper Bunter. Geomechanic and sediment-petrographic laboratory investigations on drill cores made it possible to determine the stiffness and jointing of the roof rock strata. Using borehole measurements, rock parameters measured in situ by geophysical methods were determined and the roof rock lithology described. (HP)

  17. Cosmological Parameter Uncertainties from SALT-II Type Ia Supernova Light Curve Models

    CERN Document Server

    Mosher, J; Kessler, R; Astier, P; Marriner, J; Betoule, M; Sako, M; El-Hage, P; Biswas, R; Pain, R; Kuhlmann, S; Regnault, N; Frieman, J A; Schneider, D P

    2014-01-01

    We use simulated SN Ia samples, including both photometry and spectra, to perform the first direct validation of cosmology analysis using the SALT-II light curve model. This validation includes residuals from the light curve training process, systematic biases in SN Ia distance measurements, and the bias on the dark energy equation of state parameter w. Using the SN-analysis package SNANA, we simulate and analyze realistic samples corresponding to the data samples used in the SNLS3 analysis: 120 low-redshift (z < 0.1) SNe Ia, 255 SDSS SNe Ia (z < 0.4), and 290 SNLS SNe Ia (z <= 1). To probe systematic uncertainties in detail, we vary the input spectral model, the model of intrinsic scatter, and the smoothing (i.e., regularization) parameters used during the SALT-II model training. Using realistic intrinsic scatter models results in a slight bias in the ultraviolet portion of the trained SALT-II model, and w biases (winput - wrecovered) ranging from -0.005 +/- 0.012 to -0.024 +/- 0.010. These biases a...

  18. Cosmological Parameter Uncertainties from SALT-II Type Ia Supernova Light Curve Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosher, J. [Pennsylvania U.; Guy, J. [LBL, Berkeley; Kessler, R. [Chicago U., KICP; Astier, P. [Paris U., VI-VII; Marriner, J. [Fermilab; Betoule, M. [Paris U., VI-VII; Sako, M. [Pennsylvania U.; El-Hage, P. [Paris U., VI-VII; Biswas, R. [Argonne; Pain, R. [Paris U., VI-VII; Kuhlmann, S. [Argonne; Regnault, N. [Paris U., VI-VII; Frieman, J. A. [Fermilab; Schneider, D. P. [Penn State U.

    2014-08-29

    We use simulated type Ia supernova (SN Ia) samples, including both photometry and spectra, to perform the first direct validation of cosmology analysis using the SALT-II light curve model. This validation includes residuals from the light curve training process, systematic biases in SN Ia distance measurements, and a bias on the dark energy equation of state parameter w. Using the SN-analysis package SNANA, we simulate and analyze realistic samples corresponding to the data samples used in the SNLS3 analysis: ~120 low-redshift (z < 0.1) SNe Ia, ~255 Sloan Digital Sky Survey SNe Ia (z < 0.4), and ~290 SNLS SNe Ia (z ≤ 1). To probe systematic uncertainties in detail, we vary the input spectral model, the model of intrinsic scatter, and the smoothing (i.e., regularization) parameters used during the SALT-II model training. Using realistic intrinsic scatter models results in a slight bias in the ultraviolet portion of the trained SALT-II model, and w biases (w (input) – w (recovered)) ranging from –0.005 ± 0.012 to –0.024 ± 0.010. These biases are indistinguishable from each other within the uncertainty, the average bias on w is –0.014 ± 0.007.

  19. Cosmological parameter uncertainties from SALT-II type Ia supernova light curve models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use simulated type Ia supernova (SN Ia) samples, including both photometry and spectra, to perform the first direct validation of cosmology analysis using the SALT-II light curve model. This validation includes residuals from the light curve training process, systematic biases in SN Ia distance measurements, and a bias on the dark energy equation of state parameter w. Using the SN-analysis package SNANA, we simulate and analyze realistic samples corresponding to the data samples used in the SNLS3 analysis: ∼120 low-redshift (z < 0.1) SNe Ia, ∼255 Sloan Digital Sky Survey SNe Ia (z < 0.4), and ∼290 SNLS SNe Ia (z ≤ 1). To probe systematic uncertainties in detail, we vary the input spectral model, the model of intrinsic scatter, and the smoothing (i.e., regularization) parameters used during the SALT-II model training. Using realistic intrinsic scatter models results in a slight bias in the ultraviolet portion of the trained SALT-II model, and w biases (w input – w recovered) ranging from –0.005 ± 0.012 to –0.024 ± 0.010. These biases are indistinguishable from each other within the uncertainty; the average bias on w is –0.014 ± 0.007.

  20. Region-specific changes in sympathetic nerve activity in angiotensin II-salt hypertension in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, John W; Fink, Gregory D

    2010-01-01

    It is now well accepted that many forms of experimental hypertension and human essential hypertension are caused by increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system. However, the role of region-specific changes in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in the pathogenesis of hypertension has been difficult to determine because methods for chronic measurement of SNA in conscious animals have not been available. We have recently combined indirect, and continuous and chronic direct, assessment of region-specific SNA to characterize hypertension produced by administration of angiotensin II (Ang II) to rats consuming a high-salt diet (Ang II-salt hypertension). Angiotensin II increases whole-body noradrenaline (NA) spillover and depressor responses to ganglionic blockade in rats consuming a high-salt diet, but not in rats on a normal-salt diet. Despite this evidence for increased 'whole-body SNA' in Ang II-salt hypertensive rats, renal SNA is decreased in this model and renal denervation does not attenuate the steady-state level of arterial pressure. In addition, neither lumbar SNA, which largely targets skeletal muscle, nor hindlimb NA spillover is changed from control levels in Ang II-salt hypertensive rats. However, surgical denervation of the splanchnic vascular bed attenuates/abolishes the increase in arterial pressure and total peripheral resistance, as well as the decrease in vascular capacitance, observed in Ang II-salt hypertensive rats. We hypothesize that the 'sympathetic signature' of Ang II-salt hypertension is characterized by increased splanchnic SNA, no change in skeletal muscle SNA and decreased renal SNA, and this sympathetic signature creates unique haemodynamic changes capable of producing sustained hypertension. PMID:19717492

  1. High-salt diet combined with elevated angiotensin II accelerates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Maria E; Bernberg, Evelina; Andersson, Irene J;

    2009-01-01

    to atherosclerosis. METHODS: Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice received standard or high-salt diet (8%) alone or in combination with fixed angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion (0.5 microg/kg per min). BP was measured using telemetry, and plaque burden was assessed in the thoracic aorta and innominate artery. We...

  2. The role of bile salt export pump mutations in progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type II

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lin; Soroka, Carol J.; Boyer, James L.

    2002-01-01

    PFIC II is a subtype of progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) that is associated with mutations in the ABCB11 gene encoding the bile salt export pump (BSEP). However it is not known how these mutations cause this disease. To evaluate these mechanisms, we introduced seven PFIC II–associated missense mutations into rat Bsep and assessed their effects on Bsep membrane localization and transport function in MDCK and Sf9 cells, respectively. Five mutations, G238V, E297G, G982R, R115...

  3. Hydroxy double salts intercalated with Mn(II) complexes as potential contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Miao; Li, Wanjing; Spillane, Dominic E. M.; Geraldes, Carlos F. G. C.; Williams, Gareth R.; Bligh, S. W. Annie

    2016-03-01

    A series of Mn(II) aminophosphonate complexes were successfully synthesized and intercalated into the hydroxy double salt [Zn5(OH)8]Cl2·yH2O. Complex incorporation led to an increase in the interlayer spacing from 7.8 to 10-12 Å. Infrared spectroscopy showed the presence of the characteristic vibration peaks of the Mn(II) complexes in the intercalates' spectra, indicating successful incorporation. The complex-loaded composites had somewhat lower proton relaxivities than the pure complexes. Nevertheless, these intercalates may have use as MRI contrast agents for patients with poor kidney function, where traditional Gd(III)-based contrast agents cause severe renal failure.

  4. Interaction of molybdophosphates with palladium(II) salts in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methods of electron and 31P NMR spectroscopies were used to study the interaction of H3PMo12O40 with H2PdCl4 or PdSO4 in aqueous solution at pH 3.0-4.5 and the ratio [Pd(II)]:[H3PMo12O40]=1:1. Palladium(II) remains in solution in the form of intensely colored hydroxo species and does not change the structure of the newly formed unsaturated heteropolymolybdates PMo11O397- and PMo9O349- as shown by NMR data. Heteropoly compounds precipitated from tetrabutylammonium or cesium salts were characterized using IR spectroscopy, differential dissolution and elemental analysis. It was found that the composition of a compound was affected by not only formation conditions in the solution but also the precipitant cation

  5. Subsea salt flows in the Atlantis II Deep and Thetis Deep, Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldens, P.; Schmidt, M.; Mitchell, N.; Basaham, A. S.

    2012-04-01

    In the area of today's Red Sea, evaporites were widely deposited during the Miocene. Due to the ongoing rifting and seafloor spreading, the evaporites have lost their lateral constraint and started to move downslope. High sediment temperatures near the Red Sea graben and the weak rheology of halite may also favour evaporite movement. However, the deformation mechanism as well as the velocity of these flows is largely unknown. New high-resolution multibeam and seismic data were recorded in March 2011 (P408-2 cruise) within the framework of the project "The Jeddah Transect", a cooperation between King Abdulaziz University, Saudi-Arabia and GEOMAR, Germany. The data give new insights into evaporite flows in the area of the Atlantis II Deep. This ~400 m deep seafloor depression is located at about 21°N in the central Red Sea graben and is partly filled with hot saline brine (T~68°C, S~270‰). The brine-seawater interface at about 2050 mbsl coincides with the depth of a subseafloor salt layer in the seismic reflection data. The rough seafloor morphology of the Atlantis II Deep area is dominated by a sequence of normal faults showing vertical offsets of several hundred meters. However, SW-NE directed lineaments parallel to the seafloor gradient in the south east and possibly north-west of the deep, with typical heights between 20 and 40 m, widths between 300 and 1000 m and lengths exceeding 10 km in places, are interpreted as surface indications of subsurface evaporite flow. The fronts of some of these flows are well rounded, and their occurrence is limited to areas of low seafloor gradients. Generally, the appearance of evaporite flows in the Atlantis II Deep is comparable to salt flows in the Thetis Deep at ~23°N (Mitchell et al., 2010). Furthermore, deformed hemipelagic layers deposited on top of the Miocene evaporites indicate salt movement 60 km off the central rift axis. A second research cruise is planned in March 2012 (RV Pelagia) to obtain more high

  6. BIS(4-FLUOROPHENYLSULFONYLDITHIOCARBIMATOZINCATE(II SALTS: NEW ANTIFUNGALS FOR THE CONTROL OF Botrytis BLIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre A. Oliveira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis blight or gray mold is a highly destructive disease caused by Botrytis spp., that infects flowers, trees vegetables, fruit, especially grapevines and strawberry. Three new compounds with general formula (A2[Zn(4-FC6H4SO2N=CS22], where A = PPh3CH3 (2a, PPh3C2H5 (2b, PPh3C4H9 (2c, and the previously published compounds where A = PPh4 (2d and NBu4 (2e, were synthesized by the reaction of 4-fluorophenylsulfonyldithiocarbimate potassium dihydrate and zinc(II acetate dihydrate with the appropriate counter cations (A halides. The new compounds were characterized by infrared, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopies. All these salts inhibited the growth of Botrytis cinerea, with compounds 2c and 2d showing greater antifungal activity than zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate, the active principle of the fungicide Ziram. The bis(dithiocarbimatezincate(II salts are also active against the bacteria Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

  7. SN2-type ring opening of substituted--tosylaziridines with zinc (II) halides: Control of racemization by quaternary ammonium salt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manas K Ghorai; Deo Prakash Tiwari; Amit Kumar; Kalpataru Das

    2011-11-01

    Quaternary ammonium salt mediated highly regioselective ring opening of aziridines with zinc(II) halides to racemic and non-racemic -halo amines in excellent yield and selectivity is described. The reaction proceeds via an SN2-type pathway and the partial racemization of the starting substrate and the product was effectively controlled by using quaternary ammonium salts to afford the enantioenriched products (er up to 95:5).

  8. Plausible molecular and crystal structures of chitosan/HI type II salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertworasirikul, Amornrat; Noguchi, Keiichi; Ogawa, Kozo; Okuyama, Kenji

    2004-03-15

    Chitosan/HI type II salt prepared from crab tendon was investigated by X-ray fiber diffraction. Two polymer chains and 16 iodide ions (I(-)) crystallized in a tetragonal unit cell with lattice parameters of a = b = 10.68(3), c (fiber axis) = 40.77(13) A, and a space group P4(1). Chitosan forms a fourfold helix with a 40.77 A fiber period having a disaccharide as the helical asymmetric unit. One of the O-3... O-5 intramolecular hydrogen bonds at the glycosidic linkage is weakened by interacting with iodide ions, which seems to cause the polymer to take the 4/1-helical symmetry rather than the extended 2/1-helix. The plausible orientations of two O-6 atoms in the helical asymmetric unit were found to be gt and gg. Two chains are running through at the corner and the center of the unit cell along the c-axis. They are linked by hydrogen bonds between N-21 and O-61 atoms. Two out of four independent iodide ions are packed between the corner chains while the other two are packed between the corner and center chains when viewing through the ab-plane. The crystal structure of the salt is stabilized by hydrogen bonds between these iodide ions and N-21, N-22, O-32, O-61, O-62 of the polymer chains.

  9. Nuclear waste repository simulation experiments (brine migration), Asse Mine of the Federal of Germany: Quarterly brine migration data report, July-September 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fifth brine migration data status report describes experiments simulating a nuclear waste repository at the 800-m (2624-ft) level of the Asse Salt Mine in the Federal Republic of Germany from May 1983 through September 1984. This report describes the test equipment, the Asse Salt Mine, and the pretest properties of the salt in the test gallery. This report also includes test data for the first 16 months of operations on brine migration rates, borehole pressure, salt temperatures, and thermomechanical behavior of the salt. Annual reports have been prepared for the years 1983 and 1984, describing the test activities on a yearly basis (Rothfuchs et al., 1984, 1986). The duration of the experiments will be approximately 2 years, ending in December 1985. 2 refs., 118 figs., 91 tabs

  10. The Asse. On inconvenient truths and the suppression of disagreeable principles; Die Asse. Ueber unbequeme Wahrheiten und das Verdraengen unliebsamer Prinzipien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gellermann, Rainer

    2016-08-01

    The retrieval of radioactive wastes and the closure of the repository Asse II is a very complex project: not only with respect to technical aspects but also with respect to public information. The information brochure no 29 edited by the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz BfS is dealing with the rather philosophic questions knowledge and truth. The German expert on constitutional law Peter Bull answered to the question whether subjectively assumed health hazards could inhibit a reasonable solution: it has to be expected from the public to bear inconvenient truth. Clarification is necessary instead of wrong populism and suppression of obnoxious findings.

  11. Alkaloids of Nitraria sibirica Pall. decrease hypertension and albuminuria in angiotensin II-salt hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakri, Mahinur; Yi, Yang; Chen, Ling-Dan; Aisa, Haji Akber; Wang, Mong-Heng

    2014-04-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine, Nitraria sibirica Pall. (Nitrariaceae) is used to treat hypertension. This study determined the effects of the total alkaloids of the leaves of Nitraria sibirica (NSTA) on blood pressure and albuminuria in mice treated with angiotensin II and a high-salt diet (ANG/HS). Adult mice were divided into three groups: control; infused with angiotensin II and fed a diet containing 4% NaCl (ANG/HS; and ANG/HS plus injection of NSTA (1 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), i.p.). After treatment of these regimens, daily water and food intake, kidney weight, blood pressure, urinary albumin excretion, renal concentrations of inflammatory markers, including soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and the expression of renal fibrosis markers were determined. Compared to the control group, the ANG/HS group had higher blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion. Treatment with NSTA in ANG/HS mice for three weeks significantly reduced blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion. ANG/HS treatment caused elevated levels of sICAM-1 and MCP-1, as well as increased fibrosis markers. Concurrent treatment with ANG/HS and NSTA attenuated the levels and expression of renal inflammatory and fibrosis markers. Treatment with NSTA effectively reduces hypertension-induced albuminuria through the reduction of renal inflammatory and fibrosis markers. PMID:24863351

  12. Electrochemical Behavior of Europium(III)-Europium(II) in LiF-NaF-KF Molten Salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transformation of Eu(III) to Eu(II) was confirmed in a fluoride eutectic, LiF-NaF-KF (46.5-11.5-42.0 mol%, FLiNaK) molten salt during a treatment of high temperature as high as 1023 K. The coexistence of Eu(III)-Eu(II) was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and voltammetry method, and their concentrations were measured. The electrochemical behavior of Eu(III) and Eu(II) in the fluoride salt was investigated. The mechanism of the electrode reaction was determined using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). The results indicated a one-electron exchange process, corresponding to the reduction of Eu(III) to Eu(II) and the oxidation of Eu(II) to Eu(III). This process is reversible and diffusion-controlled. The diffusion coefficients (D) of Eu(III) and Eu(II) were determined using the conventional CV by changing the scanning rate and a modified method by changing the area of the working electrode successively. The values obtained by these two different methods were consistent. The temperature dependence of diffusion coefficient was investigated, and the activation energies of diffusion process were calculated to be 38.9 ± 4.6 kJ mol-1 for Eu(III) and 34.7 ± 1.6 kJ mol-1 for Eu(II), respectively

  13. High-Level Waste Salt Disposition Systems Engineering Team Final Report, Volumes I, II, and III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the process used and results obtained by the High Level Waste Salt Disposition Systems Engineering Team to select a primary and backup alternative salt disposition method for the Savannah River Site

  14. RADIATION EFFECTS IN PHYSICAL AGING OF BINARY As-S AND As-Se GLASSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced physical aging effects are studied in binary AsxS100-x and AsxSe100-x (30 (le) x (le) 42) glasses by conventional differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) method. It is shown that γ-irradiation (Co60 source, ∼ 3 MGy dose) of glassy AsxS100-x caused a measurable increase in glass transition temperature and endothermic peak area in the vicinity of glass transition region, which was associated with acceleration of structural relaxation processes in these materials. In contrast to sulfide glasses, the samples of As-Se family did not exhibit any significant changes in DSC curves after γ-irradiation. The observed difference in radiation-induced physical aging between sulfides and selenides was explained by more effective destruction-polymerization transformations and possible metastable defects formation in S-based glassy network.

  15. RADIATION EFFECTS IN PHYSICAL AGING OF BINARY As-S AND As-Se GLASSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovchak, Roman; Shpotyuk, O.; Kozdras, A.; Riley, Brian J.; Sundaram, S. K.; McCloy, John S.

    2011-01-24

    Radiation-induced physical aging effects are studied in binary AsxS100-x and AsxSe100-x (30 ≤ x ≤ 42) glasses by conventional differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) method. It is shown that γ-irradiation (Co60 source, ~ 3 MGy dose) of glassy AsxS100-x caused a measurable increase in glass transition temperature and endothermic peak area in the vicinity of glass transition region, which was associated with acceleration of structural relaxation processes in these materials. In contrast to sulfide glasses, the samples of As-Se family did not exhibit any significant changes in DSC curves after γ-irradiation. The observed difference in radiation-induced physical aging between sulfides and selenides was explained by more effective destruction-polymerization transformations and possible metastable defects formation in S-based glassy network.

  16. Low-Salt Diet and Circadian Dysfunction Synergize to Induce Angiotensin II-Dependent Hypertension in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Paramita; Fulton, David J R; Bagi, Zsolt; Chen, Feng; Wang, Yusi; Kitchens, Julia; Cassis, Lisa A; Stepp, David W; Rudic, R Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Blood pressure exhibits a robust circadian rhythm in health. In hypertension, sleep apnea, and even shift work, this balanced rhythm is perturbed via elevations in night-time blood pressure, inflicting silent damage to the vasculature and body organs. Herein, we examined the influence of circadian dysfunction during experimental hypertension in mice. Using radiotelemetry to measure ambulatory blood pressure and activity, the effects of angiotensin II administration were studied in wild-type (WT) and period isoform knockout (KO) mice (Per2-KO, Per2, 3-KO, and Per1, 2, 3-KO/Per triple KO [TKO] mice). On a normal diet, administration of angiotensin II caused nondipping blood pressure and exacerbated vascular hypertrophy in the Period isoform KO mice relative to WT mice. To study the endogenous effects of angiotensin II stimulation, we then administered a low-salt diet to the mice, which does stimulate endogenous angiotensin II in addition to lowering blood pressure. A low-salt diet decreased blood pressure in wild-type mice. In contrast, Period isoform KO mice lost their circadian rhythm in blood pressure on a low-salt diet, because of an increase in resting blood pressure, which was restorable to rhythmicity by the angiotensin receptor blocker losartan. Chronic administration of low salt caused vascular hypertrophy in Period isoform KO mice, which also exhibited increased renin levels and altered angiotensin 1 receptor expression. These data suggest that circadian clock genes may act to inhibit or control renin/angiotensin signaling. Moreover, circadian disorders such as sleep apnea and shift work may alter the homeostatic responses to sodium restriction to potentially influence nocturnal hypertension.

  17. Leptin in milk and plasma of dairy asses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fantuz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Milk and plasma leptin levels have been studied in dairy asses machine milked according to two different routines: 20 pregnant, pluriparous asses, were divided into two groups subjected, every 28 d for 150 d, to two consecutive milkings carried out at different intervals, i.e. 20 vs. 4 hours interval, respectively for group A and group B. During the study, the declining total milk obtained by machine milking was unaffected by the different milking strategies; body condition score of asses as well did not vary between the groups. Different milking intervals did not significantly influence skimmed milk leptin content neither plasma leptin level. Moreover, we did not find significant variation in plasma leptin neither correlation with BCS, indicating that in donkey pregnancy inhibits the cross talk between hypothalamus and adipose tissue.

  18. Drilling surveillance and geomechanical experiments in deep boreholes in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the CEC Programme on Radioactive Waste Disposal (1985-1990), in situ experiments in the Asse II salt mine in Germany are conducted. This report describes the work of the 600 m borehole project performed during the contracting period August 1986 - December 1990. During this period measurement devices for measurement of rock mechanical parameters have been developed and were made operational. For the drilling of the boreholes a new technique has been developed. One main subject of investigation was to develop an on-line method to determine the gas content in the flushing air during drilling operation. The method used worked satisfactorily and the test showed that this surveillance method could be used during dry-drilling of deep emplacement boreholes in a future repository. For the second experiment the Variable Pressure Device (VPD) has been constructed to measure the elastic and time-dependent response of the salt on pressure changes. 37 refs., 49 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Effects of Hofmeister salt series on gluten network formation: Part II. Anion series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuhumury, H C D; Small, D M; Day, L

    2016-12-01

    Different anion salts from the Hofmeister series were used to investigate their effects on gluten network formation. The effects of these anion salts on the mixing properties of the dough and the rheological and chemical properties of gluten samples extracted from the dough with these respective salts were compared. The aim of this work was to determine how different anion salts influence the formation of the gluten structure during dough mixing. It was found that the Hofmeister anion salts affected the gluten network formation by interacting directly with specific amino acid residues that resulted in changes in gluten protein composition, specifically the percentage of the unextractable polymeric protein fractions (%UPP). These changes consequently led to remarkable differences in the mixing profiles and microstructural features of the dough, small deformation rheological properties of the gluten and a strain hardening behaviour of both dough and gluten samples. PMID:27374597

  20. The "Ass" Camouflage Construction: Masks as Parasitic Heads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    Collins et al. 2008 offers a principles-and-parameters-based analysis of an AAVE construction first described in Spears 1998, in which nominal phrases such as "John's ass" appear to have exactly the same denotation, and behavior with respect to familiar conditions on anaphora, as the possessor ["John," and similarly for pronominal possessors.…

  1. Double-bond defect modelling in As-S glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ab initio calculations with the RHF/6-311G* basis set are used for geometrical optimization of regular pyramidal and defect quasi-tetrahedral clusters in binary As-S glasses. It is shown that quasi-tetrahedral S=AsS3/2 structural units are impossible as main network-building blocks in these glasses.

  2. Double-bond defect modelling in As-S glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyko, V; Shpotyuk, O; Hyla, M, E-mail: shpotyuk@novas.lviv.ua

    2010-11-15

    Ab initio calculations with the RHF/6-311G* basis set are used for geometrical optimization of regular pyramidal and defect quasi-tetrahedral clusters in binary As-S glasses. It is shown that quasi-tetrahedral S=AsS{sub 3/2} structural units are impossible as main network-building blocks in these glasses.

  3. A study on the corrosion-control test of material for molten salt handling(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On this technical report, corrosion behaviors of Fe-Ni binary alloys in molten salts were investigated in the temperature range of 650∼850 deg C. In a molten salt of LiCl, the internal oxidation occurred in the alloys studied and the corrosion rate followed the parabolic kinetics and it increased with an increase of Fe content. In a mixed molten salt of LiCl-Li2O, an internal oxidation occurred in Fe-rich alloy and uniformal corrosion in Ni-rich alloy. Corrosion behaviors of Fe-Ni-Cr alloys in molten salts were investigated in the temperature range of 650∼850 deg C. In a molten salt of LiCl, an internal oxidation of Fe of the alloy without Cr occurred, and a dense protective oxide scale of LiCrO2 of the alloy with Cr formed. In a mixed molten salt of LiCl-Li2O, an internal oxidation of Fe of the alloy without Cr and an internal oxidation of Cr of the alloy with Cr occurred

  4. Linking external and internal salt geometries - a key to understanding salt dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Peter; Urai, Janos

    2014-05-01

    Considering the growing importance of salt in the energy, food and waste disposal industries, this paper reviews the status quo and major developments in salt research over the last decade. As a way forward in order to close identified gaps in knowledge, an integrated salt basin evaluation concept is proposed appreciating both external and internal geometries and properties. Examples of key studies in the Central European Basin and the South Oman Salt basin show that such a model may improve our understanding of the multi-scale processes operating in salt terrains. The workflow proposed allows to better asses (i) the initiation and maintenance of salt dynamics, (ii) the evolution of the internal structure of evaporites during halokinesis in salt giants, (iii) the coupling of processes in the evaporites and the salt's under- and overburden. It will lead to a better integration of the different data sets and resulting models, which will provide new insights into the structural evolution of salt giants. Finally it will also stimulate new concepts for (i) the initiation dynamics of halokinesis, (ii) the rheology and mechanics of the evaporites by brittle and ductile processes, (iii) the coupling of processes in the evaporites and the under- and overburden, and (iv) the impact of the layered evaporite rheology on the structural evolution. As an outlook for future research to be initiated in salt terrains we still need to improve our database on evaporite rocks especially the ones which take changes of properties in time into account. This includes for example the dependencies of thermal and mechanical properties on changes in strain, pressure and temperature or external and internal geometry changes relating to slow geological processes. Also geomechanical modelling efforts can be significantly improved by making full use of the data available on the effects of water, and some of the discrepancies seen in experimental data on different salts can probably be explained in

  5. Disposal of transuranic solid waste using Atomics International's molten salt combustion process. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomics International Molten Salt Combustion Process reduces the weight and volume of combustible transuranic waste by utilizing a molten salt medium to combust organic materials, to trap particulates and fissile material, and to react chemically with any acidic gases produced during combustion. The ''ash'' is retained by the molten salt. To control the amount of noncombustible substances in the melt, a portion of the molten salt is periodically drained from the combustor. There are two options following the combustion step: the salt-ash mixture can be cast into a metal canister for direct storage, which is preferred, or the salt-ash mixture can be processed to separate ash for disposal, to recover the salt for recycle and to recover fissile materials. Either option results in the rapid, complete, and nonpolluting destruction of the combustible waste. Bench-scale (0.2 kg/hr) combustion tests with plutonium-contaminated waste showed that >99.9 percent of the plutonium is retained in the melt during combustion. A similar test with uranium indicated that uranium and plutonium behave identically during combustion. Bench-scale plutonium recovery tests have shown that approx. 98 percent of the plutonium can be recovered from the ash-melt mixture with a single acid leach. Pilot plant combustion tests were conducted with uncontaminated shredded waste consisting of paper, Kimwipes, cardboard, rubber, polyvinyl chloride, and polyethylene at feed rates up to 70 kg/hr. Hydrogen chloride (3 at approx. 7900C to 0.6 g/m3 at 10200C before the venturi scrubber, and 0.01 to 0.04 g/m3, respectively, after the scrubber. Downstream of the HEPA filters, no particulates could be detected

  6. Angiotensin II Protects Primary Rat Hepatocytes against Bile Salt-Induced Apoptosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karimian, Golnar; Buist-Homan, Manon; Mikus, Bojana; Henning, Robert H.; Faber, Klaas Nico; Moshage, Han

    2012-01-01

    Angiotensin II (AT-II) is a pro-fibrotic compound that acts via membrane-bound receptors (AT-1R/AT-2R) and thereby activates hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). AT-II receptor blockers (ARBs) are thus important candidates in the treatment of liver fibrosis. However, multiple case reports suggest that AT-

  7. Salt—Water Dynamics in Soils:II.Effect of Precipitation on SaltWater Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOUWEN-RUI; MENGFAN-HUA

    1992-01-01

    Through a simulation test carried out with soil columns (61.8cm in diameter),the effect of precipitation on salt-water dynamics in soils was studied by in-situ monitoring of salt-water dynamics using soil salinity sensors and tensioneters.The results show that in the profile of whole silty loam soil,the surface runoff volume due to precipitation and the salt-leaching role of infiltrated precipitation increased with the depth of ground water;and in the profile with an intercalated bed of clay or with a thick upper layer of clay,the amount of surface runoff was greater but the salt-leaching role of precipitation was smaller than those in the profile of whole silty loam soil.In case of soil water being supplemented by precipitation,the evaporation of groundwater in the soil columns reduced,resulting in a great decline of salt accumulation from soil profile to surface soil.The effect of precipitation on the water regime of soil profile was performed via both water infiltration and water pressure transfer.The direct infiltration depth of precipitation was less than 1m in general,but water pressure transfer could go up to groundwater surface directly.

  8. SALT long-slit spectroscopy of CTS C30.10: two-component Mg II line

    CERN Document Server

    Modzelewska, J; Hryniewicz, K; Bilicki, M; Krupa, M; Swieton, A; Pych, W; Udalski, A; Adhikari, T P; Petrogalli, F

    2014-01-01

    Quasars can be used as a complementary tool to SN Ia to probe the distribution of dark energy in the Universe by measuring the time delay of the emission line with respect to the continuum. The understanding of the Mg II emission line structure is important for cosmological application and for the black hole mass measurements of intermediate redshift quasars. The knowledge of the shape of Mg II line and its variability allows to determine which part of the line should be used to measure the time delay and the black hole mass. We thus aim at determination of the structure and the variability of the Mg II line as well as of the underlying Fe II pseudo-continuum. We performed five spectroscopic observations of a quasar CTS C30.10 (z = 0.9000) with the SALT telescope between December 2012 and March 2014, and we studied the variations of the spectral shape in the 2700 - 2900 A rest frame. We showed that the Mg II line in this source consists of two kinematic components, which makes the source representative of typ...

  9. SALT long-slit spectroscopy of HE 0435-4312: fast change in the Mg II emission line shape

    CERN Document Server

    Sredzinska, J; Hryniewicz, K; Krupa, M; Marziani, P; Adhikari, T P; Basak, R; You, B; Bilicki, M

    2016-01-01

    The MgII emission line is visible in the optical band for intermediate redshift quasars (0.4II line with the aim to identify which part of the line comes from a medium in Keplerian motion. Using SALT telescope we performed ten spectroscopic observation of a quasar HE 0435-4312 (z=1.2231) over the period of 3 years (Dec 23/24, 2012 to Dec 7/8, 2015). We find that the line is well modeled by two Lorentzian components, and the relative strength of these components vary with time. The line maximum is shifted in a time-dependent way from the position of the Fe II pseudo-continuum, although the effect is not very strong, and the line asymmetry varies in time. We also note very different local conditions in the formation region of Mg II and FeII. The timescale for the line shape variability is of the order o...

  10. Meningite asséptica recorrente - Meningite de Mollaret

    OpenAIRE

    Rebimbas, Sandra; Guedes, Raquel; Pereira, Susana A.

    2014-01-01

    A meningite de Mollaret é uma doença rara, definida por episódios recorrentes de meningite asséptica, clinicamente caracterizados por febre, cefaleias, meningismo e pleiocitose do líquor com células deMollaret (células grandes de origemmonocítica). Estes episódios são separados por períodos assintomáticos, têm remissão espontânea e não deixam sequelas neurológicas. Descreve-se o caso de uma criança de quatro anos, que apresentou três episódios de meningite asséptica, no período de um ano. A a...

  11. Influence of milking number and frequency on milk production in Martina Franca breed asses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Martemucci

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out in Martina Franca asses in order to study milk yield and udder healthy conditions in relation to daily milking number and frequency. Experiment I - A total of 15 asses were subdivided into three groups (N.5 corresponding to: one milking per day, after a 3 hour interval from foal separation by dams (Group A; three milkings per day with 3 hour frequency (Group B; three milkings per day with 2 hour frequency (Group 3M. Experiment II - Evaluation was made of the effect of a schedule of 6 milkings per day with frequency of 2 hours on milk yield (Group 6M; N. 5, compared to Group 3M. Healthy udder conditions in relation to the number of milking per day was monitored in 3M and 6M Groups, by somatic cell count. Average yield per milking was highest (P<0.01 following 3 rather 1 milkings per day and with milking frequency of 3 hours rather than 2 hours (P<0.01. A schedule of six milkings per day did not improve mean milk yield and determined an increase in somatic cell count compared to 3 daily milkings regimen (63.2 vs 17.5 x 1000/mL; P<0.05.

  12. SALT spectroscopic classification of ASASSN-16cc (SN 2016aqf) as a type-II supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S. W.; Miszalski, B.

    2016-02-01

    We obtained SALT (+RSS) spectroscopy of ASASSN-16cc (SN 2016aqf) on 2016 February 27.9 UT, covering the wavelength range 360-920 nm. The spectrum features a blue continuum with prominent P-Cygni lines of H and He. Cross-correlation of the spectrum with a template library using SNID (Blondin & Tonry 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) shows a good match to the type-IIP SN 2014et at -3 days, confirming the results of Hosseinzadeh et al. (ATel 8748).

  13. Moessbauer studies of mercury(II) salt adducts of (2)ferrocenophane derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Masanobu; Ichikawa, Hajime; Motoyama, Izumi; Sano, Hirotoshi (Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1983-11-01

    Various adducts of mercuric salts with (2)ferrocenophane and 1,1,2,2-tetramethyl(2)ferrocenophane, were prepared by treating HgX/sub 2/ (X=Cl/sup -/, I/sup -/, CN/sup -/) with the (2)ferrocenophane derivatives in ether. The adducts were studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy and other physicochemical measurements. Anomalously large quadrupole splitting values of the adducts (about 3.10-3.30 mms/sup -1/ at 78 K) suggest the presence of a strong direct interaction between the Fe and Hg atoms.

  14. The unique ligand binding features of subfamily-II iLBPs with respect to bile salts and related drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favretto, Filippo; Ceccon, Alberto; Zanzoni, Serena; D'Onofrio, Mariapina; Ragona, Laura; Molinari, Henriette; Assfalg, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Intracellular lipid binding proteins (iLBPs) are a family of evolutionarily related small cytoplasmic proteins implicated in the transcellular transport of lipophilic ligands. Subfamily-II iLBPs include the liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), and the ileal and the liver and ileal bile acid binding proteins (L-BABP and I-BABP). Atomic-level investigations during the past 15-20 years have delivered relevant information on bile acid binding by this protein group, revealing unique features including binding cooperativity, promiscuity, and site selectivity. Using NMR spectroscopy and other biophysical techniques, our laboratories have contributed to an understanding of the molecular determinants of some of these properties and their generality among proteins from different animal species. We focused especially on formation of heterotypic complexes, considering the mixed compositions of physiological bile acid pools. Experiments performed with synthetic bile acid derivatives showed that iLBPs could act as targets for cell-specific contrast agents and, more generally, as effective carriers of amphiphilic drugs. This review collects the major findings related to bile salt interactions with iLBPs aiming to provide keys for a deeper understanding of protein-mediated intracellular bile salt trafficking. PMID:25468388

  15. Oxygen abundance distributions in six late-type galaxies based on SALT spectra of H II regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinchenko, I. A.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Grebel, E. K.; Pilyugin, L. S.

    2015-10-01

    Spectra of 34 H ii regions in the late-type galaxies NGC 1087, NGC 2967, NGC 3023, NGC 4030, NGC 4123, and NGC 4517A were observed with the South African Large Telescope (SALT). In all 34 H ii regions, oxygen abundances were determined through the "counterpart" method (C method). Additionally, in two H ii regions in which we detected auroral lines, we measured oxygen abundances with the classic Te method. We also estimated the abundances in our H ii regions using the O3N2 and N2 calibrations and compared those with the C-based abundances. With these data, we examined the radial abundance distributions in the disks of our target galaxies. We derived surface-brightness profiles and other characteristics of the disks (the surface brightness at the disk center and the disk scale length) in three photometric bands for each galaxy using publicly available photometric imaging data. The radial distributions of the oxygen abundances predicted by the relation between abundance and disk surface brightness in the W1 band obtained for spiral galaxies in our previous study are close to the radial distributions of the oxygen abundances determined from the analysis of the emission line spectra for four galaxies where this relation is applicable. Hence, when the surface-brightness profile of a late-type galaxy is known, this parametric relation can be used to estimate the likely present-day oxygen abundance in the disk of the galaxy. Based on observations made with the Southern African Large Telescope, programs 2012-1-RSA_OTH-001, 2012-2-RSA_OTH-003 and 2013-1-RSA_OTH-005.

  16. Ecology of temperate salt-marsh fucoids. II. In situ growth of transplanted Ascophyllum nodosum ecads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkhuis, B.H.; Jones, R.F.

    1976-03-15

    Growth, in terms of length, weight, and number of branches and/or dichotomies, in transplanted specimens of Ascophyllum nodosum ecad scorpioides in a temperate salt marsh is described. The ecad scorpioides, when transplanted from its characteristic habitat on the mid-intertidal, Spartina alterniflora-dominated, marsh flats to a location near mean low-water developed characteristics normally associated with A. nodosum ecad mackaii. The growth of these plants was more rapid than those in the mid-intertidal region and was not affected by the shading of algal fronds by S. alterniflora. Unusually high temperatures and light intensities during the winter and spring months were major factors affecting growth in plants that were subjected to relatively long periods of tidal exposure. The presence of S. alterniflora during the summer months may act in a protective capacity for mid-intertidal ecad populations.

  17. Solid-state materials for anion sensing in aqueous solution: highly selective colorimetric and luminescence-based detection of perchlorate using a platinum(II) salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Stephen D; Howard, Whitney; Kaval, Necati; Hart, Robert; Krause, Jeanette A; Connick, William B

    2010-02-21

    The PF(6)(-) salt of a platinum(II) complex changes from yellow to red and becomes intensely luminescent upon exposure to aqueous ClO(4)(-). The response is remarkably selective. Spectroscopic changes are consistent with anion exchange resulting in shortening of the intramolecular PtPt distances between the square planar cations.

  18. Solid-state materials for anion sensing in aqueous solution: highly selective colorimetric and luminescence-based detection of perchlorate using a platinum(II) salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Stephen D.; Howard, Whitney; Kaval, Necati; Hart, Robert; Krause, Jeanette A.; Connick, William B. (UCIN); (Shepherd)

    2010-07-23

    The PF{sub 6}{sup -} salt of a platinum(II) complex changes from yellow to red and becomes intensely luminescent upon exposure to aqueous ClO{sub 4}{sup -}. The response is remarkably selective. Spectroscopic changes are consistent with anion exchange resulting in shortening of the intramolecular Pt***Pt distances between the square planar cations.

  19. Simulated waste package test in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Salt Repository Site Characterization Project Office (SRPO), of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), in cooperation with Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), simulated waste package test at Asse Salt Mine (Asse). The purpose of this test was to determine the effect of heat produced of the decay of High-Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) on: (1) Migration of brine moisture; (2) Thermomechanical response of the salt; (3) Geomechanical response of the room mined in salt; (4) Corrosion on potential HLW waste package container materials; and (5) Generation of gases. This paper describes the test performed, results obtained, and the performance of instruments and data acquisition system deployed

  20. Voltammetric behavior, biocidal effect and synthesis of some new nanomeric fused cyclic thiosemicarbazones and their mercuric(II salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S.T. Makki

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available New nanomeric 3-thioxo-5-methoxy-4,5-dihydro-6-methyl-9-unsubstituted/substituted-1,2,4-triazino[5,6-b]indoles (2a–c and 3-thioxo-5-methoxy-4,5-dihydro-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,4-triaino[5,6]-cyclobut-6-ene (3 were prepared via reaction of thiosemicarbazide with 5-unsubstitutedand/substituted-indol-2,3-diones and/or 3,4-dihydroxycyclobutane-1,2-dione in methanol–concentrated HCl at room temperature. A series of mercury(II–ligand salts e.g. compound 4b and Hg(II complexes 5a,b and 6 of cyclic Schiff base were prepared. Structures of these compounds were established by elemental analysis and spectral measurements. The redox characteristics of selected compounds were studied for use as chelating agents for stripping voltammetric determination of mercuric(II ions in aqueous media. The compounds were also screened for their use as molluscicidal agents against Biomophalaria Alexandrina Snails responsible for Bilhariziasis.

  1. Cloud point extraction of Cu(II) using a mixture of Triton X-100 and dithizone with a salting-out effect and its application to visual determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Nobuko; Mori, Masanobu; Itabashi, Hideyuki

    2013-12-15

    A method for the separation and concentration of trace copper(II) ion (Cu(II)) via cloud point extraction (CPE) using a nonionic surfactant with a salting-out effect was developed and applied as a technique for the visual determination of Cu(II). Triton X-100 (TX-100), which has a cloud point at 64-67 °C in aqueous solutions, was used as the nonionic surfactant for the CPE of Cu(II). Although CPE with TX-100 requires heating of the solution to separate the surfactant-rich phase from the aqueous phase, the new method achieves phase separation at 15-30 °C owing to the addition of a large amount of salt to the solution, which lowers the cloud point. The compound 1,5-diphenylthiocarbazone (dithizone) was selected as the chelating agent for complexation and transfer of Cu(II) to the surfactant-rich phase. The extractability of Cu(II) (initial concentration: 10 μM) was 96.6±2.1% when Na2SO4 was added to a 20% TX-100/4 μM dithizone solution (pH 2). Using this method, the visual determination of Cu(II) was possible for concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 10 μM. In addition, the extraction system was successfully applied to the visual determination of Cu(II) in a river water sample. PMID:24209356

  2. Cloud point extraction of Cu(II) using a mixture of Triton X-100 and dithizone with a salting-out effect and its application to visual determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Nobuko; Mori, Masanobu; Itabashi, Hideyuki

    2013-12-15

    A method for the separation and concentration of trace copper(II) ion (Cu(II)) via cloud point extraction (CPE) using a nonionic surfactant with a salting-out effect was developed and applied as a technique for the visual determination of Cu(II). Triton X-100 (TX-100), which has a cloud point at 64-67 °C in aqueous solutions, was used as the nonionic surfactant for the CPE of Cu(II). Although CPE with TX-100 requires heating of the solution to separate the surfactant-rich phase from the aqueous phase, the new method achieves phase separation at 15-30 °C owing to the addition of a large amount of salt to the solution, which lowers the cloud point. The compound 1,5-diphenylthiocarbazone (dithizone) was selected as the chelating agent for complexation and transfer of Cu(II) to the surfactant-rich phase. The extractability of Cu(II) (initial concentration: 10 μM) was 96.6±2.1% when Na2SO4 was added to a 20% TX-100/4 μM dithizone solution (pH 2). Using this method, the visual determination of Cu(II) was possible for concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 10 μM. In addition, the extraction system was successfully applied to the visual determination of Cu(II) in a river water sample.

  3. Chiral mobile phase in ligand-exchange chromatography of amino acids: exploring the copper(II) salt anion effect with a computational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardella, Roccaldo; Macchiarulo, Antonio; Carotti, Andrea; Ianni, Federica; Rubiño, Maria Eugenia García; Natalini, Benedetto

    2012-12-21

    With the use of a chiral ligand-exchange chromatography (CLEC) system operating with the O-benzyl-(S)-serine [(S)-OBS] [1,2] as the chiral mobile phase (CMP) additive to the eluent, the effect of the copper(II) anion type on retention (k) and separation (α) factors was evaluated, by rationally changing the following experimental conditions: salt concentration and temperature. The CLEC-CMP analysis was carried out on ten amino acidic racemates and with nine different cupric salts. While the group of analytes comprised both aliphatic (leucine, isoleucine, nor-leucine, proline, valine, nor-valine, and α-methyl-valine) and aromatic (1-aminoindan-1,5-dicarboxylic acid, phenylglycine, and tyrosine) species, representative organic (formate, methanesulfonate, and trifluoroacetate) and inorganic (bromide, chloride, fluoride, nitrate, perchlorate, and sulfate) Cu(II) salts were selected as the metal source into the eluent. This route of investigation was pursued with the aim of identifying analogies among the employed Cu(II) salts, by observing the variation profile of the selected chromatographic parameters, upon a change of the above experimental conditions. All the data were collected and analyzed through a statistical approach (PCA and k-means clustering) that revealed the presence of two behavioral classes of cupric salts, sharing the same variation profile for k and α values. Interestingly, this clustering can be explained in terms of ESP (electrostatic surface potential) balance (ESP(bal)) values, obtained by an ab initio calculation operated on the cupric salts. The results of this appraisal could aid the rational choice of the most suitable eluent system, to succeed in the enantioseparation of difficult-to-resolve compounds, along with the eventual scale-up to a semi-preparative level. PMID:22926052

  4. High-salt diet combined with elevated angiotensin II accelerates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Maria E; Bernberg, Evelina; Andersson, Irene J;

    2009-01-01

    moderately atherogenic. Possibly mediated via increased oxidative stress, a high......OBJECTIVES: High-salt diet likely elevates blood pressure (BP), thus increasing the risk of cardiovascular events. We hypothesized that a high-salt diet plays a critical role in subjects whose renin-angiotensin systems cannot adjust to variable salt intake, rendering them more susceptible...

  5. SALT spectroscopic observations of galaxy clusters detected by ACT and a Type II quasar hosted by a brightest cluster galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Kirk, Brian; Cress, Catherine; Crawford, Steven M; Hughes, John P; Battaglia, Nicholas; Bond, J Richard; Burke, Claire; Gralla, Megan B; Hajian, Amir; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hincks, Adam D; Infante, Leopoldo; Kosowsky, Arthur; Marriage, Tobias A; Menanteau, Felipe; Moodley, Kavilan; Niemack, Michael D; Sievers, Jonathan L; Sifón, Cristóbal; Wilson, Susan; Wollack, Edward J; Zunckel, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    We present Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) follow-up observations of seven massive clusters detected by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) on the celestial equator using the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect. We conducted multi-object spectroscopic observations with the Robert Stobie Spectrograph in order to measure galaxy redshifts in each cluster field, determine the cluster line-of-sight velocity dispersions, and infer the cluster dynamical masses. We find that the clusters, which span the redshift range 0.3 < z < 0.55, range in mass from (5 -- 20) x 10$^{14}$ solar masses (M200c). Their masses, given their SZ signals, are similar to those of southern hemisphere ACT clusters previously observed using Gemini and the VLT. We note that the brightest cluster galaxy in one of the systems studied, ACT-CL J0320.4+0032 at z = 0.38, hosts a Type II quasar. To our knowledge, this is only the third such system discovered, and therefore may be a rare example of a very massive halo in which quasar-mode fe...

  6. Case history rock mechanics examination of the Jefferson Island Salt Mine: II. Laboratory evaluation of strength and creep deformation characteristics of dome salt under confining pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a laboratory effort to determine the quasi-static triaxial compressive strength and triaxial creep properties of dome salt from the Diamond Crystal Salt Mine, Jefferson Island, LA. The samples tested were nominally two inches in diameter and four inches in length. Stress-strain relationships for quasi-static compression are presented and mechanical properties are calculated. Time-strain and power law creep relationships are also presented. The creep data are further analyzed to evaluate parameters for a new formulation of a creep law based on internal thermodynamic variables. Mechanical properties, strength data and empirical relationships of strain as a function of time and stress are reduced for application to finite element codes. 21 figures, 6 tables

  7. Cancer frequency in the Samtgemeinde Asse. Statement by the German Commission on Radiological Protection; Krebshaeufigkeit in der Samtgemeinde Asse. Stellungnahme der Strahlenschutzkommission mit wissenschaftlicher Begruendung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    A special analysis carried out by the Epidemiological Cancer Register of Niedersachsen (Epidemiologisches Krebsregister Niedersachsen, EKN) in response to an enquiry from the district (Landkreis) of Wolfenbuettel about the incidence of cancer in the municipal confederation (Samtgemeinde) Asse showed that between 2002 and 2009 there were significantly more new cases of leukaemia and thyroid cancer than would have been expected by comparis on with the rest of the district of Wolfenbuettel (excluding the Samtgemeinde Asse) (EKN 2010a). The reason for the EKN's analysis of Samtgemeinde Asse and the district of Wolfenbuettel was: ''The background to this special analysis is an enquiry by the district of Wolfenbuettel to the Epidemiological Cancer Register of Niedersachsen (EKN) in 2008 regarding the frequency of leukaemias in the Samtgemeinde Asse. At that time there was insufficient data available and leukaemias and lymphomas were significantly under - recorded; small - scale analysis was not therefore possible. There is now sufficient data for the analysis to be carried out. The results of the analysis are presented in this report.'' (EKN 2010a). The query thus related solely to leukaemias and the Samtgemeinde Asse. The EKN's analysis of the incidence of leukaemia was therefore hypothesis-led; for other cancers and other municipalities in the former administrative district of Braunschweig, exploratory analysis was undertaken in (EKN 2010a) and later in (EKN 2010b). All distinctions between men and women were likewise exploratory. In view of the large number of tests carried out, it was necessary for a correction for multiple testing to be applied to significant results. Following the publication of (EKN 2010a), members of the state parliament and representatives of the district of Wolfenbuettel asked whether other municipalities in the district also had elevated cancer rates. In response the EKN conducted a supplementary analysis of all

  8. Salt-induced variation in some potential physiochemical attributes of two genetically diverse spring wheat (triticum aestivum L.) cultivars: photosynthesis and photosystem II efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variation in salt tolerance potential of two contrasting wheat cultivars (salt tolerant S-24 and moderately salt sensitive MH-97) at different growth stages was observed when these wheat cultivars were exposed to salinity stress in hydroponic culture. Salinity caused a marked reduction in photosynthetic pigments, transpiration and photos synthetic rates, and stomatal conductance at early growth stages in both wheat cultivars, being more prominent in cv. MH-97. In addition, a marked salt-induced alteration was observed in different attributes of chlorophyll fluorescence. On the basis of physiological characterization of these two wheat cultivars at different growth stages, it was inferred that cv. S-24 exhibited higher salinity tolerance at all growth stages in terms of less salinity-induced degradation of photosynthetic pigments, higher photosynthetic rates, maintenance of photosystem II under salinity stress as compared to that in cv. MH-97. In view of the results presented here, it is evident that wheat plants were prone to adverse effects of salinity at early growth stages as compared to later growth stages. (author)

  9. ASS234, As a New Multi-Target Directed Propargylamine for Alzheimer's Disease Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Contelles, José; Unzeta, Mercedes; Bolea, Irene; Esteban, Gerard; Ramsay, Rona R.; Romero, Alejandro; Martínez-Murillo, Ricard; Carreiras, M. Carmo; Ismaili, Lhassane

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: ASS2324 is a hybrid compound resulting from the juxtaposition of donepezil and the propargylamine PF9601NASS2324 is a multi-target directed propargylamine able to bind to all the AChE/BuChE and MAO A/B enzymesASS2324 shows antioxidant, neuroprotective and suitable permeability propertiesASS2324 restores the scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment to the same extent as donepezil, and is less toxicASS2324 prevents β-amyloid induced aggregation in the cortex of double transgenic miceASS2324 is the most advanced anti-Alzheimer agent for pre-clinical studies that we have identified in our laboratories The complex nature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has prompted the design of Multi-Target-Directed Ligands (MTDL) able to bind to diverse biochemical targets involved in the progress and development of the disease. In this context, we have designed a number of MTD propargylamines (MTDP) showing antioxidant, anti-beta-amyloid, anti-inflammatory, as well as cholinesterase and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition capacities. Here, we describe these properties in the MTDL ASS234, our lead-compound ready to enter in pre-clinical studies for AD, as a new multipotent, permeable cholinesterase/monoamine oxidase inhibitor, able to inhibit Aβ-aggregation, and possessing antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. PMID:27445665

  10. Vascular Response to Graded Angiotensin II Infusion in Offspring Subjected to High-Salt Drinking Water during Pregnancy: The Effect of Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, Urine Output, Endothelial Permeability, and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Pezeshki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Rennin-angiotensin system and salt diet play important roles in blood pressure control. We hypothesized that the high-salt intake during pregnancy influences the degree of angiotensin-dependent control of the blood pressure in adult offspring. Methods. Female Wistar rats in two groups (A and B were subjected to drink tap and salt water, respectively, during pregnancy. The offspring were divided into four groups as male and female offspring from group A (groups 1 and 2 and from group B (groups 3 and 4. In anesthetized matured offspring mean arterial pressure (MAP, heart rate and urine output were measured in response to angiotensin II (AngII (0-1000 ng/kg/min, iv infusion. Results. An increase in MAP was detected in mothers with salt drinking water (P<0.05. The body weight increased and kidney weight decreased significantly in male offspring from group 3 in comparison to group 1 (P<0.05. MAP and urine volume in response to AngII infusion increased in group 3 (P<0.05. These findings were not observed in female rats. Conclusion. Salt overloading during pregnancy had long-term effects on kidney weight and increased sex-dependent response to AngII infusion in offspring (adult that may reveal the important role of diet during pregnancy in AngII receptors.

