WorldWideScience

Sample records for asse ii salt

  1. Salt mine Asse II. Status of the retrieval activities; Schachtanlage Asse II. Stand der Arbeiten und Rueckholung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-02-15

    The booklet on the status of retrieval activities in the salt mine Asse II includes information on the background of medium-level radioactive waste disposal during 1967 to 1978 on behalf of the Federal government. Since 2009 the former mine is operated by the BfS with the assignment of decommissioning. The potential risk for stability and safety due to problems of water ingress were known before beginning of the disposals. The retrieval of the radioactive waste will require many decades; the costs are financed by tax money. The planning of the retrieval is currently on the way, details of the concept are described.

  2. Information on Asse II; Informationen ueber die Schachtanlage Asse II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-02-15

    The information brochure on Asse II describes the situation in the repository for radioactive wastes that was closed by law due to the violations of safety standards. The discussed topics include the necessity of waste retrieval, the problems with public anxiety and public information, the hazard of an uncontrolled water ingress (worst case scenario), the work sites in the cavern, man-machine interactions and the cost of the project.

  3. Experiments in the Underground Laboratory for Dosimetry and Spectrometry (UDO) of the PTB in the Asse II salt mine - summary highlighting work performed and outlook

    CERN Document Server

    Neumaier, S; Zwiener, R

    2003-01-01

    Due to its extremely low area dose rate, the Underground Laboratory for Dosimetry and Spectrometry (UDO) of the PTB at the 925 m level of the Asse II Salt Mine offers unique possibilities for the investigation and calibration of dosimetry systems of high sensitivity as are used, for example, in environmental monitoring. Due to its low area dose rate, this laboratory has an outstanding position worldwide. The low ambient dose equivalent rate in the UDO of approx. 1 nSv/h, that means of only approx. 1 percent of the ambient dose rate typically encountered at the Earth's surface, is mainly due to the following reasons: - At the depth at which the UDO is situated, the penetrating muon component of cosmic radiation which considerably contributes to the environmental equivalent dose rate at the Earth's surface (in Braunschweig, for example, approx. one third) is already attenuated by more than five orders of magnitude and is therefore completely negligible for dosimetric investigations; - The activity concentration...

  4. Information on the Schacht Asse II. Key aspect concentration; Informationen ueber die Schachtanlage Asse II. Schwerpukt Konzentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-11-15

    The information brochure on the Schacht Asse II covers the following issues: without the main mine fan the operation of Asse II would not be possible; the site selection for a final repository as a democratic challenge; the final radioactive waste disposal management in Germany, Asse, Morsleben and Konrad are rather close.

  5. Atlas Asse. Information about the Asse II mine (2009-2016); Atlas Asse. Informationen ueber die Schachtanlage Asse II (2009-2016)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-11-15

    The newly published ''Atlas Asse'' provides an overview of the challenges and tasks of the Asse decommissioning project. On about 140 pages you will find a selection of reports, graphics and reports, which have been published since 2009 with the first publication of the magazine ''Asse Einblicke''. The atlas also provides orientation for those who have so far dealt little or little with the complex topic. [German] Einen Ueberblick rund um die Herausforderungen und Aufgaben des Stilllegungsprojektes Asse liefert der neu herausgegebene Atlas Asse. Auf etwa 140 Seiten findet sich eine Auswahl von Reportagen, Grafiken und Berichten, die seit 2009 mit dem ersten Erscheinen des Magazins ''Asse Einblicke'' veroeffentlicht wurden. Der Atlas verschafft Orientierung auch fuer diejenigen, die sich bislang wenig oder kaum mit dem komplexen Thema beschaeftigt haben.

  6. Numerical analysis of the bearing capacity of complex rock mechanical underground systems with filigree structures in the presence of imponderables. A contribution to the systematization of the investigative process with application/demonstration using the example of the salt cavern ASSE II/south flank; Numerische Analyse des Tragverhaltens komplexer gebirgsmechanischer untertaegiger Systeme mit filigranen Strukturen bei Anwesenheit von Imponderabilien. Ein Beitrag zur Systematisierung des Untersuchungsprozesses mit Anwendung/Demonstration am Beispiel des Salzbergwerks Schacht ASSE II/Suedflanke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyogtyev, Oleksandr

    2017-03-02

    The thesis dealing with the numerical analysis of the bearing capacity of complex rock mechanical underground systems with filigree structures in the presence of imponderables covers the following issues: status of science and technology, concept for the performance of numerical studies on the bearing capacity of large-volume underground systems, application example salt cavern ASSE II - application of the developed concept/development of numerical tools for the overall system/application of the global model to the given questions/realization of the modification potential.

  7. Information on the Schacht Asse II. Responsibility; Informationen ueber die Schachtanlage Asse II. Verantwortung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-03-15

    The information brochure (BfS) on Asse - responsibility - discusses the issue of radioactive waste disposal. The members of the final repository commission have to present the final report on the site selection for the final repository. The central question is the safe disposal of nuclear waste for a million of years.

  8. Brine migration test report: Asse Salt Mine, Federal Republic of Germany: Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, A.J.; Eckert, J.; Kalia, H.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents a summary of Brine Migration Tests which were undertaken at the Asse mine of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) under a bilateral US/FRG agreement. This experiment simulates a nuclear waste repository at the 800-m (2624-ft) level of the Asse salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. This report describes the Asse salt mine, the test equipment, and the pretest properties of the salt in the mine and in the vicinity of the test area. Also included are selected test data (for the first 28 months of operation) on the following: brine migration rates, thermomechaical behavior of the salt (including room closure, stress reading, and thermal profiles), borehole gas pressures, and borehole gas analyses. In addition to field data, laboratory analyses of pretest salt properties are included in this report. The operational phase of these experiments was completed on October 4, 1985, with the commencement of cooldown and the start of posttest activities. 7 refs., 68 figs., 48 tabs.

  9. Modeling of radionuclide transport through rock formations and the resulting radiation exposure of reference persons. Calculations using Asse II parameters; Modellierung des Transports von Radionukliden durch Gesteinsschichten und der resultierenden Strahlenexposition von Referenzpersonen. Berechnungen mit Parametern der Asse II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueppers, Christian; Ustohalova, Veronika; Steinhoff, Mathias

    2012-05-21

    The long-term release of radioactivity into the ground water path cannot be excluded for the radioactive waste repository Asse II. The possible radiological consequences were analyzed using a radio-ecological scenario developed by GRS. A second scenario was developed considering the solubility of radionuclides in salt saturated solutions and retarding/retention effects during the radionuclide transport through the cap rock layers. The modeling of possible radiation exposure was based on the lifestyle habits of reference persons. In Germany the calculation procedure for the prediction of radionuclide release from final repositories is not defined by national standards, the used procedures are based on analogue methods from other radiation protection calculations.

  10. Analysis of the utilization history and the planning and the participation profiles of the shaft plant Asse II. Final report; Analyse der Nutzungsgeschichte und der Planungs- und Beteiligungsformen der Schachtanlage Asse II. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ipsen, Detlev; Kost, Susanne; Weichler, Holger

    2010-03-08

    The report on the utilization history of Asse II covers the following issues: Historical facts of the purchase of the shaft plant Asse II, decision sequences and line of arguments, research mine or final repository? Emplacement of radioactive materials (inventory), stability of the mine layout and water ingress, risk assessment - accident analysis, communication and public information, conclusions and recommendations.

  11. Public involvement on closure of Asse II radioactive waste repository in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallenbach-Herbert, Beate [Oko-Institut e.V., Darmstadt (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    From 1967 to 1978, about 125,800 barrels of low- and intermediate level waste were disposed of - nominally for research purposes - in the former 'Asse' salt mine which had before been used for the production of potash for many years. Since 1988 an inflow of brine is being observed which will cause dangers of flooding and of a collapse due to salt weakening and dissolution if it should increase. Since several years the closure of the Asse repository is planned with the objective to prevent the flooding and collapse of the mine and the release of radioactive substances to the biosphere. The first concept that was presented by the former operator, however, seemed completely unacceptable to regional representatives from politics and NGOs. Their activities against these plans made the project a top issue on the political agenda from the federal to the local level. The paper traces the main reasons which lead to the severe safety problems in the past as well as relevant changes in the governance system today. A focus is put on the process for public involvement in which the Citizens' Advisory Group 'A2B' forms the core measure. Its structure and framework, experience and results, expectations from inside and outside perspectives are presented. Furthermore the question is tackled how far this process can serve as an example for a participatory approach in a siting process for a geological repository for high active waste which can be expected to be highly contested in the affected regions. (authors)

  12. Nuclear Waste Management under Approaching Disaster: A Comparison of Decommissioning Strategies for the German Repository Asse II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilg, Patrick; Gabbert, Silke; Weikard, Hans-Peter

    2017-07-01

    This article compares different strategies for handling low- and medium-level nuclear waste buried in a retired potassium mine in Germany (Asse II) that faces significant risk of uncontrollable brine intrusion and, hence, long-term groundwater contamination. We survey the policy process that has resulted in the identification of three possible so-called decommissioning options: complete backfilling, relocation of the waste to deeper levels in the mine, and retrieval. The selection of a decommissioning strategy must compare expected investment costs with expected social damage costs (economic, environmental, and health damage costs) caused by flooding and subsequent groundwater contamination. We apply a cost minimization approach that accounts for the uncertainty regarding the stability of the rock formation and the risk of an uncontrollable brine intrusion. Since economic and health impacts stretch out into the far future, we examine the impact of different discounting methods and rates. Due to parameter uncertainty, we conduct a sensitivity analysis concerning key assumptions. We find that retrieval, the currently preferred option by policymakers, has the lowest expected social damage costs for low discount rates. However, this advantage is overcompensated by higher expected investment costs. Considering all costs, backfilling is the best option for all discounting scenarios considered. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Cyanoplatinate (II) salts as luminescent materials for scintillation counting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergsøe, P.; Hansen, P.Gregers; Jacobsen, C.F.

    1962-01-01

    Eleven cyanoplatinate (II) salts have been studied under excitation with fast, charged particles. The salts were prepared via the barium compound, and crystals were grown from aqueous solutions. The formulae were determined by standard analytical procedures. Four of the salts were not previously ...... for the detection of electromagnetic radiation, some data pertinent to γ-spectroscopy are given....

  14. South Bay Salt Pond Restoration, Phase II at Ravenswood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project: Phase II Construction at Ravenswood, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  15. Mercury Phase II Study - Mercury Behavior in Salt Processing Flowsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, V. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Shah, H. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States). Sludge and Salt Planning; Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Wilmarth, W. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-07-25

    Mercury (Hg) in the Savannah River Site Liquid Waste System (LWS) originated from decades of canyon processing where it was used as a catalyst for dissolving the aluminum cladding of reactor fuel. Approximately 60 metric tons of mercury is currently present throughout the LWS. Mercury has long been a consideration in the LWS, from both hazard and processing perspectives. In February 2015, a Mercury Program Team was established at the request of the Department of Energy to develop a comprehensive action plan for long-term management and removal of mercury. Evaluation was focused in two Phases. Phase I activities assessed the Liquid Waste inventory and chemical processing behavior using a system-by-system review methodology, and determined the speciation of the different mercury forms (Hg+, Hg++, elemental Hg, organomercury, and soluble versus insoluble mercury) within the LWS. Phase II activities are building on the Phase I activities, and results of the LWS flowsheet evaluations will be summarized in three reports: Mercury Behavior in the Salt Processing Flowsheet (i.e. this report); Mercury Behavior in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Flowsheet; and Mercury behavior in the Tank Farm Flowsheet (Evaporator Operations). The evaluation of the mercury behavior in the salt processing flowsheet indicates, inter alia, the following: (1) In the assembled Salt Batches 7, 8 and 9 in Tank 21, the total mercury is mostly soluble with methylmercury (MHg) contributing over 50% of the total mercury. Based on the analyses of samples from 2H Evaporator feed and drop tanks (Tanks 38/43), the source of MHg in Salt Batches 7, 8 and 9 can be attributed to the 2H evaporator concentrate used in assembling the salt batches. The 2H Evaporator is used to evaporate DWPF recycle water. (2) Comparison of data between Tank 21/49, Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), and Tank 50 samples suggests that the total mercury as well as speciated

  16. The nomenclature of the African wild ass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groves, C.P.; Smeenk, C.

    2007-01-01

    The 19th-century reports on the occurrence and identity of wild asses in North-East Africa are reviewed, as well as the names applied in various publications by Fitzinger and von Heuglin, respectively. The first published name for the African wild ass, Asinus africanus Fitzinger, 1858, is a nomen

  17. Diversion of aspartate in ASS1-deficient tumours fosters de novo pyrimidine synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Shiran; Adler, Lital; Yizhak, Keren; Sarver, Alona; Silberman, Alon; Agron, Shani; Stettner, Noa; Sun, Qin; Brandis, Alexander; Helbling, Daniel; Korman, Stanley; Itzkovitz, Shalev; Dimmock, David; Ulitsky, Igor; Nagamani, Sandesh Cs; Ruppin, Eytan; Erez, Ayelet

    2015-11-19

    Cancer cells hijack and remodel existing metabolic pathways for their benefit. Argininosuccinate synthase (ASS1) is a urea cycle enzyme that is essential in the conversion of nitrogen from ammonia and aspartate to urea. A decrease in nitrogen flux through ASS1 in the liver causes the urea cycle disorder citrullinaemia. In contrast to the well-studied consequences of loss of ASS1 activity on ureagenesis, the purpose of its somatic silencing in multiple cancers is largely unknown. Here we show that decreased activity of ASS1 in cancers supports proliferation by facilitating pyrimidine synthesis via CAD (carbamoyl-phosphate synthase 2, aspartate transcarbamylase, and dihydroorotase complex) activation. Our studies were initiated by delineating the consequences of loss of ASS1 activity in humans with two types of citrullinaemia. We find that in citrullinaemia type I (CTLN I), which is caused by deficiency of ASS1, there is increased pyrimidine synthesis and proliferation compared with citrullinaemia type II (CTLN II), in which there is decreased substrate availability for ASS1 caused by deficiency of the aspartate transporter citrin. Building on these results, we demonstrate that ASS1 deficiency in cancer increases cytosolic aspartate levels, which increases CAD activation by upregulating its substrate availability and by increasing its phosphorylation by S6K1 through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Decreasing CAD activity by blocking citrin, the mTOR signalling, or pyrimidine synthesis decreases proliferation and thus may serve as a therapeutic strategy in multiple cancers where ASS1 is downregulated. Our results demonstrate that ASS1 downregulation is a novel mechanism supporting cancerous proliferation, and they provide a metabolic link between the urea cycle enzymes and pyrimidine synthesis.

  18. Study of Interaction Platinum Salts (Ii and Palladium (Ii on the Biologically Active Ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmat Nizami Kyzy Azizova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Studied complexing ability of platinum (II and palladium (II with a time of personal gray-oxygen and sulfur-containing ligands donor nitrogens in different taniyah. A combination of functional groups. It is found that the complexation unimportant role nature of the starting metal salts, the pH of the medium, the nature of the solvent and the ratio of reactants. Determine the actual denticity tiodiuksusnoy, tiodipro propionic acid, mercaptoethanol, and bis -- hydroxyethyl sulfide. Discovered that a molecule entering the reaction of cysteamine origin walks splitting S–S communication and the resulting deproto-bined mercamine enter into complexation. In non-aqueous medium splitting S–S communication occurs.

  19. Fe(II)-Co(II) Double Salt Incorporated Magnetic Hydrophobic Microparticles for Invertase Adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köse, Kazım; Erol, Kadir; Emniyet, Asiye Aslı; Köse, Dursun Ali; Avcı, Gülçin Alp; Uzun, Lokman

    2015-11-01

    Invertase (β-fructofuranoside fructohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.26) is an enzyme widely used in the food industry. Its main function is the formation of glucose and fructose through hydrolysis of sucrose. For the separation and purification of this commercially important enzyme from aqueous solutions, magnetic poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-N-methacryloyl-L-tryptophan), m-poly(HEMA-MATrp) microparticles were developed. Magnetic properties of microparticles are provided using ferromagnetic Fe(II)-Co(II) double salt. Characterization studies of magnetic microparticles were conducted via vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Specific surface area of magnetic microparticles is 6.75 m(2)/g. Because of all experiments performed in this study, the adsorption capability of magnetic microparticles was optimized by variation of different conditions (pH, interaction time, initial invertase concentration, temperature, and ionic strength) and maximum adsorption capacity was determined as 992.64 mg invertase/g magnetic microparticles.

  20. Role of angiotensin II-mediated AMPK inactivation on obesity-related salt-sensitive hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deji, Naoko; Kume, Shinji; Araki, Shin-ichi; Isshiki, Keiji; Araki, Hisazumi; Chin-Kanasaki, Masami; Tanaka, Yuki; Nishiyama, Akira; Koya, Daisuke; Haneda, Masakazu; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Uzu, Takashi

    2012-02-17

    Salt-sensitive hypertension is a characteristic of the metabolic syndrome. Given the links to cardiovascular events, the mechanisms underlying sodium metabolism may represent an important therapeutic target for this disorder. Angiotensin II (AII) is a key peptide underlying sodium retention. However, 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has also been reported to participate in the regulation of ion transport. In this study we examined the relationship between AII and AMPK on the development of hypertension in two salt-sensitive mouse models. In the first model, the mice were maintained on a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks, in order to develop features similar to the metabolic syndrome, including salt-sensitive hypertension. HFD-induced obese mice showed elevated systolic blood pressure and lower sodium excretion in response to salt loading, along with an increase in AII contents and inactivation of AMPK in the kidney, which were significantly improved by the treatment of an angiotensin II antagonist, losartan, for 2 weeks. To clarify the effects of AII, a second group of mice was infused with AII via an osmotic pump, which led to higher systolic blood pressure, and decreases in urinary sodium excretion and the expression of AMPK, in a manner similar to those observed in the HFD mice. However, treatment with an AMPK activator, metformin, improved the changes induced by the AII, suggesting that AII induced sodium retention works by acting on AMPK activity. Finally, we evaluated the changes in salt-sensitivity by performing 2-week salt loading experiments with or without metformin. AII infusion elevated blood pressure by salt loading but metformin prevented it. These findings indicate that AII suppresses AMPK activity in the kidney, leading to sodium retention and enhanced salt-sensitivity, and that AMPK activation may represent a new therapeutic target for obesity-related salt-sensitive hypertension. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. High-salt diet combined with elevated angiotensin II accelerates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Maria E; Bernberg, Evelina; Andersson, Irene J

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: High-salt diet likely elevates blood pressure (BP), thus increasing the risk of cardiovascular events. We hypothesized that a high-salt diet plays a critical role in subjects whose renin-angiotensin systems cannot adjust to variable salt intake, rendering them more susceptible to athe......-salt diet combined with fixed high Ang II levels accelerates atherogenesis synergistically, beyond the effect of BP....

  2. Salt II: Toward Security or Danger? A Balanced Account of the Key Issues in the Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Wallace, Jr., Ed.; And Others

    Facts and controversial issues concerning SALT II (Strategic Arms Limitations Talks) are examined. The intent of the document is to enable non-specialists in military/strategic matters to arrive at their own conclusions. Central questions explored are: Is it possible to arrive at an agreement that will stabilize strategic arms competition and…

  3. High-salt diet combined with elevated angiotensin II accelerates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Maria E; Bernberg, Evelina; Andersson, Irene J

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: High-salt diet likely elevates blood pressure (BP), thus increasing the risk of cardiovascular events. We hypothesized that a high-salt diet plays a critical role in subjects whose renin-angiotensin systems cannot adjust to variable salt intake, rendering them more susceptible...... to atherosclerosis. METHODS: Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice received standard or high-salt diet (8%) alone or in combination with fixed angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion (0.5 microg/kg per min). BP was measured using telemetry, and plaque burden was assessed in the thoracic aorta and innominate artery. We...

  4. Cerebral microvascular inflammation in DOCA salt-induced hypertension: role of angiotensin II and mitochondrial superoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Stephen F; Granger, Daniel Neil

    2012-02-01

    Angiotensin II-mediated hypertension (HTN) is accompanied by a pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic state in the cerebral microvasculature. Whether comparable phenotypic changes are elicited in other models of HTN remains unclear. Using wild-type mice with deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) salt-induced HTN and intravital microscopy, we observed significant increases in the adhesion of both leukocytes and platelets in cerebral venules, compared with uninephrectomized control mice, without an accompanying increase in blood-brain barrier permeability. The cell-cell interactions in hypertensive mice were more pronounced after ischemic stroke, but no difference in infarct size was detected. The blood cell recruitment was largely prevented in the following groups of DOCA salt mice: losartan (angiotensin II AT1 receptor blocker) treated, AT1 receptor knockout mice, tempol (a membrane-permeable oxygen radical scavenger) treated, and mito-TEMPO (a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant) treated. A similar pattern of protection was noted in mice subjected to ischemic stroke. The blunted cell recruitment responses were not accompanied by reductions in blood pressure (BP). These findings implicate mitochondria-derived oxygen radicals and angiotensin II in the cerebral inflammation associated with DOCA salt HTN and suggests that BP per se is not a critical determinant of the phenotypic changes that accompany HTN, even after ischemic stroke.

  5. Natural realgar and amorphous AsS oxidation kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengke, Maggy F.; Tempel, Regina N.

    2003-03-01

    The oxidation rates of natural realgar and amorphous synthetic AsS by dissolved oxygen were evaluated using mixed flow reactors at pH 7.2 to 8.8 and dissolved oxygen contents of 5.9 to 16.5 ppm over a temperature range of 25 to 40°C. The ratios of As/S are stoichiometric for all amorphous AsS oxidation experiments except for two experiments conducted at pH ˜8.8. In these experiments, stoichiometric ratios of As/S were only observed in the early stages of AsS (am) oxidation whereas lower As/S ratios were observed during steady state. For realgar oxidation experiments, the As/S ratio is less than the stoichiometric ratio of realgar, ranging between 0.61 and 0.71. This nonstoichiometric release of As and S to solution indicates that realgar oxidation is more selective for S after the rates of oxidation become constant. All measured oxidation rates at 25°C can be described within experimental uncertainties as follows: Table 1

  6. Synthesis, characterization, and crystal structure of mercury(II) complex containing new phosphine oxide salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiee, Sepideh; Kooti, Nadieh; Gable, Robert W.

    2017-02-01

    The reaction of new phosphonium-phosphine oxide salt [P(O)Ph2(CH2)2PPh2CH2C(O)C6H4NO2]Br (1) with mercury(II) iodide in a methanolic solution yielded [P(O)Ph2(CH2)2PPh2CH2C(O)C6H4NO2]2[Hg2I5Br](2). These two compounds were fully characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H, 31P, and 13C NMR spectra. Crystal and molecular structure of 2 has been determined by means of X-ray diffraction. In mercury compound, the phosphine oxide salt is found as a counter ion letting the mercury(II) ion to bound halides to all four coordination sites and to give dimermercurate(II) ions as the structure-constructing species. The neighboring [P(O)Ph2(CH2)2PPh2CH2C(O)C6H4NO2]2+cations are joined together by intramolecular Csbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds to give a 1-D chain structure along the crystallographic b-axis. The [Hg2I5Br]2-anions act as cross-linkers between neighbouring strands extending the supramolecular structure into 2D layers in (110) planes as well as balances the charge of the complex. The significant effects of Csbnd H⋯X (Xdbnd O, Br and I) and π⋯π aromatic interactions play a major role in the crystal packing of compound 2.

  7. Regression of glomerular and tubulointerstitial injuries by dietary salt reduction with combination therapy of angiotensin II receptor blocker and calcium channel blocker in Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Rafiq

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence indicates that renal tissue injuries are reversible. We investigated whether dietary salt reduction with the combination therapy of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB plus calcium channel blocker (CCB reverses renal tissue injury in Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS hypertensive rats. DSS rats were fed a high-salt diet (HS; 4% NaCl for 4 weeks. Then, DSS rats were given one of the following for 10 weeks: HS diet; normal-salt diet (NS; 0.5% NaCl, NS + an ARB (olmesartan, 10 mg/kg/day, NS + a CCB (azelnidipine, 3 mg/kg/day, NS + olmesartan + azelnidipine or NS + hydralazine (50 mg/kg/day. Four weeks of treatment with HS diet induced hypertension, proteinuria, glomerular sclerosis and hypertrophy, glomerular podocyte injury, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in DSS rats. A continued HS diet progressed hypertension, proteinuria and renal tissue injury, which was associated with inflammatory cell infiltration and increased proinflammatory cytokine mRNA levels, NADPH oxidase activity and NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide production in the kidney. In contrast, switching to NS halted the progression of hypertension, renal glomerular and tubular injuries. Dietary salt reduction with ARB or with CCB treatment further reduced blood pressure and partially reversed renal tissues injury. Furthermore, dietary salt reduction with the combination of ARB plus CCB elicited a strong recovery from HS-induced renal tissue injury including the attenuation of inflammation and oxidative stress. These data support the hypothesis that dietary salt reduction with combination therapy of an ARB plus CCB restores glomerular and tubulointerstitial injury in DSS rats.

  8. The Asse. On inconvenient truths and the suppression of disagreeable principles; Die Asse. Ueber unbequeme Wahrheiten und das Verdraengen unliebsamer Prinzipien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gellermann, Rainer

    2016-08-01

    The retrieval of radioactive wastes and the closure of the repository Asse II is a very complex project: not only with respect to technical aspects but also with respect to public information. The information brochure no 29 edited by the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz BfS is dealing with the rather philosophic questions knowledge and truth. The German expert on constitutional law Peter Bull answered to the question whether subjectively assumed health hazards could inhibit a reasonable solution: it has to be expected from the public to bear inconvenient truth. Clarification is necessary instead of wrong populism and suppression of obnoxious findings.

  9. RADIATION EFFECTS IN PHYSICAL AGING OF BINARY As-S AND As-Se GLASSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovchak, Roman; Shpotyuk, O.; Kozdras, A.; Riley, Brian J.; Sundaram, S. K.; McCloy, John S.

    2011-01-24

    Radiation-induced physical aging effects are studied in binary AsxS100-x and AsxSe100-x (30 ≤ x ≤ 42) glasses by conventional differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) method. It is shown that γ-irradiation (Co60 source, ~ 3 MGy dose) of glassy AsxS100-x caused a measurable increase in glass transition temperature and endothermic peak area in the vicinity of glass transition region, which was associated with acceleration of structural relaxation processes in these materials. In contrast to sulfide glasses, the samples of As-Se family did not exhibit any significant changes in DSC curves after γ-irradiation. The observed difference in radiation-induced physical aging between sulfides and selenides was explained by more effective destruction-polymerization transformations and possible metastable defects formation in S-based glassy network.

  10. A study of separation and solidification of group II nuclides in waste salt delivered from the pyrochemical process of used nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, H. C.; Choi, J. H.; Kim, N. Y.; Lee, T. K.; Han, S. Y.; Jang, S. A.; Kim, T. J.; Park, H. S.; Ahn, D. H.

    2017-08-01

    If group II nuclides, which contain high heat-generative elements, in waste salt are fabricated into a waste form rich in group II nuclides, the waste form can be used in radionuclide thermoelectric generator applications. For this reason, the separation of group II nuclides in salt (LiCl, LiCl-KCl) was conducted, after which a waste form rich in them was fabricated. In this study, group II nuclide chlorides in salt were effectively separated into a carbonate or oxychloride form, and the separated nuclides were successfully fabricated into a homogenous and stable glass waste form with high contents (45-50 wt%) of these nuclides.

  11. Leptin in milk and plasma of dairy asses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fantuz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Milk and plasma leptin levels have been studied in dairy asses machine milked according to two different routines: 20 pregnant, pluriparous asses, were divided into two groups subjected, every 28 d for 150 d, to two consecutive milkings carried out at different intervals, i.e. 20 vs. 4 hours interval, respectively for group A and group B. During the study, the declining total milk obtained by machine milking was unaffected by the different milking strategies; body condition score of asses as well did not vary between the groups. Different milking intervals did not significantly influence skimmed milk leptin content neither plasma leptin level. Moreover, we did not find significant variation in plasma leptin neither correlation with BCS, indicating that in donkey pregnancy inhibits the cross talk between hypothalamus and adipose tissue.

  12. Differentiation of Meat Samples from Domestic Horses (Equus caballus) and Asiatic Wild Asses (Equus hemionus) Using a Species-Specific Restriction Site in the Mitochondrial Cytochrome b Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Ralph; Kaczensky, Petra; Lkhagvasuren, Davaa; Pietsch, Stephanie; Walzer, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that Asiatic wild asses (Equus hemionus) are being increasingly poached in a commercial fashion. Part of the meat is believed to reach the meat markets in the capital Ulaanbaatar. To test this hypothesis, we collected 500 meat samples between February and May 2006. To differentiate between domestic horse (Equus caballus) and wild ass meat, we developed a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We amplified and sequenced a cytochrome b fragment (335 bp) and carried out a multialignment of the generated sequences for the domestic horse, the Asiatic wild ass, the domestic donkey (Equus asinus) and the Przewalski’s horse (Equus ferus przewalskii). We detected a species-specific restriction site (AatII) for the Asiatic wild ass, resulting in a specific restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) band pattern. This RFLP assay represents a rapid and cost-effective method to detect wild ass meat. All of the 500 meat samples we collected and analysed within this pilot project proved to be domestic horsemeat as declared by the sales people. Thus, either the assumption that wild ass meat is sold as “cheap horse meat” is wrong, or we picked the wrong markets, products or season. PMID:22059088

  13. Low-Salt Diet and Circadian Dysfunction Synergize to Induce Angiotensin II-Dependent Hypertension in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Paramita; Fulton, David J R; Bagi, Zsolt; Chen, Feng; Wang, Yusi; Kitchens, Julia; Cassis, Lisa A; Stepp, David W; Rudic, R Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Blood pressure exhibits a robust circadian rhythm in health. In hypertension, sleep apnea, and even shift work, this balanced rhythm is perturbed via elevations in night-time blood pressure, inflicting silent damage to the vasculature and body organs. Herein, we examined the influence of circadian dysfunction during experimental hypertension in mice. Using radiotelemetry to measure ambulatory blood pressure and activity, the effects of angiotensin II administration were studied in wild-type (WT) and period isoform knockout (KO) mice (Per2-KO, Per2, 3-KO, and Per1, 2, 3-KO/Per triple KO [TKO] mice). On a normal diet, administration of angiotensin II caused nondipping blood pressure and exacerbated vascular hypertrophy in the Period isoform KO mice relative to WT mice. To study the endogenous effects of angiotensin II stimulation, we then administered a low-salt diet to the mice, which does stimulate endogenous angiotensin II in addition to lowering blood pressure. A low-salt diet decreased blood pressure in wild-type mice. In contrast, Period isoform KO mice lost their circadian rhythm in blood pressure on a low-salt diet, because of an increase in resting blood pressure, which was restorable to rhythmicity by the angiotensin receptor blocker losartan. Chronic administration of low salt caused vascular hypertrophy in Period isoform KO mice, which also exhibited increased renin levels and altered angiotensin 1 receptor expression. These data suggest that circadian clock genes may act to inhibit or control renin/angiotensin signaling. Moreover, circadian disorders such as sleep apnea and shift work may alter the homeostatic responses to sodium restriction to potentially influence nocturnal hypertension. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Salt tolerance analysis of chickpea, faba bean and durum wheat varieties. II. Durum wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katerji, N.; Hoorn, van J.W.; Hamdy, A.; Mastrorilli, M.; Nachit, M.M.; Oweis, T.

    2005-01-01

    Seven varieties of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum), provided by ICARDA, were tested in a greenhouse experiment for their salt tolerance. Afterwards two varieties, differing in salt tolerance, were irrigated with waters of three different salinity levels in a lysimeter experiment to analyse their

  15. Effects of Hofmeister salt series on gluten network formation: Part II. Anion series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuhumury, H C D; Small, D M; Day, L

    2016-12-01

    Different anion salts from the Hofmeister series were used to investigate their effects on gluten network formation. The effects of these anion salts on the mixing properties of the dough and the rheological and chemical properties of gluten samples extracted from the dough with these respective salts were compared. The aim of this work was to determine how different anion salts influence the formation of the gluten structure during dough mixing. It was found that the Hofmeister anion salts affected the gluten network formation by interacting directly with specific amino acid residues that resulted in changes in gluten protein composition, specifically the percentage of the unextractable polymeric protein fractions (%UPP). These changes consequently led to remarkable differences in the mixing profiles and microstructural features of the dough, small deformation rheological properties of the gluten and a strain hardening behaviour of both dough and gluten samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Assédio moral no trabalho: dilacerando oportunidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Machado Valadão Júnior

    Full Text Available O assédio moral é um tema recorrente na literatura de negócios, com perspectivas, embora distintas, convergentes em um aspecto: essa prática deve ser banida das organizações, e, para isso, é necessário compreendê-la em maior profundidade. Nesse sentido, este estudo analisa processos de assédio moral com o objetivo de identificar as divergências e convergências entre as sentenças/processos procedentes verificados na Justiça do Trabalho, bem como analisa os discursos dos autos, das vítimas e dos gestores das organizações responsabilizadas, adotando como referência algumas das categorias de assédio moral. Diferentemente das pesquisas tradicionais, que consideram a perspectiva das vítimas, esta pesquisa vai além ao considerar, também, os gestores das organizações onde ocorreram os casos analisados. A estratégia de pesquisa utilizada é o estudo de caso, a partir da triangulação de dados obtidos com entrevistas com as vítimas e os gestores e análise de documentos. Com esse delineamento, o estudo foi dirigido em duas fases complementares: na primeira realizou-se o mapeamento das ocorrências de assédio moral na Justiça do Trabalho e na segunda analisaram-se dez casos de assédio moral contra mulheres que trabalharam em empresas privadas de grande porte. Os resultados mostram divergências expressivas nas categorias entre a ótica das vítimas e dos gestores Além disso, eles revelam, não apenas nos discursos dos entrevistados, uma miopia em relação às múltiplas causas de assédio moral no mundo do trabalho, mas, também, nos elementos dos processos jurídicos. Com ênfase nos gestores, as contradições e equívocos sobre o tema preocupam, e os álibis naturalizados, em suas expressões e falas, tentam levar a problemática para a margem, utilizando o tom de "brincadeira" e eufemismos.

  17. Spiral Dinuclear Complexes of Tetradentate N(4) Diazine Ligands with Mn(II), Fe(II), Fe(III), Co(III), and Ni(II) Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiqiang; Thompson, Laurence K.; Miller, David O.; Clase, Howard J.; Howard, Judith A. K.; Goeta, Andrés E.

    1998-07-13

    A series of dinuclear complexes of the tetradentate dipyridyl-diazine ligand PAHAP with Mn(II), Fe(II), Fe(III), Co(III), and Ni(II) salts is reported in which three ligands wrap themselves around the six-coordinate metal centers in a rare spiral-like fashion. A similar Fe(II) complex is found for the dipyrazinyl-diazine ligand PZHPZ. The ligands are severely twisted with dihedral angles between the metal chelate ring mean planes on each ligand in the range 50-70 degrees, values close to the expected twist angle for orthogonality between the bridging nitrogen atom p orbitals. Full structures are reported for the dinuclear complexes [Mn(2)(PAHAP)(3)](ClO(4))(4).5H(2)O (1), [Fe(2)(PAHAP)(3)](NO(3))(4).3H(2)O (2), [Fe(2)(PZHPZ)(3)](NO(3))(4).5H(2)O (5), [Co(2)(PAHAP)(3)](NO(3))(6).5H(2)O (6), and [Ni(2)(PAHAP)(3)][Ni(H(2)O)(6)](NO(3))(6).4.5H(2)O (7). Other derivatives [Fe(2)(PAHAP)(3)](ClO(4))(4).4H(2)O (3), [Fe(2)(PAHAP)(3)](ClO(4))(6).4.5H(2)O (4), [Ni(2)(PAHAP)(3)](ClO(4))(4).5H(2)O (8), and [Fe(PHAAP-H)(H(2)O)(2)(NO(3))](NO(3))(2) (9) are also reported. Complex 1 crystallized in the monoclinic system, space group C2/c, with a = 13.4086(2) Å, b = 32.0249(1) Å, c = 14.3132(2) Å, alpha = 90 degrees, beta = 115.635(1) degrees, gamma = 90 degrees, and Z = 4. Complex 2 crystallized in the cubic system, space group Pa&thremacr;, with a = b = c = 21.0024(1) Å, alpha = beta = gamma = 90 degrees, and Z = 8. Complex 5 crystallized in the monoclinic system, space group P2/n, with a = 14.039(3) Å, b = 11.335(6) Å, c = 14.6517(15) Å, beta = 96.852(11) degrees, and Z = 1. Complex 6 crystallized in the trigonal system, space group R&thremacr;c(h), with a = b = 17.386(2) Å, c = 32.15(2) Å, alpha = beta = 90 degrees, gamma = 120 degrees, and Z = 4. Complex 7 crystallized in the trigonal system, space group R&thremacr;c, with a = b = 17.3737(3) Å, c = 33.235(6) Å, alpha = beta = 90 degrees, gamma = 120 degrees, and Z = 27. Weak ferromagnetic coupling was observed for 1

  18. Influence of milking number and frequency on milk production in Martina Franca breed asses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Martemucci

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out in Martina Franca asses in order to study milk yield and udder healthy conditions in relation to daily milking number and frequency. Experiment I - A total of 15 asses were subdivided into three groups (N.5 corresponding to: one milking per day, after a 3 hour interval from foal separation by dams (Group A; three milkings per day with 3 hour frequency (Group B; three milkings per day with 2 hour frequency (Group 3M. Experiment II - Evaluation was made of the effect of a schedule of 6 milkings per day with frequency of 2 hours on milk yield (Group 6M; N. 5, compared to Group 3M. Healthy udder conditions in relation to the number of milking per day was monitored in 3M and 6M Groups, by somatic cell count. Average yield per milking was highest (P<0.01 following 3 rather 1 milkings per day and with milking frequency of 3 hours rather than 2 hours (P<0.01. A schedule of six milkings per day did not improve mean milk yield and determined an increase in somatic cell count compared to 3 daily milkings regimen (63.2 vs 17.5 x 1000/mL; P<0.05.

  19. Delayed diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia with salt wasting due to type II 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Trine H; Mallet, Delphine; Dige-Petersen, Harriet

    2005-01-01

    Classical 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) deficiency is a rare cause of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. We report two sisters presenting with delayed diagnoses of classical 3beta-HSD, despite salt wasting (SW) episodes in infancy. Sibling 1 was referred for premature pubarche, slight....... There is no previous report of the combination of SW and premature pubarche due to mutations in the type II 3beta-HSD gene. Because neonatal diagnosis could have prevented life-threatening crises in these girls, this report further supports the benefits for neonatal screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia...

  20. Angiotensin II Protects Primary Rat Hepatocytes against Bile Salt-Induced Apoptosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karimian, Golnar; Buist-Homan, Manon; Mikus, Bojana; Henning, Robert H.; Faber, Klaas Nico; Moshage, Han

    2012-01-01

    Angiotensin II (AT-II) is a pro-fibrotic compound that acts via membrane-bound receptors (AT-1R/AT-2R) and thereby activates hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). AT-II receptor blockers (ARBs) are thus important candidates in the treatment of liver fibrosis. However, multiple case reports suggest that

  1. SALT long-slit spectroscopy of quasar HE 0435-4312: fast displacement of the Mg II emission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Średzińska, J.; Czerny, B.; Hryniewicz, K.; Krupa, M.; Kurcz, A.; Marziani, P.; Adhikari, T. P.; Basak, R.; You, B.; Wang, J.-M.; Hu, C.; Pych, W.; Bilicki, M.

    2017-05-01

    Context. The Mg II emission line is visible in the optical band for intermediate redshift quasars (0.4 frame. The Mg II line shape is clearly non-Gaussian but single-component, and the increase in line equivalent width and line shift is not accompanied with significant evolution of the line shape. We analyse the conditions in the Mg II and Fe II formation region and we note that the very large difference in the covering factor and the turbulent velocity also support the conclusion that the two regions are spatially separated. Conclusions: The measured acceleration of the line systematic shift is too large to connect it with the orbital motion at a distance of the BLR in this source. It may imply a precessing inner disk illuminating the BLR. Further monitoring is still needed to better constrain the variability mechanism. Based on observations made with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) under program 2012-2-POL-003 and 2013-1-POL-RSA-002 (PI: B. Czerny).Spectra shown in Figs. 3 and 4 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/601/A32

  2. Exogenous Calcium Enhances the Photosystem II Photochemistry Response in Salt Stressed Tall Fescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyang Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcium enhances turfgrass response to salt stress. However, little is known about PSII photochemical changes when exogenous calcium was applied in salinity-stressed turfgrass. Here, we probe into the rearrangements of PSII electron transport and endogenous ion accumulation in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreber treated with exogenous calcium under salt stress. Three-month-old seedlings of genotype “TF133” were subjected to the control (CK, salinity (S, salinity + calcium nitrate (SC, and salinity + ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (SE. Calcium nitrate and ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid was used as exogenous calcium donor and calcium chelating agent respectively. At the end of a 5-day duration treatment, samples in SC regime had better photochemistry performance on several parameters than salinity only. Such as the Area (equal to the plastoquinone pool size, N (number of QA- redox turnovers until Fm is reached, ψE0, or δRo (Efficiencdy/probability with which a PSII trapped electron is transferred from QA to QB or PSI acceptors, ABS/RC (Absorbed photon flux per RC. All the above suggested that calcium enhanced the electron transfer of PSII (especially beyond QA- and prevented reaction centers from inactivation in salt-stressed tall fescue. Furthermore, both grass shoot and root tissues generally accumulated more C, N, Ca2+, and K+ in the SC regime than S regime. Interrelated analysis indicated that ψE0, δRo, ABS/RC, C, and N content in shoots was highly correlated to each other and significantly positively related to Ca2+ and K+ content in roots. Besides, high salt increased ATP6E and CAMK2 transcription level in shoot at 1 and 5 day, respectively while exogenous calcium relieved it. In root, CAMK2 level was reduced by Salinity at 5 day and exogenous calcium recovered it. These observations involved in electron transport capacity and ion accumulation assist in understanding better the protective role of exogenous calcium in tall

  3. Assédio moral nos ambientes corporativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumara Lúcia Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available Resumo:Esse artigo teve como objetivo caracterizar o assédio moral nos ambientes corporativos à luz do paradigma conceitual do que se concebe como "dignidade humana" e violação do princípio jurídico da boa-fé. Especificamente, visou identificar padrões na argumentação jurídica e no enquadramento de práticas nocivas à saúde mental do trabalhador. O estudo, de natureza qualitativa, tomou por base o estudo de situações jurídicas, orientando-se pela demanda por definição e caracterização da prática assediadora no âmbito organizacional e dos limites do conceito da dignidade humana. Como principal resultado, o estudo colocou em contraste a necessidade de contextualização do fato propulsor da denúncia e caracterização do assédio, sem olvidar a relevância do significado ou sentido atribuído pelo indivíduo ao fenômeno analisado.

  4. Evidence for Prohypertensive, Proinflammatory Effect of Interleukin-10 During Chronic High Salt Intake in the Condition of Elevated Angiotensin II Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Purnima; Castillo, Alexander; Islam, M Toriqul; Majid, Dewan S A

    2017-10-01

    IL-10 (interleukin-10) has been suggested to play a protective role in angiotensin II (AngII)-induced cardiovascular disorders. This study examined the role of endogenous IL-10 in salt-sensitive hypertension and renal injury induced by AngII. Responses to chronic AngII (400 ng/min per kilogram body weight; osmotic minipump) infusion were evaluated in IL-10 gene knockout mice fed with either normal salt diet (0.3% NaCl) or high salt (HS; 4% NaCl) diet, and these responses were compared with those in wild-type mice. Normal salt diets or HS diets were given alone for the first 2 weeks and then with AngII treatment for an additional 2 weeks (n=6 in each group). Arterial pressure was continuously monitored by implanted radio-telemetry, and a 24-hour urine collection was performed by metabolic cages on the last day of the experimental period. Basal mean arterial pressure was lower in IL-10 gene knockout mice than in wild-type (98±3 versus 113±3 mm Hg) mice. Mean arterial pressure responses to normal salt/HS alone or to the AngII+normal salt treatment were similar in both strains. However, the increase in mean arterial pressure induced by the AngII+HS treatment was significantly lower in IL-10 gene knockout mice (15±5% versus 37±3%) compared with wild-type mice. Renal tissue endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression (≈3-folds) and urinary excretion of nitric oxide metabolites, nitrate/nitrite (1.2±0.1 versus 0.2±0.02 µmol/L/24 hours) were higher in IL-10 gene knockout mice compared with wild-type mice. These results indicate that an increase in nitric oxide production helps to mitigate salt-sensitive hypertension induced by AngII and suggest that a compensatory interaction between IL-10 and nitric oxide exists in modulating AngII-induced responses during HS intake. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. O assédio moral, analisado sob uma perspectiva moderna, determina medidas preventivas inovadoras

    OpenAIRE

    Vilattore, Marco Antonio Cesar; UFSC, PUCPR e UNINTER; Diniz, Patrícia Dittrich Ferreira; PUCPR

    2013-01-01

    RESUMO O presente artigo pretende analisar o assédio moral sob uma perspectiva moderna, esboçando a evolução do seu conceito, elementos, legislação nacional e estrangeira e modalidades, principalmente o assédio moral organizacional e o assédio por competência em razão da produtividade, os quais possuem aspectos diferentes do assédio moral na modalidade individual, e que, bem delineados, podem enfrentar o problema de forma mais global e efetiva, pois ataca os métodos organizacionais que atinge...

  6. Mitochondrial DNA analyses revealed low genetic diversity in the endangered Indian wild ass Equus hemionus khur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaire, Devendra; Atkulwar, Ashwin; Farah, Sameera; Baig, Mumtaz

    2017-09-01

    The Indian wild ass Equus hemionus khur, belonging to ass-like equid branch, inhabits the dry and arid desert of the Little Rann of Kutch, Gujarat. The E. h. khur is the sole survivor of Asiatic wild ass species/subspecies in South Asia. To provide first ever insights into the genetic diversity, phylogeny, and demography of the endangered Indian wild ass, we sampled 52 free-ranging individuals from the Little Rann of Kutch by using a non-invasive methodology. The sequencing of 230 bp in cytochrome b (Cyt b) and displacement loop (D-loop) region revealed that current ∼4000 extant population of Indian wild ass harbours low genetic diversity. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed that E. h. khur, E. h. onager, and E. h. kulan belong to a single strict monophyletic clade. Therefore, we suggest the delimitation of the five E. hemionus subspecies in vogue to a single species E. hemionus. The application of molecular clock confirmed that the Asiatic wild ass had undergone diversification 0.65 Million years ago. Demographic measurements assessed using a Bayesian skyline plot demonstrated decline in the maternal effective population size of the Indian wild ass during different periods; these periods coincided with the origin and rise of the Indus civilization in the northwest of the Indian subcontinent during the Neolithic. In conclusion, maintaining high genetic diversity in the existing isolated population of 4000 Indian wild asses inhabiting the wild ass sanctuary is important compared with subspecies preservation alone.

  7. Intermolecular interaction of nickel (ii) phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt with bovine serum albumin: A multi-technique study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezhampanah, Hamid; Firouzi, Roghaye; Hasani, Leila

    2017-02-01

    The interaction of nickel (II) phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt with bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been investigated by combination of fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and circular dichorism (CD) spectroscopies as well as through molecular docking. Fluorescence quenching and absorption spectra were investigated as a mean for estimating the binding parameters. Analysis of fluorescence quenching data at different temperatures was performed in order to specify the thermodynamics parameters for interactions of phthalocyanine complex with BSA. According to experimental data it was suggested that phthalocyanine had a significant binding affinity to BSA and the process was entropy driven. Based on the results of molecular docking it was indicated that the main active binding site for this phthalocyanine complex is site I in subdomain IIA of BSA. The results provide useful information for understanding the binding mechanism of anticancer drug-albumin and gives insight into the biological activity and metabolism of the drug in blood.

  8. Maternal high-salt diet altered PKC/MLC20 pathway and increased ANG II receptor-mediated vasoconstriction in adult male rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weisheng; Lv, Juanxiu; Wu, Jue; Zhou, Xiuwen; Jiang, Lin; Zhu, Xiaolin; Tu, Qing; Tang, Jiaqi; Liu, Yanping; He, Axin; Zhong, Yuan; Xu, Zhice

    2016-07-01

    High-salt diet (HSD) is associated with cardiovascular diseases. This study aims at ascertaining the influence of maternal HSD on offspring's angiotensin II (ANG II)-mediated vasoconstriction and the underlying mechanisms. In comparison to a normal-salt diet, HSD used in pregnancy in rats changed the ultrastructures of the coronary artery (CA) in 5-month-old male offspring, and increased ANG II-mediated CA contractility. Measurement of [Ca(2+) ]i in CA using fluorescent fura-2, a Ca(2+) indicator, showed that ANG II-mediated increases in [Ca(2+) ]i were the same between HSD and normal-salt diet groups, but the ratio of diameter change/[Ca(2+) ]i induced by ANG II were significantly higher in HSD groups. Angiotensin II receptor type 1, not angiotensin II receptor type 2, caused ANG II-mediated vasoconstriction. Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF109203X attenuated the ANG II-mediated vasoconstriction, PKC agonist phorbol12,13-dibutyrate produced a greater contraction. There was an increase in PKCβ mRNA and the corresponding protein abundance in the offspring, whereas other PKC subunits PKCα, PKCδ, and PKCε did not change. Moreover, 20 kDa myosin light chain phosphorylation levels were increased in HSD group. Maternal HSD affected the developmental programing for the offspring CA, with increased ANG II-mediated vasoconstrictions. The angiotensin II receptor type 1-PKC-20 kDa myosin light chain phosphorylation pathway was the possible mediated cellular mechanism. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Differentiation of Meat Samples from Domestic Horses ( Equus caballus and Asiatic Wild Asses ( Equus hemionus Using a Species-Speci fi c Restriction Site in the Mitochondrial Cytochrome b Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Kuehn

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that Asiatic wild asses ( Equus hemionus are being increasingly poached in a commercial fashion. Part of the meat is believed to reach the meat markets in the capital Ulaanbaatar. To test this hypothesis, we collected 500 meat samples between February and May 2006. To differentiate between domestic horse ( Equus caballus and wild ass meat, we developed a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP assay based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR. We ampli fi ed and sequenced a cytochrome b fragment (335 bp and carried out a multialignment of the generated sequences for the domestic horse, the Asiatic wild ass, the domestic donkey ( Equus asinus and the Przewalski’s horse ( Equus ferus przewalskii . We detected a species-speci fi c restriction site (AatII for the Asiatic wild ass, resulting in a speci fi c restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP band pattern. This RFLP assay represents a rapid and cost-effective method to detect wild ass meat. All of the 500 meat samples we collected and analysed within this pilot project proved to be domestic horsemeat as declared by the sales people. Thus, either the assumption that wild ass meat is sold as “cheap horse meat” is wrong, or we picked the wrong markets, products or season.

  10. Voltammetric behavior, biocidal effect and synthesis of some new nanomeric fused cyclic thiosemicarbazones and their mercuric(II salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S.T. Makki

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available New nanomeric 3-thioxo-5-methoxy-4,5-dihydro-6-methyl-9-unsubstituted/substituted-1,2,4-triazino[5,6-b]indoles (2a–c and 3-thioxo-5-methoxy-4,5-dihydro-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,4-triaino[5,6]-cyclobut-6-ene (3 were prepared via reaction of thiosemicarbazide with 5-unsubstitutedand/substituted-indol-2,3-diones and/or 3,4-dihydroxycyclobutane-1,2-dione in methanol–concentrated HCl at room temperature. A series of mercury(II–ligand salts e.g. compound 4b and Hg(II complexes 5a,b and 6 of cyclic Schiff base were prepared. Structures of these compounds were established by elemental analysis and spectral measurements. The redox characteristics of selected compounds were studied for use as chelating agents for stripping voltammetric determination of mercuric(II ions in aqueous media. The compounds were also screened for their use as molluscicidal agents against Biomophalaria Alexandrina Snails responsible for Bilhariziasis.

  11. Landbouwontwikkelingsgebied De Ass, gemeente Cuijk. Toetsingsadvies over het milieueffectrapport en de aanvulling daarop.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, L.C.J.; Broekmeyer, M.E.A.; Ouwerkerk, H.G.; Spapens-Reijnders, I.; Woerden, van R.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    De gemeente Cuijk stelt een nieuw bestemmingsplan op voor het landbouwontwikkelingsgebied (LOG) De Ass. Het bestemmingsplan wordt opgesteld voor de verplaatsing van twee ondernemers van de directe omgeving van de kern van Haps naar het LOG De Ass, de woningbouw op de te verlaten bedrijfslocaties en

  12. Ancient DNA from Nubian and Somali wild ass provides insights into donkey ancestry and domestication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Birgitta; Marshall, Fiona B.; Chen, Shanyuan; Rosenbom, Sónia; Moehlman, Patricia D.; Tuross, Noreen; Sabin, Richard C.; Peters, Joris; Barich, Barbara; Yohannes, Hagos; Kebede, Fanuel; Teclai, Redae; Beja-Pereira, Albano; Mulligan, Connie J.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic data from extant donkeys (Equus asinus) have revealed two distinct mitochondrial DNA haplogroups, suggestive of two separate domestication events in northeast Africa about 5000 years ago. Without distinct phylogeographic structure in domestic donkey haplogroups and with little information on the genetic makeup of the ancestral African wild ass, however, it has been difficult to identify wild ancestors and geographical origins for the domestic mitochondrial clades. Our analysis of ancient archaeological and historic museum samples provides the first genetic information on the historic Nubian wild ass (Equus africanus africanus), Somali wild ass (Equus africanus somaliensis) and ancient donkey. The results demonstrate that the Nubian wild ass was an ancestor of the first donkey haplogroup. In contrast, the Somali wild ass has considerable mitochondrial divergence from the Nubian wild ass and domestic donkeys. These findings resolve the long-standing issue of the role of the Nubian wild ass in the domestication of the donkey, but raise new questions regarding the second ancestor for the donkey. Our results illustrate the complexity of animal domestication, and have conservation implications for critically endangered Nubian and Somali wild ass. PMID:20667880

  13. Cloud point extraction of Cu(II) using a mixture of Triton X-100 and dithizone with a salting-out effect and its application to visual determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Nobuko; Mori, Masanobu; Itabashi, Hideyuki

    2013-12-15

    A method for the separation and concentration of trace copper(II) ion (Cu(II)) via cloud point extraction (CPE) using a nonionic surfactant with a salting-out effect was developed and applied as a technique for the visual determination of Cu(II). Triton X-100 (TX-100), which has a cloud point at 64-67 °C in aqueous solutions, was used as the nonionic surfactant for the CPE of Cu(II). Although CPE with TX-100 requires heating of the solution to separate the surfactant-rich phase from the aqueous phase, the new method achieves phase separation at 15-30 °C owing to the addition of a large amount of salt to the solution, which lowers the cloud point. The compound 1,5-diphenylthiocarbazone (dithizone) was selected as the chelating agent for complexation and transfer of Cu(II) to the surfactant-rich phase. The extractability of Cu(II) (initial concentration: 10 μM) was 96.6±2.1% when Na2SO4 was added to a 20% TX-100/4 μM dithizone solution (pH 2). Using this method, the visual determination of Cu(II) was possible for concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 10 μM. In addition, the extraction system was successfully applied to the visual determination of Cu(II) in a river water sample. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Deletion of interleukin-6 prevents cardiac inflammation, fibrosis and dysfunction without affecting blood pressure in angiotensin II-high salt-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Germán E; Rhaleb, Nour-Eddine; D'Ambrosio, Martin A; Nakagawa, Pablo; Liu, Yunhe; Leung, Pablo; Dai, Xiangguo; Yang, Xiao-Ping; Peterson, Edward L; Carretero, Oscar A

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation has been proposed as a key component in the development of hypertension and cardiac remodeling associated with different cardiovascular diseases. However, the role of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 in the chronic stage of hypertension is not well defined. Here, we tested the hypothesis that deletion of interleukin-6 protects against the development of hypertension, cardiac inflammation, fibrosis, remodeling and dysfunction induced by high salt diet and angiotensin II (Ang II). Male C57BL/6J and interleukin-6-knock out (KO) mice were implanted with telemetry devices for blood pressure (BP) measurements, fed a 4% NaCl diet, and infused with either vehicle or Ang II (90 ng/min per mouse subcutaneously) for 8 weeks. We studied BP and cardiac function by echocardiography at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks. Myocyte cross-sectional area (MCSA), macrophage infiltration, and myocardial fibrosis were also assessed. BP increased similarly in both strains when treated with Ang II and high salt (Ang II-high salt); however, C57BL/6J mice developed a more severe decrease in left ventricle ejection fraction, fibrosis, and macrophage infiltration compared with interleukin-6-KO mice. No differences between strains were observed in MCSA, capillary density and MCSA to capillary density ratio. In conclusion, absence of interleukin -6 did not alter the development of Ang II-high salt-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy, but it prevented the development of cardiac dysfunction, myocardial inflammation, and fibrosis. This indicates that interleukin-6 plays an important role in hypertensive heart damage but not in the development of hypertension.

  15. Deletion of interleukin-6 prevents cardiac inflammation, fibrosis and dysfunction without affecting blood pressure in angiotensin II-high salt-induced hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Germán E.; Rhaleb, Nour-Eddine; D’ambrosio, Martin A.; Nakagawa, Pablo; Liu, Yunhe; Leung, Pablo; Dai, Xiangguo; Yang, Xiao-Ping; Peterson, Edward L.; Carretero, Oscar A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Inflammation has been proposed as a key component in the development of hypertension and cardiac remodeling associated with different cardiovascular diseases. However, the role of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 in the chronic stage of hypertension is not well defined. Here, we tested the hypothesis that deletion of interleukin-6 protects against the development of hypertension, cardiac inflammation, fibrosis, remodeling and dysfunction induced by high salt diet and angiotensin II (Ang II). Methods Male C57BL/6J and interleukin-6-knock out (KO) mice were implanted with telemetry devices for blood pressure (BP) measurements, fed a 4% NaCl diet, and infused with either vehicle or Ang II (90 ng/min per mouse subcutaneously) for 8 weeks. We studied BP and cardiac function by echocardiography at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks. Results Myocyte cross-sectional area (MCSA), macrophage infiltration, and myocardial fibrosis were also assessed. BP increased similarly in both strains when treated with Ang II and high salt (Ang II-high salt); however, C57BL/6J mice developed a more severe decrease in left ventricle ejection fraction, fibrosis, and macrophage infiltration compared with interleukin-6-KO mice. No differences between strains were observed in MCSA, capillary density and MCSA to capillary density ratio. Conclusion In conclusion, absence of interleukin -6 did not alter the development of Ang II-high salt-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy, but it prevented the development of cardiac dysfunction, myocardial inflammation, and fibrosis. This indicates that interleukin-6 plays an important role in hypertensive heart damage but not in the development of hypertension. PMID:25304471

  16. Compositional and nutritional aspects of milk ass: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Henrique do Nascimento Rangel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to search national and international scientific literature related to production aspects, physical and chemical characteristics, microbiological and nutritional of donkey’s milk. The survey was conducted between January and December 2014 in which were consulted scientific articles published in national and international journals between 1900 and 2014 through the database Scielo Brazil, Web of Science, AGRIS, Google Scholar, FAOSTAT and EBSCO. This milk has significant similarity to human milk and its consumption has increased associated with results of studies that confirm its use as a safe and valid food for most cases of multiple food intolerance. The ass milk has less fat, and lactose and pH values – similar compared to human milk and has a larger proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids compared to ruminant milk. It has low somatic cell count and bacterial count associated to the high concentration of lysozyme. This enzyme has bactericidal characteristics, making it one of the milk components with useful biological properties. Thus, the rational creation of the species, focusing on production and consumption of milk, is a promising alternative.    com foco na produção e consumo de leite, representa uma alternativa promissora.

