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Sample records for assaying successful cognitive

  1. Cognitive Tools for Successful Branding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Lorena Perez

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to fill a gap in current studies on the semantics of branding. Through the analysis of a number of well-known international brand names, we provide ample evidence supporting the claim that a finite set of cognitive operations, such as those of domain reduction and expansion, mitigation, and strengthening, among others, can…

  2. [Mindfulness, cognitive function and 'successful ageing'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxtel, M.P. van; Speckens, A.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    MINDFULNESS, COGNITIVE FUNCTION AND 'SUCCESSFUL AGEING': There is ample empirical evidence that cultivation of mindfulness in dedicated target populations has positive health effects, specifically in the context of stress management and mental disorders. Research into the effectiveness of mindfulnes

  3. Cognitive predictors of success in learning Russian.

    OpenAIRE

    Verbitskaya, L.A.; Malykh, S. B.; Zinchenko, Yu.P.; Tikhomirova, T.N.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the role of cognitive characteristics in the success in learning Russian, assessed through teachers’ grades and test scores on standardized state exams. This paper examines the relationship between cognitive characteristics, such as nonverbal intelligence, working memory and speed of information processing, and the results of the Unified State Exam for 11th grade students, the Basic State Exam for 9th grade students and the traditional assessment of Russian language le...

  4. Cognitive predictors of success in learning Russian

    OpenAIRE

    VERBITSKAYA LUDMILA A.; MALYKH SERGEY B.; ZINCHENKO YURY P.; TIKHOMIROVA TATIANA N.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the role of cognitive characteristics in the success in learning Russian, assessed through teachers’ grades and test scores on standardized state exams. This paper examines the relationship between cognitive characteristics, such as nonverbal intelligence, working memory and speed of information processing, and the results of the Unified State Exam for 11 th grade students, the Basic State Exam for 9 th grade students and the traditional assessment of Russian language lear...

  5. Predictably irrational: assaying cognitive inflexibility in mouse models of schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Brigman, Jonathan L.

    2010-01-01

    The development of sophisticated, translatable mouse-based assays modeling the behavioral manifestations of neuropsychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia has lagged the advances in molecular and genomic techniques. Our laboratory has made efforts to fill this gap by investing in the development of novel assays, including adapting a touchscreen-based method for measuring cognitive and executive functions for use in mice. As part of these efforts, a recent study by Brigman et al. (2009) inv...

  6. Predictably irrational: assaying cognitive inflexibility in mouse models of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan L Brigman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of sophisticated, translatable mouse-based assays modeling the behavioral manifestations of neuropsychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia has lagged the advances in molecular and genomic techniques. Our laboratory has made efforts to fill this gap by investing in the development of novel assays, including adapting a touchscreen-based method for measuring cognitive and executive functions for use in mice. As part of these efforts, a recent study by Brigman et al. (2009 investigated the effects of subchronic phencyclidine (PCP treatment on mouse touchscreen-based pairwise visual discrimination and reversal learning. Here, we summarize the results of that study and place them in the larger context of ongoing efforts to develop valid mouse ‘models’ of schizophrenia, with a focus on reversal learning and other measures of cognitive flexibility. Touchscreen-based systems could provide a tractable platform for fully utilizing the mouse to elucidate the pathophysiology of cognitive inflexibility in schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders.

  7. Potential factors that may promote successful cognitive aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vance DE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available David E VanceCenter for Nursing Research, School of Nursing, Edward R Roybal Center for Translational Research in Aging and Mobility, University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB, Birmingham, AL, USAAbstract: With the unprecedented number of older adults worldwide, it is important to consider ways of facilitating successful cognitive aging. One way to think of this is by augmenting or bolstering cognitive reserve. Loosely defined, cognitive reserve is considered a neurological reservoir that can be depleted by physiological insults (eg, white matter hyperintensities, oxidative stress to the brain but yet maintain optimal cognitive functioning. Cognitive reserve is built up or depleted by processes of positive and negative neuroplasticity, respectively. Lifestyle factors such as physical exercise (+, mental stimulation (+, good sleep hygiene (+, substance abuse (-, sedentary lifestyle (-, chronic stress and depression (-, social isolation (-, and poor health (- can either promote or discourage positive and negative neuroplasticity, which in turn impacts cognitive reserve. Nurses are encouraged to understand these processes so they can help facilitate successful cognitive aging in their patients.Keywords: cognitive reserve, Alzheimer's disease, neuroplasticity

  8. Cognitive Success: Instrumental Justifications of Normative Systems of Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard eSchurz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of the paper (sec. 1-4, I argue that Elqayam and Evan's (2011 distinction between normative and instrumental conceptions of cognitive rationality corresponds to deontological versus teleological accounts in meta-ethics. I suggest that Elqayam and Evans' distinction be replaced by the distinction between a-priori intuition-based versus a-posteriori success-based accounts of cognitive rationality. The value of cognitive success lies in its instrumental rationality for almost-all practical purposes. In the second part (sec. 5-7, I point out that the Elqayam and Evans's distinction between normative and instrumental rationality is coupled with a second distinction: between logically general versus locally adaptive accounts of rationality. I argue that these are two independent distinctions should be treated as independent dimensions. I also demonstrate that logically general systems of reasoning can be instrumentally justified. However, such systems can only be cognitively successful if they are paired with successful inductive reasoning, which is the area where the program of adaptive (ecological rationality emerged, because there are no generally optimal inductive reasoning methods. I argue that the practical necessity of reasoning under changing environments constitutes a dilemma for ecological rationality, which I attempt to solve a dual account of rationality.

  9. Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Characteristics as Determinants of Success in Professional Courses at Undergraduate Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zebun N.   Khan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Professional education is the principle means of the developing the human resource. Students who do not perform well in professional courses are not in any way better than those who do not have professional knowledge, because their chances of employment and efficient working are bleak. The present study attempted to examine success in different professional courses at undergraduate level in relation to cognitive and non-cognitive characteristics. Approach: The sample of 450 students (girls and boys was selected from medical, engineering, law, library science and teacher education of AMU Aligarh India. The population was taken to be reasonably homogenous from the socio economic point of view. It also caters students from the whole country. Suitable Psychological tests were administered on the subjects of the present study to obtain scores on cognitive (intelligence and creativity and non-cognitive (personality characteristics and socio-economic status variables. The final achievement scores (at the completion of their respective courses of the students were considered to be criterion variable. Attempts were made to see that scores obtained satisfy the basic assumption of correlational techniques. Results: The engineering students were at the highest intellectual level while the group of medicine students stands second. The other groups, in descending order were library science and teacher education. Significant relationships between creativity with academic achievement irrespective of professional courses were studied. The personality factors such as-reservedness, impulsiveness, dominance, expediency, harshness and perseverance were found to be the best predictors of success in above professional courses. Socio-economic Status was measured in terms of scores and it was found that socio-economic status had a significant and positive correlation with successful achievement in the professional courses viz engineering, medicine

  10. A problem with problem solving: motivational traits, but not cognition, predict success on novel operant foraging tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Horik, Jayden O.; Madden, Joah R.

    2016-01-01

    Rates of innovative foraging behaviours and success on problem-solving tasks are often used to assay differences in cognition, both within and across species. Yet the cognitive features of some problem-solving tasks can be unclear. As such, explanations that attribute cognitive mechanisms to individual variation in problem-solving performance have revealed conflicting results. We investigated individual consistency in problem-solving performances in captive-reared pheasant chicks, Phasianus colchicus, and addressed whether success depends on cognitive processes, such as trial-and-error associative learning, or whether performances may be driven solely via noncognitive motivational mechanisms, revealed through subjects' willingness to approach, engage with and persist in their interactions with an apparatus, or via physiological traits such as body condition. While subjects' participation and success were consistent within the same problems and across similar tasks, their performances were inconsistent across different types of task. Moreover, subjects' latencies to approach each test apparatus and their attempts to access the reward were not repeatable across trials. Successful individuals did not improve their performances with experience, nor were they consistent in their techniques in repeated presentations of a task. However, individuals that were highly motivated to enter the experimental chamber were more likely to participate. Successful individuals were also faster to approach each test apparatus and more persistent in their attempts to solve the tasks than unsuccessful individuals. Our findings therefore suggest that individual differences in problem-solving success can arise from inherent motivational differences alone and hence be achieved without inferring more complex cognitive processes.

  11. Successful Aging and Longevity in Older Old Women: The Role of Depression and Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Paulson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Based in successful aging theory and terminal cognitive drop research, this paper investigates cerebrovascular burden (CVB, depressive symptoms, and cognitive decline as threats to longevity. A subsample of stroke-free women over the age of 80 was identified in the Health and Retirement Survey (years 2000–2008. Mortality at 2, 6, and 8 year intervals was predicted using CVB (diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and cognitive decline (decline of 1 standard deviation or more on the 35-point Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status over 2 years. At most waves (2002, 2004, and 2006 mortality was predicted by CVB, depressive symptoms, and cognitive drop measured 2 years prior. CVB and depressive symptoms at the 2000 wave predicted mortality at 6 and 8 years. Older women with the greatest longevity had low CVB, robust cognitive functioning, and few depression symptoms, supporting successful aging theory and terminal cognitive drop.

  12. Fostering and Measuring Skills: Improving Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Skills to Promote Lifetime Success

    OpenAIRE

    Kautz, Tim; Heckman, James J.; Diris, Ron; ter Weel, Bas; Borghans, Lex

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent literature on measuring and boosting cognitive and non-cognitive skills. The literature establishes that achievement tests do not adequately capture character skills: personality traits, goals, motivations, and preferences that are valued in the labor market, in school, and in many other domains. Their predictive power rivals that of cognitive skills. Reliable measures of character have been developed. All measures of character and cognition are measures of perfo...

  13. Utility of Intraoperative Parathormone Assay as an Index to Successful Parathyroidectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjeetha Shenoy; Arun Behl; Tushar Pawar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Surgery is the definitive treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP). Focused approaches for excision of single gland pathology are gaining popularity. Preoperative parathyroid localization and intraoperative parathormone (IOPTH) assay are essential components of successful parathyroidectomy using focused approach. Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of IOPTH in patients undergoing surgery for PHP. Methods. Retrospective review of twelve patients who underwent surgery for P...

  14. COGNITIVE STYLES OF STUDENTS, STUDYING DOUBLE SPECIALTIES WITH DIFFERENT SUCCESS LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Zhbankova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the problem of psychological determination of the successful double specialty education in higher institution. The question of peculiarities of cognitive styles affecting mastering of subjects of a certain specialty and two specialties simultaneously is posed. On the basis of the analysis of the history of cognitive style studies two approaches to understanding their nature are distinguished: as constant and not interconnected peculiarities of cognitive activity and as adaptive cognitive strategies formed by an individual to solve different problems. We introduce some research data of cognitive styles of students with different degree of success in mastering a double specialty History and English Philology: successful in learning the foreign language, successful in learning History and weak and successful in subjects of both specialties. A set of methods identifying the following parameters of cognitive styles was used in the study: “fielddependency – fieldindependency”, “analyticity – syntheticity”, “impulsiveness – reflexivity”, “intellectual lability” and “leading representative systems”. It was brought to light that groups of respondents possess significant differences in every parameter of the cognitive styles. On the basis of analytical interpretation of the research data the conclusion is drawn that a cognitive style can be both specialized and quite flexible, adaptive, which depends on the range of modalities used for perception and digestion of information (what modalities are used, in what quantity and combination.

  15. Distributed Cognition in Sports Teams: Explaining Successful and Expert Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Kellie; Cox, Rochelle

    2014-01-01

    In this article we use a hybrid methodology to better understand the skilful performance of sports teams as an exemplar of distributed cognition. We highlight key differences between a team of individual experts (an aggregate system) and an expert team (an emergent system), and outline the kinds of shared characteristics likely to be found in an…

  16. Predicting the success of primer extension genotyping assays using statistical modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Yuryev, Anton; Huang, Jianping; Pohl, Mark; Patch, Robert; Watson, Felicia; Bell, Peter; Donaldson, Miriam; Phillips, Michael S.; Boyce-Jacino, Michael T.

    2002-01-01

    Using an empirical panel of more than 20 000 single base primer extension (SNP-IT) assays we have developed a set of statistical scores for evaluating and rank ordering various parameters of the SNP-IT reaction to facilitate high-throughput assay primer design with improved likelihood of success. Each score predicts either signal magnitude from primer extension or signal noise caused by mispriming of primers and structure of the PCR product. All scores have been shown to correlate with the su...

  17. Successful Aging and Longevity in Older Old Women: The Role of Depression and Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Paulson; Mary Elizabeth Bowen; Lichtenberg, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    Based in successful aging theory and terminal cognitive drop research, this paper investigates cerebrovascular burden (CVB), depressive symptoms, and cognitive decline as threats to longevity. A subsample of stroke-free women over the age of 80 was identified in the Health and Retirement Survey (years 2000–2008). Mortality at 2, 6, and 8 year intervals was predicted using CVB (diabetes, heart disease, hypertension), depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale), an...

  18. Determining the Critical Success Factors in ERP Systems Implementations with Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping: The Case of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    M.S. Ilkay; A.I. Özdemir; G. Seçme; N.Y. Seçme

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the factors affecting ERP implementation success by using fuzzy cognitive mapping method. Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping (FCM) is used to determine critical success factors affecting ERP implementation. FCM is based on graph theory, which was formulized by mathematician Euler in 1736. Fuzz cognitive method is very useful method for exploring the subjective factors of subject and the relationships between them. In this study we draw 16 fuzzy cognitive maps wi...

  19. Utility of Intraoperative Parathormone Assay as an Index to Successful Parathyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjeetha Shenoy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Surgery is the definitive treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP. Focused approaches for excision of single gland pathology are gaining popularity. Preoperative parathyroid localization and intraoperative parathormone (IOPTH assay are essential components of successful parathyroidectomy using focused approach. Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of IOPTH in patients undergoing surgery for PHP. Methods. Retrospective review of twelve patients who underwent surgery for PHP at tertiary corporate hospital in Mumbai, India, between January 2009 and December 2012. Results. IOPTH had true results in 10 patients (83% and led to unnecessary further exploration in 1 patient (8%. The concordance rate between ultrasonogram, sestamibi, and IOPTH was 66%. The mean decay of IOPTH was 65%, and all patients were normocalcemic at the end of six months. Conclusion. IOPTH is a useful adjunct to predict successful removal of the involved gland.

  20. Application of the FETAX developmental toxicity assay for evaluating the success of bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A ten-year-old subsurface spill of JP-4 jet fuel at Eglin Air Force Base (FL) was remediated using nitrate application. The authors used the Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX) before, during and after remediation to detect whether toxicity was altered. FETAX is a 96-hr whole embryo developmental toxicity assay used in ecotoxicology and in detecting mammalian developmental toxicants when an in vitro metabolic activation system is employed. FETAX developmental toxicity assays were performed on soil samples and extracts throughout remediation. They chose FETAX because development is a weak link in the life cycle of living organisms and indicative of chronic effects. Environmental chemistry was also performed to quantify TPH and BTEX concentrations in the soil. Preliminary FETAX experiments with pure JP-4 showed that JP-4 was more fetotoxic than teratogenic and metabolic activation did not greatly alter the development toxicity of pure JP-4. The newly developed technique of direct exposure was more successful with Eglin soil samples than aqueous extraction in this study because the direct exposure technique is better for hydrophobic materials such as JP-4. Using the direct exposure technique, there was a correlation noted between TPH and BTEX concentrations in the soil samples and developmental toxicity. A general decrease in developmental toxicity in both control and nitrate-treated plots was observed throughout the study. FETAX proved sensitive enough to detect this toxicity and useful in determining when sufficient bioremediation had occurred

  1. Fluid cognitive ability is a resource for successful emotion regulation in older and younger adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Philipp C; Lee, Ihno A; Gross, James J; Urry, Heather L

    2014-01-01

    The Selection, Optimization, and Compensation with Emotion Regulation (SOC-ER) framework suggests that (1) emotion regulation (ER) strategies require resources and that (2) higher levels of relevant resources may increase ER success. In the current experiment, we tested the specific hypothesis that individual differences in one internal class of resources, namely cognitive ability, would contribute to greater success using cognitive reappraisal (CR), a form of ER in which one reinterprets the meaning of emotion-eliciting situations. To test this hypothesis, 60 participants (30 younger and 30 older adults) completed standardized neuropsychological tests that assess fluid and crystallized cognitive ability, as well as a CR task in which participants reinterpreted the meaning of sad pictures in order to alter (increase or decrease) their emotions. In a control condition, they viewed the pictures without trying to change how they felt. Throughout the task, we indexed subjective emotional experience (self-reported ratings of emotional intensity), expressive behavior (corrugator muscle activity), and autonomic physiology (heart rate and electrodermal activity) as measures of emotional responding. Multilevel models were constructed to explain within-subjects variation in emotional responding as a function of ER contrasts comparing increase or decrease conditions with the view control condition and between-subjects variation as a function of cognitive ability and/or age group (older, younger). As predicted, higher fluid cognitive ability-indexed by perceptual reasoning, processing speed, and working memory-was associated with greater success using reappraisal to alter emotional responding. Reappraisal success did not vary as a function of crystallized cognitive ability or age group. Collectively, our results provide support for a key tenet of the SOC-ER framework that higher levels of relevant resources may confer greater success at emotion regulation. PMID:24987387

  2. Fluid Cognitive Ability is a Resource for Successful Emotion Regulation in Older and Younger Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp C. Opitz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Selection, Optimization, and Compensation with Emotion Regulation (SOC-ER framework suggests that (1 emotion regulation (ER strategies require resources and that (2 higher levels of relevant resources may increase ER success. In the current experiment, we tested the specific hypothesis that individual differences in one internal class of resources, namely cognitive ability, would contribute to greater success using cognitive reappraisal (CR, a form of ER in which one reinterprets the meaning of emotion-eliciting situations. To test this hypothesis, 60 participants (30 younger and 30 older adults completed standardized neuropsychological tests that assess fluid and crystallized cognitive ability, as well as a CR task in which participants reinterpreted the meaning of sad pictures in order to alter (increase or decrease their emotions. In a control condition, they viewed the pictures without trying to change how they felt. Throughout the task, we indexed subjective emotional experience (self-reported ratings of emotional intensity, expressive behavior (corrugator muscle activity, and autonomic physiology (heart rate and electrodermal activity as measures of emotional responding. Multilevel models were constructed to explain within-subjects variation in emotional responding as a function of ER contrasts comparing increase or decrease conditions with the view control condition and between-subjects variation as a function of cognitive ability and/or age group (older, younger. As predicted, higher fluid cognitive ability – indexed by perceptual reasoning, processing speed, and working memory – was associated with greater success using reappraisal to alter emotional responding. Reappraisal success did not vary as a function of crystallized cognitive ability or age group. Collectively, our results provide support for a key tenet of the SOC-ER framework that higher levels of relevant resources may confer greater success at emotion regulation.

  3. Relative roles of cognitive ability and practical intelligence in the prediction of success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, G E; Hayes, B G; Cunningham, W R; Sivo, S A

    2001-06-01

    Initial investigations into the construct of practical intelligence have identified a new general factor of practical intelligence (gp), which is believed to be independent of general cognitive ability. This construct, gp, is also believed to be a better predictor of success than cognitive ability, personality, or any combination of variables independent of gp. The existence of this construct and its independence from Spearman's g is, however, under debate. The purpose of the present study is to investigate both the relationship between gp and g and the relative roles of practical intelligence and cognitive ability in the prediction of success. The participants included 197 college students. Each completed both the Multidimensional Aptitude Battery and Sternberg and Wagner's measure of practical intelligence in academic psychology. The results of structural equation modeling support Sternberg and Wagner's assertion that practical intelligence and general cognitive ability are relatively independent constructs. Results of regression analysis, however, do not support their contention that practical intelligence is related to success after controlling for general cognitive ability. Implications of these results for research and theory on practical intelligence are discussed. PMID:11508047

  4. Applying Cognitive Behavioural Methods to Retrain Children's Attributions for Success and Failure in Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toland, John; Boyle, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    This study involves the use of methods derived from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to change the attributions for success and failure of school children with regard to learning. Children with learning difficulties and/or motivational and self-esteem difficulties (n = 29) were identified by their schools. The children then took part in twelve…

  5. Cognitive executive functions and work: advancing from job jeopardy to success following a brain aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bade, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive executive functions have significant implications for quality of life and succeeding at home, in the community and at work. This paper reviews the return to work of an internationally acclaimed professional who was medically treated for the physical effects of a brain aneurysm, but whose resulting cognitive deficits were not identified until he experienced failure at work and accompanying depression and anxiety. Review of the Occupational Therapy Work Services includes the accommodations, strategies and client-centered collaborative efforts that led to enduring success at home, the community and work. PMID:20714094

  6. Initial Sleep Time Predicts Success in Manual-Guided Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothelius, Kristoffer; Kyhle, Kicki; Broman, Jan-Erik; Gordh, Torsten; Fredrikson, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy produces significant and long-lasting improvement for individuals with insomnia, but treatment resources are scarce. A "stepped care" approach has therefore been proposed, but knowledge is limited on how to best allocate patients to different treatment steps. In this study, 66 primary-care patients with insomnia attended a low-end treatment step: manual-guided cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia delivered by ordinary primary-care personnel. Based on clinically significant treatment effects, subjects were grouped into treatment responders or nonresponders. Baseline data were analyzed to identify predictors for treatment success. Long total sleep time at baseline assessment was the only statistically significant predictor for becoming a responder, and sleep time may thus be important to consider before enrolling patients in low-end treatments. PMID:26323054

  7. Neural correlation of successful cognitive behaviour therapy for spider phobia: a magnetoencephalography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Barry; Alderson-Day, Ben; Prendergast, Garreth; Kennedy, Juliette; Bennett, Sophie; Docherty, Mary; Whitton, Clare; Manea, Laura; Gouws, Andre; Tomlinson, Heather; Green, Gary

    2013-12-30

    Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) can be an effective treatment for spider phobia, but the underlying neural correlates of therapeutic change are yet to be specified. The present study used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to study responses within the first half second, to phobogenic stimuli in a group of individuals with spider phobia prior to treatment (n=12) and then in nine of them following successful CBT (where they could touch and manage live large common house spiders) at least 9 months later. We also compared responses to a group of age-matched healthy control participants (n=11). Participants viewed static photographs of real spiders, other fear-inducing images (e.g. snakes, sharks) and neutral stimuli (e.g. kittens). Beamforming methods were used to localise sources of significant power changes in response to stimuli. Prior to treatment, participants with spider phobia showed a significant maximum response in the right frontal pole when viewing images of real spiders specifically. No significant frontal response was observed for either control participants or participants with spider phobia post-treatment. In addition, participants' subjective ratings of spider stimuli significantly predicted peak responses in right frontal regions. The implications for understanding brain-based effects of cognitive therapies are discussed. PMID:24139305

  8. Development of a male reproductive toxicity assay for evaluating the success of bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Eglin Air Force Base was contaminated with JP-4 over 10 years ago. The project goal was to develop and evaluate male reproductive toxicity testing procedures and endpoints using the gametes of the South African clawed frog Xenopus laevis with particular emphasis on assessing the toxicity of contaminated soil from Eglin Air Force Base in Florida. Reproductive toxicity tests were done to evaluate several different locations within the original spill area. Specific sites were selected based on their location to the spill site. The site was evaluated before and after remediation. Before remediation, the males were exposed to the JP-4 orally for 73 days, with the contaminant injected into the food source. After remediation, the males were directly exposed to the contaminated soil samples for 60 days. The endpoints measured in both studies were: change in body weight, organ to body weight ratios, sperm counts, number of malformed sperm, and sperm motility. In both the pre and post remediation studies, there were no significant effects on body weight or organ weight data at the p ≤ 0.05 level. However, there were effects seen in sperm count and morphology. The male reproductive toxicity assay under development has given useful information in initially determining the reproductive toxicity of JP-4. Significant effects were seen in both the pre and post remediation direct exposure tests, indicating that the direct exposure route may be the most promising for future testing

  9. Cognitive and emotional processes that promote and obstruct a successful outcome after bariatric surgery for morbid obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, H.

    2011-01-01

    The studies in this thesis were aimed at examining cognitive and emotional factors that predict or obstruct a successful weight outcome after bariatric surgery (weight loss surgery) for morbid obesity. The thesis includes two studies with a cross-sectional and four studies with a prospective design.

  10. An assessment of the impact of demographic, cognitive, and non-cognitive variables on student success in a community college science course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Audrey Leroy

    The impact of demographic, cognitive, and non-cognitive variables on academic success among community college science students was studied. Demographic variables included gender, employment status, and ethnicity. Cognitive variables included college grade point average, assessment status, course prerequisites, college course success ratios, final course grade, withdrawal patterns, and curriculum format. Non-cognitive variables included enrollment status, educational objectives, academic expectations, and career goals. The sample population included students enrolled in human anatomy courses (N = 191) at a large metropolitan community college located in central Texas. Variables that potentially influence attrition and achievement in college level science courses were examined. Final course grade and withdrawal phenomena were treated as dependent variables, while all other variables were treated as independent variables. No significant differences were found to exist between any of the demographic variables studied and the numbers of students who withdrew passing or failing. A difference was shown to be associated with the ethnicity variable and achievement levels. Educational objectives and career goals were shown to have an impact on the number of students who withdrew failing. The career goals variable and the academic expectations variable were shown to have an impact on achievement among daytime and evening students. College grade point average and course success ratios were shown to make a difference among students who withdrew passing. None of the other cognitive variables studied were shown to influence the numbers of students who withdrew passing or failing. College grade point average and course prerequisites, however, were shown to make a difference in achievement. The collaborative learning instructional format was found to have no impact on attrition or achievement, however, mean scores earned by students experiencing the collaborative learning format

  11. The social, educational and cognitive factors of success in the first year of university: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlaix, Sophie; Suchaut, Bruno

    2014-12-01

    The main objective of this study, which evaluated a sample of first-year students enrolled at the University of Burgundy, France, in 2010-2011, is to understand the factors determining success in the first year of university. The originality of this research lies in the inclusion of specific indicators of students' skills when they start university within the explanatory models of educational achievement. These indicators include measures of academic performance (written comprehension skills) and cognitive abilities. While the impact of cognitive abilities on educational success has been examined at primary level in France, the present study is among the first to do this at higher education level, with the additional consideration of students' educational and social backgrounds. The results show the significant impact of educational background (repeated years, type of baccalaureate and baccalaureate grade) on success. The researchers also found that written comprehension skills and cognitive abilities alone play a limited role in explaining success, since the impacts of these variables are apparent throughout a student's educational career (and not just in higher education). Another finding was that subject choice based on specific career aspirations is an important factor associated with success - a significant insight which qualifies the impact of educational background.

  12. Determining the Critical Success Factors in ERP Systems Implementations with Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping: The Case of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Ilkay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the factors affecting ERP implementation success by using fuzzy cognitive mapping method. Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping (FCM is used to determine critical success factors affecting ERP implementation. FCM is based on graph theory, which was formulized by mathematician Euler in 1736. Fuzz cognitive method is very useful method for exploring the subjective factors of subject and the relationships between them. In this study we draw 16 fuzzy cognitive maps with interviewers whose are the owner or manager of enterprises or ERP team managers of the ERP teams. By the constructive analysis of the individual cognitive maps, “giving ERP education to team or end users”, “Conformity and reliability of data” and “Support of top level management” variables are the most central variables. By the neural network analysis we find that if the ERP education increases, raises; “meeting the business needs of ERP system”, “the efficiency of project plan”, “project management and time schedule” variables increases too. And according to the second scenario if top level managers support the use of ERP system increases, raises; “meeting the business needs of ERP system”, “giving ERP education to team and last users”, “self-sacrifice of project team”, “existence responsible persons from each department in the project team” variables are increases too. Also, this paper represents a first attempt for using fuzzy cognitive mapping to determine the factors, which affect the success of ERP application.

  13. Case Study: Successful Medication Withdrawal Using Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for a Preadolescent with OCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallinen, Bethany J.; Nangle, Douglas W.; O'Grady, April C.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the addition of manual-based cognitive-behavioral therapy to a medication regimen of clomipramine and fluoxetine and the withdrawal of medication during cognitive-behavioral therapy. The participant was an 11-year-old girl with symptoms of obsessive thoughts about germs and illness and…

  14. Digital Game-Based Learning Supports Student Motivation, Cognitive Success, and Performance Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jeng-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Traditional multimedia learning is primarily based on the cognitive load concept of information processing theory. Recent digital game-based learning (DGBL) studies have focused on exploring content support for learning motivation and related game characteristics. Motivation, volition, and performance (MVP) theory indicates that cognitive load and…

  15. Successful Treatment of Olfactory Reference Syndrome with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Pichora, Andrea L.; Antony, Martin M.

    2011-01-01

    Olfactory reference syndrome (ORS) is characterized by a preoccupation with the belief that one's body emits a foul odor. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) was used to treat a woman in her 50s who presented in our outpatient anxiety disorders specialty clinic with ORS, accompanied by embarrassment, shame, distress, avoidance behavior, and social…

  16. Cognitive ability is heritable and predicts the success of an alternative mating tactic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, Carl; Philips, A.; Reichard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 282, č. 1809 (2015), s. 1809. ISSN 0962-8452 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : alternative mating tactics * cognition * learning * mating system * sexual selection Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 5.051, year: 2014

  17. Moving Ahead by Thinking Backwards: Cognitive Skills, Personality, and Economic Preferences in Collegiate Success

    OpenAIRE

    Burks, Stephen V.; Lewis, Connor; Kivi, Paul; Wiener, Amanda; Jon E. Anderson; Götte, Lorenz; DeYoung, Colin; Rustichini, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    We collected personality (Big Five) and demographic characteristics, and ran incentivized experiments measuring cognitive skills (non-verbal IQ, numeracy, backward induction/ planning), and economic (time, risk) preferences, with 100 students at a small public undergraduate liberal arts college in the Midwestern US as part of a larger study that collected the same measures from 1,065 trainee truckers. Using standardized (z-score) versions of our variables we analyze their relative power to pr...

  18. Investigation of parameters that affect the success rate of microarray-based allele-specific hybridization assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Poulsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The development of microarray-based genetic tests for diseases that are caused by known mutations is becoming increasingly important. The key obstacle to developing functional genotyping assays is that such mutations need to be genotyped regardless of their location in genomic regions. These regions include large variations in G+C content, and structural features like hairpins. METHODS/FINDINGS: We describe a rational, stable method for screening and combining assay conditions for the genetic analysis of 42 Phenylketonuria-associated mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene. The mutations are located in regions with large variations in G+C content (20-75%. Custom-made microarrays with different lengths of complementary probe sequences and spacers were hybridized with pooled PCR products of 12 exons from each of 38 individual patient DNA samples. The arrays were washed with eight buffers with different stringencies in a custom-made microfluidic system. The data were used to assess which parameters play significant roles in assay development. CONCLUSIONS: Several assay development methods found suitable probes and assay conditions for a functional test for all investigated mutation sites. Probe length, probe spacer length, and assay stringency sufficed as variable parameters in the search for a functional multiplex assay. We discuss the optimal assay development methods for several different scenarios.

  19. The prediction of success in an ever-changing world : assessing cognitive flexibility through dynamic testing.

    OpenAIRE

    Beckmann, J.

    2015-01-01

    Using tests to assess intellectual capability is seen as a double-edged sword. On one hand it is considered an instrument of perpetuating socio-economic injustice, on the other hand, as it turns out, intelligence tests are the most successful tools available to predict a range of relevant success criteria in education and vocation. It seems that practitioners and educators who are confronted with the challenge of providing professional judgements regarding individuals’ educational futur...

  20. Student Success Skills: An Evidence-Based Cognitive and Social Change Theory for Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemberger, Matthew E.; Brigman, Greg; Webb, Linda; Moore, Molly M.

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the Student Success Skills program is offered, including descriptions of the curricular structure, extant research support related to SSS effectiveness for academic achievement and improved school behaviors, and a theory of change for student development. Recent research has demonstrated the value of the SSS program as it connects…

  1. Integrating Emotion and Cognition in Successful Service Learning: A Complex System Approach (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raia, F.

    2010-12-01

    learning, this system requires participants to elaborate and connect the three major components and continually update, modify and build on the learning experience and personal growth. Critical reflection activities are considered to be a powerful tool to bridge community service activities and the educational content. Reflection activities gauge students’ expectations, thoughts and understanding and, by making these evident to the students, can reveal less obvious aspects of the experience and support different interpretations of an event. However, in the form of critical reflection, they tend to exclude the role emotion may play throughout the learning process specifically for one of the three components -Personal Growth. Moreover, in the last decade neuroscience and psychology research shows that emotion is indispensable for conceiving rational thoughts, understanding and memory development and that a purely cognitive view on learning is not working. In our course we strove to design reflections that involve emotion and cognition and their interdependence in connecting the three components of S-L. A complex system approach is fundamental when challenges of integrating emotion and cognition in Service Learning need to be addressed.

  2. Cognitive training with and without additional physical activity in healthy older adults: cognitive effects, neurobiological mechanisms, and prediction of training success

    OpenAIRE

    Julia eRahe; Jutta eBecker; Fink, Gereon R.; Josef eKessler; Juraj eKukolja; Andreas eRahn; Rosen, Jan B.; Florian eSzabados; Brunhilde eWirth; Elke eKalbe

    2015-01-01

    Data is inconsistent concerning the question whether cognitive-physical training (CPT) yields stronger cognitive gains than cognitive training (CT). Effects of additional counseling, neurobiological mechanisms, and predictors have scarcely been studied. Healthy older adults were trained with CT (n = 20), CPT (n = 25), or CPT with counseling (CPT+C; n = 23). Cognition, physical fitness, BDNF, IGF-1, and VEGF were assessed at pre- and post-test. No interaction effects were found except for one ...

  3. Cognitive and affective reactions to success and failure: The quality of feedback as the determinant of self-verifying and self-enhancing motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodroža Bojana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to ascertain what the dominant self motivation is like - selfverifying or self-enhancing? - in a situation when a person is faced with a negative evaluation of a central personality characteristic. Previous research suggested that affective reactions should follow the pattern predicted by self-enhancement theory by which all individuals would react with positive affect to positive evaluation and with negative affect to negative evaluation. On the other side, cognitive reactions are expected to follow the pattern predicted by self-verification theory which suggests that information consistent with the self-concept should be the most convincing (i.e. cognitive reactions should be influenced by interaction of feedback and self-esteem. Ninety female respondents were given a false favorable or extremely unfavorable feedback about their achievement on an intelligence test, after which their cognitive and affective reactions were measured. The results revealed that the respondents demonstrated a self-enhancing motivation both in the affective and the cognitive domain, i.e., regardless of their level of self-esteem, those who had failed experienced more negative affect, rated test more unfavorably, assessed it as less accurate, and claimed they had invested less effort to solve the test, than those who were successful. The research imposes conclusion that cognitive reactions to failure are not conditioned only by the degree of negativity or positivity of global self-views, but also by the quality/intensity of unfavorable feedback. This conclusion provides important methodological implications for future research in this area.

  4. Successful Optometric Vision Therapy with Patients on the Autistic Spectrum: Engaging Patients with Visual-Cognitive Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnaz D. Azimi Green, OD

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 1 in every 68 children is diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD. It is one of the fastest growing disabilities in the United States, yet there is a shortage of optometrists who are able, and willing, to provide care for these patients. Visual-cognitive therapy (VCT has been used for over 50 years to implement in-office vision therapy with challenging patients, including patients who have ASD. The following article presents the theory of VCT used with the DIR (Developmental, Individual differences, Relationship-based/Floortime model to engage our patients with ASD. A brief discussion of visual-cognitive therapy and the DIR/Floortime model is presented along with examples of visualcognitive therapy procedures.

  5. Predictive factors of successful self treatment for social anxiety - with or without elements of Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Ulrike; Borg, Elisabet; Carlbring, Per

    2015-01-01

    Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) and self-help books have proven to be effective treatments for social anxiety. These treatments can increase the opportunity for more people to access evidence-based psychological treatment. More knowledge of the factors that predict treatment outcomes is needed for individuals to get the right type of treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate if education level, recruitment mechanism, or previous psychological or psychopharmacolo...

  6. Switching Cognitive Gears: Problem-Based Learning and Success-Based Learning as Instructional Frameworks in Leadership Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Chen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to reinterpret principal preparatory programs to also include the collective learning-from-success process (success-based learning), thus providing a complementary instructional framework on how to prepare principals for today's public school reality. Design/methodology/approach: The discussion reviews the core…

  7. Understanding the cognitive basis for human-wildlife relationships as a key to successful protected-area management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teel, Tara L.; Manfredo, Michael J.; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard;

    2010-01-01

    underlying conservation effectiveness, including the nature of people's relationships with wildlife. These relationships stem from the cognitive foundation that shapes human behavior toward wildlife. Our theory of wildlife value orientations contents that, at an individual level, broad cultural ideals...... this micro-macro approach and explore its implications for protected-area management. First, data from nineteen-state study conducted in 2004 via mail survey in the united States show how two contrasting orientations - dominations and mutualism - produce different attitudes and behaviors toward wildlife...

  8. Long term impact of emotional, social and cognitive intelligence competencies and GMAT on career and life satisfaction and career success

    OpenAIRE

    Amdurer, Emily; Boyatzis, Richard E.; Saatcioglu, Argun; Smith, Melvin L.; Taylor, Scott N.

    2014-01-01

    Career scholars have called for a broader definition of career success by inviting greater exploration of its antecedents. While success in various jobs has been predicted by intelligence and in other studies by competencies, especially in management, long term impact of having intelligence and using competencies has not been examined. Even in collegiate outcome studies, few have examined the longer term impact on graduates' careers or lives. This study assesses the impact of demonstrated emo...

  9. The Use of Non-Cognitive Constructs to Predict Success of First-Year Students in a College of Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauer, Staci Lyn

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between academic hardiness, emotional and social competencies, academic success (as measured by grade point average), and persistence, in a sample of 178 first-year College of Business students at North Dakota State University. Students were administered the Emotional and Social Competency Inventory-University…

  10. Competitive-Inhibition Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detection of Serum Antibodies to Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus: Diagnostic Tool for Successful Eradication

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Lynn M.; Cheevers, William P.; McGuire, Travis C.; Adams, D. Scott; Hutton, Melinda M.; Gavin, William G.; Knowles, Donald P

    2003-01-01

    A competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) was evaluated for the detection of serum antibodies to the surface envelope (SU) of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) in goats. This assay utilized 96-well microtiter plates containing CAEV-63 SU captured by monoclonal antibody (MAb) F7-299 and measured the competitive displacement of horseradish peroxidase-conjugated MAb GPB 74A binding by undiluted goat sera (F. Özyörük, W. P. Cheevers, G. A. Hullinger, T. C. McGu...

  11. Successful cognitive aging in rats: a role for mGluR5 glutamate receptors, homer 1 proteins and downstream signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Ménard

    Full Text Available Normal aging is associated with impairments in cognition, especially learning and memory. However, major individual differences are known to exist. Using the classical Morris Water Maze (MWM task, we discriminated a population of 24-months old Long Evans aged rats in two groups--memory-impaired (AI and memory-unimpaired (AU in comparison with 6-months old adult animals. AI rats presented deficits in learning, reverse memory and retention. At the molecular level, an increase in metabotropic glutamate receptors 5 (mGluR5 was observed in post-synaptic densities (PSD in the hippocampus of AU rats after training. Scaffolding Homer 1b/c proteins binding to group 1 mGluR facilitate coupling with its signaling effectors while Homer 1a reduces it. Both Homer 1a and 1b/c levels were up-regulated in the hippocampus PSD of AU animals following MWM task. Using immunohistochemistry we further demonstrated that mGluR5 as well as Homer 1b/c stainings were enhanced in the CA1 hippocampus sub-field of AU animals. In fact mGluR5 and Homer 1 isoforms were more abundant and co-localized in the hippocampal dendrites in AU rats. However, the ratio of Homer 1a/Homer 1b/c bound to mGluR5 in the PSD was four times lower for AU animals compared to AI rats. Consequently, AU animals presented higher PKCγ, ERK, p70S6K, mTOR and CREB activation. Finally the expression of immediate early gene Arc/Arg3.1 was shown to be higher in AU rats in accordance with its role in spatial memory consolidation. On the basis of these results, a model of successful cognitive aging with a critical role for mGluR5, Homer 1 proteins and downstream signalling pathways is proposed here.

  12. Successful Application of a Direct Detection Slide-Based Sequential Phenotype/Genotype Assay Using Archived Bone Marrow Smears and Paraffin Embedded Tissue Sections

    OpenAIRE

    Bedell, Victoria; Forman, Stephen J.; Gaal, Karl; Pullarkat, Vinod; Weiss, Lawrence M.; Slovak, Marilyn L.

    2007-01-01

    Identification of genetic abnormalities in pathological samples is critical for accurate diagnosis, risk stratification, detection of minimal residual disease, and assessment of response to therapy. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis is the standard cytogenetic assay used by many laboratories to detect specific clonal karyotypic aberrations in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. However, direct correlation with immunophenotype or morphology in individual cells is rar...