  11. Electrochemistry of vanadium(II and the electrodeposition of aluminum-vanadium alloys in the aluminum chloride-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride molten salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuda T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical behavior of vanadium(II was examined in the 66.7-33.3 mole percent aluminum chloride-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride molten salt containing dissolved VCl2 at 353 K. Voltammetry experiments revealed that V(II could be electrochemically oxidized to V(III and V(IV. However at slow scan rates the V(II/V(III electrode reaction is complicated by the rapid precipitation of V(III as VCl3. The reduction of V(II occurs at potentials considerably negative of the Al(III/Al electrode reaction, and Al-V alloys cannot be electrodeposited from this melt. However electrodeposition experiments conducted in VCl2-saturated melt containing the additive, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, resulted in Al-V alloys. The vanadium content of these alloys increased with increasing cathodic current density or more negative applied potentials. X-ray analysis of Al-V alloys that were electrodeposited on a rotating copper wire substrate indicated that these alloys did not form or contain an intermetallic compound, but were non-equilibrium or metastable solid solutions. The chloride-pitting corrosion properties of these alloys were examined in aqueous NaCl by using potentiodynamic polarization techniques. Alloys containing ~10 a/o vanadium exhibited a pitting potential that was 0.3 V positive of that for pure aluminum.

  12. Gas migration through salt rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salt as a host rock for a repository for radioactive waste may appear as a layered formation as observed at the WIPP site in the USA or as domed salt, which is abundant in the northern part of central Europe. Planned or actual repository sites like Gorleben, Morsleben or Asse in Germany are located in such salt domes. They have risen up in geological time from Permian salt beds until their upward movement has come to an end. Rock salt exists under geological conditions as an extremely dry material with a residual moisture content well below 1 %. Due to its crystalline nature, its permeability and porosity are very low. In addition, because of its plastic behaviour under stress salt has a high self-healing capacity. In fact, under undisturbed conditions, rock salt is considered as impermeable (permeability less than 10-22 m2). This is demonstrated impressively by brine inclusions which have been included millions of years ago and are kept in place until today. Thus, in considering conditions for two phase flow, undisturbed salt neither offers sufficient water nor appropriate hydraulic properties for scenarios involving normal two-phase flow to occur. Therefore, there is a fundamental difference to other host rock material, in that long term safety analyses for waste repositories in salt have, in general, to assume accident scenarios or some kind of faulted conditions to produce a scenario where gas production and two-phase flow become relevant. The main focus of those safety analyses is on compacted crushed salt as backfill material, possibly on seals and plugs for emplacement rooms or borehole closures and on the engineering disturbed zone (EDZ). (author)

  13. Cancer frequency in the Samtgemeinde Asse. Statement by the German Commission on Radiological Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A special analysis carried out by the Epidemiological Cancer Register of Niedersachsen (Epidemiologisches Krebsregister Niedersachsen, EKN) in response to an enquiry from the district (Landkreis) of Wolfenbuettel about the incidence of cancer in the municipal confederation (Samtgemeinde) Asse showed that between 2002 and 2009 there were significantly more new cases of leukaemia and thyroid cancer than would have been expected by comparis on with the rest of the district of Wolfenbuettel (excluding the Samtgemeinde Asse) (EKN 2010a). The reason for the EKN's analysis of Samtgemeinde Asse and the district of Wolfenbuettel was: ''The background to this special analysis is an enquiry by the district of Wolfenbuettel to the Epidemiological Cancer Register of Niedersachsen (EKN) in 2008 regarding the frequency of leukaemias in the Samtgemeinde Asse. At that time there was insufficient data available and leukaemias and lymphomas were significantly under - recorded; small - scale analysis was not therefore possible. There is now sufficient data for the analysis to be carried out. The results of the analysis are presented in this report.'' (EKN 2010a). The query thus related solely to leukaemias and the Samtgemeinde Asse. The EKN's analysis of the incidence of leukaemia was therefore hypothesis-led; for other cancers and other municipalities in the former administrative district of Braunschweig, exploratory analysis was undertaken in (EKN 2010a) and later in (EKN 2010b). All distinctions between men and women were likewise exploratory. In view of the large number of tests carried out, it was necessary for a correction for multiple testing to be applied to significant results. Following the publication of (EKN 2010a), members of the state parliament and representatives of the district of Wolfenbuettel asked whether other municipalities in the district also had elevated cancer rates. In response the EKN conducted a supplementary analysis of all

  14. Progress report 1983 of the Abteilung fuer Sicherheit und Strahlenschutz (ASS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department for Safety and Radiation Protection (Abteilung Sicherheit und Strahlenschutz - ASS) is responsible for implementing all tasks in the safety sector, insofar as they are not performed by the following chain of responsibility: Board of Directors - senior official or radiation protection commissioner (Strahlenschutzverantwortlicher - SSV) - radiation protection officer (Strahlenschutzbeauftragter - SSB). This includes technical and organizational tasks in the fields of radiation protection, environmental protection, industrial safety and physical protection. The implementation of licensing procedures and the preparation of emergency protection measures are also among the activities of the Department. The present report gives a survey on ASS activities in the past year. (orig./HP)

  15. Pre-WIPP in-situ experiments in salt. Part I. Executive summary. Part II. Program description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents plans for in-situ experiments in a specific location in southeastern New Mexico. Schedule and facility design were based on features of a representative local potash mine and on contract negotiations with mine owners. Subsequent WIPP program uncertainties have required a delay in the implementation of the activities discussed here; however, the relative schedule for various activities are appropriate for future planning. The document represents a matrix of in-situ activities to address relevant technical issues prior to the availability of a bedded salt repository

  16. Genetic evaluation of the captive breeding program of the Persian wild ass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R.K.; Pertoldi, C.; Loeschcke, Volker

    2007-01-01

    the interpretation of the results obtained from analyses based on such data. In this investigation, 12 microsatellite loci were investigated to evaluate the studbook information of the critically endangered Persian wild ass, Equus hemionus onager. Relatedness and inbreeding coefficients were calculated in order...

  17. Mapping Equus kiang (Tibetan Wild Ass) Habitat in Surkhang, Upper Mustang, Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, B.D.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Graaf, de N.R.; Chapagain, N.R.

    2004-01-01

    The present paper describes land cover classification and habitat mapping for the Tibetan wild ass (Equus kiang), also commonly known as kiang, in the Surkhang VDC, Upper Mustang, Nepal. Remote sensing techniques were applied for this classification, employing an ASTER satellite image from October 2

  18. Use of Iron (II Salts and Complexes for the Production of Soil Amendments from Organic Solid Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amerigo Beneduci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to obtain rapidly stabilized composts for crops from solid organic wastes is evaluated. Here we used a laboratory scale reaction chamber where solid waste treatment was performed under strictly controlled temperature and pressure conditions. The row organic waste was mixed with acid solutions containing iron (II ions either in the fully hydrated form or in the form of complexes with the diethylentriaminopentaacetic acid. Data from elemental analysis distribution and GC/MS analysis of the polar and non polar dissolved organic matter, clearly showed that Fe(II ions significantly enhance organic substrate oxidation of the initial solid waste, compared to a material obtained without the addition of the Fe(II ions to the raw organic matrix. These results suggest that Fe(II ions might be involved in a catalytic oxidation pathway that would be activated under the experimental conditions used. The extent of the oxidation process was evaluated by the value of the C/N ratio and, qualitatively, by the molecular composition of the dissolved organic matter. After about 6 hours of incubation, dark-brown and dry organic matrices were obtained with C/N ratio as low as 12 and a high degree of oxidative decomposition into low-molecular-weight compounds at high oxidation state.

  19. Liquid-liquid extraction of ion-association complexes of cobalt(II-4-(2-pyridylazoresorcinol with ditetrazolium salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divarova Vidka V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation and liquid-liquid extraction of ion-association complexes between Co(II-4-(2-Pyridylazoresorcinol (PAR anionic chelates and cations of three ditetrazolium chlorides were studied: Blue Tetrazolium chloride (BTC, Neotetrazolium chloride (NTC and Nitro Blue Tetrazolium chloride (NBT. The optimum conditions for the formation and solvent extraction of the ion-association comlpex chelates were determined. It has been found that in the systems of Co(II-PAR-DTS, the reactants are reacted in molar ratios 1:2:1 and the general formula of complexes was suggested. The extraction equilibria were investigated and quantitatively characterized by the equilibrium constants and the recovery factors. The analytical characteristics of the complexes were calculated.

  20. Anion-Directed Copper(II) Metallocages, Coordination Chain, and Complex Double Salt: Structures, Magnetic Properties, EPR Spectra, and Density Functional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing-Yun; Zhong, Ming-Shiou; Chiang, Ming-Hsi; Bhattacharya, Dibyendu; Lee, Yen-Wei; Lai, Long-Li

    2016-05-17

    A series of Cu(II) metallo-assemblies showing anion-directed structural variations, including five metallocages [(G(n-) )⊂{Cu2 (Hdpma)4 }]((8-n)+) (A(-) )8-n (G(n-) =NO3 (-) , ClO4 (-) , SiF6 (2-) , BF4 (-) , SO4 (2-) ; A(-) =NO3 (-) , ClO4 (-) , BF4 (-) , CH3 SO4 (-) ; Hdpma=bis(3-pyridylmethyl)ammonium cation), a complex double salt, namely, (H3 dpma)4 (CuCl4 )5 Cl2 , and a coordination chain, namely, [Cu2 (dpma)(OAc)4 ], are reported. The influence of the anion can be explained by its coordinating ability, the affinity of which for the Cu(II) center interferes significantly with metallocage formation, and its shape, which offers host-guest recognition ability to engage in weak metal-anion coordination and hydrogen bonding to the organic ligand, which are responsible for metallocage templation. EPR studies of these metallocages in the powder phase at room temperature and 77 K showed a trend of the g values (g|| >2.10>g⊥ >2.00) indicating a dx2-y2 -based ground state with square-pyramidal geometry for the Cu(II) centers. The magnetism of these metallocages can be interpreted as the result of a combination of relatively small magnetic coupling integrals and a substantial contribution of temperature-independent paramagnetism (TIP). The weak magnetic interaction is corroborated by the results of DFT calculations and the EPR spectra. Availability of the low-lying state for spin population was confirmed by a magnetization study, which revealed a magnetic moment approaching 2Nβ, which would explain the presence of the larger TIP term.

  1. BIS(4-FLUOROPHENYLSULFONYLDITHIOCARBIMATO)ZINCATE(II) SALTS: NEW ANTIFUNGALS FOR THE CONTROL OF Botrytis BLIGHT

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Alexandre A; Oliveira, Marcelo R. L.; Mayura M. M. Rubinger; Elisa L. Piló; Daniele C. Menezes; Laércio Zambolim

    2015-01-01

    Botrytis blight or gray mold is a highly destructive disease caused by Botrytis spp., that infects flowers, trees vegetables, fruit, especially grapevines and strawberry. Three new compounds with general formula (A)2[Zn(4-FC6H4SO2N=CS2)2], where A = PPh3CH3 (2a), PPh3C2H5 (2b), PPh3C4H9 (2c), and the previously published compounds where A = PPh4 (2d) and NBu4 (2e), were synthesized by the reaction of 4-fluorophenylsulfonyldithiocarbimate potassium dihydrate and zinc(II) acetate dihydrate with...

  2. Reassessing the evolutionary history of ass-like equids: insights from patterns of genetic variation in contemporary extant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbom, Sónia; Costa, Vânia; Chen, Shanyuan; Khalatbari, Leili; Yusefi, Gholam Hosein; Abdukadir, Ablimit; Yangzom, Chamba; Kebede, Fanuel; Teclai, Redae; Yohannes, Hagos; Hagos, Futsum; Moehlman, Patricia D; Beja-Pereira, Albano

    2015-04-01

    All extant equid species are grouped in a single genus - Equus. Among those, ass-like equids have remained particularly unstudied and their phylogenetic relations were poorly understood, most probably because they inhabit extreme environments in remote geographic areas. To gain further insights into the evolutionary history of ass-like equids, we have used a non-invasive sampling approach to collect representative fecal samples of extant African and Asiatic ass-like equid populations across their distribution range and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing analyses to examine intraspecific genetic diversity and population structure, and to reconstruct phylogenetic relations among wild ass species/subspecies. Sequence analyses of 410 base pairs of the fast evolving mtDNA control region identified the Asiatic wild ass population of Kalamaili (China) as the one displaying the highest diversity among all wild ass populations. Phylogenetic analyses of complete cytochrome b sequences revealed that African and Asiatic wild asses shared a common ancestor approximately 2.3Mya and that diversification in both groups occurred much latter, probably driven by climatic events during the Pleistocene. Inferred genetic relationships among Asiatic wild ass species do not support E. kiang monophyly, highlighting the need of more extensive studies in order to clarify the taxonomic status of species/subspecies belonging to this branch of the Equus phylogeny. These results highlight the importance of re-assessing the evolutionary history of ass-like equid species, and urge to extend studies at the population level to efficiently design conservation and management actions for these threatened species. PMID:25681678

  3. Part I. Student success in intensive versus traditional introductory chemistry courses. Part II. Synthesis of salts of the weakly coordinating trisphat anion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mildred V.

    Part I. Intensive courses have been shown to be associated with equal or greater student success than traditional-length courses in a wide variety of disciplines and education levels. Student records from intensive and traditional-length introductory general chemistry courses were analyzed to determine the effects, of the course format, the level of academic experience, life experience (age), GPA, academic major and gender on student success in the course. Pretest scores, GPA and ACT composite scores were used as measures of academic ability and prior knowledge; t-tests comparing the means of these variables were used to establish that the populations were comparable prior to the course. Final exam scores, total course points and pretest-posttest differences were used as measures of student success; t-tests were used to determine if differences existed between the populations. ANCOVA analyses revealed that student GPA, pretest scores and course format were the only variables tested that were significant in accounting for the variance of the academic success measures. In general, the results indicate that students achieved greater academic success in the intensive-format course, regardless of the level of academic experience, life experience, academic major or gender. Part II. Weakly coordinating anions have many important applications, one of which is to function as co-catalysts in the polymerization of olefins by zirconocene. The structure of tris(tetrachlorobenzenedialato) phosphate(V) or "trisphat" anion suggests that it might be an outstanding example of a weakly coordinating anion. Trisphat acid was synthesized and immediately used to prepare the stable tributylammonium trisphat, which was further reacted to produce trisphat salts of Group I metal cations in high yields. Results of the 35Cl NQR analysis of these trisphat salts indicate only very weak coordination between the metal cations and the chlorine atoms of the trisphat anion.

  4. Compositional trends of γ-induced optical changes observed in chalcogenide glasses of binary As-S system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpotyuk, M.; Shpotyuk, O.; Golovchak, Roman; McCloy, John S.; Riley, Brian J.

    2014-01-23

    Compositional trends of γ-induced optical changes in chalcogenide glasses are studied with the binary As-S system. Effects of γ-irradiation and annealing are compared using the changes measured in the fundamental optical absorption edge region. It is shown that annealing near the glass transition temperature leads to bleaching of As-S glasses, while γ-irradiation leads to darkening; both depend on the glass composition and thermal history of the specimens. These results are explained in terms of competitive destruction–polymerization transformations and physical aging occurring in As-S chalcogenide glasses under the influence of γ-irradiation.

  5. Preparatory mining and geotechnical work for safe closure of the Asse mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the GSF Research Centre for Environment and Health discontinued its own research into the safe ultimate storage of waste hazardous to the environment in deep geological formations and the work of the Institute for Deep Storage was likewise suspended there is no longer any need to continue operation of the Asse mine for research purposes. Hence the closure of the mine is being prepared on the basis of the Federal Mining Act. The GSF accordingly has to submit a final operating plan, with which a comprehensive safety report containing inter alia proof of the long-time safety should be enclosed. The proof should be furnished according to the specific location and takes into account the geological, hydrogeological, geochemical, geotechnical, mining-related conditions and the radionuclide inventory in the Asse mine. (orig.)

  6. Physics League Across Numerous Countries for Kick-ass Students (PLANCKS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasnoot, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Physics League Across Numerous Countries for Kick-ass Students (PLANCKS) is an international theoretical physics competition for bachelor and master students. The intention of PLANCKS is to increase international collaboration and stimulate the personal development of individual contestants. This is done by organizing a three-day-event which take place every year and is hosted by different countries. Besides the contest, social and scientific activities will be organised, including an opening symposium where leading physicists give lectures to inspire the participants.

  7. First stable isotope analysis of Asiatic wild ass tail hair from the Mongolian Gobi

    OpenAIRE

    Horacek, Micha; Sturm, Martina Burnik; Kaczensky, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis has become a powerful tool to study feeding ecology, water use or movement pattern in contemporary, historic and ancient species. Certain hair and teeth grow continuously, and when sampled longitudinally can provide temporally explicit information on dietary regime and movement pattern. In an initial trial, we analysed a tail sample of an Asiatic wild ass (Equus hemionus) from the Mongolian Gobi. We found seasonal variations in H, C and N isotope patterns, likely being...

  8. Salt Tolerance in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsui-Hung Phang; Guihua Shao; Hon-Ming Lam

    2008-01-01

    Soybean is an Important cash crop and its productivity is significantly hampered by salt stress. High salt Imposes negative impacts on growth, nodulation, agronomy traits, seed quality and quantity, and thus reduces the yield of soybean. To cope with salt stress, soybean has developed several tolerance mechanisms, including: (I) maintenance of ion homeostasis; (ii) adjustment in response to osmotic stress; (iii) restoration of osmotic balance; and (iv) other metabolic and structural adaptations. The regulatory network for abiotic stress responses in higher plants has been studied extensively in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Some homologous components involved in salt stress responses have been identified in soybean. In this review, we tried to integrate the relevant works on soybean and proposes a working model to descdbe Its salt stress responses at the molecular level.

  9. Low-temperature thermodynamic investigation of the sulphur organic salts (TMTTF)2PF6 and (TMTTF)2Br (TMTTF = tetramethyltetrathiafulvalene): II. Dynamical aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasjaunias, J. C.; Monceau, P.; Staresinic, D.; Biljakovic, K.; Carcel, C.; Fabre, J. M.

    2002-09-01

    This contribution is in continuation of our preceding publication (Lasjaunias J C, Brison J P, Monceau P, Staresinic D, Biljakovic K, Carcel C and Fabre J M 2002 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14 837) in which we have considered general aspects of the low-temperature thermodynamical properties of the quasi-one-dimensional organic salts based on sulphur donors with different ground states: (TMTTF)2PF6 in the spin-Peierls state and (TMTTF)2Br (TMTTF = tetramethyltetrathiafulvalene) with commensurate spin modulation. In this part, part II, we present our results on the dynamical aspects related to the non-equilibrium phenomena measured below 1 K. The metastable states excited to slightly higher temperature (by only a few per cent of the starting T0) relax very slowly to the heat bath environment, depending on the duration of the heat pumping. We compare the features observed in the relaxation rates in these two sulphur compounds with those measured for the incommensurate spin-density-wave compound (TMTSF)2PF6. We discuss the possible nature of the long-living low-energy excitations lying at the origin of this complex dynamical behaviour, in relation to their ground states.

  10. Glu-47, which forms a salt bridge between neurophysin-II and arginine vasopressin, is deleted in patients with familial central diabetes insipidus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuasa, Hiromitsu; Ito, Masafumi; Nagasaki, Hiroshi; Oiso, Yutaka; Saito, Hidehiko (Nagoya Univ. School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan)); Miyamoto, S.; Sasaki, N. (Chiba Children' s Hospital, Chiba (Japan))

    1993-09-01

    The arginine vasopressin (AVP) gene was sequenced in a pedigree with familial central diabetes insipidus (DI). When polymerase chain reaction-amplified DNAs from affected subjects were subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, fragments including exon 2 displayed two additional, slower migrating bands. These extra bands represented DNA heteroduplexes, indicating that there was a deletion or insertion mutation in exon 2. As the region with such a mutation was identified by direct sequence analysis, polymerase chain reaction-amplified fragments including the region were subcloned and sequenced. A 3-basepair deletion (AGG) out of two consecutive AGG sequences (nucleotides 1824-1829) was identified in one of two alleles. The cosegregation of the mutation with the DI phenotype in the family was confirmed by restriction enzyme analyses. This mutation should yield an abnormal AVP precursor lacking Glu[sup 47] in its neurophysin-II (NP) moiety. Since Glu[sup 47] is essential for NP molecules to form a salt bridge with AVP, it is very likely that the function of NP as a carrier protein for AVP would be impaired. The authors suggest that AVP would undergo accelerated proteolytic degradation, and this mechanism would be involved in the pathogenesis of DI in this pedigree. 34 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Dam construction in salt rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriers are a major component of the satefy concept for the Gorleben repository. The construction and performance of dams are currently tested within the framework of a project carried out in the Asse salt mine. A measuring programme has been established to give evidence of the sealing capacities of a barrier consisting of an abatement, long-term sealing material, and a hydraulic sealing system. Tests are to be made to verify the barrier's performance for shorter of long time periods (up to about 500 years). The tests are assisted by computed models established for the project. The long-term safety aspects to be studied include such conditions as permeability changes due to mechanical impacts, circulation conditions at the roadside, and the serviceable life and efficiency of the sealing components. (DG)

  12. Cooperative rearranging region size and free volume in As-Se glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiter, A; Saiter, J-M; Golovchak, R; Shpotyuk, M; Shpotyuk, O

    2009-02-18

    Glasses of the As-Se system have been used as model objects of the covalent disordered inorganic polymers to investigate the correlation between the cooperative rearranging region (CRR) size determined at the glass transition temperature and the free volume fraction in the glassy state. The CRR size has been determined using temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry data according to Donth's approach, while the free volume fraction in the investigated materials has been estimated using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy data. The obtained results testify that the appearance of open-volume defects greater than 80 Å(3) leads to a significant decrease in the CRR size. PMID:21817320

  13. Cooperative rearranging region size and free volume in As-Se glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasses of the As-Se system have been used as model objects of the covalent disordered inorganic polymers to investigate the correlation between the cooperative rearranging region (CRR) size determined at the glass transition temperature and the free volume fraction in the glassy state. The CRR size has been determined using temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry data according to Donth's approach, while the free volume fraction in the investigated materials has been estimated using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy data. The obtained results testify that the appearance of open-volume defects greater than 80 A3 leads to a significant decrease in the CRR size.

  14. Atomistic Model of Physical Ageing in Se-rich As-Se Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovchak,R.; Shpotyuk, O.; Kozdras, A.; Bureau, B.; Vlcek, M.; Ganjoo, A.; Jain, H.

    2007-01-01

    Thermal, optical, X-ray excited and magnetic methods were used to develop a microstructural model of physical ageing in Se-rich glasses. The glass composition As10Se90, possessing a typical cross-linked chain structure, was chosen as a model object for the investigations. The effect of physical ageing in this glass was revealed by differential scanning calorimetry, whereas the corresponding changes in its atomic arrangement were studied by extended X-ray absorption fine structure, Raman and solid-state 77Se nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Straightening-shrinkage processes are shown to be responsible for the physical ageing in this Se-rich As-Se glass.

  15. Cooperative rearranging region size and free volume in As-Se glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiter, A; Saiter, J-M; Golovchak, R; Shpotyuk, M; Shpotyuk, O

    2009-02-18

    Glasses of the As-Se system have been used as model objects of the covalent disordered inorganic polymers to investigate the correlation between the cooperative rearranging region (CRR) size determined at the glass transition temperature and the free volume fraction in the glassy state. The CRR size has been determined using temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry data according to Donth's approach, while the free volume fraction in the investigated materials has been estimated using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy data. The obtained results testify that the appearance of open-volume defects greater than 80 Å(3) leads to a significant decrease in the CRR size.

  16. Cooperative rearranging region size and free volume in As-Se glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiter, A; Saiter, J-M [Laboratoire PBM, UMR 6522, LECAP, Institut des Materiaux de Rouen, Universite de Rouen, Faculte des Sciences, Avenue de l' Universite BP 12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France); Golovchak, R; Shpotyuk, M; Shpotyuk, O [Lviv Scientific Research Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' , 202, Stryjska street, Lviv, UA-79031 (Ukraine)

    2009-02-18

    Glasses of the As-Se system have been used as model objects of the covalent disordered inorganic polymers to investigate the correlation between the cooperative rearranging region (CRR) size determined at the glass transition temperature and the free volume fraction in the glassy state. The CRR size has been determined using temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry data according to Donth's approach, while the free volume fraction in the investigated materials has been estimated using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy data. The obtained results testify that the appearance of open-volume defects greater than 80 A{sup 3} leads to a significant decrease in the CRR size.

  17. Preparation and use of samarium diiodide (SmI(2)) in organic synthesis: the mechanistic role of HMPA and Ni(II) salts in the samarium Barbier reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivam, Dhandapani V; Choquette, Kimberly A; Flowers, Robert A

    2013-02-04

    reduction potential of SmI(2) by coordinating to the samarium metal center, producing a more powerful,(13-14,18) sterically encumbered reductant(19-21) and in some cases playing an integral role in post electron-transfer steps facilitating subsequent bond-forming events.(22) In the Sm-Barbier reaction, HMPA has been shown to additionally activate the alkyl halide by forming a complex in a pre-equilibrium step.(23) Ni(II) salts are a catalytic additive used frequently in Sm-mediated transformations.(24-27) Though critical for success, the mechanistic role of Ni(II) was not known in these reactions. Recently it has been shown that SmI(2) reduces Ni(II) to Ni(0), and the reaction is then carried out through organometallic Ni(0) chemistry.(28) These mechanistic studies highlight that although the same Barbier product is obtained, the use of different additives in the SmI(2) reaction drastically alters the mechanistic pathway of the reaction. The protocol for running these SmI(2)-initiated reactions is described.

  18. Characteristics of the lactation, chemical composition milk hygiene quality of the Littoral-Dinaric ass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Ivanković

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Milk production is one of the possible economic uses of donkey population. The Littoral- Dinaric donkey is numerous, but the structural changes in rural areas during the last decade have pushed it into a group of endangered genetic heritage. The aim of this research is to determine the production potential, lactation characteristics, chemical composition and hygienic quality of the Littoral-Dinaric ass milk. The average milk production was 172.12 mL per milking with the average fat percentage of 0.33 %, milk protein 1.55 %, and lactose 6.28 %. The low average number of somatic cells and bacterial count are noticed in ass’s milk (4.09 mL log-1; 3.58 mL log-1. A significant influence of lactation stage on the milk quantity and proportion of dry matter (P<0.01, as well on the proportion of milk fat and milk protein (P<0.05, was observed. Also the influence of the season on productivity, and the proportion of dry matter and milk fat (P<0001, as well as milk protein (P<0.01 was also significant. Productivity of the Littoral-Dinaric ass in the pasture system is relatively modest, but the direct and indirect benefits from this kind of production are multiple. That is the reason to continue the development of donkey milk production technology.

  19. Aripiprazole salts. II. Aripiprazole perchlorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Eleonora; Polla, Griselda; Baggio, Ricardo

    2012-06-01

    The molecular structure of aripiprazole perchlorate (systematic name: 4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1-{4-[(2-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolin-7-yl)oxy]butyl}piperazin-1-ium perchlorate), C(23)H(28)Cl(2)N(3)O(2)(+)·ClO(4)(-), does not differ substantially from the recently published structure of aripiprazole nitrate [Freire, Polla & Baggio (2012). Acta Cryst. C68, o170-o173]. Both compounds have almost identical bond distances, bond angles and torsion angles. The two different counter-ions occupy equivalent places in the two structures, giving rise to very similar first-order `packing motifs'. However, these elemental arrangements interact with each other in different ways in the two structures, leading to two-dimensional arrays with quite different organizations.

  20. A new compound heterozygous frameshift mutation in the type II 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3{beta}-HSD gene causes salt-wasting 3{beta}-HSD deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L.; Sakkal-Alkaddour, S.; Chang, Ying T.; Yang, Xiaojiang; Songya Pang [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-01-01

    We report a new compound heterozygous frameshift mutation in the type II 3{Beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3{beta}-HSD) gene in a Pakistanian female child with the salt-wasting form of 3{Beta}-HSD deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The etiology for her congenital adrenal hyperplasia was not defined. Although the family history suggested possible 3{beta}-HSd deficiency disorder, suppressed adrenal function caused by excess glucocorticoid therapy in this child at 7 yr of age did not allow hormonal diagnosis. To confirm 3{beta}-HSD deficiency, we sequenced the type II 3{beta}-HSD gene in the patient, her family, and the parents of her deceased paternal cousins. The type II 3{beta}-HSD gene region of a putative promotor, exons I, II, III, and IV, and exon-intron boundaries were amplified by PCR and sequenced in all subjects. The DNA sequence of the child revealed a single nucleotide deletion at codon 318 [ACA(Thr){r_arrow}AA] in exon IV in one allele, and two nucleotide deletions at codon 273 [AAA(Lys){r_arrow}A] in exon IV in the other allele. The remaining gene sequences were normal. The codon 318 mutation was found in one allele from the father, brother, and parents of the deceased paternal cousins. The codon 273 mutation was found in one allele of the mother and a sister. These findings confirmed inherited 3{beta}-HSD deficiency in the child caused by the compound heterozygous type II 3{beta}-HSD gene mutation. Both codons at codons 279 and 367, respectively, are predicted to result in an altered and truncated type II 3{beta}-HSD protein, thereby causing salt-wasting 3{beta}-HSD deficiency in the patient. 21 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Salt Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Liming; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2002-01-01

    Studying salt stress is an important means to the understanding of plant ion homeostasis and osmo-balance. Salt stress research also benefits agriculture because soil salinity significantly limits plant productivity on agricultural lands. Decades of physiological and molecular studies have generated a large body of literature regarding potential salt tolerance determinants. Recent advances in applying molecular genetic analysis and genomics tools in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana are sh...

  2. Highlights from e-EPS: Physics league… for kick-ass students

    CERN Multimedia

    Bénédicte Huchet

    2013-01-01

    e-EPS News is an addition to the CERN Bulletin line-up, showcasing articles from e-EPS – the European Physical Society newsletter – as part of a collaboration between the two publications.   The International Association of Physics Students (IAPS), the Dutch umbrella organisation for physics study associations (SPIN) and the physics students association in Utrecht (A–Eskwadraat) have launched a new contest challenging physics undergraduate students. The first edition of the Physics League Across Numerous Countries for Kick-ass Students (PLANCKS) will be organised in April 2014 in Utrecht, the Netherlands. The competition focuses on theoretical physics problems to be solved by participating teams. Some sample exercises are already available on the PLANCKS website. The goal of the competition is to increase the international collaboration, social activities and personal development of individual contestants. By bringing together physics students from dif...

  3. GOS.SP.ASS.'98: an assessment for speech disorders associated with cleft palate and/or velopharyngeal dysfunction (revised).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, D; Harding, A; Grunwell, P

    1999-01-01

    In 1994 the present authors proposed a speech assessment protocol for speech disorders associated with cleft palate and/or velopharyngeal dysfunction known as GOS.SP.ASS. (Great Ormond Street Speech Assessment). In a recent survey undertaken to review the different speech assessment protocols used in six cleft palate centres in the UK, GOS.SP.ASS. was selected from six protocols as the optimal procedure for clinical and research purposes. The process of identifying an optimal procedure involved analysis of completed forms for each assessment. Analysis of the completed GOS.SP.ASS. forms revealed significant ambiguities in the protocol which led to differences in form completion. This paper describes important revisions to the original GOS.SP.ASS. protocol in order to ensure comparable data from different clinicians. This detailed speech assessment is now complemented by the Cleft Audit Protocol for Speech (CAPS), a tool recommended for clinical audit. As a result of close collaboration in their preparation, the results are directly comparable. In addition, the speech elicitation sentences and the phonetic diagram have been modified.

  4. Fundamental Properties of Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

    2012-11-01

    Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

  5. Salt cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    If you are a professional associated with system and infrastructure management, looking at automated infrastructure and deployments, then this book is for you. No prior experience of Salt is required.

  6. Investigations on backfilling and sealing of chambers and shafts in a final salt repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil mechanical laboratory investigations as well as geotechnical in situ measurements were carried out. The laboratory tests provided important information on the material behaviour of selected backfill and sealing materials. Initial conclusions on the long-term behaviour of backfill and seals as well as on their interaction with the rock were gained with the results of in situ measurements in backfilled chambers and seals and in the surrounding rock of the Asse salt mine. (orig./DG)

  7. Shaft barriers for underground waste repositories in abandoned salt mines. Preparatory project. Vol. 2. Annex; Schachtverschluesse fuer untertaegige Deponien in Salzbergwerken. Vorprojekt. Bd. 2. Anhang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, M.W. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Remlingen (Germany). Forschungsbergwerk Asse; Fruth, R. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Remlingen (Germany). Forschungsbergwerk Asse; Stockmann, N. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Remlingen (Germany). Forschungsbergwerk Asse; Birthler, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH Greece, Braunschweig (Germany). Fachbereich Endlagersicherheitsforschung; Boese, B. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH Greece, Braunschweig (Germany). Fachbereich Endlagersicherheitsforschung; Storck, R. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH Greece, Braunschweig (Germany). Fachbereich Endlagersicherheitsforschung; Sitz, P. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau; Krausse, A. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau; Eulenberger, K.H. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau; Schleinig, J.P. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau; Duddeck, H. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Statik; Ahrens, H. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Statik; Menzel, W. [IfG Inst. fuer Gebirgsmechanik GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Salzer, K. [IfG Inst. fuer Gebirgsmechanik GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Minkley, W. [IfG Inst. fuer Gebirgsmechanik GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Busche, H. [Kali und Salz AG, Kassel (Germany); Lindloff, U. [Kali und Salz AG, Kassel (Germany); Gierenz, S. [Kali und Salz AG, Kassel (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    This preparatory study, ``Shaft barriers for underground waste repositories in abandoned salt mines``, was to demonstrate the current scientific and technological know-how based on a comprehensive analysis of the barrier design concepts or established structures intended to serve as barriers in abandoned shafts of potash or rock salt mines. Taking as a basis the current regulatory regime and the available know-how on barrier systems in underground waste repositories taken into account so far in plan approval and licensing procedures, as well as the state of the art, concepts are developed as technical guides and models of barrier systems for mine shafts. The required research work for the various components of a shaft barrier is shown, particularly relating to aspects such as materials suitability and technical realisation. Immediate demand for research activities is shown with regard to the available potentials of mathematic and numeric geotechnical and hydrogeologic calculation models required in order to give proof of the long-term workability of shaft barriers. The authors are of the opinion that the following activities are required in order to meet the research demand quantified: (1) Laboratory and bench-scale experiments for determination of the efficiency of various sealing materials and backfilling materials, and (2) an in-situ, large-scale experiment in order to demonstrate the suitability of low-consolidation shotter columns, or constructional technologies. The laboratory work can be done in the facilities of the GSF research mine of Asse, the Freiburg Mining Academy, and the Institut fuer Gebirgsmechanik in Leipzig, and the benchmark experiments also at the Asse site in the research mine. The Kali und Salz Beteiligungs AG is prepared to offer its mine Salzdetfurth II as a site for the large-scale experiment. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen der Vorstudie ``Schachtverschluesse fuer Untertagedeponien in Salzbergwerken`` wird ausgehend von einer umfangreichen

  8. Use of Near Infrared Spectroscopy to Asses Remote Ischemic Preconditioning in Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Ambrozic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote ischemic preconditioning (IPC is a procedure during which brief periods of ischemia protect distant organ from ischemia-reperfusion injury. Appling IPC on an upper arm, this phenomenon has been demonstrated in several studies. Skeletal muscle tissue oxygenation at rest (StO2 and StO2 deoxygenation rate during vascular occlusion can be measured using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. We aimed to investigate the effects of remote upper arm IPC on StO2 and flow-mediated dilatation (FMD in healthy male volunteers. In a randomized controlled crossover trial, resting StO2, StO2 deoxygenation rate, and FMD were measured on testing arm at baseline and after 60 minutes. After basal measurements IPC protocol on a contralateral arm was performed. StO2 deoxygenation rate was significantly lower after remote, the IPC cycles in comparison to deoxygenation rate at baseline (9.7±2.6 versus 7.5±2.5%, P=0.002. Comparison of deoxygenation rates showed a significant difference between the IPC and the control protocol (F=5.512, P=0.003. No differences were observed in FMD before and after remote IPC and in the control protocol. In healthy young adults, remote IPC reduces StO2 deoxygenation rate but has no significant impact on FMD. NIRS technique offers a novel approach to asses skeletal muscle adaptation in response to remote ischemic stimuli.

  9. Gamma Radiation Effects on Physical, Optical, and Structural Properties of Binary As-S glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaram, S. K.; McCloy, John S.; Riley, Brian J.; Murphy, Mark K.; Qiao, Hong (Amy); Windisch, Charles F.; Walter, Eric D.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Golovchak, Roman; Shpotyuk, O.

    2012-03-01

    Gamma radiation induces changes in physical, optical, and structural properties in chalcogenide glasses., Previous research has focused on As{sub 2}S{sub 3} and families of glasses containing Ge. For the first time, we present composition and dose dependent data on the As-S binary glass series. Binary As{sub x}S{sub 100-x} (x = 30, 33, 36, 40, and 42) glasses were irradiated with gamma radiation using a {sup 60}Co source at 2.8 Gy/s to accumulated doses of 1, 2, 3, and 4 MGy. The irradiated samples were characterized at each dose level for density, refractive index, x-ray diffraction, and Raman spectrum. These results are compared to those of as-made and 1 year aged samples. We report an initial increase in density followed by a decrease as a function of dose that contradicts the expected compositional dependence of molar volume of these glasses. This unusual behavior is explained based on microvoid formation and nanoscale phase-separation induced by the irradiation in these glasses. XRD, Raman, and EPR data provide supporting evidence, underscoring the importance of optimally- or overly-constrained structures for stability under aging or irradiation.

  10. Nachbeobachtung von Patienten nach koronarer Stentimplantation unter optimierter dualer Thrombozytenfunktionshemmertherapie mit ASS und Clopidogrel im Vergleich zur Standardtherapie

    OpenAIRE

    Kusber, Andreas Konrad

    2014-01-01

    Problem: Beeinflusst eine angepasste thrombozytenhemmende Therapie (THT) die kardiovaskulären Ereignisse nach PCI? Methode: Insgesamt wurden 611 Patienten nach PCI in diese Studie eingeschlossen (37,2% stabile KHK, 62,8% ASC). Die Patienten wurden entweder zu einer Standardtherapiegruppe (StG) oder zu einer optimierten Gruppe (OG) mit einem Follow- up von 6 Monaten zugewiesen. In der OG wurde die Ansprechbarkeit auf ASS und Clopidogrel mittels Vollblutaggregometrie bewertet und im...

  11. Structure and vibrational modes of AgI-doped AsSe glasses: Raman scattering and ab initio calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report an investigation of the structure and vibrational modes of (AgI)x (AsSe)100-x, bulk glasses using Raman spectroscopy and first principles calculations. The short- and medium-range structural order of the glasses was elucidated by analyzing the reduced Raman spectra, recorded at off-resonance conditions. Three distinct local environments were revealed for the AsSe glass including stoichiometric-like and As-rich network sub-structures, and cage-like molecules (As4Sen, n=3, 4) decoupled from the network. To facilitate the interpretation of the Raman spectra ab initio calculations are employed to study the geometric and vibrational properties of As4Sen molecular units that are parts of the glass structure. The incorporation of AgI causes appreciable structural changes into the glass structure. AgI is responsible for the population reduction of molecular units and for the degradation of the As-rich network-like sub-structure via the introduction of As-I terminal bonds. Ab initio calculations of mixed chalcohalide pyramids AsSemI3-m provided useful information augmenting the interpretation of the Raman spectra. -- Graphical abstract: Raman scattering and ab initio calculations are employed to study the structure of AgI-AsSe superionic glasses. The role of mixed chalcohalide pyramidal units as illustrated in the figure is elucidated. Display Omitted Research highlights: → Doping binary As-Se glasses with AgI cause dramatic changes in glass structure. → Raman scattering and ab initio calculations determine changes in short- and medium-range order. → Three local environments exist in AsSe glass including a network sub-structure and cage-like molecules. → Mixed chalcohalide pyramids AsSemI3-m dominate the AgI-doped glass structure.

  12. High power broadband mid-infrared supercontinuum fiber laser using a novel chalcogenide AsSe2 photonic crystal fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouf, Mbaye; Ben Salem, Amine; Cherif, Rim; Wague, Ahmadou; Zghal, Mourad

    2016-05-01

    A high power supercontinuum (SC) based on a new type of chalcogenide AsSe2 material for broadband mid-infrared light source is numerically reported. Ultra-broadband coherent mid-IR SC generation with more than 3 octave-spanning from 1.7 to 14 μm in a novel design of chalcogenide AsSe2 photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is demonstrated. To the best of our knowledge and aiming to properly model the nonlinear propagation, an accurate fit of the Raman response function and the corresponding Raman gain of the novel AsSe2 chalcogenide glass are proposed numerically for the first time. The obtained SC is generated by pumping at 3.9 μm in the anomalous dispersion regime in only 8 mm long fiber. Our study shows that the initially generated SC from 150 fs pulse duration with 8.8 kW peak power exhibits high power proportion of more than 80% for wavelengths beyond 3 μm which is very promising for designing high power SC fiber laser sources in the mid-IR atmospheric windows and the molecular fingerprint region.

  13. Molten Salt Promoting Effect in Double Salt CO2 Absorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Keling; Li, Xiaohong S.; Chen, Haobo; Singh, Prabhakar; King, David L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the concept of molten salts as catalysts for CO2 absorption by MgO, and extend these observations to the MgO-containing double salt oxides. We will show that the phenomena involved with CO2 absorption by MgO and MgO-based double salts are similar and general, but with some important differences. This paper focuses on the following key concepts: i) identification of conditions that favor or disfavor participation of isolated MgO during double salt absorption, and investigation of methods to increase the absorption capacity of double salt systems by including MgO participation; ii) examination of the relationship between CO2 uptake and melting point of the promoter salt, leading to the recognition of the role of pre-melting (surface melting) in these systems; and iii) extension of the reaction pathway model developed for the MgO-NaNO3 system to the double salt systems. This information advances our understanding of MgO-based CO2 absorption systems for application with pre-combustion gas streams.

  14. Synthesis, characterization and crystal structures of two polymorphs of the iodo-bridged ruthenium salt, μ-iodido-bis{η5-cyclopentadienyl-dicarbonyl-ruthenium(II)} tetrafluoroborate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyawade, Eunice A.; Friedrich, Holger B.; M'thiruaine, Cyprian M.; Omondi, Bernard

    2013-09-01

    The reaction of RpI (Rp = (η5-C5H5)Ru(CO)2) and AgBF4 in two different solvents, tetrahydrofuran and dichloromethane afforded two polymorphs of the iodo-bridged cationic complex [Rp2I]BF4. Polymorph I precipitates out of solution as yellow broad-shaped blocks while polymorph II crystallises out as thin-shaped blocks. While I crystallizes in the monoclinic P2/c space group with a = 12.0982(5) Å, b = 9.7923(4) Å, c = 15.5321(6) Å, β = 102.9880(10)°, polymorph (II) crystallizes in the monoclinic P21/c with a = 7.00560(10) Å, b = 14.1446(3) Å, c = 18.2226(3) Å, β = 96.2390(10)°. The IR spectra of the compound showed the presence of terminal carbonyl groups but the absence of bridging carbonyl groups. Thermal studies of the two polymorphs reveal very close melting points, 432.2 and 435.2 K for I and II respectively. The enthalpies associated with their melting points are +15.1 kJ mol-1 and +21.9 kJ mol-1 for polymorphs I and II, respectively. ESI-mass spectroscopy showed the presence of a number of statistically possible combinations of the cationic species. The two polymorphs have also been characterized using DSC, IR and NMR.

  15. Satellite Data and Hydrological Model to Asses Water Quantity and Quality in the Yangtze River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Marco; Li, Jiren; Corbari, Chiara; Zhang, Xingnan; Fang, Yuanhao; Xin, Jinfeng; Zhang, Jianli; Su, Bob

    2014-11-01

    The main objective of the project (ID 10664) is to assess water quantity and quality for the Yangtze River basin through remote sensing data and a distributed hydrological model. Water quantity analyses are assed with a fully distributed hydrological model FEST-EWB which is calibrated assimilating satellite-based Land Surface Temperature (LST) tuning soil and vegetation parameters in each pixel of the domain as a complementary method to the traditional calibration with local Soil Moisture or discharge data. This approach is feasible because the model algorithm uses the land surface temperature as state variable that is directly compared to the satellite LST. The model computes the pixel water balance solving the system of energy and mass balances in terms of a representative equilibrium temperature (RET), that is the land surface temperature that closes the energy balance equation and so governs the fluxes of energy and mass over the basin domain. This equilibrium surface temperature, is comparable to LST as retrieved from operational remote sensing data (MODIS and AATSR) which is used for the calibration of soil and vegetation parameters. FEST-EWB is run for the whole Yangtze River basin at spatial resolution of 0.05° and temporal resolution of 3 hours. Results are provided in terms of hourly evapotranspiration, soil moisture and land surface temperature maps at a pixel resolution and in term of flow duration curves for four river cross sections for the period 2003-2006 where observed data are available. The effects of the Three Gorges dam, the largest hydropower project in the world, is evaluated on the Yangtze flow regime as well as on the two large lakes (Poyang and Dongting) which change considerably their area during the seasons. Satellite data (MERIS) provide in these cases a control of the surface lake dynamic of these water bodies. Cooperation activities between Chinese and European teams is also demonstrated from the use of the FEST-EWB algorithms in the

  16. The fairy tale on Asse, Gorleben and other final repositories. A never-ending story. 3. ed.; Das Maerchen von der Asse, Gorleben und anderen Endlagern. Eine unendliche Geschichte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinsch, Hermann

    2013-05-01

    Based on the actual problems in the final repository Asse for low- and medium-level radioactive waste the authors discusses official statements from politicians, scientists and engineers concerning the safety and risks of nuclear power, nuclear wastes, waste management and radiation hazards with respect to reality and scientific knowledge. In this context the author is talking about fairy tales that are supposed to influence the public opinion. The author's opinion is that the risks and hazards of radioactive wastes for environment and the human population are overestimated.

  17. Heterologous Overexpression and Mutagenesis of the Human Bile Salt Export Pump (ABCB11) Using DREAM (Directed REcombination-Assisted Mutagenesis)

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Stindt; Philipp Ellinger; Claudia Stross; Verena Keitel; Dieter Häussinger; Smits, Sander H. J.; Ralf Kubitz; Lutz Schmitt

    2011-01-01

    Homologous recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a well-studied process. Here, we describe a yeast-recombination-based approach to construct and mutate plasmids containing the cDNA of the human bile salt export pump (BSEP) that has been shown to be unstable in E. coli. Using this approach, we constructed the necessary plasmids for a heterologous overexpression of BSEP in the yeast Pichia pastoris. We then applied a new site-directed mutagenesis method, DREAM (Directed REcombination-Ass...

  18. Sepiolite functionalized with N-[3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl]-ethylenediamine triacetic acid trisodium salt. Part II: Sorption of Ni2+ from aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Slavica S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available sorption of Ni2+ on the sepiolite functionalized by covalent grafting of N-[3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl]ethylenediamine triacetic acid trisodium salt, MSEAS, was studied in batch experiments as a function of the initial metal concentration, the equilibration time, pH value, and temperature. The modification of sepiolite resulted in an enhanced Ni2+ retention with a capacity of 0.261 mmol/g at 298 K. The retention of Ni2+ ions occurred dominantly by specific sorption and exchange of Mg2+ ions from the sepiolite structure. The sorption process followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The sorption equilibrium results were best described by the non-linear form of the Langmuir Sorption Equation. The values of the thermodynamic parameters (enthalpy, free energy and entropy were calculated from temperature dependent sorption isotherms and these values showed that the sorption of Ni2+ onto modified sepiolite was endothermic. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45019 i FP7 NANOTECH FTM No. 245916

  19. Angiotensin II Type 2-Receptor Agonist C21 Reduces Proteinuria and Oxidative Stress in Kidney of High-Salt-Fed Obese Zucker Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sanket N; Ali, Quaisar; Hussain, Tahir

    2016-05-01

    Oxidative and nitrosative stress have been implicated in high-sodium diet (HSD)-related hypertensive renal injury. In this study, we investigated angiotensin II type 2-receptor-mediated renoprotection in obese Zucker rats fed HSD. Obese Zucker rats were fed normal sodium diet or HSD 4%, for 14 days, with/without angiotensin II type 2-receptor agonist C21, delivered subcutaneously via osmotic pump, 1 mg/kg per day. Compared with normal sodium diet controls, HSD rats exhibited increase in cortical nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity, urinary H2O2, and 8-isoprostanes, which were associated with severe glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate, and an increase in urinary leak and activity ofN-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase, a lysosomal enzyme and a marker of tubular damage. These changes were improved by C21 treatment. Cortical expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, phospho-endothelial nitric oxide synthase (Ser(1177)), and plasma nitrites were reduced after HSD intake, whereas nitrosative stress (3-nitrotyrosine) and enzymatic defense (superoxide dismutase-to-catalase activity) remained unaltered. However, C21 preserved plasma nitrites in HSD-fed obese Zucker rat. C21 treatment reduced protein-to-creatinine, albumin-to-creatinine, as well as fractional excretion of protein and albumin in HSD-fed obese Zucker rat, which is independent of changes in protein recycling receptors, megalin, and cubilin. HSD intake also altered renal excretory and reabsorptive capacity as evident by elevated plasma urea nitrogen-to-creatinine and fractional excretion of urea nitrogen, and reduced urine-to-plasma creatinine, which were modestly, but insignificantly, improved by C21 treatment. Together results demonstrate that angiotensin II type 2-receptor activation protects against HSD-induced kidney damage in obesity plausibly by reducing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity and

  20. Progress on Nutritional Ingredient and Bioactivity of Ass Milk%驴乳营养成分和生物活性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周通; 李志; 尤金花; 秦玉峰

    2012-01-01

    Ass milk has the effects of heat-clearing and detoxicating, moistening diyness to quench thirst in ancient Chinese medicine. Nowadays, in Europe and South America, ass milk is popular as a human milk substitute and is gradually accepted by more and more people. The recent studies show that ass milk enriched with fatty acids, mineral matter, vitamins and other nutrients is similar to human milk and can be absorbed and utilized in body. The study on the bioactivity of ass milk shows that ass milk is low allergenic because of the feature of protein construction, and it is fit to the baby who is allergic to cow's milk. Besides, ass milk contains antalzyme and has antibacterial activity. Along with the rapid progress of donkey industry in China, the supply of ass milk will increase with a broad market prospect.%中医古籍记载,驴乳具有清热解毒、润燥止渴等功效.欧洲和南美,驴乳流行作为人乳的替代品.研究表明,驴乳含有蛋白质、必需脂肪酸、矿物质、维生素等丰富的营养成分,而且其含量与人乳接近,有利于人体吸收和利用.生物活性研究表明,驴乳的蛋白质构成特点使驴乳致敏性低,可用于对牛乳过敏的婴儿.驴乳富含溶菌酶,具有抗菌功能.随着我国驴产业链的发展,驴乳资源将越来越丰富,市场和应用前景广阔.

  1. The HAW-project: Demonstration facility for the disposal of high-level waste in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To satisfy the test objectives thirty highly radioactive canisters containing the radionuclides Cs-137 and Sr-90 will be emplaced in six boreholes located in two test galleries at the 800 m-level in the Asse salt mine. For handling of the radioactive canisters and their emplacement into the boreholes a system consisting of a transport cask, a transport vehicle, a disposal machine, and of a borehole slider has been developed. The actual scientific investigation programme is based on the estimation and observation of the interaction between the radioactive canisters and the rock salt. This programme includes measurement of thermally and radiolytically induced water and gas release from the rock salt and the radiolytical decomposition of salt minerals. Also the thermally induced stress and deformation fields in the surrounding rock mass will be investigated carefully. (orig./DG)

  2. Metal-containing ligands for mixed-metal polymers: novel Cu(II)-Ag(I) mixed-metal coordination polymers generated from [Cu(2-methylpyrazine-5-carboxylate)2(H2O)].3H2O and silver(I) salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Y B; Smith, M D; zur Loye, H C

    2000-05-01

    One Cu(II)-containing ligand and two Cu(II)-Ag(I) mixed-metal coordination polymers have been synthesized. [Cu(2-methylpyrazine-5-carboxylate)2(H2O)].3H2O (1) was obtained as a molecular complex with two uncoordinated nitrogen donors by the reaction of 2-methylpyrazine-5-carboxylate sodium with CuCl(2).2H2O in water. Compound 1 crystallized in the triclinic space group P1, with a = 10.498(2) A, b = 11.000(2) A, c = 8.1424(16) A, alpha = 98.33(3) degrees, beta = 101.83(3) degrees, gamma = 66.68(3) degrees, and Z = 2. Reactions of 1 with silver(I) salts have been studied. Two Cu(II)-Ag(I) mixed-metal coordination polymers, namely, Ag[Cu(2-methylpyrazine-5-carboxylate)2.(H2O)2](BF4) (2) and Ag[Cu(2-methylpyrazine-5-carboxylate)2.(H2O)2](NO3) (3), have been generated by treating 1 with AgBF4 and AgNO3, respectively. Compound 2 crystallized in the monoclinic space group C2/c, with a = 25.827(5) A, b = 9.6430(19) A, c = 7.4525(15) A, beta = 94.74(3) degrees, and Z = 4. Compound 3 also crystallized in the monoclinic space group C2/c, with a = 25.855(5) A, b = 9.782(2) A, c = 7.1201(14) A, beta = 96.90(3) degrees, and Z = 4. The main structural feature in both 2 and 3 is a zigzag Cu(II)-Ag(I) mixed-metal chain, in which the alternating Cu(II) and Ag(I) centers are linked by 2-methylpyrazine-5-carboxylate spacers. The effect of the nitrate counterion was illustrated by compound 3, in which a novel [Ag+...NO3-] coordination chain has been found which acts as the connector to cross-link the one-dimensional zigzag chains into a three-dimensional network. In addition, an identical interchain O-H...O hydrogen bonding system has been found in both 2 and 3 and has been shown to play a significant role in directing the alignment of the one-dimensional mixed-metal polymer chains in the crystalline state. The magnetic susceptibilities of 2 and 3 were measured and found to follow the Curie law (mu eff = 1.85 for 2 and 1.83 for 3). PMID:11428114

  3. The Arsenic Cycle in Searles Lake, California: An Arsenic-Rich, Salt-Saturated Soda Lake. II. Isolation of Arsenic-Metabolizing Microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer Blum, J.; Hoeft, S. E.; Stolz, J. F.; Langley, S.; Beveridge, T. J.; Kulp, T. R.; Oremland, R. S.