  17. Interactive roles of NPR1 gene-dosage and salt diets on cardiac angiotensin II, aldosterone and pro-inflammatory cytokines levels inmutantmice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Di; Das, Subhankar; Pandey, Kailash N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of the present study was to elucidate the interactive roles of guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPRA) gene (Npr1) and salt diets on cardiac angiotensin II (ANG II), aldosterone and proinflammatory cytokines levels in Npr1 gene-targeted (1-copy, 2-copy, 3-copy, 4-copy) mice. Methods Npr1 genotypes included 1-copy gene-disrupted heterozygous (+/−), 2-copy wild-type (+/+), 3-copy gene-duplicated heterozygous (++/+) and 4-copy gene-duplicated homozygous (++/++) mice. Animals were fed low, normal and high-salt diets. Plasma and cardiac levels of ANG II, aldosterone and pro-inflammatory cytokines were determined. Results With a high-salt diet, cardiac ANG II levels were increased (+) in 1-copy mice (13.7 ± 2.8 fmol/mg protein, 111%) compared with 2-copy mice (6.5 ± 0.6), but decreased (−) in 4-copy (4.0 ± 0.5, 38%) mice. Cardiac aldosterone levels were increased (+) in 1-copy mice (80 ± 4 fmol/mg protein, 79%) compared with 2-copy mice (38 ± 3). Plasma tumour necrosis factor alpha was increased (+) in 1-copy mice (30.27 ± 2.32 pg/ml, 38%), compared with 2-copy mice (19.36 ± 2.49, 24%), but decreased (−) in 3-copy (11.59 ± 1.51, 12%) and 4-copy (7.13 ± 0.52, 22%) mice. Plasma interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1α levels were also significantly increased (+) in 1-copy compared with 2-copy mice but decreased (−) in 3-copy and 4-copy mice. Conclusion These results demonstrate that a high-salt diet aggravates cardiac ANG II, aldosterone and proinflammatory cytokine levels in Npr1 gene-disrupted 1-copy mice, whereas, in Npr1 gene-duplicated (3-copy and 4-copy) mice, high salt did not render such elevation, suggesting the potential roles of Npr1 against salt loading. PMID:23188418

  18. Cancer frequency in the Samtgemeinde Asse. Statement by the German Commission on Radiological Protection; Krebshaeufigkeit in der Samtgemeinde Asse. Stellungnahme der Strahlenschutzkommission mit wissenschaftlicher Begruendung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    A special analysis carried out by the Epidemiological Cancer Register of Niedersachsen (Epidemiologisches Krebsregister Niedersachsen, EKN) in response to an enquiry from the district (Landkreis) of Wolfenbuettel about the incidence of cancer in the municipal confederation (Samtgemeinde) Asse showed that between 2002 and 2009 there were significantly more new cases of leukaemia and thyroid cancer than would have been expected by comparis on with the rest of the district of Wolfenbuettel (excluding the Samtgemeinde Asse) (EKN 2010a). The reason for the EKN's analysis of Samtgemeinde Asse and the district of Wolfenbuettel was: ''The background to this special analysis is an enquiry by the district of Wolfenbuettel to the Epidemiological Cancer Register of Niedersachsen (EKN) in 2008 regarding the frequency of leukaemias in the Samtgemeinde Asse. At that time there was insufficient data available and leukaemias and lymphomas were significantly under - recorded; small - scale analysis was not therefore possible. There is now sufficient data for the analysis to be carried out. The results of the analysis are presented in this report.'' (EKN 2010a). The query thus related solely to leukaemias and the Samtgemeinde Asse. The EKN's analysis of the incidence of leukaemia was therefore hypothesis-led; for other cancers and other municipalities in the former administrative district of Braunschweig, exploratory analysis was undertaken in (EKN 2010a) and later in (EKN 2010b). All distinctions between men and women were likewise exploratory. In view of the large number of tests carried out, it was necessary for a correction for multiple testing to be applied to significant results. Following the publication of (EKN 2010a), members of the state parliament and representatives of the district of Wolfenbuettel asked whether other municipalities in the district also had elevated cancer rates. In response the EKN conducted a supplementary analysis of all

  19. Blood pressures, heart rate and locomotor activity during salt loading and angiotensin II infusion in protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2 knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halfyard Sarah J

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study we used radiotelemetry to measure hemodynamic variables and locomotor activity in conscious unrestrained male Protease-Activated Receptor 2 (PAR-2 knockout mice in order to provide a detailed assessment of their blood pressure phenotype. In addition we tested for an influence of PAR-2 on salt-sensitivity (8% versus 0.5% NaCl diet, 2.5 weeks and angiotensin II-induced hypertension (1 μg Ile5-angiotensin II/kg/min versus 0.25 μl/h saline, 2 weeks. Results Systolic arterial pressures of PAR-2 -/- (129 ± 1 mmHg, n = 21, P P Conclusion The data indicated gene knockout of PAR-2 was associated with a modest change in blood pressure phenotype. PAR-2 -/- mice exhibited moderate elevation of systolic arterial and pulse pressures, yet no increased diastolic arterial pressure, no increased blood pressure responses to high salt diet and a subtle difference in the time course of the blood pressure responses to angiotensin II infusion.

  20. D IE NEDERLANDSEGELOOFSBEL YDEN IS ASS IM BOL IE SEGE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    II. Op bis. 88 van die vorige aflewering is verhaal hoe De Bray voorin die N ederlandse Geloofsbelydenis n brief aan die Koning geplaas het. maar dat dit op geen ander wyse aan Aom gestuur kon word nie dan deur dit in die nag oor die mure van die kasteel waar die verteen- woordiger van die Koning w as, te laat werp, ...

  1. Brain endogenous angiotensin II receptor type 2 (AT2-R) protects against DOCA/salt-induced hypertension in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shu-Yan; Peng, Wei; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Li, Jian-Dong; Shen, Ying; Sun, Xiao-Fei

    2015-03-08

    Recent studies demonstrate that there are sex differences in the expression of angiotensin receptor type 2 (AT2-R) in the kidney and that AT2-R plays an enhanced role in regulating blood pressure (BP) in females. Also, brain AT2-R activation has been reported to negatively modulate BP and sympathetic outflow. The present study investigated whether the central blockade of endogenous AT2-R augments deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)/salt-induced hypertension in both male and female rats. All rats were subcutaneously infused with DOCA combined with 1% NaCl solution as the sole drinking fluid. BP and heart rate (HR) were recorded by telemetric transmitters. To determine the effect of central AT2-R on DOCA/salt-induced hypertension, male and female rats were intracerebroventricularly (icv) infused with AT2-R antagonist, PD123,319, during DOCA/salt treatment. Subsequently, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, a key cardiovascular regulatory region of the brain, was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. DOCA/salt treatment elicited a greater increase in BP in male rats than that in females. Icv infusions of the AT2-R antagonist significantly augmented DOCA/salt pressor effects in females. However, this same treatment had no enhanced effect on DOCA/salt-induced increase in the BP in males. Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis of the female brain revealed that DOCA/salt treatment enhanced the mRNA and protein expression for both antihypertensive components including AT2-R, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-2, and interleukin (IL)-10 and hypertensive components including angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1-R), ACE-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-1β, but decreased mRNA expression of renin in the PVN. The central blockade of AT2-R reversed the changes in mRNA and protein expressions of ACE-2, IL-10, and renin, further increased the expressions of TNF-α and IL-1β, and kept higher the expressions of AT1-R, ACE-1, and AT2-R

  2. Serpentine endophytic bacterium Pseudomonas azotoformans ASS1 accelerates phytoremediation of soil metals under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Rajkumar, Mani; Moreno, António; Zhang, Chang; Freitas, Helena

    2017-10-01

    This study evaluates the potential of serpentine endophytic bacterium to foster phytoremediation efficiency of Trifolium arvense grown on multi-metal (Cu, Zn and Ni) contaminated soils under drought stress. A drought resistant endophytic bacterial strain ASS1 isolated from the leaves of Alyssum serpyllifolium grown in serpentine soils was identified as Pseudomonas azotoformans based on biochemical tests and partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. P. azotoformans ASS1 possessed abiotic stress resistance (heavy metals, drought, salinity, antibiotics and extreme temperature) and plant growth promoting (PGP) properties (phosphate solubilization, nitrogen fixation, production of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase, siderophore and ammonia). Inoculation of T. arvense with ASS1 considerably increased the plant biomass and leaf relative water content in both roll towel assay and pot experiments in the absence and presence of drought stress (DS). In the pot experiments, ASS1 greatly enhanced chlorophyll content, catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase activities, and proline content (only in the absence of drought) in plant leaves, whereas they decreased the concentrations of malondialdehyde. Irrespective of water stress, ASS1 significantly improved accumulation, total removal, bio-concentration factor and biological accumulation coefficient of metals (Cu, Zn and Ni), while decreased translocation factors of Cu. The effective colonization and survival in the rhizosphere and tissue interior assured improved plant growth and successful metal phytoremediation under DS. These results demonstrate the potential of serpentine endophytic bacterium ASS1 for protecting plants against abiotic stresses and helping plants to thrive in semiarid ecosystems and accelerate phytoremediation process in metal polluted soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Phosphate buffer and salt medium concentrations affect the inactivation of T4 phage by platinum(II) complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik B.; Josephsen, Jens; Kerszman, Gustaw

    1985-01-01

    -Tris) buffer and HEPES buffer. The phosphate abolishes the antiphage activity of the platinum complexes probably by some sort of complex formation. This together with dimerization reactions qualitatively explains the tailing off of the phage inactivation rate. High concentrations of NaNO3 as the salt medium...

  4. Syntheses and structures of two new coordination polymers generated from a 4-aminotriazole-bridged organic ligand and CoII salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue Ru; Ma, Jian Ping; Dong, Yu Bin

    2017-03-01

    Organic ligands and counter-anions influence the coordination spheres of metal cations and hence the construction of coordination polymers (CPs). The specific bent geometries of five-membered heterocyclic triazole bridging organic ligands are capable of generating CPs with novel patterns not easily obtained using rigid linear ligands. A multidentate 4-aminotriazole-bridged organic ligand, namely 4-amino-3,5-bis(4,3'-bipyridyl-5'-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole (L) has been prepared and used to synthesize two CoII coordination polymers, namely poly[[[μ2-4-amino-3,5-bis(4,3'-bipyridyl-5'-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-κ2N:N']bis(methanol-κO)cobalt(II)] bis(perchlorate)], {[Co(C22H16N8)2(CH3OH)2](ClO4)2}n, (I), and poly[[μ3-4-amino-3,5-bis(4,3'-bipyridyl-5'-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-κ3N:N':N'']dichloridocobalt(II)], [CoCl2(C22H16N8)]n, (II), using CoX2 salts [X = ClO4 for (I) and Cl for (II)] under solvothermal conditions. Single-crystal X-ray structure analysis revealed that they both feature two-dimensional networks. Cobalt is located on an inversion centre in (I) and in a general position in (II). In (I), L functions as a bidentate cis-conformation ligand linking CoII ions, while it functions as a tridentate trans-conformation linker binding CoII ions in (II). In addition, O-H...N and N-H...O hydrogen bonds and C-H...π interactions exist in (I), while N-H...Cl and π-π interactions exist in (II), and these weak interactions play an important role in aligning the two-dimensional nets of (I) and (II) in the solid state. As the compounds were synthesized under the same conditions, the significant structural variations between (I) and (II) are believed to be determined by the different sizes and coordination abilities of the counter-anions. IR spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance UV-Vis spectra were also used to investigate the title compounds.

  5. Vascular Response to Graded Angiotensin II Infusion in Offspring Subjected to High-Salt Drinking Water during Pregnancy: The Effect of Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, Urine Output, Endothelial Permeability, and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Pezeshki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Rennin-angiotensin system and salt diet play important roles in blood pressure control. We hypothesized that the high-salt intake during pregnancy influences the degree of angiotensin-dependent control of the blood pressure in adult offspring. Methods. Female Wistar rats in two groups (A and B were subjected to drink tap and salt water, respectively, during pregnancy. The offspring were divided into four groups as male and female offspring from group A (groups 1 and 2 and from group B (groups 3 and 4. In anesthetized matured offspring mean arterial pressure (MAP, heart rate and urine output were measured in response to angiotensin II (AngII (0-1000 ng/kg/min, iv infusion. Results. An increase in MAP was detected in mothers with salt drinking water (P<0.05. The body weight increased and kidney weight decreased significantly in male offspring from group 3 in comparison to group 1 (P<0.05. MAP and urine volume in response to AngII infusion increased in group 3 (P<0.05. These findings were not observed in female rats. Conclusion. Salt overloading during pregnancy had long-term effects on kidney weight and increased sex-dependent response to AngII infusion in offspring (adult that may reveal the important role of diet during pregnancy in AngII receptors.

  6. Nonconventional Emulsion Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate. Effect of Cu(II)/Histidine Complex Catalyst and Different Peroxo-Salts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sahoo, Prafulla Kumar; Sahu, Gobinda Chandra; Swain, Sarat Kumar

    2003-01-01

    The characteristics of nonconventional (soap-free) aqueous emulsion polymerization reactions of methyl methacrylate were evaluated by the catalytic effect of in situ developed different transition metal (II...

  7. Electrochemistry of vanadium(II and the electrodeposition of aluminum-vanadium alloys in the aluminum chloride-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride molten salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuda T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical behavior of vanadium(II was examined in the 66.7-33.3 mole percent aluminum chloride-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride molten salt containing dissolved VCl2 at 353 K. Voltammetry experiments revealed that V(II could be electrochemically oxidized to V(III and V(IV. However at slow scan rates the V(II/V(III electrode reaction is complicated by the rapid precipitation of V(III as VCl3. The reduction of V(II occurs at potentials considerably negative of the Al(III/Al electrode reaction, and Al-V alloys cannot be electrodeposited from this melt. However electrodeposition experiments conducted in VCl2-saturated melt containing the additive, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, resulted in Al-V alloys. The vanadium content of these alloys increased with increasing cathodic current density or more negative applied potentials. X-ray analysis of Al-V alloys that were electrodeposited on a rotating copper wire substrate indicated that these alloys did not form or contain an intermetallic compound, but were non-equilibrium or metastable solid solutions. The chloride-pitting corrosion properties of these alloys were examined in aqueous NaCl by using potentiodynamic polarization techniques. Alloys containing ~10 a/o vanadium exhibited a pitting potential that was 0.3 V positive of that for pure aluminum.

  8. 77 FR 33100 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Technical Correction for African Wild Ass

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... rule. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce the revised taxonomy of Equus asinus... MAMMALS by, in the Scientific name column, removing the words ``Equus asinus'' and adding in their place... name Scientific name Where found Somali wild ass Equus asinus Ethiopia, Somalia. somalicus. Nubian wild...

  9. Direct synthesis of an heterometallic {Mn(II)3Cr(III)4} wheel by decomposition of Reineckes salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenaka, Valentyna V; Nesterova, Oksana V; Kokozay, Volodymyr N; Zybatyuk, Roman I; Shishkin, Oleg V; Boca, Roman; Shevchenko, Denys V; Huang, Ping; Styring, Stenbjörn

    2010-03-07

    A new heterometallic Mn/Cr molecular wheel complex has been synthesized using zerovalent manganese, Reineckes salt, ammonium thiocyanate and triethanolamine (H(3)tea) as starting materials. The compound [Mn(3)Cr(4)(NCS)(6)(Htea)(6)] (1) has been characterized in terms of its electrochemical, IR and EPR spectroscopic as well as its magnetic properties. The magnetic susceptibility and magnetization data were treated simultaneously during the optimization routine and resulted in J(Mn-Cr) = +0.43 cm(-1), J(Cr-Cr) = -4.75 cm(-1), J(Mn-Mn) = +1.78 cm(-1), g(eff) = 1.878 with the ground state S = 15/2.

  10. Satellite Data and Hydrological Model to Asses Water Quantity and Quality in the Yangtze River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Marco; Corbari, Chiara; Di Trapani, Antonio; Li, Jiren; Xin, Jinfeng; Zhang, Jianli; Zhang, Xingnan; Su, Bob; Yesou, Herve

    2016-08-01

    The main objective of the project is to assess water quantity and quality for the Yangtze River basin through remote sensing data and a distributed hydrological model. The paper provides an overview of the project activities that are supported by several peer review articles to which we refer for details. Water quantity analyses are assed with the fully distributed hydrological model FEST-EWB. The model algorithm solves the system of energy and mass balances in terms of a representative equilibrium temperature (RET) that is the land surface temperature that closes the energy balance equation and so governs the fluxes of energy and mass over the basin domain. This equilibrium surface temperature, which is a critical model state variable, is comparable to LST as retrieved from operational remote sensing data (MODIS) which is used for the calibration of soil and vegetation parameters. The effects on river discharge of the Three Gorges dam, the largest hydropower project in the world is evaluated. Observed flow duration curves, for the four available river cross sections, will be evaluated and compared to FEST- EWB simulated flow duration curves as well as observed as simulated hydrographs.The dynamic of the three large lakes (Poyang, Dongting and Taihu), which change considerably their area during the seasons, will also be analyzed using MERIS and ASAR data to infer surface area changes and LEGOS altimetry data (Topex/Poseidon, Jason, ENVISAT) for water level. Data from 2003 to 2006 are evaluated.FEST-EWB is run in for the whole Yangtze River basin at spatial resolution of 0.05° and temporal resolution of 3 hours. Results are provided in terms of hourly evapotranspiration, soil moisture and land surface temperature maps for the period between 2003 to 2006 and flood hydrographs at different river cross sections.Water quality analyses are performed along the Yangtze river estimating turbidity and suspended solid sediments from MERIS (250 m) and MODIS (300 m) data using

  11. Ion aggregation in high salt solutions. II. Spectral graph analysis of water hydrogen-bonding network and ion aggregate structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng

    2014-10-01

    Graph theory in mathematics and computer science is the study of graphs that are structures with pairwise connections between any objects. Here, the spectral graph theory and molecular dynamics simulation method are used to describe both morphological variation of ion aggregates in high salt solutions and ion effects on water hydrogen-bonding network structure. From the characteristic value analysis of the adjacency matrices that are graph theoretical representations of ion clusters, ion networks, and water H-bond structures, we obtained the ensemble average eigenvalue spectra revealing intricate connectivity and topology of ion aggregate structure that can be classified as either ion cluster or ion network. We further show that there is an isospectral relationship between the eigenvalue spectra of ion networks in high KSCN solutions and those of water H-bonding networks. This reveals the isomorphic relationship between water H-bond structure and ion-ion network structure in KSCN solution. On the other hand, the ion clusters formed in high NaCl solutions are shown to be graph-theoretically and morphologically different from the ion network structures in KSCN solutions. These observations support the bifurcation hypothesis on large ion aggregate growth mechanism via either ion cluster or ion network formation. We thus anticipate that the present spectral graph analyses of ion aggregate structures and their effects on water H-bonding network structures in high salt solutions can provide important information on the specific ion effects on water structures and possibly protein stability resulting from protein-water interactions.

  12. Ion aggregation in high salt solutions. II. Spectral graph analysis of water hydrogen-bonding network and ion aggregate structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng

    2014-10-21

    Graph theory in mathematics and computer science is the study of graphs that are structures with pairwise connections between any objects. Here, the spectral graph theory and molecular dynamics simulation method are used to describe both morphological variation of ion aggregates in high salt solutions and ion effects on water hydrogen-bonding network structure. From the characteristic value analysis of the adjacency matrices that are graph theoretical representations of ion clusters, ion networks, and water H-bond structures, we obtained the ensemble average eigenvalue spectra revealing intricate connectivity and topology of ion aggregate structure that can be classified as either ion cluster or ion network. We further show that there is an isospectral relationship between the eigenvalue spectra of ion networks in high KSCN solutions and those of water H-bonding networks. This reveals the isomorphic relationship between water H-bond structure and ion-ion network structure in KSCN solution. On the other hand, the ion clusters formed in high NaCl solutions are shown to be graph-theoretically and morphologically different from the ion network structures in KSCN solutions. These observations support the bifurcation hypothesis on large ion aggregate growth mechanism via either ion cluster or ion network formation. We thus anticipate that the present spectral graph analyses of ion aggregate structures and their effects on water H-bonding network structures in high salt solutions can provide important information on the specific ion effects on water structures and possibly protein stability resulting from protein-water interactions.

  13. Study of nonequilibrium steady state of Fe(II) complex salt by means of synchrotron-radiation x-ray

    CERN Document Server

    Moritomo, Y

    2003-01-01

    In this article, we introduce our recent investigation at SPring-8/BL02B2 on the nonequilibrium steady state of photoexcited spin-crossover salts, which consists of Fe sup 2 sup + complexes and counter cations. The Fe sup 2 sup + complex takes two states; one is the low-spin state (S=0) and the other is the high-spin state (S=2). The photoexcitation can convert the low-spin site into the high-spin state, and hence, a finite the high-spin site is excited balancing with the thermal relaxation process. When the excitation power exceeds a critical value, we observe a dynamical phase transition into the high-spin condensed state.

  14. Use of Iron (II Salts and Complexes for the Production of Soil Amendments from Organic Solid Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amerigo Beneduci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to obtain rapidly stabilized composts for crops from solid organic wastes is evaluated. Here we used a laboratory scale reaction chamber where solid waste treatment was performed under strictly controlled temperature and pressure conditions. The row organic waste was mixed with acid solutions containing iron (II ions either in the fully hydrated form or in the form of complexes with the diethylentriaminopentaacetic acid. Data from elemental analysis distribution and GC/MS analysis of the polar and non polar dissolved organic matter, clearly showed that Fe(II ions significantly enhance organic substrate oxidation of the initial solid waste, compared to a material obtained without the addition of the Fe(II ions to the raw organic matrix. These results suggest that Fe(II ions might be involved in a catalytic oxidation pathway that would be activated under the experimental conditions used. The extent of the oxidation process was evaluated by the value of the C/N ratio and, qualitatively, by the molecular composition of the dissolved organic matter. After about 6 hours of incubation, dark-brown and dry organic matrices were obtained with C/N ratio as low as 12 and a high degree of oxidative decomposition into low-molecular-weight compounds at high oxidation state.

  15. Tensile and Fatigue Behavior of ASS304 for Cold Stretching Pressure Vessels at Cryogenic Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hoon Seok [The 5th R and D Institute, Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Hoon; Na, Seong Hyun [Chungnam National Univ., Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Youn Hyung [Korean Gas Safety Corporation, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Hun [Daechang Solution Co. Ltd, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Kyun; Kim, Ki Dong [Korean Gas Corporation, R and D Division, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Cold stretching(CS) pressure vessels from ASS304 (austenitic stainless steel 304) are used for the transportation and storage of liquefied natural gas(LNG). CS pressure vessels are manufactured by pressurizing the finished vessels to a specific pressure to produce the required stress σk. After CS, there is some degree of plastic deformation. Therefore, CS vessels have a higher strength and lighter weight compared to conventional vessels. In this study, we investigate the tensile and fatigue behavior of ASS304 sampled by CS pressure vessels in accordance with the ASME code at cryogenic temperature. From the fatigue test results, we show S-N curves using a statistical method recommended by JSEM-S002. We carried out the fractography of fractured specimens using scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

  16. Compositional trends of γ-induced optical changes observed in chalcogenide glasses of binary As-S system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpotyuk, M.; Shpotyuk, O.; Golovchak, Roman; McCloy, John S.; Riley, Brian J.

    2014-01-23

    Compositional trends of γ-induced optical changes in chalcogenide glasses are studied with the binary As-S system. Effects of γ-irradiation and annealing are compared using the changes measured in the fundamental optical absorption edge region. It is shown that annealing near the glass transition temperature leads to bleaching of As-S glasses, while γ-irradiation leads to darkening; both depend on the glass composition and thermal history of the specimens. These results are explained in terms of competitive destruction–polymerization transformations and physical aging occurring in As-S chalcogenide glasses under the influence of γ-irradiation.

  17. Liquid-liquid extraction of ion-association complexes of cobalt(II-4-(2-pyridylazoresorcinol with ditetrazolium salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divarova Vidka V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation and liquid-liquid extraction of ion-association complexes between Co(II-4-(2-Pyridylazoresorcinol (PAR anionic chelates and cations of three ditetrazolium chlorides were studied: Blue Tetrazolium chloride (BTC, Neotetrazolium chloride (NTC and Nitro Blue Tetrazolium chloride (NBT. The optimum conditions for the formation and solvent extraction of the ion-association comlpex chelates were determined. It has been found that in the systems of Co(II-PAR-DTS, the reactants are reacted in molar ratios 1:2:1 and the general formula of complexes was suggested. The extraction equilibria were investigated and quantitatively characterized by the equilibrium constants and the recovery factors. The analytical characteristics of the complexes were calculated.

  18. Part I. Student success in intensive versus traditional introductory chemistry courses. Part II. Synthesis of salts of the weakly coordinating trisphat anion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mildred V.

    Part I. Intensive courses have been shown to be associated with equal or greater student success than traditional-length courses in a wide variety of disciplines and education levels. Student records from intensive and traditional-length introductory general chemistry courses were analyzed to determine the effects, of the course format, the level of academic experience, life experience (age), GPA, academic major and gender on student success in the course. Pretest scores, GPA and ACT composite scores were used as measures of academic ability and prior knowledge; t-tests comparing the means of these variables were used to establish that the populations were comparable prior to the course. Final exam scores, total course points and pretest-posttest differences were used as measures of student success; t-tests were used to determine if differences existed between the populations. ANCOVA analyses revealed that student GPA, pretest scores and course format were the only variables tested that were significant in accounting for the variance of the academic success measures. In general, the results indicate that students achieved greater academic success in the intensive-format course, regardless of the level of academic experience, life experience, academic major or gender. Part II. Weakly coordinating anions have many important applications, one of which is to function as co-catalysts in the polymerization of olefins by zirconocene. The structure of tris(tetrachlorobenzenedialato) phosphate(V) or "trisphat" anion suggests that it might be an outstanding example of a weakly coordinating anion. Trisphat acid was synthesized and immediately used to prepare the stable tributylammonium trisphat, which was further reacted to produce trisphat salts of Group I metal cations in high yields. Results of the 35Cl NQR analysis of these trisphat salts indicate only very weak coordination between the metal cations and the chlorine atoms of the trisphat anion.

  19. The origin of the conductivity maximum in molten salts. II. SnCl2 and HgBr2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravindakshan, Nikhil P.; Kuntz, Colin M.; Gemmell, Kyle E.; Johnson, Keith E.; East, Allan L. L.

    2016-09-01

    The phenomenon of electrical conductivity maxima of molten salts versus temperature during orthobaric (closed-vessel) conditions is further examined via ab initio simulations. Previously, in a study of molten BiCl3, a new theory was offered in which the conductivity falloff at high temperatures is due not to traditional ion association, but to a rise in the activation energy for atomic ions hopping from counterion to counterion. Here this theory is further tested on two more inorganic melts which exhibit conductivity maxima: another high-conducting melt (SnCl2, σmax = 2.81 Ω-1 cm-1) and a low-conducting one (HgBr2, σmax = 4.06 × 10-4 Ω-1 cm-1). First, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations were performed and again appear successful in reproducing the maxima for both these liquids. Second, analysis of the simulated liquid structure (radial distributions, species concentrations) was performed. In the HgBr2 case, a very molecular liquid like water, a clear Grotthuss chain of bromide transfers was observed in simulation when seeding the system with a HgBr+ cation and HgBr3- anion. The first conclusion is that the hopping mechanism offered for molten BiCl3 is simply the Grotthuss mechanism for conduction, applicable not just to H+ ions, but also to halide ions in post-transition-metal halide melts. Second, it is conjectured that the conductivity maximum is due to rising activation energy in network-covalent (halide-bridging) melts (BiCl3, SnCl2, PbCl2), but possibly a falling Arrhenius prefactor (collision frequency) for molecular melts (HgBr2).

  20. Validation of the tool assessment of clinical education (AssCE): A study using Delphi method and clinical experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfmark, Anna; Mårtensson, Gunilla

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish the validity of the tool Assessment of Clinical Education (AssCE). The tool is widely used in Sweden and some Nordic countries for assessing nursing students' performance in clinical education. It is important that the tools in use be subjected to regular audit and critical reviews. The validation process, performed in two stages, was concluded with a high level of congruence. In the first stage, Delphi technique was used to elaborate the AssCE tool using a group of 35 clinical nurse lecturers. After three rounds, we reached consensus. In the second stage, a group of 46 clinical nurse lecturers representing 12 universities in Sweden and Norway audited the revised version of the AssCE in relation to learning outcomes from the last clinical course at their respective institutions. Validation of the revised AssCE was established with high congruence between the factors in the AssCE and examined learning outcomes. The revised AssCE tool seems to meet its objective to be a validated assessment tool for use in clinical nursing education. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. INNER SALTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    been characterized include: (1) mesomeric phosphonium salts possessing phototropic properties; (2) pentavalent phosphorus compounds; and (3) a...Products that have been characterized include: (1) mesomeric phosphonium salts possessing phototropic properties; (2) pentavalent phosphorus compounds; and (3) a mesomeric inner salt . (Author)...Novel phosphonium and phosphorane compounds ere prepared by a variety of m hods from triphenylphosphine and methylene bromide. Products that have

  2. Hydroxyethyl cellulose doped with copper(II) phthalocyanine-tetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt as an effective dual functional hole-blocking layer for polymer light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Liang; Chen, Yun

    2017-07-01

    We report a doping method to improve the performance of solution-processed polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs). Doping 12 wt% copper(II) phthalocyanine-tetrasulfonated acid tetrasodium salt (TS-CuPc) into hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) as a dual functional hole-blocking layer (df-HBL) of multilayer PLED (glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/HY-PPV/TS-CuPc-doped HEC/LiF/Al) significantly enhanced maximum luminance, maximum current and power efficiency over that without the df-HBL (10,319 cd/m2, 2.98 cd/A and 1.24 lm/W) to (29,205 cd/m2, 13.27 cd/A and 9.56 lm/W). CV measurements reveal that HEC possesses a powerful hole-blocking capability. Topography and conductivity AFM images show that doping TS-CuPc increases the interfacial contact area and interfacial conductivity, which can overcome the insulating nature of HEC and thus further facilitate electron injection. Enhancements in device performance are attributed to the improved carrier balance and recombination in the presence of df-HBL, confirmed in electron-only and hole-only devices. Moreover, apparently raised open-circuit voltages provide further evidence that enhanced electron injection is indeed realized by the df-HBL. This study demonstrates an effective approach to develop highly efficient PLEDs.

  3. Glu-47, which forms a salt bridge between neurophysin-II and arginine vasopressin, is deleted in patients with familial central diabetes insipidus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuasa, Hiromitsu; Ito, Masafumi; Nagasaki, Hiroshi; Oiso, Yutaka; Saito, Hidehiko (Nagoya Univ. School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan)); Miyamoto, S.; Sasaki, N. (Chiba Children' s Hospital, Chiba (Japan))

    1993-09-01

    The arginine vasopressin (AVP) gene was sequenced in a pedigree with familial central diabetes insipidus (DI). When polymerase chain reaction-amplified DNAs from affected subjects were subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, fragments including exon 2 displayed two additional, slower migrating bands. These extra bands represented DNA heteroduplexes, indicating that there was a deletion or insertion mutation in exon 2. As the region with such a mutation was identified by direct sequence analysis, polymerase chain reaction-amplified fragments including the region were subcloned and sequenced. A 3-basepair deletion (AGG) out of two consecutive AGG sequences (nucleotides 1824-1829) was identified in one of two alleles. The cosegregation of the mutation with the DI phenotype in the family was confirmed by restriction enzyme analyses. This mutation should yield an abnormal AVP precursor lacking Glu[sup 47] in its neurophysin-II (NP) moiety. Since Glu[sup 47] is essential for NP molecules to form a salt bridge with AVP, it is very likely that the function of NP as a carrier protein for AVP would be impaired. The authors suggest that AVP would undergo accelerated proteolytic degradation, and this mechanism would be involved in the pathogenesis of DI in this pedigree. 34 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Low-temperature thermodynamic investigation of the sulphur organic salts (TMTTF)2PF6 and (TMTTF)2Br (TMTTF = tetramethyltetrathiafulvalene): II. Dynamical aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasjaunias, J. C.; Monceau, P.; Staresinic, D.; Biljakovic, K.; Carcel, C.; Fabre, J. M.

    2002-09-01

    This contribution is in continuation of our preceding publication (Lasjaunias J C, Brison J P, Monceau P, Staresinic D, Biljakovic K, Carcel C and Fabre J M 2002 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14 837) in which we have considered general aspects of the low-temperature thermodynamical properties of the quasi-one-dimensional organic salts based on sulphur donors with different ground states: (TMTTF)2PF6 in the spin-Peierls state and (TMTTF)2Br (TMTTF = tetramethyltetrathiafulvalene) with commensurate spin modulation. In this part, part II, we present our results on the dynamical aspects related to the non-equilibrium phenomena measured below 1 K. The metastable states excited to slightly higher temperature (by only a few per cent of the starting T0) relax very slowly to the heat bath environment, depending on the duration of the heat pumping. We compare the features observed in the relaxation rates in these two sulphur compounds with those measured for the incommensurate spin-density-wave compound (TMTSF)2PF6. We discuss the possible nature of the long-living low-energy excitations lying at the origin of this complex dynamical behaviour, in relation to their ground states.

  5. The Audio Frequency Conductance Study of Some Metal Succinate Salts in Aqueous Medium at Different Temperatures (Part I: Magnesium, Manganese (II, Barium and Copper Succinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosrat N. Kaka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The audio electrical conductances of aqueous solutions of magnesium, manganese II, barium, and copper succinates have been measured at various temperatures in the range of 298.15 K to 313.15 K, using an audio frequency conductance bridge. The evaluation of conductance data was carried out by minimisation technique using the theoretical equations of the complete and modified forms of Pitts (P and Fuoss-Hsia (F-H, each a three-parameter equation, association constant (KA, molar conductance (Λm, and distance parameter (a. Quantitative results showed that these salts do not behave as “strong” electrolytes, and that their dissociations are far from complete. The abnormally low conductances of these electrolytes are not due to the presence of electrically neutral molecules but to the ion-pair formation. The Walden product values, as well as the standard thermodynamics functions (ΔH∘, ΔG∘, ΔS∘ for the association reaction at the four temperatures studied, have been evaluated.

  6. Genetic evaluation of the captive breeding program of the Persian wild ass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R.K.; Pertoldi, C.; Loeschcke, Volker

    2007-01-01

    onager population into four subgroups that indicate departure from random mating, and thus minor rotation of animals between zoos. Lastly, analyses for inferring past demographic changes revealed a gradual population decline and inbreeding over several generations. This may indicate a low genetic load...... of demographic and genetic stochasticity. This study underlines the importance of using molecular markers to evaluate genetic management of captive breeding programs...... the interpretation of the results obtained from analyses based on such data. In this investigation, 12 microsatellite loci were investigated to evaluate the studbook information of the critically endangered Persian wild ass, Equus hemionus onager. Relatedness and inbreeding coefficients were calculated in order...

  7. Thermal and Gamma-ray induced relaxation in As-S glasses: modeling and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, Pierre; King, Ellyn A.; Erdmann, Robert G.; Riley, Brian J.; Sundaram, S. K.; McCloy, John S.

    2011-09-09

    Enthalpy relaxation is measured in a series of As-S glasses irradiated with gamma rays and these samples are compared with a set of identical control samples kept in the dark. It is shown that gamma irradiation lifts the kinetic barrier for relaxation at room temperature and speeds up the enthalpy release. The measured values of thermal relaxation in the dark agree closely with modeling results obtained by fitting differential scanning calorimetry curves with the TNM equations. The measured values of activation energy for enthalpy relaxation are also in close agreement with that predicted by the TNM model therefore lending credence to the fitting results. These measurements permit extraction of the effect of gamma irradiation on the glass structure for a series of As-S glasses with increasing structural coordination, and gamma irradiation is shown to reduce the structural relaxation time. It is also shown that lower coordination glasses exhibit greater radiation sensitivity but also greater thermal relaxation due to their lower Tg. On the other end, over-coordinated glasses show lower relaxation and almost no radiation sensitivity. This behavior is similar to the glass response under sub-bandgap light irradiation.

  8. Thermal and gamma-ray induced relaxation in As-S glasses: modelling and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, Pierre; King, Ellyn A; Erdmann, Robert G [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson AZ 85721 (United States); Riley, Brian J; Sundaram, S K; McCloy, John S, E-mail: Pierre@u.arizona.edu [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, PO Box 999, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2011-10-05

    Enthalpy relaxation was measured in a series of As-S glasses irradiated with gamma rays and these samples are compared with a set of identical control samples kept in the dark. It is shown that gamma irradiation lifts the kinetic barrier for relaxation at room temperature and speeds up the enthalpy release. The measured values of thermal relaxation in the dark agree closely with modelling results obtained by fitting differential scanning calorimetry curves with the Tool-Narayanaswamy-Moynihan (TNM) equations. The measured values of activation energy for enthalpy relaxation are also in close agreement with that predicted by the TNM model, therefore lending credence to the fitting results. These measurements permit extraction of the effect of gamma irradiation on the glass structure for a series of As-S glasses with increasing structural coordination, and gamma irradiation is shown to reduce the structural relaxation time. It is also shown that lower coordination glasses exhibit greater radiation sensitivity but also greater thermal relaxation due to their lower T{sub g}. On the other end, over-coordinated glasses show lower relaxation and almost no radiation sensitivity. This behaviour is similar to the glass response under sub-bandgap light irradiation.

  9. Eurasian wild asses in time and space: morphological versus genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geigl, Eva-Maria; Grange, Thierry

    2012-01-20

    The Equidae have a long evolutionary history that has interested palaeontologists for a long time. Their morphology-based taxonomy, however, is a matter of controversy. Since most equid species are now extinct, the phylogenetic tree based on genetic data can be established only imperfectly via deduction of present day genomes and little is known about the past genetic diversity of these species. Recent studies of ancient DNA preserved in fossil bones have led to a simplification of the phylogenetic tree and the classification system. The situation is still particularly unclear for the wild asses whose geographical distribution in the Pleistocene and the early Holocene stretched from Northern Africa to Eurasia before they became endangered or extinct. Therefore, we performed a phylogeographic study of bone remains of wild asses covering their former geographic range over the past 100,000 years based on the analysis of ancient mitochondrial DNA. Here, we will not show but rather discuss our results calling the morphology-based classification into question and indicating that morphological criteria alone can be an unreliable index in inferring various equid species. Indeed, the diversity of mitochondrial lineages in populations with similar morphology along with genetic signatures shared between morphologically distinct animals reveal a significant morphological plasticity among Equus species. The classification of palaeontological species based on morphological and genetic criteria will be discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Pengembangan Proses Bisnis dan Rancangan Aplikasi Sistem Informasi Penerimaan dan Penilaian Peserta Co - Ass pada RSUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanti Yanti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to is to explore the admission process and assessment of participant Co – Assistant doctor on a regional hospital which is still performed manually, to identify problems encountered and required information in the development of Information Systems of Participants Acceptance and Assessment of Co – Assistant doctor, and design the information System . Methods used are literature study, data collection (observation and interviews, analysis, and design. This study results in a computerized information systems of acceptance and assessment of Co - Ass participant  to improve the quality of service from the Human Resources division. Creating the required reports assists the Head of HR to determine the performance of Co - Ass. In addition, the design of information systems  reduces the possibility of data losses and documents recording errors made by the Executive Training Unit, and assist the hospital management in confirming the existing organizational structure and its duty of each division to provide document creation system and authorization by the external parties.

  11. Analysis of Gene Expression in 3D Spheroids Highlights a Survival Role for ASS1 in Mesothelioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbone, Dario; Van Dam, Loes; Follo, Carlo; Jithesh, Puthen V.; Zhang, Shu-Dong; Richards, William G.; Bueno, Raphael; Fennell, Dean A.; Broaddus, V. Courtney

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the underlying causes of chemoresistance in malignant pleural mesothelioma, we have studied mesothelioma cell lines as 3D spheroids, which acquire increased chemoresistance compared to 2D monolayers. We asked whether the gene expression of 3D spheroids would reveal mechanisms of resistance. To address this, we measured gene expression of three mesothelioma cell lines, M28, REN and VAMT, grown as 2D monolayers and 3D spheroids. A total of 209 genes were differentially expressed in common by the three cell lines in 3D (138 upregulated and 71 downregulated), although a clear resistance pathway was not apparent. We then compared the list of 3D genes with two publicly available datasets of gene expression of 56 pleural mesotheliomas compared to normal tissues. Interestingly, only three genes were increased in both 3D spheroids and human tumors: argininosuccinate synthase 1 (ASS1), annexin A4 (ANXA4) and major vault protein (MVP); of these, ASS1 was the only consistently upregulated of the three genes by qRT-PCR. To measure ASS1 protein expression, we stained 2 sets of tissue microarrays (TMA): one with 88 pleural mesothelioma samples and the other with additional 88 pleural mesotheliomas paired with matched normal tissues. Of the 176 tumors represented on the two TMAs, ASS1 was expressed in 87 (50%; staining greater than 1 up to 3+). For the paired samples, ASS1 expression in mesothelioma was significantly greater than in the normal tissues. Reduction of ASS1 expression by siRNA significantly sensitized mesothelioma spheroids to the pro-apoptotic effects of bortezomib and of cisplatin plus pemetrexed. Although mesothelioma is considered by many to be an ASS1-deficient tumor, our results show that ASS1 is elevated at the mRNA and protein levels in mesothelioma 3D spheroids and in human pleural mesotheliomas. We also have uncovered a survival role for ASS1, which may be amenable to targeting to undermine mesothelioma multicellular resistance. PMID:26982031

  12. ASS1 as a novel tumor suppressor gene in myxofibrosarcomas: aberrant loss via epigenetic DNA methylation confers aggressive phenotypes, negative prognostic impact, and therapeutic relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsuan-Ying; Wu, Wen-Ren; Wang, Yu-Hui; Wang, Jun-Wen; Fang, Fu-Min; Tsai, Jen-Wei; Li, Shau-Hsuan; Hung, Hsiao-Chin; Yu, Shih-Chen; Lan, Jui; Shiue, Yow-Ling; Hsing, Chung-His; Chen, Li-Tzong; Li, Chien-Feng

    2013-06-01

    The principal goals were to identify and validate targetable metabolic drivers relevant to myxofibrosarcoma pathogenesis using a published transcriptome. As the most significantly downregulated gene regulating amino acid metabolism, argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS1) was selected for further analysis by methylation-specific PCR, pyrosequencing, and immunohistochemistry of myxofibrosarcoma samples. The roles of ASS1 in tumorigenesis and the therapeutic relevance of the arginine-depriving agent pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG20) were elucidated in ASS1-deficient myxofibrosarcoma cell lines and xenografts with and without stable ASS1 reexpression. ASS1 promoter hypermethylation was detected in myxofibrosarcoma samples and cell lines and was strongly linked to ASS1 protein deficiency. The latter correlated with increased tumor grade and stage and independently predicted a worse survival. ASS1-deficient cell lines were auxotrophic for arginine and susceptible to ADI-PEG20 treatment, with dose-dependent reductions in cell viability and tumor growth attributable to cell-cycle arrest in the S-phase. ASS1 expression was restored in 2 of 3 ASS1-deficient myxofibrosarcoma cell lines by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, abrogating the inhibitory effect of ADI-PEG20. Conditioned media following ASS1 reexpression attenuated HUVEC tube-forming capability, which was associated with suppression of MMP-9 and an antiangiogenic effect in corresponding myxofibrosarcoma xenografts. In addition to delayed wound closure and fewer invading cells in a Matrigel assay, ASS1 reexpression reduced tumor cell proliferation, induced G1-phase arrest, and downregulated cyclin E with corresponding growth inhibition in soft agar and xenograft assays. Our findings highlight ASS1 as a novel tumor suppressor in myxofibrosarcomas, with loss of expression linked to promoter methylation, clinical aggressiveness, and sensitivity to ADI-PEG20. ©2013 AACR

  13. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis ameliorates the optimum quantum yield of photosystem II and reduces non-photochemical quenching in rice plants subjected to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcel, Rosa; Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Aroca, Ricardo; Garcia, Rosalva; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel

    2015-08-01

    Rice is the most important food crop in the world and is a primary source of food for more than half of the world population. However, salinity is considered the most common abiotic stress reducing its productivity. Soil salinity inhibits photosynthetic processes, which can induce an over-reduction of the reaction centres in photosystem II (PSII), damaging the photosynthetic machinery. The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis may improve host plant tolerance to salinity, but it is not clear how the AM symbiosis affects the plant photosynthetic capacity, particularly the efficiency of PSII. This study aimed at determining the influence of the AM symbiosis on the performance of PSII in rice plants subjected to salinity. Photosynthetic activity, plant gas-exchange parameters, accumulation of photosynthetic pigments and rubisco activity and gene expression were also measured in order to analyse comprehensively the response of the photosynthetic processes to AM symbiosis and salinity. Results showed that the AM symbiosis enhanced the actual quantum yield of PSII photochemistry and reduced the quantum yield of non-photochemical quenching in rice plants subjected to salinity. AM rice plants maintained higher net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate than nonAM plants. Thus, we propose that AM rice plants had a higher photochemical efficiency for CO2 fixation and solar energy utilization and this increases plant salt tolerance by preventing the injury to the photosystems reaction centres and by allowing a better utilization of light energy in photochemical processes. All these processes translated into higher photosynthetic and rubisco activities in AM rice plants and improved plant biomass production under salinity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Aspectos Teóricos, Conceituais e Jurídicos do Assédio Moral no Trabalho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilfran Ferreira de Araújo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem por objetivo central compreender e analisar as interpretações doutrinárias e jurisprudenciais acerca do assédio moral no trabalho e as consequências que resultam desse comportamento, bem como acerca dos direitos da personalidade e do dano moral. Quanto à metodologia aplicada, esta obra tem natureza qualitativa, do tipo descritiva, com caráter bibliográfico e documental, sem inserção em campo. Como resultado, temos um diagnóstico da realidade do assédio moral nas relações de trabalho, trazendo consigo conceitos claros e relevantes quanto aos tipos de assédio existentes e a maneira de prevenção.

  15. Highlights from e-EPS: Physics league… for kick-ass students

    CERN Multimedia

    Bénédicte Huchet

    2013-01-01

    e-EPS News is an addition to the CERN Bulletin line-up, showcasing articles from e-EPS – the European Physical Society newsletter – as part of a collaboration between the two publications.   The International Association of Physics Students (IAPS), the Dutch umbrella organisation for physics study associations (SPIN) and the physics students association in Utrecht (A–Eskwadraat) have launched a new contest challenging physics undergraduate students. The first edition of the Physics League Across Numerous Countries for Kick-ass Students (PLANCKS) will be organised in April 2014 in Utrecht, the Netherlands. The competition focuses on theoretical physics problems to be solved by participating teams. Some sample exercises are already available on the PLANCKS website. The goal of the competition is to increase the international collaboration, social activities and personal development of individual contestants. By bringing together physics students from dif...

  16. A new compound heterozygous frameshift mutation in the type II 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3{beta}-HSD gene causes salt-wasting 3{beta}-HSD deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L.; Sakkal-Alkaddour, S.; Chang, Ying T.; Yang, Xiaojiang; Songya Pang [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-01-01

    We report a new compound heterozygous frameshift mutation in the type II 3{Beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3{beta}-HSD) gene in a Pakistanian female child with the salt-wasting form of 3{Beta}-HSD deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The etiology for her congenital adrenal hyperplasia was not defined. Although the family history suggested possible 3{beta}-HSd deficiency disorder, suppressed adrenal function caused by excess glucocorticoid therapy in this child at 7 yr of age did not allow hormonal diagnosis. To confirm 3{beta}-HSD deficiency, we sequenced the type II 3{beta}-HSD gene in the patient, her family, and the parents of her deceased paternal cousins. The type II 3{beta}-HSD gene region of a putative promotor, exons I, II, III, and IV, and exon-intron boundaries were amplified by PCR and sequenced in all subjects. The DNA sequence of the child revealed a single nucleotide deletion at codon 318 [ACA(Thr){r_arrow}AA] in exon IV in one allele, and two nucleotide deletions at codon 273 [AAA(Lys){r_arrow}A] in exon IV in the other allele. The remaining gene sequences were normal. The codon 318 mutation was found in one allele from the father, brother, and parents of the deceased paternal cousins. The codon 273 mutation was found in one allele of the mother and a sister. These findings confirmed inherited 3{beta}-HSD deficiency in the child caused by the compound heterozygous type II 3{beta}-HSD gene mutation. Both codons at codons 279 and 367, respectively, are predicted to result in an altered and truncated type II 3{beta}-HSD protein, thereby causing salt-wasting 3{beta}-HSD deficiency in the patient. 21 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Arginine Deprivation Inhibits the Warburg Effect and Upregulates Glutamine Anaplerosis and Serine Biosynthesis in ASS1-Deficient Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Charles Kremer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeting defects in metabolism is an underutilized strategy for the treatment of cancer. Arginine auxotrophy resulting from the silencing of argininosuccinate synthetase 1 (ASS1 is a common metabolic alteration reported in a broad range of aggressive cancers. To assess the metabolic effects that arise from acute and chronic arginine starvation in ASS1-deficient cell lines, we performed metabolite profiling. We found that pharmacologically induced arginine depletion causes increased serine biosynthesis, glutamine anaplerosis, oxidative phosphorylation, and decreased aerobic glycolysis, effectively inhibiting the Warburg effect. The reduction of glycolysis in cells otherwise dependent on aerobic glycolysis is correlated with reduced PKM2 expression and phosphorylation and upregulation of PHGDH. Concurrent arginine deprivation and glutaminase inhibition was found to be synthetic lethal across a spectrum of ASS1-deficient tumor cell lines and is sufficient to cause in vivo tumor regression in mice. These results identify two synthetic lethal therapeutic strategies exploiting metabolic vulnerabilities of ASS1-negative cancers.

  18. Fundamental Properties of Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

    2012-11-01

    Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

  19. Salt cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    If you are a professional associated with system and infrastructure management, looking at automated infrastructure and deployments, then this book is for you. No prior experience of Salt is required.

  20. Fe(II/Et3N-Relay-catalyzed domino reaction of isoxazoles with imidazolium salts in the synthesis of methyl 4-imidazolylpyrrole-2-carboxylates, its ylide and betaine derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina E. Galenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple approach was developed for the synthesis of methyl 4-imidazolylpyrrole-2-carboxylates from easily available compounds, 5-methoxyisoxazoles and phenacylimidazolium salts under hybrid Fe(II/Et3N relay catalysis. The products were easily transformed into the corresponding 3-(5-methoxycarbonyl-1H-imidazol-3-ium-3-ylpyrrol-1-ides, which in turn can be hydrolyzed under basic conditions into the corresponding betaines. A carbene tautomeric form of the 4-methoxycarbonyl-substituted imidazolylpyrrolides was trapped by reaction with sulfur affording the corresponding imidazolethiones under very mild conditions.

  1. Gamma Radiation Effects on Physical, Optical, and Structural Properties of Binary As-S glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaram, S. K.; McCloy, John S.; Riley, Brian J.; Murphy, Mark K.; Qiao, Hong (Amy); Windisch, Charles F.; Walter, Eric D.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Golovchak, Roman; Shpotyuk, O.

    2012-03-01

    Gamma radiation induces changes in physical, optical, and structural properties in chalcogenide glasses., Previous research has focused on As{sub 2}S{sub 3} and families of glasses containing Ge. For the first time, we present composition and dose dependent data on the As-S binary glass series. Binary As{sub x}S{sub 100-x} (x = 30, 33, 36, 40, and 42) glasses were irradiated with gamma radiation using a {sup 60}Co source at 2.8 Gy/s to accumulated doses of 1, 2, 3, and 4 MGy. The irradiated samples were characterized at each dose level for density, refractive index, x-ray diffraction, and Raman spectrum. These results are compared to those of as-made and 1 year aged samples. We report an initial increase in density followed by a decrease as a function of dose that contradicts the expected compositional dependence of molar volume of these glasses. This unusual behavior is explained based on microvoid formation and nanoscale phase-separation induced by the irradiation in these glasses. XRD, Raman, and EPR data provide supporting evidence, underscoring the importance of optimally- or overly-constrained structures for stability under aging or irradiation.

  2. Use of Near Infrared Spectroscopy to Asses Remote Ischemic Preconditioning in Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Ambrozic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote ischemic preconditioning (IPC is a procedure during which brief periods of ischemia protect distant organ from ischemia-reperfusion injury. Appling IPC on an upper arm, this phenomenon has been demonstrated in several studies. Skeletal muscle tissue oxygenation at rest (StO2 and StO2 deoxygenation rate during vascular occlusion can be measured using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. We aimed to investigate the effects of remote upper arm IPC on StO2 and flow-mediated dilatation (FMD in healthy male volunteers. In a randomized controlled crossover trial, resting StO2, StO2 deoxygenation rate, and FMD were measured on testing arm at baseline and after 60 minutes. After basal measurements IPC protocol on a contralateral arm was performed. StO2 deoxygenation rate was significantly lower after remote, the IPC cycles in comparison to deoxygenation rate at baseline (9.7±2.6 versus 7.5±2.5%, P=0.002. Comparison of deoxygenation rates showed a significant difference between the IPC and the control protocol (F=5.512, P=0.003. No differences were observed in FMD before and after remote IPC and in the control protocol. In healthy young adults, remote IPC reduces StO2 deoxygenation rate but has no significant impact on FMD. NIRS technique offers a novel approach to asses skeletal muscle adaptation in response to remote ischemic stimuli.

  3. Development of an alternative low salt bovine hide preservation using PEG and crude glycerol, part II: mechanical properties of leather products

    Science.gov (United States)

    To obtain good quality leather products, the hides from which they are derived should be preserved properly while in storage and transit to prevent putrefaction. Current practice for hide preservation is salt curing via concentrated NaCl solutions. The objective of the current study is to develop al...

  4. Intervenções em assédio moral no trabalho: uma revisão da literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Miriam Raab Glina

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA: Embora a problemática do assédio moral no trabalho venha sendo estudada há mais de três décadas, aspectos de gerenciamento e prevenção ainda necessitam de maior estudo e sistematização. OBJETIVO: Identificar e sistematizar os métodos de intervenção em assédio moral. MÉTODO: Pesquisa bibliográfica sobre o tema em bases de dados (Medline, Psychinfo, SciELO e Lilacs, livros, teses e sites especializados (1980 a 2010. RESULTADOS E DISCUSSÃO: O conceito de assédio moral no trabalho é inicialmente delimitado, explicitando os elementos caracterizadores básicos. As intervenções são organizadas em níveis de prevenção (primária, secundária e terciária e alvos das ações: indivíduos diretamente envolvidos, testemunhas, grupo de trabalho e organização. Os aspectos que levam ao sucesso das intervenções e às boas práticas são elencados. CONCLUSÃO: Dada a natureza complexa do assédio moral no trabalho, intervenções isoladas e pontuais não funcionam. A abordagem precisa ser abrangente e o acompanhamento das ações, sistemático. Cada caso é singular e o desenho da intervenção deve considerar o contexto organizacional e envolver os vários atores sociais.

  5. Shaft barriers for underground waste repositories in abandoned salt mines. Preparatory project. Vol. 2. Annex; Schachtverschluesse fuer untertaegige Deponien in Salzbergwerken. Vorprojekt. Bd. 2. Anhang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, M.W. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Remlingen (Germany). Forschungsbergwerk Asse; Fruth, R. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Remlingen (Germany). Forschungsbergwerk Asse; Stockmann, N. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Remlingen (Germany). Forschungsbergwerk Asse; Birthler, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH Greece, Braunschweig (Germany). Fachbereich Endlagersicherheitsforschung; Boese, B. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH Greece, Braunschweig (Germany). Fachbereich Endlagersicherheitsforschung; Storck, R. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH Greece, Braunschweig (Germany). Fachbereich Endlagersicherheitsforschung; Sitz, P. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau; Krausse, A. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau; Eulenberger, K.H. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau; Schleinig, J.P. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau; Duddeck, H. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Statik; Ahrens, H. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Statik; Menzel, W. [IfG Inst. fuer Gebirgsmechanik GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Salzer, K. [IfG Inst. fuer Gebirgsmechanik GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Minkley, W. [IfG Inst. fuer Gebirgsmechanik GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Busche, H. [Kali und Salz AG, Kassel (Germany); Lindloff, U. [Kali und Salz AG, Kassel (Germany); Gierenz, S. [Kali und Salz AG, Kassel (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    This preparatory study, ``Shaft barriers for underground waste repositories in abandoned salt mines``, was to demonstrate the current scientific and technological know-how based on a comprehensive analysis of the barrier design concepts or established structures intended to serve as barriers in abandoned shafts of potash or rock salt mines. Taking as a basis the current regulatory regime and the available know-how on barrier systems in underground waste repositories taken into account so far in plan approval and licensing procedures, as well as the state of the art, concepts are developed as technical guides and models of barrier systems for mine shafts. The required research work for the various components of a shaft barrier is shown, particularly relating to aspects such as materials suitability and technical realisation. Immediate demand for research activities is shown with regard to the available potentials of mathematic and numeric geotechnical and hydrogeologic calculation models required in order to give proof of the long-term workability of shaft barriers. The authors are of the opinion that the following activities are required in order to meet the research demand quantified: (1) Laboratory and bench-scale experiments for determination of the efficiency of various sealing materials and backfilling materials, and (2) an in-situ, large-scale experiment in order to demonstrate the suitability of low-consolidation shotter columns, or constructional technologies. The laboratory work can be done in the facilities of the GSF research mine of Asse, the Freiburg Mining Academy, and the Institut fuer Gebirgsmechanik in Leipzig, and the benchmark experiments also at the Asse site in the research mine. The Kali und Salz Beteiligungs AG is prepared to offer its mine Salzdetfurth II as a site for the large-scale experiment. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen der Vorstudie ``Schachtverschluesse fuer Untertagedeponien in Salzbergwerken`` wird ausgehend von einer umfangreichen

  6. Molten Salt Promoting Effect in Double Salt CO2 Absorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Keling; Li, Xiaohong S.; Chen, Haobo; Singh, Prabhakar; King, David L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the concept of molten salts as catalysts for CO2 absorption by MgO, and extend these observations to the MgO-containing double salt oxides. We will show that the phenomena involved with CO2 absorption by MgO and MgO-based double salts are similar and general, but with some important differences. This paper focuses on the following key concepts: i) identification of conditions that favor or disfavor participation of isolated MgO during double salt absorption, and investigation of methods to increase the absorption capacity of double salt systems by including MgO participation; ii) examination of the relationship between CO2 uptake and melting point of the promoter salt, leading to the recognition of the role of pre-melting (surface melting) in these systems; and iii) extension of the reaction pathway model developed for the MgO-NaNO3 system to the double salt systems. This information advances our understanding of MgO-based CO2 absorption systems for application with pre-combustion gas streams.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and biological activities of copper(II) complex of 2-Benzimidazolyl-urea and the nitrate salt of 2-Benzimidazolyl-urea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyraz, Mehmet; Sari, Musa; Banti, Christina N.; Hadjikakou, Sotiris K.

    2017-10-01

    The synthesis of the complex {[Cu(BZIMU)2](NO3)2} (1) (BZIMU = 2-Benzimidazolyl-urea) is reported here. The complex 1 was characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, magnetic susceptibility and molar conductance measurements. The crystal structures of 1 and of the nitrate salt of [(BZIMUH+)(NO3)-] (2) were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The copper complex 1 and [(BZIMUH+)(NO3)-] (2) were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxic activity (cell viability) against human cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa) and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell line and normal human fetal lung fibroblast cells (MRC-5) with SRB assay.

  8. The Philosophical Allegory of the Isis Figure in Beroaldo’s Commentary on Apuleius’ Golden Ass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Weiss

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to identify the philosophical digressions in Philippo Beroaldo’s encyclopaedic commentary, and to understand them in view of the author’s general approach to Apuleius’ Golden Ass. As Beroaldo deliberately abstains from writing a philosophical commentary, it is no surprise that he gives merely a historical (and yet personally coloured survey of the tale of Cupid and Psyche and its tradition of various moralistic, religious, and philosophical interpretations. For him, Apuleius’ text is principally a moral allegory. On the other hand, the subject of Book 11 (the so-called Book of Isis, centred around Lucius’ spiritual as well as physical transformation, leads him to topics which he necessarily approaches as an erudite of his era, heavily influenced by the Christian Neoplatonism. His commentary on some passages of truly mystical character evinces an ambiguity attested at the very beginning, where Beroaldo, apart from the generally accepted moralistic interpretation, briefly mentions another way of reading the text: reading it as veiled Pythagorean and Platonic doctrines of the regeneration and transmigration of the soul. Indeed, Beroaldo’s interest in Pythagorean philosophy and its classical proponents is also evident in some of his other works, and the Commentary lacks no hints of these secret doctrines, which spring up quite unexpectedly sometimes. Even more surprising is Beroaldo’s reserve, once he broaches this subject, protected by what he terms fides silentii. He cherishes this expression to the point which makes us wonder whether his commentary merely reflects the encyclopaedic rigour of a teacher, eager to present a text from all points of view, or displays the emulous thought of a kindred spirit (a point made in some modern studies, restrained from saying more. Indeed, Beroaldo’s interpretation of the goddess Isis figure as an ancient manifestation of the one God corroborates the latter assumption. Also

  9. Spectroelectrochemistry and modeling of enargite (Cu3AsS4) reactivity under atmospheric conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Robert Nicholas Verne

    Raman spectroscopy has been a useful technology for fundamental studies in the mining industry. Surface changes through oxidation and reduction reactions can be monitored in-situ, allowing the changes to be monitored in real time. In conjunction with cyclic voltammetry, to change the conditions at which a mineral surface is subjected to, reaction and reaction conditions can be identified. The results can then be plotted to create a map similar to that of an EH-pH diagram. In this study, the copper arsenic sulfide mineral, enargite (Cu 3AsS4) was subjected to a series of tests. Relatively pure samples were obtained from Butte, MT and Quirivilca, Peru and used to create mineral electrodes. The electrodes were cycled over an EH range of -1000 to +1000 mV (vs SHE) at pH values ranging from 1 to 13. Changes to the surface of the mineral were identified by comparing Raman spectra to a mineral Raman database. Plotted results were then compared against mass-balanced EH-pH diagrams for the Cu-As-S-H2O system, created using the STABCAL thermodynamic calculation program. Ultimately, the EH-pH diagram is modified based on the results, and an updated version was created. The mass-balanced methodology is applied, in conjunction with Gibbs' phase rule, to an aqueous quaternary system. Variations in EH-pH diagrams of the Cu-As-S-H2O system based on slight changes in concentrations of copper, arsenic and sulfur are examined. Finally, a novel nano-graphene material was tested for its ability to adsorb arsenic. Arsenic remediation, downstream of an enargite leach, remains an unsolved issue. The nano-graphene platelets were not able to successfully reduce arsenic levels in solution below the EPA-required limitation of 10 ppb. A thermodynamic evaluation of the adsorption characterized the process as physisorption, and likely unsuitable for long-term arsenic storage. A functionalized version of the nano-graphene may enhance results.

  10. Effective Partnership is an underpinning of ANSI/ASSE Z88.2-2015 Practices for Respiratory Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Richard W; Spelce, David; Johnson, James S; Rehak, Timothy R

    In the U.S., respiratory protection is broadly supported by a system of coordinated efforts among governmental organizations, professional associations, researchers, industrial hygienists, manufacturers, and others who produce knowledge, best practice guidance, standards, regulations, technologies, and products to assure workers can be effectively protected. Ultimately, the work of these partners is applied by employers in establishing and implementing an effective ANSI/ASSE Z88.2-2015 conforming respirator program. This article describes key partners and their activities and/or responsibilities to assure an effective respirator program.