  13. Competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of serum antibodies to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus: diagnostic tool for successful eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Lynn M; Cheevers, William P; McGuire, Travis C; Adams, D Scott; Hutton, Melinda M; Gavin, William G; Knowles, Donald P

    2003-03-01

    A competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) was evaluated for the detection of serum antibodies to the surface envelope (SU) of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) in goats. This assay utilized 96-well microtiter plates containing CAEV-63 SU captured by monoclonal antibody (MAb) F7-299 and measured the competitive displacement of horseradish peroxidase-conjugated MAb GPB 74A binding by undiluted goat sera (F. Ozyörük, W. P. Cheevers, G. A. Hullinger, T. C. McGuire, M. Hutton, and D. P. Knowles, Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 8:44-51, 2001). Two hundred serum samples from goats in the United States were used to determine the sensitivity and specificity of cELISA based on the immunoprecipitation (IP) of [(35)S]methionine-labeled viral antigens as a standard of comparison. A positive cELISA was defined as >33.2% inhibition of MAb 74A binding based on 2 standard deviations above the mean percent inhibition of 140 IP-negative serum samples. At this cutoff value, there were 0 of 60 false-negative sera (100% sensitivity) and 5 of 140 false-positive sera (96.4% specificity). Additional studies utilized IP-monitored cELISA to establish a CAEV-free herd of 1,640 dairy goats. PMID:12626453

  14. Age-related changes in brain activity are specific for high order cognitive processes during successful encoding of information in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinal, Diego; Zurrón, Montserrat; Díaz, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Memory capacity suffers an age-related decline, which is supposed to be due to a generalized slowing of processing speed and to a reduced availability of processing resources. Information encoding in memory has been demonstrated to be very sensitive to age-related changes, especially when carried out through self-initiated strategies or under high cognitive demands. However, most event-related potentials (ERP) research on age-related changes in working memory (WM) has used tasks that preclude distinction between age-related changes in encoding and retrieval processes. Here, we used ERP recording and a delayed match to sample (DMS) task with two levels of memory load to assess age-related changes in electrical brain activity in young and old adults during successful information encoding in WM. Age-related decline was reflected in lower accuracy rates and longer reaction times in the DMS task. Beside, only old adults presented lower accuracy rates under high than low memory load conditions. However, effects of memory load on brain activity were independent of age and may indicate an increased need of processing after stimulus classification as reflected in larger mean voltages in high than low load conditions between 550 and 1000 ms post-stimulus for young and old adults. Regarding age-related effects on brain activity, results also revealed smaller P2 and P300 amplitudes that may signal the existence of an age dependent reduction in the processing resources available for stimulus evaluation and categorization. Additionally, P2 and N2 latencies were longer in old than in young participants. Furthermore, longer N2 latencies were related to greater accuracy rates on the DMS task, especially in old adults. These results suggest that age-related slowing of processing speed may be specific for target stimulus analysis and evaluation processes. Thus, old adults seem to improve their performance the longer they take to evaluate the stimulus they encode in visual WM. PMID

  15. Age-related changes in brain activity are specific for high order cognitive processes during successful encoding of information in working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Pinal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Memory capacity suffers an age-related decline, which is supposed to be due to a generalized slowing of processing speed and to a reduced availability of processing resources. Information encoding in memory has been demonstrated to be very sensitive to age-related changes, especially when carried out through self-initiated strategies or under high cognitive demands. However, most ERP research on age-related changes in working memory (WM has used tasks that preclude distinction between age-related changes in encoding and retrieval processes. Here, we used ERP recording and a delayed match to sample (DMS task with two levels of memory load to assess age-related changes in electrical brain activity in young and old adults during successful information encoding in WM. Age-related decline was reflected in lower accuracy rates and longer reaction times in the DMS task. Beside, only old adults presented lower accuracy rates under high than low memory load conditions. However, effects of memory load on brain activity were independent of age and may indicate an increased need of processing after stimulus classification as reflected in larger mean voltages in high than low load conditions between 550 and 1000 ms post-stimulus for young and old adults. Regarding age-related effects on brain activity, results also revealed smaller P2 and P300 amplitudes that may signal the existence of an age dependent reduction in the processing resources available for stimulus evaluation and categorization. Additionally, P2 and N2 latencies were longer in old than in young participants. Furthermore, longer N2 latencies were related to greater accuracy rates on the DMS task, especially in old adults. These results suggest that age-related slowing of processing speed may be specific for target stimulus analysis and evaluation processes. Thus, old adults seem to improve their performance the longer they take to evaluate the stimulus they encode in visual WM.

  16. Hormone assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved radioimmunoassay is described for measuring total triiodothyronine or total thyroxine levels in a sample of serum containing free endogenous thyroid hormone and endogenous thyroid hormone bound to thyroid hormone binding protein. The thyroid hormone is released from the protein by adding hydrochloric acid to the serum. The pH of the separated thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone binding protein is raised in the absence of a blocking agent without interference from the endogenous protein. 125I-labelled thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone antibodies are added to the mixture, allowing the labelled and unlabelled thyroid hormone and the thyroid hormone antibody to bind competitively. This results in free thyroid hormone being separated from antibody bound thyroid hormone and thus the unknown quantity of thyroid hormone may be determined. A thyroid hormone test assay kit is described for this radioimmunoassay. It provides a 'single tube' assay which does not require blocking agents for endogenous protein interference nor an external solid phase sorption step for the separation of bound and free hormone after the competitive binding step; it also requires a minimum number of manipulative steps. Examples of the assay are given to illustrate the reproducibility, linearity and specificity of the assay. (UK)

  17. [Normal aging and cognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ska, Bernadette; Joanette, Yves

    2006-03-01

    It is now well documented that normal aging modifies the cognitive functioning and most observations suggest that cognition evolves in the direction of deterioration. The more frequently impaired functions are memory, attention and visual-spatial abilities. On the other hand, some abilities seem to increase, such as vocabulary. Considering the aging effect on cognition, questions remain regarding directionality, universality and reversibility. A great variability in aged related impacts is observed among subjects and among cognitive domains. Some individuals evolved more rapidly than others. Some cognitive functions are more affected by aging than others. General and specific factors are hypothesized to explain the aged related cognitive decline. Among them, educational level, health, cognitive style, life style, personality, are likely to modulate the aged related cognitive evolution by influencing attentional resources and cerebral plasticity. Cognitive resources are essential to develop adaptative strategies. During the life span, resources are activated and increased by learning and training. Considering the role of cognitive resources, successful aging is dependent on several conditions : absence of disease leading to a loss of autonomy, maintenance of cognitive and physical activities, and active and social engaged lifestyle. PMID:16527210

  18. Radioreceptor assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioreceptor assay (RRA) is an analytical method using the specific interaction of some pharmaceuticals and endogenic substances (ligands) with specific receptors present in certin tissues of living organisms. RRA uses the principle of isotope dilution. The method is described in detail of the preparation of receptors, samples and radioligands, conditions of incubation, the separation of free and bound radioligand, and the mathematical evaluation of RRA. The sensitivity of RRA is measured in units to tens of pg. The specificity of RRA relates to a group of substances with similar pharmacological effect. RRA may be used for identifying neuroleptics, antidepressants, anxiolytics, ergot alkaloids, beta blockers, anticholinergic drugs, certain hormones and neuropeptides. (M.D.)

  19. Angiogenesis Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Dhanya K; Kujur, Praveen K; Singh, Rana P

    2016-01-01

    Neoangiogenesis constitutes one of the first steps of tumor progression beyond a critical size of tumor growth, which supplies a dormant mass of cancerous cells with the required nutrient supply and gaseous exchange through blood vessels essentially needed for their sustained and aggressive growth. In order to understand any biological process, it becomes imperative that we use models, which could mimic the actual biological system as closely as possible. Hence, finding the most appropriate model is always a vital part of any experimental design. Angiogenesis research has also been much affected due to lack of simple, reliable, and relevant models which could be easily quantitated. The angiogenesis models have been used extensively for studying the action of various molecules for agonist or antagonistic behaviour and associated mechanisms. Here, we have described two protocols or models which have been popularly utilized for studying angiogenic parameters. Rat aortic ring assay tends to bridge the gap between in vitro and in vivo models. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay is one of the most utilized in vivo model system for angiogenesis-related studies. The CAM is highly vascularized tissue of the avian embryo and serves as a good model to study the effects of various test compounds on neoangiogenesis. PMID:26608294

  20. Cognitive training for dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konta, Brigitte

    2005-12-01

    methods in case of severe dementia by reality orientation training (ROT show selected success. In case of cerebral lesions in combination with schizophrenic psychoses successes could be proved in some parameters by applied cognitive training. Considering the heterogenity and the methodical deficiencies of the included studies it can be recommended, to carry out coordinated further studies with the goal to identify the success parameters of cognitive training methods and work out the relevant factors of effectiveness.

  1. Recognizing the Need for Rich Contextualization in the Classroom and Applying it with Modified Bloom's Cognitive Domain Taxonomy for Successful Teaching of Physics 106 (Physics II – Electricity, Magnetism and Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew E. Edwards

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Engaging students to teach new concepts and to have students achieve individualized learning with the successful integration of those new concepts with their existing knowledge has been and remains the primary goal of college education. In this study drawing on information gathered over the past 2 plus decades, my findings have led me to develop two new separate ascending teaching-structures that are significantly helping me with content delivery, and simultaneously helping my students achieve greater success in mastering the material of my Physics 106 (Physics II, Electricity, Magnetism and Light classes. These two teachingstructures, called Contextualization Teaching and Rich Contextualization Teaching (RCT, with each structure relying on various aspects of a modified Bloom's cognitive domain taxonomy and on my description of and when to use each structure, along with my introduction of "subject learning convergences," are described and illustrated here. Finally, of students with open-minds and mentally connected to the subject being taught, I make the suggestion that my two ascending teaching-structures can be used for teaching such students new-concepts in any academic course where engaging students to teach new concepts represents the primary focus.

  2. Radiopharmaceutical assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the laws in force, radiopharmaceuticals for human use must be among other features, non-pyrogenous and non-toxic. For this reason pyrogenity and toxicity assays are carried out. Pharmacokinetic studies may also be necessary in some cases. Products currently made at the Radiopharmaceutical Center, new products designed for certification and raw materials used to manufacture the above, were tested. A total 342 pyrogenity and toxicity tests, and four pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in 1996. To determine pyrogenity, the temperature animals were measured following intravenous administration of radiopharmaceuticals concerned: sodium pertechnetate, colloidal gold and sodium orthoradiohippurate from current production; pharmaceutic components of several new products, i.e. technetium generator, fibrinogen and microspheres. A total 327 products were tested, 96 percent of which met the requirements. To determine toxicity, the probit method was used, consisting of the administration of radiopharmaceutical doses for seven straight days, and checking for lethal effects. An overall 15 tests were carried out and 80 percent of products tested were found certifiable. Pharmacokinetic tests consisted of tropism on target organs and biodistribution in several organs using the tomographic method. (author)

  3. Cognition: Minding Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Weick, Mario; Hopthrow, Tim; Abrams, Dominic; Taylor-Gooby, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Risk identification is one of the keys to successful risk management, but we are not equally aware of all risks. Because the brain filters information, people make decisions based on a subset of the available evidence. This fundamental principle of cognition1 can cause problems in a context such as underwriting where subjective judgments are important.This report introduces insurers and financial decision makers to some fundamental principles of cognition that are important for risk managemen...

  4. Cognitive ability beyond IQ

    OpenAIRE

    Danner, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The present thesis investigates cognitive performance measures beyond IQ. I investigated the psychometric properties of implicit learning variables and dynamic decision making variables and their relation with general intelligence and professional success. The results suggest that dynamic decision making and implicit learning are substantially related with general intelligence and fit well into a hierarchical model of cognitive abilities. Furthermore, general intelligence is the best predicto...

  5. Special Issue on Cognitive Education and Creative Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Zbainos, Dimitrios; Lubart, Todd; Hessels, Marco G.P.

    2016-01-01

    Creative cognition has been described as a subprocess of overall human cognitive functioning. Sternberg—a former president of the International Association of Cognitive Education and Psychology—has included creativity as one of the dimensions of successful intelligence, which is subject to development (Sternberg, 2013). Contemporary approaches have described creativity as a distributed action situated between the mind and culture (Gla˘veanu, 2014) and considered its development through the Vy...

  6. Cognitive Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Cognitive Problems? Page reviewed by Dr. Joash Lazarus, NPF Movement Disorders Fellow, Department of Neurology at ... What Are the Alternative Treatments for Cognitive Problems? Anxiety Hallucinations/Delusions Speech and Swallowing Problems Vision Changes ...

  7. Cognitive Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Kyle M.; Helton, William S; Wiggins, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive engineering is the application of cognitive psychology and related disciplines to the design and operation of human–machine systems. Cognitive engineering combines both detailed and close study of the human worker in the actual work context and the study of the worker in more controlled environments. Cognitive engineering combines multiple methods and perspectives to achieve the goal of improved system performance. Given the origins of experimental psychology itself in issues regard...

  8. Cognitive psychology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, J.R.

    1984-05-01

    The author considers the following areas of cognitive psychology: architectural principles of the human mind; knowledge representation; spreading activation; control of cognition; memory; learning; language; and prediction. He tries to provide pointers to the field at large learning the view of his book the architecture of cognition (Anderson 1983) for those who require a more detailed treatment. 76 references.

  9. : Cognitive complaints and cognitive decline.

    OpenAIRE

    Dufouil, Carole; Fuhrer, Rebecca; Alpérovitch, Annick

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore whether more cognitive complaints are associated with previous or future cognitive decline. DESIGN: Longitudinal; epidemiology vascular aging study. SETTING: Community in Nantes, France. PARTICIPANTS: Seven hundred thirty-three subjects, aged 59 to 71. MEASUREMENTS: Subjective cognitive complaints were recorded at 4-year follow-up examination in a prospective study of people aged 59 to 71 at study entry. Participants' cognitive performances were assessed repeatedly at e...

  10. Cognitive distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Hong; Edwards, Geoffrey; Qi, Cuihong

    2001-09-01

    In geographic space, it is well known that spatial behaviors of humans are directly driven by their spatial cognition, rather than by the physical or geometrical reality. The cognitive distance in spatial cognition is fundamental in intelligent pattern recognition. More precisely, the cognitive distance can be used to measure the similarities (or relevance) of cognized geographic objects. In the past work, the physical or Euclidean distances are used very often. In practice, many inconsistencies are found between the cognitive distance and the physical distance. Usually the physical distance is overestimated or underestimated in the process of human spatial behaviors and pattern recognition. These inconsistencies are termed distance distortions. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the conceptions of cognitive distance and distance distortion. And if the cognitive distance is argued to be two-dimensional, it exists in heterogeneous space and the property of quasi-metric is shown. If the cognitive distance is multi-dimensional, it exists in homogeneous space and the property of metric is shown. We argue that distance distortions arise from the transformation of homogeneous to heterogeneous space and from the transformation of the two-dimensional cognitive distance to the multi-dimensional cognitive distance. In some sense, the physical distance is an instance of cognitive distance.

  11. Successful Development

    OpenAIRE

    Millová, K. (Katarína)

    2015-01-01

    Successful development, as a relatively new area, is studied from various perspectives: psychological, sociological and medical. There are many theoretical and empirical approaches to successful development, such as life span or life course models. Successful development can also be seen in terms of adapting to the demands of society or in terms of individual growth. Since it is a complex construct, it is usually not sufficient to examine it on the basis of a single criterion. More often, a m...

  12. Visual cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book consists of essays covering issues in visual cognition presenting experimental techniques from cognitive psychology, methods of modeling cognitive processes on computers from artificial intelligence, and methods of studying brain organization from neuropsychology. Topics considered include: parts of recognition; visual routines; upward direction; mental rotation, and discrimination of left and right turns in maps; individual differences in mental imagery, computational analysis and the neurological basis of mental imagery: componental analysis.

  13. Cognitive Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Kimball, Miles S.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive Economics is the economics of what is in people’s minds. It is a vibrant area of research (much of it within Behavioral Economics, Labor Economics and the Economics of Education) that brings into play novel types of data—especially novel types of survey data. Such data highlight the importance of heterogeneity across individuals and highlight thorny issues for Welfare Economics. A key theme of Cognitive Economics is finite cognition (often misleadingly called “bounded rationality”),...

  14. Successful Development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Millová, Katarína

    London : Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, s. 5-19. ISBN 978-1-137-43995-6 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP407/10/2410 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : successful development * lifespan development * dimensions of successful development Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  15. User cognition in product operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelderblom, G.J.

    2001-01-01

    Daily a large number of everyday consumer products are being used. Unfortunately part of this usage is not successful. One of the causes of failure lies in the cognitive aspects of product use, users do not know how to operate the product or try to use it in a way which is not successful. Ideally, t

  16. Cognitive maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minder, Bettina; Laursen, Linda Nhu; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2014-01-01

    . Conceptual clustering is used to analyse and order information according to concepts or variables from within the data. The cognitive maps identified are validated through the comments of some of the same experts. The study presents three cognitive maps and respective world-views explaining how the design...

  17. Successful ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Morten Hillgaard; Söderqvist, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    prevention strategies; and the importance of individual, societal and scientific conceptualisations and understandings of ageing. By presenting an account of the recent historical uses, interpretations and critiques of the concept, the article unfolds the practical and normative complexities of ‘ successful......Since the late 1980s, the concept of ‘ successful ageing’ has set the frame for discourse about contemporary ageing research. Through an analysis of the reception to John W. Rowe and Robert L. Kahn's launch of the concept of ‘ successful ageing’ in 1987, this article maps out the important themes...

  18. Emotional Intelligence and Successful Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulding, Wanda S.

    Cognitive intelligence is often equated with eventual success in many areas. However, there are many instances where people of high IQ flounder whereas those of modest IQ do surprisingly well. Author and renowned psychologist Daniel Goleman believes that the explanation for this fact lies in abilities called "emotional intelligence," which include…

  19. Visual cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, S.

    1985-01-01

    This collection of research papers on visual cognition first appeared as a special issue of Cognition: International Journal of Cognitive Science. The study of visual cognition has seen enormous progress in the past decade, bringing important advances in our understanding of shape perception, visual imagery, and mental maps. Many of these discoveries are the result of converging investigations in different areas, such as cognitive and perceptual psychology, artificial intelligence, and neuropsychology. This volume is intended to highlight a sample of work at the cutting edge of this research area for the benefit of students and researchers in a variety of disciplines. The tutorial introduction that begins the volume is designed to help the nonspecialist reader bridge the gap between the contemporary research reported here and earlier textbook introductions or literature reviews.

  20. Cognitive remission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortolato, Beatrice; Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Köhler, Cristiano A;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction in major depressive disorder (MDD) encompasses several domains, including but not limited to executive function, verbal memory, and attention. Furthermore, cognitive dysfunction is a frequent residual manifestation in depression and may persist during the remitted...... phase. Cognitive deficits may also impede functional recovery, including workforce performance, in patients with MDD. The overarching aims of this opinion article are to critically evaluate the effects of available antidepressants as well as novel therapeutic targets on neurocognitive dysfunction in MDD......, galantamine, scopolamine, N-acetylcysteine, curcumin, statins, and coenzyme Q10. The management of cognitive dysfunction remains an unmet need in the treatment of MDD. However, it is hoped that the development of novel therapeutic targets will contribute to 'cognitive remission', which may aid functional...

  1. Successful ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusumastuti, Sasmita; Derks, Marloes G M; Tellier, Siri;

    2016-01-01

    curvilinear pattern with the lowest point at middle age but increases thereafter up to very old age. OBJECTIVE: To shed further light on this paradox, we reviewed the existing literature on how scholars define successful ageing and how they weigh the contribution of health and functioning to define success....... METHODS: We performed a novel, hypothesis-free and quantitative analysis of citation networks exploring the literature on successful ageing that exists in the Web of Science Core Collection Database using the CitNetExplorer software. Outcomes were visualized using timeline-based citation patterns. The......BACKGROUND: Ageing is accompanied by an increased risk of disease and a loss of functioning on several bodily and mental domains and some argue that maintaining health and functioning is essential for a successful old age. Paradoxically, studies have shown that overall wellbeing follows a...

  2. Breastfeeding successfully

    OpenAIRE

    Malta. Health Promotion & Disease Prevention Directorate; Malta. Breastfeeding Working Group

    2012-01-01

    This leaflet issued by the Health Promotion & Disease Directorate and the Breastfeeding Working Group provides a better understanding of the breast, milk production as well as tips on successful breastfeeding.

  3. Time Investment by Parents in Cognitive and Non-cognitive Childcare Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Sepahvand, Mohammad; Shahbazian, Roujman; Swain, Ranjula Bali

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the time investment in cognitive and non-cognitive childcare activities by parents with different educational attainment. In a second step we also investigate this effect for three different child age cohorts. Past research shows that the degree of success in the labour market is highly connected to the individual’s cognitive and non-cognitive skills. We compare evidence based on Multinational Time Use Study (MTUS) for five countries: France, Netherlands, Spain, United Kingdom ...

  4. Current Developments in Cognitive Linguistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dirk Geeraerts

    2008-01-01

    After 30 years of theoretical development, we need to address the question whether the internal evolution of Cognitive Linguistics can be synthesized: what are the fundamental underlying trends in Cognitive Linguistics, and how do they shape the current developments within Cognitive Linguistics? This paper argues that Cognitive Linguistics is essentially characterized by a gradual recontextualization of the grammar. First, the development of 20th century grammar is characterized by a succession of a decontextualizing and a recontextualizing movement. Second, the various stages in the development of Cognitive Linguistics involve the gradual recovery of the various types of context that were discarded by generative grammar. These involve the experiential and embodied context of meaning in natural Language, the pragmatic context of actual language usage, and the social and cultural context of language as a shared code.

  5. Cognitive linguistics and metaphor research: past successes, skeptical questions, future challenges A lingüística cognitiva e a pesquisa sobre metáfora: sucessos passados, questionamentos céticos, futuros desafios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond W. Gibbs, Jr

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An important reason for the tremendous interest in metaphor over the past 20 years stems from cognitive linguistic research. Cognitive linguists embrace the idea that metaphor is not merely a part of language, but reflects a fundamental part of the way people think, reason, and imagine. A large number of empirical studies in cognitive linguistics have, in different ways, supported this claim. My aim in this paper is to describe the empirical foundations for cognitive linguistic work on metaphor, acknowledge various skeptical reactions to this work, and respond to some of these questions/criticisms. I also outline several challenges that cognitive linguists should try to address in future work on metaphor in language, thought, and culture.Uma importante razão para o grande interesse pela metáfora nos últimos 20 anos está na pesquisa realizada pela Lingüística Cognitiva. Os lingüistas cognitivos adotam a idéia de que a metáfora não é meramente uma parte da língua, mas reflete uma parte fundamental da nossa maneira de pensar, raciocinar e imaginar.Um grande número de estudos empíricos em Lingüística Cognitiva tem, de diferentes modos, oferecido suporte a essa idéia. Meu objetivo neste artigo é descrever os fundamentos empíricos do trabalho da Lingüística Cognitiva sobre a metáfora, apresentar vários questionamentos sobre esse trabalho, e responder algumas dessas questões/críticas. Eu também aponto vários desafios que a Lingüística Cognitiva deveria encarar em futuros trabalhos sobre a metáfora na língua, no pensamento e na cultura.

  6. Citation Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaio, Gianfranco Di; Waldenström, Daniel; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the determinants of citation success among authors who have recently published their work in economic history journals. Besides offering clues about how to improve one's scientific impact, our citation analysis also sheds light on the state of the field of economic history....... Consistent with our expectations, we find that full professors, authors appointed at economics and history departments, and authors working in Anglo-Saxon and German countries are more likely to receive citations than other scholars. Long and co-authored articles are also a factor for citation success. We...... find similar patterns when assessing the same authors' citation success in economics journals. As a novel feature, we demonstrate that the diffusion of research — publication of working papers, as well as conference and workshop presentations — has a first-order positive impact on the citation rate....

  7. Citation Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Waldenström, Daniel; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    This study analyses determinants of citation success among authors publishing in economic history journals. Bibliometric features, like article length and number of authors, are positively correlated with the citation rate up to a certain point. Remarkably, publishing in top-ranked journals hardly...... affects citations. In regard to author-specific characteristics, male authors, full professors and authors working economics or history departments, and authors employed in Anglo-Saxon countries, are more likely to get cited than others. As a ‘shortcut' to citation success, we find that research diffusion...

  8. What drives successful verbal communication?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam eDe Boer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a vast amount of potential mappings between behaviours and intentions in communication: a behaviour can indicate a multitude of different intentions, and the same intention can be communicated with a variety of behaviours. Humans routinely solve these many-to-many referential problems when producing utterances for an Addressee. This ability might rely on social cognitive skills, for instance, the ability to manipulate unobservable summary variables to disambiguate ambiguous behaviour of other agents (mentalizing and the drive to invest resources into changing and understanding the mental state of other agents (communicative motivation. Alternatively, the ambiguities of verbal communicative interactions might be solved by general-purpose cognitive abilities that process cues that are incidentally associated with the communicative interaction. In this study, we assess these possibilities by testing which cognitive traits account for communicative success during a verbal referential task. Cognitive traits were assessed with psychometric scores quantifying motivation, mentalizing abilities, and general-purpose cognitive abilities, taxing abstract visuo-spatial abilities. Communicative abilities of participants were assessed by using an on-line interactive task that required a speaker to verbally convey a concept to an Addressee. The communicative success of the utterances was quantified by measuring how frequently a number of Evaluators would infer the correct concept. Speakers with high motivational and general-purpose cognitive abilities generated utterances that were more easily interpreted. These findings extend to the domain of verbal communication the notion that motivational and cognitive factors influence the human ability to rapidly converge on shared communicative innovations.

  9. Harmonization of radiobiological assays: why and how?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency has made available a technical manual for cytogenetic biodosimetry assays (dicentric chromosome aberration (DCA) and cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assays) used for radiation dose assessment in radiation accidents. The International Standardization Organization, which develops standards and guidelines, also provides an avenue for laboratory accreditation, has developed guidelines and recommendations for performing cytogenetic biodosimetry assays. Harmonization of DCA and CBMN assays, has improved their accuracy. Double-blinded inter-laboratory comparison studies involving several networks have further validated DCA and CBMN assays and improved the confidence in their potential use for radiation dose assessment in mass casualties. This kind of international harmonization is lacking for pre-clinical radiobiology assays. The widely used pre-clinical assays that are relatively important to set stage for clinical trials include clonogenic assays, flow-cytometry assays, apoptotic assays, and tumor regression and growth delay assays. However, significant inter-laboratory variations occur with respect to data among laboratories. This raises concerns on the reliability and reproducibility of preclinical data that drives further development and translation. Lack of reproducibility may stem from a variety of factors such as poor scientist training, less than optimal experimental design, inadequate description of methodology, and impulse to publish only the positive data etc. Availability of technical manuals, standard operating procedures, accreditation avenues for laboratories performing such assays, inter-laboratory comparisons, and use of standardized protocols are necessary to enhance reliability and reproducibility. Thus, it is important that radiobiological assays are harmonized for laboratory protocols to ensure successful translation of pre-clinical research on radiation effect modulators to help design clinic trials with

  10. Cognitive Neuropsychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi

    2012-01-01

    are disproportionally impaired in one task or domain compared to another. In many cases data for normal performance has not been referred to or reported. This has resulted in several theories of cognitive functioning in different domains such as language, visual perception, and memory, specifying a number of different...... in patients’ test performance can inform theories of (normal) cognitive function. In four talks, this symposium will present and discuss methods for investigating impairment patterns in neuropsychological patients: 1) a talk on basic assumptions and statistical methods in single case methodology; 2) a talk......Traditionally, studies in cognitive neuropsychology have reported single cases or small groups of patients with seemingly selective impairments of specific cognitive processes or modules. Many studies, particularly older ones, have used simple and coarse tasks to show that patients...

  11. Social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patin, Alexandra; Hurlemann, René

    2015-01-01

    Social cognition is a major problem underlying deficiencies in interpersonal relationships in several psychiatric populations. And yet there is currently no gold standard for pharmacological treatment of psychiatric illness that directly targets these social cognitive areas. This chapter serves to illustrate some of the most innovative attempts at pharmacological modulation of social cognition in psychiatric illnesses including schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder, autism spectrum disorders, antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy, social anxiety disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Pharmacological modulation includes studies administering oxytocin, ecstasy (MDMA), modafinil, methylphenidate, and D-cycloserine. Furthermore, some background on social cognition research in healthy individuals, which could be helpful in developing future treatments, is provided as well as the potential for each drug as a long-term treatment option. PMID:25977087

  12. Cognitive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The tutorial will discuss the definition of cognitive systems as the possibilities to extend the current systems engineering paradigm in order to perceive, learn, reason and interact robustly in open-ended changing environments. I will also address cognitive systems in a historical perspective and...... its relation and potential over current artificial intelligence architectures. Machine learning models that learn from data and previous knowledge will play an increasingly important role in all levels of cognition as large real world digital environments (such as the Internet) usually are too complex...... to be modeled within a limited set of predefined specifications. There will inevitably be a need for robust decisions and behaviors in novel situations that include handling of conflicts and ambiguities based on the capability and knowledge of the artificial cognitive system. Further, there is a need...

  13. Cognitive Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The tutorial will discuss the definition of cognitive systems as the possibilities to extend the current systems engineering paradigm in order to perceive, learn, reason and interact robustly in open-ended changing environments. I will also address cognitive systems in a historical perspective and its relation and potential over current artificial intelligence architectures. Machine learning models that learn from data and previous knowledge will play an increasingly important role in all lev...

  14. Social cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Frith, Chris D.

    2008-01-01

    Social cognition concerns the various psychological processes that enable individuals to take advantage of being part of a social group. Of major importance to social cognition are the various social signals that enable us to learn about the world. Such signals include facial expressions, such as fear and disgust, which warn us of danger, and eye gaze direction, which indicate where interesting things can be found. Such signals are particularly important in infant development. Social referenc...

  15. Cognitive Assessment System (CAS): Psychometric studies with Portuguese children.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosário, A.; Candeias, A.A.; Roazzi, A.

    2013-01-01

    The Cognitive Assessment System (CAS) is a new measure of cognitive abilities based on the Planning, Attention, Simultaneous and Successive (PASS) Theory. This theory is derived from research in neuropsychological and cognitive Psychology with particular emphasis on the work of Luria (1973). According to Naglieri (1999) and Naglieri and Das (1997), the PASS cognitive processes are the basic building blocks of human intellectual functioning. Planning processes provide cognitive control, utiliz...

  16. Microbead agglutination based assays

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2013-01-21

    We report a simple and rapid room temperature assay for point-of-care (POC) testing that is based on specific agglutination. Agglutination tests are based on aggregation of microbeads in the presence of a specific analyte thus enabling the macroscopic observation. Such tests are most often used to explore antibody-antigen reactions. Agglutination has been used for protein assays using a biotin/streptavidin system as well as a hybridization based assay. The agglutination systems are prone to selftermination of the linking analyte, prone to active site saturation and loss of agglomeration at high analyte concentrations. We investigated the molecular target/ligand interaction, explaining the common agglutination problems related to analyte self-termination, linkage of the analyte to the same bead instead of different microbeads. We classified the agglutination process into three kinds of assays: a two- component assay, a three-component assay and a stepped three- component assay. Although we compared these three kinds of assays for recognizing DNA and protein molecules, the assay can be used for virtually any molecule, including ions and metabolites. In total, the optimized assay permits detecting analytes with high sensitivity in a short time, 5 min, at room temperature. Such a system is appropriate for POC testing.

  17. SUCCESSION MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Charu Jain

    2015-01-01

    Talent drives the success or failure of organizations. Research on the leading organizations in the private sector shows that, "getting the right people in the right seats on the bus" distinguishes companies that can develop a business strategy from those that can execute one (Collins, Bossidy & Charan). Individual talent carries an even higher premium in educational institutions, where 80% of the financial resources are invested in human capital and affecting human interactions like teaching...

  18. Relevance theory: the Cognitive Pragmatic Foundation of Code-switching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    令狐曼

    2015-01-01

    The paper will discuss the process of code-switching and its cognitive pragmatic motivation from the point of relevance.And code-switching is also regarded as a kind of communicative strategy.The process of the production of code-switching is also the cooperation and mutual constrain of communicator’s cognitive environment and ability.Cognitive effect can be obtained through communicator’s processing cognitive environment with their cognitive ability.In this process,the cooperation of cognitive ability and cognitive environment gives a guarantee to successful communication with code-switching.

  19. Radioreceptor opioid assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioreceptor assay is described for assaying opioid drugs in biological fluids. The method enables the assay of total opioid activity, being specific for opioids as a class but lacking specificity within the class. A radio-iodinated opioid and the liquid test sample are incubated with an opiate receptor material. The percentage inhibition of the binding of the radio-iodinated compound to the opiate receptor is calculated and the opioid activity of the test liquid determined from a standard curve. Examples of preparing radio-iodinated opioids and assaying opioid activity are given. A test kit for the assay is described. Compared to other methods, this assay is cheap, easy and rapid. (U.K.)

  20. Human cognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of human cognition encompasses the study of all mental phenomena, from the receipt and interpretation of sensory information to the final control of the motor system in the performance of action. The cognitive scientist examines all intermediary processes, including thought, decision making, and memory and including the effects of motivation, states of arousal and stress, the study of language, and the effects of social factors. The field therefore ranges over an enormous territory, covering all that is known or that should be known about human behavior. It is not possible to summarize the current state of knowledge about cognition with any great confidence that we know the correct answer about any aspect of the work. Nontheless, models provide good characterizations of certain aspects of the data and situations. Even if these models should prove to be incorrect, they do provide good approximate descriptions of people's behavior in some situations, and these approximations will still apply even when the underlying theories have changed. A quick description is provided of models within a number of areas of human cognition and skill and some general theoretical frameworks with which to view human cognition. The frameworks are qualitative descriptions that provide a way to view the development of more detailed, quantitative models and, most important, a way of thinking about human performance and skill

  1. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  2. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  3. Tricyclic antidepressant radioreceptor assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A receptor assay for tricyclic antidepressants described here is based on the ability of these drugs to compete with [3H]-3-guinuclidnyl benzilate (3H-QNB) for binding to muscarinic cholinergic receptors in rat brain membranes. The assay is sensitive, in that it can detect, for example, 2ng/ml nortriptyline in plasma. Seven plasma samples from depressed patients treated with nortriptyline were assayed with the radioreceptor and gas liquid chromatographic methods, and the results from these two methods were almost identical. This assay should be used cautiously, if at all, in patients treated with other drugs that have potent anticholinergic effects. (Auth.)

  4. SUCCESSION MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charu Jain

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Talent drives the success or failure of organizations. Research on the leading organizations in the private sector shows that, "getting the right people in the right seats on the bus" distinguishes companies that can develop a business strategy from those that can execute one (Collins, Bossidy & Charan. Individual talent carries an even higher premium in educational institutions, where 80% of the financial resources are invested in human capital and affecting human interactions like teaching and leading lies at the very core of any organizational strategy.

  5. Cognitive Optical Network Testbed: EU Project CHRON

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkowski, Robert; Duran, Ramon J.; Kachris, Christoforos;

    2015-01-01

    Network (CHRON) architecture. In this experiment, an intelligent control plane, enabled by a cognitive decision system (CDS), was successfully combined with a flexible data plane. The testbed was used to test and validate different scenarios, demonstrating benefits obtained by network cognition......The aim of cognition in optical networks is to introduce intelligence into the control plane that allows for autonomous end-to-end performance optimization and minimization of required human intervention, particularly targeted at heterogeneous network scenarios. A cognitive network observes, learns......, and makes informed decisions based on its current status and knowledge about past decisions and their results. To test the operation of cognitive algorithms in real time, we created the first operational testbed of a cognitive optical network based on the Cognitive Heterogeneous Reconfigurable Optical...

  6. Cognitive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkey, Roderick; Kilts, Clint

    2007-11-01

    Recent neuroscientific research shows that the health of your brain isn't, as experts once thought, just the product of childhood experiences and genetics; it reflects your adult choices and experiences as well. Professors Gilkey and Kilts of Emory University's medical and business schools explain how you can strengthen your brain's anatomy, neural networks, and cognitive abilities, and prevent functions such as memory from deteriorating as you age. The brain's alertness is the result of what the authors call cognitive fitness -a state of optimized ability to reason, remember, learn, plan, and adapt. Certain attitudes, lifestyle choices, and exercises enhance cognitive fitness. Mental workouts are the key. Brain-imaging studies indicate that acquiring expertise in areas as diverse as playing a cello, juggling, speaking a foreign language, and driving a taxicab expands your neural systems and makes them more communicative. In other words, you can alter the physical makeup of your brain by learning new skills. The more cognitively fit you are, the better equipped you are to make decisions, solve problems, and deal with stress and change. Cognitive fitness will help you be more open to new ideas and alternative perspectives. It will give you the capacity to change your behavior and realize your goals. You can delay senescence for years and even enjoy a second career. Drawing from the rapidly expanding body of neuroscience research as well as from well-established research in psychology and other mental health fields, the authors have identified four steps you can take to become cognitively fit: understand how experience makes the brain grow, work hard at play, search for patterns, and seek novelty and innovation. Together these steps capture some of the key opportunities for maintaining an engaged, creative brain. PMID:18159786

  7. The Comet Assay: Tails of the (Unexpected. Use of the comet assay in pharmaceutical development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas-jan Van Der Leede

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In genotoxicity testing of pharmaceuticals the rodent alkaline comet assay is being increasingly used as a second in vivo assay in addition to the in vivo micronucleus assay to mitigate in vitro positive results as recommended by regulatory guidance. In this presentation we want to give insight into the circumstances in vivo comet assay is deployed in a Genetic Toxicology Department of a pharmaceutical company. As the in vivo comet assay is a salvage assay, it means that some events have occurred in an in vitro assay and that the compound (or metabolite responsible for this signal is potentially deselected for further development. More than often the decision to perform an in vivo comet assay is at a very early stage in development and the first time that the compound will be tested in vivo at high/toxic dose levels. As almost no toxicokinetic data and tissue distribution data are available a careful design with maximizes the chances for successful mitigation is necessary. Decisions on acute or repeated dosing need to be made and arrangements for combining the in vivo comet assay with the in vivo micronucleus assay are to be considered. Often synthesis methods need to be scaled up fast to provide the required amount of compound and information on suitable formulations needs to be in place. As exposure data is crucial for interpretation of results, analytical methods need to be brought in place rapidly. An experienced multi skilled and communicative team needs to be available to deploy successfully this kind of assays at an early stage of development. We will present a few scenarios on study conduct and demonstrate how this assay can make a difference for the further development of a new drug.

  8. Moral Cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleim, Stephan; Clausen, Jens; Levy, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Research on moral cognition is a growing and heavily multidisciplinary field. This section contains chapters addressing foundational psychological, neuroscientific, and philosophical issues of research on moral decision-making. Further- more, beyond summarizing the state of the art of their respecti

  9. Cognitive emotion regulation fails the stress test

    OpenAIRE

    Raio, Candace M.; Orederu, Temidayo A.; Palazzolo, Laura; Shurick, Ashley A.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive emotion regulation has been widely shown in the laboratory to be an effective way to alter the nature of emotional responses. Despite its success in experimental contexts, however, we often fail to use these strategies in everyday life where stress is pervasive. The successful execution of cognitive regulation relies on intact executive functioning and engagement of the prefrontal cortex, both of which are rapidly impaired by the deleterious effects of stress. Because it is specific...

  10. Potential of Cognitive Computing and Cognitive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    2014-11-01

    Cognitive computing and cognitive technologies are game changers for future engineering systems, as well as for engineering practice and training. They are major drivers for knowledge automation work, and the creation of cognitive products with higher levels of intelligence than current smart products. This paper gives a brief review of cognitive computing and some of the cognitive engineering systems activities. The potential of cognitive technologies is outlined, along with a brief description of future cognitive environments, incorporating cognitive assistants - specialized proactive intelligent software agents designed to follow and interact with humans and other cognitive assistants across the environments. The cognitive assistants engage, individually or collectively, with humans through a combination of adaptive multimodal interfaces, and advanced visualization and navigation techniques. The realization of future cognitive environments requires the development of a cognitive innovation ecosystem for the engineering workforce. The continuously expanding major components of the ecosystem include integrated knowledge discovery and exploitation facilities (incorporating predictive and prescriptive big data analytics); novel cognitive modeling and visual simulation facilities; cognitive multimodal interfaces; and cognitive mobile and wearable devices. The ecosystem will provide timely, engaging, personalized / collaborative, learning and effective decision making. It will stimulate creativity and innovation, and prepare the participants to work in future cognitive enterprises and develop new cognitive products of increasing complexity. http://www.aee.odu.edu/cognitivecomp

  11. Motivation, test scores and economic success

    OpenAIRE

    Segal, Carmit

    2006-01-01

    This paper argues that low-stakes test scores, available in surveys, may be partially determined by test-taking motivation, which is associated with personality traits but not with cognitive ability. Therefore, such test score distributions may not be informative regarding cognitive ability distributions. Moreover, correlations, found in survey data, between high test scores and economic success may be partially caused by favorable personality traits. To demonstrate these point...

  12. CPTAC Assay Portal: a repository of targeted proteomic assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteaker, Jeffrey R.; Halusa, Goran; Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Sharma, Vagisha; MacLean, Brendan; Yan, Ping; Wrobel, John; Kennedy, Jacob; Mani, DR; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Meyer, Matthew R.; Mesri, Mehdi; Rodriguez, Henry; Abbateillo, Susan E.; Boja, Emily; Carr, Steven A.; Chan, Daniel W.; Chen, Xian; Chen, Jing; Davies, Sherri; Ellis, Matthew; Fenyo, David; Hiltket, Tara; Ketchum, Karen; Kinsinger, Christopher; Kuhn, Eric; Liebler, Daniel; Lin, De; Liu, Tao; Loss, Michael; MacCoss, Michael; Qian, Weijun; Rivers, Robert; Rodland, Karin D.; Ruggles, Kelly; Scott, Mitchell; Smith, Richard D.; Thomas, Stefani N.; Townsend, Reid; Whiteley, Gordon; Wu, Chaochao; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Zhen; Paulovich, Amanda G.

    2014-06-27

    To address these issues, the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has launched an Assay Portal (http://assays.cancer.gov) to serve as a public repository of well-characterized quantitative, MS-based, targeted proteomic assays. The purpose of the CPTAC Assay Portal is to facilitate widespread adoption of targeted MS assays by disseminating SOPs, reagents, and assay characterization data for highly characterized assays. A primary aim of the NCI-supported portal is to bring together clinicians or biologists and analytical chemists to answer hypothesis-driven questions using targeted, MS-based assays. Assay content is easily accessed through queries and filters, enabling investigators to find assays to proteins relevant to their areas of interest. Detailed characterization data are available for each assay, enabling researchers to evaluate assay performance prior to launching the assay in their own laboratory.

  13. Radioactive wastes assay technique and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The waste inventory records such as the activities and radio- nuclides contained in the waste packages are to be submitted with the radioactive wastes packages for the final disposal. The nearly around 10,000 drums of waste stocked in KAERI now should be assayed for the preparation of the waste inventory records too. For the successive execution of the waste assay, the investigation into the present waste assay techniques and equipment are to be taken first. Also the installation of the waste assay equipment through the comprehensive design, manufacturing and procurement should be proceeded timely. As the characteristics of the KAERI-stocked wastes are very different from that of the nuclear power plant and those have no regular waste streams, the application of the in-direct waste assay method using the scaling factors are not effective for the KAERI-generated wastes. Considering for the versal conveniency including the accuracy over the wide range of waste forms and the combination of assay time and sensitivity, the TGS(Tomographic Gamma Scanner) is appropriate as for the KAERI -generated radioactive waste assay equipment

  14. Transgenic Animal Mutation Assays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Chen; Ph.D.D.A.B.T.

    2005-01-01

    @@ The novel transgenic mouse and rat mutation assays have provided a tool for analyzing in vivo mutation in any tissue, thus permitting the direct comparison of cancer incidence with mutant frequency.