    2004-12-01

    The motivation for isolating arsenic-metabolizing prokaryotes from Searles Lake was to characterize the physiology of microbes that can cope simultaneously with at least 3 environmental extremes: saturating salt concentration, high pH, and high dissolved inorganic arsenic. A secondary motivation was to find extremely halophilc Archaea that could respire As(V), as this has only been reported for the Crenarchaea. Enrichment cultures of arsenate [As(V)]-respirers were established by inoculating Searles Lake mud into an anaerobic, alkaline (pH = 9.8) artificial medium containing 346 g/L dissolved salts, with lactate as the electron donor and As(V) as the electron acceptor. After about 6 months of bi-weekly transfers, the enrichment was purified by serial dilution, with the highest growth-positive dilution tube exhibiting motile cells having uniform morphology (curved rods). This culture, strain SLAS-1, grew by oxidizing lactate to acetate plus carbon dioxide while reducing As(V) to arsenite [As(III)]. The doubling time was 48 hours at 346 g/L salinity, and nearly equivalent growth rates were observed over a salinity range of 200 to 346 g/l, with no growth evident below 200 g/L. The pH range was 8.5 to 10, with an optimum at 9.5. Strain SLAS-1 has an unusual motility that can be characterized as a "fish-like" swimming motion. Thin section electron micrographs revealed the presence of an internal cytoplasmic filament that runs the full length of the microorganism. We suggest that this filament may be involved in cellular motility. However, taxonomic classification of SLAS-1 made by 16S rRNA gene sequences aligned it in the order Haloanaerobacteriales of the Domain Bacteria. In a further effort to isolate haloalkaliphilic Archaea, a similar enrichment strategy was employed as above, but cell-wall antibiotics were added to the medium to discourage the growth of Bacteria. An enrichment culture, designated Serl-Ab, was established that oxidized lactate to acetate plus carbon

  4. A double salt of iodobismuthate: cis-aquaiodidobis(1,10-phenanthrolinecobalt(II tris(1,10-phenanthrolinecobalt(II trans-hexa-μ2-iodido-hexaiodidotribismuthate(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiongke Chen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [Co(C12H8N23][CoI(C12H8N22(H2O][Bi3I12], conventionally abbreviated [Co(phen3][CoI(phen2(H2O][Bi3I12], where phen is 1,10-phenanthroline, the CoII atom in one cation is coordinated by six N atoms from three phen ligands in an octahedral coordination while the CoII atom in the other cation is coordinated octahedrally by four N atoms from two phen ligands, one water O atom and one I atom. In the anion, three BiIII ions adopt an octahedral coordination constructed by six I− ligands. The three BiI6 octahedra are fused together through trans face-sharing.

  5. A Dinâmica e os Fatores Organizacionais Propiciadores à Ocorrência do Assédio Moral no Trabalho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Soares Nunes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo é apresentada uma revisão da literatura sobre o assédio moral, com uma abordagem voltada para a Ciência da Administração. Considera-se que no atual contexto existem alguns fatores organizacionais propiciadores à ocorrência do assédio moral, e que são importantes de ser compreendidos pelo administrador. O assédio moral trata-se de um processo complexo que inclui a interação de aspectos interpessoais, sociais (grupais e organizacionais. A abordagem focada é a do assédio moral organizacional, cujo objetivo é fazer com que as agressões sirvam de exemplo para os membros organizacionais, para que estes alcancem as metas/objetivos estabelecidos pela organização a qualquer custo. Ressalta-se que existem alguns fatores organizacionais que podem propiciar o assédio, como a mudança da natureza e da organização do trabalho, cultura e clima organizacional, e liderança. Buscaram-se nos modelos propostos subsídios conceituais explicativos do fenômeno, os quais demonstram a interação dos diversos aspectos supracitados que influenciam na ocorrência.DOI:10.7769/gesec.v4i2.161

  6. Histological variability in the limb bones of the Asiatic wild ass and its significance for life history inferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordana, Xavier; Köhler, Meike

    2016-01-01

    The study of bone growth marks (BGMs) and other histological traits of bone tissue provides insights into the life history of present and past organisms. Important life history traits like longevity or age at maturity, which could be inferred from the analysis of these features, form the basis for estimations of demographic parameters that are essential in ecological and evolutionary studies of vertebrates. Here, we study the intraskeletal histological variability in an ontogenetic series of Asiatic wild ass (Equus hemionus) in order to assess the suitability of several skeletal elements to reconstruct the life history strategy of the species. Bone tissue types, vascular canal orientation and BGMs have been analyzed in 35 cross-sections of femur, tibia and metapodial bones of 9 individuals of different sexes, ages and habitats. Our results show that the number of BGMs recorded by the different limb bones varies within the same specimen. Our study supports that the femur is the most reliable bone for skeletochronology, as already suggested. Our findings also challenge traditional beliefs with regard to the meaning of deposition of the external fundamental system (EFS). In the Asiatic wild ass, this bone tissue is deposited some time after skeletal maturity and, in the case of the femora, coinciding with the reproductive maturity of the species. The results obtained from this research are not only relevant for future studies in fossil Equus, but could also contribute to improve the conservation strategies of threatened equid species. PMID:27761353

  7. Process parameters for decolorization and biodegradation of orange II (Acid Orange 7) in dye-simulated minimal salt medium and subsequent textile effluent treatment by Bacillus cereus (MTCC 9777) RMLAU1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Satyendra Kumar; Tripathi, Manikant

    2013-11-01

    In this study, Bacillus cereus isolate from tannery effluent was employed for orange II dye decolorization in simulated minimal salt broth and textile effluent. Most of the physicochemical parameters of textile effluent were above the permissible limits. The strain was highly tolerant to dye up to 500 mg l(-1). Increasing dye concentration exerted inhibitory effect on the bacterial growth and decolorization. The maximum decolorization of initial 100 mg dye l(-1) was achieved at optimum pH 8.0 and 33 °C under static culture conditions during 96-h incubation. Supplementation with optimized glucose (0.4%, w/v) and ammonium sulfate (0.1%, w/v) with 3.0% B. cereus inoculum further enhanced dye decolorization to highest 68.5% within 96-h incubation. A direct correlation was evident between bacterial growth and dye decolorization. Under above optimized conditions, 24.3% decolorization of unsterilized real textile effluent by native microflora was achieved. The effluent decolorization enhanced substantially to 37.1% with B. cereus augmentation and to 40.5% when supplemented with glucose and ammonium sulfate without augmentation. The maximum decolorization of 52.5% occurred when textile effluent was supplemented with optimized exogenous carbon and nitrogen sources along with B. cereus augmentation. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry identified sulfanilic acid as orange II degradation product. Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy of metabolic products indicated the presence of amino and hydroxyl functional groups. This strain may be suitably employed for in situ decolorization of textile industrial effluent under broad environmental conditions.

  8. Hydration of beryllium(II) in aqueous solutions of common inorganic salts. A combined vibrational spectroscopic and ab initio molecular orbital study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Wolfram W; Fischer, Dieter; Irmer, Gert; Pye, Cory C

    2009-09-01

    Raman spectra of aqueous beryllium perchlorate, chloride, nitrate, and sulfate solutions have been measured over a broad concentration (0.098-4.950 mol L(-1)) range. The Raman spectroscopic data suggest that the tetra-aqua beryllium(II) ion is thermodynamically stable in perchlorate, chloride, and nitrate solutions over the concentration range measured. No inner-sphere complexes in these solutions could be detected spectroscopically except in very concentrated beryllium nitrate solutions. Beryllium sulfate solutions however, show a different picture, namely the existence of a thermodynamically stable beryllium sulfato complex most likely monodentate even at very low concentrations. At very high beryllium sulfate concentrations, a small quantity of a bidentate sulfato complex was found. With a temperature increase, the sulfato complex formation increases and this demonstrates the entropically driven sulfato complex formation. Furthermore, with increased temperature the hydrolysis increases, measured by the formation of hydrogen sulfate. Ab initio geometry optimizations and frequency calculations are reported for beryllium-water clusters with only inner sphere waters, clusters with an inner sphere and an incomplete second hydration, and clusters with a higher number of waters in the second hydration sphere. The cluster, [Be(OH2)(12)(2+)] (Be[4 + 8]) with 4 water molecules in the first sphere and 8 water molecules in the second sphere gave sufficiently realistic frequencies for BeO4 skeleton in comparison to the experimental ones. However, the cluster, [Be(OH2)(18)(2+)] (Be[6 + 12]) with 6 water molecules in the inner sphere and 12 water molecules in the outer sphere on an energy minimum gave unrealistically low BeO4 frequencies. This fact demonstrates that a six-fold coordination of Be2+ can be ruled out.

  9. ASSE ENTERO-INSULARE E METABOLISMO GLICO-LIPIDICO NEL DIABETE DI TIPO 2 E NELL’OBESITÀ: EFFETTI DELLA CHIRURGIA BARIATRICA E DI DIVERSI INTERVENTI NUTRIZIONALI

    OpenAIRE

    Griffo, Ettore

    2014-01-01

    Le evidenze scientifiche attribuiscono agli ormoni dell’asse entero-insulare (GLP-1 e GIP), molteplici azioni che vanno dalla regolazione dell’omeostasi glicemica e lipidica al controllo del senso di fame, dell’assunzione di cibo e, quindi, dell’introito energetico. Molte funzioni svolte dagli ormoni dell’asse entero-insulare si sono evidenziate solo dopo gli interventi di chirurgia bariatrica attuati per la terapia dell’obesità morbigena. Durante il triennio del corso di dottorato in “Scienz...

  10. Spruce forests (Ass. Sphango girgensohnii - Piceetum (Br.-Bl. 39 Polak. 62 on excessively moistened peatlands in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normunds Priedits

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The research carried out on swamp spruce forests on peatland in Latvia gives a detailed notion of the phytosociological structure of Ass. Sphagno girgensohnii - Piceetum (Br. - BI. 39 Polak. 62 in the western part of the East-European Plain at the Baltic Sea. The paper reflects one of the aspects of swamp forest investigation results in Latvia on forest communities, its biodiversity and presevation. Ninety-one sample plots with Picea abies as the dominant in the tree layer or co-dominant with Betula pendula, Betula pubescens or Pinus sylvestris are described according to phytosociological Braun-Blanquet methodology. Floristic features of spruce communities belonging to Caricoso-phragmitosa and Dryopterioso-cnricosa forest site types are analysed. The results are compared with similar investigations carried out in the Baltic Sea region states and neighbouring countries.

  11. The behaviour of salt and salt caverns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokker, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Salts are mined for both storage and extraction purposes, either via dry or solution mining techniques. For operational, environmental and geological purposes, it is important to understand and predict the in situ behaviour of salt, in particular the creep and strength characteristics. A micro-mecha

  12. PySALT: SALT science pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, S. M.; Still, M.; Schellart, P.; Balona, L.; Buckley, D. A. H.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Kniazev, A.; Kotze, M.; Loaring, N.; Nordsieck, K. H.; Pickering, T. E.; Potter, S.; Romero Colmenero, E.; Vaisanen, P.; Wiliams, T.; Zietsman, E.

    2012-07-01

    The PySALT user package contains the primary reduction and analysis software tools for the SALT telescope. Currently, these tools include basic data reductions for RSS and SALTICAM in both imaging, spectroscopic, and slot modes. Basic analysis software for slot mode data is also provided. These tools are primarily written in python/PyRAF with some additional IRAF code.

  13. Metals in Metal Salts: A Copper Mirror Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    A simple lecture demonstration is described to show the latent presence of metal atoms in a metal salt. Copper(II) formate tetrahydrate is heated in a round-bottom flask forming a high-quality copper mirror.

  14. Molten salt electrolyte separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1996-01-01

    A molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication.

  15. Invasive species in ass. Trifolio-Agrostietum stoloniferae Marković 1973 in Bačka (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džigurski Dejana M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the vegetation of meadows and pastures, due to climate changes and an inadequate and intensive use of hydromeliorative measures, invasive species play a significant role in the degradation of biodiversity. Secondary development of ass. Trifolio-Agrostietum stoloniferae Marković 1973 stands was observed in Bačka, in periodically flooded pastures. Floristic composition of these stands consists of 117 plant species, of which 94 grow in the Danube riverbank region and 97 around the Tisa river. According to the floristic analysis, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Bellis perennis, Carduus nutans, Cirsium arvense, Eupatorium cannabinum, Linaria vulgaris, Lotus corniculatus, Lythrum salicaria, Rumex crispus, and Trifolium repens are characterized as invasive plants of the European region. Moreover, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Eleusine indica and Xanthium spinosum, included in the List of invasive species in AP Vojvodina, are also present. Lythrum salicaria is regarded as one of the 100 most dangerous invasive alien species in the world. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31016: Improvement of Forage Crops Production on Fields and Grasslands

  16. Low-salt diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some have a lot of salt in them. Home water softeners add salt to water. If you have one, limit how much tap water you drink. Drink bottled water instead. Ask your doctor if a salt substitute is safe for you. Many contain a lot ...

  17. Tendência dos estudos sobre assédio moral e trabalhadores de enfermagem Tendencia de los estudios sobre asedio moral y trabajadores de enfermería Tendency of the studies on moral harassment and nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Kátia Biagio Fontes; Sandra Marisa Pelloso; Maria Dalva de Barros Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Estudo de Revisão Integrativa da Literatura com o objetivo de analisar o conhecimento produzido sobre o assédio moral na enfermagem, apresentado em publicações nacionais e internacionais. Foram pesquisados artigos em bases de dados on-line entre os anos de 1999 e 2009, constituindo-se uma amostra de 18 publicações. Após cuidadosa leitura, foram construídas sete categorias temáticas: avaliação do assédio moral; comportamentos de assédio moral experimentados por enfermeiros; estratégias de copi...

  18. Spanish participation in the Haw Project: Laboratory investigations on Gamma irradiation effects in rock salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuevas, C. de las; Miralles, L.; Teixidor, P.; Garcia Veigas, J.; Dies, X.; Ortega, X.; Pueyo, J.J.

    1993-12-31

    In order to prove the safe disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HAW) in salt rock, a five years test disposal of thirty highly radioactive radiation sources is planned in the Asse salt mine, in the Federal Republic of Germany. The thirty radiation sources consist of steel canisters containing the vitrified radionuclides Caesium 137 and Strontium 90 in quantities sufficient to cover the bandwidth of heat generation and gamma radiation of real HAW. The radiation sources will be emplaced in six boreholes located in two galleries at the 800 m level. Two electrical heater tests were already started in November 1988 and are continuosly surveyed in respect of the rock mass. Also the handling system necessary for the emplacement of the radioactive canisters was developed and succesfully tested. A laboratory investigation programme on radiation effects in salt is being performed in advance to the radioactive canister emplacement. This programme includes the investigation of thermally and radiolytically induced water and gas release from the rock salt and the radiolytical decomposition of salt minerals. Part of this programme has been carried out since 1988 at the University of Barcelona, basically what refers to colloidal sodium determinations by light absorption measurements and microstructural studies on irradiated salt samples. For gamma dose and dose rate measurements in the test field, measuring systems consisting of ionisation chambers as well as solid state dosemeters were developed and tested. Thermomechanical computer code validation is performed by calculational predictions and parallel investigation of the stress and displacement fields in the underground test field.

  19. The HAW project: demonstration facility for the disposal of high-level waste in salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothfuchs, T. [Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen, Remlingen (DE). Inst. fuer Tieflagerung; Duijves, K.A. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation, Petten (NL)

    1991-12-31

    This publication is the interim report 1988-89 of the international HAW project performed in the 800 m level of the Asse salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. The major objective of this project is the pilot testing and demonstration of safe methods for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste in geological salt deposits. The HAW-project is carried out by the GSF-Institut fuer Tieflagerung (IFT) in cooperation with the French Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA); the Spanish Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos S.A. (ENRESA) and the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN). After some delays in the licensing procedure the emplacement of 30 vitrified highly radioactive canisters (containers) is now envisaged for early 1991. 20 refs.; 92 figs.; 14 tabs.

  20. The HAW project: demonstration facility for the disposal of high-level waste in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the so-called Synthesis report 1985-1989 of the international HAW project performed in the 800 m level of the ASSE salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. The major objective of this project is the pilot testing and demonstration of safe methods for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste in geological salt-deposits. The HAW-project is carried out by the GSF-Institut fuer Tieflagerung (IFT) in cooperation with the French Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA); the Spanish Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radioactivos S.A (ENRESA) and the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN). During the years 1985 to 1989 the underground test field was excavated and after some delays in the licensing procedure, the emplacement of 30 vitrified highly radioactive canisters (containers) is now envisaged for early 1991. 32 refs; 76 figs., 11 tabs

  1. SALT Science Conference 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, David; Schroeder, Anja

    The Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) has seen great changes in the last years following the beginning of full time science operations in 2011. The three first generation instruments, namely the SALTICAM imager, the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) and its multiple modes and finally in 2014, the new High Resolution Spectrograph (HRS), have commissioned it. The SALT community now eagerly anticipate the installation and commissioning of the near-infrared arm of RSS, likely to commence in 2016. The the third "Science with SALT" conference was held at the Stellenbosch Institute of Advanced Study from 1-5 June 2015. The goals of this conference were to: -Present and discuss recent results from SALT observations; -Anticipate scientific programs that will be carried out with new SALT instrumentation such as RSS-NIR; -Provide a scientific environment in which to foster inter-institutional and inter-facility collaborations between scientists at the different SALT partners; -Provide an opportunity for students and postdocs to become more engaged in SALT science and operations; -Encourage the scientific strategic planning that will be necessary to insure an important role for SALT in an era of large astronomical facilities in the southern hemisphere such as MeerKAT, the SKA, LSST, and ALMA; -Consider options for future instrumentation and technical development of SALT; and, -Present, discuss, and engage in the SALT Collateral Benefits program led by SAAO. Conference proceedings editors: David Buckley and Anja Schroeder

  2. The Grey Ass

    OpenAIRE

    French, Percy (Irish painter, draftsman, and illustrator, 1854-1920)

    2001-01-01

    Percy French was a graduate of Trinity College, Dublin. On termination of his employment as Cavan Board of Works Engineer in the mid 1880s, he devoted himself to composing, singing and watercolour painting. He often utilized both wet and dry brush techniques and specialized in mists and moors.

  3. "FAMÍLIAS DA PRECISÃO” NO MUNICÍPIO DE ARIQUEMES – RONDÔNIA: Assédio existencial ou estratégia de sobrevivência da economia familiar?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Ribeiro Pereira Nunes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available No Estado de Rondônia, assim como em várias outras regiões do Brasil, os contrastes sociais revelam que há um constante processo de "des"construção social da cidadania, pautado na desigualdade econômica, social e cultural, bem como no flagrante desrespeito à dignidade da pessoa humana. O objetivo geral desta pesquisa é investigar as condições socioeconômicas de famílias monoparentais rurais chefiadas por mulheres de 18 a 25 anos, com no mínimo 3 filhos, expulsas da terra por motivos aleatórios e que se submetem às condições degradantes de trabalho nas cidades. Os objetivos específicos são: (i entender os motivos que levam essas famílias brasileiras se sujeitarem a viver em circunstâncias precárias nos centros urbanos, apesar das campanhas de conscientização que circulam em mídias audiovisuais; e (ii.a verificar se há uma lógica e/ou uma estratégia de sobrevivência e/ou complementação de renda para essas famílias com essa subserviência; e/ou (ii.b se tal processo decorre de uma imposição social denominada "assédio existencial". Este trabalho se justifica pela necessidade de compreender a luta por reconhecimento a partir da organização e da afirmação de seus saberes e de fazeres no seio desse grupo identitário destoante do perfil de famílias "normais". O campo da amostra foi delimitando ao município de Ariquemes - microrregião do Leste Rondoniense.

  4. Thermal Treatment of Salt-Loaded Zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Lee, Jae Hee; Kim, Eung Ho; Kim, Joon Hyung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    For disposal in a geological repository, the waste salts such as molten LiCl salt from an oxide fuel reduction process and molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt from an electro refining process must meet the acceptance criteria. For a waste form containing chloride salt, two of the more important criteria are known to be leach resistance and waste form durability. US Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) developed a ceramic waste form (CWF) fabrication technology for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt from ANL Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II). The CWF, which was made by first occluding salt in zeolite A at 730 K and then encapsulating the zeolite in a borosilicate binder glass by a hot isostatic press (HIP) method or pressureless consolidation (PC) method, has the phase composition of about 70% sodalite, 25% binder glass, and a 5% total of inclusion phases (halite, nepheline, and various oxides and silicates). US ANL showed that the chemical durability and leach resistance of the CWF were higher than those of glass waste form for high level waste from aqueous process, by a 7-day product consistency test (PCT). However, the waste form fabrication process for waste LiCl salt is somewhat different in mixing temperature from that for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt at US ANL. The former is mixed at 920 K, whereas, the later mixing is accomplished at 730 K. Such difference in mixing temperature results in the different major phase of SLZ, that is, zeolite Li-A from LiCl salt, and unchanged zeolite A from LiCl-KCl eutectic salt. This unchanged phase of zeolite A during an immobilization step is transformed to sodalite, which was known to be very high leach-resistant, in the step of encapsulating with borosilicate glass. In this work, we tried to investigate the transformation of major phase of SLZ, from zeolite Li-A to Na{sub 8}Cl{sub 2}-Sod using zeolite only sodalite, by a quantitative analysis with a software for X-ray diffractometer during the thermal treatment under 1170 K.

  5. The HAW-project: Demonstration facility for the disposal of high-level waste in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The HAW-project plants the testwise emplacement of 30 vitrified highly radioactive canisters containing Cs-137 and Sr-90 at the 800 m level of the Asse salt mine for a testing period of approximately five years. The major objective of this project is the pilot testing and demonstration of safe methods for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HAW) in geological salt formations. During the years 1985 to 1989 the underground test field was excavated, the measuring equipment installed, and two preceedings inactive electrical tests taken into operation. Furthermore, the components of a system for transportation and emplacement of highly radioactive canisters was fabricated, installed, and preliminarily tested. After some delays in the licensing procedure the emplacement of the 30 radioactive canisters is now envisaged for early 1991. For handling of the radioactive canisters and their emplacement into the boreholes a system consisting of a transport cask, a transport vehicle, a disposal machine, and of a borehole slider has been developed and will be tested. The actual scientific investigation programme is based on the estimation and observation of the interaction between the radioactive canisters and the rock salt. This programme includes measurement of thermally and radiolytically induced water and gas release from the rock salt and the radiolytical decomposition of salt minerals. Also the thermally induced stress and deformation fields in the surrounding rock mass will be investigated carefully. (orig./HP)

  6. Salt Weathering on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagoutz, E.

    2006-12-01

    Large well rounded boulders and angular rock fragments characterizes the Martian landscape as seen on the recent excellent quality photos. Analyzing the different rock-shapes indicates a time sequence of emplacement, fragmentation and transport of different rocks on Mars, which might give interesting insight into transport and weathering processes. Larger commonly well rounded boulders were emplaced onto gravel plains. After emplacement, these rocks were fragmented and disassembled. Nests of angular rock fragments are marking the locations of preexisting larger rocks. Frequently it is possible to reconstruct larger rounded rocks from smaller angular fragments. In other cases transport after fragmentation obscured the relationship of the fragments. However, a strewn field of fragments is still reminiscent of the preexisting rock. Mechanical salt weathering could be a plausible explanation for the insitu fragmentation of larger rounded blocks into angular fragments. Impact or secondary air fall induced fragmentation produces very different patterns, as observed around impact crates on Earth. Salt weathering of rocks is a common process in terrestrial environments. Salt crystallization in capillaries causes fragmentation of rocks, irrespective of the process of salt transportation and concentration. On Earth significant salt weathering can be observed in different climatic environments: in the transition zone of alluvial aprons and salt playas in desserts and in dry valleys of Antarctica. In terrestrial semi-arid areas the salt is transported by salt solution, which is progressively concentrated by evaporation. In Antarctic dry valleys freeze-thaw cycles causes salt transportation and crystallization resulting in rock fragmentation. This salt induced process can lead to complete destruction of rocks and converts rocks to fine sand. The efficient breakdown of rocks is dominating the landscape in some dry valleys of the Earth but possibly also on Mars. (Malin, 1974

  7. Accurate Thermochemical Properties for Energetic Materials Applications. II. Heats of Formation of Imidazolium-, 1,2,4-Triazolium-, and Tetrazolium-Based Energetic Salts fromIsodesmic and Lattice Energy Calculations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutowski, Keith E; Rogers, Robin D; Dixon, David A

    2007-03-01

    The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. A computational approach to the prediction of the heats of formation (ΔHf°’s) of solid-state energetic salts from electronic structure and volume-based thermodynamics (VBT) calculations is described. The method uses as its starting point reliable ΔHf°’s for energetic precursor molecules and ions. The ΔHf°’s of more complex energetics species such as substituted imidazole, 1,2,4-triazole, and tetrazole molecules and ions containing amino, azido, and nitro (including methyl) substituents are calculated using an isodesmic approach at the MP2/complete basis set level. On the basis of comparisons to experimental data for neutral analogues, this isodesmic approach is accurate to <3 kcal/mol for the predicted cation and anion ΔHf°’s. The ΔHf°’s of the energetic salts in the solid state are derived from lattice energy (UL) calculations using a VBT approach. Improved values for the ∝ and β parameters of 19.9 (kcal nm)/mol and 37.6 kcal/mol for the UL equation were obtained on the basis of comparisons to experimental UL’s for a series of 23 salts containing ammonium, alkylammonium, and hydrazinium cations. The total volumes are adjusted to account for differences between predicted and experimental total volumes due to different shapes of the ions (flat vs spherical). The predicted ΔHf°’s of the energetic salts are estimated to have error bars of 6-7 kcal/mol, on the basis of comparisons to established experimental ΔHf°’s of a subset of the salts studied. Energetic salts with the highest positive ΔHf°’s are predicted for azido-containing cations, coupled with heterocyclic anions containing nitro substituents. The substitution of functional groups on

  8. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  9. SALT for Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    1996-01-01

    Discusses Schuster's Suggestive-Accelerative Learning Techniques (SALT) Method, which combines Lozanov's Suggestopedia with such American methods as Asher's Total Physical Response and Galyean's Confluent Education. The article argues that students trained with the SALT Method have higher achievement scores and better attitudes than others. (14…

  10. Geomechanics of bedded salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serata, S.; Milnor, S.W.

    1979-06-08

    Creep data from the literature search is reinterpreted by SGI, resulting in a better understanding of the temperature and stress state dependence of the octahedral creep rate and the octahedral shear strength. The concept of a transition strength between the elastic and the plastic states is in agreement with the data. The elastic and rheological properties of salt are described, and a set of constitutive equations is presented. The dependence of material properties on parameters such as temperature is considered. Findings on the permeability of salt are summarized, and the in-situ behavior of openings in bedded salt is described based on extensive engineering experience. A stress measuring system utilizing a finite element computer code is discussed. Geological factors affecting the stability of salt openings are considered, and the Stress Control Technique for designing stable openings in bedded salt formations is explained.

  11. Geomechanics of bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creep data from the literature search is reinterpreted by SGI, resulting in a better understanding of the temperature and stress state dependence of the octahedral creep rate and the octahedral shear strength. The concept of a transition strength between the elastic and the plastic states is in agreement with the data. The elastic and rheological properties of salt are described, and a set of constitutive equations is presented. The dependence of material properties on parameters such as temperature is considered. Findings on the permeability of salt are summarized, and the in-situ behavior of openings in bedded salt is described based on extensive engineering experience. A stress measuring system utilizing a finite element computer code is discussed. Geological factors affecting the stability of salt openings are considered, and the Stress Control Technique for designing stable openings in bedded salt formations is explained

  12. Crushed Salt Constitutive Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.

    1999-02-01

    The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well.

  13. Numerical simulation of ice-load induced salt movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Joerg; Al-Hseinat, Muayyad; Brandes, Christian; Hampel, Andrea; Hübscher, Christian; Winsemann, Jutta

    2015-04-01

    A correlation between salt structures, glacigenic features and faulting of Pleistocene deposits above salt structures has been recognised in many places of the formerly glaciated areas in northern central Europe and attributed to ice-sheet loading. Conceptual models predict that the load applied by an ice sheet will favour ice-marginal salt rise and obstruct salt rise beneath the ice sheet (e.g., Liszkowski, 1993). To test these models, we simulated the response of salt structures to ice-sheet loading using a 2D finite-element model (ABAQUS). The subsurface geometries used in our models are based on regional geological cross-sections and 2D seismic profiles of salt structures in the Central European Basin System. The model layers represent (i) sedimentary rocks of elastoplastic rheology, (ii) a viscoelastic salt structure and (iii) elastoplastic basement rocks. At the model surface a temporarily and spatially variable pressure simulates ice-sheet loading. All our simulations show a response of salt structures to ice-sheet loading, which strongly depends on the location of the ice margin relative to the salt structure. Salt structures rise in front of the ice margin (up to 4 m), if load is applied to the salt source layer. Beneath an ice sheet salt structures are pushed down (up to 36 m). Much of the subglacial downwards displacement is compensated by a reversal of the movement during ice retreat. The resulting surface displacements are therefore rather low and depend on the spatial and temporal configuration of the ice load (Lang et al., 2014). Permanent deformation is restricted to the model layers above the salt structure, which either have a low yield stress to represent the unconsolidated infill of secondary rim-synclines or are dissected by steeply dipping crestal graben faults. Ice-induced salt movements will reactivate faults above the crests of salt structures, although the resulting displacements will be low due to the repeated reversals of the sense of

  14. Assédio moral e saúde mental do trabalhador Mobbing and the worker's mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Ariane Freire

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A globalização e o neoliberalismo geraram uma precarização do trabalho, com conseqüências em todo o mundo. O 'produtivismo', fundado no modo de produção capitalista, traz à cena uma nova forma de gerir recursos humanos no interior das empresas. Essa nova gestão se compõe por uma série de exigências, traduzidas pelos gestores, no cotidiano, como uma maior pressão por metas e cobranças personificadas em resultados quantitativos crescentes. Tudo isso traz uma brutal mudança no meio ambiente de trabalho - assim entendido como conjunto de condições externas e internas do local de trabalho e sua conexão com a saúde dos trabalhadores. Essas alterações tornam o ambiente de trabalho hostil, desumano e, portanto, qualitativamente desequilibrado, o que afeta abruptamente a saúde mental do trabalhador, visto que o empregado passa grande parte de sua vida desenvolvendo suas relações interpessoais e sociais no ambiente de trabalho. Portanto, a qualidade de sua vida depende imediatamente da qualidade no seu ambiente de trabalho. É nesse ambiente, marcado por pressões pelo desempenho quantitativo e alcance de metas, e pela despersonalização do trabalhador - este tratado como objeto de produção - que acontece o denominado assédio moral, um processo de violência psicológica extremado contra o trabalhador, causando-lhe uma série de danos psicológicos.Globalization and neoliberalism generated a precarization of work, one which has had consequences for everyone. "Productivism," based on the capitalistic production mode, brings to scene a new way to manage human resources in companies. This new management is composed of a series of requirements, translated by the managers, in everyday life, as increased pressure to achieve goals and personalized impositions for growing quantitative results. Combined, this has caused a brutal change in the workplace - understood as a set of conditions that are external and internal to the workplace

  15. Accelerator molten-salt breeding and thorium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent efforts at the development of fission energy utilization have not been successful in establishing fully rational technology. A new philosophy should be established on the basis of the following three principles: (1) thorium utilization, (2) molten-salt fuel concept, and (3) separation of fissile-breeding and power-generating functions. Such philosophy is called 'Thorium Molten-Salt Nuclear Energy Synergetics [THORIMS-NES]'. The present report first addresses the establishment of 233U breeding fuel cycle, focusing on major features of the Breeding and Chemical Processing Centers and a small molten-salt power station (called FUJI-II). The development of fissile producing breeders is discussed in relation to accelerator molten-salt breeder (AMSB), impact fusion molten-salt breeder, and inertial-confined fusion hybrid molten-salt breeder. Features of the accelerator molten-salt breeder are described, focusing on technical problems with accelerator breeders (or spallators), design principle of the accelerator molten-salt breeder, selection of molten salt compositions, and nuclear- and reactor-chemical aspects of AMSB. Discussion is also made of further research and development efforts required in the future for AMSB. (N.K.)

  16. The effect of hydrocarbons on the microstructural evolution in rock salt: a case study on hydrocarbon bearing Ara salt from the South Oman Salt Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmatz, Joyce; Urai, Janos L.; Wübbeler, Franziska M. M.; Sadler, Marc

    2014-05-01

    It has been shown that dilatant deformation promotes the incorporation of hydrocarbons into typically low permeable rock salt (Schoenherr et al., 2007). However, there is not much knowledge on subsequent mechanisms related to recrystallization processes, which cause morphological and chemical changes of the carbonic inclusions. This work aims to contribute to an increased understanding of fluid inclusion dynamics related to grain boundary migration recrystallization and hence to facilitate the interpretation of complex microstructures in recrystallized, multiphase salt rocks. In this case study we investigate hydrocarbon-impregnated salt from the Cambrian Ara Group in the South Oman Salt Basin. The samples were cored from cm-m thick anhydrite-salt sequences overlying hydrocarbon bearing carbonate stringers in 3300 m depth. The anhydrite layers consist mainly of fine-grained anhydrite, which contains calcite, dolomite, and olivine inclusions. Solid bitumen and lighter hydrocarbon phases are observed in between the anhydrite grains and along cracks. Anhydrite layers host salt veins, which contain fragments of anhydrite. These fragments do not differ in composition or structure from the host material and the related vein microstructures indicate crack-seal mechanisms. Halite in the salt layers is almost entirely recrystallized with solid inclusions consisting of anhydrite, calcite, dolomite and olivine with hydrocarbon-coatings present inside grains and along grain boundaries. Solid inclusions cause pinning indicated by a decreased recrystallized grain size and by the presence of grains with preserved substructures representing earlier deformation phases. We observe two types of carbonic inclusions: I) solid bitumen coatings along grain boundaries and microcracks, interpreted to be incorporated into the salt in an overpressure state that allowed dilatancy of the salt, and II) less degraded, liquid hydrocarbons along grain boundaries in the vicinity of the anhydrite

  17. Gases in molten salts

    CERN Document Server

    Tomkins, RPT

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains tabulated collections and critical evaluations of original data for the solubility of gases in molten salts, gathered from chemical literature through to the end of 1989. Within the volume, material is arranged according to the individual gas. The gases include hydrogen halides, inert gases, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and halogens. The molten salts consist of single salts, binary mixtures and multicomponent systems. Included also, is a special section on the solubility of gases in molten silicate systems, focussing on slags and fluxes.

  18. Situações de assédio moral a trabalhadores anistiados políticos de uma empresa pública

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Ferreira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investiga a influência do contexto de trabalho nassituações de assédio moral, em categoria profissional vinculada auma empresa pública. Foi realizado em parceria com a AssociaçãoNacional de Anistiados Políticos da Empresa Brasileira de Correiose Telégrafos – ANAPECT, que se articulou com trabalhadoresanistiados que participaram da pesquisa. O referencial teórico é apsicodinâmica do trabalho e o enfoque psicossocial. Foi realizadauma entrevista coletiva com quatro trabalhadores voluntários, cujosrelatos foram gravados e submetidos à análise de conteúdo. Osresultados evidenciam características da organização do trabalho,relativas às relações de dominação, no contexto organizacional,que permitem identificar situações de assédio moral. Futurosestudos são sugeridos para aprofundar o debate sobre essas questões.

  19. L'assèchement des dépressions dunaires du littoral du Cotentin : mécanismes et propositions de gestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Petit-Berghem

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Les dunes de Basse-Normandie sont caractérisées par des dépressions humides de dimensions variables. Ces dépressions recèlent des habitats et une flore riches, ce qui leur confère un grand intérêt patrimonial. Mais ces milieux connaissent depuis quelques années une dynamique forte d'embroussaillement. Cette dernière, directement liée à un assèchement, préoccupe les gestionnaires. L'analyse des processus d'assèchement des dépressions humides met en avant la combinaison des paramètres en cause (conditions hydropédologiques, actions anthropiques et permet donc d'optimiser la gestion patrimoniale de ces sites.The dunes of Lower Normandy are characterized by moist depressions of various sizes. The depressions harbour a rich fauna and habitats, which are therefore of great patrimonial interest. But this environment has for some years witnessed an overgrowth of brushwood. This last one, directly connected to a drying out, worries the managers. The analysis of processes of drying out of dune slacks shows the combination of parameters involved (moisture conditions in the soil, human actions, and thus allows to optimise the patrimonial management of these sites.

  20. Reproductive parameters and oxidative stress status of male rats fed with low and high salt diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolanle O Iranloye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deficiency of minerals and micronutrients has been reported to impair the process of spermatogenesis. Historically, salt has been used by women on their husbands to increase their libido, however, the role of salt diet on sperm parameters are yet to be ascertained. AIM: The present study was designed to determine the effect of low and high salt diet on sperm parameters, oxidative status and reproductive hormone levels of male rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 rats were divided into three groups: Group I: (control received 0.3% salt diet, Group II: low salt (received 0.14% salt diet and Group III: high salt (received 8% salt diet. All animals were treated for 6 weeks; after which epididymal sperm parameters; oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase in the testes and epididymal tissues, as well as follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and testosterone levels were determined. Results: The results showed decreased sperm count in the low salt diet rats while increased sperm count was observed in the high salt diet treated rats. Both low salt and high salt diet fed rats exhibited increased abnormal sperm cells and increased epididymal oxidative stress when compared with their respective control. FSH and testosterone levels were increased in the high salt fed rats while LH level was decreased when compared with the control values. Conclusion: This study suggests that both low and high salt diet play a negative role in the fertility of male rats.

  1. What Are Bath Salts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog Team Concert festivals are all about good music, good friends, and big crowds. But for some ... school, North Carolina: Are bath salts becoming more popular? Marsha Lopez Hi, Lauren. Nope! Actually quite the ...

  2. Aqueous solubility study of salts of benzylamine derivatives and p-substituted benzoic acid derivatives using X-ray crystallographic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parshad, Henrik; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Liljefors, Tommy;

    2004-01-01

    Twenty two p-substituted benzoic acid derivates were used to prepare salts of N-methylbenzylamine (II) and N,N-dimethylbenzylamine (III), respectively. Only five salts of (II) and two salts of (III) were obtained in a crystalline state. The solubility of these salts was orders of magnitude higher...... than those reported for the corresponding salts of benzylamine (I). Thermal analysis indicated that the increased solubility was caused by reduced crystal lattice energy, which was most likely due to the reduced number of strong hydrogen bonds of the salt of (II) and (III). X-ray crystallographic...... analysis of p-hydroxybenzoic acid salt of (I), (II) and (III) suggested that the reduced number of hydrogen bonds caused the apparent higher solubility. Further analyses of seven salts of (I) were performed. It was not possible to identify any relationship between the number of hydrogen bonds...

  3. Control strategies in a thermal oil - Molten salt heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, Lidia; Bonilla, Javier; Rodríguez-García, Margarita M.; Palenzuela, Patricia; de la Calle, Alberto; Valenzuela, Loreto

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a preliminary control scheme for a molten salt - thermal oil heat exchanger. This controller regulates the molten salt mass flow rate to reach and maintain the desired thermal oil temperature at the outlet of the heat exchanger. The controller architecture has been tested using an object-oriented heat exchanger model that has been validated with data from a molten salt testing facility located at CIEMAT-PSA. Different simulations are presented with three different goals: i) to analyze the controller response in the presence of disturbances, ii) to demonstrate the benefits of designing a setpoint generator and iii) to show the controller potential against electricity price variations.

  4. Salt treatment Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Stefan [NUKEM Technologies GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The Task of NUKEM Technologies GmbH is to develop a technical solution for the treatment of salt containing effluents at Fukushima Daiichi. The target of the treatment is a solidified product suitable for the safe storage on site. Therefore, NUKEM investigated several technologies (direct cementation, drying and storage, drying and subsequent cementation) in order to find a fit for purpose solution. The following tasks have been considered: (a) Mechanical strength and homogeneity of the product; (b) Cost efficient solution (cost for the drying system vs. reduced amount of storage containers); (c) Proven technology; (d) On site storage. NUKEM made some practical test in parallel with different recipes. The aim was to embed as much as possible salt quantity into the cement matrix, but still meet the requested mechanical strength and required homogeneity. As a result NUKEM recommended to apply the following technologies (a) a drying system, to produce a dry salt product (b) a cementation facility, to generate a homogeneous salt/cement matrix (c) a filling station with attached CMS (Container measuring station) to fill the resulting cement/salt matrix into containers suitable for the storage at Fukushima Daiichi. (orig.)

  5. Clean Salt integrated flowsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Salt Process (CSP) is a novel waste management scheme that removes sodium nitrate and aluminum nitrate nonahydrate as decontaminated (low specific activity) salts from Hanford's high-level waste (HLW). The full scale process will separate the bulk of the waste that exists as sodium salts from the small portion of the waste that is by definition radioactive and dangerous. This report presents initial conceptual CSP flowsheets and demonstrates the benefit of integrating the process into the Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) Reference Flowsheet. Total HLW and low-level (LLW) volumes are reported for two different CSP integration options and are compared to the TWRS Reference Flowsheet values. The results for a single glass option eliminating LLW disposal are also reported

  6. Mineral resource of the month: salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostick, Dennis S.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents information on various types of salt. Rock salt is either found from underground halite deposits or near the surface. Other types of salt include solar salt, salt brine, and vacuum pan salt. The different uses of salt are also given including its use as a flavor enhancer, as a road deicing agent, and to manufacture sodium hydroxide.

  7. Gas releases from salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, B.; Neal, J.; Hinkebein, T.

    1998-06-01

    The occurrence of gas in salt mines and caverns has presented some serious problems to facility operators. Salt mines have long experienced sudden, usually unexpected expulsions of gas and salt from a production face, commonly known as outbursts. Outbursts can release over one million cubic feet of methane and fractured salt, and are responsible for the lives of numerous miners and explosions. Equipment, production time, and even entire mines have been lost due to outbursts. An outburst creates a cornucopian shaped hole that can reach heights of several hundred feet. The potential occurrence of outbursts must be factored into mine design and mining methods. In caverns, the occurrence of outbursts and steady infiltration of gas into stored product can effect the quality of the product, particularly over the long-term, and in some cases renders the product unusable as is or difficult to transport. Gas has also been known to collect in the roof traps of caverns resulting in safety and operational concerns. The intent of this paper is to summarize the existing knowledge on gas releases from salt. The compiled information can provide a better understanding of the phenomena and gain insight into the causative mechanisms that, once established, can help mitigate the variety of problems associated with gas releases from salt. Outbursts, as documented in mines, are discussed first. This is followed by a discussion of the relatively slow gas infiltration into stored crude oil, as observed and modeled in the caverns of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve. A model that predicts outburst pressure kicks in caverns is also discussed.

  8. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substances citric acid (E330 and sodium hydrogen carbonate (E500ii, used as carbon dioxide generators, together with liquid absorbers cellulose and polyacrylic acid sodium salt crosslinked, in active food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on food contact materials, enzymes, flavourings and processing aids deals with the safety evaluation of the mixture of the active substances citric acid (E330, CAS No 77-92-9, FCM Substance No 139 and sodium hydrogen carbonate (E500ii, CAS No 144-55-8, FCM Substance No 21, which is intended to be used as a carbon dioxide generator in liquid absorbent pads in the packaging of fresh or frozen meat, poultry, fish, fruits and vegetables. Depending on absorption capacity needed, pure cellulose or a mixture of cellulose and polyacrylic acid sodium salt crosslinked may be used as absorber. The Panel noted that if the active substances are used not in direct contact with food, but are placed in a pad under conditions where its absorption capacity is not exceeded, then no migration is to be expected and therefore no exposure from the consumption of the packed food is expected. Therefore the CEF Panel concluded that the use of the mixture of the active substances citric acid (E330 and sodium hydrogen carbonate (E500ii, as carbon dioxide generator in liquid absorbent pads in the packaging of food such as fresh or frozen meat, poultry, fish, fruits and vegetables, does not raise a safety concern. The absorbent pads should be used only under conditions in which the liquid absorption capacity is not exceeded and direct contact between the substance and the food is excluded.

  9. A relação entre assédio moral e esgotamento mental (Síndrome de Burnout em educadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Ariane Freire

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Os modos de gestão pós-fordista e a flexibilização dos direitos trabalhistas engendrados pela reestruturação produtiva, trazem modificações no ambiente de trabalho, com maior controle e imposição de metas. O ambiente escolar sofreu igualmente os impactos dessa reestruturação produtiva. Há um maior controle sobre as atividades docentes, tanto em relação à forma de ministrar aula quanto aos conteúdos ensinados e às formas de avaliação, além de exaustivas jornadas de trabalho. Essas novas condições de trabalho podem propiciar a prática do assédio moral, um processo de violência psicológica contra o professor, que ameaça seus direitos humanos fundamentais, bem como sua saúde, podendo trazer, em decorrência, várias doenças psiquiátricas, dentre as quais a síndrome de burnout. Estima-se que 15% dos professores sofrem dessa síndrome – um transtorno relacionado ao trabalho, causado por estresse laboral crônico –, cujos sintomas são: a baixa realização profissional, a exaustão emocional e a despersonalização, que aparece na forma de endurecimento afetivo e falta de empatia. O presente projeto pretende investigar qual a relação entre reestruturação produtiva, assédio moral e a incidência da síndrome de burnout em professores e seus impactos educacionais e sociológicos.

  10. PRELIMINARY RESULTS USING ANEW METHOD TO OPTIMIZE A SPRAY DRYER PROCESS FOR PRODUCING HIGH QUALITY MILK POWDER FROM COW, GOAT AND SHE-ASS MILK CONCENTRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Altieri

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As quality is a very important factor in milk powder produced by drying, the optimal process must protect both nutritional and sensorial properties. Although heat damage indices (namely the insolubility index (IINS, thermal damage (IDT, protein denaturation could be used to evaluate the correct processing of milk, they are very time-consuming. Hence a chemical marker, like vitamin C, is proposed for rapid assessment of the overall damage to the quality of the produced milk powder. Trials were carried out on milk concentrates from cow, goat and she-ass so as to optimize the process performance of the spray dryer, for each kind of milk, at three inlet temperatures (120, 150, 185 °C; the feed flow rate was set at 0.5 dm3/h with outlet air RH% in the range 10-40%; raw milk was concentrated using a low pressure evaporator until an average level of 23% dry matter was reached. As expected, the thermal damage of the milk powder increased as the inlet air temperature increased; the outlet powder RH% was 96-98% poorly correlated with the mass flow rate of the concentrate inlet. Moreover, the destruction kinetic of vitamin C was found highly correlated with the thermal damage to the milk powder. At 175 °C inlet air temperature the overall thermal treatment on the she-ass milk concentrate, which is very heat-sensitive due to its high lactose content, was “weak” (IDT<80 and the milk powder of “premium or extra” quality (IINS<1.25ml and lactic acid = 0.07% < 0.15% ADMI. The titratable acidity values are uncorrelated with the process air temperature but depend uniquely from the raw milk freshness.

  11. Mechanism for salt scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, John J., II

    Salt scaling is superficial damage caused by freezing a saline solution on the surface of a cementitious body. The damage consists of the removal of small chips or flakes of binder. The discovery of this phenomenon in the early 1950's prompted hundreds of experimental studies, which clearly elucidated the characteristics of this damage. In particular it was shown that a pessimum salt concentration exists, where a moderate salt concentration (˜3%) results in the most damage. Despite the numerous studies, the mechanism responsible for salt scaling has not been identified. In this work it is shown that salt scaling is a result of the large thermal expansion mismatch between ice and the cementitious body, and that the mechanism responsible for damage is analogous to glue-spalling. When ice forms on a cementitious body a bi-material composite is formed. The thermal expansion coefficient of the ice is ˜5 times that of the underlying body, so when the temperature of the composite is lowered below the melting point, the ice goes into tension. Once this stress exceeds the strength of the ice, cracks initiate in the ice and propagate into the surface of the cementitious body, removing a flake of material. The glue-spall mechanism accounts for all of the characteristics of salt scaling. In particular, a theoretical analysis is presented which shows that the pessimum concentration is a consequence of the effect of brine pockets on the mechanical properties of ice, and that the damage morphology is accounted for by fracture mechanics. Finally, empirical evidence is presented that proves that the glue-small mechanism is the primary cause of salt scaling. The primary experimental tool used in this study is a novel warping experiment, where a pool of liquid is formed on top of a thin (˜3 mm) plate of cement paste. Stresses in the plate, including thermal expansion mismatch, result in warping of the plate, which is easily detected. This technique revealed the existence of

  12. Learning SaltStack

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Colton

    2015-01-01

    If you are a system administrator who manages multiple servers, then you know how difficult it is to keep your infrastructure in line. If you've been searching for an easier way, this book is for you. No prior experience with SaltStack is required.

  13. HIGH YIELD AND RAPID SYNTHESES METHODS FOR PRODUCING METALLO-ORGANIC SALTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    A new method for preparing salts of metal cations and organic acids, especially divalent salts of alkaline earth metal ions from group II of the periodic system and carboxylic acids. The method comprising the use of a high temperature (about 90° or more) and, optionally. high pressure, in order to...

  14. In Vivo Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors Can Be Deprived of This Activity: Unexpected Influence of the Tetrachloroplatinate(II) Counteranion. Crystal Structures of Bis(S-Methyl-Isothiouronium)-N,N'-Bis(3-Guanidinopropyl)Piperazinium and Hexamidinium Tetrachloroplatinates(II) Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgant, G; Viossat, B; Roch-Arveiller, M; Prognon, P; Giroud, J P; Lancelot, J C; Robba, M; Huy, D N

    1998-01-01

    The synthesis and crystal structures of bis(S-methylisothiouronium) (MSTUH)(+), N,N'-bis((3- guanidinopropyl)piperazinium (PipeC3GuaH4)(4+) and hexamidinium (HexaH2)(2+) tetrachloro platinate(ll) salts ( called hereafter PtMSTU, PtPipeC3Gua and PtHexa respectively ) were investigated. These compounds contain the "amidine" function ( - C(=NH)NH(2) ) in which the H atoms supplied by the acid have become attached to the imino group of each terminal amidino function. Moreover, in PtPipeC3Gua, the nitrogen atoms of the chair-piperazine moiety are also protonated. The influence of tetrachloroplatinate(ll) counteranion ( versus sulfate, nitrate and diisethionate ) in the in vivo nitrite inhibition by the (MSTUH)(+), (PipeC3GuaH4)(4+) and (HexaH2)(2+) cations was investigated. The three tetrachloroplatinate(ll) salts, unexpectedly, do not inhibit significantly the in vivo nitrite production in comparison with the other salts (sulfate, nitrate and diisethionate and their corresponding previous countercations) which exhibit NO synthase inhibition, especially bis(S-methylisothiouronium) sulfate, a selective and potent inducible NO synthase (iNOS) inhibitor commonly used as standard. PMID:18475834

  15. 75 FR 14082 - Ammonium Salts of Fatty Acids (C8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ...-5805. II. Background and Statutory Findings In the Federal Register of September 5, 2008 (73 FR 51817... uses in food products. They are naturally present in commonly eaten fats and oils, accounting for.... Limited data are available regarding the inhalation toxicity of soap salts; however, they are...

  16. Quiz: What's the Buzz about Salt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on. Feature: Too Much Salt Quiz: What's the buzz about salt? Past Issues / Spring - Summer 2010 Table ... Thing / Labels: For your health / Quiz: What's the buzz about salt? / Tasty Stand-Ins for Salt Spring / ...

  17. Heat transfer behavior of molten nitrate salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Apurba K.; Clark, Michael M.; Teigen, Bard C.; Fiveland, Woodrow A.; Anderson, Mark H.

    2016-05-01

    The usage of molten nitrate salt as heat transfer fluid and thermal storage medium decouples the generation of electricity from the variable nature of the solar resource, allowing CSP plants to avoid curtailment and match production with demand. This however brings some unique challenges for the design of the molten salt central receiver (MSCR). An aspect critical to the use of molten nitrate (60wt%/40wt% - NaNO3/KNO3) salt as heat transfer fluid in the MSCR is to understand its heat transfer behavior. Alstom collaborated with the University of Wisconsin to conduct a series of experiments and experimentally determined the heat transfer coefficients of molten nitrate salt up to high Reynolds number (Re > 2.0E5) and heat flux (q″ > 1000 kW/m2), conditions heretofore not reported in the literature. A cartridge heater instrumented with thermocouples was installed inside a stainless steel pipe to form an annular test section. The test section was installed in the molten salt flow loop at the University of Wisconsin facility, and operated over a range of test conditions to determine heat transfer data that covered the expected operating regime of a practical molten salt receiver. Heat transfer data were compared to widely accepted correlations found in heat transfer literature, including that of Gnielinski. At lower Reynolds number conditions, the results from this work concurred with the molten salt heat transfer data reported in literature and followed the aforementioned correlations. However, in the region of interest for practical receiver design, the correlations did not accurately model the experimentally determined heat transfer data. Two major effects were observed: (i) all other factors remaining constant, the Nusselt numbers gradually plateaued at higher Reynolds number; and (ii) at higher Reynolds number a positive interaction of heat flux on Nusselt number was noted. These effects are definitely not modeled by the existing correlations. In this paper a new

  18. Mixed salt crystallisation fouling

    CERN Document Server

    Helalizadeh, A

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this investigation was to study the mechanisms of mixed salt crystallisation fouling on heat transfer surfaces during convective heat transfer and sub-cooled flow boiling conditions. To-date no investigations on the effects of operating parameters on the deposition of mixtures of calcium sulphate and calcium carbonate, which are the most common constituents of scales formed on heat transfer surfaces, have been reported. As part of this research project, a substantial number of experiments were performed to determine the mechanisms controlling deposition. Fluid velocity, heat flux, surface and bulk temperatures, concentration of the solution, ionic strength, pressure and heat transfer surface material were varied systematically. After clarification of the effect of these parameters on the deposition process, the results of these experiments were used to develop a mechanistic model for prediction of fouling resistances, caused by crystallisation of mixed salts, under convective heat transfer...