  11. Molecular structure of virgin and Tg cycled (Ag2Se)x (AsSe)1-x bulk glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachtman, Jacob; Chen, Ping; Boochand, P.

    2009-03-01

    AsSe, the base glass (x = 0) in the titled ternary, is an interesting example of a chalcogenide that is partially de-mixed into As4Se4 molecules segregated from a connected AsSe network, with the latter determining glass network properties. Raman scattering reveals sharp modes of the Realgar molecules that are superimposed on broad modes coming from of the backbone. Upon Tg cycling virgin samples (as quenched melts), the concentration of de-mixed As4Se4 molecules decreases, suggesting that thermally induced polymerization occurs; molecules break up to form part of the connective tissue. Modulated DSC experiments reveal a broad exotherm near 140 ^oC in virgin samples, which becomes nearly extinct in Tg cycled samples. The exotherm may represent Realgar molecules nano-crystallizing as the temperature approaches Tg. Compositional trends in thermal parameters such as Tg(x), δCp(x), and the δHnr(x) as a function of Ag2Se content `x' of the glasses will be reported.

  12. A Dinâmica e os Fatores Organizacionais Propiciadores à Ocorrência do Assédio Moral no Trabalho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Soares Nunes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo é apresentada uma revisão da literatura sobre o assédio moral, com uma abordagem voltada para a Ciência da Administração. Considera-se que no atual contexto existem alguns fatores organizacionais propiciadores à ocorrência do assédio moral, e que são importantes de ser compreendidos pelo administrador. O assédio moral trata-se de um processo complexo que inclui a interação de aspectos interpessoais, sociais (grupais e organizacionais. A abordagem focada é a do assédio moral organizacional, cujo objetivo é fazer com que as agressões sirvam de exemplo para os membros organizacionais, para que estes alcancem as metas/objetivos estabelecidos pela organização a qualquer custo. Ressalta-se que existem alguns fatores organizacionais que podem propiciar o assédio, como a mudança da natureza e da organização do trabalho, cultura e clima organizacional, e liderança. Buscaram-se nos modelos propostos subsídios conceituais explicativos do fenômeno, os quais demonstram a interação dos diversos aspectos supracitados que influenciam na ocorrência.DOI:10.7769/gesec.v4i2.161

  13. C Condit ass tioners sembla s and s age of cru signific f proka ude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny

    2014-10-06

    Oct 6, 2014 ... weight of soil, and Q = product weight of substance. Initial. Physicochemistry for polluted and unpolluted soils. Air - dried screen (2 mm) soils were subjected to gas chromatographic (HP. Gas Chromatograph 5890 Series ii, using dichloromethane as extraction solvent) analysis for Polycyclic aromatic ...

  14. AssesSeg—A Command Line Tool to Quantify Image Segmentation Quality: A Test Carried Out in Southern Spain from Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Novelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This letter presents the capabilities of a command line tool created to assess the quality of segmented digital images. The executable source code, called AssesSeg, was written in Python 2.7 using open source libraries. AssesSeg (University of Almeria, Almeria, Spain; Politecnico di Bari, Bari, Italy implements a modified version of the supervised discrepancy measure named Euclidean Distance 2 (ED2 and was tested on different satellite images (Sentinel-2, Landsat 8, and WorldView-2. The segmentation was applied to plastic covered greenhouse detection in the south of Spain (Almería. AssesSeg outputs were utilized to find the best band combinations for the performed segmentations of the images and showed a clear positive correlation between segmentation accuracy and the quantity of available reference data. This demonstrates the importance of a high number of reference data in supervised segmentation accuracy assessment problems.

  15. A double salt of iodobismuthate: cis-aquaiodidobis(1,10-phenanthrolinecobalt(II tris(1,10-phenanthrolinecobalt(II trans-hexa-μ2-iodido-hexaiodidotribismuthate(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiongke Chen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [Co(C12H8N23][CoI(C12H8N22(H2O][Bi3I12], conventionally abbreviated [Co(phen3][CoI(phen2(H2O][Bi3I12], where phen is 1,10-phenanthroline, the CoII atom in one cation is coordinated by six N atoms from three phen ligands in an octahedral coordination while the CoII atom in the other cation is coordinated octahedrally by four N atoms from two phen ligands, one water O atom and one I atom. In the anion, three BiIII ions adopt an octahedral coordination constructed by six I− ligands. The three BiI6 octahedra are fused together through trans face-sharing.

  16. Spruce forests (Ass. Sphango girgensohnii - Piceetum (Br.-Bl. 39 Polak. 62 on excessively moistened peatlands in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normunds Priedits

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research carried out on swamp spruce forests on peatland in Latvia gives a detailed notion of the phytosociological structure of Ass. Sphagno girgensohnii - Piceetum (Br. - BI. 39 Polak. 62 in the western part of the East-European Plain at the Baltic Sea. The paper reflects one of the aspects of swamp forest investigation results in Latvia on forest communities, its biodiversity and presevation. Ninety-one sample plots with Picea abies as the dominant in the tree layer or co-dominant with Betula pendula, Betula pubescens or Pinus sylvestris are described according to phytosociological Braun-Blanquet methodology. Floristic features of spruce communities belonging to Caricoso-phragmitosa and Dryopterioso-cnricosa forest site types are analysed. The results are compared with similar investigations carried out in the Baltic Sea region states and neighbouring countries.

  17. Crystal structure, quantum mechanical study and spectroscopic studies of nitrate and perchlorate salts of 3-chloroaniline, [C6H7ClN]NO3 (I) and [C6H7ClN]ClO4 (II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayar, I.; Khedhiri, L.; Jeanneau, E.; Lefebvre, F.; Ben Nasr, C.

    2017-06-01

    Two new organic-inorganic hybrid compounds, 3-chloroanilinium nitrate (I) and 3-chloanilinium perchlorate (II), have been synthesized by an acid/base reaction at room temperature in the presence of 3-chloroaniline as an organic-structure directing agent and their structures were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound I, [C6H7ClN]NO3, crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pbca with a = 10.4137(16), b = 9.6232(11), c = 16.059(2) Å, V = 1609.3(4) and z = 8. Full-matrix least-squares refinement converged at R = 0.041 and Rw = 0.121. Compound II, [C6H7ClN]ClO4, belongs to the monoclinic system, space group P21/n with the following parameters: a = 10.684(2), b = 7.2667(12), c = 12.229(2) Å, β = 104.27(2)°, V = 920.1(3) and z = 4. The structure was refined to R = 0.054 and Rw = 0.102. Both salts form anionic parallel layers alternating with thick slabs of [C6H7NCl]+ organic molecules. Charge balance is achieved by the protonated amine which interacts with the inorganic framework through hydrogen bonding. Solid-state 13C CP-MAS NMR spectroscopy is in agreement with the X-ray structures. Ab initio calculations allow the partial attribution of carbon signals to the various atoms of the organic groups. Electronic properties such as HOMO and LUMO energies were studied by Quantum mechanical evaluation by using the B3LYP/6-31+G* method.

  18. Salt movements and faulting of the overburden - can numerical modeling predict the fault patterns above salt structures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, O.R.; Egholm, D.L.; Wesenberg, Rasmus

    the rheology of the deforming overburden, the mechanical coupling between the overburden and the underlying salt, as well as the kinematics of the moving salt structure. In this presentation, we demonstrate how the horizontal component on the salt motion influences the fracture patterns within the overburden....... The modeling shows that purely vertical movement of the salt introduces a mesh of concentric normal faults in the overburden, and that the frequency of radiating faults increases with the amount of lateral movements across the salt-overburden interface. The two end-member fault patterns (concentric vs....... radiating) can thus be linked to two different styles of salt movement: i) the vertical rising of a salt indenter and ii) the inflation of a ‘salt-balloon’ beneath the deformed strata. The results are in accordance with published analogue and theoretical models, as well as natural systems, and the model may...

  19. Assédio moral nas instituições de ensino superior: um estudo sobre as condições organizacionais que favorecem sua ocorrência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Míriam Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Este artigo investiga as condições organizacionais que favorecem a ocorrência de assédio moral no ambiente de trabalho, a partir da perspectiva de professores atuantes em cursos de administração de empresas de instituições de ensino superior (IES privadas na cidade de São Paulo. Foi realizada uma pesquisa qualitativa baseada em dados provenientes de entrevistas e análise documental, submetidos à análise de conteúdo. Os resultados evidenciaram que o assédio moral é motivado tanto por questões de ordem pessoal, quanto por questões organizacionais e que tem como elementos deflagradores o posicionamento das IES privadas no cenário competitivo em que estão inseridas e a fragilidade ou inexistência de normas e processos referentes à prevenção e ao tratamento de casos de assédio moral. Os resultados evidenciaram que o assédio moral é motivado tanto por questões de ordem pessoal, quanto organizacionais, tendo como elementos deflagradores o posicionamento das IES privadas no cenário competitivo em que estão inseridas e a fragilidade ou inexistência de normas e processos referentes à prevenção e ao tratamento do problema.

  20. Identification of citrullinaemia carrier and detection of a new silent mutation at 240bp position in ASS1 gene of normal Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotikalapudi Rosaiah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The autosomal recessive genetic disorders are regularly investigated especially in Indian Holstein and Holstein Crossbred bulls before they entered in semen collection so that a defective gene should not be transmitted to future generations. Bovine citrullinaemia first reported in Australia is a metabolic disorder as one of the enzymes, Argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS involved in urea cycle is impaired in function. The mutation responsible for citrullinemia has been characterized as a single-base substitution at 256bp (C>T in coding exon 3 of argininosuccinate synthetase 1 (ASS1 gene, which converts the CGA (arginine at 86 codon to TGA (stop codon. A Holstein bull during routine molecular screening was found to be carrier for Citrullinaemia that was confirmed by sequencing. This is a fresh case of Citrullinaemia carrier in addition to three cases reported earlier in India. Partial sequencing of coding exon 3 of a normal Holstein revealed a new silent polymorphism at 240bp position that does not change amino acid (Sarine AGC>AGT at 80 codon within exon 3 of ASS1 gene. The sequence of exon 3 of ASS1 gene in a normal Holstein exhibiting a new polymorphism was submitted to NCBI with accession No. KF933365. The presence of citrullinaemia carriers in Indian Holstein, though in very low frequency, emphasizing to continue the investigation of mutant gene in cattle population.

  1. Assédio moral no trabalho e suas representações na mídia jornalística

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia De Conto Garbin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar os discursos sobre assédio moral veiculados na mídia jornalística impressa. PROCEDIMENTOS METODOLÓGICOS: Estudo documental referente ao assédio moral no trabalho, no qual foram analisadas as matérias jornalísticas veiculadas em três jornais de grande circulação do estado de São Paulo, no período de 1990 a 2008. A partir da metodologia de análise do discurso foram reconhecidas as práticas discursivas que configuram o fenômeno do assédio moral na sociedade atual, as explicações para sua ocorrência e a repercussão para a saúde dos trabalhadores. ANÁLISE DOS RESULTADOS: O surgimento do tema nos veículos de comunicação deu-se por meio da divulgação de livros, de produções acadêmicas e de legislações. Ocorreu em editorias que tratam de assuntos gerais e, posteriormente, migrou para as editorias de emprego e/ou de caráter econômico-financeiro. Os discursos de natureza indenizatória, de precaução empresarial e as estratégias de enfrentamento são amplamente difundidos. A promoção da saúde se esvai pela lógica patrimonial. Há um espaço permissivo nas organizações para prática do assédio moral, potencializando os conflitos para atingir as metas e resultados. Indiferença, constrangimentos, desqualificações e ridicularizações foram comuns nas matérias. CONCLUSÕES: As explicações sobre o assédio tendem a uma interpretação psicológica do fenômeno, acentuando o caráter individualista e minimizando uma abordagem coletiva. Os discursos banalizam o assédio ao criarem caricaturas para os atores envolvidos. O conteúdo psicológico e a estigmatização produzem sentido na sociedade, contribuindo para naturalizar o assédio moral no trabalho e banalizar a violência no trabalho.

  2. Lung health and heart rate variability changes in salt workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glad Mohesh, M I; Sundaramurthy, A

    2016-04-01

    India is the third largest salt producing country in the World, with a global annual production of 230 million tonnes. Large number of salt workers get employed in these salt milling plants risking their life from the effects of salt. Recent foreign evidences reported that these salt workers are exposed to aerosol salt particles that disturb their lung and cardiovascular autonomic control. To compare the status of lung health, cardiovascular autonomic control and biochemical changes in a group of salt industry workers with that of the age-matched normal subjects. Volunteers of both sexes (25-35 years) were divided into Group I (n=10) controls and Group II (n=10) non-brine salt workers in salt milling plants. From fasting blood sample, complete blood count, plasma electrolyte and lipid profile estimation were done. After resting for 15min, blood pressure and lead II ECG were recorded. Spirometry was done using RMS Helios spirometer. Data collected were later analysed using GraphPad Prism 5.0 with statistical significance set at pworkers in the salt industry has shown a little or no impact on the respiratory system, however there are changes in the blood and cardiovascular system, which need to be further studied to understand the long-term influences of salt in this population. Copyright © 2015 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The behaviour of salt and salt caverns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokker, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Salts are mined for both storage and extraction purposes, either via dry or solution mining techniques. For operational, environmental and geological purposes, it is important to understand and predict the in situ behaviour of salt, in particular the creep and strength characteristics. A

  4. Effect of Low Salt Diet on Insulin Resistance in Salt Sensitive versus Salt Resistant Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Rajesh; Sun, Bei; Williams, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows an increase in insulin resistance on salt restriction. We compared the effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt sensitive versus salt resistant hypertensive subjects. We also evaluated the relationship between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and salt sensitivity of insulin resistance in a multivariate regression model. Studies were conducted after one week of high salt (200 mmol/day Na) and one week of low salt (10 mmol/day Na) diet. Salt sensitivit...

  5. Low-salt diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-sodium diet; Salt restriction ... control many functions. Too much sodium in your diet can be bad for you. For most people, ... you limit salt. Try to eat a balanced diet. Buy fresh vegetables and fruits whenever possible. They ...

  6. Higher salt preference in heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Juli Thomaz; Matsubara, Luiz S; Menani, José Vanderlei; Matsubara, Beatriz B; Johnson, Alan Kim; De Gobbi, Juliana Irani Fratucci

    2012-02-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a complex syndrome that involves changes in behavioral, neural and endocrine regulatory systems. Dietary salt restriction along with pharmacotherapy is considered an essential component in the effective management of symptomatic HF patients. However, it is well recognized that HF patients typically have great difficulty in restricting sodium intake. We hypothesized that under HF altered activity in systems that normally function to regulate body fluid and cardiovascular homeostasis could produce an increased preference for the taste of salt. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the perceived palatability (defined as salt preference) of food with different concentrations of added salt in compensated chronically medicated HF patients and comparable control subjects. Healthy volunteers (n=25) and medicated, clinically stable HF patients (n=38, NYHA functional class II or III) were interviewed and given an evaluation to assess their preferences for different amounts of saltiness. Three salt concentrations (0.58, 0.82, and 1.16 g/100 g) of bean soup were presented to the subjects. Salt preference for each concentration was quantified using an adjective scale (unpleasant, fair or delicious). Healthy volunteers preferred the soup with medium salt concentration (p=0.042), HF patients disliked the low concentration (p<0.001) and preferred the high concentration of salted bean soup (p<0.001). When compared to healthy volunteers, HF patients demonstrated a significantly greater preference for the soup with a high salt concentration (p=0.038). It is concluded that medicated, compensated patients under chronic treatment for HF have an increased preference for salt. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Iodized salt consumption in Sudan: present status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih; Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel; Bani, Ibrahim Ahmed

    2012-12-01

    Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) Control Programme in Sudan adopted salt iodization as the long-term strategy in 1994. In 2000, it was found that less than 1% of households were using adequately-iodized salt. The objectives of this study were to: (i) study the coverage and variation of different geographical regions of Sudan regarding access to and use of iodized salt, (ii) explore the possible factors which influence the use of iodized salt, (iii) develop recommendations to help in the implementation of the Universal Salt Iodization (USI) strategy in Sudan. This paper is based on the Sudan Household Health Survey (SHHS) dataset. A total sample of 24,507 households was surveyed, and 18,786 cooking salt samples were tested for iodine levels with rapid salt-testing kits. Nationally, the percentage of households using adequately-iodized salt increased from less than 1% in 2000 to 14.4%, with wide variations between states. Access to iodized salt ranged from 96.9% in Central Equatoria to 0.4% in Gezira state. Population coverage with iodized salt in Sudan remains very low. The awareness and political support for USI programme is very weak. National legislation banning the sale of non-iodized salt does not exist. Utilization of the already-existing laws, like the National Standardization and Metrology Law (2008), to develop a compulsory national salt specification, will accelerate the USI in Sudan.

  8. Invasive species in ass. Trifolio-Agrostietum stoloniferae Marković 1973 in Bačka (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džigurski Dejana M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the vegetation of meadows and pastures, due to climate changes and an inadequate and intensive use of hydromeliorative measures, invasive species play a significant role in the degradation of biodiversity. Secondary development of ass. Trifolio-Agrostietum stoloniferae Marković 1973 stands was observed in Bačka, in periodically flooded pastures. Floristic composition of these stands consists of 117 plant species, of which 94 grow in the Danube riverbank region and 97 around the Tisa river. According to the floristic analysis, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Bellis perennis, Carduus nutans, Cirsium arvense, Eupatorium cannabinum, Linaria vulgaris, Lotus corniculatus, Lythrum salicaria, Rumex crispus, and Trifolium repens are characterized as invasive plants of the European region. Moreover, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Eleusine indica and Xanthium spinosum, included in the List of invasive species in AP Vojvodina, are also present. Lythrum salicaria is regarded as one of the 100 most dangerous invasive alien species in the world. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31016: Improvement of Forage Crops Production on Fields and Grasslands

  9. Origin and permeability of deep ocean salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, M.; Rueslåtten, H.

    2009-04-01

    Atlantis II' and ‘Conrad' Deeps) and into buried salt structures in the Mediterranean Sea. References Holness, M.B, Lewis, S. 1997. The structure of halite-brine interface inferred from pressure and temperature variations of equilibrium dihedral angles in the halite-H2O-CO2 system. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 61 (4): 795-804. Hovland, M., Rueslåtten, H., Johnsen, H.K., Kvamme, B., Kutznetsova, T., 2006. Salt formation associated with sub-surface boiling and supercritical water. Marine and Petroleum Geology 23, 855-869. Hovland, M., Rueslåtten, H., Kutznetsova, T., Kvamme, B., Fladmark, G.E., Johnsen, H.K., 2007. Numerical modeling of supercritical ‘out-salting' in the "Atlantis II Deep" (Red Sea) hydrothermal system. The Open Geology Journal, 1, 1-6. Hovland, M., Rueslaatten, H., Johnsen, H.K., 2008. Hydrothermal salt - but how much? Reply to Christopher Talbot. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 25 (2), 203-204.

  10. Body fluids and salt metabolism - Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettinelli Alberto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is a high frequency of diarrhea and vomiting in childhood. As a consequence the focus of the present review is to recognize the different body fluid compartments, to clinically assess the degree of dehydration, to know how the equilibrium between extracellular fluid and intracellular fluid is maintained, to calculate the effective blood osmolality and discuss both parenteral fluid maintenance and replacement.

  11. Transcriptional regulation of the assT-dsbL-dsbI gene cluster in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi IMSS-1 depends on LeuO, H-NS, and specific growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Hernández, A L; Hernández-Lucas, I; De la Cruz, M A; Olvera, L; Morett, E; Medina-Aparicio, L; Ramírez-Trujillo, J A; Vázquez, A; Fernández-Mora, M; Calva, E

    2012-05-01

    The assT gene encodes an arylsulfate sulfotransferase, an enzyme that catalyzes sulfuryl transfer from phenolic sulfate to a phenolic acceptor. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi IMSS-1, the assT gene is located upstream of the dsbL and dsbI genes, which are involved in a disulfide bond formation required for its activation. The assT-dsbL-dsbI gene cluster forms an operon transcribed by a LeuO-dependent promoter, in rich medium A (MA). Interestingly, in the absence of cloned leuO and in a ΔleuO background, two transcription start sites were detected for assT and two for dsbL-dsbI in minimal medium. The H-NS nucleoid protein repressed the expression of the assT-dsbL-dsbI LeuO-dependent operon, as well as of the assT transcriptional units. Thus, the expression of the assT-dsbL-dsbI gene cluster depends on the global regulatory proteins LeuO and H-NS, as well as on specific growth conditions.

  12. Metals in Metal Salts: A Copper Mirror Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    A simple lecture demonstration is described to show the latent presence of metal atoms in a metal salt. Copper(II) formate tetrahydrate is heated in a round-bottom flask forming a high-quality copper mirror.

  13. Assédio moral no trabalho no setor saúde no Rio de Janeiro: algumas características

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Hungria Xavier

    Full Text Available Este artigo objetiva analisar a magnitude e algumas características do fenômeno do assédio moral no trabalho no setor saúde do Rio de Janeiro. Foram analisados dados de pesquisa desenvolvida em 2001 como parte do programa "Violência no Trabalho no Setor Saúde", resultantes de um inquérito anônimo. Para constituir o banco para análise, foram selecionados todos os casos (1.569 e as variáveis relacionadas ao assédio moral. O grupo profissional que teve maior proporção de vítimas de assédio moral foi o de auxiliar de enfermagem (22,7%. Colegas, supervisores ou administradores compuseram o mais importante grupo de agressores (48,7%. A reação psicológica mais prevalente foi "permanecer supervigilante". Embora 38,5% das vítimas tenham relatado a violência a superiores, 20% relataram ter sido tomada alguma providência. Os autores concluem que mais pesquisas e medidas de vigilância devem ser realizadas no Brasil para assegurar a visibilidade desse tipo de violência. Além disso, ressaltam a necessidade de implementar medidas institucionais de controle da violência no trabalho e de estimular estudos que enfatizem o manejo institucional desse tipo de violência.

  14. Nursing students' perceptions of using the Clinical Education Assessment tool AssCE and their overall perceptions of the clinical learning environment - A cross-sectional correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Maria; Löfmark, Anna; Vae, Karen Johanne Ugland; Mårtensson, Gunilla

    2017-04-01

    Clinical education is a vital part of nursing students' learning; the importance of assessment tools and feedback in stimulating student learning has been stressed, but this needs to be studied in more detail. To examine relationships between nursing students' perceptions of using an Assessment tool in Clinical Education (AssCE) during their mid-course discussion and final assessment, the content discussed during these meetings between the student, preceptor and nurse teacher and the students' overall perception of the clinical learning environment. A cross-sectional, correlational design was used. A convenience sample of 110 nursing students from one Norwegian university college with two campuses. Data were collected with self-developed questionnaires and analysed using logistic regression with SPSS and the PROCESS macro for mediation analysis. There was a positive relationship between nursing students' perceptions of using the assessment tool AssCE and their overall perception of the clinical learning environment. This relationship was, in turn, mediated by the content discussed during the formative mid-course discussion and summative final assessment. Our conclusion is that the assessment tool AssCE supported students' clinical learning and that this relationship, in turn, was mediated by the degree to which the conversation during the assessment meeting focused on the student's knowledge, skills and professional judgement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Augustin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  16. Eakate turvalisus / Asse Soomets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soomets, Asse, 1941-

    2007-01-01

    6. märtsil sündinud Eesti Pensionäride Ühenduste Liidu juhatuse koosolekul esinesid ka sotsiaalministeeriumi asekantsler Riho Rahuoja ning kaks külalist - Suurbritannia eakaid abistava organisatsiooni Help the Aged esindajad

  17. Die Rolle sprachtherapeutischer Berufe in der Intervention kommunikativ pragmatischer Fähigkeiten bei Erwachsenen mit ASS (Autismus-Spektrum-Störung): Ein Aufruf zur Interdisziplinarität

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carolin Schwenzfeier; Eva Wasser; Johanna Witthacke; Marita Brenneise; Antje Orgassa; Jan-Pieter Teunisse

    2015-01-01

    Hintergrund und Fragestellung: Erwachsene mit einer Autismus-Spektrum-Storung (ASS) ohne intellektuelle Beeintrachtigung (d. h. eine normale Sprachentwicklung und ein Intelligenzquotient von ≥85 liegen vor), weisen haufig Einschrankungen in der sozialen Interaktion und Kommunikation auf (American

  18. Salt stress-induced changes in antioxidative defense system and proteome profiles of salt-tolerant and sensitive Frankia strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Amrita; Singh, Anumeha; Singh, Satya S; Mishra, Arun K

    2017-04-16

    An appreciation of comparative microbial survival is most easily done while evaluating their adaptive strategies during stress. In the present experiment, antioxidative and whole cell proteome variations based on spectrophotometric analysis and SDS-PAGE and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis have been analysed among salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive Frankia strains. This is the first report of proteomic basis underlying salt tolerance in these newly isolated Frankia strains from Hippophae salicifolia D. Don. Salt-tolerant strain HsIi10 shows higher increment in the contents of superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase as compared to salt-sensitive strain HsIi8. Differential 2-DGE profile has revealed differential profiles for salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive strains. Proteomic confirmation of salt tolerance in the strains with inbuilt efficiency of thriving in nitrogen-deficient locales is a definite advantage for these microbes. This would be equally beneficial for improvement of soil nitrogen status. Efficient protein regulation in HsIi10 suggests further exploration for its potential use as biofertilizer in saline soils.

  19. PRKAG3 and CAST genetic polymorphisms and quality traits of dry-cured hams--II. Associations in French dry-cured ham Jambon de Bayonne and their dependence on salt reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santé-Lhoutellier, V; Robert, N; Martin, J F; Gou, P; Hortós, M; Arnau, J; Diestre, A; Candek-Potokar, M

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of PRKAG3 Ile199Val and CAST Arg249Lys and CAST Ser638Arg polymorphisms on the quality traits of the French dry-cured ham Jambon de Bayonne and their interaction with salt reduction. Significant (p<0.05) and suggestive associations (p<0.10) between the polymorphisms and several quality traits of dry-cured ham, mainly related to processing and textural properties, were found. PRKAG3 Ile/Val and CAST 249Lys/638Arg presented the highest scores for sensory and processing properties, whatever the salt content. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  1. SALT for Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    1996-01-01

    Discusses Schuster's Suggestive-Accelerative Learning Techniques (SALT) Method, which combines Lozanov's Suggestopedia with such American methods as Asher's Total Physical Response and Galyean's Confluent Education. The article argues that students trained with the SALT Method have higher achievement scores and better attitudes than others. (14…

  2. Resedimented salt deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaczka, A.; Kolasa, K. (Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland))

    1988-08-01

    Carparthian foredeep's Wieliczka salt mine, unique gravity deposits were lately distinguished. They are mainly built of salt particles and blocks with a small admixture of fragments of Miocene marls and Carpathian rocks, deposited on precipitated salt. The pattern of sediment distribution is similar to a submarine fan. Gravels are dominant in the upper part and sands in lower levels, creating a series of lobes. Coarse-grained deposits are represented by disorganized, self-supported conglomerates passing into matrix-supported ones, locally with gradation, and pebbly sandstones consisting of salt grains and scattered boulder-size clasts. The latter may show in the upper part of a single bed as indistinct cross-bedding and parallel lamination. These sediments are interpreted as debris-flow and high-density turbidity current deposits. Salt sandstones (saltstones) which build a lower part of the fan often show Bouma sequences and are interpreted as turbidity-current deposits. The fan deposits are covered by a thick series of debrites (olistostromes) which consist of clay matrix with salt grains and boulders. The latter as represented by huge (up to 100,000 m{sup 3}) salt blocks, fragments of Miocene marls and Carpathian rocks. These salt debrites represent slumps and debris-flow deposits. The material for resedimented deposits was derived from the southern part of the salt basin and from the adjacent, advancing Carpathian orogen. The authors believe the distinct coarsening-upward sequence of the series is the result of progressive intensification of tectonic movements with paroxysm during the sedimentation of salt debrites (about 15 Ma).

  3. "FAMÍLIAS DA PRECISÃO” NO MUNICÍPIO DE ARIQUEMES – RONDÔNIA: Assédio existencial ou estratégia de sobrevivência da economia familiar?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Ribeiro Pereira Nunes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available No Estado de Rondônia, assim como em várias outras regiões do Brasil, os contrastes sociais revelam que há um constante processo de "des"construção social da cidadania, pautado na desigualdade econômica, social e cultural, bem como no flagrante desrespeito à dignidade da pessoa humana. O objetivo geral desta pesquisa é investigar as condições socioeconômicas de famílias monoparentais rurais chefiadas por mulheres de 18 a 25 anos, com no mínimo 3 filhos, expulsas da terra por motivos aleatórios e que se submetem às condições degradantes de trabalho nas cidades. Os objetivos específicos são: (i entender os motivos que levam essas famílias brasileiras se sujeitarem a viver em circunstâncias precárias nos centros urbanos, apesar das campanhas de conscientização que circulam em mídias audiovisuais; e (ii.a verificar se há uma lógica e/ou uma estratégia de sobrevivência e/ou complementação de renda para essas famílias com essa subserviência; e/ou (ii.b se tal processo decorre de uma imposição social denominada "assédio existencial". Este trabalho se justifica pela necessidade de compreender a luta por reconhecimento a partir da organização e da afirmação de seus saberes e de fazeres no seio desse grupo identitário destoante do perfil de famílias "normais". O campo da amostra foi delimitando ao município de Ariquemes - microrregião do Leste Rondoniense.

  4. Water purification using organic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  5. Assédio Moral no Trabalho: consequências identificadas por servidores docentes e técnico-administrativos em uma Universidade Federal Brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Soares Nunes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1983-4535.2012v5n3p264   O assédio moral é expresso por repetidos comportamentos, atitudes e ações com intuito de humilhar e constranger a vítima no ambiente laboral, de modo que tais violências, psicológicas e/ou físicas, podem acarretar em danos à saúde do trabalhador, interferir no desempenho de suas atividades na organização e prejudicá-lo em sua vida pessoal. No entanto, as organizações não conseguem identificar que esta violência afeta as suas atividades, e consequentemente o seu desempenho. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo identificar as consequências proporcionadas pelo assédio moral constatada pelos servidores docentes e técnico-administrativos de uma IES. A pesquisa foi classificada como descritiva, com abordagem quanti-quali, e um estudo de caso. Os dados foram coletados pela aplicação de questionário online (279 respondentes e por entrevistas (6 entrevistados. Os dados quantitativos foram tratados estatisticamente, já os dados qualitativos foram tratados por meio da análise de conteúdo. As consequências identificadas foram perturbação/problemas físicos, dores de cabeça, estresse, desânimo, isolamento, vontade de se aposentar/desligar, e demais. Identifica-se a necessidade da instituição realizar programas voltados à prevenção e combate a esta violência, bem como dar suporte aos trabalhadores que sofrem de efeitos proporcionados pelo assédio e outras formas de violência e situações existentes no âmbito da instituição.

  6. Problematizando as práticas psicológicas no modo de compreender o fenômeno assédio moral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Meurer

    Full Text Available O presente ensaio problematiza os discursos e estereótipos produzidos pelas ciências que incidem sobre homens e mulheres que praticam ou que são vítimas do assédio moral. Discute-se, assim, através de uma apreensão teórica sobre o fenômeno poder nas organizações, a possibilidade de uma reflexão crítica que permita o descolamento das condutas consideradas não morais, mas presentes no mundo do trabalho, do território normativo da patologização e da adaptação dos sujeitos. São realizadas reflexões que permitem compreender como as práticas psi se utilizam de antigos métodos para o controle social dos corpos no aparato social. A partir de uma perspectiva psicossocial, atentamos para o fato de que o assédio moral não se refere apenas a uma conduta individual antissocial, mas está relacionado a condicionantes individuais, grupais, organizacionais e sociais. Por fim, na esteira desses posicionamentos e engendramentos, mostramos que o conceito de assédio moral apresenta ainda outras especificidades que precisam ser visibilizadas face aos estereótipos de gênero produzidos principalmente pelo meio acadêmico, que contribuem para a cristalização de masculinidades e de feminilidades frente a esse fenômeno. Nesse contexto, busca-se reinterpretar os essencialismos, práticas ditas masculinas ou femininas, que têm consequências negativas no mercado laboral e que dificultam a consecução de maior igualdade entre homens e mulheres.

  7. Stochastic modelling of shifts in allele frequencies reveals a strongly polygynous mating system in the re-introduced Asiatic wild ass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renan, Sharon; Greenbaum, Gili; Shahar, Naama; Templeton, Alan R; Bouskila, Amos; Bar-David, Shirli

    2015-04-01

    Small populations are prone to loss of genetic variation and hence to a reduction in their evolutionary potential. Therefore, studying the mating system of small populations and its potential effects on genetic drift and genetic diversity is of high importance for their viability assessments. The traditional method for studying genetic mating systems is paternity analysis. Yet, as small populations are often rare and elusive, the genetic data required for paternity analysis are frequently unavailable. The endangered Asiatic wild ass (Equus hemionus), like all equids, displays a behaviourally polygynous mating system; however, the level of polygyny has never been measured genetically in wild equids. Combining noninvasive genetic data with stochastic modelling of shifts in allele frequencies, we developed an alternative approach to paternity analysis for studying the genetic mating system of the re-introduced Asiatic wild ass in the Negev Desert, Israel. We compared the shifts in allele frequencies (as a measure of genetic drift) that have occurred in the wild ass population since re-introduction onset to simulated scenarios under different proportions of mating males. We revealed a strongly polygynous mating system in which less than 25% of all males participate in the mating process each generation. This strongly polygynous mating system and its potential effect on the re-introduced population's genetic diversity could have significant consequences for the long-term persistence of the population in the Negev. The stochastic modelling approach and the use of allele-frequency shifts can be further applied to systems that are affected by genetic drift and for which genetic data are limited. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Aqueous solubility study of salts of benzylamine derivatives and p-substituted benzoic acid derivatives using X-ray crystallographic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parshad, Henrik; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Liljefors, Tommy

    2004-01-01

    Twenty two p-substituted benzoic acid derivates were used to prepare salts of N-methylbenzylamine (II) and N,N-dimethylbenzylamine (III), respectively. Only five salts of (II) and two salts of (III) were obtained in a crystalline state. The solubility of these salts was orders of magnitude higher...... analysis of p-hydroxybenzoic acid salt of (I), (II) and (III) suggested that the reduced number of hydrogen bonds caused the apparent higher solubility. Further analyses of seven salts of (I) were performed. It was not possible to identify any relationship between the number of hydrogen bonds...

  9. Gases in molten salts

    CERN Document Server

    Tomkins, RPT

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains tabulated collections and critical evaluations of original data for the solubility of gases in molten salts, gathered from chemical literature through to the end of 1989. Within the volume, material is arranged according to the individual gas. The gases include hydrogen halides, inert gases, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and halogens. The molten salts consist of single salts, binary mixtures and multicomponent systems. Included also, is a special section on the solubility of gases in molten silicate systems, focussing on slags and fluxes.

  10. Numerical simulation of ice-load induced salt movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Joerg; Al-Hseinat, Muayyad; Brandes, Christian; Hampel, Andrea; Hübscher, Christian; Winsemann, Jutta

    2015-04-01

    A correlation between salt structures, glacigenic features and faulting of Pleistocene deposits above salt structures has been recognised in many places of the formerly glaciated areas in northern central Europe and attributed to ice-sheet loading. Conceptual models predict that the load applied by an ice sheet will favour ice-marginal salt rise and obstruct salt rise beneath the ice sheet (e.g., Liszkowski, 1993). To test these models, we simulated the response of salt structures to ice-sheet loading using a 2D finite-element model (ABAQUS). The subsurface geometries used in our models are based on regional geological cross-sections and 2D seismic profiles of salt structures in the Central European Basin System. The model layers represent (i) sedimentary rocks of elastoplastic rheology, (ii) a viscoelastic salt structure and (iii) elastoplastic basement rocks. At the model surface a temporarily and spatially variable pressure simulates ice-sheet loading. All our simulations show a response of salt structures to ice-sheet loading, which strongly depends on the location of the ice margin relative to the salt structure. Salt structures rise in front of the ice margin (up to 4 m), if load is applied to the salt source layer. Beneath an ice sheet salt structures are pushed down (up to 36 m). Much of the subglacial downwards displacement is compensated by a reversal of the movement during ice retreat. The resulting surface displacements are therefore rather low and depend on the spatial and temporal configuration of the ice load (Lang et al., 2014). Permanent deformation is restricted to the model layers above the salt structure, which either have a low yield stress to represent the unconsolidated infill of secondary rim-synclines or are dissected by steeply dipping crestal graben faults. Ice-induced salt movements will reactivate faults above the crests of salt structures, although the resulting displacements will be low due to the repeated reversals of the sense of

  11. Assédio moral e saúde mental do trabalhador Mobbing and the worker's mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Ariane Freire

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A globalização e o neoliberalismo geraram uma precarização do trabalho, com conseqüências em todo o mundo. O 'produtivismo', fundado no modo de produção capitalista, traz à cena uma nova forma de gerir recursos humanos no interior das empresas. Essa nova gestão se compõe por uma série de exigências, traduzidas pelos gestores, no cotidiano, como uma maior pressão por metas e cobranças personificadas em resultados quantitativos crescentes. Tudo isso traz uma brutal mudança no meio ambiente de trabalho - assim entendido como conjunto de condições externas e internas do local de trabalho e sua conexão com a saúde dos trabalhadores. Essas alterações tornam o ambiente de trabalho hostil, desumano e, portanto, qualitativamente desequilibrado, o que afeta abruptamente a saúde mental do trabalhador, visto que o empregado passa grande parte de sua vida desenvolvendo suas relações interpessoais e sociais no ambiente de trabalho. Portanto, a qualidade de sua vida depende imediatamente da qualidade no seu ambiente de trabalho. É nesse ambiente, marcado por pressões pelo desempenho quantitativo e alcance de metas, e pela despersonalização do trabalhador - este tratado como objeto de produção - que acontece o denominado assédio moral, um processo de violência psicológica extremado contra o trabalhador, causando-lhe uma série de danos psicológicos.Globalization and neoliberalism generated a precarization of work, one which has had consequences for everyone. "Productivism," based on the capitalistic production mode, brings to scene a new way to manage human resources in companies. This new management is composed of a series of requirements, translated by the managers, in everyday life, as increased pressure to achieve goals and personalized impositions for growing quantitative results. Combined, this has caused a brutal change in the workplace - understood as a set of conditions that are external and internal to the workplace

  12. Accurate Thermochemical Properties for Energetic Materials Applications. II. Heats of Formation of Imidazolium-, 1,2,4-Triazolium-, and Tetrazolium-Based Energetic Salts fromIsodesmic and Lattice Energy Calculations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutowski, Keith E; Rogers, Robin D; Dixon, David A

    2007-03-01

    The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. A computational approach to the prediction of the heats of formation (ΔHf°’s) of solid-state energetic salts from electronic structure and volume-based thermodynamics (VBT) calculations is described. The method uses as its starting point reliable ΔHf°’s for energetic precursor molecules and ions. The ΔHf°’s of more complex energetics species such as substituted imidazole, 1,2,4-triazole, and tetrazole molecules and ions containing amino, azido, and nitro (including methyl) substituents are calculated using an isodesmic approach at the MP2/complete basis set level. On the basis of comparisons to experimental data for neutral analogues, this isodesmic approach is accurate to <3 kcal/mol for the predicted cation and anion ΔHf°’s. The ΔHf°’s of the energetic salts in the solid state are derived from lattice energy (UL) calculations using a VBT approach. Improved values for the ∝ and β parameters of 19.9 (kcal nm)/mol and 37.6 kcal/mol for the UL equation were obtained on the basis of comparisons to experimental UL’s for a series of 23 salts containing ammonium, alkylammonium, and hydrazinium cations. The total volumes are adjusted to account for differences between predicted and experimental total volumes due to different shapes of the ions (flat vs spherical). The predicted ΔHf°’s of the energetic salts are estimated to have error bars of 6-7 kcal/mol, on the basis of comparisons to established experimental ΔHf°’s of a subset of the salts studied. Energetic salts with the highest positive ΔHf°’s are predicted for azido-containing cations, coupled with heterocyclic anions containing nitro substituents. The substitution of functional groups on

  13. Amine salts of nitroazoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienyin Lee; Stinecipher, M.M.

    1993-10-26

    Compositions of matter, a method of providing chemical energy by burning said compositions, and methods of making said compositions are described. These compositions are amine salts of nitroazoles. 1 figure.

  14. What Are Bath Salts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reports of people becoming psychotic (losing touch with reality) and violent. Although it is rare, there have ... in bath salts can produce: feelings of joy increased social interaction increased sex drive paranoia nervousness hallucinations ( ...

  15. Iodized Salt Use and Salt Iodine Content among Household Salts from Six Districts of Eastern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwada, S; Gelal, B; Tamang, M K; Kc, R; Singh, S; Lamsal, M; Baral, N

    2014-01-01

    Universal salt iodization is considered the best strategy for controlling iodine deficiency disorders in Nepal. This study was done to find iodized salt use among Nepalese population and the iodine content of household salts. Six districts (Siraha, Saptari, Jhapa, Udayapur, Ilam and Panchthar) were chosen randomly from 16 districts of eastern Nepal for the study. In each district, three schools (private and government) were chosen randomly for sample collection. A total of 1803 salt samples were collected from schools of those districts. For sample collection a clean air tight plastic pouch was provided to each school child and was asked to bring approximately 15 gm of their kitchen salt. The information about type of salt used; 'two child logo' iodized salt or crystal salt was obtained from each child and salt iodine content was estimated using iodometric titration. At the time of study, 85% (n=1533) of Nepalese households were found to use iodized salt whereas 15% (n=270) used crystal salt. The mean iodine content in iodized and crystal salt was 40.8±12.35 ppm and 18.43±11.49 ppm respectively. There was significant difference between iodized and crystal salts use and salt iodine content of iodized and crystal salt among different districts (p value <0.001 at confidence level of 95%). Of the total samples, only 169 samples (9.4% of samples) have iodine content<15 ppm. Most Nepalese households have access to iodized salt most salt samples have sufficient iodine content.

  16. Not salt taste perception but self-reported salt eating habit predicts actual salt intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hajeong; Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Bae, Eunjin; Kim, Yong Chul; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun

    2014-09-01

    Excessive dietary salt intake is related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although dietary salt restriction is essential, it is difficult to achieve because of salt palatability. However, the association between salt perception or salt eating habit and actual salt intake remains uncertain. In this study, we recruited 74 healthy young individuals. We investigated their salt-eating habits by questionnaire and salt taste threshold through a rating scale that used serial dilution of a sodium chloride solution. Predicted 24-hr urinary salt excretions using Kawasaki's and Tanaka's equations estimated dietary salt intake. Participants' mean age was 35 yr, and 59.5% were male. Salt sense threshold did not show any relationship with actual salt intake and a salt-eating habit. However, those eating "salty" foods showed higher blood pressure (P for trend=0.048) and higher body mass index (BMI; P for trend=0.043). Moreover, a salty eating habit was a significant predictor for actual salt intake (regression coefficient [β] for Kawasaki's equation 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 10-2.69, P=0.048; β for Tanaka's equation 0.66, 95% CI 0.01-1.31, P=0.047). In conclusion, a self-reported salt-eating habit, not salt taste threshold predicts actual salt intake.

  17. L'assèchement des dépressions dunaires du littoral du Cotentin : mécanismes et propositions de gestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Petit-Berghem

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Les dunes de Basse-Normandie sont caractérisées par des dépressions humides de dimensions variables. Ces dépressions recèlent des habitats et une flore riches, ce qui leur confère un grand intérêt patrimonial. Mais ces milieux connaissent depuis quelques années une dynamique forte d'embroussaillement. Cette dernière, directement liée à un assèchement, préoccupe les gestionnaires. L'analyse des processus d'assèchement des dépressions humides met en avant la combinaison des paramètres en cause (conditions hydropédologiques, actions anthropiques et permet donc d'optimiser la gestion patrimoniale de ces sites.The dunes of Lower Normandy are characterized by moist depressions of various sizes. The depressions harbour a rich fauna and habitats, which are therefore of great patrimonial interest. But this environment has for some years witnessed an overgrowth of brushwood. This last one, directly connected to a drying out, worries the managers. The analysis of processes of drying out of dune slacks shows the combination of parameters involved (moisture conditions in the soil, human actions, and thus allows to optimise the patrimonial management of these sites.

  18. Situações de assédio moral a trabalhadores anistiados políticos de uma empresa pública

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Ferreira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investiga a influência do contexto de trabalho nassituações de assédio moral, em categoria profissional vinculada auma empresa pública. Foi realizado em parceria com a AssociaçãoNacional de Anistiados Políticos da Empresa Brasileira de Correiose Telégrafos – ANAPECT, que se articulou com trabalhadoresanistiados que participaram da pesquisa. O referencial teórico é apsicodinâmica do trabalho e o enfoque psicossocial. Foi realizadauma entrevista coletiva com quatro trabalhadores voluntários, cujosrelatos foram gravados e submetidos à análise de conteúdo. Osresultados evidenciam características da organização do trabalho,relativas às relações de dominação, no contexto organizacional,que permitem identificar situações de assédio moral. Futurosestudos são sugeridos para aprofundar o debate sobre essas questões.

  19. Reproductive parameters and oxidative stress status of male rats fed with low and high salt diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolanle O Iranloye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deficiency of minerals and micronutrients has been reported to impair the process of spermatogenesis. Historically, salt has been used by women on their husbands to increase their libido, however, the role of salt diet on sperm parameters are yet to be ascertained. AIM: The present study was designed to determine the effect of low and high salt diet on sperm parameters, oxidative status and reproductive hormone levels of male rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 rats were divided into three groups: Group I: (control received 0.3% salt diet, Group II: low salt (received 0.14% salt diet and Group III: high salt (received 8% salt diet. All animals were treated for 6 weeks; after which epididymal sperm parameters; oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase in the testes and epididymal tissues, as well as follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and testosterone levels were determined. Results: The results showed decreased sperm count in the low salt diet rats while increased sperm count was observed in the high salt diet treated rats. Both low salt and high salt diet fed rats exhibited increased abnormal sperm cells and increased epididymal oxidative stress when compared with their respective control. FSH and testosterone levels were increased in the high salt fed rats while LH level was decreased when compared with the control values. Conclusion: This study suggests that both low and high salt diet play a negative role in the fertility of male rats.

  20. A universal salt model based on under-ground precipitation of solid salts due to supercritical water `out-salting'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueslåtten, H.; Hovland, M. T.

    2010-12-01

    One of the common characteristics of planets Earth and Mars is that both host water (H2O) and large accumulations of salt. Whereas Earth’s surface-environment can be regarded as ‘water-friendly’ and ‘salt hostile’, the reverse can be said for the surface of Mars. This is because liquid water is stable on Earth, and the atmosphere transports humidity around the globe, whereas on planet Mars, liquid water is unstable, rendering the atmosphere dry and, therefore, ‘salt-friendly’. The riddle as to how the salt accumulated in various locations on those two planets, is one of long-lasting and great debate. The salt accumulations on Earth are traditionally termed ‘evaporites’, meaning that they formed as a consequence of the evaporation of large masses of seawater. How the accumulations on Mars formed is much harder to explain, as an ocean only existed briefly. Although water molecules and OH-groups may exist in abundance in bound form (crystal water, adsorbed water, etc.), the only place where free water is expected to be stable on Mars is within underground faults, fractures, and crevices. Here it likely occurs as brine or in the form of ice. Based on these conditions, a key to understanding the accumulation of large deposits of salt on both planets is linked to how brines behave in the subsurface when pressurized and heated beyond their supercritical point. At depths greater than about 3 km (P>300 bars) water will no longer boil in a steam phase. Rather, it becomes supercritical and will attain the phase of supercritical water vapor (SCRIW) with a specific gravity of typically 0.3 g/cm3. An important characteristic of SCRIW is its inability to dissolve the common sea salts. The salt dissolved in the brines will therefore precipitate as solid particles when brines (seawater on the Earth) move into the supercritical P&T-domain (T>400°C, P>300 bars). Numerical modeling of a hydrothermal system in the Atlantis II Deep of the Red Sea indicates that a

  1. Effect of Low Salt Diet on Insulin Resistance in Salt Sensitive versus Salt Resistant Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rajesh; Sun, Bei; Williams, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows an increase in insulin resistance on salt restriction. We compared the effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt sensitive versus salt resistant hypertensive subjects. We also evaluated the relationship between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and salt sensitivity of insulin resistance in a multivariate regression model. Studies were conducted after one week of high salt (200 mmol/day Na) and one week of low salt (10 mmol/day Na) diet. Salt sensitivity was defined as the fall in systolic blood pressure >15mmHg on low salt diet. The study includes 389 subjects (44% Females, 16% Blacks, BMI 28.5±4.2 Kg/m2). As expected, blood pressure was lower on low salt (129±16/78±9 mmHg) as compared to high salt diet (145±18/86±10 mmHg). Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and HOMA were higher on low salt diet (95.4±19.4 mg/dl, 10.8±7.3 mIU/L and 2.6±1.9) as compared to high salt diet (90.6±10.8 mg/dl, 9.4±5.8 mIU/L and 2.1±1.4) (p salt sensitive (N=193) versus salt resistant (N=196) subjects on either diet. Increase in HOMA on low salt diet was 0.5±1.4 in salt sensitive and 0.4±1.5 in salt resistant subjects (p=NS). On multivariate regression analysis, change in systolic blood pressure was not associated with change in HOMA after including age, BMI, sex, change in serum and urine aldosterone and cortisol into the model. We conclude that the increase in insulin resistance on low salt diet is not affected by salt sensitivity of blood pressure. PMID:25185125

  2. Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Doyle W.; Gardner, Joe F.

    1999-01-01

    This document is intended as a source of general information and facts about Great Salt Lake, Utah. This U.S. Geological Survey information sheet answers frequently asked questions about Great Salt Lake. Topics include: History, salinity, brine shrimp, brine flies, migratory birds, and recreation. Great Salt Lake, the shrunken remnant of prehistoric Lake Bonneville, has no outlet. Dissolved salts accumulate in the lake by evaporation. Salinity south of the causeway has ranged from 6 percent to 27 percent over a period of 22 years (2 to 7 times saltier than the ocean). The high salinity supports a mineral industry that extracts about 2 million tons of salt from the lake each year. The aquatic ecosystem consists of more than 30 species of organisms. Harvest of its best-known species, the brine shrimp, annually supplies millions of pounds of food for the aquaculture industry worldwide. The lake is used extensively by millions of migratory and nesting birds and is a place of solitude for people. All this occurs in a lake that is located at the bottom of a 35,000-square-mile drainage basin that has a human population of more than 1.5 million.

  3. A High Salt Diet Inhibits Obesity and Delays Puberty in the Female Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitynski-Miller, Dori; Ross, Micah; Schmill, Margaret; Schambow, Rachel; Fuller, Teresa; Flynn, Francis W.; Skinner, Donal C.

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objectives Processed foods are considered major contributors to the worldwide obesity epidemic. In addition to high sugar and fat contents, processed foods contain large amounts of salt. Due to correlations with rising adiposity, salt has recently been proposed to be obesogenic. This study investigated three hypotheses: i) high salt contributes to weight gain and adiposity in juvenile female rats, ii) puberty onset would be altered because salt is known to affect neuronal systems involved in activating the reproductive system, and iii) enhanced adiposity will act synergistically with salt to drive early puberty onset. Design Female weanling rats (post-natal day 21, n=105) were fed a low fat/low salt diet, low fat/high salt diet, high fat/low salt diet, or a high salt/high fat diet for 24 days. Metabolic measures, including weight gain, food intake, fecal output, activity, and temperature were recorded in subsets of animals. Results Body weight, retroperitoneal and perirenal fat pad weight, and adipocyte size were all lower in animals fed high fat/high salt compared to animals fed high fat alone. Leptin levels were reduced in high fat/high salt fed animals compared to high fat/low salt fed animals. Daily calorie intake was higher initially but declined with adjusted food intake and was not different among groups after 5 days. Osmolality and corticosterone were not different among groups. Fecal analysis showed excess fat excretion and a decreased digestive efficiency in animals fed high fat/low salt but not in animals fed high fat/high salt. Although respiratory exchange ratio was reduced by high dietary fat or salt, aerobic resting metabolic rate was not affected by diet. High salt delayed puberty onset, regardless of dietary fat content. Conclusions Salt delays puberty and prevents the obesogenic effect of a high fat diet. The reduced weight gain evident in high salt fed animals is not due to differences in food intake or digestive efficiency. PMID

  4. A high salt diet inhibits obesity and delays puberty in the female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitynski-Miller, D; Ross, M; Schmill, M; Schambow, R; Fuller, T; Flynn, F W; Skinner, D C

    2017-11-01

    Processed foods are considered major contributors to the worldwide obesity epidemic. In addition to high sugar and fat contents, processed foods contain large amounts of salt. Owing to the correlations with rising adiposity, salt has recently been proposed to be obesogenic. This study investigated three hypotheses: (i) high salt contributes to weight gain and adiposity in juvenile female rats, (ii) puberty onset would be altered because salt is known to affect neuronal systems involved in activating the reproductive system, and (iii) enhanced adiposity will act synergistically with salt to drive early puberty onset. Female weanling rats (post-natal day 21, n=105) were fed a low fat/low salt diet, low fat/high salt diet, high fat/low salt diet or a high salt/high fat diet for 24 days. Metabolic measures, including weight gain, food intake, fecal output, activity and temperature were recorded in subsets of animals. Body weight, retroperitoneal and perirenal fat pad weight, and adipocyte size were all lower in animals fed high fat/high salt compared with animals fed high fat alone. Leptin levels were reduced in high fat/high salt fed animals compared with high fat/low salt-fed animals. Daily calorie intake was higher initially but declined with adjusted food intake and was not different among groups after 5 days. Osmolality and corticosterone were not different among groups. Fecal analysis showed excess fat excretion and a decreased digestive efficiency in animals fed high fat/low salt but not in animals fed high fat/high salt. Although respiratory exchange ratio was reduced by high dietary fat or salt, aerobic-resting metabolic rate was not affected by the diet. High salt delayed puberty onset, regardless of dietary fat content. Salt delays puberty and prevents the obesogenic effect of a high fat diet. The reduced weight gain evident in high salt-fed animals is not due to differences in food intake or digestive efficiency.

  5. Diversity and Evolution of Salt Tolerance in the Genus Vigna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohtaro Iseki

    Full Text Available Breeding salt tolerant plants is difficult without utilizing a diversity of wild crop relatives. Since the genus Vigna (family Fabaceae is comprised of many wild relatives adapted to various environmental conditions, we evaluated the salt tolerance of 69 accessions of this genus, including that of wild and domesticated accessions originating from Asia, Africa, Oceania, and South America. We grew plants under 50 mM and 200 mM NaCl for two weeks and then measured the biomass, relative quantum yield of photosystem II, leaf Na+ concentrations, and leaf K+ concentrations. The accessions were clustered into four groups: the most tolerant, tolerant, moderately susceptible, and susceptible. From the most tolerant group, we selected six accessions, all of which were wild accessions adapted to coastal environments, as promising sources of salt tolerance because of their consistently high relative shoot biomass and relative quantum yield. Interestingly, variations in leaf Na+ concentration were observed between the accessions in the most tolerant group, suggesting different mechanisms were responsible for their salt tolerance. Phylogenetic analysis with nuclear DNA sequences revealed that salt tolerance had evolved independently at least four times in the genus Vigna, within a relatively short period. The findings suggested that simple genetic changes in a few genes might have greatly affected salt tolerances. The elucidation of genetic mechanisms of salt tolerances in the selected accessions may contribute to improving the poor salt tolerance in legume crops.

  6. Mineral resource of the month: salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostick, Dennis S.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents information on various types of salt. Rock salt is either found from underground halite deposits or near the surface. Other types of salt include solar salt, salt brine, and vacuum pan salt. The different uses of salt are also given including its use as a flavor enhancer, as a road deicing agent, and to manufacture sodium hydroxide.

  7. Gas releases from salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, B.; Neal, J.; Hinkebein, T.

    1998-06-01

    The occurrence of gas in salt mines and caverns has presented some serious problems to facility operators. Salt mines have long experienced sudden, usually unexpected expulsions of gas and salt from a production face, commonly known as outbursts. Outbursts can release over one million cubic feet of methane and fractured salt, and are responsible for the lives of numerous miners and explosions. Equipment, production time, and even entire mines have been lost due to outbursts. An outburst creates a cornucopian shaped hole that can reach heights of several hundred feet. The potential occurrence of outbursts must be factored into mine design and mining methods. In caverns, the occurrence of outbursts and steady infiltration of gas into stored product can effect the quality of the product, particularly over the long-term, and in some cases renders the product unusable as is or difficult to transport. Gas has also been known to collect in the roof traps of caverns resulting in safety and operational concerns. The intent of this paper is to summarize the existing knowledge on gas releases from salt. The compiled information can provide a better understanding of the phenomena and gain insight into the causative mechanisms that, once established, can help mitigate the variety of problems associated with gas releases from salt. Outbursts, as documented in mines, are discussed first. This is followed by a discussion of the relatively slow gas infiltration into stored crude oil, as observed and modeled in the caverns of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve. A model that predicts outburst pressure kicks in caverns is also discussed.

  8. Mechanism for salt scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, John J., II

    Salt scaling is superficial damage caused by freezing a saline solution on the surface of a cementitious body. The damage consists of the removal of small chips or flakes of binder. The discovery of this phenomenon in the early 1950's prompted hundreds of experimental studies, which clearly elucidated the characteristics of this damage. In particular it was shown that a pessimum salt concentration exists, where a moderate salt concentration (˜3%) results in the most damage. Despite the numerous studies, the mechanism responsible for salt scaling has not been identified. In this work it is shown that salt scaling is a result of the large thermal expansion mismatch between ice and the cementitious body, and that the mechanism responsible for damage is analogous to glue-spalling. When ice forms on a cementitious body a bi-material composite is formed. The thermal expansion coefficient of the ice is ˜5 times that of the underlying body, so when the temperature of the composite is lowered below the melting point, the ice goes into tension. Once this stress exceeds the strength of the ice, cracks initiate in the ice and propagate into the surface of the cementitious body, removing a flake of material. The glue-spall mechanism accounts for all of the characteristics of salt scaling. In particular, a theoretical analysis is presented which shows that the pessimum concentration is a consequence of the effect of brine pockets on the mechanical properties of ice, and that the damage morphology is accounted for by fracture mechanics. Finally, empirical evidence is presented that proves that the glue-small mechanism is the primary cause of salt scaling. The primary experimental tool used in this study is a novel warping experiment, where a pool of liquid is formed on top of a thin (˜3 mm) plate of cement paste. Stresses in the plate, including thermal expansion mismatch, result in warping of the plate, which is easily detected. This technique revealed the existence of

  9. Oxygen sparging of residue salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, E.; Griego, W.J.; Owens, S.D.; Thorn, C.W.; Vigil, R.A.

    1993-03-01

    Oxygen sparge is a process for treating salt residues at Los Alamos National Laboratory by sparging oxygen through molten salts. Oxygen reacts with the plutonium trichloride in these salts to form plutonium dioxide. There is further reaction of the plutonium dioxide with plutonium metal and the molten salt to form plutonium oxychloride. Both of the oxide plutonium species are insoluble in the salt and collect atthe bottom of the crucible. This results in a decrease of a factor of 2--3 in the amount of salt that must be treated, and the amount of waste generated by aqueous treatment methods.

  10. Field-scale Thermal Testing in a Generic Salt Disposal Environment Underground Research Laboratory (URL): Delineation of Principal Purpose Objectives and Hypotheses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sassani, David C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hardin, Ernest L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kuhlman, Kristopher L [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); MacKinnon, Robert J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The amount of brine present in domal salt formation is far less than in bedded salts (e.g., 0.01 to 0.1% compared with 1 to 3%). In salt domes, shear deformation associated with diapirism has caused existing brine to coalesce, leading to flow and expulsion. Brine migration behavior was investigated in bedded salt at WIPP (Nowak and McTigue 1987, SAND87-0880), and in domal salt at Asse (Coyle et al. 1987, BMI/ONWI-624). Test methods were not standardized, and the tests involved large diameter boreholes (17 to 36 in. diameter) and large apparatus. The tested intervals were proximal to mined openings (within approximately 1 diameter) where in situ stresses are redistributed due to excavation. The tests showed that (1) brine inflow rates can range over at least 2 orders of magnitude for domal vs. bedded salt, (2) that brine inflow is strongly associated with clay and interbedded permeable layers in bedded salt, and (3) that measurement systems can readily collect very small quantities of moisture over time frames of 2 years or longer. Brine inflow rates declined slightly with time in both test series, but neither series approached a state of apparent depletion. This range of flow magnitude could be significant to repository design and performance assessment, especially if inflow rates can be predicted using stratigraphic and geomechanical inputs, and can be shown to approach zero in a predictable manner.

  11. Measurement of Spin-Correlation Parameters ANN, ASS, and ASL at 2.1GeV in Proton-Proton Elastic Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, F.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Büßer, K.; Busch, M.; Colberg, T.; Demirörs, L.; Dahl, C.; Eversheim, P. D.; Eyser, O.; Felden, O.; Gebel, R.; Greiff, J.; Hinterberger, F.; Jonas, E.; Krause, H.; Lehmann, C.; Lindlein, J.; Maier, R.; Meinerzhagen, A.; Pauly, C.; Prasuhn, D.; Rohdjeß, H.; Rosendaal, D.; von Rossen, P.; Schirm, N.; Scobel, W.; Ulbrich, K.; Weise, E.; Wolf, T.; Ziegler, R.