  15. The neutral comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The single-cell gel electrophoresis (or comet) assay is a rapid and sensitive fluorescence microscopic method that is used for the detection of DNA damage at the individual cell level. Comet assay under neutral conditions allows the detection of DNA double-strand breaks, considered to the biologically relevant radiation-induced lesion. In this report we describe modifications of the neutral comet method and its use for studying DNA damage and its repair in irradiated human lymphocytes. (author)

  16. Recognizing the Need for Rich Contextualization in the Classroom and Applying it with Modified Bloom's Cognitive Domain Taxonomy for Successful Teaching of Physics 106 (Physics II – Electricity, Magnetism and Light)

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew E. Edwards

    2014-01-01

    Engaging students to teach new concepts and to have students achieve individualized learning with the successful integration of those new concepts with their existing knowledge has been and remains the primary goal of college education. In this study drawing on information gathered over the past 2 plus decades, my findings have led me to develop two new separate ascending teaching-structures that are significantly helping me with content delivery, and simultaneously helping my students achiev...

  17. User cognition in product operation

    OpenAIRE

    Gelderblom, G.J.

    2001-01-01

    Daily a large number of everyday consumer products are being used. Unfortunately part of this usage is not successful. One of the causes of failure lies in the cognitive aspects of product use, users do not know how to operate the product or try to use it in a way which is not successful. Ideally, the designer of a product should convey information on the use of the product through the design, enabling the user by intuition to operate the product successfully. However, theoretical insights on...

  18. [Cognition - the core of major depressive disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polosan, M; Lemogne, C; Jardri, R; Fossati, P

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive deficits have been only recently recognized as a major phenotype determinant of major depressive disorder, although they are an integral part of the definition of the depressive state. Congruent evidence suggest that these cognitive deficits persist beyond the acute phase and may be identified at all ages. The aim of the current study was to review the main meta-analyses on cognition and depression, which encompasses a large range of cognitive domains. Therefore, we discuss the "cold" (attention, memory, executive functions) and "hot" (emotional bias) cognitive impairments in MDD, as well as those of social cognition domains (empathy, theory of mind). Several factors interfere with cognition in MDD such as clinical (melancholic, psychotic...) features, age, age of onset, illness severity, medication and comorbid condition. As still debated in the literature, the type of relationship between the severity of cognitive symptoms and functioning in depression is detailed, thus highlighting their predictive value of functional outcome, independently of the affective symptoms. A better identification of the cognitive deficits in MDD and a monitoring of the effects of different treatments require appropriate instruments, which may be developed by taking advantage of the increasing success of computing tools. Overall, current data suggest a core role for different cognitive deficits in MDD, therefore opening new perspectives for optimizing the treatment of depression. PMID:26879254

  19. Assay method and compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods are described for measuring catecholamine levels in human and animal body fluids and tissues using the catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) radioassay. The assay involves incubating the biological sample with COMT and the tritiated methyl donor, S-adenosyl-L-methionine(3H)-methyl. The O-methylated (3H) epinephrine and/or norepinephrine are extracted and oxidised to vanillin-3H which in turn is extracted and its radioactivity counted. When analysing dopamine levels the assay is extended by vanillin-3H and raising the pH of the aqueous periodate phase from which O-methylated (3H) dopamine is extracted and counted. The assay may be modified depending on whether measurements of undifferentiated total endogenous catecholamine levels or differential analyses of the catecholamine levels are being performed. The sensitivity of the assay can be as low as 5 picograms for norepinephrine and epinephrine and 12 picograms for dopamine. The assemblance of the essential components of the assay into a kit for use in laboratories is also described. (U.K.)

  20. Functional Brain Network Changes Associated with Maintenance of Cognitive Function in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh A Helekar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In multiple sclerosis (MS functional changes in connectivity due to cortical reorganization could lead to cognitive impairment (CI, or reflect a re-adjustment to reduce the clinical effects of widespread tissue damage. Such alterations in connectivity could result in changes in neural activation as assayed by executive function tasks. We examined cognitive function in MS patients with mild to moderate cognitive impairment and age-matched controls. We evaluated brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during the successful performance of the Wisconsin-card sorting (WCS task by MS patients, showing compensatory maintenance of normal function, as measured by response latency and error rate. To assess changes in functional connectivity throughout the brain, we performed a global functional brain network analysis by computing voxel by voxel correlations on the fMRI time series data and carrying out a hierarchical cluster analysis. We found that during the WCS task there is a significant reduction in the number of smaller size brain functional networks, and a change in the brain areas representing the nodes of these networks in MS patients compared to age-matched controls. There is also a concomitant increase in the strength of functional connections between brain loci separated at intermediate scale distances in these patients. These functional alterations might reflect compensatory neuroplastic reorganization underlying maintenance of relatively normal cognitive function in the face of white matter lesions and cortical atrophy produced by MS.

  1. Stress regulation and cognitive control: evidence relating cortisol reactivity and neural responses to errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Rebecca J; Hofheimer, Julia; Kazinka, Rebecca

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we tested the relationship between error-related signals of cognitive control and cortisol reactivity, investigating the hypothesis of common systems for cognitive and emotional self-regulation. Eighty-three participants completed a Stroop task while electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded. Three error-related indices were derived from the EEG: the error-related negativity (ERN), error positivity (Pe), and error-related alpha suppression (ERAS). Pre- and posttask salivary samples were assayed for cortisol, and cortisol change scores were correlated with the EEG variables. Better error-correct differentiation in the ERN predicted less cortisol increase during the task, whereas greater ERAS predicted greater cortisol increase during the task; the Pe was not correlated with cortisol changes. We concluded that an enhanced ERN, part of an adaptive cognitive control system, predicts successful stress regulation. In contrast, an enhanced ERAS response may reflect error-related arousal that is not adaptive. The results support the concept of overlapping systems for cognitive and emotional self-regulation. PMID:23055094

  2. Rover waste assay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched {sup 235}U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for {sup 137}Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Rover waste assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched 235U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for 137Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Neutral Comet Assay

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The Comet assay (or Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis assay) is a sensitive technique to detect DNA damage at the level of an individual cell. This technique is based on micro-electrophoresis of cells DNA content. Briefly, cells are embedded in agarose, lysed and submitted to an electric field, before the staining step with a fluorescent DNA binding dye. Damaged DNA (charged DNA) migrates in this field, forming the tail of a “comet”, while undamaged DNA remained in the head of the “comet”. The ...

  5. Lateral flow strip assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Robin R.; Benett, William J.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Pearson, Francesca S.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  6. Automated phantom assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes an automated phantom assay system developed for assaying phantoms spiked with minute quantities of radionuclides. The system includes a computer-controlled linear-translation table that positions the phantom at exact distances from a spectrometer. A multichannel analyzer (MCA) interfaces with a computer to collect gamma spectral data. Signals transmitted between the controller and MCA synchronize data collection and phantom positioning. Measured data are then stored on disk for subsequent analysis. The automated system allows continuous unattended operation and ensures reproducible results

  7. Psychology, cognition and school success: validation of the learning strategies program / Psicologia, cognição e sucesso escolar: concepção e validação dum programa de estratégias de aprendizagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Maria Ferreira Diogo Dias Pocinho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a Learning Strategies Program developed to provide academic success as well as personal well-being. Each content of learning is based on a strategy with 8 stages: Pre-test and Contract, Description, Modeling, Verbal Practice, Practice and Feedback Control, Advanced Practice and Feedback, Post-test and Contracts, and Generalization. This is a quasi-experimental design, with pre and post-test, an experimental group (n=110 and a control group (n=99. Its application was assessed on (a reading and writing; (b school achievement; (c self-esteem and study methods; (c school achievement causal attributions and, (e opinion of the teachers. The EG improved significantly compared to the CG indicating that such Program can bring not only school performance benefits but also personal ones for Portuguese students.

  8. Hyaluronic Acid Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itenov, Theis S; Kirkby, Nikolai S; Bestle, Morten H;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUD: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is proposed as a marker of functional liver capacity. The aim of the present study was to compare a new turbidimetric assay for measuring HA with the current standard method. METHODS: HA was measured by a particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay (PETIA) and enzyme...

  9. Instrument for assaying radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Jody Rustyn; Farfan, Eduardo B.

    2016-03-22

    An instrument for assaying radiation includes a flat panel detector having a first side opposed to a second side. A collimated aperture covers at least a portion of the first side of the flat panel detector. At least one of a display screen or a radiation shield may cover at least a portion of the second side of the flat panel detector.

  10. COGNITIVE COMPETENCE COMPARED TO COGNITIVE INDEPENDENCE AND COGNITIVE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina B. Shmigirilova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is aimed at identifying the essence of the cognitive competence concept in comparison with the concepts of cognitive independence and activity.Methods: The methodology implies a theoretical analysis of psychopedagogical and methodological materials on the cognitive competence formation; generalized teaching experience; empirical methods of direct observations of educational process in the secondary school classrooms; interviews with school teachers and pupils.Results: The research outcomes reveal a semantic intersection between the cognitive competence, independence and activity, and their distinctive features. The paper emphasizes the importance of cognitive competence as an adaptive mechanism in situations of uncertainty and instability.Scientific novelty: The author clarifies the concept of cognitive competence regarding it as a multi-component and systematic characteristic of a personality.Practical significance: The research findings can be used by specialists in didactics developing the teaching techniques of cognitive competence formation for schoolchildren.

  11. ON MAJOR FACTORS OF SUCCESSFUL LANGUAGE LEARNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    As is well known, some people are more successful thanothers in learning. This different levels of achievement may beattributed to variables associated with the learner. In recentyears there has been extensive research into aspects of differencesin learning a second language. This paper briefly reviews anddiscusses the major parameters of the differences among individu-als which research studies indicate may influence the success ofsecond language learning, citing six areas of interest: age, intel-ligence, cognitive styles, personality, motivation and attitude.

  12. Universal Design: A Step toward Successful Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly Carr; Weir, Patricia L.; Dory Azar; Nadia R. Azar

    2013-01-01

    The concept of aging successfully has become increasingly important as demographics shift towards an aging population. Successful aging has been defined to include (1) a low probability of disease and disease-related disability; (2) a high level of physical and cognitive functioning; and (3) an active engagement in life. The built environment can create opportunities or constraints for seniors to participate in social and productive activities. Universally designed spaces are more easily acce...

  13. Fuzzy Cognitive Maps and Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Vasantha, Kandasamy; Smarandache, Florentin

    2003-01-01

    In this book we study the concepts of Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) and their Neutrosophic analogue, the Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps (NCMs).Fuzzy Cognitive Maps are fuzzy structures that strongly resemble neural networks, and they have powerful and far-reaching consequences as a mathematical tool for modeling complex systems. Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps are generalizations of FCMs, and their unique feature is the ability to handle indeterminacy in relations between two concepts thereby bringing...

  14. Cognitive impairment and stroke in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Coco, Daniele; Lopez, Gianluca; Corrao, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed current knowledge about the interaction between stroke and vascular risk factors and the development of cognitive impairment and dementia. Stroke is increasingly recognized as an important cause of cognitive problems and has been implicated in the development of both Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. The prevalence of cognitive impairment after stroke is high, and their combined effects significantly increase the cost of care and health resource utilization, with reflections on hospital readmissions and increased mortality rates. There is also substantial evidence that vascular risk factors (such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, and tobacco smoking) are independently associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Thus, a successful management of these factors, as well as optimal acute stroke management, might have a great impact on the development of cognitive impairment. Notwithstanding, the pathological link between cognitive impairment, stroke, and vascular risk factors is complex and still partially unclear so that further studies are needed to better elucidate the boundaries of this relationship. Many specific pharmacological treatments, including anticholinergic drugs and antihypertensive medications, and nonpharmacological approaches, such as diet, cognitive rehabilitation, and physical activity, have been studied for patients with vascular cognitive impairment, but the optimal care is still far away. Meanwhile, according to the most recent knowledge, optimal stroke care should also include cognitive assessment in the short and long term, and great efforts should be oriented toward a multidisciplinary approach, including quality-of-life assessment and support of caregivers. PMID:27069366

  15. Reading Motivation: 10 Elements for Success. Motivational Strategies That Work!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbig, Kori M.

    2009-01-01

    Motivational processes are the foundation for coordinating cognitive goals and strategies in reading. Becoming an excellent, active reader involves attunement of motivational processes with cognitive and language processes in reading. This article presents K-12 strategies for motivating reading success. It describes 10 instructional elements that…

  16. Cognitive Performance in Operational Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Michael; McGhee, James; Friedler, Edna; Thomas, Maria

    2005-01-01

    Optimal cognition during complex and sustained operations is a critical component for success in current and future military operations. "Cognitive Performance, Judgment, and Decision-making" (CPJD) is a newly organized U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command research program focused on sustaining operational effectiveness of Future Force Warriors by developing paradigms through which militarily-relevant, higher-order cognitive performance, judgment, and decision-making can be assessed and sustained in individuals, small teams, and leaders of network-centric fighting units. CPJD evaluates the impact of stressors intrinsic to military operational environments (e.g., sleep deprivation, workload, fatigue, temperature extremes, altitude, environmental/physiological disruption) on military performance, evaluates noninvasive automated methods for monitoring and predicting cognitive performance, and investigates pharmaceutical strategies (e.g., stimulant countermeasures, hypnotics) to mitigate performance decrements. This manuscript describes the CPJD program, discusses the metrics utilized to relate militarily applied research findings to academic research, and discusses how the simulated combat capabilities of a synthetic battle laboratory may facilitate future cognitive performance research.

  17. Ensuring a successful family business management succession

    OpenAIRE

    Desbois, Joris

    2016-01-01

    Succession is the biggest long-term challenge that most family businesses face. Indeed, leaders ‘disposition to plan for their succession is frequently the key factor defining whether their family business subsists or stops. The research seeks to find out how to manage successfully the business management succession over main principles. This work project aims at researching the key points relevant to almost all family firms, to have a viable succession transition and positioni...

  18. A Consideration of Cognitive Complexity and Primacy - Recency Effects in Impression Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronko, Michael R.; Perin, Charles T.

    1970-01-01

    Classifies subjects as cognitively simple" or cognitively complex" and notes that the latter are much nore successful at reconciling inconsistent information than are the former, whose impressions are formed by the information which makes the greatest impact. (RW)

  19. Dual isotope assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dual isotope assays for thyroid function are performed by carrying out a radio-immunoassay for two of thyroxine (T4), tri-iodothyronine (T3), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroxine binding globulin (TBG), by a method wherein a version of one of the thyroid components, preferably T4 or T3 is labelled with Selenium-75 and the version of the other thyroid component is labelled with a different radionuclide, preferably Iodine-125. (author)

  20. Automated uranium assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precise, timely inventories of enriched uranium stocks are vital to help prevent the loss, theft, or diversion of this material for illicit use. A wet-chemistry analyzer has been developed at LLL to assist in these inventories by performing automated analyses of uranium samples from different stages in the nuclear fuel cycle. These assays offer improved accuracy, reduced costs, significant savings in manpower, and lower radiation exposure for personnel compared with present techniques

  1. Psychological markers associated with successful scientific work of biology students

    OpenAIRE

    Dina Ramendik

    2011-01-01

    The paper report results from a psychological study of 90 biology students (Moscow State University) and five doctors of biology. Faculty expert opinions were used to determine ten most successful performers and ten poor performers among students. They were compared by several cognitive and personal factors. The paper shows that success in scientific work is connected not with separate cognitive, communicative and personal characteristics, but with their system interaction. When this interact...

  2. Psicologia, cognição e sucesso escolar: concepção e validação dum programa de estratégias de aprendizagem Psychology, cognition and school success: validation of the learning strategies program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Maria Ferreira Diogo Dias Pocinho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo apresentamos a concepção e validação dum programa de estratégias de aprendizagem promotor do sucesso académico, bem como do bem-estar pessoal e escolar. Cada conteúdo de aprendizagem utiliza uma estratégia com 8 estádios: Pré-teste e Contrato, Descrição, Modelação, Prática Verbal, Prática Controlada e Feedback, Prática Avançada e Feedback, Pós-teste e Contratos, e Generalização. Trata-se dum estudo quasi-experimental, com pré e pós-teste, grupo experimental e de controlo. Avaliou-se o efeito do programa na (a compreensão e expressão verbal; (b aproveitamento escolar; (c auto-estima, hábitos de estudo; (d atribuições causais do sucesso; e (e opiniões dos professores. O GE (n=110 melhorou significativamente comparativamente ao GC (n=99 indicando que o Programa traz benefícios escolares e pessoais aos estudantes portugueses.This article presents a Learning Strategies Program developed to provide academic success as well as personal well-being. Each content of learning is based on a strategy with 8 stages: Pre-test and Contract, Description, Modeling, Verbal Practice, Practice and Feedback Control, Advanced Practice and Feedback, Post-test and Contracts, and Generalization. This is a quasi-experimental design, with pre and post-test, an experimental group (n=110 and a control group (n=99. Its application was assessed on (a reading and writing; (b school achievement; (c self-esteem and study methods; (c school achievement causal attributions and, (e opinion of the teachers. The EG improved significantly compared to the CG indicating that such Program can bring not only school performance benefits but also personal ones for Portuguese students.

  3. Cognition assessment using the NIH Toolbox

    OpenAIRE

    Weintraub, Sandra; Dikmen, Sureyya S.; Heaton, Robert K.; Tulsky, David S.; Zelazo, Philip D.; Bauer, Patricia J.; Carlozzi, Noelle E.; Slotkin, Jerry; Blitz, David; Wallner-Allen, Kathleen; Fox, Nathan A.; Beaumont, Jennifer L.; Mungas, Dan; Nowinski, Cindy J.; Richler, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Cognition is 1 of 4 domains measured by the NIH Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function (NIH-TB), and complements modules testing motor function, sensation, and emotion. On the basis of expert panels, the cognition subdomains identified as most important for health, success in school and work, and independence in daily functioning were Executive Function, Episodic Memory, Language, Processing Speed, Working Memory, and Attention. Seven measures were designed to tap ...

  4. Gamification of cognitive assessment and cognitive training: A systematic review of applications, approaches and efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Lumsden

    2015-11-01

    5.\tHow successful has gamification been in cognitive testing and training thus far? Method: Using several online databases, we searched the titles, abstracts and keywords of database entries using the search strategy (gamif* OR game OR games AND (cognit* OR engag* OR behavi* OR health* OR attention OR motiv*. Searches included articles published in English between January 2007 and October 2015. Non-peer reviewed studies such as abstracts or conference posters were excluded. Furthermore, due to the specific focus on cognitive assessment and training we excluded several other common uses of gamification including: gamification for education purposes, advertising purposes, disease management, health promotion, physical activity promotion, exposure therapy or rehabilitation. We also excluded studies that were merely used virtual reality or a 3D environment without involving any game mechanics: engagement had to be the primary reason for using a game-like design. Results: Our review identified 33 relevant studies, covering 31 gamified cognitive tasks used across a wide range of disorders and cognitive domains. Gamified cognitive training to relieve attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms was particularly prominent. We describe the game mechanics used in gamified cognitive tasks, their effectiveness and frequency of use by designers. We also found that the majority of gamified cognitive tasks were rated as enjoyable or engaging by the study participants. Gamified assessments were typically validated successfully; however the efficacy of game-like cognitive training is more difficult to interpret due to several poor quality studies. High heterogeneity of study designs and small sample sizes highlight the need for further research in both training and testing. Conclusions: The evidence suggests that gamified cognitive training is motivating for users, though not necessarily an effective intervention. Nevertheless, gamification can provide a way to develop

  5. Conceptions of cognition for cognitive engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive processes, cognitive psychology tells us, unfold in our heads. In contrast, several approaches in cognitive engineering argue for a shift of unit of analysis from what is going on in the heads of operators to the workings of whole socio-technical systems. This shift is sometimes presented...... is of this framing of an expanded unit of analysis in a cognitive vocabulary. I focus on possible consequences for how cognitive engineering practitioners think about function allocation in system design, and on what the relative benefits and costs are of having a common framework and vocabulary for talking about...... both human and technical system components. I argue for what I call an *expansive but deflated conception of cognition*, primarily on pragmatic grounds. In addition, I claim that the important lesson of the “boundaries of cognition” debate in cognitive science is the negative claim...

  6. Disagreement between Human Papillomavirus Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Preisler, Sarah; Ejegod, Ditte Møller;

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to determine the disagreement in primary cervical screening between four human papillomavirus assays: Hybrid Capture 2, cobas, CLART, and APTIMA. Material from 5,064 SurePath samples of women participating in routine cervical screening in Copenhagen, Denmark, was tested with the four...... assays. Positive agreement between the assays was measured as the conditional probability that the results of all compared assays were positive given that at least one assay returned a positive result. Of all 5,064 samples, 1,679 (33.2%) tested positive on at least one of the assays. Among these, 41......-65 years (n = 2,881), 23% tested positive on at least one assay, and 42 to 58% of these showed positive agreement on any compared pair of the assays. While 4% of primary screening samples showed abnormal cytology, 6 to 10% were discordant on any pair of assays. A literature review corroborated our findings...

  7. Cognitive adaptation to nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowska, Zofia; Radiotis, George; Roberts, Nicole; Körner, Annett

    2013-01-01

    Taylor's (1983) cognitive adaptation theory posits that when people go through life transitions, such as being diagnosed with a chronic disease, they adjust to their new reality. The adjustment process revolves around three themes: search for positive meaning in the experience or optimism, attempt to regain a sense of mastery in life, as well as an effort to enhance self-esteem. In the sample of 57 patients with nonmelanoma skin cancer the Cognitive Adaptation Index successfully predicted participants' distress (p accounting for 60% of the variance and lending support for the Taylor's theory of cognitive adaptation in this population. PMID:23844920

  8. A multimedia teaching software for self directed training in steroid receptor assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of information technology as one of the instructional tools in problem based learning in the discipline of chemical pathology is receiving widespread interest (1). This will hopefully speed up the process of information access, retrieval, rehearsal, cognitive apprenticeship which will ultimately improve the understanding of chemical pathology and the optimal uses of laboratory investigation techniques. This program is written for self-directed training in steroid receptor assay (we believe to be the first of its kind) with a multimedia software Authorware (purchased from Macromedia, Inc. ) to create a rich blend of animation, colours, graphics, sounds and interactive questions (without giving the answer away). It is hoped that this software can assist the trainee in the process of learning by presenting to him/her sequence of 'related' problems with feedback for success or failure-learning from error, but with assistance - in a real-world job problem or case situated learning- cognitive apprenticeship to assist the trainee in appropriate neuro-networking to make the appropriate response

  9. Efficacy of a Multimodal Cognitive Rehabilitation Including Psychomotor and Endurance Training in Parkinson's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Reuter, I.; Mehnert, S.; Sammer, G.; Oechsner, M.; Engelhardt, M.

    2012-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment, especially executive dysfunction might occur early in the course of Parkinson's disease. Cognitive training is thought to improve cognitive performance. However, transfer of improvements achieved in paper and pencil tests into daily life has been difficult. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether a multimodal cognitive rehabilitation programme including physical exercises might be more successful than cognitive training programmes without motor train...

  10. Predictive Assay For Cancer Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suess, A; Nguyen, C; Sorensen, K; Montgomery, J; Souza, B; Kulp, K; Dugan, L; Christian, A

    2005-09-19

    Early detection of cancer is a key element in successful treatment of the disease. Understanding the particular type of cancer involved, its origins and probable course, is also important. PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6 phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine), a heterocyclic amine produced during the cooking of meat at elevated temperatures, has been shown to induce mammary cancer in female, Sprague-Dawley rats. Tumors induced by PhIP have been shown to contain discreet cytogenetic signature patterns of gains and losses using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). To determine if a protein signature exists for these tumors, we are analyzing expression levels of the protein products of the above-mentioned tumors in combination with a new bulk protein subtractive assay. This assay produces a panel of antibodies against proteins that are either on or off in the tumor. Hybridization of the antibody panel onto a 2-D gel of tumor or control protein will allow for identification of a distinct protein signature in the tumor. Analysis of several gene databases has identified a number of rat homologs of human cancer genes located in these regions of gain and loss. These genes include the oncogenes c-MYK, ERBB2/NEU, THRA and tumor suppressor genes EGR1 and HDAC3. The listed genes have been shown to be estrogen-responsive, suggesting a possible link between delivery of bio-activated PhIP to the cell nucleus via estrogen receptors and gene-specific PhIP-induced DNA damage, leading to cell transformation. All three tumors showed similar silver staining patterns compared to each other, while they all were different than the control tissue. Subsequent screening of these genes against those from tumors know to be caused by other agents may produce a protein signature unique to PhIP, which can be used as a diagnostic to augment optical and radiation-based detection schemes.

  11. Interaction between animal personality and animal cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio CARERE, Charles LOCURTO

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of animal personality has attracted considerable attention, as it has revealed a number of similarities in personality between humans and several nonhuman species. At the same time the adaptive value and evolutionary maintenance of different personalities are the subject of debate. Since Pavlov’s work on dogs, students of comparative cognition have been aware that animals display vast individual differences on cognitive tasks, and that these differences may not be entirely accounted for differences in cognitive abilities. Here, we argue that personality is an important source of variation that may affect cognitive performance and we hypothesise mutual influences between personality and cognition across an individual’s lifespan. In particular, we suggest that: 1 personality profiles may be markers of different cognitive styles; 2 success or failure in cognitive tasks could affect different personalities differently; 3 ontogenetic changes of personality profiles could be reflected in changes in cognitive performance. The study of such interplay has implications in animal welfare as well as in neuroscience and in translational medicine [Current Zoology 57 (4: 491–498, 2011].

  12. Planning farm succession: how to be successful

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Planning farm succession is really good farm planning in its broadest aspect. Unfortunately very few farmers and their families have devoted sufficient time to working out how the farm business will be transferred. After demonstrating the importance of the farm succession issue, this article goes on to explaining a method of successfully tackling the process.

  13. Radiorespirometic assay device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiorespirometic assay device is described in which the presence of microorganisms in a sample is determined by placing the sample in contact with a metabolisable radioactive labelled substrate, collecting any gas evolved, exposing a photosensitive material to the gas and determining if a spot is produced on the material. A spot indicates the presence of radioactivity showing that the substrate has been metabolized by a microorganism. Bacteria may be detected in body fluids, hospital operating rooms, water, food, cosmetics and drugs. (U.K.)

  14. Radon assay for SNO+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SNO+ experiment will study neutrinos while located 6,800 feet below the surface of the earth at SNOLAB. Though shielded from surface backgrounds, emanation of radon radioisotopes from the surrounding rock leads to back-grounds. The characteristic decay of radon and its daughters allows for an alpha detection technique to count the amount of Rn-222 atoms collected. Traps can collect Rn-222 from various positions and materials, including an assay skid that will collect Rn-222 from the organic liquid scintillator used to detect interactions within SNO+

  15. Radon assay for SNO+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumleskie, Janet [Laurentian University, Greater Sudbury, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-12-31

    The SNO+ experiment will study neutrinos while located 6,800 feet below the surface of the earth at SNOLAB. Though shielded from surface backgrounds, emanation of radon radioisotopes from the surrounding rock leads to back-grounds. The characteristic decay of radon and its daughters allows for an alpha detection technique to count the amount of Rn-222 atoms collected. Traps can collect Rn-222 from various positions and materials, including an assay skid that will collect Rn-222 from the organic liquid scintillator used to detect interactions within SNO+.

  16. Music cognition and the cognitive sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Marcus; Rohrmeier, Martin

    2012-10-01

    Why should music be of interest to cognitive scientists, and what role does it play in human cognition? We review three factors that make music an important topic for cognitive scientific research. First, music is a universal human trait fulfilling crucial roles in everyday life. Second, music has an important part to play in ontogenetic development and human evolution. Third, appreciating and producing music simultaneously engage many complex perceptual, cognitive, and emotional processes, rendering music an ideal object for studying the mind. We propose an integrated status for music cognition in the Cognitive Sciences and conclude by reviewing challenges and big questions in the field and the way in which these reflect recent developments. PMID:23060125

  17. Canberra waste assay systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canberra Industries, Inc. (USA) offers complete solutions and turnkey systems for qualifying and quantifying drums of radioactive waste. Different Waste Assay Systems are available for low-, medium-, and high activity barrels. Such systems scan the segments of the drums. The gamma-emitting nuclides present in the radioactive waste are identified from the spectra of the gamma-rays emitted and their activities are quantified. The spectrum of each segment of the waste container is analysed separately and the results are summed for total drum inventory reporting. The Waste Assay specific Canberra software is an easy-to-use menu driven program. It offers automatic procedures for routine work but interactive mode is also available to investigate particular cases. The way of analysis and the format and contents of the report can be customized. Additional Quality Control program module monitors system parameters. The measured and calculated values of each waste container are saved into a relational database. Canberra offers mathematical efficiency calibration services for different drum types, with different waste densities and different activities. This new theoretical approach of efficiency calibration eliminates the need of calibration drums, thus saving costs. For field applications Canberra developed a portable In-Situ Object Counting System. This system determines efficiency calibration for any kind of objects after the user enters its size and density, furthermore the type of shielding and the distance between the detector and the object. (author)

  18. Relevance theory:the Cognitive Pragmatic Foundation of Code-switching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    令狐曼

    2015-01-01

    The paper will discuss the process of code-switching and its cognitive pragmatic motivation from the point of relevance. And code-switching is also regarded as a kind of communicative strategy. The process of the production of code-switching is also the cooperation and mutual constrain of communicator's cognitive environment and ability. Cog-nitive effect can be obtained through communicator's processing cognitive environment with their cognitive ability. In this process, the cooperation of cognitive ability and cognitive environment gives a guarantee to successful communication with code-switching.

  19. A cognitive model's view of animal cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Sidney D'MELLO, Stan FRANKLIN

    2011-01-01

    Although it is a relatively new field of study, the animal cognition literature is quite extensive and difficult to synthesize. This paper explores the contributions a comprehensive, computational, cognitive model can make toward organizing and assimilating this literature, as well as toward identifying important concepts and their interrelations. Using the LIDA model as an example, a framework is described within which to integrate the diverse research in animal cognition. Such a framework c...

  20. A cognitive model's view of animal cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney D'MELLO, Stan FRANKLIN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Although it is a relatively new field of study, the animal cognition literature is quite extensive and difficult to synthesize. This paper explores the contributions a comprehensive, computational, cognitive model can make toward organizing and assimilating this literature, as well as toward identifying important concepts and their interrelations. Using the LIDA model as an example, a framework is described within which to integrate the diverse research in animal cognition. Such a framework can provide both an ontology of concepts and their relations, and a working model of an animal’s cognitive processes that can compliment active empirical research. In addition to helping to account for a broad range of cognitive processes, such a model can help to comparatively assess the cognitive capabilities of different animal species. After deriving an ontology for animal cognition from the LIDA model, we apply it to develop the beginnings of a database that maps the cognitive facilities of a variety of animal species. We conclude by discussing future avenues of research, particularly the use of computational models of animal cognition as valuable tools for hypotheses generation and testing [Current Zoology 57 (4: 499–513, 2011].

  1. Cognitive process-based subtypes of developmental coordination disorder (DCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asonitou, Katerina; Koutsouki, Dimitra

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the cognitive subtypes demonstrated by children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) using the Planning-Attention-Simultaneous-Successive Processing (PASS) theory and the Cognitive Assessment System (D-N CAS). Participants were 108 children aged 5- and 6-years old, 54 with DCD and 54 without DCD, all attending typical kindergartens. They were examined on 31 cognitive-motor variables. Hierarchical-agglomerative and iterative partitioning cluster analyses including 9 motor and 7 cognitive variables revealed the following six subtypes: It is well known that DCD is a heterogeneous condition. However, whenever cognitive processes were lower than average, cognitive-motor relationship was evident in subgroups C1, C4, C5 and C6. Early identification of task-specific cognitive-motor difficulties may be essential for early educational intervention practices in order to anticipate and improve learning, academic and performing difficulties. PMID:26991728

  2. FLUIDICS DEVICE FOR ASSAY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device for use in performing assays on standard laboratory solid supports whereon chemical entities are attached. The invention furthermore relates to the use of such a device and a kit comprising such a device. The device according to the present invention is...... adapted to receive one or more replaceable solid support(s) (40) onto which chemical entities (41) are attached, said device comprising a base (1, 60, 80, 300, 400, 10, 70, 140, 20, 90, 120, 150, 30, 100), one or more inlet(s) (5), one or more outlet(s) (6). The base and the solid support (40) defines......, when operatively connected, one or more chambers (21) comprising the chemical entities (41), the inlet(s) (5) and outlet(s) (6) and chambers (21) being in fluid connection. The device further comprise means for providing differing chemical conditions in each chamber (21)....

  3. Assay of oestrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A particular problem with the direct radioimmunoassay of unconjugated oestriol in pregnancy is caused by the increased amount of steroid-binding proteins present in pregnancy serum and plasma. The steroid-binding proteins react with oestriol and 125I-labelled oestriol during the assay procedure and the steroid-protein bound 125I-labelled oestriol is precipitated along with the antibody-bound 125I-labelled oestriol by the ammonium sulphate solution separation system. A novel method is described whereby progesterone (1-20 μg/ml) is used to block the action of steroid-binding proteins in pregnancy serum and plasma samples, thus minimizing interference in a direct radioimmunoassay for unconjugated oestriol using a specific anti-oestriol serum. (U.K.)

  4. A novel fluorescent assay for sucrose transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gora Peter J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have developed a novel assay based on the ability of type I sucrose uptake transporters (SUTs to transport the fluorescent coumarin β-glucoside, esculin. Budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae is routinely used for the heterologous expression of SUTs and does not take up esculin. Results When type I sucrose transporters StSUT1 from potato or AtSUC2 from Arabidopsis were expressed in yeast, the cells were able to take up esculin and became brightly fluorescent. We tested a variety of incubation times, esculin concentrations, and buffer pH values and found that for these transporters, a 1 hr incubation at 0.1 to 1 mM esculin at pH 4.0 produced fluorescent cells that were easily distinguished from vector controls. Esculin uptake was assayed by several methods including fluorescence microscopy, spectrofluorometry and fluorescence-activiated cell sorting (FACS. Expression of the type II sucrose transporter OsSUT1 from rice did not result in increased esculin uptake under any conditions tested. Results were reproduced successfully in two distinct yeast strains, SEY6210 (an invertase mutant and BY4742. Conclusions The esculin uptake assay is rapid and sensitive and should be generally useful for preliminary tests of sucrose transporter function by heterologous expression in yeast. This assay is also suitable for selection of yeast showing esculin uptake activity using FACS.

  5. Predicting Student Success from Non-Cognitive Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Phyllis

    In order to identify the relationship among social support networks, depression, life events, and student progress in medical school, 96 students completed a questionnaire. The results indicated good social support, a high number of recent life events, slight depression and a continuum of not quite passing to doing extremely well in medical…

  6. Neural Adaptation Leads to Cognitive Ethanol Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Brooks G; Khurana, Sukant; Kuperman, Anna; Nigel S Atkinson

    2012-01-01

    Physiological alcohol dependence is a key adaptation to chronic ethanol consumption that underlies withdrawal symptoms, is thought to directly contribute to alcohol addiction behaviors, and is associated with cognitive problems such as deficits in learning and memory [1–3]. Based on the idea that an ethanol-adapted (dependent) animal will perform better in a learning assay than an animal experiencing ethanol withdrawal will, we have used a learning paradigm to detect physiological ethanol dep...

  7. Italian Succession Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    De Tullio, Giandomenico

    2012-01-01

    Italian inheritance law based on the Roman law of succession including legitimate succession and testamentary succession. The importance of drafting an Italian will and the legal requirements according to Italian Law.

  8. Cognition in Children's Mathematical Processing: Bringing Psychology to the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The cognitive processes that underpin successful mathematical processing in children have been well researched by experimental psychologists, but are not widely understood among teachers of primary mathematics. This is a shame, as an understanding of these cognitive processes could be highly useful to practitioners. This paper…

  9. Gamification of cognitive assessment and cognitive training: A systematic review of applications, approaches and efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Lumsden

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive tasks are typically viewed as effortful, frustrating and repetitive, and these factors may lead participants to disengage with the task at hand. This, in turn, may negatively impact our data quality and reduce any intervention effects. Gamification may provide a solution. If we can successfully import game design elements into cognitive tasks without undermining their scientific value, then we may be able improve the quality of data, increase the effectiveness of our interventions, and maximise participant engagement. We conducted a systematic review of the existing literature of gamified cognitive testing and training tasks to identify where, how and why gamification has been used, and whether it has been successful. We searched several online databases, from January 2007 to January 2015, and screened 33,000 articles that matched our search terms. Our review identified 34 relevant studies, covering 31 gamified cognitive tasks used across a wide range of disorders and cognitive domains. Gamified cognitive training to relieve attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms was particularly prominent. We also found that the majority of gamified cognitive tasks were validated successfully and were rated as enjoyable or engaging by the study participants. Despite this, the heterogeneity of study designs and typically small sample sizes highlights the need for further research. We describe the game mechanics used in gamified cognitive tasks, their effectiveness and how they relate to several models of player engagement. In conclusion the evidence suggests that gamification can provide a way to develop engaging and scientifically valid cognitive tasks, but that no single game can be engaging to every participant and therefore gamification is not a silver-bullet for all motivational problems in psychological research.

  10. Cognitions about Cognitions: The Theory of Metacognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    PP, Noushad

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical review of the term "metacognition". It was introduced by John Flavell in the early 1970s based on the term "metamemory" previously conceived by the same scholar (Flavell 1971). Flavell (1979) viewed metacognition as learners' knowledge of their own cognition, defining it as "knowledge and cognition about cognitive…

  11. Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Portfolio (IADRP) AMP-AD Detecting Cognitive Impairment Database ... Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a condition in which people have more memory or other thinking problems than normal for their ...

  12. The comet assay – from toy to tool

    OpenAIRE

    Guenter Speit

    2015-01-01

    The comet assay is nowadays the most common method for measuring DNA damage and repair in single cells. It is based on the microelectrophoretic study published by Ostling and Johanson (1984) and was developed by Singh and coworkers (1988) to a versatile technique for quantitation of low levels of DNA damage in individual cells. This alkaline version still is the basis for the triumphant success of the comet assay in basic research into mechanisms of DNA damage and DNA repair, genotoxicity tes...

  13. PathogenMip Assay: A Multiplex Pathogen Detection Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Akhras, Michael S.; Sreedevi Thiyagarajan; Villablanca, Andrea C.; Davis, Ronald W; Pål Nyrén; Nader Pourmand

    2007-01-01

    The Molecular Inversion Probe (MIP) assay has been previously applied to a large-scale human SNP detection. Here we describe the PathogenMip Assay, a complete protocol for probe production and applied approaches to pathogen detection. We have demonstrated the utility of this assay with an initial set of 24 probes targeting the most clinically relevant HPV genotypes associated with cervical cancer progression. Probe construction was based on a novel, cost-effective, ligase-based protocol. The ...

  14. Cognitive training for dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Konta, Brigitte; Frank, Wilhelm

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the HTA report is to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive training methods to treat cognitive disorders of dementia and other diseases with cognitive deficits. For this purpose, a systematic literature search was carried out first based on the DIMDI superbase retrieval. The identified publications were judged and selected by two independent, methodically competent experts. 33 publications were included in the report. Based on the studies for a normal cognitive development in old...

  15. Comparative cognition for conservationists

    OpenAIRE

    Greggor, Alison L.; Clayton, Nicola S.; Phalan, Ben; Thornton, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Every animal occupies a unique cognitive world based on its sensory capacities, and attentional and learning biases. Behaviour results from the interaction of this cognitive world with the environment. As humans alter environments, cognitive processes ranging from perceptual processes to learned behaviour govern animals’ reactions. By harnessing animals’ perceptual biases and applying insights from cognitive theory, we can purposefully alter cues to reduce maladaptive responses and shape beha...

  16. The Application of Cognitive Dissonance Theory to Consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jan N.

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes aspects of cognitive dissonance theory (theory that predicts when a particular persuasive attempt will be successful) that are most relevant to consultation. Reviews the corresponding experimental support and suggests practical applications of dissonance research and theory to consultation. (LLL)

  17. Interactive Team Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Nancy J.; Gorman, Jamie C.; Myers, Christopher W.; Duran, Jasmine L.

    2013-01-01

    Cognition in work teams has been predominantly understood and explained in terms of shared cognition with a focus on the similarity of static knowledge structures across individual team members. Inspired by the current zeitgeist in cognitive science, as well as by empirical data and pragmatic concerns, we offer an alternative theory of team…

  18. The Tractable Cognition thesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, I.J.E.I. van

    2008-01-01

    The recognition that human minds/brains are finite systems with limited resources for computation has led some researchers to advance the Tractable Cognition thesis: Human cognitive capacities are constrained by computational tractability. This thesis, if true, serves cognitive psychology by constra

  19. Handbook of Spatial Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, David, Ed.; Nadel, Lynn, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial cognition is a branch of cognitive psychology that studies how people acquire and use knowledge about their environment to determine where they are, how to obtain resources, and how to find their way home. Researchers from a wide range of disciplines, including neuroscience, cognition, and sociology, have discovered a great deal about how…

  20. The Tractable Cognition Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooij, Iris

    2008-01-01

    The recognition that human minds/brains are finite systems with limited resources for computation has led some researchers to advance the "Tractable Cognition thesis": Human cognitive capacities are constrained by computational tractability. This thesis, if true, serves cognitive psychology by constraining the space of computational-level theories…

  1. Cognitive Development in Students Evidencing Dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishler, Anne G.

    In every school there are bright, motivated students who experience success in every field of academic endeavor except mathematics. These students are defined as dyscalculics, or learning disabled in mathematics. Piaget's model for cognitive development was used in a study of students evidencing this condition. The purpose of the study was to…

  2. Acute cognitive dysfunction after hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bitsch, M S; Foss, N B; Kristensen, B B;

    2006-01-01

    Patients undergoing hip fracture surgery often experience acute post-operative cognitive dysfunction (APOCD). The pathogenesis of APOCD is probably multifactorial, and no single intervention has been successful in its prevention. No studies have investigated the incidence of APOCD after hip...... fracture surgery in an optimized, multimodal, peri-operative rehabilitation regimen....

  3. Attitudes of Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendarvis, Faye

    This document investigates the attitudes of successful individuals, citing the achievement of established goals as the criteria for success. After offering various definitions of success, the paper focuses on the importance of self-esteem to success and considers ways by which the self-esteem of students can be improved. Theories of human behavior…

  4. Documentary and Cognitive Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the benefits of using cognitive theory in documentary film studies. The article outlines general aspects of cognitive theory in humanities and social science, however the main focus is on the role of narrative, visual style and emotional dimensions of different types of...... documentaries. Dealing with cognitive theories of film and media and with memory studies, the article analyses how a cognitive approach to documentaries can increase our under-standing of how documentaries influence us on a cognitive and emotional level and contribute to the forming of our social and cultural...