  19. Frost formation with salt

    OpenAIRE

    Guadarrama-Cetina, J.; Mongruel, A. (Anne); González-Viñas, W.; Beysens, D.A. (Daniel A.)

    2015-01-01

    The formation of frost in presence of salt (NaCl) crystal is experimentally investigated on a hydrophobic surface. It presents several remarkable features due to the interplay of salty-water saturation pressure evolution, initially lower than the saturation pressure of ice and water, and the percolating propagation of ice dendrites from defects throughout the supercooled water droplet pattern. In particular, it is remarkable that nucleation of supercooled water and/or ice is prevented around ...

  20. Effect of Heating Treatment on Fatty Acid Composition of Ass Mil%加热处理对驴乳脂肪酸组成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    敖维平; 艾买尔·依明; 陆东林; 周小玲

    2014-01-01

    驴乳的化学成分和营养特点决定其在乳制品和保健食品的开发中具有较大的潜力。通过对驴乳采取4种处理:(1)室温;(2)60℃水浴加热30 min;(3)90℃水浴中加热30 s;(4)煮沸,比较不同的加热方法对驴乳中脂肪酸组成的影响。结果发现:低温(60℃)长时间加热使中链脂肪酸和饱和脂肪酸比例降低,长时间加热使乳中部分易挥发脂肪酸逸出。高温(90℃)短时间和沸腾加热对脂肪酸组成的影响不大,尤以90℃短时间加热为优。结论:就脂肪酸而言,在驴乳加工过程中,宜采用高温短时加热灭菌处理。%Due to its chemical components and nutrient characteristics, ass milk has broad potential in milky products and functional food industry. Under 4 kinds of heating methods: (1)room temperature; (2) 60℃bathing for 30 minutes;(3) 90℃bathing for 30 seconds;(4)boiling, it was to compare the effect of different heating methods on milk fatty acid composition. Results found that:60℃bathing for 30 minutes decreased the percents of medium chain fatty acids and saturated fatty acids sharply, which contribute to volatility of some fatty acids under long-time heating process. High-temperature short-time pasteurization process and boiling method had less influence on fatty acid composition, especial for 90℃bathing for 30 seconds process. As for fatty acid composition, in the heating process of ass milk, it was favorable to adopt high-temperature short-time pasteurization.

  1. O assédio moral no trabalho na visão de operadores do direito Mobbing at work according to operators of the law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Moraes Battistelli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisou a concepção de operadores do Direito acerca do assédio moral no trabalho, sua avaliação nas instâncias jurídicas, o perfil dos trabalhadores vitimados atendidos, assim como o papel do Direito e da Psicologia em relação ao fenômeno. Foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas junto a seis operadores do Direito. Com base na análise de conteúdo das entrevistas, constatou-se uma tendência, entre os entrevistados, de perceberem a natureza organizacional do fenômeno. O medo dos trabalhadores em denunciar eventos dessa natureza foi outro elemento apontado. Os participantes afirmaram ser muito difícil avaliar e comprovar o assédio nos casos que recorrem às diferentes instâncias jurídicas. Quanto ao papel da Psicologia, os entrevistados referem sua importância para a produção de conhecimento, avaliação psicológica dos casos e prevenção da violência psicológica nas organizações. Em relação ao papel do Direito, reiteraram que as instâncias legais sejam espaços de garantia de direitos e reparação de danos.This study analyses the concept of mobbing at work among operators of the Law. The assessment of this practice at legal institutions, the profile of workers affected, and the role of Law and Psychology toward this phenomenon are investigated. Six operators of the Law participated by semi-structured interviews. Based on content analysis of the interviews, it was observed a tendency to perceive the organizational nature of mobbing at work. Another element pointed by participants was the fearfulness of workers in reporting such kind of violence. The interviewed professionals also referred the hardness to assess mobbing in those cases that appeal to legal institutions. About the role of Psychology, they affirmed its importance to production of knowledge, psychological assessment of workers and prevention of psychological violence in organizations. Concerning the role of Law, they had reiterated that

  2. Tendência dos estudos sobre assédio moral e trabalhadores de enfermagem Tendencia de los estudios sobre asedio moral y trabajadores de enfermería Tendency of the studies on moral harassment and nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Biagio Fontes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudo de Revisão Integrativa da Literatura com o objetivo de analisar o conhecimento produzido sobre o assédio moral na enfermagem, apresentado em publicações nacionais e internacionais. Foram pesquisados artigos em bases de dados on-line entre os anos de 1999 e 2009, constituindo-se uma amostra de 18 publicações. Após cuidadosa leitura, foram construídas sete categorias temáticas: avaliação do assédio moral; comportamentos de assédio moral experimentados por enfermeiros; estratégias de coping adotadas por enfermeiros; consequências do assédio moral; assédio moral na enfermagem como discriminação de raça e gênero; assédio moral entre profissionais de enfermagem; instituições como determinantes do assédio moral. Resultados dos estudos confirmam a presença do assédio moral na enfermagem, contudo, apontam que estes profissionais têm aceitado e reproduzido este tipo de violência, evidenciando a necessidade de conscientização desta população, como das instituições de saúde, quanto ao assédio moral e seus prejuízos.Estudio de Revisión Integradora de la Literatura con objetivo de analizar el conocimiento producido sobre el asedio moral laboral en la enfermería presentado en publicaciones nacionales e internacionales. Fueron investigados artículos en bases de datos on-line entre los años de 1999 a 2009, constituyéndose una muestra de 18 publicaciones. Después de la lectura cuidadosa fueron construidas siete categorías temáticas que posibilitaron profundizar en el análisis: evaluación del asedio moral; comportamientos de asedio moral experimentados por enfermeros; consecuencias del asedio moral; estrategias de coping adoptadas por enfermeros; asedio moral en la enfermería como discriminación de raza y género; asedio moral entre los profesionales de enfermería; instituciones como propagadoras del asedio moral. Los resultados de los estudios confirman la presencia de asedio moral en la enfermería, sin

  3. Population based strategy for dietary salt intake reduction: Italian initiatives in the European framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strazzullo, P; Cairella, G; Campanozzi, A; Carcea, M; Galeone, D; Galletti, F; Giampaoli, S; Iacoviello, L; Scalfi, L

    2012-03-01

    Excess dietary sodium chloride (salt) intake is etiologically related to hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Moderate reduction of salt intake reduces blood pressure (BP) and is expected to contribute to reduce the risk of CVD. Previous community-based trials to reduce BP by means of salt reduction were very successful. The initial positive results of national strategies of dietary salt intake reduction in several European countries, driven by the initiative of the World Health Organisation (WHO) and non-governmental organisations such as the World Action of Salt and Health (WASH), have paved the way for action in other European Union (EU) member states. In Italy, several initiatives aiming at reduction of salt intake at the population level have been recently undertaken. These initiatives include i) the evaluation of current dietary habits promoted by the Working Group for Dietary Salt Reduction in Italy (GIRCSI); ii) the chemical analysis of the bread salt content, a major source of sodium intake in Italy, and the agreement between the bakers' associations and the Ministry of Health for a gradual reduction of the bread salt content; iii) the implementation of educational campaigns to increase population awareness, iv) the involvement of the food catering system. In the immediate future, food reformulation must be extended to other food categories in collaboration with industry, foods' salt targets ought to be defined, the food labelling system must be improved and population salt awareness must be further increased through educational campaigns. The GIRCSI Working Group is committed to pursue these objectives.

  4. Dynamics of salt playa polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehring, L.; Fourrière, A.

    2014-12-01

    In natural salt playa or in evaporation pools for the salt extraction industry, one can sometimes see surprising regular structures formed by ridges of salt. These ridges connect together to form a self-organized network of polygons one to two meters in diameter, which we call salt polygons. Here we propose a mechanism based on porous media convection of salty water in soil to explain the formation and the scaling of the salt polygons. Surface evaporation causes a steady upward flow of salty water, which can cause precipitation near the surface. A vertical salt gradient then builds up in the porous soil, with heavy salt-saturated water lying over the less salty source water. This can drive convection when a threshold is reached, given by a critical Rayleigh number of about 7. We suggest that the salt polygons are the surface expression of the porous medium convection, with salt crystallizing along the positions of the convective downwellings. To study this instability directly, we developed a 2D analogue experiment using a Hele-Shaw cell filled with a porous medium saturated with a salt solution and heated from above. We perform a linear stability analysis of this system, and find that it is unstable to convection, with a most unstable wavelength that is set by a balance between salt diffusion and water evaporation. The Rayleigh number in our experiment is controlled by the particle size of our model soil, and the evaporation rate. We obtain results that scale with the observation of natural salt polygons. Using dye, we observe the convective movement of salty water and find downwelling convective plumes underneath the spots where surface salt ridges form, as shown in the attached figure.

  5. Performance of novel materials for radiation detection: Tl3AsSe3, TlGaSe2, and Tl4HgI6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we report on the electrical characteristics of three novel ternary compounds, Tl3AsSe3 (TAS), TlGaSe2 (TGS), and Tl4HgI6 (THI), pertaining to their use as radiation detectors. The details for growth and material characterization are not presented. A semiconductor based gamma ray detector requires a material with high Z, high density, high resistivity, appropriate bandgap (1.5-2 eV), low energy/electron-hole pair, and a high μτ product. CZT is currently the best semiconductor material for room temperature gamma ray spectroscopy; however, it is extremely difficult to produce large volumes of detector grade material, making it expensive and in limited supply. DNDO/DHS began searching for other materials that might perform as well as CZT but be easier to grow and in the end lower the cost. For this purpose, we investigated the above three materials as possible replacements for CZT as gamma ray detectors. The bulk resistivity, I-V curves, X-ray response, and gamma ray response measurements for doped and undoped crystals are presented and discussed. TAS shows good X-ray and gamma ray response, but has poor resistivity, which results in large dark current and poor spectral response. TGS has good resistivity, but shows poor X-ray and gamma ray response. THI has excellent resistivity, shows some X-ray and gamma ray response, and has great potential as a gamma ray detector.

  6. Yield and quality of milk and udder health in Martina Franca ass: effects of daily interval and time of machine milking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Martemucci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty asses of Martina Franca breed, machine milked twice a day, were used to assess the influence of milking interval (3-h, 5-h, and 8-h; N=5 and time (700, 1200 and 1900 on milk yield and udder health. Individual milk samples were taken to determine fat, protein and lactose con- tent. Sensory analysis profile was also assessed. Milk’s total bacterial count (TBC, somatic cell con- tent (SCC and udder’s skin temperature were considered to assess udder health. Milk yield increases by 28.4% (P<0.01 with a milking interval from 3-h to 8-h and is higher (P<0.01 at morning milking. The maximum milk yield per milking corresponds to 700 milking (1416.9 mL thus indicating a circa- dian rhythm in milk secretion processes. Milking intervals of 5 and 8 hours cause a decrease (P<0.01 in milk fat and lactose content. The 8-h interval leads to an increase (P<0.01 in SCC but without any significance for the health udder. No alterations about CBT, clinical evaluation and temperature of ud- der were observed. Milk organoleptic characteristics were better in the 3-h interval milking.

  7. Reactive halogen species above salt lakes and salt pans

    OpenAIRE

    Holla, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Salt lakes can be found on all continents and saline soils cover 2.5% of the land surface of the earth (FAO, 2012). This thesis investigates the presence of reactive halogen species (RHS) above salt lakes and saline soils to evaluate their relevance for tropospheric chemistry of the planetary boundary layer. Ground-based MAX-DOAS and LP-DOAS measurements were conducted at salt lakes and two other sites with high halogen content. Prior to this work, RHS were found at three salt ...

  8. Salt supply to and significance of asymmetric salt diapirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, H.; Burliga, S.; Chemia, Zurab

    2012-01-01

    Salt diapirs can be asymmetric both internally and externally reflecting their evolution history. As such, this asymmetry bear a significant amount of information about the differential loading (± lateral forces) and in turn the salt supply that have shaped the diapir. In two dimensions...... southeastern overhang due to salt extrusion during Middle Cretaceous followed by its burial in Tertiary. This external asymmetry is also reflected in the internal configuration of the diapir which shows different rates of salt flow on the two halves of the structure. The asymmetric external and internal...

  9. Estresse salino em plântulas de milho: parte II distribuição dos macronutrientes catiônicos e suas relações com sódio Salt stress in maize seedlings: part II distribution of cationic macronutrients and its relation with sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Dias de Azevedo Neto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, com o objetivo de se avaliar o efeito do estresse salino sobre a distribuição de nutrientes em cultivares de milho com tolerância diferenciada à salinidade. Foi utilizado um arranjo fatorial 2 x 5 com duas cultivares de milho (P-3051 e BR-5011 e cinco níveis de NaCl na solução nutritiva (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100 mol m-3. O estresse salino elevou as concentrações de Na+ e reduziu as de K+ em todas as partes das plantas. Foi observada acumulação preferencial de Na+ nos tecidos do colmo e da bainha, em detrimento dos tecidos do limbo. Os teores de Ca++ foram diminuídos na raiz, no colmo e limbo das plantas, enquanto os de Mg++ só diminuíram na raiz e no colmo. No nível 100 mol m-3 de NaCl, os teores de Ca++ nas raízes da cultivar P-3051 foram cerca de 60% mais elevados que os da BR-5011. A salinidade incrementou as relações Na+/K+, Na+/Ca++ e Na+/Mg++ em todas as partes das plantas, sendo este acréscimo mais evidente na cultivar BR-5011 que na P-3051.The work was performed in the greenhouse, aiming to evaluate the effect of salt stress on distribution of nutrients in different parts of maize cultivars differing in their tolerance to salinity. The experiment was carried out on 2 x 5 factorial arrangement with two maize cultivars (P-3051 and BR-5011 and five sodium chloride levels in nutrient solution (0, 25, 50, 75 or 100 mol m-3. Salt stress increased Na+ content and decreased K+ content in all plant parts. Na+ content was higher in stalk and sheath than in leaf blade tissue. Ca++ content decreased in root, stalk and leaf blade while Mg++ content decreased only in root and in stalk tissue. Root Ca++ content in the cultivar P-3051 under 100 mol m-3 NaCl was 60% higher than in the cultivar BR-5011. The salt treatment increased Na+/K+, Na+/Ca++ and Na+/Mg++ ratios in all plant parts, and the increment was higher in the P-3051 than in the BR-5011 cultivar.

  10. Salt fluoridation and oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Marthaler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to make known the potential of fluoridated salt in community oral health programs, particularly in South Eastern Europe. Since 1922, the addition of iodine to salt has been successful in Switzerland. Goiter is virtually extinct. By 1945, the cariesprotective effect of fluorides was well established. Based on the success of water fluoridation, a gynecologist started adding of fluoride to salt. The sale of fluoridated salt began in 1956 in the Swiss Canton of Zurich, and several other cantons followed suit. Studies initiated in the early seventies showed that fluoride, when added to salt, inhibits dental caries. The addition of fluoride to salt for human consumption was officially authorized in 1980-82. In Switzerland 85% of domestic salt consumed is fluoridated and 67% in Germany. Salt fluoridation schemes are reaching more than one hundred million in Mexico, Colombia, Peru and Cuba. The cost of salt fluoridation is very low, within 0.02 and 0.05 € per year and capita. Children and adults of the low socio-economic strata tend to have substantially more untreated caries than higher strata. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method for improving oral health. Conclusions. Salt fluoridation has cariostatic potential like water fluoridation (caries reductions up to 50%. In Europe, meaningful percentages of users have been attained only in Germany (67% and Switzerland (85%. In Latin America, there are more than 100 million users, and several countries have arrived at coverage of 90 to 99%. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method of caries prevention, and billions of people throughout the world could benefit from this method.

  11. Salt and the glycaemic response.

    OpenAIRE

    Thorburn, A W; Brand, J C; Truswell, A S

    1986-01-01

    The possibility that salt increases plasma glucose and insulin responses to starchy foods was investigated. Six healthy adults took four morning test meals randomly: 50 g carbohydrate as cooked lentils or white bread, with or without 4.25 g of added salt (an amount within the range of salt found in a meal). When salt was added to the lentils the incremental area under the three hour plasma glucose curve was significantly greater than that for lentils alone (43.2 mmol.min/l v 11.1 mmol.min/l (...

  12. Theory Of Salt Effects On Protein Solubility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Yuba; Schmit, Jeremy

    Salt is one of the major factors that effects protein solubility. Often, at low salt concentration regime, protein solubility increases with the salt concentration(salting in) whereas at high salt concentration regime, solubility decreases with the increase in salt concentration(salting out). There are no quantitative theories to explain salting in and salting out. We have developed a model to describe the salting in and salting out. Our model accounts for the electrostatic Coulomb energy, salt entropy and non-electrostatic interaction between proteins. We analytically solve the linearized Poisson Boltzmann equation modelling the protein charge by a first order multipole expansion. In our model, protein charges are modulated by the anion binding. Consideration of only the zeroth order term in protein charge doesn't help to describe salting in phenomenon because of the repulsive interaction. To capture the salting in behaviour, it requires an attractive electrostatic interaction in low salt regime. Our work shows that at low salt concentration, dipole interaction is the cause for salting in and at high salt concentration a salt-dependent depletion interaction dominates and gives the salting out. Our theoretical result is consistent with the experimental result for Chymosin protein NIH Grant No R01GM107487.

  13. Síndrome da meningite asséptica por enterovírus e Leptospira sp em crianças de Salvador, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Hagamenon R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando verificar a freqüência de enterovírus (EV, leptospiras e arbovírus como agentes causais da síndrome da meningite asséptica (SMA, em períodos não-epidêmicos, e comparar os pacientes com e sem diagnóstico etiológico determinado, foram selecionados 112 pacientes de idade entre 3 meses e 15 anos, com suspeita clínica de SMA, referenciados para Hospital Couto Maia, especializado em Doenças Infecciosas e Parasitárias (Salvador, Bahia, Em 44,6% (n=50 a etiologia foi determinada: enterovírus em 37,7% (n=42 dos casos, pelo teste de PCR Amplicor, por cultura do líquor e/ou de fezes; a Leptospira sp. em 7,1% (n=8, pelo método da micro-aglutinação, e nenhum caso de arbovírus foi detectado (inibição da hemaglutinação passiva. Entre os 14 enterovírus dos 22 isolados, foram identificados seis diferentes sorotipos, sendo o Echovirus-4 predominante (27,2%; 6/22 entre outros (Coxsackie B2, B3, B6 e B9; EV 71. Conclui-se que, os enterovírus foram os agentes mais freqüentes, e que a leptospirose deve ser lembrada no diagnóstico diferencial da SMA. Uma vez que as características clínicas e liquóricas dos pacientes dos grupos com e sem determinação do agente etiológico foram semelhantes, pode-se supor que o diagnóstico presuntivo de SMA é de provável etiologia viral ou pela leptospira.

  14. Space-Use Patterns of the Asiatic Wild Ass (Equus hemionus: Complementary Insights from Displacement, Recursion Movement and Habitat Selection Analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Giotto

    Full Text Available The way in which animals move and use the landscape is influenced by the spatial distribution of resources, and is of importance when considering species conservation. We aimed at exploring how landscape-related factors affect a large herbivore's space-use patterns by using a combined approach, integrating movement (displacement and recursions and habitat selection analyses. We studied the endangered Asiatic wild ass (Equus hemionus in the Negev Desert, Israel, using GPS monitoring and direct observation. We found that the main landscape-related factors affecting the species' space-use patterns, on a daily and seasonal basis, were vegetation cover, water sources and topography. Two main habitat types were selected: high-elevation sites during the day (specific microclimate: windy on warm summer days and streambed surroundings during the night (coupled with high vegetation when the animals were active in summer. Distribution of recursion times (duration between visits revealed a 24-hour periodicity, a pattern that could be widespread among large herbivores. Characterizing frequently revisited sites suggested that recursion movements were mainly driven by a few landscape features (water sources, vegetation patches, high-elevation points, but also by social factors, such as territoriality, which should be further explored. This study provided complementary insights into the space-use patterns of E. hemionus. Understanding of the species' space-use patterns, at both large and fine spatial scale, is required for developing appropriate conservation protocols. Our approach could be further applied for studying the space-use patterns of other species in heterogeneous landscapes.

  15. CHED Events: Salt Lake City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Donald J.

    2009-03-01

    The Division of Chemical Education (CHED) Committee meetings planned for the Spring 2009 ACS Meeting in Salt Lake City will be in the Marriott City Center Hotel. Check the location of other CHED events, the CHED Social Event, the Undergraduate Program, Sci-Mix, etc. because many will be in the Salt Palace Convention Center.

  16. Caenorhabditis elegans response to salt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.O. Umuerri (Oluwatoroti Omowayewa)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes my work, where I used genetic methods to identify new genes involved in salt taste in C. elegans. In addition, I used calcium imaging to characterize the cellular response of C. elegans to salt. The thesis is divided into five sections and each section is summarized

  17. Hydrometallurgical treatment of plutonium. Bearing salt baths waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The salt flux issuing from the electrorefining of plutonium metal alloy in salt baths (KCI + NaCI) poses a difficult problem of the back-end alpha waste management. An alternative to the salt process promoted by Los Alamos Laboratory is to develop a hydrometallurgical treatment. A new process based on the electrochemistry technique in aqueous solution has been defined and tested successfully in the CEA. The diagram of the process exhibits two principal steps: in the head-end, a dissolution in HNO3 medium accompanied with an electrolytic dechlorination leading to a quantitative elimination of chloride as CI2 gas followed by its trapping one soda lime cartridge, a complete oxidative dissolution of the refractory Pu residues by electrogenerated Ag(II), in the back-end: the Pu and Am recoveries by chromatographic extractions. (authors). 10 figs., 9 refs

  18. Salt Intake Is Associated with Inflammation in Chronic Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Azak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic Heart Failure (CHF is highly prevalent and is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. It has been well established that excessive intake of sodium chloride (salt induced hypertension in some populations. Although salt seems to induce cardiovascular diseases through elevation of blood pressure, it has also been indicated that salt can induce cardiovascular diseases independently from blood pressure elevation. Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate the association between salt consumption and inflammation in CHF patients. Patients and Methods: This study was conducted on 86 patients between 18 and 65 years old who were diagnosed with New York Heart Association (NYHA functional class I and II heart failure. Salt intake was calculated by using 24 hour urine sodium excretion. Besides, the association between inflammation and daily salt intake was evaluated regarding C - reactive protein (CPR, High sensitive CRP (HsCPR, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR, and ferritin and fibrinogen levels using Pearson correlation analysis. Results: Our results showed a statistically significant difference between the low (n = 41 and high (n = 45 salt intake groups in terms of serum HsCRP levels (5.21 ± 2.62 vs. 6.36 ± 2.64 (P < 0.048. Additionally, a significant correlation was observed between the amount of salt consumption and HsCRP levels. In this study, daily salt consumption of the enrolled patients was 8.53 gram/day. The medications and even the blood pressures were similar in the two groups, but daily pill count, prevalence of hypertension, and coronary heart disease were higher in the high salt intake group; however, the differences were not statistically significant (P = 0.065. Also, no significant difference was observed between the groups concerning the inflammation markers, such as CRP, ESR, ferritin, and fibrinogen. Conclusions: Neurohumoral and inflammatory factors are thought to contribute to high mortality

  19. Salt resistant crop plants

    KAUST Repository

    Roy, Stuart J.

    2014-04-01

    Soil salinity is a major constraint to agriculture. To improve salinity tolerance of crops, various traits can be incorporated, including ion exclusion, osmotic tolerance and tissue tolerance. We review the roles of a range of genes involved in salt tolerance traits. Different tissues and cells are adapted for specific and often diverse function, so it is important to express the genes in specific cell-types and to pyramid a range of traits. Modern biotechnology (marker- assisted selection or genetic engineering) needs to be increasingly used to introduce the correct combination of genes into elite crop cultivars. Importantly, the effects of introduced genes need to be evaluated in the field to determine their effect on salinity tolerance and yield improvement.

  20. Salt Lake in Chaidamu Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王良华

    2007-01-01

    Chaidamu Basin(柴达木盆地) is in the west of China. It covers an area(地区) of 220,000 square kilometres(平方公里). The number of salt lakes(盐湖) is more than twenty in it. Chaerhan(察尔汗) Salt Lake is the largest in this area. If you get here, you will find that in the lake there is no water but a thick layer(层) of salt. You can walk in it without difficulty, and cars can come and go across it. The thickest layer of salt in this basin is about fifty metres thick. People tried their best to use the salt to build house...

  1. Por que ocorre? Como lidar? A percepção de professores de graduação em Administração sobre o assédio moral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Brazileiro Paixão

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tem-se observado em muitas pesquisas que o assédio moral do aluno para com o professor tem sido incrementado com o processo de mercantilização do ensino superior. Tal processo insere-se num cenário de desvalorização da figura do professor e de exaltação da concepção do aluno-cliente. Nesse sentido, abre-se espaço para práticas de assédio moral na relação aluno-professor. O propósito neste artigo é compreender por que acontece o assédio moral no vetor aluno-professor e o que pode ser feito para que esse comportamento seja evitado. Para cumprir o objetivo da investigação, foram coletados e analisados, pelo método do discurso do sujeito coletivo (DSC de caráter qualiquantitativo, os depoimentos provenientes de 51 questionários respondidos por professores universitários. A análise das respostas dos professores universitários às questões de pesquisa oferece uma percepção do por quê da ocorrência do assédio moral aluno-professor na visão dos pesquisados, os quais identificam motivos que vão desde valores sociais não apreendidos até a mercantilização do ensino. A partir das respostas, verificam-se possibilidades de ação que apontam prioritariamente a discussão institucional como meio de suporte à vítima e como alicerce para ações preventivas, dentre outras atitudes individuais que influenciam positivamente esse tipo de assédio, e mesmo a disputa judicial como última instância para a solução do problema.

  2. Study on a minimization of LiCl waste salt generated from pyrochemical process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Junghoon; Cho, Yungzun; Eun, Heechul; Lee, Kirak; Park, Hwanseo; Park, Geunil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    LiCl waste salt generated from electroreduction process contains highly radioactive and heat generative I/II group fission products mainly composed of Cs{sup +}, Sr{sup 2+}, and Ba{sup 2+} impurities. Therefore, the fission products within the LiCl waste salt should be separated and concentrated in small volume to reduce the volume of final waste. Furthermore, it is also beneficial to reuse purified LiCl salt in the electroreduction process as an electrolyte for economic and environmental issues. Herein, to separate fission products from waste salt generated from pyrochemical process, the waste salt treatment process has been developed. The group I/II fission products within LiCl waste salt was separated by lab-scale layer-melt crystallization recovering purified LiCl salt on cooled crystallization plate immersed in molten LiCl salt. Based on the lab-scale study, the engineering scale LiCl purification system has been constructed in PRIDE (Pyroprocessing Inactive integrated Demonstration) facility. Preliminary test for LiCl purification has been investigated with the engineering-scale LiCl purification system. The LiCl waste salt generated from pyrochemical process has been successfully purified by layer-melt crystallization method with the high separation efficiency of over 90% under the existence of impurities of around 0.03∼10wt% CsCl, SrCl{sub 2}, and BaCl{sub 2} impurities. Based on the lab-scale study, the process of layer-melt crystallization has been scaled up to the engineering-scale which is capable of 20 kg-LiCl/batch. The operation procedures has been tested and confirmed by 20 kg pure LiCl salt. The evaluation for the efficiency of the engineering-scale LiCl waste salt purification system is now under investigation.

  3. Effects of resistance training on binge eating, body composition and blood variables in type II diabetics

    OpenAIRE

    Moisés Simão Santa Rosa de Sousa; Victor Manuel Machado dos Reis; Jefferson da Silva Novaes; Josenaldo Mendes de Sousa; Divaldo Martins de Souza

    2014-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4025/actascihealthsci.v36n1.18048 This study examined the effects of 12 weeks of resistance training (RT) on binge eating, body composition and blood variables and their correlations in 34 sedentary adults with type II diabetes. The participants aged 58.94 ± 10.66, had body weight of 71.62 ± 11.85 and BMI of 29.64 ± 4.27. Blood samples were collected for analysis of serum leptin, glucose, insulin, LDL, HDL, total cholesterol and triglyceride. The binge eating was asses...

  4. Will salt repositories be dry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredehoeft, John D.

    The National Academy of Science committee that considered geologic disposal of nuclear waste in the mid-1950s recommended salt as a repository medium, partly because of its high thermal conductivity and because it was believed to be “dry” (perhaps the appropriate thought is “impermeable”). Certainly, the fact that Paleozoic salt deposits exist in many parts of t h e world is evidence for very low rates of dissolution by moving groundwater. The fact that the dissolution rates were so small led many scientists to the conclusion that the salt beds were nearly impermeable. The major source of brine within the salt beds was thought to be fluid inclusions within salt crystals, which could migrate through differential solution toward a source of high heat. The idea that salt was uniformly “dry” was revised when exploratory drilling in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico encountered brines within the Castile Formation, an evaporite deposit below the Salado Formation. The brine reservoirs were thought to be isolated pockets of brine in an otherwise “impermeable” salt section.

  5. CAPMIX - Deploying Capacitors for Salt Gradient Power Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Bijmans, M.F.M.; Burheim, O.S.; Bryjak, M.; Delgado, A; Hack, P.; Mantegazza, F.; Tenisson, S.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2012-01-01

    The process of mixing sea and river water can be utilised as a power source. At present, three groups of technology are established for doing so; i) mechanical; Pressure Retarded Osmosis PRO, ii) electrochemical reactions; Reverse ElectroDialysis (RED) and Nano Battery Electrodes (NBE) and iii) ultra capacitors; Capacitive Double Layer Expansion (CDLE) and Capacitors charge by the Donnan Potentials (CDP). The chemical potential for salt gradient power systems is only limited by th...

  6. The early life of a Salt Giant: syndepositional basement faulting in the Zechstein of NE Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urai, Janos L.; Raith, Alexander F.; Michalón, Raúl

    2016-04-01

    The Zechstein of NE Netherlands is often thought to have been deposited in a tectonically quiet environment. In this study we attempted to test this hypothesis using very high quality 3D seismic and well data, mapping in detail the seismic reflections of the thick, anhydrite - dolomite Z III stringer, encased in thick layers of rock salt as a strain marker. We focused on the Friesland platform which was only weakly affected by later salt tectonics. First results show that the stringer contains (i) a regional network of thicker zones (TZ) which are interpreted to reflect the interaction of anhydrite dewatering pathways and localized dissolution of salt below fracture systems in the stringer, and (ii) a network of zones where the stringers are absent, interpreted as ruptures formed by salt flow. These ruptures in many cases mark a clear vertical shift of the sub-horizontal stringer. Mapping of the base salt and top salt reflectors shows that the ruptures often coincide with faults at base Zechstein level, and that the thickness of the post-stringer rock salt layers is thicker where the stringers are lower, while the total salt thickness is relatively constant. We interpret these structures as evidence for movement on the faults at base salt, during Zechstein times, suggesting that Zechstein deposition was syn-tectonic.

  7. Molten salts in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collection of references dealing with the physicochemical studies of fused salts, in particular the alkali and alkali earth halides. Numerous binary, ternary and quaternary systems of these halides with those of uranium and thorium are examined, and the physical properties, density, viscosity, vapour pressure etc... going from the halides to the mixtures are also considered. References relating to the corrosion of materials by these salts are included and the treatment of the salts with a view to recuperation after irradiation in a nuclear reactor is discussed. (author)

  8. Thermodynamic characterization of salt components for Molten Salt Reactor fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Capelli, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a promising future nuclear fission reactor technology with excellent performance in terms of safety and reliability, sustainability, proliferation resistance and economics. For the design and safety assessment of this concept, it is extremely important to have a thorough knowledge of the physico-chemical properties of molten fluorides salts, which are one of the best options for the reactor fuel. This dissertation presents the thermodynamic description of the ...

  9. Rock salt constitutive modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, R.E.

    1980-03-18

    The Serata model is the best operational model available today because it incorporates: (1) a yield function to demarcate between viscoelastic and viscoplastic behavior of rock salt; (2) a pressure and temperature dependence for yield stresses; and (3) a standard linear solid, which can be readily extended into the non-linear regime, to represent creep behavior. Its only deficiencies appear to be the lack of secondary creep behavior (a free dashpot) and some unsettling arbitrariness about the Poisson's ratio (..nu.. ..-->.. 0.5) argument for viscoplasticity. The Sandia/WIPP model will have good primary and secondary creep capability, but lacks the viscoplastic behavior. In some cases, estimated inelastic strains may be underpredicted. If a creep acceleration mechanism associated with brine inclusions is observed, this model may require extensive revision. Most of the other models available (SAI, RE-SPEC, etc.) are only useful for short-term calculations, because they employ temporal power law (t/sup n/) primary creep representations. These models are unsatisfactory because they cannot represent dual mechanisms with differing characteristic times. An approach based upon combined creep and plasticity is recommended in order to remove the remaining deficiency in the Serata model. DOE/Sandia/WIPP should be encouraged to move aggressively in this regard.

  10. Does salt increase thirst?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshem, Micah

    2015-02-01

    Our diet is believed to be overly rich in sodium, and it is commonly believed that sodium intake increases drinking. Hence the concern of a possible contribution of dietary sodium to beverage intake which in turn may contribute to obesity and ill health. Here we examine whether voluntary, acute intake of a sodium load, as occurs in routine eating and snacking, increases thirst and drinking. We find that after ingesting 3.5 or 4.4 g NaCl (men) and 1.9 or 3.7 g (women) on nuts during 15 minutes, there is no increase in thirst or drinking of freely available water in the following 2 h compared with eating similar amounts of sugared or unflavored nuts. This suggests that routine ingestion of boluses of salt (~30-40% of daily intake for men, ~ 20-40% for women) does not increase drinking. Methodological concerns such as about nuts as vehicle for sodium suggest further research to establish the generalizability of this unexpected result. PMID:25447020

  11. Young Stars with SALT

    CERN Document Server

    Riedel, Adric R; Rice, Emily L; Cruz, Kelle L; Henry, Todd J

    2016-01-01

    We present a spectroscopic and kinematic analysis of 79 nearby M dwarfs in 77 systems. All are low-proper-motion southern hemisphere objects and were identified in a nearby star survey with a demonstrated sensitivity to young stars. Using low-resolution optical spectroscopy from the Red Side Spectrograph (RSS) on the South African Large Telescope (SALT), we have determined radial velocities, H-alpha, Lithium 6708\\AA, and Potassium 7699\\AA~equivalent widths linked to age and activity, and spectral types for all our targets. Combined with astrometric information from literature sources, we identify 44 young stars. Eighteen are previously known members of moving groups within 100 parsecs of the Sun. Twelve are new members, including one member of the TW Hydra moving group, one member of the 32 Orionis moving group, nine members of Tucana-Horologium, one member of Argus, and two new members of AB Doradus. We also find fourteen young star systems that are not members of any known groups. The remaining 33 star syst...

  12. Salt stress change chlorophyll fluorescence in mango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicero Cartaxo de Lucena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the tolerance of mango cultivars 'Haden', 'Palmer', 'Tommy Atkins' and 'Uba' grafted on rootstock 'Imbú' to salt stress using chlorophyll fluorescence. Plants were grown in modified Hoagland solution containing 0, 15, 30, and 45 mmol L-1 NaCl. At 97 days the parameters of the chlorophyll fluorescence (F0, Fm, Fv, F0/Fm, Fv/Fm, Fv'/Fm', ΦPSII = [(Fm'-Fs/(Fm'], D = (1- Fv'/Fm' and ETR = (ΦPSII×PPF×0,84×0,5 were determined. At 100 days, the leaf emission and leaf area, toxicity and leaf abscission indexes were determined. In all cultivars evaluated, in different degree, there were decreases in photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, enhanced concentrations from 15 mmol L-1 NaCl. The decreases in the potential quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm were 27.9, 18.7, 20.5, and 27.4%, for cultivars 'Haden', 'Palmer', 'Tommy Atkins', and 'Uba', respectively, when grown in 45 mmol L-1 NaCl. It was found decreases in leaf emission and mean leaf area in all cultivars from 15 mmol L-1 NaCl. There were increases in leaf toxicity of 33.0, 67.5, 41.6 and 80.8% and in leaf abscission of 71.8, 29.2, 32.5, and 67.9% for the cultivars 'Haden', 'Palmer', 'Tommy Atkins', and 'Uba' respectively, when grown in 45 mmol L-1 NaCl. Leaf toxicity and leaf abscission were not observed in 15 mmol L-1 NaCl. The decrease in Fv/Fm ratio were accompanied by decreasing in leaf emission and increased leaf toxicity index, showing, therefore, the potential of chlorophyll fluorescence in the early detection of salt stress in mango tree.

  13. Antimicrobial activities of pomegranate rind extracts: enhancement by addition of metal salts and vitamin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Alison F

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Punica granatum L. or pomegranates, have been reported to have antimicrobial activity against a range of Gram positive and negative bacteria. Pomegranate formulations containing ferrous salts have enhanced although short-term, antibacteriophage activities which are rapidly diminished owing to instability of the ferrous combination. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activities of combinations of pomegranate rind extracts (PRE with a range of metals salts with the added stabiliser vitamin C. Methods PRE solutions, prepared by blending rind sections with distilled water prior to sterilisation by autoclaving or filtration, were screened with a disc diffusion assay using penicillin G as a control. Suspension assays were used to determine the antimicrobial activities of PRE alone and in combination with salts of the following metals; Fe (II, Cu (II, Mn (II or Zn (II, and vitamin C, against a panel of microbes following exposure for 30 mins. The test organisms included Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis. Results The screening assay demonstrated that PRE exhibited activity against the Gram positive organisms at 24 h with no observable effect on any of the Gram negative bacteria. However, after 12 h, zones of inhibition were only observed for Ps. aeruginosa. In contrast, using the suspension assay, addition of Cu (II salts to PRE solutions extended the activities resulting in no detectable growth being observed for the PRE/Cu (II combination against E. coli, Ps. aeruginosa and P. mirabilis. Minimal antimicrobial activity was observed following incubation with Fe (II, Mn (II or Zn (II salts alone or in combination with PRE against any of the organisms in the test panel. The addition of vitamin C markedly enhanced the activities of both PRE/Fe (II and PRE/Cu (II combinations against S. aureus. Conclusion This is the first report demonstrating

  14. Methods and results of the investigation of the thermomechanical behaviour of rock salt with regard to the final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the knowledge about thermal and mechanical behaviour of rock salt that has been accumulated by various R and D institutions in Germany from laboratory and in situ investigations. An important objective is to give a comprehensive overview of the investigation methods and instruments available and to discuss these methods and instruments with regard to their applicability and reliability for the investigation of the thermomechanical effects of high level radioactive waste emplacement in rock salt formations. The report is focused on the activities of the GSF-Institut fur Tieflagerung in the Asse mine regarding the disposal of high and intermediate level radioactive waste during the last decades. The design and the results of the most important in situ experiments are presented and discussed in detail. The results are compared to model calculations in order to evaluate the reliability of both the measurements and the calculation results. The relevance of the results for the situation in Spain is discussed in a separate chapter. As the investigations in Germany have been performed in domal salt, while the Spanish concept is based on waste disposal in bedded salt, significant differences in the thermomechanical behaviour cannot be excluded. The investigation methods, however, will be applicable. (Author)

  15. Salt tolerance at single cell level in giant-celled Characeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jane eBeilby

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Characean plants provide an excellent experimental system for electrophysiology and physiology due to: (i very large cell size, (ii position on phylogenetic tree near the origin of land plants and (iii continuous spectrum from very salt sensitive to very salt tolerant species. A range of experimental techniques is described, some unique to characean plants. Application of these methods provided electrical characteristics of membrane transporters, which dominate the membrane conductance under different outside conditions. With this considerable background knowledge the electrophysiology of salt sensitive and salt tolerant genera can be compared under salt and/or osmotic stress. Both salt tolerant and salt sensitive Characeae show a rise in membrane conductance and simultaneous increase in Na+ influx upon exposure to saline medium. Salt tolerant Chara longifolia and Lamprothamnium sp. exhibit proton pump stimulation upon both turgor decrease and salinity increase, allowing the membrane PD to remain negative. The turgor is regulated through the inward K+ rectifier and 2H+/Cl- symporter. Lamprothamnium plants can survive in hypersaline media up to twice seawater strength and withstand large sudden changes in salinity. Salt-sensitive Chara australis succumbs to 50 - 100 mM NaCl in few days. Cells exhibit no pump stimulation upon turgor decrease and at best transient pump stimulation upon salinity increase. Turgor is not regulated. The membrane PD exhibits characteristic noise upon exposure to salinity. Depolarization of membrane PD to excitation threshold sets off trains of action potentials, leading to further loses of K+ and Cl-. In final stages of salt damage the H+/OH- channels are thought to become the dominant transporter, dissipating the proton gradient and bringing the cell PD close to 0. The differences in transporter electrophysiology and their synergy under osmotic and/or saline stress in salt sensitive and salt tolerant characean cells

  16. Microbiology of solar salt ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javor, B.

    1985-01-01

    Solar salt ponds are shallow ponds of brines that range in salinity from that of normal seawater (3.4 percent) through NaCl saturation. Some salterns evaporate brines to the potash stage of concentration (bitterns). All the brines (except the bitterns, which are devoid of life) harbor high concentrations of microorganisms. The high concentrations of microorganisms and their adaptation to life in the salt pond are discussed.

  17. Textural and fluid phase analysis of rock salt subjected to the combined effects of pressure, heat and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation of colloidal sodium by radiolytic processes is a main concern with respect to the safety of disposal of high-level radioactive waste in salt formations. The research work seeks to assess the irradiation damage in natural rock salt when exposed to a different dose, dose rate, temperature and time of gamma irradiation. The work encompasses four major tasks: (i) detailed characterization of both solid and fluid phases of natural rock salt; (ii) gamma irradiation of salt samples; (iii) determination of the amount of colloidal sodium present in irradiated samples; (iv) calculation of radiation damage. 40 refs., 36 figs., 34 tabs

  18. Liking, salt taste perception and use of table salt when consuming reduced-salt chicken stews in light of South Africa's new salt regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kock, H L; Zandstra, E H; Sayed, N; Wentzel-Viljoen, E

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of salt reduction on liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt when consuming chicken stew in light of South Africa's new salt recommendations. In total, 432 South-African consumers (aged 35.2 ± 12.3 years) consumed a full portion of a chicken stew meal once at a central location. Four stock cube powders varying in salt content were used to prepare chicken stews: 1) no reduction - 2013 Na level; regular salt level as currently available on the South African market (24473 mg Na/100 g), 2) salt reduction smaller than 2016 level, i.e. 10%-reduced (22025 mg Na/100 g), 3) 2016 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (18000 mg Na/100 g), 4) 2019 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (13000 mg Na/100 g). Consumers were randomly allocated to consume one of the four meals. Liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt and pepper were measured. Chicken stews prepared with reduced-salt stock powders were equally well-liked as chicken stews with the current salt level. Moreover, a gradual reduction of the salt in the chicken stews resulted in a reduced salt intake, up to an average of 19% for the total group compared to the benchmark 2013 Na level stew. However, 19% of consumers compensated by adding salt back to full compensation in some cases. More salt was added with increased reductions of salt in the meals, even to the point of full compensation. Further investigation into the impacts of nutrition communication and education about salt reduction on salt taste perception and use is needed. This research provides new consumer insights on salt use and emphasises the need for consumer-focused behaviour change approaches, in addition to reformulation of products.

  19. Regulating Current Rectification and Nanoparticle Transport Through a Salt Gradient in Bipolar Nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Yuan; Yeh, Li-Hsien; Hsu, Jyh-Ping; Tseng, Shiojenn

    2015-09-16

    Tuning of ion and nanoparticle transport is validated through applying a salt gradient in two types of nanopores: the inner wall of a nanopore has bipolar charges and its outer wall neutral (type I), and both the inner and outer walls of a nanopore have bipolar charges (type II). The ion current rectification (ICR) behavior of these nanopores can be regulated by an applied salt gradient: if it is small, the degree of ICR in type II nanopore is more significant than that in type I nanopore; a reversed trend is observed at a sufficiently large salt gradient. If the applied salt gradient and electric field have the same direction, type I nanopore exhibits two significant features that are not observed in type II nanopore: (i) a cation-rich concentration polarization field and an enhanced funneling electric field are present near the cathode side of the nanopore, and (ii) the magnitude of the axial electric field inside the nanopore is reduced. These features imply that applying a salt gradient to type I nanopore is capable of simultaneously enhancing the nanoparticle capture into the nanopore and reducing its translocation velocity inside, so that high sensing performance and resolution can be achieved.

  20. Salting kinetics and salt diffusivities in farmed Pantanal caiman muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telis Vânia Regina Nicoletti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The legal Pantanal caiman (Caiman crocodilus yacare farming, in Brazil, has been stimulated and among meat preservation techniques the salting process is a relatively simple and low-cost method. The objective of this work was to study the sodium chloride diffusion kinetics in farmed caiman muscle during salting. Limited volumes of brine were employed, with salting essays carried at 3, 4 and 5 brine/muscle ratios, at 15%, 20% and 25% w/w brine concentrations, and brine temperatures of 10, 15 and 20ºC. The analytical solution of second Fick's law considering one-dimensional diffusion through an infinite slab in contact with a well-stirred solution of limited volume was used to calculate effective salt diffusion coefficients and to predict the sodium chloride content in the fillets. A good agreement was obtained between the considered analytical model and experimental data. Salt diffusivities in fillets were found to be in the range of 0.47x10-10 to 9.62x10-10 m²/s.

  1. Salt drilling in the Rocky Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, J.S.; Collins, K.B.; Hackney, R.M.

    1983-07-11

    Design and operation data dealing with drilling and setting casings through Rocky Mountain salt formations are explained and summarized. Discussed is the origin of salt deposits, how salt can be detected during the planning and drilling of a well, and the different drilling strategies employed during salt rock drilling. Well casing design and cementing are also discussed, as well as failures which occur due to salt deposition.

  2. Adsorption of Cu(II), Hg(II), and Ni(II) ions by modified natural wool chelating fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monier, M; Ayad, D M; Sarhan, A A

    2010-04-15

    The graft copolymerization of ethyl acrylate (EA) onto natural wool fibers initiated by potassium persulphate and Mohr's salt redox initiator system in limited aqueous medium was carried out in heterogeneous media. Ester groups of the grafted copolymers were partially converted into hydrazide function groups followed by hydrazone formation through reaction with isatin. Also the application of the modified fibers for metal ion uptake was studied using Cu(II), Hg(II) and Ni(II). The modified chelating fibers were characterized using FTIR spectroscopy, SEM and X-ray diffraction. PMID:19962235

  3. Adsorption of Cu(II), Hg(II), and Ni(II) ions by modified natural wool chelating fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monier, M., E-mail: monierchem@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt); Ayad, D.M.; Sarhan, A.A. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt)

    2010-04-15

    The graft copolymerization of ethyl acrylate (EA) onto natural wool fibers initiated by potassium persulphate and Mohr's salt redox initiator system in limited aqueous medium was carried out in heterogeneous media. Ester groups of the grafted copolymers were partially converted into hydrazide function groups followed by hydrazone formation through reaction with isatin. Also the application of the modified fibers for metal ion uptake was studied using Cu(II), Hg(II) and Ni(II). The modified chelating fibers were characterized using FTIR spectroscopy, SEM and X-ray diffraction.

  4. Adsorption of Cu(II), Hg(II), and Ni(II) ions by modified natural wool chelating fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The graft copolymerization of ethyl acrylate (EA) onto natural wool fibers initiated by potassium persulphate and Mohr's salt redox initiator system in limited aqueous medium was carried out in heterogeneous media. Ester groups of the grafted copolymers were partially converted into hydrazide function groups followed by hydrazone formation through reaction with isatin. Also the application of the modified fibers for metal ion uptake was studied using Cu(II), Hg(II) and Ni(II). The modified chelating fibers were characterized using FTIR spectroscopy, SEM and X-ray diffraction.

  5. Physicochemical properties of 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoates of Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II and Zn(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. FERENC

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The complexes of Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II with 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid anion of the formula: M(C10H11O52·nH2O, where n = 6 for Ni(II, n = 1 for Mn(II, Co(II, Cu(II, and n = 0 for Zn, have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, X–ray diffraction measurements, thermogravimetry and magnetic studies. They are crystalline compounds characterized by various symmetry. They decompose in various ways when heated in air to 1273 K. At first, they dehydrate in one step and form anhydrous salts. The final products of decomposition are oxides of the respective metals (Mn2O3, Co3O4, NiO, CuO, ZnO. The solubilities of the analysed complexes in water at 293 K are in the orders of 10-2 – 10-4 mol dm-3. The magnetic susceptibilities of the Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II and Cu(II complexes were measured over the range of 76–303 K and the magnetic moments were calculated. The results show that the 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoates of Mn(II, Co(II and Ni(II are high-spin complexes but that of Cu(II forms a dimer [Cu2(C10H11O54(H2O2]. The carboxylate groups bind as monodentate or bidentate chelating or bridging ligands.

  6. Management of Salt Waste from Electrochemical Processing of Used Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael F. Simpson; Michael N. Patterson; Joon Lee; Yifeng Wang; Joshua Versey; Ammon Williams; Supathorn Phongikaroon; James Allensworth; Man-Sung Yim

    2013-10-01

    Electrochemical processing of used nuclear fuel involves operation of one or more cells containing molten salt electrolyte. Processing of the fuel results in contamination of the salt via accumulation of fission products and transuranic (TRU) actinides. Upon reaching contamination limits, the salt must be removed and either disposed or treated to remove the contaminants and recycled back to the process. During development of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II spent fuel treatment process, waste salt from the electrorefiner was to be stabilized in a ceramic waste form and disposed of in a high-level waste repository. With the cancellation of the Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository, other options are now being considered. One approach that involves direct disposal of the salt in a geologic salt formation has been evaluated. While waste forms such as the ceramic provide near-term resistance to corrosion, they may not be necessary to ensure adequate performance of the repository. To improve the feasibility of direct disposal, recycling a substantial fraction of the useful salt back to the process equipment could minimize the volume of the waste. Experiments have been run in which a cold finger is used for this purpose to crystallize LiCl from LiCl/CsCl. If it is found to be unsuitable for transportation, the salt waste could also be immobilized in zeolite without conversion to the ceramic waste form.

  7. Fracture and Healing of Rock Salt Related to Salt Caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, K.S.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

    1999-03-01

    In recent years, serious investigations of potential extension of the useful life of older caverns or of the use of abandoned caverns for waste disposal have been of interest to the technical community. All of the potential applications depend upon understanding the reamer in which older caverns and sealing systems can fail. Such an understanding will require a more detailed knowledge of the fracture of salt than has been necessary to date. Fortunately, the knowledge of the fracture and healing of salt has made significant advances in the last decade, and is in a position to yield meaningful insights to older cavern behavior. In particular, micromechanical mechanisms of fracture and the concept of a fracture mechanism map have been essential guides, as has the utilization of continuum damage mechanics. The Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which is summarized extensively in this work was developed specifically to treat both the creep and fracture of salt, and was later extended to incorporate the fracture healing process known to occur in rock salt. Fracture in salt is based on the formation and evolution of microfractures, which may take the form of wing tip cracks, either in the body or the boundary of the grain. This type of crack deforms under shear to produce a strain, and furthermore, the opening of the wing cracks produce volume strain or dilatancy. In the presence of a confining pressure, microcrack formation may be suppressed, as is often the case for triaxial compression tests or natural underground stress situations. However, if the confining pressure is insufficient to suppress fracture, then the fractures will evolve with time to give the characteristic tertiary creep response. Two first order kinetics processes, closure of cracks and healing of cracks, control the healing process. Significantly, volume strain produced by microfractures may lead to changes in the permeability of the salt, which can become a major concern in

  8. A daily salt balance model for stream salinity generation processes following partial clearing from forest to pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Bari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed a coupled salt and water balance model to represent the stream salinity generation process following land use changes. The conceptual model consists of three main components with five stores: (i Dry, Wet and Subsurface Stores, (ii a saturated Groundwater Store and (iii a transient Stream zone Store. The Dry and Wet Stores represent the salt and water movement in the unsaturated zone and also the near-stream dynamic saturated areas, responsible for the generation of salt flux associated with surface runoff and interflow. The unsaturated Subsurface Store represents the salt bulge and the salt fluxes. The Groundwater Store comes into play when the groundwater level is at or above the stream invert and quantifies the salt fluxes to the Stream zone Store. In the stream zone module, we consider a 'free mixing' between the salt brought about by surface runoff, interflow and groundwater flow. Salt accumulation on the surface due to evaporation and its flushing by initial winter flow is also incorporated in the Stream zone Store. The salt balance model was calibrated sequentially following successful application of the water balance model. Initial salt stores were estimated from measured salt profile data. We incorporated two lumped parameters to represent the complex chemical processes like diffusion-dilution-dispersion and salt fluxes due to preferential flow. The model has performed very well in simulating stream salinity generation processes observed at Ernies and Lemon experimental catchments in south west of Western Australia. The simulated and observed stream salinity and salt loads compare very well throughout the study period with NSE of 0.7 and 0.4 for Ernies and Lemon catchment respectively. The model slightly over predicted annual stream salt load by 6.2% and 6.8%.

  9. Non-trivial solution chemistry between amido-pyridylcalix[4]arenes and some metal salts

    OpenAIRE

    Colleran, John; Creaven, Bernadette; Donlon, Denise; MCGINLEY John

    2010-01-01

    Mercury ion complexation reactions were carried out between 3 and various mercury(II) salts. 1H NMR studies showed that the role of solvent, the anion chosen and the initial reaction conditions were critical and that the formation of a “simple” mercury(II) complex was non-trivial. The mercury(II) ion can cause either (i) the formation of an ion-pair system, which have a characteristic doubling of all signals in the 1H NMR spectrum, (ii) a cleavage reaction to occur resulting in the reformatio...