    2003-04-01

    At the Cooler Synchrotron COSY/Jülich spin-correlation parameters in elastic proton-proton (pp) scattering have been measured with a 2.11GeV polarized proton beam and a polarized hydrogen atomic beam target. We report results for ANN, ASS, and ASL for c.m. scattering angles between 30° and 90°. Our data on ASS—the first measurement of this observable above 800MeV—clearly disagrees with predictions of available pp scattering phase-shift solutions while ANN and ASL are reproduced reasonably well. We show that in the direct reconstruction of the scattering amplitudes from the body of available pp elastic scattering data at 2.1GeV the number of possible solutions is considerably reduced.

  12. PRELIMINARY RESULTS USING ANEW METHOD TO OPTIMIZE A SPRAY DRYER PROCESS FOR PRODUCING HIGH QUALITY MILK POWDER FROM COW, GOAT AND SHE-ASS MILK CONCENTRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Altieri

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As quality is a very important factor in milk powder produced by drying, the optimal process must protect both nutritional and sensorial properties. Although heat damage indices (namely the insolubility index (IINS, thermal damage (IDT, protein denaturation could be used to evaluate the correct processing of milk, they are very time-consuming. Hence a chemical marker, like vitamin C, is proposed for rapid assessment of the overall damage to the quality of the produced milk powder. Trials were carried out on milk concentrates from cow, goat and she-ass so as to optimize the process performance of the spray dryer, for each kind of milk, at three inlet temperatures (120, 150, 185 °C; the feed flow rate was set at 0.5 dm3/h with outlet air RH% in the range 10-40%; raw milk was concentrated using a low pressure evaporator until an average level of 23% dry matter was reached. As expected, the thermal damage of the milk powder increased as the inlet air temperature increased; the outlet powder RH% was 96-98% poorly correlated with the mass flow rate of the concentrate inlet. Moreover, the destruction kinetic of vitamin C was found highly correlated with the thermal damage to the milk powder. At 175 °C inlet air temperature the overall thermal treatment on the she-ass milk concentrate, which is very heat-sensitive due to its high lactose content, was “weak” (IDT<80 and the milk powder of “premium or extra” quality (IINS<1.25ml and lactic acid = 0.07% < 0.15% ADMI. The titratable acidity values are uncorrelated with the process air temperature but depend uniquely from the raw milk freshness.

  13. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized...

  14. Design of a Multivariable Tracker Control Law for the A-7D Digitac II Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    II Aircraft. Masters Thesis. Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson, AFB, OH, December 1980. 16. Roskam , Jan . Airplane Flight Dynamics and...Automatic Flight Controls. Lawerence, KS: Roskam Aviation and Engineering Corporation, 1976. 17. Seth, W.A. A-7D Estimated Flying Qualities. Report...for FORM _ v DD , JAN 13 1473 EDITION OF I NOV S IS OBSOLETE UClASS IFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (W;.n Dole Enieted) . .•.... .’ ."-___i

  15. Learning SaltStack

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Colton

    2015-01-01

    If you are a system administrator who manages multiple servers, then you know how difficult it is to keep your infrastructure in line. If you've been searching for an easier way, this book is for you. No prior experience with SaltStack is required.

  16. Lowering Salt in Your Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Lowering Salt in Your Diet Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... and can be used by individuals to replace salt in their diet. There are no known undesirable effects in healthy ...

  17. Carpinteria Salt Marsh Habitat Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — We identified five common habitat types in Carpinteria Salt Marsh: channels, pans (flats), marsh, salt flat and upland. We then drew polygons around each habitat...

  18. Salt ingestion caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundquist Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Large vertebrate herbivores, when they find a salt-bearing layer of rock, say in a cliff face, can produce sizable voids where, overgenerations, they have removed and consumed salty rock. The cavities formed by this natural animal process constitute a uniqueclass of caves that can be called salt ingestion caves. Several examples of such caves are described in various publications. Anexample in Mississippi U.S.A., Rock House Cave, was visited by the authors in 2000. It seems to have been formed by deer orbison. Perhaps the most spectacular example is Kitum Cave in Kenya. This cave has been excavated to a length over 100 metersby elephants. An ancient example is La Cueva del Milodon in Chile, which is reported to have been excavated by the now extinctmilodon, a giant ground sloth. Still other possible examples can be cited. This class of caves deserves a careful definition. First, thecavity in rock should meet the size and other conventions of the locally accepted definition of a cave. Of course this requirement differsin detail from country to country, particularly in the matter of size. The intent is to respect the local conventions. The characteristicthat human entry is possible is judged to be a crucial property of any recognized cave definition. Second, the cavity should besignificantly the result of vertebrate animal consumption of salt-bearing rock. The defining process is that rock removed to form thecave is carried away in the digestive track of an animal. While sodium salts are expected to be the norm, other salts for which thereis animal hunger are acceptable. Also some other speleogenesis process, such as solution, should not be excluded as long as it issecondary in formation of a cave in question.

  19. Microbial Diversity of Culinary Salts

    OpenAIRE

    Muske, Galen; Baxter, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    Extremophiles are exceptional microorganisms that live on this planet in extraordinarily harsh environments. One such extremophiles are Halophiles, salt-loving microorganisms that can survive in extreme salinity levels, and have been found to survive inside salt crystals. We were curious is about the potential diversity of halophiles surviving in salts harvested from around the world. For this experiment various culinary salts were suspended in a 23 % NaCL growth media broth and allowed to gr...

  20. Eliminating inhibition of enzymatic hydrolysis by lignosulfonate in unwashed sulfite-pretreated aspen using metal salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao Liu; Junyong Zhu

    2010-01-01

    This study demonstrated the efficiency of Ca(II) and Mg(II) in removing inhibition of enzymatic hydrolysis by lignosulfonate through non-productive adsorption of enzymes. Adding 1 mmol/g cellulose of either metal salt restores approximately 65% of the activity lost when a pure cellulose/cellulase solution is spiked with lignosulfonate. Addition of either Ca(II) or Mg(...

  1. Mechanisms of blood pressure salt sensitivity: new insights from mathematical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmer, John S; Pruett, W Andrew; Coleman, Thomas G; Hall, John E; Hester, Robert L

    2017-04-01

    Mathematical modeling is an important tool for understanding quantitative relationships among components of complex physiological systems and for testing competing hypotheses. We used HumMod, a large physiological model, to test hypotheses of blood pressure (BP) salt sensitivity. Systemic hemodynamics, renal, and neurohormonal responses to chronic changes in salt intake were examined during normal renal function, fixed low or high plasma angiotensin II (ANG II) levels, bilateral renal artery stenosis, increased renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and decreased nephron numbers. Simulations were run for 4 wk at salt intakes ranging from 30 to 1,000 mmol/day. Reducing functional kidney mass or fixing ANG II increased salt sensitivity. Salt sensitivity, associated with inability of ANG II to respond to changes in salt intake, occurred with smaller changes in renal blood flow but greater changes in glomerular filtration rate, renal sodium reabsorption, and total peripheral resistance (TPR). However, clamping TPR at normal or high levels had no major effect on salt sensitivity. There were no clear relationships between BP salt sensitivity and renal vascular resistance or extracellular fluid volume. Our robust mathematical model of cardiovascular, renal, endocrine, and sympathetic nervous system physiology supports the hypothesis that specific types of kidney dysfunction, associated with impaired regulation of ANG II or increased tubular sodium reabsorption, contribute to BP salt sensitivity. However, increased preglomerular resistance, increased RSNA, or inability to decrease TPR does not appear to influence salt sensitivity. This model provides a platform for testing competing concepts of long-term BP control during changes in salt intake. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Health labelling can influence taste perception and use of table salt for reduced-sodium products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Djin Gie; Miremadi, Fatemeh; Zandstra, Elizabeth H; Keast, Russell S J

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the effect of front-of-pack labels on taste perception and use of table salt for currently available and sodium-reduced soups. Within-subject design. Sensory laboratory. Participants (n 50, mean age 34.8 (sd 13.6) years) were randomly served nine soups (250 ml each) across 3 d. Servings differed in: (i) health label (i.e. no health label, reduced-salt label or Heart Foundation Tick); and (ii) sodium reduction (no reduction - benchmark, 15 % less sodium or 30 % less sodium). Before tasting, participants rated their expected salt intensity and liking. After tasting, participants rated their perceived salt intensity and liking, after which they could add salt to the soup to make it more palatable. Reduced-salt labels generated a negative taste expectation and actual taste experience in terms of liking (P salt (P salt label. The tick logo and soups without health labels had no such influence on taste perception. Emphasizing salt reduction by means of a front-of-pack label can have a negative effect on taste perception and salt use, especially when consumers are able to taste differences between their regular soup and the sodium-reduced soup. Overall health logos which do not emphasize the reduction in salt are less likely to affect perceived salt intensity and therefore are viable solutions to indicate the healthiness of sodium-reduced products.

  3. Blending effects on adsorption and micellization of different membrane protein solubilizers II. A thermodynamic study on a mixed system of CHAPS with a bile salt in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Se-Woung; Na, Jin-Su; Ko, Jeong-Soo; Nagadome, Shigemi; Sugihara, Gohsuke

    2008-03-15

    For a mixed system of a typical membrane protein solubilizer CHAPS (a derivative of a bile acid cholic acid) combined with a bile salt (sodium salt of glycocholic acid, NaGC), which is also a candidate as a membrane protein solubilizer, micellization and adsorbed film formation in a phosphate buffer solution of pH 7.4 at 303 K were studied paying special attention to the synergistic effect upon mixing. The collection of sufficient data based on plots of surface tension (gamma) versus logarithmic concentration (C(t) or m(t)) in total molality at discrete mole fractions (X(2)) in the mixture of surfactants 1 and 2 (where 1 and 2 correspond to CHAPS and NaGC, respectively) allowed us to accurately determine critical micelle concentration (CMC), minimum surface tension at CMC (gamma(CMC)), and the slope (dgamma/dlnC(t)) from the gamma-lnC(t) curves in the concentration range just below CMC. These data enabled us to estimate surface excess (Gamma(t)), and mean molecular area (A(m)) in addition to such parameters as the minimum surface Gibbs energy (G(min)((S))), pC(20) and CMC/C(20) related to synergism accompanied by blending. Applying the regular solution theory (RST), the relation of compositions of the singly dispersed phase (X(2)) and the micellar phase (Y(2)) as well as the interaction parameter (omega(R)) (by using the Rubingh's equations) were estimated. The relation between the composition in the adsorbed film (Z(2)) and X(2) together with the interaction parameter (omega(A)) in the adsorbed film was also estimated. The partial molecular area (PMA), gamma(CMC), and G(min)((S)) were examined as functions of X(2) and/or Z(2.) The resultant CMC-X(2) and CMC-Y(2) curves and omega(R) and omega(A) values have demonstrated that mixed micelles and adsorbed film formation are attained accompanying to some extent enhanced intermolecular interaction (with negative omega(R) and omega(A) values). Comparing with previous results for mixed systems of CHAPS with n

  4. Mixed salt crystallisation fouling

    CERN Document Server

    Helalizadeh, A

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this investigation was to study the mechanisms of mixed salt crystallisation fouling on heat transfer surfaces during convective heat transfer and sub-cooled flow boiling conditions. To-date no investigations on the effects of operating parameters on the deposition of mixtures of calcium sulphate and calcium carbonate, which are the most common constituents of scales formed on heat transfer surfaces, have been reported. As part of this research project, a substantial number of experiments were performed to determine the mechanisms controlling deposition. Fluid velocity, heat flux, surface and bulk temperatures, concentration of the solution, ionic strength, pressure and heat transfer surface material were varied systematically. After clarification of the effect of these parameters on the deposition process, the results of these experiments were used to develop a mechanistic model for prediction of fouling resistances, caused by crystallisation of mixed salts, under convective heat transfer...

  5. Thermochemical Properties of Nicotine Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggs DM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC results presented in this report clearly show that the thermal stability and the endothermic peak nicotine release temperatures are different for different nicotine salts and these temperatures appear to be linked to the general microstructural details of the salt itself. In addition, the peak nicotine release temperatures are highly dependent upon the sample size used. The heat of vaporization for neat (non-protonated nicotine is also sample-size dependent. The TGA data showed that the least stable of the salts tested at elevated temperatures was the liquid salt nicotine triacetate followed by the crystalline materials (e.g., nicotine gallate and finally, the amorphous salts (e.g., nicotine alginate. The DSC results revealed that the liquid and crystalline salts exhibit nicotine release endotherms that are strongly related to the sample weight being tested. The amorphous salts show nicotine endotherm peak temperatures that are nearly independent of the sample weight. The range of peak nicotine release temperatures varied depending upon the specific salts and the sample size from 83 oC to well over 200 oC. Based on these results, the evolution of nicotine from the nicotine salt should be expected to vary based on the composition of the salt, the details of its microstructure, and the amount of nicotine salt tested.

  6. Microemulsion of Molten Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    then to an oil-rich, upper phase as salinity increases in a system of brine/octane/ TRS surfactant/tertiary amyl alcohol . Borkovec et al. (1988) have...11 4. Partial Pseudotemary Phase Diagram .................................. 12 5. Micrograph of Molten Salts/SDS/Pentanol/Decane System...negligible interfacial tension between microdomains. Theoretical work in ternary and pseudotemary systems has shown that the middle phase is a

  7. Hemodynamic responses to mental stress during salt loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goyal, Maria Gefke; Christensen, Niels Juel; Bech, Per

    2017-01-01

    ) during preparation for a medical exam (prolonged stress) and (ii) outside the exam period (low stress). All subjects consumed a controlled diet for 3 days with low- or high-salt content in randomized order. The subjective stress was measured by Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Scale, SCL...

  8. O assédio moral no trabalho na visão de operadores do direito Mobbing at work according to operators of the law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Moraes Battistelli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisou a concepção de operadores do Direito acerca do assédio moral no trabalho, sua avaliação nas instâncias jurídicas, o perfil dos trabalhadores vitimados atendidos, assim como o papel do Direito e da Psicologia em relação ao fenômeno. Foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas junto a seis operadores do Direito. Com base na análise de conteúdo das entrevistas, constatou-se uma tendência, entre os entrevistados, de perceberem a natureza organizacional do fenômeno. O medo dos trabalhadores em denunciar eventos dessa natureza foi outro elemento apontado. Os participantes afirmaram ser muito difícil avaliar e comprovar o assédio nos casos que recorrem às diferentes instâncias jurídicas. Quanto ao papel da Psicologia, os entrevistados referem sua importância para a produção de conhecimento, avaliação psicológica dos casos e prevenção da violência psicológica nas organizações. Em relação ao papel do Direito, reiteraram que as instâncias legais sejam espaços de garantia de direitos e reparação de danos.This study analyses the concept of mobbing at work among operators of the Law. The assessment of this practice at legal institutions, the profile of workers affected, and the role of Law and Psychology toward this phenomenon are investigated. Six operators of the Law participated by semi-structured interviews. Based on content analysis of the interviews, it was observed a tendency to perceive the organizational nature of mobbing at work. Another element pointed by participants was the fearfulness of workers in reporting such kind of violence. The interviewed professionals also referred the hardness to assess mobbing in those cases that appeal to legal institutions. About the role of Psychology, they affirmed its importance to production of knowledge, psychological assessment of workers and prevention of psychological violence in organizations. Concerning the role of Law, they had reiterated that

  9. Salt supply to and significance of asymmetric salt diapirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, H.; Burliga, S.; Chemia, Zurab

    2012-01-01

    Salt diapirs can be asymmetric both internally and externally reflecting their evolution history. As such, this asymmetry bear a significant amount of information about the differential loading (± lateral forces) and in turn the salt supply that have shaped the diapir. In two dimensions...... southeastern overhang due to salt extrusion during Middle Cretaceous followed by its burial in Tertiary. This external asymmetry is also reflected in the internal configuration of the diapir which shows different rates of salt flow on the two halves of the structure. The asymmetric external and internal...... sediments, the diapir extruded an overhang. Using the asymmetric Klodawa Salt Structure (KSS) in central Poland as a prototype, a series of analogue models were carried out to investigate the evolution history and salt supply driven by asymmetric differential loading. During extension of the model, a daipir...

  10. Temporal contrast of salt delivery in mouth increases salt perception

    OpenAIRE

    Tournier, Carole; Knoop, Janine E.; Kooyman, Gonnie; Smit, Gerrit

    2009-01-01

    The impact of salt delivery in mouth on salt perception was investigated. It was hypothesized that fast concentration changes in the delivery to the receptor can reduce sensory adaptation, leading to an increased taste perception. Saltiness ratings were scored by a panel over time during various stimulation conditions involving relative changes in NaCl concentration of 20% and 38%. Changes in salt delivery profile had similar effect on saltiness perception when delivered either by a sipwise m...

  11. Effects, tolerance mechanisms and management of salt stress in grain legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Muhammad; Gogoi, Nirmali; Hussain, Mubshar; Barthakur, Sharmistha; Paul, Sreyashi; Bharadwaj, Nandita; Migdadi, Hussein M; Alghamdi, Salem S; Siddique, Kadambot H M

    2017-09-01

    Salt stress is an ever-present threat to crop yields, especially in countries with irrigated agriculture. Efforts to improve salt tolerance in crop plants are vital for sustainable crop production on marginal lands to ensure future food supplies. Grain legumes are a fascinating group of plants due to their high grain protein contents and ability to fix biological nitrogen. However, the accumulation of excessive salts in soil and the use of saline groundwater are threatening legume production worldwide. Salt stress disturbs photosynthesis and hormonal regulation and causes nutritional imbalance, specific ion toxicity and osmotic effects in legumes to reduce grain yield and quality. Understanding the responses of grain legumes to salt stress and the associated tolerance mechanisms, as well as assessing management options, may help in the development of strategies to improve the performance of grain legumes under salt stress. In this manuscript, we discuss the effects, tolerance mechanisms and management of salt stress in grain legumes. The principal inferences of the review are: (i) salt stress reduces seed germination (by up to more than 50%) either by inhibiting water uptake and/or the toxic effect of ions in the embryo, (ii) salt stress reduces growth (by more than 70%), mineral uptake, and yield (by 12-100%) due to ion toxicity and reduced photosynthesis, (iii) apoplastic acidification is a good indicator of salt stress tolerance, (iv) tolerance to salt stress in grain legumes may develop through excretion and/or compartmentalization of toxic ions, increased antioxidant capacity, accumulation of compatible osmolytes, and/or hormonal regulation, (v) seed priming and nutrient management may improve salt tolerance in grain legumes, (vi) plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi may help to improve salt tolerance due to better plant nutrient availability, and (vii) the integration of screening, innovative breeding, and the development of

  12. Tendência dos estudos sobre assédio moral e trabalhadores de enfermagem Tendencia de los estudios sobre asedio moral y trabajadores de enfermería Tendency of the studies on moral harassment and nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Biagio Fontes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudo de Revisão Integrativa da Literatura com o objetivo de analisar o conhecimento produzido sobre o assédio moral na enfermagem, apresentado em publicações nacionais e internacionais. Foram pesquisados artigos em bases de dados on-line entre os anos de 1999 e 2009, constituindo-se uma amostra de 18 publicações. Após cuidadosa leitura, foram construídas sete categorias temáticas: avaliação do assédio moral; comportamentos de assédio moral experimentados por enfermeiros; estratégias de coping adotadas por enfermeiros; consequências do assédio moral; assédio moral na enfermagem como discriminação de raça e gênero; assédio moral entre profissionais de enfermagem; instituições como determinantes do assédio moral. Resultados dos estudos confirmam a presença do assédio moral na enfermagem, contudo, apontam que estes profissionais têm aceitado e reproduzido este tipo de violência, evidenciando a necessidade de conscientização desta população, como das instituições de saúde, quanto ao assédio moral e seus prejuízos.Estudio de Revisión Integradora de la Literatura con objetivo de analizar el conocimiento producido sobre el asedio moral laboral en la enfermería presentado en publicaciones nacionales e internacionales. Fueron investigados artículos en bases de datos on-line entre los años de 1999 a 2009, constituyéndose una muestra de 18 publicaciones. Después de la lectura cuidadosa fueron construidas siete categorías temáticas que posibilitaron profundizar en el análisis: evaluación del asedio moral; comportamientos de asedio moral experimentados por enfermeros; consecuencias del asedio moral; estrategias de coping adoptadas por enfermeros; asedio moral en la enfermería como discriminación de raza y género; asedio moral entre los profesionales de enfermería; instituciones como propagadoras del asedio moral. Los resultados de los estudios confirman la presencia de asedio moral en la enfermería, sin

  13. Rheology of rock salt for salt tectonics modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Yuan Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Numerical modeling of salt tectonics is a rapidly evolving field; however, the constitutive equations to model long-term rock salt rheology in nature still remain controversial. Firstly, we built a database about the strain rate versus the differential stress through collecting the data from salt creep experiments at a range of temperatures (20–200 °C in laboratories. The aim is to collect data about salt deformation in nature, and the flow properties can be extracted from the data in laboratory experiments. Moreover, as an important preparation for salt tectonics modeling, a numerical model based on creep experiments of rock salt was developed in order to verify the specific model using the Abaqus package. Finally, under the condition of low differential stresses, the deformation mechanism would be extrapolated and discussed according to microstructure research. Since the studies of salt deformation in nature are the reliable extrapolation of laboratory data, we simplified the rock salt rheology to dislocation creep corresponding to power law creep (n = 5 with the appropriate material parameters in the salt tectonic modeling.

  14. Reactive halogen species above salt lakes and salt pans

    OpenAIRE

    Holla, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Salt lakes can be found on all continents and saline soils cover 2.5% of the land surface of the earth (FAO, 2012). This thesis investigates the presence of reactive halogen species (RHS) above salt lakes and saline soils to evaluate their relevance for tropospheric chemistry of the planetary boundary layer. Ground-based MAX-DOAS and LP-DOAS measurements were conducted at salt lakes and two other sites with high halogen content. Prior to this work, RHS were found at three salt ...

  15. HIGH YIELD AND RAPID SYNTHESES METHODS FOR PRODUCING METALLO-ORGANIC SALTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    A new method for preparing salts of metal cations and organic acids, especially divalent salts of alkaline earth metal ions from group II of the periodic system and carboxylic acids. The method comprising the use of a high temperature (about 90° or more) and, optionally. high pressure, in order...... to obtain a higher yield, purity and faster reaction speed than obtained with known synthesis methods. In particular, the present invention relates to the production of strontium salts of carboxylic acids. Novel strontium salts are also provided by the present method....

  16. Electrolyte salts for nonaqueous electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khalil; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Chen, Zonghai

    2012-10-09

    Metal complex salts may be used in lithium ion batteries. Such metal complex salts not only perform as an electrolyte salt in a lithium ion batteries with high solubility and conductivity, but also can act as redox shuttles that provide overcharge protection of individual cells in a battery pack and/or as electrolyte additives to provide other mechanisms to provide overcharge protection to lithium ion batteries. The metal complex salts have at least one aromatic ring. The aromatic moiety may be reversibly oxidized/reduced at a potential slightly higher than the working potential of the positive electrode in the lithium ion battery. The metal complex salts may also be known as overcharge protection salts.

  17. Ecological analysis of stands of ass. Asclepiadetum syriacae Lániková in Chytrý 2009 in Bačka region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Milena M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Perennial adventitious species Asclepias syriaca L. which originates from Northern America is spread across Serbia, and especially Vojvodina, along the banks of waterways and borders of floodplain forests. Based on floristic and phytocenological studies in Bačka, the presence of ass. Asclepiadetum syriacae Lániková in Chytrý 2009 stands, in which A. syriaca is present with the highest degree of presence (V and with substantial covering value (2850, can be confirmed. The study shows ecological analysis of stands of mentioned association for basic environmental factors (moisture - F, reaction - R, nutrients - N, humus - H, aeration - D, light - L, temperature - T, and continentality - K based on floristic composition of stands and their ecological indices, considering population and every species coverage in a stand. Given that a combined scale for population and coverage of species in stands, along numerical, has descriptive marks, modification of evaluated values according to Westhoff & van der Maarel scale which is completely numerical was conducted, which enabled data processing. The obtained results of the ecological analysis point to favorable ecological conditions for development of stands of this association, which can help predict the possible directions of spread of this invasive species.

  18. Yield and quality of milk and udder health in Martina Franca ass: effects of daily interval and time of machine milking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Martemucci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty asses of Martina Franca breed, machine milked twice a day, were used to assess the influence of milking interval (3-h, 5-h, and 8-h; N=5 and time (700, 1200 and 1900 on milk yield and udder health. Individual milk samples were taken to determine fat, protein and lactose con- tent. Sensory analysis profile was also assessed. Milk’s total bacterial count (TBC, somatic cell con- tent (SCC and udder’s skin temperature were considered to assess udder health. Milk yield increases by 28.4% (P<0.01 with a milking interval from 3-h to 8-h and is higher (P<0.01 at morning milking. The maximum milk yield per milking corresponds to 700 milking (1416.9 mL thus indicating a circa- dian rhythm in milk secretion processes. Milking intervals of 5 and 8 hours cause a decrease (P<0.01 in milk fat and lactose content. The 8-h interval leads to an increase (P<0.01 in SCC but without any significance for the health udder. No alterations about CBT, clinical evaluation and temperature of ud- der were observed. Milk organoleptic characteristics were better in the 3-h interval milking.

  19. Salt fluoridation and oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Marthaler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to make known the potential of fluoridated salt in community oral health programs, particularly in South Eastern Europe. Since 1922, the addition of iodine to salt has been successful in Switzerland. Goiter is virtually extinct. By 1945, the cariesprotective effect of fluorides was well established. Based on the success of water fluoridation, a gynecologist started adding of fluoride to salt. The sale of fluoridated salt began in 1956 in the Swiss Canton of Zurich, and several other cantons followed suit. Studies initiated in the early seventies showed that fluoride, when added to salt, inhibits dental caries. The addition of fluoride to salt for human consumption was officially authorized in 1980-82. In Switzerland 85% of domestic salt consumed is fluoridated and 67% in Germany. Salt fluoridation schemes are reaching more than one hundred million in Mexico, Colombia, Peru and Cuba. The cost of salt fluoridation is very low, within 0.02 and 0.05 € per year and capita. Children and adults of the low socio-economic strata tend to have substantially more untreated caries than higher strata. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method for improving oral health. Conclusions. Salt fluoridation has cariostatic potential like water fluoridation (caries reductions up to 50%. In Europe, meaningful percentages of users have been attained only in Germany (67% and Switzerland (85%. In Latin America, there are more than 100 million users, and several countries have arrived at coverage of 90 to 99%. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method of caries prevention, and billions of people throughout the world could benefit from this method.

  20. Toward the establishment of standardized in vitro tests for lipid-based formulations. 2. The effect of bile salt concentration and drug loading on the performance of type I, II, IIIA, IIIB, and IV formulations during in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Hywel D; Anby, Mette U; Sassene, Philip; Kleberg, Karen; Bakala-N'Goma, Jean-Claude; Calderone, Marilyn; Jannin, Vincent; Igonin, Annabel; Partheil, Anette; Marchaud, Delphine; Jule, Eduardo; Vertommen, Jan; Maio, Mario; Blundell, Ross; Benameur, Hassan; Carrière, Frédéric; Müllertz, Anette; Pouton, Colin W; Porter, Christopher J H

    2012-11-05

    The LFCS Consortium was established to develop standardized in vitro tests for lipid-based formulations (LBFs) and to examine the utility of these tests to probe the fundamental mechanisms that underlie LBF performance. In this publication, the impact of bile salt (sodium taurodeoxycholate, NaTDC) concentration and drug loading on the ability of a range of representative LBFs to generate and sustain drug solubilization and supersaturation during in vitro digestion testing has been explored and a common driver of the potential for drug precipitation identified. Danazol was used as a model poorly water-soluble drug throughout. In general, increasing NaTDC concentrations increased the digestion of the most lipophilic LBFs and promoted lipid (and drug) trafficking from poorly dispersed oil phases to the aqueous colloidal phase (AP(DIGEST)). High NaTDC concentrations showed some capacity to reduce drug precipitation, although, at NaTDC concentrations ≥3 mM, NaTDC effects on either digestion or drug solubilization were modest. In contrast, increasing drug load had a marked impact on drug solubilization. For LBFs containing long-chain lipids, drug precipitation was limited even at drug loads approaching saturation in the formulation and concentrations of solubilized drug in AP(DIGEST) increased with increased drug load. For LBFs containing medium-chain lipids, however, significant precipitation was evident, especially at higher drug loads. Across all formulations a remarkably consistent trend emerged such that the likelihood of precipitation was almost entirely dependent on the maximum supersaturation ratio (SR(M)) attained on initiation of digestion. SR(M) defines the supersaturation "pressure" in the system and is calculated from the maximum attainable concentration in the AP(DIGEST) (assuming zero precipitation), divided by the solubility of the drug in the colloidal phases formed post digestion. For LBFs where phase separation of oil phases did not occur, a

  1. Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

  2. Relationship Between Salt Intake, Salt-Taste Threshold and Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Many studies have found an association between sodium intake and blood pressure. Salt taste threshold is thought to be another marker of sodium intake. Objective: This study sought to assess two markers of sodium intake, 24-hour-urinary sodium and salt-taste threshold. We also determined the relationship ...

  3. Temporal contrast of salt delivery in mouth increases salt perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busch, J.L.H.C.; Tournier, C.; Knoop, J.E.; Kooyman, G.; Smit, G.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of salt delivery in mouth on salt perception was investigated. It was hypothesized that fast concentration changes in the delivery to the receptor can reduce sensory adaptation, leading to an increased taste perception. Saltiness ratings were scored by a panel over time during various

  4. Experiments in connection with Salt Domes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escher, B.G.; Kuenen, Ph.H.

    1928-01-01

    The different theories concerning the origin of Salt Domes in Roumania, Germany, Texas, Louisiana, Colorado and Utah are discussed. In Roumania the salt occurs in cores of “Diapir” anticlines. The existance of hills of salt indicates, that the salt is still pushing upwards. In Germany the salt

  5. Sodium: How to Tame Your Salt Habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... same amount of sodium as table salt. Use salt substitutes wisely. Some salt substitutes or light salts contain a mixture of table ... substitute — and get too much sodium. Also, many salt substitutes contain potassium chloride. Although potassium can lessen some ...

  6. Constructions of a set of novel hydrogen-bonded supramolecules from reactions of cobalt(II) salt with bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)methane and different carboxylic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiao-Yun; Tang, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Wen-Hua; Wang, Jing; Ren, Zhi-Gang; Li, Hong-Xi; Zhang, Yong; Lang, Jian-Ping

    2008-05-01

    Reactions of CoX 2·6H 2O (X = Cl -, ClO 4-) with bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)methane (dmpzm) and formic acid, acetic acid, benzoic acid, salicylic acid, maleic acid, or fumaric acid under the presence of KOH solution produced a new family of Co(II)/dmpzm complexes, [Co(dmpzm) 2L]X· nH 2O ( 1: L = O 2CH, X = Cl, n = 2; 2: L = OAc, X = Cl, n = 3; 3: L = benzoate, X = ClO 4, n = 1/3; 4: L = salicylate, X = ClO 4, n = 1/3) and [Co 2(dmpzm) 4L](ClO 4) 2· nSolv ( 5: L = maleate, n = 3, Solv = H 2O; 6: L = fumarate, n = 2, Solv = MeOH). These compounds were structurally characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 1- 4 are mononuclear while 5- 6 are binuclear. Each cobalt atom of 1- 6 is hexacoordinate, with a distorted octahedral CoN 4O 2 coordination geometry incorporating two N, N'-bidentate dmpzm ligands and one O, O'-bidentate carboxylate ligand. There are rich intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds in the crystals of 1- 6, thereby forming either 2D hydrogen-bonded networks ( 1 and 2) or 3D hydrogen-bonded networks ( 3- 6). In addition, the thermal behaviors of 1- 6 were also investigated.

  7. COMPARISON OF GEO-MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF WHITE ROCK SALT AND PINK ROCK SALT IN KŁODAWA SALT DIAPIR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Malwina Kolano; Danuta Flisiak

    2013-01-01

    .... The present article introduces strength-strain properties of white rock salt, building the nucleus of northeastern edge anticline, and pink rock salt that belongs to the series of youngest rock salt...

  8. Influence of fluor salts, hormone replacement therapy and calcitonin on the concentration of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF-II and transforming growth factor-beta 1 in human iliac crest bone matrix from patients with primary osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepene, C E; Seck, T; Diel, I; Minne, H W; Ziegler, R; Pfeilschifter, J

    2004-01-01

    Data from cell culture experiments suggest that local growth factors (GFs) may mediate the effects of estrogens, calcitonin or fluor ions on the skeleton. To assess the in vivo relevance of the in vitro reports, the effect of fluor salts, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and calcitonin on the concentrations of IGF-I, IGF-II and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 1 in bone matrix extracts from osteoporotic patients was evaluated. Iliac crest bone biopsies were obtained from 170 patients (76 men and 94 women) with primary osteoporosis aged 55.5+/-0.8 Years. Bone matrix extraction was performed based on a guanidine-HCl/ethylendiamine-tetra-acetic acid method. In comparison with age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls, no influence of long-term therapy with fluor ions (n=41) or calcitonin (n=16) on the bone matrix concentration of GFs was noticed. Postmenopausal women with osteoporosis on HRT (n=39) had lower skeletal IGF-I but not IGF-II levels as compared with age- and BMI-matched non-users. However, the lower rate of bone turnover in women with HRT may account for this difference, since the significance was lost after adjustment for alkaline phosphatase. Likewise, a tendency for lower TGF-beta 1 levels was observed in HRT users as compared with non-users but was lost after adjustment for bone turnover. None of the therapies influenced the serum levels of GFs when patients receiving continuous therapy for at least 1 Year before bone biopsy were considered. Our data suggest no direct effect of fluor therapy on skeletal GFs levels. At the concentrations used, neither HRT nor calcitonin appeared to exert any significant influence on serum or bone matrix GF levels.

  9. Assédio moral e violências no trabalho: caracterização em perícia judicial. Relato de experiência no setor bancário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Queiroz Barbeiro Lima

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma investigação sobre assédio moral em trabalhadores acometidos por Lesões por Esforços Repetitivos/ Doença Osteomuscular Relacionada ao Trabalho (LER/DORT realizada durante perícia judicial de uma ação coletiva de trabalhadores de uma instituição bancária. Apresenta-se o plano de trabalho de uma perícia envolvendo caracterização de assédio moral e violências no trabalho, destacando-se as dificuldades encontradas, principalmente, pelo tempo decorrido entre a abertura do processo e a perícia, pelo medo sentido pelas testemunhas e pessoas potencialmente envolvidas e pela ausência de instrumentos padronizados para caracterização do assédio. A análise pericial identificou ambiente de trabalho propício ao assédio moral devido aos sistemas de gestão e organizacionais adotados e identificou potencialização de sobrecarga mental e psíquica dos trabalhadores com LER/DORT por sujeição a pressões para que desistissem de comprovar a relação da doença com o trabalho. Por seu caráter coletivo, a perícia abriu possibilidades de se analisar e avaliar situações de trabalho que, isoladamente, teriam pesos menores do que vistos sob o olhar sistêmico e organizacional.

  10. Caenorhabditis elegans response to salt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.O. Umuerri (Oluwatoroti Omowayewa)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes my work, where I used genetic methods to identify new genes involved in salt taste in C. elegans. In addition, I used calcium imaging to characterize the cellular response of C. elegans to salt. The thesis is divided into five sections and each section is summarized

  11. Bile salts secretion in cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, J P; Areias, E; Meneses, L; Tiago, E

    1977-02-01

    The bile salts secretion was studied in ten normal subjects and sixteen patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, in a basal period and during 60 minutes after Secretin injection. Total bile salts were measured by a modification of the enzymatic method of Iwata and Yamasaki and the individual bile salts were separated by silica gel thin-layer chromatography. During the 60 minutes after Secretin the mean concentration was 2.88 +/- 2.58 muM/ml in normals and 1.96 +/- 1.25 muM/ml in cirrhotics. The difference is not significant. During the first 20 minutes however the concentration was higher than 3 muM/ml in 8 out of 10 normals and lower than 2 muM/ml in 10 out 16 cirrhotics. The ratios of tri-to dihydroxy bile salts was similar in both groups. The ratios between bile salts conjugated with glycine and with taurine was higher in normals, and the ratio between free to conjugated bile salts was higher in cirrhotics. The lower concentration of total bile salts immediatly after Secretin, the higher proportion of taurin conjugates and of free bile salts could be important factors in the difficulties of fact digestion and absorption frequently found in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis.

  12. Compressibility of granulated rock salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinebaugh, R.E.

    1979-08-01

    Crushed rock salt will be used extensively at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant as a material for backfilling underground openings. This document addresses one of the characteristics of crushed salt which must be known to assess the consequences of its usage, namely, compressibility.

  13. Salt resistant crop plants

    KAUST Repository

    Roy, Stuart J.

    2014-04-01

    Soil salinity is a major constraint to agriculture. To improve salinity tolerance of crops, various traits can be incorporated, including ion exclusion, osmotic tolerance and tissue tolerance. We review the roles of a range of genes involved in salt tolerance traits. Different tissues and cells are adapted for specific and often diverse function, so it is important to express the genes in specific cell-types and to pyramid a range of traits. Modern biotechnology (marker- assisted selection or genetic engineering) needs to be increasingly used to introduce the correct combination of genes into elite crop cultivars. Importantly, the effects of introduced genes need to be evaluated in the field to determine their effect on salinity tolerance and yield improvement.

  14. History Leaves Salts Behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    These plots, or spectra, show that a rock dubbed 'McKittrick' near the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site at Meridiani Planum, Mars, has higher concentrations of sulfur and bromine than a nearby patch of soil nicknamed 'Tarmac.' These data were taken by Opportunity's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer, which uses curium-244 to assess the elemental composition of rocks and soil. Only portions of the targets' full spectra are shown to highlight the significant differences in elemental concentrations between 'McKittrick' and 'Tarmac.' Intensities are plotted on a logarithmic scale.A nearby rock named Guadalupe similarly has extremely high concentrations of sulfur, but very little bromine. This 'element fractionation' typically occurs when a watery brine slowly evaporates and various salt compounds are precipitated in sequence.

  15. Salt resistant crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Stuart J; Negrão, Sónia; Tester, Mark

    2014-04-01

    Soil salinity is a major constraint to agriculture. To improve salinity tolerance of crops, various traits can be incorporated, including ion exclusion, osmotic tolerance and tissue tolerance. We review the roles of a range of genes involved in salt tolerance traits. Different tissues and cells are adapted for specific and often diverse function, so it is important to express the genes in specific cell-types and to pyramid a range of traits. Modern biotechnology (marker-assisted selection or genetic engineering) needs to be increasingly used to introduce the correct combination of genes into elite crop cultivars. Importantly, the effects of introduced genes need to be evaluated in the field to determine their effect on salinity tolerance and yield improvement. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. E se o assédio não fosse moral?: perspectivas de análise de conflitos interpessoais em situações de trabalho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Carrusca Vieira

    Full Text Available O debate em torno do assédio moral no trabalho intensificou-se ao final do século XX na Europa, a partir dos estudos de Heinz Leyman, na Suécia, e de Marie-France Hirigoyen, na França. Nesse debate, tem-se preocupado em conceituar o assédio moral, identificar suas causas, formas de manifestação e repercussões na saúde dos assalariados. Entretanto, as discussões em torno dos fatores que o determinam nem sempre são convergentes, deixando dúvidas quanto a suas verdadeiras causas, bem como às formas adequadas de se lidar com esse problema. No presente ensaio, apoiando-nos em pesquisas previamente realizadas junto à categoria dos vigilantes, discutimos de forma crítica as perspectivas tradicionais utilizadas para se estudar o assédio moral e as propostas mais comuns sugeridas para o enfrentamento desse problema, evidenciando suas limitações ao explicá-lo essencialmente como um fenômeno de natureza moral ou psicológica. Ao contrário, propomos analisá-lo por meio de outras abordagens fundadas no próprio trabalho que destacam a perversidade dos modelos contemporâneos de gestão.

  17. Excitation functions of spin correlation parameters ANN,ASS, and ASL in elastic →/p→/p scattering between 0.45 and 2.5 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, F.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Büsser, K.; Busch, M.; Colberg, T.; Dahl, C.; Demirörs, L.; Eversheim, P. D.; Eyser, K. O.; Felden, O.; Gebel, R.; Greiff, J.; Hinterberger, F.; Jonas, E.; Krause, H.; Lehmann, C.; Lindlein, J.; Maier, R.; Meinerzhagen, A.; Pauly, C.; Prasuhn, D.; Rohdjess, H.; Rosendaal, D.; von Rossen, P.; Schirm, N.; Scobel, W.; Ulbrich, K.; Weise, E.; Wolf, T.; Ziegler, R.

    2005-05-01

    Excitation functions of the spin correlation coefficients ANN(plab,θc.m.),ASS(plab,θc.m.), and ASL(plab,θc.m.) have been measured with the polarized proton beam of the Cooler Synchrotron and an internal polarized atomic beam target. Data were taken continuously during the acceleration for proton momenta plab ranging from 1000 to 3300 MeV/c (kinetic energies Tlab 450 2500 MeV) as well as for discrete momenta of 1430 MeV/c and above 1950 MeV/c covering angles θc.m. between 30° and 90°. The data are of high internal consistency. Whereas ASL(plab,θc.m.) is small and without structures in the whole range, ANN and, even more, ASS show a pronounced energy dependence. The angular distributions for ASS are at variance with predictions of existing phase-shift analyses at energies beyond 800 MeV. The impact of our results on phase-shift solutions is discussed. The direct reconstruction of the scattering amplitudes from all available pp elastic scattering data considerably reduces the ambiguities of solutions.

  18. Genesis of Tuzla salt basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sušić, Amir; Baraković, Amir; Komatina, Snezana

    2017-04-01

    Salt is condition for the survival of the human race, and holds a special place in the exploitation of mineral resources. It is the only mineral raw material used in direct feeding, and therefore has its own specialty. Salt is a crystalline mineral that is found in seawater, as well as in underground areas where it is formed by deposition of salt sediments. Occurrences of salt water near Tuzla and Gornja Tuzla have been known since the time of the Romans as "ad salinas". The name itself connects Bosnia with its richness in salt, because the word barefoot, which is preserved in a north-Albanian dialect, means a place where boiling salted water are obtained. At the time of the Bosnian kings, these regions are named Soli, which is in connection with occurences of saline sources. Geological studies of rock salt in the area of Tuzla basin are practically began after the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by the Austro-Hungarian Empire, in the period from 1878 to 1918. Geological field work was conducted K. Paul, H. Hefer, E. Tietze and F. Katzer. Monomineral deposit of rock salt Tetima is made of halite and anhydrite mixed with marl belt, while the bay of salt in Tuzla is polymineral and contains a considerable amount of thenardite (Na2SO4) and rare minerals: nortupit, nahkolit, bradleit, probertit, glauberite and others. Both salt deposits were created as a product of chemical sedimentation in the lower Miocene Badenian sediments. The main objective of this paper is to show the genesis of the deposits and the spatial and genetic connection. In addition, genesis of geological research in the areas of Tuzla basin will be presented.

  19. Salt Intake Is Associated with Inflammation in Chronic Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Azak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic Heart Failure (CHF is highly prevalent and is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. It has been well established that excessive intake of sodium chloride (salt induced hypertension in some populations. Although salt seems to induce cardiovascular diseases through elevation of blood pressure, it has also been indicated that salt can induce cardiovascular diseases independently from blood pressure elevation. Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate the association between salt consumption and inflammation in CHF patients. Patients and Methods: This study was conducted on 86 patients between 18 and 65 years old who were diagnosed with New York Heart Association (NYHA functional class I and II heart failure. Salt intake was calculated by using 24 hour urine sodium excretion. Besides, the association between inflammation and daily salt intake was evaluated regarding C - reactive protein (CPR, High sensitive CRP (HsCPR, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR, and ferritin and fibrinogen levels using Pearson correlation analysis. Results: Our results showed a statistically significant difference between the low (n = 41 and high (n = 45 salt intake groups in terms of serum HsCRP levels (5.21 ± 2.62 vs. 6.36 ± 2.64 (P < 0.048. Additionally, a significant correlation was observed between the amount of salt consumption and HsCRP levels. In this study, daily salt consumption of the enrolled patients was 8.53 gram/day. The medications and even the blood pressures were similar in the two groups, but daily pill count, prevalence of hypertension, and coronary heart disease were higher in the high salt intake group; however, the differences were not statistically significant (P = 0.065. Also, no significant difference was observed between the groups concerning the inflammation markers, such as CRP, ESR, ferritin, and fibrinogen. Conclusions: Neurohumoral and inflammatory factors are thought to contribute to high mortality

  20. Radical Computing II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    times, a saving of ’A calls. 3.2. Flbonacci Recurrence In the next example, we define a procedure to calculate the Nth value of the Fibonacci sequence...The Fibonacci sequence is 1,1,2,3,5,8,.... when f,"-f,- + f,-2- In PROLOG this is fib(O, 1). fib(l, 1). 18 fib(N,F) :- M is N-i, fib(M,G), L is N-2, fib... retrac t((r(A,B):-eq(A,Y),eq(B, Z),!, fail)). ass(f,YQ,ZQ ):- asserta((f(YQ ,ZQ):-cnt(f))). ass(a,YQ,ZQ ):- asserta((a(YQ,ZQ):-cnt(a))). ass(r,YQ

  1. The Preparation and Reaction of Phenyl-Substituted Pyrylium and Pyridinium Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awartani, Radi; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes this reaction sequence involving reactivity and synthesis of heterocycles: (1) synthesis of 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium tetrafluoroborate, II; (2) its reaction with nucleophiles; (3) reaction of pyrylium salt II with a primary amine (benzylamine, p-methoxybenzylamine, and furfurylamine) to form the N-substituted-2,4,6-triphenylpyridinium…

  2. Iodized Salt Sales in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Maalouf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Iodized salt has been an important source of dietary iodine, a trace element important for regulating human growth, development, and metabolic functions. This analysis identified iodized table salt sales as a percentage of retail salt sales using Nielsen ScanTrack. We identified 1117 salt products, including 701 salt blends and 416 other salt products, 57 of which were iodized. When weighted by sales volume in ounces or per item, 53% contained iodized salt. These findings may provide a baseline for future monitoring of sales of iodized salt.

  3. Por que ocorre? Como lidar? A percepção de professores de graduação em Administração sobre o assédio moral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Brazileiro Paixão

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tem-se observado em muitas pesquisas que o assédio moral do aluno para com o professor tem sido incrementado com o processo de mercantilização do ensino superior. Tal processo insere-se num cenário de desvalorização da figura do professor e de exaltação da concepção do aluno-cliente. Nesse sentido, abre-se espaço para práticas de assédio moral na relação aluno-professor. O propósito neste artigo é compreender por que acontece o assédio moral no vetor aluno-professor e o que pode ser feito para que esse comportamento seja evitado. Para cumprir o objetivo da investigação, foram coletados e analisados, pelo método do discurso do sujeito coletivo (DSC de caráter qualiquantitativo, os depoimentos provenientes de 51 questionários respondidos por professores universitários. A análise das respostas dos professores universitários às questões de pesquisa oferece uma percepção do por quê da ocorrência do assédio moral aluno-professor na visão dos pesquisados, os quais identificam motivos que vão desde valores sociais não apreendidos até a mercantilização do ensino. A partir das respostas, verificam-se possibilidades de ação que apontam prioritariamente a discussão institucional como meio de suporte à vítima e como alicerce para ações preventivas, dentre outras atitudes individuais que influenciam positivamente esse tipo de assédio, e mesmo a disputa judicial como última instância para a solução do problema.

  4. Does stress induce salt intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Susan J; Turner, Anne I; Nowson, Caryl A

    2010-06-01

    Psychological stress is a common feature of modern day societies, and contributes to the global burden of disease. It was proposed by Henry over 20 years ago that the salt intake of a society reflects the level of stress, and that stress, through its effect on increasing salt intake, is an important factor in the development of hypertension. This review evaluates the evidence from animal and human studies to determine if stress does induce a salt appetite and increase salt consumption in human subjects. Findings from animal studies suggest that stress may drive salt intake, with evidence for a potential mechanism via the sympatho-adrenal medullary system and/or the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. In contrast, in the few laboratory studies conducted in human subjects, none has found that acute stress affects salt intake. However, one study demonstrated that life stress (chronic stress) was associated with increased consumption of snack foods, which included, but not specifically, highly salty snacks. Studies investigating the influence of chronic stress on eating behaviours are required, including consumption of salty foods. From the available evidence, we can conclude that in free-living, Na-replete individuals, consuming Na in excess of physiological requirements, stress is unlikely to be a major contributor to salt intake.

  5. Dietary Salt Exacerbates Experimental Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, Alan L; Liu, Bo; Rogers, Troy D; Sartor, R Balfour; Miao, Edward A

    2017-08-01

    The Western diet is characterized by high protein, sugar, fat, and low fiber intake, and is widely believed to contribute to the incidence and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, high sodium chloride salt content, a defining feature of processed foods, has not been considered as a possible environmental factor that might drive IBD. We set out to bridge this gap. We examined murine models of colitis on either a high salt diet (HSD) or a low salt diet. We demonstrate that an HSD exacerbates inflammatory pathology in the IL-10-deficient murine model of colitis relative to mice fed a low salt diet. This was correlated with enhanced expression of numerous proinflammatory cytokines. Surprisingly, sodium accumulated in the colons of mice on an HSD, suggesting a direct effect of salt within the colon. Similar to the IL-10-deficient model, an HSD also enhanced cytokine expression during infection by Salmonella typhimurium This occurred in the first 3 d of infection, suggesting that an HSD potentiates an innate immune response. Indeed, in cultured dendritic cells we found that high salt media potentiates cytokine expression downstream of TLR4 activation via p38 MAPK and SGK1. A third common colitis model, administration of dextran sodium sulfate, was hopelessly confounded by the high sodium content of the dextran sodium sulfate. Our results raise the possibility that high dietary salt is an environmental factor that drives increased inflammation in IBD. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  6. Angiotensin II and taste sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriatsu Shigemura, DDS, PhD

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The sense of taste plays a major role in evaluating the quality of food components in the oral cavity. Sweet, salty, umami, sour and bitter taste are generally accepted as five basic taste qualities. Among them, salty taste is attractive to animals and influences sodium intake. Angiotensin II (ANG II and aldosterone (ALDO, which is stimulated by ANG II are key hormones that regulate sodium homeostasis and water balance. At the peripheral gustatory organs, it has been reported that ALDO increases the amiloride-sensitivity of the rat gustatory neural responses to NaCl in a time course of several hours. A recent study demonstrated that ANG II suppresses amiloride-sensitivity of the mouse gustatory and behavioral responses to NaCl via its receptor AT1 within an hour. Moreover, ANG II enhances sweet taste sensitivity without affecting umami, sour and bitter tastes. These results suggest that the reciprocal and sequential regulatory mechanisms by ANG II (as an acute suppressor together with ALDO (as a slow enhancer on the salt taste sensitivity may exist in peripheral taste organs, contribute to salt intake, and play an important role in sodium homeostasis. Furthermore, the linkage between salty and sweet taste modulations via the ANG II signaling may optimize sodium and calorie intakes.

  7. Roadmap for disposal of Electrorefiner Salt as Transuranic Waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, Robert P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Trone, Janis R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kalinina, Elena Arkadievna [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hadgu, Teklu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sanchez, Lawrence C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The experimental breeder reactor (EBR-II) used fuel with a layer of sodium surrounding the uranium-zirconium fuel to improve heat transfer. Disposing of EBR-II fuel in a geologic repository without treatment is not prudent because of the potentially energetic reaction of the sodium with water. In 2000, the US Department of Energy (DOE) decided to treat the sodium-bonded fuel with an electrorefiner (ER), which produces metallic uranium product, a metallic waste, mostly from the cladding, and the salt waste in the ER, which contains most of the actinides and fission products. Two waste forms were proposed for disposal in a mined repository; the metallic waste, which was to be cast into ingots, and the ER salt waste, which was to be further treated to produce a ceramic waste form. However, alternative disposal pathways for metallic and salt waste streams may reduce the complexity. For example, performance assessments show that geologic repositories can easily accommodate the ER salt waste without treating it to form a ceramic waste form. Because EBR-II was used for atomic energy defense activities, the treated waste likely meets the definition of transuranic waste. Hence, disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southern New Mexico, may be feasible. This report reviews the direct disposal pathway for ER salt waste and describes eleven tasks necessary for implementing disposal at WIPP, provided space is available, DOE decides to use this alternative disposal pathway in an updated environmental impact statement, and the State of New Mexico grants permission.

  8. Temporal contrast of salt delivery in mouth increases salt perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Johanneke L H C; Tournier, Carole; Knoop, Janine E; Kooyman, Gonnie; Smit, Gerrit

    2009-05-01

    The impact of salt delivery in mouth on salt perception was investigated. It was hypothesized that fast concentration changes in the delivery to the receptor can reduce sensory adaptation, leading to an increased taste perception. Saltiness ratings were scored by a panel over time during various stimulation conditions involving relative changes in NaCl concentration of 20% and 38%. Changes in salt delivery profile had similar effect on saltiness perception when delivered either by a sipwise method or by a gustometer. The impact of concentration variations and frequency of concentration changes was further investigated with the gustometer method. Five second boosts and 2 s pulses were delivered during 3 sequential 10-s intervals, whereas the delivered total salt content was the same for all conditions. Two second pulses were found to increase saltiness perception, but only when the pulses were delivered during the first seconds of stimulation. Results suggest that the frequency, timing, and concentration differences of salt stimuli can affect saltiness. Specifically, a short and intense stimulus can increase salt perception, possibly through a reduction of adaptation.

  9. Salt intake, plasma sodium, and worldwide salt reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Feng J; Macgregor, Graham A

    2012-06-01

    There is overwhelming evidence that a reduction in salt intake from the current level of approximately 9-12 g/d in most countries of the world to the recommended level of 5-6 g/d lowers blood pressure (BP) in both hypertensive and normotensive individuals. A further reduction to 3-4 g/d has a greater effect. Prospective studies and outcome trials have demonstrated that a lower salt intake is related to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Cost-effectiveness analyses have documented that salt reduction is more or at the very least just as cost-effective as tobacco control in reducing cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The mechanisms whereby salt raises blood pressure and increases cardiovascular risk are not fully understood. The existing concepts focus on the tendency for an increase in extracellular fluid volume. Increasing evidence suggests that small increases in plasma sodium may have a direct effect on BP and the cardiovascular system, independent of extracellular volume. All countries should adopt a coherent and workable strategy to reduce salt intake in the whole population. Even a modest reduction in population salt intake will have major beneficial effects on health, along with major cost savings.

  10. I, IGF-II and IGFBP-II with production traits in breeder hens of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... randomly from 160 individuals and genomic DNA was extracted using modified salting out method. A ..... The effects of polymorphism of IGF-I, IGF-II and IGFBP-II marker loci on these traits are presented in Table 4. There were no significant associations between these three loci and body weight at 8 weeks ...

  11. Novel compliant electrodes based on platinum salt reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delille, Remi; Urdaneta, Mario; Hsieh, Kuangwen; Smela, Elisabeth

    2006-03-01

    A compliant electrode material is presented that was inspired by the electroding process used to manufacture ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs). However, instead of an ion-exchange membrane, a UV-curable acrylated urethane elastomer is employed. The electrode material consists of the UV-curable elastomer (Loctite 3108) loaded with tetraammineplatinum(II) chloride salt particles through physical mixing and homogenization. The composite material is made conductive by immersion in a reducing agent, sodium borohydride, which reduces the salt to platinum metal on the surface of the elastomer film. Because the noble metal is mixed into the elastomer precursor as a salt, the amount of UV light absorbed by the precursor is not significantly reduced, and the composite loses little photopatternability. As a result meso-scale electrodes of varying geometries can be formed by exposing the precursor/salt mixture through a mask. The materials are mechanically and electrically characterized. The percolation threshold of the composite is estimated to be 9 vol. % platinum salt, above which the compliant electrode material exhibits a maximum conductivity of 1 S/cm. The composite maintains its electrical conductivity under axial tensile strains of up to 40%.

  12. Salting-in and salting-out of water-soluble polymers in aqueous salt solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Rahmat; Jahani, Farahnaz

    2012-05-03

    To obtain further experimental evidence for the mechanisms of the salting effect produced by the addition of salting-out or sating-in inducing electrolytes to aqueous solutions of water-soluble polymers, systematic studies on the vapor-liquid equilibria and liquid-liquid equilibria of aqueous solutions of several polymers are performed in the presence of a large series of electrolytes. Polymers are polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400), polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether 250 (PEGDME250), polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether 2000 (PEGDME2000), and polypropylene glycol 400 (PPG400), and the investigated electrolytes are KCl, NH(4)Cl, MgCl(2), (CH(3))(4)NCl, NaCl, NaNO(3), Na(2)CO(3), Na(2)SO(4), and Na(3)Cit (tri-sodium citrate). Aqueous solutions of PPG400 form aqueous two-phase systems with all the investigated salts; however, other investigated polymers form aqueous two-phase systems only with Na(2)CO(3), Na(2)SO(4), and Na(3)Cit. A relation was found between the salting-out or sating-in effects of electrolyte on the polymer aqueous solutions and the slopes of the constant water activity lines of ternary polymer-salt aqueous solutions, so that, in the case of the salting-out effect, the constant water activity lines had a concave slope, but in the case of the salting-in effects, the constant water activity lines had a convex slope. The effect of temperature, anion of electrolyte, cation of electrolyte, and type and molar mass of polymers were studied and the results interpreted in terms of the solute-water and solute-solute interactions. The salting-out effect results from the formation of ion (specially anion)-water hydration complexes, which, in turn, decreases hydration, and hence, the solubility of the polymer and the salting-in effect results from a direct binding of the cations to the ether oxygens of the polymers.

  13. Slc25a13-Knockout Mice Harbor Metabolic Deficits but Fail to Display Hallmarks of Adult-Onset Type II Citrullinemia

    OpenAIRE

    Tsui, LC; Jalil, MA; Saheki, T; Kobayashi, K; Robinson, BH; Horiuchi, M; Iijima, M; Li, MX; Sinasac, DS; Begum, L; Moriyama, M

    2004-01-01

    Adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in SLC25A13, the gene encoding the mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier citrin. The absence of citrin leads to a liver-specific, quantitative decrease of argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS), causing hyperammonemia and citrullinemia. To investigate the physiological role of citrin and the development of CTLN2, an Slc25a13-knockout (also known as Ctrn-deficient) mouse model was created. The resul...

  14. Microbiology of solar salt ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javor, B.

    1985-01-01

    Solar salt ponds are shallow ponds of brines that range in salinity from that of normal seawater (3.4 percent) through NaCl saturation. Some salterns evaporate brines to the potash stage of concentration (bitterns). All the brines (except the bitterns, which are devoid of life) harbor high concentrations of microorganisms. The high concentrations of microorganisms and their adaptation to life in the salt pond are discussed.

  15. Recycling of aluminum salt cake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Karvelas, D.E.

    1991-12-01

    The secondary aluminum industry generates more than 110 {times} 10{sup 3} tons of salt-cake waste every year. This waste stream contains about 3--5% aluminum, 15--30% aluminum oxide, 30--40% sodium chloride, and 20--30% potassium chloride. As much as 50% of the content of this waste is combined salt (sodium and potassium chlorides). Salt-cake waste is currently disposed of in conventional landfills. In addition, over 50 {times} 10{sup 3} tons of black dross that is not economical to reprocess a rotary furnace for aluminum recovery ends up in landfills. The composition of the dross is similar to that of salt cake, except that it contains higher concentrations of aluminum (up to 20%) and correspondingly lower amounts of salts. Because of the high solubility of the salts in water, these residues, when put in landfills, represent a potential source of pollution to surface-water and groundwater supplies. The increasing number of environmental regulations on the generation and disposal of industrial wastes are likely to restrict the disposal of these salt-containing wastes in conventional landfills. Processes exist that employ the dissolution and recovery of the salts from the waste stream. These wet-processing methods are economical only when the aluminum concentration in that waste exceeds about 10%. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a study in which existing technologies were reviewed and new concepts that are potentially more cost-effective than existing processes were developed and evaluated. These include freeze crystallization, solvent/antisolvent extraction, common-ion effect, high-pressure/high-temperature process, and capillary-effect systems. This paper presents some of the technical and economic results of the aforementioned ANL study.

  16. Homolytic reduction of onium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fensterbank, Louis; Goddard, Jean-Philippe; Malacria, Max; Ollivier, Cyril

    2012-01-01

    Onium salts have proved to be efficient sources of carbon-centered radicals. They can undergo homolytic reduction by single electron transfer (SET) and participate in subsequent synthetic transformations. This review aims to provide an overview on the behavior of onium salts including diazonium, sulfonium, selenonium, telluronium, phosphonium and iodonium cations toward various reductive methods such as radiolysis, electrolysis, photolysis or the use of SET reagents. Mechanistic and synthetic aspects are presented. Applications in polymers and materials science are not covered.

  17. Microplastics in Spanish Table Salt

    OpenAIRE

    I?iguez, Maria E.; Conesa, Juan A.; Fullana, Andres

    2017-01-01

    Marine debris is widely recognized as a global environmental problem. One of its main components, microplastics, has been found in several sea salt samples from different countries, indicating that sea products are irremediably contaminated by microplastics. Previous studies show very confusing results, reporting amounts of microparticles (MPs) in salt ranging from zero to 680 MPs/kg, with no mention of the possible causes of such differences. Several errors in the experimental procedures use...