  5. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy & Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaten, Ole Michael; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Gulbrandsen, Knut Arild;

    coaching module in the graduate curriculum for students of psychology is a rewarding introduction to cognitive behavioural approaches, since it allows combination of traditional lectures with “action-reflection-learning” workshops, during which students train cognitive behavioural techniques in their own......Coaching is an expanding area of professional work, and recent years have brought forward the notion of cognitive coaching (Costa, 2006; Oestrich, 2005) which adapts theory and techniques from cognitive therapy to serve self-enhancement in non-clinical populations. We suggest that a cognitive...... repertoire. The skills needed for cognitive coaching reflect all therapeutic techniques but at a less advanced psychotherapeutic level, and still prepare for future clinical work and development. In the poster, we summarise a cognitive coaching course syllabus as well as results from data collected to...

  6. Quality control of antibodies for assay development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Sarah; Seitz, Harald

    2016-09-25

    Antibodies are used as powerful tools in basic research, for example, in biomarker identification, and in various forms for diagnostics, for example, identification of allergies or autoimmune diseases. Due to their robustness and ease of handling, immunoassays are favourite methods for investigation of various biological or medical questions. Nevertheless in many cases, additional analyses such as mass spectrometry are used to validate or confirm the results of immunoassays. To minimize the workload and to increase confidence in immunoassays, there are urgent needs for antibodies which are both highly specific and well validated. Unfortunately many commercially available antibodies are neither well characterized nor fully tested for cross-reactivities. Adequate quality control and validation of an antibody is time-consuming and can be frustrating. Such validation needs to be performed for every assay/application. However, where an antibody validation is successful, a highly specific and stable reagent will be on hand. This article describes the validation processes of antibodies, including some often neglected factors, as well as unspecific binding to other sample compounds in a multiparameter diagnostic assay. The validation consists of different immunological methods, with important assay controls, and is performed in relation to the development of a diagnostic test. PMID:26873787

  7. Age Trajectory of High Cognitive Functioning Among the Oldest Old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Mikael; McGue, Matt; Christensen, Kaare

    2013-01-01

    that later born cohorts may have better late-life cognitive function than earlier born cohorts as studies have shown a decline both in the prevalence and in the incidence of dementia. Cognitive functioning generally declines after the age of 40 years at an individual level, but there are substantial...... individual differences. This decline of cognitive functioning at an individual level may suggest that cognitive function at a population level decreases with age. However, in the Danish 1905 cohort, the age trajectory of both average and high cognitive functioning is constant at a population level from......The chance of reaching age 90 years has increased markedly over the last 50 years, and this chance will probably continue to increase with successive cohorts. There is a widespread concern that a large fraction of the future oldest old will be cognitively impaired. However, there is strong evidence...

  8. Intergenerational continuity and discontinuity in cognitive ability: the first offspring of the British 1946 birth cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Byford, M

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive development in childhood is a key factor affecting adult life chances, including educational and occupational success. Intergenerational continuity in cognitive ability is often observed. Thus the persistence of poor cognitive outcomes across generations may lead to a ‘cycle of disadvantage’ that is difficult to break. In this thesis, intergenerational associations in cognitive ability between parents and first-born offspring were examined longitudinally. 1,690 member...

  9. The Dental Cognitions Questionnaire in CBT for dental phobia in an adolescent with multiple phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, Warren; Morris, Kathleen

    2003-03-01

    A case of an adolescent boy with multiple phobias who was treated successfully for his dental phobia is described to illustrate the clinical utility of the Dental Cognitions Questionnaire (DCQ) in aiding effective cognitive-behavior therapy. The client showed drops in dental anxiety that coincided with the use of the DCQ in cognitive restructuring, and there was a close correlation between dental cognitions and degree of dental anxiety over the time-course of therapy and follow up. PMID:12763393

  10. Fertility Clinic Success Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Autism 2013 Assisted Reproductive Technology Fertility Clinic Success Rates Report Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir 2013 ART Fertility Clinic Success Rates Report [PDF - 1MB] Bookmarks and thumbnails are ...

  11. What The Cognitive Neurosciences Mean To Me

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Pereira Jr

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive Neuroscience is an interdisciplinary area of research that combines measurement of brain activity (mostly by means of neuroimaging with a simultaneous performance of cognitive tasks by human subjects. These investigations have been successful in the task of connecting the sciences of the brain (Neurosciences and the sciences of the mind (Cognitive Sciences. Advances on this kind of research provide a map of localization of cognitive functions in the human brain. Do these results help us to understand how mind relates to the brain? In my view, the results obtained by the Cognitive Neurosciences lead to new investigations in the domain of Molecular Neurobiology, aimed at discovering biophysical mechanisms that generate the activity measured by neuroimaging instruments. In this context, I argue that the understanding of how ionic/molecular processes support cognition and consciousness cannot be made by means of the standard reductionist explanations. Knowledge of ionic/molecular mechanisms can contribute to our understanding of the human mind as long as we assume an alternative form of explanation, based on psycho-physical similarities, together with an ontological view of mentality and spirituality as embedded in physical nature (and not outside nature, as frequently assumed in western culture.

  12. Who Does Well in Life? Conscientious Adults Excel in Both Objective and Subjective Success

    OpenAIRE

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Weir, David; Tsukayama, Eli; Kwok, David

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates how personality and cognitive ability relate to measures of objective success (income and wealth) and subjective success (life satisfaction, positive affect, and lack of negative affect) in a representative sample of 9,646 American adults. In cross-sectional analyses controlling for demographic covariates, cognitive ability, and other Big Five traits, conscientiousness demonstrated beneficial associations of small-to-medium magnitude with all success outcomes. In con...

  13. From Antenna to Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Evan G.; Samuel, Amanda P. S.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2009-01-01

    Conspectus Ligand-sensitized, luminescent lanthanide(III) complexes are of considerable importance because their unique photophysical properties (microsecond to millisecond lifetimes, characteristic and narrow emission bands, and large Stokes shifts) make them well suited as labels in fluorescence-based bioassays. The long-lived emission of lanthanide(III) cations can be temporally resolved from scattered light and background fluorescence to vastly enhance measurement sensitivity. One challenge in this field is the design of sensitizing ligands that provide highly emissive complexes with sufficient stability and aqueous solubility for practical applications. In this Account, we give an overview of some of the general properties of the trivalent lanthanides and follow with a summary of advances made in our laboratory in the development of highly luminescent Tb(III) and Eu(III) complexes for applications in biotechnology. A focus of our research has been the optimization of these compounds as potential commercial agents for use in Homogeneous Time-Resolved Fluorescence (HTRF) technology. Our approach involves developing high-stability octadentate Tb(III) and Eu(III) complexes that rely on all-oxygen donor atoms and using multi-chromophore chelates to increase molar absorptivity; earlier examples utilized a single pendant chromophore (that is, a single “antenna”). Ligands based on 2-hydroxyisophthalamide (IAM) provide exceptionally emissive Tb(III) complexes with quantum yield values up to ∼60% that are stable at the nanomolar concentrations required for commercial assays. Through synthetic modification of the IAM chromophore and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations, we have developed a method to predict absorption and emission properties of these chromophores as a tool to guide ligand design. Additionally, we have investigated chiral IAM ligands that yield Tb(III) complexes possessing both high quantum yield values and strong

  14. Success in Science, Success in Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, Mariann R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-25

    This is a series of four different scientific problems which were resolved through collaborations. They are: "Better flow cytometry through novel focusing technology", "Take Off®: Helping the Agriculture Industry Improve the Viability of Sustainable, Large-Production Crops", "The National Institutes of Health's Models of Infectious Disease Agent Study (MIDAS)", and "Expanding the capabilities of SOLVE/RESOLVE through the PHENIX Consortium." For each one, the problem is listed, the solution, advantages, bottom line, then information about the collaboration including: developing the technology, initial success, and continued success.

  15. Assessment of subjective and objective cognitive function in bipolar disorder: Correlations, predictors and the relation to psychosocial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demant, Kirsa M; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars V; Miskowiak, Kamilla W

    2015-09-30

    Cognitive dysfunction is prevalent in bipolar disorder (BD). However, the evidence regarding the association between subjective cognitive complaints, objective cognitive performance and psychosocial function is sparse and inconsistent. Seventy seven patients with bipolar disorder who presented cognitive complaints underwent assessment of objective and subjective cognitive function and psychosocial functioning as part of their participation in two clinical trials. We investigated the association between global and domain-specific objective and subjective cognitive function and between global cognitive function and psychosocial function. We also identified clinical variables that predicted objective and subjective cognitive function and psychosocial functioning. There was a correlation between global subjective and objective measures of cognitive dysfunction but not within the individual cognitive domains. However, the correlation was weak, suggesting that cognitive complaints are not an assay of cognition per se. Self-rated psychosocial difficulties were associated with subjective (but not objective) cognitive impairment and both subjective cognitive and psychosocial difficulties were predicted by depressive symptoms. Our findings indicate that adequate assessment of cognition in the clinical treatment of BD and in drug trials targeting cognition requires implementation of not only subjective measures but also of objective neuropsychological tests. PMID:26073281

  16. Hypertension and cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-hang SHANG

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As a leading risk factor for stroke, hypertension is also an important risk factor for cognitive impairment. Midlife hypertension doubles the risk of dementia later in life and accelerates the progression of dementia, but the correlation between late-life blood pressure and cognitive impairment is still unclear. Beside blood pressure, the effect of pulse pressure, blood pressure variability and circadian rhythm of blood pressure on cognition is currently attracting more and more attention. Hypertension induces alterations in cerebrovascular structure and functions, which lead to brain lesions including cerebral atrophy, stroke, lacunar infarcts, diffuse white matter damage, microinfarct and microhemorrhage, resuling in cognitive impairment. Hypertension also impairs the metabolism and transfer of amyloid-β protein (Aβ, thus accelerates cognitive impairment. Individualized therapy, focusing on characteristics of hypertensive patients, may be a good choice for prevention and treatment of cognitive impairment. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.08.004

  17. Open-Minded Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Erika; Ottati, Victor; Wilson, Chase; Kim, Soyeon

    2015-11-01

    The present research conceptualizes open-minded cognition as a cognitive style that influences how individuals select and process information. An open-minded cognitive style is marked by willingness to consider a variety of intellectual perspectives, values, opinions, or beliefs-even those that contradict the individual's opinion. An individual's level of cognitive openness is expected to vary across domains (such as politics and religion). Four studies develop and validate a novel measure of open-minded cognition, as well as two domain-specific measures of religious and political open-minded cognition. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (controlling for acquiescence bias) are used to develop the scales in Studies 1 to 3. Study 4 demonstrates that these scales possess convergent and discriminant validity. Study 5 demonstrates the scale's unique predictive validity using the outcome of Empathic Concern (Davis, 1980). Study 6 demonstrates the scale's unique predictive validity using the outcomes of warmth toward racial, religious, and sexual minorities. PMID:26315581

  18. Embodied social cognition

    CERN Document Server

    Lindblom, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    This book clarifies the role and relevance of the body in social interaction and cognition from an embodied cognitive science perspective. Theories of embodied cognition have during the last decades offered a radical shift in explanations of the human mind, from traditional computationalism, to emphasizing the way cognition is shaped by the body and its sensorimotor interaction with the surrounding social and material world. This book presents a theoretical framework for the relational nature of embodied social cognition, which is based on an interdisciplinary approach that ranges historically in time and across different disciplines. It includes work in cognitive science, artificial intelligence, phenomenology, ethology, developmental psychology, neuroscience, social psychology, linguistics, communication, and gesture studies. The theoretical framework is illustrated by empirical work that provides some detailed observational fieldwork on embodied actions captured in three different episodes of spontaneous s...

  19. Successfully aging elderly (SAE: A short overview of some important aspects of successful aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eystein Stordal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Whether one falls into the category of successfully aging elderly (SAE is generally determined by biological, medical, psychological, and cognitive factors. SAE, pathological aging and usual aging, are the three subgroups presented in the seminal science paper by Rowe & Kahn in 1987. SAE is currently vaguely defined as being free of disease, having preserved cognitive function and an active life, but a more detailed definition is lacking. As a result, the research on SAE is heterogeneous and hard to summarize. Nevertheless, it is clear that genetics, health, basic aging mechanisms, brain changes, cognition early in life, education level, lifestyle factors, subjective factors, the availability of societal health care, environmental factors, and any interaction between all these variables, are important. There are also methodological difficulties associated with studies of causal relationships across the lifespan. Obtaining a detailed understanding of SAE research will be a challenging task for future researchers

  20. Cognition in organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgkinson, G P; Healey, M. P.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews major developments from 2000 to early 2007 in the psychological analysis of cognition in organizations. Our review, the first in this series to survey cognitive theory and research spanning the entire field of industrial and organizational psychology, considers theoretical, empirical, and methodological advances across 10 substantive domains; of application. Two major traditions, the human factors and organizational traditions, have dominated cognitively oriented research...

  1. Cognitive Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Thomas C.

    Our overall goal is to develop a cognitive architecture which will allow autonomous and robust operation of sensor-actuator networks. To achieve this, the perception, concept formation, action cycle will be informed by domain theories of signal analysis, physical phenomena, and behavior. Example scenarios include cognitive vehicles and buildings in which the system understands itself and the activities in and around it by means of distributed video and other sensors. This includes discovery of the cognitive system's own sensing and actuation capabilities.

  2. Cognitive wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Zhiyong; Zhang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    This brief examines the current research in cognitive wireless networks (CWNs). Along with a review of challenges in CWNs, this brief presents novel theoretical studies and architecture models for CWNs, advances in the cognitive information awareness and delivery, and intelligent resource management technologies. The brief presents the motivations and concepts of CWNs, including theoretical studies of temporal and geographic distribution entropy as well as cognitive information metrics. A new architecture model of CWNs is proposed with theoretical, functional and deployment architectures suppo

  3. Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Kaneko, Yoshio Arturo; Matcheri S Keshavan

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are pervasive, severe, and largely independent of the positive and negative symptoms of the illness. These deficits are increasingly considered to be core features of schizophrenia with evidence that the extent of cognitive impairment is the most salient predictor of daily functioning. Unfortunately, current schizophrenia treatment has been limited in addressing the cognitive deficits of the illness. Alterations in neuroplasticity are hypothesized to underp...

  4. What is Cognitive Education?

    OpenAIRE

    Robert J. Sternberg; Hessels, Marco G.P.

    2013-01-01

    The term “cognitive education” appears difficult to define. The present special issue “What is Cognitive Education?” asked the contributors to respond to a series of 5 questions. You will see that the invited contributions from the former, current and future president(s) of IACEP, who all responded from their own theoretical and research frameworks, provide a particularly varied overview of the field of cognitive education. These differing views were brought together in a concluding integrati...

  5. New Application of the Comet Assay: Chromosome–Comet Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I.; DÁVILA-RODRÍGUEZ, MARTHA I.; Fernández, José Luís; López-Fernández, Carmen; Gosálbez, Altea; Gosálvez, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    The comet assay is a well-established, simple, versatile, visual, rapid, and sensitive tool used extensively to assess DNA damage and DNA repair quantitatively and qualitatively in single cells. The comet assay is most frequently used to analyze white blood cells or lymphocytes in human biomonitoring studies, although other cell types have been examined, including buccal, nasal, epithelial, and placental cells and even spermatozoa. This study was conducted to design a protocol that can be use...

  6. Sensitization of catastrophic cognition in cognitive-behavioral therapy for panic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kataoka Miyako

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive model of panic disorder have proposed that panic attacks result from the catastrophic misinterpretation of certain bodily sensations. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT for panic disorder aims to change these catastrophic cognitions. CBT intervention successfully caused reduction of catastrophic cognitions and symptomatic improvement in the majority of cases. However there are some patients who fail to modify their catastrophic cognitions or rather experience an increase in them during CBT treatment. It is clinically and theoretically important to understand about cognitive sensitization of panic disorder during CBT sessions. The purpose of the present study is 1 to clarify the baseline characteristics of panic patients who would experience sensitization of their catastrophic cognitions through the CBT treatment, and 2 to examine the course of symptomatic changes for them. Methods Of ninety-five outpatients with panic disorder started the group CBT program for treatment of panic disorder, seventy-nine completer were classified as "cognitively sensitized (CS" or "cognitive responding (CR" or "no-responder" according to the difference of the Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire score across treatment. We compared the CS and CR patients in terms of their baseline clinical characteristics. Then we assessed the symptomatic and functional changes for both groups. Results At the start of the CBT program, despite of the same degree of panic disorder severity, CS scored significantly lower on ACQ score than CR. CS also showed significantly lower score on anticipatory anxiety compared to CR. At the end of treatment CS showed significant improvement in severity of panic disorder, although the degree of improvement was smaller than that for CR. Then CS would progressively reduce their agoraphobic fear and avoidance, and would improve their functional impairment up to three month of follow-up. Conclusion Panic patients who would

  7. Calorimetric assay of minor actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudy, C.; Bracken, D.; Cremers, T.; Foster, L.A.; Ensslin, N.

    1996-12-31

    This paper reviews the principles of calorimetric assay and evaluates its potential application to the minor actinides (U-232-4, Am-241, Am- 243, Cm-245, Np-237). We conclude that calorimetry and high- resolution gamma-ray isotopic analysis can be used for the assay of minor actinides by adapting existing methodologies for Pu/Am-241 mixtures. In some cases, mixtures of special nuclear materials and minor actinides may require the development of new methodologies that involve a combination of destructive and nondestructive assay techniques.

  8. Calorimetric assay of minor actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the principles of calorimetric assay and evaluates its potential application to the minor actinides (U-232-4, Am-241, Am- 243, Cm-245, Np-237). We conclude that calorimetry and high- resolution gamma-ray isotopic analysis can be used for the assay of minor actinides by adapting existing methodologies for Pu/Am-241 mixtures. In some cases, mixtures of special nuclear materials and minor actinides may require the development of new methodologies that involve a combination of destructive and nondestructive assay techniques

  9. Networks in Cognitive Science

    CERN Document Server

    Baronchelli, Andrea; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Chater, Nick; Christiansen, Morten H

    2013-01-01

    Networks of interconnected nodes have long played a key role in cognitive science, from artificial neural networks to spreading activation models of semantic memory. Recently, however, a new Network Science has been developed, providing insights into the emergence of global, system-scale properties in contexts as diverse as the Internet, metabolic reactions or collaborations among scientists. Today, the inclusion of network theory into cognitive sciences, and the expansion of complex systems science, promises to significantly change the way in which the organization and dynamics of cognitive and behavioral processes are understood. In this paper, we review recent contributions of network theory at different levels and domains within the cognitive sciences.

  10. COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory conducts basic and applied human research studies to characterize cognitive performance as influenced by militarily-relevant contextual and physical...

  11. Bioanalytical method transfer considerations of chromatographic-based assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williard, Clark V

    2016-07-01

    Bioanalysis is an important part of the modern drug development process. The business practice of outsourcing and transferring bioanalytical methods from laboratory to laboratory has increasingly become a crucial strategy for successful and efficient delivery of therapies to the market. This chapter discusses important considerations when transferring various types of chromatographic-based assays in today's pharmaceutical research and development environment. PMID:27277876

  12. Stress and Cognition: A Cognitive Psychological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Lyle E., Jr.; Yaroush, Rita A.

    2003-01-01

    Research in cognitive psychology has made a significant contribution to our understanding of how acute and chronic stress affect performance. It has done so by identifying some of the factors that contribute to operator error and by suggesting how operators might be trained to respond more effectively in a variety of circumstances. The major purpose of this paper was to review the literature of cognitive psychology as it relates to these questions and issues. Based on the existence of earlier reviews (e.g., Hamilton, & Warburton, 1979; Hockey, 1983) the following investigation was limited to the last 15 years (1988-2002) and restricted to a review of the primary peer-reviewed literature. The results of this examination revealed that while cognitive psychology has contributed in a substantive way to our understanding of stress impact on various cognitive processes, it has also left many questions unanswered. Concerns about how we define and use the term stress and the gaps that remain in our knowledge about the specific effects of stressors on cognitive processes are discussed in the text.

  13. Reciprocal Relations Between Cognitive Neuroscience and Cognitive Models: Opposites Attract?

    OpenAIRE

    Forstmann, Birte U.; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Eichele, Tom; Brown, Scott; Serences, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscientists study how the brain implements particular cognitive processes such as perception, learning, and decision-making. Traditional approaches in which experiments are designed to target a specific cognitive process have been supplemented by two recent innovations. First, formal models of cognition can decompose observed behavioral data into multiple latent cognitive processes, allowing brain measurements to be associated with a particular cognitive process more precisely a...

  14. Predicting student success in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Daphne Elizabeth

    The goal of this research was to determine the predictors of student success in college level General Chemistry. The potential predictors were categorized as cognitive, non-cognitive, affective, or demographic factors. A broader goal of the study was to provide a reference for academic personnel to better judge the prerequisite skills, knowledge and attitudes that students should attain before enrolling in General Chemistry. Therefore, the study is relevant to chemical educators who are attempting to matriculate candidates for the scientific workforce and to chemical education researches who are interested in student success, student retention and curricular reform. The major hypotheses were that several factors from each category would emerge as significant predictors and that these would differ for students enrolled at three different post-secondary institutions: a community college, a private university and a public university. These hypotheses were tested using multiple regression techniques to analyze grade, student survey and post-test data collected from General Chemistry students at the three institutions. Over-all, twelve factors (six demographic, three cognitive and three affective) emerged as strong, significant predictors of student success. In addition, there were marked differences in which factors emerged based on the type of institution and on how student success was defined. Thus, the major hypotheses of the study were supported. Over-all, this study has significant implications for educational policy, theory, and practice. With regard to policy, there is a need for institutions and departments that offer General Chemistry to provide support for a diverse population of students. And, at the community college level, in particular, there is a need for better academic advising and more institutional support for underprepared students. In the classroom, the professor plays a critical role in influencing students' academic self-concept, which in turn

  15. [Cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamadera, Wataru

    2015-06-01

    Insomnia is very common in older adults, but is generally related to medical and psychiatric illness, medication, circadian rhythm change. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia(CBT-I) is a brief, sleep-focused, multimodal intervention by psychological and behavioral procedures. The most common approach includes a behavioral (sleep restriction, stimulus control, relaxation) component combined cognitive and educational (cognitive strategies, sleep hygiene education) component. CBT-I has adequate evidence from clinical trials to support the management of insomnia. CBT-I has proved successful for older adults with primary and comorbid insomnia and for those with dependency on hypnotics. Proper treatment of insomnia is effective and can improve overall physical and mental health and quality of life in the elderly patient. PMID:26065131

  16. Probabilistic Dynamic Logic of Phenomena and Cognition

    CERN Document Server

    Vityaev, Evgenii; Perlovsky, Leonid; Smerdov, Stanislav

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop further the main concepts of Phenomena Dynamic Logic (P-DL) and Cognitive Dynamic Logic (C-DL), presented in the previous paper. The specific character of these logics is in matching vagueness or fuzziness of similarity measures to the uncertainty of models. These logics are based on the following fundamental notions: generality relation, uncertainty relation, simplicity relation, similarity maximization problem with empirical content and enhancement (learning) operator. We develop these notions in terms of logic and probability and developed a Probabilistic Dynamic Logic of Phenomena and Cognition (P-DL-PC) that relates to the scope of probabilistic models of brain. In our research the effectiveness of suggested formalization is demonstrated by approximation of the expert model of breast cancer diagnostic decisions. The P-DL-PC logic was previously successfully applied to solving many practical tasks and also for modelling of some cognitive processes.

  17. 'Hot' cognition in major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Carvalho, Andre F

    2014-01-01

    as systematic reviews and meta-analyses. A total of 116 articles met the inclusion criteria of which 97 were original studies. Negative biases in perception, attention and memory for emotional information, and aberrant reward/punishment processing occur in MDD. Imbalanced responses to negative stimuli...... to the perpetuation of negative emotional states in MDD. Limited success in the identification of susceptibility genes in MDD has led to great research interest in identifying vulnerability biomarkers or endophenotypes. Emerging evidence points to the persistence of 'hot' cognition dysfunction during remission......Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with significant cognitive dysfunction in both 'hot' (i.e. emotion-laden) and 'cold' (non-emotional) domains. Here we review evidence pertaining to 'hot' cognitive changes in MDD. This systematic review searched the PubMed and PsycInfo computerized...

  18. Functional and cognitive grammars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna Siewierska

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive review of the functional approach and cognitive approach to the nature of language and its relation to other aspects of human cognition. The paper starts with a brief discussion of the origins and the core tenets of the two approaches in Section 1. Section 2 discusses the similarities and differences between the three full-fledged structural functional grammars subsumed in the functional approach: Halliday's Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG), Dik's Functional Grammar (FG), and Van Valin's Role and Reference Grammar (RRG). Section 3 deals with the major features of the three cognitive frameworks: Langacker's Cognitive Grammar (CG), Goldberg's Cognitive Construction Grammar (CCG), and Croft's Radical Construction Grammar (RCG). Section 4 compares the two approaches and attempts to provide a unified functional-cognitive grammar. In the last section, the author concludes the paper with remarks on the unidirectional shift from functional grammar to cognitive grammar that may indicate a reinterpretation of the traditional relationship between functional and cognitive models of grammar.

  19. Learning and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gr ver Aukrust, Vibeke, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This collection of 58 articles from the recently-published third edition of the International Encyclopedia of Education focuses on learning, memory, attention, problem solving, concept formation, and language. Learning and cognition is the foundation of cognitive psychology and encompasses many topics including attention, memory, categorization,…

  20. Cognition and Hemodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, Vera

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between cerebral hemodynamics and cognitive performance has increasingly become recognized as a major challenge in clinical practice for older adults. Both diabetes and hypertension worsen brain perfusion and are major risk factors for cerebrovascular disease, stroke and dementia. Cerebrovascular reserve has emerged as a potential biomarker for monitoring pressure–perfusion–cognition relationships. Endothelial dysfunction and inflammation, microvascular disease, and mascrovas...

  1. [Cognitive deterioration after surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinmetz, J.; Rasmussen, L.S.

    2008-01-01

    Delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction are important and common complications after surgery. Risk factors are first of all increasing age and type of surgery, whereas the type of anaesthesia does not seem to play an important role. Mortality is higher among patients with cognitive...

  2. Language and Cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo

    interacting, without making place for and relying upon the external world, for its structures, its resistances and its dynamics. Cognition is thus a relational process aimed at - perceiving the regularities and affordances (possibilities for further action, perception and, more generally, cognition......The Ph.D dissertation “Language and Cognition” addresses the way social uses of language – e.g. on the media, or in conversation – shape the way we think and act. Cognitive sciences have started focusing on embodiment and joint cognition – the way in which cognitive processes are deeply shaped...... by bodily structures and activities as well as by social and intersubjective dynamics of coordination. The current investigation adds to the picture the role of language using theoretical analysis, corpus linguistics and experimental behavioural techniques. The aim was indeed to develop a framework...

  3. Cognitive Dynamic Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Miguel, Ignacio; Duran, Ramon J.; Jimenez, Tamara;

    2013-01-01

    The use of cognition is a promising element for the control of heterogeneous optical networks. Not only are cognitive networks able to sense current network conditions and act according to them, but they also take into account the knowledge acquired through past experiences; that is, they include...... learning with the aim of improving performance. In this paper, we review the fundamentals of cognitive networks and focus on their application to the optical networking area. In particular, a number of cognitive network architectures proposed so far, as well as their associated supporting technologies, are...... reviewed. Moreover, several applications, mainly developed in the framework of the EU FP7 Cognitive Heterogeneous Reconfigurable Optical Network (CHRON) project, are also described....

  4. Uncertainty and Cognitive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal eMushtaq

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A growing trend of neuroimaging, behavioural and computational research has investigated the topic of outcome uncertainty in decision-making. Although evidence to date indicates that humans are very effective in learning to adapt to uncertain situations, the nature of the specific cognitive processes involved in the adaptation to uncertainty are still a matter of debate. In this article, we reviewed evidence suggesting that cognitive control processes are at the heart of uncertainty in decision-making contexts. Available evidence suggests that: (1 There is a strong conceptual overlap between the constructs of uncertainty and cognitive control; (2 There is a remarkable overlap between the neural networks associated with uncertainty and the brain networks subserving cognitive control; (3 The perception and estimation of uncertainty might play a key role in monitoring processes and the evaluation of the need for control; (4 Potential interactions between uncertainty and cognitive control might play a significant role in several affective disorders.

  5. Documentary and Cognitive Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the benefits of using cognitive theory in documentary film studies. The article outlines general aspects of cognitive theory in humanities and social science, however the main focus is on the role of narrative, visual style and emotional dimensions of different types of...... documentaries. Dealing with cognitive theories of film and media and with memory studies, the article analyses how a cognitive approach to documentaries can increase our under-standing of how documentaries influence us on a cognitive and emotional level and contribute to the forming of our social and cultural...... imagination. The article analyses case studies of documentaries dealing with climate change and the environment and documentaries dealing with social history....

  6. Cognition without Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güntürkün, Onur; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Assumptions on the neural basis of cognition usually focus on cortical mechanisms. Birds have no cortex, but recent studies in parrots and corvids show that their cognitive skills are on par with primates. These cognitive findings are accompanied by neurobiological discoveries that reveal avian and mammalian forebrains are homologous, and show similarities in connectivity and function down to the cellular level. But because birds have a large pallium, but no cortex, a specific cortical architecture cannot be a requirement for advanced cognitive skills. During the long parallel evolution of mammals and birds, several neural mechanisms for cognition and complex behaviors may have converged despite an overall forebrain organization that is otherwise vastly different. PMID:26944218

  7. Correlation between the genotoxicity endpoints measured by two different genotoxicity assays: comet assay and CBMN assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Ladeira

    2015-06-01

    The results concerning of positive findings by micronuclei and non significant ones by comet assay, are corroborated by Deng et al. (2005 study performed in workers occupationally exposed to methotrexate, also a cytostatic drug. According to Cavallo et al. (2009, the comet assay seems to be more suitable for the prompt evaluation of the genotoxic effects, for instance, of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons mixtures containing volatile substances, whereas the micronucleus test seems more appropriate to evaluate the effects of exposure to antineoplastic agents. However, there are studies that observed an increase in both the comet assay and the micronucleus test in nurses handling antineoplastic drugs, although statistical significance was only seen in the comet assay, quite the opposite of our results (Maluf & Erdtmann, 2000; Laffon et al. 2005.

  8. Modified radiorespirometric assay for determining the sulfate reduction activity of biofilms on metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field method is described for the assay of [35S]sulfate reduction by sulfate-reducing bacteria in biofilms on metal surfaces. The assay is such that the biofilm can be studied without removing it from the substratum. The presence of the metal coupons, however, required preliminary optimisation of conditions for accurate determination of in situ sulfate reduction rates. Modifications to the radiorespirometric assay are described and successful field trials are presented. 18 refs.; 4 figs

  9. Cognitive correlates of ultrasonic inspection performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study provided a detailed examination of the thought processes required for conducting successful ultrasonic inspections of nuclear power plant components. When employed to detect or estimate the size of defects in components such as pipes and nozzles, an ultrasonic inspection can be a demanding cognitive task. A successful result requires the mental manipulation of a substantial amount of relevant information: knowledge about the component inspected, understanding of available ultrasonic techniques, and interpretation of an almost infinite variety of signal-characteristics obtained during the inspection. Reaching a correct conclusion from an inspection is a function of both the validity of the information obtained and the effectiveness with which the information is interpreted and weighed. Previous efforts to improve ultrasonic inspection performance have been directed mainly to the improvement of techniques and training for obtaining information. This study addressed improvement of the cognitive processes -- the mental manipulations required to reach a correct conclusion. The study was designed to learn what inspectors were doing and thinking while applying ultrasonic inspection techniques, and to relate key cognitive elements to inspection performance -- that is, to determine what aspects of these cognitive processes discriminate between effective and ineffective inspections. To this end, tape-recorded commentary was obtained and analyzed from 235 inspections of pipe-weld specimens. 26 refs., 39 figs

  10. Momentum and Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, William

    2008-01-01

    Success begets success and opportunity begets opportunity. This principle is something that the author sees at work in his own life. One example of opportunities begetting opportunities is the experience he had at the Academy of Science and Technology to practice his programming skills. The Academy served as a great training ground for what would…

  11. What is Success

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao; Lifang

    2015-01-01

    <正>Success is actually a feeling.Like confidence and satisfaction,it is a positive feeling which appears after individuals reach their own ideal dreams,fulfill their tasks.But everyone havetheir own opinions so that there are various thoughts on the theme what is success.

  12. Principal Experiences of Succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Farla Gay

    2015-01-01

    This multiple case study explored the experiences of school principals and the usefulness of Peters' (2011) succession planning model. Ten purposefully selected principals from varying grade levels were interviewed; none reported a formal succession plan, and all had been assistant principals. The study concluded the assistant principal position…

  13. Group Contest Success Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Münster, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    Eine contest success function beschreibt, wie in einem Wettkampf die Gewinnwahrscheinlichkeiten von den Einsätzen der Beteiligten abhängen. Dieser Aufsatz verallgemeinert die auf Skaperdas (1996) und Clark und Riis (1998) zurückgehende axiomatische Fundierung von contest success functions, indem er Wettkämpfe zwischen Gruppen untersucht.

  14. Student Success Center Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobs For the Future, 2014

    2014-01-01

    "Student Success Center Toolkit" is a compilation of materials organized to assist Student Success Center directors as they staff, launch, operate, and sustain Centers. The toolkit features materials created and used by existing Centers, such as staffing and budgeting templates, launch materials, sample meeting agendas, and fundraising…

  15. Successful aging and the epidemiology of HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vance DE

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available David E Vance1, Teena McGuinness1, Karen Musgrove3, Nancy Ann Orel4, Pariya L Fazeli21School of Nursing, 2Department of Psychology and Center for Research in Applied Gerontology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 3Birmingham AIDS Outreach, Birmingham, AL, USA; 4Gerontology Program, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH, USAAbstract: By 2015, it is estimated that nearly half of those living with HIV in the US will be 50 years of age and older. This dramatic change in the demographics of this clinical population represents unique challenges for patients, health care providers, and society-at-large. Fortunately, because of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART and healthy lifestyle choices, it is now possible for many infected with HIV to age successfully with this disease; however, this depends upon one’s definition of successful aging. It is proposed that successful aging is composed of eight factors: length of life, biological health, cognitive efficiency, mental health, social competence, productivity, personal control, and life satisfaction. Unfortunately, HIV and medication side effects can compromise these factors, thus diminishing one’s capacity to age successfully with this disease. This article explores how HIV, medication side effects from HAART, and lifestyle choices can compromise the factors necessary to age successfully. Implications for practice and research are posited.Keywords: HIV, AIDS, successful aging, spirituality, depression, hardiness

  16. Mergers: Success versus failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Successful mergers in the context of long-term value creation, as measured by return realized on investor-provided capital, were discussed. In essence, a successful merger is characterized by being motivated by a sound business reason and strategy for the merger, a reasonable price and sound execution. The acquiror's pre-merger success in managing a company is a good indicator of future success. Poorly managed companies that acquire other companies generally continue to be poorly managed with no significant increase in shareholder value. Prior to the acquisition, identification of the potential target, assessment of the people involved on both sides of the transaction, thorough knowledge of the target's potential for value creation, financial implications (debt, equity, terms and demand, tax implications, the potential effect of the proposed acquisition on the acquiror's business plan) and finally the execution of the process itself, are the important determinants of successful mergers

  17. Writing successful UX proposals

    CERN Document Server

    Hass, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Bringing new project funding and business opportunities to your organization is a vital part of UX professionals' growth and success. Writing Successful UX Proposals teaches the proven techniques for assessing proposal requests, writing successful commercial and government funding proposals, and enhancing your business development skills. This book will teach UX practitioners how to succeed in UX business development by mastering the following goals: * Understand how to assess a request for proposals* Understand the "anatomy" of a proposal response * Speak the business language of those who will be evaluating the proposed approach* Recognize the successes of others and build upon their advice Complete with case studies, tricks and tips, and real-world examples throughout, this is a must-have resource for UX professionals interested in honing their proposal writing skills and setting themselves up for success. * Provides unique sales and proposal writing insights tailored to the UX arena (including both resear...

  18. Cognitive aging in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Age-related impairments in cognitive functions represent a growing clinical and social issue. Genetic and behavioral characterization of animal models can provide critical information on the intrinsic and environmental factors that determine the deterioration or preservation of cognitive abilities throughout life. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Behavior of wild-type, mutant and gamma-irradiated zebrafish (Danio rerio was documented using image-analysis technique. Conditioned responses to spatial, visual and temporal cues were investigated in young, middle-aged and old animals. The results demonstrate that zebrafish aging is associated with changes in cognitive responses to emotionally positive and negative experiences, reduced generalization of adaptive associations, increased stereotypic and reduced exploratory behavior and altered temporal entrainment. Genetic upregulation of cholinergic transmission attenuates cognitive decline in middle-aged achesb55/+ mutants, compared to wild-type siblings. In contrast, the genotoxic stress of gamma-irradiation accelerates the onset of cognitive impairment in young zebrafish. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings would allow the use of powerful molecular biological resources accumulated in the zebrafish field to address the mechanisms of cognitive senescence, and promote the search for therapeutic strategies which may attenuate age-related cognitive decline.

  19. Autopoiesis and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgine, Paul; Stewart, John

    2004-01-01

    This article revisits the concept of autopoiesis and examines its relation to cognition and life. We present a mathematical model of a 3D tesselation automaton, considered as a minimal example of autopoiesis. This leads us to a thesis T1: "An autopoietic system can be described as a random dynamical system, which is defined only within its organized autopoietic domain." We propose a modified definition of autopoiesis: "An autopoietic system is a network of processes that produces the components that reproduce the network, and that also regulates the boundary conditions necessary for its ongoing existence as a network." We also propose a definition of cognition: "A system is cognitive if and only if sensory inputs serve to trigger actions in a specific way, so as to satisfy a viability constraint." It follows from these definitions that the concepts of autopoiesis and cognition, although deeply related in their connection with the regulation of the boundary conditions of the system, are not immediately identical: a system can be autopoietic without being cognitive, and cognitive without being autopoietic. Finally, we propose a thesis T2: "A system that is both autopoietic and cognitive is a living system." PMID:15245631

  20. Principles of minimal cognition : Casting cognition as sensorimotor coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijn, Marc van; Keijzer, F.A.; Franken, Daan

    2006-01-01

    Within the cognitive sciences, cognition tends to be interpreted from an anthropocentric perspective, involving a stringent set of human capabilities. Instead, we suggest that cognition is better explicated as a much more general biological phenomenon, allowing the lower bound of cognition to extend

  1. Cognitive Modeling of Video Game Player User Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohil, Corey J.; Biocca, Frank A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues for the use of cognitive modeling to gain a detailed and dynamic look into user experience during game play. Applying cognitive models to game play data can help researchers understand a player's attentional focus, memory status, learning state, and decision strategies (among other things) as these cognitive processes occurred throughout game play. This is a stark contrast to the common approach of trying to assess the long-term impact of games on cognitive functioning after game play has ended. We describe what cognitive models are, what they can be used for and how game researchers could benefit by adopting these methods. We also provide details of a single model - based on decision field theory - that has been successfUlly applied to data sets from memory, perception, and decision making experiments, and has recently found application in real world scenarios. We examine possibilities for applying this model to game-play data.

  2. Improving older adults’ memory performance using prior task success

    OpenAIRE

    Geraci, Lisa; Miller, Tyler M.

    2012-01-01

    Holding negative aging stereotypes can lead older adults to perform poorly on memory tests. We attempted to improve older adults’ memory performance by giving them task experience that would counter their negative performance expectations. Before participating in a memory experiment, younger and older adults were given a cognitive task that they could either successfully complete, not successfully complete, or they were given no prior task. For older adults, recall was significantly higher an...

  3. Teaching successful intelligence to gifted and talented students

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Sternberg; Elena Grigorenko; Mercedes Ferrando; Daniel Hernández; Carmen Ferrándiz; Rosario Bermejo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the theory of successful intelligence as a strategy to meet the educational needs of gifted and talented students. First, we present the theory of successful intelligence as an alternative that allows for an in-depth study of the cognitive complexity of high ability from a broader perspective of intelligence. Second, we analyze the roles of students and teachers in the learning-teaching process. Third, we indicate some learning strategies aimed at promoting...

  4. Elasmobranch cognitive ability: using electroreceptive foraging behaviour to demonstrate learning, habituation and memory in a benthic shark

    OpenAIRE

    Kimber, Joel A.; Sims, David W.; Bellamy, Patricia H.; Gill, Andrew B.

    2014-01-01

    Top predators inhabiting a dynamic environment, such as coastal waters, should theoretically possess sufficient cognitive ability to allow successful foraging despite unpredictable sensory stimuli. The cognition-related hunting abilities of marine mammals have been widely demonstrated. Having been historically underestimated, teleost cognitive abilities have also now been significantly demonstrated. Conversely, the abilities of elasmobranchs have received little attention, despite many specie...

  5. Cognitive approaches to emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oatley, Keith; Johnson-Laird, P N

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive approaches offer clear links between how emotions are thought about in everyday life and how they are investigated psychologically. Cognitive researchers have focused on how emotions are caused when events or other people affect concerns and on how emotions influence processes such as reasoning, memory, and attention. Three representative cognitive theories of emotion continue to develop productively: the action-readiness theory, the core-affect theory, and the communicative theory. Some principles are common to them and divergences can be resolved by future research. Recent explanations have included how emotions structure social relationships, how they function in psychological illnesses, and how they are central to music and fiction. PMID:24389368

  6. Cognitive Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling

    2008-01-01

    audio contexts along with pattern recognition methods to map components to known contexts. It also involves looking for the right representations for auditory inputs, i.e. the data analytic processing pipelines invoked by human brains. The main ideas refer to Cognitive Component Analysis, defined as the...... unsupervised learning discovers statistical regularities. However human cognition is too complicated and not yet fully understood. Nevertheless, in our approach we represent human cognitive processes as a classification rule in supervised learning. Thus we have devised a testable protocol to test the...

  7. Cognitive Neuroscience of Self-Regulation Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Heatherton, Todd F.; Wagner, Dylan D.

    2011-01-01

    Self-regulatory failure is a core feature of many social and mental health problems. Self-regulation can by undermined by failures to transcend overwhelming temptations, negative moods, resource depletion, and when minor lapses in self-control snowball into self-regulatory collapse. Cognitive neuroscience research suggests that successful self-regulation is dependent on top-down control from the prefrontal cortex over subcortical regions involved in reward and emotion. We highlight recent neu...

  8. Stochastic Dynamics Underlying Cognitive Stability and Flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Kai Ueltzhöffer; Armbruster-Genç, Diana J. N.; Christian J Fiebach

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive stability and flexibility are core functions in the successful pursuit of behavioral goals. While there is evidence for a common frontoparietal network underlying both functions and for a key role of dopamine in the modulation of flexible versus stable behavior, the exact neurocomputational mechanisms underlying those executive functions and their adaptation to environmental demands are still unclear. In this work we study the neurocomputational mechanisms underlying cue based task ...