  10. Designing Advanced Ceramic Waste Forms for Electrochemical Processing Salt Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Snyder, C. T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Frank, Steven [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Riley, Brian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report describes the scientific basis underlying the approach being followed to design and develop “advanced” glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form (ACWF) materials that can (1) accommodate higher salt waste loadings than the waste form developed in the 1990s for EBR-II waste salt and (2) provide greater flexibility for immobilizing extreme waste salt compositions. This is accomplished by using a binder glass having a much higher Na2O content than glass compositions used previously to provide enough Na+ to react with all of the Cl– in the waste salt and generate the maximum amount of sodalite. The phase compositions and degradation behaviors of prototype ACWF products that were made using five new binder glass formulations and with 11-14 mass% representative LiCl/KCl-based salt waste were evaluated and compared with results of similar tests run with CWF products made using the original binder glass with 8 mass% of the same salt to demonstrate the approach and select a composition for further studies. About twice the amount of sodalite was generated in all ACWF materials and the microstructures and degradation behaviors confirmed our understanding of the reactions occurring during waste form production and the efficacy of the approach. However, the porosities of the resulting ACWF materials were higher than is desired. These results indicate the capacity of these ACWF waste forms to accommodate LiCl/KCl-based salt wastes becomes limited by porosity due to the low glass-to-sodalite volume ratio. Three of the new binder glass compositions were acceptable and there is no benefit to further increasing the Na content as initially planned. Instead, further studies are needed to develop and evaluate alternative production methods to decrease the porosity, such as by increasing the amount of binder glass in the formulation or by processing waste forms in a hot isostatic press. Increasing the amount of binder glass to eliminate porosity will decrease the waste

  11. Canister compatibility with Carlsbad salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No significant reaction was found when candidate canister alloys were heated with salt from Carlsbad, New Mexico, for up to 5000 hours in sealed capsules and for up to 10,000 hours in unsealed capsules at temperatures (80 to 2250C) that bracket the maximum temperature calculated for reference Savannah River Plant (SRP) waste containers at 20-foot spacings in salt. Additional tests were made at 6000C in sealed capsules to characterize reactions that may occur between candidate canister alloys and any component of the salt that is released when decrepitation occurs. Under these extreme conditions there was no significant attack of Type 304L stainless steel. But, there was up to 20-mils attack of the low-carbon steel

  12. Salt splitting with ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop ceramic membrane technologies for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions. This technology has the potential to reduce the low-level waste (LLW) disposal volume, the pH and sodium hydroxide content for subsequent processing steps, the sodium content of interstitial liquid in high-level waste (HLW) sludges, and provide sodium hydroxide free of aluminum for recycle within processing plants at the DOE complex. Potential deployment sites include Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The technical approach consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON). As the name implies, sodium ions are transported rapidly through these ceramic crystals even at room temperatures.

  13. Colorimetric and Fluorescent Sensing of SCN- Based on meso-Tetraphenylporphyrin/meso-Tetraphenylporphyrin Cobalt(II) System

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Rong H.; Hua Wang; Ying Zhang

    2007-01-01

    An approach for colorimetric and fluorescent sensing of thiocyanate (SCN-) has been proposed based on the competitive-displacement strategy between meso-tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) and meso-tetraphenylporphyrin cobalt(II) (CoTPP). In THF-water solution, TPP emits strong fluorescence at 651 nm; however, the fluorescence was quenched stepwise by CoTPP, and then restored by SCN-, the detection limit is 6.0 × 10-4 M. The recognition of SCN- could also be easily achieved by visual way since the ass...

  14. Factors associated with bullying at nurses' workplaces Factores asociados al acoso moral en el ambiente laboral del enfermero Fatores associados ao assédio moral no ambiente laboral do enfermeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Biagio Fontes

    2013-06-01

    embargo, la investigación con base en muestras de enfermeros brasileños representa solamente el primer paso para evaluar otros factores condicionantes relacionados al contexto organizacional. OBJETIVO: identificar enfermeiros vítimas de assédio moral no trabalho e fatores associados. MÉTODO: estudo descritivo-exploratório, de abordagem quantitativa. A amostra foi composta por 199 enfermeiros, pertencentes ao setor público e privado (n=388. Para a coleta de dados utilizaram-se um questionário socioprofissiográfico e o Leymann Inventory Psychological Terrorization, ambos em formato impresso ou eletrônico (maio/setembro de 2010. RESULTADOS: de acordo com os dados obtidos, 11,56% dos sujeitos estudados foram vítimas de assédio moral. Análise multivariada apontou que possuir filhos, atuar nas unidades de saúde pública, trabalhar na instituição por período de 1 a 3 anos, enfrentar atualmente condutas de assédio moral e sentir-se assediado moralmente são fatores de risco para o assédio moral. CONCLUSÃO: o estudo possibilitou melhor compreensão dos fatores associados ao assédio moral, contudo, a investigação com base em amostras de enfermeiros brasileiros é apenas o primeiro passo na avaliação de outros fatores condicionantes, relacionados ao contexto organizacional.

  15. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà-Esteve, M; Cuadrado-Godia, E; Chillaron, J J; Pont-Sunyer, C; Cucurella, G; Fernández, M; Goday, A; Cano-Pérez, J F; Rodríguez-Campello, A; Roquer, J

    2008-06-01

    Hyponatremia is the most frequent electrolyte disorder in critically neurological patients. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSW) is defined as a renal loss of sodium during intracranial disease leading to hyponatremia and a decrease in extracellular fluid volume. The pathogenesis of this disorder is still not completely understood. Sympathetic responses as well as some natriuretic factors play a role in this syndrome. Distinction between SIADH and CSW might be difficult. The essential point is the volemic state. It is necessary to rule out other intermediate causes. Treatment requires volume replacement and maintenance of a positive salt balance. Mineral corticoids may be useful in complicated cases.

  16. Oxidation properties of "Solar Salt"

    OpenAIRE

    BENAISSA, Wassila; Carson, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Solar Salt is a name sometimes given to a molten salt mixture made up of about 60% of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) and 40% of potassium nitrate (KNO3). This composition is near the eutectic point and is thermally stable until 600°C. It is popular in Industrial Solar Energy Projects and is used for storing energy in the form of heat to smooth out the peaks in electricity production. However for some technologies, combustible substances, like a thermal fluid for example, may come into contact with th...

  17. Thermodynamic characterization of salt components for Molten Salt Reactor fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelli, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a promising future nuclear fission reactor technology with excellent performance in terms of safety and reliability, sustainability, proliferation resistance and economics. For the design and safety assessment of this concept, it is extremely important to have a thor

  18. Ultrasonic characterization of pork meat salting

    OpenAIRE

    García Pérez, José Vicente; PRADOS PEDRAZA, MARTA DE; Pérez-Muelas Picón, Mª Nieves; Carcel Carrión, Juan Andrés; Benedito Fort, José Javier

    2012-01-01

    [EN] Salting process plays a key role in the preservation and quality of dry-cured meat products. Therefore, an adequate monitoring of salt content during salting is necessary to reach high quality products. Thus, the main objective of this work was to test the ability of low intensity ultrasound to monitor the salting process of pork meat. Cylindrical samples (diameter 36 mm, height 60±10 mm) of Biceps femoris were salted (brine 20% NaCl, w/w) at 2 ºC for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. During salting a...

  19. The blood pressure-salt sensitivity paradigm: pathophysiologically sound yet of no practical value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galletti, Ferruccio; Strazzullo, Pasquale

    2016-09-01

    Sodium plays an important pathophysiological role in blood pressure (BP) values and in the development of hypertension, and epidemiological studies such as the Intersalt Study have shown that the increase in BP occurring with age is determined by salt intake. Recently, a meta-analysis of 13 prospective studies has also shown the close relationship between excess sodium intake and higher risk of stroke and total cardiovascular events. However, the BP response to changing salt intake displayed a marked variability, as first suggested by Kawasaki et al. (The effect of high-sodium and low-sodium intakes on blood pressure and other related variables in human subjects with idiopathic hypertension. Am J Med 1978; 64: 193-198) and later by Weinberger et al. (Definitions and characteristics of sodium sensitivity and blood pressure resistance. Hypertension 1986; 8: II127-II134), who recognized the heterogeneity of the BP response to salt and developed the concept of salt sensitivity. We have a large body of evidence in favour of a major role of metabolic and neuro-hormonal factors in determining BP salt sensitivity in association with the effect of genetic variation. There is evidence that salt sensitivity influences the development of organ damage, even independently-at least in part-of BP levels and the occurrence of hypertension. In addition, several observational studies indicate that salt sensitivity is clearly associated with a higher rate of cardiovascular events and mortality, independently of BP levels and hypertension. A cluster of factors with well-known atherogenic potential such as hyperinsulinaemia, dyslipidaemia and microalbuminuria-all known to be prevalent in salt-sensitive hypertension-might at least partially explain the increased cardiovascular risk observed in salt sensitive individuals. The gold standard for the evaluation of BP salt sensitivity is the BP response to a moderate reduction of salt intake for several weeks; nevertheless, these protocols

  20. Sources of household salt in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooste, Pieter L

    2005-01-01

    Marketing of non-iodized salt through unconventional distribution channels is one of the factors weakening the national salt iodization program in South Africa. The aim of this study was therefore to quantify the various sources of household salt, and to relate this information to socio-economic status. Questionnaire information was collected by personal interview during home visits from a multistage, cluster, probability sample of 2164 adults representative of the adult population. Nationally 77.7% of households obtained their table salt from the typical food shops distributing iodized salt. However, in the nine different provinces between 8 and 37.3% of households used unconventional sources, distributing mainly non-iodized salt, to obtain their household salt. These alternative sources include distributors of agricultural salt, small general dealer shops called spaza shops, in peri-urban and rural townships, street vendors and salt saches placed in the packaging of maize meal bags. Country-wide around 30% of low socio-economic households obtained their salt from unconventional sources compared to less than 5% in high socio-economic households, emphasizing the vulnerability of low socio-economic groups to the use of non-iodized salt. Intervention strategies should mobilize all role players involved in unconventional marketing channels of household salt to provide only iodized salt to consumers, as required by law. PMID:15927933

  1. Hemodynamic responses to mental stress during salt loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gefke, Maria; Christensen, Niels Juel; Bech, Per;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose was to examine whether prolonged moderate stress associated with a student exam would increase the blood pressure response to a salt load in young healthy normotensive individuals. METHODS: Ten healthy young subjects were examined at two different occasions in random order (i......) during preparation for a medical exam (prolonged stress) and (ii) outside the exam period (low stress). All subjects consumed a controlled diet for 3 days with low- or high-salt content in randomized order. The subjective stress was measured by Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Scale, SCL...... Symptom Checklist for stress and the Visual Analogue Scale. On each level of stress, 24-h ambulatory blood pressure and cardiac output (CO) were measured. Furthermore, plasma norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E) and plasma renin activity (PRA) were measured. RESULTS: Twenty-four-hour ABP, 24-h heart rate...

  2. Collecting Duct Renin Does Not Mediate DOCA-Salt Hypertension or Renal Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kai; Stuart, Deborah; Abraham, Nikita; Wang, Fei; Wang, Shuping; Yang, Tianxin; Sigmund, Curt D; Kohan, Donald E; Ramkumar, Nirupama

    2016-01-01

    Collecting duct (CD)-derived renin is involved in the hypertensive response to chronic angiotensin-II (Ang-II) administration. However, whether CD renin is involved in Ang-II independent hypertension is currently unknown. To begin to examine this, 12 week old male and female CD-specific renin knock out (KO) mice and their littermate controls were subjected to uni-nephrectomy followed by 2 weeks of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) infusion combined with a high salt diet. Radiotelemetric blood pressure (BP) was similar between KO and control mice at baseline; BP increased in both groups to a similar degree throughout the 2 weeks of DOCA-salt treatment. Urinary albumin excretion and plasma blood urea nitrogen were comparable between the two groups after DOCA-salt treatment. Fibrosis as assessed by Masson's Trichrome stain/Sirius Red stain and collagen-1 mRNA expression was similar between control and KO mice. Compared to baseline, DOCA-salt treatment decreased plasma renin concentration (PRC), urinary renin excretion and medullary renin mRNA expression in both floxed and CD renin KO mice with no detectable differences between the two groups. Further, in primary culture of rat inner medullary CD, aldosterone treatment did not change renin activity or total renin content. Taken together, these data suggest that CD derived renin does not play a role in DOCA-salt hypertension. PMID:27467376

  3. Iodisation of Salt in Slovenia: Increased Availability of Non-Iodised Salt in the Food Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žmitek, Katja; Pravst, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Salt iodisation is considered a key public health measure for assuring adequate iodine intake in iodine-deficient countries. In Slovenia, the iodisation of all salt was made mandatory in 1953. A considerable regulatory change came in 2003 with the mandatory iodisation of rock and evaporated salt only. In addition, joining the European Union's free single market in 2004 enabled the import of non-iodised salt. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of salt iodising in the food supply. We examined both the availability and sale of (non-)iodised salt. Average sales-weighted iodine levels in salt were calculated using the results of a national monitoring of salt quality. Data on the availability and sales of salts were collected in major food retailers in 2014. Iodised salt represented 59.2% of the salt samples, and 95.9% of salt sales, with an average (sales-weighted) level of 24.2 mg KI/kg of salt. The average sales-weighted KI level in non-iodised salts was 3.5 mg KI/kg. We may conclude that the sales-weighted average iodine levels in iodised salt are in line with the regulatory requirements. However, the regulatory changes and the EU single market have considerably affected the availability of non-iodised salt. While sales of non-iodised salt are still low, non-iodised salt represented 33.7% of the salts in our sample. This indicates the existence of a niche market which could pose a risk of inadequate iodine intake in those who deliberately decide to consume non-iodised salt only. Policymakers need to provide efficient salt iodisation intervention to assure sufficient iodine supply in the future. The reported sales-weighting approach enables cost-efficient monitoring of the iodisation of salt in the food supply. PMID:27438852

  4. Salt decay of Morley limestone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, T.G.; Van Hees, R.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Salt weathering is one of the main causes of decay of natural stone, and by consequence a major problem to the conservation of cultural heritage. In the present case, the performance of Morley limestone from the Département Meuse, France, as a replacement stone under saltloaded conditions is evaluat

  5. Salt Lake 2002 mascot story

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The story of the Salt Lake 2002 Olympic Winter Games Mascots is inspired from our culture. Centuries ago, the first inhabitants etched in stone the images of animals that shared their world. These simple pictograms became the foundation for cultural legends — oral stories that inspired generations to respect and admire the natural world of Utah..

  6. Tasty Stand-Ins for Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ginger Mint Nutmeg Oregano Paprika/smoked paprika Parsley Rosemary Salt-free seasoning mix Tarragon Thyme Use Condiments, ... Much of a Good Thing / Labels: For your health / Quiz: What's the buzz about salt? / Tasty Stand- ...

  7. Salt Diapirs in the Gulf Coast [gcdiapirg

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Locations and shapes of salt diapirs were modified after the New Orleans Geological Society map, Salt tectonism of the U.S. Gulf Coast Basin (compiled by J.A....

  8. Acoustic P-wave velocity measurements of cataclastic effects in rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Model tests are carried out, in order to investigate the cataclastic thermo-mechanical behaviour of rock salt around a simulated repository borehole. The measurements are performed during a transient period of heating and subsequent cooling. Acoustic crosshole measurements are carried out under conditions of compression, scale 1: 41/2. The relationship between cataclastic effects and the acoustic velocity differences is described. Macrofracturing only occurred under circumstances of cooling, when a heater was switched off. One of the model tests was used in the CEC benchmark exercise ''COSA''. Acoustic measuring tubes have been developed for the in situ research on structural changes in rock salt. The tests involved the performance of so-called hole measurements in two parallel boreholes, containing the measuring tubes. The most important observations of a test in an old room in the Asse Mine are the following. A bifurcating open fissure, about 6 to 8 mm wide, prevented the propagation of the acoustic wave; this demonstrates that such cracks and fissures are easily detectable by the applied method. The microcataclasis, particularly that near the roomside wall, causes a reduction of the acoustic velocities, the more so as the angle between the measuring direction and the roomside wall increases. During the injection of a gallery wall with epoxy resins (by GSF) acoustic crosshole measurements were carried out as well. A detailed picture was obtained of the process of the closing of the fractures. By core drilling after this test confirmation was obtained that the fractures were closed. The information that has been gathered, will be used for the interpretation of the crosshole measurements in the near future; these measurements will be carried out around a heater borehole in the HAW field, a large underground test (GSF-ECN)

  9. Identificação da microbiota fúngica de ambientes considerados assépticos Identification of the fungic microbiota isolated in areas considered aseptic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisabete Sbrogio de Almeida

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se isolar e identificar a microbiota fúngica em ambientes considerados assépticos, através de exposições com meios de cultivo adequados, em três épocas distintas do ano, antes e imediatamente após as manobras técnicas realizadas em três áreas de trabalho: ambiente aberto, ambiente fechado sem filtração de ar e ambiente fechado com filtração de ar, utilizadas em produção de imunobiológicos. Os meios ágar-Sabouraud e ágar-soja, enriquecidos com 0,2% de extrato de levedura e sem cloranfenicol, foram estudados quanto à sua eficácia no isolamento de bolores e leveduras, considerando-se o número de colônias desenvolvidas e a freqüência dos diversos fungos isolados. Isolaram-se 67 espécimens, sendo 64 fungos filamentosos (bolores e três leveduras. Dos bolores, 54 pertenciam a 22 gêneros da divisão Deuteromycota, famílias Moniliaceae e Dematiaceae, cinco amostras filamentosas foram incluídas na ordem Agonomycetales (Mycelia Sterilia, e uma amostra foi classificada na divisão Deuteromycota, ordem Sphaeropsidales, classe Coelomycetes. Da divisão Zygomycota, ordem Mucorales, família Mucoraceae, um único mucoráceo foi identificado até gênero. As três leveduras pertenciam também à divisão Deuteromycota (Fungi Imperfecti, família Cryptococcaceae, e foram identificadas como sendo duas Rhodotorula rubra e uma Torulopsis candida. Comprovou-se que o número de colônias isoladas aumentou após a realização das monobras técnicas e que a filtração de ar através de filtros tipo HEPA, reduzindo o número de colônias isoladas nos ambientes fechados, aumenta a segurança do trabalho; comumente é recomendada para áreas de atividade técnica cujos resultados satisfatórios estão diretamente relacionados com uma baixa incidência de contaminantes.The isolation and identification of the fungic microbiota present in areas considered aseptic (open and/or restricted, with or without air filtration (HEPA filters

  10. Aspects of the internal kinematics and dynamics of salt diapirs: Results from thermomechanical experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulauf, G.; Zulauf, J.; Peinl, M.; Kihm, N.; Zanella, F.; Bornemann, O.

    2009-04-01

    The internal parts of salt diapirs are characterized by constrictional deformation supporting steeply plunging prolate fabrics and related linear (L>S) fabrics (Talbot and Jackson 1987). The youngest folds recognized in stems of salt diapirs are known from German Zechstein salt as curtain folds (Kulissen- or Vorhangfalten, Hartwig 1925) because the steeply inclined bedding planes define steeply plunging cylindrical folds. The grain-shape lineation tends to parallel the hinge lines of curtain folds. In cases of rheological stratification (e.g. stiff anhydrite or shale layers embedded in a weaker halite matrix), the curtain folds should be associated with boudins, the latter resulting from vertical extension parallel to the steep axes of the curtain folds. A new deformation apparatus has been used to model the internal kinematics of rheologically stratified salt diapirs. Composite natural samples consisting of a single layer of Gorleben anhydrite, embedded in matrix of Asse halite (both from Zechstein formation of northern Germany), were constrictionally deformed at temperature, T = 345˚ C, strain rate, Ä- = 10-7 s-1, maximum viscosity, η = 2 x 1013 Pa s, and maximum finite strain, eX = 122%. Viscous flow of Asse halite under the conditions listed above was accommodated by dislocation creep, which can be approximated by the equation obtained experimentally by Carter et al. (1993) for low stresses. Dislocation creep was related to formation of subgrains which are forming a striking chessboard pattern in sections cut parallel to the major stretching axis, X. The subgrain size, D, has been used to estimate the differential stress, , using the equation obtained by Schléder and Urai (2005) after combining the calibrations published by Carter et al. (1993) and Franssen (1993). The piezometrically derived stress values are between 2 and 6 MPa. Although the prerequisites for piezometry are not fully met in the present case of Asse halite (e.g. steady

  11. Chemistry of silver(II): a cornucopia of peculiarities†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochala, Wojciech; Mazej, Zoran

    2015-03-13

    Silver is the heavier congener of copper in the Periodic Table, but the chemistry of these two elements is very different. While Cu(II) is the most common cationic form of copper, Ag(II) is rare and its compounds exhibit a broad range of peculiar physico-chemical properties. These include, but are not limited to: (i) uncommon oxidizing properties, (ii) unprecedented large mixing of metal and ligand valence orbitals, (iii) strong spin-polarization of neighbouring ligands, (iv) record large magnetic superexchange constants, (v) ease of thermal decomposition of its salts with O-, N- or C-ligands, as well as (vi) robust Jahn-Teller effect which is preserved even at high pressure. These intriguing features of the compounds of Ag(II) will be discussed here together with (vii) a possibility of electromerism (electronic tautomerism) for a certain class of Ag(II) salts. PMID:25666068

  12. Salt loading affects cortisol metabolism in normotensive subjects : Relationships with salt sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, MN; van der Kleij, FGH; Boonstra, AH; Sluiter, WJ; Koerts, J; Navis, G; Dullaart, RPF

    2003-01-01

    We studied cortisol metabolism together with insulin sensitivity [homeostatic model assessment (HOMA)] and renal hemodynamics in 19 salt-resistant (sr) and nine salt-sensitive ( ss) normotensive subjects after a low-and high-salt diet. Results are described as high- vs. low-salt diet. Sum of urinary

  13. Salt-assisted and salt-suppressed sol-gel transitions of methylcellulose in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Wang, C; Tam, K C; Li, L

    2004-02-01

    The effects of various salts on the sol-gel transition of aqueous methylcellulose (MC) solutions have been studied systematically by means of a micro differential scanning calorimeter. It was found that the heating process was endothermic while the cooling process was exothermic for both MC solutions with and without salts. The addition of salts did not change the patterns of gelation and degelation of MC. However, the salts could shift the sol-gel transition and the gel-sol transition to lower or higher temperatures from a pure MC solution, depending on the salt type. These opposite effects were termed the salt-assisted and salt-suppressed sol-gel transitions. Either the salt-assisted transition or the salt-suppressed sol-gel transition was a function of salt concentration. In addition, each salt was found to have its own concentration limit for producing a stable aqueous solution of MC at a given concentration of MC, which was related to the anionic charge density of the salt. Cations were proved to have weaker effects than anions. The "salt-out strength", defined as the salt effect per mole of anion, was obtained for each anion studied. The thermodynamic mechanisms involved in the salt-assisted and salt-suppressed sol-gel transitions are discussed. PMID:15773087

  14. Salts affect the interaction of ZnO or CuO nanoparticles with wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jacob; Hansen, Trevor; McLean, Joan E; McManus, Paul; Das, Siddhartha; Britt, David W; Anderson, Anne J; Dimkpa, Christian O

    2015-09-01

    Exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) that release metals with potential phytotoxicity could pose problems in agriculture. The authors of the present study used growth in a model growth matrix, sand, to examine the influence of 5 mmol/kg of Na, K, or Ca (added as Cl salts) and root exudates on transformation and changes to the bioactivity of copper(II) oxide (CuO) and zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs on wheat. These salt levels are found in saline agricultural soils. After 14 d of seedling growth, particles with crystallinity typical of CuO or ZnO remained in the aqueous fraction from the sand; particles had negative surface charges that differed with NP type and salt, but salt did not alter particle agglomeration. Reduction in shoot and root elongation and lateral root induction by ZnO NPs were mitigated by all salts. However, whereas Na and K promoted Zn loading into shoots, Ca reduced loading, suggesting that competition with Zn ions for uptake occurred. With CuO NPs, plant growth and loading was modified equally by all salts, consistent with major interaction with the plant with CuO rather than Cu ions. Thus, for both NPs, loading into plant tissues was not solely dependent on ion solubility. These findings indicated that salts in agricultural soils could modify the phytotoxicity of NPs.

  15. TBscore II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolf, Frauke; Lemvik, Grethe; Abate, Ebba;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: The TBscore, based on simple signs and symptoms, was introduced to predict unsuccessful outcome in tuberculosis patients on treatment. A recent inter-observer variation study showed profound variation in some variables. Further, some variables depend on a physician assessing...... them, making the score less applicable. The aim of the present study was to simplify the TBscore. Methods: Inter-observer variation assessment and exploratory factor analysis were combined to develop a simplified score, the TBscore II. To validate TBscore II we assessed the association between start...

  16. Ultrasonic characterization of pork meat salting

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, J. V.; De Prados, M.; Pérez-Muelas, N.; Cárcel, J. A.; Benedito, J.

    2012-12-01

    Salting process plays a key role in the preservation and quality of dry-cured meat products. Therefore, an adequate monitoring of salt content during salting is necessary to reach high quality products. Thus, the main objective of this work was to test the ability of low intensity ultrasound to monitor the salting process of pork meat. Cylindrical samples (diameter 36 mm, height 60±10 mm) of Biceps femoris were salted (brine 20% NaCl, w/w) at 2 °C for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. During salting and at each experimental time, three cylinders were taken in order to measure the ultrasonic velocity at 2 °C. Afterwards, the cylinders were split in three sections (height 20 mm), measuring again the ultrasonic velocity and determining the salt and the moisture content by AOAC standards. In the whole cylinders, moisture content was reduced from 763 (g/kg sample) in fresh samples to 723 (g/kg sample) in samples salted for 7 days, while the maximum salt gain was 37.3 (g/kg sample). Although, moisture and salt contents up to 673 and 118 (g/kg sample) were reached in the sections of meat cylinders, respectively. During salting, the ultrasonic velocity increased due to salt gain and water loss. Thus, significant (p<0.05) linear relationships were found between the ultrasonic velocity and the salt (R2 = 0.975) and moisture (R2 = 0.863) contents. In addition, the change of the ultrasonic velocity with the increase of the salt content showed a good agreement with the Kinsler equation. Therefore, low intensity ultrasound emerges as a potential technique to monitor, in a non destructive way, the meat salting processes carried out in the food industry.

  17. Lead salt TE-cooled imaging sensor development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Kenton; Yoo, Sung-Shik; Kauffman, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    Progress on development of lead-salt thermoelectrically-cooled (TE-cooled) imaging sensors will be presented. The imaging sensor architecture has been integrated into field-ruggedized hardware, and supports the use of lead-salt based detector material, including lead selenide and lead sulfide. Images and video are from a lead selenide focal plane array on silicon ROIC at temperatures approaching room temperature, and at high frame rates. Lead-salt imagers uniquely possess three traits: (1) Sensitive operation at high temperatures above the typical `cooled' sensor maximum (2) Photonic response which enables high frame rates faster than the bolometric, thermal response time (3) Capability to reliably fabricate 2D arrays from solution-deposition directly, i. e. monolithically, on silicon. These lead-salt imagers are less expensive to produce and operate compared to other IR imagers based on II-VI HgCdTe and III-V InGaAsSb, because they do not require UHV epitaxial growth nor hybrid assembly, and no cryo-engine is needed to maintain low thermal noise. Historically, there have been challenges with lead-salt detector-to-detector non-uniformities and detector noise. Staring arrays of lead-salt imagers are promising today because of advances in ROIC technology and fabrication improvements. Non-uniformities have been addressed by on-FPA non-uniformity correction and 1/f noise has been mitigated with adjustable noise filtering without mechanical chopping. Finally, improved deposition process and measurement controls have enabled reliable fabrication of high-performance, lead-salt, large format staring arrays on the surface of large silicon ROIC wafers. The imaging array performance has achieved a Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD) of 30 mK at 2.5 millisecond integration time with an f/1 lens in the 3-5 μm wavelength band using a two-stage TE cooler to operate the FPA at 230 K. Operability of 99.6% is reproducible on 240 × 320 format arrays.

  18. Precipitation of sparingly soluble salts in packed sandbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlakou, Efstathia I.; Sygouni, Varvara; Paraskeva, Christakis A.

    2015-04-01

    One of the main problems encountered by the oil extraction industry, is the reduction of the local permeability of the rock formation near the extraction wells because of salt deposition in the pores of the rocks during the injection of brine water to displace the trapped oil ganglia within the oil formations. This phenomenon makes the oil recovery less efficient and under extreme cases the well is abandoned with a large amount of oil entrapped. Several detailed studies have been conducted in the past concerning sand bed consolidation using sparingly soluble salts for varying conditions (e.g. temperature, grain size, sand type, salt concentrations etc) and various salts [1]. Nevertheless, salt precipitation in the rock formation pores under the presence of other miscible or immiscible substances with water has not been investigated in details yet. In the present study, salt (CaCO3) precipitation experiments were performed in small beds packed with sea sand mixed with a low amount of CaCO3 seed grains. The experiments were performed using pure solutions (NaHCO3, CaCl2.2H2O) and solutions mixed with Ethylene Glycol in sand beds. Additionally, precipitation experiments were performed using pure solutions in sand beds saturated with oil phase (n-dodecane) for a wide range of solution supersaturation. During the experiments the ionic strength was kept constant. pH and concentration values of calcium ion of the effluent were measured and the precipitated salt crystals were identified using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) method. At the end of each experiment Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was conducted using a sample of the precipitated sand to identify the morphology of the precipitated crystals and their cohesion with sand grains. Acknowledgments This research was partially funded by the European Union (European Social Fund-ESF) and Greek National Funds through the Operational program "Education and Lifelong Learning" under the action Aristeia II (Code No 4420). References

  19. Salt effects in electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Kieu, Thanh Elisabeth;

    2014-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was performed on samples containing substantial amounts of NaCl to investigate how the presence of salts affected the recovery, repeatability, and membrane current in the extraction system. A group of 17 non-polar basic drugs with various physical chemical...... properties were used as model analytes. When EME was performed in a hollow fiber setup with a supported liquid membrane (SLM) comprised of 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), a substantial reduction in recovery was seen for eight of the substances when 2.5% (w/v) NaCl was present. No correlation between...... this loss and the physical chemical properties of these substances was seen. The recovery loss was hypothesized to be caused by ion pairing in the SLM, and a mathematical model for the extraction recovery in the presence of salts was made according to the experimental observations. Some variations...

  20. Thermophysical properties of reconsolidating crushed salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Stephen J.; Urquhart, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    Reconsolidated crushed salt is being considered as a backfilling material placed upon nuclear waste within a salt repository environment. In-depth knowledge of thermal and mechanical properties of the crushed salt as it reconsolidates is critical to thermal/mechanical modeling of the reconsolidation process. An experimental study was completed to quantitatively evaluate the thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt as a function of porosity and temperature. The crushed salt for this study came from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In this work the thermal conductivity of crushed salt with porosity ranging from 1% to 40% was determined from room temperature up to 300oC, using two different experimental methods. Thermal properties (including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat) of single-crystal salt were determined for the same temperature range. The salt was observed to dewater during heating; weight loss from the dewatering was quantified. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt decreases with increasing porosity; conversely, thermal conductivity increases as the salt consolidates. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt for a given porosity decreases with increasing temperature. A simple mixture theory model is presented to predict and compare to the data developed in this study.

  1. Rice's Salt Tolerance Gene Cloned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In cooperation with US colleagues, CAS researchers have made significant progress in their studies into functional genes for key agronomic traits by cloning SKC1, a salt-tolerant functional gene of rice and making clear its biological functions and mechanisms. This pioneering work,which was reported in the Oct. issue of Nature Genetics (37:1141-1146), is believed to hold promise to increase the output of the crop plant in this country.

  2. Crystal structures of two 18-crown-6 complexes: With the sodium salt of N-(Diiso-propoxyphosphoryl)benzamide and with the potassium salt of N-(Di-iso-propoxyphosphoryl)thiobenzamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately isomorphous crystal structures of two 18-crown-6 complexes were determined: with the sodium salt of N-(diiso-propoxyphosphoryl)benzamide (I) and with the potassium salt of N-(di-iso-propoxyphosphoryl)thiobenzamide (II). Both I and II are (1:1:1) guest-host complexes containing two different hosts (the crown ether and a bidentate organophosphorus anion) and their common guest (an Na+ or K+ cation). Despite a certain similarity between complexes I and II, significant structural distinctions between them resulting from the difference in the ionic radii of Na+ and K+ cations were revealed. In complex I, the Na+ cation is hexacoordinated, and in complex II, the K+ cation is octacoordinated. In I, the crown ether has an asymmetric monoangular conformation, whereas in II, its conformation approximates that described by the D3d symmetry

  3. Salt transport in Songkhla Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornpinatepong, S.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Salinity surveys in 1997 revealed that in the dry season salinity in Thale Sap Songkhla, Thale Sap and Thale Luang reached the maximum values of 30, 11 and 5 ppt, respectively. Among the complex system of the lake, Khlong Pak Ro showed a complicate seawater transport with a maximal salinity of 20 ppt. Incomplete mixing with a stratification at a depth of 2-3 m occured. The difference in salinity between the surface and the bottom was about 3 ppt. A vertically-averaged salt transport model was employed to simulate the salinity intrusion in the lake. The results showed quite good agreement with the observation. The model depicted a sharp drop of the water level at the entrance from the Gulf into the lake. The tidal energy then spread widely in Thale Sap Songkhla and continuously decreased to Thale Luang. The predicted salinity indicated that salt transport in the lake is governed by tide and water losses from the lake. Tidal movement generated a quasi-steady state of salinity in three months. The water losses for two months caused the salinity to rise 5.8 ppt/1 mm/day loss (~13 m3/sat Pak Ro. With a loss of 2.3 mm/day (~28 m3/s, the whole lake became brackish in three months. The salt entered the lake mainly through Khlong Luang, and only for 13 percent through Ao Thong Ben.

  4. Salt intake and hypertension therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Alberto; Mulatero, Paolo; Rabbia, Franco; Veglio, Franco

    2002-01-01

    Hypertension is a risk factor for cardiovascular and renal organ damage. Environmental conditions affect the development of high blood pressure (BP), although genetic influences are also important. Current international guidelines recommend reducing dietary sodium to no more than 100 mmol (about 2.4 g sodium or approximately 6 g salt) per day to prevent BP rising; the current intake of sodium in industrialized countries is approximately double the recommended amount. Clinical trials (DASH and TOHP studies) have shown that dietary factors are fundamental in the prevention and control of BP. Low dietary sodium intake is particularly effective in preventing hypertension in subjects with an increased risk such as the overweight, borderline hypertensives or the elderly. A low-salt diet combined with anti-hypertensive therapies facilitates BP reduction independent of race. The hypotensive effect of calcium channel blockers is less dependent on salt intake than other drugs, such as ACE inhibitors or diuretics. Reduced sodium intake associated with other dietary changes (such as weight loss, and increasing potassium, calcium and magnesium intake) are important instruments for the prevention and therapy of hypertension. PMID:11936420

  5. Salt effects in electromembrane extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Kieu, Thanh Elisabeth; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2014-06-20

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was performed on samples containing substantial amounts of NaCl to investigate how the presence of salts affected the recovery, repeatability, and membrane current in the extraction system. A group of 17 non-polar basic drugs with various physical chemical properties were used as model analytes. When EME was performed in a hollow fiber setup with a supported liquid membrane (SLM) comprised of 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), a substantial reduction in recovery was seen for eight of the substances when 2.5% (w/v) NaCl was present. No correlation between this loss and the physical chemical properties of these substances was seen. The recovery loss was hypothesized to be caused by ion pairing in the SLM, and a mathematical model for the extraction recovery in the presence of salts was made according to the experimental observations. Some variations to the EME system reduced this recovery loss, such as changing the SLM solvent from NPOE to 6-undecanone, or by using a different EME setup with more favorable volume ratios. This was in line with the ion pairing hypothesis and the mathematical model. This thorough investigation of how salts affect EME improves the theoretical understanding of the extraction process, and can contribute to the future development and optimization of the technique. PMID:24792700

  6. Salt appetite is reduced by a single experience of drinking hypertonic saline in the adult rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Greenwood

    Full Text Available Salt appetite, the primordial instinct to favorably ingest salty substances, represents a vital evolutionary important drive to successfully maintain body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. This innate instinct was shown here in Sprague-Dawley rats by increased ingestion of isotonic saline (IS over water in fluid intake tests. However, this appetitive stimulus was fundamentally transformed into a powerfully aversive one by increasing the salt content of drinking fluid from IS to hypertonic saline (2% w/v NaCl, HS in intake tests. Rats ingested HS similar to IS when given no choice in one-bottle tests and previous studies have indicated that this may modify salt appetite. We thus investigated if a single 24 h experience of ingesting IS or HS, dehydration (DH or 4% high salt food (HSD altered salt preference. Here we show that 24 h of ingesting IS and HS solutions, but not DH or HSD, robustly transformed salt appetite in rats when tested 7 days and 35 days later. Using two-bottle tests rats previously exposed to IS preferred neither IS or water, whereas rats exposed to HS showed aversion to IS. Responses to sweet solutions (1% sucrose were not different in two-bottle tests with water, suggesting that salt was the primary aversive taste pathway recruited in this model. Inducing thirst by subcutaneous administration of angiotensin II did not overcome this salt aversion. We hypothesised that this behavior results from altered gene expression in brain structures important in thirst and salt appetite. Thus we also report here lasting changes in mRNAs for markers of neuronal activity, peptide hormones and neuronal plasticity in supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus following rehydration after both DH and HS. These results indicate that a single experience of drinking HS is a memorable one, with long-term changes in gene expression accompanying this aversion to salty solutions.

  7. Salt appetite is reduced by a single experience of drinking hypertonic saline in the adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Michael P; Greenwood, Mingkwan; Paton, Julian F R; Murphy, David

    2014-01-01

    Salt appetite, the primordial instinct to favorably ingest salty substances, represents a vital evolutionary important drive to successfully maintain body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. This innate instinct was shown here in Sprague-Dawley rats by increased ingestion of isotonic saline (IS) over water in fluid intake tests. However, this appetitive stimulus was fundamentally transformed into a powerfully aversive one by increasing the salt content of drinking fluid from IS to hypertonic saline (2% w/v NaCl, HS) in intake tests. Rats ingested HS similar to IS when given no choice in one-bottle tests and previous studies have indicated that this may modify salt appetite. We thus investigated if a single 24 h experience of ingesting IS or HS, dehydration (DH) or 4% high salt food (HSD) altered salt preference. Here we show that 24 h of ingesting IS and HS solutions, but not DH or HSD, robustly transformed salt appetite in rats when tested 7 days and 35 days later. Using two-bottle tests rats previously exposed to IS preferred neither IS or water, whereas rats exposed to HS showed aversion to IS. Responses to sweet solutions (1% sucrose) were not different in two-bottle tests with water, suggesting that salt was the primary aversive taste pathway recruited in this model. Inducing thirst by subcutaneous administration of angiotensin II did not overcome this salt aversion. We hypothesised that this behavior results from altered gene expression in brain structures important in thirst and salt appetite. Thus we also report here lasting changes in mRNAs for markers of neuronal activity, peptide hormones and neuronal plasticity in supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus following rehydration after both DH and HS. These results indicate that a single experience of drinking HS is a memorable one, with long-term changes in gene expression accompanying this aversion to salty solutions. PMID:25111786

  8. Bis(benzyltrimethylammonium tetrabromidocuprate(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title molecular salt, (C10H16N2[CuBr4], the CuII ion adopts a squashed tetrahedral geometry with Br—Cu—Br angles varying between 99.29 (3 and 132.53 (3°. In the crystal, the components are linked by C—H...Br interactions, thereby generating a three-dimensional network.

  9. Physiological and Molecular Features of Puccinellia tenuiflora Tolerating Salt and Alkaline-Salt Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Zhang; Liqin Wei; Zizhang Wang; Tai Wang

    2013-01-01

    Saline-alkali soil seriously threatens agriculture productivity; therefore,understanding the mechanism of plant tolerance to alkaline-salt stress has become a major challenge.Halophytic Puccinellia tenuiflora can tolerate salt and alkaline-salt stress,and is thus an ideal plant for studying this tolerance mechanism.In this study,we examined the salt and alkaline-salt stress tolerance of P.tenuiflora,and analyzed gene expression profiles under these stresses.Physiological experiments revealed that P.tenuiflora can grow normally with maximum stress under 600 mmol/L NaCl and 150 mmol/L Na2CO3 (pH 11.0)for 6 d.We identified 4,982 unigenes closely homologous to rice and barley.Furthermore,1,105 genes showed differentially expressed profiles under salt and alkaline-salt treatments.Differentially expressed genes were overrepresented in functions of photosynthesis,oxidation reduction,signal transduction,and transcription regulation.Almost all genes downregulated under salt and alkaline-salt stress were related to cell structure,photosynthesis,and protein synthesis.Comparing with salt stress,alkaline-salt stress triggered more differentially expressed genes and significantly upregulated genes related to H+ transport and citric acid synthesis.These data indicate common and diverse features of salt and alkalinesalt stress tolerance,and give novel insights into the molecular and physiological mechanisms of plant salt and alkaline-salt tolerance.

  10. Salt drilling in the Rocky Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, J.S.; Collins, K.B.; Hackney, R.M.

    1983-02-01

    A compilation of literature, design and operational data dealing with drilling and setting casing through salt formations is explained and summarized. This paper is adapted to drilling conditions in the Rocky Mountain area. Discussion includes the origin of salt deposits, how salt can be detected during the planning and drilling of a well, and different drilling strategies employed for drilling salt. Casing design and cementing are discussed as well as failure of casing due to salt loading. Operating experience is reviewed in several Rocky Mountain areas. Casing strings were set through salt with collapse ratings ranging from .3 psi per foot to 1.5 psi per foot. Casing collapse due to salt loading was observed in several wells with casing design ratings less than 1.0 psi per foot. Conclusions are made concerning the major areas discussed in the paper including salt flow, interbedded salt, cementing and drilling strategy. The suggestion is made that casing set through salt zones should be designed for a collapse rating of 1.2 psi per foot.

  11. PORT II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, Beau

    2009-01-01

    One unique project that the Prototype lab worked on was PORT I (Post-landing Orion Recovery Test). PORT is designed to test and develop the system and components needed to recover the Orion capsule once it splashes down in the ocean. PORT II is designated as a follow up to PORT I that will utilize a mock up pressure vessel that is spatially compar able to the final Orion capsule.

  12. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of Two Arsenic(Ⅲ) Complexes As(S2CNCy2)2I and As(S2CNC6H12)3%砷配合物As(S2CNCy2)2I和As(S2CNC6H12)3的合成和晶体结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹汉东; 李蜂

    2007-01-01

    Two arsenic(Ⅲ) complexes with dithiocarbamate ligands,As(S2CNCy2)2I(1) and As(S2CNC6H12)3(2) were synthesized and structurally characterized by elemental analysed,IR and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis.Complex 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic system,space group P21/n,with α=1.0209(4)nm,b=1.4680(5)nm,c=1.5218(5)nm,β=92.135(5)°,and Z=4,while complex 2 crystallizes in the trigonal system,space group R3-,with α=1.6221(4)nm,c=2.1194(6)nm,for hexagonal coordinate,and Z=6.Complex 1 has a mononuclear structure,the central arsenic atom is five-coordinated in a distorted trigonal bipyramid.An additional feature was noted in this structure,I.e.the presence of a short intermolecular As…S distance of 0.3512(4)nm makes the structure as a weakly-bridged dimmer.In complex 2,The bidentate ligands are chelated to the arsenic atom,forming a coordination polyhedron which can be described as a distorted trigonal antiprism.%合成了2种砷的氨荒酸配合物As(S2CNCy2)2I(1)和As(S2CNC6H12)3(2).通过元素分析和红外光谱对其进行了表征,用X-射线单晶衍射测定了它们的晶体结构.配合物1的晶体属单斜晶系,空间群为尸P21/n,晶胞参数α=1.0209(4)nm,b=1.4680(5)nm,c=1.5218(5)nm,β=92.135(5)°和Z=4.配合物2的晶体属三方晶系,空间群为R3-,使用六方坐标,晶胞参数α=1.6221(4)nm,c=2.1194(6)nm,并有Z=6.测试结果表明,配合物1为单核结构,中心砷原子为五配位的三角双锥配位构型,此外,在该配合物分子间存在弱的As…S相互作用(As…S 0.3512(4)nm),使得该配合物以弱桥连二聚体存在.在配合物2中,3个配体分别以双齿形式与砷原子配位.形成六配位的畸变三棱柱体结构.

  13. Eutectic(LiCl-KCl) Waste Salt Treatment by Sequential Separation Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sequential separation process, composed of an oxygen sparging process for separating lanthanides and a zone freezing process for separating Group I and II fission products, was evaluated and tested with a surrogate eutectic waste salt generated from pyroprocessing of used metal nuclear fuel. During the oxygen sparging process, the used lanthanide chlorides (Y, Ce, Pr and Nd) were converted into their sat-insoluble precipitates, over 99.5% at 800 .deg. C; however, Group I (Cs) and II (Sr) chlorides were not converted but remained within the eutectic salt bed. In the next process, zone freezing, both precipitation of lanthanide precipitates and concentration of Group I/II elements were preformed. The separation efficiency of Cs and Sr increased with a decrease in the crucible moving speed, and there was little effect of crucible moving speed on the separation efficiency of Cs and Sr in the range of a 3.7 - 4.8 mm/hr. When assuming a 60% eutectic salt reuse rate, over 90% separation efficiency of Cs and Sr is possible, but when increasing the eutectic salt reuse rate to 80%, a separation efficiency of about 82 - 86 % for Cs and Sr was estimated

  14. Eutectic(LiCl-KCl) Waste Salt Treatment by Sequential Separation Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yungzun; Lee, Taekyo; Choi, Junghun; Eun, Heechul; Park, Hwanseo; Park, Geunil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The sequential separation process, composed of an oxygen sparging process for separating lanthanides and a zone freezing process for separating Group I and II fission products, was evaluated and tested with a surrogate eutectic waste salt generated from pyroprocessing of used metal nuclear fuel. During the oxygen sparging process, the used lanthanide chlorides (Y, Ce, Pr and Nd) were converted into their sat-insoluble precipitates, over 99.5% at 800 .deg. C; however, Group I (Cs) and II (Sr) chlorides were not converted but remained within the eutectic salt bed. In the next process, zone freezing, both precipitation of lanthanide precipitates and concentration of Group I/II elements were preformed. The separation efficiency of Cs and Sr increased with a decrease in the crucible moving speed, and there was little effect of crucible moving speed on the separation efficiency of Cs and Sr in the range of a 3.7 - 4.8 mm/hr. When assuming a 60% eutectic salt reuse rate, over 90% separation efficiency of Cs and Sr is possible, but when increasing the eutectic salt reuse rate to 80%, a separation efficiency of about 82 - 86 % for Cs and Sr was estimated.

  15. Coastal salt-marshes in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIAN SHEHU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The salt marshes of Albania comprise a narrow belt along the Adriatic and Ionian Seas. They have been the subject of a range of human activities causing habitat loss. Enclosure for agricultural use, ports and other infrastructure has reduced many salt marshes to a narrow fringe along estuary shores. Salt marshes are important for a range of interests. In particular they support a range of specialist plant communities and associated animals (especially breeding and wintering birds and often have a high nature conservation interest. They rarely exist in isolation and form an integral part of many estuaries, other tidal inlets and bays. The objectives of this study are flora and vegetation of salt marshes. In this study, on the basis of field surveys, is given a phytosociological classification of the Albanian salt marshes vegetation by the European standard methods of phytosociology (Zurich-Montpellier. The salt marsh communities of Albania are poor in endemism and generally similar to relevant vegetation types elsewhere in the Mediterranean. The flora of coastal salt marshes is differentiated into levels according to the plants' individual tolerance of salinity and water table levels. The flora of coastal salt marshes is differentiated into levels according to the plants' individual tolerance of salinity and water table levels. Coastal salt marshes of Albania are offered a number of 62 taxa, extended in 16 diverse families. The most presented families are Chenopodiaceae 24 %, followed by Poaceae and Asteraceae with 11%. Salt marshes are populated by halophytes, plants that can live under saline conditions. Plant species diversity is low, since the flora must be tolerant of salt and anoxic mud substrate [4]. The most common salt marsh plant communities in coastal area of Albania are salt meadows dominated by glasswort (Salicornia europaea, pioneer marsh communities, perennial vegetation of marine saline mud’s mainly composed of scrub such as

  16. Salt splitting using ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, D.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Many radioactive aqueous wastes in the DOE complex have high concentrations of sodium that can negatively affect waste treatment and disposal operations. Sodium can decrease the durability of waste forms such as glass and is the primary contributor to large disposal volumes. Waste treatment processes such as cesium ion exchange, sludge washing, and calcination are made less efficient and more expensive because of the high sodium concentrations. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City UT) are developing an electrochemical salt splitting process based on inorganic ceramic sodium (Na), super-ionic conductor (NaSICON) membranes that shows promise for mitigating the impact of sodium. In this process, the waste is added to the anode compartment, and an electrical potential is applied to the cell. This drives sodium ions through the membrane, but the membrane rejects most other cations (e.g., Sr{sup +2}, Cs{sup +}). The charge balance in the anode compartment is maintained by generating H{sup +} from the electrolysis of water. The charge balance in the cathode is maintained by generating OH{sup {minus}}, either from the electrolysis of water or from oxygen and water using an oxygen cathode. The normal gaseous products of the electrolysis of water are oxygen at the anode and hydrogen at the cathode. Potentially flammable gas mixtures can be prevented by providing adequate volumes of a sweep gas, using an alternative reductant or destruction of the hydrogen as it is generated. As H{sup +} is generated in the anode compartment, the pH drops. The process may be operated with either an alkaline (pH>12) or an acidic anolyte (pH <1). The benefits of salt splitting using ceramic membranes are (1) waste volume reduction and reduced chemical procurement costs by recycling of NaOH; and (2) direct reduction of sodium in process streams, which enhances subsequent operations such as cesium ion exchange, calcination, and vitrification.

  17. Thermoluminescence characteristics of Israeli household salts for retrospective dosimetry in radiological events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druzhyna, S.; Datz, H.; Horowitz, Y. S.; Oster, L.; Orion, I.

    2016-06-01

    Following a nuclear accident or terror attack involving the dispersal of radioactive substances, radiation dose assessment to first responders and the members of the public is essential. The need for a retrospective assessment of the radiation dose to those possibly affected is, therefore, obligatory. The present study examines the potential use of Israeli household salt as a retrospective dosimeter (RD). The experiments were carried out on Israeli salt samples (NaCl) following a Nielsen market track survey based on scanning data representing the barcoded market, including organized and independent retail chains and a sample of private minimarkets and supermarkets. The technique used was thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry. Salt samples were exposed to levels of dose from 0.5 mGy to 300 Gy at the Israeli Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory of the Soreq Nuclear Research Center using a calibrated 137Cs source. Our emphasis has been on a detailed investigation of the basic dosimetric characteristics of the salts including: (i) glow curve analysis (ii) individual glow peak dose response (iii) reproducibility (iv) estimation of minimal measurable dose (v) effect of nitrogen readout, (vi) influence of humidity during pre-irradiation storage and (vii) light induced fading. The results are sufficiently favorable to lead to the conclusion that the Israeli household salts can serve as a pragmatic potential candidate for RD under certain restricted conditions. Occasional pre-calibration of the major salt brands in a dedicated laboratory may be essential depending on the required accuracy in the estimation of dose and consequent clinical evaluation.

  18. Toxic effects induced by salt stress on selected freshwater prokaryotic and eukaryotic microalgal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomé, M C; D'ors, A; Sánchez-Fortún, S

    2009-02-01

    In order to determine the short-term impact induced by salt stress, cultures of Dictyosphaerium chlorelloides and Microcystis aeruginosa were grown in presence of increasing sea-salt concentrations. Growth rate and photosystem II activity in D. chlorelloides, and photosynthetic oxygen production (in both species) were analyzed. A concentration-dependent response was obtained with the presence of sea-salt in culture medium, being M. aeruginosa (EC(50(72)) = 76.6 mM) more sensitive to salt stress than D. chlorelloides (EC(50(72)) = 340.7 mM). However, comparative analysis between growth and Phi(PSII) inhibition in D. chlorelloides shown that there are not significant differences among EC(50(72)) values obtained. An immediate toxic response, induced by increase of sea-salt concentration, has been obtained applying the calculated EC(50(72)) values in both species. These results shown that sea-salt acts as a sensitive and rapid toxic compound in algal cells, and that the sensitivity of M. aeruginosa to salinity stress is much higher than that of D. chlorelloides. PMID:18855137

  19. Salt transport in Songkhla Lake

    OpenAIRE

    Pornpinatepong, S.

    2005-01-01

    Salinity surveys in 1997 revealed that in the dry season salinity in Thale Sap Songkhla, Thale Sap and Thale Luang reached the maximum values of 30, 11 and 5 ppt, respectively. Among the complex system of the lake, Khlong Pak Ro showed a complicate seawater transport with a maximal salinity of 20 ppt. Incomplete mixing with a stratification at a depth of 2-3 m occured. The difference in salinity between the surface and the bottom was about 3 ppt. A vertically-averaged salt transport model was...

  20. 168 Hours Salt Fog Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report explained the test conducted in salt fog chamber to evaluate the effectiveness of mild steel, coated with rust converter, for 168 hours in artificial seawater exposure. The samples were compared with mild steel coated with commercial primer. The tests were conducted followed ASTM B117. Individual pictures were taken of each sample before the tests began, at 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144 and 168 hours to see the progression of the corrosion. Results showed that the samples coated with rust converter provide a good significant protection against corrosion phenomenon than the samples coated with commercial primer that available in the market. (author)

  1. Molten fluoride fuel salt chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemistry of molten fluorides is traced from their development as fuels in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment with important factors in their selection being discussed. Key chemical characteristics such as solubility, redox behavior, and chemical activity are explained as they relate to the behavior of molten fluoride fuel systems. Fission product behavior is described along with processing experience. Development requirements for fitting the current state of the chemistry to modern nuclear fuel system are described. It is concluded that while much is known about molten fluoride behavior, processing and recycle of the fuel components is a necessary factor if future systems are to be established

  2. Synthesis of Chitosan Quaternary Ammonium Salts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A series of N-alkyl or N-aryl chitosan quaternary ammonium salts were prepared via Schiffs base intermediates. Quaternization of N-substituted chitosan derivatives was carried out using methyl iodide to produce water-soluble cationic chitosan quaternary ammonium salt. The products were characterized by IR, 1HNMR and elemental analysis. The degree of substitution of chitosan quaternary ammonium salt was calculated by elemental analysis.