  18. Liking, salt taste perception and use of table salt when consuming reduced-salt chicken stews in light of South Africa's new salt regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kock, H L; Zandstra, E H; Sayed, N; Wentzel-Viljoen, E

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of salt reduction on liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt when consuming chicken stew in light of South Africa's new salt recommendations. In total, 432 South-African consumers (aged 35.2 ± 12.3 years) consumed a full portion of a chicken stew meal once at a central location. Four stock cube powders varying in salt content were used to prepare chicken stews: 1) no reduction - 2013 Na level; regular salt level as currently available on the South African market (24473 mg Na/100 g), 2) salt reduction smaller than 2016 level, i.e. 10%-reduced (22025 mg Na/100 g), 3) 2016 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (18000 mg Na/100 g), 4) 2019 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (13000 mg Na/100 g). Consumers were randomly allocated to consume one of the four meals. Liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt and pepper were measured. Chicken stews prepared with reduced-salt stock powders were equally well-liked as chicken stews with the current salt level. Moreover, a gradual reduction of the salt in the chicken stews resulted in a reduced salt intake, up to an average of 19% for the total group compared to the benchmark 2013 Na level stew. However, 19% of consumers compensated by adding salt back to full compensation in some cases. More salt was added with increased reductions of salt in the meals, even to the point of full compensation. Further investigation into the impacts of nutrition communication and education about salt reduction on salt taste perception and use is needed. This research provides new consumer insights on salt use and emphasises the need for consumer-focused behaviour change approaches, in addition to reformulation of products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A closer look at salt loaded microstructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, M.R. de

    2006-01-01

    Many walls of ancient buildings are covered with plaster layers. Amongst the most recurrent causes of damage of plasters and substrates are moisture and salt decay processes. To combat these salt problems, special salt resistant plasters have been developed for application on salt loaded substrates.

  20. Availability of iodised table salt in the UK - is it likely to influence population iodine intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Sarah C; Button, Suzanne; Rayman, Margaret P

    2014-02-01

    Iodine deficiency has recently been found in UK young and pregnant women, which is of concern given the importance of adequate iodine intake in pregnancy for fetal brain development. The WHO recommends that iodine deficiency in a population should be corrected through salt iodisation but there is a lack of UK data on iodised-salt availability, a situation that the present study aimed to address. Availability of iodised salt for household use was determined by a shelf survey in five supermarket chains in each of sixteen UK areas (in Southern England, Wales and Northern Ireland) encompassing a total of seventy-seven supermarkets. All branches of a sixth supermarket chain that had 2·3% of the market share sold exclusively iodised salt. Weighted iodised-salt availability was calculated taking the market share of supermarkets into account. The UK. Not applicable. Iodised salt was available in thirty-two of the seventy-seven supermarkets (41·6%). After accounting for market share and including all six UK supermarket chains, the weighted availability of iodised salt was 21·5%. The iodine concentration of the major UK brand of iodised salt is low, at 11·5 mg/kg. In contrast to other countries, iodised household table salt is unlikely to contribute meaningful amounts to UK iodine intake as (i) availability is low, (ii) table salt is only a small percentage of total UK salt intake and (iii) UK public-health campaigns have encouraged reduced salt consumption. As iodine intake in the UK is dependent entirely on food choices, regular monitoring of iodine status is essential.

  1. Salt tolerance at single cell level in giant-celled Characeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jane eBeilby

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Characean plants provide an excellent experimental system for electrophysiology and physiology due to: (i very large cell size, (ii position on phylogenetic tree near the origin of land plants and (iii continuous spectrum from very salt sensitive to very salt tolerant species. A range of experimental techniques is described, some unique to characean plants. Application of these methods provided electrical characteristics of membrane transporters, which dominate the membrane conductance under different outside conditions. With this considerable background knowledge the electrophysiology of salt sensitive and salt tolerant genera can be compared under salt and/or osmotic stress. Both salt tolerant and salt sensitive Characeae show a rise in membrane conductance and simultaneous increase in Na+ influx upon exposure to saline medium. Salt tolerant Chara longifolia and Lamprothamnium sp. exhibit proton pump stimulation upon both turgor decrease and salinity increase, allowing the membrane PD to remain negative. The turgor is regulated through the inward K+ rectifier and 2H+/Cl- symporter. Lamprothamnium plants can survive in hypersaline media up to twice seawater strength and withstand large sudden changes in salinity. Salt-sensitive Chara australis succumbs to 50 - 100 mM NaCl in few days. Cells exhibit no pump stimulation upon turgor decrease and at best transient pump stimulation upon salinity increase. Turgor is not regulated. The membrane PD exhibits characteristic noise upon exposure to salinity. Depolarization of membrane PD to excitation threshold sets off trains of action potentials, leading to further loses of K+ and Cl-. In final stages of salt damage the H+/OH- channels are thought to become the dominant transporter, dissipating the proton gradient and bringing the cell PD close to 0. The differences in transporter electrophysiology and their synergy under osmotic and/or saline stress in salt sensitive and salt tolerant characean cells

  2. Surface and biocidal activity of some synthesized metallo azobenzene isothiouronium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, A M; Azzam, E M S; Morsy, S M I

    2006-12-15

    A novel series of azobenzene isothiouronium salts of different alkyl chains (propyl, hexyl and dodecyl) were synthesized by reaction of 4-((4-methylphenyl)azo)phenol with 1,3-dibromopropane, 1,6-dibromohexane and 1,12-dibromododecane, respectively. These salts were reacted with copper (II) halide to give their corresponding metallo complexes. The surface tension measurements for the synthesized compounds show that the metallo complexes have adsorption and micellization better than that of the parent azobenzene isothiouronium salts. The pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, fungi and yeast were used to determine the biocidal activity of these compounds using gradient plate technique. The results indicate that the copper complexes of the synthesized azobenzene isothiouronium salts have a relatively better biocidal activity than the parent salts.

  3. Salt stress change chlorophyll fluorescence in mango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicero Cartaxo de Lucena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the tolerance of mango cultivars 'Haden', 'Palmer', 'Tommy Atkins' and 'Uba' grafted on rootstock 'Imbú' to salt stress using chlorophyll fluorescence. Plants were grown in modified Hoagland solution containing 0, 15, 30, and 45 mmol L-1 NaCl. At 97 days the parameters of the chlorophyll fluorescence (F0, Fm, Fv, F0/Fm, Fv/Fm, Fv'/Fm', ΦPSII = [(Fm'-Fs/(Fm'], D = (1- Fv'/Fm' and ETR = (ΦPSII×PPF×0,84×0,5 were determined. At 100 days, the leaf emission and leaf area, toxicity and leaf abscission indexes were determined. In all cultivars evaluated, in different degree, there were decreases in photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, enhanced concentrations from 15 mmol L-1 NaCl. The decreases in the potential quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm were 27.9, 18.7, 20.5, and 27.4%, for cultivars 'Haden', 'Palmer', 'Tommy Atkins', and 'Uba', respectively, when grown in 45 mmol L-1 NaCl. It was found decreases in leaf emission and mean leaf area in all cultivars from 15 mmol L-1 NaCl. There were increases in leaf toxicity of 33.0, 67.5, 41.6 and 80.8% and in leaf abscission of 71.8, 29.2, 32.5, and 67.9% for the cultivars 'Haden', 'Palmer', 'Tommy Atkins', and 'Uba' respectively, when grown in 45 mmol L-1 NaCl. Leaf toxicity and leaf abscission were not observed in 15 mmol L-1 NaCl. The decrease in Fv/Fm ratio were accompanied by decreasing in leaf emission and increased leaf toxicity index, showing, therefore, the potential of chlorophyll fluorescence in the early detection of salt stress in mango tree.

  4. Preparation and characterisation of novel chlorothiazide potassium solid-state salt forms: intermolecular self assembly suprastructures

    OpenAIRE

    O'BRIEN, JOHN EUGENE; HEALY, ANNE MARIE; TAJBER, LIDIA; CORRIGAN, OWEN; MC CABE, THOMAS; PALUCH, KRZYSZTOF

    2011-01-01

    PUBLISHED Chlorothiazide (CTZ) is a poorly soluble diuretic agent. The aim of the present work was to produce and characterise a potassium salt form of chlorothiazide which has the potential advantages of improved aqueous solubility and potassium supplementation. A number of novel potassium salt forms of CTZ (CTZK) were prepared: CTZK monohydrate (form I), CTZK dihydrate (form II), anhydrous CTZK (form III), CTZK monohydrate hemiethanolate (form IV) and a desolvate of CTZK monohydrate hemi...

  5. Management of Salt Waste from Electrochemical Processing of Used Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael F. Simpson; Michael N. Patterson; Joon Lee; Yifeng Wang; Joshua Versey; Ammon Williams; Supathorn Phongikaroon; James Allensworth; Man-Sung Yim

    2013-10-01

    Electrochemical processing of used nuclear fuel involves operation of one or more cells containing molten salt electrolyte. Processing of the fuel results in contamination of the salt via accumulation of fission products and transuranic (TRU) actinides. Upon reaching contamination limits, the salt must be removed and either disposed or treated to remove the contaminants and recycled back to the process. During development of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II spent fuel treatment process, waste salt from the electrorefiner was to be stabilized in a ceramic waste form and disposed of in a high-level waste repository. With the cancellation of the Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository, other options are now being considered. One approach that involves direct disposal of the salt in a geologic salt formation has been evaluated. While waste forms such as the ceramic provide near-term resistance to corrosion, they may not be necessary to ensure adequate performance of the repository. To improve the feasibility of direct disposal, recycling a substantial fraction of the useful salt back to the process equipment could minimize the volume of the waste. Experiments have been run in which a cold finger is used for this purpose to crystallize LiCl from LiCl/CsCl. If it is found to be unsuitable for transportation, the salt waste could also be immobilized in zeolite without conversion to the ceramic waste form.

  6. Salt splitting with ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop ceramic membrane technologies for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions. This technology has the potential to reduce the low-level waste (LLW) disposal volume, the pH and sodium hydroxide content for subsequent processing steps, the sodium content of interstitial liquid in high-level waste (HLW) sludges, and provide sodium hydroxide free of aluminum for recycle within processing plants at the DOE complex. Potential deployment sites include Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The technical approach consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON). As the name implies, sodium ions are transported rapidly through these ceramic crystals even at room temperatures.

  7. Designing Advanced Ceramic Waste Forms for Electrochemical Processing Salt Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Snyder, C. T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Frank, Steven [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Riley, Brian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report describes the scientific basis underlying the approach being followed to design and develop “advanced” glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form (ACWF) materials that can (1) accommodate higher salt waste loadings than the waste form developed in the 1990s for EBR-II waste salt and (2) provide greater flexibility for immobilizing extreme waste salt compositions. This is accomplished by using a binder glass having a much higher Na2O content than glass compositions used previously to provide enough Na+ to react with all of the Cl– in the waste salt and generate the maximum amount of sodalite. The phase compositions and degradation behaviors of prototype ACWF products that were made using five new binder glass formulations and with 11-14 mass% representative LiCl/KCl-based salt waste were evaluated and compared with results of similar tests run with CWF products made using the original binder glass with 8 mass% of the same salt to demonstrate the approach and select a composition for further studies. About twice the amount of sodalite was generated in all ACWF materials and the microstructures and degradation behaviors confirmed our understanding of the reactions occurring during waste form production and the efficacy of the approach. However, the porosities of the resulting ACWF materials were higher than is desired. These results indicate the capacity of these ACWF waste forms to accommodate LiCl/KCl-based salt wastes becomes limited by porosity due to the low glass-to-sodalite volume ratio. Three of the new binder glass compositions were acceptable and there is no benefit to further increasing the Na content as initially planned. Instead, further studies are needed to develop and evaluate alternative production methods to decrease the porosity, such as by increasing the amount of binder glass in the formulation or by processing waste forms in a hot isostatic press. Increasing the amount of binder glass to eliminate porosity will decrease

  8. A daily salt balance model for stream salinity generation processes following partial clearing from forest to pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Bari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed a coupled salt and water balance model to represent the stream salinity generation process following land use changes. The conceptual model consists of three main components with five stores: (i Dry, Wet and Subsurface Stores, (ii a saturated Groundwater Store and (iii a transient Stream zone Store. The Dry and Wet Stores represent the salt and water movement in the unsaturated zone and also the near-stream dynamic saturated areas, responsible for the generation of salt flux associated with surface runoff and interflow. The unsaturated Subsurface Store represents the salt bulge and the salt fluxes. The Groundwater Store comes into play when the groundwater level is at or above the stream invert and quantifies the salt fluxes to the Stream zone Store. In the stream zone module, we consider a 'free mixing' between the salt brought about by surface runoff, interflow and groundwater flow. Salt accumulation on the surface due to evaporation and its flushing by initial winter flow is also incorporated in the Stream zone Store. The salt balance model was calibrated sequentially following successful application of the water balance model. Initial salt stores were estimated from measured salt profile data. We incorporated two lumped parameters to represent the complex chemical processes like diffusion-dilution-dispersion and salt fluxes due to preferential flow. The model has performed very well in simulating stream salinity generation processes observed at Ernies and Lemon experimental catchments in south west of Western Australia. The simulated and observed stream salinity and salt loads compare very well throughout the study period with NSE of 0.7 and 0.4 for Ernies and Lemon catchment respectively. The model slightly over predicted annual stream salt load by 6.2% and 6.8%.

  9. Salt effects in electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Kieu, Thanh Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was performed on samples containing substantial amounts of NaCl to investigate how the presence of salts affected the recovery, repeatability, and membrane current in the extraction system. A group of 17 non-polar basic drugs with various physical chemical...... this loss and the physical chemical properties of these substances was seen. The recovery loss was hypothesized to be caused by ion pairing in the SLM, and a mathematical model for the extraction recovery in the presence of salts was made according to the experimental observations. Some variations...... improves the theoretical understanding of the extraction process, and can contribute to the future development and optimization of the technique....

  10. Thermodynamic characterization of salt components for Molten Salt Reactor fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelli, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a promising future nuclear fission reactor technology with excellent performance in terms of safety and reliability, sustainability, proliferation resistance and economics. For the design and safety assessment of this concept, it is extremely important to have a

  11. Salt tectonics in Santos Basin, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirk, David G.; Nielsen, Malene; Raven, Madeleine [Maersk Oil and Gas, Copenhagen (Denmark); Menezes, Paulo [Maersk Oil and Gas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    From Albian to end Cretaceous times, the inboard part of the Santos Basin in Brazil was affected by extension as salt flowed basinwards under the effect of gravity. Salt rollers, flip-flop salt diapirs and the famous Albian Gap were all formed by this process. Outboard of these extensional structures, contraction was taken up in a wide zone of thickened salt where salt collected. The overburden was carried on top of the salt as it flowed down-dip, with up to 40 km of translation recorded in Albian strata. (author)

  12. Sources of household salt in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooste, Pieter L

    2005-01-01

    Marketing of non-iodized salt through unconventional distribution channels is one of the factors weakening the national salt iodization program in South Africa. The aim of this study was therefore to quantify the various sources of household salt, and to relate this information to socio-economic status. Questionnaire information was collected by personal interview during home visits from a multistage, cluster, probability sample of 2164 adults representative of the adult population. Nationally 77.7% of households obtained their table salt from the typical food shops distributing iodized salt. However, in the nine different provinces between 8 and 37.3% of households used unconventional sources, distributing mainly non-iodized salt, to obtain their household salt. These alternative sources include distributors of agricultural salt, small general dealer shops called spaza shops, in peri-urban and rural townships, street vendors and salt saches placed in the packaging of maize meal bags. Country-wide around 30% of low socio-economic households obtained their salt from unconventional sources compared to less than 5% in high socio-economic households, emphasizing the vulnerability of low socio-economic groups to the use of non-iodized salt. Intervention strategies should mobilize all role players involved in unconventional marketing channels of household salt to provide only iodized salt to consumers, as required by law.

  13. Ultrasonic characterization of pork meat salting

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, J. V.; De Prados, M.; Pérez-Muelas, N.; Cárcel, J. A.; Benedito, J.

    2012-12-01

    Salting process plays a key role in the preservation and quality of dry-cured meat products. Therefore, an adequate monitoring of salt content during salting is necessary to reach high quality products. Thus, the main objective of this work was to test the ability of low intensity ultrasound to monitor the salting process of pork meat. Cylindrical samples (diameter 36 mm, height 60±10 mm) of Biceps femoris were salted (brine 20% NaCl, w/w) at 2 °C for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. During salting and at each experimental time, three cylinders were taken in order to measure the ultrasonic velocity at 2 °C. Afterwards, the cylinders were split in three sections (height 20 mm), measuring again the ultrasonic velocity and determining the salt and the moisture content by AOAC standards. In the whole cylinders, moisture content was reduced from 763 (g/kg sample) in fresh samples to 723 (g/kg sample) in samples salted for 7 days, while the maximum salt gain was 37.3 (g/kg sample). Although, moisture and salt contents up to 673 and 118 (g/kg sample) were reached in the sections of meat cylinders, respectively. During salting, the ultrasonic velocity increased due to salt gain and water loss. Thus, significant (pmeat salting processes carried out in the food industry.

  14. Factors associated with bullying at nurses' workplaces Factores asociados al acoso moral en el ambiente laboral del enfermero Fatores associados ao assédio moral no ambiente laboral do enfermeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Biagio Fontes

    2013-06-01

    embargo, la investigación con base en muestras de enfermeros brasileños representa solamente el primer paso para evaluar otros factores condicionantes relacionados al contexto organizacional. OBJETIVO: identificar enfermeiros vítimas de assédio moral no trabalho e fatores associados. MÉTODO: estudo descritivo-exploratório, de abordagem quantitativa. A amostra foi composta por 199 enfermeiros, pertencentes ao setor público e privado (n=388. Para a coleta de dados utilizaram-se um questionário socioprofissiográfico e o Leymann Inventory Psychological Terrorization, ambos em formato impresso ou eletrônico (maio/setembro de 2010. RESULTADOS: de acordo com os dados obtidos, 11,56% dos sujeitos estudados foram vítimas de assédio moral. Análise multivariada apontou que possuir filhos, atuar nas unidades de saúde pública, trabalhar na instituição por período de 1 a 3 anos, enfrentar atualmente condutas de assédio moral e sentir-se assediado moralmente são fatores de risco para o assédio moral. CONCLUSÃO: o estudo possibilitou melhor compreensão dos fatores associados ao assédio moral, contudo, a investigação com base em amostras de enfermeiros brasileiros é apenas o primeiro passo na avaliação de outros fatores condicionantes, relacionados ao contexto organizacional.

  15. Salt decay of Morley limestone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, T.G.; Van Hees, R.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Salt weathering is one of the main causes of decay of natural stone, and by consequence a major problem to the conservation of cultural heritage. In the present case, the performance of Morley limestone from the Département Meuse, France, as a replacement stone under saltloaded conditions is

  16. Genes and Salt Tolerance: Bringing Them Together

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rana Munns

    2005-01-01

    Salinity tolerance comes from genes that limit the rate of salt uptake from the soil and the transport of salt throughout the plant, adjust the ionic and osmotic balance of cells in roots and shoots...

  17. Plant salt tolerance: adaptations in halophytes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flowers, Timothy J; Colmer, Timothy D

    2015-01-01

    ..., and to develop salt-tolerant crops. In this Preface to a Special Issue on halophytes and saline adaptations, the evolution of salt tolerance in halophytes, their life-history traits and progress in understanding...

  18. Dietary salt reduction for control of hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Tjan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In developed as well as developing countries, the four main factors affecting blood pressure are high salt intake, low potassium intake, overweight, and low physical activity level. This is also true for the increase in blood pressure with advancing age, occurring in all societies. It is now accepted that excess dietary salt raises blood pressure levels, whereas dietary salt reduction reduces blood pressure and prevents vascular complications.(1 The effect of salt on blood pressure is presumably due to the inability of the kidneys to excrete large amounts of salt, as humans are evolutionary adapted to ingest and excrete less than 1 gram of salt per day.(2 In this connection it should be noted that the more important element in common salt (sodium chloride is the sodium ion, and any restrictions applying to common salt also apply to all food items that contain sodium ions, such as sodium glutamate and baking soda.

  19. Reconsolidated Salt as a Geotechnical Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Francis D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gadbury, Casey [USDOE Carlsbad Field Office, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Salt as a geologic medium has several attributes favorable to long-term isolation of waste placed in mined openings. Salt formations are largely impermeable and induced fractures heal as stress returns to equilibrium. Permanent isolation also depends upon the ability to construct geotechnical barriers that achieve nearly the same high-performance characteristics attributed to the native salt formation. Salt repository seal concepts often include elements of reconstituted granular salt. As a specific case in point, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant recently received regulatory approval to change the disposal panel closure design from an engineered barrier constructed of a salt-based concrete to one that employs simple run-of-mine salt and temporary bulkheads for isolation from ventilation. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is a radioactive waste disposal repository for defense-related transuranic elements mined from the Permian evaporite salt beds in southeast New Mexico. Its approved shaft seal design incorporates barrier components comprising salt-based concrete, bentonite, and substantial depths of crushed salt compacted to enhance reconsolidation. This paper will focus on crushed salt behavior when applied as drift closures to isolate disposal rooms during operations. Scientific aspects of salt reconsolidation have been studied extensively. The technical basis for geotechnical barrier performance has been strengthened by recent experimental findings and analogue comparisons. The panel closure change was accompanied by recognition that granular salt will return to a physical state similar to the halite surrounding it. Use of run-of-mine salt ensures physical and chemical compatibility with the repository environment and simplifies ongoing disposal operations. Our current knowledge and expected outcome of research can be assimilated with lessons learned to put forward designs and operational concepts for the next generation of salt repositories. Mined salt

  20. A closer look at salt loaded microstructures

    OpenAIRE

    Rooij, M.R. de

    2006-01-01

    Many walls of ancient buildings are covered with plaster layers. Amongst the most recurrent causes of damage of plasters and substrates are moisture and salt decay processes. To combat these salt problems, special salt resistant plasters have been developed for application on salt loaded substrates. However, experience in the field has shown that failures regularly occur on these special mortars, making the situation little transparent for end-users. A European project called COMPASS has addr...

  1. (II) complexes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activities of Schiff base tin (II) complexes. Neelofar1 ... Conclusion: All synthesized Schiff bases and their Tin (II) complexes showed high antimicrobial and ...... Singh HL. Synthesis and characterization of tin (II) complexes of fluorinated Schiff bases derived from amino acids. Spectrochim Acta Part A: Molec Biomolec.

  2. Changes in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in response to dietary salt intake in normal and hypertensive pregnancy. A randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lise Hald; Ovesen, Per; Hansen, Mie R

    2016-01-01

    It was hypothesized that primary renal sodium retention blunted the reactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system to changes in salt intake in preeclampsia (PE). A randomized, cross-over, double-blinded, dietary intervention design was used to measure the effects of salt tablets or place...... of plasma renin and angiotensin II in response to changes in dietary salt intake compatible with a primary increase in renal sodium reabsorption in hypertensive pregnancies....

  3. Can COSMOTherm Predict a Salting in Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivola, Martta; Prisle, Nønne L; Elm, Jonas; Waxman, Eleanor M; Volkamer, Rainer; Kurtén, Theo

    2017-08-24

    We have used COSMO-RS, a method combining quantum chemistry with statistical thermodynamics, to compute Setschenow constants (K S ) for a large array of organic solutes and salts. These comprise both atmospherically relevant solute-salt combinations, as well as systems for which experimental data are available. In agreement with previous studies on single salts, the Setschenow constants predicted by COSMO-RS (as implemented in the COSMOTherm program) are generally too large compared to experiments. COSMOTherm overpredicts salting out (positive K S ), and/or underpredicts salting in (negative K S ). For ammonium and sodium salts, K S values are larger for oxalates and sulfates, and smaller for chlorides and bromides. For chloride and bromide salts, K S values usually increase with decreasing size of the cation, along the series Pr 4 N + salting in is predicted only for oxalic acid in sodium and ammonium oxalate, and sodium sulfate, solutions. COSMOTherm was thus unable to replicate the experimentally observed salting in of glyoxal in sulfate solutions, likely due to the overestimation of salting out effects. By contrast, COSMOTherm does qualitatively predict the experimentally observed salting in of multiple organic solutes in solutions of alkylaminium salts.

  4. Salt loading affects cortisol metabolism in normotensive subjects : Relationships with salt sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, MN; van der Kleij, FGH; Boonstra, AH; Sluiter, WJ; Koerts, J; Navis, G; Dullaart, RPF

    We studied cortisol metabolism together with insulin sensitivity [homeostatic model assessment (HOMA)] and renal hemodynamics in 19 salt-resistant (sr) and nine salt-sensitive ( ss) normotensive subjects after a low-and high-salt diet. Results are described as high- vs. low-salt diet. Sum of urinary

  5. Effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt-sensitive versus salt-resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rajesh; Sun, Bei; Williams, Jonathan

    2014-12-01

    Accumulating evidence shows an increase in insulin resistance on salt restriction. We compared the effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt-sensitive versus salt-resistant hypertensive subjects. We also evaluated the relationship between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and salt sensitivity of insulin resistance in a multivariate regression model. Studies were conducted after 1 week of high salt (200 mmol per day sodium) and 1 week of low salt (10 mmol per day sodium) diet. Salt sensitivity was defined as the fall in systolic blood pressure>15 mm Hg on low salt diet. The study includes 389 subjects (44% women; 16% blacks; body mass index, 28.5±4.2 kg/m2). As expected, blood pressure was lower on low salt (129±16/78±9 mm Hg) as compared with high salt diet (145±18/86±10 mm Hg). Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment were higher on low salt diet (95.4±19.4 mg/dL; 10.8±7.3 mIU/L; 2.6±1.9) as compared with high salt diet (90.6±10.8 mg/dL; 9.4±5.8 mIU/L; 2.1±1.4; Psalt-sensitive (n=193) versus salt-resistant (n=196) subjects on either diet. Increase in homeostasis model assessment on low salt diet was 0.5±1.4 in salt-sensitive and 0.4±1.5 in salt-resistant subjects (P=NS). On multivariate regression analysis, change in systolic blood pressure was not associated with change in homeostasis model assessment after including age, body mass index, sex, change in serum and urine aldosterone, and cortisol into the model. We conclude that the increase in insulin resistance on low salt diet is not affected by salt sensitivity of blood pressure. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Identificação da microbiota fúngica de ambientes considerados assépticos Identification of the fungic microbiota isolated in areas considered aseptic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisabete Sbrogio de Almeida

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se isolar e identificar a microbiota fúngica em ambientes considerados assépticos, através de exposições com meios de cultivo adequados, em três épocas distintas do ano, antes e imediatamente após as manobras técnicas realizadas em três áreas de trabalho: ambiente aberto, ambiente fechado sem filtração de ar e ambiente fechado com filtração de ar, utilizadas em produção de imunobiológicos. Os meios ágar-Sabouraud e ágar-soja, enriquecidos com 0,2% de extrato de levedura e sem cloranfenicol, foram estudados quanto à sua eficácia no isolamento de bolores e leveduras, considerando-se o número de colônias desenvolvidas e a freqüência dos diversos fungos isolados. Isolaram-se 67 espécimens, sendo 64 fungos filamentosos (bolores e três leveduras. Dos bolores, 54 pertenciam a 22 gêneros da divisão Deuteromycota, famílias Moniliaceae e Dematiaceae, cinco amostras filamentosas foram incluídas na ordem Agonomycetales (Mycelia Sterilia, e uma amostra foi classificada na divisão Deuteromycota, ordem Sphaeropsidales, classe Coelomycetes. Da divisão Zygomycota, ordem Mucorales, família Mucoraceae, um único mucoráceo foi identificado até gênero. As três leveduras pertenciam também à divisão Deuteromycota (Fungi Imperfecti, família Cryptococcaceae, e foram identificadas como sendo duas Rhodotorula rubra e uma Torulopsis candida. Comprovou-se que o número de colônias isoladas aumentou após a realização das monobras técnicas e que a filtração de ar através de filtros tipo HEPA, reduzindo o número de colônias isoladas nos ambientes fechados, aumenta a segurança do trabalho; comumente é recomendada para áreas de atividade técnica cujos resultados satisfatórios estão diretamente relacionados com uma baixa incidência de contaminantes.The isolation and identification of the fungic microbiota present in areas considered aseptic (open and/or restricted, with or without air filtration (HEPA filters

  7. Collecting Duct Renin Does Not Mediate DOCA-Salt Hypertension or Renal Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kai; Stuart, Deborah; Abraham, Nikita; Wang, Fei; Wang, Shuping; Yang, Tianxin; Sigmund, Curt D; Kohan, Donald E; Ramkumar, Nirupama

    2016-01-01

    Collecting duct (CD)-derived renin is involved in the hypertensive response to chronic angiotensin-II (Ang-II) administration. However, whether CD renin is involved in Ang-II independent hypertension is currently unknown. To begin to examine this, 12 week old male and female CD-specific renin knock out (KO) mice and their littermate controls were subjected to uni-nephrectomy followed by 2 weeks of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) infusion combined with a high salt diet. Radiotelemetric blood pressure (BP) was similar between KO and control mice at baseline; BP increased in both groups to a similar degree throughout the 2 weeks of DOCA-salt treatment. Urinary albumin excretion and plasma blood urea nitrogen were comparable between the two groups after DOCA-salt treatment. Fibrosis as assessed by Masson's Trichrome stain/Sirius Red stain and collagen-1 mRNA expression was similar between control and KO mice. Compared to baseline, DOCA-salt treatment decreased plasma renin concentration (PRC), urinary renin excretion and medullary renin mRNA expression in both floxed and CD renin KO mice with no detectable differences between the two groups. Further, in primary culture of rat inner medullary CD, aldosterone treatment did not change renin activity or total renin content. Taken together, these data suggest that CD derived renin does not play a role in DOCA-salt hypertension.

  8. Assédio moral: o caso dos funcionários terceirizados de manutenção da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia http://dx.doi.org/10.15601/1983-7631/rt.v8n15p184-198

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Fagundes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Com um ambiente de trabalho cheio de pressão, a violência entre os trabalhadores vê seu desenvolvimento em resultados crescentes. O assédio moral, forma mais sutil de violência no trabalho, toma forma, ocasionando diversos danos ao indivíduo e à organização. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um estudo sobre a presença do assédio moral no trabalho dos funcionários terceirizados, responsáveis pela limpeza e manutenção da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, buscando descobrir a ocorrência desses assédios de acordo com o gênero, para verificar possíveis relações. A coleta dos dados foi realizada por meio de um questionário, aplicado com 40 funcionários. Foi possível verificar que mais de 50% dos funcionários questionados sofrem assédio moral em algum grau, sendo a maioria do sexo feminino. Em relação aos agentes agressores, verificou-se que os alunos eram os principais agressores, tendo atitudes de indiferença, humilhação pública e até violência. Já os outros agressores identificados foram os supervisores e os professores. Há a necessidade de educar todos dentro da instituição no sentido do conhecimento do que é o assédio moral, investigar os problemas e intensificar a divulgação de normas e valores sociais que regem as boas maneiras. Palavras-chave: assédio moral; saúde do trabalhador; gestão de recursos humanos.

  9. Thermophysical properties of reconsolidating crushed salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Urquhart, Alexander [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Reconsolidated crushed salt is being considered as a backfilling material placed upon nuclear waste within a salt repository environment. In-depth knowledge of thermal and mechanical properties of the crushed salt as it reconsolidates is critical to thermal/mechanical modeling of the reconsolidation process. An experimental study was completed to quantitatively evaluate the thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt as a function of porosity and temperature. The crushed salt for this study came from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In this work the thermal conductivity of crushed salt with porosity ranging from 1% to 40% was determined from room temperature up to 300°C, using two different experimental methods. Thermal properties (including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat) of single-crystal salt were determined for the same temperature range. The salt was observed to dewater during heating; weight loss from the dewatering was quantified. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt decreases with increasing porosity; conversely, thermal conductivity increases as the salt consolidates. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt for a given porosity decreases with increasing temperature. A simple mixture theory model is presented to predict and compare to the data developed in this study.

  10. Precipitation of sparingly soluble salts in packed sandbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlakou, Efstathia I.; Sygouni, Varvara; Paraskeva, Christakis A.

    2015-04-01

    One of the main problems encountered by the oil extraction industry, is the reduction of the local permeability of the rock formation near the extraction wells because of salt deposition in the pores of the rocks during the injection of brine water to displace the trapped oil ganglia within the oil formations. This phenomenon makes the oil recovery less efficient and under extreme cases the well is abandoned with a large amount of oil entrapped. Several detailed studies have been conducted in the past concerning sand bed consolidation using sparingly soluble salts for varying conditions (e.g. temperature, grain size, sand type, salt concentrations etc) and various salts [1]. Nevertheless, salt precipitation in the rock formation pores under the presence of other miscible or immiscible substances with water has not been investigated in details yet. In the present study, salt (CaCO3) precipitation experiments were performed in small beds packed with sea sand mixed with a low amount of CaCO3 seed grains. The experiments were performed using pure solutions (NaHCO3, CaCl2.2H2O) and solutions mixed with Ethylene Glycol in sand beds. Additionally, precipitation experiments were performed using pure solutions in sand beds saturated with oil phase (n-dodecane) for a wide range of solution supersaturation. During the experiments the ionic strength was kept constant. pH and concentration values of calcium ion of the effluent were measured and the precipitated salt crystals were identified using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) method. At the end of each experiment Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was conducted using a sample of the precipitated sand to identify the morphology of the precipitated crystals and their cohesion with sand grains. Acknowledgments This research was partially funded by the European Union (European Social Fund-ESF) and Greek National Funds through the Operational program "Education and Lifelong Learning" under the action Aristeia II (Code No 4420). References

  11. Influence of Salts on Virus Adsorption to Microporous Filters†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukasik, Jerzy; Scott, Troy M.; Andryshak, Diane; Farrah, Samuel R.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the direct and indirect effects of mono-, di-, and trivalent salts (NaCl, MgCl2, and AlCl3) on the adsorption of several viruses (MS2, PRD-1, φX174, and poliovirus 1) to microporous filters at different pH values. The filters studied included Millipore HA (nitrocellulose), Filterite (fiberglass), Whatman (cellulose), and 1MDS (charged-modified fiber) filters. Each of these filters except the Whatman cellulose filters has been used in virus removal and recovery procedures. The direct effects of added salts were considered to be the effects associated with the presence of the soluble salts. The indirect effects of the added salts were considered to be (i) changes in the pH values of solutions and (ii) the formation of insoluble precipitates that could adsorb viruses and be removed by filtration. When direct effects alone were considered, the salts used in this study promoted virus adsorption, interfered with virus adsorption, or had little or no effect on virus adsorption, depending on the filter, the virus, and the salt. Although we were able to confirm previous reports that the addition of aluminum chloride to water enhances virus adsorption to microporous filters, we found that the enhanced adsorption was associated with indirect effects rather than direct effects. The increase in viral adsorption observed when aluminum chloride was added to water was related to the decrease in the pH of the water. Similar results could be obtained by adding HCl. The increased adsorption of viruses in water at pH 7 following addition of aluminum chloride was probably due to flocculation of aluminum, since removal of flocs by filtration greatly reduced the enhancement observed. The only direct effect of aluminum chloride on virus adsorption that we observed was interference with adsorption to microporous filters. Under conditions under which hydrophobic interactions were minimal, aluminum chloride interfered with virus adsorption to Millipore, Filterite, and 1MDS

  12. Lead salt TE-cooled imaging sensor development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Kenton; Yoo, Sung-Shik; Kauffman, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    Progress on development of lead-salt thermoelectrically-cooled (TE-cooled) imaging sensors will be presented. The imaging sensor architecture has been integrated into field-ruggedized hardware, and supports the use of lead-salt based detector material, including lead selenide and lead sulfide. Images and video are from a lead selenide focal plane array on silicon ROIC at temperatures approaching room temperature, and at high frame rates. Lead-salt imagers uniquely possess three traits: (1) Sensitive operation at high temperatures above the typical `cooled' sensor maximum (2) Photonic response which enables high frame rates faster than the bolometric, thermal response time (3) Capability to reliably fabricate 2D arrays from solution-deposition directly, i. e. monolithically, on silicon. These lead-salt imagers are less expensive to produce and operate compared to other IR imagers based on II-VI HgCdTe and III-V InGaAsSb, because they do not require UHV epitaxial growth nor hybrid assembly, and no cryo-engine is needed to maintain low thermal noise. Historically, there have been challenges with lead-salt detector-to-detector non-uniformities and detector noise. Staring arrays of lead-salt imagers are promising today because of advances in ROIC technology and fabrication improvements. Non-uniformities have been addressed by on-FPA non-uniformity correction and 1/f noise has been mitigated with adjustable noise filtering without mechanical chopping. Finally, improved deposition process and measurement controls have enabled reliable fabrication of high-performance, lead-salt, large format staring arrays on the surface of large silicon ROIC wafers. The imaging array performance has achieved a Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD) of 30 mK at 2.5 millisecond integration time with an f/1 lens in the 3-5 μm wavelength band using a two-stage TE cooler to operate the FPA at 230 K. Operability of 99.6% is reproducible on 240 × 320 format arrays.

  13. Early Holocene Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviatt, Charles G.; Madsen, David B.; Miller, David; Thompson, Robert S.; McGeehin, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Shorelines and surficial deposits (including buried forest-floor mats and organic-rich wetland sediments) show that Great Salt Lake did not rise higher than modern lake levels during the earliest Holocene (11.5–10.2 cal ka BP; 10–9 14C ka BP). During that period, finely laminated, organic-rich muds (sapropel) containing brine-shrimp cysts and pellets and interbedded sodium-sulfate salts were deposited on the lake floor. Sapropel deposition was probably caused by stratification of the water column — a freshwater cap possibly was formed by groundwater, which had been stored in upland aquifers during the immediately preceding late-Pleistocene deep-lake cycle (Lake Bonneville), and was actively discharging on the basin floor. A climate characterized by low precipitation and runoff, combined with local areas of groundwater discharge in piedmont settings, could explain the apparent conflict between evidence for a shallow lake (a dry climate) and previously published interpretations for a moist climate in the Great Salt Lake basin of the eastern Great Basin.

  14. Quality characteristics of low fat chicken nuggets: effect of salt substitute blend and pea hull flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Arun K; Banerjee, Rituparna; Sharma, Brahma Deo

    2015-04-01

    Effect of salt substitution (Treat I) and added pea hull flour (PHF) at 8 (Treat-II), 10 (Treat-III) and 12 % (Treat-IV) levels on the quality of low fat chicken nuggets (Control) was investigated. Replacement of NaCl significantly affected (P nuggets without significant effect on various attributes.

  15. Enantioselective Copper-Catalyzed Arylation-Driven Semipinacol Rearrangement of Tertiary Allylic Alcohols with Diaryliodonium Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukamto, Daniel H; Gaunt, Matthew J

    2017-07-12

    A copper-catalyzed enantioselective arylative semipinacol rearrangement of allylic alcohols using diaryliodonium salts is reported. Chiral Cu(II)-bisoxazoline catalysts initiate an electrophilic alkene arylation, triggering a 1,2-alkyl migration to afford a range of nonracemic spirocyclic ketones with high yields, diastereo- and enantioselectivities.

  16. Génération d'onde stokes du second ordre et effet laser dans une fibre optique a cœur suspendu en verre de chalcogénure AsSe

    OpenAIRE

    Hey Tow, Kenny; Besnard, Pascal; Brilland, Laurent; Toupin, Périne; Troles, Johann; Méchin, David; Trégoat, Denis

    2011-01-01

    National audience; Une étude expérimentale sur les propriétés de la rétrodiffusion Brillouin stimulée dans une fibre optique à cœur suspendu en verre de chalcogénure AsSe est présentée. Avec seulement un mètre de fibre, nous générons suffisamment de gain Brillouin pour obtenir un laser à fibre monomode de type Fabry-Perot. Nous démontrons aussi la génération du second ordre Brillouin dans ces fibres avec 0,5 W de pompe.

  17. Salt Appetite Is Reduced by a Single Experience of Drinking Hypertonic Saline in the Adult Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Michael P.; Greenwood, Mingkwan; Paton, Julian F. R.; Murphy, David

    2014-01-01

    Salt appetite, the primordial instinct to favorably ingest salty substances, represents a vital evolutionary important drive to successfully maintain body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. This innate instinct was shown here in Sprague-Dawley rats by increased ingestion of isotonic saline (IS) over water in fluid intake tests. However, this appetitive stimulus was fundamentally transformed into a powerfully aversive one by increasing the salt content of drinking fluid from IS to hypertonic saline (2% w/v NaCl, HS) in intake tests. Rats ingested HS similar to IS when given no choice in one-bottle tests and previous studies have indicated that this may modify salt appetite. We thus investigated if a single 24 h experience of ingesting IS or HS, dehydration (DH) or 4% high salt food (HSD) altered salt preference. Here we show that 24 h of ingesting IS and HS solutions, but not DH or HSD, robustly transformed salt appetite in rats when tested 7 days and 35 days later. Using two-bottle tests rats previously exposed to IS preferred neither IS or water, whereas rats exposed to HS showed aversion to IS. Responses to sweet solutions (1% sucrose) were not different in two-bottle tests with water, suggesting that salt was the primary aversive taste pathway recruited in this model. Inducing thirst by subcutaneous administration of angiotensin II did not overcome this salt aversion. We hypothesised that this behavior results from altered gene expression in brain structures important in thirst and salt appetite. Thus we also report here lasting changes in mRNAs for markers of neuronal activity, peptide hormones and neuronal plasticity in supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus following rehydration after both DH and HS. These results indicate that a single experience of drinking HS is a memorable one, with long-term changes in gene expression accompanying this aversion to salty solutions. PMID:25111786

  18. Salt appetite is reduced by a single experience of drinking hypertonic saline in the adult rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Greenwood

    Full Text Available Salt appetite, the primordial instinct to favorably ingest salty substances, represents a vital evolutionary important drive to successfully maintain body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. This innate instinct was shown here in Sprague-Dawley rats by increased ingestion of isotonic saline (IS over water in fluid intake tests. However, this appetitive stimulus was fundamentally transformed into a powerfully aversive one by increasing the salt content of drinking fluid from IS to hypertonic saline (2% w/v NaCl, HS in intake tests. Rats ingested HS similar to IS when given no choice in one-bottle tests and previous studies have indicated that this may modify salt appetite. We thus investigated if a single 24 h experience of ingesting IS or HS, dehydration (DH or 4% high salt food (HSD altered salt preference. Here we show that 24 h of ingesting IS and HS solutions, but not DH or HSD, robustly transformed salt appetite in rats when tested 7 days and 35 days later. Using two-bottle tests rats previously exposed to IS preferred neither IS or water, whereas rats exposed to HS showed aversion to IS. Responses to sweet solutions (1% sucrose were not different in two-bottle tests with water, suggesting that salt was the primary aversive taste pathway recruited in this model. Inducing thirst by subcutaneous administration of angiotensin II did not overcome this salt aversion. We hypothesised that this behavior results from altered gene expression in brain structures important in thirst and salt appetite. Thus we also report here lasting changes in mRNAs for markers of neuronal activity, peptide hormones and neuronal plasticity in supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus following rehydration after both DH and HS. These results indicate that a single experience of drinking HS is a memorable one, with long-term changes in gene expression accompanying this aversion to salty solutions.

  19. Physicochemical properties of 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoates of Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II and Zn(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. FERENC

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The complexes of Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II with 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid anion of the formula: M(C10H11O52·nH2O, where n = 6 for Ni(II, n = 1 for Mn(II, Co(II, Cu(II, and n = 0 for Zn, have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, X–ray diffraction measurements, thermogravimetry and magnetic studies. They are crystalline compounds characterized by various symmetry. They decompose in various ways when heated in air to 1273 K. At first, they dehydrate in one step and form anhydrous salts. The final products of decomposition are oxides of the respective metals (Mn2O3, Co3O4, NiO, CuO, ZnO. The solubilities of the analysed complexes in water at 293 K are in the orders of 10-2 – 10-4 mol dm-3. The magnetic susceptibilities of the Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II and Cu(II complexes were measured over the range of 76–303 K and the magnetic moments were calculated. The results show that the 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoates of Mn(II, Co(II and Ni(II are high-spin complexes but that of Cu(II forms a dimer [Cu2(C10H11O54(H2O2]. The carboxylate groups bind as monodentate or bidentate chelating or bridging ligands.

  20. Comparative physiology of salt and water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munns, R.

    2002-02-01

    Plant responses to salt and water stress have much in common. Salinity reduces the ability of plants to take up water, and this quickly causes reductions in growth rate, along with a suite of metabolic changes identical to those caused by water stress. The initial reduction in shoot growth is probably due to hormonal signals generated by the roots. There may be salt-specific effects that later have an impact on growth; if excessive amounts of salt enter the plant, salt will eventually rise to toxic levels in the older transpiring leaves, causing premature senescence, and reduce the photosynthetic leaf area of the plant to a level that cannot sustain growth. These effects take time to develop. Salt-tolerant plants differ from salt-sensitive ones in having a low rate of Na+ and Cl-- transport to leaves, and the ability to compartmentalize these ions in vacuoles to prevent their build-up in cytoplasm or cell walls and thus avoid salt toxicity. In order to understand the processes that give rise to tolerance of salt, as distinct from tolerance of osmotic stress, and to identify genes that control the transport of salt across membranes, it is important to avoid treatments that induce cell plasmolysis, and to design experiments that distinguish between tolerance of salt and tolerance of water stress.

  1. Gradual adaptation to salt and dissolved oxygen: Strategies to minimize adverse effect of salinity on aerobic granular sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongwei; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Saikaly, Pascal E

    2017-11-01

    Salinity can affect the performance of biological wastewater treatment in terms of nutrient removal. The effect of salt on aerobic granular sludge (AGS) process in terms of granulation and nutrient removal was examined in this study. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of salt (15 g/L NaCl) on granule formation and nutrient removal in AGS system started with flocculent sludge and operated at DO of 2.5 mg/L (phase I). In addition, experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of gradually increasing the salt concentration (2.5 g/L to 15 g/L NaCl) or increasing the DO level (2.5 mg/L to 8 mg/L) on nutrient removal in AGS system started with granular sludge (phase II) taken from an AGS reactor performing well in terms of N and P removal. Although the addition of salt in phase I did not affect the granulation process, it significantly affected nutrient removal due to inhibition of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and phosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). Increasing the DO to 8 mg/L or adapting granules by gradually increasing the salt concentration minimized the adverse effect of salt on nitrification (phase II). However, these strategies were not successful for mitigating the effect of salt on biological phosphorus removal. No nitrite accumulation occurred in all the reactors suggesting that inhibition of biological phosphorus removal was not due to the accumulation of nitrite as previously reported. Also, glycogen accumulating organisms were shown to be more tolerant to salt than PAO II, which was the dominant PAO clade detected in this study. Future studies comparing the salinity tolerance of different PAO clades are needed to further elucidate the effect of salt on PAOs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Gradual adaptation to salt and dissolved oxygen: Strategies to minimize adverse effect of salinity on aerobic granular sludge

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhongwei

    2017-08-13

    Salinity can affect the performance of biological wastewater treatment in terms of nutrient removal. The effect of salt on aerobic granular sludge (AGS) process in terms of granulation and nutrient removal was examined in this study. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of salt (15 g/L NaCl) on granule formation and nutrient removal in AGS system started with flocculent sludge and operated at DO of 2.5 mg/L (phase I). In addition, experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of gradually increasing the salt concentration (2.5 g/L to 15 g/L NaCl) or increasing the DO level (2.5 mg/L to 8 mg/L) on nutrient removal in AGS system started with granular sludge (phase II) taken from an AGS reactor performing well in terms of N and P removal. Although the addition of salt in phase I did not affect the granulation process, it significantly affected nutrient removal due to inhibition of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and phosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). Increasing the DO to 8 mg/L or adapting granules by gradually increasing the salt concentration minimized the adverse effect of salt on nitrification (phase II). However, these strategies were not successful for mitigating the effect of salt on biological phosphorus removal. No nitrite accumulation occurred in all the reactors suggesting that inhibition of biological phosphorus removal was not due to the accumulation of nitrite as previously reported. Also, glycogen accumulating organisms were shown to be more tolerant to salt than PAO II, which was the dominant PAO clade detected in this study. Future studies comparing the salinity tolerance of different PAO clades are needed to further elucidate the effect of salt on PAOs.

  3. Copper (II)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLEMENT O BEWAJI

    ABSTRACT: A Schiff base was prepared from the reaction of 2 - amino - 3 – methylbutanoic acid and 2, 4 - pentanedione. The reaction of the prepared Schiff base with ethanolic solution of copper (II) chloride formed diaquo bis( N – 2 – amino – 3 - methylbutyl - 2, 4 - pentanedionato) copper (II) complex. The Schiff base is ...

  4. Salt splitting using ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, D.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Many radioactive aqueous wastes in the DOE complex have high concentrations of sodium that can negatively affect waste treatment and disposal operations. Sodium can decrease the durability of waste forms such as glass and is the primary contributor to large disposal volumes. Waste treatment processes such as cesium ion exchange, sludge washing, and calcination are made less efficient and more expensive because of the high sodium concentrations. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City UT) are developing an electrochemical salt splitting process based on inorganic ceramic sodium (Na), super-ionic conductor (NaSICON) membranes that shows promise for mitigating the impact of sodium. In this process, the waste is added to the anode compartment, and an electrical potential is applied to the cell. This drives sodium ions through the membrane, but the membrane rejects most other cations (e.g., Sr{sup +2}, Cs{sup +}). The charge balance in the anode compartment is maintained by generating H{sup +} from the electrolysis of water. The charge balance in the cathode is maintained by generating OH{sup {minus}}, either from the electrolysis of water or from oxygen and water using an oxygen cathode. The normal gaseous products of the electrolysis of water are oxygen at the anode and hydrogen at the cathode. Potentially flammable gas mixtures can be prevented by providing adequate volumes of a sweep gas, using an alternative reductant or destruction of the hydrogen as it is generated. As H{sup +} is generated in the anode compartment, the pH drops. The process may be operated with either an alkaline (pH>12) or an acidic anolyte (pH <1). The benefits of salt splitting using ceramic membranes are (1) waste volume reduction and reduced chemical procurement costs by recycling of NaOH; and (2) direct reduction of sodium in process streams, which enhances subsequent operations such as cesium ion exchange, calcination, and vitrification.

  5. Carpinteria salt marsh habitat polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Dunham, Eleca J.; Mancini, Frank T.; Stewart, Tara E.; Hechinger, Ryan F.

    2017-01-01

    We identified five common habitat types in Carpinteria Salt Marsh: channels, pans (flats), marsh, salt flat and upland.  We then drew polygons around each habitat type identified from a registered and orthorectified aerial photograph and created a GIS shapefile. Polygons were ground-truthed in the field. From these habitat polygons, one can use GIS applications to estimate the area of each habitat type in this estuary. These data support the following publications: Kuris, Armand M., et al. "Ecosystem energetic implications of parasite and free-living biomass in three estuaries." Nature 454.7203 (2008): 515-518.Hechinger, Ryan F., Kevin D. Lafferty, Andy P. Dobson, James H. Brown, and Armand M. Kuris. "A common scaling rule for abundance, energetics, and production of parasitic and free-living species." Science 333, no. 6041 (2011): 445-448.Hechinger, Ryan F., Kevin D. Lafferty, John P. McLaughlin, Brian L. Fredensborg, Todd C. Huspeni, Julio Lorda, Parwant K. Sandhu et al. "Food webs including parasites, biomass, body sizes, and life stages for three California/Baja California estuaries." Ecology 92, no. 3 (2011): 791-791.Buck, J.C., Hechinger, R.F., Wood, A.C., Stewart, T.E., Kuris, A.M., and Lafferty, K.D., "Host density increases parasite recruitment but decreases host risk in a snail-trematode system." Manuscript submitted for publication. Lafferty, K.D., Stewart, T.E., and Hechinger, R.F. (in press). Bird distribution surveys at Carpinteria Salt Marsh, California USA, January 2012 to March 2013: U.S. Geological Survey data release, http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7F47M95. 

  6. Makgadikgadi Salt Pan, Botswana, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The Makgadikgadi Salt Pan of Botswana, an ancient lake bed, (19.0S, 26.0E) is one of the largest features in Botswana visible from orbit. Any water that spills out of the Okavango Swamplands flows into the Makagadikgadi where it evaporates. An ancient beach line can be seen as a smooth line around the west side of the pan and to the south, the Orapa diamond mine is seen as a small rectangle. Far to the east, can be seen the Great Dike of Zimbabwe.

  7. Simultaneous enhancements of solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble febuxostat via salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian-Rui; Zhang, Lei

    2017-06-01

    Novel crystalline forms of febuxostat (HFEB) salts were synthesized by liquid-assisted cogrinding with 2-methylimidazole (2MI) and di-2-pyridylamine (DPA) and characterized by Hirshfeld surface analysis, IR, 1H NMR, single crystal and powder X-ray diffractions, TGA and DSC. Two new HFEB salts featured different stoichiometries: 2:1 molecular ratio in HFEB-2MI and 1:1 molecular ratio in HFEB-DPA. For HFEB-2MI salt, two HFEB molecules lost one proton forming a singly charged hydrogen carboxylate anion H(FEB)2-, which interacted with the disordered 2MI cation via the N3sbnd H3A⋯O1i (i: -x, -y, -z+1) and N4sbnd H4B⋯O1ii (ii: x, y+1, z-1) hydrogen bonds to form one-dimensional structure. For HFEB-DPA salt, one proton transferred from one HFEB to DPA, which were further connected by N4sbnd H1⋯O1 and N3sbnd H2⋯O2 hydrogen bonds to form an R22(8) ring motif. HFEB-2MI and HFEB-DPA salts exhibited increased equilibrium solubilities and intrinsic dissolution rates compared to those of HFEB in aqueous medium.

  8. Salt and fluid restriction is effective in patients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipson, Henriette; Ekman, Inger; Forslund, Heléne B; Swedberg, Karl; Schaufelberger, Maria

    2013-11-01

    European and American guidelines have recommended salt and fluid restriction for patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) despite scarce scientific evidence. Therefore, we investigated the effects of salt and fluid restriction in patients with CHF. Ninety-seven stable patients in NYHA class II-IV, on optimal medication, with previous signs of fluid retention, treated with either >40 mg (NYHA III-IV) or >80 mg (NYHA II-IV) of furosemide daily were randomized to either individualized salt and fluid restriction or information given by the nurse-led heart failure clinics, e.g. be aware not to drink too much and use salt with caution, and followed for 12 weeks. Fluid was restricted to 1.5 L and salt to 5 g daily, and individualized dietary advice and support was given. The 24 h dietary recall procedure, urine collection on three consecutive days, and para-aminobenzoic acid 80 mg t.i.d. was used to assess adherence to diet and completeness of urine collection. The primary endpoint was a composite variable consisting of NYHA class, hospitalization, weight, peripheral oedema, quality of life (QoL), thirst, and diuretics. Results After 12 weeks, significantly more patients in the intervention than in the control group improved on the composite endpoint (51% vs. 16%; P fluid restriction can improve signs and symptoms of CHF with no negative effects on thirst, appetite, or QoL in patients with moderate to severe CHF and previous signs of fluid retention.

  9. Impact of slope inclination on salt accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachshon, Uri

    2017-04-01

    Field measurements indicated on high variability in salt accumulation along natural and cultivated slopes, even for relatively homogeneous soil conditions. It was hypothesised that slope inclination has an impact on the location of salt accumulation along the slope. A set of laboratory experiments and numerical models were used to explore the impact of slope inclination on salt accumulation. It was shown, experimentally, that for conditions of saline water source at the lower boundary of the slope - salt accumulates in low concentrations and homogeneously along the entire slope, for moderate slopes. However, as inclination increases high salt concentrations were observed at the upper parts of the slope, leaving the lower parts of the slope relatively free of salt. The traditional flow and transport models did not predict the experimental observations as they indicated also for the moderate slopes on salt accumulation in the elevated parts of the slope, away of the saline water source. Consequently - a conceptual model was raised to explain the laboratory observations. It was suggested that the interactions between slope angle, evaporation rates, hydraulic conductivity of the medium and distribution of wetness along the slope affect the saline water flow path through the medium. This lead to preferential flow path close to the soil-atmosphere interface for the steep slopes, which leads to constant wash of the salts from the evaporation front upward towards the slope upper parts, whereas for the moderate slopes, flow path is below the soil-atmosphere interface, therefore salt that accumulates at the evaporation front is not being transported upward. Understanding of salt dynamics along slopes is important for agricultural and natural environments, as well as for civil engineering purposes. Better understanding of the salt transport processes along slopes will improve our ability to minimize and to cope with soil salinization processes. The laboratory experiments and

  10. Monitoring Change in Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David; Angeroth, Cory; Freeman, Michael; Rowland, Ryan; Carling, Gregory

    2013-08-01

    Great Salt Lake is the largest hypersaline lake in the Western Hemisphere and the fourth largest terminal lake in the world (Figure 1). The open water and adjacent wetlands of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem support millions of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds from throughout the Western Hemisphere [Aldrich and Paul, 2002]. In addition, the area is of important economic value: Brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) residing in Great Salt Lake support an aquaculture shrimp cyst industry with annual revenues as high as $60 million.

  11. Macroevolutionary patterns of salt tolerance in angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromham, Lindell

    2015-01-01

    Background Halophytes are rare, with only 0·25 % of angiosperm species able to complete their life cycle in saline conditions. This could be interpreted as evidence that salt tolerance is difficult to evolve. However, consideration of the phylogenetic distribution of halophytes paints a different picture: salt tolerance has evolved independently in many different lineages, and halophytes are widely distributed across angiosperm families. In this Viewpoint, I will consider what phylogenetic analysis of halophytes can tell us about the macroevolution of salt tolerance. Hypothesis Phylogenetic analyses of salt tolerance have shown contrasting patterns in different families. In some families, such as chenopods, salt tolerance evolved early in the lineage and has been retained in many lineages. But in other families, including grasses, there have been a surprisingly large number of independent origins of salt tolerance, most of which are relatively recent and result in only one or a few salt-tolerant species. This pattern of many recent origins implies either a high transition rate (salt tolerance is gained and lost often) or a high extinction rate (salt-tolerant lineages do not tend to persist over macroevolutionary timescales). While salt tolerance can evolve in a wide range of genetic backgrounds, some lineages are more likely to produce halophytes than others. This may be due to enabling traits that act as stepping stones to developing salt tolerance. The ability to tolerate environmental salt may increase tolerance of other stresses or vice versa. Conclusions Phylogenetic analyses suggest that enabling traits and cross-tolerances may make some lineages more likely to adapt to increasing salinization, a finding that may prove useful in assessing the probable impact of rapid environmental change on vegetation communities, and in selecting taxa to develop for use in landscape rehabilitation and agriculture. PMID:25452251

  12. Brine Transport Experiments in Granular Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Amy B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-06

    To gain confidence in the predictive capability of numerical models, experimental validation must be performed to ensure that parameters and processes are correctly simulated. The laboratory investigations presented herein aim to address knowledge gaps for heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) disposal in bedded salt that remain after examination of prior field and laboratory test data. Primarily, we are interested in better constraining the thermal, hydrological, and physicochemical behavior of brine, water vapor, and salt when moist salt is heated. The target of this work is to use run-of-mine (RoM) salt; however during FY2015 progress was made using high-purity, granular sodium chloride.

  13. Granular Salt Summary: Reconsolidation Principles and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Frank; Popp, Till; Wieczorek, Klaus; Stuehrenberg, Dieter

    2014-07-01

    The purposes of this paper are to review the vast amount of knowledge concerning crushed salt reconsolidation and its attendant hydraulic properties (i.e., its capability for fluid or gas transport) and to provide a sufficient basis to understand reconsolidation and healing rates under repository conditions. Topics covered include: deformation mechanisms and hydro-mechanical interactions during reconsolidation; the experimental data base pertaining to crushed salt reconsolidation; transport properties of consolidating granulated salt and provides quantitative substantiation of its evolution to characteristics emulating undisturbed rock salt; and extension of microscopic and laboratory observations and data to the applicable field scale.

  14. Strategies for salt reduction in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toldrá, Fidel; Barat, José M

    2012-04-01

    The amounts of sodium chloride in the formulation of a variety of foods like bakery, meats and dairy foods, ready meals, sauces and snacks, are relatively large and thus, have a strong contribution on the salt dietary intake. There is a clear demand by the consumers and medical associations to reduce the salt content in foods. Different strategies have been proposed and most of them consist of the replacement of sodium chloride by other salts and the addition of other substances for an acceptable sensory quality. The recent patents for salt reduction and their applications in foods are reviewed in this manuscript.

  15. Salt reduction initiatives around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jacqueline L; Dunford, Elizabeth K; Hawkes, Corinna; Neal, Bruce C

    2011-06-01

    To provide an overview of national salt reduction initiatives around the world, describe core characteristics and develop a framework for future strategy development. National strategies were identified from existing reviews and from searches of the literature and relevant websites. Standardized information was extracted about governance and strategy development, baseline assessments and monitoring and implementation. Thirty-two country salt reduction initiatives were identified. The majority of activity was in Europe (19 countries). Most countries (27) had maximum population salt intake targets, ranging from 5 to 8 g/person per day. Twenty-six of the 32 strategies were led by government, five by nongovernment organizations and one by industry. Twenty-eight countries had some baseline data on salt consumption and 18 had data on sodium levels in foods. Twenty-eight countries were working with the food industry to reduce salt in foods, 10 had front-of-pack labelling schemes and 28 had consumer awareness or behaviour change programs. Five countries had demonstrated an impact, either on population salt consumption, salt levels in foods or consumer awareness. These strategies were led by government and were multifaceted including food reformulation, consumer awareness initiatives and labelling actions. This is the first review to concisely summarize the most important elements of the many existing salt reduction programmes and highlight the characteristics most likely to be important to programme efficacy. For most countries, implementing a national salt reduction programme is likely to be one of simplest and most cost-effective ways of improving public health.