  9. Assaying environmental nickel toxicity using model nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, David; Douglas, Chandler; Huffnagle, Ian; Besser, John M.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Although nickel exposure results in allergic reactions, respiratory conditions, and cancer in humans and rodents, the ramifications of excess nickel in the environment for animal and human health remain largely undescribed. Nickel and other cationic metals travel through waterways and bind to soils and sediments. To evaluate the potential toxic effects of nickel at environmental contaminant levels (8.9-7,600 μg Ni/g dry weight of sediment and 50-800 μg NiCl2/L of water), we conducted assays using two cosmopolitan nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus. We assayed the effects of both sediment-bound and aqueous nickel upon animal growth, developmental survival, lifespan, and fecundity. Uncontaminated sediments were collected from sites in the Midwestern United States and spiked with a range of nickel concentrations. We found that nickel-spiked sediment substantially impairs both survival from larval to adult stages and adult longevity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, while aqueous nickel showed no adverse effects on either survivorship or longevity, we observed a significant decrease in fecundity, indicating that aqueous nickel could have a negative impact on nematode physiology. Intriguingly, C. elegans and P. pacificus exhibit similar, but not identical, responses to nickel exposure. Moreover, P. pacificus could be tested successfully in sediments inhospitable to C. elegans. Our results add to a growing body of literature documenting the impact of nickel on animal physiology, and suggest that environmental toxicological studies could gain an advantage by widening their repertoire of nematode species.

  10. Sex Differences in Secondary School Success: Why Female Students Perform Better

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Franziska; Schult, Johannes; Hell, Benedikt

    2013-01-01

    School success is closely linked to intelligence but also to non-cognitive factors such as achievement motivation. The present study examines which non-cognitive factors predict secondary school grades and looks at reasons why female students tend to outperform their male counterparts. A sample of 554 German freshman students provided measures of…

  11. Mental models for cognitive control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Malte; Cruse, Holk; Schmitz, Josef

    2007-05-01

    Even so called "simple" organisms as insects are able to fastly adapt to changing conditions of their environment. Their behaviour is affected by many external influences and only its variability and adaptivity permits their survival. An intensively studied example concerns hexapod walking. 1,2 Complex walking behaviours in stick insects have been analysed and the results were used to construct a reactive model that controls walking in a robot. This model is now extended by higher levels of control: as a bottom-up approach the low-level reactive behaviours are modulated and activated through a medium level. In addition, the system grows up to an upper level for cognitive control of the robot: Cognition - as the ability to plan ahead - and cognitive skills involve internal representations of the subject itself and its environment. These representations are used for mental simulations: In difficult situations, for which neither motor primitives, nor whole sequences of these exist, available behaviours are varied and applied in the internal model while the body itself is decoupled from the controlling modules. The result of the internal simulation is evaluated. Successful actions are learned and applied to the robot. This constitutes a level for planning. Its elements (movements, behaviours) are embodied in the lower levels, whereby their meaning arises directly from these levels. The motor primitives are situation models represented as neural networks. The focus of this work concerns the general architecture of the framework as well as the reactive basic layer of the bottom-up architecture and its connection to higher level functions and its application on an internal model.

  12. MERGERS - SUCCESS OR FAILURE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Sandu căs. Chiriac

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mergers are transactions of great importance, not only for organizations involved, but for many stakeholders. Success or failure of such enterprises may have consequences enormous for the shareholders of an organization, creditors, employees, competitors and community. Empirical evidence indicates a high rate of failure of mergers in terms of create value for shareholders. This study examines the causes of merger failure and offers a possible solution to make the merger successful. The internal audit has evolved from its traditional role to an active advisory. Internal auditors can ensure successful merger process.

  13. Congruence successions in compositions

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour, Toufik; Shattuck, Mark; Wilson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    A \\emph{composition} is a sequence of positive integers, called \\emph{parts}, having a fixed sum. By an \\emph{$m$-congruence succession}, we will mean a pair of adjacent parts $x$ and $y$ within a composition such that $x\\equiv y(\\text{mod} m)$. Here, we consider the problem of counting the compositions of size $n$ according to the number of $m$-congruence successions, extending recent results concerning successions on subsets and permutations. A general formula is obtained, which reduces in ...

  14. Children’s cognitive representations of the local environment

    OpenAIRE

    Paskins, J. O.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examines the relationship between children’s travel behaviour and their cognitive representations of the local environment. The aim is to examine the effects of children’s experience of travel behaviour in the local environment on the formation of their cognitive maps, particularly the effects of experience gained independently of adult supervision. There is a large degree of interplay between the factors within this relationship. Successful wayfinding is a prere...

  15. Changes in Cognitive Content During and Following Cognitive Therapy for Recurrent Depression: Substantial and Enduring, but Not Predictive of Change in Depressive Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Jarrett, Robin B.; Vittengl, Jeffrey R.; Doyle, Kimberly; Clark, Lee Anna

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the amount and durability of change in the cognitive content of 156 adult outpatients with recurrent major depressive disorder after treatment with cognitive therapy. The pre–post magnitude of change was large for the Attributional Style Questionnaire Failure composite (d = 0.79), Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (d = 1.05), and Self-Efficacy Scale (d = 0.83), and small for the Attributional Style Questionnaire Success composite (d = 0.30). Changes in cognitive content were ...

  16. Goodbye Career, Hello Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komisar, Randy

    2000-01-01

    Success in today's economy means throwing out the old career rules. The "noncareer" career is driven by passion for the work and has the fluidity and flexibility needed in the contemporary workplace. (JOW)

  17. Social cognitive radio networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xu

    2015-01-01

    This brief presents research results on social cognitive radio networks, a transformational and innovative networking paradigm that promotes the nexus between social interactions and cognitive radio networks. Along with a review of the research literature, the text examines the key motivation and challenges of social cognitive radio network design. Three socially inspired distributed spectrum sharing mechanisms are introduced: adaptive channel recommendation mechanism, imitation-based social spectrum sharing mechanism, and evolutionarily stable spectrum access mechanism. The brief concludes with a discussion of future research directions which ascertains that exploiting social interactions for distributed spectrum sharing will advance the state-of-the-art of cognitive radio network design, spur a new line of thinking for future wireless networks, and enable novel wireless service and applications.

  18. Cognitive load theory

    OpenAIRE

    Kirschner, Paul A.; Kirschner, Femke; Paas, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Kirschner, P. A., Kirschner, F. C., & Paas, F. (2009). Cognitive load theory. In E. M. Anderman & L. H. Anderman (Eds.). Psychology of classroom learning: An encyclopedia, Volume 1, a-j (pp. 205-209). Detroit, MI: Macmillan Reference.

  19. Hyperacute cognitive stroke syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, J M

    2001-10-01

    Cognitive syndromes are common clinical manifestations of hyperacute stroke and may be the single or dominant presenting features. They are related to acute dysfunction of complex integrated distributed functional networks serving different cognitive domains. The most common cortical syndromes include nonfluent or fluent aphasia, neglect, collor agnosia, pure alexia and Balint's syndrome. Disturbances of declarative memory are common following posterior cerebral artery and thalamic strokes. Abulia can follow thalamic, caudate and capsular lesions. Intraventricular and subarachnoid haemorrhages can cause preeminent neuropsychological changes. Disorientation is present in about 40% of acute stroke patients and delirium complicates the course of 25% of acute strokes. Some hyperacute cognitive stroke syndromes are useful indicators of later disability. Cognitive syndromes may pose special difficulties to neurology residents, unless formal teaching in neuropsychology and psychiatry is included in their training programs. PMID:11697519

  20. Cognitive Computing for Security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debenedictis, Erik [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rothganger, Fredrick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aimone, James Bradley [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Marinella, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Evans, Brian Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Warrender, Christina E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mickel, Patrick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Final report for Cognitive Computing for Security LDRD 165613. It reports on the development of hybrid of general purpose/ne uromorphic computer architecture, with an emphasis on potential implementation with memristors.

  1. Cognition and Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Linda

    1984-01-01

    The cognitive approach to education is briefly summarized, and its implications for learning disabilities considered. The approach, which includes the genetic epistemology espoused by J. Piaget and information processing theory, proposes the importance of active involvement and control processes. (CL)

  2. Career Success Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Mulhall, Sue

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates how researchers have responded to requests to encourage a broader definition of career success by conducting research with underrepresented groups. It investigates the sample populations that are researched, and the type of work experience that is studied, by reviewing 89 articles in journals concerned with the construct of career success from 1992 to 2009. The paper finds that such research principally focuses on managers, professionals and administrators, and the wor...

  3. Chromosome aberration assays in Allium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, W.F.

    1982-01-01

    The common onion (Allium cepa) is an excellent plant for the assay of chromosome aberrations after chemical treatment. Other species of Allium (A. cepa var. proliferum, A. carinatum, A. fistulosum and A. sativum) have also been used but to a much lesser extent. Protocols have been given for using root tips from either bulbs or seeds of Allium cepa to study the cytological end-points, such as chromosome breaks and exchanges, which follow the testing of chemicals in somatic cells. It is considered that both mitotic and meiotic end-points should be used to a greater extent in assaying the cytogenetic effects of a chemical. From a literature survey, 148 chemicals are tabulated that have been assayed in 164 Allium tests for their clastogenic effect. Of the 164 assays which have been carried out, 75 are reported as giving a positive reaction, 49 positive and with a dose response, 1 positive and temperature-related, 9 borderline positive, and 30 negative; 76% of the chemicals gave a definite positive response. It is proposed that the Allium test be included among those tests routinely used for assessing chromosomal damage induced by chemicals.

  4. Bacterial mutagenicity assays: test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatehouse, David

    2012-01-01

    The most widely used assays for detecting chemically induced gene mutations are those employing bacteria. The plate incorporation assay using various Salmonella typhimurium LT2 and E. coli WP2 strains is a short-term bacterial reverse mutation assay specifically designed to detect a wide range of chemical substances capable of causing DNA damage leading to gene mutations. The test is used worldwide as an initial screen to determine the mutagenic potential of new chemicals and drugs.The test uses several strains of S. typhimurium which carry different mutations in various genes of the histidine operon, and E. coli which carry the same AT base pair at the critical mutation site within the trpE gene. These mutations act as hot spots for mutagens that cause DNA damage via different mechanisms. When these auxotrophic bacterial strains are grown on a minimal media agar plates containing a trace of the required amino-acid (histidine or tryptophan), only those bacteria that revert to amino-acid independence (His(+) or Tryp(+)) will grow to form visible colonies. The number of spontaneously induced revertant colonies per plate is relatively constant. However, when a mutagen is added to the plate, the number of revertant colonies per plate is increased, usually in a dose-related manner.This chapter provides detailed procedures for performing the test in the presence and absence of a metabolic activation system (S9-mix), including advice on specific assay variations and any technical problems. PMID:22147566

  5. Assays for B lymphocyte function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondada, Subbarao; Robertson, Darrell A

    2003-11-01

    This unit describes the antigenic stimulation of in vitro antibody production by B cells and the subsequent measurement of secreted antibodies. The first basic protocol is a generalized system for inducing in vitro antibody production and can accommodate various types of antigens under study. Secreted antibodies can then be measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or other soluble-antibody detection systems. Alternatively, the number of antibody-producing cells can be quantified by plaque-forming cell (PFC) assays presented in this unit: the Cunningham-Szenberg and the Jerne-Nordin techniques. Both methods employ specially prepared slide chambers, described here, in which the antibody-producing B cells are mixed with complement and indicator sheep red blood cells (SRBC), or with trinitrophenol-modified SRBC (TNP-SRBC), with subsequent lysis and counting of plaques. Because IgM antibodies fix complement efficiently, whereas IgG and IgA antibodies do not, unmodified PFC assays measure only IgM antibodies. The assay can be modified, however, to measure all classes of antibodies or to enumerate total immunoglobulin-secreting B cells, as described in alternate protocols. Yet another method of measuring the number of antibody-producing B cells (in a class-specific fashion) is to use the ELISPOT technique described in UNIT 7.14. The resting B cells used in these procedures are prepared as described in the final support protocols for Percoll gradient centrifugation. PMID:18432909

  6. Cognitive Dynamic Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Miguel, Ignacio; Duran, Ramon J.; Lorenzo, Ruben M.;

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive networks are a promising solution for the control of heterogeneous optical networks. We review their fundamentals as well as a number of applications developed in the framework of the EU FP7 CHRON project.......Cognitive networks are a promising solution for the control of heterogeneous optical networks. We review their fundamentals as well as a number of applications developed in the framework of the EU FP7 CHRON project....

  7. Cooperative Cognitive Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Giupponi, Lorenza; Ibars, Christian

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter, we have described how cooperation can benefit the different phases of the so called cognitive radio cycle. In particular we have focused on physical layer cooperation, showing that benefits can be obtained for both the primary and the secondary system in terms of spatial diversity, increased range and increased availability. In addition, we have modeled the critical interference management problem in a cooperative and cognitive system through a game theoretical approach, as w...

  8. Cognitive Control and Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Luna, Beatriz; Paulsen, David J.; Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Geier, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is associated with heightened mortality rates due in large measure to negative consequences from risky behaviors. Theories of adolescent risk taking posit that immature cognitive control coupled with heightened reward reactivity drive adolescent risk-taking, yet surprisingly few empirical studies have examined these neurobiological systems together. In this paper, we describe a related series of studies from our laboratory aimed at further delineating the maturation of cognitive c...

  9. Cognitive Processes in Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莹

    2009-01-01

    Writing has become one of important topic to discuss in the new age.Its theories could be generally learnt,but its nature needs to handle in specific contents.In another words,every one who can write must generate his/her thinking or cognitive processes.Because writing thinking is to do meaningful activities,how to solove writing problems could be managed through cognitive process.

  10. Uncertainty and Cognitive Control

    OpenAIRE

    Mushtaq, Faisal; Bland, Amy R; Schaefer, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    A growing trend of neuroimaging, behavioral, and computational research has investigated the topic of outcome uncertainty in decision-making. Although evidence to date indicates that humans are very effective in learning to adapt to uncertain situations, the nature of the specific cognitive processes involved in the adaptation to uncertainty are still a matter of debate. In this article, we reviewed evidence suggesting that cognitive control processes are at the heart of uncertainty in decisi...

  11. UWB Cognitive Radios

    OpenAIRE

    Kandeepan, Sithamparanathan; BALDINI Gianmarco; Piesiewicz, Radoslaw

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter we present UWB communication as a potential candidate for cognitive radio technology. Cognitive radios are intelligent radios that could adopt itself by sensing and learning the radio environment and optimize its transmission strategies to maximize the utilization of the scarce radio resources such as the radio spectrum. This has been motivated by the radio regulatory bodies around the world (EC, 2007; FCC, 2003) to utilize unused radio spectrum known as white s...

  12. Addiction and Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    The brain regions and neural processes that underlie addiction overlap extensively with those that support cognitive functions, including learning, memory, and reasoning. Drug activity in these regions and processes during early stages of abuse foster strong maladaptive associations between drug use and environmental stimuli that may underlie future cravings and drug-seeking behaviors. With continued drug use, cognitive deficits ensue that exacerbate the difficulty of establishing sustained a...

  13. Cognitive Neuroscience of Sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Poe, Gina R.; Walsh, Christine M.; Bjorness, Theresa E.

    2010-01-01

    Mechanism is at the heart of understanding, and this chapter addresses underlying brain mechanisms and pathways of cognition and the impact of sleep on these processes, especially those serving learning and memory. This chapter reviews the current understanding of the relationship between sleep/waking states and cognition from the perspective afforded by basic neurophysiological investigations. The extensive overlap between sleep mechanisms and the neurophysiology of learning and memory proce...

  14. Emotion, Cognition, and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, R. J.

    2002-11-01

    Emotion is central to the quality and range of everyday human experience. The neurobiological substrates of human emotion are now attracting increasing interest within the neurosciences motivated, to a considerable extent, by advances in functional neuroimaging techniques. An emerging theme is the question of how emotion interacts with and influences other domains of cognition, in particular attention, memory, and reasoning. The psychological consequences and mechanisms underlying the emotional modulation of cognition provide the focus of this article.

  15. Is Distributed Cognition Group Level Cognition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwig Kirk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that recent arguments from group problem solving and task performance to emergent group level cognition that rest on the social parity and related principles are invalid or question begging. The paper shows that standard attributions of problem solving or task performance to groups require only multiple agents of the outcome, not a group agent over and above its members, whether or not any individual member of the group could have accomplished the task independently.

  16. Cognition, emotion, and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M; Schulte, Tilman

    2014-01-01

    Deficits of attention, emotion, and cognition occur in individuals with alcohol abuse and addiction. This review elucidates the concepts of attention, emotion, and cognition and references research on the underlying neural networks and their compromise in alcohol use disorder. Neuroimaging research on adolescents with family history of alcoholism contributes to the understanding of pre-existing brain structural conditions and characterization of cognition and attention processes in high-risk individuals. Attention and cognition interact with other brain functions, including perceptual selection, salience, emotion, reward, and memory, through interconnected neural networks. Recent research reports compromised microstructural and functional network connectivity in alcoholism, which can have an effect on the dynamic tuning between brain systems, e.g., the frontally based executive control system, the limbic emotion system, and the midbrain-striatal reward system, thereby impeding cognitive flexibility and behavioral adaptation to changing environments. Finally, we introduce concepts of functional compensation, the capacity to generate attentional resources for performance enhancement, and brain structure recovery with abstinence. An understanding of the neural mechanisms of attention, emotion, and cognition will likely provide the basis for better treatment strategies for developing skills that enhance alcoholism therapy adherence and quality of life, and reduce the propensity for relapse. PMID:25307584

  17. [Schizophrenia, cognition and neuroimaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaladjian, A; Fakra, E; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Cermolacce, M; Azorin, J-M

    2011-12-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex illness whose mechanisms are still largely unknown. Functional brain imaging, by making the link between psyche and brain, has recently become an indispensable tool to study in vivo the neural bases underlying cognitive dysfunction in this disease. But despite the proliferation of data coming from this approach, the exact impact of functional imaging on our understanding of the disease remains blurry. In general, studies of the brain functioning of patients with schizophrenia found activation abnormalities which vary in nature and localization depending of the cognitive paradigm used. However, it appears that neurofunctional abnormalities observed in patients cannot be reduced to a simple well-localized deficit. It would be rather an alteration of the dynamics of the interactions between different brain regions that underlie the cognitive disturbances encountered in the disease. Functional brain imaging now offers new perspectives to clarify the dynamics of the brain networks, and particularly those involved in high-level cognitive functions, such as cognitive control or social cognition which seem to play a crucial role in the disease. The characterization of these features is an important issue not only to develop new hypotheses on the pathophysiology of the disorder, but also more pragmatically to identify potential therapeutic targets. PMID:22212841

  18. Cognitive Polyphasia: Introductory article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Provencher, C

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this introduction to the Special Issue on cognitive polyphasia, we make an initial attempt at clarifying some aspects of this concept by proposing two developmental perspectives that provide an interesting explanation for the genesis of cognitive polyphasia and its persistence in contemporary societies: * In the first, a diachronic perspective, cognition is viewed as being influenced by the social, political and economic arrangements found in different societies. It is argued that to specific societies correspond different types of knowledge but that, contrary to the conventional view in social sciences, the progression from one society to another, and their respective types of knowledge, is not completely straightforward. One can observe reminiscences of ‘old’ types of knowledge in modern societies, one way of understanding the idea of cognitive polyphasia. * In the second, a synchronic perspective, the various functions played by different types of knowledge are emphasised and one can see why individuals, groups and societies may want to draw on a plurality of types of knowledge to make sense of their environment and fulfil different objectives. Here, cognitive polyphasia describes the use of different types of knowledge as a result of the different characteristics they have and the different roles they play. We conclude this introduction by presenting the different papers that are comprised in this Special Issue and highlighting the contributions each of them makes to a better understanding of cognitive polyphasia.

  19. Epilepsy, cognition and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Sheffali; Yoganathan, Sangeetha; Chakrabarty, Biswaroop

    2014-10-01

    Epilepsy is defined as two or more unprovoked seizures. Epileptic patients have intellectual disability and behavioral co-morbidities to the tune of up to 25 and 75% respectively. Various factors like underlying etiology, socioeconomic environment at home, age at onset, seizure semiology, seizure descriptors like duration, severity and frequency, therapy related adverse effects secondary to antiepileptic drugs and epilepsy surgery have been implicated for the causation of cognitive and behavioral impairment in epilepsy. Cognitive epilepsy has emerged as a specific entity. This may manifest as a transient behavioral or cognitive change, insidous onset subacute to chronic encephalopathy or more catastrophic in the form of nonconvulsive status epilepticus. Cognitive impairment seen in epileptic children include difficulties in learning, memory, problem solving as well as concept formation. Anxiety, depression and attention deficit hyperkinetic disorders are the most common psychiatric co-morbidities seen. Investigating a child with epilepsy for cognitive and behavioral impairment is difficult as these tests would require cooperation from the patient's side to a significant extent. A rational approach towards treatment would be judicious selection of antiepileptic drugs, treatment of underlying cause, appropriate management of behavioral co-morbidities including psychopharmacotherapy and a trial of immunotherapy (particularly in cognitive epilepsies), wherever appropriate. PMID:25073691

  20. How cognitive theory guides neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Michael J.; Badre, David

    2014-01-01

    The field of cognitive science studies latent, unobservable cognitive processes that generate observable behaviors. Similarly, cognitive neuroscience attempts to link latent cognitive processes with the neural mechanisms that generate them. Although neural processes are partially observable (with imaging and electrophysiology), it would be a mistake to ‘skip’ the cognitive level and pursue a purely neuroscientific enterprise to studying behavior. In fact, virtually all of the major advances i...

  1. The Cognitive View on Metaphor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓静

    2006-01-01

    Metaphor is not the patent in rhetoric field, but extends to linguistics and cognitive psychology. This paper explores the metaphor from a brand new perspective of cognition. It begins with the cognitive basis of metaphor, and then has a tentative approach to the relationship between metaphor and cognition from different angels such as metaphor and cognitive model; metaphor and mental perception, also the influence of metaphor on the society.The author finally discusses the acquisition of metaphor.

  2. The comet assay – from toy to tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guenter Speit

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The comet assay is nowadays the most common method for measuring DNA damage and repair in single cells. It is based on the microelectrophoretic study published by Ostling and Johanson (1984 and was developed by Singh and coworkers (1988 to a versatile technique for quantitation of low levels of DNA damage in individual cells. This alkaline version still is the basis for the triumphant success of the comet assay in basic research into mechanisms of DNA damage and DNA repair, genotoxicity testing, ecotoxicology and human biomonitoring. Important technical improvements (e.g., the use of precoated slides, introduction of image analysis, high throughput methods, automated scoring systems made the assay more robust and more efficient. Modifications of the standard protocol provide more specific information on the type and biological significance of the damage studied. The introduction of lesion-specific endonucleases allowed the characterization of oxidative base damage, alkylation damage and UV-induced pyrimidine dimers. The combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH made it possible to identify DNA of particular chromosome regions and measure effects of damage and repair in particular genes. The comet assay is being increasingly used in genotoxicity testing. In particular, the in vivo comet assay has become a component of some genotoxicity test strategies and generally accepted test protocols have evolved over the years. A large international collaborative trial sponsored by the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM was recently completed and an OECD test guideline was approved. The comet assay is widely used in human biomonitoring to measure DNA damage as a marker of exposure to genotoxic agents or to investigate genoprotective effects. However, there are still problems in comparing results from different laboratories and there is need for reducing inter-laboratory variation and identification of standard

  3. Academic achievement: Intelligence, regulatory, and cognitive predictors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morosanova V.I.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Using the results of two empirical studies (with different samples and academic subjects, our research was aimed at discovering the significant role of conscious self-regulation, intelligence, and cognitive features in predicting optimal academic achievement. The sample consisted of 406 students (aged 14-16 in the 8th to 11th grades of the Russian formal education system. Conscious self-regulation together with intelligence and cognitive abilities was determined to be a significant predictor of academic success. The Study 1 results revealed that the general level of self-regulation of learning activity and certain regulatory features were significant predictors of different types of mathematical achievements: academic grades, scores on exams, mathematical fluency, as well as solving logical mathematical problems and equations. The present study is the first to show the mediating role of self-regulation in relation to intelligence, cognitive features, and academic success. Study 2 found evidence that conscious self-regulation and intelligence can predict academic achievement in the humanities, mathematics, and natural sciences... At the same time, this determination has its peculiarities in particular variables of intelligence and certain self-regulation processes depending on the substantive characteristics of the academic subjects. Regression models of academic success in the humanities identified verbal intelligence associated with vocabulary as highly significant and a definitive requirement for success in these subjects. Study 1 and Study 2 showed that the only significant predictors of success in algebra and geometry were quantitative- relations intelligence and spatial intelligence. The implications of these findings for investigating predictors of academic achievement are discussed.

  4. Controlling variation in the comet assay

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Andrew R; El Yamani, Naouale; Lorenzo, Yolanda; Shaposhnikov, Sergey; Brunborg, Gunnar; Azqueta, Amaya

    2014-01-01

    Variability of the comet assay is a serious issue, whether it occurs from experiment to experiment in the same laboratory, or between different laboratories analysing identical samples. Do we have to live with high variability, just because the comet assay is a biological assay rather than analytical chemistry? Numerous attempts have been made to limit variability by standardizing the assay protocol, and the critical steps in the assay have been identified; agarose concentration, duration of ...

  5. Profile of Cognitive Complaints in Vascular Mild Cognitive Impairment and Mild Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Schweizer, Tom A.; Gustavo Saposnik; Corinne E. Fischer; Jenny Gu

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Vascular mild cognitive impairment (VaMCI) is differentiated from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) by the presence of vascular events such as stroke or small vessel disease. Typically, MCI and VaMCI patients present with subjective complaints regarding cognition; however, little is known about the specific nature of these complaints. We aimed to create a profile of subjective cognitive complaints in MCI and VaMCI patients with similar levels of objective cognitive performance. Metho...

  6. Untangling Performance from Success

    CERN Document Server

    Yucesoy, Burcu

    2015-01-01

    Fame, popularity and celebrity status, frequently used tokens of success, are often loosely related to, or even divorced from professional performance. This dichotomy is partly rooted in the difficulty to distinguish performance, an individual measure that captures the actions of a performer, from success, a collective measure that captures a community's reactions to these actions. Yet, finding the relationship between the two measures is essential for all areas that aim to objectively reward excellence, from science to business. Here we quantify the relationship between performance and success by focusing on tennis, an individual sport where the two quantities can be independently measured. We show that a predictive model, relying only on a tennis player's performance in tournaments, can accurately predict an athlete's popularity, both during a player's active years and after retirement. Hence the model establishes a direct link between performance and momentary popularity. The agreement between the performa...

  7. [User friendliness of computer-based cognitive training for psychogeriatric patients with mild to moderate cognitive impairments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, Eva S; Hoorweg, Angela; van der Lee, Jacqueline

    2016-04-01

    Cognitive impairment associated with dementia is characterized by a continuous decline. Cognitive training is a method to train specific brain functions such as memory and attention to prevent or slow down cognitive decline. A small number of studies has shown that cognitive training on a computer has a positive effect on both cognition and mood in people with cognitive impairment. This pilot study tested if serious games could be integrated in a psychogeriatric rehabilitation center. Fourteen psychogeriatric patients participated twice weekly in cognitive training sessions on a computer. Both the participants and the facilitator reported positive interactions and outcomes. However, after five weeks only half of the sample still participated in the training. This was partly because of patient turn-over as well as incorporating this new task in the facilitators' daily work. Fear of failure, physical limitations and rapidly decreasing cognitive function led to drop out according to the facilitator. The engagement of patients in the games and the role of the facilitator seemed essential for success, especially monitoring (and adjusting) the difficulty level of the program for every individual participant. PMID:26821167

  8. Comet Assay in Cancer Chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Raffaela; Ferraiuolo, Maria; Morgano, Gian Paolo; Muti, Paola; Strano, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    The comet assay can be useful in monitoring DNA damage in single cells caused by exposure to genotoxic agents, such as those causing air, water, and soil pollution (e.g., pesticides, dioxins, electromagnetic fields) and chemo- and radiotherapy in cancer patients, or in the assessment of genoprotective effects of chemopreventive molecules. Therefore, it has particular importance in the fields of pharmacology and toxicology, and in both environmental and human biomonitoring. It allows the detection of single strand breaks as well as double-strand breaks and can be used in both normal and cancer cells. Here we describe the alkali method for comet assay, which allows to detect both single- and double-strand DNA breaks. PMID:26608293

  9. Nondestructive assay of sale materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper covers three primary areas: (1) reasons for performing nondestructive assay on SALE materials; (2) techniques used; and (3) discussion of investigators' revised results. The study shows that nondestructive calorimetric assay of plutonium offers a viable alternative to traditional wet chemical techniques. For these samples, the precision ranged from 0.4 to 0.6% with biases less than 0.2%. Thus, for those materials where sampling errors are the predominant source of uncertainty, this technique can provide improved accuracy and precision while saving time and money as well as reducing the amount of liquid wastes to be handled. In addition, high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements of solids can provide isotopic analysis data in a cost effective and timely manner. The timeliness of the method can be especially useful to the plant operator for production control and quality control measurements

  10. Assay of vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioassay is described for vitamin B12 which involves denaturing serum protein binding proteins with alkali. In the denaturation step a dithiopolyol and cyanide are used and in the intrinsic factor assay step a vitamin B12 analogue such as cobinamide is used to bind with any remaining serum proteins. The invention also includes a kit in which the dithiopolyol is provided in admixture with the alkali. The dithiopolyol may be dithiothreitol or dithioerythritol. (author)

  11. Thermoluminescence authenticity assay of Chinese pottery in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method used is similar to the dating of sherd samples with some modification to minimize the damage to the delicate pottery but still produce a reasonable accurate result. During the past year, the author has done 31 samples successfully. Most of them claimed to be 1100-4500 years of age. After testing, nineteen samples showed out to be compatible with the claimed age. The general procedures and the encountered problems for the assay are described

  12. Sociolinguistic variables and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Erik R

    2011-11-01

    Sociolinguistics has examined mental organization of language only sporadically. Meanwhile, areas of linguistics that deal with cognitive organization seldom delve deeply into language variation. Variation is essential for understanding how language is structured cognitively, however. Three kinds of evidence are discussed to illustrate this point. First, style shifting demonstrates that language users develop detailed associations of when to produce specific linguistic forms, depending on the pragmatic context. Second, variation in fine-grained phonetic cues shows that cognitive organization applies to linguistic forms not otherwise known to be under speakers' control. Finally, experiments on dialect comprehension and identification demonstrate that listeners have detailed cognitive associations of language variants with groups of people, whether or not they can produce the same variants themselves. A model is presented for how sociolinguistic knowledge can be viewed in relation to other parts of language with regard to cognitive and neural representations. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 701-716 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.152 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26302416

  13. Irradiation detection of food by DNA Comet Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microgel electrophoresis of single cells or nuclei (DNA Comet Assay) has been investigated to detect irradiation treatment of more than 50 food commodities e.g. meats, seafood, cereals, pulses, nuts, fruits and vegetables, and spices. The foodstuffs have been exposed to radiation doses covering the range of potential commercial irradiation for inactivation of pathogenic and spoilage micro-organisms, for insect disinfestation and for shelf-life extension. The Comet Assay is based on detection of DNA fragments presumptive to irradiation. For most of the food items investigated, the assay can be applied successfully for irradiation detection by working out different conditions of the assay. However, with some of the foods difficulties arose due to - lack of discrimination between the irradiated and unirradiated food samples due to the presence of the same kinds of comets in both cases and the total absence of the typical intact cells in unirradiated samples. - Sufficient DNA material was not available from some of the foods. - Insufficient lysis of the cell walls in case of some plant foods. In conclusion, the DNA Comet Assay can help to detect the irradiation treatment of several varieties of foods using low-cost equipment in a short time of analysis. (orig.)

  14. Cognition assessment using the NIH Toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Sandra; Dikmen, Sureyya S; Heaton, Robert K; Tulsky, David S; Zelazo, Philip D; Bauer, Patricia J; Carlozzi, Noelle E; Slotkin, Jerry; Blitz, David; Wallner-Allen, Kathleen; Fox, Nathan A; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Mungas, Dan; Nowinski, Cindy J; Richler, Jennifer; Deocampo, Joanne A; Anderson, Jacob E; Manly, Jennifer J; Borosh, Beth; Havlik, Richard; Conway, Kevin; Edwards, Emmeline; Freund, Lisa; King, Jonathan W; Moy, Claudia; Witt, Ellen; Gershon, Richard C

    2013-03-12

    Cognition is 1 of 4 domains measured by the NIH Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function (NIH-TB), and complements modules testing motor function, sensation, and emotion. On the basis of expert panels, the cognition subdomains identified as most important for health, success in school and work, and independence in daily functioning were Executive Function, Episodic Memory, Language, Processing Speed, Working Memory, and Attention. Seven measures were designed to tap constructs within these subdomains. The instruments were validated in English, in a sample of 476 participants ranging in age from 3 to 85 years, with representation from both sexes, 3 racial/ethnic categories, and 3 levels of education. This report describes the development of the Cognition Battery and presents results on test-retest reliability, age effects on performance, and convergent and discriminant construct validity. The NIH-TB Cognition Battery is intended to serve as a brief, convenient set of measures to supplement other outcome measures in epidemiologic and longitudinal research and clinical trials. With a computerized format and national standardization, this battery will provide a "common currency" among researchers for comparisons across a wide range of studies and populations. PMID:23479546

  15. Mindfulness and Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness has long been practiced in Eastern spiritual traditions for personal improvement, and educators and educational institutions have recently begun to explore its usefulness in schools. Mindfulness training can be valuable for helping students be more successful learners and more connected members of an educational community. To determine…

  16. Successful international negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These remarks on successful international trade negotiations deal with the following topics: culture and differences in psychology; building friendly relationships and letting both sides appear to win; well written proposals; security of negotiating information; the complexity and length of nuclear negotiations

  17. Linear Equations: Equivalence = Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratta, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    The ability to solve linear equations sets students up for success in many areas of mathematics and other disciplines requiring formula manipulations. There are many reasons why solving linear equations is a challenging skill for students to master. One major barrier for students is the inability to interpret the equals sign as anything other than…

  18. Five Keys to Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peddy, Walter J.

    2009-01-01

    The first year as a principal is filled with self-doubt. As one already knows, there is no book or guide that can fully prepare someone for what the principal's position entails. All first-year principals have to learn by doing. In this article, the author discusses five keys to success that will guide and help first-year principals with the…

  19. Ensuring Students' Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oblinger, James L.

    2006-01-01

    James L. Oblinger, Chancellor of North Carolina State University, argues that higher education must continually evolve new methods of teaching and learning to support students' lifelong skills and impending careers. Part of ensuring students' success lies in finding alternative learning models, such as the Student-Centered Activities for Large…

  20. The Cult of Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senechal, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Success has meant wealth, virtue, excellence, wisdom, personal contentment, or any combination of these, but its definition has flattened over time, particularly in the past few decades. A combination of economic anxiety, aggressive advertising, ubiquitous ratings, and verbal vagueness has led to an emphasis on the external aspects of…

  1. Coping with Computing Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Richard D.

    Elements of computing success of Iona College, the challenges it currently faces, and the strategies conceived to cope with future computing needs are discussed. The college has mandated computer literacy for students and offers nine degrees in the computerized information system/management information system areas. Since planning is needed in…

  2. Models of Success

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Wu Renbao made national celebrity for his commitment to achieving common prosperity among his co-villagers in Huaxi Village, Jiangsu Province.Wu's recipe for success was to take advantage of collective strength by encouraging mutual assistance between villages and households.

  3. Manipulation of succession

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prach, Karel; Marrs, R.; Pyšek, Petr; van Diggelen, R.

    New York: Springer Science, 2007 - (Walker, L.; Walker, J.; Hobbs, R.), s. 121-149 ISBN 0-387-35302-X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600050702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : succession * vegetation * restoration ecology Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  4. Current Perspectives on Cognitive Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Andrea; Beller, Sieghard

    2016-01-01

    To what extent is cognition influenced by a person’s cultural background? This question has remained controversial in large fields of the cognitive sciences, including cognitive psychology, and is also underexplored in anthropology. In this perspective article, findings from a recent wave of cross-cultural studies will be outlined with respect to three aspects of cognition: perception and categorization, number representation and counting, and explanatory frameworks and beliefs. Identifying similarities and differences between these domains allows for general conclusions regarding cognitive diversity and helps to highlight the importance of culturally shaped content for a comprehensive understanding of cognition.

  5. Current Perspectives on Cognitive Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Andrea; Beller, Sieghard

    2016-01-01

    To what extent is cognition influenced by a person's cultural background? This question has remained controversial in large fields of the cognitive sciences, including cognitive psychology, and is also underexplored in anthropology. In this perspective article, findings from a recent wave of cross-cultural studies will be outlined with respect to three aspects of cognition: perception and categorization, number representation and counting, and explanatory frameworks and beliefs. Identifying similarities and differences between these domains allows for general conclusions regarding cognitive diversity and helps to highlight the importance of culturally shaped content for a comprehensive understanding of cognition. PMID:27148118

  6. Signal Detection for QPSK Based Cognitive Radio Systems using Support Vector Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Mushtaq, M. T.; Khan, I.; M. S. Khan; Koudelka, O.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive radio based network enables opportunistic dynamic spectrum access by sensing, adopting and utilizing the unused portion of licensed spectrum bands. Cognitive radio is intelligent enough to adapt the communication parameters of the unused licensed spectrum. Spectrum sensing is one of the most important tasks of the cognitive radio cycle. In this paper, the auto-correlation function kernel based Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier along with Welch's Periodogram detector is success...

  7. Parental changes after involvement in their anxious child's cognitive behavior therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Sømhovd, Mikael Julius; Nielsen, Sara Kerstine;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Specific parental behaviors and cognitions are associated with child anxiety. Studies informing us of the directionality of the associations are lacking. We investigated the effect of parental involvement in children's anxiety treatment on parental behaviors and cognitions. METHOD......-reported maternal autonomy-granting (non-involved mothers showed a greater increase). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that child anxiety significantly influences parental behaviors and cognitions. Child therapy may successfully change the family system....

  8. Neurological and Psychiatric Diseases and Their Unique Cognitive Profiles: Implications for Nursing Practice and Research

    OpenAIRE

    Vance, David E; Dodson, Joan E.; Watkins, Jason; Kennedy, Bridgett H.; Keltner, Norman L.

    2013-01-01

    To successfully negotiate and interact with one’s environment, optimal cognitive functioning is needed. Unfortunately, many neurological and psychiatric diseases impede certain cognitive abilities such as executive functioning or speed of processing; this can produce a poor fit between the patient and the cognitive demands of his or her environment. Such non-dementia diseases include bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress syndrome, depression, and anxiety disorders, just to na...

  9. Social-Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia: Generalization of Effects of the Training of Affect Recognition (TAR)

    OpenAIRE

    Wölwer, Wolfgang; Frommann, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, several social cognitive remediation programs have been developed for use in schizophrenia. Though existing evidence indicates that such programs can improve social cognition, which is essential for successful social functioning, it remains unclear whether the improvements generalize to social cognitive domains not primarily addressed by the intervention and whether the improved test performance transfers into everyday social functioning. The present study investigated whe...

  10. A review of the role of social cognition in major depressive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Michael James Weightman; Tracy Michelle Air; Bernhard Theodor Baune

    2014-01-01

    Background: Social cognition – the ability to identify, perceive and interpret socially-relevant information – is an important skill that plays a significant role in successful interpersonal functioning. Social cognitive performance is recognised to be impaired in several psychiatric conditions, but the relationship with major depressive disorder is less well understood. The aim of this review is to characterise the current understanding of (i) the different domains of social cognition and a ...

  11. Cognitive Ability, Character Skills, and Learning to Play Equilibrium: A Level-k Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, David; Prowse, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate how cognitive ability and character skills influence behavior, success and the evolution of play towards Nash equilibrium in repeated strategic interactions. We study behavior in a p-beauty contest experiment and find striking differences according to cognitive ability: more cognitively able subjects choose numbers closer to equilibrium, converge more frequently to equilibrium play and earn more even as behavior approaches the equilibrium prediction. To understand...

  12. Unified Multi-domain Decision Making: Cognitive Radio and Autonomous Vehicle Convergence

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Alexander Rian

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents the theory, design, implementation and successful deployment of a cognitive engine decision algorithm by which a cognitive radio-equipped mobile robot may adapt its motion and radio parameters through multi-objective optimization. This provides a proof-of-concept prototype cognitive system that is aware of its envirionment, its userâ •s needs, and the rules governing its operation. It is to take intelligent action based on this awareness to optimize its performance ...

  13. Treatment Success in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Kumar, Ambuj; Soares, Heloisa P.; Hozo, Iztok; Bepler, Gerold; Clarke, Mike; Bennett, Charles L.

    2009-01-01

    Background The evaluation of research output, such as estimation of the proportion of treatment successes, is of ethical, scientific, and public importance but has rarely been evaluated systematically. We assessed how often experimental cancer treatments that undergo testing in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) result in discovery of successful new interventions. Methods We extracted data from all completed (published and unpublished) phase 3 RCTs conducted by the National Cancer Institute cooperative groups since their inception in 1955. Therapeutic successes were determined by (1) assessing the proportion of statistically significant trials favoring new or standard treatments, (2) determining the proportion of the trials in which new treatments were considered superior to standard treatments according to the original researchers, and (3) quantitatively synthesizing data for main clinical outcomes (overall and event-free survival). Results Data from 624 trials (781 randomized comparisons) involving 216 451 patients were analyzed. In all, 30% of trials had statistically significant results, of which new interventions were superior to established treatments in 80% of trials. The original researchers judged that the risk-benefit profile favored new treatments in 41% of comparisons (316 of 766). Hazard ratios for overall and event-free survival, available for 614 comparisons, were 0.95 (99% confidence interval [CI], 0.93-0.98) and 0.90 (99% CI, 0.87- 0.93), respectively, slightly favoring new treatments. Breakthrough interventions were discovered in 15% of trials. Conclusions Approximately 25% to 50% of new cancer treatments that reach the stage of assessment in RCTs will prove successful. The pattern of successes has become more stable over time. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the ethical principle of equipoise defines limits of discoverability in clinical research and ultimately drives therapeutic advances in clinical medicine. PMID:18362256

  14. Issues in cognitive reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter examines some problems in current methods to assess reactor operator reliability at cognitive tasks and discusses new approaches to solve these problems. The two types of human failures are errors in the execution of an intention and errors in the formation/selection of an intention. Topics considered include the types of description, error correction, cognitive performance and response time, the speed-accuracy tradeoff function, function based task analysis, and cognitive task analysis. One problem of human reliability analysis (HRA) techniques in general is the question of what are the units of behavior whose reliability are to be determined. A second problem for HRA is that people often detect and correct their errors. The use of function based analysis, which maps the problem space for plant control, is recommended

  15. Rehabilitation of poststroke cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigaki, Cheryl L; Frey, Scott H; Barrett, A M

    2014-11-01

    Given the increasing rates of stroke and our aging population, it is critical that we continue to foster innovation in stroke rehabilitation. Although there is evidence supporting cognitive rehabilitation in stroke, the set of cognitive domains effectively addressed to date represents only a small subset of the problems experienced by stroke survivors. Further, a gap remains between investigational treatments and our evolving theories of brain function. These limitations present opportunities for improving the functional impact of stroke rehabilitation. The authors use a case example to encourage the reader to consider the evidence base for cognitive rehabilitation in stroke, focusing on four domains critical to daily life function: (1) speech and language, (2) functional memory, (3) executive function and skilled learned purposive movements, and (4) spatial-motor systems. Ultimately, they attempt to draw neuroscience and practice closer together by using translational reasoning to suggest possible new avenues for treating these disorders. PMID:25520021

  16. Functional relations and cognitive psychology: Lessons from human performance and animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Robert W; Urcuioli, Peter J

    2016-02-01

    We consider requirements for effective interdisciplinary communication and explore alternative interpretations of "building bridges between functional and cognitive psychology." If the bridges are intended to connect radical behaviourism and cognitive psychology, or functional contextualism and cognitive psychology, the efforts are unlikely to be successful. But if the bridges are intended to connect functional relationships and cognitive theory, no construction is needed because the bridges already exist within cognitive psychology. We use human performance and animal research to illustrate the latter point and to counter the claim that the functional approach is unique in offering a close relationship between science and practice. Effective communication will be enhanced and, indeed, may only occur if the goal of functional contextualism extends beyond just "the advancement of functional contextual cognitive and behavioral science and practice" to "the advancement of cognitive and behavioral science and practice" without restriction. PMID:26111342

  17. Correlation between the genotoxicity endpoints measured by two different genotoxicity assays: comet assay and CBMN assay

    OpenAIRE

    Carina Ladeira; Susana Viegas; Gomes, Manuel C.