  3. Evaluation of salt content in school meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Alexandra Colaço Lourenço Viegas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: High blood pressure is a major rick factor for cardiovascular disease, and it is closely associated with salt intake. Schools are considered ideal environments to promote health and proper eating habits. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the amount of salt in meals served in school canteens and consumers' perceptions about salt. METHODS: Meals, including all the components (bread, soup, and main dish were retrieved from school canteens. Salt was quantified by a portable salt meter. For food perception we constructed a questionnaire that was administered to high school students. RESULTS: A total of 798 food samples were analysed. Bread had the highest salt content with a mean of 1.35 g/100 g (SD=0.12. Salt in soups ranged from 0.72 g/100 g to 0.80 g/100 g (p=0.05 and, in main courses, from 0.71 g/100 to 0.97 g/100g (p=0.05. The salt content of school meals is high with a mean value of 2.83 to 3.82 g of salt per meal. Moreover, a high percentage of students consider meals neither salty nor bland, which shows they are used to the intensity/amount of salt consumed. CONCLUSION: The salt content of school meals is high, ranging from 2 to 5 times more than the Recommended Dietary Allowances for children, clearly exceeding the needs for this population, which may pose a health risk. Healthy choices are only possible in environments where such choices are possible. Therefore, salt reduction strategies aimed at the food industry and catering services should be implemented, with children and young people targeted as a major priority.

  4. Micellar aggregates and hydrogels from phosphonobile salts

    OpenAIRE

    Babu, Ponnusamy; Chopra, D.; Row, Guru TN; Maitra, Uday

    2005-01-01

    The aggregation properties of novel bile acid analogs-phosphonobile salts (PBS)-have been studied. The critical micellar concentration of 23 and 24-phosphonobile salts were measured using fluorescence and P-31 NMR methods. All the ten synthesized phosphonobile salts formed gels at different pH ranges in water. The pH range at which individual PBSs could gelate water was narrow and influenced by the number and conformation of hydroxyl groups. A reversible thermochromic system has been develope...

  5. Monitoring Change in Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David; Angeroth, Cory; Freeman, Michael; Rowland, Ryan; Carling, Gregory

    2013-08-01

    Great Salt Lake is the largest hypersaline lake in the Western Hemisphere and the fourth largest terminal lake in the world (Figure 1). The open water and adjacent wetlands of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem support millions of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds from throughout the Western Hemisphere [Aldrich and Paul, 2002]. In addition, the area is of important economic value: Brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) residing in Great Salt Lake support an aquaculture shrimp cyst industry with annual revenues as high as $60 million.

  6. Salt taste inhibition by cathodal current

    OpenAIRE

    Hettinger, Thomas P.; Frank, Marion E.

    2009-01-01

    Effects of cathodal current, which draws cations away from the tongue and drives anions toward the tongue, depend on the ionic content of electrolytes through which the current is passed. To address the role of cations and anions in human salt tastes, cathodal currents of −40 to −80 µA were applied to human subjects’ tongues through supra-threshold salt solutions. The salts were sodium chloride, sodium bromide, potassium chloride, ammonium chloride, calcium chloride, sodium nitrate, sodium su...

  7. The effect of organic salts on HPMC

    OpenAIRE

    Mongkolpiyawat, Jiraporn

    2012-01-01

    The presence of organic salts as drug counter-ions and buffers in hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) matrices is often overlooked. This study investigates their potential to influence polymer solution properties and matrix drug release kinetics. A homologous series of aliphatic organic salts influenced solution and matrix properties in rank order of hydrocarbon chain length. Monovalent salts containing 1to4 C-atoms had little effect on polymer surface activity, but lowered sol:gel transit...

  8. Brine Transport Experiments in Granular Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Amy B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-06

    To gain confidence in the predictive capability of numerical models, experimental validation must be performed to ensure that parameters and processes are correctly simulated. The laboratory investigations presented herein aim to address knowledge gaps for heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) disposal in bedded salt that remain after examination of prior field and laboratory test data. Primarily, we are interested in better constraining the thermal, hydrological, and physicochemical behavior of brine, water vapor, and salt when moist salt is heated. The target of this work is to use run-of-mine (RoM) salt; however during FY2015 progress was made using high-purity, granular sodium chloride.

  9. Granular Salt Summary: Reconsolidation Principles and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Frank; Popp, Till; Wieczorek, Klaus; Stuehrenberg, Dieter

    2014-07-01

    The purposes of this paper are to review the vast amount of knowledge concerning crushed salt reconsolidation and its attendant hydraulic properties (i.e., its capability for fluid or gas transport) and to provide a sufficient basis to understand reconsolidation and healing rates under repository conditions. Topics covered include: deformation mechanisms and hydro-mechanical interactions during reconsolidation; the experimental data base pertaining to crushed salt reconsolidation; transport properties of consolidating granulated salt and provides quantitative substantiation of its evolution to characteristics emulating undisturbed rock salt; and extension of microscopic and laboratory observations and data to the applicable field scale.

  10. Helping crops stand up to salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeburn, P.

    1985-05-01

    A new approach to the problem of increasing soil salinity is to raise salt-tolerant plants. The search for such plants involves finding new applications for naturally occurring salt-resistant plants (halophytes), using conventional breeding techniques to identify and strengthen crop varieties known to have better-than-average salt tolerance, and applying recombinant DNA methods to introduce salt resistance into existing plants. One promising plant is salicornia, which produces oil high in polyunsaturates at a greater yield than soybeans. Two varieties of atriplex yield as much animal feed as alfalfa and can be harvested several times a year. Seed companies are supporting the research.

  11. Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Charles Austen; Xu, Wu

    2008-01-01

    Orthoborate salts suitable for use as electrolytes in lithium batteries and methods for making the electrolyte salts are provided. The electrolytic salts have one of the formulae (I). In this formula anionic orthoborate groups are capped with two bidentate chelating groups, Y1 and Y2. Certain preferred chelating groups are dibasic acid residues, most preferably oxalyl, malonyl and succinyl, disulfonic acid residues, sulfoacetic acid residues and halo-substituted alkylenes. The salts are soluble in non-aqueous solvents and polymeric gels and are useful components of lithium batteries in electrochemical devices.

  12. Uninephrectomy in young age or chronic salt loading causes salt-sensitive hypertension in adult rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlström, Mattias; Sällström, Johan; Skøtt, Ole;

    2007-01-01

    renin concentrations during high sodium conditions and hypertrophic kidneys and hearts with various degrees of histopathologic changes. In conclusion, at a young age after completed nephrogenesis, uninephrectomy or chronic salt loading causes renal and cardiovascular injury with salt...

  13. Anion- interactions in layered structures of salts of 5-(hydroxyimino) quinolin-8-one and related salts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prithiviraj Khakhlary; Jubaraj B Baruah

    2015-01-01

    Relevance of anion- interactions in chloride, bromide, nitrate and perchlorate salts of 5-(hydroxyimino)quinolin-8-one are discussed. Structures of nitrate salt of 5-aminoquinoline as well as nitrate salt of 4-hydroxyquinazoline are compared with the structure of nitrate salt of 5-(hydroxyimino)quinolin-8-one. From such a comparison, two different arrangements of nitrate ions with respect to the respective cations are discerned. Nitrate ions are sandwiched between aromatic planes of cations in nitrate salts of 5-(hydroxyimino)quinolin-8-one or 4-hydroxyquinazoline; whereas, nitrate ions are in oblique positions with respect to aromatic planes of counter cations in nitrate salt of 5-aminoquinoline. Binding constants of different nitrate salts in solution are determined by UV-visible spectroscopic titrations. Solution study shows formation of ion-pairs of these salts in solution.

  14. Proposed nomenclature for salt intake and for reductions in dietary salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Norm R C; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Webster, Jacqui; Lackland, Daniel T; Neal, Bruce; MacGregor, Graham A

    2015-04-01

    There is considerable confusion about what ranges of dietary salt(a) could be considered low, normal, or high and also what ranges of reduction in dietary salt are small or large. The World Hypertension League with other organizations involved in dietary salt reduction have proposed a standardized nomenclature based on normal ancestral levels of salt intake and also on ranges of reduction in salt intake in clinical and population interventions. Low daily salt (sodium) intake where harm due to deficiency would be expected to occur is recommended to remain undefined because of inadequate research but likely 10 to 15 g (4000-6000 mg), and extremely high >15 g (6000 mg). Reductions in daily salt (sodium) intake are recommended to be called small if 5.0 g (2000 mg). Use of this nomenclature is likely to result in less confusion about salt intake and interventions to reduce dietary sodium.

  15. A NOVEL PROCESS TO USE SALT CAVERNS TO RECEIVE SHIP BORNE LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael M. McCall; William M. Bishop; Marcus Krekel; James F. Davis; D. Braxton Scherz

    2005-05-31

    delivery capacity, shorter construction time, and be much more secure than a conventional liquid tank based terminal. Operating costs of a salt cavern terminal are lower than tank based terminals because ''boil off'' is eliminated and maintenance costs of caverns are lower than LNG tanks. Phase II included the development of offshore mooring designs, wave tank tests, high pressure LNG pump field tests, heat exchanger field tests, and development of a model offshore LNG facility and cavern design. Engineers designed a model facility, prepared equipment lists, and confirmed capital and operating costs. In addition, vendors quoted fabrication and installation costs, confirming that an offshore salt cavern based LNG terminal would have lower capital and operating costs than a similarly sized offshore tank based terminal. Salt cavern storage is infinitely more secure than surface storage tanks, far less susceptible to accidents or purposeful damage, and much more acceptable to the community. More than thirty industry participants provided cost sharing, technical expertise, and guidance in the conduct and evaluation of the field tests, facility design and operating and cost estimates. Their close participation has accelerated the industry's acceptance of the conclusions of this research. The industry participants also developed and submitted several alternative designs for offshore mooring and for high pressure LNG heat exchangers in addition to those that were field tested in this project. HNG Storage, a developer, owner, and operator of natural gas storage facilities, and a participant in the DOE research has announced they will lead the development of the first offshore salt cavern based LNG import facility. Which will be called the Freedom LNG Terminal. It will be located offshore Louisiana, and is expected to be jointly developed with other members of the research group yet to be named. An offshore port license application is scheduled to be filed

  16. Clopidogrel Salts - Pharmacokinetic, Pharmakodynamic and Clinical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius H

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Clopidogrelhydrogensulfat – Pharmakokinetische, pharmakodynamische und klinische Aspekte. Clopidogrelhydrogensulfat spielt eine zentrale Rolle als Thrombozytenfunktionshemmer in der interventionellen Kardiologie und in der Sekundärprävention ischämischer Ereignisse bei Patienten mit Herzinfarkt, Schlaganfall oder peripherer arterieller Verschlusskrankheit (PAVK. Im Vergleich zum Standard Acetylsalicylsäure (ASS wurde ein zusätzlicher Nutzen für die Monotherapie mit Clopidogrelhydrogensulfat bei Patienten mit PAVK gezeigt. Auf der Basis einer Bioäquivalenz( kinetikstudie zur inaktiven Mutter- 􀂄 Background The thienopyridine clopidogrel hydrogen sulfate is a platelet inhibitor that has been on the market since 1998 (trade names: Plavix [1], Iscover. Whereas acetylsalicylic acid (ASA reduces platelet aggregation, capability to aggregate and secrete by irreversible inhibition of thromboxane synthesis, clopidogrel acts in a different way, by irreversibly blocking the adenosine receptor. The substance clopidogrel hydrogen sulfate was examined in a variety of experimental and clinical studies. A recent Medline search revealed nearly 600 published clinical studies on clopidogrel hydrogen sulfate. Among them are comprehensive endpoint studies such as CAPRIE [2], CURE [3], MATCH [4], CHARISMA [5], or PRoFeSS [6], TRITON TIMI-38 [7] and ACTIVE-A [8], being the largest of their kind. A number of experimental results from investigations of platelet function and clinical studies indicate superior efficacy of clopidogrel hydrogen sulfate compared to ASA and for clopidogrel HS plus ASA compared with ASA alone [9]. All the mentioned studies were performed with clopidogrel hydrogen sulfate. This clopidogrel compound is approved for secondary prophylaxis of atherothrombotic events. Clopidogrel hydrogen sulfate in combination with ASA is additionally approved for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome (ACS with and without ST segment elevation

  17. Crystal growth in salt efflorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, Konrad; Arnold, Andreas

    1989-09-01

    Salt efflorescences strongly affect wall paintings and other monuments. The external factors governing the crystal habits and aggregate forms are studied phenomenologically in laboratory experiments. As salt contaminated materials dry, slats crystallize forming distinct sequences of crystal habits and aggregate forms on and underneath the surfaces. Four phases may be distinguished: (1) Large individual crystals with equilibrium forms grow immersed in a thick solution film; (2) granular crusts of small isometric crystals grow covered by a thin solution film; (3) fibrous crusts of columnar crystals grow from a coherent but thin solution film so that the crystals are in contact with solution only at their base; (4) whiskers grow from isolated spots of very thin solution films into the air. The main factor governing these morphologies is the humidity of the substrate. A porous material cracks while granular crystals (approaching their equilibrium forms) grow within the large pores. As the fissures widen, the habits pass into columnar crystals and then into whiskers. Because this succession corresponds to the crystallization sequence on the substrate surface it can be traced back to the same growth conditions.

  18. Cleavage of recombinant proteins at poly-His sequences by Co(II) and Cu(II)

    OpenAIRE

    Andberg, Martina; Jäntti, Jussi; Heilimo, Sara; Pihkala, Päivi; Paananen, Arja; Koskinen, Ari M P; Söderlund, Hans; Linder, Markus B

    2007-01-01

    Improved ways to cleave peptide chains at engineered sites easily and specifically would form useful tools for biochemical research. Uses of such methods include the activation or inactivation of enzymes or the removal of tags for enhancement of recombinant protein expression or tags used for purification of recombinant proteins. In this work we show by gel electrophoresis and mass spectroscopy that salts of Co(II) and Cu(II) can be used to cleave fusion proteins specifically at sites where s...

  19. ERG review of salt constitutive law, salt stress determinations, and salt corrosion and modeling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Engineering Review Group (ERG) was established by the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) to help evaluate engineering-related issues in the US Department of Energy's nuclear waste repository program. The August 1983 meeting of the ERG reviewed a RE/SPEC technical report containing a review of eight constitutive laws that have been proposed to model the creep of salt over the ranges of stress and temperature anticipated in a nuclear repository. This report documents the ERG's comments and recommendations on this subject and the ONWI responses to the specific points raised by the ERG

  20. Differential regulation of renal cyclooxygenase mRNA by dietary salt intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B L; Kurtz, A

    1997-01-01

    Experiments were done to investigate the influence of dietary salt intake on renal cyclooxygenase (COX) I and II mRNA levels. To this end rats were fed either a low NaCl diet (LS; 0.02% NaCl wt/wt) or a high NaCl diet (HS diet; 4% NaCl wt/wt) for 5, 10 and 20 days. After 10 days Na excretion...... differed 760-fold, plasma renin activity and renin mRNA were increased eight- and threefold in LS compared to HS animals. Total renal COX I mRNA decreased 50% following the LS diet and did not change after the HS diet. Conversely, COX II mRNA declined after HS intake and transiently increased after salt...... depletion. COX I and II mRNAs were unevenly distributed along the cortical-medullary axis with ratios of the cortex:outer medulla:papilla of 1:3:23 and 1:1:2, respectively. Cortical COX mRNAs were inversely regulated by salt intake with eightfold changes in COX II. Conversely, in medullary zones, COX I m...

  1. In vitro selection of induced mutants to salt-tolerance: Inducible gene regulation for salt tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A selection protocol to obtain salt tolerant calli, followed by regeneration and progeny-test of the regenerated plants for salt tolerance in rice was investigated. Callus cultures were initiated from salt-sensitive US elite rice lines and cv. 'Pokkali'. Salt-tolerant cell lines were selected from these by a single step selection procedure. The selected salt-tolerant lines grew well on medium with ± 0.5% or 1% NaCl, while the parent lines occasionally survived, but did not grow at these salt concentrations. Plants were regenerated from these cell lines through different passages on medium containing salt. Seed was collected from the regenerated plants and salt tolerance of R2 seedlings was compared with those regenerated without salt selection. Salt-tolerance was measured by survival and productive growth of newly germinated seedlings in Hoagland solution with 0.3% and 0.5% NaCl for 4 weeks. Heritable improvement in salt tolerance was obtained in R2 seedlings from one plant regenerated after 5 months selection. Survival and growth of these seedlings was equivalent to that from 'Pokkali' seedlings. These results show that cellular tolerance can provide salt-tolerance in rice plants. (author). 6 refs, 2 tabs

  2. Magnesium and nickel(II) furan-2,5-dicarboxylate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schau-Magnussen, Magnus; Gorbanev, Yury; Kegnæs, Søren;

    2011-01-01

    The salts hexaaquamagnesium furan-2,5-dicarboxylate, [Mg(H2O)(6)](C6H2O5), (I), and hexaaquanickel furan-2,5-dicarboxylate, [Ni(H2O)(6)](C6H2O5), (II), provide the first crystallographic characterization of the furan-2,5-dicarboxylate dianion. Both structures exhibit extensive three-dimensional h...

  3. Auto relato de situações constrangedoras no trabalho e assédio moral nos bancários: uma fotografia Self report of negative acts bullying in work situations among bank employees: a photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Heloisa Maciel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As definições existentes do assédio moral no trabalho, apesar de ainda não haver um consenso, apontam para a ocorrência de atos negativos ou situações constrangedoras no trabalho que perdurem por um certo período de tempo e freqüência e onde a vítima se sinta intimidada. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar e analisar a ocorrência de situações constrangedoras no trabalho, relatadas por bancários brasileiros. O método consistiu na aplicação de um questionário em 2609 bancários. 33,89% da amostra relata ter sido exposta a pelo menos uma das situações constrangedoras apresentadas no questionário. Quando se considera o período de exposição de seis meses e freqüência semanal, 7,97% da amostra relata ter sido assediada. Além disso, as mulheres e o grupo de homo ou bissexuais relatam terem sido assediadas com maior freqüência. Esses resultados mostram que os bancários brasileiros estão expostos ao assédio moral com uma taxa similar às encontradas em estudos europeus.The actual definition of bullying at work, although not a consensus, focuses on the occurrence of negative acts or constraining situations in the workplace, that lasts for a certain period of time; occurring on a weekly basis; and the victim feels intimidated. The objective of this work was to identify and analyze the occurrence of constraining situations, self-reported by Brazilian bank employees. A questionnaire was applied in 2609 bank employees. 33,89% of the sample reported at least one of the constraining situations presented in the questionnaire. When a period of exposition of six months and weekly frequency are taken into consideration, 7,97% of the sample reported bullying. Besides, the women and the homo or bisexual group reported bullying with a higher frequency than the other groups. Those results show that the Brazilian bank employees are exposed to bullying at work with a frequency similar to those found in European studies.

  4. Neuroendocrine regulation of salt and water metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. McCann

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurons which release atrial natriuretic peptide (ANPergic neurons have their cell bodies in the paraventricular nucleus and in a region extending rostrally and ventrally to the anteroventral third ventricular (AV3V region with axons which project to the median eminence and neural lobe of the pituitary gland. These neurons act to inhibit water and salt intake by blocking the action of angiotensin II. They also act, after their release into hypophyseal portal vessels, to inhibit stress-induced ACTH release, to augment prolactin release, and to inhibit the release of LHRH and growth hormone-releasing hormone. Stimulation of neurons in the AV3V region causes natriuresis and an increase in circulating ANP, whereas lesions in the AV3V region and caudally in the median eminence or neural lobe decrease resting ANP release and the response to blood volume expansion. The ANP neurons play a crucial role in blood volume expansion-induced release of ANP and natriuresis since this response can be blocked by intraventricular (3V injection of antisera directed against the peptide. Blood volume expansion activates baroreceptor input via the carotid, aortic and renal baroreceptors, which provides stimulation of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus and possibly also serotonergic neurons in the raphe nuclei. These project to the hypothalamus to activate cholinergic neurons which then stimulate the ANPergic neurons. The ANP neurons stimulate the oxytocinergic neurons in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei to release oxytocin from the neural lobe which circulates to the atria to stimulate the release of ANP. ANP causes a rapid reduction in effective circulating blood volume by releasing cyclic GMP which dilates peripheral vessels and also acts within the heart to slow its rate and atrial force of contraction. The released ANP circulates to the kidney where it acts through cyclic GMP to produce natriuresis and a return to normal blood volume

  5. Modeling and Field Test Planning Activities in Support of Disposal of Heat-Generating Waste in Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Blanco Martin, Laura; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

    2014-09-26

    The modeling efforts in support of the field test planning conducted at LBNL leverage on recent developments of tools for modeling coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in salt and their effect on brine migration at high temperatures. This work includes development related to, and implementation of, essential capabilities, as well as testing the model against relevant information and published experimental data related to the fate and transport of water. These are modeling capabilities that will be suitable for assisting in the design of field experiment, especially related to multiphase flow processes coupled with mechanical deformations, at high temperature. In this report, we first examine previous generic repository modeling results, focusing on the first 20 years to investigate the expected evolution of the different processes that could be monitored in a full-scale heater experiment, and then present new results from ongoing modeling of the Thermal Simulation for Drift Emplacement (TSDE) experiment, a heater experiment on the in-drift emplacement concept at the Asse Mine, Germany, and provide an update on the ongoing model developments for modeling brine migration. LBNL also supported field test planning activities via contributions to and technical review of framework documents and test plans, as well as participation in workshops associated with field test planning.

  6. Stacking and Analysis of Melamine in Milk Products with Acetonitrile-Salt Stacking Technique in Capillary Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Kong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Melamine was measured in real milk products with capillary electrophoresis (CE based on acetonitrile-salt stacking (ASS method. Real milk samples were deproteinized with acetonitrile at a final concentration of 60% (v/v and then injected hydrodynamically at 50 mBar for 40.0 s. The optimized buffer contains 80.0 mmol/L pH 2.8 phosphates. Melamine could be detected within 20.0 min at +10 kV with a low limit of detection (LOD of 0.03 μmol/L. Satisfactory reproducibility (inter- and intraday RSD% both for migration time and peak area was lower than 5.0% and a wide linearity range of 0.05 μmol/L ~ 10.0 μmol/L were achieved. The proposed method was suitable for routine assay of MEL in real milk samples that was subjected to a simple treatment step.

  7. Metal Production by Molten Salt Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grjotheim, K.; Kvande, H.; Qingfeng, Li;

    Chemistry and electrochemistry of molten salts are reviewed. Technological aspects of electrolytic production of aluminium, magnesium, and other metals are comprehensively surveyed.......Chemistry and electrochemistry of molten salts are reviewed. Technological aspects of electrolytic production of aluminium, magnesium, and other metals are comprehensively surveyed....

  8. Mined salt storage feasibility: Engineering study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study addresses a method of eliminating the surface storage of mined salt at the Deaf Smith repository site. It provides rough estimates of the logistics and costs of transporting 3.7 million tons of salt from the repository to the salt disposal site near Carlsbad, New Mexico and returning it to the repository for decommissioning backfill. The study assumes that a railcar/truck system will be installed and that the excavated salt will be transported from the repository to an existing potash mine located near Carlsbad, New Mexico approximately 300 miles from the repository. The 3.7 million tons of salt required for repository decommissioning backfill can be stored in the potash mines along with the excess salt, with no additional capital costs required for either a railcar or a truck transportation system. The capital cost for facilities to reclaim the 3.7 million tons of salt from the potash mine is estimated to be $4,400,000 with either a rail or truck transportation system. Segregating the 3.7 million tons of backfill salt in a surface storage area at the potash mine requires a capital cost of $13,900,000 with a rail system or $11,400,000 with a truck system. Transportation costs are estimated at $0.08/ton-mile for rail and $0.13/ton-mile for truck. 2 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Influence of thiazide on salt hypertension. [Chlorothiazide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwai, J.; Ohanian, E.V.; Dahl, L.K.

    1977-05-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of chronic diuretic therapy with chlorothiazide on the course of salt hypertension in hypertension-resistant (R) and hypertension-sensitive (S) strains of rats. Investigation of the effects of chlorothiazide on blood pressure, 24-hour urinary /sup 24/Na and aldosterone excretion, and plasma renin activity (PRA) produced the following observations: (1) Chlorothiazide failed to prevent the development of salt hypertension in S rats. (2) After 12 weeks, S rats on high salt plus chlorothiazide exhibited a rapid fall in blood pressure to levels indistinguishable from those of S rats on low salt. (3) Chlorothiazide significantly increased urinary /sup 24/Na excretion only in S rats on high salt (P < 0.01). (4) Chlorothiazide significantly increased PRA and urinary aldosterone excretion in both strains on low or high salt diets (P < 0.001). (5) Morbidity and mortality of salt hypertension were alleviated by chlorothiazide treatment. The unique aspect of this study is the finding that chlorothiazide did not abolish the hypertensinogenic action of salt in S rats.

  10. Metal salt catalysts for enhancing hydrogen spillover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ralph T; Wang, Yuhe

    2013-04-23

    A composition for hydrogen storage includes a receptor, a hydrogen dissociating metal doped on the receptor, and a metal salt doped on the receptor. The hydrogen dissociating metal is configured to spill over hydrogen to the receptor, and the metal salt is configured to increase a rate of the spill over of the hydrogen to the receptor.

  11. Nonlinear Analysis of Cavities in Rock Salt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, N. S.; Krenk, Steen

    1979-01-01

    The paper covers some material and computational aspects of the rock mechanics of leached cavities in salt. A material model is presented in which the instantaneous stiffness of the salt is obtained by interpolation between the unloaded state and a relevant failure state. The model enables...

  12. Salt contamination assessment and remediation guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental impacts associated with excess salt in oil and surface water or groundwater (a frequent occurrence in oil and gas production) may be manifested as degradation of soil chemical or physical properties, impaired vegetable growth and degraded surface or groundwater quality. Spill prevention is by far the most effective and most efficient way of avoiding these adverse effects and the attendant remediation costs. However, when spills do occur effective response, based on a comprehensive understanding of impacts, salt movements and remediation procedures can mitigate the adverse environmental effects. This guide is designed to assist those involved in the prevention, assessment, remediation and management of salt-contaminated sites. It summarizes the regulatory requirements in Alberta, including salt remediation objectives, and provides an overview of salt spill problems and effective site assessment and remediation procedures. Background information on the sources of salt, the movement of salt in soil and groundwater, and the adverse effects of salt on soil, vegetation and groundwater is provided in an appendix attached to the Guide. A selected bibliography and a glossary of terms are also included. 42 refs., tabs., figs

  13. Nitrate Salt Surrogate Blending Scoping Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-13

    Test blending equipment identified in the “Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing”. Determine if the equipment will provide adequate mixing of zeolite and surrogate salt/Swheat stream; optimize equipment type and operational sequencing; impact of baffles and inserts on mixing performance; and means of validating mixing performance

  14. Public health impact of salt reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.

    2015-01-01

    The health and economic burden related to cardiovascular diseases is substantial and prevention of these diseases remains a challenge. There is convincing evidence that high salt intake affects blood pressure and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. As salt intake is far above the recommended maximu

  15. Salt-induced effects on some key morpho-physiological attributes of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. at various growth stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huma Lubna Shaheen and Muhammad Shahbaz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is a multidimensional stress affecting crop yield and productivity at various levels of plant organization. To assess salt induced adverse effects on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L., ten cultivars were grown in sand culture supplemented with full strength Hoagland’s nutrients solutions and different salt concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 200 mM NaCl. Salt stress markedly reduced growth attributes, relative water contents, efficiency of photosystem II, net CO2 assimilation rate (A, transpiration rate (E and stomatal conductance in all cultivars. Reduction was maximum at the highest level of salt stress i.e. 200 mM. However, response of cotton cultivars was variable to various levels of salinity and even at various developmental stages. Cultivars RH-510, BH-118 and MNH-770 were ranked as relatively salt tolerant on the basis of their better growth performance and net CO2 assimilation rate whereas cvs. CIM-496, CIM-473 and FH-901 were relatively salt sensitive. Cultivars RH-510, BH-118 and MNH-770 exhibited high shoot fresh and dry weights, photosynthetic rate (A, and Photosystem II (Fv/Fm efficiency at both seedling and maturity growth stages. Results suggest that selection of plants having high photosynthetic rate and biomass at seedling stage may be a good source of high yield at mature stage of growth.

  16. Salt disposal effects found small

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Brine discharges into the Gulf of Mexico averaging more than 600,000 barrels per day for the past year have had ‘few significant effects‘ on the marine environment off the Texas coast, according to a preliminary analysis by scientists and engineers at the Texas A&M University. The brine, 8 times saltier than the surrounding seawater, is produced when salt from underground deposits on shore is dissolved and pumped into the Gulf as part of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program.Lead by Roy Hann, Jr., of the Texas Engineering Experiment Station, the team is analyzing discharge from Bryan Mound at Freeport, Tex., and from the West Hackberry site near Cameron, La. After a year of discharge off Freeport, the researchers found ‘no brine-caused differences in sediment temperatures and bottom-water dissolved-oxygen levels which accompany increased salinity,’ Hann said. In addition, overall compositions of fish and shrimp remained stable.

  17. Titanium for salt water service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium has potential as major material of construction in desalination plants, in condensers and heat exchangers, in view of its excellent corrosion resistance to salt water upto at least 120deg C. The advantages of titanium in such applications are brought out. The various specific problems such as pitting, crevice and galvanic corrosion and the preventive methods, for adopting titanium have been discussed. The hydriding problem can be overcome by suitably controlling the operating parameters such as temperature and surface preparation. A case has been made to prove the economic viability of titanium in comparison to Al-brass and Cu-Ni alloy. The future of titanium seems to be very promising in view of the negligible tube failures and outages. (auth.)

  18. Model calculations to formation of salt deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is a contribution from the geophysical side and its target is to explain the formation of long stretched salt deposits - salt walls - in a better manner than has been done sofar using model calculations. A few works have already been dedicated to this subject (they are treated in chapter 5). They all have the disadvantage however in not being able to represent the time sequence of the salt deposit generations. Precisely the latter is achieved in this work by including assumed initial interference. The values for the salt wall distance and its growth rate are improved upon. The Schleswig-Holstein salt deposit is taken as example. The model calculations are supported by model experiments. (orig.)

  19. Alternative methods of salt disposal at the seven salt sites for a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study discusses the various alternative salt management techniques for the disposal of excess mined salt at seven potentially acceptable nuclear waste repository sites: Deaf Smith and Swisher Counties, Texas; Richton and Cypress Creek Domes, Mississippi; Vacherie Dome, Louisiana; and Davis and Lavender Canyons, Utah. Because the repository development involves the underground excavation of corridors and waste emplacement rooms, in either bedded or domed salt formations, excess salt will be mined and must be disposed of offsite. The salt disposal alternatives examined for all the sites include commercial use, ocean disposal, deep well injection, landfill disposal, and underground mine disposal. These alternatives (and other site-specific disposal methods) are reviewed, using estimated amounts of excavated, backfilled, and excess salt. Methods of transporting the excess salt are discussed, along with possible impacts of each disposal method and potential regulatory requirements. A preferred method of disposal is recommended for each potentially acceptable repository site. 14 refs., 5 tabs

  20. Tshuktshid II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülo Siimets

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1971 while author was a reindeer herder and following a herd of reindeer through Tshukotka, he was forced to live and eat in the manner of locals.The chapter entitled «What's there to eat» describes the eating habits of the Chukchi herders and the peculiarities of their dishes. The main food was underdone or raw meat with no salt, and strong tea without sugar. At times we also ate mutton and bear meat and different fish. Fish was either raw, half-cooked or half-roasted. Underdone meat was eaten to prevent scurvy, while raw eyes and brain were considered a delicacy offered first to the guests and children. Parallels are drawn also between the will-will of the Chukchi and the Swedish sour herring surströmming.The chapter «Arrival» recalls our arrival at Vaeg and first impressions of local situation. It describes the clothes and customs of native people and revive the Georg Forster's meeting of the Chukchi that took place on August 10, 1778. Local girls tell us stories about the shaman and his strong power, which might even cause disasters.The chapter entitled «More on shamans and the establishing of Soviet rule» describes the events related to October Revolution and the arrival of its instigators at Tshukotka. The chapter mentions several figures connected to the struggle for power. It also provides a brief overview of the subjugation of the in-land Chukchi in 1949 and describes the horrors of the war. The chapter touches the activities of a combat tank team in a small German town during the seize of Germany.It is followed by our first meeting with the local shaman.A Chukchi shipmaster called Innokenti retells his grandfather's story of how in his youth a shaman saved the inhabitant of two villages from hunger by offering them mammoth meat, and gives advice what to do when one comes across mammoth fangs.

  1. Biotic interactions mediate the expansion of black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) into salt marshes under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongyu; Zhang, Yihui; Lan, Zhenjiang; Pennings, Steven C

    2013-09-01

    Many species are expanding their distributions to higher latitudes due to global warming. Understanding the mechanisms underlying these distribution shifts is critical for better understanding the impacts of climate changes. The climate envelope approach is widely used to model and predict species distribution shifts with changing climates. Biotic interactions between species, however, may also influence species distributions, and a better understanding of biotic interactions could improve predictions based solely on climate envelope models. Along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast, USA, subtropical black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) at the northern limit of its distribution grows sympatrically with temperate salt marsh plants in Florida, Louisiana, and Texas. In recent decades, freeze-free winters have led to an expansion of black mangrove into salt marshes. We examined how biotic interactions between black mangrove and salt marsh vegetation along the Texas coast varied across (i) a latitudinal gradient (associated with a winter-temperature gradient); (ii) the elevational gradient within each marsh (which creates different marsh habitats); and (iii) different life history stages of black mangroves (seedlings vs. juvenile trees). Each of these variables affected the strength or nature of biotic interactions between black mangrove and salt marsh vegetation: (i) Salt marsh vegetation facilitated black mangrove seedlings at their high-latitude distribution limit, but inhibited black mangrove seedlings at lower latitudes; (ii) mangroves performed well at intermediate elevations, but grew and survived poorly in high- and low-marsh habitats; and (iii) the effect of salt marsh vegetation on black mangroves switched from negative to neutral as black mangroves grew from seedlings into juvenile trees. These results indicate that the expansion of black mangroves is mediated by complex biotic interactions. A better understanding of the impacts of climate change on ecological

  2. Triassic to recent tectonic evolution of a crestal collapse graben above a salt-cored anticline in the Glückstadt Graben/North German Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hseinat, M.; Hübscher, C.; Lang, J.; Lüdmann, T.; Ott, I.; Polom, U.

    2016-06-01

    In this study we investigate faulting above a salt wall in the Glückstadt Graben/North German Basin. Two supra-salt faults are mapped from coast to coast over a distance of 6-9 km based on offshore and onshore seismic data. These faults form a ca. 2 km wide crestal collapse graben and pierce the seafloor. Salt wall evolution started in the early Late Triassic to Early Jurassic due to regional extension and resulting sub-salt faulting. The salt wall was eroded following exposure to costal and sub-aerial erosion by the regional Mid-Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous uplift. Late Cretaceous to Early Paleogene compressional tectonics reactivated the vertical salt movement and shortened the salt wall, creating a salt-cored anticline with the crestal collapse graben above. The supra-salt faults were reactivated between the Late Eocene and Middle Miocene when the principal horizontal stress orientation changed from a NE-SW to a NW-SE, the present-day orientation. Stratigraphic data indicate that these faults moved mainly in the Cenozoic. Several observations strongly suggest that the faults continued developing during the Pleistocene until today: (i) the Pleistocene Unconformity is concave upwards and cut by faults; (ii) growth strata within the marine Holocene deposits above the graben imply recent tectonic movements; (iii) onshore high-resolution P-wave vibroseis data of the south-eastern Eckernförde Bay suggest about 10 m of faulted Holocene strata; and (iv) marine seismic data show the faults piercing the seafloor. We suggest that the recent salt tectonics and upward propagation of supra-salt faults resulted from differential ice-sheet loading. That effect on the salt wall stopped once ice grew over the whole structure, at which time the wall subsided because of ice loading. The salt wall and faults were reactivated again once the ice front retreated so that the ice loaded only one side of the structure.

  3. Temperature studies of optical parameters of (Ag3AsS3)0.6(As2S3)0.4 thin films prepared by rapid thermal evaporation and pulse laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studenyak, I. P.; Kutsyk, M. M.; Buchuk, M. Yu.; Rati, Y. Y.; Neimet, Yu. Yu.; Izai, V. Yu.; Kökényesi, S.; Nemec, P.

    2016-02-01

    (Ag3AsS3)0.6(As2S3)0.4 thin films were deposited using rapid thermal evaporation (RTE) and pulse laser deposition (PLD) techniques. Ag-enriched micrometre-sized cones (RTE) and bubbles (PLD) were observed on the thin film surface. Optical transmission spectra of the thin films were studied in the temperature range 77-300 K. The Urbach behaviour of the optical absorption edge in the thin films due to strong electron-phonon interaction was observed, the main parameters of the Urbach absorption edge were determined. Temperature dependences of the energy position of the exponential absorption edge and the Urbach energy are well described in the Einstein model. Dispersion and temperature dependences of refractive indices were analysed; a non-linear increase of the refractive indices with temperature was revealed. Disordering processes in the thin films were studied and compared with bulk composites, the differences between the thin films prepared by RTE and PLD were analysed.

  4. Dimethylammonium tetraaqua(hydrogensulfatosulfatocuprate(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Held

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title salt, [(CH32NH2][Cu(HSO4(SO4(H2O4], one type of cation and anion is present in the asymmetric unit. The CuII atom in the complex anion, [Cu(HSO4(SO4(H2O4]−, has a tetragonal bipyramidal [4 + 2] coordination caused by a Jahn–Teller distortion, with the aqua ligands in equatorial and two O atoms of tetrahedral HSO4 and SO4 units in apical positions. Both types of ions form sheets parallel to (010. The interconnection within and between the sheets is reinforced by O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen bonds, respectively, involving the water molecules, the two types of sulfate anions and the ammonium groups.

  5. Thermodynamic investigation of fluoride salts for nuclear energy production

    OpenAIRE

    Beilmann, Markus

    2013-01-01

    In this work thermodynamic properties of molten fluoride salts and salt mixtures are investigated. Fluoride salts have advantageous properties to be used in energy producing systems based on the conversion from heat to energy like i.e in Molten Salt Reactors. For this purpose it is very important to have detailed information about the heat capacity of the pure salts and salt mixtures. To get a better understanding about the heat capacity in mixtures drop calorimetry measurements of mixture...

  6. Evaluation of dried salted pork ham and neck quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Kunová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was analysed chemical and physical parameters of dried salted pork ham and neck. Dry-cured meat is a traditional dry-cured product obtained after 12 - 24 months of ripening under controlled environmental conditions.  Ham and neck was salted by nitrite salt mixture during 1 week. Salted meat products were dried at 4 °C and relative humidity 85% 1 week after salting. The quality of dry-cured meat is influenced by the processing technology, for example length of drying and ripening period. The average moisture of dried salted pork ham was 63.77% and dried salted pork neck was 59.26%. The protein content was 24.87% in dried salted pork ham and significantly lower (20.51% in dried salted pork neck. The value of intramuscular fat in dried salted pork ham was 4.97% and 14.40% in dried salted pork neck. The salt content was 5.39% in dried salted pork ham and 4.83% in dried salted pork neck. The cholesterol content was 1.36 g.kg-1 in dried salted pork ham and significant lower in dried salted pork neck (0.60 g.kg-1. The value of lightness was 44.36 CIE L* in dried salted pork ham and significantly lower in dried salted pork neck (40.74 CIE L*. The pH value was 5.84 in dried salted pork ham and 5.80 in dried salted pork neck. The shear work was 9.99 kg.s-1 in dried salted pork ham and 6.34 in dried salted pork neck. The value of water activity (aw was 0.929 in dried salted pork ham and similar 0.921 in dried salted pork neck. 

  7. Removal of phosphorus from wastewaters using ferrous salts - a pilot scale membrane bioreactor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Tng, K Han; Wu, Hao; Leslie, Greg; Waite, T David

    2014-06-15

    A pilot scale membrane bioreactor (3.7 m(3)/day capacity), configured for alternate point ferrous sulphate addition, was evaluated in a fourteen month trial to comply with an effluent discharge requirement of less than 0.15 mg-P/L at the 50(th) percentile and less than 0.30 mg-P/L at the 90th percentile. Ferrous sulphate was added at a molar ratio (Fe(II):PO4) of 2.99 in the filtration chamber for 85 days and 2.60 in the primary anoxic zone for 111 days. Addition of ferrous salts to the anoxic zone achieved a final effluent phosphorous concentration (mg-P/L) of ferrous salts in the filtration zone achieved ferrous salts were added to the membrane zone while the reactor behaved close to a completely mixed reactor when dosing to the primary anoxic zone, resulting in improved phosphorus removal. The addition of ferrous salt was also found to delay the onset of severe increase in trans-membrane pressure as a result of the removal of macro-molecules. However, detailed analysis of the form and concentration of iron species in the supernatant and permeate indicated that the presence of fine iron particles resulted in a higher fouling rate when Fe(II) was added to the membrane zone rather than the primary anoxic zone and could cause more severe irreversible fouling in long-term operation. PMID:24709534

  8. Assessment of drug salt release from solutions, suspensions and in situ suspensions using a rotating dialysis cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parshad, Henrik; Frydenvang, Karla; Liljefors, Tommy;

    2003-01-01

    A rotating dialysis cell consisting of a small (10 ml) and a large compartment (1000 ml) was used to study the release of drug salt (bupivacaine 9-anthracene carboxylate) from (i). solutions, (ii). suspensions and (iii). in situ formed suspensions. Initial release experiments from suspensions...

  9. Different combination of drugs regarding the damage on organs targeting salt sensitivity or non-salt-sensitive hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴琪

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the damage on organs from salt sensitivity hypertension or non-salt-sensitive hypertension and the selection of drug combination.Methods 120 hypertensive patients including 60 cases salt-sensitive(SS)

  10. Site characterization plan: Gulf Coast salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for developing technology and providing facilities for safe, environmentally acceptable, permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation has been intensively investigating Gulf Coast Salt Dome Basin salt domes and bedded salt in Texas and Utah since 1978. In the Gulf Coast, the application of screening criteria in the region phase led to selection of eight domes for further study in the location phase. Further screening in the area phase identified four domes for more intensive study in the location phase: Oakwood Dome, Texas; Vacherie Dome, Louisiana; and Richton Dome and Cypress Creek Dome, Mississippi. For each dome, this Site Characterization Plan identifies specific hydrologic, geologic, tectonic, geochemical, and environmental key issues that are related to the DOE/NWTS screening criteria or affect the feasibility of constructing an exploratory shaft. The Site Characterization Plan outlines studies need to: (1) resolve issues sufficiently to allow one or more salt domes to be selected and compared to bedded salt sites in order to determine a prime salt site for an exploratory shaft; (2) conduct issue-related studies to provide a higher level of confidence that the preferred salt dome site is viable for construction of an exploratory shaft; and (3) provide a vehicle for state input to issues. Extensive references, 7 figures, 20 tables

  11. Synthesis and properties of acetamidinium salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalový Zdeněk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acetamidines are starting materials for synthesizing many chemical substances, such as imidazoles, pyrimidines and triazines, which are further used for biochemically active compounds as well as energetic materials. The aim of this study was to synthesise and characterise a range of acetamidinium salts in order to overcome the inconvenience connected with acetamidinium chloride, which is the only commercially available acetamidinium salt. Results Acetamidinium salts were synthesised and characterised by elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, NMR and - in the case of energetic salts - DTA. The structures of previously unknown acetamidinium salts were established by X-ray diffraction analysis. Hygroscopicities in 90% humidity of eight acetamidinium salts were evaluated. Conclusions The different values of hygroscopicity are corroborated by the structures determined by X-ray analysis. The acetamidinium salts with 2D layered structures (acetamidinium nitrate, formate, oxalate and dinitromethanide show a lack of hygroscopicity, and the compounds with 3D type of structure (acetamidinium chloride, acetate, sulphate and perchlorate and possessing rather large cavities are quite hygroscopic.

  12. Dynamics of salt diffusion and yield of three types of goat's milk cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Srbinovska

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the dynamics of salt diffusion during the ageing ofthree types of cheese from goat's milk: Mozzarella, White Brined andPecorino. The salt concentration was consistently analyzed at the 72nd hour and on the 5th, 10th, 20th, 40th, 50th, 60th and 90th day of the cheese ageing period. The distribution of salt in the three layers of cheese – inner (I, middle (II and outer (III was also studied. The salt equilibration in the cheese mass of Mozzarella occurred on the 15th day, in the White Brined - on the 60th day,whereas in Pecorino the content of salt even on the 90th day was by 1% lower, in the inner layer than in the two other layers of this cheese. The utilization rate of dry matter was 52.17% in Mozzarella, 50.64% in the White Brined and 48.32% in Pecorino. Accordingly, the yield of Mozzarella is 18.13 ±0.43%, of White Brined - 12.50 ±0.37% and the yield of Pecorino is 9.18 ±0.13%.

  13. Salt Effects on the Conformational Stability of the Visual G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Rhodopsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Alcaraz, Arfaxad; Martínez-Archundia, Marlet; Ramon, Eva; Garriga, Pere

    2011-01-01

    Membrane protein stability is a key parameter with important physiological and practical implications. Inorganic salts affect protein stability, but the mechanisms of their interactions with membrane proteins are not completely understood. We have undertaken the study of a prototypical G-protein-coupled receptor, the α-helical membrane protein rhodopsin from vertebrate retina, and explored the effects of inorganic salts on the thermal decay properties of both its inactive and photoactivated states. Under high salt concentrations, rhodopsin significantly increased its activation enthalpy change for thermal bleaching, whereas acid denaturation affected the formation of a denatured loose-bundle state for both the active and inactive conformations. This behavior seems to correlate with changes in protonated Schiff-base hydrolysis. However, chromophore regeneration with the 11-cis-retinal chromophore and MetarhodopsinII decay kinetics were slower only in the presence of sodium chloride, suggesting that in this case, the underlying phenomenon may be linked to the activation of rhodopsin and the retinal release processes. Furthermore, the melting temperature, determined by means of circular dichroism and differential scanning calorimetry measurements, was increased in the presence of high salt concentrations. The observed effects on rhodopsin could indicate that salts favor electrostatic interactions in the retinal binding pocket and indirectly favor hydrophobic interactions at the membrane protein receptor core. These effects can be exploited in applications where the stability of membrane proteins in solution is highly desirable. PMID:22261069

  14. Isolation and characterization of maize PMP3 genes involved in salt stress tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Fu

    Full Text Available Plasma membrane protein 3 (PMP3, a class of small hydrophobic polypeptides with high sequence similarity, is responsible for salt, drought, cold, and abscisic acid. These small hydrophobic ploypeptides play important roles in maintenance of ion homeostasis. In this study, eight ZmPMP3 genes were cloned from maize and responsive to salt, drought, cold and abscisic acid. The eight ZmPMP3s were membrane proteins and their sequences in trans-membrane regions were highly conserved. Phylogenetic analysis showed that they were categorized into three groups. All members of group II were responsive to ABA. Functional complementation showed that with the exception of ZmPMP3-6, all were capable of maintaining membrane potential, which in turn allows for regulation of intracellular ion homeostasis. This process was independent of the presence of Ca(2+. Lastly, over-expression of ZmPMP3-1 enhanced growth of transgenic Arabidopsis under salt condition. Through expression analysis of deduced downstream genes in transgenic plants, expression levels of three ion transporter genes and four important antioxidant genes in ROS scavenging system were increased significantly in transgenic plants during salt stress. This tolerance was likely achieved through diminishing oxidative stress due to the possibility of ZmPMP3-1's involvement in regulation of ion homeostasis, and suggests that the modulation of these conserved small hydrophobic polypeptides could be an effective way to improve salt tolerance in plants.

  15. Significant Modules and Biological Processes between Active Components of Salvia miltiorrhiza Depside Salt and Aspirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine and compare the similarities and differences between active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin using perspective of pharmacological molecular networks. Active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin’s related genes were identified via the STITCH4.0 and GeneCards Database. A text search engine (Agilent Literature Search 2.71 and MCODE software were applied to construct network and divide modules, respectively. Finally, 32, 2, and 28 overlapping genes, modules, and pathways were identified between active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin. A multidimensional framework of drug network showed that two networks reflected commonly in human aortic endothelial cells and atherosclerosis process. Aspirin plays a more important role in metabolism, such as the well-known AA metabolism pathway and other lipid or carbohydrate metabolism pathways. S. miltiorrhiza depside salt still plays a regulatory role in type II diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, and adipocytokine signaling pathway. Therefore, this study suggests that aspirin combined with S. miltiorrhiza depside salt may be more efficient in treatment of CHD patients, especially those with diabetes mellitus or hyperlipidemia. Further clinical trials to confirm this hypothesis are still needed.

  16. Kinetin applications alleviate salt stress and improve the antioxidant composition of leaf extracts in Salvia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tounekti, Taïeb; Hernández, Iker; Müller, Maren; Khemira, Habib; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2011-10-01

    A pot experiment was carried out under glasshouse conditions with common sage (Salvia officinalis L.) to investigate the interactive effects of salt stress and kinetin on growth attributes and the abundance of pigments, ions, phenolic diterpenes and α-tocopherol in leaf extracts of this species. The plants were subjected to the following four treatments: (i) control (nutrient solution), (ii) control + 10 μM kinetin, (iii) salt stress (nutrient solution + 100 mM NaCl), and (iv) salt stress + 10 μM kinetin. Kinetin was applied as a foliar fertilizer. Salt stress reduced water contents, photosynthetic activity and pigment contents of sage leaves. In addition, it increased Na(+) contents, and reduced those of Ca(2+) and K(+) in leaves. Salt stress reduced carnosic acid and 12-O-methyl carnosic acid contents in leaves, while it did not affect carnosol and α-tocopherol contents. Foliar applications of kinetin seemed to counterbalance or alleviate the stress symptoms induced by salinity, improving ion and pigment contents, while leaf phenolic diterpene (mainly carnosol) and α-tocopherol contents also increased in both control and NaCl-treated plants; still this effect was much more obvious in salt-treated plants. A similar effect was also obtained when plants were sprayed with KNO(3) or Ca(NO(3))(2), thus suggesting that kinetin effects were at least partly due to an improvement of ion homeostasis. Kinetin applications resulted in increased transcript levels of the isoprenoid and tocopherol biosynthetic genes, DXPRI and VTE2 and VTE4 in control plants, but not in NaCl-treated plants. We conclude that kinetin can alleviate the negative impact of salt on sage plants cultivated under arid environments with salinity problems.

  17. Explicit-water theory for the salt-specific effects and Hofmeister series in protein solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyuzhnyi, Yuriy V.; Vlachy, Vojko

    2016-06-01

    Effects of addition of salts on stability of aqueous protein solutions are studied theoretically and the results are compared with experimental data. In our approach, all the interacting species, proteins, ions, and water molecules, are accounted for explicitly. Water molecules are modeled as hard spheres with four off-center attractive square-well sites. These sites serve to bind either another water or to solvate the ions or protein charges. The ions are represented as charged hard spheres, and decorated by attractive sites to allow solvation. Spherical proteins simultaneously possess positive and negative groups, represented by charged hard spheres, attached to the surface of the protein. The attractive square-well sites, mimicking the protein-protein van der Waals interaction, are located on the surface of the protein. To obtain numerical results, we utilized the energy route of Wertheim's associative mean spherical approximation. From measurable properties, we choose to calculate the second virial coefficient B2, which is closely related to the tendency of proteins to aggregate and eventually crystalize. Calculations are in agreement with experimental trends: (i) For low concentration of added salt, the alkali halide salts follow the inverse Hofmeister series. (ii) At higher concentration of added salt, the trend is reversed. (iii) When cations are varied, the salts follow the direct Hofmeister series. (iv) In contrast to the colloidal theories, our approach correctly predicts the non-monotonic behavior of B2 upon addition of salts. (v) With respect to anions, the theory predicts for the B2 values to follow different sequences below and above the iso-ionic point, as also confirmed experimentally. (vi) A semi-quantitative agreement between measured and calculated values for the second virial coefficient, as functions of pH of solution and added salt type and concentration, is obtained.

  18. [Cr(III)8M(II)6](12+) Coordination Cubes (M(II)=Cu, Co).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Sergio; O'Connor, Helen M; Pineda, Eufemio Moreno; Pedersen, Kasper S; Nichol, Gary S; Mønsted, Ole; Weihe, Høgni; Piligkos, Stergios; McInnes, Eric J L; Lusby, Paul J; Brechin, Euan K

    2015-06-01

    [Cr(III)8M(II)6](12+) (M(II) =Cu, Co) coordination cubes were constructed from a simple [Cr(III) L3 ] metalloligand and a "naked" M(II) salt. The flexibility in the design proffers the potential to tune the physical properties, as all the constituent parts of the cage can be changed without structural alteration. Computational techniques (known in theoretical nuclear physics as statistical spectroscopy) in tandem with EPR spectroscopy are used to interpret the magnetic behavior.

  19. Ecogeomorphic Heterogeneity Sculpts Salt Marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, N.; Fagherazzi, S.

    2014-12-01

    state for marsh boundaries, which would make the prediction of failure events impossible. Internal physical processes allowing salt marshes to reach self-organized criticality are geotechnical, biological, and related to the non-homogeneity of salt marshes whose material discontinuities act as stress raisers.

  20. The influence of salt formation on electrostatic and compression properties of flurbiprofen salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supuk, Enes; Ghori, Muhammad U; Asare-Addo, Kofi; Laity, Peter R; Panchmatia, Pooja M; Conway, Barbara R

    2013-12-15

    Salt formation is an effective method of improving physicochemical properties of acidic and basic drugs. The selection of a salt form most suitable for drug development requires a well-designed screening strategy to ensure various issues are addressed in the early development stages. Triboelectrification of pharmaceutical powders may cause problems during processing such as segregation of components due to the effects of particle adhesion. However, very little work has been done on the effect of salt formation on triboelectrification properties. In this paper, salts of flurbiprofen were prepared by combining the drug with a selection of closely related amine counter ions. The aim of the work was to investigate the impact of the counter ion on electrostatic charge of the resultant salts to inform the salt selection process. The experimental results show the magnitude of charge and polarity of the flurbiprofen salts to be highly dependent on the type of counter ion selected for the salt formation. Furthermore, particle adhesion to the stainless steel surface of the shaking container and the salts' compression properties were measured. The formed salts had lower electrostatic charges, improved tabletability, and resulted in reduced adhesion of these powders compared with the parent drug.