  16. Uninephrectomy in young age or chronic salt loading causes salt-sensitive hypertension in adult rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlström, Mattias; Sällström, Johan; Skøtt, Ole

    2007-01-01

    The importance of nephron endowment and salt intake for the development of hypertension is under debate. The present study was designed to investigate whether reduced nephron number, after completion of nephrogenesis, or chronic salt loading causes renal injury and salt-sensitive hypertension...... in adulthood. Rats were operated at 3 weeks of age (after completed nephrogenesis) and then subjected to either normal or high-salt diets for 6 to 8 weeks. Four different experimental groups were used: sham-operated animals raised with normal-salt diet (controls) or high-salt diet (HS) and uninephrectomized...... animals raised with normal-salt diet (UNX) or high-salt diet (UNX+HS). In the adult animals, renal and cardiovascular functions were evaluated and blood pressure recorded telemetrically under different sodium conditions (normal, high, and low). Hypertension was present in UNX+HS (122+/-9 mm Hg), UNX (101...

  17. Hemodynamic responses to mental stress during salt loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gefke, Maria; Christensen, Niels Juel; Bech, Per; Frandsen, Erik; Damgaard, Morten; Asmar, Ali; Norsk, Peter

    2017-11-01

    The purpose was to examine whether prolonged moderate stress associated with a student exam would increase the blood pressure response to a salt load in young healthy normotensive individuals. Ten healthy young subjects were examined at two different occasions in random order (i) during preparation for a medical exam (prolonged stress) and (ii) outside the exam period (low stress). All subjects consumed a controlled diet for 3 days with low- or high-salt content in randomized order. The subjective stress was measured by Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Scale, SCL Symptom Checklist for stress and the Visual Analogue Scale. On each level of stress, 24-h ambulatory blood pressure and cardiac output (CO) were measured. Furthermore, plasma norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E) and plasma renin activity (PRA) were measured. Twenty-four-hour ABP, 24-h heart rate, CO as well as plasma levels of NE, E and PRA remained unchanged by changes in stress level. Day-night reduction in SAP was significantly larger during moderate stress and high-salt intake; however, no significant difference was observed during daytime and night-time. Individual increase in mental stress correlated significantly with an individual decrease in PRA (SCL-17, r = -0·80, Pstress over a period of time in young healthy normotensive individuals does not lead to changes in 24-h ABP. However, the augmented reduction in day-to-night systolic blood pressure during high-salt intake and moderate stress may indicate that stress affects blood pressure regulation. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Zooming in and out: Scale dependence of extrinsic and intrinsic factors affecting salt marsh erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heng; van der Wal, Daphne; Li, Xiangyu; van Belzen, Jim; Herman, Peter M. J.; Hu, Zhan; Ge, Zhenming; Zhang, Liquan; Bouma, Tjeerd J.

    2017-07-01

    Salt marshes are valuable ecosystems that provide important ecosystem services. Given the global scale of marsh loss due to climate change and coastal squeeze, there is a pressing need to identify the critical extrinsic (wind exposure and foreshore morphology) and intrinsic factors (soil and vegetation properties) affecting the erosion of salt marsh edges. In this study, we quantified rates of cliff lateral retreat (i.e., the eroding edge of a salt marsh plateau) using a time series of aerial photographs taken over four salt marsh sites in the Westerschelde estuary, the Netherlands. In addition, we experimentally quantified the erodibility of sediment cores collected from the marsh edge of these four marshes using wave tanks. Our results revealed the following: (i) at the large scale, wind exposure and the presence of pioneer vegetation in front of the cliff were the key factors governing cliff retreat rates; (ii) at the intermediate scale, foreshore morphology was partially related to cliff retreat; (iii) at the local scale, the erodibility of the sediment itself at the marsh edge played a large role in determining the cliff retreat rate; and (iv) at the mesocosm scale, cliff erodibility was determined by soil properties and belowground root biomass. Thus, both extrinsic and intrinsic factors determined the fate of the salt marsh but at different scales. Our study highlights the importance of understanding the scale dependence of the factors driving the evolution of salt marsh landscapes.

  19. Effects of salting-in interactions on macromolecule diffusiophoresis and salt osmotic diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, Michele S; Annunziata, Onofrio

    2015-02-03

    Macromolecule diffusiophoresis (i.e., macromolecule migration induced by a salt concentration gradient) in water and salt osmotic diffusion (i.e., salt migration induced by a macromolecule concentration gradient) are two cross-diffusion mechanisms caused by macromolecule-salt interactions. We investigated the effect of salting-in interactions on the behavior of these two cross-diffusion mechanisms. Our results are distinct from those previously obtained in the case of salting-out interactions. Cross-diffusion was experimentally characterized by Rayleigh interferometry at 25 °C. Specifically, multicomponent diffusion coefficients were measured for a neutral polymer, polyethylene glycol (molar mass, 20 kg/mol), in aqueous solutions of three thiocyanate salts (NaSCN, KSCN, and NH₄SCN) as a function of salt concentration at low polymer concentration (0.5% w/w). Our results on salt osmotic diffusion, which were qualitatively different from those previously obtained for salting-out salts, were used to quantitatively characterize the strength of salting-in interactions. The behavior of polymer diffusiophoresis as a function of salt concentration and cation type reveals that polymer chains have an extrinsic negative charge, consistent with anion binding being the cause of salting-in interactions. To quantitatively examine the effect of anion binding on salt osmotic diffusion and polymer diffusiophoresis, we developed a theoretical model based on the linear laws of nonequilibrium thermodynamics for diffusion, the Scatchard binding model, and particle electrophoresis. This work contributes to the understanding of the multifaceted effects of molecular interactions on cross-diffusion mechanisms, salting-in interactions, and the Hofmeister series.

  20. Anaglyph, Salt Lake City, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This anaglyph image provides a stereoscopic map view of north central Utah that includes all of these Olympic sites. In the south, next to Utah Lake, Provo hosts the ice hockey competition. In the north, northeast of the Great Salt Lake, Ogden hosts curling and the nearby Snowbasin ski area hosts the downhill events. In between, southeast of the Great Salt Lake, Salt Lake City hosts the Olympic Village and the various skating events. Further east, across the Wasatch Mountains, the Park City ski resort hosts the bobsled, ski jumping, and snowboarding events. The Winter Olympics are always hosted in mountainous terrain. This view shows the dramatic landscape that makes the Salt Lake City region a world-class center for winter sports.The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image over a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed

  1. SN2-type ring opening of substituted-N-tosylaziridines with zinc (II ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tosylaziridines with zinc (II) halides: Control of racemization by quaternary ammonium salt. MANAS K GHORAI. ∗. , DEO PRAKASH TIWARI, AMIT KUMAR and KALPATARU DAS. Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur ...

  2. Effect of salting and drying conditions on quality of salted Dried ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regression analysis of the data yielded models with high coefficients of determination (³ 0.90) for the prediction of the moisture and salt content of solar and open sun-dried salted fish. The solar dried salted fish generally attained lower moisture levels than the open sun-dried samples. Analysis of sensory scores indicated ...

  3. Compound ion salt, a novel low-sodium salt substitute: from animal study to community-based population trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Liu, Jun-Xiang; Shi, Rui; Yang, Ning; Song, Dong-Lin; Pang, Wei; Li, Yu-Ming

    2009-09-01

    Salt restriction, an important approach for primary and secondary prevention of hypertension, is undermined by unsatisfactory adherence. A salt-restriction study tested the efficacy and safety of a compound ion salt (CISalt) with low sodium content in an animal model and in a community-based population. In part 1, 8-week-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were fed 1% CISalt in the study group and 8% or 1% normal salt (NSalt) in controls (n = 10 each) for 12 weeks. Blood pressure (BP) and urinary electrolytes were measured every 3 weeks. After 12 weeks, collagen deposition in the heart and kidney and the levels of angiotensin II (Ang II) and nitric oxide (NO) in plasma and renal cortex were measured. In part 2, a single-blind, randomized, 6-month controlled trial with CISalt was conducted in 248 persons (age >or=65 years) in 10 rural communities. Plasma renin activity and Ang II were included in blood and urinary measures at baseline and 6 months. Reduced BP urinary protein excretion and reduced collagen in the heart and kidneys were significantly different in animals fed CISalt compared to controls. In human studies, at 6 months, mean systolic BP (SBP) was decreased by 9.6 mm Hg (95% confidence interval (CI): 13.1 to 6.1, P < 0.001) and diastolic BP (DBP) by 5.3 mm Hg (95% CI: 7.9 to 2.6, P < 0.001), respectively, compared to controls; urinary sodium excretion also decreased by 67.4 mmol/24 h (95% CI: 84.8 to 50.0, P < 0.001), and plasma renin activity was slightly increased by 0.19 ng/ml/h (95% CI: 0.04-0.33, P = 0.013). No adverse cardiovascular events were reported. In these studies, CISalt lowered BP and showed end-organ protection in hypertensive animals and BP reduction in humans. CISalt appears to be a safe and acceptable strategy to reduce BP.

  4. EPR study of VO/sup 2 +/ in some paramagnetic Tutton salt single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upreti, G.C. (Indian Inst. of Tech., Kanpur. Dept. of Physics); Saraswat, R.S. (Indian Inst. of Tech., Kharagpur. Dept. of Physics)

    1984-04-01

    The EPR spectra of VO/sup 2 +/ in single crystals of some paramagnetic salts Me(II)(NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 2/x6H/sub 2/O (Me = Co, Fe, or Ni) and NiK/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 2/x6H/sub 2/O have been recorded and analyzed. The vanadyl ions doped in Co and Fe double salt crystals showed sharp and well resolved EPR spectra consisting in two sets of eight-line hyperfine patterns. The spin-Hamiltonian parameters and the molecular orbital coefficients are given and the bonding in vanadyl complexes is discussed.

  5. Effect of copper salts on peptide bond formation using peptide thioesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingenito, Raffaele; Wenschuh, Holger

    2003-11-27

    [reaction: see text] In the present paper, systematic studies revealed that Cu(I) salts in general and Cu(II) salts under certain circumstances promote effective reaction between peptide thiol esters and the N-terminal amino function of a second peptide segment to give the native amide bond for both solution- and solid-phase syntheses. Chiral integrity was retained. Reaction conditions were optimized and applied to the synthesis of a small protein, the identity of which was confirmed by NMR analysis.

  6. Enhancement mechanisms behind exclusive removal and selective recovery of copper from salt solutions with an aminothiazole-functionalized adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Chao; Liu, Fu-qiang, E-mail: jogia@163.com; Gao, Jie; Li, Lan-juan; Bai, Zhi-ping, E-mail: baizp@nju.edu.cn; Ling, Chen; Zhu, Chang-qing; Chen, Da; Li, Ai-min

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Exclusive removal and selective recovery of copper from salt solutions was achieved. • Interaction mechanisms and selective adsorption mechanisms were depicted. • Geometric structure of complex was optimized and affirmed by DFT. • Enhancement mechanism of salts was further investigated. - Abstract: The aminothiazole-functionalized adsorbent (CEAD) could exclusively remove and to selectively recover copper. The adsorption and separation properties of Cu(II) onto CEAD from aqueous media, with or without salts such as NaNO{sub 3}, Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, were systematically compared by carrying out single, binary and multiple component static and dynamic experiments. In binary systems, the adsorption capacities of Cu(II) were obviously increased by 39.47%, 47.37% and 57.89% with Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, NaNO{sub 3} and Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, respectively. Besides, simulation study was performed to selectively recover Cu(II) from multi-component aqueous media, with the separation factor of only 54.91 in aqueous media without salts. The separation factor became infinite in the presence of NaNO{sub 3} and the enhancement ratio for Cu(II) was raised by 126.31%. Dynamic adsorption could separate Cu(II) and Ni(II) completely and the amount of effluent for pure Ni(II) increased to 127 BV with the help of NaNO{sub 3}. In the predominant chelating mode simulated by density functional theory calculation, a metal ion coordinated with three nitrogen atoms and formed a chelating complex with two five-membered rings, and Cu(II) showed stronger coordinating ability than Ni(II) did. Meanwhile, anions exerted significant beneficial effects by electrostatic screening, and thus strengthened the exclusive removal and selective recovery of Cu(II)

  7. Thermoluminescence characteristics of Israeli household salts for retrospective dosimetry in radiological events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druzhyna, S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Ben-Gurion University, 84105 Beer Sheva (Israel); Datz, H. [Radiation Safety Division, Soreq Nuclear Research Center, 81800 Yavne (Israel); Horowitz, Y.S. [Physics Department, Ben Gurion University, 84105 Beer Sheva (Israel); Oster, L., E-mail: leonido@sce.ac.il [Physics Unit, Sami Shamoon College of Engineering, 84100 Beer Sheva (Israel); Orion, I. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Ben-Gurion University, 84105 Beer Sheva (Israel)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Examination the potential use of Israeli household salt as a retrospective dosimeter. • Detailed investigation of the basic dosimetric characteristics of the salts. • It is shown that computerized glow curve analysis for accurate background subtraction and dose measurement is required. - Abstract: Following a nuclear accident or terror attack involving the dispersal of radioactive substances, radiation dose assessment to first responders and the members of the public is essential. The need for a retrospective assessment of the radiation dose to those possibly affected is, therefore, obligatory. The present study examines the potential use of Israeli household salt as a retrospective dosimeter (RD). The experiments were carried out on Israeli salt samples (NaCl) following a Nielsen market track survey based on scanning data representing the barcoded market, including organized and independent retail chains and a sample of private minimarkets and supermarkets. The technique used was thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry. Salt samples were exposed to levels of dose from 0.5 mGy to 300 Gy at the Israeli Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory of the Soreq Nuclear Research Center using a calibrated {sup 137}Cs source. Our emphasis has been on a detailed investigation of the basic dosimetric characteristics of the salts including: (i) glow curve analysis (ii) individual glow peak dose response (iii) reproducibility (iv) estimation of minimal measurable dose (v) effect of nitrogen readout, (vi) influence of humidity during pre-irradiation storage and (vii) light induced fading. The results are sufficiently favorable to lead to the conclusion that the Israeli household salts can serve as a pragmatic potential candidate for RD under certain restricted conditions. Occasional pre-calibration of the major salt brands in a dedicated laboratory may be essential depending on the required accuracy in the estimation of dose and consequent clinical evaluation.

  8. [Diet and water-salt balance in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, A S; Kutina, A V; Natochin, Iu V

    2012-03-01

    We compared parameters of water-salt balance in Wistar female rats fed normal chows during more than 2 weeks. Potassium content was 1.4-fold higher in diet I than in diet II, and sodium end water content was 3.3- and 7.5-fold higher in diet II than in diet I. Blood osmolality and concentration of Na+, K+, Mg2+ were equal in rats fed different chow. In water-loaded rats (5 ml of water/100 bw per os) fed different chow, urine flow rate did not differ, but solute-free water excretion was higher by 40.2% in the rats fed diet II vs. diet I. The sort of diet did not affect the renal sodium excretion during oral administration of 5 ml 0.9% NaCl per 100 g bw to rats. After vasopressin injection solute-free water reabsorption was 1.5-fold higher in rats fed diet II. Natriuretic and hydruretic effect of exenatide, glucagon-like peptide 1 mimetic, was weaker in rats fed diet I. The data obtained indicate that organism can effectively maintain blood parameters. The modulation of hormone regulatory effects on water and sodium balance was found to depend on the state of organism under diet consumed continuously.

  9. Biogeochemical effects of seawater restoration to diked salt marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, J.W.; Giblin, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    We conducted greenhouse microcosm experiments to examine the biogeochemical effects of restoring seawater to historically diked Cape Cod salt marshes. Peat cores from both seasonally flooded and drained diked marshes were waterlogged with seawater, and porewater chemistry was subsequently monitored for 21 mo. The addition of seawater to highly organic, seasonally flooded peat caused the death of freshwater wetland plants, 6-8 cm of sediment subsidence, and increased N and P mineralization. Also, sulfides and alkalinity increased 10-fold, suggesting accelerated decomposition by sulfate reduction. Addition of seawater to the low-organic-content acidic peat from the drained marsh increased porewater pH, alkalinity, PO4-P, and Fe(II), which we attribute to the reestablishment of SO4 and Fe(III) mineral reduction. Increased cation exchange contributed to 6-fold increases in dissolved Fe(II) and Al and 60-fold increases in NH4-N within 6 mo of sail-nation. Seawater reintroductions to seasonally flooded diked marshes will cause porewater sulfides to increase, likely reducing the success of revegetation efforts. Sulfide toxicity is of less concern in resalinated drained peats because of the abundance of Fe(II) to precipitate sulfides, and of NH4-N to offset sulfide inhibition of N uptake. Restoration of either seasonally flooded or drained diked marshes could stimulate potentially large nutrient and Fe(II) releases, which could in turn increase primary production and lower oxygen in receiving waters. These findings suggest that tidal restoration be gradual and carefully monitored.

  10. Syn-depositional deformation of the late Zechstein evaporites on the Friesland Platform capturing the early life of a salt giant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raith, Alexander; Urai, Janos L.

    2017-04-01

    It is often thought that the deposition of the Zechstein of NE Netherlands took place in a tectonically quiet environment and experienced complex deformation later. While early deformation structures were mostly overprinted by later salt flow, we focused on the Friesland platform, which was only weakly affected by later salt tectonics. In this study, we analyzed the present structures and deformation history with the help of 3D seismic and well data. Results show that the ZIII AC stringer contains (i) a regional network of thicker zones (TZ), and (ii) a network of zones where the stringers are absent, interpreted as ruptures formed by salt flow. These ruptures in many cases mark a clear vertical shift of the sub-horizontal stringer. Mapping of the base salt and top salt reflectors shows that the ruptures often coincide with faults at base Zechstein level, and that the thickness of the post-stringer rock salt layers is thicker where the stringers are lower, while the total salt thickness is relatively constant. We interpret these structures as evidence for movement on the faults at base salt, during Zechstein times, suggesting that late Zechstein deposition was syn-tectonic. Spatial correlation of TZ and these syn-depositional depressions also indicate syn-depositional or very early development of thickening in the ZIII-AC stringer. They are interpreted to reflect the interaction of anhydrite dewatering pathways and dissolution of salt below fracture systems in the stringer localized by the active shear zones in the salt.

  11. Public health impact of salt reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.

    2015-01-01

    The health and economic burden related to cardiovascular diseases is substantial and prevention of these diseases remains a challenge. There is convincing evidence that high salt intake affects blood pressure and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. As salt intake is far above the recommended

  12. Sea salt concentrations across the European continent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manders, A.M.M.; Schaap, M.; Querol, X.; Albert, M.F.M.A.; Vercauteren, J.; Kuhlbusch, T.A.J.; Hoogerbrugge, R.

    2010-01-01

    The oceans are a major source for particles that play an important role in many atmospheric processes. In Europe sea salt may contribute significantly to particulate matter concentrations. We have compiled sodium concentration data as a tracer for sea salt for 89 sites in Europe to provide more

  13. Nonlinear Analysis of Cavities in Rock Salt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, N. S.; Krenk, Steen

    1979-01-01

    The paper covers some material and computational aspects of the rock mechanics of leached cavities in salt. A material model is presented in which the instantaneous stiffness of the salt is obtained by interpolation between the unloaded state and a relevant failure state. The model enables...

  14. Morphology of colloidal metal pyrophosphate salts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Y.M.; Velikov, K.; Kegel, W.K.

    2012-01-01

    We report the preparation and characterization of colloidal particles of several pyrophosphate metal salts, including, for the first time, salts containing multiple metals. These materials are compared in order to determine the influence of the composition and experimental conditions on particle

  15. Cadmium hampers salt tolerance of Sesuvium portulacastrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Mariem; Martos, Soledad; Pérez-Martín, Laura; Abdelly, Chedly; Ghnaya, Tahar; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Gunsé, Benet

    2017-06-01

    It is well known that salinity reduces cadmium toxicity in halophytes. However, the possible interference of Cd with the mechanisms of salt tolerance is poorly explored. The aim of this study was to see whether Cd affects salt tolerance mechanisms in the halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum. S. portulacastrum plants obtained from cuttings were grown in hydroponics for 3 weeks and then exposed to low (0.09 mM) or moderate (200 mM) NaCl concentrations, alone or in combination with 25 μM CdCl 2 . Microscopy observation revealed two strategies of salt tolerance: euhalophytism and secretion of salt by bladder cells. Cadmium exposure hardly influenced the total leaf Na + concentrations. However, Cd supply delayed the salt-induced upregulation of AHA1 (plasma membrane H + -ATPase 1) and SOS1 (plasma membrane Na + transporter "Salt Overly Sensitive 1"), genes that are essential for salt tolerance. Moreover, Cd induced the activation of BADH, coding for betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, indicating enhanced osmotic stress due to Cd. Sodium-green fluorescence in protoplasts from plants grown with low or high NaCl, alone or in combination with Cd, revealed higher Na + concentrations in the cytoplasm of Cd-exposed plants. Taken together the results indicate interference of Cd with salt tolerance mechanisms in S. portulacastrum. This may have consequences for the efficient use of halophytes in phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated saline soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Wave attenuation by salt marsh vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuik, V.; Jonkman, S.N.

    2016-01-01

    Salt marshes are a characteristic feature of estuaries and coastal seas. They are found in the upper coastal intertidal zones between land and water, which are regularly flooded by tides and surges. They are covered with salt-tolerant vegetation types, such as herbs and grasses. Sheltering from

  17. Metal Production by Molten Salt Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grjotheim, K.; Kvande, H.; Qingfeng, Li

    Chemistry and electrochemistry of molten salts are reviewed. Technological aspects of electrolytic production of aluminium, magnesium, and other metals are comprehensively surveyed.......Chemistry and electrochemistry of molten salts are reviewed. Technological aspects of electrolytic production of aluminium, magnesium, and other metals are comprehensively surveyed....

  18. Salt Diapirs in the Gulf Coast [gcdiapirg

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Locations and shapes of salt diapirs were modified after the New Orleans Geological Society map, Salt tectonism of the U.S. Gulf Coast Basin (compiled by J.A. Lopez,...

  19. Salt for the earthen oven revisited

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    2011-06-07

    Jun 7, 2011 ... ours, but in a roundabout (tortuous?) way. However, we already mentioned why seasoning and conservation are not plausible interpretations in the biblical context. Once again, following De Langhe's (1954) insight, this is how. Luke's logion can be understood: Salt (the catalyst) is good; but if salt has lost its ...

  20. Nitrate Salt Surrogate Blending Scoping Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-13

    Test blending equipment identified in the “Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing”. Determine if the equipment will provide adequate mixing of zeolite and surrogate salt/Swheat stream; optimize equipment type and operational sequencing; impact of baffles and inserts on mixing performance; and means of validating mixing performance

  1. Whitecaps, sea-salt aerosols, and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguelova, Magdalena Dimitrova

    Oceanic whitecaps are the major source of sea-salt aerosols. Because these aerosols are dominant in remote marine air, they control the radiative properties of the clean background atmosphere by scattering sunlight, changing cloud properties and lifetime, and providing media for chemical reactions. Including sea-salt effects in climate models improves predictions, but simulating their generation is first necessary. To make the sea-salt generation function currently used in climate models more relevant for aerosol investigations, this study proposes two modifications. First, the conventional relation between whitecap coverage, W, and the 10-meter wind speed, U10, used in typical generation functions is expanded to include additional factors that affect whitecaps and sea-salt aerosol formation. Second, the sea-salt generation function is extended to smaller sizes; sea-salt aerosol with initial radii from 0.4 to 20 mum can now be modeled. To achieve these goals, this thesis develops a new method for estimating whitecap coverage on a global scale using satellite measurements of the brightness temperature of the ocean surface. Whitecap coverage evaluated with this method incorporates the effects of atmospheric stability, sea-surface temperature, salinity, wind fetch, wind duration, and the amount of surface-active material. Assimilating satellite-derived values for whitecap coverage in the sea-salt generation function incorporates the effects of all environmental factors on sea-salt production and predicts realistic sea-salt aerosol loadings into the atmosphere. An extensive database of whitecap coverage and sea-salt aerosol fluxes has been compiled with the new method and is used to investigate their spatial and temporal characteristics. The composite effect of all environmental factors suggests a more uniform latitudinal distribution of whitecaps and sea-salt aerosols than that predicted from wind speed alone. The effect of sea-surface temperature, TS, is

  2. Neuroendocrine regulation of salt and water metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. McCann

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurons which release atrial natriuretic peptide (ANPergic neurons have their cell bodies in the paraventricular nucleus and in a region extending rostrally and ventrally to the anteroventral third ventricular (AV3V region with axons which project to the median eminence and neural lobe of the pituitary gland. These neurons act to inhibit water and salt intake by blocking the action of angiotensin II. They also act, after their release into hypophyseal portal vessels, to inhibit stress-induced ACTH release, to augment prolactin release, and to inhibit the release of LHRH and growth hormone-releasing hormone. Stimulation of neurons in the AV3V region causes natriuresis and an increase in circulating ANP, whereas lesions in the AV3V region and caudally in the median eminence or neural lobe decrease resting ANP release and the response to blood volume expansion. The ANP neurons play a crucial role in blood volume expansion-induced release of ANP and natriuresis since this response can be blocked by intraventricular (3V injection of antisera directed against the peptide. Blood volume expansion activates baroreceptor input via the carotid, aortic and renal baroreceptors, which provides stimulation of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus and possibly also serotonergic neurons in the raphe nuclei. These project to the hypothalamus to activate cholinergic neurons which then stimulate the ANPergic neurons. The ANP neurons stimulate the oxytocinergic neurons in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei to release oxytocin from the neural lobe which circulates to the atria to stimulate the release of ANP. ANP causes a rapid reduction in effective circulating blood volume by releasing cyclic GMP which dilates peripheral vessels and also acts within the heart to slow its rate and atrial force of contraction. The released ANP circulates to the kidney where it acts through cyclic GMP to produce natriuresis and a return to normal blood volume

  3. Forclusão do feminino na organização do trabalho: um assédio de gênero Female foreclusion in work organization: gender harassment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Grenier Pezé

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo é proposta uma discussão para ajudar a compreender a temível eficácia do assédio moral no trabalho. Para tanto é discutida a questão da construção "identitária", que depende do reconhecimento que se dirige sobre o fazer, a identidade é inseparável dos gestos técnicos efetuados pelo sujeito. Esta também é uma questão de gênero de pertencimento a um sexo. Em psicodinâmica do trabalho, uma atenção particular é dada à construção dos coletivos de trabalho que soldam um grupo em torno de regras da profissão. A cooperação necessita um ajustamento dos procedimentos singulares de execução da tarefa, mas também uma confrontação de posições éticas de cada um, sobre a base de uma confiança partilhada e, portanto, de uma cooperação possível. Entretanto o assédio moral se tornou uma verdadeira estratégia de gerenciamento, baseada na radicalização das novas formas de organização do trabalho que favorecem a virilidade defensiva, que parecem ter transformado profundamente as relações nos grupos de trabalho e radicalizado os sistemas de defesa construídos para resistir.This paper proposes a discussion to help understand the fierce efficacy of moral harassment in the workplace. For this, the issue discussed is that of identitary construction, which depends on the acknowledgement directed on doing, since identity is inseparable of the technical gestures conducted by the subject. This is also a gender issue, of belonging to a sex. In work psychodynamics, a special attention is given to the construction of work collectives which weld a team to professional rules. Cooperation needs an adjustment of particular procedures for carrying out a task, but it is also a confrontation of each individual's ethical positions, based on shared trust and, therefore, of possible cooperation. Nevertheless, moral harassment became a real management strategy, based on the radicalization of the new forms of work organization

  4. A ESCOLHA PELA PERMANÊNCIA NO TRABALHO APÓS A VIOLÊNCIA NELE SOFRIDA: um estudo com vítimas de assédio moral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Vieira Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available O assédio moral no trabalho é uma violência intencional e frequente, praticada entre os empregados, de diferentes níveis hierárquicos ou não, com o intuito de desqualificar a sua vítima, podendo levar à sua saída da empresa. Contudo, muitos empregados permanecem em seus trabalhos, mesmo sofrendo este tipo de violência. Diante disso, o presente artigo tem como objetivo compreender os motivos que levaram as vítimas de assédio moral a permanecerem no trabalho, mesmo após a violência nele vivenciada. Para tanto, realizou-se uma pesquisa qualitativa, descritiva e de campo, utilizando-se de entrevistas como instrumento para obtenção de material empírico. Os resultados permitem considerar que muitos são os motivos usados para explicar a permanência no trabalho, e não se restringem a aspectos de manutenção, como salário, mas, também, a aspectos motivacionais, como o reconhecimento dos colegas de trabalho.   The moral harassment at work is a deliberate and frequent violence, practiced among the employees, of different hierarchical levels or not, in order to disqualify their victim, which may lead to his departure from the company. However, many employees remain in their jobs, even suffering from this type of violence. Given this, this article aims to understand the reasons why the victims of moral harassment remain at work, even after the violence it experienced. To this end, was held a qualitative research, descriptive and of field, using interviews as a tool for obtaining empirical material. The results allow to consider that many are the reasons used to explain the permanence at work, and not restricted to maintenance aspects, such as salary, but, also, the motivational aspects, such as the recognition of co-workers.

  5. Microwave-induced Bismuth Salts-mediated Synthesis of Molecules of Medicinal Interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Debasish; Chavez, Ashlee; Banik, Bimal K

    2017-01-01

    Leishmaniosis and Chagas' diseases. Bismuth salts are able to (i) generate mineral acids in the reaction media and (ii) coordinate with electronegative atoms to facilitate the reaction. When the reagents and the catalyst (bismuth salt) are subjected to microwave irradiation, microwave passes through the (glass) walls of the reaction vessel and heat only the reactants avoiding local overheating at the wall of the vessel. Accordingly, the possibility of side reaction and subsequent by-product formation are reduced abruptly which in turn increases the yield of the desired product. The extreme rapidity with excellent yield of the product can be rationalized as a synergistic effect of the bismuth salts and microwave irradiation. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. [Arsenic (V) removal from drinking water by ferric salt and aluminum salt coagulation/microfiltration process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-bo; Wu, Shui-bo; Gu, Ping

    2007-10-01

    Two lab-scale coagulation/microfiltration membrane reactors were used to compare the arsenic removal from drinking water by ferric salt and aluminum salt coagulation/microfiltration process. FeCl3 and Al2(SO4)3 were appointed as the coagulants. The results show that the arsenic removal efficiency of the two processes are almost equal. Arsenic concentration can be lowered from about 100 microg/L to below 10 microg/L and the lowest is 1.68 microg x L(-1). All of the turbidity of the treated water is less than 0.1 NTU. The concentrations of ferric, aluminum and SO4(2-) of the treated water are entirely satisfied the standard of drinking water. After treated by ferric salt process, pH value of the treated water is increased about 0.5. However, aluminum salt process does not change pH of the drinking water. The concentration ratio of the ferric salt process is 1,791 which is about 2.54 times of the aluminum salt process. Arsenic concentration of the sludge of ferric salt process is also higher greatly than that of the aluminum salt process. Therefore, the volume of the sludge produced by the ferric salt process is smaller than that of the aluminum salt process when equal amount of drinking water was treated. Accordingly, ferric salt process should be used when only high concentration arsenic existed in drinking water. On the other hand, fluoride also can be removed simultaneously while arsenic was removed by aluminum salt process. The amount of coagulant needed is the amount of coagulant required to remove fluoride separately. Fluoride can not be removed from drinking water by the ferric salt process. It was concluded that aluminum salt process should be used to remove arsenic and fluoride simultaneously from high arsenic and high fluoride coexisted drinking water.

  7. Molten salt oxidation of organic hazardous waste with high salt content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chengqian; Chi, Yong; Jin, Yuqi; Jiang, Xuguang; Buekens, Alfons; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Jian

    2018-02-01

    Organic hazardous waste often contains some salt, owing to the widespread use of alkali salts during industrial manufacturing processes. These salts cause complications during the treatment of this type of waste. Molten salt oxidation is a flameless, robust thermal process, with inherent capability of destroying the organic constituents of wastes, while retaining the inorganic ingredients in the molten salt. In the present study, molten salt oxidation is employed for treating a typical organic hazardous waste with a high content of alkali salts. The hazardous waste derives from the production of thiotriazinone. Molten salt oxidation experiments have been conducted using a lab-scale molten salt oxidation reactor, and the emissions of CO, NO, SO2, HCl and dioxins are studied. Impacts are investigated from the composition of the molten salts, the types of feeding tube, the temperature of molten carbonates and the air factor. Results show that the waste can be oxidised effectively in a molten salt bath. Temperature of molten carbonates plays the most important role. With the temperature rising from 600 °C to 750 °C, the oxidation efficiency increases from 91.1% to 98.3%. Compared with the temperature, air factor has but a minor effect, as well as the composition of the molten salts and the type of feeding tube. The molten carbonates retain chlorine with an efficiency higher than 99.9% and the emissions of dioxins are below 8 pg TEQ g-1 sample. The present study shows that molten salt oxidation is a promising alternative for the disposal of organic hazardous wastes containing a high salt content.

  8. Differential regulation of renal cyclooxygenase mRNA by dietary salt intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B L; Kurtz, A

    1997-01-01

    Experiments were done to investigate the influence of dietary salt intake on renal cyclooxygenase (COX) I and II mRNA levels. To this end rats were fed either a low NaCl diet (LS; 0.02% NaCl wt/wt) or a high NaCl diet (HS diet; 4% NaCl wt/wt) for 5, 10 and 20 days. After 10 days Na excretion...... differed 760-fold, plasma renin activity and renin mRNA were increased eight- and threefold in LS compared to HS animals. Total renal COX I mRNA decreased 50% following the LS diet and did not change after the HS diet. Conversely, COX II mRNA declined after HS intake and transiently increased after salt...... depletion. COX I and II mRNAs were unevenly distributed along the cortical-medullary axis with ratios of the cortex:outer medulla:papilla of 1:3:23 and 1:1:2, respectively. Cortical COX mRNAs were inversely regulated by salt intake with eightfold changes in COX II. Conversely, in medullary zones, COX I m...

  9. Evaluation of dried salted pork ham and neck quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Kunová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was analysed chemical and physical parameters of dried salted pork ham and neck. Dry-cured meat is a traditional dry-cured product obtained after 12 - 24 months of ripening under controlled environmental conditions.  Ham and neck was salted by nitrite salt mixture during 1 week. Salted meat products were dried at 4 °C and relative humidity 85% 1 week after salting. The quality of dry-cured meat is influenced by the processing technology, for example length of drying and ripening period. The average moisture of dried salted pork ham was 63.77% and dried salted pork neck was 59.26%. The protein content was 24.87% in dried salted pork ham and significantly lower (20.51% in dried salted pork neck. The value of intramuscular fat in dried salted pork ham was 4.97% and 14.40% in dried salted pork neck. The salt content was 5.39% in dried salted pork ham and 4.83% in dried salted pork neck. The cholesterol content was 1.36 g.kg-1 in dried salted pork ham and significant lower in dried salted pork neck (0.60 g.kg-1. The value of lightness was 44.36 CIE L* in dried salted pork ham and significantly lower in dried salted pork neck (40.74 CIE L*. The pH value was 5.84 in dried salted pork ham and 5.80 in dried salted pork neck. The shear work was 9.99 kg.s-1 in dried salted pork ham and 6.34 in dried salted pork neck. The value of water activity (aw was 0.929 in dried salted pork ham and similar 0.921 in dried salted pork neck. 

  10. Stacking and Analysis of Melamine in Milk Products with Acetonitrile-Salt Stacking Technique in Capillary Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Kong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Melamine was measured in real milk products with capillary electrophoresis (CE based on acetonitrile-salt stacking (ASS method. Real milk samples were deproteinized with acetonitrile at a final concentration of 60% (v/v and then injected hydrodynamically at 50 mBar for 40.0 s. The optimized buffer contains 80.0 mmol/L pH 2.8 phosphates. Melamine could be detected within 20.0 min at +10 kV with a low limit of detection (LOD of 0.03 μmol/L. Satisfactory reproducibility (inter- and intraday RSD% both for migration time and peak area was lower than 5.0% and a wide linearity range of 0.05 μmol/L ~ 10.0 μmol/L were achieved. The proposed method was suitable for routine assay of MEL in real milk samples that was subjected to a simple treatment step.

  11. Initial salt screening procedures for manufacturing ibuprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tu; Wang, Yeh Wen

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to design initial salt screening procedures for manufacturing ibuprofen. Salt forms of a pharmaceutical acid racemic (R,S)-(+/-)-ibuprofen and their "developable" synthetic routes were ferreted out simultaneously through the screening of seven bases of sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, L-arginine, L-histidine, L-lysine, diethanolamine, and tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (THAM), and the match with the use of nine organic solvents of methanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, ethanol, N, N-dimethylformamide, acetonitrile, isopropyl alcohol, 1,4-dioxane, acetone, and tetrahydrofuran mainly in the presence of water in 20 mL scintillation vials. Racemic (R,S)-(+/-)-sodium ibuprofen dihydrate, a well-known ibuprofen salt and the newly discovered racemic (R,S)-(+/-)-THAM ibuprofen, appeared as white-squared powders with a molecular weight of 327.42 g/mol, a melting point of 160.17 degrees C, and the apparent solubility product, K'(sp), of 6.0 x 10(-4) M(2) at 25 degrees C were successfully synthesized by the initial salt screening methods. The new amine salt of ibuprofen was monoclinic and had a space group of P2(1)/c and lattice parameters of a = 17.578(8) degrees, b = 10.428(4) degrees, c = 9.991(4) A, alpha = 90.00 degrees , beta = 97.17(1) degrees, gamma = 90.00 degrees, and V = 1,817.05(244) A(3). The aspect ratio of the amine salt crystals of ibuprofen of approximately 1.0 implied that the crystals had a better flowability than the sodium salt counterparts. This amine salt of ibuprofen was more stable in moist or dried atmospheres and was more hydrophobic than the sodium salt of ibuprofen. Moreover, the slow dissolution of this amine salt of ibuprofen might have made it less bitter and more suitable as a sustained release drug than the sodium salt of ibuprofen. The future work is to search for the different polymorphs of this amine salt of ibuprofen and to extend the initial salt screening working logics to the formation of co-crystals.

  12. Ni(II), Mn(II), Zn(II)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Neutral tetradentate N2O2 type complexes of Cu(II), Ni(II), Mn(II),. Zn(II) and VO(II) have been synthesised using a Schiff base formed by the condensation of o-phenylenediamine with acetoacetanilide in alcohol medium. All the complexes were characterised on the basis of their microanalytical data, molar.

  13. Permanent Disposal of Nuclear Waste in Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, F. D.

    2016-12-01

    Salt formations hold promise for eternal removal of nuclear waste from our biosphere. Germany and the United States have ample salt formations for this purpose, ranging from flat-bedded formations to geologically mature dome structures. Both nations are revisiting nuclear waste disposal options, accompanied by extensive collaboration on applied salt repository research, design, and operation. Salt formations provide isolation while geotechnical barriers reestablish impermeability after waste is placed in the geology. Between excavation and closure, physical, mechanical, thermal, chemical, and hydrological processes ensue. Salt response over a range of stress and temperature has been characterized for decades. Research practices employ refined test techniques and controls, which improve parameter assessment for features of the constitutive models. Extraordinary computational capabilities require exacting understanding of laboratory measurements and objective interpretation of modeling results. A repository for heat-generative nuclear waste provides an engineering challenge beyond common experience. Long-term evolution of the underground setting is precluded from direct observation or measurement. Therefore, analogues and modeling predictions are necessary to establish enduring safety functions. A strong case for granular salt reconsolidation and a focused research agenda support salt repository concepts that include safety-by-design. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Author: F. D. Hansen, Sandia National Laboratories

  14. Spectroscopic Characterization of Omeprazole and Its Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Vrbanec

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During drug development, it is important to have a suitable crystalline form of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API. Mostly, the basic options originate in the form of free base, acid, or salt. Substances that are stable only within a certain pH range are a challenge for the formulation. For the prazoles, which are known to be sensitive to degradation in an acid environment, the formulation is stabilized with alkaline additives or with the application of API formulated as basic salts. Therefore, preparation and characterization of basic salts are needed to monitor any possible salinization of free molecules. We synthesized salts of omeprazole from the group of alkali metals (Li, Na, and K and alkaline earth metals (Mg, Ca. The purpose of the presented work is to demonstrate the applicability of vibrational spectroscopy to discriminate between the OMP and OMP-salt molecules. For this reason, the physicochemical properties of 5 salts were probed using infrared and Raman spectroscopy, NMR, TG, DSC, and theoretical calculation of vibrational frequencies. We found out that vibrational spectroscopy serves as an applicable spectroscopic tool which enables an accurate, quick, and nondestructive way to determine the characteristic of OMP and its salts.

  15. Salt Tolerance of Desorption Electrospray Ionization (DESI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Ayanna U. [Purdue University; Talaty, Nari [Purdue University; Cooks, R G [Purdue University; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Suppression of ion intensity in the presence of high salt matrices is common in most mass spectrometry ionization techniques. Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) is an ionization method that exhibits salt tolerance, and this is investigated. DESI analysis was performed on three different drug mixtures in the presence of 0, 0.2, 2, 5, 10, and 20% NaCl:KCl weight by volume from seven different surfaces. At physiological concentrations individual drugs in each mixture were observed with each surface. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) was used to provide additional confirmation for select compounds. Multiple stage experiments, to MS5, were performed for select compounds. Even in the absence of added salt, the benzodiazepine containing mixture yielded sodium and potassium adducts of carbamazepine which masked the ions of interest. These adducts were eliminated by adding 0.1% 7M ammonium acetate to the standard methanol:water (1:1) spray solvent. Comparison of the salt tolerance of DESI with that of electrospray ionization (ESI) demonstrated much better signal/noise characteristics for DESI in this study. The salt tolerance of DESI was also studied by performing limit of detection and dynamic range experiments. Even at a salt concentration significantly above physiological concentrations, select surfaces were effective in providing spectra that allowed the ready identification of the compounds of interest. The already high salt tolerance of DESI can be optimized further by appropriate choices of surface and spray solution.

  16. Genetic Diversity of Salt Tolerance in Miscanthus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang-Lin; van der Schoot, Hanneke; Dehghan, Shiva; Alvim Kamei, Claire L.; Schwarz, Kai-Uwe; Meyer, Heike; Visser, Richard G. F.; van der Linden, C. Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Miscanthus is a woody rhizomatous C4 grass that can be used as a CO2 neutral biofuel resource. It has potential to grow in marginal areas such as saline soils, avoiding competition for arable lands with food crops. This study explored genetic diversity for salt tolerance in Miscanthus and discovered mechanisms and traits that can be used to improve the yield under salt stress. Seventy genotypes of Miscanthus (including 57 M. sinensis, 5 M. sacchariflorus, and 8 hybrids) were evaluated for salt tolerance under saline (150 mM NaCl) and normal growing conditions using a hydroponic system. Analyses of shoot growth traits and ion concentrations revealed the existence of large variation for salt tolerance in the genotypes. We identified genotypes with potential for high biomass production both under control and saline conditions that may be utilized for growth under marginal, saline conditions. Several relatively salt tolerant genotypes had clearly lower Na+ concentrations and showed relatively high K+/Na+ ratios in the shoots under salt stress, indicating that a Na+ exclusion mechanism was utilized to prevent Na+ accumulation in the leaves. Other genotypes showed limited reduction in leaf expansion and growth rate under saline conditions, which may be indicative of osmotic stress tolerance. The genotypes demonstrating potentially different salt tolerance mechanisms can serve as starting material for breeding programs aimed at improving salinity tolerance of Miscanthus. PMID:28261243

  17. Biotic interactions mediate the expansion of black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) into salt marshes under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongyu; Zhang, Yihui; Lan, Zhenjiang; Pennings, Steven C

    2013-09-01

    Many species are expanding their distributions to higher latitudes due to global warming. Understanding the mechanisms underlying these distribution shifts is critical for better understanding the impacts of climate changes. The climate envelope approach is widely used to model and predict species distribution shifts with changing climates. Biotic interactions between species, however, may also influence species distributions, and a better understanding of biotic interactions could improve predictions based solely on climate envelope models. Along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast, USA, subtropical black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) at the northern limit of its distribution grows sympatrically with temperate salt marsh plants in Florida, Louisiana, and Texas. In recent decades, freeze-free winters have led to an expansion of black mangrove into salt marshes. We examined how biotic interactions between black mangrove and salt marsh vegetation along the Texas coast varied across (i) a latitudinal gradient (associated with a winter-temperature gradient); (ii) the elevational gradient within each marsh (which creates different marsh habitats); and (iii) different life history stages of black mangroves (seedlings vs. juvenile trees). Each of these variables affected the strength or nature of biotic interactions between black mangrove and salt marsh vegetation: (i) Salt marsh vegetation facilitated black mangrove seedlings at their high-latitude distribution limit, but inhibited black mangrove seedlings at lower latitudes; (ii) mangroves performed well at intermediate elevations, but grew and survived poorly in high- and low-marsh habitats; and (iii) the effect of salt marsh vegetation on black mangroves switched from negative to neutral as black mangroves grew from seedlings into juvenile trees. These results indicate that the expansion of black mangroves is mediated by complex biotic interactions. A better understanding of the impacts of climate change on ecological

  18. The variability of reported salt levels in fast foods across six countries: opportunities for salt reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Elizabeth; Webster, Jacqueline; Woodward, Mark; Czernichow, Sebastien; Yuan, Wen Lun; Jenner, Katharine; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Jacobson, Michael; Campbell, Norm; Neal, Bruce

    2012-06-12

    Several fast food companies have made commitments to reduce the levels of salt in the foods they serve, but technical issues are often cited as a barrier to achieving substantial reductions. Our objective was to examine the reported salt levels for products offered by leading multinational fast food chains. Data on salt content for products served by six fast food chains operating in Australia, Canada, France, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States were collected by survey in April 2010. Mean salt contents (and their ranges) were calculated and compared within and between countries and companies. We saw substantial variation in the mean salt content for different categories of products. For example, the salads we included in our survey contained 0.5 g of salt per 100 g, whereas the chicken products we included contained 1.6 g. We also saw variability between countries: chicken products from the UK contained 1.1 g of salt per 100 g, whereas chicken products from the US contained 1.8 g. Furthermore, the mean salt content of food categories varied between companies and between the same products in different countries (e.g., McDonald's Chicken McNuggets contain 0.6 g of salt per 100 g in the UK, but 1.6 g of salt per 100 g in the US). The salt content of fast foods varies substantially, not only by type of food, but by company and country in which the food is produced. Although the reasons for this variation are not clear, the marked differences in salt content of very similar products suggest that technical reasons are not a primary explanation. In the right regulatory environment, it is likely that fast food companies could substantially reduce the salt in their products, translating to large gains for population health.

  19. Pb II

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows User

    used was oven-dried till constant weight and were ground to fine powder in a pestle and mortar. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. Screening for lead sorption. 15 fungal isolates were screened for Pb(II) biosorption potential at initial pH value of 4.5 and temperature 30°C by incubating freshly harvested wet biomass corres-.

  20. Salt-bridge energetics in halophilic proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab Nayek

    Full Text Available Halophilic proteins have greater abundance of acidic over basic and very low bulky hydrophobic residues. Classical electrostatic stabilization was suggested as the key determinant for halophilic adaptation of protein. However, contribution of specific electrostatic interactions (i.e. salt-bridges to overall stability of halophilic proteins is yet to be understood. To understand this, we use Adaptive-Poison-Boltzmann-Solver Methods along with our home-built automation to workout net as well as associated component energy terms such as desolvation energy, bridge energy and background energy for 275 salt-bridges from 20 extremely halophilic proteins. We then perform extensive statistical analysis on general and energetic attributes on these salt-bridges. On average, 8 salt-bridges per 150 residues protein were observed which is almost twice than earlier report. Overall contributions of salt-bridges are -3.0 kcal mol-1. Majority (78% of salt-bridges in our dataset are stable and conserved in nature. Although, average contributions of component energy terms are equal, their individual details vary greatly from one another indicating their sensitivity to local micro-environment. Notably, 35% of salt-bridges in our database are buried and stable. Greater desolvation penalty of these buried salt-bridges are counteracted by stable network salt-bridges apart from favorable equal contributions of bridge and background terms. Recruitment of extensive network salt-bridges (46% with a net contribution of -5.0 kcal mol-1 per salt-bridge, seems to be a halophilic design wherein favorable average contribution of background term (-10 kcal mol-1 exceeds than that of bridge term (-7 kcal mol-1. Interiors of proteins from halophiles are seen to possess relatively higher abundance of charge and polar side chains than that of mesophiles which seems to be satisfied by cooperative network salt-bridges. Overall, our theoretical analyses provide insight into halophilic

  1. Evaluation of constitutive models for crushed salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hurtado, L.D.; Hansen, F.D.

    1996-05-01

    Three constitutive models are recommended as candidates for describing the deformation of crushed salt. These models are generalized to three-dimensional states of stress to include the effects of mean and deviatoric stress and modified to include effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt is used to determine material parameters for the models. To evaluate the capability of the models, parameter values obtained from fitting the complete database are used to predict the individual tests. Finite element calculations of a WIPP shaft with emplaced crushed salt demonstrate the model predictions.

  2. Electricity generation using molten salt technology

    OpenAIRE

    Osarinmwian, Charles

    2013-01-01

    The anodic release of carbon dioxide gas in the molten salt Hall-Heroult process can be used to power a turbine for electricity generation. The application of this new concept in molten salt reprocessing in the nuclear industry is considered because it could facilitate the suitability of carbon dioxide cycles to certain types of nuclear reactor. The theoretical power of 27.8 MW generated by a molten salt Hall-Heroult reactor is comparable with a next-generation biomass plant that sources low-...

  3. Modeling of Salt Solubilities in Mixed Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiavone-Filho, O.; Rasmussen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    constants and the liquid densities of the solvent media. To normalize the activity coefficients, the symmetric convention is adopted. Thermochemical properties of the salt are used to estimate the solubility product. It is shown that the proposed procedure can describe with good accuracy a series of salt......A method to correlate and predict salt solubilities in mixed solvents using a UNIQUAC+Debye-Huckel model is developed. The UNIQUAC equation is applied in a form with temperature-dependent parameters. The Debye-Huckel model is extended to mixed solvents by properly evaluating the dielectric...

  4. Salt Reductions in Some Foods in The Netherlands: Monitoring of Food Composition and Salt Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth H. M. Temme

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives. High salt intake increases blood pressure and thereby the risk of chronic diseases. Food reformulation (or food product improvement may lower the dietary intake of salt. This study describes the changes in salt contents of foods in the Dutch market over a five-year period (2011–2016 and differences in estimated salt intake over a 10-year period (2006–2015. Methods. To assess the salt contents of foods; we obtained recent data from chemical analyses and from food labels. Salt content of these foods in 2016 was compared to salt contents in the 2011 version Dutch Food Composition Database (NEVO, version 2011, and statistically tested with General Linear Models. To estimate the daily dietary salt intake in 2006, 2010, and 2015, men and women aged 19 to 70 years were recruited through random population sampling in Doetinchem, a small town located in a rural area in the eastern part of the Netherlands. The characteristics of the study population were in 2006: n = 317, mean age 49 years, 43% men, in 2010: n = 342, mean age 46 years, 45% men, and in 2015: n = 289, mean age 46 years, 47% men. Sodium and potassium excretion was measured in a single 24-h urine sample. All estimates were converted to a common metric: salt intake in grams per day by multiplication of sodium with a factor of 2.54. Results. In 2016 compared to 2011, the salt content in certain types of bread was on average 19 percent lower and certain types of sauce, soup, canned vegetables and legumes, and crisps had a 12 to 26 percent lower salt content. Salt content in other types of foods had not changed significantly. Between 2006, 2010 and 2015 the estimated salt intake among adults in Doetinchem remained unchanged. In 2015, the median estimated salt intake was 9.7 g per day for men and 7.4 g per day for women. As in 2006 and 2010, the estimated salt intake in 2015 exceeded the recommended maximum intake of 6 g per day set by the Dutch Health Council

  5. Kinetin applications alleviate salt stress and improve the antioxidant composition of leaf extracts in Salvia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tounekti, Taïeb; Hernández, Iker; Müller, Maren; Khemira, Habib; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2011-10-01

    A pot experiment was carried out under glasshouse conditions with common sage (Salvia officinalis L.) to investigate the interactive effects of salt stress and kinetin on growth attributes and the abundance of pigments, ions, phenolic diterpenes and α-tocopherol in leaf extracts of this species. The plants were subjected to the following four treatments: (i) control (nutrient solution), (ii) control + 10 μM kinetin, (iii) salt stress (nutrient solution + 100 mM NaCl), and (iv) salt stress + 10 μM kinetin. Kinetin was applied as a foliar fertilizer. Salt stress reduced water contents, photosynthetic activity and pigment contents of sage leaves. In addition, it increased Na(+) contents, and reduced those of Ca(2+) and K(+) in leaves. Salt stress reduced carnosic acid and 12-O-methyl carnosic acid contents in leaves, while it did not affect carnosol and α-tocopherol contents. Foliar applications of kinetin seemed to counterbalance or alleviate the stress symptoms induced by salinity, improving ion and pigment contents, while leaf phenolic diterpene (mainly carnosol) and α-tocopherol contents also increased in both control and NaCl-treated plants; still this effect was much more obvious in salt-treated plants. A similar effect was also obtained when plants were sprayed with KNO(3) or Ca(NO(3))(2), thus suggesting that kinetin effects were at least partly due to an improvement of ion homeostasis. Kinetin applications resulted in increased transcript levels of the isoprenoid and tocopherol biosynthetic genes, DXPRI and VTE2 and VTE4 in control plants, but not in NaCl-treated plants. We conclude that kinetin can alleviate the negative impact of salt on sage plants cultivated under arid environments with salinity problems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Isolation and characterization of maize PMP3 genes involved in salt stress tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Fu

    Full Text Available Plasma membrane protein 3 (PMP3, a class of small hydrophobic polypeptides with high sequence similarity, is responsible for salt, drought, cold, and abscisic acid. These small hydrophobic ploypeptides play important roles in maintenance of ion homeostasis. In this study, eight ZmPMP3 genes were cloned from maize and responsive to salt, drought, cold and abscisic acid. The eight ZmPMP3s were membrane proteins and their sequences in trans-membrane regions were highly conserved. Phylogenetic analysis showed that they were categorized into three groups. All members of group II were responsive to ABA. Functional complementation showed that with the exception of ZmPMP3-6, all were capable of maintaining membrane potential, which in turn allows for regulation of intracellular ion homeostasis. This process was independent of the presence of Ca(2+. Lastly, over-expression of ZmPMP3-1 enhanced growth of transgenic Arabidopsis under salt condition. Through expression analysis of deduced downstream genes in transgenic plants, expression levels of three ion transporter genes and four important antioxidant genes in ROS scavenging system were increased significantly in transgenic plants during salt stress. This tolerance was likely achieved through diminishing oxidative stress due to the possibility of ZmPMP3-1's involvement in regulation of ion homeostasis, and suggests that the modulation of these conserved small hydrophobic polypeptides could be an effective way to improve salt tolerance in plants.

  7. Effect of transition metal salts on the initiated chemical vapor deposition of polymer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwong, Philip; Seidel, Scott; Gupta, Malancha, E-mail: malanchg@usc.edu [Mork Family Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, 925 Bloom Walk, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    In this work, the effect of transition metal salts on the initiated chemical vapor deposition of polymer thin films was studied using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The polymerizations of 4-vinyl pyridine and 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl acrylate were studied using copper(II) chloride (CuCl{sub 2}) and iron(III) chloride (FeCl{sub 3}) as the transition metal salts. It was found that the surface coverages of both poly(4-vinyl pyridine) (P4VP) and poly(1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl acrylate) were decreased on CuCl{sub 2}, while the surface coverage of only P4VP was decreased on FeCl{sub 3}. The decreased polymer surface coverage was found to be due to quenching of the propagating radicals by the salt, which led to a reduction of the oxidation state of the metal. The identification of this reaction mechanism allowed for tuning of the effectiveness of the salts to decrease the polymer surface coverage through the adjustment of processing parameters such as the filament temperature. Additionally, it was demonstrated that the ability of transition metal salts to decrease the polymer surface coverage could be extended to the fabrication of patterned cross-linked coatings, which is important for many practical applications such as sensors and microelectronics.

  8. The Effect of Salts in Promoting Specific and Competitive Interactions between Zinc Finger Proteins and Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gongyu; Yuan, Siming; Zheng, Shihui; Chen, Yuting; Zheng, Zhen; Liu, Yangzhong; Huang, Guangming

    2017-12-01

    Specific protein-metal interactions (PMIs) fulfill essential functions in cells and organic bodies, and activation of these functions in vivo are mostly modulated by the complex environmental factors, including pH value, small biomolecules, and salts. Specifically, the role of salts in promoting specific PMIs and their competition among various metals has remained untapped mainly due to the difficulty to distinguish nonspecific PMIs from specific PMIs by classic spectroscopic techniques. Herein, we report Hofmeister salts differentially promote the specific PMIs by combining nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry and spectroscopic techniques (fluorescence measurement and circular dichroism). Furthermore, to explore the influence of salts in competitive binding between metalloproteins and various metals, we designed a series of competitive experiments and applied to a well-defined model system, the competitive binding of zinc (II) and arsenic (III) to holo-promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML). These experiments not only provided new insights at the molecular scale as complementary to previous NMR and spectroscopic results, but also deduced the relative binding ability between zinc finger proteins and metals at the molecular scale, which avoids the mass spectrometric titration-based determination of binding constants that is frequently affected and often degraded by variable solution conditions including salt contents. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. Modeling Solute Thermokinetics in LiCI-KCI Molten Salt for Nuclear Waste Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Dane; Eapen, Jacob

    2013-10-01

    at the eutectic composition (58 mol% LiCl, 42 mol% KCl), which is used for treating spent EBR-II fuel. The same process being used for EBRII fuel is currently being studied for widespread international implementation. The methods will focus on first-principles and first- principles derived interatomic potential based simulations, primarily using molecular dynamics. Results will be validated against existing literature and parallel ongoing experimental efforts. The simulation results will be of value for interpreting experimental results, validating analytical models, and for optimizing waste separation by potentially developing new salt configurations and operating conditions.

  10. Thermal Analysis of Surrogate Simulated Molten Salts with Metal Chloride Impurities for Electrorefining Used Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson; Vivek Utgikar

    2012-04-01

    This project is a fundamental study to measure thermal properties (liquidus, solidus, phase transformation, and enthalpy) of molten salt systems of interest to electrorefining operations, which are used in both the fuel cycle research & development mission and the spent fuel treatment mission of the Department of Energy. During electrorefining operations the electrolyte accumulates elements more active than uranium (transuranics, fission products and bond sodium). The accumulation needs to be closely monitored because the thermal properties of the electrolyte will change as the concentration of the impurities increases. During electrorefining (processing techniques used at the Idaho National Laboratory to separate uranium from spent nuclear fuel) it is important for the electrolyte to remain in a homogeneous liquid phase for operational safeguard and criticality reasons. The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely affected by the buildup of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are: (i) build up of fissile elements in the salt approaching the criticality limits specified for the vessel (ii) freezing of the salts due to change in the liquidus temperature and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution) of elements. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This work describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, consisting of chlorides of strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium (as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium), used in the processing of used nuclear fuels. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to analyze numerous salt samples providing results on the thermal properties. The property of most interest to pyroprocessing is the liquidus temperature. It was

  11. Assessment of Jordanian salt using nuclear techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Saleh, K.A.; Arafah, D.E.; Jabr, I.J.; Saleh, N.S.

    1987-09-01

    Elemental study and concentration determinations have been conducted on Jordanian crude salt using Rutherford Back-Scattering (RBS) and X-ray Fluorescence (SRF) spectrometry techniques. Analysis have also been carried out on different purified salt samples available in the local market. The concentration of some elements, in particular bromide, content and its significance on human health and nutrition is discussed. Results reveal relatively high traces of elemental concentrations in crude salt. For example, bromide concentration ranges from 178 to 384 ppm in comparison to a tolerance limit of 30 ppm set by the Unites States Food and Drug Administration (USDA) and other International Agencies like FAO/WHO. It is suggested that refining crude salt may result in a reduction of bromide concentration and other traces considerably, thus making it feasible for human consumption.

  12. SURFACE TENSION TECHNIQUES FOR MOLTEN SALTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some 200 surface tension determinations were made on 107 single-salt melts using eight experimental techniques. From a consideration of the... surface tension range of applicability and temperature limitation for these techniques are briefly considered.

  13. Coordination chemistry in fused-salt solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, D. M.

    1969-01-01

    Spectrophotometric work on structural determinations with fused-salt solutions is reviewed. Constraints placed on the method, as well as interpretation of the spectra, are discussed with parallels drawn to aqueous spectrophotometric curves of the same materials.

  14. SALT Classification of DES Supernova Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, E.; Bassett, B.; Crawford, S.; Smith, M.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Scolnic, D.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Brout, D. J.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; D'Andrea, C.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.

    2015-02-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of a supernova candidates discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectra (400-850 nm) were obtained using the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) on the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT).

  15. Classification of 17 DES supernovae by SALT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, E.; Bassett, B.; Crawford, S.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.

    2016-02-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of 17 supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATel #4668). The spectra (380-820nm) were obtained using the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) on the South African Large Telescope (SALT).

  16. BAIA VERDE - SLANIC PRAHOVA SALTED LAKES COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica SAVA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Baia Verde – Slanic Prahova Lakes Complex have been formed by water accumulation resulted out of infiltrated salted water from bell shaped surface salt mines dated XVII century (1685. Such lakes, as per their method of formation, can be also found in other places from the SubCarpathians area (Telega – Prahova, Ocnele Mari – Valcea, Transilvanian Depression (Ocna Sibiului, Turda, Sovata, Ocna Dejului, etc.. Water contact with diapires, in the places where have always existed such mining explorations and exploitation, has determined the formation of salted lakes having balneary and therapeutically qualities and sometimes the development of a heliothermic / mezothermic bed. At Slanic – Prahova besides the three lakes known as Baia Verde 1, 2 and 3, there is also the lake Baia Baciului situated at the border of “Salt Mountain” which represented the first objective for capitalization of the balnear and therapeutically potential of the area.