    2015-01-01

    The cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN) assay is a comprehensive system for measuring DNA damage; cytostasis and cytotoxicity-DNA damage events are scored specifically in once-divided binucleated cells. The endpoints possible to be measured are micronuclei (MN), a biomarker of chromosome breakage and/or whole chromosome loss, nucleoplasmic bridges (NPB), a biomarker of DNA misrepair and/or telomere end-fusions, and nuclear buds (NBUD), a biomarker of elimination of amplified DNA and/...

  18. Embodied Music Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Matyja, Jakub

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to argue in favour of the embodied music cognition paradigm (hereafter: EMC), as opposed to traditional (computational) theories of musical mind. The thesis consists of three chapters. The goal of the first chapter is to (1) examine computational (disembodied) music cognition, focusing on the main problem of this approach (namely: the symbol–grounding problem). In the second chapter, (2) I will present and discuss Marc Leman’s EMC, that may serve as a response to the...

  19. Towards Cognitive Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Ahrendt, Peter; Larsen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive component analysis (COCA) is here defined as the process of unsupervised grouping of data such that the ensuing group structure is well-aligned with that resulting from human cognitive activity. We have earlier demonstrated that independent components analysis is relevant for representing...... semantics, not only in text, but also in dynamic text (chat), images, and combinations of text and images. Here we further expand on the relevance of the ICA model for representing context, including two new analyzes of abstract data: social networks and musical features....

  20. Cognitive residues of similarity

    OpenAIRE

    OToole, Stephanie; Keane, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    What are the cognitive after-effects of making a similarity judgement? What, cognitively, is left behind and what effect might these residues have on subsequent processing? In this paper, we probe for such after-effects using a visual search task, performed after a task in which pictures of real-world objects were compared. So, target objects were first presented in a comparison task (e.g., rate the similarity of this object to another) thus, presumably, modifying some of their features befor...

  1. The poverty of embodied cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldinger, Stephen D; Papesh, Megan H; Barnhart, Anthony S; Hansen, Whitney A; Hout, Michael C

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, there has been rapidly growing interest in embodied cognition, a multifaceted theoretical proposition that (1) cognitive processes are influenced by the body, (2) cognition exists in the service of action, (3) cognition is situated in the environment, and (4) cognition may occur without internal representations. Many proponents view embodied cognition as the next great paradigm shift for cognitive science. In this article, we critically examine the core ideas from embodied cognition, taking a "thought exercise" approach. We first note that the basic principles from embodiment theory are either unacceptably vague (e.g., the premise that perception is influenced by the body) or they offer nothing new (e.g., cognition evolved to optimize survival, emotions affect cognition, perception-action couplings are important). We next suggest that, for the vast majority of classic findings in cognitive science, embodied cognition offers no scientifically valuable insight. In most cases, the theory has no logical connections to the phenomena, other than some trivially true ideas. Beyond classic laboratory findings, embodiment theory is also unable to adequately address the basic experiences of cognitive life. PMID:27282990

  2. The influence of cognitive reserve on cognition in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Lara; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    There are considerable differences in cognition between individuals with Parkinson's Disease (PD) which might be explained by the theory of cognitive reserve. This theory states that premorbid factors, such as high intellectual capacities, provide a buffer against cognitive impairments. This study d

  3. A Study of the Relationship between Learning Styles and Cognitive Abilities in Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, E.; Baker, M.

    2015-01-01

    Learning preferences have been indirectly linked to student success in engineering programmes, without a significant body of research to connect learning preferences with cognitive abilities. A better understanding of the relationship between learning styles and cognitive abilities will allow educators to optimise the classroom experience for…

  4. Foreign Language Achievement in Relation to Student-Teacher Cognitive Styles: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jacqueline; Stansfield, Charles

    Research has shown student field-independent cognitive style (FI), as opposed to field-dependent cognitive style (FD), to be correlated moderately with success on selected second language tasks. A trait-treatment interaction approach was utilized in this study to examine the role of FD/I among 236 college students enrolled in six sections of an…

  5. Cognitive Functions in Elite and Sub-Elite Youth Soccer Players Aged 13 to 17 Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Leemhuis, Sander; Kok, Niels M.; Verburgh, Lot; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Soccer players are required to anticipate and react continuously in a changing, relatively unpredictable situation in the field. Cognitive functions might be important to be successful in soccer. The current study investigated the relationship between cognitive functions and performance level in eli

  6. Small(pox success?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Emanuelle Birn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The 30th anniversary of the World Health Organization's (WHO official certification of smallpox eradication was marked by a slew of events hailing the campaign's dramatic tale of technological and organizational triumph against an ancient scourge. Yet commemorations also serve as moments of critical reflection. This article questions the acclaim showered upon smallpox eradication as the single greatest public health success in history. It examines how and why smallpox eradication and WHO's concurrent social justice-oriented primary health care approach (following from the Declaration of Alma-Ata became competing paradigms. It synthesizes critiques of eradication's shortcomings and debunks some of the myths surrounding the global eradication campaign as a public health priority and necessity, and as a Cold War victory of cooperation. The article concludes with thoughts on integrating technical and social-political aspects of health within the context of welfare states as the means to achieving widespread and enduring global public health success.

  7. DEFINING SUCCESS IN PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rodrigues de Farias Filho

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Project Management Discipline has been widely used in the last years for companies around the world and these companies have been investing large amounts on surveys, training and consulting in order to get benefits for the organizations that need to create competitive advantage in the high competitive Market and to achieve their business strategy goals. Studies from the major world authors show many ways to define success at the organizations. In Brazil, the Benchmarking Study in GP from the PMI Chapters in 2009, show most studied companies don’t have a process do assess whether they are achieving the expected business goals with their investments in Project Management. This article goal is to demonstrate many ways to define success in project, which will facilitate the process to assess whether the companies are achieving these expected goals. The methodology used was a literature review, collecting publications, textbooks and documents from subject-matter-experts.

  8. Styles of success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, Jens Jørn; Nørgaard, Anders; Jakobsen, Søren

    1997-01-01

    Corporate success stories tend to emphasize the "great men" theory of history. But now a European research project established the managerial attributes that can turn an ordinary leader into one ideal for the pursuit of business excellence. The emergence of five leadership styles as crucial drivers...... of business excellence points to a clear agenda for success. Setting clear strategic goals and the ability to take a long-term view of an organization's direction, combined with other leadership attributes such as creativity, teambuilding and learning, are principal keys to creating an excellent...... organization. Leaders seeking to achive business excellence must view the high-level attainment of these sets of leadership competencies as their paramount objective. In striving for business excellence, European leaders may encounter resistance among their employees. Crucially, European employees place a...

  9. The neurobiology of emotion–cognition interactions: fundamental questions and strategies for future research

    OpenAIRE

    Hadas eOkon-Singer; Talma eHendler; Luiz ePessoa; Shackman, Alexander J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed the emergence of powerful new tools for assaying the brain and a remarkable acceleration of research focused on the interplay of emotion and cognition. This work has begun to yield new insights into fundamental questions about the nature of the mind and important clues about the origins of mental illness. In particular, this research demonstrates that stress, anxiety, and other kinds of emotion can profoundly influence key elements of cognition, including selective...

  10. A SUCCESSFUL ADVERTISING CAMPAIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela VÂLCEANU

    2011-01-01

    ”TO ADVERTISE OR NOT TO ADVERTISE?” is the question which continually confronts the business man. The importance of advertising has long been recognized by the more enlightened members of the business and industrial world. Strategies for a successful advertising business campaign are an important factor for every company and business. As many of you know advertising and promotion are all around us. Whether you watch television, listen to driving on the highway, flipping through a magazine or ...

  11. Parametric contest success functions

    OpenAIRE

    Birendra K. Rai1; Sarin, Rajiv

    2007-01-01

    The key element of models of contest is the Contest Success Function (CSF) which specifies the winning probabilities of agents. We provide an axiomatization of two parametric families of CSF’s. In the first, the winning probability of each agent depends on the investments and a vector of parameters, where each parameter is specific to one of the contestants. In the second, the winning probabilities depend on investments and a scalar parameter common to all contestants.

  12. Generalized contest success functions

    OpenAIRE

    Birendra K. Rai1; Sarin, Rajiv

    2007-01-01

    The key element of models of contest is the Contest Success Function (CSF) which specifies the winning probabilities of agents. The existing axiomatizations of CSFs assume that contestants can make only one type of investment. This paper generalizes these axiomatizations to the case where each agent can have multiple types of investments. This allows us to provide a unified framework to extend and interpret the results of Skaperdas (1996) and Clark and Riis (1998), and rationalize some seemin...

  13. Ecological Succession Model

    OpenAIRE

    Lanchier, Nicolas

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a new interacting particle system intended to model an example of ecological succession involving two species: the bracken and the european beech. The objective is to exhibit phase transitions by proving that there exist three possible evolutions of the system to distinct ecological balances. More precisely, the whole population may die out, the european beech may conquer the bracken, and coexistence of both species may occur.

  14. Profile of success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, Jens Jørn; Nørgaard, Anders; Jakobsen, Søren

    1998-01-01

    What management skills must Europe's business leaders improve to achieve business excellence? Which country's leaders are best placed for success? Does the next generation have what it takes to compete? In the second half of their study of the leadership styles that drive business excellence, Jens...... Dahlgaard, Anders Nørgaard and Søren Jakobsen describe an excellent leadership profile that provides the answers....

  15. Untangling Performance from Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucesoy, Burcu; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    Fame, popularity and celebrity status, frequently used tokens of success, are often loosely related to, or even divorced from professional performance. This dichotomy is partly rooted in the difficulty to distinguish performance, an individual measure that captures the actions of a performer, from success, a collective measure that captures a community's reactions to these actions. Yet, finding the relationship between the two measures is essential for all areas that aim to objectively reward excellence, from science to business. Here we quantify the relationship between performance and success by focusing on tennis, an individual sport where the two quantities can be independently measured. We show that a predictive model, relying only on a tennis player's performance in tournaments, can accurately predict an athlete's popularity, both during a player's active years and after retirement. Hence the model establishes a direct link between performance and momentary popularity. The agreement between the performance-driven and observed popularity suggests that in most areas of human achievement exceptional visibility may be rooted in detectable performance measures. This research was supported by Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) under agreement FA9550-15-1-0077.

  16. Cognitive Development and Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodiy, George Oleh

    1977-01-01

    Compares the cognitive levels of groups of high school biology students, freshman physics students, and senior science students by testing them with two Piagetian tasks. Examines correlations between cognitive levels and other measures such as SAT scores. (MLH)

  17. Plant Based Extracts and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-28

    Change in Cognitive Function and Fatigue During Extended Performance of the Cognitive Demand Battery (CDB) at 1, 3 and 6 Hours Post Consumption; Change in Long Term Declarative Memory at 1, 3 and 6 Hours Post-intervention.

  18. Cognitive performance in elderly women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togsverd, Mads; Werge, Thomas M; Tankó, Laszlo B;

    2007-01-01

    Genetic and environmental factors influence cognitive aging. The gene encoding dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) could be one such factor since this hydroxylase converts dopamine to norepinephrine both of which are involved in cognition regulation....

  19. Cognitive dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JoanaGuimarães

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In Multiple Sclerosis (MS prevalence studies of community and clinical samples, indicate that 45–60% of patients are cognitively impaired. These cognitive dysfunctions have been traditionally described as heterogeneous, but more recent studies suggest that there is a specific pattern of MS-related cognitive dysfunctions. With the advent of disease-modifying medications for MS and emphasis on early intervention and treatment, detection of cognitive impairment at its earliest stage becomes particularly important. In this review the authors address: the cognitive domains most commonly impaired in MS (memory, attention, executive functions, speed of information processing and visual spatial abilities; the physiopathological mechanism implied in MS cognitive dysfunction and correlated brain MRI features; the importance of neuropsychological assessment of MS patients in different stages of the disease and the influence of its course on cognitive performance; the most used tests and batteries for neuropsychological assessment; therapeutic strategies to improve cognitive abilities.

  20. Radiosotopic assay and binder therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid and less costly radioisotopic assay for measuring the concentration of folate in blood serum is described. This procedure utilizes 3H-pteroylmonoglutamate, unlabeled 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid, and a partially purified folate binder, such as for example a folate binder extracted from hog kidney. The procedure involves radioisotopically relating the bound amounts of a labeled folate and a known folate at various concentrations of the known folate in a system containing a predetermined amount of the labeled folate, a predetermined amount of the binder factor for the folates, and a predetermined amount of defolated test serum. 16 claims, 8 drawing figures

  1. Cognitive Radio RF: Overview and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Tam Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio system (CRS is a radio system which is aware of its operational and geographical environment, established policies, and its internal state. It is able to dynamically and autonomously adapt its operational parameters and protocols and to learn from its previous experience. Based on software-defined radio (SDR, CRS provides additional flexibility and offers improved efficiency to overall spectrum use. CRS is a disruptive technology targeting very high spectral efficiency. This paper presents an overview and challenges of CRS with focus on radio frequency (RF section. We summarize the status of the related regulation and standardization activities which are very important for the success of any emerging technology. We point out some key research challenges, especially implementation challenges of cognitive radio (CR. A particular focus is on RF front-end, transceiver, and analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog interfaces which are still a key bottleneck in CRS development.

  2. General Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Tu, Sheng-Yuan

    2009-01-01

    The successful operation of cognitive radio (CR) between CR transmitter and CR receiver (CR link) relies on reliable spectrum sensing. To network CRs requires spectrum sensing at CR transmitter and further information regarding the spectrum availability at CR receiver. Redefining the spectrum sensing along with statistical inference suitable for cognitive radio networks (CRN), we mathematically derive conditions to allow CR transmitter forwarding packets to CR receiver under guaranteed outage probability, and prove that the correlation of localized spectrum availability between a cooperative node and CR receiver determines effectiveness of the cooperative scheme. Applying our novel mathematical model to potential hidden terminals in CRN, we illustrate that the allowable transmission region of a CR, defined as neighborhood, is no longer circular shape even in a pure path loss channel model. This results in asymmetric CR links to make bidirectional links generally inappropriate in CRN, though this challenge can...

  3. Social Institutions as Tools in Normative Cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jeppe Sinding

    Social institutions are normative cognitive tools, the functions of which should be an important subject in cognitive anthropology......Social institutions are normative cognitive tools, the functions of which should be an important subject in cognitive anthropology...

  4. High Throughput SNP Genotyping with Two Mini-sequencing Assays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunqing LUO; Libin DENG; Changqing ZENG

    2004-01-01

    Two mini-sequencing methods,FP-TDI (template-directed dye-terminator incorporation with fluorescence-polarization) and MassArray (matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight detection mass spectrometry),were optimized.A numeric standard was introduced to evaluate the SNP scoring quality of FP-TDI assay,thus made the optimization work easier.At the same time,using multi-PCR technology,8-plex genotyping of MassArray assay was successfully carried out,some softwares were developed and the data process of MassArray was highly automated.Then these two methods were applied to high throughput SNP genotyping,the accuracy,efficiency and robustness were compared.The result shows FP-TDI is more sensitive to the concentration of SNPprimer and PCR product,as well as extension cycles,the SNPprimer length of FP-TDI should be 24-30 bp long,whereas MassArray assay prefers to be as short as only 16 bp.Altogether 6440 SNP sites of human chromosome 3 were genotyped in a sample of 90 individuals,4792 sites by FP-TDI assay and 1648 sites by MassArray assay,the success rates of FP-TDI and MassArray were 67.7% and 93.6% respectively.The throughput of MassArray was higher than FP-TDI,and the cost of MassArray was lower,MassArray was more suitable for high throughput SNP genotyping.

  5. Clinical assessment of social cognitive function in neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Julie D; von Hippel, William; Molenberghs, Pascal; Lee, Teresa; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2016-01-01

    Social cognition broadly refers to the processing of social information in the brain that underlies abilities such as the detection of others' emotions and responding appropriately to these emotions. Social cognitive skills are critical for successful communication and, consequently, mental health and wellbeing. Disturbances of social cognition are early and salient features of many neuropsychiatric, neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders, and often occur after acute brain injury. Its assessment in the clinic is, therefore, of paramount importance. Indeed, the most recent edition of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) introduced social cognition as one of six core components of neurocognitive function, alongside memory and executive control. Failures of social cognition most often present as poor theory of mind, reduced affective empathy, impaired social perception or abnormal social behaviour. Standard neuropsychological assessments lack the precision and sensitivity needed to adequately inform treatment of these failures. In this Review, we present appropriate methods of assessment for each of the four domains, using an example disorder to illustrate the value of these approaches. We discuss the clinical applications of testing for social cognitive function, and finally suggest a five-step algorithm for the evaluation and treatment of impairments, providing quantitative evidence to guide the selection of social cognitive measures in clinical practice. PMID:26670297

  6. Computerized cognitive training with older adults: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra M Kueider

    Full Text Available A systematic review to examine the efficacy of computer-based cognitive interventions for cognitively healthy older adults was conducted. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: average sample age of at least 55 years at time of training; participants did not have Alzheimer's disease or mild cognitive impairment; and the study measured cognitive outcomes as a result of training. Theoretical articles, review articles, and book chapters that did not include original data were excluded. We identified 151 studies published between 1984 and 2011, of which 38 met inclusion criteria and were further classified into three groups by the type of computerized program used: classic cognitive training tasks, neuropsychological software, and video games. Reported pre-post training effect sizes for intervention groups ranged from 0.06 to 6.32 for classic cognitive training interventions, 0.19 to 7.14 for neuropsychological software interventions, and 0.09 to 1.70 for video game interventions. Most studies reported older adults did not need to be technologically savvy in order to successfully complete or benefit from training. Overall, findings are comparable or better than those from reviews of more traditional, paper-and-pencil cognitive training approaches suggesting that computerized training is an effective, less labor intensive alternative.

  7. Computerized cognitive training with older adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueider, Alexandra M; Parisi, Jeanine M; Gross, Alden L; Rebok, George W

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review to examine the efficacy of computer-based cognitive interventions for cognitively healthy older adults was conducted. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: average sample age of at least 55 years at time of training; participants did not have Alzheimer's disease or mild cognitive impairment; and the study measured cognitive outcomes as a result of training. Theoretical articles, review articles, and book chapters that did not include original data were excluded. We identified 151 studies published between 1984 and 2011, of which 38 met inclusion criteria and were further classified into three groups by the type of computerized program used: classic cognitive training tasks, neuropsychological software, and video games. Reported pre-post training effect sizes for intervention groups ranged from 0.06 to 6.32 for classic cognitive training interventions, 0.19 to 7.14 for neuropsychological software interventions, and 0.09 to 1.70 for video game interventions. Most studies reported older adults did not need to be technologically savvy in order to successfully complete or benefit from training. Overall, findings are comparable or better than those from reviews of more traditional, paper-and-pencil cognitive training approaches suggesting that computerized training is an effective, less labor intensive alternative. PMID:22792378

  8. Cognitive science and mathematics education

    CERN Document Server

    Schoenfeld, Alan H

    2013-01-01

    This volume is a result of mathematicians, cognitive scientists, mathematics educators, and classroom teachers combining their efforts to help address issues of importance to classroom instruction in mathematics. In so doing, the contributors provide a general introduction to fundamental ideas in cognitive science, plus an overview of cognitive theory and its direct implications for mathematics education. A practical, no-nonsense attempt to bring recent research within reach for practicing teachers, this book also raises many issues for cognitive researchers to consider.

  9. Cognitive control: componential or emergent?

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    The past twenty-five years have witnessed an increasing awareness of the importance of cognitive control in the regulation of complex behavior. It now sits alongside attention, memory, language and thinking as a distinct domain within cognitive psychology. At the same time it permeates each of these sibling domains. This paper reviews recent work on cognitive control in an attempt to provide a context for the fundamental question addressed within this Topic: is cognitive control to be underst...

  10. Four applications of embodied cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Joshua; Benforado, Adam; Esrock, Ellen; Turner, Alasdair; Dalton, Ruth; Noorden, Leon van, LPAS; Leman, Marc

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the views of four sets of authors, each taking concepts of embodied cognition into problem spaces where the new paradigm can be applied. The first considers consequences of embodied cognition on the legal system. The second explores how embodied cognition can change how we interpret and interact with art and literature. The third examines how we move through archi- tectural spaces from an embodied cognition perspective. And the fourth addresses how music cogni- tion is i...

  11. COGNITIVE PROFILE OF TURNER SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, David; Kent, Jamie Scaletta; Kesler, Shelli

    2009-01-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is a relatively common neurogenetic disorder characterized by complete or partial monosomy-X in a phenotypic female. TS is associated with a cognitive profile that typically includes intact intellectual function and verbal abilities with relative weaknesses in visual–spatial, executive, and social cognitive domains. In this report, we review previous and current research related to the cognitive profile of TS. We also discuss how cognitive impairments in this syndrome may...

  12. THE HORIZONS OF COGNITIVE PEDAGOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Siemieniecka, Dorota; Siemieniecki, Bronisław

    2016-01-01

    The article addresses the problems of cognitive theory and research relevant to understanding the mechanisms of the learning process. It is meant to define the concept of cognitive pedagogy and emphasise the need for a new genetic/socio/cultural/media perspective, which in turn requires new research tools and increased attention to research results in the field of neuroscience. The authors define and characterise cognitive areas of cognitive pedagogy.  

  13. Emotional foundations of cognitive control

    OpenAIRE

    Inzlicht, Michael; Bartholow, Bruce D.; Hirsh, Jacob B.

    2015-01-01

    Often seen as the paragon of higher cognition, here we suggest that cognitive control is dependent on emotion. Rather than asking whether control is influenced by emotion, we ask whether control itself can be understood as an emotional process. Reviewing converging evidence from cybernetics, animal research, cognitive neuroscience, and social and personality psychology, we suggest that cognitive control is initiated when goal conflicts evoke phasic changes to emotional primitives that both fo...

  14. Cognitive Dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Joana eGuimarães; Maria José eSá

    2012-01-01

    In Multiple Sclerosis (MS) prevalence studies of community and clinical samples, indicate that 45–60% of patients are cognitively impaired. These cognitive dysfunctions have been traditionally described as heterogeneous, but more recent studies suggest that there is a specific pattern of MS-related cognitive dysfunctions. With the advent of disease-modifying medications for MS and emphasis on early intervention and treatment, detection of cognitive impairment at its earliest stage becomes par...

  15. Current Perspectives on Cognitive Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Bender, Andrea; Beller, Sieghard

    2016-01-01

    To what extent is cognition influenced by a person’s cultural background? This question has remained controversial in large fields of the cognitive sciences, including cognitive psychology, and is also underexplored in anthropology. In this perspective article, findings from a recent wave of cross-cultural studies will be outlined with respect to three aspects of cognition: perception and categorization, number representation and counting, and explanatory frameworks and beliefs. Identifying s...

  16. Current perspectives on cognitive diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea eBender; Sieghard eBeller

    2016-01-01

    To what extent is cognition influenced by a person’s cultural background? This question has remained controversial in large fields of the cognitive sciences, including cognitive psychology, and is also underexplored in anthropology. In this perspective article, findings from a recent wave of cross-cultural studies will be outlined with respect to three aspects of cognition: perception and categorization, number representation and counting, and explanatory frameworks and beliefs. Identifying s...

  17. Philosophical Insight and Modal Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Gerken, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    Modal rationalists uphold a strong constitutive relationship between a priori cognition and modal cognition. Since both a priori cognition and modal cognition have been taken to be characteristic of philosophical insights, I will critically assess an ambitious modal rationalism and an associated ambitious methodological rationalism. I begin by examining Kripkean cases of the necessary a posteriori in order to characterize the ambitious modal rationalism that will be the focus of my criticism....

  18. Cognitive performance in elderly women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togsverd, Mads; Werge, Thomas M; Tankó, Laszlo B;

    2007-01-01

    Genetic and environmental factors influence cognitive aging. The gene encoding dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) could be one such factor since this hydroxylase converts dopamine to norepinephrine both of which are involved in cognition regulation.......Genetic and environmental factors influence cognitive aging. The gene encoding dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) could be one such factor since this hydroxylase converts dopamine to norepinephrine both of which are involved in cognition regulation....

  19. Conservatism and Cognitive Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankov, Lazar

    2009-01-01

    Conservatism and cognitive ability are negatively correlated. The evidence is based on 1254 community college students and 1600 foreign students seeking entry to United States' universities. At the individual level of analysis, conservatism scores correlate negatively with SAT, Vocabulary, and Analogy test scores. At the national level of…

  20. Caffeine, fatigue, and cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorist, MM; Tops, M

    2003-01-01

    Effects of caffeine and fatigue are discussed with special attention to adenosine-dopamine interactions. Effects of caffeine on human cognition are diverse. Behavioural measurements indicate a general improvement in the efficiency of information processing after caffeine, while the EEG data support

  1. Mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Dragan M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is a syndrome that spans the area between normal ageing and dementia. It is classified into amnestic and non-amnestic types, both with two subtypes: single domain and multiple domains. Prevalence of MCI depends on criteria and population and can vary from 0.1 to 42% persons of older age. In contrast to dementia, cognitive deterioration is less severe and activities of daily living are preserved. Most impaired higher cognitive functions in MCI are memory, executive functions, language, visuospatial functions, attention etc. Also there are depression, apathy or psychomotor agitation, and signs of psychosis. Aetiology of MCI is multiple, mostly neurodegenerative, vascular, psychiatric, internistic, neurological, traumatic and iatrogenic. Persons with amnestic MCI are at a higher risk of converting to Alzheimer's disease, while those with a single non-memory domain are at risk of developing frontotemporal dementia. Some MCI patients also progress to other dementia types, vascular among others. In contrast, some patients have a stationary course, some improve, while others even normalize. Every suspicion of MCI warrants a detailed clinical exploration to discover underlying aetiology, laboratory analyses, neuroimaging methods and some cases require a detailed neuropsychological assessment. At the present time there is no efficacious therapy for cognitive decline in MCI or the one that could postpone conversion to dementia. The treatment of curable causes, application of preventive measures and risk factor control are reasonable measures in the absence of specific therapy.

  2. Sleep for cognitive enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Diekelmann

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is essential for effective cognitive functioning. Loosing even a few hours of sleep can have detrimental effects on a wide variety of cognitive processes such as attention, language, reasoning, decision making, learning and memory. While sleep is necessary to ensure normal healthy cognitive functioning, it can also enhance performance beyond the boundaries of the normal condition. This article discusses the enhancing potential of sleep, mainly focusing on the domain of learning and memory. Sleep is known to facilitate the consolidation of memories learned before sleep as well as the acquisition of new memories to be learned after sleep. According to a widely held model this beneficial effect of sleep relies on the neuronal reactivation of memories during sleep that is associated with sleep-specific brain oscillations (slow oscillations, spindles, ripples as well as a characteristic neurotransmitter milieu. Recent research indicates that memory processing during sleep can be boosted by (i cueing memory reactivation during sleep, (ii stimulating sleep-specific brain oscillations, and (iii targeting specific neurotransmitter systems pharmacologically. Olfactory and auditory cues can be used, for example, to increase reactivation of associated memories during post-learning sleep. Intensifying neocortical slow oscillations (the hallmark of slow wave sleep by electrical or auditory stimulation and modulating specific neurotransmitters such as noradrenaline and glutamate likewise facilitates memory processing during sleep. With this evidence in mind, this article concludes by discussing different methodological caveats and ethical issues that should be considered when thinking about using sleep for cognitive enhancement in everyday applications.

  3. Cognitive Endophenotypes of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Kristina; Loff, Ariana; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated cognitive deficits associated with dyslexia and familial risk of dyslexia (endophenotypes) by comparing children from families with and without a history of dyslexia. Eighty-eight school-aged children were assessed on measures of phonology, language and rapid automatized naming. A series of regression analyses with family…

  4. Towards cognitive image fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.; Nikolov, S.G.; Lewis, J.J.; Dixon, T.D.; Bull, D.R.; Canagarajah, C.N.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing availability and deployment of imaging sensors operating in multiple spectral bands has led to a large research effort in image fusion, resulting in a plethora of pixel-level image fusion algorithms. However, the cognitive aspects of multisensor image fusion have not received much att

  5. Towards cognitive image fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.; Nikolov, S.G.; Lewis, J.; Dixon, T.; Bull, D.; Canagarajah, N.

    2007-01-01

    The increasing availability and deployment of imaging sensors operating in multiple spectral bands has led to a large research effort in image fusion, resulting in a plethora of pixel-level image fusion algorithms. However, the cognitive aspects of multisensor image fusion have not received much att

  6. Religion and cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz, Armin W.

    2008-01-01

    This is an introductory article in a special issue of a bulletin for researchers and teachers in religion in the USA. The article sketches the main positions and recent trends in the cognitive science of religion, and it attempts to attract scholars of religion to this field. It also profiles...

  7. Polysemy in cognitive study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙强

    2008-01-01

    Polysemy is a common phenomenon in language, which is the trend f linguistic economic principles through human beings cognitive etaphor.This paper apples preposition both in Engtish and inese through image schema to interpret polyeemy to researchthe forming of this phenomenon

  8. Sex Differences in Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairweather, Hugh

    1976-01-01

    Sex differences in cognitive skills, grouped into motor, spatial and linguistic areas, are assessed in relation to current theories of cerebral lateralization. Few convincing sex differences exist, either overall, or in interactions with functional localization. Qualifying criteria include age, birth order, culture, sex of experimenter and sex…

  9. Evolution, learning and cognition

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Y C

    1989-01-01

    This review volume represents the first attempt to provide a comprehensive overview of this exciting and rapidly evolving development. The book comprises specially commissioned articles by leading researchers in the areas of neural networks and connectionist systems, classifier systems, adaptive network systems, genetic algorithm, cellular automata, artificial immune systems, evolutionary genetics, cognitive science, optical computing, combinatorial optimization, and cybernetics.

  10. COGNITION AND INTELLIGENT ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meo Colombo Carlotta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to study how it’s possible to enhance the cognitive enterprise model by the theory of autopoietic systems. I propose a model that considers the organization as a closed system in which all cognitive activity is necessary to develop coherent operations needed to adapt the firm to environmental perturbations. The central issue of the work consists in the presentation and description of the “chain thinking-action” as a cognitive basis that builds models from which derive the actions that characterize the transformation of a business enterprise in order to maintain the viability over time. A \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"winning\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\" entrepreneurial thinking is able to give a direction (objectives-strategy always aimed at improving the organization’s vital parameters. The role of entrepreneurship and management, therefore, is to create the conditions to encourage a continuous development of cognitive models in organizations, in order to maintain the conditions of survival and to lead the company in a situation of evolution and improvement.

  11. The chemistry behind antioxidant capacity assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dejian; Ou, Boxin; Prior, Ronald L

    2005-03-23

    This review summarizes the multifaceted aspects of antioxidants and the basic kinetic models of inhibited autoxidation and analyzes the chemical principles of antioxidant capacity assays. Depending upon the reactions involved, these assays can roughly be classified into two types: assays based on hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reactions and assays based on electron transfer (ET). The majority of HAT-based assays apply a competitive reaction scheme, in which antioxidant and substrate compete for thermally generated peroxyl radicals through the decomposition of azo compounds. These assays include inhibition of induced low-density lipoprotein autoxidation, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), total radical trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP), and crocin bleaching assays. ET-based assays measure the capacity of an antioxidant in the reduction of an oxidant, which changes color when reduced. The degree of color change is correlated with the sample's antioxidant concentrations. ET-based assays include the total phenols assay by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR), Trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), "total antioxidant potential" assay using a Cu(II) complex as an oxidant, and DPPH. In addition, other assays intended to measure a sample's scavenging capacity of biologically relevant oxidants such as singlet oxygen, superoxide anion, peroxynitrite, and hydroxyl radical are also summarized. On the basis of this analysis, it is suggested that the total phenols assay by FCR be used to quantify an antioxidant's reducing capacity and the ORAC assay to quantify peroxyl radical scavenging capacity. To comprehensively study different aspects of antioxidants, validated and specific assays are needed in addition to these two commonly accepted assays. PMID:15769103

  12. Indirect conductimetric assay of antibacterial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawai, J; Doi, R; Maekawa, Y; Yoshikawa, T; Kojima, H

    2002-11-01

    The applicability of indirect conductimetric assays for evaluation of antibacterial activity was examined. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) obtained by the indirect method was consistent with that by the direct conductimetric assay and the turbidity method. The indirect assay allows use of growth media, which cannot be used in the direct conductimetric assay, making it possible to evaluate the antibacterial activity of insoluble or slightly soluble materials with high turbidity, such as antibacterial ceramic powders. PMID:12407467

  13. Twelve Issues for Cognitive Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Donald A.

    Cognitive science is a science of intelligence, of knowledge and its uses. Research is psychological theory follows four major themes: Perception, Attention, Memory, and Performance. Only when the range of cognitive mechanisms and functions is known, can possible theoretical approaches characterizing human thought and cognition be distinguished.…

  14. Can Creativity Predict Cognitive Reserve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive reserve relies on the ability to effectively cope with aging and brain damage by using alternate processes to approach tasks when standard approaches are no longer available. In this study, the issue if creativity can predict cognitive reserve has been explored. Forty participants (mean age: 61 years) filled out: the Cognitive Reserve…

  15. Music cognition: Learning and processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Rohrmeier; P. Rebuschat; H. Honing; P. Loui; G. Wiggins; M.T. Pearce; D. Müllensiefen

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the study of music perception and cognition has witnessed an enormous growth of interest. Music cognition is an intrinsically interdisciplinary subject which combines insights and research methods from many of the cognitive sciences. This trend is clearly reflected, for example, in

  16. Connecting a cognitive architecture to robotic perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Unmesh; Lebiere, Christian; Stentz, Anthony; Hebert, Martial

    2012-06-01

    We present an integrated architecture in which perception and cognition interact and provide information to each other leading to improved performance in real-world situations. Our system integrates the Felzenswalb et. al. object-detection algorithm with the ACT-R cognitive architecture. The targeted task is to predict and classify pedestrian behavior in a checkpoint scenario, most specifically to discriminate between normal versus checkpoint-avoiding behavior. The Felzenswalb algorithm is a learning-based algorithm for detecting and localizing objects in images. ACT-R is a cognitive architecture that has been successfully used to model human cognition with a high degree of fidelity on tasks ranging from basic decision-making to the control of complex systems such as driving or air traffic control. The Felzenswalb algorithm detects pedestrians in the image and provides ACT-R a set of features based primarily on their locations. ACT-R uses its pattern-matching capabilities, specifically its partial-matching and blending mechanisms, to track objects across multiple images and classify their behavior based on the sequence of observed features. ACT-R also provides feedback to the Felzenswalb algorithm in the form of expected object locations that allow the algorithm to eliminate false-positives and improve its overall performance. This capability is an instance of the benefits pursued in developing a richer interaction between bottom-up perceptual processes and top-down goal-directed cognition. We trained the system on individual behaviors (only one person in the scene) and evaluated its performance across single and multiple behavior sets.

  17. COGNITIVE RESERVE IN DEMENTIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR COGNITIVE TRAINING

    OpenAIRE

    Sara eMondini; Ileana eMadella; Andrea eZangrossi; Angela eBigolin; Claudia eTomasi; Marta eMichieletto; Daniele eVillani; Giuseppina eDi Giovanni; DANIELA eMAPELLI

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive reserve (CR) is a potential mechanism to cope with brain damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cognitive reserve on a cognitive training (CT) in a group of patients with dementia. 86 participants with mild to moderate dementia were identified by their level of CR quantified by the Cognitive Reserve Index questionnaire (CRIq) and underwent a cycle of CT. A global measure of cognition (MMSE) was obtained before (T0) and after (T1) the training. Multiple linear re...

  18. Serum indices: managing assay interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Christopher-John L; Carter, Andrew C

    2016-09-01

    Clinical laboratories frequently encounter samples showing significant haemolysis, icterus or lipaemia. Technical advances, utilizing spectrophotometric measurements on automated chemistry analysers, allow rapid and accurate identification of such samples. However, accurate quantification of haemolysis, icterus and lipaemia interference is of limited value if laboratories do not set rational alert limits, based on sound interference testing experiments. Furthermore, in the context of increasing consolidation of laboratories and the formation of laboratory networks, there is an increasing requirement for harmonization of the handling of haemolysis, icterus and lipaemia-affected samples across different analytical platforms. Harmonization may be best achieved by considering both the analytical aspects of index measurement and the possible variations in the effects of haemolysis, icterus and lipaemia interferences on assays from different manufacturers. Initial verification studies, followed up with ongoing quality control testing, can help a laboratory ensure the accuracy of haemolysis, icterus and lipaemia index results, as well as assist in managing any biases in index results from analysers from different manufacturers. Similarities, and variations, in the effect of haemolysis, icterus and lipaemia interference in assays from different manufacturers can often be predicted from the mechanism of interference. Nevertheless, interference testing is required to confirm expected similarities or to quantify differences. It is important that laboratories are familiar with a number of interference testing protocols and the particular strengths and weaknesses of each. A rigorous approach to all aspects of haemolysis, icterus and lipaemia interference testing allows the analytical progress in index measurement to be translated into improved patient care. PMID:27147624

  19. SNO+ Scintillator Purification and Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the R and D on the scintillator purification and assay methods and technology for the SNO+ neutrino and double-beta decay experiment. The SNO+ experiment is a replacement of the SNO heavy water with liquid scintillator comprised of 2 g/L PPO in linear alkylbenzene (LAB). During filling the LAB will be transported underground by rail car and purified by multi-stage distillation and steam stripping at a flow rate of 19 LPM. While the detector is operational the scintillator can be recirculated at 150 LPM (full detector volume in 4 days) to provide repurification as necessary by either water extraction (for Ra, K, Bi) or by functional metal scavenger columns (for Pb, Ra, Bi, Ac, Th) followed by steam stripping to remove noble gases and oxygen (Rn, O2, Kr, Ar). The metal scavenger columns also provide a method for scintillator assay for ex-situ measurement of the U and Th chain radioactivity. We have developed ''natural'' radioactive spikes of Pb and Ra in LAB and use these for purification testing. Lastly, we present the planned operating modes and purification strategies and the plant specifications and design.

  20. Proteasome Assay in Cell Lysates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) mediates the majority of the proteolysis seen in the cytoplasm and nucleus of mammalian cells. As such it plays an important role in the regulation of a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes including tumorigenesis, inflammation and cell death (Ciechanover, 2005; Kisselev and Goldberg, 2001). A number of recent studies have shown that proteasome activity is decreased in a variety of neurological disorders including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and stroke as well as during normal aging (Chung et al., 2001; Ciechanover and Brundin, 2003; Betarbet et al., 2005). This decrease in proteasome activity is thought to play a critical role in the accumulation of abnormal and oxidized proteins. Protein clearance by the UPS involves two sequential reactions. The first is the tagging of protein lysine residues with ubiquitin (Ub) and the second is the subsequent degradation of the tagged proteins by the proteasome. We herein describe an assay for the second of these two reactions (Valera et al., 2013). This assay uses fluorogenic substrates for each of the three activities of the proteasome: chymotrypsin-like activity, trypsin-like activity and caspase-like activity. Cleavage of the fluorophore from the substrate by the proteasome results in fluorescence that can be detected with a fluorescent plate reader.

  1. SNO+ Scintillator Purification and Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, R.; Chen, M.; Chkvorets, O.; Hallman, D.; Vázquez-Jáuregui, E.

    2011-04-01

    We describe the R&D on the scintillator purification and assay methods and technology for the SNO+ neutrino and double-beta decay experiment. The SNO+ experiment is a replacement of the SNO heavy water with liquid scintillator comprised of 2 g/L PPO in linear alkylbenzene (LAB). During filling the LAB will be transported underground by rail car and purified by multi-stage distillation and steam stripping at a flow rate of 19 LPM. While the detector is operational the scintillator can be recirculated at 150 LPM (full detector volume in 4 days) to provide repurification as necessary by either water extraction (for Ra, K, Bi) or by functional metal scavenger columns (for Pb, Ra, Bi, Ac, Th) followed by steam stripping to remove noble gases and oxygen (Rn, O2, Kr, Ar). The metal scavenger columns also provide a method for scintillator assay for ex-situ measurement of the U and Th chain radioactivity. We have developed "natural" radioactive spikes of Pb and Ra in LAB and use these for purification testing. Lastly, we present the planned operating modes and purification strategies and the plant specifications and design.

  2. Go4Life: Success Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Go4Life Success Stories Past Issues / Spring 2012 Table of Contents ... it comes to exercise and fitness, there are success stories all around us. For more exercise success ...

  3. Developing optimism : a cognitive-behavioural intervention to reduce stress

    OpenAIRE

    Bryant, Danielle Louise

    2011-01-01

    Optimistic explanatory style refers to the way in which individual’s routinely attribute cause to the events in their lives (Ambramson et al., 1978) and can be successfully enhanced through the use of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) group-based workshops (Buchanan et al., 1999; Seligman et al., 2007). It has been successfully measured via the self-report Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ: Peterson et al., 1982) and has been associated with better performance and lower ...