  1. HYLIFE-II reactor chamber mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical design features of the reactor chamber for the HYLIFE-II inertial confinement fusion power plant are presented. A combination of oscillating and steady, molten salt streams are used for shielding and blast protection. The system is designed for an 8 Hz repetition rate. Beam path clearing, between shots, is accomplished with the oscillating flow. The mechanism for generating the oscillating streams is described. A design configuration of the vessel wall allows adequate cooling and provides extra shielding to reduce thermal stresses to tolerable levels. The bottom portion of the reactor chamber is designed to minimize splash back of the high velocity (20 m/s) salt streams and also recover up to half of the dynamic head

  2. Distillation and condensation of LiCl-KCl eutectic salts for a separation of pure salts from salt wastes from an electrorefining process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, Hee Chul; Yang, Hee Chul; Lee, Han Soo; Kim, In Tae

    2009-12-01

    Salt separation and recovery from the salt wastes generated from a pyrochemical process is necessary to minimize the high-level waste volumes and to stabilize a final waste form. In this study, the thermal behavior of the LiCl-KCl eutectic salts containing rare earth oxychlorides or oxides was investigated during a vacuum distillation and condensation process. LiCl was more easily vaporized than the other salts (KCl and LiCl-KCl eutectic salt). Vaporization characteristics of LiCl-KCl eutectic salts were similar to that of KCl. The temperature to obtain the vaporization flux (0.1 g min -1 cm -2) was decreased by much as 150 °C by a reduction of the ambient pressure from 5 Torr to 0.5 Torr. Condensation behavior of the salt vapors was different with the ambient pressure. Almost all of the salt vapors were condensed and were formed into salt lumps during a salt distillation at the ambient pressure of 0.5 Torr and they were collected in the condensed salt storage. However, fine salt particles were formed when the salt distillation was performed at 10 Torr and it is difficult for them to be recovered. Therefore, it is thought that a salt vacuum distillation and condensation should be performed to recover almost all of the vaporized salts at a pressure below 0.5 Torr.

  3. Salt bridge residues between I-Ak dimer of dimers alpha-chains modulate antigen presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadati, S; Nydam, T; Demian, D; Wade, T K; Gabriel, J L; Barisas, B G; Wade, W F

    1999-03-15

    Class II dimers of dimers are predicted to have functional significance in antigen presentation. The putative contact amino acids of the I-Ak class II dimer of dimers have been identified by molecular modeling based on the DR1 crystal structure (Nydam et al., Int. Immunol. 10, 1237,1998). We have previously reported the role in antigen presentation of dimer of dimers contact amino acids located in the C-terminal domains of the alpha- and beta-chains of class II. Our calculations show that residues Ealpha89 and Ralpha145 in the alpha2-domain form an inter alpha-chain salt bridge between pairs of alphabeta-heterodimers. Other residues, Qalpha92 and Nalpha115, may be involved in close association in that part of the alpha-chain. We investigated the role of these amino acids on class II expression and antigen presentation. Class II composed of an Ealpha89K substituted alpha-chain paired with a wt beta-chain exhibited inhibited antigen presentation and expression of alpha-chain serologic epitopes. In contrast, mutation of Ralpha145E had less affect on antigen presentation and did not affect I-Ak serologic epitopes. Interchanging charges of the salt bridge residues by expressing both Ralpha145E and Ealpha89K on the same chain obviated the large negative effect of the Ealpha89K mutation on antigen presentation but not on the serologic epitopes. Our results are similar for those reported for mutation of DR3's inter-chain salt bridge with the exception that double mutants did not moderate the DR3 defect. Interestingly, the amino acids differences between I-A and DR change the location of the inter-chain salt bridges. In DR1 these residues are located at positions Ealpha88 and Kalpha111; in I-Ak these residues are located at position Ealpha89 and Ralpha145. Inter alpha-chain salt bridges are thus maintained in various class II molecules by amino acids located in different parts of the alpha2-domain. This conservation of structure suggests that considerable functional

  4. Underground storage of gas in salt caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantin, C.; Leblanc, B.

    1981-01-01

    In areas lacking geologic formations suitable for aquiferous storage, salt caverns can serve as underground storage reservoirs if (1) the salt layers are thick enough (over 500 ft) and deep enough (1650-5000 ft), (2) the average concentration of insolubles is less than about 25%, (3) the layer of insolubles is less than 3 ft thick, (4) the distribution of insolubles is homogeneous enough, and (5) the brine can be discharged at a 10,600-14,000 ft/sup 3//hr flow rate. The development and operation of a typical salt-cavern storage reservoir, including leaching techniques and control equipment are described.

  5. Modeling of salt solubilities in mixed solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Chiavone Filho

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A method to correlate and predict salt solubilities in mixed solvents using a UNIQUAC+Debye-Hückel model is developed. The UNIQUAC equation is applied in a form with temperature-dependent parameters. The Debye-Hückel model is extended to mixed solvents by properly evaluating the dielectric constants and the liquid densities of the solvent media. To normalize the activity coefficients, the symmetric convention is adopted. Thermochemical properties of the salt are used to estimate the solubility product. It is shown that the proposed procedure can describe with good accuracy a series of salt solubility measurements in aqueous organic solvent mixtures.

  6. Modeling Solute Thermokinetics in LiCI-KCI Molten Salt for Nuclear Waste Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Dane; Eapen, Jacob

    2013-10-01

    at the eutectic composition (58 mol% LiCl, 42 mol% KCl), which is used for treating spent EBR-II fuel. The same process being used for EBRII fuel is currently being studied for widespread international implementation. The methods will focus on first-principles and first- principles derived interatomic potential based simulations, primarily using molecular dynamics. Results will be validated against existing literature and parallel ongoing experimental efforts. The simulation results will be of value for interpreting experimental results, validating analytical models, and for optimizing waste separation by potentially developing new salt configurations and operating conditions.

  7. Thermal Analysis of Surrogate Simulated Molten Salts with Metal Chloride Impurities for Electrorefining Used Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson; Vivek Utgikar

    2012-04-01

    This project is a fundamental study to measure thermal properties (liquidus, solidus, phase transformation, and enthalpy) of molten salt systems of interest to electrorefining operations, which are used in both the fuel cycle research & development mission and the spent fuel treatment mission of the Department of Energy. During electrorefining operations the electrolyte accumulates elements more active than uranium (transuranics, fission products and bond sodium). The accumulation needs to be closely monitored because the thermal properties of the electrolyte will change as the concentration of the impurities increases. During electrorefining (processing techniques used at the Idaho National Laboratory to separate uranium from spent nuclear fuel) it is important for the electrolyte to remain in a homogeneous liquid phase for operational safeguard and criticality reasons. The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely affected by the buildup of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are: (i) build up of fissile elements in the salt approaching the criticality limits specified for the vessel (ii) freezing of the salts due to change in the liquidus temperature and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution) of elements. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This work describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, consisting of chlorides of strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium (as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium), used in the processing of used nuclear fuels. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to analyze numerous salt samples providing results on the thermal properties. The property of most interest to pyroprocessing is the liquidus temperature. It was

  8. Fate and effects of heavy metals in salt marsh sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suntornvongsagul, Kallaya [Department of Chemical Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT), University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Environmental Research Institute, Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Burke, David J. [Department of Biological Sciences, Rutgers University, 101 Warren Street, Smith Hall 135, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); The Holden Arboretum, 9500 Sperry Road, Kirtland, OH 44094 (United States); Hamerlynck, Erik P. [Department of Biological Sciences, Rutgers University, 101 Warren Street, Smith Hall 135, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Hahn, Dittmar [Department of Chemical Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT), University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States) and Department of Biology, Texas State University, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, TX 78666 (United States)]. E-mail: dh49@txstate.edu

    2007-09-15

    The fate and effects of selected heavy metals were examined in sediment from a restored salt marsh. Sediment cores densely covered with Spartina patens were collected and kept either un-amended or artificially amended with nickel (Ni) under standardized greenhouse conditions. Ni-amendment had no significant effect on the fate of other metals in sediments, however, it increased root uptake of the metals. Metal translocation into the shoots was small for all metals. Higher Ni concentrations in plants from amended cores were accompanied by seasonal reductions in plant biomass, photosynthetic capacity and transfer efficiency of open photosystem II reaction centers; these effects, however, were no longer significant at the end of the growing season. Root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) resembled that of natural salt marshes with up to 20% root length colonized. Although Ni-amendment increased AMF colonization, especially during vegetative growth, in general AMF were largely unaffected. - Spartina patens accumulates heavy metals in roots without significant translocation into shoots, and with only small seasonal effects on plant growth performance and mycorrhizal colonization.

  9. Electrodeposition of alloys or compounds in molten salts and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taxil P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the different modes of preparation of alloys or intermetallic compounds using the electrodeposition in molten salts, more particularly molten alkali fluorides. The interest in this process is to obtain new materials for high technology, particularly the compounds of reactive components such as actinides, rare earth and refractory metals. Two ways of preparation are considered: (i electrocoating of the more reactive metal on a cathode made of the noble one and reaction between the two metals in contact, and (ii electrocoating on an inert cathode of the intermetallic compound by coreduction of the ions of each elements. The kinetic is controlled by the reaction at the electrolyte interface. A wide bibliographic survey on the preparation of various compounds (intermetallic compounds, borides, carbides… is given and a special attention is paid to the own experience of the authors in the preparation of these compounds and interpretation of their results.

  10. Elizabeth II uus kunstigalerii

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Tähistamaks oma troonile asumise 50. aastapäeva, avab Elizabeth II 6. II 2002 Buckinghami palees uue kunstigalerii, mis ehitatakse palee tiibhoonena. Arhitekt John Simpson. Elizabeth II kunstikogust

  11. "Super Salesmen" for the Toughest Sales Job: The Utah Nippo, Salt Lake City's Japanese Americans, and Proving Group Loyalty, 1941-1946

    OpenAIRE

    Fassmann, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examines the Utah Nippo, its messages to Salt Lake City's Nikkei population, and draws out the paper's editorial themes intended for resident Utah Nikkei. The Utah Nippo was one of three Japanese-language newspapers that published during World War II and it was a voice for community leaders and editors who urged Salt Lake Nikkei to behave in certain ways that (they believed) would prove a certain loyal American identity. Such an identity was comprised of prescribed behaviors: supp...

  12. Oregon Salt Marshes: How Blue are They?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two important ecosystem services of wetlands are carbon sequestration and filtration of nutrients and particulates. We quantified the carbon and nitrogen accumulation rates in salt marshes at 135 plots distributed across eight estuaries located in Oregon, USA. Net carbon and ...

  13. South Bay Salt Ponds : Initial stewardship plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The California Department of Fish and Game and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service will operate and maintain the South Bay Salt Ponds under this Initial Stewardship...

  14. Coordination chemistry in fused-salt solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, D. M.

    1969-01-01

    Spectrophotometric work on structural determinations with fused-salt solutions is reviewed. Constraints placed on the method, as well as interpretation of the spectra, are discussed with parallels drawn to aqueous spectrophotometric curves of the same materials.

  15. Brine Transport Experiments in Granular Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Amy B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-06

    To gain confidence in the predictive capability of numerical models, experimental validation must be performed to ensure that parameters and processes are correctly simulated. The laboratory investigations presented herein aim to address knowledge gaps for heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) disposal in bedded salt that remain after examination of prior field and laboratory test data. Primarily, we are interested in better constraining the thermal, hydrological, and physicochemical behavior of brine, water vapor, and salt when moist salt is heated (Jordan et al., 2014; Stauffer et al., 2015). The target of this work is to use run-of-mine (RoM) salt; however during FY2015 progress was made using high purity, granular sodium chloride.

  16. Liquid salt environment stress-rupture testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Weiju; Holcomb, David E.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane F.

    2016-03-22

    Disclosed herein are systems, devices and methods for stress-rupture testing selected materials within a high-temperature liquid salt environment. Exemplary testing systems include a load train for holding a test specimen within a heated inert gas vessel. A thermal break included in the load train can thermally insulate a load cell positioned along the load train within the inert gas vessel. The test specimen can include a cylindrical gage portion having an internal void filled with a molten salt during stress-rupture testing. The gage portion can have an inner surface area to volume ratio of greater than 20 to maximize the corrosive effect of the molten salt on the specimen material during testing. Also disclosed are methods of making a salt ingot for placement within the test specimen.

  17. Salt marsh construction costs and shrimp production

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Continuing wetland loss in Galveston Bay, Texas (USA) has led to the development of various salt marsh restoration projects. These constructed wetlands often...

  18. Potential for creation of a salt dome following disposal of radioactive waste in a salt layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study aims at quantifying the possibility of creation of a salt dome from a salt layer in which heat-emitting radioactive waste would be buried. Volume 1 describes the results of numerical computer simulations, and of laboratory-scale models in centrifuges. Volume 2 envisages, in a geological perspective, the origin of salt domes, the mechanisms of thei formation, and the associated parameters

  19. ADR salt pill design and crystal growth process for hydrated magnetic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor); DiPirro, Michael J. (Inventor); Canavan, Edgar R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A process is provided for producing a salt pill for use in very low temperature adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators (ADRs). The method can include providing a thermal bus in a housing. The thermal bus can include an array of thermally conductive metal conductors. A hydrated salt can be grown on the array of thermally conductive metal conductors. Thermal conductance can be provided to the hydrated salt.

  20. Potential for creation of a salt dome following disposal of radioactive waste in a salt layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study aims at quantifying the possibility of creation of a salt dome from a salt layer in which heat-emitting radioactive waste would be buried. Volume 1 describes the results of numerical computer simulations, and of laboratory-scale models in centrifuges. Volume 2 envisages, in a geological perspective, the origin of salt domes, the mechanisms of their formation, and the associated parameters

  1. Salt Stress Proteins Induced in Listeria monocytogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Duché, Ophélie; Trémoulet, Frédéric; Glaser, Philippe; Labadie, Jean

    2002-01-01

    The ability of Listeria monocytogenes to tolerate salt stress is of particular importance, as this pathogen is often exposed to such environments during both food processing and food preservation. In order to understand the survival mechanisms of L. monocytogenes, an initial approach using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was performed to analyze the pattern of protein synthesis in response to salt stress. Of 400 to 500 visible proteins, the synthesis of 40 proteins (P < 0.0...

  2. Monitoring change in Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David L.; Angeroth, Cory E.; Freeman, Michael L.; Rowland, Ryan C.; Carling, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Despite the ecological and economic importance of Great Salt Lake, only limited water quality monitoring has occurred historically. To change this, new monitoring stations and networks—gauges of lake level height and rate of inflow, moored buoys, and multiple lake-bottom sensors—will provide important information that can be used to make informed decisions regarding future management of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem.

  3. Results from the Salt Phase of SNO

    CERN Document Server

    Miknaitis, K; Ahmed, S N; Anthony, A E; Beier, E W; Bellerive, A; Bergevin, M; Biller, S D; Boger, J; Boulay, M G; Bowler, M G; Bullard, T V; Chan, Y D; Chen, M; Chen, X; Cleveland, B T; Cox, G A; Currat, C A; Dai, X; Dalnoki-Veress, F; Deng, H; Doe, P J; Dosanjh, R S; Doucas, G; Duba, C A; Duncan, F A; Dunford, M; Dunmore, J A; Earle, E D; Elliott, S R; Evans, H C; Ewan, G T; Farine, J; Fergani, H; Fleurot, F; Formaggio, J A; Frame, K; Frati, W; Fulsom, B G; Gagnon, N; Graham, K; Grant, D R; Hahn, R L; Hall, J C; Hallin, A L; Hallman, E D; Handler, W B; Hargrove, C K; Harvey, P J; Hazama, R; Heeger, K M; Heelan, L; Heintzelman, W J; Heise, J; Helmer, R L; Hemingway, R J; Hime, A; Howard, C; Howe, M A; Huang, M; Jagam, P; Jelley, N A; Klein, J R; Kormos, L L; Kos, M S; Krüger, A; Kraus, C V; Krauss, C B; Krumins, A V; Kutter, T; Kyba, C C M; Labranche, H; Lange, R; Law, J; Lawson, I T; Lesko, K T; Leslie, J R; Levine, I; Loach, J C; Luoma, S; MacLellan, R; Majerus, S; Mak, H B; Maneira, J; Marino, A D; McCauley, N; McDonald, A B; McGee, S; McGregor, G; Miin, C; Moffat, B A; Nally, C W; Neubauer, M S; Nickel, B G; Noble, A J; Norman, E B; Oblath, N S; Okada, C E; Ollerhead, R W; Orrell, J L; Oser, S M; Ouellet, C V; Peeters, S J M; Poon, A W P; Rielage, K; Robertson, B C; Robertson, R G H; Rollin, E; Rosendahl, S S E; Rusu, V L; Schwendener, M H; Seibert, S R; Simard, O; Simpson, J J; Sims, C J; Sinclair, D; Skensved, P; Smith, M W E; Starinsky, N; Stokstad, R G; Stonehill, L C; Tafirout, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tesic, G; Thomson, M; Thorman, M; Tsui, T; Van Berg, R; Van de Water, R G; Virtue, C J; Wall, B L; Waller, D; Waltham, C E; Wan Chan Tseung, H; Wark, D L; Wendland, J; West, N; Wilkerson, J F; Wilson, J R; Wittich, P; Wouters, J M; Wright, A; Yeh, M; Zuber, K

    2005-01-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) has recently completed an analysis of data from the salt phase of the experiment, in which NaCl was added to the heavy-water neutrino target to enhance sensitivity to solar neutrinos. Results from the 391-day salt data set are summarized, including the measured solar neutrino fluxes, the electron energy spectrum from charged current interactions, and the day-night neutrino flux asymmetries. Constraints on neutrino mixing parameters including the new measurements are also given.

  4. Swiss survey on salt intake: main results

    OpenAIRE

    Chappuis Aline; Bochud Murielle; Glatz Nicolas; Vuistiner Philippe; Paccaud Fred; Burnier Michel

    2011-01-01

    [Contents] 1. Executive summary. 2. Introduction. 3. Methods. 4. Main results. 4.1. Participants. 4.2. Estimation of dietary salt intake using 24-hour urine collection. 4.3. Blood pressure and hypertension. 4.4. Anthropometric data (Body weight, height and body mass index BMI; prevalence of overweight and obesity; waist circumference;...). 4.5. Knowledge and behaviors towards salt. 5. Discussion.

  5. Iodized salt induced thyrotoxicosis: Bangladesh perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, S; Latif, S A; Kamal, M M; Asaduzzaman, M; Akther, A; Laila, Z H

    2009-07-01

    The effects of iodized and non-iodized salt on the thyroid gland and its hormones T3, T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were studied in 200 individuals who were the residents of plain areas of greater Mymensingh district. The subjects were collected from the Center for Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound, Mymensingh. Out of 200 individuals 150 were using iodized salt and 50 were using non-iodized salt. The iodized and non-iodized salt users were marked as study and control groups respectively. Blood samples were taken from both the groups and T3 and T4 in blood serum were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) while TSH was determined by immunoradiometricassay (IRMA). The mean concentration of T3 were 2.633 nmol/L and 2.223 nmol/L and T4 concentration were 122.444 nmol/L and 110.355 nmol/L in study and control group respectively. The mean TSH concentration was 5.044 mIU/L and 9.622 mIU/L in study and control group respectively. The data indicated that continuous and long term use of iodized salt increased both T3 and T4 and decreased TSH in study group. The results were significant (piodinated salt induced thyrotoxicosis (ISIT) in peoples living in plain areas of Bangladesh. We suggest close regular monitoring of T3, T4 and TSH and urinary excretion of iodine of individuals who are using iodized salt for better management of iodinated salt program in our setting. PMID:19623141

  6. Swelling of phospholipids by monovalent salt

    OpenAIRE

    Petrache, Horia I.; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie; Harries, Daniel; Kučerka, Norbert; Nagle, John F.; Parsegian, V. Adrian

    2005-01-01

    Critical to biological processes such as membrane fusion and secretion, ion-lipid interactions at the membrane-water interface still raise many unanswered questions. Using reconstituted phosphatidylcholine membranes, we confirm here that multilamellar vesicles swell in salt solutions, a direct indication that salt modifies the interactions between neighboring membranes. By varying sample histories, and by comparing with data from ion carrier-containing bilayers, we eliminate the possibility t...

  7. Cytoskeleton and plant salt stress tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Che; Zhang, Li-Jun; Huang, Rui-Dong

    2011-01-01

    The plant cytoskeleton is a highly dynamic component of plant cells and mainly based on microtubules (MTs) and actin filaments (AFs). The important functions of dynamic cytoskeletal networks have been indicated for almost every intracellular activity, from cell division to cell movement, cell morphogenesis and cell signal transduction. Recent studies have also indicated a close relationship between the plant cytoskeleton and plant salt stress tolerance. Salt stress is a significant factor tha...

  8. Modeling of salt solubilities in mixed solvents

    OpenAIRE

    Chiavone Filho O.; Rasmussen P.

    2000-01-01

    A method to correlate and predict salt solubilities in mixed solvents using a UNIQUAC+Debye-Hückel model is developed. The UNIQUAC equation is applied in a form with temperature-dependent parameters. The Debye-Hückel model is extended to mixed solvents by properly evaluating the dielectric constants and the liquid densities of the solvent media. To normalize the activity coefficients, the symmetric convention is adopted. Thermochemical properties of the salt are used to estimate the solubilit...

  9. Assédio moral: análise de conceito na perspectiva evolucionista de Rodgers Acoso moral: análisis de concepto en la perspectiva evolucionista de Rodgers Bullying: concept analysis from Rodgers' evolutionary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Ribeiro Pontes Cahú

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve como objetivo analisar o conceito de assédio moral, na perspectiva evolucionista de Rodgers, conforme expresso na literatura da saúde, ciências jurídicas, sociais e humanas. Trata-se de uma pesquisa documental, que teve como fontes de dados artigos disponibilizados no Portal de Periódicos/CAPES e na Buscalegis de 1954 a 2010. A amostra constituiu-se de 46 artigos. Para a análise dos dados, foram utilizados os passos propostos por Rodgers em seu modelo de análise conceitual. Em relação aos termos substitutivos, destacaram-se psicoterror e mobbing. Quanto aos atributos, os mais frequentes compreenderam a violência psicológica e a exclusão social do trabalhador. Os antecedentes mais relevantes foram as condições opressivas de trabalho. No tocante às consequências, destacaram-se os problemas psicossomáticos, empresariais e sociais. Nesse sentido, o conceito assédio moral constitui-se em violência psicológica com a intenção de humilhar e excluir socialmente a vítima, provocando distúrbios psicossomáticos, prejuízos à sociedade e à instituição de trabalho.El estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar el concepto de acoso moral, en la perspectiva evolucionista de Rodgers, conforme referido en la literatura de la salud, ciencias jurídicas, sociales y humanas. Se trata de una investigación documental, que tuvo como fuentes de datos artículos disponibles en el Portal de Periódicos/CAPES y en la Buscalegis de 1954 a 2010. La muestra se constituyó de 46 artículos. Para el análisis de los datos, se utilizaron los pasos propuestos por Rodgers en su modelo de análisis conceptual. En relación a los términos sustitutivos, se destacaron psicoterror y mobbing. En cuanto a los atributos, los más frecuentes comprendieron la violencia psicológica y la exclusión social del trabajador. Los antecedentes más relevantes fueron las condiciones de opresión en el trabajo. En lo que respecta a las consecuencias, se

  10. I-NERI ANNUAL TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT: 2006-002-K, Separation of Fission Products from Molten LiCl-KCl Salt Used for Electrorefining of Metal Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Frank

    2009-09-01

    An attractive alternative to the once-through disposal of electrorefiner salt is to selectively remove the active fission products from the salt and recycle the salt back to the electrorefiner (ER). This would allow salt reuse for some number of cycles before ultimate disposal of the salt in a ceramic waste form. Reuse of ER salt would, thus, greatly reduce the volume of ceramic waste produced during the pyroprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. This final portion of the joint I-NERI research project is to demonstrate the separation of fission products from molten ER salt by two methods previously selected during phase two (FY-08) of this project. The two methods selected were salt/zeolite contacting and rare-earth fission product precipitation by oxygen bubbling. The ER salt used in these tests came from the Mark-IV electrorefiner used to anodically dissolved driver fuel from the EBR-II reactor on the INL site. The tests were performed using the Hot Fuel Dissolution Apparatus (HFDA) located in the main cell of the Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) at the Materials and Fuels complex on the INL site. Results from these tests were evaluated during a joint meeting of KAERI and INL investigators to provide recommendations as to the future direction of fission product removal from electrorefiner salt that accumulate during spent fuel treatment. Additionally, work continued on kinetic measurements of surrogate quaternary salt systems to provide fundamental kinetics on the ion exchange system and to expand the equilibrium model system developed during the first two phases of this project. The specific objectives of the FY09 I-NERI research activities at the INL include the following: • Perform demonstration tests of the selected KAERI precipitation and INL salt/zeolite contacting processes for fission product removal using radioactive, fission product loaded ER salt • Continue kinetic studies of the quaternary Cs/Sr-LiCl-KCl system to determine the rate of ion

  11. Biogeomorphically driven salt pan formation in Sarcocornia-dominated salt-marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escapa, Mauricio; Perillo, Gerardo M. E.; Iribarne, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Salt-marshes are under increasing threat, particularly from sea-level rise and increased wave action associated with climate change. The development and stability of these valuable habitats largely depend on complex interactions between biotic and abiotic processes operating at different scales. Also, interactions between biotic and abiotic processes drive internal morphological change in salt-marshes. In this paper we used a biogeomorphological approach to assess the impact of biological activities and interactions on salt pan formation in Sarcocornia-dominated salt marshes. Salt pans represent a key physiographic feature of salt-marshes and recent studies hypothesized that biogeomorphic processes could be related to salt pan formation in SW Atlantic salt-marshes. The glasswort Sarcocornia perennis is one of the dominant plants in the salt-marshes of the Bahía Blanca Estuary (Argentina) where they form patches up to 8 m in diameter. These salt-marshes are also inhabited in great densities by the burrowing crab Neohelice (Chasmagnathus) granulata whose bioturbation rates are among the highest reported for salt-marshes worldwide. A set of biological interactions between N. granulata and S. perennis appears to be responsible for salt pan development in these areas which has not been described elsewhere. The main objective of this work was to determine the ecological interactions occurring between plants and crabs that lead to salt pan formation by using field-based sampling and manipulative experiments. Our results showed that S. perennis facilitated crab colonization of the salt-marsh by buffering otherwise stressful physical conditions (e.g., temperature, desiccation). Crabs preferred to construct burrows underneath plants and, once they reach high densities (up to 40 burrows m- 2), the sediment reworking caused plant die-off in the central area of patches. At this state, the patches lose elevation and become depressed due to the continuous bioturbation by crabs

  12. Nitrite toxicity of Litopenaeus vannamei in water containing low concentrations of sea salt or mixed salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, A.; Young, S.P.; Isely, J.J.; Browdy, C.L.; Tomasso, J.R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The uptake, depuration and toxicity of environmental nitrite was characterized in Litopenaeus vannamei exposed in water containing low concentrations of artificial sea salt or mixed salts. In 2 g/L artificial sea salts, nitrite was concentrated in the hemolymph in a dose-dependent and rapid manner (steady-state in about 2 d). When exposed to nitrite in 2 g/L artificial sea salts for 4 d and then moved to a similar environment without added nitrite, complete depuration occurred within a day. Increasing salinity up to 10 g/L decreased uptake of environmental nitrite. Nitrite uptake in environments containing 2 g/L mixed salts (combination of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium chlorides) was similar to or lower than rates in 2 g/L artificial sea salt. Toxicity was inversely related to total dissolved salt and chloride concentrations and was highest in 2 g/L artificial sea salt (96-h medial lethal concentration = 8.4 mg/L nitrite-N). Animals that molted during the experiments did not appear to be more susceptible to nitrite than animals that did not molt. The shallow slope of the curve describing the relationship between toxicity and salinity suggests that management of nitrite toxicity in low-salinity shrimp ponds by addition of more salts may not be practical. ?? Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2004.

  13. Salt and miscarriage: Is there a link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoli, Amir

    2016-04-01

    Salt is a major mineral element that plays fundamental roles in health and disease. Excessive salt intake is a major cause of hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Miscarriage and preeclampsia are the most common pregnancy complications with multiple etiological factors, including inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. More recently, different studies indicated that excessive salt intake is involved in the development of inflammatory processes through induction of T helper-17 pathway and their inflammatory cytokines. On the other hand, several studies indicated the pivotal role of inflammation in the etiology of miscarriage, preeclampsia and adverse pregnancy outcome. Here, it is hypothesized that excessive salt intake around the time of conception or during pregnancy can trigger inflammatory processes, which consequently associated with increased risk of miscarriage, preeclampsia or adverse pregnancy outcome. Thus, this hypothesis suggests that low salt intake around the time of conception or during pregnancy can decrease the risk of miscarriage or adverse pregnancy outcome. This hypothesis also offers new insights about the role of salt in the etiology of miscarriage and preeclampsia.

  14. Ammonia Solubility in High Concentration Salt Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solubility data for ammonia in water and various dilute solutions are abundant in the literature. However, there is a noticeable lack of ammonia solubility data for high salt, basic solutions of various mixtures of salts including those found in many of the Hanford Washington underground waste tanks. As a result, models based on solubility data for dilute salt solutions have been used to extrapolate to high salt solutions. These significant extrapolations need to be checked against actual laboratory data. Some indirect vapor measurements have been made. A more direct approach is to determine the ratio of solubility of ammonia in water to its solubility in high salt solutions. In various experiments, pairs of solutions, one of which is water and the other a high salt solution, are allowed to come to equilibrium with a common ammonia vapor pressure. The ratio of concentrations of ammonia in the two solutions is equal to the ratio of the respective ammonia solubilities (Henry's Law constants) at a given temperature. This information can then be used to refine the models that predict vapor space compositions of ammonia. Ammonia at Hanford is of concern because of its toxicity in the environment and its contribution to the flammability of vapor space gas mixtures in waste tanks

  15. Thermal Characterization of Molten Salt Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson

    2011-09-01

    The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner (ER) may be adversely affected by the buildup of sodium, fission products, and transuranics in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are the following: (1) salt freezing due to an unexpected change in the liquidus temperature, (2) phase separation or non-homogeneity of the molten salt due to the precipitation of solids or formation of immiscible liquids, and (3) any mechanism that can result in the separation and concentration of fissile elements from the molten salt. Any of these situations would result in an off-normal condition outside the established safety basis for electrorefiner (ER) operations. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This report describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, which consist of chlorides of potassium, lithium, strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium chlorides as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium, used for the processing of used nuclear fuels.

  16. Evaluación mediante la Dinámica de los Fluidos por Computadora (CFD de la corriente de aire del pulverizador agrícola ASS-800

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ignacio Herrera Prat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los pulverizadores agrícolas producen contaminación, debido fundamentalmente al desconocimiento en la regulación de estos, lo que continua siendo un problema, principalmente en los que utilizan corriente de aire para el traslado del producto al árbol. La corriente de aire producida por el ventilador del pulverizador está sometida al movimiento del aire en el ambiente y a la velocidad de traslación del equipo durante la aplicación, estos factores afectan el alcance de la corriente de aire y la eficacia del tratamiento al no lograr una cobertura uniforme en el árbol. El estudio de la corriente de aire mediante la dinámica de los fluidos por computadora (CFD permite la evaluación del alcance de la corriente a diferentes regímenes de trabajo y obtener la información necesaria para una adecuada regulación de los pulverizadores en el proceso de trabajo. En este caso para la modelación se utilizará el programa ANSYS 5.3, el mismo permite resolver problemas de fluidos y transferencia de calor utilizando las ecuaciones de Navier-Stokes. En el trabajo se evalúa la aerodinámica de la corriente de aire en diferentes regímenes de trabajo en el pulverizador integral ASS800 TYME, el mismo posee un ventilador axial con salida radial y se utiliza en el control de plagas en frutales.

  17. Heat capacity and entropy at the temperatures 5 K to 720 K and thermal expansion from the temperatures 298 K to 573 K of synthetic enargite (Cu3AsS4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, R.R., II; Robie, R.A.; Hemingway, B.S.; Evans, H.T., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The heat capacity of synthetic Cu3AsS4 (enargite) was measured by quasi-adiabatic calorimetry from the temperatures 5 K to 355 K and by differential scanning calorimetry from T = 339 K to T = 720 K. Heat-capacity anomalies were observed at T = (58.5 ?? 0.5) K (??trsHom = 1.4??R??K; ??trsSom = 0.02??R) and at T = (66.5 ?? 0.5) K (??trsHom = 4.6??R??K; ??trsSom = 0.08??R), where R = 8.31451 J??K-1??mol-1. The causes of the anomalies are unknown. At T = 298.15 K, Cop,m and Som(T) are (190.4 ?? 0.2) J??K-1??mol-1 and (257.6 ?? 0.6) J??K-1??mol-1, respectively. The superambient heat capacities are described from T = 298.15 K to T = 944 K by the least-squares regression equation: Cop,m/(J??K-1??mol-1) = (196.7 ?? 1.2) + (0.0499 ?? 0.0016)??(T/K) -(1918 000 ?? 84 000)??(T/K)-2. The thermal expansion of synthetic enargite was measured from T = 298.15 K to T = 573 K by powder X-ray diffraction. The thermal expansion of the unit-cell volume (Z = 2) is described from T = 298.15 K to T = 573 K by the least-squares equation: V/pm3 = 106??(288.2 ?? 0.2) + 104??(1.49 ?? 0.04)??(T/K). ?? 1996 Academic Press Limited.

  18. Pesquisa de enterovírus em casos de síndrome de meningite asséptica de Belém, PA Investigation of enterovirus in cases of aseptic meningitis syndrome of Belém, PA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Martins Lamarão

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de isolar e identificar os sorotipos de enterovírus, agentes etiológicos mais freqüentes da síndrome de meningite asséptica, foram estudadas amostras de líquor de pacientes da unidade de saúde de referência da Cidade de Belém-PA, do período de março de 2002 a março de 2003. As amostras foram inoculadas em cultivos celulares RD e HEp-2, e as positivas identificadas por neutralização ou imunofluorescência indireta. De 249 amostras, 33 (13,2% foram positivas sendo 57,6% (n=19 em pacientes menores de 11 anos (pWith the objective of isolating and identifying enteroviral serotypes, which are the most frequent etiologic agents of aseptic meningitis syndrome, cerebrospinal fluid samples were studied from patients referred to the health unit in the City of Belém (State of Pará, Brazil, from March 2002 to March 2003. The samples were inoculated in RD and HEp-2 cells line, and the positive were identified by neutralization test or indirect immunofluorescence. Out of 249 samples, 33 (13.2% were positive 57.6% (n = 19 in patients under 11 years of age (p <0.03 and predominantly (72.7% in males (p <0.008. The serotypes isolated were: Echovirus 30 (n = 31, Coxsackievirus B5 (n = 1 and Echovirus 30 and 4. In conclusion, this type of study also serves to determine the national picture, which is still little defined, regarding the most prevalent viral agents in AMS cases.

  19. FT-IR and FT-Raman studies of cross-linking processes with Ca²⁺ ions, glutaraldehyde and microwave radiation for polymer composition of poly(acrylic acid)/sodium salt of carboxymethyl starch - In moulding sands, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowska, Beata; Sitarz, Maciej; Olejnik, Ewa; Kaczmarska, Karolina; Tyliszczak, Bozena

    2015-12-01

    The hardening process of moulding sands on quartz matrices bound by polymer binders containing carboxyl and hydroxyl groups can be carried out by using physical (microwave radiation, thermal holding) and chemical (Ca(2+) cations, glutaraldehyde) cross-linking agents. The highest hardening level obtain moulding sand samples containing binders in a form of the aqueous composition of poly(acrylic acid)/sodium salt of carboxymethyl starch (PAA/CMS-Na) within the microwave radiation field, for which the bending strength is of 1.6 MPa value even after 24h from ending the agent activity. The authors focused, in this study, on finding the reason of this effect. It was shown, by means of the FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopic methods, that the chemical adsorption process activated by microwaves plays an essential role. The applied microwaves activate the polar groups present in the polymer composition structure as well as the quartz crystals surfaces (silane groups). Then the chemical adsorption occurs in the binder-matrix system within the microwave radiation field and intermolecular lattices are formed with a participation of hydrogen bridges (SiOH⋯OC, SiOH⋯OH) and COSi type bonds. PMID:26125981

  20. Fluorometric determination of cadmium(II) and mercury(II) using nanoclusters consisting of a gold-nickel alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A one-pot route has been developed for the preparation of bovine serum albumin-templated nickel-doped bimetallic gold-nickel nanoclusters (BSA-Au-Ni NCs) at a 10:1 M ratio of the precursor salts in a BSA matrix under alkaline conditions. The metal ions are reduced to the metal alloys by BSA. The resulting NCs display strong fluorescence and dual emission with peaks at 405 and 640 nm, respectively, under excitation at 340 nm. Fluorescence is strongly enhanced on addition of Cd(II) ions, but quenched on addition of Hg(II) ions. The findings have been exploited to design a fluorometric method for the separate determination of Cd(II) and Hg(II), respectively. The optimized analytical nanosystem displays relatively good dynamics between enhancement and quenching. Cd(II) and Hg(II) can be quantified in the 0 to 200 and 0 nM to 24 μM, respectively. The limits of detection are ∼1.8 nM in both cases, which indicates the highest sensitivity to Cd(II) and Hg(II) ions for a fluorescent probe. This new kind of nanocrystal probe is hardly interfered by a range of commonly encountered metal ions. Its advantages were demonstrated by determining Cd(II) and Hg(II) ions in spiked serum samples. (author)

  1. Recent advances in angiotensin II signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Touyz

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin II (Ang II* is a multifunctional hormone that influences the function of cardiovascular cells through a complex series of intracellular signaling events initiated by the interaction of Ang II with AT1 and AT2 receptors. AT1 receptor activation leads to cell growth, vascular contraction, inflammatory responses and salt and water retention, whereas AT2 receptors induce apoptosis, vasodilation and natriuresis. These effects are mediated via complex, interacting signaling pathways involving stimulation of PLC and Ca2+ mobilization; activation of PLD, PLA2, PKC, MAP kinases and NAD(PH oxidase, and stimulation of gene transcription. In addition, Ang II activates many intracellular tyrosine kinases that play a role in growth signaling and inflammation, such as Src, Pyk2, p130Cas, FAK and JAK/STAT. These events may be direct or indirect via transactivation of tyrosine kinase receptors, including PDGFR, EGFR and IGFR. Ang II induces a multitude of actions in various tissues, and the signaling events following occupancy and activation of Ang receptors are tightly controlled and extremely complex. Alterations of these highly regulated signaling pathways may be pivotal in structural and functional abnormalities that underlie pathological processes in cardiovascular diseases such as cardiac hypertrophy, hypertension and atherosclerosis.

  2. Spectroscopic and Biological Studies on Newly Synthesized Cobalt (II and Nickel (II Complexes with 2-Acetyl Coumarone Semicarbazone and 2-Acetyl Coumarone Thiosemicarbazone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Goel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Co(II and Ni(II complexes of general composition ML2X2 (M = Co(II, Ni(II; X = Cl−, NO3 − were synthesized by the condensation of metal salts with semicarbazone/thiosemicarbazone derived from 2-acetyl coumarone. The ligands and metal complexes were characterized by NMR, elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR, and atomic absorption spectral studies. On the basis of electronic, molar conductance and infrared spectral studies, the complexes were found to have square planar geometry. The Schiff bases and their metal complexes were tested for their antibacterial and antioxidant activities.

  3. SPECTROSCOPIC AND BIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON NEWLY SYNTHESIZED COPPER (II AND NICKEL (II COMPLEXES WITH p -DIMETHYLAMINOBANZALDEHYDE SEMICARBAZONE AND p -DIMETHYLAMINOBANZALDEHYDE THIOSEMICARBAZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulekh Chandra

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cu (II and Ni (II complexes of general composition [ML2]X2(M = Cu(II, Ni(II; X = Cl-, NO3- weresynthesized by the condensation of metal salts with semicarbazone / thiosemicarbazone derived from p-dimethylaminobanzaldehyde. The metal complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magneticsusceptibility measurements, IR and atomic absorption spectral studies. On the basis of electronic and infrared spectralstudies, the metal complexes were found to have tetrahedral geometry. The Schiff bases and their metal complexeswere tested for their antibacterial and antioxidant activities

  4. Evidence of the Earliest Salt Production Found in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Being critical in the development of the human civilization, the ancient salt-making has been an important research issue for both historians and archaeologists. Since salt dissolves in water, it is difficult to tell whether the salt in archaeological samples was caused by human production of salt or underground water. So how to judge the existence of salt production has been a world-wide problem in archaeology and archaeometry.

  5. Effects of Salt on Wheat Flour Dough Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Toshiyuki Toyosaki; Yasuhide Sakane

    2013-01-01

    Most food chemistry characteristics in the dough fermentation of salt are not solved. Effects of salt on the acceleration process of wheat flour dough fermentation were studied, respectively. The mechanism of dough expansion influenced by salt and yeast was also investigated. The dough expansion rate with no salt reached a maximum of 18% in the 50 min dough fermentation time. In contrast, dough with 2.0% salt reached an expansion rate of 96% in 30 min of fermentation. Furthermore, the maximum...

  6. Chemical and physical parameters of dried salted pork meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela Cviková

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was analysed and evaluated chemical and physical parameters of dried salted pork neck and ham. Dried salted meat is one of the main meat products typically produced with a variety of flavors and textures. Neck (14 samples and ham (14 samples was salted by nitrite salt mixture during 1week. The nitrite salt mixture for salting process (dry salting was used. This salt mixture contains: salt, dextrose, maltodextrin, flavourings, stabilizer E316, taste enhancer E621, nitrite mixture. The meat samples were dried at 4 °C and relative humudity 85% after 1 week salting. The weight of each sample was approximately 1 kg. After salting were vacuum-packed and analysed after 1 week. The traditional dry-cured meat such as dry-cured ham and neck obtained after 12 - 24 months of ripening under controlled conditions. The average protein content was significantly (p <0.001 lower in dried pork neck in comparison with dried salted pork ham. The average intramuscular fat was significantly (p <0.001 lower in dried pork ham in comparison with dried salted pork neck. The average moisture was significantly lower (p ≤0.05 in dried salted ham in comparison with dried pork neck. The average pH value was 5.50 in dried salted pork ham and 5.75 in dried salted pork neck. The content of arginine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine and threonine in dried salted ham was significantly lower (p <0.001 in comparison with dried salted pork neck. The proportion of analysed amino acids from total proteins was 56.31% in pork salted dried ham and 56.50% in pork salted dried neck.  Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  7. Sulfitos duplos contendo cobre (I e um metal de transição M(II tipo Cu2SO3.M(IISO3.2H 2O [M(II = Cu(II, Fe(II, Mn(II e Cd(II]: preparação e seletividade na incorporação de M(II Double sulfite containing copper (I and a metal transition M(II like Cu2SO3.M(IISO3.2H 2O [M(II = Cu(II, Fe(II, Mn(II and Cd(II]: synthesis and selectivity in M(II incorporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Almeida Silva

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The metal-catalyzed autooxidation of S(IV has been studied for more than a century without a consensus being obtained as to reaction rates, rate laws or mechanisms. The main objective in this work was to explore the reaction between Cu(II and SO2 in the presence of M(II, paying special attention to the formation of double sulfites like Cu2SO3.M(IISO3.2H 2O. The two principal aspects studied were: i a new way to prepare double sulfites with high purity degree and the selectivity in the M(II incorporation during the salt formation.

  8. Functionalization of nanomaterials with aryldiazonium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ahmed A; Salmi, Zakaria; Dahoumane, Si Amar; Mekki, Ahmed; Carbonnier, Benjamin; Chehimi, Mohamed M

    2015-11-01

    This paper reviews the surface modification strategies of a wide range of nanomaterials using aryldiazonium salts. After a brief history of diazonium salts since their discovery by Peter Griess in 1858, we will tackle the surface chemistry using these compounds since the first trials in the 1950s. We will then focus on the modern surface chemistry of aryldiazonium salts for the modification of materials, particularly metallic, semiconductors, metal oxide nanoparticles, carbon-based nanostructures, diamond and clays. The successful modification of sp(2) carbon materials and metals by aryldiazonium salts paved the way to innovative strategies for the attachment of aryl layers to metal oxide nanoparticles and nanodiamonds, and intercalation of clays. Interestingly, diazotized surfaces can easily trap nanoparticles and nanotubes while diazotized nanoparticles can be (electro)chemically reduced on electrode/materials surfaces as molecular compounds. Both strategies provided organized 2D surface assembled nanoparticles. In this review, aryldiazonium salts are highlighted as efficient coupling agents for many types of molecular, macromolecular and nanoparticulate species, therefore ensuring stability to colloids on the one hand, and the construction of composite materials and hybrid systems with robust and durable interfaces/interphases, on the other hand. The last section is dedicated to a selection of patents and industrial products based on aryldiazonium-modified nanomaterials. After nearly 160 years of organic chemistry, diazonium salts have entered a new, long and thriving era for the benefit of materials, colloids, and surface scientists. This tempts us to introduce the terminology of "diazonics" we define as the science and technology of aryldiazonium salt-derived materials. PMID:26299313

  9. PHILIP GlASS: SCREEN MUSIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neretina Maina S.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Research is devoted to the music of contemporary composer Philip Glass, which he wrote specifically for the movies including feature and documentary films by American, British and Australian directors (M.Scorsese, E.Morris, S.Daldry, P.Weir etc.. It makes a connection of the composition technologies between his filmmusic and his artmusic written in the aesthetics of minimalism (the repetition and additive processes. The works in collaboration with director G.Reggio highlights as top Glass’ creative at the film industry. It also covers the principles of compilation the composer’s music for a variety of screen opuses, movies and commercials.

  10. Baseload Nitrate Salt Central Receiver Power Plant Design Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilley, Drake [Abengoa Solar LLC, Lakewood, CO (United States); Kelly, Bruce [Abengoa Solar LLC, Lakewood, CO (United States); Burkholder, Frank [Abengoa Solar LLC, Lakewood, CO (United States)

    2014-12-12

    The objectives of the work were to demonstrate that a 100 MWe central receiver plant, using nitrate salt as the receiver coolant, thermal storage medium, and heat transport fluid in the steam generator, can 1) operate, at full load, for 6,400 hours each year using only solar energy, and 2) satisfy the DOE levelized energy cost goal of $0.09/kWhe (real 2009 $). To achieve these objectives the work incorporated a large range of tasks relating to many different aspects of a molten salt tower plant. The first Phase of the project focused on developing a baseline design for a Molten Salt Tower and validating areas for improvement. Tasks included a market study, receiver design, heat exchanger design, preliminary heliostat design, solar field optimization, baseline system design including PFDs and P&IDs and detailed cost estimate. The baseline plant met the initial goal of less than $0.14/kWhe, and reinforced the need to reduce costs in several key areas to reach the overall $0.09/kWhe goal. The major improvements identified from Phase I were: 1) higher temperature salt to improve cycle efficiency and reduce storage requirements, 2) an improved receiver coating to increase the efficiency of the receiver, 3) a large receiver design to maximize storage and meet the baseload hours objective, and 4) lower cost heliostat field. The second Phase of the project looked at advancing the baseline tower with the identified improvements and included key prototypes. To validate increasing the standard solar salt temperature to 600 °C a dynamic test was conducted at Sandia. The results ultimately proved the hypothesis incorrect and showed high oxide production and corrosion rates. The results lead to further testing of systems to mitigate the oxide production to be able to increase the salt temperature for a commercial plant. Foster Wheeler worked on the receiver design in both Phase I and Phase II looking at both design and lowering costs utilizing commercial fossil boiler

  11. Influence of silicon on microdistribution of mineral ions in roots of salt-stressed barley as associated with salt tolerance in plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁永超; 丁瑞兴

    2002-01-01

    Two contrasting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars: Kepin No.7 (salt sensitive), and Jian 4 (salt tolerant) were grown hydroponically to investigate the microdistribution of mineral ions in roots as affected by silicon (Si) with respect to salt tolerance. The experiment was undertaken consisting of two treatments with 3 replicates: (i) 120 mmol@L?1 NaCl alone (referred to as Si(NaCl+), (ii) 120 mmol@L?1 NaCl + 1.0 mmol@L?1 Si (as potassium silicate) (referred to as Si+NaCl+). Plant root tips were harvested for microanalysis using an energy dispersive X-ray microanalyzer (EDX) 30 d after transplanting. Higher Cl and Na X-ray peaks were recorded in the root epidermal, cortical and stelar cells of roots for the treatment Si(NaCl+ with the majorities of Na and Cl being accumulated in epidermal and cortical cells, while relatively low K peaks were observed regardless of the barley cultivars used. By contrast, considerably higher K peaks were detected in the epidermal, cortical and stelar cells of the roots for the treatment Si+NaCl+, but lower Cl and Na peaks were also observed for this treatment with both Na and Cl ions being evenly distributed in the epidermal, cortical and stelar cells. These findings directly support our previous finding, which showed that Si depressed the uptake of sodium but enhanced the uptake of potassium by salt-stressed barley. We believe that one of the possible mechanisms involved in Si-enhancement of salt tolerance in barley is attributed to the Si-induced changes in the uptake and microdistribution of mineral ions in plants.

  12. Remote sensing and geographic information system for appraisal of salt-affected soils in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurbachan; Bundela, D S; Sethi, Madhurama; Lal, Khajanchi; Kamra, S K

    2010-01-01

    Quantification of the nature, extent, and spatial distribution of salt-affected soils (SAS) for India and the world is essential for planning and implementing reclamation programs in a timely and cost-effective manner for sustained crop production. The national extent of SAS for India over the last four decades was assessed by conventional and remote sensing approaches using diverse methodologies and class definitions and ranged from 6.0 to 26.1 million hectares (Mha) and 1.2 to 10.1 Mha, respectively. In 1966, an area of 6 Mha under SAS was first reported using the former approach. Three national estimates, obtained using remote sensing, were reconciled using a geographic information system, resulting in an acceptable extent of 6.73 Mha. Moderately and severely salt-encrusted lands having large contiguous area have been correctly mapped, but slightly salt-encrusted land having smaller affected areas within croplands has not been accurately mapped. Recent satellite sensors (e.g., Resourcesat-1, Cartosat-2, IKONOS-II, and RISAT-2), along with improved image processing techniques integrated with terrain and other spatial data using a geographic information system, are enabling mapping at large scale. Significant variations in salt encrustation at the surface caused by soil moisture, waterlogging conditions, salt-tolerant crops, and dynamics of subsurface salts present constraints in appraisal, delineation, and mapping efforts. The article provides an overview of development, identification, characterization, and delineation of SAS, past and current national scenarios of SAS using conventional and remote sensing approaches, reconciliation of national estimates, issues of SAS mapping, and future scope.

  13. Increased sensitivity to salt stress in tocopherol-deficient Arabidopsis mutants growing in a hydroponic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellouzi, Hasna; Hamed, Karim Ben; Cela, Jana; Müller, Maren; Abdelly, Chedly; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2013-02-01

    Recent studies suggest that tocopherols could play physiological roles in salt tolerance but the mechanisms are still unknown. In this study, we analyzed changes in growth, mineral and oxidative status in vte1 and vte4 Arabidopsis thaliana mutants exposed to salt stress. vte1 and vte4 mutants lack α-tocopherol, but only the vte1 mutant is additionally deficient in γ-tocopherol. Results showed that a deficiency in vitamin E leads to reduced growth and increased oxidative stress in hydroponically-grown plants. This effect was observed at early stages, not only in rosettes but also in roots. The vte1 mutant was more sensitive to salt-induced oxidative stress than the wild type and the vte4 mutant. Salt sensitivity was associated with (i) high contents of Na(+), (ii) reduced efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm ratio) and (iii) more pronounced oxidative stress as indicated by increased hydrogen peroxide and malondialdeyde levels. The vte 4 mutant, which accumulates γ- instead of α-tocopherol showed an intermediate sensitivity to salt stress between the wild type and the vte1 mutant. Contents of abscisic acid, jasmonic acid and the ethylene precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid were higher in the vte1 mutant than the vte4 mutant and wild type. It is concluded that vitamin E-deficient plants show an increased sensitivity to salt stress both in rosettes and roots, therefore indicating the positive role of tocopherols in stress tolerance, not only by minimizing oxidative stress, but also controlling Na(+)/K(+) homeostasis and hormonal balance.

  14. The effect of the salt viscosity on future evolution of the Gorleben salt diapir, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemia, Zurab; Schmeling, H.; Koyi, H.

    2009-01-01

    . Decreasing salt viscosity allows the previously “stationary” anhydrite blocks to sink. If the effective viscosity of salt in post-depositional stage of the Gorleben diapir falls below this threshold value, induced internal flow due to the present anhydrite layer might disturb any repository within the diapir....

  15. TYPE 2 INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE RECEPTOR MODULATES BILE SALT EXPORT PUMP ACTIVITY IN RAT HEPATOCYTES

    OpenAIRE

    Kruglov, Emma A.; Gautam, Samir; Guerra, Mateus T.; Nathanson, Michael H.

    2011-01-01

    Bile salt secretion is mediated primarily by the bile salt export pump (Bsep), a transporter on the canalicular membrane of the hepatocyte. However, little is known about the short-term regulation of Bsep activity. Ca2+ regulates targeting and insertion of transporters in many cell systems, and Ca2+ release near the canalicular membrane is mediated by the type II inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R2), so we investigated the possible role of InsP3R2 in modulating Bsep activity. The k...