  17. South Bay Salt Ponds : Initial stewardship plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The California Department of Fish and Game and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service will operate and maintain the South Bay Salt Ponds under this Initial Stewardship...

  18. Liquid salt environment stress-rupture testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Weiju; Holcomb, David E.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane F.

    2016-03-22

    Disclosed herein are systems, devices and methods for stress-rupture testing selected materials within a high-temperature liquid salt environment. Exemplary testing systems include a load train for holding a test specimen within a heated inert gas vessel. A thermal break included in the load train can thermally insulate a load cell positioned along the load train within the inert gas vessel. The test specimen can include a cylindrical gage portion having an internal void filled with a molten salt during stress-rupture testing. The gage portion can have an inner surface area to volume ratio of greater than 20 to maximize the corrosive effect of the molten salt on the specimen material during testing. Also disclosed are methods of making a salt ingot for placement within the test specimen.

  19. Salt Tolerant and Sensitive Rice Varieties Display Differential Methylome Flexibility under Salt Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Liliana J.; Azevedo, Vanessa; Maroco, João; Oliveira, M. Margarida; Santos, Ana Paula

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation has been referred as an important player in plant genomic responses to environmental stresses but correlations between the methylome plasticity and specific traits of interest are still far from being understood. In this study, we inspected global DNA methylation levels in salt tolerant and sensitive rice varieties upon salt stress imposition. Global DNA methylation was quantified using the 5-methylcytosine (5mC) antibody and an ELISA-based technique, which is an affordable and quite pioneer assay in plants, and in situ imaging of methylation sites in interphase nuclei of tissue sections. Variations of global DNA methylation levels in response to salt stress were tissue- and genotype-dependent. We show a connection between a higher ability of DNA methylation adjustment levels and salt stress tolerance. The salt-tolerant rice variety Pokkali was remarkable in its ability to quickly relax DNA methylation in response to salt stress. In spite of the same tendency for reduction of global methylation under salinity, in the salt-sensitive rice variety IR29 such reduction was not statistically supported. In ‘Pokkali’, the salt stress-induced demethylation may be linked to active demethylation due to increased expression of DNA demethylases under salt stress. In ‘IR29’, the induction of both DNA demethylases and methyltransferases may explain the lower plasticity of DNA methylation. We further show that mutations for epigenetic regulators affected specific phenotypic parameters related to salinity tolerance, such as the root length and biomass. This work emphasizes the role of differential methylome flexibility between salt tolerant and salt sensitive rice varieties as an important player in salt stress tolerance, reinforcing the need to better understand the connection between epigenetic networks and plant responses to environmental stresses. PMID:25932633

  20. Salt Tolerant and Sensitive Rice Varieties Display Differential Methylome Flexibility under Salt Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana J Ferreira

    Full Text Available DNA methylation has been referred as an important player in plant genomic responses to environmental stresses but correlations between the methylome plasticity and specific traits of interest are still far from being understood. In this study, we inspected global DNA methylation levels in salt tolerant and sensitive rice varieties upon salt stress imposition. Global DNA methylation was quantified using the 5-methylcytosine (5mC antibody and an ELISA-based technique, which is an affordable and quite pioneer assay in plants, and in situ imaging of methylation sites in interphase nuclei of tissue sections. Variations of global DNA methylation levels in response to salt stress were tissue- and genotype-dependent. We show a connection between a higher ability of DNA methylation adjustment levels and salt stress tolerance. The salt-tolerant rice variety Pokkali was remarkable in its ability to quickly relax DNA methylation in response to salt stress. In spite of the same tendency for reduction of global methylation under salinity, in the salt-sensitive rice variety IR29 such reduction was not statistically supported. In 'Pokkali', the salt stress-induced demethylation may be linked to active demethylation due to increased expression of DNA demethylases under salt stress. In 'IR29', the induction of both DNA demethylases and methyltransferases may explain the lower plasticity of DNA methylation. We further show that mutations for epigenetic regulators affected specific phenotypic parameters related to salinity tolerance, such as the root length and biomass. This work emphasizes the role of differential methylome flexibility between salt tolerant and salt sensitive rice varieties as an important player in salt stress tolerance, reinforcing the need to better understand the connection between epigenetic networks and plant responses to environmental stresses.

  1. Monitoring change in Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David L.; Angeroth, Cory E.; Freeman, Michael L.; Rowland, Ryan C.; Carling, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Despite the ecological and economic importance of Great Salt Lake, only limited water quality monitoring has occurred historically. To change this, new monitoring stations and networks—gauges of lake level height and rate of inflow, moored buoys, and multiple lake-bottom sensors—will provide important information that can be used to make informed decisions regarding future management of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem.

  2. Electrochemical ion separation in molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spoerke, Erik David; Ihlefeld, Jon; Waldrip, Karen; Wheeler, Jill S.; Brown-Shaklee, Harlan James; Small, Leo J.; Wheeler, David R.

    2017-12-19

    A purification method that uses ion-selective ceramics to electrochemically filter waste products from a molten salt. The electrochemical method uses ion-conducting ceramics that are selective for the molten salt cations desired in the final purified melt, and selective against any contaminant ions. The method can be integrated into a slightly modified version of the electrochemical framework currently used in pyroprocessing of nuclear wastes.

  3. Results from the Salt Phase of SNO

    CERN Document Server

    Miknaitis, K; Ahmed, S N; Anthony, A E; Beier, E W; Bellerive, A; Bergevin, M; Biller, S D; Boger, J; Boulay, M G; Bowler, M G; Bullard, T V; Chan, Y D; Chen, M; Chen, X; Cleveland, B T; Cox, G A; Currat, C A; Dai, X; Dalnoki-Veress, F; Deng, H; Doe, P J; Dosanjh, R S; Doucas, G; Duba, C A; Duncan, F A; Dunford, M; Dunmore, J A; Earle, E D; Elliott, S R; Evans, H C; Ewan, G T; Farine, J; Fergani, H; Fleurot, F; Formaggio, J A; Frame, K; Frati, W; Fulsom, B G; Gagnon, N; Graham, K; Grant, D R; Hahn, R L; Hall, J C; Hallin, A L; Hallman, E D; Handler, W B; Hargrove, C K; Harvey, P J; Hazama, R; Heeger, K M; Heelan, L; Heintzelman, W J; Heise, J; Helmer, R L; Hemingway, R J; Hime, A; Howard, C; Howe, M A; Huang, M; Jagam, P; Jelley, N A; Klein, J R; Kormos, L L; Kos, M S; Krüger, A; Kraus, C V; Krauss, C B; Krumins, A V; Kutter, T; Kyba, C C M; Labranche, H; Lange, R; Law, J; Lawson, I T; Lesko, K T; Leslie, J R; Levine, I; Loach, J C; Luoma, S; MacLellan, R; Majerus, S; Mak, H B; Maneira, J; Marino, A D; McCauley, N; McDonald, A B; McGee, S; McGregor, G; Miin, C; Moffat, B A; Nally, C W; Neubauer, M S; Nickel, B G; Noble, A J; Norman, E B; Oblath, N S; Okada, C E; Ollerhead, R W; Orrell, J L; Oser, S M; Ouellet, C V; Peeters, S J M; Poon, A W P; Rielage, K; Robertson, B C; Robertson, R G H; Rollin, E; Rosendahl, S S E; Rusu, V L; Schwendener, M H; Seibert, S R; Simard, O; Simpson, J J; Sims, C J; Sinclair, D; Skensved, P; Smith, M W E; Starinsky, N; Stokstad, R G; Stonehill, L C; Tafirout, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tesic, G; Thomson, M; Thorman, M; Tsui, T; Van Berg, R; Van de Water, R G; Virtue, C J; Wall, B L; Waller, D; Waltham, C E; Wan Chan Tseung, H; Wark, D L; Wendland, J; West, N; Wilkerson, J F; Wilson, J R; Wittich, P; Wouters, J M; Wright, A; Yeh, M; Zuber, K

    2005-01-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) has recently completed an analysis of data from the salt phase of the experiment, in which NaCl was added to the heavy-water neutrino target to enhance sensitivity to solar neutrinos. Results from the 391-day salt data set are summarized, including the measured solar neutrino fluxes, the electron energy spectrum from charged current interactions, and the day-night neutrino flux asymmetries. Constraints on neutrino mixing parameters including the new measurements are also given.

  4. Water and salt balance of Great Salt Lake, Utah, and simulation of water and salt movement through the causeway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wold, Steven R.; Thomas, Blakemore E.; Waddell, Kidd M.

    1997-01-01

    The water and salt balance of Great Salt Lake primarily depends on the amount of inflow from tributary streams and the conveyance properties of a causeway constructed during 1957-59 that divides the lake into the south and north parts. The conveyance properties of the causeway originally included two culverts, each 15 feet wide, and the permeable rock-fill material.During 1980-86, the salt balance changed as a result of record high inflow that averaged 4,627,000 acre-feet annually and modifications made to the conveyance properties of the causeway that included opening a 300-foot-wide breach. In this study, a model developed in 1973 by Waddell and Bolke to simulate the water and salt balance of the lake was revised to accommodate the high water-surface altitude and modifications made to the causeway. This study, done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of State Lands and Forestry, updates the model with monitoring data collected during 1980-86. This report describes the calibration of the model and presents the results of simulations for three hypothetical 10-year periods.During January 1, 1980, to July 31, 1984, a net load of 0.5 billion tons of dissolved salt flowed from the south to the north part of the lake primarily as a result of record inflows. From August 1, 1984, when the breach was opened, to December 31,1986, a net load of 0.3 billion tons of dissolved salt flowed from the north to the south part of the lake primarily as a result of the breach.For simulated inflow rates during a hypothetical 10-year period resulting in the water-surface altitude decreasing from about 4,200 to 4,192 feet, there was a net movement of about 1.0 billion tons of dissolved salt from the south to the north part, and about 1.7 billion tons of salt precipitated in the north part. For simulated inflow rates during a hypothetical 10-year period resulting in a rise in water-surface altitude from about 4,200 to 4

  5. Nitrite toxicity of Litopenaeus vannamei in water containing low concentrations of sea salt or mixed salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, A.; Young, S.P.; Isely, J.J.; Browdy, C.L.; Tomasso, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    The uptake, depuration and toxicity of environmental nitrite was characterized in Litopenaeus vannamei exposed in water containing low concentrations of artificial sea salt or mixed salts. In 2 g/L artificial sea salts, nitrite was concentrated in the hemolymph in a dose-dependent and rapid manner (steady-state in about 2 d). When exposed to nitrite in 2 g/L artificial sea salts for 4 d and then moved to a similar environment without added nitrite, complete depuration occurred within a day. Increasing salinity up to 10 g/L decreased uptake of environmental nitrite. Nitrite uptake in environments containing 2 g/L mixed salts (combination of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium chlorides) was similar to or lower than rates in 2 g/L artificial sea salt. Toxicity was inversely related to total dissolved salt and chloride concentrations and was highest in 2 g/L artificial sea salt (96-h medial lethal concentration = 8.4 mg/L nitrite-N). Animals that molted during the experiments did not appear to be more susceptible to nitrite than animals that did not molt. The shallow slope of the curve describing the relationship between toxicity and salinity suggests that management of nitrite toxicity in low-salinity shrimp ponds by addition of more salts may not be practical. ?? Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2004.

  6. Effects of Chloride and Sulfate Salts on the Inhibition or Promotion of Sucrose Crystallization in Initially Amorphous Sucrose-Salt Blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorat, Alpana A; Forny, Laurent; Meunier, Vincent; Taylor, Lynne S; Mauer, Lisa J

    2017-12-27

    The effects of salts on the stability of amorphous sucrose and its crystallization in different environments were investigated. Chloride (LiCl, NaCl, KCl, MgCl 2 , CaCl 2 , CuCl 2 , FeCl 2 , FeCl 3 , and AlCl 3 ) and sulfate salts with the same cations (Na 2 SO 4 , K 2 SO 4 , MgSO 4 , CuSO 4 , Fe(II)SO 4 , and Fe(III)SO 4 ) were studied. Samples (sucrose controls and sucrose:salt 1:0.1 molar ratios) were lyophilized, stored in controlled temperature and relative humidity (RH) conditions, and monitored for one month using X-ray diffraction. Samples were also analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry, microscopy, and moisture sorption techniques. All lyophiles were initially amorphous, but during storage the presence of a salt had a variable impact on sucrose crystallization. While all samples remained amorphous when stored at 11 and 23% RH at 25 °C, increasing the RH to 33 and 40% RH resulted in variations in crystallization onset times. The recrystallization time generally followed the order monovalent cations crystallization.

  7. Extracting information from the molten salt database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzuric, Slobodan; Suh, Changwon; Gaune-Escard, Marcelle; Rajan, Krishna

    2006-12-01

    Molten salt technology is a catchall phrase that includes some very diverse technologies; electrochemistry, heat transfer, chemical oxidation/reduction baths, and nuclear reactors. All of these technologies are linked by the general characteristics of molten salts that can function as solvents, have good heat-transfer characteristics, function like a fluid, can attain very high temperatures, can conduct electricity, and also may have chemical catalytic properties. The Janz molten salt database is the most comprehensive compilation of property data about molten salts available today and is widely used for both fundamental and applied purposes. Databases are traditionally viewed as “static” documents that are used in a “search and retrieval” mode. These static data can be transformed by informatics and data mining tools into a dynamic dataset for analysis of the properties of the, materials and for making predictions. While this approch has been successful in the chemical and biochemical sciences in searching for and establishing structure-property relationships, it is not widely used in the materials science community. Because the design of the original molten salt database was not oriented toward this informatics goal, it was essential to evaluate this dataset in terms of data mining standards. Two techniques were used—a projection (principal components analysis (PCA)) and a predictive method (partial least squares (PLS))—in conjunction with fundamental knowledge acquired from the long-term practice of molten salt chemistry.

  8. Thermal Characterization of Molten Salt Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson

    2011-09-01

    The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner (ER) may be adversely affected by the buildup of sodium, fission products, and transuranics in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are the following: (1) salt freezing due to an unexpected change in the liquidus temperature, (2) phase separation or non-homogeneity of the molten salt due to the precipitation of solids or formation of immiscible liquids, and (3) any mechanism that can result in the separation and concentration of fissile elements from the molten salt. Any of these situations would result in an off-normal condition outside the established safety basis for electrorefiner (ER) operations. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This report describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, which consist of chlorides of potassium, lithium, strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium chlorides as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium, used for the processing of used nuclear fuels.

  9. SALT, HISTORY AND CULTURE IN THE WESTERN GRASSLANDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dean SPGS NAU

    salt in addition to other economic activities like pottery and sugar- cane alcohol for the flourishing Congo River market. Rock and vegetable salt from Mbosi country ... producer of salt gave the Kanta as tax one gourd a year (Ochieng. 1992: 839; Webster et al 1992: 795; Laya 1992: 472).Salt production was also carried out in ...

  10. Detection of salt bridges to lysines in solution in barnase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Williamson, Michael P.; Hounslow, Andrea M.

    2013-01-01

    We show that salt bridges involving lysines can be detected by deuterium isotope effects on NMR chemical shifts of the sidechain amine. Lys27 in the ribonuclease barnase is salt bridged, and mutation of Arg69 to Lys retains a partially buried salt bridge. The salt bridges are functionally important....

  11. Molecular markers associated with salt tolerance in Egyptian wheats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salinity affects plant growth by the osmotic stress of the salt around the roots, as well as by toxicity caused by excessive accumulation of salt in leaves. In the present study, seven common (Triticum aestivum) and two durum (T. turgidum ssp. Durum) wheat genotypes were subjected to salt stress for 2 weeks. Salt stress ...

  12. A Role of the Bile Salt Receptor FXR in Atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, Jurre; Herrema, Hilde; Groen, Albert K.; Kuipers, Folkert

    This study reviews current insights into the role of bile salts and bile salt receptors on the progression and regression of atherosclerosis. Bile salts have emerged as important modifiers of lipid and energy metabolism. At the molecular level, bile salts regulate lipid and energy homeostasis mainly

  13. A Role of the Bile Salt Receptor FXR in Atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, J.; Herrema, H.J.; Groen, A.K.; Kuipers, F.

    2010-01-01

    This study reviews current insights into the role of bile salts and bile salt receptors on the progression and regression of atherosclerosis. Bile salts have emerged as important modifiers of lipid and energy metabolism. At the molecular level, bile salts regulate lipid and energy homeostasis mainly

  14. Electrodeposition of alloys or compounds in molten salts and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taxil P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the different modes of preparation of alloys or intermetallic compounds using the electrodeposition in molten salts, more particularly molten alkali fluorides. The interest in this process is to obtain new materials for high technology, particularly the compounds of reactive components such as actinides, rare earth and refractory metals. Two ways of preparation are considered: (i electrocoating of the more reactive metal on a cathode made of the noble one and reaction between the two metals in contact, and (ii electrocoating on an inert cathode of the intermetallic compound by coreduction of the ions of each elements. The kinetic is controlled by the reaction at the electrolyte interface. A wide bibliographic survey on the preparation of various compounds (intermetallic compounds, borides, carbides… is given and a special attention is paid to the own experience of the authors in the preparation of these compounds and interpretation of their results.

  15. A putative Type IIS restriction endonuclease GeoICI from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    As opposed to the unstable prototype, which cleaves DNA at 30°C, GeoICI is highly active at elevated temperatures, up to 73°C and over a very wide salt concentration range. Recognition/cleavage sites were determined by: (i) digestion of plasmid and bacteriophage lambda DNA (λ); (ii) cleavage of custom PCR substrates, ...

  16. Chemically distinct coupled Cu(II) dimers: Structure and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Tridentate Schiff's base prepared from 4-methyl-2-amino pyridine and salicylaldehyde acts as binucleating ligand, coordinating as bidentate with one metal ion and monodentate with the second metal ion. The binuclear Cu(II) complex with a m-acetato group has been prepared as the mono perchlorato salt. Electron ...

  17. I-NERI ANNUAL TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT: 2006-002-K, Separation of Fission Products from Molten LiCl-KCl Salt Used for Electrorefining of Metal Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Frank

    2009-09-01

    An attractive alternative to the once-through disposal of electrorefiner salt is to selectively remove the active fission products from the salt and recycle the salt back to the electrorefiner (ER). This would allow salt reuse for some number of cycles before ultimate disposal of the salt in a ceramic waste form. Reuse of ER salt would, thus, greatly reduce the volume of ceramic waste produced during the pyroprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. This final portion of the joint I-NERI research project is to demonstrate the separation of fission products from molten ER salt by two methods previously selected during phase two (FY-08) of this project. The two methods selected were salt/zeolite contacting and rare-earth fission product precipitation by oxygen bubbling. The ER salt used in these tests came from the Mark-IV electrorefiner used to anodically dissolved driver fuel from the EBR-II reactor on the INL site. The tests were performed using the Hot Fuel Dissolution Apparatus (HFDA) located in the main cell of the Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) at the Materials and Fuels complex on the INL site. Results from these tests were evaluated during a joint meeting of KAERI and INL investigators to provide recommendations as to the future direction of fission product removal from electrorefiner salt that accumulate during spent fuel treatment. Additionally, work continued on kinetic measurements of surrogate quaternary salt systems to provide fundamental kinetics on the ion exchange system and to expand the equilibrium model system developed during the first two phases of this project. The specific objectives of the FY09 I-NERI research activities at the INL include the following: • Perform demonstration tests of the selected KAERI precipitation and INL salt/zeolite contacting processes for fission product removal using radioactive, fission product loaded ER salt • Continue kinetic studies of the quaternary Cs/Sr-LiCl-KCl system to determine the rate of ion

  18. Low molecular weight salts combined with fluorinated solvents for electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Konstantin; Yip, Ka Ki; Lin, Tzu-Yuan; Lei, Norman; Guerrero-Zavala, Guillermo; Kwong, Kristie W.

    2015-11-10

    Provided are electrochemical cells and electrolytes used to build such cells. An electrolyte includes at least one salt having a molecular weight less than about 250. Such salts allow forming electrolytes with higher salt concentrations and ensure high conductivity and ion transport in these electrolytes. The low molecular weight salt may have a concentration of at least about 0.5M and may be combined with one or more other salts, such as linear and cyclic imide salts and/or methide salts. The concentration of these additional salts may be less than that of the low molecular weight salt, in some embodiments, twice less. The additional salts may have a molecular weight greater than about 250. The electrolyte may also include one or more fluorinated solvents and may be capable of maintaining single phase solutions at between about -30.degree. C. to about 80.degree. C.

  19. Assédio moral: análise de conceito na perspectiva evolucionista de Rodgers Acoso moral: análisis de concepto en la perspectiva evolucionista de Rodgers Bullying: concept analysis from Rodgers' evolutionary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Ribeiro Pontes Cahú

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve como objetivo analisar o conceito de assédio moral, na perspectiva evolucionista de Rodgers, conforme expresso na literatura da saúde, ciências jurídicas, sociais e humanas. Trata-se de uma pesquisa documental, que teve como fontes de dados artigos disponibilizados no Portal de Periódicos/CAPES e na Buscalegis de 1954 a 2010. A amostra constituiu-se de 46 artigos. Para a análise dos dados, foram utilizados os passos propostos por Rodgers em seu modelo de análise conceitual. Em relação aos termos substitutivos, destacaram-se psicoterror e mobbing. Quanto aos atributos, os mais frequentes compreenderam a violência psicológica e a exclusão social do trabalhador. Os antecedentes mais relevantes foram as condições opressivas de trabalho. No tocante às consequências, destacaram-se os problemas psicossomáticos, empresariais e sociais. Nesse sentido, o conceito assédio moral constitui-se em violência psicológica com a intenção de humilhar e excluir socialmente a vítima, provocando distúrbios psicossomáticos, prejuízos à sociedade e à instituição de trabalho.El estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar el concepto de acoso moral, en la perspectiva evolucionista de Rodgers, conforme referido en la literatura de la salud, ciencias jurídicas, sociales y humanas. Se trata de una investigación documental, que tuvo como fuentes de datos artículos disponibles en el Portal de Periódicos/CAPES y en la Buscalegis de 1954 a 2010. La muestra se constituyó de 46 artículos. Para el análisis de los datos, se utilizaron los pasos propuestos por Rodgers en su modelo de análisis conceptual. En relación a los términos sustitutivos, se destacaron psicoterror y mobbing. En cuanto a los atributos, los más frecuentes comprendieron la violencia psicológica y la exclusión social del trabajador. Los antecedentes más relevantes fueron las condiciones de opresión en el trabajo. En lo que respecta a las consecuencias, se

  20. Brines formed by multi-salt deliquescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, S; Rard, J; Alai, M; Staggs, K

    2005-11-04

    The FY05 Waste Package Environment testing program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory focused on determining the temperature, relative humidity, and solution compositions of brines formed due to the deliquescence of NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures. Understanding the physical and chemical behavior of these brines is important because they define conditions under which brines may react with waste canister surfaces. Boiling point experiments show that NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures form brines that transform to hydrous melts that do not truly 'dry out' until temperatures exceed 300 and 400 C, respectively. Thus a conducting solution is present for these salt assemblages over the thermal history of the repository. The corresponding brines form at lower relative humidity at higher temperatures. The NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has a mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH) of 25.9% at 120 C and 10.8% at 180 C. Similarly, the KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has MDRH of 26.4% at 120 C and 20.0% at 150 C. The KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture salts also absorb some water (but do not appear to deliquesce) at 180 C and thus may also contribute to the transfer of electrons at interface between dust and the waste package surface. There is no experimental evidence to suggest that these brines will degas and form less deliquescent salt assemblages. Ammonium present in atmospheric and tunnel dust (as the chloride, nitrate, or sulfate) will readily decompose in the initial heating phase of the repository, and will affect subsequent behavior of the remaining salt mixture only through the removal of a stoichiometric equivalent of one or more anions. Although K-Na-NO{sub 3}-Cl brines form at high temperature and low relative humidity, these brines are dominated by nitrate, which is known to inhibit corrosion at lower

  1. Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical speciation of citric acid complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) was investigated pH-metrically in 0.0-2.5% anionic, cationic and neutral micellar media. The primary alkalimetric data were pruned with SCPHD program. The existence of different binary species was established from modeling studies using the ...

  2. Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    2010-06-15

    Jun 15, 2010 ... physico-chemical techniques. A square planar geometry was suggested for Cu(II) and octahedral geometry proposed for Co(II),. Ni(II) and Zn(II). TG curves indicated that the complexes decompose in three to four steps. The presence of coordinated water in metal complexes was confirmed by thermal and ...

  3. Chemical and physical parameters of dried salted pork meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela Cviková

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was analysed and evaluated chemical and physical parameters of dried salted pork neck and ham. Dried salted meat is one of the main meat products typically produced with a variety of flavors and textures. Neck (14 samples and ham (14 samples was salted by nitrite salt mixture during 1week. The nitrite salt mixture for salting process (dry salting was used. This salt mixture contains: salt, dextrose, maltodextrin, flavourings, stabilizer E316, taste enhancer E621, nitrite mixture. The meat samples were dried at 4 °C and relative humudity 85% after 1 week salting. The weight of each sample was approximately 1 kg. After salting were vacuum-packed and analysed after 1 week. The traditional dry-cured meat such as dry-cured ham and neck obtained after 12 - 24 months of ripening under controlled conditions. The average protein content was significantly (p <0.001 lower in dried pork neck in comparison with dried salted pork ham. The average intramuscular fat was significantly (p <0.001 lower in dried pork ham in comparison with dried salted pork neck. The average moisture was significantly lower (p ≤0.05 in dried salted ham in comparison with dried pork neck. The average pH value was 5.50 in dried salted pork ham and 5.75 in dried salted pork neck. The content of arginine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine and threonine in dried salted ham was significantly lower (p <0.001 in comparison with dried salted pork neck. The proportion of analysed amino acids from total proteins was 56.31% in pork salted dried ham and 56.50% in pork salted dried neck.  Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  4. Precursor salt assisted syntheses of high-index faceted concave hexagon and nanorod-like polyoxometalates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Jaya; Ganguly, Mainak; Mondal, Chanchal; Negishi, Yuichi; Pal, Tarasankar

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes an effective method for a precursor salt assisted fabrication and reshaping of two different polyoxometalates [(NH4)2Cu(MoO4)2 (ACM) and Cu3(MoO4)2(OH)2 (CMOH)] into five distinctive shapes through straightforward and indirect routes. Explicit regulation of the structural arrangements of ACM and CMOH has been studied in detail with altered precursor salt concentration employing our laboratory developed modified hydrothermal (MHT) method. Morphologically different ACM 3D architectures are evolved with higher molybdate concentration, whereas 1D growth of CMOH is observed with increased copper concentration. Interesting morphological transformation of the products has been accomplished employing one precursor salt at a time without using any other foreign reagent. It has been proven that large ACMs become labile in the presence of incoming Cu(ii) and NH4+ ions of the precursor salts. A new strategy for the conversion of faceted ACMs (hexagonal plate, circular plate and hollow flower) to exclusive CMOH nanorods through a Cu(ii) assisted reaction has been adopted. According to thermodynamic consideration, the synthesis of rare concave nanostructures with high index facet is still challenging due to their higher reactivity. In this study, concave hexagonal ACM with high index facet {hkl} has been successfully prepared for the first time from hexagonal ACM through simple etching with ammonium heptamolybdate (AHM), which is another precursor salt. Hexagonal ACM corrugates to a concave hexagon because of the higher reactivity of the {001} crystal plane than that of the {010} plane. It has been shown that high index facet exposed concave hexagonal ACM serves as a better catalyst for the photodegradation of dye than the other microstructures enclosed by low index facets.This paper describes an effective method for a precursor salt assisted fabrication and reshaping of two different polyoxometalates [(NH4)2Cu(MoO4)2 (ACM) and Cu3(MoO4)2(OH)2 (CMOH)] into

  5. Salt Sensitivity Determined From Capillary Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Oberleithner

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: A significant rise of blood pressure in response to a given salt load is a weak indication of high salt sensitivity, supposed to foster the development of arterial hypertension and related diseases in later life. In search of an alternative method we recently developed the salt blood test (SBT, a new concept for quantifying salt sensitivity (SS. Based on this concept, namely that red blood cells (RBC report on salt sensitivity, the SBT-mini was developed. Methods: The SBT-mini utilizes a droplet of capillary blood mixed with a ‘smart' Na+ cocktail. Red blood cells (RBC of this mixture are allowed to sediment by gravity in a glass tube. SS is quantified by measuring RBC sedimentation rate. 90 healthy volunteers (39 males, 51 females; mean age: 23±0.5 years were evaluated and ‘standard values' for males and females were derived. Results: Sodium buffer capacity of female blood is about 20 % smaller as compared to male blood due to the lower hematocrit of females. SS of an individual is related to the mean standard value (set to 100 % of the respective male/female cohort. High SS (> 120 % has been found in 31 % of males and 28 % of females. Conclusions: SS can be estimated derived from the individual RBC sodium buffer capacity as measured by the SBT-mini. About one third of a healthy test cohort exhibits a high sensitivity to salt. Reduction of sodium consumption to at least two grams per day (equals five grams of NaCl per day as suggested by the WHO is recommended, particularly for individuals with high salt sensitivity.

  6. Functionalization of nanomaterials with aryldiazonium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ahmed A; Salmi, Zakaria; Dahoumane, Si Amar; Mekki, Ahmed; Carbonnier, Benjamin; Chehimi, Mohamed M

    2015-11-01

    This paper reviews the surface modification strategies of a wide range of nanomaterials using aryldiazonium salts. After a brief history of diazonium salts since their discovery by Peter Griess in 1858, we will tackle the surface chemistry using these compounds since the first trials in the 1950s. We will then focus on the modern surface chemistry of aryldiazonium salts for the modification of materials, particularly metallic, semiconductors, metal oxide nanoparticles, carbon-based nanostructures, diamond and clays. The successful modification of sp(2) carbon materials and metals by aryldiazonium salts paved the way to innovative strategies for the attachment of aryl layers to metal oxide nanoparticles and nanodiamonds, and intercalation of clays. Interestingly, diazotized surfaces can easily trap nanoparticles and nanotubes while diazotized nanoparticles can be (electro)chemically reduced on electrode/materials surfaces as molecular compounds. Both strategies provided organized 2D surface assembled nanoparticles. In this review, aryldiazonium salts are highlighted as efficient coupling agents for many types of molecular, macromolecular and nanoparticulate species, therefore ensuring stability to colloids on the one hand, and the construction of composite materials and hybrid systems with robust and durable interfaces/interphases, on the other hand. The last section is dedicated to a selection of patents and industrial products based on aryldiazonium-modified nanomaterials. After nearly 160 years of organic chemistry, diazonium salts have entered a new, long and thriving era for the benefit of materials, colloids, and surface scientists. This tempts us to introduce the terminology of "diazonics" we define as the science and technology of aryldiazonium salt-derived materials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of smell loss (hyposmia) on salt usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkin, Robert I

    2014-06-01

    Smell loss (hyposmia) inhibits flavor perception and influences food intake. To compensate for flavor loss, some patients with hyposmia appear to increase salt usage. The purpose of this study was to compare self-reported salt usage in patients with hyposmia with that in normal volunteers. Salt usage was compared in 56 patients with hyposmia but with normal taste function with that in 27 normal volunteers. Salt usage was formulated with respect to 1) a standard quantitative salt intake scale, 2) salt addition related to food intake, 3) intake of foods and beverages with high salt content, and 4) salt intake related to presence or absence of hypertension. Eighteen (32%) of the 56 patients self-reported increased salt usage; they were labeled "increased users." The other 38 hyposmic patients (68%) did not report increased salt usage; they were labeled "non-changers." Increased users estimated their salt usage rose an average 2.8 times that experienced before their hyposmia onset. They also reported adding salt to their food before tasting it and ate more highly salted foods than did the non-changers. Salt usage was not increased further among increased users with hypertension but was increased further among non-changers with hypertension. Salt usage is increased among some patients with hyposmia presumably to enhance flavor perception to compensate for diminished flavor perception related to loss of smell. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. High salt meals in staff canteens of salt policy makers: observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brewster, L.M.; Berentzen, C.A.; van Montfrans, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the salt content of hot meals served at the institutions of salt policy makers in the Netherlands. Observational study. 18 canteens at the Department of Health, the Health Council, the Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority, university hospitals, and affiliated non-university

  9. “Use salt and foods high in salt sparingly”: a food-based dietary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-12

    Apr 12, 2013 ... including the legislation of food supply, clearer labelling and signposting of food packaging, and improved consumer education on behavioural change regarding salt usage practices. A comprehensive national strategy that focuses on salt reduction is needed to reduce national blood pressure levels in the ...

  10. Comparative effects of neutral salt and alkaline salt stress on seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative effects of neutral salt and alkaline salt stress on seed germination, early seedling growth and physiological response of a halophyte species Chenopodium glaucum. ... No obvious increase of osmolytes (proline, soluble sugar, betaine) was detected under lower concentration of NaCl and NaHCO3 stress.

  11. Performance of concrete pavement in the presence of deicing salts and deicing salt cocktails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Deicing salts are widely used for anti-icing and de-icing operations in pavements. While historically sodium chloride may have been the : deicer most commonly used, a wide range of deicing salts have begun to be used to operate at lower temperatures,...

  12. PHILIP GlASS: SCREEN MUSIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neretina Maina S.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Research is devoted to the music of contemporary composer Philip Glass, which he wrote specifically for the movies including feature and documentary films by American, British and Australian directors (M.Scorsese, E.Morris, S.Daldry, P.Weir etc.. It makes a connection of the composition technologies between his filmmusic and his artmusic written in the aesthetics of minimalism (the repetition and additive processes. The works in collaboration with director G.Reggio highlights as top Glass’ creative at the film industry. It also covers the principles of compilation the composer’s music for a variety of screen opuses, movies and commercials.

  13. How to asses for improvement of learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Henk

    2000-01-01

    This review summarises and builds on a seminar about assessment of student learning in higher education. Assessment can be looked upon as simply something that has to be done at the end of a course. During the course of discussions at the seminar the participants became more aware how assessment can

  14. Risk of high blood pressure in salt workers working near salt milling plants: A cross-sectional and interventional study

    OpenAIRE

    Sachdev Raman; Mathur Murli; Haldiya Kripa; Saiyed Habibulla N

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Workers working close to salt milling plants may inhale salt particles floating in the air, leading to a rise in plasma sodium, which, in turn, may increase the blood pressure and the risk of hypertension. Methods To test the above hypothesis, occupational health check-up camps were organized near salt manufacturing units and all workers were invited for a free health examination. The workers who worked with dry salt in the vicinity of salt milling plants were defined as "...

  15. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis influences strigolactone production under salinity and alleviates salt stress in lettuce plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroca, Ricardo; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel; Zamarreño, Angel María; Paz, José Antonio; García-Mina, José María; Pozo, María José; López-Ráez, Juan Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis can alleviate salt stress in plants. However the intimate mechanisms involved, as well as the effect of salinity on the production of signalling molecules associated to the host plant-AM fungus interaction remains largely unknown. In the present work, we have investigated the effects of salinity on lettuce plant performance and production of strigolactones, and assessed its influence on mycorrhizal root colonization. Three different salt concentrations were applied to mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants, and their effects, over time, analyzed. Plant biomass, stomatal conductance, efficiency of photosystem II, as well as ABA content and strigolactone production were assessed. The expression of ABA biosynthesis genes was also analyzed. AM plants showed improved growth rates and a better performance of physiological parameters such as stomatal conductance and efficiency of photosystem II than non-mycorrhizal plants under salt stress since very early stages - 3 weeks - of plant colonization. Moreover, ABA levels were lower in those plants, suggesting that they were less stressed than non-colonized plants. On the other hand, we show that both AM symbiosis and salinity influence strigolactone production, although in a different way in AM and non-AM plants. The results suggest that AM symbiosis alleviates salt stress by altering the hormonal profiles and affecting plant physiology in the host plant. Moreover, a correlation between strigolactone production, ABA content, AM root colonization and salinity level is shown. We propose here that under these unfavourable conditions, plants increase strigolactone production in order to promote symbiosis establishment to cope with salt stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Macrocyclic effects upon isomeric Cu II Mii and Mii Cu II cores ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The macrocycles have dissimilar N(amine)2O2 and N(imine)2O2 metal-binding sites sharing the phenolic oxygens. The reaction of the mononuclear CuII precursors, [Cu(L2;2)], [Cu(L2;2)] and [Cu(L2;2)], with a MII perchlorate and a MII acetate salt formed (acetato)MII CuII complexes:[CoCu(L2;2)(AcO)]ClO4 0 5H2O] (1), ...

  17. Salt reduction in sheeted dough: A successful technological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diler, Guénaëlle; Le-Bail, Alain; Chevallier, Sylvie

    2016-10-01

    The challenge of reducing the salt content while maintaining shelf life, stability and acceptability of the products is major for the food industry. In the present study, we implemented processing adjustments to reduce salt content while maintaining the machinability and the saltiness perception of sheeted dough: the homogeneous distribution of a layer of encapsulated salt grains on the dough during the laminating process. During sheeting, for an imposed deformation of 0.67, the final strain remained unchanged around 0.50 for salt reduction below 50%, and then, increased significantly up to 0.53 for a dough without salt. This increase is, in fine, positive regarding the rolling process since the decrease of salt content induces less shrinkage of dough downstream, which is the main feature to be controlled in the process. Moreover, the final strain was negatively correlated to the resistance to extension measured with a texture analyzer, therefore providing a method to evaluate the machinability of the dough. From these results, a salt reduction of 25% was achieved by holding 50% of the salt in the dough recipe to maintain the dough properties and saving 25% as salt grains to create high-salted areas that would enhance the saltiness perception of the dough. The distributor mounted above the rollers of the mill proved to be able to distribute evenly salt grains at a calculated step of the rolling out process. An innovative method based on RX micro-tomography allowed to follow the salt dissolving and to demonstrate the capability of the coatings to delay the salt dissolving and consequently the diffusion of salt within the dough piece. Finally, a ranking test on the salted perception of different samples having either an even distribution of encapsulated salt grains, a single layer of salt grains or a homogeneous distribution of salt, demonstrated that increasing the saltiness perception in salt-reduced food product could be achieved by a technological approach

  18. Baseload Nitrate Salt Central Receiver Power Plant Design Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilley, Drake [Abengoa Solar LLC, Lakewood, CO (United States); Kelly, Bruce [Abengoa Solar LLC, Lakewood, CO (United States); Burkholder, Frank [Abengoa Solar LLC, Lakewood, CO (United States)

    2014-12-12

    The objectives of the work were to demonstrate that a 100 MWe central receiver plant, using nitrate salt as the receiver coolant, thermal storage medium, and heat transport fluid in the steam generator, can 1) operate, at full load, for 6,400 hours each year using only solar energy, and 2) satisfy the DOE levelized energy cost goal of $0.09/kWhe (real 2009 $). To achieve these objectives the work incorporated a large range of tasks relating to many different aspects of a molten salt tower plant. The first Phase of the project focused on developing a baseline design for a Molten Salt Tower and validating areas for improvement. Tasks included a market study, receiver design, heat exchanger design, preliminary heliostat design, solar field optimization, baseline system design including PFDs and P&IDs and detailed cost estimate. The baseline plant met the initial goal of less than $0.14/kWhe, and reinforced the need to reduce costs in several key areas to reach the overall $0.09/kWhe goal. The major improvements identified from Phase I were: 1) higher temperature salt to improve cycle efficiency and reduce storage requirements, 2) an improved receiver coating to increase the efficiency of the receiver, 3) a large receiver design to maximize storage and meet the baseload hours objective, and 4) lower cost heliostat field. The second Phase of the project looked at advancing the baseline tower with the identified improvements and included key prototypes. To validate increasing the standard solar salt temperature to 600 °C a dynamic test was conducted at Sandia. The results ultimately proved the hypothesis incorrect and showed high oxide production and corrosion rates. The results lead to further testing of systems to mitigate the oxide production to be able to increase the salt temperature for a commercial plant. Foster Wheeler worked on the receiver design in both Phase I and Phase II looking at both design and lowering costs utilizing commercial fossil boiler

  19. Salt-specific effects in lysozyme solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Janc

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of additions of low-molecular-mass salts on the properties of aqueous lysozyme solutions are examined by using the cloud-point temperature, T_{cloud}, measurements. Mixtures of protein, buffer, and simple salt in water are studied at pH=6.8 (phosphate buffer and pH=4.6 (acetate buffer. We show that an addition of buffer in the amount above I_{buffer} = 0.6 mol dm^{-3} does not affect the T_{cloud} values. However, by replacing a certain amount of the buffer electrolyte by another salt, keeping the total ionic strength constant, we can significantly change the cloud-point temperature. All the salts de-stabilize the solution and the magnitude of the effect depends on the nature of the salt. Experimental results are analyzed within the framework of the one-component model, which treats the protein-protein interaction as highly directional and of short-range. We use this approach to predict the second virial coefficients, and liquid-liquid phase diagrams under conditions, where T_{cloud} is determined experimentally.

  20. Plant Responses to Salt Stress: Adaptive Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Ramón Acosta-Motos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This review deals with the adaptive mechanisms that plants can implement to cope with the challenge of salt stress. Plants tolerant to NaCl implement a series of adaptations to acclimate to salinity, including morphological, physiological and biochemical changes. These changes include increases in the root/canopy ratio and in the chlorophyll content in addition to changes in the leaf anatomy that ultimately lead to preventing leaf ion toxicity, thus maintaining the water status in order to limit water loss and protect the photosynthesis process. Furthermore, we deal with the effect of salt stress on photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence and some of the mechanisms thought to protect the photosynthetic machinery, including the xanthophyll cycle, photorespiration pathway, and water-water cycle. Finally, we also provide an updated discussion on salt-induced oxidative stress at the subcellular level and its effect on the antioxidant machinery in both salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive plants. The aim is to extend our understanding of how salinity may affect the physiological characteristics of plants.

  1. Salt deposition at particle contact points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiaodong; Evitts, Richard W.; Besant, Robert W.; Kennell, Glyn F.

    2015-09-01

    Caking may occur when granular potash fertilizer with a moisture content greater than 0.25 % (w/w) undergoes drying. Since cake strength is proportional to the mass of crystal deposited per unit volume near contact points (and other factors) the modelling of mass deposition near contact points is important. The Young-Laplace equation for the air-salt-solution interface is used to determine the geometry of a 2-D planar saline film between two cubic potash particles. A 2-D theoretical model is developed and applied for ion diffusion and deposition near the contact point during drying. The numerical predictions of ion diffusion in an initially saturated salt illustrate the transient spatial distribution of new KCl deposits along the solid surfaces near the contact line. These results indicate the average salt deposition commences at the air-liquid-solid intersection, where the liquid film is thinnest, and moves toward the particle contact point with increasing area averaged KCl deposits, causing the formation of crystal deposits and bridges near contact points. It is concluded that the average salt deposit height increases inversely with distance from the contact point and decreases with initial contact angle of the contact region, but the deposition is nearly independent of the evaporation or drying rate near each contact region. Caking strength depends on, among other parameters, the amount of salt deposition near contact points.

  2. Increased sensitivity to salt stress in tocopherol-deficient Arabidopsis mutants growing in a hydroponic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellouzi, Hasna; Hamed, Karim Ben; Cela, Jana; Müller, Maren; Abdelly, Chedly; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that tocopherols could play physiological roles in salt tolerance but the mechanisms are still unknown. In this study, we analyzed changes in growth, mineral and oxidative status in vte1 and vte4 Arabidopsis thaliana mutants exposed to salt stress. vte1 and vte4 mutants lack α-tocopherol, but only the vte1 mutant is additionally deficient in γ-tocopherol. Results showed that a deficiency in vitamin E leads to reduced growth and increased oxidative stress in hydroponically-grown plants. This effect was observed at early stages, not only in rosettes but also in roots. The vte1 mutant was more sensitive to salt-induced oxidative stress than the wild type and the vte4 mutant. Salt sensitivity was associated with (i) high contents of Na+, (ii) reduced efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm ratio) and (iii) more pronounced oxidative stress as indicated by increased hydrogen peroxide and malondialdeyde levels. The vte 4 mutant, which accumulates γ- instead of α-tocopherol showed an intermediate sensitivity to salt stress between the wild type and the vte1 mutant. Contents of abscisic acid, jasmonic acid and the ethylene precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid were higher in the vte1 mutant than the vte4 mutant and wild type. It is concluded that vitamin E-deficient plants show an increased sensitivity to salt stress both in rosettes and roots, therefore indicating the positive role of tocopherols in stress tolerance, not only by minimizing oxidative stress, but also controlling Na+/K+ homeostasis and hormonal balance. PMID:23299430

  3. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Proteins Involved in Seed Imbibition under Salt Stress in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Enshun; Chen, Mingming; He, Hui; Zhan, Chengfang; Cheng, Yanhao; Zhang, Hongsheng; Wang, Zhoufei

    2016-01-01

    Enhancement of salinity tolerance during seed germination is very important for direct seeding in rice. In this study, the salt-tolerant japonica landrace Jiucaiqing was used to determine the regulators that are involved in seed imbibition under salt stress. Briefly, the comparative proteomic analysis was conducted between dry (0 h) and imbibed (24 h) seeds with 150 mM NaCl. Under salt stress, the uptake of water increased rapidly before 24 h imbibition (Phase I), followed by a plateau of seed imbibition from 24 to 96 h imbibition (Phase II). We identified 14 proteins involved in seed imbibition, in which the majority of these proteins were involved in energy supply and storage protein. The early imbibition process was mediated by protein catabolism; the most of proteins were down-regulated after 24 h imbibition. Eleven genes in salt stress treated seeds were expressed early during the seed imbibition in comparison to control seeds. By comparison, 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-independent phosphoglycerate mutase (BPM), glutelin (GLU2.2 and GLU2.3), glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase large subunit (GAS8), and cupin domain containing protein (CDP3.1 and CDP3.2) were near the regions of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for seed dormancy, seed reserve utilization, and seed germination in Jiucaiqing. In particular, CDP3.1 was co-located in the region of qIR-3 for imbibition rate, and qGP-3 for germination percentage. The role of CDP3.1 was verified in enhancing seed germination under salt stress using T-DNA mutant. The identified proteins might be applicable for the improvement of seed germination under salt stress in rice.

  4. Type-II Superlattice Avalanche Photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun

    Type-II superlattice avalanche photodiodes have shown advantages compared to conventional mercury cadmium telluride photodiodes for infrared wavelength detection. However, surface or interface leakage current has been a major issue for superlattice avalanche photodiodes, especially in infrared wavelength region. First, passivation of the superlattice device with ammonium sulfide and thioacetamide was carried out, and its surface quality was studied by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. The study showed that both ammonium sulfide and thiacetamide passivation can actively remove the native oxide at the surface. Thiacetamide passivation combine more sulfur bonds with III-V elements than that of ammonium sulfide. Another X-ray photoelectron spectra of thiacetamide-treated atomic layer deposited zinc sulfide capped InAs/GaSb superlattice was performed to investigate the interface sulfur bond conditions. Sb--S and As--S bonds disappear while In-S bond gets enhanced, indicating that Indium Sulfide should be the major components at the interface after ZnS deposition. Second, the simulation of electrical characteristics for zinc sulfide, silicon nitride and silicon dioxide passivated superlattice devices was performed by SILVACO software to fit the experimental results and to discover the surface current mechanism. Different surface current mechanism strengths were found. Third, several novel dual-carrier avalanche photodiode structures were designed and simulated. The structures had alternate carrier multiplication regions, placed next to a wider electron multiplication region, creating dual-carrier multiplication feedback systems. Gain and excess noise factor of these structures were simulated and compared based on the dead space multiplication theory under uniform electric field. From the simulation, the applied bias can be greatly lowered or the thickness can be shrunk to achieve the same gain from the conventional device. The width of the thin region was the most

  5. Dimethylammonium tetraaqua(hydrogensulfatosulfatocuprate(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Held

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title salt, [(CH32NH2][Cu(HSO4(SO4(H2O4], one type of cation and anion is present in the asymmetric unit. The CuII atom in the complex anion, [Cu(HSO4(SO4(H2O4]−, has a tetragonal bipyramidal [4 + 2] coordination caused by a Jahn–Teller distortion, with the aqua ligands in equatorial and two O atoms of tetrahedral HSO4 and SO4 units in apical positions. Both types of ions form sheets parallel to (010. The interconnection within and between the sheets is reinforced by O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen bonds, respectively, involving the water molecules, the two types of sulfate anions and the ammonium groups.

  6. Salt-restriction-spoon improved the salt intake among residents in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of an improved salt-restriction spoon on the attitude of salt-restriction, the using rate of salt-restriction-spoon, the actual salt intake, and 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (24HUNa. DESIGN: A community intervention study. SETTING: Two villages in Beijing. PARTICIPANTS: 403 local adult residents being responsible for home cooking. INTERVENTION: Participants were randomly assigned to the intervention group or the control group. Those in the intervention group were provided with an improved salt-restriction-spoon and health education, and were informed of their actual salt intake and 24HUNa. Not any intervention was given to those in the control group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The scores on the variables of Health Belief Model, the using rate of salt-restriction-spoon, the actual salt intake, and 24HUNa. ANALYSIS: Covariance analyses, Chi-square tests, Student's t tests, and repeated measures analyses of variance. RESULTS: After 6 months of intervention, the intervention group felt significantly less objective barriers, and got access to significantly more cues to action as compared to the control group. The using rate and the correctly using rate of salt-restriction-spoon were significantly higher in the intervention group. The daily salt intake decreased by 1.42 g in the intervention group and by 0.28 g in the control group, and repeated measures analysis of variance showed significant change over time (F = 7.044, P<0.001 and significant difference between groups by time (F = 2.589, P = 0.041. The 24HUNa decreased by 34.84 mmol in the intervention group and by 33.65 mmol in the control group, and repeated measures analysis of variance showed significant change over time (F = 14.648, P<0.001 without significant difference between groups by time (F = 0.222, P = 0.870. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention effect was acceptable, therefore, the improved salt-restriction-spoon and corresponding

  7. Salt on roads and the environment (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessberg, Philipp von; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2000-01-01

    This report descripes the extent of use of salt on roads in Denmark and the environmental consequences of this. Alternative strategies for reducing the risk of greasy roads and different ways of alleviating the vegetation are also discussed.The different consequences for the environment that this...... that this report discusses are:- The ground water.- Lakes and streams.- Plants and trees along roads.The consequences for the economy through usage of salt on roads has not been carried out.......This report descripes the extent of use of salt on roads in Denmark and the environmental consequences of this. Alternative strategies for reducing the risk of greasy roads and different ways of alleviating the vegetation are also discussed.The different consequences for the environment...

  8. Salt vulnerability assessment methodology for urban streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, A. R.; Gharabaghi, B.; McBean, E. A.

    2014-09-01

    De-icing agents such as road salts while used for winter road maintenance can cause negative effects on urban stream water quality and drinking water supplies. A new methodology using readily available spatial data to identify Salt Vulnerable Areas (SVAs) for urban streams is used to prioritize implementation of best management practices. The methodology calculates the probable chloride concentration statistics at specified points in the urban stream network and compares the results with known aquatic species exposure tolerance limits to characterize the vulnerability scores. The approach prioritizes implementation of best management practices to areas identified as vulnerable to road salt. The vulnerability assessment is performed on seven sites in four watersheds in the Greater Toronto Area and validated using the Hanlon Creek watershed in Guelph. The mean annual in-stream chloride concentration equation uses readily available spatial data - with province-wide coverage - that can be easily used in any urban watershed.

  9. Brine flow in heated geologic salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

    2013-03-01

    This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

  10. Use of phytic acid and hyper-salting to eliminate Escherichia coli O157:H7 from napa cabbage for kimchi production in a commercial plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Hee; Jang, Seong Ho; Kim, Soon Han; Lee, Hee Jung; Kim, Younghoon; Ryu, Jee Hoon; Rhee, Min Suk

    2015-12-02

    The aim of this study was to develop a new salting method using natural phytic acid (PA) to ensure the microbiological safety and quality of salted napa cabbage used for kimchi production. The production of salted napa cabbage involves several stages: trimming, hyper-salting (20% NaCl) for up to 1h, salting (10% NaCl for 10-18 h), three sequential washes in water (30s for each), and draining (2 h). Two separate experiments were performed: one to determine the appropriate treatment conditions and a second to validate applicability under commercial conditions. In Experiment I, the effects of hyper-salting with PA on Escherichia coli O157:H7 numbers were tested in the laboratory. The following variables were monitored: 1) PA concentration (1, 2, 3%, w/w); 2) the ratio of the sample weight to the total volume of the solution (1:1.5, 1:3, or 1:6); 3) the hyper-salting time (30 or 60 min); and 4) the salting time (2, 5, or 8 h). A procedure that achieved a >5-log reduction in the E. coli O157:H7 population was then tested in an actual kimchi processing plant (Experiment II). The results from Experiment I showed that bactericidal efficacy increased as all the measured variables increased (p5-log CFU/g reduction in the E. coli O157:H7 population. Further salting for 5h completely eliminated (2.4-, and >1.8-log CFU/g, respectively. The 5h salting step maintained the TC and FC at kimchi production (pH 5.1-5.3 and 1.5-2.0%, respectively). These results suggest that this novel method of salting food ensures microbiological safety and reduces the production time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Thermodynamics of salt-doped polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-Gang

    2013-03-01

    There is much current interest in salt-doped polymers as materials for energy applications. For example, a promising system for rechargeable battery applications consists of diblock copolymers of an ion-dissolving block, such as polyethylene oxide (PEO) and a nonconducting block such as polystyrene. Experimentally, it has been shown that the addition of lithium salts significantly alters the order-order and order-disorder transition (ODT) temperatures. In particular, the ODT temperature can increase substantially upon adding even a small amount of lithium salt, and the domain spacing in the ordered phases also increases significantly. Both changes are found to depend on the anion type. In this talk, I describe a simple theory for explaining these phenomena. A key effect is the solvation energy of the anions by the polymers, which we approximate using the Born solvation model. The difference in the Born energy between different polymers provides a driving force towards phase separation. By studying the shift in the mean-field spinodal of the disordered phase, we can identify an effective χ parameter, with a systematic dependence on the anion radius, in agreement with available experimental data. Furthermore, by studying the behavior of the domain spacing with salt concentration, we clarify the relationship between different definitions of the effective χ parameter. We propose that the effective χ parameter determined from the structure factor of the disordered phase is a more robust measure of the change in miscibility between the two blocks. Finally, we demonstrate that salt doping induces a strongly first-order transition from the disordered phase to the lamellar phase, with different salt concentrations in the two phases.

  12. Molten nitrate salt technology development status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carling, R.W.; Kramer, C.M.; Bradshaw, R.W.; Nissen, D.A.; Goods, S.H.; Mar, R.W.; Munford, J.W.; Karnowsky, M.M.; Biefeld, R.N.; Norem, N.J.

    1981-03-01

    Recognizing thermal energy storage as potentially critical to the successful commercialization of solar thermal power systems, the Department of Energy (DOE) has established a comprehensive and aggressive thermal energy storage technology development program. Of the fluids proposed for heat transfer and energy storage molten nitrate salts offer significant economic advantages. The nitrate salt of most interest is a binary mixture of NaNO/sub 3/ and KNO/sub 3/. Although nitrate/nitrite mixtures have been used for decades as heat transfer and heat treatment fluids the use has been at temperatures of about 450/sup 0/C and lower. In solar thermal power systems the salts will experience a temperature range of 350 to 600/sup 0/C. Because central receiver applications place more rigorous demands and higher temperatures on nitrate salts a comprehensive experimental program has been developed to examine what effects, if any, the new demands and temperatures have on the salts. The experiments include corrosion testing, environmental cracking of containment materials, and determinations of physical properties and decomposition mechanisms. This report details the work done at Sandia National Laboratories in each area listed. In addition, summaries of the experimental programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the University of New York, EIC Laboratories, Inc., and the Norwegian Institute of Technology on molten nitrate salts are given. Also discussed is how the experimental programs will influence the near-term central receiver programs such as utility repowering/industrial retrofit and cogeneration. The report is designed to provide easy access to the latest information and data on molten NaNO/sub 3//KNO/sub 3/ for the designers and engineers of future central receiver projects.

  13. Fast Spectrum Molten Salt Reactor Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Patton, Bruce W [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL; Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

    2011-07-01

    During 2010, fast-spectrum molten-salt reactors (FS-MSRs) were selected as a transformational reactor concept for light-water reactor (LWR)-derived heavy actinide disposition by the Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC) program and were the subject of a preliminary scoping investigation. Much of the reactor description information presented in this report derives from the preliminary studies performed for the ARC project. This report, however, has a somewhat broader scope-providing a conceptual overview of the characteristics and design options for FS-MSRs. It does not present in-depth evaluation of any FS-MSR particular characteristic, but instead provides an overview of all of the major reactor system technologies and characteristics, including the technology developments since the end of major molten salt reactor (MSR) development efforts in the 1970s. This report first presents a historical overview of the FS-MSR technology and describes the innovative characteristics of an FS-MSR. Next, it provides an overview of possible reactor configurations. The following design features/options and performance considerations are described including: (1) reactor salt options-both chloride and fluoride salts; (2) the impact of changing the carrier salt and actinide concentration on conversion ratio; (3) the conversion ratio; (4) an overview of the fuel salt chemical processing; (5) potential power cycles and hydrogen production options; and (6) overview of the performance characteristics of FS-MSRs, including general comparative metrics with LWRs. The conceptual-level evaluation includes resource sustainability, proliferation resistance, economics, and safety. The report concludes with a description of the work necessary to begin more detailed evaluation of FS-MSRs as a realistic reactor and fuel cycle option.

  14. Reducing the Salt Added to Takeaway Food: Within-Subjects Comparison of Salt Delivered by Five and 17 Holed Salt Shakers in Controlled Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Goffe

    Full Text Available To determine if the amount of salt delivered by standard salt shakers commonly used in English independent takeaways varies between those with five and 17 holes; and to determine if any differences are robust to variations in: the amount of salt in the shaker, the length of time spent shaking, and the person serving.Four laboratory experiments comparing the amount of salt delivered by shakers. Independent variables considered were: type of shaker used (five or 17 holes, amount of salt in the shaker before shaking commences (shaker full, half full or nearly empty, time spent shaking (3s, 5s or 10s, and individual serving.Controlled, laboratory, conditions.A quota-based convenience sample of 10 participants (five women aged 18-59 years.Amount of salt delivered by salt shakers.Across all trials, the 17 holed shaker delivered a mean (SD of 7.86g (4.54 per trial, whilst the five holed shaker delivered 2.65g (1.22. The five holed shaker delivered a mean of 33.7% of the salt of the 17 holed shaker. There was a significant difference in salt delivered between the five and 17 holed salt shakers when time spent shaking, amount of salt in the shaker and participant were all kept constant (p<0.001. This difference was robust to variations in the starting weight of shakers, time spent shaking and participant shaking (pssalt shakers have the potential to reduce the salt content of takeaway food, and particularly food from Fish & Chip shops, where these shakers are particularly used. Further research will be required to determine the effects of this intervention on customers' salt intake with takeaway food and on total dietary salt intake.

  15. Assessment of drug salt release from solutions, suspensions and in situ suspensions using a rotating dialysis cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parshad, Henrik; Frydenvang, Karla; Liljefors, Tommy

    2003-01-01

    A rotating dialysis cell consisting of a small (10 ml) and a large compartment (1000 ml) was used to study the release of drug salt (bupivacaine 9-anthracene carboxylate) from (i). solutions, (ii). suspensions and (iii). in situ formed suspensions. Initial release experiments from suspensions...... indicated that the release of drug salt in deionized water was predominantly limited by the diffusion across the membrane whereas it is essentially dissolution rate controlled in 0.05 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.40). Thus, the in vitro model appears to have a potential in formulation screening when phosphate...

  16. Two planets: Earth and Mars - One salt model: The Hydrothermal SCRIW-Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, M. T.; Rueslaatten, H.; Johnsen, H. K.; Indreiten, T.

    2011-12-01

    One of the common characteristics of planets Earth and Mars is that both host water (H2O) and large accumulations of salt. Whereas Earth's surface-environment can be regarded as 'water-friendly' and 'salt hostile', the reverse can be said for the surface of Mars. This is because liquid water is stable on Earth, and the atmosphere transports humidity around the globe, whereas on planet Mars, liquid water is unstable, rendering the atmosphere dry and, therefore, 'salt-friendly'. The riddle as to how the salt accumulated in various locations on those two planets is one of long-lasting and great debate. The salt accumulations on Earth are traditionally termed 'evaporites', meaning that they formed by the evaporation of large masses of seawater. How the accumulations on Mars formed is much harder to explain, with a similar model, as surface water, representing a large ocean only existed briefly. Although water molecules and OH-groups may exist in abundance in bound form (crystal water, adsorbed water, etc.), the only place where free water is expected to be stable on Mars is within underground faults, fractures, and crevices. Here it likely occurs as brine or in the form of ice. Based on these conditions, a key to understanding the accumulation of large deposits of salt on both planets is linked to how brines behave in the subsurface when pressurized and heated beyond their supercritical point. At depths greater than about 3 km (i.e., a pressure, P>300 bars) water will no longer boil in a steam phase. Rather, it becomes supercritical and will form a supercritical water 'vapor' (SCRIW) with a specific gravity of typically 0.3 g/cm3. An important characteristic of SCRIW is its inability to dissolve the common sea salts. The salt dissolved in the brines will therefore precipitate as solid particles when brines (seawater on the Earth) move into the supercritical P&T-domain (above 400 C and 300 bars). Numerical modeling of a hydrothermal system in the Atlantis II Deep of the

  17. COBALT SALTS PRODUCTION BY USING SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila V. Dyakova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the extracting cobalt salts by using mixtures on the basis of tertiary amine from multicomponent solutions from the process of hydrochloride leaching of cobalt concentrate. The optimal composition for the extraction mixture, the relationship between the cobalt distribution coefficients and modifier’s nature and concentration, and the saltingout agent type have been determined. A hydrochloride extraction technology of cobalt concentrate yielding a purified concentrated cobalt solution for the production of pure cobalt salts has been developed and introduced at Severonikel combine.