  4. 21 CFR 864.7525 - Heparin assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Heparin assay. 864.7525 Section 864.7525 Food and... HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7525 Heparin assay. (a) Identification. A heparin assay is a device used to determine the level of the anticoagulant heparin in the...

  5. 21 CFR 864.7490 - Sulfhemoglobin assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfhemoglobin assay. 864.7490 Section 864.7490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... assay. (a) Identification. A sulfhemoglobin assay is a device consisting of the reagents,...

  6. 21 CFR 864.7250 - Erythropoietin assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Erythropoietin assay. 864.7250 Section 864.7250... assay. (a) Identification. A erythropoietin assay is a device that measures the concentration of erythropoietin (an enzyme that regulates the production of red blood cells) in serum or urine. This...

  7. 21 CFR 864.7425 - Carboxyhemoglobin assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carboxyhemoglobin assay. 864.7425 Section 864.7425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... assay. (a) Identification. A carboxyhemoglobin assay is a device used to determine the...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3210 - Endotoxin assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endotoxin assay. 866.3210 Section 866.3210 Food... DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3210 Endotoxin assay. (a) Identification. An endotoxin assay is a device that uses serological techniques in whole blood. The device...

  9. Multicentre comparison of a diagnostic assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waters, Patrick; Reindl, Markus; Saiz, Albert;

    2016-01-01

    ) assays in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). METHODS: Coded samples from patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) or NMOSD (101) and controls (92) were tested at 15 European diagnostic centres using 21 assays including live (n=3) or fixed cell-based assays (n=10), flow cytometry (n=4...

  10. THE EXPERIMENTAL PLAN OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF STUDENTS’ COGNITIVE ACTIVITY BY MEANS OF THE REFLECTIVE TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Gasanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the problem of the cognitive activity development is extremely topical, the author of the article represents the concrete experimental plan for the development of the students’ cognitive activity by means of the reflective technology. In the author's opinion, the reflection increases the cognitive activity, by virtue of giving the process of learning the subjectness and subjectivity features (the subjectness of the cognition reflects the individual's activity, while the subjectivity reflects the personal meaning of the content of the cognition and the cognitive process. The aim of the paper is studying the possibilities of the reflective technology in enhancing the students’ cognitive activity. The object of the study is the cognitive activity of the cognition subjects. The subject of the research is the reflexive educational technologies as a means of developing the cognition subjects’ cognitive activity. At an ascertaining stage the author diagnosed the cognitive activity peculiarities, expressed in the academic success indicators, the degree of the learning difficulty/easiness, the emotional attitude towards the learning (like/doesn’t like to learn, curiosity, the internality of achievements and students’ reflection in the experimental and the control groups. At a forming stage of the research the author approved the reflective technology of increasing the students’ cognitive activity in the experimental groups. At a control stage she performed the repeated diagnostics of the cognitive activity peculiarities, expressed in the academic success indicators and future teachers’ reflection in the experimental and control groups. As a result of the experiment, which lasted during 2 semesters the students’ reflexivity of thinking became significantly increased, their reflective skills were developed, and the need for self-cognition and development appeared. Their cognitive activity was substantially increased, expressed

  11. Development of a homogeneous binding assay for histamine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Kathy; Shih, Daw-Tsun

    2004-12-01

    Histamine is critically involved in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes through its actions at different receptors. Thus, histamine receptors have been actively pursued as therapeutic targets in the pharmaceutical industry for the treatment of a variety of diseases. There are currently four histamine receptors that have been cloned, all of which are G protein-coupled receptors. Studies from both academia and pharmaceutical companies have identified compounds that modulate the function of specific histamine receptors. These efforts led to the successful introduction of histamine H(1) and H(2) receptor antagonists for the treatment of allergy and excess gastric acid secretion, respectively. Histamine H(3) receptor ligands are currently under investigation for the treatment of obesity and neurological disorders. The recently identified histamine H(4) receptor is preferentially expressed in the immune tissues, suggesting a potential role in normal immune functions and possibly in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Even with the long history of histamine research and the important applications of histamine receptor ligands, assays to measure the affinity of compounds binding to histamine receptors are still routinely analyzed using a filtration assay, a very low-throughput assay involving washing and filtration steps. This article describes a simple, robust, and homogeneous binding assay based on the scintillation proximity assay (SPA) technology that provides results equivalent to those obtained using the more complex filtration assay. The SPA format is easily adapted to high-throughput screening because it is amenable to automation. In summary, this technique allows high-throughput screening of compounds against multiple histamine receptors and, thus, facilitates drug discovery efforts. PMID:15519569

  12. A Successful Social Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Under the concept of "one country, two systems," first put forward by late Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping to achieve China’s reunification, the main part of the country must continue under socialism while a capitalist system has been allowed to exist in certain areas, including Hong Kong and Macao. Ieong Wan Chong, Director of the Center of Studies of One Country, Two Systems at Macao Polytechnic Institute, shares his insights on how this policy has been successfully implemented in Macao over the last 10 years.

  13. SUCCESS OUTSIDE THE CITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Coming as a much-needed boon for the countryside,this year's No.1 Document,jointly released by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council,pledges a series of concrete measures to propel improvements in the rural economy and the livelihood of farmers.Nevertheless,rural prosperity in line with the success of urban areas will prove to be a challenge.The foundation of the agriculture sector remains fluid,and farmers lack a stable source of income and a reliable social safety net.

  14. Successful product realization strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeples, John; Boulton, William R.

    1995-02-01

    Product realization is the process of defining, designing, developing, and delivering products to the market. While the main thrust of this JTEC panel was to conduct a complete investigation of the state of Japanese low-cost electronic packaging technologies, it is very difficult to totally separate the development of technology and products from the product realization process. Japan's electronics firms adhere to a product realization strategy based on a strong customer focus, a consistent commitment to excellence in design, and a cost-effective approach to technology commercialization. The Japanese product-pull strategy has been a successful driver and influencing factor in every aspect of the product development cycle.

  15. Using Middle School Test Scores to Predict Success in Ninth Grade Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Lorrie D.

    2013-01-01

    Success in ninth grade is essential to a student's success throughout high school. Many high schools retain the traditional science course sequence of teaching biology first to ninth graders who may or may not be cognitively ready for today's biology content. A few school districts in Georgia are offering a flexible science course sequence in the…

  16. The Influence of Cognitive Abilities on Mathematical Problem Solving Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Abdulkadir

    2013-01-01

    Problem solving has been a core theme in education for several decades. Educators and policy makers agree on the importance of the role of problem solving skills for school and real life success. A primary purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of cognitive abilities on mathematical problem solving performance of students. The…

  17. Bilingualism and Cognition: Informing Research, Pedagogy, and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Eugene E.; Nanez, Jose E., Sr.

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, approximately 7% to 10% of children are raised in bilingual households. Despite inherent advantages to bilingualism, some bilingual children experience a significant lag in academic success relative to other groups. Bridging the fields of cognitive psychology and education, this volume presents research-based knowledge on…

  18. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheram-Fuller, Erin; MacMullen, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) represent a continuum of cognitive and social problems that vary considerably in both impact and presentation for each child affected. Although successful interventions have been developed that target specific skill deficits often exhibited by children with autism, many of those interventions are exclusively…

  19. Depression in acromegaly treated with escitalopram and cognitive therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Sousa Avinash

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Depression is one of the commonest disorders encountered in general hospital psychiatry. Acromegaly is a condition with excessive growth hormone secretion that may at times present with oversychopathology. We present the case of a 33-year-old lady with depression and acromegaly that successfully resolved after treatment with escitalopram and cognitive therapy.

  20. Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions and Stress Coping Strategies of Laate Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coban, Aysel Esen

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: Adolescence is a stage of major growth and development in terms of significant cognitive, behavioral, psychological, and physiological changes. For adolescents, these developmental changes could be accompanied by stressful situations. Adolescents need to cope with these stressors successfully, yet the developmental period of…

  1. Composition Instruction and Cognitive Performance: Results of a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugos, Jennifer; Jacobs, Edward

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a composition program, Composers in Public Schools (CiPS), on cognitive skills essential for academic success. The underlying hypothesis is that composition instruction will promote creative expression and increase performance on music-specific skills such as music reading, as well as foster…

  2. Team-Based Complex Problem Solving: A Collective Cognition Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Woei

    2013-01-01

    Today, much problem solving is performed by teams, rather than individuals. The complexity of these problems has exceeded the cognitive capacity of any individual and requires a team of members to solve them. The success of solving these complex problems not only relies on individual team members who possess different but complementary expertise,…

  3. The Success-Breeds-Success Phenomenon and Bibliometric Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tague, Jean

    1981-01-01

    Describes success-breeds-success phenomenon by single and multiple-urn models, and shows that these models lead to a negative binomial distribution for the total number of successes and to a Zipf-Mandelbrot law for the number of sources contributing a specified number of successes. Ten references are cited. (FM)

  4. Crosswords to computers: a critical review of popular approaches to cognitive enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jak, Amy J; Seelye, Adriana M; Jurick, Sarah M

    2013-03-01

    Cognitive enhancement strategies have gained recent popularity and have the potential to benefit clinical and non-clinical populations. As technology advances and the number of cognitively healthy adults seeking methods of improving or preserving cognitive functioning grows, the role of electronic (e.g., computer and video game based) cognitive training becomes more relevant and warrants greater scientific scrutiny. This paper serves as a critical review of empirical evaluations of publically available electronic cognitive training programs. Many studies have found that electronic training approaches result in significant improvements in trained cognitive tasks. Fewer studies have demonstrated improvements in untrained tasks within the trained cognitive domain, non-trained cognitive domains, or on measures of everyday function. Successful cognitive training programs will elicit effects that generalize to untrained, practical tasks for extended periods of time. Unfortunately, many studies of electronic cognitive training programs are hindered by methodological limitations such as lack of an adequate control group, long-term follow-up and ecologically valid outcome measures. Despite these limitations, evidence suggests that computerized cognitive training has the potential to positively impact one's sense of social connectivity and self-efficacy. PMID:23423553

  5. Establishment of Immunoradiometric Assay for Carcinoembryonic Antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Two anti-CEA monoclonal antibodies are used, one is coated on the microtiter plate, the other is labeled to make 125I-CEAMcAb. The one-step assay is established based on immunoradiometric assay(IRMA). The sensitivity of the assay is 0.5 μ g/L. The intra-assay CVs and the inter-assay CVs are lower than 10.0% and 15.0%, respectively. The analytical recoveries are ranged from 97.4% to 107.8%. The reference cut-out value of 35 normal serum is lower than

  6. Making transuranic assay measurements using modern controllers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes methodology and computer-controlled instrumentation developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory that accurately performs nondestructive assays of large containers bearing transuranic wastes and nonradioactive matrix materials. These assay systems can measure fissile isotopes with 1-mg sensitivity and spontaneous neutron-emitting isotopes at a 10-mg sensitivity. The assays are performed by neutron interrogation, detection, and counting in a custom assay chamber. An International Business Machines Personal Computer (IBM-PC) is used to control the CAMAC-based instrumentation system that acquires the assay data. 6 refs., 7 figs

  7. An Introduction to Cognitive Musicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haumann, Niels Trusbak

    2015-01-01

    This historical-scientific introduction to Cognitive Musicology introduces the 150 years of research and discoveries in the psychology of music that partly presuppose the more recent discipline of Cognitive Musicology. Atomistic, Gestalt, functionalist, testing, behaviorist, cognitive, and...... neuroscience approaches to the psychological mechanisms underlying music are presented. Thus, it is argued that Cognitive Musicology is partly based on firm historical traditions in the psychology of music. Also discussed is the way in which the combination of interdisciplinary methods from the humanities and...... the natural sciences, which is integrated in Cognitive Musicology, may minimize the limitations of the separate humanities-based or natural science methods....

  8. LEIR commissioning successfully completed

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    An important milestone has been passed in the preparation of the injector complex to supply ions to the LHC experiments. The LEIR lead-ion beam, seen on one of the control screens just before the PS injection region. The Low-Energy Ion Ring - LEIR for short - has passed its first tests with flying colours. On 12 May, the ring that will accumulate lead ions for the LHC was shut down after seven months of tests (see Bulletin 44/2005). 'The commissioning phase was a resounding success,' enthuses a satisfied Michel Chanel, head of the LEIR construction project. After several months of fine-tuning, the LEIR team has achieved its aim of producing the kind of beam required for first lead-ion collisions in the LHC in 2008. This involved creating bunches containing 230 million ions, in line with the specifications for those first beams. This success can be put down to the machine's outstanding design and components. 'It's a great achivement by all the teams involved in the machine's construction,' underlines Christian...

  9. Activity assay of membrane transport proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Xie

    2008-01-01

    Membrane transport proteins are integral membrane proteins and considered as potential drug targets. Activity assay of transport proteins is essential for developing drugs to target these proteins. Major issues related to activity assessment of transport proteins include availability of transporters,transport activity of transporters, and interactions between ligands and transporters. Researchers need to consider the physiological status of proteins (bound in lipid membranes or purified), availability and specificity of substrates, and the purpose of the activity assay (screening, identifying, or comparing substrates and inhibitors) before choosing appropriate assay strategies and techniques. Transport proteins bound in vesicular membranes can be assayed for transporting substrate across membranes by means of uptake assay or entrance counterflow assay. Alternatively, transport proteins can be assayed for interactions with ligands by using techniques such as isothermal titration calorimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, or surface plasmon resonance. Other methods and techniques such as fluorometry, scintillation proximity assay, electrophysiological assay, or stopped-flow assay could also be used for activity assay of transport proteins. In this paper the major strategies and techniques for activity assessment of membrane transport proteins are reviewed.

  10. Development of in vitro assay method with radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, S. M.; An, S. H.; Woo, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Lim, S. J.; Hong, S. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oh, O. D. [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    Radioimmunoassay (RIA) and related competitive protein-binding methods began a little over 20 years ago as a cumbersome research methodology in a few specialized laboratories. Endocrinology has been greatly enriched by the new knowledge that has come as a direct result of RIA methods. Establishment of the taxol RIA system will be expected to develop RIA for drug monitoring. Scintillation proximity assay was useful since any separation step is not required, it has the advantage of dealing with multiple samples. The increased sensitivity of the new assay in determining HCV RT([{sup 125}I]dUTP) suggests that it would be worth investigating whether the system can be applied to analysis. [{sup 125}I] lodotyramine with 98.5% radiochemical purity. Optimal background counts was certificated using varied radioactivity of radionuclides. Appropriate standard curve was obtained from SPA method successively, and the concentration of hCG from unknown serum was determined by standard curve. The result concentration of hCG from unknown serum was determined by synthesized successively and purified by HPLC system. Hybridoma reducing monoclonal anti thyroglobulin antibodies titer is measured by ELISA. These studies play an important role in development of in vitro assay with radionuclides.

  11. Development of in vitro assay method with radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunoassay (RIA) and related competitive protein-binding methods began a little over 20 years ago as a cumbersome research methodology in a few specialized laboratories. Endocrinology has been greatly enriched by the new knowledge that has come as a direct result of RIA methods. Establishment of the taxol RIA system will be expected to develop RIA for drug monitoring. Scintillation proximity assay was useful since any separation step is not required, it has the advantage of dealing with multiple samples. The increased sensitivity of the new assay in determining HCV RT([125I]dUTP) suggests that it would be worth investigating whether the system can be applied to analysis. [125I] lodotyramine with 98.5% radiochemical purity. Optimal background counts was certificated using varied radioactivity of radionuclides. Appropriate standard curve was obtained from SPA method successively, and the concentration of hCG from unknown serum was determined by standard curve. The result concentration of hCG from unknown serum was determined by synthesized successively and purified by HPLC system. Hybridoma reducing monoclonal anti thyroglobulin antibodies titer is measured by ELISA. These studies play an important role in development of in vitro assay with radionuclides

  12. Non destructive assay (NDA) techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the IAEA Safeguards System the basic verification method used is nuclear material accountancy, with containment and surveillance as important complementary measures. If nuclear material accountancy is to be effective, IAEA inspectors have to make independent measurements to verify declared material quantities. Most of the equipment available to the inspectors is designed to measure gamma rays and/or neutrons emitted by various nuclear materials. Equipment is also available to measure the gross weight of an item containing nuclear material. These types of measurement techniques are generally grouped under the title of nondestructive assay (NDA). The paper describes the NDA techniques and instruments used to verify the total amount of nuclear material held at a nuclear facility. (author)

  13. Neurodynamics of Cognition and Consciousness

    CERN Document Server

    Perlovsky, Leonid I

    2007-01-01

    This book addresses dynamical aspects of brain functions and cognition. Experimental evidence in humans and other mammalians indicates that complex neurodynamics is crucial for the emergence of higher-level cognition and consciousness. Dynamical neural systems with encoding in limit cycle and non-convergent attractors have gained increasing popularity in the past decade. The role of synchronization, desynchronization, and intermittent synchronization on cognition has been studied extensively by various authors, in particular by authors contributing to the present volume. This volume gives an overview of recent advances in this interdisciplinary field of cognitive and computer science related to dynamics of cognition, including experimental studies, dynamical modelling and interpretation of cognitive experiments, and theoretical approaches. The following topics are covered in this book: spatio-temporal dynamics of neural correlates of higher-level cognition; dynamical neural memories, including continuous and ...

  14. The cognitive-emotional amalgam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Luiz

    2015-01-01

    In the précis to The Cognitive-Emotional Brain, I summarize a framework for understanding the organization of cognition and emotion in the brain. Here, I address six major themes that emerged in the commentaries: (1) emotional perception and automaticity; (2) the status of cognition and emotion: together or separate? (3) evolutionary implications for the understanding of emotion and cognition; (4) the diverse forms of cognitive-emotional integration; (5) dual process theories; and (6) functional diversity of brain regions/networks and cognitive ontologies. The central argument is, again, that cognition and emotion are so highly interactive, and indeed integrated, that these two elements blend into a new amalgam. PMID:26815655

  15. Combining the in vivo comet and micronucleus assays: a practical approach to genotoxicity testing and data interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Vasquez, Marie Z.

    2009-01-01

    Despite regulatory directives requiring the reduction of animal use in safety testing, recent modifications to genotoxicity testing guidelines now propose the use of two in vivo genotoxicity assays as a follow-up to an in vitro positive (International Conference on Harmonization Consensus Draft Guidance S2[R1] released March, 2008). To address both goals, the in vivo comet and micronucleus (MN) assays can be successfully combined into one informative study. Combining these two assays with suc...

  16. Cognitive deterioration in adult epilepsy: Does accelerated cognitive ageing exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, L E M; Boon, P; Bergmans, J W M; Mess, W H; Besseling, R M H; de Louw, A; Tijhuis, A G; Zinger, S; Bernas, A; Klooster, D C W; Aldenkamp, A P

    2016-05-01

    A long-standing concern has been whether epilepsy contributes to cognitive decline or so-called 'epileptic dementia'. Although global cognitive decline is generally reported in the context of chronic refractory epilepsy, it is largely unknown what percentage of patients is at risk for decline. This review is focused on the identification of risk factors and characterization of aberrant cognitive trajectories in epilepsy. Evidence is found that the cognitive trajectory of patients with epilepsy over time differs from processes of cognitive ageing in healthy people, especially in adulthood-onset epilepsy. Cognitive deterioration in these patients seems to develop in a 'second hit model' and occurs when epilepsy hits on a brain that is already vulnerable or vice versa when comorbid problems develop in a person with epilepsy. Processes of ageing may be accelerated due to loss of brain plasticity and cognitive reserve capacity for which we coin the term 'accelerated cognitive ageing'. We believe that the concept of accelerated cognitive ageing can be helpful in providing a framework understanding global cognitive deterioration in epilepsy. PMID:26900650

  17. [Cognitive plasticity in Alzheimer's disease patients receiving cognitive stimulation programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamarrón Cassinello, Ma Dolores; Tárraga Mestre, Luis; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    2008-08-01

    The main purpose of this article is to examine whether cognitive plasticity increases after cognitive training in Alzheimer's disease patients. Twenty six patients participated in this study, all of them diagnosed with mild Alzheimer's disease, 17 of them received a cognitive training program during 6 months, and the other 9 were assigned to the control group. Participants were assigned to experimental or control conditions for clinical reasons. In order to assess cognitive plasticity, all patients were assessed before and after treatment with three subtests from the "Bateria de Evaluación de Potencial de Aprendizaje en Demencias" [Assessment Battery of Learning Potential in Dementia] (BEPAD). After treatment, Alzheimer's disease patients improved their performance in all the tasks assessing cognitive plasticity: viso-spatial memory, audio-verbal memory and verbal fluency. However, the cognitive plasticity scores of the patients in the control group decreased. In conclusion, this study showed that cognitive stimulation programs can improve cognitive functioning in mildly demented patients, and patients who do not receive any cognitive interventions may reduce their cognitive functioning. PMID:18674439

  18. Comet assay as a predictive assay for radiosensitivity of two human brain tumor cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micronucleus assay and comet assay were compared as a predictive assay for radiosensitivity of tumors. Two human brain tumor cell lines, Becker (derived from astrocytoma) and ONS76 (derived from medulloblastoma) were used. Colony methods as the gold standard showed ONS76 as radiosensitive and Becker as radioresistant cell lines. Micronucleus assay revealed no different radiosensitivity between them. With comet assay, Becker cells received irradiation showed less damage to the DNA and faster repair of the damage than ONS76 cells did. The results correlate with those from colony methods. Comet assay is simple and rapid method for clinical use and it has an advantage not to establish the primary culture. Moreover, the results of comet assay showed not only DNA damage but also repair from the damage. It is concluded that comet assay is a superior method than micronucleus assay and has a potent candidate for clinical predictive assay. (author)

  19. Cognitive Dysfunction in Fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Tulay Koca

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary symptom of fibromyalgia is widespread pain with muscle tenderness to light palpation. Howeover many patients report a wide range of symptoms including pain, dyscognition, sleep disturbances, fatigue and mood disorders (frequently depression. Such symptoms seem to be related to one another. Besides, a decrease in concentration and memory disorder has recognised as an independent symptom yet; added into literature under the terms and lsquo;dyscognition' and and lsquo;fibrofog'. Recently clinicians interested in investigations about dyscognition in fibromyalgia syndrome. Cognitive symptoms may be exacerbated by the presence of depression, anxiety, sleep dysorders, endocrine disregulations and pain; but the relationship is unclear. Additionally some of recent studies suggest that insulin resistance may represent a risk factor for memory impairment in these patients. There is lack of standardized tests, treatment methods and studies for understanding pathophysiologic pathways of cognitive problems (memory, concentration in fibromyalgia.

  20. External Measures of Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Cairo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is undoubtedly the most impressive, complex and intricate organ that has evolved over time. It is also probably the least understood, and for that reason, the one that is currently attracting the most attention. In fact, the number of comparative analyses that focus on the evolution of brain size in Homo sapiens and other species has increased dramatically in recent years. In neuroscience, no other issue has generated so much interest and been the topic of so many heated debates as the difference in brain size between socially defined population groups, both its connotations and implications. For over a century, external measures of cognition have been related to intelligence. However, it is still unclear whether these measures actually correspond to cognitive abilities. In summary, this paper must be reviewed with this premise in mind.

  1. Spatial cognition and navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretz, Anthony J.

    1989-01-01

    An experiment that provides data for the development of a cognitive model of pilot flight navigation is described. The experiment characterizes navigational awareness as the mental alignment of two frames of reference: (1) the ego centered reference frame that is established by the forward view out of the cockpit and (2) the world centered reference frame that is established by the aircraft's location on a map. The data support a model involving at least two components: (1) the perceptual encoding of the navigational landmarks and (2) the mental rotation of the map's world reference frame into alignment with the ego centered reference frame. The quantitative relationships of these two factors are provided as possible inputs for a computational model of spatial cognition during flight navigation.

  2. Vascular cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Vakhnina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Vascular pathology of the brain is the second most common cause of cognitive impairment after Alzheimer's disease. The article describes the modern concepts of etiology, pathogenetic mechanisms, clinical features and approaches to diagnosis and therapy of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI. Cerebrovascular accident, chronic cerebral circulatory insufficiency and their combination, sometimes in combination with a concomitant neurodegenerative process, are shown to be the major types of brain lesions leading to VCI. The clinical presentation of VCI is characterized by the neuropsychological status dominated by impairment of the executive frontal functions (planning, control, attention in combination with focal neurological symptoms. The diagnosis is based on comparing of the revealed neuropsychological and neurological features with neuroimaging data. Neurometabolic, acetylcholinergic, glutamatergic, and other vasoactive drugs and non-pharmacological methods are widely used to treat VCI. 

  3. Risk and cognition

    CERN Document Server

    Faucher, Colette

    2015-01-01

    This book presents recent research using cognitive science to apprehend risk situations and elaborate new organizations, new systems and new methodological tools in response. The book demonstrates the reasons, advantages and implications of the association of the concepts of cognition and risk. It is shown that this association has strong consequences on how to apprehend critical situations that emerge  within various activity domains, and how to elaborate responses to these critical situations.. The following topics are covered by the book: ·     Influence of the culture in risk management, ·     Influence of the risk communication in risk management, ·     User-centred design to improve risk situation management, ·     Designing new tools to assist risk situation management, ·     Risk prevention in industrial activities.

  4. Magic and cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Rodrigo Quian

    2016-05-23

    In recent years, neuroscientists have shown an increasing interest in magic. One reason for this is the parallels that can be drawn between concepts that have long been discussed in magic theory, particularly misdirection, and those that are routinely studied in cognitive neuroscience, such as attention and, as argued in this essay, different forms of memory. A second and perhaps more attractive justification for this growing interest is that magic tricks offer novel experimental approaches to cognitive neuroscience. In fact, magicians continuously demonstrate in very engaging ways one of the most basic principles of brain function - how the brain constructs a subjective reality using assumptions based on relatively little and ambiguous information. PMID:27218839

  5. Clonality - X Chromosome Inactivation Assay

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: Molecular Profiling Initiative, NCI This method was successful in our lab using prostate tissue and for our specific objectives. Investigators must be aware that they will need to tailor the following protocol for their own research objectives and tissue under study. Investigators can utilize X chromosome inactivation (methylation) to determine the clonality status of a tumor or premalignant lesion in females. The technique is based on a methylation-sensitive restriction enzym...

  6. Successfully reforming orthopaedic outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, Peter A; Adair, Lisa

    2012-05-01

    Since 2005, Barwon Health has successfully reformed its orthopaedic outpatient service to address the following issues: increasing number of referrals, inefficient referral management and triage, long waiting times for non-urgent appointments, high 'Did Not Attend' (DNA) rates and poor utilisation of conservative therapies before referral to surgeon. Numerous strategies have been implemented including: waiting list audits, triage guidelines, physiotherapy-led clinics, a DNA policy, an orthopaedic lead nurse role and a patient-focussed booking system. There has been a 66% reduction in the number of patients waiting for their first appointment; an 87% reduction in the waiting time from referral to first appointment; a 10% reduction in new patient DNAs; and more efficient referral management and communication processes. Patients are now seen in clinically appropriate time frames and offered earlier access to a wider range of conservative treatments. PMID:22624648

  7. LHC synchronization test successful

    CERN Multimedia

    The synchronization of the LHC's clockwise beam transfer system and the rest of CERN's accelerator chain was successfully achieved last weekend. Tests began on Friday 8 August when a single bunch of a few particles was taken down the transfer line from the SPS accelerator to the LHC. After a period of optimization, one bunch was kicked up from the transfer line into the LHC beam pipe and steered about 3 kilometres around the LHC itself on the first attempt. On Saturday, the test was repeated several times to optimize the transfer before the operations group handed the machine back for hardware commissioning to resume on Sunday. The anti-clockwise synchronization systems will be tested over the weekend of 22 August.Picture:http://lhc-injection-test.web.cern.ch/lhc-injection-test/

  8. SUCCESS OUTSIDE THE CITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Coming as a much-needed boon for the countryside, this year’s No.1 Document, jointly released by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council, pledges a series of concrete measures to propel improvements in the rural economy and the livelihood of farmers. Nevertheless, rural prosperity in line with the success of urban areas will prove to be a challenge. The foundation of the agriculture sector remains fluid, and farmers lack a stable source of income and a reliable social safety net. So how can China promote the sustained development of its agriculture sector and social improvements to the countryside? Experts and economists provide suggestions to achieving these goals.

  9. A metric for success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Gary P.

    1994-05-01

    The federal agencies are working with industry to ease adoption of the metric system. The goal is to help U.S. industry compete more successfully in the global marketplace, increase exports, and create new jobs. The strategy is to use federal procurement, financial assistance, and other business-related activities to encourage voluntary conversion. Based upon the positive experiences of firms and industries that have converted, federal agencies have concluded that metric use will yield long-term benefits that are beyond any one-time costs or inconveniences. It may be time for additional steps to move the Nation out of its dual-system comfort zone and continue to progress toward metrication. This report includes 'Metric Highlights in U.S. History'.

  10. Corporate capital budgeting: Success factors from a behavioral perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Schönbohm, Avo; Zahn, Anastasia

    2012-01-01

    Capital budgeting or investment decisions have an essential influence on companies’ performance. Instead of a rational choice, capital budgeting might be regarded as a process of reality construction. Research suggests that decision makers have only limited control over their own cognitive biases in this construction process. It is in this perspective that this paper intends to answer the following research question: What are behavioral determinants for a successful capital-budgeting decision...

  11. Cognitive Activity in Insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Omvik, Siri

    2002-01-01

    The study investigated the causal relationship between worry and insomnia. A 2 x 2 design (Worry x Induced sleeplessness) with repeated measures was employed. In all 96 female undergraduate students who scored high or low on a measure of worry (Penn State Worry Questionnaire) completed the study. The induced sleeplessness variable consisted of two levels defined by a double-blind distribution of 300 mg caffeine and placebo. The repeated measures were nocturnal cognitive activity, as measured ...

  12. Gratitude in cognitive psychotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia C. Moyano

    2015-01-01

    Gratitude is a cognitive-affective state caused by the recognition that one has received a benefit from an external agent, due to the good intentions of this agent. Despite the evidence that associate gratitude with subjective well being, psychological well being, physical health and copping with stressful events, it is not enough taken in consideration in an academic level and in its interaction with psychotherapy instruments as well. In this article, the central concepts and information pro...

  13. Managerial and Organizational Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Huff, Anne Sigismund

    2009-01-01

    This issue of International Studies of Management & Organization draws from pre - sentations at a March 2005 European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management (EISAM) European Workshop held in Munich and from a related call for papers. The workshop was the eleventh on the theme of Managerial and Organizational Cognition (MOC). Since 1993, each has brought together scholars from around the world. Given their location, however, the workshops have helped develop a ...

  14. Socio-cognitive Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Sharples, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Socio-cognitive engineering is a framework for the human-centred design of technology-based systems to enhance human knowledge working, decision making, collaboration and learning. Like user-centred design, it draws on the knowledge of potential users and involves them in the design process. But it extends beyond individual users to analyse the activity systems of people and their interaction with technology, including their social interactions, styles and strategies of working, and language ...

  15. Iron deficiency and cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Hulthén, Lena

    2003-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutritional disorder in the world. One of the most worrying consequences of iron deficiency in children is the alteration of behaviour and cognitive performance. In iron-deficient children, striking behavioural changes are observed, such as reduced attention span, reduced emotional responsiveness and low scores on tests of intelligence. Animal studies on nutritional iron deficiency show effects on learning ability that parallel the human studies. Despite ...

  16. Compositional Distributional Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Mehairi, Yaared; Coecke, Bob; Lewis, Martha

    2016-01-01

    We accommodate the Integrated Connectionist/Symbolic Architecture (ICS) of [32] within the categorical compositional semantics (CatCo) of [13], forming a model of categorical compositional cognition (CatCog). This resolves intrinsic problems with ICS such as the fact that representations inhabit an unbounded space and that sentences with differing tree structures cannot be directly compared. We do so in a way that makes the most of the grammatical structure available, in contrast to strategie...

  17. Revisiting cognitive rehearsal as an intervention against incivility and lateral violence in nursing: 10 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Martha; Clark, Cynthia M

    2014-12-01

    Ten years ago, Griffin wrote an article on the use of cognitive rehearsal as a shield for lateral violence. Since then, cognitive rehearsal has been used successfully in several studies as an evidence-based strategy to address uncivil and bullying behaviors in nursing. In the original study, 26 newly licensed nurses learned about lateral violence and used cognitive rehearsal techniques as an intervention for nurse-to-nurse incivility. The newly licensed nurses described using the rehearsed strategies as difficult, yet successful in reducing or eliminating incivility and lateral violence. This article updates the literature on cognitive rehearsal and reviews the use of cognitive rehearsal as an evidence-based strategy to address incivility and bullvina behaviors in nursing. PMID:25406637

  18. The effect of a cognitive treatment program for male and female juvenile offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlynn, Adrea Hahn; Hahn, Philip; Hagan, Michael P

    2013-09-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of a cognitive intervention treatment program for juvenile offenders, which is called the Juvenile Cognitive Intervention Program. The program was provided to incarcerated delinquents at three juvenile correctional facilities in Wisconsin. The results indicated that using the How I Think (HIT) Questionnaire as a measure of change, significant improvement in reducing cognitive distortions were found across age groups and gender, and included individuals who were unable to successfully complete the program the first time and then completed it successfully. The HIT is a measure of cognitive distortions that are associated with delinquent thinking patterns and behavior. Cognitive change is a major focus of treatment programs in juvenile corrections as there has been substantive research demonstrating a link to reduced delinquent and later criminal behavior. PMID:23123384

  19. Hypertension and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieri, Cristina; Bisbocci, Daniela; Caserta, Mimma; Rabbia, Franco; Bertello, Chiara; Canadè, Antonella; Veglio, Franco

    2008-11-01

    Arterial hypertension, cerebrovascular disease, and dementia are related pathologies. This paper has reviewed comparatively the incidence of arterial hypertension and adult-onset dementia disorders. Hypertension is associated with cerebrovascular disease, which is in turn associated with dementia. It is the most important modifiable risk factor for stroke, which is a recognized cause of vascular dementia. In terms of pathophysiology of hypertensive brain damage, several hypotheses were developed, such as that vascular alterations induced by hypertension can induce lacunar or cortical infarcts and leucoaraiosis, that hypertension is responsible for cerebrovascular disease and acts into the contest of a pre-existing subclinic Alzheimer's disease (AD), that hypertension determines neurobiologic alterations (such as beta-amyloid accumulation) resulting in neuropathologic damage, and that aging and cerebrovascular risk factors act together to cause cerebral capillary degeneration, mitochondrial disruption, reduced glucose oxidation, and reduced ATP synthesis. The consequence of these alterations are neuronal death and dementia. Macroscopic results of these mechanisms are the so-called white matter lesions (WML), the significance of which is analyzed. Increasing clinical evidence suggests a close relationship between the reduction of elevated blood pressure and countering of both vascular dementia and AD. Antihypertensive treatment probably influences cognitive performances and prevents cognitive function alterations and the development of dementia. It is therefore important to evaluate as soon as possible cognitive functions of hypertensive patients. PMID:19021021

  20. Toward cognitive robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, John E.

    2009-05-01

    Our long-term goal is to develop autonomous robotic systems that have the cognitive abilities of humans, including communication, coordination, adapting to novel situations, and learning through experience. Our approach rests on the recent integration of the Soar cognitive architecture with both virtual and physical robotic systems. Soar has been used to develop a wide variety of knowledge-rich agents for complex virtual environments, including distributed training environments and interactive computer games. For development and testing in robotic virtual environments, Soar interfaces to a variety of robotic simulators and a simple mobile robot. We have recently made significant extensions to Soar that add new memories and new non-symbolic reasoning to Soar's original symbolic processing, which should significantly improve Soar abilities for control of robots. These extensions include episodic memory, semantic memory, reinforcement learning, and mental imagery. Episodic memory and semantic memory support the learning and recalling of prior events and situations as well as facts about the world. Reinforcement learning provides the ability of the system to tune its procedural knowledge - knowledge about how to do things. Mental imagery supports the use of diagrammatic and visual representations that are critical to support spatial reasoning. We speculate on the future of unmanned systems and the need for cognitive robotics to support dynamic instruction and taskability.

  1. Overcome barriers to career success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raudsepp, E.

    1983-04-01

    A test is given to determine if an engineer suffers from one of the three barriers to technical success: fear of success, fear of failure, or perfectionism. As in most such tests, the middle way is best. Successful engineers know that perfection cannot be attained, that they don't have time to worry about failure or success, and that by aiming and perservering in doing things well, success can be achieved.

  2. Computed neutron coincidence counting applied to passive waste assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruggeman, M.; Baeten, P.; De Boeck, W.; Carchon, R. [Nuclear Research Centre, Mol (Belgium)

    1997-11-01

    Neutron coincidence counting applied for the passive assay of fissile material is generally realised with dedicated electronic circuits. This paper presents a software based neutron coincidence counting method with data acquisition via a commercial PC-based Time Interval Analyser (TIA). The TIA is used to measure and record all time intervals between successive pulses in the pulse train up to count-rates of 2 Mpulses/s. Software modules are then used to compute the coincidence count-rates and multiplicity related data. This computed neutron coincidence counting (CNCC) offers full access to all the time information contained in the pulse train. This paper will mainly concentrate on the application and advantages of CNCC for the non-destructive assay of waste. An advanced multiplicity selective Rossi-alpha method is presented and its implementation via CNCC demonstrated. 13 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Design and Implementation of High-Throughput Screening Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, David J; Hertzberg, Robert P; Macarrόn, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    HTS remains at the core of the drug discovery process, and so it is critical to design and implement HTS assays in a comprehensive fashion involving scientists from the disciplines of biology, chemistry, engineering, and informatics. This requires careful consideration of many options and variables, starting with the choice of screening strategy and ending with the discovery of lead compounds. At every step in this process, there are decisions to be made that can greatly impact the outcome of the HTS effort, to the point of making it a success or a failure. Although specific guidelines should be established to ensure that the screening assay reaches an acceptable level of quality, many choices require pragmatism and the ability to compromise opposing forces. PMID:27316985

  4. Computed neutron coincidence counting applied to passive waste assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron coincidence counting applied for the passive assay of fissile material is generally realised with dedicated electronic circuits. This paper presents a software based neutron coincidence counting method with data acquisition via a commercial PC-based Time Interval Analyser (TIA). The TIA is used to measure and record all time intervals between successive pulses in the pulse train up to count-rates of 2 Mpulses/s. Software modules are then used to compute the coincidence count-rates and multiplicity related data. This computed neutron coincidence counting (CNCC) offers full access to all the time information contained in the pulse train. This paper will mainly concentrate on the application and advantages of CNCC for the non-destructive assay of waste. An advanced multiplicity selective Rossi-alpha method is presented and its implementation via CNCC demonstrated. 13 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Peroxynitrite scavenging by different antioxidants. Part I: convenient assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balavoine, G G; Geletii, Y V

    1999-01-01

    A convenient "tube" assay to quantify relative antioxidant activities in aqueous solutions has been developed. Peroxynitrite was employed as a biologically relevant source of radicals with Pyrogallol Red as a detecting molecule. A variety of compounds have been examined, namely polyphenols, uric acid, glutathione, and ascorbic acid. Competition kinetics were observed for the majority of examined compounds, except thymol and ascorbic acid. Pyrogallol Red was fully protected by ascorbic acid against the bleaching by peroxynitrite until its total consumption. The deviation from competition kinetics in the case of thymol was due to the formation of radicals from thymol and their subsequent reaction with Pyrogallol Red. Quercetin was the most efficient scavenger of free radicals. The measurements of relative antioxidant activities using Pyrogallol Red and other detecting molecules, such as gallocyanine and carminic acid, were in fair agreement. The assay was successfully used for a screening of antioxidant activity of plant extracts of unknown composition. PMID:10355895

  6. Expert system for transuranic waste assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transuranic wastes are generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as a result of routine production of nuclear materials. These wastes contain Pu-238 and Pu-239 and are placed into lined 55-gallon waste drums. The drums are placed on monitored storage pads pending shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. A passive-active neutron (PAN) assay system is used to determine the mass of the radioactive material within the waste drums. Assay results are used to classify the wastes as either low-level or transuranic (TRU). During assays, the PAN assay system communicates with an IBM-AT computer. A Fortran computer program, called NEUT, controls and performs all data analyses. Unassisted, the NEUT program cannot adequately interpret assay results. To eliminate this limitation, an expert system shell was used to write a new algorithm, called the Transuranic Expert System (TRUX), to drive the NEUT program and add decision making capabilities for analysis of the assay results. The TRUX knowledge base was formulated by consulting with human experts in the field of neutron assay, by direct experimentation on the PAN assay system, and by observing operations on a daily basis. TRUX, with its improved ability to interpret assay results, has eliminated the need for close supervision by a human expert, allowing skilled technicians to operate the PAN assay system. 4 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  7. Enhancing efficiency and quality of statistical estimation of immunogenicity assay cut points through standardization and automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Cheng; Zhou, Lei; Hu, Zheng; Weng, Winnie; Subramani, Jayanthi; Tadkod, Vineet; Hamilton, Kortney; Bautista, Ami; Wu, Yu; Chirmule, Narendra; Zhong, Zhandong Don

    2015-10-01

    Biotherapeutics can elicit immune responses, which can alter the exposure, safety, and efficacy of the therapeutics. A well-designed and robust bioanalytical method is critical for the detection and characterization of relevant anti-drug antibody (ADA) and the success of an immunogenicity study. As a fundamental criterion in immunogenicity testing, assay cut points need to be statistically established with a risk-based approach to reduce subjectivity. This manuscript describes the development of a validated, web-based, multi-tier customized assay statistical tool (CAST) for assessing cut points of ADA assays. The tool provides an intuitive web interface that allows users to import experimental data generated from a standardized experimental design, select the assay factors, run the standardized analysis algorithms, and generate tables, figures, and listings (TFL). It allows bioanalytical scientists to perform complex statistical analysis at a click of the button to produce reliable assay parameters in support of immunogenicity studies. PMID:26130368

  8. Teaching successful intelligence to gifted and talented students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sternberg

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the theory of successful intelligence as a strategy to meet the educational needs of gifted and talented students. First, we present the theory of successful intelligence as an alternative that allows for an in-depth study of the cognitive complexity of high ability from a broader perspective of intelligence. Second, we analyze the roles of students and teachers in the learning-teaching process. Third, we indicate some learning strategies aimed at promoting the management of resources in the classroom related to the analytical, synthetic or creative and practical intelligence. Finally, some conclusions are drawn.