  16. Genotypic Differences in Antioxidative Stress and Salt Tolerance of Three Poplars Under Salt Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ruigang; Chen Shaoliang; Ma Haiyuan; Liu Liyuan; Li He; Weng Haijiao; Hao Zhiyong; Yang Shuang

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate genotypic difference in antioxidative ability and salt tolerance in poplars,the authors investigated the effects of increasing content of soil NaC1 on salt concentration in leaves,superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities,malondialdehyde (MDA)content,and membrane permeability (MP) in Populus euphratica Oliv.,P.popularis"35-44,"and P.×euramericana cv.I-214 (hereafter abbreviated as P.cv.I-214).Na+and C1- concentrations in leaves of P.popularis increased markedly over the increase of the duration of exposure to salinity,and culminated after 28 days of salt stress.SOD and POD activities declined correspondingly,followed by significant increases of MDA and MP,and leaf injury was finally observed.Compared with P.popularis,leaf Na+and C1- in P.cv.I-214 exhibited a trend similar to P.popularis,but a lower salt-induced increase of MDA and permeability was observed and lighter leaf necrosis occurred.In contrast to P.popularis and P.cv.I-214,SOD and POD activities in P.euphratica leaves increased rapidiy at the beginning of salt stress with a light soil NaCl concentration of 58.5 mmol/L.Furthermore,salt ion concentration,MDAcontent,and MP in P.euphratica leaves did not increase significantly during 28 days of increasing salt stress.Therefore,the increase in MP in P.popularis and P.cv.I-214 had a close relationship with a salt buildup in leaves under increasing salt stress.Salt-induced declines of SOD and POD activities might accelerate lipid peroxide and consequently resulted in ion leakage.P.euphratica rapidly activated antioxidant enzymes after the onset of salt stress,which might reduce the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and the subsequent acceleration of lipid peroxide.P.euphratica leaves exhibited a higher capacity to exclude salt in a longer period of increasing salinity,thus limited salt-induced lipid peroxide and MP,which contributed to membrane integrity maintenance and salt tolerance of P.euphratica.

  17. Supra-salt normal fault growth during the rise and fall of a diapir: Perspectives from 3D seismic reflection data, Norwegian North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvedt, Anette B. M.; Rotevatn, Atle; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.

    2016-10-01

    Normal faulting and the deep subsurface flow of salt are key processes controlling the structural development of many salt-bearing sedimentary basins. However, our detailed understanding of the spatial and temporal relationship between normal faulting and salt movement is poor due to a lack of natural examples constraining their geometric and kinematic relationship in three-dimensions. To improve our understanding of these processes, we here use 3D seismic reflection and borehole data from the Egersund Basin, offshore Norway, to determine the structure and growth of a normal fault array formed during the birth, growth and decay of an array of salt structures. We show that the fault array and salt structures developed in response to: (i) Late Triassic-to-Middle Jurassic extension, which involved thick-skinned, sub-salt and thin-skinned supra-salt faulting with the latter driving reactive diapirism; (ii) Early Cretaceous extensional collapse of the walls; and (iii) Jurassic-to-Neogene, active and passive diapirism, which was at least partly coeval with and occurred along-strike from areas of reactive diapirism and wall collapse. Our study supports physical model predictions, showcasing a three-dimensional example of how protracted, multiphase salt diapirism can influence the structure and growth of normal fault arrays.

  18. Pentosan polysulfate preserves renal microvascular P2X1 receptor reactivity and autoregulatory behavior in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zhengrong; Singletary, Sean T; Cha, Haword; Van Beusecum, Justin P; Cook, Anthony K; Pollock, Jennifer S; Pollock, David M; Inscho, Edward W

    2016-03-15

    Inflammation contributes to ANG II-associated impairment of renal autoregulation and microvascular P2X1 receptor signaling, but its role in renal autoregulation in mineralocorticoid-induced hypertension is unknown. Autoregulatory behavior was assessed using the blood-perfused juxtamedullary nephron preparation. Hypertension was induced in uninephrectomized control rats (UNx) by subcutaneous implantation of a DOCA pellet plus administration of 1% NaCl in the drinking water (DOCA-salt) for 3 wk. DOCA-salt rats developed hypertension that was unaltered by anti-inflammatory treatment with pentosan polysulfate (DOCA-salt+PPS) but was suppressed with "triple therapy" (hydrochlorothiazide, hydralazine, and reserpine; DOCA-salt+TTx). Baseline arteriolar diameters were similar across all groups. UNx rats exhibited pressure-dependent vasoconstriction with diameters declining to 69 ± 2% of control at 170 mmHg, indicating intact autoregulation. DOCA-salt treatment significantly blunted this pressure-mediated vasoconstriction. Diameters remained between 91 ± 4 and 98 ± 3% of control over 65-170 mmHg, indicating impaired autoregulation. In contrast, pressure-mediated vasoconstriction was preserved in DOCA-salt+PPS and DOCA-salt+TTx rats, reaching 77 ± 7 and 75 ± 3% of control at 170 mmHg, respectively. ATP is required for autoregulation via P2X1 receptor activation. ATP- and β,γ-methylene ATP (P2X1 receptor agonist)-mediated vasoconstriction were markedly attenuated in DOCA-salt rats compared with UNx (P < 0.05), but significantly improved by PPS or TTx (P < 0.05 vs. DOCA-salt) treatment. Arteriolar responses to adenosine and UTP (P2Y2 receptor agonist) were unaffected by DOCA-salt treatment. PPS and TTx significantly reduced MCP-1 and protein excretion in DOCA-salt rats. These results support the hypothesis that hypertension triggers inflammatory cascades but anti-inflammatory treatment preserves renal autoregulation in DOCA-salt rats, most likely by normalizing renal

  19. Molten salts and energy related materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fray, Derek

    2016-08-15

    Molten salts have been known for centuries and have been used for the extraction of aluminium for over one hundred years and as high temperature fluxes in metal processing. This and other molten salt routes have gradually become more energy efficient and less polluting, but there have been few major breakthroughs. This paper will explore some recent innovations that could lead to substantial reductions in the energy consumed in metal production and in carbon dioxide production. Another way that molten salts can contribute to an energy efficient world is by creating better high temperature fuel cells and novel high temperature batteries, or by acting as the medium that can create novel materials that can find applications in high energy batteries and other energy saving devices, such as capacitors. Carbonate melts can be used to absorb carbon dioxide, which can be converted into C, CO and carbon nanoparticles. Molten salts can also be used to create black silicon that can absorb more sunlight over a wider range of wavelengths. Overall, there are many opportunities to explore for molten salts to play in an efficient, low carbon world. PMID:27276650

  20. Salt-specific effects in lysozyme solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Janc

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of additions of low-molecular-mass salts on the properties of aqueous lysozyme solutions are examined by using the cloud-point temperature, T_{cloud}, measurements. Mixtures of protein, buffer, and simple salt in water are studied at pH=6.8 (phosphate buffer and pH=4.6 (acetate buffer. We show that an addition of buffer in the amount above I_{buffer} = 0.6 mol dm^{-3} does not affect the T_{cloud} values. However, by replacing a certain amount of the buffer electrolyte by another salt, keeping the total ionic strength constant, we can significantly change the cloud-point temperature. All the salts de-stabilize the solution and the magnitude of the effect depends on the nature of the salt. Experimental results are analyzed within the framework of the one-component model, which treats the protein-protein interaction as highly directional and of short-range. We use this approach to predict the second virial coefficients, and liquid-liquid phase diagrams under conditions, where T_{cloud} is determined experimentally.

  1. Thermal properties of complexes of amaranthus starch with selected metal salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciesielski, Wojciech; Tomasik, Piotr

    2003-07-28

    Metal cations (Cu(II), Fe(III), Mn(II), and Ni(II)) are ligated by amaranthus starch as proven by EPR spectra and conductivity measurements. The hydroxyl groups of starch are the coordination sites. The acetate and nitrate anions of the metal salts behave as bidentate ligands and reside in the inner coordination sphere of resulting polycenter Werner complexes. There is only a weak degeneration of orbitals of central metal ions caused by a shift of unpaired spin from the central atom to the ligand. The ligation of the central metal atoms resulted in a variation of the thermal stability, pathway, and rate of thermal decomposition of starch as proven by thermogravimetric (TG) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) measurements.

  2. Thermal properties of complexes of amaranthus starch with selected metal salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal cations (Cu(II), Fe(III), Mn(II), and Ni(II)) are ligated by amaranthus starch as proven by EPR spectra and conductivity measurements. The hydroxyl groups of starch are the coordination sites. The acetate and nitrate anions of the metal salts behave as bidentate ligands and reside in the inner coordination sphere of resulting polycenter Werner complexes. There is only a weak degeneration of orbitals of central metal ions caused by a shift of unpaired spin from the central atom to the ligand. The ligation of the central metal atoms resulted in a variation of the thermal stability, pathway, and rate of thermal decomposition of starch as proven by thermogravimetric (TG) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) measurements

  3. Cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), zinc(II), cadmium(II) and dioxouranium(II) complexes of thiophene-2-aldehyde-4-phenyl-thiosemicarbazone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper describes the synthesis and characterisation of thiophene-2-aldehyde-4-phenylthiosemicarbazone (TAPTSC) and its metal complexes with Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and UO(II). (author). 30 refs., 1 table

  4. Cultural Meromixis: the Influence of Road Salt Deicers on Two Urban Kettle Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koretsky, C.; Sibert, R.; Wyman, D. A.; Griffey, D.; Krishnamurthy, R. V.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing global use of road salt deicers has led to an influx of salts, particularly NaCl and CaCl2, into urban surface waters. This influx has led to documented salinization of drinking water supplies, as well as damage to ecosystems. There is an increasing recognition that the influx of road salt deciers may also influence the physical mixing of lakes, with dramatic consequences for lake biogeochemistry. In this study, the water column chemistry of two kettle lakes in urban Kalamazoo, MI, USA was monitored for over a year. Woods Lake, an ~9.7 ha, 14 m max depth lake, receives most water from storm water sewers, whereas nearby Asylum Lake, an ~19.8 ha, 15.8 m max depth lake, is primarily groundwater fed. The water columns of both lakes are strongly redox stratified, but exhibit some significant differences in water chemistry. The input of road salt has caused Woods Lake to transition to meromixis, with permanently anoxic bottom waters and significant accumulations of dissolved Mn(II), Fe(II), NH3, PO4-3 and sometimes HS- in the hypolimnion. In contrast, Asylum Lake appears to be monomictic, with turnover occurring in fall, but not spring. During most seasons, the hypolimnion of Asylum Lake has significant levels of dissolved Mn(II), NH3, PO4-3, and sometimes HS-, but dissolved Fe(II) remains below detection limits. A comparison of δ18O and δD with the local meteoric water line demonstrates that both lakes undergo significant evaporation. Woods Lake is considerably more influenced by evaporation than Asylum Lake, presumably due to the longer residence time of water in Woods Lake. The longer residence time, together with the smaller volume of water in Woods Lake, likely explains the more rapid transition to meromixis compared to Asylum Lake. This study demonstrates that road salt deicers can significantly influence the biogeochemistry and physical function of urban lakes, and in some cases can result in dimictic lakes transitioning to cultural meromixis.

  5. Inorganic Salts Effect on Adsorption Behavior of Surfactant AEC at Liquid/Liquid Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhua Yang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Behaviors of nonionic-anionic surfactant sodium fatty Alcohol polyoxyethylene Ether Carboxylate (AEC at dodecane/water interface influenced by inorganic salts NaCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2 were investigated by interfacial tension methods and molecular dynamics simulation. Contrasted distributions of various salts at interface and in aqueous solutions and resulting lowering the interfacial tension have been observed. Composition of surfactants-salts complex at interface surrounding different cations within 2.5 Å were found to be in two categories: (i the octahedral complexation of divalent cation was generated by the participation of surfactant head group and water molecule, (ii only water molecules were involved in the complexation. According to the simulation results, all the Na+ involved in type ii, without any direct interaction with surfactant head group, while Ca2+ and Mg2+ involved in type I, following the formula: Ca2++4 (surfactant +2(H2 O⇄ [Ca (surfactant4 [(H2 O]2]2+ M2+g+(surfactant+5 (H2 O⇄[Mg (surfactant [(H2 O]5 ]2+ This strongly chelate interaction between Ca2+ and surfactants makes surfactants more stretched at interface, thus more effective in oil/water interface.

  6. Intracerebroventricular Administration of Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antisense Oligonucleotides Attenuates Salt Appetite in the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma; Itharat; Fluharty; Sakai

    1997-10-01

    The anterior ventral third ventricle (AV3V) region of the brain contains high concentrations of mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) and glucocorticoid receptors (GR) that are important in the maintenance of body fluid and electrolyte balance as well as other physiological processes. Daily intracerebroventricular pulse injections of MR antisense oligonucleotides significantly suppressed deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) induced salt appetite in a dose-related manner. Similar administration of GR antisense or scrambled/sense oligonucleotide into the third ventricle failed to inhibit salt appetite. Salt appetite aroused after adrenalectomy was not suppressed by MR antisense oligonucleotide treatments but was suppressed by an antisense oligonucleotide directed against the angiotensin II AT1 receptor subtype. Receptor binding analysis demonstrated that MR and GR oligonucleotide treatments each reduced their respective receptor subtypes. Finally, although GR antisense oligonucleotide treatment was ineffective in suppressing DOCA-induced salt appetite, this treatment did increase stress induced corticosterone release as well as delayed the recovery of corticosterone to basal levels after stress. PMID:9787254

  7. Salt-restriction-spoon improved the salt intake among residents in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of an improved salt-restriction spoon on the attitude of salt-restriction, the using rate of salt-restriction-spoon, the actual salt intake, and 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (24HUNa. DESIGN: A community intervention study. SETTING: Two villages in Beijing. PARTICIPANTS: 403 local adult residents being responsible for home cooking. INTERVENTION: Participants were randomly assigned to the intervention group or the control group. Those in the intervention group were provided with an improved salt-restriction-spoon and health education, and were informed of their actual salt intake and 24HUNa. Not any intervention was given to those in the control group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The scores on the variables of Health Belief Model, the using rate of salt-restriction-spoon, the actual salt intake, and 24HUNa. ANALYSIS: Covariance analyses, Chi-square tests, Student's t tests, and repeated measures analyses of variance. RESULTS: After 6 months of intervention, the intervention group felt significantly less objective barriers, and got access to significantly more cues to action as compared to the control group. The using rate and the correctly using rate of salt-restriction-spoon were significantly higher in the intervention group. The daily salt intake decreased by 1.42 g in the intervention group and by 0.28 g in the control group, and repeated measures analysis of variance showed significant change over time (F = 7.044, P<0.001 and significant difference between groups by time (F = 2.589, P = 0.041. The 24HUNa decreased by 34.84 mmol in the intervention group and by 33.65 mmol in the control group, and repeated measures analysis of variance showed significant change over time (F = 14.648, P<0.001 without significant difference between groups by time (F = 0.222, P = 0.870. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention effect was acceptable, therefore, the improved salt-restriction-spoon and corresponding

  8. Salt on roads and the environment (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessberg, Philipp von; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2000-01-01

    This report descripes the extent of use of salt on roads in Denmark and the environmental consequences of this. Alternative strategies for reducing the risk of greasy roads and different ways of alleviating the vegetation are also discussed.The different consequences for the environment that this...... that this report discusses are:- The ground water.- Lakes and streams.- Plants and trees along roads.The consequences for the economy through usage of salt on roads has not been carried out.......This report descripes the extent of use of salt on roads in Denmark and the environmental consequences of this. Alternative strategies for reducing the risk of greasy roads and different ways of alleviating the vegetation are also discussed.The different consequences for the environment...

  9. Glyme-lithium salt phase behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Wesley A

    2006-07-01

    Phase diagrams are reported for glyme mixtures with simple lithium salts. The glymes studied include monoglyme (DME), diglyme, triglyme, and tetraglyme. The lithium salts include LiBETI, LiAsF6, LiI, LiClO4, LiBF4, LiCF3SO3, LiBr, LiNO3, and LiCF3CO2. The phase diagrams clearly illustrate how solvate formation and thermophysical properties are dictated by the ionic association strength of the salt (i.e., the properties of the anions) and chain length of the solvating molecules. This information provides critical predictive capabilities for solvate formation and ionic interactions common in organometallic reagents and battery electrolytes. PMID:16805630

  10. Thermal Conductivity of Al-Salt Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Zhang, Mei; Wang, Lijun; Seetharaman, Seshadri

    2015-11-01

    With a view to examine the possibility of estimating the content of entrapped metallic aluminium in the salt cake from aluminium remelting, the thermal diffusivity of reference composites of KCl-NaCl-Al was measured as a function of aluminium metal content at room temperature. The thermal conductivity of the reference composites was found to increase with the metallic Al content. The lumped parameter model approach was carried out to discuss the influence of different geometry arrangements of each phase, viz. air, salts and metallic aluminium on the thermal conductivity. Application of the present results to industrial samples indicates that factors such as the interfacial condition of metallic Al particles have to be considered in order to estimate the amount of entrapped Al in the salt cake.

  11. Brine flow in heated geologic salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

    2013-03-01

    This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

  12. Synthesis, structure, and properties of azatriangulenium salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, B.W.; Krebs, Frederik C

    2001-01-01

    A general synthetic route to novel nitrogen-bridged heterocyclic carbenium ions of the acridinium and triangulenium type has been developed and investigated. The synthetic method is based on nucleophilic aromatic substitution (SNAr) on the tris(2,6-dimethoxyphenyl)carbenium ion (1) with primary a...... amines and, by virtue of its stepwise and irreversible nature, provides a powerful tool for the preparation of a wide variety of new heterocyclic carbenium salts. Several derivatives of the three new oxygen- and/or nitrogen-bridged triangulenium salts, azadioxa- (6), diazaoxa- (7......), and triazatriangulenium (4), have been synthesized and their physicochemical properties have been investigated. Crystal structures for compounds 2 b-PF6: 2d-PF6, 4b-BF4, 4c-BF4, 6e-BF4, and 8 are reported. The different packing modes found for the triazatriagulenium salts are discussed in relation to the electrostatic...

  13. Brine flow in heated geologic salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

    2013-03-01

    This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes' governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

  14. Micellar aggregates and hydrogels from phosphonobile salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Ponnusamy; Chopra, D; Row, T N Guru; Maitra, Uday

    2005-10-21

    The aggregation properties of novel bile acid analogs-phosphonobile salts (PBS)-have been studied. The critical micellar concentration of 23 and 24-phosphonobile salts were measured using fluorescence and 31P NMR methods. All the ten synthesized phosphonobile salts formed gels at different pH ranges in water. The pH range at which individual PBSs could gelate water was narrow and influenced by the number and conformation of hydroxyl groups. A reversible thermochromic system has been developed (with 23-phosphonodeoxycholate at pH 3.3), which changes color upon gelation. The investigation of the first hydrogels derived from trihydroxy bile acid analogs 1 and 6 was made using fluorescence, 31P NMR, X-ray crystallography, circular dichroism and SEM. The present studies reveal that the gel network consists of a chiral, fibrous structure possessing hydrophobic interiors. PMID:16211104

  15. Salt vulnerability assessment methodology for urban streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, A. R.; Gharabaghi, B.; McBean, E. A.

    2014-09-01

    De-icing agents such as road salts while used for winter road maintenance can cause negative effects on urban stream water quality and drinking water supplies. A new methodology using readily available spatial data to identify Salt Vulnerable Areas (SVAs) for urban streams is used to prioritize implementation of best management practices. The methodology calculates the probable chloride concentration statistics at specified points in the urban stream network and compares the results with known aquatic species exposure tolerance limits to characterize the vulnerability scores. The approach prioritizes implementation of best management practices to areas identified as vulnerable to road salt. The vulnerability assessment is performed on seven sites in four watersheds in the Greater Toronto Area and validated using the Hanlon Creek watershed in Guelph. The mean annual in-stream chloride concentration equation uses readily available spatial data - with province-wide coverage - that can be easily used in any urban watershed.

  16. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, R M

    1999-06-01

    A case of hyponatraemia associated with subarachnoid haemorrhage is presented. The provisional diagnosis of an inappropriate antidiuresis was made and treatment with fluid restriction was instituted. However the patient continued to deteriorate as the diuresis continued and the hyponatraemia worsened, resulting in hypovolaema. The salt wasting syndrome was subsequently diagnosed and saline and fludrocortisone (0.2 mg/day) was initiated, reducing the renal salt loss, increasing the plasma sodium and improving the neurological status of the patient. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome is an important and under-recognised cause of hyponatraemia in neurosurgical patients, particularly in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. It is essential to differentiate it from the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion to avoid complications of hypovolaemia and reduced cerebral perfusion as illustrated by this case. Brain natriuretic peptide may be responsible for this syndrome although this requires further investigation.

  17. Fast Spectrum Molten Salt Reactor Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Patton, Bruce W [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL; Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

    2011-07-01

    During 2010, fast-spectrum molten-salt reactors (FS-MSRs) were selected as a transformational reactor concept for light-water reactor (LWR)-derived heavy actinide disposition by the Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC) program and were the subject of a preliminary scoping investigation. Much of the reactor description information presented in this report derives from the preliminary studies performed for the ARC project. This report, however, has a somewhat broader scope-providing a conceptual overview of the characteristics and design options for FS-MSRs. It does not present in-depth evaluation of any FS-MSR particular characteristic, but instead provides an overview of all of the major reactor system technologies and characteristics, including the technology developments since the end of major molten salt reactor (MSR) development efforts in the 1970s. This report first presents a historical overview of the FS-MSR technology and describes the innovative characteristics of an FS-MSR. Next, it provides an overview of possible reactor configurations. The following design features/options and performance considerations are described including: (1) reactor salt options-both chloride and fluoride salts; (2) the impact of changing the carrier salt and actinide concentration on conversion ratio; (3) the conversion ratio; (4) an overview of the fuel salt chemical processing; (5) potential power cycles and hydrogen production options; and (6) overview of the performance characteristics of FS-MSRs, including general comparative metrics with LWRs. The conceptual-level evaluation includes resource sustainability, proliferation resistance, economics, and safety. The report concludes with a description of the work necessary to begin more detailed evaluation of FS-MSRs as a realistic reactor and fuel cycle option.

  18. SY 09-3 ROLE OF INTRARENAL RAS IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF SALT-DEPENDENT HYPERTENSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Akira

    2016-09-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a critical role in the regulation of blood pressure and body fluid homeostasis. In addition to its physiological roles, angiotensin II (AngII) induces inflammation, cell growth, mitogenesis, apoptosis, migration, and differentiation, regulates the gene expression of bioactive substances, and activates multiple intracellular signaling pathways, all of which contribute to renal tissue injuries. In the kidney, all of the RAS components are present and intrarenal AngII is formed by independent multiple mechanisms. In particular, a series of our studies have revealed that intrarenal angiotensinogen plays a predominant role in the regulation of AngII production in the kidney. Consequently, AngII is compartmentalized in the renal interstitial fluid and the proximal tubular compartments with much higher concentrations than those existing in the circulation. Recent evidence has also revealed that inappropriate activation of the intrarenal RAS is an important contributor to the pathogenesis of hypertension and renal injury. For example, circulating plasma AngII levels are reduced in CKD patients with salt-dependent hypertension; however, intrarenal RAS is activated by inappropriately augmentation of angiotensinogen in the kidney. Thus, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms responsible for independent regulation of the intrarenal RAS. In this symposium, I will briefly summarize our current understanding of independent regulation of the intrarenal RAS and discuss how inappropriate activation of this system contributes to the development of salt-dependent hypertension in patients with CKD. We will also discuss the possible biomarker of the intrarenal RAS. PMID:27642896

  19. Asymmetric Hydrogenation of 3-Substituted Pyridinium Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renom-Carrasco, Marc; Gajewski, Piotr; Pignataro, Luca; de Vries, Johannes G; Piarulli, Umberto; Gennari, Cesare; Lefort, Laurent

    2016-07-01

    The use of an equivalent amount of an organic base leads to high enantiomeric excess in the asymmetric hydrogenation of N-benzylated 3-substituted pyridinium salts into the corresponding piperidines. Indeed, in the presence of Et3 N, a Rh-JosiPhos catalyst reduced a range of pyridinium salts with ee values up to 90 %. The role of the base was elucidated with a mechanistic study involving the isolation of the various reaction intermediates and isotopic labeling experiments. Additionally, this study provided some evidence for an enantiodetermining step involving a dihydropyridine intermediate. PMID:27140832

  20. Tendzin Phuntso's Chemistry of Salts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangSheng; CaiJingfeng

    2003-01-01

    An examination of large quantities of Tibetan data for a project entitled "Alchemy and Alchemic Medicines of Tibet revealed that ancient Tibetan terminology for and classification of inorganic salts have much in common with modern chemistry. This is particularly true of research conducted by Tendzin Phuntso (born in 1672 in Gongjo Count, Chamdo, Tibet) and his representative work, "gso rig gcesb dus rin chen phreng ba bzugs so". This work summarizes Tibetan recognition of inorganic salts in chemistry over the course of 1000 years or more, and is of great significance in the world history of science and technolgy.

  1. COBALT SALTS PRODUCTION BY USING SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila V. Dyakova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the extracting cobalt salts by using mixtures on the basis of tertiary amine from multicomponent solutions from the process of hydrochloride leaching of cobalt concentrate. The optimal composition for the extraction mixture, the relationship between the cobalt distribution coefficients and modifier’s nature and concentration, and the saltingout agent type have been determined. A hydrochloride extraction technology of cobalt concentrate yielding a purified concentrated cobalt solution for the production of pure cobalt salts has been developed and introduced at Severonikel combine.

  2. Electrical conduction in transition-metal salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We predict that a given transition-metal salt as, for example, a K2CuCl4.2H2O-type compound, can behave as an electrical conductor in the paramagnetic case. In fact, we determine the electrical conductance in a salt of this type. This conductance is found to be quantised in agreement with previous well-known results. Related mathematical expressions in the context of superexchange interaction are obtained. In addition, we determine the corresponding (macroscopically viewed) current density and the associated electron wave functions.

  3. Salt-specific effects in lysozyme solutions

    OpenAIRE

    T. Janc; M. Kastelic; M. Bončina; Vlachy, V.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of additions of low-molecular-mass salts on the properties of aqueous lysozyme solutions are examined by using the cloud-point temperature, $T_{cloud}$, measurements. Mixtures of protein, buffer, and simple salt in water are studied at pH=6.8 (phosphate buffer) and pH=4.6 (acetate buffer). We show that an addition of buffer in the amount above $I_{buffer} = 0.6$ mol dm$^{-3}$ does not affect the $T_{cloud}$ values. However, by replacing a certain amount of the buffer electrolyte b...

  4. [Cerebral salt wasting syndrome in bacterial meningitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attout, H; Guez, S; Seriès, C

    2007-10-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage is the most common cause of cerebral salt wasting syndrome. There are few reports of this condition in infectious meningitis. We describe a patient with hyponatremia and bacterial meningitis. Hyponatremia rapidly improved after administration of sodium chloride. The purpose of this report is to alert clinicians to the fact that hyponatremic patients with central nervous system disease do not necessarily have a syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), but may have cerebral salt wasting syndrome. By contrast with SIADH, the treatment requires saline administration.

  5. Disposal of Savannah River Plant waste salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proposed NRC guidelines for the disposal of waste with the radionuclide content of SRP salt would permit shallow land burial. Federal and state rules require that potentially hazardous chemical wastes (mainly nitrate-nitrite salts in the saltcrete) be contained to the degree necessary to meet drinking water standards in the ground water beneath the landfill boundary. This paper describes the proposed saltcrete landfill and tests under way to ensure that the landfill meet these criteria. The work includes laboratory and field tests of the saltcrete itself, a field test of a one-tenth linear scale model of the entire landfill system, and a numerical model of the system

  6. Extractive Distillation with Salt in Solvent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Extractive distillation with salt in solvent is a new process for producing anhydrous ethanol by combining the principle of "salt effect" and some traditional extractive distillation methods. Compared with the common extractive distillation the performance of solvent is improved, the recycling amount of solvent is reduced to 1/4-1/5, and the number of theoretical plates is reduced to 1/3. Energy consumption and cost of equipment are also reduced and continuous production is realized. High efficiency and low solvent wastage make this technique feasible.

  7. Electrical conduction in transition-metal salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grado-Caffaro, M.A.; Grado-Caffaro, M. [Scientific Consultants, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-08-01

    We predict that a given transition-metal salt as, for example, a K{sub 2}CuCl{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O-type compound, can behave as an electrical conductor in the paramagnetic case. In fact, we determine the electrical conductance in a salt of this type. This conductance is found to be quantised in agreement with previous well-known results. Related mathematical expressions in the context of superexchange interaction are obtained. In addition, we determine the corresponding (macroscopically viewed) current density and the associated electron wave functions.

  8. Cathodes for molten-salt batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argade, Shyam D.

    1993-02-01

    Viewgraphs of the discussion on cathodes for molten-salt batteries are presented. For the cathode reactions in molten-salt cells, chlorine-based and sulfur-based cathodes reactants have relatively high exchange current densities. Sulfur-based cathodes, metal sulfides, and disulfides have been extensively investigated. Primary thermal batteries of the Li-alloy/FeS2 variety have been available for a number of years. Chlorine based rechargable cathodes were investigated for the pulse power application. A brief introduction is followed by the experimental aspects of research, and the results obtained. Performance projections to the battery system level are discussed and the presentation is summarized with conclusions.

  9. Salt-mediated changes in leaf mesophyll cells of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Gapinska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Five-week-old tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Perkoz grown in pots containing garden soil in a growth chamber were submitted to 50 or 150 mM NaCl for 1 h, 2 and 5 days. Tomato leaf anatomy generally did not change after short time salinity, except 5-day-treatment with 150 mM NaCl, where changed cell shape (shrunk and deformed simultaneously with increased volume of intercellular spaces (IS were observed. Although leaf hydration (H depleted only 1 h after 150 mM NaCl treatment both salt concentrations generated two coexisting populations of salt-affected mesophyll cells: (i slightly-affected (Sl-A which showed incipient plasmolysis or slightly changed shapes, and (ii severely-affected (Sv-A which showed severe plasmolysis; serious deformation of cell shape or disorganization including cell degeneration. In Sl-A cells salinity changed location and shape of chloroplasts which were: more rounded, with oversized starch grains (SG (2d or more flat (5d. Salt-mediated changes were becoming more distinguished and pronounced with length of 150 mM NaCl treatment. The amount of salt-affected cells was changing during the experiment and depended on the salt concentration. In 50 mM-treated plants salt-affected cells appeared 1 h after treatment (~40% and raised up to 78% on 2nd day, however the population of Sl-A cells dominated. In 150 mM NaCl-treated plants the percentage of affected cells raised during the experiment from 75% to 99%. Firstly Sl-A cells dominated, but on the 5th day the majority was Sv-A. Salt-affected cells were distributed quite evenly in palisade or spongy mesophyll, except 2 d after treatment with 50 mM NaCl, when their number was higher in the palisade mesophyll. Sv-A cells in the spongy mesophyll were located mostly near the bundle while in the palisade mesophyll more irregularly. Different susceptibility of cells to salt stress might be the consequence of an unequal distribution of osmotic stress and subsequent ionic

  10. High Temperature Fluoride Salt Test Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cunningham, Richard Burns [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Fugate, David L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Holcomb, David Eugene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peretz, Fred J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, Dane F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yoder, Jr, Graydon L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Effective high-temperature thermal energy exchange and delivery at temperatures over 600°C has the potential of significant impact by reducing both the capital and operating cost of energy conversion and transport systems. It is one of the key technologies necessary for efficient hydrogen production and could potentially enhance efficiencies of high-temperature solar systems. Today, there are no standard commercially available high-performance heat transfer fluids above 600°C. High pressures associated with water and gaseous coolants (such as helium) at elevated temperatures impose limiting design conditions for the materials in most energy systems. Liquid salts offer high-temperature capabilities at low vapor pressures, good heat transport properties, and reasonable costs and are therefore leading candidate fluids for next-generation energy production. Liquid-fluoride-salt-cooled, graphite-moderated reactors, referred to as Fluoride Salt Reactors (FHRs), are specifically designed to exploit the excellent heat transfer properties of liquid fluoride salts while maximizing their thermal efficiency and minimizing cost. The FHR s outstanding heat transfer properties, combined with its fully passive safety, make this reactor the most technologically desirable nuclear power reactor class for next-generation energy production. Multiple FHR designs are presently being considered. These range from the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) [1] design originally developed by UC-Berkeley to the Small Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (SmAHTR) and the large scale FHR both being developed at ORNL [2]. The value of high-temperature, molten-salt-cooled reactors is also recognized internationally, and Czechoslovakia, France, India, and China all have salt-cooled reactor development under way. The liquid salt experiment presently being developed uses the PB-AHTR as its focus. One core design of the PB-AHTR features multiple 20 cm diameter, 3.2 m long fuel channels

  11. Activation of CFTR by ASBT-mediated bile salt absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijvelds, Marcel J C; Jorna, Huub; Verkade, Henkjan J; Bot, Alice G M; Hofmann, Franz; Agellon, Luis B; Sinaasappel, Maarten; de Jonge, Hugo R

    2005-11-01

    In cholangiocytes, bile salt (BS) uptake via the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) may evoke ductular flow by enhancing cAMP-mediated signaling to the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) anion channel. We considered that ASBT-mediated BS uptake in the distal ileum might also modulate intestinal fluid secretion. Taurocholate (TC) induced a biphasic rise in the short circuit current across ileal tissue, reflecting transepithelial electrogenic ion transport. This response was sensitive to bumetanide and largely abrogated in Cftr-null mice, indicating that it predominantly reflects CFTR-mediated Cl- secretion. The residual response in Cftr-null mice could be attributed to electrogenic ASBT activity, as it matched the TC-coupled absorptive Na+ flux. TC-evoked Cl- secretion required ASBT-mediated TC uptake, because it was blocked by a selective ASBT inhibitor and was restricted to the distal ileum. Suppression of neurotransmitter or prostaglandin release, blocking of the histamine H1 receptor, or pretreatment with 5-hydroxytryptamine did not abrogate the TC response, suggesting that neurocrine or immune mediators of Cl- secretion are not involved. Responses to TC were retained after carbachol treatment and after permeabilization of the basolateral membrane with nystatin, indicating that BS modulate CFTR channel gating rather than the driving force for Cl- exit. TC-induced Cl- secretion was maintained in cGMP-dependent protein kinase II-deficient mice and only partially inhibited by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor H89, suggesting a mechanism of CFTR activation different from cAMP or cGMP signaling. We conclude that active BS absorption in the ileum triggers CFTR activation and, consequently, local salt and water secretion, which may serve to prevent intestinal obstruction in the postprandial state. PMID:16037545

  12. Quality characteristics of low fat chicken nuggets: effect of salt substitute blend and pea hull flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Arun K; Banerjee, Rituparna; Sharma, Brahma Deo

    2015-04-01

    Effect of salt substitution (Treat I) and added pea hull flour (PHF) at 8 (Treat-II), 10 (Treat-III) and 12 % (Treat-IV) levels on the quality of low fat chicken nuggets (Control) was investigated. Replacement of NaCl significantly affected (P salt replacement while added PHF decreased their values. Textural properties were lower (P < 0.05) in the treated products. Addition of PHF significantly (P < 0.05) decreased cholesterol and glycolipids contents at 8 % and 12 % levels, respectively. Sensory evaluation exhibited that 40 % NaCl can efficiently be replaced and 8 % PHF can be incorporated as a source of fibre in low fat chicken nuggets without significant effect on various attributes. PMID:25829611

  13. Transient Effects of Salt Shock on the Photosynthetic Machinery in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛海滨; 阮翔; 李国富; 公衍道; 张秀芳; 赵南明

    2002-01-01

    The transient effects of NaCl on chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 cells were examined. In dark-adapted cells, salt shock induced a transition from state 2 to state 1, and the artificial quinones, phenyl-1,4-benzoquinone (PBQ) and 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-1,4-benzoquinone (DBMIB), quenched the Chl fluorescence markedly after addition of 0.8 mol/L NaCl. In light-adapted cells, the addition of NaCl caused a significant increase in the stationary fluorescence yield, which resulted in a decrease in the quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII). The results indicate that salt shock can induce a change in the affinity between the photosystems and the phycobilisomes (PBS) and can perturb the orientation of the Chl molecules in PSII.

  14. Effect of biosolid waste compost on soil respiration in salt-affected soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raya, Silvia; Gómez, Ignacio; García, Fuensanta; Navarro, José; Jordán, Manuel Miguel; Belén Almendro, María; Martín Soriano, José

    2013-04-01

    A great part of mediterranean soils are affected by salinization. This is an important problem in semiarid areas increased by the use of low quality waters, the induced salinization due to high phreatic levels and adverse climatology. Salinization affects 25% of irrigated agriculture, producing important losses on the crops. In this situation, the application of organic matter to the soil is one of the possible solutions to improve their quality. The main objective of this research was to asses the relation between the salinity level (electrical conductivity, EC) in the soil and the response of microbial activity (soil respiration rate) after compost addition. The study was conducted for a year. Soil samples were collected near to an agricultural area in Crevillente and Elche, "El Hondo" Natural Park (Comunidad de Regantes from San Felipe Neri). The experiment was developed to determine and quantify the soil respiration rate in 8 different soils differing in salinity. The assay was done in close pots -in greenhouse conditions- containing soil mixed with different doses of sewage sludge compost (2, 4 and 6%) besides the control. They were maintained at 60% of water holding capacity (WHC). Soil samples were analyzed every four months for a year. The equipment used to estimate the soil respiration was a Bac-Trac and CO2 emitted by the soil biota was measured and quantified by electrical impedance changes. It was observed that the respiration rate increases as the proportion of compost added to each sample increases as well. The EC was incremented in each sampling period from the beginning of the experiment, probably due to the fact that soils were in pots and lixiviation was prevented, so the salts couldńt be lost from soil. Over time the compost has been degraded and, it was more susceptible to be mineralized. Salts were accumulated in the soil. Also it was observed a decrease of microbial activity with the increase of salinity in the soil. Keywords: soil

  15. Indole-7-carbaldehyde thiosemicarbazone as a flexidentate ligand toward ZnII, CdII, PdII and PtII ions: cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing properties of the PtII complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Abeer A; Khaledi, Hamid; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Mohd Ali, Hapipah; Karimian, Hamed

    2014-03-14

    A new thiosemicarbazone (LH2) derived from indole-7-carbaldehyde was synthesized and reacted with Zn(II), Cd(II), Pd(II) and Pt(II) salts. The reactions with zinc and cadmium salts in 2 : 1 (ligand-metal) molar ratio afforded complexes of the type MX2(LH2)2, (X = Cl, Br or OAc), in which the thiosemicarbazone acts as a neutral S-monodentate ligand. In the presence of potassium hydroxide, the reaction of LH2 with ZnBr2 resulted in deprotonation of the thiosemicarbazone at the hydrazine and indole nitrogens to form Zn(L)(CH3OH). The reaction of LH2 with K2PdCl4 in the presence of triethylamine, afforded Pd(L)(LH2) which contains two thiosemicarbazone ligands: one being dianionic N,N,S-tridentate while the other one is neutral S-monodentate. When PdCl2(PPh3)2 was used as the Pd(II) ion source, Pd(L)(PPh3) was obtained. In a similar manner, the analogous platinum complex, Pt(L)(PPh3), was synthesized. The thiosemicarbazone in the latter two complexes behaves in a dianionic N,N,S-tridentate fashion. The platinum complex was found to have significant cytotoxicity toward four cancer cells lines, namely MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, HT-29, and HCT-116 but not toward the normal liver WRL-68 cell line. The apoptosis-inducing properties of the Pt complex was explored through fluorescence microscopy visualization, DNA fragmentation analysis and propidium iodide flow cytometry. PMID:24442181

  16. Ecology of Great Salt Pond, Block Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Great Salt Pond is an island of estuarine water on Block Island, which sits in the middle of the Northwest Atlantic Continental Shelf. When the last continental glaciers retreated, they left a high spot on a terminal moraine. The rising sea from melting glaciers formed two island...

  17. Salt Lake Community College 1999 Report Card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salt Lake Community Coll., UT.

    This document is an institutional self-assessment report by Salt Lake Community College (SLCC) for 1999. Performance indicators chosen to gauge the relative success of SLCC in achieving its mission, values and goals include: (1) participation rate by students who are minorities; (2) participation rate by students with disabilities; (3) new student…

  18. Salt Lake Community College Report Card, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salt Lake Community Coll., UT.

    This report provides an overview of Salt Lake Community College and assesses institutional performance on several indicators. The following indicators are included: (1) participation rate by ethnicity; (2) participation rate by disability; (3) new student assessment of programs and services; (4) success rates of developmental education students;…

  19. Salt repository project closeout status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-06-01

    This report provides an overview of the scope and status of the US Department of Energy (DOE`s) Salt Repository Project (SRP) at the time when the project was terminated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The report reviews the 10-year program of siting a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste in rock salt formations. Its purpose is to aid persons interested in the information developed during the course of this effort. Each area is briefly described and the major items of information are noted. This report, the three salt Environmental Assessments, and the Site Characterization Plan are the suggested starting points for any search of the literature and information developed by the program participants. Prior to termination, DOE was preparing to characterize three candidate sites for the first mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The sites were in Nevada, a site in volcanic tuff; Texas, a site in bedded salt (halite); and Washington, a site in basalt. These sites, identified by the screening process described in Chapter 3, were selected from the nine potentially acceptable sites shown on Figure I-1. These sites were identified in accordance with provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. 196 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. Fluorescent carbon dot–molecular salt hydrogels

    OpenAIRE

    Cayuela, Angelina; Kennedy, Stuart R.; Soriano, Laura; Jones, Christopher D.; Valcárcel, M.; Steed, Jonathan W.

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of functionalised carbon nanodots within a novel low molecular weight salt hydrogel derived from 5-aminosalicylic acid is reported. The carbon dots result in markedly enhanced gelation properties, while inclusion within the hydrophobic gel results in a dramatic fluorescence enhancement for the carbon nanomaterials. The resulting hybrid CD gels exhibit a useful sensor response for heavy metal ions, particularly Pb2+.

  1. Specific Investigations Related to Salt Rock Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vons, L. H.; Zelikson, A.; Charo, L.;

    1986-01-01

    In this paper results are given of work in various countries in rather unrelated areas of research. Nevertheless, since the studies have been undertaken to better understand salt behaviour, both from mechanical and chemical points of view, some connection between the studies can be found. Studies...

  2. Modeling of Salt Solubilities in Mixed Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiavone-Filho, O.; Rasmussen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    A method to correlate and predict salt solubilities in mixed solvents using a UNIQUAC+Debye-Huckel model is developed. The UNIQUAC equation is applied in a form with temperature-dependent parameters. The Debye-Huckel model is extended to mixed solvents by properly evaluating the dielectric consta...

  3. Salt repository project closeout status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides an overview of the scope and status of the US Department of Energy (DOE's) Salt Repository Project (SRP) at the time when the project was terminated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The report reviews the 10-year program of siting a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste in rock salt formations. Its purpose is to aid persons interested in the information developed during the course of this effort. Each area is briefly described and the major items of information are noted. This report, the three salt Environmental Assessments, and the Site Characterization Plan are the suggested starting points for any search of the literature and information developed by the program participants. Prior to termination, DOE was preparing to characterize three candidate sites for the first mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The sites were in Nevada, a site in volcanic tuff; Texas, a site in bedded salt (halite); and Washington, a site in basalt. These sites, identified by the screening process described in Chapter 3, were selected from the nine potentially acceptable sites shown on Figure I-1. These sites were identified in accordance with provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. 196 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs

  4. Crushed-salt constitutive model update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Mellegard, K.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

  5. Suggestopedic/SALT research in English Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Wilson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of research. carried out under the auspices of the Institute for Language Teaching, University of Stellenbosch,l at the Cape Town College of Education. The study tests and evaluates a Remedial Literature Course for English-speaking college students using Suggestopedia!SALT. The subjects in _the remedial and normative groups were English-speaking students in the senior primary class. A ten-week suggestopedic!SALT English Literature Course was developed for the remedial course. Two measuring instruments were used: an English Literary Concepts Test and an Opinionnaire on attitudes towards EnglishLiterature. The validation, treatment and analysis oft he data are discussed. Conclusions and recommendations follow. Die verslag handel oor navorsing aan die Kaapstadse Onderwyskollege onder die beskerming van dielnstituutvir Taalonderrig van die UniversiteitvanStellenbosch.Die ondersoek toets en evalueer 'n remedierende letterkunde kursus vir Engelssprekende kollegestudente waar Suggestopedagogiek!SALT gebruik is. Die studente in die remedierende ennormatiewe groepe was Engelssprekend en in die senior-primere klas. 'n Suggestopediese!SALT Engelsletterkunde- kursus wat 10 weke sou duur, is vir die remedierende kursus ontwerp. Twee meetinstrumente is gebruik: 'n toets van Engels-literere konsepte en' n vraelys oor houdings ten opsigte van Engels-letterkunde. Die geldigverklaring. behandeling en ontleding van data word bespreek. Gevolgtrekkings en aanbevelings volg.

  6. Al/Cl2 molten salt battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner, J.

    1972-01-01

    Molten salt battery has been developed with theoretical energy density of 5.2 j/kg (650 W-h/lb). Battery, which operates at 150 C, can be used in primary mode or as rechargeable battery. Battery has aluminum anode and chlorine cathode. Electrolyte is mixture of AlCl3, NaCl, and some alkali metal halide such as KCl.

  7. The Path to Nitrate Salt Disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-16

    The topic is presented in a series of slides arranged according to the following outline: LANL nitrate salt incident as thermal runaway (thermally sensitive surrogates, full-scale tests), temperature control for processing, treatment options and down selection, assessment of engineering options, anticipated control set for treatment, and summary of the overall steps for RNS.

  8. Hybrid Molten Salt Reactor (HMSR) System Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolley, Robert D [PPPL; Miller, Laurence F [PPPL

    2014-04-01

    Can the hybrid system combination of (1) a critical fission Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) having a thermal spectrum and a high Conversion Ratio (CR) with (2) an external source of high energy neutrons provide an attractive solution to the world's expanding demand for energy? The present study indicates the answer is an emphatic yes.

  9. Salt stress signals shape the plant root

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.S. Galvan-Ampudia; C. Testerink

    2011-01-01

    Plants use different strategies to deal with high soil salinity. One strategy is activation of pathways that allow the plant to export or compartmentalise salt. Relying on their phenotypic plasticity, plants can also adjust their root system architecture (RSA) and the direction of root growth to avo

  10. Estabilidade dos carotenoides,antocianinas e vitamina C presentes no suco tropical de acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC. adoçado envasado pelos processos Hot-Fill e asséptico Stability of carotenoids, anthocyanins and vitamin C presents in acerola sweetened tropical juice preserved by hot fill and aseptic processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claisa Andréa Silva de Freitas

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available As frutas tropicais são muito aceitas pelos consumidores, e são importantes fontes de componentes antioxidantes. A acerola, conhecida por conter grandes quantidades de vitamina C, é também rica em antocianinas e carotenóides. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a estabilidade dos carotenóides totais, antocianinas totais e vitamina C do suco tropical de acerola adoçado, elaborado pelos processos Hot Fill (garrafas de vidro e asséptico (embalagens cartonadas, durante 350 dias de armazenamento em condições similares às de comercialização (28ºC ± 2ºC. Ao final do experimento observou-se que não houve perdas de antocianinas totais para o processo Hot Fill, no entanto, para o processo asséptico constatou-se uma redução de 86,89% dos teores iniciais. Os valores de carotenóides totais permaneceram inalterados nas amostras do processo asséptico, enquanto nas do Hot Fill houve uma redução de 12,5%. Constatou-se redução nos teores de vitamina C da ordem de 23,61% para o processo Hot Fill e de 35,95% para o processo asséptico.Tropical fruits are widely accepted by consumers, and important sources of antioxidant compounds. Acerola, known to have high vitamin C levels, is also rich in anthocyanins and carotenoids. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the stability of the total carotenoids, total anthocyanins and ascorbic acid of the acerola sweetened tropical juice produced by the Hot Fill (glass bottles and aseptic (packings carton process during 350 days of storage in similar conditions of trade (28ºC ± 2ºC. It was observed that there were not losses of total anthocyanins for the process Hot Fill, however for the aseptic process a reduction of 86.89% of the initial values was observed. The values of total corotenoids stayed unaffected in the samples of the aseptic process, while in the one of the Hot Fill there was a reduction of 12.5%. A reduction in the values of ascorbic acid of 23.61% was observed for the Hot

  11. Effect of byproducts of flue gas desulfurization on the soluble salts composition and chemical properties of sodic soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinman Wang

    Full Text Available The byproducts of flue gas desulfurization (BFGD are a useful external source of Ca(2+ for the reclamation of sodic soils because they are comparatively cheap, generally available and have high gypsum content. The ion solution composition of sodic soils also plays an important role in the reclamation process. The effect of BFGD on the soluble salts composition and chemical properties of sodic soils were studied in a soil column experiment. The experiment consisted of four treatments using two different sodic soils (sodic soil I and sodic soil II and two BFGD rates. After the application of BFGD and leaching, the soil soluble salts were transformed from sodic salts containing Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 to neutral salts containing NaCl and Na2SO4. The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, pH and electrical conductivity (EC decreased at all soil depths, and more significantly in the top soil depth. At a depth of 0-40 cm in both sodic soil I and sodic soil II, the SAR, EC and pH were less than 13, 4 dS m(-1 and 8.5, respectively. The changes in the chemical properties of the sodic soils reflected the changes in the ion composition of soluble salts. Leaching played a key role in the reclamation process and the reclamation effect was positively associated with the amount of leaching. The soil salts did not accumulate in the top soil layer, but there was a slight increase in the middle and bottom soil depths. The results demonstrate that the reclamation of sodic soils using BFGD is promising.

  12. Inner complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Be(II) and dioxouranium(VI) with salicylaldehyde semicarbazone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, P.L.; Agarwala, B.V.; Dey, A.K. (Allahabad Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1980-08-01

    Salicylaldehyde semicarbazone (SALSC), yields complexes, ML/sub 2/.2H/sub 2/O (M = Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II)) and ML/sub 2/ (M = Be(II) and UO/sub 2/(VI)). The complexes have been characterized by analytical, spectral, magnetic and thermogravimetric studies. SALSC acts as a singly negatively charged bidentate anion, and two such anions coordinate to the metal ion through the hydroxyl oxygen and nitrogen of the C = N group yielding a neutral chelate. The complexes of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) are paramagnetic with magnetic moment values 4.93, 3.35 and 1.98 BM, respectively. The magnetic and spectral data suggest octahedral geometry of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and UO/sub 2/(VI) complexes, whereas the Be(II) complex is tetrahedral. TG study reveals the order of thermal stability as : Zn(II) approximately equal to Ni(II) >Be(II) approximately equal to Cd(II) > UO/sub 2/(VI) approximately equal to Co(II) approximately equal to Cu(II).

  13. Salt Acclimation of Cyanobacteria and Their Application in Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadin Pade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The long evolutionary history and photo-autotrophic lifestyle of cyanobacteria has allowed them to colonize almost all photic habitats on Earth, including environments with high or fluctuating salinity. Their basal salt acclimation strategy includes two principal reactions, the active export of ions and the accumulation of compatible solutes. Cyanobacterial salt acclimation has been characterized in much detail using selected model cyanobacteria, but their salt sensing and regulatory mechanisms are less well understood. Here, we briefly review recent advances in the identification of salt acclimation processes and the essential genes/proteins involved in acclimation to high salt. This knowledge is of increasing importance because the necessary mass cultivation of cyanobacteria for future use in biotechnology will be performed in sea water. In addition, cyanobacterial salt resistance genes also can be applied to improve the salt tolerance of salt sensitive organisms, such as crop plants.

  14. Salt Marsh Integrity Data at Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Salt Marsh Integrity (SMI) project involves monitoring several salt marsh metrics such as: historical condition and geomorphic setting; ditch density;...

  15. Salt Marsh Integrity Data at Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Salt Marsh Integrity (SMI) project involves monitoring several salt marsh metrics such as: historical condition and geomorphic setting; ditch density;...

  16. Seafloor character--Offshore of Salt Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Salt Point, California (raster data file is included in "SeafloorCharacter_SaltPoint.zip," which...

  17. Formation and development of salt crusts on soil surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Sheng

    2015-12-14

    The salt concentration gradually increases at the soil free surface when the evaporation rate exceeds the diffusive counter transport. Eventually, salt precipitates and crystals form a porous sodium chloride crust with a porosity of 0.43 ± 0.14. After detaching from soils, the salt crust still experiences water condensation and salt deliquescence at the bottom, brine transport across the crust driven by the humidity gradient, and continued air-side precipitation. This transport mechanism allows salt crust migration away from the soil surface at a rate of 5 μm/h forming salt domes above soil surfaces. The surface characteristics of mineral substrates and the evaporation rate affect the morphology and the crystal size of precipitated salt. In particular, substrate hydrophobicity and low evaporation rate suppress salt spreading.

  18. Compound list: imatinib, methanesulfonate salt [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available imatinib, methanesulfonate salt IMA 00186 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-t...ggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/imatinib%2C_methanesulfonate_salt.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ...

  19. Treatment of phenylmercury salts by heterogeneous photocatalysis over TiO(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fournière, Emmanuel M; Leyva, Ana G; Gautier, Eduardo A; Litter, Marta I

    2007-10-01

    UV/TiO(2) photocatalysis of phenylmercury salts in aqueous solutions has been performed starting from both acetate (C(6)H(5)HgCH(3)CO(2), PMA) and chloride (C(6)H(5)HgCl, PMC) salts, in the presence or the absence of oxygen at acidic pH. Removal of Hg(II) in solution took place with the simultaneous deposit of dark or pale gray solids on the photocatalyst, identified as metallic Hg (when starting from PMA) or mixtures of Hg(0) and Hg(2)Cl(2) (when starting from PMC). Partial mineralization of the organic part of both compounds has also been achieved. Hg(II) removal and mineralization were enhanced in the absence of oxygen. PMA photocatalysis followed a saturation kinetics, going from first order at low concentration to zero order at higher concentrations (>0.5mM). For PMA, reaction was faster at high pH (11) with formation of mixtures of Hg and HgO. Phenol was detected as a product of the reaction in both cases, PMA and PMC, and no formation of dangerous methyl- or ethylmercury species was observed in the first case. A mechanism for the photocatalytic reaction has been proposed. The fact that calomel was found as a deposit when starting from PMC under nitrogen suggests that the mechanism of Hg(II) transformation proceeds through successive one-electron transfer reactions passing by mercurous forms.

  20. The Salt (Science-Arts-Language-Technology) Comenius Project: Primary School Students' Views about Salt

    OpenAIRE

    Ursula ONDRATSCHEK; BALIM, Ali Günay; Suat TURKOGUZ

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate students' views towards salt structure, properties and application areas. "The SALT Comenius Project" initiated activities in 2012. This project was conducted with 10 European countries including Turkey, Germany, Italy, Poland, Greece, Spain, Estonia, Austria, Romania, and Scotland. The aim of this project is to develop friendships between primary school students through science, art, language, technology, and culture and to increase students' attention toward...