  18. Electrokinetic removal of salt from brick masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2006-01-01

    A method to effectively remove salts from masonry is lacking. The present study aims at determining the removal efficiency of salts from bricks in an applied low current electric DC field. At first an investigation on removal of NaCl and Na(NO3)2 from spiked bricks in laboratory scale was conducted......, a cathode and an anode, that were placed on a masonry wall of an old stable. The masonry had a high concentration of nitrates and problems with hygroscopic moisture. The electrodes consisted of reinforcement steel in carbonate-rich clay. The clay was chosen mainly to improve electric contact between metal...

  19. Salt reduction strategy at population level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi Bhargava

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available World is facing a huge burden of noncommunicable diseases such as hypertension, ischemic health diseases, and stroke. Moreover, the developing countries have had a relatively speedy rise of the problem, with noncommunicable diseases occurring at much lower age as compared to the developed world. The World Health Organization, therefore, recommends reduction in salt intake at population level to <5 g/day. Not all researchers and public health physicians agree to it, leading to conflicting information for a primary care physician. This evidence based summary documents this polarization of the recommendations regarding salt reduction and acknowledges the ongoing challenge primary care physicians face when following such evidence based guidelines.

  20. Salt crystallization tests: Focus on their objective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charola, A. Elena; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge; Chwast, Jacek

    Many factors influence the durability of a building material, such as its mechanical resistance, exposure conditions and the presence of soluble salts in it. Since the latter interact with each other, it is difficult to relate any of them to the specific damage observed. Lubelli et al. [1] have...... compatibility of restoration mortars, and another where the efflorescence of gypsum for brick masonry is evaluated. These methods have proven their reliability and lead to the conclusion that salt tests should be designed for specific objectives....

  1. Methods to Prepare Aluminum Salt-Adjuvanted Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Sachin G; Cui, Zhengrong

    2017-01-01

    Many human vaccines contain certain insoluble aluminum salts such as aluminum oxyhydroxide and aluminum hydroxyphosphate as vaccine adjuvants to boost the immunogenicity of the vaccines. Aluminum salts have been used as vaccine adjuvants for decades and have an established, favorable safety profile. However, preparing aluminum salts and aluminum salt-adjuvanted vaccines in a consistent manner remains challenging. This chapter discusses methods to prepare aluminum salts and aluminum salt-adjuvanted vaccines, factors to consider during preparation, and methods to characterize the vaccines after preparation.

  2. Archaeological and chemical evidence for early salt production in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flad, Rowan; Zhu, Jiping; Wang, Changsui; Chen, Pochan; von Falkenhausen, Lothar; Sun, Zhibin; Li, Shuicheng

    2005-01-01

    Salt production and trade is thought to be critical to the development of all states and emergent empires. Until now, however, scientific evidence of early salt production has rarely been presented, and no studies of early Chinese salt production have provided unequivocal proof. Here, we report x-ray fluorescence, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses that demonstrate that salt was the primary product during the first millennium before Christ (B.C.) at Zhongba in Central China. This work provides an early example of salt production discovered in China and presents a methodology for evaluating salt production sites in other regions. PMID:16116100

  3. Assessment of a Salt Reduction Intervention on Adult Population Salt Intake in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Arti; Trieu, Kathy; Santos, Joseph Alvin; Sukhu, Arleen; Schultz, Jimaima; Wate, Jillian; Bell, Colin; Moodie, Marj; Snowdon, Wendy; Ma, Gary; Rogers, Kris; Webster, Jacqui

    2017-12-12

    Reducing population salt intake is a global public health priority due to the potential to save lives and reduce the burden on the healthcare system through decreased blood pressure. This implementation science research project set out to measure salt consumption patterns and to assess the impact of a complex, multi-faceted intervention to reduce population salt intake in Fiji between 2012 and 2016. The intervention combined initiatives to engage food businesses to reduce salt in foods and meals with targeted consumer behavior change programs. There were 169 participants at baseline (response rate 28.2%) and 272 at 20 months (response rate 22.4%). The mean salt intake from 24-h urine samples was estimated to be 11.7 grams per day (g/d) at baseline and 10.3 g/d after 20 months (difference: -1.4 g/day, 95% CI -3.1 to 0.3, p = 0.115). Sub-analysis showed a statistically significant reduction in female salt intake in the Central Division but no differential impact in relation to age or ethnicity. Whilst the low response rate means it is not possible to draw firm conclusions about these changes, the population salt intake in Fiji, at 10.3 g/day, is still twice the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommended maximum intake. This project also assessed iodine intake levels in women of child-bearing age and found that they were within recommended guidelines. Existing policies and programs to reduce salt intake and prevent iodine deficiency need to be maintained or strengthened. Monitoring to assess changes in salt intake and to ensure that iodine levels remain adequate should be built into future surveys.

  4. High Temperature Fluoride Salt Test Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cunningham, Richard Burns [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Fugate, David L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Holcomb, David Eugene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peretz, Fred J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, Dane F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yoder, Jr, Graydon L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Effective high-temperature thermal energy exchange and delivery at temperatures over 600°C has the potential of significant impact by reducing both the capital and operating cost of energy conversion and transport systems. It is one of the key technologies necessary for efficient hydrogen production and could potentially enhance efficiencies of high-temperature solar systems. Today, there are no standard commercially available high-performance heat transfer fluids above 600°C. High pressures associated with water and gaseous coolants (such as helium) at elevated temperatures impose limiting design conditions for the materials in most energy systems. Liquid salts offer high-temperature capabilities at low vapor pressures, good heat transport properties, and reasonable costs and are therefore leading candidate fluids for next-generation energy production. Liquid-fluoride-salt-cooled, graphite-moderated reactors, referred to as Fluoride Salt Reactors (FHRs), are specifically designed to exploit the excellent heat transfer properties of liquid fluoride salts while maximizing their thermal efficiency and minimizing cost. The FHR s outstanding heat transfer properties, combined with its fully passive safety, make this reactor the most technologically desirable nuclear power reactor class for next-generation energy production. Multiple FHR designs are presently being considered. These range from the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) [1] design originally developed by UC-Berkeley to the Small Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (SmAHTR) and the large scale FHR both being developed at ORNL [2]. The value of high-temperature, molten-salt-cooled reactors is also recognized internationally, and Czechoslovakia, France, India, and China all have salt-cooled reactor development under way. The liquid salt experiment presently being developed uses the PB-AHTR as its focus. One core design of the PB-AHTR features multiple 20 cm diameter, 3.2 m long fuel channels

  5. Global Analysis of WRKY Genes and Their Response to Dehydration and Salt Stress in Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hui; Wang, Pengfei; Hou, Lei; Zhao, Shuzhen; Zhao, Chuanzhi; Xia, Han; Li, Pengcheng; Zhang, Ye; Bian, Xiaotong; Wang, Xingjun

    2016-01-01

    WRKY proteins are plant specific transcription factors involved in various developmental and physiological processes, especially in biotic and abiotic stress resistance. Although previous studies suggested that WRKY proteins in soybean (Glycine max var. Williams 82) involved in both abiotic and biotic stress responses, the global information of WRKY proteins in the latest version of soybean genome (Wm82.a2v1) and their response to dehydration and salt stress have not been reported. In this study, we identified 176 GmWRKY proteins from soybean Wm82.a2v1 genome. These proteins could be classified into three groups, namely group I (32 proteins), group II (120 proteins), and group III (24 proteins). Our results showed that most GmWRKY genes were located on Chromosome 6, while chromosome 11, 12, and 20 contained the least number of this gene family. More GmWRKY genes were distributed on the ends of chromosomes to compare with other regions. The cis-acting elements analysis suggested that GmWRKY genes were transcriptionally regulated upon dehydration and salt stress. RNA-seq data analysis indicated that three GmWRKY genes responded negatively to dehydration, and 12 genes positively responded to salt stress at 1, 6, and 12 h, respectively. We confirmed by qRT-PCR that the expression of GmWRKY47 and GmWRKY 58 genes was decreased upon dehydration, and the expression of GmWRKY92, 144 and 165 genes was increased under salt treatment.

  6. The effects of snow and salt on ice table stability in University Valley, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kaj; Heldmann, Jennifer L.; McKay, Christopher P.; Mellon, Michael T.

    2018-01-01

    The Antarctic Dry Valleys represent a unique environment where it is possible to study dry permafrost overlaying an ice-rich permafrost. In this paper, two opposing mechanisms for ice table stability in University Valley are addressed: i) diffusive recharge via thin seasonal snow deposits and ii) desiccation via salt deposits in the upper soil column. A high-resolution time-marching soil and snow model was constructed and applied to University Valley, driven by meteorological station atmospheric measurements. It was found that periodic thin surficial snow deposits (observed in University Valley) are capable of drastically slowing (if not completely eliminating) the underlying ice table ablation. The effects of NaCl, CaCl2 and perchlorate deposits were then modelled. Unlike the snow cover, however, the presence of salt in the soil surface (but no periodic snow) results in a slight increase in the ice table recession rate, due to the hygroscopic effects of salt sequestering vapour from the ice table below. Near-surface pore ice frequently forms when large amounts of salt are present in the soil due to the suppression of the saturation vapour pressure. Implications for Mars high latitudes are discussed.

  7. Amplification of salt-induced polymer diffusiophoresis by increasing salting-out strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, Michele S; Zhang, Huixiang; Annunziata, Onofrio

    2014-10-21

    The role of salting-out strength on (1) polymer diffusiophoresis from high to low salt concentration, and (2) salt osmotic diffusion from high to low polymer concentration was investigated. These two cross-diffusion phenomena were experimentally characterized by Rayleigh interferometry at 25 °C. Specifically, we report ternary diffusion coefficients for polyethylene glycol (molecular weight, 20 kg·mol(-1)) in aqueous solutions of several salts (NaCl, KCl, NH4Cl, CaCl2, and Na2SO4) as a function of salt concentration at low polymer concentration (0.5% w/w). We also measured polymer diffusion coefficients by dynamic light scattering in order to discuss the interpretation of these transport coefficients in the presence of cross-diffusion effects. Our cross-diffusion results, primarily those on salt osmotic diffusion, were utilized to extract N(w), the number of water molecules in thermodynamic excess around a macromolecule. This preferential-hydration parameter characterizes the salting-out strength of the employed salt. For chloride salts, changing cation has a small effect on N(w). However, replacing NaCl with Na2SO4 (i.e., changing anion) leads to a 3-fold increase in N(w), in agreement with cation and anion Hofmeister series. Theoretical arguments show that polymer diffusiophoresis is directly proportional to the difference N(w) - n(w), where n(w) is the number of water molecules transported by the migrating macromolecule. Interestingly, the experimental ratio, n(w)/N(w), was found to be approximately the same for all investigated salts. Thus, the magnitude of polymer diffusiophoresis is also proportional to salting-out strength as described by N(w). A basic hydrodynamic model was examined in order to gain physical insight on the role of n(w) in particle diffusiophoresis and explain the observed invariance of n(w)/N(w). Finally, we consider a steady-state diffusion problem to show that concentration gradients of strong salting-out agents such as Na2SO4 can

  8. Current Levels of Salt Knowledge: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Sarmugam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High salt intake increases the risk of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Given the role of knowledge as a determinant of food intake, this paper aims to review the current levels of salt knowledge and the association between salt knowledge and dietary salt intake and salt-related dietary practices in the general population. Twenty two studies were included in the review. In general, the studies showed consumers were able to identify the health risks associated with high salt intake. However, knowledge of recommended daily intakes, understanding of the relationships between salt and sodium and foods that contribute most salt to the diet were poor. Four of the five studies which examined the relationships between salt knowledge and salt-related dietary practices reported significant associations. Two important gaps in the current literature were identified. First, there is a need for a robustly validated tool to examine salt knowledge and its impact on salt intake. Second, a comprehensive salt knowledge assessment should include assessment of procedural, as well as declarative, knowledge.

  9. Feasibility of salt reduction in processed foods in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, Daniel; Apro, Nicolas; Ferreira, Veronica; Virgolini, Mario; Aguilar, Valentina; Sosa, Miriam; Perel, Pablo; Casas, Juan

    2011-02-01

    To assess an intervention to reduce salt intake based on an agreement with the food industry. Salt content was measured in bakery products through a national survey and biochemical analyses. Low-salt bread was evaluated by a panel of taste testers to determine whether a reduced salt bread could remain undetected. French bread accounts for 25% of the total salt intake in Argentina; hence, reducing its salt concentration from 2% to 1.4% was proposed and tested. A crossover trial was conducted to evaluate the reduction in urinary sodium and blood pressure in participants during consumption of the low-salt bread compared with ordinary bread. Average salt content in bread was 2%. This study evaluated low-salt bread containing 1.4% salt. This reduction remained mostly undetected by the panels of taste testers. In the crossover trial, which included 58 participants, a reduction of 25 milliequivalents in 24 hour urine sodium excretion, a reduction in systolic blood pressure of 1.66 mmHg, and a reduction in diastolic blood pressure of 0.76 mmHg were found during the low-salt bread intake. The study showed that dietary salt reduction was feasible and well accepted in the population studied through a reduction of salt content in bread. Although the effects on urinary sodium and blood pressure were moderate, a country wide intervention could have a greater public health impact.

  10. Suggestopedic/SALT research in English Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Wilson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of research. carried out under the auspices of the Institute for Language Teaching, University of Stellenbosch,l at the Cape Town College of Education. The study tests and evaluates a Remedial Literature Course for English-speaking college students using Suggestopedia!SALT. The subjects in _the remedial and normative groups were English-speaking students in the senior primary class. A ten-week suggestopedic!SALT English Literature Course was developed for the remedial course. Two measuring instruments were used: an English Literary Concepts Test and an Opinionnaire on attitudes towards EnglishLiterature. The validation, treatment and analysis oft he data are discussed. Conclusions and recommendations follow. Die verslag handel oor navorsing aan die Kaapstadse Onderwyskollege onder die beskerming van dielnstituutvir Taalonderrig van die UniversiteitvanStellenbosch.Die ondersoek toets en evalueer 'n remedierende letterkunde kursus vir Engelssprekende kollegestudente waar Suggestopedagogiek!SALT gebruik is. Die studente in die remedierende ennormatiewe groepe was Engelssprekend en in die senior-primere klas. 'n Suggestopediese!SALT Engelsletterkunde- kursus wat 10 weke sou duur, is vir die remedierende kursus ontwerp. Twee meetinstrumente is gebruik: 'n toets van Engels-literere konsepte en' n vraelys oor houdings ten opsigte van Engels-letterkunde. Die geldigverklaring. behandeling en ontleding van data word bespreek. Gevolgtrekkings en aanbevelings volg.

  11. Department of Amplification: The Perpetual Salt Fountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arons, Arnold B.

    1995-01-01

    Presents the story of "The Perpetual Salt Fountain" to illustrate some fairly typical ramifications and vagaries in the workings of science. Outlines the discovery of double diffusive convection and uses the fact that it had been observed in the laboratory a century before its independent rediscovery to emphasize the vagaries of…

  12. Salt for the earthen oven revisited

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    2011-06-07

    Jun 7, 2011 ... translated: 'you are the salt of the earthen oven', whilst Luke. 12:49 is ... The Palestinian Arabic word for kiln oven, ̛arsִa, confirms this understanding (De ..... 2000, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other.

  13. Silicon alleviates salt stress, decreases malondialdehyde content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-20

    Apr 20, 2009 ... Hernandez JA, Corpass FJ, Gomez M, del Río LA, Sevilla F (1993). Salt-induced oxidative stress mediated by active oxygen species in pen leaf mitochondria, Physiol. Plant. 89: 103-110. Hwang SJ, Hamayun M, Kim HY, Na CI, Kim KU, Shin DH, Kim SY, Lee. IJ (2008). Effect of nitrogen and silicon nutrition ...

  14. Bile salts in control of lipid metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Marleen; de Boer, Jan Freark; Groen, Albert K.

    Purpose of review The view on bile salts has evolved over the years from being regarded as simple detergents that aid intestinal absorption of fat-soluble nutrients to being important hormone-like integrators of metabolism. This review provides an update on the rapidly developing field of

  15. Genetic diversity of salt tolerance in Miscanthus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Charlie; Schoot, van der Hanneke; Dehghan, Shiva; Alvim Kamei, Claire L.; Schwarz, Kai Uwe; Meyer, Heike; Visser, Richard G.F.; Linden, van der Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Miscanthus is a woody rhizomatous C4 grass that can be used as a CO2 neutral biofuel resource. It has potential to grow in marginal areas such as saline soils, avoiding competition for arable lands with food crops. This study explored genetic diversity for salt tolerance in Miscanthus and discovered

  16. Fluid inclusions in salt: an annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isherwood, D.J.

    1979-01-26

    An annotated bibliography is presented which was compiled while searching the literature for information on fluid inclusions in salt for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's study on the deep-geologic disposal of nuclear waste. The migration of fluid inclusions in a thermal gradient is a potential hazard to the safe disposal of nuclear waste in a salt repository. At the present time, a prediction as to whether this hazard precludes the use of salt for waste disposal can not be made. Limited data from the Salt-Vault in situ heater experiments in the early 1960's (Bradshaw and McClain, 1971) leave little doubt that fluid inclusions can migrate towards a heat source. In addition to the bibliography, there is a brief summary of the physical and chemical characteristics that together with the temperature of the waste will determine the chemical composition of the brine in contact with the waste canister, the rate of fluid migration, and the brine-canister-waste interactions.

  17. Crushed-salt constitutive model update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Mellegard, K.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

  18. Constitutive behavior of reconsolidating crushed salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.; Mellegard, K.D. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    1998-02-01

    The constitutive model used to describe deformation of crushed salt is presented in this paper. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Recently completed creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from shear consolidation tests and a combination of shear and hydrostatic tests produces two sets of material parameter values for the model. Changes in material parameter values from test group to test group indicate the empirical nature of the model but show significant improvement over earlier work. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on fitting statistics and ability of the model to predict test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

  19. Specific Investigations Related to Salt Rock Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vons, L. H.; Zelikson, A.; Charo, L.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper results are given of work in various countries in rather unrelated areas of research. Nevertheless, since the studies have been undertaken to better understand salt behaviour, both from mechanical and chemical points of view, some connection between the studies can be found. Studies...

  20. Salt for the earthen oven revisited

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    2011-06-07

    Jun 7, 2011 ... for your reward is great in heaven, for so men persecuted the prophets who were before you' (Mt 5:12). Then follows the salt logion. Recall that this culture is agonistic, that is, prone to conflict. It loves arguments, admires insults and honours those who are adept at these indications of mastery of language.

  1. Salt stress signals shape the plant root

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galvan-Ampudia, C.S.; Testerink, C.

    2011-01-01

    Plants use different strategies to deal with high soil salinity. One strategy is activation of pathways that allow the plant to export or compartmentalise salt. Relying on their phenotypic plasticity, plants can also adjust their root system architecture (RSA) and the direction of root growth to

  2. Hybrid Molten Salt Reactor (HMSR) System Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolley, Robert D [PPPL; Miller, Laurence F [PPPL

    2014-04-01

    Can the hybrid system combination of (1) a critical fission Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) having a thermal spectrum and a high Conversion Ratio (CR) with (2) an external source of high energy neutrons provide an attractive solution to the world's expanding demand for energy? The present study indicates the answer is an emphatic yes.

  3. Triethylammonium salt of dimethyl diphenyldithiophosphates: Single ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 128; Issue 6. Triethylammonium salt of dimethyl diphenyldithiophosphates: Single crystal X-ray and DFT analysis. SANDEEP KUMAR RUCHI KHAJURIA MANDEEP KOUR RAKESH KUMAR LOVE KARAN RANA GEETA HUNDAL VIVEK K GUPTA RAJNI KANT SUSHIL K PANDEY.

  4. Synthesis, structure, and properties of azatriangulenium salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, B.W.; Krebs, Frederik C

    2001-01-01

    ), and triazatriangulenium (4), have been synthesized and their physicochemical properties have been investigated. Crystal structures for compounds 2 b-PF6: 2d-PF6, 4b-BF4, 4c-BF4, 6e-BF4, and 8 are reported. The different packing modes found for the triazatriagulenium salts are discussed in relation to the electrostatic...

  5. The Path to Nitrate Salt Disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-16

    The topic is presented in a series of slides arranged according to the following outline: LANL nitrate salt incident as thermal runaway (thermally sensitive surrogates, full-scale tests), temperature control for processing, treatment options and down selection, assessment of engineering options, anticipated control set for treatment, and summary of the overall steps for RNS.

  6. Compound list: imatinib, methanesulfonate salt [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available imatinib, methanesulfonate salt IMA 00186 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-t...ggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/imatinib%2C_methanesulfonate_salt.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ...

  7. Potential effect of salt reduction in processed foods on health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.; Hoogenveen, R.T.; Hoekstra, J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Raaij, van J.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Excessive salt intake has been associated with hypertension and increased cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Reducing salt intake is considered an important public health strategy in the Netherlands. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the health benefits of

  8. Identifying salt stress-responsive transcripts from Roselle ( Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). Identifying the potentially novel transcripts responsible for salt stress tolerance in roselle will increase knowledge of the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress responses. In this study, differential display reverse ...

  9. Formation and development of salt crusts on soil surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Sheng

    2015-12-14

    The salt concentration gradually increases at the soil free surface when the evaporation rate exceeds the diffusive counter transport. Eventually, salt precipitates and crystals form a porous sodium chloride crust with a porosity of 0.43 ± 0.14. After detaching from soils, the salt crust still experiences water condensation and salt deliquescence at the bottom, brine transport across the crust driven by the humidity gradient, and continued air-side precipitation. This transport mechanism allows salt crust migration away from the soil surface at a rate of 5 μm/h forming salt domes above soil surfaces. The surface characteristics of mineral substrates and the evaporation rate affect the morphology and the crystal size of precipitated salt. In particular, substrate hydrophobicity and low evaporation rate suppress salt spreading.

  10. Experiments and Modeling in Support of Generic Salt Repository Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourret, Suzanne Michelle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weaver, Douglas James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Otto, Shawn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jordan, Amy B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zyvoloski, George Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Johnson, Peter Jacob [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-19

    Salt is an attractive material for the disposition of heat generating nuclear waste (HGNW) because of its self-sealing, viscoplastic, and reconsolidation properties (Hansen and Leigh, 2012). The rate at which salt consolidates and the properties of the consolidated salt depend on the composition of the salt, including its content in accessory minerals and moisture, and the temperature under which consolidation occurs. Physicochemical processes, such as mineral hydration/dehydration salt dissolution and precipitation play a significant role in defining the rate of salt structure changes. Understanding the behavior of these complex processes is paramount when considering safe design for disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) in salt formations, so experimentation and modeling is underway to characterize these processes. This report presents experiments and simulations in support of the DOE-NE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) for development of drift-scale, in-situ field testing of HGNW in salt formations.

  11. Zooplankton community of Bhayandar and Thane salt pans around Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mustafa, S.; Nair, V.R.; Govindan, K.

    The zooplankton community of the salt pans of Bhayandar and Thane was studied based on the contribution of microzooplankton and meso-macrozooplankton. Population of microzooplankton was about 4 times more in Bhayandar as compared to Thane salt pan...

  12. Seafloor character--Offshore of Salt Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Salt Point, California (raster data file is included in "SeafloorCharacter_SaltPoint.zip," which...

  13. Mechanical stratification of autochthonous salt: Implications from basin-scale numerical models of rifted margin salt tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ings, Steven; Albertz, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Deformation of salt and sediments owing to the flow of weak evaporites is a common phenomenon in sedimentary basins worldwide, and the resulting structures and thermal regimes have a significant impact on hydrocarbon exploration. Evaporite sequences ('salt') of significant thickness (e.g., >1km) are typically deposited in many cycles of seawater inundation and evaporation in restricted basins resulting in layered autochthonous evaporite packages. However, analogue and numerical models of salt tectonics typically treat salt as a homogeneous viscous material, often with properties of halite, the weakest evaporite. In this study, we present results of two-dimensional plane-strain numerical experiments designed to illustrate the effects of variable evaporite viscosity and embedded frictional-plastic ('brittle') sediment layers on the style of salt flow and associated deformation of the sedimentary overburden. Evaporite viscosity is a first-order control on salt flow rate and the style of overburden deformation. Near-complete evacuation of low-viscosity salt occurs beneath expulsion basins, whereas significant salt is trapped when viscosity is high. Embedded frictional-plastic sediment layers (with finite yield strength) partition salt flow and develop transient contractional structures (folds, thrust faults, and folded faults) in a seaward salt-squeeze flow regime. Multiple internal sediment layers reduce the overall seaward salt flow during sediment aggradation, leaving more salt behind to be re-mobilized during subsequent progradation. This produces more seaward extensive allochthonous salt sheets. If there is a density difference between the embedded layers and the surrounding salt, then the embedded layers 'fractionate' during deformation and either float to the surface or sink to the bottom (depending on density), creating a thick zone of pure halite. Such a process of 'buoyancy fractionation' may partially explain the apparent paradox of layered salt in

  14. saltPAD: A New Analytical Tool for Monitoring Salt Iodization in Low Resource Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas M. Myers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We created a paper test card that measures a common iodizing agent, iodate, in salt. To test the analytical metrics, usability, and robustness of the paper test card when it is used in low resource settings, the South African Medical Research Council and GroundWork performed independ‐ ent validation studies of the device. The accuracy and precision metrics from both studies were comparable. In the SAMRC study, more than 90% of the test results (n=1704 were correctly classified as corresponding to adequately or inadequately iodized salt. The cards are suitable for market and household surveys to determine whether salt is adequately iodized. Further development of the cards will improve their utility for monitoring salt iodization during production.

  15. Arginine increases the solubility of coumarin: comparison with salting-in and salting-out additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Atsushi; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Shiraki, Kentaro

    2008-09-01

    Poor aqueous solubility of low molecular weight drug substances hampers their development as pharmacological agents. Here, we have examined the effects of arginine on the solubility of organic compounds, coumarin, caffeine and benzyl alcohol, in aqueous solution. Arginine increased the solubility of aromatic coumarin, but not non-aromatic caffeine, concentration dependently, suggesting the favourable interaction of arginine with the aromatic structure. Consistent with this, arginine also increased the solubility of aromatic benzyl alcohol. Guanidine hydrochloride, urea and salting-in salts increased both coumarin and caffeine solubilities, while salting-out salts decreased them. These results suggest the specific interaction of arginine with aromatic groups, leading to increased solubility of coumarin. However, the effect of 1 M arginine on coumarin solubility was at most approximately 2-fold, which may limit its applications as a solubility enhancing agent.

  16. The effects of restricted circulation on the salt balance of Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, K.M.; Bolke, E.L.

    1973-01-01

    During the 1970-1972 water years a net load of dissolved solids of 0.26 billion tons moved from the south to north part of Great Salt Lake, Utah, through the causeway of the Southern Pacific Transportation Co. The load loss from the south part during the 1972 water year was only 0.01 billion tons, thus indicating that the salt balance between the two parts of the lake was near equilibrium for inflow conditions such as those of 1972.

  17. Modelling the long-term vertical dynamics of salt marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccarato, Claudia; Teatini, Pietro

    2017-04-01

    Salt marshes are vulnerable environments hosting complex interactions between physical and biological processes with a strong influence on the dynamics of the marsh evolution. The estimation and prediction of the elevation of a salt-marsh platform is crucial to forecast the marsh growth or regression under different scenarios considering, for example, the potential climate changes. The long-term vertical dynamics of a salt marsh is predicted with the aid of an original finite-element (FE) numerical model accounting for the marsh accretion and compaction and for the variation rates of the relative sea level rise, i.e., land subsidence of the marsh basement and eustatic rise of the sea level. The accretion term considers the vertical sedimentation of organic and inorganic material over the marsh surface, whereas the compaction reflects the progressive consolidation of the porous medium under the increasing load of the overlying younger deposits. The modelling approach is based on a 2D groundwater flow simulator, which provides the pressure evolution within a compacting/accreting vertical cross-section of the marsh assuming that the groundwater flow obeys the relative Darcy's law, coupled to a 1D vertical geomechanical module following Terzaghi's principle of effective intergranular stress. Soil porosity, permeability, and compressibility may vary with the effective intergranular stress according to empirically based relationships. The model also takes into account the geometric non-linearity arising from the consideration of large solid grain movements by using a Lagrangian approach with an adaptive FE mesh. The element geometry changes in time to follow the deposit consolidation and the element number increases in time to follow the sedimentation of new material. The numerical model is tested on different realistic configurations considering the influence of (i) the spatial distribution of the sedimentation rate in relation to the distance from the marsh margin, (ii

  18. Effect of biosolid waste compost on soil respiration in salt-affected soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raya, Silvia; Gómez, Ignacio; García, Fuensanta; Navarro, José; Jordán, Manuel Miguel; Belén Almendro, María; Martín Soriano, José

    2013-04-01

    A great part of mediterranean soils are affected by salinization. This is an important problem in semiarid areas increased by the use of low quality waters, the induced salinization due to high phreatic levels and adverse climatology. Salinization affects 25% of irrigated agriculture, producing important losses on the crops. In this situation, the application of organic matter to the soil is one of the possible solutions to improve their quality. The main objective of this research was to asses the relation between the salinity level (electrical conductivity, EC) in the soil and the response of microbial activity (soil respiration rate) after compost addition. The study was conducted for a year. Soil samples were collected near to an agricultural area in Crevillente and Elche, "El Hondo" Natural Park (Comunidad de Regantes from San Felipe Neri). The experiment was developed to determine and quantify the soil respiration rate in 8 different soils differing in salinity. The assay was done in close pots -in greenhouse conditions- containing soil mixed with different doses of sewage sludge compost (2, 4 and 6%) besides the control. They were maintained at 60% of water holding capacity (WHC). Soil samples were analyzed every four months for a year. The equipment used to estimate the soil respiration was a Bac-Trac and CO2 emitted by the soil biota was measured and quantified by electrical impedance changes. It was observed that the respiration rate increases as the proportion of compost added to each sample increases as well. The EC was incremented in each sampling period from the beginning of the experiment, probably due to the fact that soils were in pots and lixiviation was prevented, so the salts couldńt be lost from soil. Over time the compost has been degraded and, it was more susceptible to be mineralized. Salts were accumulated in the soil. Also it was observed a decrease of microbial activity with the increase of salinity in the soil. Keywords: soil

  19. Combinations of fluorinated solvents with imide salts or methide salts for electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikhonov, Konstantin; Yip, Ka Ki; Lin, Tzu-Yuan; Lei, Norman; Guerrero-Zavala, Guillermo; Kwong, Kristie W

    2015-11-10

    Provided are electrochemical cells and electrolytes used to build such cells. The electrolytes include imide salts and/or methide salts as well as fluorinated solvents capable of maintaining single phase solutions at between about -30.degree. C. to about 80.degree. C. The fluorinated solvents, such as fluorinated carbonates, fluorinated esters, and fluorinated esters, are less flammable than their non-fluorinated counterparts and improve safety characteristics of cells containing these solvents. The amount of fluorinated solvents in electrolytes may be between about 30% and 80% by weight not accounting weight of the salts. Linear and cyclic imide salts, such as LiN(SO.sub.2CF.sub.2CF.sub.3).sub.2, and LiN(SO.sub.2CF.sub.3).sub.2, as well as methide salts, such as LiC(SO.sub.2CF.sub.3).sub.3 and LiC(SO.sub.2CF.sub.2CF.sub.3).sub.3, may be used in these electrolytes. Fluorinated alkyl groups enhance solubility of these salts in the fluorinated solvents. In some embodiments, the electrolyte may also include a flame retardant, such as a phosphazene, and/or one or more ionic liquids.

  20. Antioxidant responses of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. seedlings to prolonged salt-induced stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavas Musa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of long-term NaCl treatment were investigated in two cultivars of peanut designated as drought-resistant and drought-sensitive. Growth parameters, changes in the concentrations of MDA, H2O2 and proline, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were determined under salinity stress. Growth parameters indicated the superiority of cv. Florispan to cv. Gazipaşa under milder salinity stress treatment. However, comparative analysis of the two cultivars showed that MDA, H2O2, ion leakage levels and photosystem II activities were not significantly different, except for the proline activity, which increased only in Florispan leaf tissues under 100 mM salt treatment. Among the processes that govern the tolerance in peanut tissues, proline level and the activity of glutathione reductase (GR appeared to be only components that play an important part in salt stress protection.

  1. Health Gain by Salt Reduction in Europe: A Modelling Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Breda, J.; Boshuizen, H.C.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive salt intake is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Salt intake exceeds the World Health Organization population nutrition goal of 5 grams per day in the European region. We assessed the health impact of salt reduction in nine European countries (Finland, France,

  2. 21 CFR 864.2875 - Balanced salt solutions or formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Balanced salt solutions or formulations. 864.2875 Section 864.2875 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Balanced salt solutions or formulations. (a) Identification. A balanced salt solution or formulation is a...

  3. 40 CFR 721.1930 - Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. 721... Substances § 721.1930 Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt (PMN P-94...

  4. Unconjugated bile salts shuttle through hepatocyte peroxisomes for taurine conjugation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rembacz, K.P.; Woudenberg, J.; Hoekstra, M.; Jonkers, E.Z.; Heuvel, F.A. van den; Buist-Homan, M.; Woudenberg-Vrenken, T.E.; Rohacova, J.; Marin, M.L.; Miranda, M.A.; Moshage, H.; Stellaard, F.; Faber, K.N.

    2010-01-01

    Bile acid-CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase (BAAT) conjugates bile salts to glycine or taurine, which is the final step in bile salt biosynthesis. In addition, BAAT is required for reconjugation of bile salts in the enterohepatic circulation. Recently, we showed that BAAT is a peroxisomal protein,

  5. SOLUTION MINING IN SALT DOMES OF THE GULF COAST EMBAYMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griswold, G. B.

    1981-02-01

    Following a description of salt resources in the salt domes of the gulf coast embayment, mining, particularly solution mining, is described. A scenario is constructed which could lead to release of radioactive waste stored in a salt dome via inadvertent solution mining and the consequences of this scenario are analyzed.

  6. Memory processes in the development of reduced-salt foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Vanessa; Bertenshaw, Emma J; Zandstra, Elizabeth H; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2014-12-01

    Acceptance of a reduced-salt food is likely to be influenced by a mismatch between the sensory characteristics of a reformulated product and a memory for a previously-encountered formulation. In two initial pilot studies we established the reliability of a new measure of memory for saltiness, based on a method of constant stimuli. We then used this technique to explore the effects of different patterns of repeated exposure on memory for the taste of a reduced-salt soup. Participants (N = 135) were assigned to one of four exposure patterns: (1) reduced-salt, (2) no salt reduction, i.e. regular-salt, (3) reduced- and regular-salt, in an alternating pattern, and (4) gradually declining salt concentration. In the final session, all participants received an identical reduced-salt soup. Memory for the saltiness of this sample was assessed, together with its expected liking. Our results indicate that different interactions with the test soup had little effect on taste memory. Nevertheless, (1) participants remembered the final exposure soup as saltier than the reduced-salt formulation that they had received and (2) remembered salt concentrations correlated with individual ideal salt concentrations. These findings are consistent with contemporary models of reconstructive memory and they illustrate the importance of understanding 'memory for saltiness' in the acceptance of reduced-salt formulations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Unconjugated Bile Salts Shuttle Through Hepatocyte Peroxisomes for Taurine Conjugation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rembacz, Krzysztof P.; Woudenberg, Jannes; Hoekstra, Mark; Jonkers, Elles Z.; van den Heuvel, Fiona A. J.; Buist-Homan, Manon; Woudenberg-Vrenken, Titia E.; Rohacova, Jana; Luisa Marin, M.; Miranda, Miguel A.; Moshage, Han; Stellaard, Frans; Faber, Klaas Nico

    2010-01-01

    Bile acid-CoA.amino acid N-acyltransferase (BAAT) conjugates bile salts to glycine or taurine, which is the final step in bile salt biosynthesis In addition, BAAT is required for reconjugation of bile salts in the enterohepatic circulation Recently, we showed that BAAT is a peroxisomal protein,

  8. 75 FR 22892 - Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT AGENCY: Federal... transportation improvement project in Salt Lake County, Utah. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Edward Woolford, Environmental Program Manager, Federal Highway Administration, 2520 West 4700 South, Suite 9A, Salt Lake City...

  9. 75 FR 9476 - Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT AGENCY: Federal... transportation improvement project in Salt Lake County, Utah. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bryan Dillon, Area Engineer, Federal Highway Administration, 2520 West 4700 South, Suite 9A, Salt Lake City, UT 84118...

  10. Recent Trends in Bird Abundance on Rhode Island Salt Marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salt marsh habitat is under pressure from development on the landward side, and sea level rise from the seaward side. The resulting loss of habitat is potentially disastrous for salt marsh dependent species. To assess the population status of three species of salt marsh dependent...

  11. Response of Tomato Genotypes to Induced Salt Stress | Agong ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirteen tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) genotypes were subjected to salt treatment under hydroponics and their responses monitored in a set of two experiments with the objective of advancing them as potential salt tolerant tomato scion and/or rootstocks. Salt applications ranged from 0 to 2% NaCl, with the resultant ...

  12. Salt balance, fresh water residence time and budget for non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water and salt budgets suggest that in order to balance the inflow and outflow of water at Makoba bay, there is net flux of water from the bay to the open ocean during wet season. Residual salt fluxes between the bay and the open ocean indicate advective salt export. Exchange of water between the bay with the open ocean ...

  13. 40 CFR 721.4660 - Alcohol, alkali metal salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcohol, alkali metal salt. 721.4660... Substances § 721.4660 Alcohol, alkali metal salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as alcohol, alkali metal salt (PMN P-91-151) is...

  14. 40 CFR 721.6080 - Phosphonium salt (generic name).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphonium salt (generic name). 721... Substances § 721.6080 Phosphonium salt (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance phosphonium salt (PMN Number P-84-820) is subject to...

  15. Transition at the deliquesce point in single salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2014-01-01

    the increasing numbers of thin film water till 20 mbar at 25˚C whereas the deliquescence point is at 24 mbar. These results suggest a stepwise change in the state of the salt. During preparation to salt calibration tests (in a Dynamic Vapour Sorption equipment (DVS)) the author noticed that some single salts...

  16. Chemical analysis of the Assale (Ethiopia) rock salt deposit | Binega ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    contaminants) elements found in the Assale (Ethiopia) rock salt. The results showed that the rock salt is found to be the best natural common salt. This was proved by comparison with the chemical requirement and trace elements in common ...

  17. Identification of genes induced by salt stress from Medicago ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to identify genes induced during the salt stress response in barrel medic (Medicago truncatula L) seedlings, a cDNA library by salt stress was constructed by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). Total RNA from 15-day-old seedlings was used as a 'driver', and total RNA from seedlings induced by salt was ...

  18. Enhanced antioxidative responses of a salt-resistant wheat cultivar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... Wheat cultivars capable of accumulating minerals under salt stress are of considerable interest for their potential to improve crop productivity and crop quality. This study addressed the role of antioxidative enzymes in the responses of a salt-resistant wheat cultivar Cang 6001 to high-salt stress compared to ...

  19. 40 CFR 721.2093 - Alkenyl carboxylate, metal salt (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkenyl carboxylate, metal salt... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2093 Alkenyl carboxylate, metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkenyl carboxylate, metal salt (PMN P-99-0848) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10028 - Disubstituted benzene metal salts (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disubstituted benzene metal salts... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10028 Disubstituted benzene metal salts (generic). (a) Chemical... as disubstituted benzene metal salts (PMNs P-01-901 and P-01-902) are subject to reporting under this...

  1. Water and salt balances of two shallow groundwater cropping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salt tends to accumulate in poorly drained soils under irrigation if inadequate water and salt management practices are applied. Furthermore, over- irrigation may deteriorate the quality of water resources, because of salt pollution resulting from excessive drainage and leaching (United States Salinity Laboratory Staff, 1954; ...

  2. Nutrition in cardiovascular disease: salt in hypertension and heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Feng J; Burnier, Michel; Macgregor, Graham A

    2011-12-01

    There is much evidence for a causal relationship between salt intake and blood pressure (BP). The current salt intake in many countries is between 9 and 12 g/day. A reduction in salt intake to the recommended level of 5-6 g/day lowers BP in both hypertensive and normotensive individuals. A further reduction to 3-4 g/day has a much greater effect. Prospective studies and outcome trials have demonstrated that a lower salt intake is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Increasing evidence also suggests that a high salt intake is directly related to left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) independent of BP. Both raised BP and LVH are important risk factors for heart failure. It is therefore possible that a lower salt intake could prevent the development of heart failure. In patients who already have heart failure, a high salt intake aggravates the retention of salt and water, thereby exacerbating heart failure symptoms and progression of the disease. A lower salt intake plays an important role in the management of heart failure. Despite this, currently there is no clear evidence on how far salt intake should be reduced in heart failure. Our personal view is that these patients should reduce their salt intake to <5 g/day, i.e. the maximum intake recommended by the World Health Organisation for all adults. If salt intake is successfully reduced, there may well be a need for a reduction in diuretic dosage.

  3. Effect of hurricanes and violent storms on salt marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, N.; Ganju, N. K.; Fagherazzi, S.

    2016-12-01

    Salt marsh losses have been documented worldwide because of land use change, wave erosion, and sea-level rise. It is still unclear how resistant salt marshes are to extreme storms and whether they can survive multiple events without collapsing. Based on a large dataset of salt marsh lateral erosion rates collected around the world, here, we determine the general response of salt marsh boundaries to wave action under normal and extreme weather conditions. As wave energy increases, salt marsh response to wind waves remains linear, and there is not a critical threshold in wave energy above which salt marsh erosion drastically accelerates. We apply our general formulation for salt marsh erosion to historical wave climates at eight salt marsh locations affected by hurricanes in the United States. Based on the analysis of two decades of data, we find that violent storms and hurricanes contribute less than 1% to long-term salt marsh erosion rates. In contrast, moderate storms with a return period of 2.5 mo are those causing the most salt marsh deterioration. Therefore, salt marshes seem more susceptible to variations in mean wave energy rather than changes in the extremes. The intrinsic resistance of salt marshes to violent storms and their predictable erosion rates during moderate events should be taken into account by coastal managers in restoration projects and risk management plans.

  4. How Do Changes to the Railroad Causeway in Utah's Great Salt Lake Affect Water and Salt Flow?: e0144111

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James S White; Sarah E Null; David G Tarboton

    2015-01-01

      Managing terminal lake elevation and salinity are emerging problems worldwide. We contribute to terminal lake management research by quantitatively assessing water and salt flow for Utah's Great Salt Lake...

  5. On the salt-induced activation of lyophilized enzymes in organic solvents: Effect of salt kosmotropicity on enzyme activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ru, M.T.; Hirokane, S.Y.; Lo, A.S.; Dordick, J.S.; Reimer, J.A.; Clark, D.S.

    2000-03-01

    The dramatic activation of enzymes in nonaqueous media upon co-lyophilization with simple inorganic salts has been investigated as a function of the Jones-Dole B coefficient, a thermodynamic parameter for characterizing the salt's affinity for water and its chaotropic (water-structure breaking) or kosmotropic (water-structure making) character. In general, the water content, active-site content, and transesterification activity of freeze-dried subtilisin Carlsberg preparations containing >96% w/w salt increased with increasing kosmotropicity of the activating salt. Degrees of activation relative to the salt-free enzyme ranged from 33-fold for chaotropic sodium iodide to 2,480-fold for kosmotropic sodium acetate. Exceptions to the general trend can be explained by the mechanical properties and freezing characteristics of the salts undergoing lyophilization. The profound activating effect can thus be attributed in part to the stabilizing (salting-out) effect of kosmotropic salts and the phenomenon of preferential hydration.

  6. Effects of Renin-Angiotensin System Inhibitors on Renal Expression of Renalase in Sprague-Dawley Rats Fed With High Salt Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Xie, Bing-Qing; Gao, Wei-Hua; Yan, Ding-Yi; Zheng, Wen-Ling; Lv, Yong-Bo; Cao, Yu-Meng; Hu, Jia-Wen; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Mu, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of high-salt diet on the renal expression of renalase and the potential role of the local renin-angiotensin system in this process. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into groups according to salt content in diet and drug treatment as follows: normal-salt diet (NS), high-salt diet (HS), high-salt intake with hydralazine (HS+H), high-salt diet with enalapril (HS+E), and high-salt diet with valsartan (HS+V). The dietary intervention and drugs were given for four weeks. Renin activity and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) levels were detected by real-time PCR. Renalase mRNA and protein were also measured. After four weeks, systolic blood pressure and proteinuria were significantly increased in the HS group with respect to the NS group. Dietary salt intake caused a dramatic decrease in renalase expression in the rat kidneys. Renal cortex renin and AT1R increased significantly in the HS and HS+H groups. Urinary protein was positively correlated with renal renin and AT1R levels. However, in the HS+E and HS+V groups, enalapril and valsartan failed to influence renal renalase expression but abolished the increase in proteinuria, renal cortex renin, and AT1R levels with respect to the HS group. This study indicates that high salt intake reduces renal expression, and renal RAS may be not involved in the regulation of renalase in SD rats fed with high-salt diet. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Exogenous proline and glycine betaine mediated upregulation of antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems provides better protection against salt-induced oxidative stress in two rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Alam, Md Mahabub; Rahman, Anisur; Hasanuzzaman, Md; Nahar, Kamrun; Fujita, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the roles of exogenous proline (Pro, 5 mM) and glycine betaine (GB, 5 mM) in improving salt stress tolerance in salt sensitive (BRRI dhan49) and salt tolerant (BRRI dhan54) rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties. Salt stresses (150 and 300 mM NaCl for 48 h) significantly reduced leaf relative water (RWC) and chlorophyll (chl) content and increased endogenous Pro and increased lipid peroxidation and H2O2 levels. Ascorbate (AsA), glutathione (GSH) and GSH/GSSG, ascorbate peroxidae (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), and glyoxalase I (Gly I) activities were reduced in sensitive variety and these were increased in tolerant variety due to salt stress. The glyoxalase II (Gly II), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were increased in both cultivars by salt stress. Exogenous Pro and GB application with salt stress improved physiological parameters and reduced oxidative damage in both cultivars where BRRI dhan54 showed better tolerance. The result suggests that exogenous application of Pro and GB increased rice seedlings' tolerance to salt-induced oxidative damage by upregulating their antioxidant defense system where these protectants rendered better performance to BRRI dhan54 and Pro can be considered as better protectant than GB.

  8. Exogenous Proline and Glycine Betaine Mediated Upregulation of Antioxidant Defense and Glyoxalase Systems Provides Better Protection against Salt-Induced Oxidative Stress in Two Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Alam, Md. Mahabub; Rahman, Anisur; Hasanuzzaman, Md.; Nahar, Kamrun; Fujita, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the roles of exogenous proline (Pro, 5 mM) and glycine betaine (GB, 5 mM) in improving salt stress tolerance in salt sensitive (BRRI dhan49) and salt tolerant (BRRI dhan54) rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties. Salt stresses (150 and 300 mM NaCl for 48 h) significantly reduced leaf relative water (RWC) and chlorophyll (chl) content and increased endogenous Pro and increased lipid peroxidation and H2O2 levels. Ascorbate (AsA), glutathione (GSH) and GSH/GSSG, ascorbate peroxidae (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), and glyoxalase I (Gly I) activities were reduced in sensitive variety and these were increased in tolerant variety due to salt stress. The glyoxalase II (Gly II), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were increased in both cultivars by salt stress. Exogenous Pro and GB application with salt stress improved physiological parameters and reduced oxidative damage in both cultivars where BRRI dhan54 showed better tolerance. The result suggests that exogenous application of Pro and GB increased rice seedlings' tolerance to salt-induced oxidative damage by upregulating their antioxidant defense system where these protectants rendered better performance to BRRI dhan54 and Pro can be considered as better protectant than GB. PMID:24991566

  9. Exogenous Proline and Glycine Betaine Mediated Upregulation of Antioxidant Defense and Glyoxalase Systems Provides Better Protection against Salt-Induced Oxidative Stress in Two Rice (Oryza sativa L. Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Hasanuzzaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the roles of exogenous proline (Pro, 5 mM and glycine betaine (GB, 5 mM in improving salt stress tolerance in salt sensitive (BRRI dhan49 and salt tolerant (BRRI dhan54 rice (Oryza sativa L. varieties. Salt stresses (150 and 300 mM NaCl for 48 h significantly reduced leaf relative water (RWC and chlorophyll (chl content and increased endogenous Pro and increased lipid peroxidation and H2O2 levels. Ascorbate (AsA, glutathione (GSH and GSH/GSSG, ascorbate peroxidae (APX, monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, catalase (CAT, and glyoxalase I (Gly I activities were reduced in sensitive variety and these were increased in tolerant variety due to salt stress. The glyoxalase II (Gly II, glutathione S-transferase (GST, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities were increased in both cultivars by salt stress. Exogenous Pro and GB application with salt stress improved physiological parameters and reduced oxidative damage in both cultivars where BRRI dhan54 showed better tolerance. The result suggests that exogenous application of Pro and GB increased rice seedlings’ tolerance to salt-induced oxidative damage by upregulating their antioxidant defense system where these protectants rendered better performance to BRRI dhan54 and Pro can be considered as better protectant than GB.

  10. Molten-salt reactor program. Semiannual progress report for period ending February 29, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeese, L.E.

    1976-08-01

    Separate abstracts and indexing were prepared for sections dealing with MSBR design and development; chemistry of fuel-salt and coolant-salt systems and analytical methods; materials development; fuel processing for molten-salt reactors; and salt production. (DG)

  11. Estabilidade dos carotenoides,antocianinas e vitamina C presentes no suco tropical de acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC. adoçado envasado pelos processos Hot-Fill e asséptico Stability of carotenoids, anthocyanins and vitamin C presents in acerola sweetened tropical juice preserved by hot fill and aseptic processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claisa Andréa Silva de Freitas

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available As frutas tropicais são muito aceitas pelos consumidores, e são importantes fontes de componentes antioxidantes. A acerola, conhecida por conter grandes quantidades de vitamina C, é também rica em antocianinas e carotenóides. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a estabilidade dos carotenóides totais, antocianinas totais e vitamina C do suco tropical de acerola adoçado, elaborado pelos processos Hot Fill (garrafas de vidro e asséptico (embalagens cartonadas, durante 350 dias de armazenamento em condições similares às de comercialização (28ºC ± 2ºC. Ao final do experimento observou-se que não houve perdas de antocianinas totais para o processo Hot Fill, no entanto, para o processo asséptico constatou-se uma redução de 86,89% dos teores iniciais. Os valores de carotenóides totais permaneceram inalterados nas amostras do processo asséptico, enquanto nas do Hot Fill houve uma redução de 12,5%. Constatou-se redução nos teores de vitamina C da ordem de 23,61% para o processo Hot Fill e de 35,95% para o processo asséptico.Tropical fruits are widely accepted by consumers, and important sources of antioxidant compounds. Acerola, known to have high vitamin C levels, is also rich in anthocyanins and carotenoids. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the stability of the total carotenoids, total anthocyanins and ascorbic acid of the acerola sweetened tropical juice produced by the Hot Fill (glass bottles and aseptic (packings carton process during 350 days of storage in similar conditions of trade (28ºC ± 2ºC. It was observed that there were not losses of total anthocyanins for the process Hot Fill, however for the aseptic process a reduction of 86.89% of the initial values was observed. The values of total corotenoids stayed unaffected in the samples of the aseptic process, while in the one of the Hot Fill there was a reduction of 12.5%. A reduction in the values of ascorbic acid of 23.61% was observed for the Hot

  12. Effect of Byproducts of Flue Gas Desulfurization on the Soluble Salts Composition and Chemical Properties of Sodic Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinman; Bai, Zhongke; Yang, Peiling

    2013-01-01

    The byproducts of flue gas desulfurization (BFGD) are a useful external source of Ca2+ for the reclamation of sodic soils because they are comparatively cheap, generally available and have high gypsum content. The ion solution composition of sodic soils also plays an important role in the reclamation process. The effect of BFGD on the soluble salts composition and chemical properties of sodic soils were studied in a soil column experiment. The experiment consisted of four treatments using two different sodic soils (sodic soil I and sodic soil II) and two BFGD rates. After the application of BFGD and leaching, the soil soluble salts were transformed from sodic salts containing Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 to neutral salts containing NaCl and Na2SO4. The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), pH and electrical conductivity (EC) decreased at all soil depths, and more significantly in the top soil depth. At a depth of 0–40 cm in both sodic soil I and sodic soil II, the SAR, EC and pH were less than 13, 4 dS m−1 and 8.5, respectively. The changes in the chemical properties of the sodic soils reflected the changes in the ion composition of soluble salts. Leaching played a key role in the reclamation process and the reclamation effect was positively associated with the amount of leaching. The soil salts did not accumulate in the top soil layer, but there was a slight increase in the middle and bottom soil depths. The results demonstrate that the reclamation of sodic soils using BFGD is promising. PMID:23936481

  13. Effect of byproducts of flue gas desulfurization on the soluble salts composition and chemical properties of sodic soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinman; Bai, Zhongke; Yang, Peiling

    2013-01-01

    The byproducts of flue gas desulfurization (BFGD) are a useful external source of Ca(2+) for the reclamation of sodic soils because they are comparatively cheap, generally available and have high gypsum content. The ion solution composition of sodic soils also plays an important role in the reclamation process. The effect of BFGD on the soluble salts composition and chemical properties of sodic soils were studied in a soil column experiment. The experiment consisted of four treatments using two different sodic soils (sodic soil I and sodic soil II) and two BFGD rates. After the application of BFGD and leaching, the soil soluble salts were transformed from sodic salts containing Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 to neutral salts containing NaCl and Na2SO4. The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), pH and electrical conductivity (EC) decreased at all soil depths, and more significantly in the top soil depth. At a depth of 0-40 cm in both sodic soil I and sodic soil II, the SAR, EC and pH were less than 13, 4 dS m(-1) and 8.5, respectively. The changes in the chemical properties of the sodic soils reflected the changes in the ion composition of soluble salts. Leaching played a key role in the reclamation process and the reclamation effect was positively associated with the amount of leaching. The soil salts did not accumulate in the top soil layer, but there was a slight increase in the middle and bottom soil depths. The results demonstrate that the reclamation of sodic soils using BFGD is promising.

  14. Effect of byproducts of flue gas desulfurization on the soluble salts composition and chemical properties of sodic soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinman Wang

    Full Text Available The byproducts of flue gas desulfurization (BFGD are a useful external source of Ca(2+ for the reclamation of sodic soils because they are comparatively cheap, generally available and have high gypsum content. The ion solution composition of sodic soils also plays an important role in the reclamation process. The effect of BFGD on the soluble salts composition and chemical properties of sodic soils were studied in a soil column experiment. The experiment consisted of four treatments using two different sodic soils (sodic soil I and sodic soil II and two BFGD rates. After the application of BFGD and leaching, the soil soluble salts were transformed from sodic salts containing Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 to neutral salts containing NaCl and Na2SO4. The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, pH and electrical conductivity (EC decreased at all soil depths, and more significantly in the top soil depth. At a depth of 0-40 cm in both sodic soil I and sodic soil II, the SAR, EC and pH were less than 13, 4 dS m(-1 and 8.5, respectively. The changes in the chemical properties of the sodic soils reflected the changes in the ion composition of soluble salts. Leaching played a key role in the reclamation process and the reclamation effect was positively associated with the amount of leaching. The soil salts did not accumulate in the top soil layer, but there was a slight increase in the middle and bottom soil depths. The results demonstrate that the reclamation of sodic soils using BFGD is promising.

  15. Balance between salt stress and endogenous hormones influence dry matter accumulation in Jerusalem artichoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Tianyun; Li, Lingling; Wu, Yawen; Chen, Manxia; Long, Xiaohua; Shao, Hongbo; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed

    2016-10-15

    Salinity is one of the most serious environmental stresses limiting agricultural production. Production of Jerusalem artichoke on saline land is strategically important for using saline land resources. The interaction between plant hormones and salinity stress in governing Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) growth is unclear. Jerusalem artichoke (variety Nanyu-1) was grown under variable salinity stress in the field, and a role of endogenous hormones [zeatin (ZT), auxins (IAA), gibberellins (GA3) and abscisic acid (ABA)] in regulating sugar and dry matter accumulation in tubers was characterized. Under mild salt stress (≤2.2gNaClkg(-1) soil), Nanyu-1 grew well with no significant alteration of dry matter distribution to stems and tubers. In contrast, under moderate salt stress (2.7gNaClkg(-1) soil), the distribution to stem decreased and to tubers decreased significantly. Mild salt stress induced sugar accumulation in tubers at the beginning of the tuber-expansion period, but significantly inhibited (i) transfer of non-reducing sugars to tubers, and (ii) polymerization and accumulation of fructan during the tuber-expansion stage. Under different salinity stress, before the stolon growth, the ratio of IAA/ABA in leaves increased significantly and that of GA3/ABA increased slightly; during tuber development, these ratios continued to decrease and reached the minimum late in the tuber-expansion period. While, salt stress inhibited (i) underground dry matter accumulation, (ii) tuber dry matter accumulation efficiency, (iii) transport of non-reducing sugars to tubers, and (iv) fructan accumulation efficiency during the tuber-expansion period; these effects were accompanied by significantly decreased tuber yield with an increase in salinity. With soil salinity increasing, the synthesis of IAA and GA3 was inhibited in leaves and tubers, while ABA synthesis was stimulated. In brief, tuber yield would significantly decreased with the increase of salinity

  16. (ii) and ni (ii) complexes with n

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    II) complexes with a. Schiff base derived from. 4-dimetylamino benzaldehyde and primary amines. The chemical analysis data showed the formation of (1:1) metal - ligand ratio and a square planar geometry was suggested for Co(II) and Ni(II) ...

  17. manganese(II) and uranyl(II)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paper electrophoresis is used for the study of equilibria in binary complex systems in solution. The stability constants of ML and ML2 complex species of some metal ions copper(II), manganese(II) and uranyl(II) with a-aminobutenoic acid and hydroxyproline were determined at an ionic strength of 0.1 M and 35 ºC.

  18. Elizabeth II uus kunstigalerii

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Tähistamaks oma troonile asumise 50. aastapäeva, avab Elizabeth II 6. II 2002 Buckinghami palees uue kunstigalerii, mis ehitatakse palee tiibhoonena. Arhitekt John Simpson. Elizabeth II kunstikogust

  19. Salt disposition alternatives filtration at SRTC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, B. W.; Hobbs, D.

    2000-01-27

    Several of the prospective salt disposition alternative technologies require a monosodium titanate (MST) contact to remove strontium and actinides from inorganic salt solution feedstock. This feedstock also contains sludge solids from waste removal operations and may contain defoamers added in the evaporator systems. Filtration is required to remove the sludge and MST solids before sending the salt solution for further processing. This report describes testing performed using the Parallel Theological Experimental Filter (PREF). The PREF contains two single tube Mott sintered metal crossflow filters. For this test one filter was isolated so that the maximum velocities could be achieved. Previous studies showed slurries of MST and sludge in the presence of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) were filterable since the NaTPB slurry formed a filter cake which aided in removing the smaller MST and sludge particles. Some of the salt disposition alternative technologies do not use NaTPB raising the question of how effective crossflow filtration is with a feed stream containing only sludge and MST. Variables investigated included axial velocity, transmembrane pressure, defoamer effects, and solids concentration (MST and sludge). Details of the tests are outlined in the technical report WSRC-RP-98-O0691. Key conclusions from this study are: (1) Severe fouling of the Mott sintered metal filter did not occur with any of the solutions filtered. (2) The highest fluxes, in the range of .46 to 1.02 gpm/f{sup 2}, were obtained when salt solution decanted from settled solids was fed to the filter. These fluxes would achieve 92 to 204 gpm filtrate production for the current ITP filters. The filtrate fluxes were close to the flux of 0.42 gpm/f{sup 2} reported for In Tank Precipitation Salt Solution by Morrisey. (3) For the range of solids loading studied, the filter flux ranged from .04 to .17 gpm/f{sup 2} which would result in a filtrate production rate of 9 to 31 gpm for the current HP

  20. Health and economic impacts of eight different dietary salt reduction interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhung Nghiem

    Full Text Available Given the high importance of dietary sodium (salt as a global disease risk factor, our objective was to compare the impact of eight sodium reduction interventions, including feasible and more theoretical ones, to assist prioritisation.Epidemiological modelling and cost-utility analysis were performed using a Markov macro-simulation model. The setting was New Zealand (NZ (2.3 million citizens, aged 35+ years which has detailed individual-level administrative cost data.Of the most feasible interventions, the largest health gains were from (in descending order: (i mandatory 25% reduction in sodium levels in all processed foods; (ii the package of interventions performed in the United Kingdom (UK; (iii mandatory 25% reduction in sodium levels in bread, processed meats and sauces; (iv media campaign (as per a previous UK one; (v voluntary food labelling as currently used in NZ; (vi dietary counselling as currently used in NZ. Even larger health gains came from the more theoretical options of a "sinking lid" on the amount of food salt released to the national market to achieve an average adult intake of 2300 mg sodium/day (211,000 QALYs gained, 95% uncertainty interval: 170,000-255,000, and from a salt tax. All the interventions produced net cost savings (except counseling--albeit still cost-effective. Cost savings were especially large with the sinking lid (NZ$ 1.1 billion, US$ 0.7 billion. Also the salt tax would raise revenue (up to NZ$ 452 million/year. Health gain per person was greater for Māori (indigenous population men and women compared to non-Māori.This study substantially expands on the range of previously modelled salt reduction interventions and suggests that some of these might achieve major health gains and major cost savings (particularly the regulatory interventions. They could also reduce ethnic inequalities in health.