  9. Elements of cognitive rehabilitation after right hemisphere stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvanio, R; Levine, D; Petrone, P

    1993-02-01

    There are two basic approaches to cognitive training: (1) impairment training and (2) task specific training. Impairment training addresses impairments common to a number of tasks and attempts to offer a general benefit to all of the tasks at once. Task specific training focuses on the impairments that arise in a single task and attempts to improve performance on that task. Impairment training of spatial disorders following right hemisphere stroke has shown some success when curricula are properly designed. The success, however, is quite limited because of normal cognitive constraints and those occurring after brain damage. Task specific training in conjunction with the combined application of various cognitive principles appears more promising, but as yet, only a few studies exist. The neurologic factors are likely to be the same factors that influence recovery. The factors that influence trainability are lesion topography (size and location of the focus plus premorbid atrophy), lesion chronicity, and the presence of additional cognitive impairments (anosognosia, confusion, and abulia). Other interventions that may be beneficial, even for training resistant patients, include behavior modification, cognitive prostheses, and drugs. PMID:8441373

  10. COGNITIVE RESERVE IN DEMENTIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR COGNITIVE TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eMondini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive reserve (CR is a potential mechanism to cope with brain damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cognitive reserve on a cognitive training (CT in a group of patients with dementia. 86 participants with mild to moderate dementia were identified by their level of CR quantified by the Cognitive Reserve Index questionnaire (CRIq and underwent a cycle of CT. A global measure of cognition (MMSE was obtained before (T0 and after (T1 the training. Multiple linear regression analyses highlighted CR as a significant factor able to predict changes in cognitive performance after the CT. In particular, patients with lower CR benefited from a CT program more than those with high CR. These data show that CR can modulate the outcome of a CT program and that it should be considered as a predictive factor of neuropsychological rehabilitation training efficacy in people with dementia.

  11. Cognitive demands of lower paleolithic toolmaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Dietrich; Hecht, Erin; Khreisheh, Nada; Bradley, Bruce; Chaminade, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Stone tools provide some of the most abundant, continuous, and high resolution evidence of behavioral change over human evolution, but their implications for cognitive evolution have remained unclear. We investigated the neurophysiological demands of stone toolmaking by training modern subjects in known Paleolithic methods ("Oldowan", "Acheulean") and collecting structural and functional brain imaging data as they made technical judgments (outcome prediction, strategic appropriateness) about planned actions on partially completed tools. Results show that this task affected neural activity and functional connectivity in dorsal prefrontal cortex, that effect magnitude correlated with the frequency of correct strategic judgments, and that the frequency of correct strategic judgments was predictive of success in Acheulean, but not Oldowan, toolmaking. This corroborates hypothesized cognitive control demands of Acheulean toolmaking, specifically including information monitoring and manipulation functions attributed to the "central executive" of working memory. More broadly, it develops empirical methods for assessing the differential cognitive demands of Paleolithic technologies, and expands the scope of evolutionary hypotheses that can be tested using the available archaeological record. PMID:25875283

  12. Microgravity effects on standardized cognitive performance measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiflett, Samuel G.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment, selected to fly on the International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2) Spacelab mission, is to determine the effects of microgravity upon the cognitive skills which are critical to successful performance of many tasks on board the Space Shuttle. Six tests from the Unified Tri-service Cognitive Performance Assessment Battery (UTC-PAB) will be administered to the Mission Specialists to fulfill the goals of this experiment. These tests are based upon current theoretical models of human performance and the hypothesized effects of microgravity. The principle objective is the identification of the effects of microgravity upon specific information processing skills affecting performance from those of fatigue and shifts in work/rest cycles. Multiple measures of both short and long term fatigue will be obtained and used as a major independent variable for the analysis of these performance data. Scientific supporting studies will determine optimum practice and performance testing schedules for the astronauts. The same tests will be used post-flight to collect data on the recovery of any cognitive performance impairment compared with pre-flight, baseline levels.

  13. Cognitive impairments may mimic delusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eterović, Marija; Kozarić-Kovačić, Dragica

    2015-12-01

    Delusions are often recognized as key to the concept of psychosis. What is delusion is one of the basic questions of psychopathology. The common denominator of definitions of delusions is the divergence between the strong conviction in the delusional belief and superior evidences to the contrary which are continually ignored. An implicit, sustainably unspoken assumption is that the person with delusional belief has cognitive capacities to process the (counter-)arguments relevant to their delusion. However, individual's cognitive capacities are not being emphasized when delusions are evaluated. Moreover, the impact of cognitive decline on formation of delusions is neglected, both in theory and practice. We elaborate that cognitive deficits may facilitate, oppose, or mimic delusions. We focus on the last, which can lead to diagnosing as delusion what could be explained by cognitive decline and better called pseudo-delusion. The risk is significant when cognition is impaired, as in demented people; an issue which has not yet been debated. True delusions are incompatible with person's cognitive capacities, i.e., if we take into account person's cognitive status, we still cannot understand how the person holds the strange belief with an extraordinary conviction. Pseudo-delusions would be beliefs, thoughts or judgments that at first seem delusional (they are false, subculturally atypical beliefs that are strongly maintained in the face of counterargument), but lose the essence of delusions after we take cognitive impairment into account. Pseudo-delusions could actually be explained or understood by person's cognitive impairments, they "fit into" them. The reported reality-based contents of delusions in the elderly, poor response to antipsychotics and lack of association with early or family history of psychiatric disorders could in part be accounted for by the bias of misdiagnosing the cognitive impairment as the delusion. Not recognizing that the cognitive impairment

  14. Drugs, games, and devices for enhancing cognition: implications for work and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brühl, Annette B; Sahakian, Barbara J

    2016-04-01

    As work environments change, the demands on working people change. Cognitive abilities in particular are becoming progressively more important for work performance and successful competition in a global environment. However, work-related stress, performance over long hours, lack of sleep, shift work, and jet lag affect cognitive functions. Therefore, an increasing number of healthy people are reported to use cognitive-enhancing drugs, as well as other interventions, such as noninvasive brain stimulation, to maintain or improve work performance. This review summarizes research on pharmacological and technical methods as well as cognitive training, including game apps for the brain, in healthy people. In neuropsychiatric disorders, impairments in cognitive functions can drastically reduce the chances of returning to work; therefore, this review also summarizes findings from pharmacological and cognitive-training studies in neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:27043232

  15. Cognitive Processes in ADHD and Asperger's Disorder: Overlaps and Differences in PASS Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddei, Stefano; Contena, Bastianina

    2013-11-01

    Objective: Many studies report on the usefulness of the evaluation of Executive Functions (EF) in the assessment of participants with ADHD, while others underline how deficits of EF in these participants are not consistent and that the same executive deficits are present in many other disorders, particularly in Asperger's disorder. Using the Planning Attention Simultaneous Successive (PASS) theory, the present study explores the cognitive profiles of participants with ADHD or Asperger's disorder and compares the cognitive functioning of these two diagnostic groups. Method: Forty-four children, 24 with a diagnosis of ADHD and 20 with a diagnosis of Asperger's disorder, participated and their cognitive processes were evaluated with the Cognitive Assessment System. Results: Results underline specific cognitive profiles in ADHD and Asperger's disorder characterized by weaknesses in planning and attention, but with a diverse level of severity. Conclusion: Implications of the different cognitive profiles of these diagnostic groups are discussed. (J. of Att. Dis. 2013; XX(X) 1-XX). PMID:24196344

  16. Interplay of Cognitive Efficiency, Cognitive Ability and Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Bruna Piks

    2014-01-01

    The current body of research often focuses on the problem of cognitive decline through ageing. People adapt to these changes of cognitive resources by using brain reserve. An overview of results of different studies on how cognitive abilities of older adults decline highlights high variability of conclusions and sometimes contradiction but it has been shown older adults can be as good as or even better than younger participants in specific domains. Among others, personal meaningfulness of a s...

  17. Detection of hypoxia in human brain tumor xenografts using a modified comet assay

    OpenAIRE

    Jingli Wang; Jack Klem; Wyrick, Jan B; Tomoko Ozawa; Erin Cunningham; Jay Golinveaux; Allen, Max J; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Dennis F. Deen

    2003-01-01

    We used the standard comet assay successfully to generate in vitro dose-response curves under oxic and hypoxic conditions. We then made mixtures of cells that had been irradiated with 3 and 9 Gy of X-rays to simulate two subpopulations in a tumor, but efforts to accurately detect and quantify the subpopulations using the standard comet assay were unsuccessful. Therefore, we investigated a modified comet assay to determine whether it could be used for measuring hypoxia in our model systems. U2...

  18. The Ryder Cognitive Aid Checklist for Trauma Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Vicente; Dudaryk, Roman; Nedeff, Nicholas; Tobin, Joshua M; Varon, Albert J

    2016-05-01

    Despite mixed results regarding the clinical utility of checklists, the anesthesia community is increasingly interested in advancing research around this important topic. Although several checklists have been developed to address routine perioperative care, few checklists in the anesthesia literature specifically target the management of trauma patients. We adapted a recently published "trauma and emergency checklist" for the initial phase of resuscitation and anesthesia of critically ill trauma patients into an applicable perioperative cognitive aid in the form of a pictogram that can be downloaded by the medical community. The Ryder Cognitive Aid Checklist for Trauma Anesthesia is a letter-sized, full-color document consisting of 2 pages and 5 sections. This cognitive aid describes the essential steps to be performed: before patient arrival to the hospital, on patient arrival to the hospital, during the initial assessment and management, during the resuscitation phase, and for postoperative care. A brief online survey is also presented to obtain feedback for improvement of this tool. The variability in utility of cognitive aids may be because of the specific clinical task being performed, the skill level of the individuals using the cognitive aid, overall quality of the cognitive aid, or organizational challenges. Once optimized, future research should be focused at ensuring successful implementation and customization of this tool. PMID:27101496

  19. Emotions, cognitive interference, and concentration disruption in youth sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Paul J; Allen, Mark S; Jones, Marc V

    2013-01-01

    We explored the relationship between emotions, cognitive interference, concentration disruption and performance in youth sport. In study 1, 150 youth sport athletes (Mage = 13.13 years, s = 1.79) completed measures of emotion, cognitive interference, and concentration disruption for their most recently completed competition. In Study 2, 46 female rhythmic gymnasts (Mage = 10.30 years, s = 1.74) completed measures of emotion immediately before competition, and measures of cognitive interference and concentration disruption immediately after competition. Study 1 showed that anxiety and dejection were associated with more interfering thoughts and greater disruptions in concentration, whereas the effects of anger and happiness on interfering thoughts differed relative to the age of participants. Specifically, anger was associated with more interfering thoughts only in younger athletes and happiness was associated with fewer interfering thoughts only in older athletes. Study 2 showed that emotions experienced before competition were not strongly associated with cognitive interference or concentration disruption, but athletes reporting more thoughts of escape in competition were less successful in the competition as measured by objective performance scores. These findings demonstrate that emotions are important for cognitive interference and concentration disruption, and provide some initial evidence that cognitive interference is important for performance in youth sport. PMID:23113574

  20. Cognitive reserve in the healthy elderly: cognitive and psychological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Zihl

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive reserve (CR helps explain the mismatch between expected cognitive decline and observed maintenance of cognitive functioning in older age. Factors such as education, literacy, lifestyle, and social networking are usually considered to be proxies of CR and its variability between individuals. A more direct approach to examine CR is through the assessment of capacity to gain from practice in a standardized challenging cognitive task that demands activation of cognitive resources. In this study, we applied a testing-the-limits paradigm to a group of 136 healthy elderly subjects (60–75 years and additionally examined the possible contribution of complex mental activities and quality of sleep to cognitive performance gain. We found a significant but variable gain and identified verbal memory, cognitive flexibility, and problem-solving as significant factors. This outcome is in line with our earlier study on CR in healthy mental aging. Interestingly and contrary to expectations, our analysis revealed that complex mental activities and sleep quality do not significantly influence CR. Contrasting “high” and “low” cognitive performers revealed significant differences in verbal memory and cognitive flexibility; again, complex mental activities and sleep quality did not contribute to this measure of CR. In conclusion, the results of this study support and extend previous findings on CR in older age; further, they underline the need for improvements in existing protocols for assessing CR in a dynamic manner.

  1. Success requires seizing opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melum, M M

    1987-01-01

    The well-trained group of professionals had worked hard at the business they knew well. Their efforts had paid off--they were highly respected for their quality; their business grew; they had a close, trusting relationship with their customers; and they had the satisfaction of running their business as they alone knew to be best. As they looked ahead, they saw the personal security of a bright, safe future, of more of the same success. Then, slowly at first but building steadily to a feverish pace, their business and their lives were uprooted and torn apart in an all-encompassing economic and social earthquake. Now, with a force the professionals could hardly believe, let alone keep track of, the very definition of their business was changing, the trusting relationship with customers began to break down as massive numbers of new and different competitors vied for their business, many new players began to control how they ran their business, and security vanished into a confusion of competition, entrepreneurship, and risk. PMID:10312039

  2. Success and adaptation

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Yesterday morning, the last colliding proton beams of 2013 were extracted from the LHC, heralding the start of the machine’s first long shutdown (LS1) and crowning its first three glorious years of running. I hardly need to tell the CERN community what a fabulous performance all the people running the machine, the experiments, the computing and all supporting infrastructures put in. Those people are you, and you all know very well what a great job everyone did.   Nevertheless, I would like to express my thanks to all the people who made this first LHC run such a success. Re-measuring the whole Standard Model in such a short period, and then completing it with the discovery of what looks increasingly like the Higgs boson, is no mean feat. What I’d like to focus on today is another aspect of our field: its remarkable ability to adapt. When I started out in research, experiments involved a handful of people and lasted a few years at most. The timescale for the development of ...

  3. An ultrafiltration assay for lysyl oxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shackleton, D.R.; Hulmes, D.J. (Univ. of Edinburgh Medical School (England))

    1990-03-01

    A modification of the original microdistillation assay for lysyl oxidase is described in which Amicon C-10 microconcentrators are used to separate, by ultrafiltration, the 3H-labeled products released from a (4,5-3H)-lysine-labeled elastin substrate. Enzyme activity is determined by scintillation counting of the ultrafiltrate, after subtraction of radioactivity released in the presence of beta-aminopropionitrile, a specific inhibitor of the enzyme. Conditions are described which optimize both the sensitivity and the efficient use of substrate. The assay shows linear inhibition of activity in up to 1 M urea; hence, as the enzyme is normally diluted in the assay, samples in 6 M urea can be assayed directly, without prior dialysis, and corrected for partial inhibition. Comparable results are obtained when enzyme activity is assayed by ultrafiltration or microdistillation. The assay is simple and convenient and, by using disposable containers throughout, it eliminates the need for time-consuming decontamination of radioactive glassware.

  4. Assay development status report for total cyanide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, B.C. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Jones, T.E.; Pool, K.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-02-01

    A validated cyanide assay that is applicable to a variety of tank waste matrices is necessary to resolve certain waste tank safety issues and for purposes of overall waste characterization. The target for this effort is an assay with an applicable range of greater than 1,000 ppM (0.10 wt%) total cyanide and a confidence level greater than 80%. Figure 1 illustrates the operating regime of the proposed cyanide assay method. The Assay Development Status Report for Total Cyanide will summarize the past experience with cyanide analyses on-tank waste matrices and will rate the status of the analytical methods used to assay total cyanide (CN{sup {minus}} ion) in the tank waste matrices as acceptable or unacceptable. This paper will also briefly describe the current efforts for improving analytical resolution of the assays and the attempts at speciation.

  5. An ultrafiltration assay for lysyl oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modification of the original microdistillation assay for lysyl oxidase is described in which Amicon C-10 microconcentrators are used to separate, by ultrafiltration, the 3H-labeled products released from a [4,5-3H]-lysine-labeled elastin substrate. Enzyme activity is determined by scintillation counting of the ultrafiltrate, after subtraction of radioactivity released in the presence of beta-aminopropionitrile, a specific inhibitor of the enzyme. Conditions are described which optimize both the sensitivity and the efficient use of substrate. The assay shows linear inhibition of activity in up to 1 M urea; hence, as the enzyme is normally diluted in the assay, samples in 6 M urea can be assayed directly, without prior dialysis, and corrected for partial inhibition. Comparable results are obtained when enzyme activity is assayed by ultrafiltration or microdistillation. The assay is simple and convenient and, by using disposable containers throughout, it eliminates the need for time-consuming decontamination of radioactive glassware

  6. Thyroglobulin measurement by highly sensitive assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giovanella, Luca; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Verburg, Frederik A;

    2015-01-01

    thyroglobulin (Tg), circulating Tg serves as a biochemical marker of persistent or recurrent disease in the follow-up of DTC. Due to the suboptimal clinical detection rate of older Tg assays endogenous or exogenous thyrotropin (TSH) stimulations are recommended for unmasking occult disease. However, the...... development of new Tg assays with improved analytical sensitivity and precision at low concentrations now allows detection of very low Tg concentrations, reflecting minimal amounts of thyroid tissue, even without the need for TSH stimulation. Even if the use of these assays still has not found its way in...... current clinical guidelines, such assays are now increasingly used in clinical practice. As serum Tg measurement is a technically challenging assay and criteria to define a 'highly sensitive' assay may be different, a good knowledge of the technical difficulties and interpretation criteria is of paramount...

  7. Automated amperometric plutonium assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amperometric titration for plutonium assay has been used in the nuclear industry for over twenty years and has been in routine use at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory since 1976 for the analysis of plutonium oxide and mixed oxide fuel material for the Fast Flux Test Facility. It has proven itself to be an accurate and reliable method. The method may be used as a direct end point titration or an excess of titrant may be added and a back titration performed to aid in determination of the end point. Due to the slowness of the PuVI-FeII reaction it is difficult to recognize when the end point is being approached and is very time consuming if the current is allowed to decay to the residual value after each titrant addition. For this reason the back titration in which the rapid FeII-CrVI reaction occurs is used by most laboratories. The back titration is performed by the addition of excess ferrous solution followed by two measured aliquots of standard dichromate with measurement of cell current after each addition

  8. Matrix effects of TRU [transuranic] assays using the SWEPP PAN assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Drum Assay System (DAS) at the Stored Waste Experimental Pilot Plant (SWEPP) is a second-generation active-passive neutron assay system. It has been used to assay over 5000 208-liter drums of transuranic waste from the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Data from these assays have been examined and compared with the assays performed at Rocky Flats, mainly utilize counting of 239Pu gamma rays. For the most part the passive assays are in very good agreement with the Rocky Flats assays. The active assays are strongly correlated with the results of the other two methods, but require matrix-dependent correction factors beyond those provided by the system itself. A set of matrix-dependent correction factors has been developed from the study of the assay results. 3 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Field experiments of success-breeds-success dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    van de Rijt, Arnout; Kang, Soong Moon; Restivo, Michael; Patil, Akshay

    2014-01-01

    Social scientists have long debated why similar individuals often experience drastically different degrees of success. Some scholars have suggested such inequality merely reflects hard-to-observe personal differences in ability. Others have proposed that one fortunate success may trigger another, thus producing arbitrary differentiation. We conducted randomized experiments through intervention in live social systems to test for success-breeds-success dynamics. Results show that different kind...

  10. Is a Responsive Default Mode Network Required for Successful Working Memory Task Performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Čeko, Marta; Gracely, John L.; Fitzcharles, Mary-Ann; Seminowicz, David A.; Schweinhardt, Petra; Bushnell, M. Catherine

    2015-01-01

    In studies of cognitive processing using tasks with externally directed attention, regions showing increased (external-task-positive) and decreased or “negative” [default-mode network (DMN)] fMRI responses during task performance are dynamically responsive to increasing task difficulty. Responsiveness (modulation of fMRI signal by increasing load) has been linked directly to successful cognitive task performance in external-task-positive regions but not in DMN regions. To investigate whether ...

  11. Immunofluorescence Assay for Serologic Diagnosis of SARS

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Paul K. S.; Ng, King-Cheung; Chan, Rickjason C. W.; Lam, Rebecca K. Y.; Chow, Viola C. Y.; Hui, Mamie; Wu, Alan; Lee, Nelson; Yap, Florence H.Y.; Cheng, Frankie W.T.; Joseph J. Y. Sung; Tam, John S

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated a virus-infected cell-based indirect immunofluorescence assay for detecting anti–severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibody. All confirmed SARS cases demonstrated seroconversion or fourfold rise in IgG antibody titer; no control was positive. Sensitivity and specificity of this assay were both 100%. Immunofluorescence assay can ascertain the status of SARS-CoV infection.

  12. Trypan blue exclusion assay by flow cytometry

    OpenAIRE

    Avelar-Freitas, B.A.; V.G. Almeida; Pinto, M.C.X.; F.A.G. Mourão; A.R. Massensini; O.A. Martins-Filho; E. Rocha-Vieira; G.E.A. Brito-Melo

    2014-01-01

    Dye exclusion tests are used to determine the number of live and dead cells. These assays are based on the principle that intact plasma membranes in live cells exclude specific dyes, whereas dead cells do not. Although widely used, the trypan blue (TB) exclusion assay has limitations. The dye can be incorporated by live cells after a short exposure time, and personal reliability, related to the expertise of the analyst, can affect the results. We propose an alternative assay for evaluating ce...

  13. [Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niino, Masaaki; Miyazaki, Yusei

    2016-04-01

    While cognitive impairment is a major symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS), it is commonly overlooked. This may be explained by the fact that it is difficult to evaluate cognitive function in patients with MS using screening batteries for the detection of dementia such as the mini-mental state examination. Further more, cognitive impairment in MS typically involves domain-specific deficits such as imparement of sustained attention and information processing speed rather than global cognitive decline. Cognitive impairment may influence the daily living and social lines of affected patients. This review discusses the characteristics of cognitive impairment, appropreate tests to evaluate its symptoms, and the current status of clinical trials for the treatment of MS. PMID:27056855

  14. COGNITIVE DYSFUNCTIONS IN DIABETIC POLYNEUROPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirena Valkova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of our study was to examine cognitive status, short – term memory, delayed recall and the retention of visual information in diabetics with polyneuropathy and to establish the impacts of some risk factors on cognitive performance.Contingent and methods: We assessed 47 diabetic patients with polyneuropathy, using the Mini Mental State Examination, 10 words test, the Benton visual retention test and the Hamilton scale.Results: Global cognitive dysfunction, decline in verbal memory and visual retention and tendency for depressive mood were observed. We found statistically significant interaction of ageing, sex, severity of pain, duration and late onset of diabetes mellitus (DM on cognitive functioning. Therapy association on cognition was not found.Conclusions: Our study confirms the hypothesis of global cognitive dysfunction, associated with diabetic polyneuropathy. The interactions of sex and pain severity require further study. We arise a hypothesis of asymmetrical brain injury in diabetics.

  15. Cognitive Distortions and Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager-Hyman, Shari; Cunningham, Amy; Wenzel, Amy; Mattei, Stephanie; Brown, Gregory K; Beck, Aaron T

    2014-08-01

    Although theorists have posited that suicidal individuals are more likely than non-suicidal individuals to experience cognitive distortions, little empirical work has examined whether those who recently attempted suicide are more likely to engage in cognitive distortions than those who have not recently attempted suicide. In the present study, 111 participants who attempted suicide in the 30 days prior to participation and 57 psychiatric control participants completed measures of cognitive distortions, depression, and hopelessness. Findings support the hypothesis that individuals who recently attempted suicide are more likely than psychiatric controls to experience cognitive distortions, even when controlling for depression and hopelessness. Fortune telling was the only cognitive distortion uniquely associated with suicide attempt status. However, fortune telling was no longer significantly associated with suicide attempt status when controlling for hopelessness. Findings underscore the importance of directly targeting cognitive distortions when treating individuals at risk for suicide. PMID:25294949

  16. Cognitive control in Russian-German bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JuliaFestman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Multilingual speakers are faced with the problem to keep their languages apart, but do so with interindividually varying success. Cognitive control abilities might be an important factor to explain such interindividual differences. Here we compare two late, balanced and highly proficient bilingual groups (mean age 24 years, L1 Russian, L2 German which were established according to their language control abilities on a bilingual picture-naming task. One group had difficulties to remain in the instructed target language and switched unintentionally to the non-target language (“switchers”, whereas the other group rarely switched unintentionally (“non-switchers”. This group-specific behaviour could not be explained by language background, socio-cultural or demographic variables. Rather, the non-switchers also demonstrated a faster and better performance on four cognitive control tests (Tower of Hanoi, Ruff Figural Fluency Test, Divided Attention, Go/Nogo. In this paper we will focus on two additional cognitive tasks, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST and the Flanker task. Importantly, these two tasks require executive processing components for conflict monitoring and conflict resolution. Non-switchers outperformed switchers with regard to speed and accuracy, and were better at finding and applying the correct rules in the WCST. On the Flanker task, non-switchers performed faster and better on conflict trials and had a higher correction rate following an error. Event-related potential recordings furthermore revealed a smaller error-related negativity in the non-switchers. In sum, the non-switcher group consistently performed better and faster, in particular on high-conflict trials, probably due to better efficiency in dealing with conflict. They also demonstrated overall better self-monitoring abilities compared to switchers. We conclude that bilingual language performance, in particular switching behavior is related to performance on

  17. Efficacy of a Multimodal Cognitive Rehabilitation Including Psychomotor and Endurance Training in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Reuter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment, especially executive dysfunction might occur early in the course of Parkinson's disease. Cognitive training is thought to improve cognitive performance. However, transfer of improvements achieved in paper and pencil tests into daily life has been difficult. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether a multimodal cognitive rehabilitation programme including physical exercises might be more successful than cognitive training programmes without motor training. 240 PD-patients were included in the study and randomly allocated to three treatment arms, group A cognitive training, group B cognitive training and transfer training and group C cognitive training, transfer training and psychomotor and endurance training. The primary outcome measure was the ADAS-Cog. The secondary outcome measure was the SCOPA-Cog. Training was conducted for 4 weeks on a rehabilitation unit, followed by 6 months training at home. Caregivers received an education programme. The combination of cognitive training using paper and pencil and the computer, transfer training and physical training seems to have the greatest effect on cognitive function. Thus, patients of group C showed the greatest improvement on the ADAS-Cog and SCOPA-COG and were more likely to continue with the training programme after the study.

  18. Safeguards and Non-destructive Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCK-CEN's programme on safeguards and non-destructive assay includes: (1) various activities to assure nuclear materials accountancy; (2) contributes to the implementation of Integrated Safeguards measures in Belgium and to assist the IAEA through the Belgian Support Programme; (3) renders services to internal and external customers in the field of safeguards; (4) improves passive neutron coincidence counting techniques for waste assay and safeguards verification measurements by R and D on correlation algorithms implemented via software or dedicated hardware; (5) improves gamma assay techniques for waste assay by implementing advanced scanning techniques and different correlation algorithms; and (6) develops numerical calibration techniques. Major achievements in these areas in 2000 are reported

  19. Cognitive restructuring as an early stage in problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, George M.; McMillen, Theresa L. B.

    This article examines the hypothesis that there are preliminary stages in problem solving which most chemists neglect when trying to teach their students how to solve problems in introductory chemistry courses. It is during these early stages that relevant information is disembedded from the question and the problem is restructured. Unless students can successfully complete these cognitive restructuring stages, they cannot proceed on to the more analytic stages in problem solving that have received more attention from chemists.Preliminary evidence for this hypothesis consists of linear correlations between student ability to handle disembedding and cognitive restructuring tasks in the spatial domain and their ability to solve chemistry problems.

  20. Does Bilingualism Influence Cognitive Aging?

    OpenAIRE

    Bak, Thomas H.; Nissan, Jack J; Allerhand, Michael M; Deary, Ian J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests a positive impact of bilingualism on cognition, including later onset of dementia. However, monolinguals and bilinguals might have different baseline cognitive ability. We present the first study examining the effect of bilingualism on later-life cognition controlling for childhood intelligence. We studied 853 participants, first tested in 1947 (age = 11 years), and retested in 2008–2010. Bilinguals performed significantly better than predicted from their baseline cog...

  1. The Ontology of Cognitive Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ravenscroft, John

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, I shall explore the theoretical and empirical expositions regarding the causal mechanisms of cognitive growth. I shall do this in order to determine if biological epistemic theories of cognitive systems can be justified. It will be necessary in this thesis for me to adopt a multidisciplinary stance from Philosophy and Psychology. It will try to investigate from these two perspectives what it means to be a cognitive creature. However, I shall argue, if taken sing...

  2. Cognitive Maps and Urban Travel

    OpenAIRE

    Golledge, Reginald G; Garling, Tommy

    2003-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is an examination of the relationship between cognitive maps and travel behavior in urban environments. We do this examination incrementally, beginning with clarifications of terms relating to cognitive maps, cognitive mapping and wayfinding. We then emphasize transportation-related issues such as cognizing of transportation networks, path selection, wayfinding and navigation. We further examine problems of selecting paths to destinations by using existing transport ...

  3. Neorealism : unifying cognition and environment

    OpenAIRE

    Tonneau, François Jacques

    2013-01-01

    APA Proofs Recent trends in psychology have revealed increasing discontent toward representational explanations of behavior. However, whether these trends have the conceptual resources to address the full range of cognitive phenomena remains unclear. Here, I defend neorealism (Holt, 1914) as the missing philosophical link between radically embodied cognitive science and a more encompassing psychology. Neorealism identifies cognitive contents, however subjective or unreal in appearance, wit...

  4. Music Training, Cognition, and Personality

    OpenAIRE

    Corrigall, Kathleen A.; E. Glenn eSchellenberg; Nicole M. Misura

    2013-01-01

    Although most studies that examined associations between music training and cognitive abilities had correlational designs, the prevailing bias is that music training causes improvements in cognition. It is also possible, however, that high-functioning children are more likely than other children to take music lessons, and that they also differ in personality. We asked whether individual differences in cognition and personality predict who takes music lessons and for how long. The participants...

  5. Cognitive Dysfunction and Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Kodl, Christopher T.; Seaquist, Elizabeth R.

    2008-01-01

    The deleterious effects of diabetes mellitus on the retinal, renal, cardiovascular, and peripheral nervous systems are widely acknowledged. Less attention has been given to the effect of diabetes on cognitive function. Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus have been associated with reduced performance on numerous domains of cognitive function. The exact pathophysiology of cognitive dysfunction in diabetes is not completely understood, but it is likely that hyperglycemia, vascular disease, ...

  6. Associative learning and animal cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Dickinson, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Associative learning plays a variety of roles in the study of animal cognition from a core theoretical component to a null hypothesis against which the contribution of cognitive processes is assessed. Two developments in contemporary associative learning have enhanced its relevance to animal cognition. The first concerns the role of associatively activated representations, whereas the second is the development of hybrid theories in which learning is determined by prediction errors, both direc...

  7. Succession and failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cespedes, Frank V; Galford, Robert M

    2004-06-01

    Norman Windom, the chairman of Tiverton Media, may not know much about the world of popular music, but he does fancy himself a careful planner and a superb judge of managerial talent. That's why he's been grooming COO Sean Kinnane, a Wharton-minted numbers man, to take over an important division, Aleph Records, and one day Tiverton itself. But Derek Solomon, Aleph's 68-year-old CEO and founder, remains a creative force and a father figure to the label's artists. What's more, he's touchy about anything that might slow down Aleph's responses to the market's ever-shifting preferences--or that might call into question his indispensability. Though Sean dutifully participates in Tiverton's broad-based and elaborate executive development plan, he senses that Aleph's future leadership structure is uncertain. As impatient as he is ambitious, he announces that he's leaving Tiverton for more suitable pastures. Several of his associates, also unsure about their fate within Aleph, are following him out the door. In one fell swoop, they've torn Norman's proud succession plan apart. What kind of plan should the board adopt going forward? Commenting on this fictional case study are Francis N. Bonsignore, a senior vice president at Marsh & McLennan; Michelle L. Buck, a clinical associate professor of management and organizations at Northwestern's Kellogg School of Management; Jon Younger, who heads leadership development at National City Corporation, a financial holding company in Cleveland; and Thomas Leppert, the chairman and CEO of the Turner Corporation, a large construction company in Dallas. PMID:15202285

  8. How successful leaders think.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Roger

    2007-06-01

    In search of lessons to apply in our own careers, we often try to emulate what effective leaders do. Roger Martin says this focus is misplaced, because moves that work in one context may make little sense in another. A more productive, though more difficult, approach is to look at how such leaders think. After extensive interviews with more than 50 of them, the author discovered that most are integrative thinkers -that is, they can hold in their heads two opposing ideas at once and then come up with a new idea that contains elements of each but is superior to both. Martin argues that this process of consideration and synthesis (rather than superior strategy or faultless execution) is the hallmark of exceptional businesses and the people who run them. To support his point, he examines how integrative thinkers approach the four stages of decision making to craft superior solutions. First, when determining which features of a problem are salient, they go beyond those that are obviously relevant. Second, they consider multidirectional and nonlinear relationships, not just linear ones. Third, they see the whole problem and how the parts fit together. Fourth, they creatively resolve the tensions between opposing ideas and generate new alternatives. According to the author, integrative thinking is an ability everyone can hone. He points to several examples of business leaders who have done so, such as Bob Young, cofounder and former CEO of Red Hat, the dominant distributor of Linux opensource software. Young recognized from the beginning that he didn't have to choose between the two prevailing software business models. Inspired by both, he forged an innovative third way, creating a service offering for corporate customers that placed Red Hat on a path to tremendous success. PMID:17580648

  9. Past behaviour change success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Discussions of behavior change involve values, cultural norms, power, ideology, manipulation, oppression, and human rights. Coercion and force can induce behavior change. Authority figures all inject their values when one debates what is right and wrong for the individual, community, or nation. We tend to agree on what should be good values in human rights (e.g., liberty, health and speech). Global standards are acceptable for some areas of health (e.g., smallpox, water safety, and drug purity). Yet, setting guidance and control measures that are reasonable accepted by all people, groups, and cultures is more difficult in health matters involving personal choice and liberty. Marketing and advertising professionals are quite familiar with the science of behavior change. It is difficult to measure whether a health promotion campaign is a success. For example, the statistics show that the number of people who smoke and smoking-related illnesses and deaths is falling. This behavior change may be a result of health warnings on cigarette packets and bill boards and the activities of antismoking groups. Yet, many people have died during the 25 years of the antismoking campaign and many more still smoke even though they know the consequences of smoking. In 1991, participants at an African conference on AIDS drafted a belief statement that examines the complexities of behavior change and the great need to understand behavior change to stop the spread of HIV. The statement contends that people have an inherent capacity to change but the power to do so is often denied or not exercised. A supportive response to people living with HIV in the community is an important part of the process helping people begin to change and maintain health promoting behaviors. PMID:12159251

  10. An enzymatic assay for the detection of natural cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pronase-enhanced release of 14C-labeled DNA was used to assay cytotoxicity of murine natural killer cells. YAC-1 lymphoma cells were labeled with [14C]thymidine and incubated with increasing numbers of spleen cells from nude mice. At harvest, nuclease-free pronase was used to digest damaged target cells. Increases in cytotoxicity of 5-39% were obtained using optimal conditions. The reaction could be successfully inhibited with unlabeled YAC-1 cells. The degree of cytotoxicity was similar to that detected by 51Cr release, but a longer period of incubation was required. (Auth.)

  11. Physical models of cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    1994-05-01

    This paper presents and discusses physical models for simulating some aspects of neural intelligence, and, in particular, the process of cognition. The main departure from the classical approach here is in utilization of a terminal version of classical dynamics introduced by the author earlier. Based upon violations of the Lipschitz condition at equilibrium points, terminal dynamics attains two new fundamental properties: it is spontaneous and nondeterministic. Special attention is focused on terminal neurodynamics as a particular architecture of terminal dynamics which is suitable for modeling of information flows. Terminal neurodynamics possesses a well-organized probabilistic structure which can be analytically predicted, prescribed, and controlled, and therefore which presents a powerful tool for modeling real-life uncertainties. Two basic phenomena associated with random behavior of neurodynamic solutions are exploited. The first one is a stochastic attractor—a stable stationary stochastic process to which random solutions of a closed system converge. As a model of the cognition process, a stochastic attractor can be viewed as a universal tool for generalization and formation of classes of patterns. The concept of stochastic attractor is applied to model a collective brain paradigm explaining coordination between simple units of intelligence which perform a collective task without direct exchange of information. The second fundamental phenomenon discussed is terminal chaos which occurs in open systems. Applications of terminal chaos to information fusion as well as to explanation and modeling of coordination among neurons in biological systems are discussed. It should be emphasized that all the models of terminal neurodynamics are implementable in analog devices, which means that all the cognition processes discussed in the paper are reducible to the laws of Newtonian mechanics.

  12. Physical Models of Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses physical models for simulating some aspects of neural intelligence, and, in particular, the process of cognition. The main departure from the classical approach here is in utilization of a terminal version of classical dynamics introduced by the author earlier. Based upon violations of the Lipschitz condition at equilibrium points, terminal dynamics attains two new fundamental properties: it is spontaneous and nondeterministic. Special attention is focused on terminal neurodynamics as a particular architecture of terminal dynamics which is suitable for modeling of information flows. Terminal neurodynamics possesses a well-organized probabilistic structure which can be analytically predicted, prescribed, and controlled, and therefore which presents a powerful tool for modeling real-life uncertainties. Two basic phenomena associated with random behavior of neurodynamic solutions are exploited. The first one is a stochastic attractor ; a stable stationary stochastic process to which random solutions of a closed system converge. As a model of the cognition process, a stochastic attractor can be viewed as a universal tool for generalization and formation of classes of patterns. The concept of stochastic attractor is applied to model a collective brain paradigm explaining coordination between simple units of intelligence which perform a collective task without direct exchange of information. The second fundamental phenomenon discussed is terminal chaos which occurs in open systems. Applications of terminal chaos to information fusion as well as to explanation and modeling of coordination among neurons in biological systems are discussed. It should be emphasized that all the models of terminal neurodynamics are implementable in analog devices, which means that all the cognition processes discussed in the paper are reducible to the laws of Newtonian mechanics.

  13. Topiramate Therapy and Cognitive Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of topiramate (TPA adjunctive therapy on cognition in 22 consecutive patients with intractable epilepsy were studied at the Montreal Neurological Hospital, Quebec, Canada.

  14. Can Cognitive Explanations Be Eliminated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkarainen, Kai

    The purpose of article is to analyze the arguments of Bruno Latour and Steve Woolgar aimed at eliminating `superfluous' cognitive explanations from discussion of scientific activity. They proposed to a ten-year moratorium on cognitive explanations of scientific activity and promised to reassess explanation in terms of cognition after this period of time if some aspects of scientific inquiry would not be accounted by sociological explanations. Intensive laboratory studies of scientific practice indicated that scientific thinking is not based on mental processes alone but relies on external tools and instruments. On the basis of these kinds of observations, they rejected all cognitive explanations of scientific inquiry. By building on sociocultural theories of cognition, the present study makes the case that the use of conceptual tools significantly transforms cognitive processes. It is concluded that the failure to appreciate cognitive explanations reflects a far toon arrow and non-social concept of cognition: Even after the ten-year moratorium there appears to be many good reasons to reassess the proposal of eliminating cognitive explanations altogether.

  15. The biogenic approach to cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Pamela

    2006-03-01

    After half a century of cognitive revolution we remain far from agreement about what cognition is and what cognition does. It was once thought that these questions could wait until the data were in. Today there is a mountain of data, but no way of making sense of it. The time for tackling the fundamental issues has arrived. The biogenic approach to cognition is introduced not as a solution but as a means of approaching the issues. The traditional, and still predominant, methodological stance in cognitive inquiry is what I call the anthropogenic approach: assume human cognition as the paradigm and work 'down' to a more general explanatory concept. The biogenic approach, on the other hand, starts with the facts of biology as the basis for theorizing and works 'up' to the human case by asking psychological questions as if they were biological questions. Biogenic explanations of cognition are currently clustered around two main frameworks for understanding biology: self-organizing complex systems and autopoiesis. The paper describes the frameworks and infers from them ten empirical principles--the biogenic 'family traits'--that constitute constraints on biogenic theorizing. Because the anthropogenic approach to cognition is not constrained empirically to the same degree, I argue that the biogenic approach is superior for approaching a general theory of cognition as a natural phenomenon. PMID:16628463

  16. Cognitive networks applications and deployments

    CERN Document Server

    Lloret Mauri, Jaime; Rawat, Danda B; Perez, Javier Manuel Aguiar

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONEfficient Spectrum Management: Challenges and Solutions; Tarek M. Salem, Sherine M. Abdel-Kader, Salah M. Abdel-MaGeid, and Mohamed ZakiA Survey on Joint Routing and Dynamic spectrum Access in Cognitive Radio Networks; Xianzhong Xie, Helin Yang, and Athanasios V. VasilakosNeighbor Discovery for Cognitive Radio Networks; Athar Ali Khan, Mubashir Husain Rehmani, and Yasir SaleemSPECTRUM SENSINGTime-Domain Cognitive Sensor Networking; Stefano Busanelli, Gianluigi Ferrari, Alessandro Colazzo, and Jean-Michel DricotSpectrum Sensing in Cognitive Wireless Networks; Danda B. Rawat and Chan

  17. A radiochemical assay for biotin in biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiochemical assay for biotin is described. The assay was sensitive to one nanogram and simple enough for routine biotin analyses. The assay yielded results which were comparable to those obtained from a microbiological assay using Lactobacillus plantarum. (author)

  18. Social cognition in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frith, Christopher; Frith, Uta

    2007-01-01

    We review a diversity of studies of human social interaction and highlight the importance of social signals. We also discuss recent findings from social cognitive neuroscience that explore the brain basis of the capacity for processing social signals. These signals enable us to learn about the...... requires reflective awareness of ourselves and awareness of the effect of the signals on others. Similarly, the appropriate reception of such signals depends on the ability to take another person’s point of view. This ability is critical to reputation management, as this depends on monitoring how our own...

  19. Cognitive science and behaviourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, B F

    1985-08-01

    In this paper it is argued that cognitive scientists, claiming the support of brain science and computer simulation, have revived a traditional view that behaviour is initiated by an internal, autonomous mind. In doing so, they have misused the metaphor of storage and retrieval, given neurology a misleading assignment, frequently replaced controlled experimental conditions with mere descriptions of conditions and the assessment of behaviour with statements of expectations and intentions, given feelings and states of mind the status of causes of behaviour rather than the products of the causes, and failed to define many key terms in dimensions acceptable to science. PMID:4041702

  20. From cognition to practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engerer, Volkmar Paul; Gudiksen, Jens Kristian Dahlgaard

    2016-01-01

    contribution is a deconstruction of the cognitive assumptions about learning and seeking/searching in the light of action-oriented approaches. We develop two types of action-oriented approach. The first approach, which comes from Critical Psychology, understands learning as a primarily social phenomenon. In...... contrast to the cognitivist conception, learning is here substantialized through social interactions and conceptualized epistemologically as dialectic. The second approach stems from Agential Realism and brings forward a somewhat radical critique of the cognitivist approach and of the Critical Psychology...